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Full text of "The Philippine journal of science ... v. 1- 76, no. 1. Jan. 1906-1941"

THE PHILIPPINE 

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

Alvin J. Cox, M. A., Ph. D. 

GENERAL EDITOR 

Section C. Botany 

E. D. MERRILL, M. S. 

EDITOR 

WITH THE COOPERATON OF 

W. H. BROWN, Ph. D. ; E. B. COPELAND, Ph. D. ; C. F. BAKER, A. M. 
F. W. FOXWORTHY, Ph. D; R. C. McGREGOR, A. B. 

Volume IX 

1914 



With 15 Plates and 14 Text Figures 



•0 





MANILA 

BUREAU OF PRINTING 

1914 



DATES OF ISSUE 

No. 1, pages 1 to 96, April 13, 1914. 
No. 2, pages 97 to 190, June 22, 1914. 
No. 3, pages 191 to 292, June 27, 1914. 
No. 4, pages 293 to 390, November 25, 1914. 
No. 5, pages 391 to 494, January 30, 1915. 
No. 6, pages 495 to 495, March, 1915. 



CONTENTS 

No. 1, February, 1914 

PaKc. 

CoPELAND, E. B. New Papuan ferns 1 

Ames, 0. The orchids of Guam 11 

Merrill, E. D. An enumeration of the plants of Guam 17 

No. 2, April, 1914 

Merrill, E. D. An enumeration of the plants of Guam (concluded).. 97 

Sydow, H. and P. Fungi from northern Palawan 157 

No. 3, June, 1914 

Merrill, E. D. Charles Budd Robinson, ji- 191 

Robinson, C. B. The geographic distribution of Philippine mosses.... 199 

Campbell, D. H. The genus Macroglossum Copeland 219 

COPELAND, E. B. New Sumatran ferns 227 

Graff, P. W. Philippine Basidiomycetes, II 235 

Hubbard, F. T. A new species of Rottboellia 257 

OSTENDELD, C. H. New or noteworthy aquatic plants 259 

Merrill, E. D. New or noteworthy Philippine plants, X 261 

No, 4, August, 1914 

Merrill, E. D. New or noteworthy Philippine plants, X (concluded) 293 

Bennett, A. The Potamogetons of the Philippine Islands 339 

Bresadola, G. and Sydow, H. Enumeration of Philippine Basidiomy- 
cetes 345 

Merrill, E. D. Plantae Wenzelianae, II 353 

No. 5, September, 1914 

Gates, F. C. The pioneer vegetation of Taal Volcano 391 

Copeland, E. B. Hawaiian ferns collected by M. I'Abbe U. Faurie.. 435 
Merrill, E. D. Sertulum Bontocense: New or interesting plants 
collected in Bontoc Subprovince, Luzon, by Father Morice Vano- 

verbergh, II 443 

Merrill, E. D. Notes on Philippine Euphorbiaceae, II 461 

No. 6, November, 1914 

Gates, F. C. Swamp vegetation in the hot springs areas at Los 

Banos, Laguna, P. 1 495 

Merrill, E. D. Dilleniaceae novae 517 

Merrill, E. D. Meliaceae novae 531 

Errata 543 

Index 545 

iii 



1 



Cljarles; Jgubb ^obin^on, ft., a. JS., m^ B, 

^ictou, iJoba S)aitia, 05ttofaer 26. 1 87 1 

jasfsiiitant ISotanisft. Igurrau of Science 
l^ecember tije fiftf), ninetEcn tunbrelJ anb tfjirteen 



THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

C. Botany 



Vol. IX FEBRUARY, 1914 No. 1 



NEW PAPUAN FERNS 

By Edwin Bingham Copeland 

(From the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, Los 

Banos, P. I.) 

The following paper is based on material supplied by the Rev. 
Copland King of Ambasi, Papua. 

CYATHEA FUSCA Baker. 

King S83. 

This is certainly nearly related to King's Nos. 181, 246 and 277, of which 
the last is the type of C. Kingii Rosenstock. No. S83 is merely bipinnatifid, 
while the others are bipinnate with lobed pinnules. The diagnosis of C 
fusca (Malesia 3: 31) reads: "frondibus amplis bipinnatifidis ; pinnulis 
sessilibus lanceolatis; segmentis tertiariis oblongis obscure crenulatis." 

Whether we have here one polymorphous species or several closely re- 
lated species cannot be determined from the material in hand. 

CYATHEA (ALSOPHILA) WOODLARKENSIS sp. nov. 

Trunco haud alto, vero gracile sed cum tectura densa et per- 
manente radicum et basium stipitum 8 cm crasso ; stipite pallide 
brunneo, pube minuta palhda transeunte et pilis validis subnigris 
eis Dryopteridis ferocis similibus basibus duris persistentibus 
vestito; fronde bifinnatifida, rhachi ut stipes; pinnis permultis 
sessilibus Hneari-lanceolatis, usque ad 40 cm longis, 3-4 cm latis, 
valde attenuatis, fere ad costam pinnatifidis, costa pilosa; seg- 
mentis numerosissimis, subfalcatis, integris, obtusis, 2 cm 
longis, 3 mm latis, costula sparse pilosula, lamina glabra, 

122968 



2 The Philippine Jownal of Science vm 

tenui-coriacea, inferne pallida ; venis utroque latere ca. 30, omni- 
bus simplicibus, plerisque fertilibus, soris medialibus, nudis; 
sporangiis paucis, castaneis. 

Woodlark Island, King 284. 

A remarkably distinct species. "Tree fern. It did not grow above the 
surrounding tangle of Stenochlaena palustris and other species." 

CYATHEA SCABRISETA sp. nov. 

Alsophila prof unde tripinnatifida pubescentia trif orme ; rhachi 
fulva, squamulis minutis ad basin fimbriatis albis deciduis vestito, 
deinde nitido et propter baseos setarum hispida; setis mox deci- 
duis, e basibus vinosis ad apices albidas pallescentibus, dentibus 
minutissimis nigro-rubis ciliatis ; inter setas descriptas aliis rnino- 
ribus pallidioribus deciduis ; pinna 60 cm longa, 18 cm lata, brevi- 
stipitata, abrupte acuminata, rhachi obscure sordida superne 
fusco-velutina, inferne minute furfuracea et sparse hispida gla- 
brescente; pinnulis horizontalibus infimis brevipedicellatis, 2 cm 
latis, proximis, abrupte in caudam 1 cm longam serratam 
contractis, fere ad costam pinnatifidis, costa superne appresso- 
ciliata, subtus squamulis albidis plerisque dissectis rarius lanceo- 
latis fere integris vestita; segmentis 2.5 mm latis, obtusis, 
plerisque subfalcatis, minute serratis interdum obscure biserratis, 
subcoriaceis, subtus pallidis, superne atroviridibus, costa et 
rarius venis squamulis bullatis pallidis, et sparsius aliis sordidis 
angustis plerumque fissis ornatis: venis utroque latere ca. 12, 
fere omnibus furcatis; soris medialibus, sporangiis cum pilis 
brunneis multis mixtis. 

Papua, without definite locality, King. UU^. 
Related to Cyathea crinita (Hooker). 

DRYOPTERIS BIPINNATA sp. nov. 

Thelypteris gregis D. immersae : rhizomate inviso ; stipite recto, 
30 cm alto, gracile sed valido, brunneo cum pede nigro, sub oculo 
nudo glabro, sub lente sursum rhachique dense minute pubescen- 
tibus; fronde 30 cm alta, 17 cm lata, abrupte longe acuminata, 
deorsum bipinnata; pinnis horizontalibus, rectis vel rarius 
subfalcatis, acuminatis, inferioribus brevipedicellatis haud dimi- 
nutis, aliis sessilibus, costis ubique minute pallide setosis ; pinnulis 
liberis paucis, infimis (rhachi proximis) brevipedicellatis, brevi- 
bus; segmentis pinnae multis, utroque latere 20-30, proximis, 
apice crenulatis aliter integris, oblique acutis, ca. 7 mm longis, 
2 mm latis, papyraceis ; venis subtus setis paucis brevibus obsitis, 
alibi glabris; venis simplicibus, utroque latere ca. 10, omnibus 



IX. c. 1 Copeland: Neiv Papuan Ferns 3 

saepe fertilibus ; soris submarginalibus, subimmersis, parvis, 
orbicularibus ; indusio minute dense hirsute, persistente. 

Loane, King U07. 

Evidently near D. Schultzei Brause, but much smaller, axes not yellow, 
sori small and indusium persistent. 

DRYOPTERIS ANGUSTA sp. nov. 

Nephrodium gracilius gregis D. sagittifoliae ; caudice erecto, 
breve, radicibus et stipitibus dense vestito; stipitibus paucis 
confertis, validis, 3-4 mm crassis, 3-5 cm ad auriculas infimas vel 
30 cm ad pinnas foliaceas altis, deorsum paleis paucis instructis, 
glabrescentibus, sursum rhachibusque dense albido-pilosis, pinnis 
reductis sensim ad auriculas vix quam paleis majoribus decres- 
centibus ornatis ; f ronde vera lanceolata, ca. 65 cm alta, 15 cm lata, 
utrinque angustata, acuminata, pinnata; pinnis sessilibus, basi- 
bus dilatatis, deinde ad apicem acutam integram angustatis, 
inframedialibus maximis horizontalibus, 75 mm longis, supra 
basin 1 cm latis, ca. ad mediam laminam pinnatifidis, inferiori- 
bus paullo deflexis et superioribus adscendentibus, supremis 
integris, pinnis pinnatifidis utroque latere ca. 40; segmentis 
contiguis, 2 mm latis, obliquis; lamina herbacea, minute pilosa; 
venis utroque latere ca. 6, fere omnibus fertilibus, 2 vel 3 anas- 
tomosantibus, simplicibus, soris medialibus; indusio parvo, pilis 
et glandulis ambabus deciduis ornato, sporangiis nudis. 

Papua, locality not stated, King 408. 

Differs from D. sagittifolia (Bl.) O. K. in being thinner, and more slender 
throughout. 

DRYOPTERIS OBLANCEOLATA sp. nov. 

Meniscium, folia simplice oblanceolata ; rhizomate 2 mm cras- 
so, paleis castaneis lanceolatis dense obtecto ; stipitibus confertis, 
1-3 cm altis, pilis et paleis vestitis ; fronde 25-30 cm alta, 3 cm 
lata, acuminata, deorsum attenuata, deinde truncata, rarius 
auriculis parvis 1-paribus subtensa, crenata, subcoriacea, costa 
setacea excepta glabra; venulis ca. 6-paribus, fere omnibus et 
interdum venula secundaria excurrente soriferis; indusio inviso 
et verisimiliter carente. 

Taupota, King S94. coll. Rev. P. C. Shaw. 

A very distinct species of the simplicifolia group. 

DRYOPTERIS UNIAURICULATA sp. nov. 

D. lineatae (Bl.) C. Chr. affinis; rhizomate 3 mm crasso, 
lignoso, ad apicem paleis parvis lanceolatis fusco-nigris vestito; 
stipitibus confertis, ca. 20 cm altis, basibus nigris, sursum 



4 The Philippine Journal of Science lou 

fuscis, superne pilis falcatis vestitis infeme minute et sparse 
pilosis infra laminam auricula una minuta praeditis; fronde 
pinnata, segmento apicale maximo, usque ad 20 cm alto, 4 cm 
lato, acuminato, basi truncato vel cordato, plerumque crenato; 
pinnis saepius utrinque uno, alternantibus, 4-8 cm longis, 2-3 
cm latis, obtusis vel acutis, basi truncatis, subcoriaceis, lamina 
glabra; venulis in segmento majore ca. 8-paribus, infeme minute 
pilosis, conspicuis; soris usque ad 7-paribus, versus costam 
proximis et interdum confluentibus, versus marginem distanti- 
bus, orbicularibus, indusio pilis multis centralibus substitute, 
sporangiis nudis. 

Loane, King ^06. 

The single auricle, below the developed pinnae, is found on the four 
fronds sent to me, but will probably prove not to be a constant character; 
but the species is distinguishable from D. lineata in several other ways. 
D. Bakeri is very distinct. D. mirabilia Copel., of Borneo, is much broader, 
with opposite pinnae and surface minutely pustulose, as in D. lineata; D. 
tmiauriculata has it smooth. 

TECTARIA GYMNOCARPA sp. nov. 

Species gregis T. cicutariae, venatione Pleocnemiae soris ut 
videtur nudis ; stipite 35 cm alto, castaneo, deorsum paleis paucis 
anguste lanceolatis fere 1 cm longis vestito; fronde 30-40 cm 
alta et lata, deltoidea, subtripinnata ; pinnis suboppositis, infimis 
deltoideis 15 cm latis, sequentibus biparibus apud baseos bipin- 
natis, sequentium paucarum segmentis serratis subacutis; venis 
hirsutis, lamina fere glabra, membranacea; venis secus costas 
fortissimas anastomosantibus, aliter liberis; soris plerisque sub- 
marginalibus, 1 mm vel ultra latis, superficialibus ; indusio nullo 
vel fugace. 

Loane, King 401. 

In spite of the venation, this is not a near relative of T. leuzeana, but is 
near the so-called Pleocnemia membranacea of Beddome. Rosenstock's P. 
leuzeana var. lobato-crenata is described as with very hairy lamina, and his 
P. membranacea var. novoguineensis, as having much more reticulate veins. 

TECTARIA KINGIi sp. nov. 

Pleocnemia parva, gracile, deltoidea ; stipite 4 cm alto, castaneo, 
deorsum paleis anguste linearibus 1 cm longis sparsis vestito; 
fronde 30-35 cm alta et lata, deltoidea, tripinnata ; pinnis infimis 
deltoideis, sequentibus 1-3-paribus profunde bipinnatifidis, su- 
periorum profunde pinnatifidarum segmentis lanceolatis obtusis 
pinnatifidis deinde serratis, supremis integris ; venis tomentellis, 
lamina superne glaberrima, inferne fere glabra; venis more 



ix.c, 1 Copeland: New Papuan Ferns 5 

T. leuzeanae anastomosantibus ; soris parvis, multis, plerisque 
submarginalibus ; indusio persistente. 

Woodlark Island, Kiiig i02. 

Distinguished from TECTARIA SUBAEQUALE n. comb. {Aepidium 
subaequale Rosenstock, Fedde's Repert. 13 (1913) 176) by the form of 
the frond, and from this and other related species by the fine dissection 
of the frond. The color is that of T. leuzeana. 

ATHYRIUM FIMBRISTEGIUM sp. nov. 

Stipite alto, 5 mm crasso, atropurpureo-castaneo, glabrescente, 
inerme; fronde 80 cm alta. ca. 50 cm lata, tripinnatifida, rhachi 
furfuracea, glabrescente; pinnis altemantibus, brevistipitatis, 
inferioribus 25-30 cm longis, usque ad 12 cm latis, acuminatis, 
rhachibus praecipue in furca minute furfuraceis; pinnulis hori- 
zontalibus, brevissime stipitatis, valde acuminatis, usque ad 13 
mm latis, profunde pinnatifidis; segmentis ca. 2 mm latis, sub- 
falcatis, integris vel obscure serrulatis, obtusis vel subacutis, 
glabris, herbaceis; venulis simplicibus, utroque latere usque ad 
8; soris costularibus, plus minus ad mediam laminam protensis, 
infimis exceptis simplicibus ; indusio tenue, laete brunneo, lacero- 
lobato. 

King S86, without definite locality. 

A member of the A. silvaticum (Bl) Milde group, but the ultimate divi- 
sions much finer and sori relatively longer. Diplazium arborescena Sw. is 
reported from Kaiser Wilhelmsland (Schumann and Lauterbach; Flora der 
deutschen Schutzgebiete, p. 125), but is otherwise unknown from this part 
of the world; it has more ample ultimate divisions and light-colored axes. 
Athyrium australe (R. Br.) Presl, var. muricatum, is reported in the same 
work; it also is less finely divided and otherwise distinct. 

"DIPLAZIUM BULBIFERUM Brack." ? 

Loane, King 397; Mamba, King 398. 

Can be separated, though not too sharply, from Athyrium pinnatum 
(Blanco) Copel., including the D. bulbiferum of the Philippines. . 

ADIANTUM KINGII sp. nov. 

Stipitibus confertis, purpureo-atris, nitidis, usque ad 10 cm 
altis, basibus pilis atropurpureis dense vestitis; fronde ubique 
glaberrima, bipinnata, parte apicale usque ad 10 cm alta, pinnis 
pinnatis paucis; pinnulis pedicellatis, usque at 10 mm longis, 
7 mm latis, infimis plerumque minoribus, trapeziformibus, vel 
minoribus obovatis vel suborbicularibus, coriaceis, leviter pauci- 
lobatis, marginibus basi- et rachiscopicis integris, aliis minute 
dentatis; venis flabellatis, liberis; soris paucis, 1-5 mm latis; 
indusiis plus minus 1 mm latis, duris, ad venulas sporangiferis. 

Tamata, King AiO. 



5 • The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

POLYPODIUM SUBRETICULATUM sp. nov. 

Eupolypodium, rhizomate brevi-repente, paleis laete brunneis 
ovato-lanceolatis dense vestito; stipitibus proximis, 1-2 cm altis, 
validis, setis purpureo-castaneis ca. 2 mm longis vestitis; fronde 
usque ad 25 cm alta et 12 mm lata, utrinque sensim attenuata, 
Integra vel subintegra, coriacea, pilis fere nigris sparsis vestita 
vel in vetustate calva; venis furcatis venulis liberis, vel 2-4 
ramos emittentibus et venulis hie illuc baud saepe anastomosan- 
tibus; soris irregulariter 2-o-seriatis, superficialibus, orbicu- 
laribus vel oblongis. 

Taupota, King 395, coll. Rev. P. C. Shaw. 

This suggests P. congenerum and P. diplosorum Christ, both of which, 
on the more ample fronds, have sori in plural rows or scattered. The oc- 
casional anastomosis of veins is also correlated with the ampleness of the 
entire froud, and is occasionally seen in the various species of the group. 
Loxogramme is a group derived form Eupolypodium with entire fronds; 
its fronds are in general more ample than in any of the parent group, and 
reticulate venation is a fixed character. 

POLYPODIUM SHAWII sp. nov. 

Eupolypodium gregis P. obliquati Bl., praecipue P. multicaudo 
Copel. simile ; fronde forma insigniter dilatata, ca. 25 cm alta, 15 
cm lata; segmentis rhachin versus sterilibus et 4-4.5 mm latis, 
deinde in partem intercalatam vel usque ad apicem attingentem 
f ertilem 2.5 mm latam plus minus abrupte angustatis ; soris per- 
multis, parvis, valde immersis, ore receptaculi piano. 

Taupota, King U2U, coll. Rev. P. C. Shaw. 

POLYPODIUM TENUISSIMUM sp. nov. 

Goniophlebium verum pinnis angustissimis ; rhizomate calca- 
reo, paleis angustis sat deciduis vestito ; phyllopodio 3 mm alto, 
valido; stipite 20 cm alto, 3 mm crasso, deorsum minute et 
decidue paleaceo, sursum rhachique glabris, nitidis, castaneis; 
fronde verosimiliter ultra 1 m alta, ca. 20 cm lata, alis acros- 
copicis pinnarum exceptis glabra; pinnis remotis, sessilibus, 
basibus leviter dilatatis truncatis, usque ad 14 cm longis et 
maximis scilicet fronde mea carentibus, supra basin 3-5 mm 
latis, acuminatis, minute et argute serratis, papyraceis; venis 
areolam unam inconspicuam includentibus ; soris parvis, immer- 
sis, permultis. 

Mount Tuan, King S91. 

An immediate relative of P. subauriculatum BL, with 'exceedingly slender 
pinnae, separated by five times their own breadth. A Philippine fern called 
by Christ P. subauriculatutn integrum, has pinnae almost as narrow, but 
closer together, shorter, entire and thicker. My specimen of P. tenuissimum 



IX. CI Copelaml: New Papuan Feins 7 

has about 80 cm of frond with the apex missing and the lower pinnae 
fallen off. 

POLYPODIUM GLOSSOPHYLLUM sp. nov. 

Phymatodes foliis integris ; rhizomate repente ca. 5 mm crasso, 
paleis nigris nitidis anguste lanceolatis adpressis 4 mm longis 
dense vestito; stipitibus ca. 1 cm altis, validibus, castaneis, nudis; 
fronde 60-90 cm alta, ca. 7 cm lata supra mediam latissima, 
utrinque angustata, apice acuta, ad basin ipsam plerumque ab- 
rupte contracta, integra, coriacea, glabra, inferne glauca; costa 
infeme tereta, superne plana; venis angulo lato distantibus; 
rectis, fere ad marginem attingentibus, 1 cm inter se distantibus ; 
arealis primariis 4 vel 5-seriatis, baud conspicuis; soris inter 
venas biseriatis vel subirregulariter adspersis, plusquam 1 mm 
latis, rotundis, superficialibus. 

Mount Gewagewa, alt. 300 m, King S88. 

A member of the group leading to P. musifolium Bl., related to P. lingtiae- 
forme Mett., P. mindanense Christ and P. neo-guineense Copel., charac- 
terized by the glaucous nether surface and hardly acuminate tip. 

POLYPODIUM SUBGEMINATUM Christ. 

I have regarded this species as not sufficiently distinct from P. Phyma- 
todes (Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 89), but Mr. King satisfies me that 
they are different. The man in the field sees both resemblances and dif- 
ferences which never show in the herbarium. P. subgeminatum is said to be 
always uniform in size, while P. Phymatodes varies much on the same 
plant, both in size and in form. It does this everywhere, but the variation 
shown by King's specimens is remarkable, even for this species. 

POLYPODIUM TENUINERVE sp. nov. 

Phymatodes membranacea soris uniseriatis; rhizomate late 
repente, 2.5 mm crasso, paleis appressis castaneis lanceolatis 
4-5 mm longis vestito ; phyllopodio brevissimo ; stipitibus badiis, 
usque ad 20 cm altis, gracilibus ; fronde 35 cm alta, 20 cm lata, 
brevi-decurrente, ad alam angustam (ca. 2 mm latam) pinna- 
tifida, glabra, membranacea, viride; segmentis utroque latere 
ca. 7, maximis fere 20 cm longis 1-2 cm latis, valde acuminatis, 
rhachin versus paullo angustatis, integris vel subundulatis ; venis 
tenuibus irregularibus, areolas conspicuas non eff ormantibus ; 
soris utroque latere costae uniseriatis rarissime cum soris extra- 
serialibus, leviter immersis, maximis 1 mm latis sed depressione 
minore. 

Cape Nelson, King 36^. 

In the immediate group of P. Phymatodes, from all forms of which 
species it differs in texture and in the fine sori. P. flaccidum Christ is a 
coarser fern, much more decurrent, with the segments remote and con- 
nected by a very broad wing. 



8 • The Philippine Journal of Science i^u 

POLYPODIUM TUANENSE sp. nov. 

Phjnnatodes palmato-pinnatifida, venatione P. myriocarpi, P. 
euryphyllo affinis ; rhizomate longe-repente, 4 mm crasso, basibus 
nigris brunneo-marginatis peltatis fere orbicularibus palearum 
quarum partes superiores caducae dense vestito ; phyllopodio sub- 
nullo; stipitibus curvis, ca. 10 cm longis, 1 mm crassis, glabris; 
fronde glabra, papyracea, brevi-decurrente, ultra 20 cm alta et 
lata, in segmentum unum terminale et utroque latere 2 minora 
profunde pinnatifida ; segmentis lanceolatis, acuminatissimis, in- 
tegris, terminale ca. 2 cm, lateralibus 1-1.5 cm latis ; venis seriem 
unam areolarum magnarum circumdantibus, aliter irregularibus 
et sat inconspicuis ; soris minutis, irregulariter dispersis nee non 
praecipue in lineam submarginalem instructis, superficialibus. 

Mount Tuan, King S8U. This number is also borne by Cyathea wood- 
larkensis. I presume that this is Drynaria acuminata Brack., but this 
name is not valid for it in Polypodium. P. Kingii is broader and shorter, 
more coriaceous and hardly at all decurrent, and has large sori. 

AGLAOMORPHA Schott 

It is only two years since I revised this genus *, including Dryostachyum 
and a new Bornean fern, and recognizing three sections, which in appear- 
ance, but not in essentials, are very distinct. In the meantime two closely 
related New Guinea ferns have been brought to light, which in my opinion 
will best be regarded as constituting still another section of Aglaomorpha 
as interpreted by me. This demands a still further modification of the 
generic diagnosis, to include ferns with the fronds completely dimorphous, 
instead of those with a specialized fertile upper portion. The alternative 
is to create a new genus. It seems to me to be altogether undesirable to 
include these ferns in Polypodium unless this is done with the entire group. 

HOLOSTACHYUM subgenus novum 

Aglaomorpha, soris pluriseriatis, frondibus sterilibus et ferti- 
libus omnino dimorphis. 

AGLAOMORPHA (HOLOSTACHYUIVI ) BUCHANANI sp. nov. 

Species Polypodio Schlechteri Brause (melius Aglaomorphae, 
vide infra) affinis, segmentorum marginibus parallelibus baud 
e basi sensim angustatis, abrupte brevi-acuminatis, segmentis 
fertilibus rhachin versus abrupte valde dilatatis. 

Gewagewa, King Jltl2. Dedicated, at Mr. King's request, to his host at 
Gewagewa. 

'Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 140. 



IX, c, 1 Copeland: Neiv Papuan Ferns 9 

AGLAOMORPHA ( HOLOSTACHYUM ) SCHLECHTERI (Brause) Copel. 
comb, nov, 

Polypodium Schlechteri Brause in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 49 (1912) 54, 
fig. S, c. 

Kaiser-Wilhelmsland {Schleckter 16614). 

Brause's diagnosis shows the sori to be "magni, rotundati vel oblongi, 
numerosi, bi- vel triseriales in utroque costae latere". The figure shows 
them all round and not in evident rows. I believe the text to be the more 
accurate, especially since in King's plant the sori occupy the areolae, and in 
free fruit assume the shape of the latter. 

AGLAOMORPHA HIERONYMI (Brause) Copel. comb. nov. 

Dryostachyum Hieronymi Brause in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 49 (1912) 65. 

Kaiser- Welhelmsland (Schlechter 17850). Closely related to Aglaomor- 
pha pilosa (J. Sm.) Copel. 



The Phiuppine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 1, February, 1914. 



THE ORCHIDS OF GUAM 

By Oakes Ames 
{From the Ames Botanical Laboratory, North Euatov, Mase., U. S. A.) 
COELOGYNE Lindley 
COELOGYNE GUAMENSIS sp. nov. 

Herba valida. Pseudobulbi usque ad 8 cm longi, circiter 3 
cm in crassitudine, vaginis imbricatis tecti, bifoliati. Folia 
oblongi-lanceolata, acuminata, acuta, in petiolum sulcatum fasti- 
giata, circiter 40 cm longa, usque ad 7 cm lata, nerviis 3-5, 
prominentibus, lamina in sicco chartacea ; petiolus 5-6 cm longus, 
rigidus. Scapus basi nudus in pseudobulbo adulto hysteranthus, 
pauciflorus, 25 cm longus. Bracteae inflorescentiae condupli- 
catae, lanceolatae, acutae, circiter 5 cm longae, mox deciduae. 
Flores succedanei, ad numerum 7, circiter 4 cm longi. Pedi- 
cellus cum ovario 2 cm longus. Sepala lateralia oblonga, acuta, 
carinata, 4 cm longa, circiter 7 mm lata. Sepalum dorsale simile. 
Petala linearia, 4 cm longa, 3 mm lata. Labellum 3-lobatum, 
manifeste bilamellatum, 3.5 cm longum; lobi laterales erecti, 
obtusi, e basi labelli usque ad apicem loborum lateralium 12 
mm; lobus medius ex isthmo brevi cuneato-dilatatus, suborbicu- 
laris, 1.6 cm latus. Lamella in disco utrinque undulata, ex ipsa 
basi labelli in basim lobi medii, interposita lamellula Integra 
(non undulataj medio in disco desinente. Gynostemium 2 cm 
longum. 

In damp places, Guam Experiment Station 195, collected under the direc- 
tion of J. B. Thompson, January, 1912. 

The material on which the description is based consists of three specimens 
and a single flower. It appears to belong to the section Speciosae. 

LI PAR 1 8 Richard 

LIPARIS GUAMENSIS sp. nov. 

Herba terrestris 60 cm alta, gracilis. Folia 3, anguste lanceo- 
lata, acuminata, acuta, membranacea in sicco, 5 ad 22 cm longa, 
usque ad 2.5 cm lata, ad basim vaginantia. Pedunculi elongati, 
8 ad 30 cm longi. Sepala lateralia elliptica, subacuta, late fal- 
cata, 4 mm longa, 2.5 mm lata. Sepalum dorsale lineari-oblon- 

11 



12 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i< 

gum, obtusum, convexum, 7 mm longum, circiter 1.5 mm latum. 
Petala linearia, 5.5 ad 6 mm longa, convexa. Labellum valde 
reflexum, rigidum, crassum, oblongum, retusum, apiculatum, 
prope basim bicallosum, 3.5 ad 4 mm longum, 2.5 mm latum. 
Columna arcuata, subgracilis. 

R. C. McGregor 638, hills southeast of Piti, altitude 300 meters, October, 
1911. The flowers are described by the collector as pale-yellow and brown. 

CALANTHE R. Brown 

CALANTHE TRIPLICATA (Willem.) Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 326. 

Orchis triplicata Willem. in Usteri Ann. Bot. 18 (1796) 52. 

McGregor 575, H. L. W. Costenoble 116i, July, 1906, common name ce- 
bello halumtano=-wi\d onion. 

Widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region. 

EULOPHIA R. Brown 
EULOPHIA MACGREGORII sp. nov. 

Aff E. sqiialidae Lindl. Herba terrestris, rhizomate tuberif ero. 
Tubera subglobosa, circiter 2 cm in diametro, approximata. 
Folia lineari-lanceolata, acuta, membranacea, acuminata, plicata, 
20 cm longa, usque ad 17 mm lata. Scapi erecti, circiter 30 cm 
longi, racemi laxi, pauciflori. Bracteae inflorescentiae lineares, 
scariosae, usque ad 2 cm longae, pedicelli cum ovario elongati. 
Sepala lateralia oblonga, subfalcata, acuta, 5-nervia, 2 cm longa. 
5 mm lata, subcoriacea. Sepalum dorsale subsimile, oblongi- 
lanceolatum, 1.8 cm longum. Petala membranacea, ovato-lanceo- 
lata, acuta, nervosa, 2 cm longa, 7.5 mm lata. Labellum subin- 
tegrum, ovatum, obtusum, glabrum, 1.9 cm longum, 1 cm latum. 
Calcar conicum, obtusum, 3 mm longum. Columna clavata, 
crassa. 

R. C. McGregor 6S1, hills southeast of Piti, altitude 300 meters, October, 
1911. 

The material submitted for study consists of two specimens in flower. 
The smooth, subentire lip resembles very closely in outline the lip of 
Eulophia squalida Lindl. Flowers dark cream-colored. 

EULOPHIA GUAMENSIS sp. nov. 

Herba terrestris. Caules circiter 8 cm alti, crassi, intemodii 
2 ad 2.6 cm longi. Folia longepetiolata, lamina lanceolata, acumi- 
nata, acuta, plicata, 8 ad 30 cm longa, circiter 3.5 cm lata. Scapi 
circiter 37 cm longi, graciles, quam folia longiores. Bracteae 
inflorescentiae lineares, scariosae, usque ad 1 cm longae. Flores 
numerosi. Pedicellus cum ovario 1.5 cm longus. Sepala later- 
alia oblongi-lanceolata, subfalcata, circiter 9 mm longa, 3 mm 



IX. c, 1 Ames: Orchids of Guam 13 

lata. Sepalum dorsale oblongi-lanceolatum, acuminatum, acu- 
tum, 1 cm longum. Petala ovato-lanceolata, subfalcata, 3-nervia, 
9 mm longa, circiter 3.5 mm lata. Labellum quadrilobum, ad 
apicem retusum, apiculatum, 7 mm longum, 12 mm latum. Ad 
basim labelli prope columnam callus bilobus. Calcar scroti- 
forme, 2 mm longus. Columna 3 mm longa. 

R. C. McGregor 376, growing in thickets on hillsides at Piti, October, 
1911, flowers pale-green and yellow lined inside with wine-red. 

BULBOPHYLLUM Thouars 

BULBOPHYLLUM GUAMENSE sp. nov. 

Herba epiphytica. Pseudobulbi pyriformes, in aicco rugosi, 
circiter 2.5 cm longi, monophylli. Folium ellipticum vel oblon- 
gum, coriaceum, lamina 10 ad 15 cm longum, 2.6 ad 3.8 cm latum. 
Scapi elongati, circiter 26 cm longi. Bracteae inflorescentiae 
deciduae, carinatae, cymbiformes, acutae, circiter 12 mm longae, 
quam pedicello longiores. Sepala lateralia triangulari-lanceo- 
lata, acuminata, acuta, carinata, circiter 1.5 mm longa, as basim 
5 mm lata, ad apicem cuspide munita. Sepalum dorsale lanceo- 
latum, 11 mm longum, ad apicem cuspide munitum. Petala 
minuta, 3 mm longa, 1.5 mm lata, 1-nervia, quadrata, quadri- 
dentata, ad apicem in caudam integerrimam abrupte attenuata. 
Labellum crassum, lanceolatum, 1 cm longum. Columna crassa, 
superne 2-alata, alls utrinque in brachium erectum, acutum, 
productis. 

R. C. McGregor 495, on trees, Upi road, October, 1911, flowers g^een; 
H. L. W. Costenoble 1176, September, 1906, common name cebello halumtano 
=wild onion; Guam Experiment Station 2SS, March, 1912, collected under 
the direction of J. B. Thompson. 

BULBOPHYLLUM PROFUSUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
128, 137. 
McGregor 565, Upi road, on tree trunks, flowers pale-green, October, 1911. 
Philippines. 

DENDROBIUM Swartz 

DENDROBIUM (§ DESMOTRICHUM ) SCOPA Lindl. Bot. Reg. (1842) 
Misc. 55; Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 52. 

Guam Experiment Station 307, February, 1912, epiphytic on tree trunks, 
collected under the direction of J. B. Thompson, color of the flowers not 
noted, but in dried specimens pale-yellow. 

Dendrohium scopa Lindl. is a Philippine species closely related to D. 
angulatum Lindl. and D. comatum Lindl., from both of which it diflFers 
chiefly in the details of the labellum. It is also closely allied to D. calopogon 
Reichb. f. and D. Hasseltii Reichb. f. (Xen. Orch. 1. 109 I & II), species which 
Kranzlin upholds but which J. J. Smith in "Die Orchideen von Jara" refers 
to the synonymy of D. ang^datum Lindl. I have compared a flower of the 



14 The Philippine Journal of Science isu 

Guam plant with a flower from a Philippine specimen (Lyon 110, Hb. Ames 
1085 It) and find that the only differences of importance are in the characters 
of the terminal lobe of the labellum. One of the marked peculiarities of 
Dendrohium scopa is the elongated, oblong, connecting plate between the 
lateral lobes and the fringed apex of the lip; this peculiarity is found in 
the Guam plants. However, the fringe of the labellum of the Guam plants 
is composed of broader, somewhat shorter, and more branched segments 
than the fringe of the Philippine plant used for comparison. The same dif- 
ference is observable between the fringe of the lip in the Guam plant and 
the fringe as figured by Lindley in the colored drawing which accompanies 
the type of Dendrohium scopa Lindl. 

DENDROBIUM (§ GRASTIDIUM) GUAMENSE sp. nov. 

Caules conferti, 60 cm alti, ad basim teretes, prope apicem 
leviter complanati. Foliorum vaginae plerumque cylindraceae, 
arte adpressae, quam internodia paulum breviores vel sublon- 
giores, 2-3 cm longae, infra medium caulem circiter 5 mm in 
diametro, in longitudinem striatae, rugosae, rigidae. Folia dis- 
ticha, oblongi-lanceolata, sensim angustata ad apicem, ad basim 
rotundata, subcoriacea, sicca multistriata, usque ad 10 cm longa, 
7- 15 mm lata, ad apicem inaequaliter bilobum, obtusum, vaginis 
persistentibus caulem obtegentibus. Racemi a caulibus foliatis 
orti, biflori, foliis multo breviores, squamis 4 conchiformibus 
chartaceis basi vestiti. Pedicellus cum ovario 6 cm longus. 
Sepala lateralia mentum obtusum 4 mm longum formantia, elon- 
gata, triangulari-lanceolata, e basi curvata, acuminata, prope 
apicem subcaudata, acuta, extus leviter carinata in medio, 12 
mm longa, prope medium 2.5 mm lata. Sepalum dorsale lineari- 
lanceolata, ad apicem incrassatum, subcaudatum, concaviuscu- 
lum, circiter 1-4 cm longum, 2 mm latum. Petala lineari- 
lanceolata, utrinque angustata, acuminata, acuta, subcaudata, 
ad basim pergracilia, circiter 12 mm longa, prope medium vix 
2 mm lata, ad basim 0.5 mm lata. Labellum unguiculatum., 
trilobatum, lobi laterales breves, trianguli, acuti, vix 1 mm lati ; 
lobus medius triangulari-lanceolatus, acutus, 4 mm longus, ad 
basim 3 mm latus, irregulariter dentatus, labellum toto ambitu 
ovato-lanceolatum, 9 mm longum, usque ad 4 mm latum. Labelli 
discus in lobo medio lineis tribus papillosis; lamella satis alta, 
vix undulata, ab ungue labelli medium fere in discum decurrens. 
Stelidia gynostemii obtusa. 

Guam Experiment Station i.50, July, 1912, collected under the direction 
of J. B. Thompson. 

Dendrohium giiamense is closely related to D. dactylodes Reichb. f. A 
specimen preserved in the United States National Herbarium, collected by 
H. L. W. Costenoble, appears to be conspecific with D. guamense. This 
specimen is accompanied by a colored sketch which represents the flower as 
white with a yellow labellum (Costenoble 1177). 



IX, c. 1 Ames: Orchids of Guam 15 

PHREATIA Lindley 
PHREATIA (§ EUPHREATIA) THOMPSONII sp. nov. 

Caules valde abbreviati, circiter 1.5 cm alta, vaginis foliorum 
persistentibus obtegentibus. Folia 4, disticha, vaginantia, va- 
ginae longius persistentes, complanatae, laminae foliorum ple- 
rumque lineari-oblongae, saepe lineares, ad apicem inaequaliter 
bilobae, obtusae, infra medium sensim angustatae, repente sul- 
catae, in sicco chartaceae, 8 cm longae, 4-8 mm latae, rarissime 
3 cm longae, 3 mm latae in plantae exiguae. Tota planta usque 
ad 12 cm alta. Racemi laterales ex axillis inferioribus, multiflori, 
ascendentes vel erecti, foliis multo breviores, rarissime folia 
aequantes. Pedunculi graciles usque ad 8 cm longi, paene usque 
ad basim florigeri, inter basim et bracteam floris infimi 3-brac- 
teatus, bracteis tubularibus, acuminatis, acutis. Flores albidi, 
minuti, 1-2 mm distantes in racemo cylindraceo. Bracteae in- 
florescentiae lanceolatae, abrupte acuminatae, 1-nervae, circiter 
2 mm longae pedicellis longiores, in sicco chartaceae, dependentes. 
Sepala lateralia oblique triangulari-ovata, acuta, vix 1.5 mm 
longa, vix 1 mm lata, textura membranacea, manifeste 1-nervia, 
concaviuscula, mentum brevem obtusum formantia. Sepalum 
dorsale oblongum, acutum. Petala triangulari-lanceolata, sepalis 
multo minora, 1 mm longa, vix 0.75 mm lata. Labellum con- 
caviusculum, vix unguiculatum, obovatum, ad apicem late 
retusum, manifeste 3-nervium. Discus glaber. Gynostemium 
minutissimum. 

Guam Experiment Station 321, collected at Mukfuk, under the direction 
of J. B. Thompson, January 19, 1912, an epiphyte, growing on tree trunks; 
H. L. W. Costenoble 117 Jt, May, 1906. 

Closely related to Phreatia minutiflora Lindl., but in part distinguish- 
able from it by the different habit. The short peduncles give the plant a 
characteristic appearance. In most of the specimens examined the tip of 
the raceme hardly exceeded the middle of the leaves. A few diminutive 
plants were collected in which the raceme about equals the leaves. 

LUISIA Gaudichaud 

LUISIA TERETI FOLIA Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 427, t. 37. 

McGregor S60, without flowers but undoubtedly this species, the type of 
which was from Guam. 

Widely distributed in Malaya and Polynesia. 

SACCOLABIUM Blume 
8ACC0LABIUM GUAMENSE sp. nov. 

Herba epiphytica, carnosa. Caules circiter 6 cm longi, rad- 
icantes. Folia conferta, coriacea, ad apicem inaequaliter biloba, 
anguste elliptica vel oblonga, 4.5- 10 cm Ignga, 2 cm lata, in 



15 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

sicco rigida, ad basim fastigiata, vix petiolata, pedunculis multo 
longiora, vaginis persistentibus caulem obtegentibus. Pedunculi 
abbreviati valde incrassati, axillares, circiter 2.5 cm longi, in 
sicco 2 mm in crassitudine. Bracteae inflorescentiae squami- 
formes, 1 mm longae, pedicellis breviores. Racemi pauciflori, 
flores in pedunculo paene usque ad basim dispositi, circiter 8 mm 
in diametro, submembranacea. Sepala lateralia ovata, acuta, 
extus ad apicem cuspide munita, 4 mm longa, 2.5 mm lata. 
Sepalum dorsale anguste ellipticum, obtusum, concaviusculum. 
Petala 3-nervia, oblongi-lanceolata, 4 mm longa, usque ad 2 mm 
lata. Labellum saccatum, 4 mm longum, antice irregulariter et 
inaequaliter incrassatum. Gynostemium brevissimum. 

Guam Experiment Station 203, collected under the direction of J. B. 
Thompson, January, 1912. 

The labellum, from the material at hand, appears to have been semiglob- 
ular when fresh with the anterior margin fleshy and irregularly thickened. 
The interior of the labellum is smooth; at least it is free from conspicuous 
calli or keels. 

TAENIOPHYLLUM Blume 

TAENIOPHYLLUM sp. aff. T. obtusum Bl. ? 

Costenoble 1175, May, 1906, local name amot otdan. 

There are no flowers with the specimen in the United States National 
Herbarium. A colored sketch shows linear-oblong petals of a pale-greenish 
color, the labellum white, with an obtuse spur. A lateral view of the flower 
shows the lateral sepals to be triangular, at the base united with the petals 
and the upper sepal to form a short funnel-shaped tube. In this lateral 
view the spur or sac is shown to be cylindric. The peduncles are rough as 
are the triangular acute bracts of the zig-zag rachis. The general habit 
of the plant suggests Taeniophyllum obtusum Bl, (T. Zollingeri Reichb. f. 
Xen. Orch. t. 77). 



The Phiuppine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 1, February, 1914. 



AN ENUMERATION OF THE PLANTS OF GUAM 

By E. D. Merrill - 

{From the Botanical Section of the Biological Laboratoi-y, Bureau of 
Science, Manila, P. I.) 

In the year 1905 Mr. W. E. Safford published his comprehen- 
sive and valuable work entitled "The Useful Plants of Guam" ' 
in which is discussed the island and its characteristics, geo- 
graphic position, geology, meteorology, agriculture, vegetation, 
types of plant formations, historical notes dealing with the 
discovery of the island, and a lengthy discussion of its aboriginal 
and modern inhabitants. It is, hence, unnecessary to consider 
any of these matters in detail here except merely to state that 
Guam is the largest island of the Marianne group which extends 
from 20° 30' N to 13° 14' N, and from 143° 46' E to 146° 31' 
E ; that it is of volcanic origin ; that its length is about 46 kilo- 
meters, its width from 11 to 14 kilometers in the wider parts, 
and about 7 kilometers in the central portion ; and that its present 
population is about 10,000 inhabitants. It is about 1,900 kilo- 
meters east of the Philippines. 

The town of Agana, the largest settlement on the island, 
as located by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, is 
13° 28' 30" N, 144° 45' E. The highest point on the island is 
Jumullong Manglo, in the southwestern part, which has an 
altitude of 391 meters. 

Originally Guam was undoubtedly covered with a continuous 
forest of one type or another, but this has, since its settlement 
by man, to a large degree been destroyed. In its place are now 
found cultivated and fallow lands, waste places, areas covered 
with thickets of second growth shrubs and trees, and very large 
areas that are covered with coarse grasses. As in the Philip- 
pines, and in Malaya and Polynesia generally, the origin and 

' Associate Professor of Botany, University of the Philippines. 

* The Useful Plants of the Island of Guam with an Introductory Account 
of the Physical Features and Natural History of the Island, of the Char- 
acter and History of its people, and their Agriculture. Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 9 (1905) 1-416, plates 1-70. 

122968 2 17 



]^g The Philippine Journal of Science 19 n 

continued presence of these grass-covered areas is due primarily 
to man, a matter which I have previously discussed in detail.^ 

Mr. Safford is authority for the statement that the existing 
forests in Guam consist almost entirely of strand trees, such as 
Hernandia, Terminalia, Artocarpus, Ficus, Calophylliim, Herit- 
iera, and Barringtonia, intermingled with lianas, epiphytes, and 
few shrubs. Recent collections in Guam, however, have added 
such arborescent genera as Eugenia, Aglaia, Elaeocarpus, Poly- 
althia, Cynometra, Melochia, Gymnosporia, Flacourtia, Decasper- 
mum, and Tarenna. This leads one to suspect that the forest 
flora is really rather complex, at least in those parts of the island, 
toward the north end, where the original vegetation has not 
been so much disturbed as in the more densely populated regions. 
The character of the vegetation, however, has been profoundly 
altered by man as indicated by the very high percentage of 
introduced species. 

Guam was discovered by Magellan on March 6, 1521, during 
his voyage of circumnavigation of the globe. After the founda- 
tion of the city of Manila in the Philippines, regular traffic was 
established between there and the west coast of Mexico, the 
Spanish posessions in the Pacific being governed as dependencies 
of New Spain. The galleons sailed annually, first from Nativi- 
dad but later from Acapulco in Mexico for Manila. Guam was a 
port of call for all ships on the outward, but not on the return 
voyage. This fact is of considerable importance in connection 
with the matter of the early transmission of weeds and economic 
plants from Mexico to the Marianne Islands and the Philippines. 

No comprehensive botanical exploration of Guam has ever 
been undertaken. The first collections were those of Thaddeus 
Haenke and Luis Nee, botanists of the Malaspina Expedition, 
who were in Guam from February 12 to 24, 1792. In November, 
1817, Adalbert von Chamisso, botanist of the Romanzoff Expedi- 
tion, made a very short visit to Guam and collected a few plants 
there. A little more than a year later Freycinet's Expedition 
arrived and Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupre, botanist of the expedi- 
tion, spent about eight months in a botanical exploration of 
Guam and the neighboring Islands of Rota and Tinian. Gaudi- 
chaud probably made the largest single collection to date in the 
botanical exploration of Guam but, as noted by Safford, on the 
return voyage to France his collections were saturated with sea 
water and badly damaged ; doubtless very many of his specimens 

'Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 149-151. 



IX. c. 1 Merrill: Pla)its of Guam 19 

were entirely destroyed. During d'Urville's visit to Guam in 
1828 in the "Astrolabe" botanical collections were made by 
Lesson, and during his second visit to the island in the "Astro- 
labe" and "Zelee" in 1839, additional collections were made by 
Hombron. I have found no record of any other botanical collec- 
tions made in Guam since 1839 up to the time of the American 
occupation at the close of the last century, except a few references 
to Marianne Islands plants collected by Marche in 1889. Mr. 
Safford informs me that he made no comprehensive botanical 
collections during his period of residence in Guam from August, 
1899, to August, 1900. Some material was collected at that time 
by Mr. Alvin Seale and is now deposited in the Bishop Museum at 
Honolulu. 

The first botanical material I received from Guam was a 
small collection of 25 specimens made, at my suggestion, by 
Mr. J. B. Thompson, director of the Guam Experiment Station, 
November, 1910. A year later Mrs. Joseph Clemens brought 
to Manila a collection of 37 species collected by her in Guam 
during the few hours stop of the U. S. Army transport at 
Agaiia, November 27, 1911, on which she was a passenger. 
In September, 1911, at the suggestion of Mr. Thompson, Mr. 
R. C. McGregor of the Bureau of Science went to Guam for 
the purpose of making botanical collections. Mr. McGregor 
remained there from October 2 to October 26, in that time collect- 
ing 282 numbers, most species represented by several duplicates. 
At the same time he trained a native collector who continued the 
work intermittently under Mr. Thompson's direction from No- 
vember, 1911, to July, 1912; this native collector secured a total 
of 480 numbers. In all I have had for examination about 824 
numbers of Guam plants, on which the following enumeration 
is primarily based. 

In his "Useful Plants of Guam" Safford enumerates about 
386 species, and his list includes not only the plants that are 
of greater or less economic use, but all species, whether useful 
or not, that were known by him to occur in Guam. The list is 
based on the comparatively small collections made by Safford, 
on his copious notes, on some botanical material secured from 
residents of Guam subsequent to his departure, and especially 
on the published references to Guam plants based on the collec- 
tions of Haenke, Nee, Gaudichaud, Hombron, Chamisso, and 
Lesson. Some species were admitted as representatives of the 
flora without the examination of Guam material ; for example, 



20 The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

Cananum indicum. In compiling the enumeration of Guam 
plants given below, I have included most of those species enumer- 
ated by Safford, even when I have seen no Guam botanical 
material representing them. The list has been increased from 
about 386, enumerated by him, to about 550, not including the 
cellular cryptogams in either case. It is anticipated that future 
botanical exploration of Guam will yield many additional species, 
and it will not be at all surprising should the list of ferns and 
seed-plants eventually be greatly extended. 

The flora of Guam is essentially Malayan, practically all the 
indigenous genera found in the island being of wide Indo-Ma- 
layan distribution and no single genus being endemic. The 
nearest approach to an endemic genus is Saffordiella, which, 
aside from its Guam station, is also found in the Island of Yap, 
in the Carolines, and which will doubtless be found later in other 
islands of both the Marianne and the Caroline groups. Of the 
total of 545 species of pteridophytes and spermatophytes found 
in Guam, indigenous and introduced, 462, or about 86 per cent, 
are also found in Malaya; while 475, or 89 per cent, are found 
in other parts of Polynesia and Micronesia; and 415, or about 
76 per cent, in continental Asia. 

As to floristic alliances, no special ones are indicated by the 
Guam flora as we now know it. We have, so far as known, 
Lygodium semihastatum, Halophila ovata, Bulbophyllum pro- 
fusum, and Carex fuirenoides known only from Guam and the 
Philippines, and Saffordiella hennigseniana, Panax macrophylla, 
and Ixora triantha known only from Guam and the Island of Yap 
in the Carolines. The Philippine Archipelago and the Caroline 
group are the natural alliances of the Guam flora and a certain 
number of species confined to Guam and to one or the other of 
the above groups are to be expected especially in view of the 
fact that more than 80 per cent of the species found in Guam are 
also found in the Philippines and probably nearly as many ex- 
tend to the Carolines. 

Taking into consideration its rather isolated position, and 
considering also the total number of species know^n from Guam, 
the percentage of endemism is surprisingly low. But about 61 
species, or only 11 per cent, are endemic, that is, confined to 
Guam. If, however, we exclude from consideration those species 
that manifestly have been introduced into Guam by man, and 
for a large part within the historical period, the showing is 
rather different. I consider that no less than 314 species, or 
about 58 per cent of the total number of species known from 



IX. CI Men'ill: Plants of Gimm 21 

Guam, have been introduced into the island purposely or inad- 
vertently by man. Excluding these 314 species from considera- 
tion, the endemism is then about 27 per cent. This percentage, 
however, is very small when compared with that of the Philip- 
pines, where, including all introduced species, the endemism is 
about 40 per cent; the Philippines, however, are very much closer 
to other large land masses than is Guam, which, while in part 
explaining the richness of the Philippine flora, does not explain 
its high percentage of endemism in comparison to the low en- 
demism of Guam. 

From a geological standpoint Guam is undoubtedly recent, 
a claim that is substantiated by its very poor indigenous flora, 
but 225 species being known from Guam that can be considered 
truly indigenous, and by its very low percentage of endemism, 
11 per cent, if we take into consideration the introduced species, 
and but 27 per cent, if we consider only the indigenous species. 

It has been seen that the flora of Guam is a relatively poor 
one, at least so far as we at present know it, especially for an 
island of its size located in the rainy tropics. Its low percentage 
of endemism is especially noticeable in view of its rather isolated 
location. Both of these features are readily explained, however, 
on the recent origin hypothesis. 

Perhaps the most interesting feature of the Guam flora is the 
introduced elem.ent, and as this was not discussed in detail by 
Saflford, some attempt will here be made to analyze the con- 
stituents of the introduced flora, the origin of the species, and 
the time and method of their introduction. As Guam was a 
regular stopping place for the Acapulco-Manila galleons, for a 
period of nearly three hundred years, a study of the introduced 
element is of especial interest in view of the fact that Guam has, 
without doubt, served as a center of distribution for American 
weeds to the other islands of Micronesia and Polynesia, even 
as the Philippines served the same end for parts of the Malayan 
region and of tropical Asia. A discussion of the vegetation in 
relation to the weed flora may explain certain problems regard- 
ing pantropic weeds and their origin, and especially in regard to 
the occurrence in Polynesia of certain weeds that are generally 
considered to have been of American origin, but which were 
found in Polynesia in the last half of the eighteenth century, 
by the first botanists who visited this part of the world. 

The introduced element in the Guam flora may be divided into 
four groups or time periods. The first of these is the prehistoric 
period, of many centuries duration, in which Guam was peopled 



22 The Philippine Journal of Science lai* 

by its aboriginal inhabitants who introduced the economic plants, 
such as yams, breadfruit, bananas, coconut, certain aroids, rice, 
etc., that were found by the Europeans to be generally distrib- 
uted in Polynesia. In the comparatively slight intercommuni- 
cation between Guam and other islands during this period, 
doubtless many of the weeds of general Indo-Polynesian distrib- 
ution which have originated in the Old World were introduced. 

The second period is relatively much shorter and extends 
from the discovery of Guam by Magellan in 1521 to some years 
after the discontinuance of the Acapulco-Manila galleons in 
1815. The plants introduced during this period were mainly 
of American origin, including such economic species as the 
sweet potato, maize, tobacco, tomato, cacao, maguey, chico, pine- 
apple, arrow-root, custard apple, peanut, cassava, papaya, pep- 
pers, and various other plants of value for food, fibers, medicine, 
and ornamental purposes. At the same time a great many 
weeds of American origin were introduced including a few that 
are to-day found nowhere outside of tropical America except in 
Guam, and still others that outside of tropical America are 
known only from Guam and the Philippines. During this in- 
terval of about three hundred years Guam was in regular com- 
munication with Mexico, as for most of the period there was an 
annual ship between Acapulco and Manila via Guam. On the 
return voyage, however, the ships took a northern route and 
did not touch at this port. Ships from Manila to Guam were 
apparently dispatched at very irregular intervals. Undoubt- 
edly some, perhaps many, of the weeds of oriental origin 
were introduced into Guam from the Phihppines during this 
period, for such economic plants as the mango, tamarind, coffee, 
santol, some of the citrus fruits, the pomegranate, nipa palm, and 
various ornamental plants were introduced from Manila by the 
Spaniards. 

The last "nao," as the Acapulco-Manila galleons were called, 
was dispatched from Manila in 1811 and from Acapulco in 1815. 
These were government ships, but after 1815, when they were 
definitely discontinued, commerce was opened to private individ- 
uals and the ports of San Bias, Mexico ; Guayaquil, Ecuador ; and 
Callao, Peru, were opened to the Manila trade. There is no 
doubt that Guam still continued to be a port of call for the west- 
bound ships from the above ports. However about 1824, with 
the independence of the Spanish colonies in America, this com- 
merce practically ceased. 

The third period is still shorter and extends from about 1815 



IX. CI Memll: Plants of Guam ' 23 

to 1898, at which time Spanish control of the PhiHppines and 
Guam ceased. For a large part of this period most of the com- 
munication between Guam and the outside world was through 
Manila. Yrora the standpoint of introduced species it is prob- 
ably a period of comparatively few introductions, these mostly 
from Manila, and chiefly ornamental plants with, perhaps, some 
weeds. After the opening of the Suez Canal a considerable 
number of ornamental plants were introduced into the Philip- 
pines from Singapore, including a number of American origin, 
and some of these in turn were introduced into Guam from 
Manila. 

The fourth period is the shortest and dates from the American 
occupation in 1898 to the present time. It has been charac- 
terized mainly by the introduction of economic species, most of 
which have been brought to Guam from the Hawaiian Islands, 
as Guam is a regular stopping place for United States Army 
transports between Honolulu and Manila on the outward, but 
not on the return voyages. 

As already indicated but 61 of the total of 550 species enu- 
merated from Guam, are, so far as is known at present, endemic. 
Somewhat over one-half of the total number of species, 280, or 
51 per cent, are of pantropic distribution, having extended their 
habitat to the tropics of both hemispheres through natural causes, 
or have been purposely or inadvertently transmitted from one 
hemisphere to the other by man. In the case of 55 of those 
pantropic species, including some weeds whose original homes 
have not been determined, and such species of natural distri- 
bution, as aquatics, strand plants, etc., it is impossible to say in 
which hemisphere they may have originated. Of the remainder, 
however, 113 are definitely or fairly definitely of American 
origin, and 112 have probably originated in the eastern hemi- 
sphere. 

Considering these 280 pantropic species from the standpoint 
of methods of distribution, about 50 have presumably been dis- 
seminated by natural causes, that is by wind, water, or migratory 
birds ; 156, including the cultivated plants, have purposely been 
distributed by man; while about 74, mostly weeds, have been 
inadvertently distributed by man. 

So far as the present vegetation of Guam is concerned, man 
has been an exceedingly important factor in the extension of the 
number of species found in the island. I consider that man, 
with his activities as a disseminator of plants, is responsible for 
the present occurrence in Guam of 314 of the 550 known species; 



24 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

of 193 of the 471 known genera; and of 36 of the 107 known 
families. That is, 36 families, 193 genera, and 314 species are 
represented in the Guam flora only by purposely or inadvertently 
introduced plants. In many other families and genera, which 
have some indigenous representatives, the percentage of intro- 
duced species is high and of indigenous ones is low. 

It is evident that Guam has ocupied a very important place in 
the dissemination of weeds of American origin to the islands of 
the Pacific, both in Micronesia and in Polynesia, during the 
second or galleon period. We know that in this period some 
scores of American economic plants and weeds were introduced 
into the Philippines from Mexico,^ and we now know more defi- 
nitely just how many were then introduced into Guam. That 
many of them were thoroughly established there over one hun- 
dred twenty years ago is proved by the fact that some were 
then collected in Guam by Nee and by Haenke, and at a some- 
what later date by Lesson, Chamisso, and Gaudichaud. Most of 
the species of American origin were introduced into Guam dur- 
ing the period of the Manila-Acapulco galleons, or before the 
year 1815. It is interesting to note that many of these species 
are now dominant in Guam in suitable habitats ; that is, the open 
country, waste places, fallow fields, deserted clearings, along 
trails, etc. Then too, while most of the weeds of American 
origin are now found in all tropical countries, a considerable 
number are found outside of tropical America only in the Philip- 
pines, in the Philippines and Guam, or in Guam alone. I 
have elsewhere discussed this matter, so that it is unnecessary 
to enter into details here, but it is significant of the effect of 
ancient trade routes on the vegetation of a region, even when 
the communicating countries are separated by the breadth of 
the Pacific, when we find for the most part confined to Guam and 
the Philippines, or to one or the other of the above, such Amer- 
ican weeds as Malachra fasciata Jacq., Hyptis capitata Jacq., 
(now in Java), Hyptis spicigera Lam., Elephantopus mollis 
HBK., Elephantopus spicatus Aubl., (now in Hongkong), Ipo- 
moea triloba L., (now in Singapore, Java, and Mauritius), 
Blechum hrownei Nees, (now in Formosa), Anredera scayidens 
Moq., Ammannia coccinea Rottb., Rotala ramosior Koehne, Alter- 
nanthera frutescens R. Br., Portulaca pilosa Linn., Gliricidia 
sepium Steud., Schrankia quadrivalvis Merr., Parosela (Dalea) 

* Merrill, E. D. Notes on the Flora of Manila with Special Reference 
to the Introduced Element. Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 197-202. 



IX. c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 25 

glandulosa Merr., Sida glomerata Cav., and Mitracarpum hirtum 
DC. (also in the Society Islands). It is not at all strange, when 
we consider the old Acapulco-Guam-Manila trade-route, that we 
should find in Guam to-day certain American weeds that did not 
reach the Philippines, or if they did that they have not persisted 
here, such as Sida glomerata, Mitracarpum Jiirtum (also in the 
Society Islands), and Ammannia coccinea. Mitracarpum, a 
genus confined to America, was extended to Guam by the de- 
scription of Mitracarpum torresiarium Cham. & Schlecht., which 
is a synonym of M. hirtum, DC. ; the occurrence of a species of 
Mitracarpum, in Guam was doubted by K. Schumann & Lau- 
terbach,'' who surmised that the Guam record was due to 
a mixture of labels. That the species was actually collected in 
Guam by Chamisso cannot be doubted, for it still persists there 
and is represented in our recent collections from the island. 
K. Schumann "^ had previously recorded it from the Society 
Islands. 

In connection with a general discussion of the vegetation in 
and about Manila in Luzon ^ I have already considered at length 
the question of those plants of pantropic distribution and its 
significance. In considering only those plants found in and 
about Manila it was found that out of a total of 1,007 species no 
less than 425 were of greater or less distribution in the tropics 
of both the eastern and western hemispheres. I came to the 
conclusion that of these 425 species of pantropic plants but about 
90 were distributed from one hemisphere to the other by natural 
agencies; that about 242 were purposely transmitted and that 
92 were accidentally distributed by man. As to origins, so far 
as this matter could be determined at the time, 177 were con- 
sidered to have originated in tropical America, 138 in the tropics 
of the Old World, and 109 were considered doubtful as to origin, 
including the 90 species of presumably natural distribution and 
certain weeds and weed-like plants regarding whose native coun- 
tries I could arrive at no definite conclusion. Very many of 
these weeds or weed-like plants, now of wide tropical distribu- 
tion, have certainly been transmitted from one hemisphere to the 
other by man, but are now so ubiquitous that it is difficult or 
impossible, from their present distribution, definitely to deter- 
mine of which hemisphere they are natives. The list includes 

•Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Siidsee (1901) 589. 
'Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4* (1891) 146. 
' Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 145-208. 



26 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

such species as Urena lobata L., Bidens pilosa L., Eclipta alba 
Hassk., Solanum nigrum L., Merremia iimbellata Hallier, Hewit- 
tia sublobata O. Ktze., Melochia corchorifolia L., Abelmoschus 
moschaUis Medic, Sida retvsa L., 5. rhombifolia L., S. acuta 
Biirm., S. cordifoUa L., Phyllanthus niruri L., P. urinaria L., 
Euphorbia prostrata Ait., E. thymifolia L., E. hirta L., Oxalis 
repens Thunb., Teramnus loMialis Spreng., Desmodium trifiorum 
DC, Gynandropsis pentaphylla DC, Cleome vi,scosa L., Portu- 
laca oleracea L., Mollugo oppositifolia L., M. lotoides L., Amaran- 
thus spinosus L., A. viridis L., Alternanthera sessilis R. Br., Com- 
melina nudifiora L., and numerous grasses and sedges. While 
some of these, such as Portulaca oleracea L., and. some of the 
grasses and sedges, may have been distributed from one hemi- 
sphere to the other by natural means, there is very little doubt but 
that the most of them have been transmitted across the Pacific 
or the Atlantic by man within historical times, and in this period 
since the circumnavigation of the globe by Magellan in 1521. I 
am now inclined to the opinion that most of the species enumer- 
ated above are natives of the eastern hemisphere, but have no 
definite data to this effect except in the case of a few species such 
as Hibiscus abelmoschus Medic. 

In my consideration of the pantropic plants found in and about 
Manila, I made a detailed tabulation of the species, but do not 
consider it necessary or expedient to make such a tabulation for 
the Guam plants of similar distribution. The enumeration of 
such plants found in Guam would, to a very large degree, simply 
duplicate those found in and about Manila. The Guam flora 
adds to the list of pantropic plants considered in my previously 
mentioned paper, about 24 species, nearly all of which are found 
in the Philippines but not in or near Manila. The additions 
are Asplenium caudatum Forst., Nephrolepis hirsutula Presl, 
Gleichenia linearis Clarke, Lycopodium cernuum L., Psilotum 
nudum Griseb., Potamogeton luceyis L., Fimbristylis compla7iata 
Link., F. puherula Michx., F. spathulacea Rottb., Chenopodium 
album L., Entada phaseoloides Merr., Caesalpinia glabra Mill., 
Dodonoea viscosa Jacq., Sida glomerata Cav., Ammannia coccinea 
Rottb., Ximenia americana L., Ipomoea gracilis R. Br., Oestrum 
diumum Lam., Physalis lanceifolia Nees, Heliotropium cura^sa- 
vicum L., Hyptis pectinata Pois., Geophila herbacea 0. Ktz., 
Adenostemma viscosum Forst., and Mitracarpum hirtum DC. 
At least sixteen of the twenty-four will fall in the category of 
those plants that have been spread from one hemisphere to the 
other through natural causes. Of the remaining eight, two are 



IX. CI Merrill: Plants of Guam 27 

definitely natives of the eastern hemisphere, Adenostemma vis- 
cosum and Chenopodium album, while six are equally definitely 
of American orig-in, Sida glomerata, Aynmannia coccinea, Ces- 
trum diunium, Phy salts lancei folia, Hyptis pectinata, and Mi- 
tracarpum. hirtum, and with the possible exception of Cestrum 
diwnum were all accidentally introduced into Guam. 

The original vegetation of the Polynesian islands is mainly of 
Malayan origin, and like aboriginal man, the present species of 
plants, or their ancestors, entered the Archipelago from the west. 
Most of the original food plants of the Polynesian people were 
carried with them from island to island in their migrations, or 
in their later intercommunication between islands and groups 
of islands, and with very few exceptions are manifestly of 
Asiatic or Malayan origin. The coconut is a striking exception, 
for this is probably of American origin. 

Seemann"' has briefly considered the weed flora of Polynesia, 
but I do not agree with him in his conclusions. He states: 

"Polynesia, situated as it is between three great continents, presents a 
most interesting problem with regard to its weeds, which, however, cannot 
be satisfactorily solved until the whole flora shall have been properly 
worked out ; but we make an attempt to deal ■with it so far as Viti is con- 
cerned. There we have 64 species, which may be regarded as troublesome 
weeds. Some of these are diffused throughout the tropics; but the bulk of 
them (48) are common to America, only 16 being strictly confined to the 
Old World, principally Asia. It may be argued that several of those found 
in America are also common to Asia, or that Asia is their true native 
country; but even admitting this reduction, it must be conceded that the 
bulk of the weeds of Viti is of American origin, or at all events, is now 
found in America. This is the more sing-ular as the majority of the 
species of these Islands, as far as they are not endemic, is Asiatic. Poly- 
nesia seems to have acted as a bridge by means of which the weeds of the 
Old World crossed over to the new, and those of the New World to the Old; 
and the fact that American weeds show a greater disposition than Asiatic 
to spread in Viti must be held to prove, if my theory be sound, that Viti 
is to American weeds altogether virgin ground. 

Seemann confined his list of weeds strictly to those plants 
that are characterized by their ability to spread on land cultivated 
or otherwise disturbed by man, and definitely excluded all strand 
plants, aquatics, and marsh plants. His list of weeds, then, is 
not directly comparable to my list of pantropic species. Of 
his list of 64 species, 48 are credited by him as occurring in 
America, but this must now be raised to at least 50. In analyz- 
ing his list of Vitian weeds, however, I find not more than 12 
that I consider to be definitely of American origin, about 32 

' Flora Vitiensis (1865) XVI. 



28 The Philippine Jourrml of Science 1914 

that are equally definitely of oriental origin, and about 20 re- 
garding whose origin there is at least a reasonable doubt, but 
which are probably for the most part natives of the Old World. 
I consider that the pantropic species, for the most part, at least, 
have been transmitted from one hemisphere to the other through 
the agency of man. Admitting that at least 50 of Seemann's list 
of Vitian weeds are now found in the tropics of both the Old 
and New Worlds by no means proves that these weeds have 
originated in America. I believe that it is safer to conclude 
that the most of the weeds enumerated by Seemann have origi- 
nated in the Old World, that many have been introduced into the 
New World, and that their presence in Polynesia is due to their 
introduction into that region through the Polynesians themselves 
in their migrations from island to island before the advent 
of the Europeans, and, at a more recent date, by the increase 
in intercommunication after the advent of the Europeans in Poly- 
nesia. 

That Polynesia has acted as a bridge by means of which the 
weeds of the Old World have passed over to the New and vice 
versa impresses me as being improbable, at least for any great 
number of species. That most of the pantropic weeds can be 
distributed over fairly long distances by the means of winds, 
migratory birds, and some, perhaps, by water, must be admitted, 
but it is hardly conceivable that the majority of them can pass 
unaided such a great expanse of water as the eastern Pacific. I 
am of the opinion that only those species are capable of being 
transmitted very great distances, by water, that have very special 
adaptations for dissemination by ocean currents, that is, floating 
seeds or fruits, that not only retain their buoyancy for many 
weeks or months, but whose seeds also retain their germinating 
power for equally long periods when immersed in salt water. 
Guppy ^ has given considerable attention to this matter, and an 
examination of the lists of species whose seeds and fruits he 
investigated,^" as to buoyancy or non-buoyancy, shows that among 
all the species of pantropic weeds investigated a single one, 
Eclipta alba Hasak., has seeds that float for many months. All 
the other weeds and weed-like plants which he investigated have 
seeds or fruits that sink at once or within a day or two, those 
tested being in such genera as Ahrus, Ageratum, Canna, PhyU 
lanthus, Portulaca, Urena, Argemone, Triumfetta, Tephrosia, 
Bidens, Cassia, Commelina, Ipomoea, Jussiaea, Sida, and Wal- 

• Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific 2 (1906) Seed Dispersal. 
" L. c. 529-533. 



IX. CI Merrill: Plants of Guam 29 

theiia. Guppy has effectively proved that it is quite impossible 
for the average weed seed, unaided, to be transmitted by ocean 
currents even for short distances. 

Seemann concluded that the reason why American weeds 
showed a greater tendency to become dominant in Polynesia than 
Asiatic ones was because to American weeds Polynesia is alto- 
gether virgin ground. In the first place I differ from him in 
that I consider the majority of the weeds enumerated to be of 
oriental, not American origin ; and secondly, and what is of still 
greater importance, that if we assume the Polynesian islands 
originally to have been covered with continuous forests before the 
advent of man, then, as man has destroyed the forests, the islands, 
by the provision of proper habitats, would become just as much 
virgin territory to Asiatic as to American weeds. 

Whitford " and myself '- have argued that for the Philippines 
the Islands were originally entirely covered with forests of one 
type or another before the advent of man. It is at once manifest 
that a country covered with continuous forests w^ill present no 
habitats, or at least very limited areas, where the sun-loving 
weed flora can thrive or even persist. It is also manifest to 
any one familiar with the forests of the Malayan region that the 
vegetation of the forested areas is entirely different from that 
of the more or less open country, and that the weeds and weed- 
like plants that are dominant in the settled areas are normally 
absent in the forests; even in second-growth forests that are 
only a few years old. It is argued that the present vast ex- 
panses of territory in the Philippines, including the areas in 
cultivation, the second growth forest, and the enormous stretches 
of country that are covered with coarse grasses, primarily owe 
their existence to the presence of man, and that man, through 
destructive methods of clearing the ground for agricultural pur- 
poses, has provided the proper habitats for the weeds and weed- 
like plants, which, when once introduced, have spread with great 
rapidity and have become dominant in the open areas. The 
presence of the vast areas of grass-covered, unproductive lands 
in the Philippines, as well as the second-growth forests and the 
cultivated areas is certainly due to the continued presence of man. 
It is equally certain that if man were removed the country would 
eventually become reforested, and this would cause the entire or 

"The Forests of the Philippines. For. Bur. (Philip.) Bull. 10' (1911) 
12. 

" Notes on the Flora of Manila with Special Reference to the Introduced 
Element. Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 148-151. 



30 ^/ic Philippine Journal of Science i»i4 

nearly entire extinction of the weeds and weed-like plants that 
cannot, unaided by man, compete with the indigenous vegetation. 

In the Philippines, and this is probably true of the entire 
Malayan and Polynesian regions, the average weed cannot grow 
in the forested areas, and is equally excluded from the grass- 
covered areas, especially the vast tracts of land that are covered 
with the lalang or cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) , and other 
coarse forms such as Saccharum spontaneum, Themeda, etc. 
Few weeds are found in thickets, and those that do occur in such 
places are soon exterminated as the thickets develop into forested 
areas. In a well developed and long established "cogonal," as 
these grass-covered areas are called in the Philippines, prac- 
tically the only species found over immense areas is the grass, 
Imperata cylindrica. In some places certain other plants are 
found intermixed to a slight degree, but weeds proper, that is 
those plants that are more or less dependent for their continued 
existence on land cultivated or otherwise disturbed by man, are 
entirely lacking or appear only along trails leading through the 
"cogonales." These weeds are for the most part pantropic in 
distribution, and are excluded by natural conditions from im- 
mense areas comprised under several types of vegetation, such 
as the primeval and second-growth forests, to a large degree the 
thickets, and the open grass-covered areas. They are dominant 
in fallow lands, in and about cultivated areas, along roads and 
trails, in deserted clearings that have recently been in cultiva- 
tion, in clearings recently made, and in waste places in the 
vicinity of towns and dwellings. A very few thrive along the 
gravel bars in the beds of streams, and still fewer are found 
widely scattered in the grass-covered areas. 

The vegetative condition of Guam, before the advent of man, 
was undoubtedly a continuous forest. The same is undoubtedly 
true of the Hawaiian Islands. In discussing this matter with 
Mr. J. F. Rock, botanist to the Board of Agriculture and Forestry 
at Honolulu, who is thoroughly conversant with the vegetation 
of the group and with the prevailing conditions in Hawaii, he 
expressed the opinion that the entire land area, except where 
the vegetation was temporarily destroyed by volcanic eruptions, 
and the peaks of the higher mountains, was, before the advent 
of man, quite covered with continuous forests. One great factor 
in the recent destruction of the forest vegetation in Hawaii has 
been domestic and wild cattle, gcats, and horses. These, intro- 
duced by man, have destroyed the underbrush and seedlings in 
the forests, and above all have injured the trees by breaking 



IX, c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 31 

the bark, thus providing the proper habitat for the ravages 
of certain endemic beetles which eventually kill the trees. 
These beetles have increased to an enormous extent in recent 
years due to the increase in breeding places, in turn directly 
due to introduced animals, so that the forests are suffering not 
only from the destruction of the undergrowth and young trees 
by the animals themselves, but the mature trees in many cases 
are succumbing to insect attacks primarily due almost entirely 
to the injuries inflicted to the trees by animals. With these 
checks on the indigenous forest vegetation must be included the 
introduced Lantana camara, Pa-'^palnm conjugatiim, and other 
species, which over vast areas occupy the entire country, even 
in the forests, and eff'ectually check the reproduction of the 
native species by preventing the growth of seedlings. In some 
areas forest fires have also been exceedingly destructive. 

In discussing the forest vegetation of the Island of Hawaii, 
Mr. Rock '•' gives us a picture of the very recent destruction of 
a vast forest area extending over 1,000 feet in altitude: 

"Between 2,000 and 3,000 feet elevation the forest has disappeared and 
only stragglers of tree ferns can be found standing, though ten times as 
many are lying dead on the ground and overgrown with all possible weeds, 
which the ranchmen have imported with their grass seeds. Among them 
is the composite climber, Senecio mikanioides, an awful pest, which has 
become well established on Hawaii. At 3,000 feet a few Koa trees can be 
found, together with Naoi, and here also was found a single native palm, 
Pritchardia sp., windswept and half dead. If one considers the natural 
condition in which this palm flourishes, as for example in the dense tropical 
rain forests in Kohala, and then looks at the single plant all alone in a 
field of Paspalum conjugatum, as the accuser of man the destroyer, it 
stands a witness to the fact that there, surrounding it, was once a beautiful 
tropical jungle." 

That great areas in the Hawaiian Islands were denuded of 
their forest covering by the natives before the advent of the 
Europeans must, of course, be admitted, but we are witnessing 
to-day in this group of islands a great and rapid decrease in 
the forested areas due to causes for which man is primarily 
responsible. What is to-day taking place in Hawaii may be 
applied to the past history of any of the inhabited islands in 
the Malayan and Polynesian regions. We have to take into 
consideration not only the ravages of man in preparing the land 
for agricultural purposes, but also the possible effects of in- 
troduced plants and animals on the vegetation, the matter of 
introduced insects, the question of rapid increase of indigenous 

" The Indigenous Trees of the Hawaiian Islands (1913). 26. 



32 The Philippine Journal of Science vm 

destructive insects due to disturbances of the balance of nature, 
and various other factors. 

It is considered most probable that the islands of the whole 
Polynesian region, before the advent of man, like the Philippines, 
Guam, and the Hawaiian Islands, were entirely covered with 
forests, and that as a corollary none of the weeds and weed-like 
plants, now so abundant, were originally found in the region. 
If this assumption, as to the original vegetation of the group, 
be true, then Polynesia would be just as much a virgin territory 
to Asiatic weeds as to those of America. Any weed, adapted 
to the climatic conditions, once introduced, would thrive and 
multiply rapidly due to the fact that the open areas, occupied 
by but few species, had been prepared by man. 

Guppy^* points out that the Polynesian weeds arrange them- 
selves into two groups, the "aboriginal" weeds, comprising those 
that existed in the islands at the time of Captain Cook's expe- 
ditions in the latter half of the eighteenth century, and the 
"white man's" weeds that have since been introduced. He states 
regarding the 64 weeds enumerated by Seemann that at least 
37 of them were found in the islands of the Pacific when the 
botanists of Cook's voyages, Banks, Solander, the Forsters, and 
Nelson, made their collections (1768-79). Guppy^^ gives a list 
of the 37 species collected by the above botanists under the head 
of aboriginal weeds of which but 23 are now of rather universal 
distribution in the tropics of both hemispheres. The remainder 
are for the most part confined to, or at least natives of, the 
tropics of the Old World. Analyzing more in detail the 23 
"aboriginal" weeds, now of pantropic distribution, according to 
my present knowledge of weeds, their origin, and distribution, 
I conclude that but 5 are manifestly of American origin, that 
9 are equally definitely of Asiatic origin, and that 9 are doubtful 
as to origin but probably Asiatic. More in detail, I believe that 
Teucrium inflatum Willd., Ageratum conyzoides L., Ipomoea bona- 
nox Boj., Waltheria americana L., and Phy satis angulata L. are 
of undoubted American origin; Cassia sophera L., (?) Cardios- 
permum halicacabiim L., Abrus precatorius L., Hydrocotyle asia- 
tica L., Siegesbeckia oHentalis L., Vandellia Crustacea Benth., 
Achyranthcs aspera L., Eleusine indica Gaertn., and Adeno- 
stemma viscosum Forst., to be in all probability of Asiatic origin ; 
and in my list of species that are doubtful as to origin, but 
probably Asiatic, I place Sida rhombifolia L., Geophila reniformis 

" Observations of a Naturalist in the Pacific 2 (1906) 415. 
" L. c. 604. 



IX, c. 1 Merrill : Plants of Guam 33 

0. Ktz.,Urena lobata L., Commelina nudiflora L., Phdseolus ade- 
nanthus Mey. (P. truxillensis H. B. K.), Bidens pilosa L., Eclipta 
alba Hassk., Solanum nigrum L., and Oxalis corniculata L. 

On my basis of origins of these pantropic weeds we have to 
account for the presence of but very few "American" weeds in 
Polynesia before the region was visited by the botanists of 
Cook's voyages. Many of the species enumerated by Seemann 
and by Guppy are either confined to the tropics of the Old 
World, or are of pantropic distribution originating in the Old 
World, and would be apt to be distributed through Polynesia by 
the Polynesians themselves. It is conceivable that some of the 
species were distributed from one hemisphere to the other by 
natural causes, but it is considered that a prehistoric pantropic 
distribution for most of the species is exceedingly improbable. 
In Guppy's and Seemann's lists we have to account for the 
presence in Polynesia, before the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, of such species as Ageratum conyzoides, Waltheria amer- 
icana, Ipomoea bo7ia-nox, Physalis angnlata, and Teucrium in- 
flatum if I am correct in my deduction that these are of American 
origin. 

Cook's voyages of discovery in the last half of the eigteenth 
century were by no means the first visits by Europeans to Poly- 
nesia. The seeds of such plants as those enumerated above, 
as well as many others, may very readily have been disseminated 
by some of the earlier Spanish, Dutch, English, and French 
explorers, such as Alvarez de Mendano (1567), Drake (1577), 
Cavendish (1586), Mendana de Neyra (1595), Van Noort 
(1598), Quiros (1605), Spilbergen (1616), Schouten and Le 
Maire (1615), Hermite (1625), Dampier (1686), Cowley (1685), 
Clipperton (1691), Rogers (1710), Roggewein (1721), Anson 
(1742), B>Ton (1764), and Bougainville (1767), who came into 
the Pacific from the American side with from one to several 
ships each. The Acapulco-Manila galleons must also be taken 
into consideration in the introduction of American weeds into 
the islands of the Pacific, the sailings of which extend over a 
period of approximately three hundred years from the beginning 
of European colonial history in Polynesia and the Philippines, 
a period preeminently characterized by an interchange of 
economic species and weeds between the eastern and western 
hemispheres. 

We know from Captain Cook's own statements that he took 
with him into the Pacific live stock consisting of horses, cattle, 
sheep, goats, and domestic fowls for distribution to the Poly- 

122968 3 



34 T'he Philippine Journal of Science isu 

nesians as presents, and in connection with this matter it is 
well to note that at every island where a protracted stop was 
made the live stock was placed on shore to recuperate, and that 
on leaving- an abundant supply of forage was collected for the 
subsistence of the animals in the passage from one group of 
islands to another. At each stopping place abundant food sup- 
plies were provided for the officers and crews of the ships, 
consisting of living animals, yams, fruits, rice, and other edible 
products. It is difficult to imagine a more ideal method of trans- 
mitting weeds and weed-like plants from one island to another 
than by these means. It is interesting to note in this connection 
that Captain Cook was by no means the first" navigator to 
transmit living animals to the Pacific for he states that goats 
had been left in the Society Islands by some previous expedition.^' 
The practice of early voyagers taking with them live stock either 
for distribution, or for food during the voyage, seems to have 
been a very common procedure. Considering the number of 
expeditions to Polynesia from the American side of the Pacific, 
before Cook's voyages, and the long period covered, it is by 
no means difficult to conceive that through these early voyages 
a considerable number of American weeds may have been dis- 
tributed to the islands of the Pacific. In fact it would be very 
strange if not more than the 5 or 6 indicated above were not 
then introduced into Polynesia. In this connection Guam must 
also be considered, for Guam very definitely received a number 
of American weeds at an early date, and these weeds, while 
incapable of being transmitted across the Pacific by natural 
means, still may very readily have been transmitted from island 
to island in Micronesia and so from island to island in Polynesia 
through such agencies as winds, migratory birds, and some, 
perhaps, by ocean currents. From 1521, the date of the dis- 
covery of Guam, to 1815, that island for most of the period as 
already indicated, was in annual communication with Mexico, 
and the interval from 1521 to 1768, the date of Captain Cook's 
first voyage to the Pacific is a comparatively long period, during 
which sufficient time certainly elapsed to allow certain weeds, 
with special means for dissemination, to become fairly widely 
distributed in Polynesia. 

Take for example any weed of American origin that became 
established in Guam at an early date, or shortly after the arrival 
of the Spaniards in 1521. It may have reached neighboring 

"Journal of Captain Cook's Last Voyage to the Pacific Ocean on Dis- 
covery (1781) 122, 186. 



IX. c, 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 35 

islands by winds, water, or migratory birds. On the other hand 
it may have been transmitted from island to island inadvertently 
by man. Now it is conceded that intercommunication between 
the diflerent groups of islands in Polynesia in prehistoric times 
was probably rare, and maybe for the most part accidental. 
Some intercommunication, however, did exist. There was prob- 
ably little or no regular communication between Micronesia and 
Polynesia in this period, but the accidental method cannot be over- 
looked. Fishing and trading boats, more or less stocked with 
food, are frequently blown out to sea by storms, and are not 
infrequently cast up on distant islands. That by this method 
Polynesia was originally colonized admits of little doubt, and 
through such intercommunication some economic plants and 
some weeds have undoubtedly been transmitted from one group 
of islands to another. That such occurrences are comparatively 
frequent also admits of no doubt. In my first period of residence 
in the Philippines, five years, two cases occurred in which small 
native boats blown to sea in the Caroline Islands were cast up 
in the eastern coast of the Philippines, one in Luzon and one in 
Mindanao, in one case with most of the occupants surviving, 
in the other with most of them dead from thirst and starvation. 
The distance travelled by these small boats was from 860 to 
1,300 kilometers. Not a typhoon season passes in the Philip- 
pines but in which small native boats are blown out to sea, 
frequently never being heard from, at other times picked up by 
passing vessels, and at other times eventually reaching distant 
shores. This is to-day happening all over Polynesia, and such 
incidents have been frequent in the history of Polynesia for at 
least two thousand years. As a method of distribution of plants 
over comparatively short distances this must certainly seriously 
be considered. 

In connection with the weed-flora of Polynesia it is of some 
interest to consider the period that the islands of the Pacific 
have been inhabited, although this question cannot definitely be 
settled. What peoples, if any, were the predecessors of the 
Polynesians is not known. Some authorities '' place the en- 
trance of the Polynesians into the Pacific at such a remote age 
that the event cannot even approximately be fixed, either by 
tradition or otherwise. Formander,'* however, has traced the 
history of the Hawaiians to the fifth century, and concludes that 
the Polynesian migration from the Indian Archipelago may 

" Encycl. Brit. ed. 11, 22 (1911) 23. 

"An Account of the Polynesian Race 1 (1878) 168. 



36 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

approximately be assigned to the first or second centuries of our 
era. At any rate the absence of Sanskrit roots in the Polynesian 
languages indicates that the Polynesians were never in direct or 
indirect contact with Sanskrit peoples. It is apparently quite 
safe to assume that the Polynesians have occupied the islands of 
the Pacific for at least two thousand years, perhaps longer. 
This period is sufficiently long for man to have wrought great 
changes in the character of the vegetation of the different islands, 
to have destroyed the original forest over large areas, and to 
have provided the proper habitats for the light-loving weed-flora. 

Safford's work on the flora of Guam is an alphabetic arrange- 
ment of all the species known to him from that island. There 
is no summary by families and genera, so that it is rather diffi- 
cult to gain an adequate idea of the constituent species of the 
flora from an examination of his work. In nomenclature Saf- 
ford's work follows the American Code which is based on strict 
priority and admits of no generic list of nomina conservanda. 
The idea of generic types was also applied with some surprising 
results, and, in at least some cases, the type adopted does not 
appear to me to be the logical one. For the nomenclature 
adopted in Saff'ord's work Mr. W. F. Wight is primarily respon- 
sible, and is the authority for most of the changes of names 
included. In this rather popular work, and one that is strictly 
alphabetic, it is rather curious to note not only new combinations 
and new specific names, but also new generic names and even one 
new family name. It hardly seems probable, especially in view 
of the fact that there were available three properly constructed 
family names already, Lamiaceae (1836), Nepetaceae (1843), 
and Salvidceae (1879), that the new name, MentJmceae, proposed 
for the Labiatae, will meet with general acceptance. The pro- 
posal of the name Menthaceae, under these circumstances, appears 
to me to l)e entirely unwarranted, and quite at variance with the 
principle of priority. 

In the following enumeration the nomenclature has been 
worked out on the basis of the International Code of Botanical 
Nomenclature, and accordingly the accepted generic and specific 
names will in some instances be found at variance with those 
used by Mr. Wight in Safford's work. The author is responsible 
for the identifications ,of most of the specimens cited in the 
present paper, the ma:i:;erial examined, as noted above, being the 
collections of Mrs. C'iemens, Mr. Thompson, Mr. McGregor, and 
a native collector working under Mr. Thompson's direction, a 
total of 824 numbers. For purposes of comparison I have had 



IX. c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 37 

not only the rich Philippine collections of the Bureau of Science, 
but also the extensive series of specimens from tropical Asia, 
Malaya, and Polynesia, belonging to that institution, including 
a nearly complete set of Volken's Caroline Islands plants. The 
Palmae have been examined by Beccari, the Pandanaceae by 
Martelli, some of the Cyperaceae by Kiikenthal, the Musci by 
Brotherus, the Hepaticae by Stephani, the Piperaceae by DeCan- 
dolle, and the Orchidaceae by Ames. In a few other cases I 
have received aid in the identification of certain specimens, this 
assistance being acknowledged in the text under the individual 
species. The enumeration of the Fungi is the work of Mr. Paul 
W. Graff of the Bureau of Science. Dr. E. B. Copeland has 
named some of the ferns. 

The first and most complete set of the botanical material from 
Guam is deposited in the herbarium of the Bureau of Science, 
and a nearly complete set has been deposited in the office of the 
Guam Experiment Station. The remaining duplicates have been 
distributed to various specialists and to institutions with which 
the Bureau of Science is in exchange relations. In the following 
enumeration the material secured through the native collector 
employed by the Guam Experiment Station is indicated as G. E. 
S., followed by the number of the collection. The recent collec- 
tions have yielded a total of about forty-five new species, and one 
new genus. 

While engaged in reading the proof on this paper I received, 
through the kind offices of Mr. W. R. Maxon of the U. S. National 
Museum, and of Mr. W. E. Safford, 162 additional specimens of 
Guam plants for study. This material was collected in Guam by 
Mr. Safford, by Mr. Alvin Seale, and by Mr. H. L. W. Costenoble. 
This collection adds a few genera and species to the list I had 
prepared for publication, and these additions have been included 
in the present paper. 

ENUMERATION OF THE SPECIES 

THALLOPHYTES 

FUNGI 

(By P. W. Graff) 

The few fungi known from Guam have been gathered only 
incidentally by collectors of other plants. The chief collection, 
and perhaps the only one, previously reported, was that made 
by Gaudichaud in 1819. Safford gives the list as follows : Auri- 
cularia auricula-judae (L.) Schrot., Fomes scabrosus (Pers.) 
Fr., Polypoitis kamphoeveneri Fr. (Polyporus mariannus Pers.). 



38 The Philippine Journal of Science isu 

PohjsUctus sanguineus (L.) Mey., Polystictus xanthopus Fr. 
{Polystictus saccatus Pers.), and Schizophylhim alneum (L.) 
Schrot. To this list Saccardo adds Hirneola ampla (Pers.) 
Fr. Another short list, apparently based on the same col- 
lection, was published by K. Schumann & Lauterbach in "Die 
Flora der Deutschen Schutzgebiet in der Sudsee" (1901). This 
list consists of but five names, Auricularia axiHcula-judae (L.) 
Schrot., Polyporus kamphoeveneH Fr., Polystictus sanguineus 
(L.) Mey., P. xanthopus Fr., and Schizophyllum alneum (L.) 
Schrot. 

The following list includes an inumeration of all known species. 
Most of these, as one might expect from their being only inci- 
dental collections, are common and widely distributed tropical 
forms. 

PHYLLACHORA Nitschke 
PHYLLACHORA AFZELIAE Syd. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 277. 
On leaves of Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) O. Kuntze (Afzelia bijuga A. Gray). 
G. E. S. S2k. Recently described from the Philippines. 

HIRNEOLA Fries 

HIRNEOLA AURICULA-JUDAE (Fr.) Berk. Outl. (1860) 289; Fr. Hym. 
Eur. (1874) 695. 

Exidia auricula- judae Fr. Syst. Myc. 2 (1823) 321. 

Tremella auricula Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1157. 

G. E. S. SGJf, McGregor 588, October, 1911. 

Of very general distribution in the tropics and warmer parts of both 
hemispheres. 

HIRNEOLA AMPLA (Pers.) Fr. Fung. Nat. (1848) 26. 

Auricularia ampla Pers. ex Gaudich. in Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 177. 
Coll. Gaudickaud ex Sacardo Syll. Fung, 6 (1888) 765. 

POLYPORUS Micheli 

POLYPORUS MARIANNUS Pers. ex Gaud. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 173. 

Coll. Gaudichaud. 

Schumann and Lauterbach place this as a synonym of Fomes lignoaus 
(Klot.) Bres. These authors make no statement of having seen or made 
comparisons with Gaudichaud's specimen, which is probably in the Paris 
Museum of Natural History. If the reduction is correct, then Persoon's 
name is the older. His description is, however, rather meagre and hardly 
more than sufficient to show a possible relationship. 

FOMES Fries 

FOMES LIGNOSUS (Klot.) Bres. in Hedwigia 53 (1912) 60. 

Polyporus lignosus Klot. ex Fr. Epicr. (1838) 471. 

Fomes kamphoeveneri Fr. Nov. Symb. Myc. (1851) 69. 

Coll. Gaudichaud. Found in Tahiti, Mauritius, Australia, Philippines 
and Cuba. 



IX. c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 39 

FOMES NUBILUS Fr. Epicr. (1836-38) 491, var. ALBO-LI M BATUS 
Cooke. 

G. E. S. 26ti; McGregor 589, October, 1911. Reported from Guinea and 
the Congo. 

FOMES SCABROSUS (Pers.) Fr. Epicr. (1836-38) 469. 
Poly poms scabrosus Pers. ex Gaud. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826). 
P. fuaco-badius Pers. 1. c. 
Coll. Gaiidichaud. 

POLYSTICTUS Fries 

POLYSTICTUS AFFINIS (Fr.) Nees in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. 13: 
18, pi. 4, /. /. 

Polyporus affinis Fries Epicr. (1836-38) 447. 

McGregor 590, October, 1911. Of very general distribution throughout 
the tropics. 

POLYSTICTUS OCCIDENTALIS (Kl.) Fr. Nov. Symb. (1851) 90. 
Polyporus occidentalis Kl. in Linnaea 7 (1832) 486. 
G. E. S. SOJ. Of very general tropical distribution. 

POLYSTICTUS SANGUINEUS (L.) Mey. Flor. Esseq. (1818) 304. 

Boletus sanguineus L. Spec. PI. Ed. 2 (1763) 1646. 

G. E. S. SOO. Universal in the tropics. It is very probable that this and 
P. cinnabarinus (Jacq.) Fr., of the temperate zones, should be considered 
but forms of the same species. 

POLYSTICTUS XANTHOPUS Fr. Obs. 2 (1815-18) 255. 

Coll. Gaudichaud. Found throughout the tropics. 
TRAMETES Fries 
TRAMETES CORRUGATA (Pers.) Bres. in Hedwigia 51 (1912) 316. 

Polyporus corrugatus Pers. ex Gaud, in Bot. Frey. Voy. (1826) 172. 

G. E. S. 301. Found in East India, Ceylon, Borneo, Java, Philippines, 
West Africa, Cuba, Brazil, and Australia. 

HEXAGON I A Fries 

HEXAGON lA BIVALVIS (Pers.) Bres. in Hedwigia 51 (1912) 318, var. 
PULCHELLA (Lev.) Bres. in Hedwigia 53 (1912) 73. 
Hexagonia pulchella Lev. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. III. 2 (1844) 200. 
G. E. S. i23. Reported from Java, Malacca, Mauritius, and the Phil- 
ippines. 

SCHIZOPHYLLUM Fries 

SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE Fr. Syst. Myc. 1 (1821-32) 333. 

Agaricus alneus L. Fl. Suec. (1745-55) n. 1242. 

Schizophyllum alneum (L.) Schrot. ex Cohn Krypt. Fl. Schles. 3 
(1887) 383. 

G. E. S. 425. Distributed throughout the tropic and temperate zones. 

LENTINUS Fries 
LENTINUS VELUTINUS Fr. in Linnaea 5 (1830) 510. 

G. E. S. If25. Reported from Cuba, Brazil, Guayana, Demerara, and 
the Philippines. 



40 The Philippine Journal of Science i»i* 

PHOMA Fries 
PHOMA LUSITANICA Thiim. Contr. Myc. Lusit, 335. 

Vicinity of Piti, McGregor U06a, October, 1911, on twigs of Glossogyne 
tenuifolia (Less.) Cass. Collected previously by Moller in Lusitania. 

Spores 2x4 m in perithecia averaging 95 m wide and 130 m high, 
including the projection of the ostiole. 

CLADOSPORIUM Link 

CLADOSPORIUM CLEMENSIAE Graff sp. nov. 

Hypophyllis, caespitulis erumpentibus, fuscis; hyphis ramosis, 
flexuosis, septatis; hyphis fertilibus sparsis, erectis, septatis, 
fuscis, simplicibus, 4-5.5 x 100-150 ij. ; conidiis concoloribus, ellip- 
ticis oblongis subcyHndraceisve, continuis dein 1-3-septatis, leni- 
ter constrictis, 7.5-11.5 x 23-35 /a. 

Found in great quantities on the under surface of the leaves, 
occasionally on the upper. The spots appear dark brown in color. 
Vegetative hyphae irregularly branching, light in color, septate. 
Fertile hyphae irregularly scattered, very few in a cluster, seldom 
more than three or four, erect, simple, fuscous, with the upper 
portion sometimes pale, septate with septa rather close, 4-5.5 x 
100-150 iJL. Conidia of the same color as the darker portion of 
the hyphae upon which they are borne, dark brown, elliptical, 
oblong to subcylindrical, continuous at first then 1 to 3 septate, 
becoming slightly constricted at the septa, 7.5-11.5 x 23-35 fx. 

Agana, Mary Srong Clemens s. n., November 27, 1911, on leaves of 
Eragrostis tenella (L.) R. & S. 

CLADOSPORIUM FASCICULATUM Corda Icon. Fung. Cog. (1842) 15, 
pi. i, fig. 216. 
Piti, Thompson j^a, November, 1910, on Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum 
Willd. Reported from both Europe and Asia. 

BRYOPHYTES 

HEPATICAE 

Mr. Safford records four species from Guam, page 292, as follows: 

Hygrolejeunea aordida (Nees) Schiffn. 

Caudolejeunea recurvistipula (Gott.) Schif{n.= Dicranolejeunea recur- 
vistipula. 

Frullania gaudichaudii Nees & Mart. 

Frullania nodulosa (R. Bl. & N.) Nees. 

To this last may be added the following species, all determined by Herr 
F. Stephani of Leipzig, from our recent collections: 

Frullania apicuiiioba Steph., McGregor 597. 

Frullania dapitana Steph., McGregor 600. 

Frullania secundiflora Mont., G. E. S. 193. 

DIcranolejeunea recurvistipula (Gott.), McGregor 595. 

Radula javanica Gott., McGregor 59 Jt. 

Thysananthus angustiformis Tayl., McGregor 598. 



\ 



IX. c. 1 Men'ill: Plants of Guam 41 

MUSCI 

Mr. Safford, page 327, enumerates nine species of mosses from Guam, 
collected by Gaudichaud and reported by Schwaegrichen in Bot. Freyc. 
Voy. (1826) 226-229. In a number of cases I cannot, from the literature 
available here, refer these to their genera as understood to-day. The follow- 
ing is Safford's list: 

Bartramia uncinaXa = Philonotis ? 

Hypnum cupressiforme. 

Hypnum delicatulum = r/mirfm7«. 

Hypnum recurvans Schwa.egT.=Rhaphidostegium recurvana Jaeg. 

Hypnum 8caturiginum=r£'c^ropof/iec-«/m scaturiginum Jaeg. 

Macromitrium urceolatum Schawegr. 

Neckera undu\ata = Neckeropsis lepineana. 

Octoblepharum albidum Hedw. 

Syrrhopodon rigescens. 

From the known ranges of these species, it seems to be evident that a 
number are erroneously identified. The following species, all determined 
by Dr. V. F. Brotherus, are represented in our Guam collections: 

Neckcpopsis lepineana (Mont.), McGregor 625. 
Macromitrium semipeliucidum D. & M., McGregor 626. 
Syrrhopodon revolutus D. & M., McGregor 623. 
Thuidium piumulosum (D. & M.), McGregor 622. 
Ectropothecium marlannarum Broth, sp. nov. (McGregor 627). 

PTERTDOPHYTES 
HYMENOPHYLLACEAE 

TRICHOMANES Linnaeus 

TRICHOMANES HUIVIILE Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 84. 

McGregor 398, G. E. S. 208, on trees, Upi road, and Yigo. 

Hawaiian Islands to the Carolines, Polynesia, New Zealand, and Aus- 
tralia. 

TRICHOMANES JAVANICUM Blume Enum. (1828) 224. 

G. E. S. 27, damp places, banks of small streams. 

Tropical Asia to the Liu Kiu Islands southward to Australia and 
Polynesia. 

CYATHEACEAE 

ALSOPHILA R. Brown 

AL80PHILA EXTENSA (Forst f.) R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 42. 

Polypodium extensum Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 83. 

Alaophila haenkei Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1825) 68. 

Cyathea marianna Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 265. 

Not represented in our collections, but described by both Presl and 
Gaudichaud from Guam material. The reduction of both species to Also- 
phila externa R. Br., is after Christensen, Index Filicum. 

New Guinea, Celebes, and Polynesia. 



42 The Philippine Journal of Science i»h 

POLYPODIACEAE 

ACROSTICHUM Linnaeus 

ACROSTICHUM AUREUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 106; Saiford 174. 
G. E. S. 158, locally known as lagngayao. 
Along the seashore, tropics of both hemispheres. 

ANTROPHYUM Kaulfuss 

ANTROPHYUM PLANTAGINEUM (Cav.) Kaulf. Enum. (1824) 197. 
Hemionitis plantaginea Cav. Descr. (1802) 260. 
G. E. S. 325, on trees, Yigo. 
India to Polynesia. 

ASPLENIUM Linnaeus 

ASPLENIUM CAUDATUM Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 80. 
McGregor 573. 
Tropics of both hemispheres. 

ASPLENIUM MACROPHYLLUM Sw. in Schrad. Journ. 1800' (1801) 52. 
McGregor 535, Mrs. Clemens s. n. 
India to the Mascarene Islands and Polynesia. 

ASPLENIUM NIDUS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1079. 

Neottopteris nidus J. Sm. Hook. Gen. (1842) t. 113B. 

Mrs. Clemens s. n. 

Tropical Africa and Asia, to Polynesia. 

ASPLENIUM LASERPITIIFOLIUM Lam. Encycl. 2 (1786) 310. 
McGregor 548. 
Malaya to Australia and Polynesia. 

ASPLENIUM ADIANTOIDES (Linn.) C. Chr. Index Fil. (1905) 99. 

Trichomanes adiantoides Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 99. 

Asplenium falcatum Lam. Encycl. 2 (1786) 306. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford, who records it as Asplenium fal- 
catum Lam. 

Tropical Asia to Australia, New Zealand, and Polynesia. 

ASPLENIUM MONANTHES Linn. Mant. (1767) 130. 
Asplenium monanthemurn Murr. Syst. ed. 14 (1784) 933. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford who records it as yl. monanthemurn 
Linn., but there is probably some error in identification or in localization 
of the specimens on which the Guam record was based. 

Tropical Africa and America, Hawaii. 

ASPLENIUM NITIDUM Sw. Syn. (1806) 84, 280. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford; India to Malaya. 
BLECHNUM Linnaeus 
BLECHNUM ORIENTALE Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1077. 

McGr«gor 386. 

Tropical Asia to Polynesia. 



ix.c. 1 Merrill: Pki7its of Guam 43 

CHEILANTHES Swartz 
CHEILANTHES TENUIFOLIA (Burm. f.) Sw. Syn. (180G) 129, 332. 
Trichomanes tenuifolium Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 237. 
McGregor 405. 
Tropical Asia to New Zealand and Polynesia. 

CYCLOPHORUS Desvaux 

CYCLOPHORUS ADNASCENS (Sw.) Desv. in Berl. Mag. 5 (1911) 300; 
Safford 236, pi. 47. 
Polypodmm adnascens Sw. Syn. (1806) 25, 222, t. 2, f. 2. 
McGregor 496. 
Tropical Asia to Polynesia. 

DAVALLIA Smith 

DAVALLIA SOLIDA (Forst. f.) Sw. in Schrad. Journ. 1800' (1801) 87; 
SaflFord 256. 
Trichomanes solidum Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 86. 
McGregor S77. 
Malaya to northern Australia and Polynesia. 

DRYOPTERIS Adanson 

DRYOPTERIS CUCULLATA (Blume) Christ in Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 
(1907) Bot. 194. 
Aspidium cucullatum Blume Enum. (1828) 151. 
McGregor 477, G. E. S. 182. 
Mascarene Islands and Malaya. 

DRYOPTERIS GONGYLODES (Schkuhr) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 
811. 

Aspidium gongylodes Schkuhr Kr. Gew. 1 (1809) 193, t. SS. 
Safford 1003, in the U. S. National Herbarium. 
Pantropic. 

DRYOPTERIS DISSECTA (Forst. f.) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 
812. 
Polypodium dissectum Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 812. 
Safford 1003, Safford & Scale 1088. 
India to Madagascar, Malaya, Australia, and Polynesia. 

DRYOPTERIS PARASITICA (Linn.) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 
811. 
Polypodium parasitiaim Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1090. 
Admitted on the authority of Safford. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

DRYOPTERIS HAENKEANA (Presl) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 
812. 

Nephrodium haenkeanum Presl Epim. Bot. (1851) 46. 

The type was from the Marianne Islands, presumably from Guam, 
collected by Haenke. It is credited with wide distribution in Malaya and 
Polynesia. From the description I suspect that it is but a form of D. 
cucullata, enumerated above. 



44 The Philipvine Jouinal of Science i»i4 

DRYOPTERIS (NEPHRODIUM) DEPAUPERATA Copel. sp. nov. 

Rhizomate erecto, breve; stipitibus dense confertis, plerisque 
ca. 5 cm altis, stramineis, caduce paleaceis, rhachibusque pilis 
hyalinis minutis vestitis; fronde 20 ad 25 cm alta, 4 cm lata, 
utrinque angustata; pinnis alternantibus, patentibus, stipitatis, 
lanceolatis, obtusis, integris vel crenulatis, basi suboblique cunea- 
tis acroscopice paullo dilatatis, herbaceis, costa pilis paucis mi- 
nutis ornata, aliter glabris, inferioribus sensim abbreviatis, in- 
fimis oblongis, 5 mm longis; venis seriem unam areolarum 
includentibus ; soris utroque latere costae uniseriatis, medialibus ; 
indusio baud uniforme, saepius reniforme. 

Guam Experiment Station 25, in damp places along river banks at 
Tolijuice, November, 1911; a very distinct species, 

HUM ATA Cavanilles 

HUMATA HETEROPHYLLA (Sm.) Desv. Prodr. (1825) 323. 

Davallia heteropkylla Sm. in Mem. Acad. Turin. 5 (1783) 415; SafTord 
295, pi 63. 

Humata pinnatifida Cav. Descr. (1802) 273. 

McGregor 267. 

Malaya and Polynesia. As pointed out by Safford, the genus takes its 
name from the town of Umata or Humata in Guam. 

HYMENOLEPIS Kaulfuss 

HYMEN0LEPI8 SPICATA (Linn, f.) Presl Epim. (1861) 159. 
Acrostichum spicatum Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 444. 
Belviaia spicata Mirb. Hist. Nat. Veg. 5 (1802?) 473. 

McGregor 369. 

Tropical Asia to Madagascar, Malaya, and Polynesia. 

NEPHR0LEPI8 Schott 

NEPHROLEPIS ACUTI FOLIA (Desv.) Christ in Verb. Nat. Ges. Basel. 
11 (1905) 243. 
Lindsay a acutifolia Desv. Prodr. (1827) 312. 
G. E. S.. A63. 
Tropical Africa through Malaya, Burma, etc., to Australia. 

NEPHROLEPIS HIRSUTULA (Forst. f.) Presl Tent. (1836) 79. 
Polypodium hirsutulum Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 81. 
McGregor 539. 
Tropics of both hemispheres. 

ODONTOSORIA Fee 

ODONTOSORIA CHINENSI8 (Linn.) J. Sm. in Bot. Voy. Herald (1857) 
430. 

Trichomanea chinense Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1099. 

G. E. S. 122. 

Tropical Asia to Madagascar and Polynesia. 



IX. c, 1 MernU: Plants of Guam 45 

ODONTOSORIA RETUSA (Cav.) J. Sm. in Bot. Voy. Herald (1857) 
430. 

DavaUia retusa Cav. Descr. (1802) 278. 
Admitted on the authority of SaflFord. 
Malaya and PoljTiesia. 

POLYPODIUM Linnaeus 
POLYPODIUM PHYMATODES Linn. Mant. (1771) 306. 

Phymutodea phymatodes Maxon ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 352, pi. 62. 

Mrs. Clemens a. n., McGregor Jt62. 

Tropical Africa and Asia to Australia and Polynesia. 

POLYPODIUM PUNCTATUM (Linn.) Sw. in Schrad. Journ. 1800' (1801) 
21. 
Acrostichum punctatum Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1763) 1524. 
Microsori-um irioides Fee Gen. (1850-52) 268. 
McGregor 555, Mrs. Clemens s. n. 
Tropical Africa, Asia, through Malaya to Polynesia. 

SCHIZOLOMA Gaudichaud 

SCHIZOLOMA ENSI FOLIUM (Sw.) J. Sm. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 
414. 
Lindsaea etisifolia Sw. in Schrad. Journ. 1800-' (1801) 77. 
McGregor ^08. 
Tropical Africa and Asia to Polynesia. 

PTERIS Linnaeus 

PTERIS BIAURITA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1076. 
Admitted on the authority of Safford. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

PTERIS QUADRIAURITA Retz Obs. 6 (1791) 38. 
Admitted on the authority of Safford. 
Same range as the preceding (?), with which it is frequently confused. 

PTERIS TRIPARTITA Sw. in Schrad. Journ. 1800' (1801) 67. 
Pteris margiyiata Bory Voy. 2 (1804) 192. 
Admitted on the authority of Safford. 
Tropical Africa and Asia to Polynesia. 

TECTARIA Cavanilles 

TECTARIA CRENATA Cav. Descr. (1802) 250. 

G. E. S. 201. 

Widely distributed in Malaya. 

VITTARIA Smith 
VITTARIA ELONGATA Sw. Syn. (1806) 109, 302; Safford 398. 
McGregor i87. 
Tropical Asia to Polynesia. 



46 The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

PARKERIACEAE 

CERATOPTERIS Brongniart 

CERATOPTERIS THALICTROIDES (Linn.) Brongn. Bull. Soc. Philom. 
(1821) 186, pi. 
Acroatichum thalictroides Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1763) 1488. 
Admitted on the authority of Safford. 
Tropics of both hemispheres. 

GLEICHENIACEAE 

GLEICHENIA Smith 

GLEICHENIA LINEARIS (Burm. f.) Clarke in Trans. Linn, Soc. Bot. 
1 (1880) 428. 
Poly-podium lineare Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 235, t. 67, f. 2. 
Gleichenia dichotoma Hook. Sp. Fil. 1 (1846) 12; Safford 283, pi. 50. 
McGregor i?9. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

MARATTIACEAE 

ANGIOPTERIS Hoffmann 

ANGIOPTERIS EVECTA (Forst.) Hoffm. Comm. Soc. Reg. (Jott. 12 
(1796) 29, t. 5; Safford 183, pi. 32. 
Polypodium evectum Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 81. 
G. E. S. i78. 
Polynesia; its other range uncertain. 

SCHIZAEACEAE 

LYGODIUM Swartz 

LYGODIUM SCANDENS (Linn.) Sw. in Schrad. Journ. 1800= (1801) 
106; Safford 314. 
Ophioglossian scandens Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1063. 
McGregor U03. 
Tropical Africa and Asia to Australia and Polynesia. 

LYGODIUM SEMIHASTATUM (Cav.) Desv. Prodr. (1827) 203^ 

Ugena semihastata Cav. Ic. 6 (1801) 74, t. 59Jf, f. 1. 

McGregor 363. 

Originally described from Philippine and Guam material, and very 
distinct from Lygodium circinnatum (Burm.) Sw., to which it has been 
erroneously reduced. It is probably the basis on which Lygodium circin- 
natum has been credited to Guam. 

OPHIOGLOSSACEAE 

OPHIOGLOSSUM Linneaus 
OPHIOGLOSSUM PENDULUM Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1763) 1518. 
Ophioderma pendulum Presl Suppl. (1845) 56. 
G. E. S. 278, locally known as leston. 
Tropical Asia to Polynesia. 



ix.c, 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 47 

LYCOPODIACEAE 

LYCOPODIUM Linnaeus 
LYCOPODIUM CERNUUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1103; Safford 313. 
Lycopodiian marianum Willd. Sp. PI. 5 (1810) 31. 
McGregor 478. 
Tropics of both hemispheres. 

LYCOPODIUM PHLEGMARIA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1100; Safford 313. 
pi. 57. 
Lycopodium mirabile Willd. Sp. PI. 5 (1810) 11. 

G. E. S. 256, locally known as desoplena and as cordon de San Francisco. 
Tropical Asia to Polynesia. 

SELAGINELLACEAE 

SELAGINELLA Spring 

SELAGINELLA BELANGERI (Bory) Spring Monog. Lycopod. 2 (1850) 
242; Hieron. in Hedwigia 50: 21, 51: 270. 

Lycopodium belangeri Bory in Belang. Voy. Bot. 2: no. 16, t. 2, f. 3. 

G. E. S. 17 U, rocky places near the sea at Adilog. 

Widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region. I am indebted to Dr. 
G. Hieronymus for the identification of the specimen cited. 

PSILOTACEAE 

PS I LOT UM Swartz 
PSILOTUM NUDUM (Linn.) Griseb. Syst. Veg. Karaib. (1857) 130. 
Lycopodinyn nudum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1100. 
McGregor 465, G. E. S. 170. 
Tropics of both hemispheres. 

SPERMATOPHYTES 
CYCADACEAE 

CYCAS Linnaeus 
CYCAS CIRCINALIS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1188; Safford 252, pi 8, 14. 
G. E. S. 406, Mrs. Clemens s. n., locally kno^vn as fadang. 
Widely distributed in the tropics of the Old World, especially near 
the seashore. 

PINACEAE 

This family is unknown from Guam except as represented by the intro- 
duced and cultivated Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, G. E. S. 433. 

PANDANACEAE 
PAN DAN us Linnaeus 
PAN DAN US KAFU Martelli in Webbia 4 (1913) 19, t. 19, f. 1-3. 

Pandanus fragrans W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr, U. S. Nat. Herb. 
9 (1905) 344, pi. 7, non Brongn. 

McGregor 584, locally knowTi as kafu. Endemic. 



48 The Philippine Journal of Science im. 

PANDANU8 GUAMENSIS Martelli 1. c. 16, t. Jt2, f. 4-6. 

McGregor 577, 580, 582, G. E. S. iO, locally known as akaom. 

This form was first indicated to me by Martelli as a variety of Pandanua 
tectorms Sol. It is, in all probability, the form credited to Guam by Saflford 
(page 344) as Pandanua tectoriiis Parkinson. 

PAN DAN US DUBIUS Spreng. Syst. 3 (1826) 897; Safford 343. 

McGregor 581, 583, locally known as pahong. 

Near the sea, Java to the Caroline and Marianne Islands southward to 
the New Hebrides. 

In addition to the above species, I have the following material, mostly 
leaf specimens, none of it in condition for determination: G. E. S. 68, 
cultivated, locally known as paingot; McGregor 5U7, a long-leaved sylvan 
species, leaves brittle; McGregor 578, locally known as agac, "its leaves 
distinguish it from the other species by having a glaucous bloom on both 
surfaces; the fiber plant here, said never to produce fruit" (McGregor); 
McGregor 579, in forests, Upi road, with very immature fruits. 

Pandamis fragrans Gaudich Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1843) t. 22, f. 10, is 
enumerated by Martelli" as a distinct species. 

I suspect that it is the same as the species indicated by Martelli as 
Pandamis kafu, enumerated above. Gaudichaud's material was from 
Guam. If Pandanus fragrans Gaudich. be considered a valid publication, 
then this name has priority and should be retained. 

FREYCINETIA Gaudichaud 

FREYCINETIA MARIANNENSIS sp. nov. § Oligostigma. 

Species F. maximae simillima et affinis, differt foliis breviori- 
bus angustioribusque, baud vel obscurissime reticulatis, supra 
sensim angustatis, baud abrupte acuminatis, denticulis minori- 
bus, fructibus brevioribus, circiter 1 cm longis. 

Apparently scandent, robust (stems not seen). Upper and 
inner leaves 25 to 35 cm long, 4.5 to 6 cm wide in the lower part, 
gradually narrowed upward to the slenderly acuminate apex, the 
longitudinal nerves distinct, close, the transverse reticulations 
none or obscure, the midrib on the lower surface and the margins 
finely sharply denticulate, the lower 3 to 4 cm of the leaf without 
teeth. Mature leaves not seen, apparently much longer then 
those described. Male inflorescence: Heads 3, cylindric, about 
5 cm long, 1.3 cm in diameter, their peduncles 2 to 3 cm long. 
Female heads, in fruit, in threes, cylindric, 11 cm long, about 4 
cm in diameter, their peduncles stout, 5 cm long,' about 8 mm in 
diameter, smooth. Fruits linear, 1 to 1.2 cm long, less than 2 
mm in diameter, very numerous, crowded, longitudinally sulcate- 
striate, somewhat contracted below the truncate apices, the stig- 
mas 2, rarely 3. 

"Webbia 4 (1913) 14. 



IX, c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 49 

Guam Experiment Station 197, Pago road, January 1912, locally known 
as fianiti; Costenoble 1200, in U. S. National Museum. 

A species very similar to the Philippine Freycinetia maxima Merr., and 
manifestly closely allied to that species. The fully matured leaves, how- 
ever, were not collected, but the upper inner ones differ much in shape 
from those of F. )na.xiina Merr., being gradually narrowed upward to the 
slenderly acuminate apex, not abruptly acuminate, nor are they inflated 
at the base and with broad thin margins in the basal part as in the 
Philippine species. The fruits are somewhat smaller. 

POTAMOGETONACEAE 

DIPLANTHERA Thouars 

DIPLANTHERA UNINERVIS (Forsk.) Aschers. in Engl. & Prantl. Nat. 
Pflanzenfam. Nachtv. 1 (1897) 37; Graebner in Engl. Pflanzenreich 
31 (1907) 152. 
Zostera uninervis Forsk. Fl. Aeg. Arab. (1775) 159. 

Halodule uninervis Aschers. in Boiss. Fl. Orient. 5 (1884) 24; Safford 
290. 

Diplanthera tndentata Steinh. in Ann. Sci. Nat. II 9 (1838), t. 4, /. B. 
McGregor H8. 

In shallow salt water, from the Red Sea and tropical East Africa to 
Polynesia. 

POTAMOGETON Linnaeus 

POTAMOGETON MARIANNENSIS Cham. & Schlecht. in Linnaea 2 (1827) 
228. 

Potamogeton natayis Linn. var. marianyiensis Nolte in K. Schum. & 
Lauterb. Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Siidsee (1901) 162; Graebner in Engl. 
Pflenzenreich 31 (1907) 45; Safford 360. 

G. E. S. 231, Agaiia River, January, 1912. 

Duplicates of this number have been examined by both A. W. Bennett 
and C. H. Ostenfeld, who agree on the identification. The status of the 
species, however, is doubtful. Dr. Ostenfeld writes that it is certainly 
not a variety of natans where it was placed by Nolte and by Grabner and 
expresses the opinion that it probably belongs to the fluitayis group in the 
neighborhood of Potamogeton nodoaus Poir. {P. fluitans subsp. americanus 
C. & S.), and provisionally suggests that its proper place should be as a 
variety of Potamogeton fluitans Roth. 

POTAMOGETON LUCENS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 126, var. 

Potamogeton gaudichaudii Cham. & Schlecht. in Linnaea 2 (1827) 199. 

Potamogeton zizii W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 260, non Koch. 

McGregor h21t, in fresh water, Agaria River, October, 1911, sterile. 

Duplicates of this number have been examined by both A. W. Bennett 
and C. H. Ostenfeld, who agree on the identity of the specimen with 
Potamogeton gaudichaudii Cham. & Schlecht. I have, however, reported 
the species under Potamogeton lucens Linn., following Mr. Bennett" who 

'"Ann. Conserv Jard. Bot. Geneve 9 (1905) 93. 

122968 4 



50 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

has examined the type collection in the Delessert Herbarium at Geneva. 
Dr. Ostenfeld also considers the recently collected specimen to represent 
a small leaved form of P. lucens Linn., and definitely states that it is not 
Potamoget(m malainus Miq. (P. mucronatus Presl, non Schrad.), as Graeb- 
ner suggests. 

RUPPIA Linnaeus 

RUPPIA MARITIMA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 127; Safford 365. 
Growing in brackish water, fide Safford. 
Widely distributed in all warm countries. 

HYDROCHARITACEAE 

EN H ALUS Richard 

ENHALU8 ACOROIDES (L. f.) Rich, ex Chatin Anat. PI. Aquat. (1862) 15, 
t. 6. 
Stratiotes acoroides Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 268. 

McGregor 5U, G. E. S. J^57. 

Widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region in salt water. 

HALOPHILA Thouars 

HALOPHILA OVATA Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 430, t. 40, f. 1. 

Halophila ovalis W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 290, non Hook. 

Collected in Guam by Gaudichaud, and otherwise known only from Luzon. 
Ostenfeld*^ considers it to be specifically distinct from the more widely 
distributed Halophila ovalis Hook. 

GRAMINEAE 

MAYDEAE 
ZEA Linnaeus 
ZEA MAYS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 871; Safford 402. 

G. E. S. 103, commonly cultivated, locally known as mais. 

A native of tropical America, now cultivated in all worm countries. 

CO IX Linnaeus 
COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 972; Safford 245. 
G. E. S. 188, locally known as hilen. 
Tropics of both hemispheres, probably a native of India. 

ANDROPOGONEAE 
DIMERIA R. Brown 

DIMERIA CHLORIDIFORMIS (Gaudich.) K. Schum. & Lauterb. Fl. 
Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Siidsee (1901) 165; Safford 257. 
Andropogon chloridiformis Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 412. 
Haplachne pilosissima Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 235, t. 38. 
Dimeria pilosissima Trin. M6m. Acad. Petersb. VI 2 (1833) 336. 
G. E. S. 139, in meadows. 
A very characteristic species known only from Guam. 

"Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 68. 



IX. c, 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 51 

DIMERIA ORNITHOPODA Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820) 167, t. H. 

G. E. S. 2Jt7, on banks of streams. 

India to Japan southward to Australia; the Guam specimens belonie: to 
the variety tenera (Trin.) Hack. 

MISCANTHUS Andersson 

MISCANTHUS FLORIDULUS (Labill.) Warb. ex K. Schum. & Lauterb. 
Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Sudsee (1901) 106. 

Saccharum floHdulum Labill. Sert. Austr. Galed. (1824) 13, t. 18. 

Miscanthus japonicus Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 107 p. p. 

Xiphagrostis floridida Coville ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 400, pi. 69. 

McGregor 391, G. E. S. 356, locally known as nete or neti. 

Formosa to Australia and Polynesia. 

In the original description of the genus Miscanthvs four of the five 
species are true members of the genus, as generally interpreted. The first 
species g:iven by Andersson happens to be a representative of the genus 
Erianthus, for which reason Coville would refer the genus Miscanthus to 
Erianthus as a synonym, and has proposed the new generic name Xipha- 
grostis for Miscanthus of authors, not of Andersson. If an arbitrary rule 
be adopted by which the first species cited must be adopted as the generic 
type, then Coville is correct, but I prefer to interpret the genus by the 
majority of the species, which in this case is clearly four to one. I have 
accordingly retained Miscanthus in the sense that Andersson manifestly 
intended it. 

SACCHARUM Linnaeus 

SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 54; Safford 366. 

G. E. S, i45, the common sugar cane, locally known as tupo or tupu. 

Cultivated in all tropical countries, probably a native of south-eastern 
Asia. 

POLLINIA Trinius 

POLLINIA GLABRATA (Brongn.) Trin. in Bull. Acad. Petersb. 1 (1836) 
70. 
Eulalia glabrata Brongn. Bot. Duperry Voy. (1829) 93, t. 19. 

Thompson 2U- 

Otherwise known from New Caledonia and the Society Islands. 

ISCHAEMUM Linnaeus 

ISCHAEMUM RUGOSUM Salisb, Ic. (1791) 1, t. 1. 
G. E. S. 213. 
India to Malaya. 

ISCHAEMUM DIGITATUM Brongn. Bot. Duperry Voy. (1829) 70, t. IS, 
var. POLYSTACHYUM (Presl) Hack, in DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 
233. 
Ischaemum polystachyum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 328. 
Andropogon mariannae Steud. Synopsis (1854) 382. 
The type of the variety was collected in Guam by Haenke. The species 
is rather common in the Philippines and extends to the Moluccas and 
New Hannover. 



52 The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

iSCHAEMUM CHORDATUM (Trin.) Hack, ex Warb. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 
13 (1891) 260. 

Spodiopogon chordatus Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. VI 2 (1833) 302. 

The type was from the Marianne or Caroline Islands, and the species is 
known also from New Guinea. 

ISCHAEMUM LONGISETUM sp. nov. § Euischaemum. 

Culmis caespitosis, circiter 50 cm alt., glabris; foliis glabris, 
lanceolatis, usque ad 12 mm latis; racemis binis, 6 ad 10 cm 
longis, crassis, articulis pedicellisque 3-angulatis, dense longe 
I'ulvo-villosis, glumis omnibus laevis, spiculis pedicellatis magnis, 
longe aristatis; spiculis sessilibus 7 mm longis, arista 3 ad 3.5 
cm longa. 

A tufted perennial grass, nearly glabr()us, except the inflor- 
escence, about 50 cm high, the culm simple, terete, 1.5 mm in 
diameter or less, the sheaths rather lax, overlapping, sometimes 
sparingly ciliate-pilose at their apices; ligule truncate, about 1 
mm long; leaf -blades chartaceous, smooth, glabrous, narrowly 
lanceolate, 8 to 12 cm long, 7 to 12 mm wide, sharply acuminate, 
base gradually narrowed, sessile or subsessile, each culm with 3 
or 4 leaves, the upper gradually shorter, the uppermost sheath 
usually leafless. Spikes 2, stout, 6 to 10 cm long, long-exserted, 
the rachis, rachillas, and pedicels of the sessile spikelets densely 
fulvous-villous with long, rather stiff hairs. Joints of the rachis 
and the pedicels of the spikelets distinctly 3-angled, 3 to 4 mm 
long, the angles all ciliate-villous, the hairs 2 to 4 mm long. 
Sessile spikelet lanceolate, about 7 mm long, with a very long 
awn. First glume coriaceous, glabrous, smooth, shining, lan- 
ceolate, about 7 mm long, 2 mm wide, margins in the lower one- 
half prominently inflexed, the upper one-half on the back obscure- 
ly 5- or 6-nerved, here also manifestly laterally 2-winged, or 
keeled, the wings or keels narrow, ciliate-hispid, acuminate, the 
acumen minutely divided. Second and third glumes similar to 
the first in texture, enclosed by it, the second up to 9 mm long, 
long and slenderly acuminate, the third shorter. Fourth glume 
hyaline, its awn 3 to 3.5 cm long, stout, scabrid, twisted, some- 
what geniculate. Pedicellate spikelets with pedicels about as 
long as the joints of the rachis, somewhat thickened upward, 
3-angled, the angles villous; callus stout, villous, nearly 1 mm 
long. First glume coriaceous, glabrous, smooth, shining, oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminate, about 6 mm long, obscurely 5- or 6-nerved 
in the upper part, distinctly laterally keeled. Second and third 
glumes similar to the first in texture, about as long but much 
narrower. Fourth glume hyaline, its awn slender, twisted, 
nearly straight, scabrid, 1.7 to 2 cm long. 



IX.C. 1 Meii-ill: Plants of Guam 53 

R. C. McGregor 502, Cabras Island, October, 1911. 

A species apparently belonging in the same group with Ischaevium 
murimivi Forster, but apparently undescribed. Its rather stout, fulvous- 
villous spikes and its very long awns are characteristic. 

ANDROPOGON Linnaeus 

ANDROPOGON ACICULATUS Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 22; Safford 183. 
McGregor 4S1, Mrs. Clemens 8. n., G. E. S. 212. 
India to China southward to Australia and Polynesia. 

ANDROPOGON CONTORTUS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1045. 
McGregor 41S, hills back of Piti. 
Widely distributed in the warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

ANDROPOGON HALEPENSI8 (Linn.) Brot. Fl. Lusit. 1 (1804) 89, var. 
PROPINQUUS (Kunth) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
336. 
Holcm halepensis Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1047. 
Andropogon propinquus Kunth Enum. 1 (1833) 502. 
McGregor ^91, from cultivated specimens. 
The species in both hemispheres, the variety from Ceylon to the Moluccas. 

ANDROPOGON SORGHUM (Linn.) Brot. Fl. Lusit. 1 (1804) 88. 
Holcus sorghum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1047. 
McGregor 5 IS, from cultivated specimens. 
Cultivated in all warm countries. 

ANDROPOGON CITRATUS DC. Cat. Hort. Monsp. (1813) 78. 

Cymbopogon citratus Stapf in Kew Bull. (1906) 322, 357, cum lamina. 

Andropogon nardxcs Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 183, 
non Linn. 

I have seen no Guam specimens of this gi'ass, but from Saflford's notes 
there is no doubt but that the plant determined as Andropogon nardus is 
A. citratus DC. It is widely cultivated in the Indo-Malayan region. 

PANICEAE 

PASPALUM Linnaeus 

PA8PALUM 8CR0BICU LATUM Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 29; Saflford 347. 
Paspalum kora Willd.; Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 216. 
Paspalum cartilagineum Presl 1. c. 
McGregor 519, Thompson 12. 
Widely distributed in the warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

PASPALUM CONJUGATUM Berg, in Act. Helvet. 7 (1772) 129, t. 8. 

G. E. S. 29Jk. 

A native of tropical America, now widely distributed in both hemispheres. 

(In addition to the above there is also one collection of the American 
Paspalum dilatatum Poir., McGregor 516, from cultivated specimens, re- 
cently introduced) . 



54 The Philippine Journal of Science lai* 

DIGITARIA Heister 

DIGITARIA SANGUINALIS (Linn.) Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 2 1 (1772) 52. 

Panicum sanguinale Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 57. 

G. E. S. 220, apparently the form described by Thwaites as the variety 
australis. 

Warmer parts of both hemispheres, variable. 

DIGITARIA CILIARIS (Retz.) Pers. Syn. 1 (1805) 85. 
Payiicum ciliare Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 16. 

G. E. S. 2U. 

Widely distributed in the warmer parts of both hemispheres, frequently 
considered merely a variety of the preceding. 

DIGITARIA STRICT A Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 409, non Roth 
(1821). 

Paniaim gaudichaudii Kunth. Rev. Gram. (1830) 385, t. 106; Safford 346. 

The type of this was from Guam, and it is not otherwise known. From 
the descriptions available I suspect that it is but a form of some one of 
the closely allied species, D. consanguinea Gaudich., D. mio'obachne Presl, 
etc., and have accordingly refrained from transferring Kunth's specific 
name, the valid one of the species, to Digitaria. 

DIGITARIA MARIANNENSI8 sp. nov. 

Planta parva, prostrata, ramosa, ciliato-pilosa ; foliis anguste 
lanceolatis, 1 ad 2 cm longis, numerosis ; ramis florif eris erectis, 
circiter 5 cm altis; spicis binis, 1.5 ad 2.5 cm longis, rhachibus 
undulatis; spiculis biseriatis, sessilibus, oblongo-lanceolatis, 2.5 
mm longis, glumis 1 et 2 obsoletis, 3 plus minusve pilosis, circiter 
9-nerviis, margine inflexis, dense ciliato-pilosis, 4 (florif eris) 
anguste lanceolatis, glabris, laevis, acuminatis. 

A small, prostrate, branched, rather densely ciliate-pilose plant, 
the stems very slender, rooting at the nodes and sending up 
erect, short, simple, flowering branches about 5 cm in length, 
the creeping stems up to 40 to 50 cm in length, their intemodes 
2.5 cm long or less, glabrous. Sheaths ciliate-pilose, rather loose, 
mostly shorter than the internodes; ligules membranaceous, 
truncate, about 0.5 mm long; leaf -blades narrowly lanceolate, 1 
to 2 cm long, 2.5 to 4 mm wide, acuminate, base somewhat 
narrowed, both surfaces ciliate-pilose with long white hairs. 
Spikes in pairs, somewhat exserted, slightly pubescent, 1.5 to 
2.5 cm long, few-flowered, usually appressed to each other, their 
rachises undulate, 0.5 mm wide. Spikelets 2-seriate, sessile, 
closely appressed to the rachis, alternate in the undulations, 
oblong-lanceolate, 2.5 mm long. First and second glumes en- 
tirely obsolete. Third glume (first and only empty glume for 
this species) oblong-elliptic, somewhat pilose, obtuse or somewhat 
acute, about 2.2 mm long, 1 mm wide, 9- to 10-nerved, the 



IX, CI Mei-rill: Plants of Guam 55 

margins inflexed, thin, enwrapping the flowering glume, promi- 
nently ciliate-pilose. Flowering glume glabrous, smooth, shin- 
ning, narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, about 2.5 mm long, 0.5 mm 
wide, the palea as long as the glume but narrower. Caryopsis 
oblong, 1 to 1.2 mm long. 

R. C. McGregor 372, Cabras Island, October, 1911. 

A most peculiar species on account of the reduction of its empty glumes, 
although manifestly belonging in the genus Digitaria. The first and second 
glumes are entirely obsolete, while the third enwraps the flowering glume 
by its thin margins. Aside from its peculiar floral character, the species 
is well characterized by its slender, pi-ostrate, branched stems, which root 
at the nodes, its ciliate-pilose pubescence, its small leaves, and its very 
short spikes. 

ISACHNE R. Brown 

ISACHNE MILIACEA Roth in Roem. & Schult. Syst. 2 (1817) 476. 

Panicum minutulum Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 410. 

laachne minutula Kunth Rev. Gram. 2 (1829) t. 117; Safford 287. 

McGregor UOh, wet places, hills back of Piti. 

Widely distributed, tropical Asia to Polynesia. The type of Gaudichaud's 
species was from Guam, and McGregor's specimen manifestly represents the 
same form. I can see no valid reason for considering it distinct from 
laachne miliacea Roth, which is the older name. 

PANICUM Linnaeus 

PANICUM AMBIGUUM Trin. Mem. Acad. Petersb. VI 3= (1835) 243. 
McGregor i88, G. E. S. 206. 
India to the Liu Kiu Islands southward to Malaya and Polynesia. 

PANICUM COLONUM Linn. Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 870. 

Echbwchloa coloia Link Hort. Berol. 2 (1833) 209; Safford 265. 
Thompson 13, McGregor 520, G. E. S. Ilt6, 322, local name chaguan agaga. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

PANICUM DISTACHYUM Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 183; Safford 345. 
G. E. S. 263. 
India to Malaya and Polynesia. 

PANICUM ISACHNE Roth Nov. PI. Sp. (1821) 54. 

G. E. S. 126, in meadows. 

Mediterranean region to India. I am at loss to account for this species 
in Guam unless it be an accidentally introduced plant. It is quite the same 
as our Indian material representing Roth's species. 

PANICUM LU20NIENSE Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1830) 308 ? 

G. E. S. 162. 

The specimen is larger than the Luzon form, nearly erect, unbranched, 
and with slightly larger spikelets. It seems to be a luxuriant form of 
P. luzonienae Presl. 

Malay Peninsula and the Philippines. 

(In addition to the species above considered, there are in the collections 



56 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

two recently introduced and cultivated species, Panicum maximum Jacq., 
common Guinea grass, McGregor U90, and Panicum molle Sw., McGregor 

OPLISMENUS Beauvois 

OPLISMENUS COMPOSITUS (Linn.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 54. 
Panicum compoaitum Linn. Sp. PI. (1763) 57. 
Tiwmpson H, Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. 198. 
Tropics of both hemispheres. 

SETARIA Beauvois 

SETARIA FLAVA (Nees) Kunth Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 46. 

Panicxim flavum Nees ex Trin. Gram. Panic. (1826) 162. 

Setaria glauca var. aurea (Hochst.) K. Sch. in K. Sch. & Laut. FL 
Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Siidsee (1901) 223. 

Chaetochloa glauca var. aurea W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 223. 

McGregor 383, G. E. S. 15,61. 

Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

CENCHRU8 Linnaeus 
CENCHRUS ECHINATUS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1060. 
McGregor U70. 
A native of tropical America, now naturalized in other tropical regions. 

STENOTAPHRUM Trinius 

STENOTAPHRUM SUBU LATUM Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. VI. Sci. 
Nat. 3 (1835) 190; Steudel Syn. (1864) 118; Safford 377. 

This species was described from Guam material, but I have seen no 
specimens that agree with the descriptions available. For a time I con- 
sidered it probable that Trinius' species was the same as Monertrva repens 
Beauv., but this is apparently not the case, although the grass enumerated 
by Safford, judging by the native name cited, probably is Monerma and not 
Stenotaphrum. 

Mascarene Islands to New Caledonia and the islands off the northeast 
coast of Australia. 

ORYZEAE 

ORYZA Linnaeus 
ORYZA SATIVA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 333; Saflford 339. 

G. E. S. 2h8 (long awned variety), 27 U (short awned variety), 271 (awn- 
less variety), known respectively as jae malaquid, fae guam, and fae 
papin angle. 

Cultivated in the warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

AGROSTIDEAE 
SPOROBOLUS R. Brown 
SPOROBOLUS INDICU8 (Linn.) R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 170. 
Agrostis indica Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 63. 
Thompson 7, Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. 87. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 



ix.c. 1 Meit'Ul: Plants of Guam 57 

SPOROBOLUS VIRGINICUS (Linn.) Kunth. Rev. Gram. 1 (1829) 67. 
Agrostis virginica Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 63. 
G. E. S. 117, locally known as jatopa. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres especially near the sea. 

CHLORIDEAE 

CYNODON Persoon 

CYNODON DACTYLON (Linn.) Pers. Syn. 1 (1804) 85. 
Payiicum dactylon Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 58. 

Capriola dactylon O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 764; Safford 212. 
G. E. S. 237, locally known as grama. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

DACTYLOCTENIUM Willdenow 

DACTYLOCTENIUM AEGYPTIACUM (Linn.) Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 

(1809) 1029; Safford 255. 
Cynorosus aegyptius Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 72. 
Thompson U, McGregor AS5, G. E. S. 161. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

ELEUSINE Gaertner ^ 

ELEUSINE INDICA (Linn.) Gaertn. Fruct. 1 (1788) 8; Safford 268. 
Cynosurus indicus Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 72. 
Thompson 8, G. E. S. 23, 284. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

FESTUCEAE 

PHRAGMITES Trinius 

PHRAGMITES KARKA (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. Nomen. 2 (1840) 324. 

Arundo karka Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 21. 

Trichoon roxburghii W. F. Wight ex Saflford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
9 (1905) 390. 

McGregor 473. 

Tropical Africa and Asia to Malaya and Australia. 

ERAGROSTIS Host 

ERAGR0STI8 TEN ELLA (Linn.) Roem. & Schult. Syst. 2 (1817) 576. 
Poa tenella Linn. Sp PI. (1753) 69. 
Eragrostis plumosa Link Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 192. 
McGregor 373, 434, Tlwmpson 10, Mrs. Clemens s. 7i. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

ERAGROSTIS PILOSA (Linn.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 71; Safford 286. 

Poa pilosa Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 68. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford; widely distributed in the warmer 
parts of both hemispheres. 



58 The Philippine Jotimal of Science i9i* 

CENTOTHECA Desvaux 

CENTOTHECA LATI FOLIA (Linn.) Trin. Fund. Agrost. (1820) 141. 

Holais latifolius Linn. Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1305. 

Centotheca lappacea Desv. in Nuov. Bull. Soc. Philom. 2 (1810) 189; 
SaflFord 222. 

McGregor 357, Thompson 22, G. E. S. 89, IS If. 

Tropical Asia and Africa through Malaya to Australia and Polynesia. 

HORDEAE 
MONERMA Beauvois 
MONERMA REPENS (Forst.) Beauv. Agrost. (1812) 117. 
Rottboellia repen8 Forst. Prodr. (1797) 9. 

McGregor 527, G. E. S. 120, along the seashore, local name las-dga. 
Along the seashore, Ceylon to Australia and Polynesia. 

BAMBUSEAE 

BAMBUSA Schreber 

BAMBUSA BLUMEANA Schultes f. Syst. Veg. 7' (1830) 1343. 
Bambos blumeana Safford 194. 
McGregor 5U2, locally known as pio titoca. 
Of wide distribution in Malaya, mostly cultivated. 

BAMBUSA GLAUCESCEN8 (Willd.) Sieb. ex Munro in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
26 (1868) 89, in syn. 

Ludolphia glaucescens Willd. in Ges. Naturf. Fr. Berl. Mag. 2 (1801) 441. 

Bambtisa nana Roxb. Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 199. 

McGregor 5^3, in flower. 

An introduced species, a native of China; now cultivated in many 
tropical countries. 

BAMBUSA VULGARIS Schrad. in Wendl. Collect. PI. 2 (1810) 26, t. U7. 

McGregor 5^1, sterile, G. E. S. 37 U, in flower, locally known as pio 
palaoan. 

Tropics of both hemispheres. 

This is unquestionably the species that Safford enumerates (p. 195) 
without specific name, as he cites the same native name that Mr. Thomp- 
son has recorded for the flowering specimen. At the same time it is also 
undoubtedly the species that Gaudichaud mentioned, as growing in Guam, 
under the name of Bambusa antndinaria Willd. My identification of the 
specimen has been verified by Mr. Gamble. 

CYPERACEAE 

CAR EX Linnaeus 

CAR EX FUIRENOIDES Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 412; Safford 
215. 

Carex densiflora Presl Rel. Haenk. 2 (1828) 214; Safford 214. 

G. E. S. 279, February, 1912, in flower. 

The species is known only from Guam, with a variety in the Philippines. 
The types of both Carex fuirenoides Gaudich. and C. densiflora Presl were 



ix.c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 59 

from Guam, and the latter has been reduced to Gaudichaud's species by 
Kxikenthal. Presl's description applies very closely to the specimen cited 
above, so that I consider that there is no doubt but that Carex denaiflora 
is an exact synonym of C. fuirenoides Gaudich, as the specimen cited above 
has been determined by Kiikenthal. 

CYPERU8 Linnaeus 

CYPERUS COMPRESSUS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 46. 
McGregor S81, Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. 38. 
Tropics of the world. 

CYPERUS DIFFORMIS Linn. Cent. PI. 2 (1756)* 6; Safford 254. 
G. E. S. Jf5, 2S6. 
All tropical countries. 

CYPERUS FLABELLIFORMIS Rottb. Descr. Nov. PI. (1773) 42. 
G. E. S. 210, probably from cultivated specimens. 
A native of Africa, now cultivated in most warm countries. 

CYPERUS ROTUNDUS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 45; SaflFord 254. 
McGregor Uh^, 529, along roadsides. 
Throughout the tropics. 

CLADIUM P. Browne 

CLADIUM GAUDICHAUDII W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 9 (1905) 230. 

Baumea mariacoides Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 417. 

Cladium mariscoides F.-Vill. Novis. App. Fl. Filip. (1882) 309, non Torr. 

G. E. S. 258, from high land at Asan, January, 1912. 

A species known only from Guam; allied to the Hawaiian Cladmni 
meyenii (Kunth) Benth. & Hook. f. 

Dr. Stapf of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, England writes me 
that he has come to the conclusion that Cladium is better treated as re- 
stricted to the American Cladiutn jamaicense and its immediate allies, and 
that Baumea and Vincentia deserve generic rank, in which case this species 
should be known as Baumea mariacoides Gaudich. 

CLADIUM AROMATICUM sp. nov. § Eucladium. 

Caespitosum, tenerum, circiter 60 cm altum; foliis angustis, 
usque ad 40 cm longis, numerosis, in siccitate teretibus, glabris, 
laevis; paniculis laxis, 10 ad 25 cm longis, ramis primariis 
paucis, distantibus, adscendentibus ; spiculis oblongo-lanceolatis, 
brunneis, rectis, 5 mm longis, floribus | 1 vel 2; nuculis sub- 
globosis, erostratis, sessilibus, 

A densely tufted, glabrous, slender plant about 60 cm high, 
the stems about 1 mm in diameter, the roots, when fresh, rather 
strongly aromatic, the root-stock rather stout, the basal sheaths 
somewhat inflated, rather broad, reddish-brown. Leaves mostly 
basal, numerous, slender, apparently flat when fresh, involute 
and terete when dry, 30 to 40 cm long, less than 1 mm in 



QQ The Philippine Journal of Science i»i4 

diameter, glabrous, smooth, those of the stem similar to the 
basal ones, usually 2 or 3, the uppermost passing into bracts. 
Panicles rather narrow, 10 to 25 cm long, the primary branches 
few, distant, 6 cm long or less, ascending. Spikelets oblong- 
lanceolate, compressed, brown, 5 mm long, in pairs from sheath- 
ing bracts, their pedicels 2 to 5 mm long, the bracts 3 to 5 mm 
long or longer, long-acuminate. Empty glumes 2, subsimilar, 
lanceolate, acuminate, about 3 mm long, the second one some- 
what keeled and wider at the base than the first. Third and 
usually the fourth glume each with a perfect flower, the glumes 
about 3.5 mm long, 2 mm wide at the base, acuminate, fifth and 
sixth glumes about 3 mm long, each, or only the fifth, with a 
male flower. Ovary small, ovoid; style 1 to 2 mm long, the 
arms 3, slender, 3 mm long. Stamens 3 ; filaments 2.5 mm long ; 
anthers linear-oblong, 2.5 mm long, apiculate. Young nutlet 
globose, sessile, apex rounded, not at all beaked, about 1 mm 
in diameter, somewhat verruculose. 

R. C. McGregor U92, hills southeast of Piti, altitude about 300 meters. 

A species manifestly allied to the Philippine Cladium filiforme Merr., but 
larger, with larger panicles, quite glabrous leaves which are not scabrid, 
and straight, not at all falcate spikelets. 

DIPLACRUM R. Brown 

DIPLACRUM CARICINUM R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 241. 
G. E. S. 2^5, on banks of streams. 
India to China southward to Australia. 

ELEOCHARIS R. Brown 

ELEOCHARIS CAPITATA (Linn.) R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 225; Safford 267. 

Scirpus capitatus Linn. Sp. PI. (1758) 48. 

McGi-egor 393, G. E. S. 7h, 102, in meadows. 

Widely distributed in the warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

The specimens greatly resemble certain specimens in the Herbarium of 
the Bureau of Science determined as Eleocharis atropurpurea, but in essen- 
tial characters agree with the descriptions of E. capitata. There is very 
little doubt but that it is the same species that was reported from Guam 
by Presl " as Eleocharis atropurpurea. 

ELEOCHARIS PLANTAGINOIDEA (Rottb.) W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 268. 
Scirpits plantaginoides Rottb. Descr. & Ic. PI. (1773) 45, t. 15, f. 2. 
Eleocharis plantaginea R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 224. 
McGregor i69, in marshes. 
Widely distributed in the tropics of the Old World. 

" Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 196. 



IX, c. 1 Meii'ill: Plants of Guam gl 

FIMBRISTYLIS Vahl 

FIMBRISTYLIS DIPHYLLA (Retz.) Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 289; Safford 
176. 

Scirpus dipltyllus Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 15. 

Fimbi-istylis affinis Pre.sl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 191 (type from Guam). 
Fi7nbristylis inariayina Gaudich. in Freyc. Voy. Bot. (1826) 413 (type 
from Guam.) 

G. E. S. 233, 2i6, McGregor 518, Thompson 6. Here I also refer Thomp- 
son 5, a form with a congested, subglobose inflorescence. 
Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

FIMBRISTYLIS COMPLANATA (Retz.) Link Hort. Berol. 1 (1827) 292; 
Safford 276. 

Scirpus co7nplatiatus Retz. Obs. 5 (1879) 14. 

G. E. S. 2hl, McGregor 4il, 537, all forms with congested, subglobose 
inflorescences, hut the structure of the spikelets as in typical Fimhristyli* 
complanata. 

Warmer part.s of both hemispheres. 

FIMBRISTYLIS GLOBULOSA (Retz.) Kunth Enum. PI. 2 (1837) 231; 
Safford 277. 

Scirpus globidosus Retz. Obs. 6 (1791) 19. 

Fiynbristylis torresiana Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 413 (type 
from Guam). 

Fiynbristylis globulosa Kunth var. torresiana C. B. Clarke in Hook. f. 
Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 645. 

I have .seen no Guam specimens of this species; India to Malaya and 
Polynesia. 

FIMBRISTYLIS MAXIMA K. Schum. Fl. Kais. Wilh. Land (1889) 24. 

McGregor ^94, hills southeast of Piti, altitude about 300 meters. 

A species known only from Yap, Caroline Islands, and New Guinea. 
The Guam specimen very closely matches Volken's Yap plant, but other- 
wise looks like a form of Fimbristylis schoenoides Vahl with ample inflo- 
rescences. 

FIMBRISTYLIS MILIACEA (Linn.) Vahl Enum. PI. 2 (1806) 287; Saf- 
ford 277. 
Scirpus miliaceus Linn., Syst, ed. 10 (1759) 868. 
Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 418. 
McGregor 517, G. E. S. 12, Thompson 11, in meadows. 
Widely distributed in the warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

FIMBRISTYLIS SPATHACEA Roth Nov. PI. Sp. (1821) 24; Safford 277. 

Fimbristylis glomerata Nees in Linnaea 9 (1834) 290. 

McGregor 37h, G. E. S. 187. 

Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. 



02 The Philippine Journal of Science isu 

FIMBRISTYLIS PUBERULA (Michx.) Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 289; Safford 
277. 
Scirpus puberultis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 1 (1803) 31. 
Collected in Guam by Gaudichaud, but I suspect that the identification 
may be wrong, although the species is credited to the warmer parts of 
both hemispheres. 

FUIRENA Rottboell 

FUIRENA UMBELLATA Rottb. Descr. & Ic. PI. (1773) 70, t. 19, /. S ; 
Safford 278. 
McGregor 399, October, 1911, hills southeast of Piti. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

KYLLINGA Rottboell 

KYLLINGA BREVI FOLIA Rottb. Descr. & Ic. PI. (1773) 13, t. U, /• J. 

McGregor 399, G. E. S. 232. 
Tropics of both hemispheres. 

KYLLINGA MONOCEPHALA Rottb. 1. c. t. i, f. 4; Saflford 303. 

McGregor 440, Mrs. Clemens s. n., Thompson 1, local name chaguan 
lemae. 

Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

MARISCUS Gaertner 

MARI8CUS STUPPEUS (Forst. f.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) 
Bot. 398. 
Cyperus stuppeus Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 89. 
Mariscus albescens Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 415. 
Cyperus pennatus Lam. 111. 1 (1791) 144; Safford 254. 
Mrs. Clemens s. n., McGregor 418, along the seashore. 
Tropical shores from India to Polynesia. 

MARISCUS CYPERINUS (Retz.) Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 377. 
Kyllinga cyperina Retz. Obs. 6 (1891) 21. . 
McGregor 418, near Agaiia. 
Tropical Asia to Polynesia. 

RYNCHOSPORA Vahl 

RYNCHOSPORA CORYMBOSA (Linn.) Britton ip Trans. N. Y. Acad. 
Sci. 11 (1892) 84; Safford 366. 
Scirpits corymbosus Linn. Cent. PI. 2 (1756) 7. 
Rynchospora aurea Vahl Enum. 2 (1806) 229. 
McGregor 461, in open wet places. 
Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

RYNCHOSPORA RUBRA (Lour.) Makino in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 17 (1903) 
180. 
Schoenus ruber Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 52. 
Rynchospora wallichiana Kunth Enum. 2 (1837) 289. 

McGregor 412. 

Tropical Africa and Asia to Japan south to Australia and Polynesia. 



IX. CI Menill: Plants of Guam g3 

SCIRPUS Linnaeus 
8CIRPUS ERECTUS Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 6 (1804) 671. 
G. E. S. 215, along banks of streams. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

8CLERIA Bergius 
SCLERIA LAXA R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 240. 

McGregor >,9S, G. E. S. 173. 

The determination has been made from the description only, and I am 
not satisfied that it is correct. Australia. 

SCLERIA MARGARITIFERA Willd. Sp. PI. 4 (1805) 312. 

McGi-egor 540. 

Apparently quite the same as Volken's Yap specimen, so named. Aus- 
tralia and Polynesia. 

TORULINIUM Desvaux 

TORULINIUM FERAX (Rich.) Ham. Prodr. PI. Ind. Occ. (1825) 15. 
Cyperus jerax Rich, in Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1 (1792) 106. 
G. E. S. 305. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

PALMAE 
ARECA Linnaeus 
ARECA CATHECU Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1189; Safford 187, pi S5. 
G. E. S. 18i, SSJt, locally known as pugua. 

Of prehistoric introduction in Guam; widely distributed in the Indo- 
Malayan region, cultivated in other tropical countries. 

ARENGA Labillardi^re 
ARENGA GAMUTO (Houtt.) comb. nov. 

Saguertcs ganmto Houtt. Handl. 1 (1773) 410, t. k, /. 2. 

Saguerus pinnatus Wurmb. in Verh. Batav. Genoot. 1 (1779) 351; 
Safford 268. 

Arenga saccharifera Labill. Mem. Inst. Paris. 4 (1801) 209. 

Occasionally cultivated, introduced from the Philippines fid^ Safford. 

Widely distributed in the Malayan region. 

COCOS Linnaeus 
COCOS NUCIFERA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1188; Safford 233, pi. S3, Sk. 
McGregor 570, G. E. S. 373, locally known as niyog. 

All tropical countries of prehistoric introduction in Guam ; probably of 
American origin. 

COELOCOCCUS H. Wendland 

COELOCOCCUS AMICARUM (Wendl.) W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 244, pi. 45, 46. 

Sagus amicarum Wendl. in Bot. Zeit. 36 (1878) 115. 

Coelococctis carolinensis Dingl. in Bot. Centralbl. 32 (1887) 349. 

G. E. S. 257. 

Occasionally planted, recently introduced fide Safford. A native of the 
Caroline Islands. 



64 The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

HETEROSPATHE ScheflFer 

HETEROSPATHE ELATA Scheflfer in Ann. Jard. Buitenz. 1 (1876) 162. 

G. E. S. 129, SJto, locally known as palma braha. 

The material is fraginentary, and Doctor Beccai-i, who has examined 
all the Guam material, has referred it to the genus only. It seems to 
me to represent the same species as the common form, which is frequently 
found in cultivation in the Philippines, Heterospathe data Scheff. The 
species undoubtedly has been introduced into Guam from the Philippines. 
Moluccas and the Philippines. 

NIPA (Nypa.) Wurmb. 

NIPA FRUCTICANS Wurmb in Verb. Batav. Genoot. 1 (1779) 350; Saf- 
ford 335. 

G. E. S. 180, locally known as nipa. 

Introduced from the Philippines, fide Safford; widely distributed along: 
tidal streams in the Indo-Malayan region. 

In addition to the palms enumerated above, the following species are 
cultivated, all recently introduced; Dlctyosperma alba Wendl. & Drude 
{G. E. S. 92, A21), Latania loddigesii Mart . ? (G. E. S. 272, iOl), Sabal 
adansonii Guerns. {G. E. S. 107, SAA), Phoenix sylvestris (Linn.) Roxb., 
and Phoenix dactylifera Linn. (Safford p. 350). 

The palm flora of Guam is represented only by purposely introduced 
species. The coconut and the betle nut palms are of prehistoric introduc- 
tion, but all the otheis have been introduced within historic times. 

ARACEAE 

ALOCASIA Necker 

ALOCASIA MACRORRHIZA (Linn.) Schott in Schott & Endl. Melet. 
(1832) 18; Safford 179. 

Arum macrorrhizum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 965. 

G. E. S. 100, locally known as papao apaca; Costenohle 1198, locally 
known as papao atulong. 

A species of wide distribution in the Indo-Malayan region, frequently 
confused with Alocasia indica Schott, which Safford also reports from 
Guam. I am at the present time of the opinion that Alocasia indica 
Schott is really not specifically distinct from the older Alocasia macrorrhiza 
Schott, although kept separate in Engler's monograph and by other authors. 

COLOCASIA Schott 

COLOCASiA ESCULENTA (Linn.) Schott in Schott & Endl. Melet. (1832) 
18. 
Arum esculentum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 965. 
Colocasia antiquorum Schott 1. c. 

Caladium calocasia W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 206. 
G. E. S. 55, cultivated by the natives, locally known as sune. 
Cultivated in all tropical countries, where native uncertain. 



ix.c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 65 

CYRTOSPERMA Griffith 

CYRTOSPERMA CHAMI8S0NIS (Schott) comb. nov. 

Arisacontia chamissonis Schott in Bonplandia 5 (1867) 129. 

Cyrtosperma edule Schott in Bonplandia 9 (1861) 267; En^l. Pflanzen- 
reich 48 (1911) 17. 

G. E. S. 66, in wet places, Agana, locally known as baba. 

New Guinea to the Caroline and Marianne Islands southward and east- 
ward to Fiji, in cultivation. 

The Marianne Islands specimen collected by Gaudichaud and cited by 
Engler was probably from Guam; Safford records the species under its 
native name, baba, thinking it probably a species of Alocasia. 

As to its proper specific name, if, as Engler intimates, the use of 
Apereoa esculenta Moerenhout (1837) does not constitute a valid publica- 
tion, then there is no reason why the specific name chamissonis should not 
be adopted. 

CALADIUM Ventanat 

CLADIUM BICOLOR Vent. Jard. Gels. (1800) t. SO. 

Coatenoble 1182, locally known as corazon de Santa Maria; cultivated. 
A native of tropical America, now cultivated in most tropical countries. 

TYPHONIUM Schott 

TYPHONIUM CU8PIDATUM (Bl.) Decne. Herb. Timor. (1835) 39. 

Arum ciispidatum Blume Cat. Gew. Buitenz. (1823) 101. 

Coatenoble 118S, from behind the Government House, Agana, locally 
known as pantaki. 

India to the Philippines and Malaya, probably introduced into Guam 
from Manila. 

FLAGELLARIACEAE 

FLAGELLARIA Linnaeus 

FLAGELLARIA INDICA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 333. 

G. E. S. 8, local name bejuco halom-tana. 
Tropical Asia to Malaya. 

BROMELIACEAE 

ANANAS Adanson 

ANANAS 8ATIVU8 Schult. Syst. 7' (1830) 1283. 

Bromelia ananas Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 285. 

Ananas ananas Karst Deutsch. Fl. (1880-83) 446; Safford 183. 

Cultivated, fide Safford; a native of tropical America, now cultivated 
in all tropical countries. 

122968 5 



QQ The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

COMMELINACEAE 

ANEILEMA R. Brown 

ANEILEMA MALABARICUM (Linn.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) 
Bot. 232. 
Tradescantia inalaharica Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1763) 412. 
Aneilema nudiflorum R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 271. 
G. E. S. 167, 217, in waste places. 
India to the Liu Kiu Islands southward to Malaya. 

COM M ELI N A Linnaeus 
COMMELINA NUDIFLORA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 41; Saflford 247. 
G. E. S. 115, in waste places. 
In all tropical countries, where native uncertain. 

COMMELINA BENGHALENSIS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 41; Saflford 246. 
Common in grass lands, fide Safford. 
Widely distributed in the tropics of the Old World. 

CYANOTIS D. Don 

CYANOTIS AXILLARIS (Linn.) D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 46; 
R. & S. Syst. Veg. 7 (1829) 1154. 
Commelina axillaris Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 42. 
McGregor 55^. 
India to China southward to tropical Australia. 

CYANOTIS CRISTATA (Linn.) D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 46. 

Comvielina cristata Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 42. 

Zygomenes cristata W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 404. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford's enumeration; of very wide dis- 
tribution in the tropics. 

ZEBRINA Schnizlein 

ZEBRINA PENDULA Schnizl. in Bot. Zeit. 7 (1849) 870. 

McGregor 571. 

A native of tropical America, probably of recent introduction. 

LILIACEAE 

ALLIUM Linnaeus 
ALLIUM CEPA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 300; Safford 179. 
The onion is frequently planted in Guam, fide Safford. 

ALLIUM SATIVUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 296; Safford 179. 
Garlic is commonly cultivated, fide Safford. 

Dl AN ELLA Lamarck 

DIANELLA ENSIFOLIA (Linn.) DC. in Red. Lil. (1802) t. 1; Safford 
256. 
Dracaena enaifolia Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 63. 
McGregor 52S, hills back of Piti, 
India to Malaya and Polynesia. 



IX.C, 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam g7 

CORDYLINE Royen 

CORDYLINE TERMINALIS (Linn.) Kunth Abh. Acad. Berl. (1820) 20. 

Asparagus terminalis Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1762) 450. 

Taetsia terminalw W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat Herb. 
9 (1905) 382. 

McGregor 385. 

Cultivated in all tropical countries, probably a native of Malaya or 
Polynesia. 

SANSEVIERIA Thunberg 

SAN8EVIERIA ZEYLANICA (Linn.) Willd. Sp. PI. 2 (1799) 159. 

Aloe hyacinthoides var. zeylanica Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 321. 

Cordyline hyacinthoides W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 9 (1905) 249. 

Cultivated for ornamental purposes, fide Safford. 

Probably a native of Africa, now cultivated in all tropical countries. 

(The common asparagus (Asparagus officinalis Linn.) is represented 
in the collections by a single specimen, G. E. S. 116, from recently intro- 
duced and cultivated plants.) 

AMARYLLIDACEAE 
AGAVE Linnaeus 
AGAVE VIVIPARA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 323; Safford 176. 
McGregor 576 (leaf only), G. E. S. k7S (bulbils only). 
I have follow^ed W. F. Wight in the determination of the Guam plant 
as Agave vivipara Linn., but at the same time it appears also, from my 
fragmentary material, to be quite the same as Agave cantata Roxb. In- 
troduced from Mexico. 

CRINUM Linnaeus 

CRINUM ASIATICUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 292; Safford 251. 

McGregor 637, along the seashore. 

An indigenous species of very -wide distribution in the Indo-Malayan 
region. 

CURCULIGO Gaertner 

CURCULIGO ORCHOIDES Gaertn. Fruct. 1 (1788) 63, t. IS. 

McGregor ^38, hills back of Piti. 

India to Malaya. 

I suspect that this is the species reported by Safford (pag:e 295), as 
Hypoxis aurea Lour. 

HYMENOCALLIS Salisbury 

HYMEN0CALLI8 LITTORALIS (Jacq.) Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. 1 
(1812) 338. 
Pancratium littorale Jacq. Select. Stirp. Amer. (1763) 99; Safford 342. 
McGregor 632. Introduced from Mexico. 

P0LIANTHE8 Linnaeus 

POLIANTHES TUBER08U8 Linn. Sp. PI. (1758) 316; Safford 858. 
A native of tropical America, cultivated in Guam fide Safford. 



6g The Philippine Journal of Science i»u 

2EPHYRANTHE8 Herbert 

ZEPHYRANTHE8 ROSEA Lindl. Bot. Reg. 10 (1824) t. 821. 
Atamoeco rosea Greene in Pittonia 3 (1897) 188; Safford 192. 
A native of tropical America, cultivated in Guam, fide Safford. 

TACCACEAE 

TACCA Forster 

TACCA PINNATIFIDA Forst. Char. Gen. (1776) 70, t. SS; Saflford 880. 
McGregor 51Jf. 
Eastern Africa to ]?olynesia, especially near the sea. 

DIOSCOREACEAE 

DiOSCOREA Linnaeus 

DI08C0REA ALATA Linn. Sp. PI. (1763) 1083; Safford 259, pi JtS. 

G. E. S. 5, 82, local names dago, dago apaca. The identifications of both 
specimens cited have been made by Mr. Burkill. 

Widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region in cultivation. 

DIOSCOREA ACULEATA Linn, in Stickm. Herb. Amb. (1754) 23 (non 
Sp. PI. (1753) 1033 ?); Safford 259, var. TILIAEFOLIA (Ktinth) 
Prain & Burk. in Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1913) 1594. 

Diosccrea fasciculata Roxb. Fl. Ind. 3 (1832) 801; Safford 260. 

Dioacorea fasciculata var. lutescens F.-Vill.; Safford 1. c. 

Dioscorea spinosa Safford 262, pi U9, non Roxb. 

McGregor 293. 

Widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region, the tubers some times 
with a crown of spiny underground stems (wild forms), or without such 
stems (cultivated forms). 

DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1033. 
Dioscorea saliva Linn. 1. c; Safford 1033. 

McGregor 396. 

Widely distributed in warm countries, cultivated and wild. 

Safford includes also Dioscorea glabra Roxb., and D. papuana K. Schum., 
as growing in Guam, but the former is more probably a misidentification 
for Dioscorea bulbifera Linn., and the latter a misidentification for D. acu- 
leata Linn. 

MUSACEAE 

MUSA Linnaeus 

MUSA PARADISIACA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1043; Safford 328. 

Of prehistoric introduction, as indicated by Safford. 

Cultivated in all tropical countries, where native uncertain, but probably 
tropical Asia. 

MUSA TEXTILIS Nee in Anal. Cienc. Nat 4 (1801) 123; Safford 330. 

Introduced from the Philippines, and of very local occurrence, fide 
Safford. 



IX. c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 69 

ZINGIBERACEAE 

ZINGIBER Adanson 

ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rose, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 8 (1807) 348. 

Zingiber zingiber Karst. Fl. Deutsch. 1 (1905) 488; Safford 403. 

Amomum zingiber Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford; a native of tropical Asia, now 
cultivated in all hot countries. 

ZINGIBER ZERUMBET (Linn.) Rose, in Smith Exot. Bot. 2 (1805) 105, 
t. 112; Safford 403. 
Amomum zerumbet Linn. 

McGregor S61. 

A native of tropical Asia, now widely distributed in Malaya and Poly- 
nesia. 

CURCUMA Linnaeus 

CURCUMA LONGA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 2; Safford 252. 

G. E. S. H5, with the local name mango halomtano, which, according to 
Safford, properly belongs to Canna indica. 

A native of tropical Asia, now widely distributed as a cultivated plant, 
frequently naturalized. 

CANNACEAE 

CANNA Linnaeus 

CANNA INDICA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1; Safford 212. 

McGregor 528, along roadsides. 

In all tropical countries, unquestionably a native of tropical America. 

CANNA FLACCIDA Salisb. X IRIDIFLORA Ruiz. & Pav. 

McGregor 358, U80, from cultivated specimens. 

Indentical with the form commonly cultivated in the Philippines known 
as bandera espanola; undoubtedly a hybrid between the indicated species. 

MARANTACEAE 

MARANTA Linnaeus 

MARANTA ARUNDINACEA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 2; Safford 818. 

G. E. S. S, locally known as aroru or sagu. 

A native of tropical America, now widely distributed in cultivation. 

DON AX Loureiro 

DONAX CANNAEFORMIS (Forst. f.) Rolfe in Journ. Bot. 45 (1907) 243. 

Thalia cannaeformia Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 1. 

Actoplanea cannaeformia K. Schum. in Engl. Pflanrenreich 11 (1902) 34. 
G. E. S. 90, Costenoble 1152, locally known as sanban. 
Philippines to Java and New Guinea. 



70 The Philippine Journal of Science 3»u 

ORCHIDACEAE 

BULBOPHYLLUM Thouars 

BULBOPHYLLUM GUAMENSE Ames supra 13. 
McGregor U95, Coatenoble 116^. 
Endemic. 

BULBOPHYLLUM PROFUSUM Ames in Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 
128, 137. 
McGregor 565. 
Otherwise known only from the Philippines. 

CALANTHE R. Brown 

CALANTHE TRIPLICATA (Willem.) Ames in Philip, Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) 
Bot. 326. 
Orchis triplicata Willem. in Usteri Ann. Bot. 18, (1796) 62. 
McGregor 575, Coatenoble 1164. 
Widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region. • 

LI PARIS Richard 

LIPARIS GUAMENSIS Ames supra 11. 
McGregor 6SS. 
Endemic. 

EULOPHIA R. Brown 

EULOPHIA MACGREGORII Ames supra 12. 
McGregor 631. 
Endemic. 

EULOPHIA GUAMENSIS Ames supra 12. 
McGregor 376. 
Endemic. 

LUiSIA Gaudichaud 

LUISIA TERETI FOLIA Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 427, t. S7 ; 
Safford 311. 
McGregor 311. 
Widely distributed in Malaya and Polynesia, type from Guam. 

NERVILIA Comraerson 

NERVILIA ARAGOANA Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 422, t. SS; 
Safford 331. 

Type from Guam, collected by Gaudic}iaud. 
Malaya to Samoa. 

PHREATIA Lindley 

PHREATIA THOMPSOnI Ames supra 15. 
G. E. S. 321, Costenohlb ii7i. 
Endemic. 



ix,c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 7J 

COELOGYNE Lindley 

COELOGYNE GUAMENSIS Ames supra 11. 
G. E. S. 195. 
Endemic. 

SACCOLABIUM Blume 

SACCOLABIUM GUAMENSE Ames supra 15. 
G. E. S. 20S. 
Endemic. 

DENDROBIUM Swartz 

DENDROBIUM SCOPA Lindl. Bot. Reg. (1842) Misc. 56; Ames supra 
13. 
G. E. S. S07. 
Otherwise known only from the Philippines. 

DENDROBIUM GUAMENSE Ames supra 14. 
G. E. S. Jf50. 
Endemic. 

TAENIOPHYLLUM Blume 

TAENIOPHYLLUM sp. aff. T. obtusum Bl. ?; Ames supra 16. 

Costenoble 1175. 

Perhaps this is the same species as that credited to Guam by Gaudichaud 
as Vanilla fasciola (Forst. f.) Ga.udich. = Taeniophyllum fasciola (Forst. f. 
Redchb. f. in Seem. Fl. Vit. (1868) 296 (Epidendrum fasciola Forst. f. 
Prodr. (1786) 60); Safford 381. 

CASUARINACEAE 

CASUARINA Linnaeus 

CASUARINA EQUiSETIFOLIA Linn. Amoen. Acad, 4 (1759) 143 {equise- 
folia) ; Safford 220. 

McGregor 5S8, G. E. S. 431, locally known as gago. 

A species of wide distribution in Malaya and Polynesia, now cultivated 
in many other tropical countries. 

W. F. Wight credits the combination Casuarina equisetifolia to Stickman 
rather than to Linnaeus, and cites Stickman's Herbarium Amboinense 
(1754) as the place of publication; there is no such combination made in 
Stickman's paper, who cites only Rumpf's name Casaarina litarea, and in a 
footnote states "Generis proprii, sing-ularis arbor, Equiseti Structura". In 
Linnaeus Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 143 the name appears as Casuarina equi- 
sefolia with a reference to volume 3, plate 57 of Rumphius' Herbarium 
Amboinense. 

PIPERACEAE 

PIPER Linnaeus 

PIPER GUAHAMENSE C. DC. Prodr. 16' (1869) 336; SaflFord 854. 
G. E. S. S87, locally known as pupulo aniti. 
Endemic, unless identical with the Polynesian Piper methysticum. 



72 The Philippine Journal of Science ish 

PIPER BETLE Linn. Sp. PL (1763) 28; Safford 353, pi 6S. 
Piper mariaymum Opiz in Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1825) 159. 
G. E. S. 190, locally known as pupulo. 
Throughout the Indo-Malayan region, in cultivation. 

PIPER POTAMOQETON I FOLIUM Opiz in Presl Rel. Haenk. 1 (1828) 
156. 
Collected in Guam by Haenke, and known only from that Island, unless 
the plant was erroneously localized, as many of Haenke's were. 

PEPEROMIA Ruiz & Pavon 

PEPEROMIA PELLUCIDA HBK. Nov. Gen. et Sp. PI. 1 (1816) 64. 

G. E. S. SS4. 

A native of tropical America, now in most tropical countries. 

PEPEROMIA GUAM AN A C. De Candolle sp. nov. 

Caule glabro, foliis alternis modice petiolatis glabris, limbo 
elliptico-lanceolato basi et apice acute, 5-nervio; pedunculis ter- 
minalibus axillaribusque glabris petioles superantibus, spicis 
adultis limbos paullo superantibus glabris densifloris filiformibus, 
bracteae pelta orbicular! centre breviter pedicellata, antheris 
ellipticis filamenta brevia superantibus, evario emerso ovato 
paulle infra apicem stigmatifero, stigmate glabro, bacca globosa 
sessili glandulis asperulata. Caulis inferne e nodis radicans, 
2 mm crassus. Limbi in sicco membranacei crebre et minute 
pellucido-punctulati ac parce pellucido-punctati, usque ad 3.5 cm 
longi et 2.5 cm lati. Petioli 5 mm, pedunculi fere 10 mm longi. 
Spicae adultae 3.8 cm longae. 

Along the Piti-Agat road, R. C. McGregor 629, October, 1911, locally 
known as podpod palauan. 

The diagnosis of the following species from the neighboring island of 
Saipan has kindly been supplied by Mr. DeCandolle: 

PEPEROMIA SAIPAN A C. DeCandolle sp. nov. 

Caule glabro, foliis alternis modice petiolatis, limbo elliptico- 
lanceolato basi acute apice obtusiusculo utrinque glabro juniors 
margine ciliato, 5-nervie, petiole glabro ; pedunculis terminalibus 
glabris petioles fere aequantibus, spicis quam limbi paulle bre- 
vioribus glabris filiformibus densifloris, bracteae pelta orbiculari 
centro breviter pedicellata, antheris rotundatis filamenta fere 
aequantibus, evario emerso globose summo apice stigmatifero, 
stigmate glabro, bacca globosa sessili glandulis asperulata. 
Caulis fere 1 mm crassus. Limbi in sicco membranacei crebre 
et minute pellucido-punctulati ac parce pellucido-punctati, 3.3 
cm longi 2 cm lati. Petioli 5 mm longi. Spicae 2 cm longae. 

Marianne Islands, Saipan, Fritz (herb Berol.). N. v. Popudpud, medici- 
nisch; Zunge und Kopfweh. 



IX. c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Gvum 73 

MORACEAE 

ARTOCARPUS Forster 

ART0CARPU8 COMMUNIS Forst. Char. Gen. (1776) 191; Safford 189. 
pi 7, 27, S6. 
Artocarpus incUa Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 411. 

McGregor 428, G. E. S. 377, seeded variety known as dugdug; G. E. S. 
171, S89, seedless variety known as lemae; McGregor 429, G. E. S. 443, 
seeded variety, its leaves with very narrow lobes and wide deep sinuses, 
known as dugdug cahilao. 

Widely distributed, especially in cultivation, in Malaya and Polynesia, 
cultivated in other tropical countries. 

ARTOCARPUS INTEGRIFOLIA Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 412. 

Artocarpus mariannenais Tr6c. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill 8 (1847) 114, ex 
descr. 

G. E. S. 207, locally known as nanca, its Tagalog name in the Philippines. 
A native of tropical Asia, now widely distributed in cultivation. 

MORUS Linnaeus 

MORUS ALBA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 986. 

G. E. S. 177, locally known as seda, the Spanish name of silk. 

A native of subtemperate Asia, now cultivated in all warm countries. 

FICUS Linnaeus 

FICU8 TINCTORIA Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 76. 

G. E. S. 67, Cabras Island, locally known as hodda. 

Along the seashore, especially on cliffs, Luzon and (?) Formosa south- 
ward and eastward through Polynesia. 

FICUS MARIAN NEN8IS sp. nov. § Urostigma, 

Species F. infectoriae simillima et ut videtur affinis. Arbor 
alta, glabra, ramis ramulisque teretibus; foliis chartaceis, 
oblongo-ellipticis, usque ad 12 cm longis, breviter obtuse acumi- 
natis, basi rotundatis, obscure 3-plinerviis, nervis primariis 
utrinque circiter 10, tenuibus, petiolo 1.5 ad 2 cm longo; recep- 
taculis axillaribus, solitariis vel binis, subglobosis ad leviter 
obovoideis, 8 ad 10 mm diametro, breviter pedunculatis, brac- 
teolis prominentibus, connatis. 

A species starting as an epiphyte, eventually assuming a 
tree-like habit, tall, quite glabrous. Branches and branchlets 
terete, brownish, smooth or somewhat striate when dry. Leaves 
alternate, oblong-elliptic, 9 to 12 cm long, 3.5 to 5.5 cm wide, 
entire, somewhat brownish-olivaceous when dry, shining, of 
about the same color on both surfaces, smooth, the apex shortly 
blunt-acuminate, the base rounded, usually abruptly so, some- 
times very slightly cordate, rather obscurely 3-plinerved, the 



74 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science uu 

basal pair of nerves not much different from the lateral ones; 
lateral nerves about 10 on each side of the midrib, slender, not 
much more prominent than are the intervening secondary ones, 
anastomosing, the reticulations rather close, not puncticulate ; 
petioles 1.5 to 2 cm long; bud-scales lanceolate, acuminate, about 
7 mm long. Receptacles axillary, solitary or in pairs, in the 
axils of leaves or on the branchlets in the axils of recently fallen 
leaves, apparently fleshy, globose to somewhat obovoid, 8 to 10 
mm in diameter, their peduncles stout, 2 to 3 mm long, each 
receptacle subtended by 3 bracts which are connate by their 
margins below, forming an involucre about 6 mm in diameter, 
the lobes broadly rounded, short. 

McGregor S8U (type) , UOO, 56U, Mrs. Clemens s. ru, locally known aa nunu. 

Probably as closely allied to Ficus infectoria as to any other species, 
but distingfuished by its short-peduncled, somewhat larger receptacles, its 
petioles scarcely jointed. It greatly resembles Fictis carolinensis Warb., 
from Island of Yap, but in that species the bracts are free, not connate. 
This is apparently the first species enumerated by Safford, p. 275, without 
specific name. 

FICUS SAFFORDII sp. nov. § Urostigma. 

Arbor glabra; foliis subcoriaceis, ovatis ad oblongo-ovatis, 
utrinque puncticulatis, usque ad 8 cm longis, basi late rotundatis, 
leviter cordatis, apice breviter obtuse acuminatis, nervis pri- 
mariis utrinque circiter 10; receptaculis axillaribus, sessilibus, 
globosis, 5 ad 6 mm diametro. 

A glabrous tree, size not indicated, apparently starting as an 
epiphyte, later assuming a tree-like form, quite glabrous. 
Branches and branchlets terete, dark reddish-brown, somewhat 
lenticellate, somewhat wrinkled when dry. Leaves alternate, 
subcoriaceous, smooth, entire, ovate to oblong-ovate, 5 to 8 
cm long, 3 to 5 cm wide, the base broadly rounded, usually very 
shallowly cordate, the apex shortly and obtusely acuminate, the 
upper surface dark-colored when dry, slightly shining, rather 
densely pale-puncticulate under a lens, the lower surface a little 
paler, slightly shining, also puncticulate ; primary lateral nerves 
about 10 on each side of the midrib, not much more prominent 
than are the secondary ones, the reticulations rather close, not 
prominent; petioles 1.5 to 2.5 cm long; bud-scales lanceolate, 
acuminate, about 1 cm long. Receptacles axillary, globose, 
sessile, 5 to 6 mm in diameter, one in each axil, on the ultimate 
branchlets, usually in the axils of leaves, more rarely in the 
axils of fallen leaves, each subtended by two broadly ovate, 
rounded, 2.5 to 3 mm long bracts which are nearly free, their 
margins slightly connate below. 



IX. c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 75 

R. C. McGregor AH, Cabras Island, October, 1911. G. E. S. 251 may be 
referable here, or may represent a very closely allied species; the material 
is not in good condition. 

Apparently sufficiently well characterized by its small, sessile 2-bracteate 
receptacles, and its comparatively broad, puncticulate leaves. 

FICUS TENUISTIPULA sp. nov. § Uroatigma. 

Arbor glabra; foliis oblongis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, sub- 
coriaceis, usque ad 8 cm longis, apice breviter obtuse acuminatis, 
basi rotundatis, distincte sed leviter cordatis, 3- vel obscure 5- 
nerviis, in siccitate brunneis, subtus obscure puncticulatis, nervis 
primariis utrinque ciiciter 8, reticulis densis, distinctis; stipulia 
membranaceis, usque ad 5 cm longis; receptaculis axillaribus, 
solitariis, sessilibus, globosis, circiter 6 mm diametro, basi 3- 
bracteatis, bracteis 2 ad 3 mm diametro, late rotundatis, deorsum 
plus minusve connatis. 

A glabrous tree, apparently starting as an epiphyte. Branches 
terete, distinctly wrinkled when dry, grayish or reddish-gray, 
the internodes short, the branchlets similar but not so thick. 
Leaves somewhat crowded, alternate, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 
subcoriaceous, rather dark-green when dry, slightly shining, 
smooth, of about the same color on both surfaces, the lower 
surface obscurely puncticulate, 5 to 8 cm long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm 
wide, entire, apex shortly blunt-acuminate, base very slightly 
narrowed, rounded, distinctly but slightly cordate, distinctly 
3-nerved, sometimes with an additional pair of much shorter 
nerves, the margins entire; lateral nerves about 8 on each side 
of the midrib, rather distinct, straight, slender, anastomosing, 
the secondary nerves fainter, the ultimate reticulations rather 
dense, distinct, slightly f oveolate on both surfaces under a lens ; 
petioles 7 to 10 mm long; stipules membranaceous, deciduous, 
up to 5 cm long, 2 to 3 mm wide, acuminate, brown when dry, 
the bud-scales ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, about 8 mm long. Re- 
ceptacles solitary, axillary, sessile or subsessile, globose, about 
6 mm in diameter, subtended by an involucre of three broadly 
rounded bracts which are 2 to 3 mm in diameter and more or 
less connate by their margins below. 

R. C. McGregor S95, Upi road, October, 1911. 

A species in the Ficus indica group, characterized by its comparatively 
small, narrow leaves, its sessile, solitary, rather small receptacles, and 
especially by its very long, narrow, deciduous stipules. 

FICUS PHILIPPINENSIS Miq. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 7 (1848) 435 ? 

Safford & Scale lOH, locally known as taguete or tagete. 

A species described from the Philippines, but which, rightly or wrongly, 
has been reduced to the Malayan Ficus decaisnei Steud. The same species 



76 The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

has been more recently described as F. confv^a by Mr. Elmer. The Guam 
specimens are sterile, but agree very closely with our Philippine material. 
In addition to the species enumerated above, what I take to be Cecropia 
palmata Willd. is represented in the collection (G. E. S. S90), from a 
cultivated plant at the Experiment Station; a native of tropical America, 
recently introduced. 

URTICACEAE 

BOEHMERIA Jacquin 

BOEHMERIA NIVEA (Linn.) Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 499. 

Urtica nivea Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 985. 

Boehmeria tenacissima (Roxb.) Gaudich. 1. c. 500; Safford 200. 

G. E. S. 205, indicated as widely distributed, but probably introduced, 
although Safford claims it to be indigenous. 

A native of tropical Asia, now widely distributed in cultivation. 

I do not consider that the differences between Boehmeria nivea and B. 
tenacissima are sufficiently distinct to warrant separating them. The Guam 
plants belongs, undoubtedly, to the latter form. See Robinson, Philippine 
Journal of Science 7 (1911) Botany 4. 

ELATOSTEMA Forster 

ELATOSTEMA STENOPHYLLUM sp. nov. 

Erectum, glabrum, simplex, 15 ad 25 cm altus ; foliis altemis, 
lanceolatis, utrinque subaequaliter angustatis, usque ad 6 cm 
longis, apice obtusis vel acutis, basi leviter inaequalibus, acutis, 
obscure 3-pliiierviis, margine leviter distanter crenato-dentatis ; 
inflorescentiis $ solitariis, breviter pedunculatis, subglobosis, 5 
ad 6 mm diametro; floribus 4-meris. 

A simple, erect, glabrous, rather slender plant 15 to 25 cm 
high, the stems and leaves with numerous cystoliths. Leaves 
alternate, lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, chartaceous, 3 to 6 
cm long, 5 to 12 mm wide, about equally narrowed at both 
ends, the apex blunt or acute, not at all acuminate, the base 
somewhat inequilateral, gradually narrowed, acute, not at all auri- 
culate, the margins slightly and distantly crenate-serrulate ; 
nerves 3, slender, the basal pair leaving the midrib shortly above 
the base, anastomosing with the distant lateral nerves above; 
stipules narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, 3 to 4 mm long. Stam- 
inate inflorescences axillary or in the axils of fallen leaves, 
solitary, their peduncles about 2 mm long, the heads depressed- 
globose, 5 to 6 mm in diameter, the involucral bracts green, 
oblong to suborbicular, about 3 mm long. Male flowers nu- 
merous, the subtending bracteoles usually 3, narrowly obovate- 
oblong, rounded-truncate, very obscurely ciliate at the apex; 
pedicels slender, 3 mm long. Calyx-lobes 4, oblong-elliptic, apicu- 



IX. c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Chiam 77 

late-acuminate, about 2 mm long, 1 mm wide. Anthers 4, about 
1 mm long. Rudimentary style none. 

Guam Experiment Station 159, November, 1911, river bank at Tolijuice, 
locally known as tepon agugu. 

A speciea well characterized by its rather slender, simple, erect, stems, 
and its small, relatively very narrow, lanceolate leaves which are sub- 
equally narrowed at both ends, acute or obtuse, not acuminate, slightly 
inequilateral at the base. 

ELATOSTEMA CALCAREUM sp. nov. 

Erectum, glabrum, simplex, usque ad 60 m altus; foliis al- 
ternis, sessilibus vel brevissime petiolatis, membranaceis, nitidis, 
usque ad 15 cm longis, inaequilateraliter oblongis, leviter fal- 
catis, basis uno latere acutis, altero auriculato-rotundatis, apice 
sensim plus minusve obscure acuminatis; inflorescentiis $ 
axillaribus, solitariis, depresso-globosis, 5 ad 7 mm diametro, 
subsessilibus vel breviter pedunculatis ; floribus 4-meris, brac- 
teolis obtusis. 

Apparently erect, somewhat fleshy when fresh, the stems 
simple, unbranched, up to 60 cm high, the basal part somewhat 
decumbent. Leaves alternate, distinctly inequilateral, sub- 
falcate, oblong, membranaceous, green and shining when dry, 
10 to 15 cm long, 3 to 4 cm wide, the apex gradually and not 
at all prominently acuminate or merely acute, the base strongly 
inequilateral, one side acute, the other rounded-auriculate, the 
lobe about 5 mm wide, prominently 3-plinerved, the nerves reach- 
ing the apex or nearly so, anastomosing with the distant, few, 
lateral ones, both surfaces with numerous cystoliths, the lower 
surface somewhat paler then the upper; petioles very short or 
none; stipules linear-lanceolate, acuminate, about 5 mm long. 
Staminate heads axillary, solitary, depressed-globose, 5 to 7 mm 
in diameter, many-flowered, the peduncles 1.5 mm long or less, 
the heads sometimes sessile or subsessile ; involucral bracts green, 
broadly ovate, mostly acute, 3 to 4 mm long. Bracteoles at least 
5 subtending each flower, very narrowly oblong, obovate, obtuse 
or truncate, not spurred, minutely ciliate at their apices, about 
3 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, the inner ones thinner than the outer. 
Flowers (buds only) 4-merous, the calyx-lobes membranaceous, 
elliptic, obtuse or very obscurely and shortly apiculate, 2 mm 
long. 

R. C. McGregor lfS2, on damp limestone cliflFs near the sea at Madqui, 
October, 1911. 

Well characterized by its simple erect stems, its alternate, fairly ample, 
shining, inequilaterally-oblong, slightly acuminate leaves which are prom- 
inently inequilateral at the base. 



78 The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

FLEURYA Gaudichaud 

FLEURYA iNTERRUPTA (Linn.) Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 497. 

Urtica intcrrupta Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 985. 

Schychowyska interrupta W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 9 (1905) 371. 

Safford & Seale 106S, locally known as palilolia. Tropics of both hemis- 
pheres, probably a native of the Old World. 

FLEURYA RUDERALIS (Forst. f.) Endl. in Ann. Wien. Mus. 1 (1836) 
187, t. 13. 

Urtica ruderalis Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 66. 

Schychoivskya rnderalis W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 9 (1905) 371. 

McGregor 419, Mrs. Clemens s. n. 
Malay Archipelago to Polynesia. 

PIPTURUS Weddell 

PIPTURUS ARGENTEUS (Forst. f.) Wedd. in DC. Prodr. 16* (1869) 
235". 
Urtica argentea Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 65. 
G. E. S. 110, locally known as amahadyan. 
Malay Archipelago to Polynesia. 

PROCRIS Commerson 

PROCRIS PEDUNCULATA (Forst. f.) Wedd. in DC. Prodr. 16' (1869) 191. 
Elatostenia peduncidatuni Forst. f. Prodr. (1776) 105, t. 5S. 
Sciophila torresiana Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 493. 
Collected in Guam by Gaudichaud; Malay Archipelago to Polynesia. 

Pellionia divaricata Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 494; Safford 248, 
is without description, fide Weddell, and is therefore a nomen nudum and 
has no standing. 

OLACACEAE 

XI MEN I A Linnaeus 
XIMENIA AMERICANA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1193; Safford 399. 
G. E. S. S75, locally known as piut or piod. 
Along the seashore in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

BALANOPHORACEAE 

BALANOPHORA Forster 

BALANOPHORA PENTAMERA Van Tiegh. in Ann. Sci. Nat. IX 6 (1907) 
151. 

Planta dioica, glabra, in vivo rubra, pedunculis crassis, erectis, 
10 ad 15 cm alta, bracteis imbricatis, late ellipticis, concavis, 
rotundatis, 1.5 ad 3 cm longis; capitulis $ ellipsoideis, 4 ad 5 
cm longis, circiter 2 cm diametro, inflorescentiis $ racemosis, 
floribus superioribus (alabastro) subsessilibus vel sessilibus, 
dense confertis, inferioribus pedicellatis, pedicello 1 cm longo; 



ix,c. 1 Men'ill: Plants of Guam 79 

sepalis 4, rariter 3, 5 mm longis, reflexis; staminibus 4 connatis, 
antheris 3 ad 4 mm longis. 

A dioecious, rather stout plant, when fresh bright-red (Mc- 
Gregor), orange-scarlet (Safford), the whole plant waxy and 
translucent (Safford), when dry dark-brown, the peduncles and 
bracts shining. Roots not seen. Peduncles rather stout, includ- 
ing the inflorescences 10 to 15 cm high, when dry and somewhat 
flattened out about 1 cm wide, shining. Bracts dark-brown, 
imbricate, or those of the female rather scattered, broadly elliptic- 
concave, rounded, 1.5 to 3 cm long, coriaceous, those of the 
male plant about twice as large as those of the female, much 
closer and decidedly imbricate. Female inflorescences ellipsoid 
or narrowly ellipsoid, 4 to 5 cm long, about 2 cm in diameter, 
apex rounded, with innumerable minute flowers. Ovary nar- 
rowly ovoid, 0.3 mm long, the styles slender, 1 mm long, smaller 
than the rather prominent, narrowly obovoid-clavate bracteoles, 
the thickened parts of which are 0.4 mm in diameter, rounded, 
narrowed below into a slender stalk, the whole about 1 mm long. 
Male flowers racemose, in bud crowded in a dense ovoid head, 
sessile, the lower ones opening first, in anthesis pedicelled, the 
pedicels 8 to 10 mm long, somewhat spreading, about 1 mm thick, 
the upper flowers (in bud) congested and sessile when the lower 
ones of the same raceme are in anthesis. Calyx-lobes 4, rarely 
3, reflexed, coriaceous, oblong-ovate, obtuse, somewhat keeled 
on the back, about 5 mm long, 2.5 to 2.8 mm wide. Anthers 
as many as the calyx-lobes, entirely united, the anther mass 
ellipsoid, 3 to 4 mm long, rounded, about 3 mm in diameter, 
when fresh white in contrast to the red color of the plant. 

R. C. McGregor 566, staminate flowers, Piti-Agat road, October, 1911, 
G. E. S. 227, near Piti, January, 1912. 

This species was very briefly characterized by Van Tieghem, but his de- 
scription is very inadequate. The type was from the Marianne Islands, 
collected by Marche in the year 1889. I at first considered our Guam ma- 
terial to represent a distinct species, as Van Tieghem describes Balanophora 
pentamera as having usually 5-merous flowers, but sometimes with 6 or 
even 7 sepals, which does not agree with our specimens. The probabilities 
are, however, that a single species is represented, and while letting my 
description stand, I have adopted Van Tieghem's specific name. 

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE 

ARISTOLOCHIA Linnaeus 

ARISTOLOCHIA ELEQANS Mast, in Gard. Chron. II 24 (1885) 301. 

Occasionally cultivated, fide Safford. 

A native of tropical America, now cultivated in many tropical countries. 



80 The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

POLYGONACEAE 
POLYGONUM Linnaeus 

POLYGONUM BARBATUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 362. 

G. E. S. 17, locally known as mavfiaca. 

I can see no reason for distinguishing this form from the widely dis- 
tributed and somewhat variable Polygonum barbatum Linn. It is doubtless 
the species recorded by SafFord p. 358, as possibly being the above species. 

Tropical Asia to Malaya. 

ANTIGONON Endlicher 

ANTIQONON LEPTOPUS Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. (1841) 308, 
t. 69. 
G. E. S. 228, locally known as cadena de amor. 
A native of tropical America, now widely distributed in cultivation. 

CHENOPODIACEAE 
CHENOPODIUM Linnaeus 

CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 219; Safford 224. 

G. E. S. U6, a weed. 

Widely distributed in the temperate and tropical regions of both hemis- 
pheres, probably originally European. 

CHENOPODIUM AMBR0810IDE8 Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 219; SaflFord 224. 

G. E. S. 3U9, locally known as apaaotes. 

A native of Mexico, now vndely distributed in the warmer parts of both 
hemispheres. 

AMARANTHACEAE 
ACHYRANTHES Linnaeus 

ACHYRANTHES ASPERA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 204; Safford 174. 

G. E. S. 188. 

A weed of wide tropical distribution, probably originating in the eastern 
hemisphere. It is suspected that the specimen collected in the Marianne 
Islands (and probably in Guam) by Gaudichaud, and reported by Moquin** 
as Achyranthea fruticosa, is A. aspera Linn. 

AMARANTHUS Linnaeus 

AMARANTH US SPIN0SU8 Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 991; Safford 180. 
G. E. S. 293, "widely distributed". 
All tropical countries, where native uncertain. 

AMARANTHUS TRICOLOR Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 989. 

G. E. S. 362, local name enmosa viaja. 

The distribution and status of this species is uncertain due to the very 
complicated synonymy. The Linnean designation Amaranthus tricolor has 

'•DC. Prodr. 13' (1849) 314. 



IX, CI Merrill: Plants of Guam 81 

priority over Amaranthiis gangeticus L. and A. melancholicus L., to both 
of which it has been reduced by various authors. Probably in cultivation 
or naturalized in most tropical countries. 

AMARANTHUS VIRIDIS Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1763) 1405; Safford 181. 

G. E. S. 287 , local name caleies apaca. 

All tropical countries, where native uncertain. 

In addition to the above species Saffoi-d reports also Amaranthus oleraceus 
Linn., apparently collected in Guam only by Gaudichaud. It may be the 
form commonly cultivated by Chinese gardeners in various parts of the 
orient as a pot herb. 

ALTERNANTHERA Forskal 

ALTERNANTHERA VERSICOLOR Kegel in Gartenflora (1869) 101. 

G. E. S. 295, local name cucharita. 

Apparently a recent introduction from Manila where it is commonly 
cultivated and where it is known by the same Spanish name. Apparently 
a native of tropical America. 

CELOSIA Linnaeus 

CELOSIA CRISTATA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 205. 

G. E. S. S53, native name christangaijo. 

A form so suspiciously like Celosia argentea Linn., that I am impressed 
with the idea that Celosia cristata Linn, is only a derived form of C. 
argentea, modified by cultivation. Cultivated in all tropical countries, un- 
doubtedly originating in tropical America. 

GOMPHRENA Linnaeus 

GOMPHRENA GLOBOSA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 224; Safford 284. 
G. E. S. 153, 179, native names buton apaca, buton agaga, 
A native of tropical countries, now cultivated or naturalized in all 

warm countries. 

NYCTAGINACEAE 

BOERHAAVIA Linnaeus 

BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 3; Safford 201. 

G. E. S. 265. 

Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres, probably originally 
American. 

BOUGAINVILLAEA Commerson 

BOUGAINVILLAEA SPECTABILIS Willd. Sp. PI. 2 (1799) 348. 
G. E. S. 837, from cultivated plants. 
A native of tropical America, now cultivated in most tropical countries. 

MIRABILIS Linnaeus 

MIRABILIS JALAPA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 177; Safford 325. 
McGregor Jt5U, G. E. S. 219, in gardens. 
A native of Mexico, now cultivated in all warm countries. 

122968 6 



82 The Philippine Jownal of Science wu 

PI SON I A Linnaeus 
PISONIA GRANDIS R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 422. 

Pisonia inermis Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 397, non Jacq. 

Pisonia excelsa W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 856, non Blume. 

G. E. S. 56 (in flower), 393 (in fruit), locally known as amumo. 

Widely distributed in Polynesia. 

This has been interpreted after Seeman Flora Vitiensis 195. The Guam 
plants have prominently armed fruits, while P. excelsa Blume as I under- 
stand it, and as it occurs in the Philippines, has unarmed ones. 

AIZOACEAE 
MOLLUGO Linnaeus 
MOLLUGO PENTAPHYLLA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 89. 
Mollugo stricta Linn. 1. c. ed. 2 (1762) 131. 
G. E. S. 1,18, May 1912, in waste places. 
India to Japan southward to Malaya and Polynesia. 

SESUVIUM Linnaeus 
SE8UVIUM PORTULACASTRUM Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10 (1759) 1058. 

Portulaca portulacaatrum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 446, Herb. Amb. 
(1754) 28. 

G. E. S. 223, along the seashore, local name chara. 

Tropical and subtropical seashores of both hemispheres. 

Mr. W. F. Wight ^* credits the name Sesuvium portulacastrmn to Stick- 
man rather than to Linnaeus, citing Stickman's Herbarium Amboinense 
(1754), page not indicated, as the place of publication. The species appears 
in Stickman's paper as Portulaca portulacastrum, on page 28, not as 
Sesuvium. Sesuvium portulacastrum, however, does appear in Linnaeus' 
reprint of Stickman's paper," but in this case the authority is Linnaeus, 
not Stickman. 

PORTULACACEAE 

PORTULACA Linnaeus 

PORTULACA OLERACEA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 445; Safford 359. 
G. E. S. 226. 
In all temperate and tropical regions. 

PORTULACA QUADRIFIDA Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 73; Safford 359. 
McGregor 635. 
Widely distributed in the tropics of the Old World. 

CERATOPHYLLACEAE 

CERATOPHYLLUM Linnaeus 
CERATOPHYLLUM DEMERSUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 992. 
McGregor i25, Agana River. 
In fresh water in the temperate and tropical regions of both hemispheres. 

=* Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 373. 
"Linn. Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 136. 



ix.c, 1 Mei^rill: Plants of Guam 83 

MENISPERMACEAE 

TIN08P0RA Miers 

TIN08P0RA HOMOSEPALA Diels in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 
158. 
McGregor 536, G. E. S. U79. 
Known only from Guam. 

ANONACEAE 

ANONA Linnaeus 

ANONA MURICATA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 536; Safford 184, pi. SS. 
G. E. S. 275, 3U6, locally known as laguand. 
A native of tropical America, now cultivated in all tropical countries. 

ANONA SQUAMOSA Linn. 1. c. 537; Safford 185, pi. Si. 
G. E. S. 365, locally known as atis. 
Distribution the same as A. muricata. 

ANONA RETICULATA Linn. 1. c. 537; Safford 184. 
G. E. S. 430, McGregor 510, locally known as anonas. 
Distribution the same as A. muricata. 

CANANGIUM Baillon 

CANANGIUM ODORATUM (Lam.) Baill. ex King in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
61' (1892) 41; Koord. & Val. Boomsoort Java 9 (1903) 279; W. F. 
Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 209. 

Uvaria odorata Lam. Encycl. 1 (1785) 595. 

Cananga odorata Hook. f. & Th. Fl. Ind. 1 (1855) 130. 

G. E. S. lUO, locally known as ilang-ilang, its Philippine name. 

Of wide distribution in the Indo-Malayan and Polynesian regions, often 
only in cultivation. Undoubtedly introduced into Guam from the Philip- 
pines. 

W. F. Wight makes the new combination Canangium odoratum in 1905, 
overlooking the fact that the transfer of the specific name to Canangium 
has been made at least twice previous to that date. 

POLYALTHIA Blume 

POLYALTHIA MARIANNAE (Safford) comb. nov. 

Papualthia mariannae Safford in Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 2 (1912) 19, 
fig. 1, 2. 

G. E. S. 209, distributed as Orophea, Costenoble s. n., Palomo 1180, the 
last two in the U. S. National Herbarium. 

After an examination of the flowering material loaned to me by Mr. 
SaflFord, I can see no particular reason for considering this species other 
than a representative of the genus Polyalthia. My original Guam material 
consisted of fruiting specimens only, and at the time it was studied I decided 
that is was probably a species of Orophea. The flowers, however, impress 
me as being those of typical Polyalthia. 



84 T'he Philippine Journal of Science i^u 

LAURACEAE 

CASSYTHA Linnaeus 

CASSYTHA FILIFORM IS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 35; Safford 219. 
McGregor 4U, G. E. S. A52. 
Tropics of both hemispheres, especially near the sea. 

PERSEA Plumier 

PERSEA AMERICANA Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8 (1768). 
Persea gratissima Gaertn. Fruct. 3 (1805) 222. 
G. E. S. 259, in flower, February, 1912. 
The avocado, recently introduced, a native of tropical America. 

HERNANDIACEAE 

HERNANDIA Linnaeus 

HERNANDIA PELTATA Meisn. in DC. Prodr. 15' (1864) 263; Saflford 
293. 
G. E. S. 65, 398, locally known as nonag or nonac. 
Widely distributed along the shores of the Indian and Pacific oceans. 

CRUCIFERAE 

BRASSICA Linnaeus 

BRA8SICA JUNCEA (Linn.) Coss. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 6 (1859) 609; 
Safford 202. 

Sinapis juncea Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 668. 

G. E. S. 178, in gardens, local name mostaza. 

A native of Asia, now widely distributed in all warm countries, wild 
or cultivated. 

Safford enumerates also Brassica napa Linn., the turnip, and B. oleracea 
Linn., the cabbage, but states that neither thrives in Guam. 

RAPHANUS Linnaeus 

RAPHANUS SATIVUS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 669. 
G. E. S. 315, cultivated. 
Cultivated in all warm countries. 

CAPPARIDACEAE 

CAPPARIS Linnaeus 

CAPPARI8 CORDIFOLIA Lam. Encycl. 1 (1785) 609; Merr. in Philip. 
Joum. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 235. 

Capparis mariana Jacq. Hort. Schoenbr. 1 (1797) 109; Safford 212. 

G. E. S. 280, native name acaparas (corruption of Spanish alcaparro). 

An endemic form, considered by K. Schumann to be only a variety of 
the European Capparis spinoaa Linn. 



IX.C. 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 85 

C LEO ME Linnaeus 

CLEOME VISCOSA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 672; Safford 231. 
McGregor 482, G. E. S. 286, locally known as mongoa paloma. 
A pantropic weed of uncertain origrin. 

MORINGACEAE 

MORINGA Burman 

MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. Encycl. 1 (1785) 398. 

Guilandina moringa Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 381. 

Moringa moringa MilLsp. Field Columb. Mus. Bot. 1 (1902) 490; Safford 
327 pi 58. 

G. E. S. 320, 342, locally known as marunggai. 

Probably a native of India, now cultivated in all tropical countries. 

CRASSULACEAE 

BRYOPHYLLUM Salisbury 

BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM (Lara.) Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 40' 
(1871) 52; Safford 203. 
Cotyledon pinnata Lam. Encycl. 2 (1786) 171. 
G. E. S. 361, local name siempre viva de Manila. 
In all tropical countries, probably a native of the eastern hemisphere. 

ROSACEAE 

This family is represented only by introduced and cultivated species, 
two species of the rose, reported by Safford, page 365, Rosa indica Linn. 
(G. E. S. 327), and Rosa damascena Mill. (G. E. S. 101). To the two 
representatives of the family recorded by Safford may now be added the 
loquat, a native of Japan, Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., G. E. S. 51. 

LEGUMINOSAE 

MIMOSOIDEAE 

ENTEROLOBIUM Martius 

ENTEROLOBIUM SAM AN (Jacq.) Prain ex King in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
66' (1897) 252. 

Mimosa saman Jacq. Fragm. (1800-09) 15, t. 9. 

Pithecolobium saman Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 3 (1844) 216; 
Safford 357. 

G. E. S. 382, from cultivated specimens, first introduced by Mr. Safford. 

A native of tropical America, now widely distributed in cultivation. 

PITHECOLOBIUM Martius 

PITHECOLOBIUM DULCE (Roxb.) Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 
3 (1841) 216; Safford 356. 
Mimosa dulcis Roxb. PI. Coromand. 1 (1795) 67, t. 99. 
G. E. S. 262, 388, locally known as camuchili. 
A native of tropical America, now widely distributed in cultivation. 



gg The Philippine Jouimal of Science 1914 

ALBIZZIA Durazzini 

ALBIZZIA LEBBECK (Linn.) Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 3 (1844) 
87. 
Mimosa Uhbeck Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 516. 
G. E. S. 380, from cultivated specimens. 
A native of tropical Africa or Asia, now widely distributed in cultivation. 

ACACIA Willdenow 

ACACIA FARNESIANA (Linn.) Willd. Sp. PI. 4" (1805) 1083; SaflFord 
173. 

Mimosa fameaiana Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 521. 

G. E. S. 216, locally known as aroma, also its common name in the 
Philippines. 

A native of tropical America, now in all warm countries. 

LEUCAENA Bentham 

LEUCAENA GLAUCA (Linn.) Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 4 (1842) 
416; Safford 308. 
Mimosa glauca Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 520. 
McGregor ^55, G. E. S. 335, locally known as tangan-tangan. 
A native of tropical America, now in all tropical countries. 

ADEN ANTH ERA Linnaeus 

ADENANTHERA PAVONINA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 384; SaflFord 175. 
G. E. S. 354, locally known as colales or culalis. 
A native of tropical Asia, now widely distributed in cultivation. 

ENTADA Adanson 

ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (Linn.) comb. nov. 

Le7is phaseoloides Linn, in Stickman Herb. Amb. (1754) 18; Amoen. 
Acad. 4 (1859) 128; Safford 308, pi. 56. 

Mimosa entada Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 518. 

Mimosa scandens Linn. 1. c. ed. 2 (1763) 1501. 

Entada scandens Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 4 (1842) 332. 

McGregor ^99, G. E. S. 366, locally known as bayog. 

Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

Under our present rules of botanical nomenclature Lens phaseoloides 
supplies the oldest valid specific name for this species, that supplied by 
Miiiwsa entada Linn. (1753) being invalidated by the rule forbidding 
duplicate binomials. The publication of Lens phaseoloides in 1754 is valid, 
the only question in regard to it being whether Linnaeus is its author, 
or Stickman. Mr. W. F. Wight has proposed to adopt not only the specific 
designation phaseoloides, but would also replace the generic name Entada 
by Lens. While strictly considered Lens may be the oldest generic desig- 
nation, still there are very serious objections to its use as I have already 
pointed out.** As to the genus Lens the species Lens phaseoloides may be 
interpreted as its type only through a peculiar combination of circumstances. 

'•Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 33. 



IX. c. 1 Mernll: Plants of Guam 87 

The generic disignatioh Lens (Tourn.) Linn, dates from 1735, and man- 
ifestly Lena pluiaeoloides, then entirely unknown to botanists, could not be 
its type. It so happens, however, that the combination Lens phaseokndes 
is the first one to be made in the genus after the establishment of binomial 
nomenclature. Lena (1735) was based on European species entirely differ- 
ent generically from the plant under discussion, and only our rules which 
state that binomial nomenclature shall commence with the publication of 
the Species Plantarum (1753), the genera to be interpreted by edition 5 
of the Genera Plantarum (1754) permit the illogical typification of the 
genus Lc7j8 by the species Leyis phaseoloides. If there is any need of a 
generic list of nomina conservanda, the present case should certainly be 
included. The author is in sympathy with the idea of generic types, but 
in this case the proposition to consider Lens phaseoloidea the type of the 
genus Lens impresses me as exceedingly illogical, for the species was entirely 
unknown to botanists, at least under this name, until about 20 years after 
the genus was originally proposed. 

CAESALPINIOIDEAE 

CYNOMETRA Linnaeus 

CYNOMETRA BIJUGA Spanoghe in Linnaea 15 (1841) 201; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. 1^ (1855) 78. 

McGregor U71t, G. E. S. U, 31A. 

Frequently confused with Cynonietra ramiflora Linn., from which it is 
apparently specifically distinct; widely distributed in tropical Asia, extend- 
ing from India to Malaya and the Caroline Islands. 

TAMARINDUS Linnaeus 

TAMARINDUS INDICA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 34; Safford 383, pi 66. 
G. E. S. H8, USIf, locally known as camalindo. 
A native of tropical Africa, now cultivated in all tropical countries. 

I NTS I A Thouars 

INTSIA BIJUGA (Colebr.) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 192; SaflFord 
297, pi 54. 
G. E. S. 323, U5, locally known as ifil or ifit. 
Near the sea, eastern Africa through Malaya to Polynesia. 

BAUHINIA Linnaeus 

BAUHINIA MONANDRA Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 42' (1873) 73. 

G. E. S. 136, locally known as mariposa. 

Probably a native of tropical America, now found in most tropical 
countries in cultivation. This is probably the species mentioned by Safford 
(p. 196), without specific name. 

BAUHINIA TOMENTOSA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 375. 

G. E. S. 72, 381, locally known as viariosa or flor de niariposa. 

A native of India, now widely distributed in cultivation. This is prob- 
ably the second species mentioned by Safford (p. 197) as resembling the 
figure of Bauhinia blancoi in Blanco's Flora de Filipinas. 

A third species is represented in the collection, from cultivated plants, 
but the material is not in condition for determination. 



88 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

CASSIA Linnaeus 
CASSIA ALATA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 377. 

Herpetica alata Raf. Fl. Tellur. (1838) 123; Safford 293. 

G. E. S. 50, locally known as acapulco. 

A native of tropical America, now in all tropical countries. 

CASSIA FISTULA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 377; SafFord 217. 
G. E. S. 402, locally known as canafistula. 
A native of tropical Asia, now widely distributed in cultivation. 

CASSIA MIMOSOIDES Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 379; Safford 218. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford, as it is not represented in our 
Guam collections; India to Japan southward to Australia. 

CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 377; Safford 218. 

McGregor iSS. 

A native of tropical America, now a weed in all tropical countries. 

CASSIA SOPH ERA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 379; Safford 219. 
G. E. S. Jf9, locally known as amot-tomaga. 
Same distribution as the preceding. 

CASSIA TORA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 376; Safford 219. 

G. E. S. 63, McGregor ^86, Thompson 16, locally known as amot-tomaga 
carabao. 

Same distribution as the two preceding. 

DELONiX Eafinesque 

DELONIX REG I A (Boj.) Raf. Fl. Tellur. 2 (1836) 92; Safford 256. 
Poinciana regia Boj. in Hook. Mag. 56 (1829) t. 28 8 j^. 
G. E. S. Jt08, locally known as arhol del fuego. 
A native of Madagascar, now cultivated in all tropical countries. 

CAESALPINIA Linnaeus 

CAESALPINIA GLABRA (Mill.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1910) 
Hot. 54. 

Guilandina glabra Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8 (1768) No. 8. 

Caesalpinia bonduc Roxb. Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 362, non Guilandina bonduc 
Linn. 

G. E. S. H2, locally name pacao. 

Tropics of the world. 

CAESALPINIA CRISTA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 380. 

Guilandina crista Small Fl. Southeast. U. S. (1904) 591; Safford 288, 
pi. 51. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford who cites the same native name 
as that given for the preceding species. 

Range of the preceding species. 



IX. c. 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 89 

CAE8ALPINIA PULCHERRIMA (Linn.) Sw. Obs. (1791) 166. 

Poinciana pulcherrima Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 880; Safford 858. 

G. E. S. 29, ill, locally known as caballero. 

A native of tropical America, now in all tropical countries, cultivated 
or wild. 

CAESALPINIA SAPPAN Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 381. 

Biancaea sappan Todaro Hort. Bot. Pan. 1 (1876) 3; Safford 198. 

McGregor 365, G. E. S. 863. 

Widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region and in other tropical 
countries. 

PELTOPHORUM Vogel 

PELTOPHORUM INERME (Roxb.) Naves in Blanco Fl. Filip. ed. 3, 
pi. S35, ex F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 69. 
Caesalpinia inermis Roxb. Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 867. 
Peltophorum ferrugineum Benth. Fl. Austral. 2 (1864) 279. 
G. E. S. 413, origin not indicated, but probably from cultivated specimens. 
Widely distributed in the Malayan region, frequently cultivated for 
ornamental purposes. 

PAPILIONATAE 

SOP MORA Linnaeus 

80PH0RA TOMENTOSA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 373; Safford 376. 
G. E. S. 81, 225, along the seashore. 
Tropics of both hemispheres near the sea. 

CROTALARIA Linnaeus 

CROTALARIA QUINQUEFOLIA Linn. Sp. PI. (1758) 716; Safford 251. 
McGregor 557, local name cascabeles or cascanetas. 
Widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region. 

CROTALARIA SALTIANA Andr. Bot. Rep. (1811) t. 648. 

Crotalaria striata DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 131. 

G. E. S. 296, 419. 

Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres, probably a native 
of tropical America. 

MEDICAGO Linnaeus 

MEDICAGO DENTiCULATA Willd. Sp. PI. 3 (1803) 1414. 

G. E. S. 229, in meadows. 

A native of Europe, now widely distributed in the north temperate zone 
and apparently of recent introduction in Guam. 

(Mr. Safford records alfalfa, Medicago sativa Linn., with the statement 
that attempts to introduce it have been unssuccessful.) 

INDIGOFERA Linnaeus 

INDIGOFERA SUFFRUTICOSA Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8 (1768) No. 2. 
Indigo f era anil Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 272; Safford 296. 
McGregor iS6, hills back of Piti. 
A native of tropical America, now in the tropics of both hemispheres. 



90 The Philippine Jourtml of Science 1914 

INDIGOFERA TINCTORIA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 751; Safford 296. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford, not represented in our Guam 
collections; widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

TEPHROSIA Persoon 

TEPHROSIA MARIANA DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 263. 

Cracca mariana O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 175; Safford 250. 

The type was from the Marianne Islands, probably Guam; the species is 
not represented in our collections. 

SESBANIA Scopoli 

SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA (Linn.) Pers. Syn. 2 (1807) 316. 

Robinia grandiflora Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 722. 

Agati grandiflora Desv. Journ. Bot. 1 (1813) 120, t. A, f. 6; Saflford 175. 

G. E. S. 168, 269, locally known as caturay, its Tagalog name in the 
Philippines. 

Mascarine Islands, tropical Asia, Malaya, and Polynesia, frequently 
only planted. 

AESCHYNOMENE Linnaeus 

AESCHYNOMENE INDICA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 713; Safford 175. 
G. E. S. 36Jt. 
Widely distributed in the tropics of the Old World. 

ARACHIS Linnaeus 

ARACHIS HYPOGAEA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 741; Safford 186. 
G. E. S. 9, locally known as cacahuate or cacaguate. 
A native of tropical America, now cultivated in all warm countries. 

ZORNIA Gmelin 

ZORNIA DIPHYLLA (Linn.) Pers. Syn. 2 (1807) 318; Safford 404. 
Hedysarum diphyllum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 747. 
Safford & Seale 1123. 
Widely distributed in the tropics, probably a native of tropical America. 

DESMODIUM Desvaux 

DE8M0DIUM GANGETICUM (Linn.) DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 327. 

Hedyaarum gangeticum Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 746. 

Meibomia gengetica O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 196; Saflford 321. 

McGregor U52, Thompson 23, G. E. S. 113, Mrs. Clemens s. n., locally 
known as tomates aniti. 

Through the tropics of the Old World, introduced in the West Indies. 

DESMODIUM HETEROPHYLLUM (WiUd.) DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 334. 
Hedyaarum heterophyllum Willd. Sp. PI. 3 (1800) 1201. 
G. E. S. 319, locally known as apsotn or agsom. 
Tropical Asia to Malaya. 



i 



i 



i 



IX. c. 1 Mei^'iU: Plants of Guam 91 

DESMODIUM TRIFLORUM (Linn.) DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 334. 
Hedysarum triflorum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 749. 

Meibomia triflora 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 197; Safford 321. 
McGregor 506. 
Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

DESMODIUM UMBELLATUM (Linn.) DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 325. 
Hedysarum iimhcllatum Linn. Sp. PI. 2 (1753) 747. 
Meibamia umbellata O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 1 (1891) 197. 
McGregor 4S9, G. E. S. Jf37, locally known as palaga hilitai. 
Mascarene Islands to tropical Asia, Malaya, Australia, and Polynesia. 

ALYSCICARPUS Necker 

ALYSCICARPUS NUM M ULARIFOLIUS (Linn.) DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 358. 

Hedysarum nummidari folium Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 746. 

McGregor 362, G. E. S. 121. 

Widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region, introduced in tropical 
America. 

DALBERGIA Linnaeus f 

DALBERGIA CONDENATENSIS (Dennst.) Prain in Journ. As. Soc. Bang. 
70' (1901) 49. 
Cassia condenatensis Dennst. Schl. zum Hort. Malabar. (1818) 32. 
Dalbergia torta Grab, in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 5873. 
G. E. S. 75, S70. 
India to China southward to Australia and Polynesia near the sea. 

DERRIS Loureiro 

DERRIS TRIFOLIATA Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 433. 

Derris uliginosa Benth. PI. Jungh. (1852) 252. 

McGregor 503, along the seashore, Cabras Island. 

Along the seashore, eastern Africa, India, through Malaya to Polynesia. 

INOCARPUS Forster 

INOCARPUS EDULIS Forst. Char. Gen. (1776) 66, t. 33. 
Bocoa edulis Baiil. Adansonia 9 (1868-70) 237; Safford 199. 
G. E. S. 77 in flower, 399 in fruit, locally known as buoy. 
Malay Archipelago to Polynesia, frequently only planted. 

A BR US Linnaeus 

ABRUS PRECATORIUS Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12 (1767) 472. 

Glycine abrus Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 753. 

Abrus abrus W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 171, pi. SI. 

G. E. S. 135, Mrs. Clemens s. n., locally known as calales halomtana. 

Probably a native of India, now in all tropical countries. 



92 The Philippine Journal of Science 1014 

CLITORIA Linnaeus 

CLITORIA TERNATEA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 753; Safford 232. 
G. E. S. 252, 1S5, locally known as paokeke. 
Tropics of the world, probably a native of tropical America. 

TERAMNUS Swartz 

TERAMNUS LABIALIS (Linn, f.) Spreng. Syst. 3 (1826) 235. 
Glycine labialis Linn. f. Suppl. (1774) 325. 
G. E. S. 363, locally known as chaguan cacayuates. 
Tropics of both hemispheres. 

ERYTHRINA Linnaeus 

ERYTHRINA INDICA Lam. Encycl. 2 (1785) 391; Safford 269. 
G. E. S. 357, locally known as gaogao. 
Along the seashore, tropical Asia to Malaya and Polynesia. 

STRONGYLODON Vogel 

STRONGYLODON LUCIDUS (Forst.) Seem. Fl. Vit. (1865-68) 61. 
Glycine lucida Forst. Prodr= (1786) 51. 
McGregor 553, Upi road, in forests. 
Ceylon to Polynesia. 

MUCUNA Adanson 

MUCUNA GIGANTEA (Willd.) DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 405. 
Dolichos giganteus Willd. Sp. PI. 2 (1801) 1041. 

Stizolobium giganteum Spreng. Syst. Cur. Post. (1827) 281; Safford 378. 
McGregor 656, G. E. S. HO, locally known as bayogo dikiki. 
Near the sea, tropical Asia to Polynesia. 

MUCUNA PRURIENS (Linn.) DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 405. 

Dolichos pruriens Linn, in Stickm. Herb. Amb. (1754) 23. 
Stizolobium pruriens Medic. Vorles. Churpf. Phys. Ges. 2 (1787) 399; 
Safford 378. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford; a species otherwise definitely 
known only from the Philippines and the Moluccas. 

CANAVALIA DeCandolle 

CANAVALIA LINEATA (Thunb.) DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 404. 
Dolichos lineatus Thunb. Fl. Jap. (1784) 280. 
Canavalia obtusifolia DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 404; Safford 211. 
G. E. S. 127, 1U7, along the seashore. 
Throughout the tropics along sandy beaches. 

CANAVALIA TURGIDA Grah. in Wall. Cat. (1832) No. 5534; Miq. Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 1' (1855) 215. 
G. E. S. 358, locally known as ladosung tasai. 
Near the sea, India to Malaya and Polynesia. 



IX. c. 1 Men'iU: Playits of Guam 93 

CANAVALIA MEGALANTHA sp. nov. 

Species C. turgidae Grab, simillima et ut videtur affinis, differt 
caulibus distincte lignosis, circiter 1 cm diametro, floribus ma- 
joribus, 4 ad 4.5 cm longis. 

A woody vine, entirely glabrous, the stems terete, firm, 7 
to 10 mm in diameter, brownish, lenticellate. Leaflets mem- 
branaceous, the terminal one broadly ovate, about 12 cm long, 
10 cm wide, acuminate, base rounded, the lateral leaflets similar 
but strongly inequilateral, broader on one side of the midrib 
than on the other. Flowers rose-pink, racemose, the racemes 
solitary, 10 cm long or more, axillary and from the woody 
stems, comparatively few-flowered, flower-bearing nearly or quite 
to the base, the nodes swollen, the pedicels 5 mm long or less. 
Calyx 1.5 cm long, the upper lip considerably longer than the 
lower one, retuse or cleft into two broadly rounded lobes 5 to 
8 mm wide, the lower lip with three, oblong-ovate, acuminate 
teeth about 3 mm long. Corolla rose-pink. Standard 4 to 4.5 
cm long, the limb obovate, about 2 cm wide, prominently retuse; 
wings as long as the keel, 5 to 7 mm wide, rounded ; keel curved, 
the petals up to 9 mm wide. Stamens all perfect. Fruit un- 
known. 

R. C. McGregor 552, in forests, Upi road, October, 1911. 

Manifestly a representative of the genus Canavalia, and in vegetative 
characters quite like Canavalia turgida Grah. It is distingfuished by its 
woody stems, its short racemes which are flower-bearing to the base, and 
especially by its unusually large flowers. 

CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS (Linn.) DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 404; Safford 211. 

Dolichos ensifonnis Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 725. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford, who states that it is common in 
thickets and hedges. Tropics of the world. 

CANTHAROSPERMUM Wight & Arnott 

CANTHAROSPERMUM SCARABAE0IDE8 (Linn.) Baill. in Bull. Soc. 
Linn. Paris 1 (1883) 384. 

Dolichos scarabaeoides Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 726. 
Atylosia scarabaeoides Benth PI. Jungh. (1852) 245. 
McGregor 451, G. E. S. 270. 
Mascarene Islands to India, China, and Malaya. 

PHASEOLUS Linnaeus 

PHA8E0LUS ADENANTHUS G. W. F. Mey. Prim. Fl. Esseq (1818) 239. 
G. E. S. 379, locally known as acdncan caldtun. 
Tropics of the world. 



94 The Philippine Journal of Science i'jh 

PHA8EOLUS LUNATUS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 724; Safford 360 (var. 
inamoenua) . 
McGregor 388, G. E. S. 285. 
A native of tropical America, now cultivated in all warm countries. 

PHASEOLUS RADIATU8 Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 725. 

Phaseolus mungo W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 350, non Linn. 

G. E. S. 211, locally known as mongos. 

Cultivated in all tropical countries. 

ViGNA Savi 

VIGNA LUTEA (Sw.) A. Gray Bot. Wilkes U. S. Explor. Exped. 1 (1854) 
452; Safford 397. 
Doliclios luteus Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. 3 (1806) 1246. 
G. E. S. 78, il5, locally known as acdncan iimlulasa. 
Along the seashore in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

VIGNA SINENSIS (Linn.) Endl. ex Hassk. PI. Jav. Rar. (1848) 386; 
Safford 396. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford who states that it is commonly 

cultivated in Guam. Cultivated in all warm countries. 

DOLICHOS Linnaeus 

DOLICHOS LABLAB Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 725; Safford 264. 
G, E. S. 276, U12, local names cheribilla apaca, chuchumeco. 
Cultivated in all tropical countries. 

PACHYRRHIZUS Richard 

PACHYRRHIZUS EROSUS (Linn.) Urb. Symb. Antill. 4 (1905) 311. 
Dolichos erosua Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 726. 

Cacara erosa O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 1 (1891) 165; Safford 205. 
G. E. S. 230, locally known as hicamas. 
A native of tropical America, now in all tropical countries. 

PSOPHOCARPUS Necker 

PSOPHOCARPUS TETRAGONOLOBUS (Linn.) DC. Prodr. 2 (1825) 403. 
Dolichos tetragonolobus Linn, ex Stickm. Herb. Amb. (1754) 23. 
Botor tetragonoloba O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PL 1 (1891) 162; Safford 202. 
G. E. S. 130, locally known as seguidillas. 
Widely distributed in cultivation in the Indo-Malayan region. 

CAJANUS DeCandoUe 

CAJANUS CAJAN (Linn.) Millsp. Field Columb. Mus. Bot. 2 (1900) 53. 

Cytisus cajan Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 739. 

Cajanus indicus Spreng. Syst. 3 (1826) 248. 

Cajan cajan Millsp. 1. c; Safford 206. 

McGregor 370. 

Cultivated in all tropical countries, introduced into Guam in 1772, fide 
Safford. 



IX.C, 1 Merrill: Plants of Guam 95 

OXALIDACEAE 

AVERRHOA Linnaeus 
AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 428; Safford 192, pi. S7. 
G. E. S. 24, locally known as bilimbines. 
A native of tropical America, now cultivated in all tropical countries. 

OXALIS Linnaeus 

0XALI8 REPEN8 Thunb. Oxal. (1781) 16; B. L. Rob. in Journ. Bot. 44 
(1906) 391. 

Oxalia corniculata W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 341, non Linn. 

G. E. S. 164, locally known as agsom or apsom. 

Widely distributed in the warmer regions of both continents, frequently 
confused with the closely allied Oxalis corniculata Linn. 

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 

TRIBULUS Linnaeus 

TRIBULU8 CISTOIDES Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 387; Safford 390. 

Not common, fide Safford, and according to his information of recent 
introduction. 

A native of tropical America, now widely distributed in the tropics of 
both hemispheres. 

(To be concluded.) 



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^7, 



THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

C. Botany 



Vol. IX APRIL, 1914 No. 2 



AN ENUMERATION OF THE PLANTS OF GUAM 

By E. D. Merrill 

• (From the Botanical Section of the Biological Laboratory, 

Bureau of Science, Manila, P. I.) 

(Concluded.) 
RUTACEAE 

CITRUS Linnaeus 

I have found it to be practically impossible to classify the material of 
the cultivated forms of this genus with any degree of satisfaction, and the 
difficulties have been well stated by Mr. Safford. There are a number of 
distinct forms in Guam, probably for the most part, if not all, introduced. 

CITRUS DECUMAN A (Linn.) Murr. Syst. ed. 13 (1774) 580; Safford 
228. 

Citrus aurantium var. decumana Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1763) 1101. 

G. E. S. IfSJIt, il, locally known as cahet magas. 

Throughout the Indo-Malayan region, cultivated in other hot countries. 

This species I consider to be one of the very few distinct ones in the 
genus. I do not consider it to be at all closely allied to the orange {Citrus 
aurantium L.). 

CITRUS AURANTIUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 783; Safford 226. 

G. E. S. S96, McGregor il5, locally known as cahet. 

Cultivated in all tropical and subtropical countries, variable in fruit 
characters, a native of tropical Asia. 

Mr. Safford records the variety sinensis Linn., and the subspecies sapon- 
acea Safford from Guam. I cannot determine how Citrus sinensis can be 
distinguished from C aurantium, and believe it to be only a form developed 
by cultivation. The subspecies saponacea is said by Mr. Safford to be wild 
in Guam, and to have non-edible fruits. I have seen no specimens of this 
form, but would suspect its alliance to be with Citrus hystrix rather than 
with C. aurantium. 

125572 97 



98 The Philippine Journal of Science ; ■-•!/. 

CITRUS HYSTRIX DC. Cat. Hort. Monspel. (1813) 97. 

To this species I refer G. E. S. U2, locally called Ihnon china, a form 
with depressed-globose fruits, McGregor 511, locally called limon ademelo, 
a form with globose-ovoid fruits, and McGregor il6, locally called alangha. 
It is suspected that the first one, G. E. S. U2, is the form recorded by 
SafFord as CiUnis hergamina W. & A. 

Citrus hystrix DC. is widely distributed in India and Malaya. 

CITRUS MEDICA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 782. 

G. E. S. 4-3, locally known as setlas, McGregor Jfl7, locally known as 
limon iyat. The former is probably typical C. medica, the latter has fruits 
quite like those of the ordinary lemon and is probably the var. limon Linn., 
recorded by Safford with the local name litnon real. 

Cultivated in all warm countries. 

CITRUS NOBILIS Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 466. 
Recorded from Guam by Safford. 
A native of southern China, now cultivated in all warm countries. 

CITRUS LIMA Lunan Hort. Jamaic. (1814) 451. 

CitriLS hystrix DC. var. acida (Roxb.) Eng-l. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. 
Pflanzenfam. 3* (1896) 200. 

Citrus acida Roxb. Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 390. 

The lime is recorded from Guam by Safford; I have seen no specimens 
from that Island. A native of tropical Asia, now in all tropical countries. 

TRIPHASIA Loureiro 

TRIPHASIA TRIFOLIA (Burm. f.) P. Wils. in Torreya 9 (1909) 33. 

Limonia trifolia Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 103. 

Limonia trifoliata Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 237. 

Triphasia trifoliata DC. Prodr. 1 (1824) 536; Safford 391. 

McGregor 521, Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. 273, 372, locally known as 
limon de china. 

A native of tropical Asia, now widely distributed in the tropics of the 
Old World, introduced in other regions. 

BURSERACEAE 

CANARIUM Linnaeus 

Mr. Safford records an introduced species known as brea blanca, but does 
not state that he saw specimens, taking at least a part of his data from 
Olive y Garcia's list of Guam trees. Mr. W. F. Wight has worked out the 
species as "Canarium indicu^n Stickman Herb. Amb. (1754)", to which he 
reduces Canarium commune Linn. (1767). The combination Canarium ind- 
icum is not made in the original edition of Stickman's paper (1754), where 
the species of Canarium are listed on pages 9 and 10, but only under the 
Rumphian names, although it does appear in the reprint, Amoen. Acad. 4 
(1769) 143. It seems far more likely to me that the tree knovni as "brea 
blanca" in Guam has been introduced from the Philippines and is Canarium 
ovatum Engl. (C pachyphyllum Perk.), a species allied to, but apparently 
distinct from Canarium comm,une Linn. 



IX, c, 2 MerriU: The Plants of Guam 99 

MELIACEAE 
AGLAIA Loureiro 
AGLAIA MARIANNENSIS sp. nov. § Euaglaia. 

Arbor 5 ad 7 m alta, partibus junioribus inflorescentiisque 
dense ferrugineo-lepidotis, vetustioribus subglabris; foliis 20 ad 
30 cm longis, foliolis 5 ad 9, oblongis ad oblongo-ellipticis, usque 
ad 15 cm longis, acutis vel obscure acuminatis, basi acutis ad 
rotundatis, vetustioribus subglabris vel subtus obscurissime 
lepidotis; paniculis folia subaequantibus ; floribus 5-meris, 
numerosis, racemose dispositis, breviter pedicellatis, tubus stam- 
ineus liber. 

A tree 5 to 7 m high, the young branchlets, leaves, and inflo- 
rescence for the most part densely brown-lepidote. Branches 
about 5 mm in diameter, terete, grayish or brownish, glabrous, 
the petiolar scars scattered, large, the growing parts densely 
brown-lepidote. Leaves alternate, 20 to 30 cm long, mostly 3- 
jugate, sometimes with two pairs of leaflets, sometimes with 4 
pairs, besides the terminal leaflet, the petiole and rachis lepidote, 
becoming nearly glabrous. Leaflets oblong to oblong-elliptic, 
10 to 15 cm long, 3 to 6 cm wide, chartaceous, when very young 
somewhat lepidote, in age becoming glabrous or nearly so, a few 
prominent scales usually persisting on the midrib and lateral 
nerves, the lower surface sometimes very minutely cinereous- 
subfurfuraceous, paler than the upper one, the apex acute or 
somewhat acuminate, the base acute to rounded, often inequilat- 
eral; lateral nerves 10 to 14 on each side of the midrib, distinct; 
petiolules 7 to 10 mm long. Panicles in the upper axils, narrowly 
pyramidal, often as long as the leaves, always more than one-half 
as long, all parts rather densely brown-lepidote. Flowers nu- 
merous, racemosely arranged on the ultimate branchlets, their 
pedicels 0.5 to 1.5 mm long. Calyx brown-stellate-lepidote, the 
lobes 5, oblong-ovate, acute, 1 to 1.2 mm long. Petals 5, gla- 
brous, orbicular to obovate, concave, 1 to 1.5 in diameter. Sta- 
minal tube quite fr3e from the petals, very shallowly cup-shaped, 
glabrous, about 1 mm in diameter, 0.5 mm high, obscurely 5- 
toothed. Stamens 5, alternating with the teeth of the staminal 
tube, protruded, the anthers about 0.3 mm long. Fruit ellip- 
soid to obovoid, densely brown-stellate-lepidote, about 1.5 cm 
long and nearly as thick. 

Guam Experiment Station U65, July, 1912 (type), McGregor 5A6, October, 
1911, Mrs. Clemens s. n., November, 1911, locally known as mapunao. 

A species apparently closely allied to the Malayan Aglaia adoratissima 
Blume, which it greatly resembles in appearance and vegetative characters. 
The very shallow staminal tube is apparently characteristic. 



100 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

SAN DOR I CUM Cavanilles 

SANDORICUM KOETJAPE (Burm. f.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. Bot. 7 
(1912) 237. 
Melia koetjape Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 101. 

Sandoricum indicum Cav. Diss. 4 (1787) 359, /. 202, 203; Safford 369. 
G. E. S. 471. 
Widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region, introduced in Guam. 

MELIA Linnaeus 

MELIA AZEDARACH Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 384; Safford 322. 
McGregor 4^6. 
A native of tropical Asia, now cultivated in all warm countries. 

XYLOCARPUS Koenig 

XYLOCARPUS GRANATUM Koen. Naturf. 20 (1784) 2; Safford 400, 
McGregor USl, Cabras Island, along the seashore. 
Along the seashore, India to Malaya, Australia, and Polynesia. 

MALPIGHIACEAE 

GALPHIMIA Cavanilles 

GALPHIMIA GLAUCA Cav. in Anal. Hist. Nat. 1 (1799) 37. 
G. E. S. 277, apparently from recently introduced plants. 
A native of Mexico, now cultivated in many tropical countries. 

EUPHORBIACEAE 

ACALYPHA Linnaeus 

ACALYPHA INDICA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1003; Safford 173. 
G. E. S. 80. 
Tropics of both hemispheres. 

ALEURITES Forster 

ALEURITES MOLUCCANA (Linn.) Willd. Sp. PI. 4' (1805) 590; Safford 
177. 

Jatropha violuccana Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1006. 

G. E. S. 86, 331, locally known by its Philippine (Tagalog) name 
lumbang. 

India to Polynesia, introduced in tropical America. 

CLAOXYLON A. Jussieu 

CLAOXYLON MARIANNUM Muell.-Arg. in DC. Prodr. 15' (1866) 783; 
Safford 230. 

G. E. S. 7, U7Uy local name cator. 

The type was collected in Guam by Gaudichaud, and the species is not 
known from any other region. It is very closely allied to several other 
species of the Malayan region. 



IX, c. 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 101 

CODIAEUM A. Jussieu 

CODIAEUM VARIEGATUM (Linn.) Blume Bijdr. (1825) 606. 
Croton variegatum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1199. 
Phyllaurea variegata W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 

9 (1905) 352. 
G. E. S. 105, from cultivated specimens. 

Widely distributed in cultivation, where native uncertain, but probably 
Malaya or Polynesia. 

EUPHORBIA Linnaeus 

EUPHORBIA ATOTO Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 36; Safford 270. 
G. E. S. 131. 
Along the seashore, tropical Asia to Australia and Polynesia. 

EUPHORBIA GAUDICHAUDII Boiss. Cent. Euph. (1860) 7; Safford 270. 

McGregor kUS, G. E. S. 378, similar to E. serralata Reinw., but more 
robust. 

A species known only from Guam. 

EUPHORBIA HETEROPHYLLA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 453. 

G. E. S. 97, McGregor 471, the fonner from gardens, the latter from 
roadsides. 

A native of North America, now widely distributed in cultivation and 
as a naturalized plant. 

EUPHORBIA HIRTA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 454; Safford 271. 
Euphorbia pilulifera Linn. I. c. 
G. E. S. 189, Thompson 9, McGregor U09, locally known as golondrina. 

EUPHORBIA PROSTRATA Ait. Hort. Kew. 2 (1789) 139. 
G. E. S. U. 
Tropics of both hemispheres. 

EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 454. 

G. E. S. 255. 

Tropics of both hemispheres. 

{Euphorbia ramosissima Hook. & Arn. is credited to Guam by Boissier," 
but Index Kewensis is authority for the statement that the species as there 
interpreted by Boissier is Euphorbia sparrmannii Boiss.) 

EXCOECARIA Linnaeus 

EXCOECARIA AGALLOCHA Linn. Amoen. Acad. 4 (1759) 122; Syst. ed. 
10 (1759) 1288; Safford 271. 

Var. ORTHOSTICHALIS Muell.-Arg. in DC. Prodr. 15' (1866) 1221. 

McGregor 561, 567, G. E. S. 392, along the seashore. 

India to Malaya and Polynesia (the species), the variety in Guam, New 
Caledonia, and Tonga, 

The combination Excoecaria agallocha is not made in the original edition 
of Stickman's Herbarium Amboinense (1754) as claimed by Mr. Wight 

"DC. Prodr. 15= (1862) 14. 



102 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

in SafFord's work, but simply appears under Rumpf's name Arbor excoecans 
with the additional statement: "Dioica triandra tricocca." 

GLOCHIDION Forster 

GLOCHIDION MARIANUM Muell.-Arg. in Linnaea 32 (1863) 65; Safford 
283. 
Phyllanthus gaudichaudii Muell.-Arg. var marianus Muell.-Arg. in DC. 

Prodr. 15= (1866) 300. 
McGregor 459, U7, G. E. S. 35, U80, locally known as chosga. 
Originally described from specimens collected in Guam by Gaudichaud, 
reported also from Tonga by Mueller, with a variety from Samoa. 

JATROPHA Linnaeus 

JATROPHA CURCAS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1006; Safford 301, pi 55. 

McGregor 531. 

A native of tropical America, now in all tropical countries. 

JATROPHA MULTIFIDA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1006; Safford 301. 
G. E. S. 282, locally known as Santa Ana. 
Distribution of the preceding. 

MACARANGA Thouars 

MACARANGA THOMPSONII sp. nov, § Dimorphanthera. 

Frutex vel arbor, partibus vetustioribus glabra vel subglabra; 
ramulis teretibus, laevis, circiter 1 cm diametro, partibus ju- 
nioribus adpresse villosis; foliis aiternis, late rotundato-ob- 
ovatis ad suborbicularibus, usque ad 20 cm diametro, integris, 
apice brevissime abrupte acuminatis, basi late rotundatis vel 
subtruncatis, alte peltatis, palmatim 9- vel 10-nerviis, supra 
glabris, nitidis, subtus pallidioribus, glandulosis; inflorescentiis 
$ axillaribus, paniculatis, usque ad 16 cm longis, ebracteatis, 
pubescentibus ; floribus numerosis, glomeratis, sessilibus vel 
subsessilibus, staminibus circiter 5. 

A shrub or small tree, in age nearly glabrous. Branchlets 
terete, smooth, glabrous, reddish-brown, about 1 cm in diameter, 
marked with prominent petiolar scars and the scars of fallen 
stipules, about 5 mm apart, the tips rather densely appressed- 
pubescent. Leaves more or less crowded at the ends of the 
branchlets, alternate, broadly peltate, subcoriaceous, broadly 
obovate to suborbicular, 15 to 20 cm in diameter, entire, the 
apex shortly and abruptly acuminate, the base broadly rounded 
to subtruncate, palmately 9- or 10-nerved, the nerves prominent, 
the lateral nerves above the basal pair about 6 on each side of 
the midrib, the primary reticulations prominent, subparallel, 
the upper surface smooth, glabrous, shining, somewhat oliva- 
ceous-brown when dry, the lower surface much paler, with 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 103 

numerous, scattered, pale-yellow glands in small pits, when young 
more or less pubescent on the nerves and reticulations, in age 
nearly glabrous; petioles 10 to 14 cm long; stipules lanceolate, 
nearly glabrous, acuminate, 2 to 3 cm long, deciduous. Male 
panicles axillary, about 16 cm long, narrowly pyramidal, many- 
flowered, the lower branches 3 cm long or less, the upper 
gradually shorter, the bracts wanting. Flowers sessile or sub- 
sessile, glomerate, densely arranged on the ultimate branches. 
Sepals 2 or 3, oblong to obovate, 1 to 1.2 mm long, obtuse or 
acute, somewhat pubescent. Stamens 4 or 5; filaments 1 to 1.2 
mm long ; anthers 3- and 4-locellate, small, about 0.2 mm long. 

Guam Experiment Station U72, no data recorded with the specimen. 

The first representative of the genus to be reported from the Marianne 
Islands, well characterized by its very broad, widely peltate, entire, glan- 
dular, nearly glabrous leaves, and its ebracteate staminate panicles. 
Named in honor of Mr. J. B. Thompson, Director of the Guam Experiment 
Station, through whose interest much of our Guam botanical material has 
been secured. 

MALLOTUS Loureiro 

MALLOTUS MOLUCCANUS (Linn.) Muell.-Arg. in Linnaea 24 (1865) 
185, var. GLABRATUS Muell.-Arg. in DC. Prodr. 15* (1866) 958. 

Croton moluccamim Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1005. 

Echinus sp. Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 265. 

McGregor 402, G. E. S. 298, locally known as alom or alum. 

Widely distributed in the Malayan region. 

As to the propriety of retaining the above specific name for this species, 
there may be some doubt, for Croton moluccaymm Linn., as to the first 
citation given by Linnaeus, is Givotia rottleriformis Griff.,-'' as to the second, 
apparently, and as to the specimen in the Linnean Herbarium it is Mallotus 
moluccanus Muell.-Arg. I have retained the Linnean species in the sense 
that Mueller and other authors have interpreted it. 

MAN I HOT Tournefort 

MANIHOT UTILISSIMA Pohl PI. Bras. Ic. 1 (1827) 32, t. 24. 

Jatropha manihot Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1007. 

Manihot maniliot Karst. Deutsch. Fl. (1880-83) 588; Safford 316. 

G. E. S. 249, 250, locally known as mendioka amarilla, and mendioka 
saipan. 

A native of tropical America, now cultivated in all tropical countries. 

PHYLLANTHUS Linnaeus 

PHYLLANTHUS MARIANUS Muell.-Arg. in Linnaea 32 (1863) 17; DC 
Prodr. 15' (18G6) 357; Safford 351. 

McGregor 427, at Agana. 

A species known only from Guam. 

"Trimen Fl. Ceyl. 4 (1898) 51. 



104 The Philippine Journal of Science ish 

PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 981; Safford 351. 
G. E. S. 152, locally known as maigo lalo. 
Warmer parts of both hemispheres. 

PHYLLANTHUS SAFFORDII sp. nov. § Paraphyllanthus. 

Planta lignosa, 20 ad 30 cm alta, suberecta vel adscendentibus, 
ramulis parce puberulis exceptis glabra; caulibus teretibus, 
simplex, 3 ad 4 mm diametro; ramulis densissime confertis, 
usque ad 9 cm longis, tenuibus; foliis numerosis, confertis, im- 
bricatis, distichis, oblongis, acuteis vel acuminatis, coriaceis, 5 
ad 12 mm longis, penninerviis, margine valde incrassatis; 
floribus solitariis, 6-meris, $ breviter pedicellatis, staminibus 
3, liberis, antheris verticaliter dehiscentibus, $ sessilibus, ovario 
glabro. 

An erect or ascending, simple undershrub 20 to 30 cm high, 
the stems terete, unbranched, their lower parts prostrate, 3 to 
4 mm in diameter, woody, dark-colored, marked with numerous 
scars of fallen branchlets, the branchlets densely crowded at 
the apices of the stems, slender, up to 50 on each plant, 6 to 9 
cm long, somewhat puberulent or pubescent. Leaves numerous, 
crowded, distichous, imbricate, oblong, coriaceous, shining, some- 
what pale when dry, 5 to 12 mm long, 1.5 to 2.5 mm wide, 
sharply acuminate, base obtuse, slightly inequilateral, the mar- 
gins very prominently thickened, cartilaginous, both surfaces 
very minutely puncticulate ; lateral nerves about 9 on each side 
of the midrib, not prominent, ascending; petioles 0.2 mm long; 
stipules 2.5 to 3.5 mm long, filiform-acuminate from a somewhat 
enlarged base. Flowers of both sexes on the same plant, both 
6-merous, solitary, axillary. Male flowers : Pedicels 0.5 mm long. 
Sepals 6, obtuse, oblong to narrowly oblong-obovate, 1 to 1.2 mm 
long. Glands 6, free, subglobose. Stamens 3, free or nearly 
so; anthers subglobose, 0.2 mm long, dehiscing vertically. 
Female flowers sessile, the sepals oblong, obtuse, 1.2 mm long, 
0.5 mm wide. Ovary glabrous, broadly ovoid to depressed-glo- 
bose, 0.5 mm long; styles 3, spreading, distinctly united at the 
base but not columnar, each cleft, the arms spreading, recurved, 
short. Disk prominent, truncate, cup-shaped or saucer-shaped, 
glabrous, 0.4 mm high. Capsule depressed-globose 2.2 mm in 
diameter, glabrous, shining, longitudinally 6-sulcate, smooth, 
dehiscing into three 1-celled cocci, the seeds minutely longitu- 
dinally striate. 

R. C. McGregor i76, hills back of Piti, altitude about 100 meters, Octo- 
ber, 1911 (type) ; Safford & Seale 1121, May, 1900. 

Characterized by its simple, rather stout, short, woody stems, its densely 



IX. c. 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 105 

crowded branchlets, and its crowded, imbricate, minutely puncticulate, small, 
coriaceous leaves which have cartilaginous margins. It is dedicated to 
Mr. W. E. Safford, author of the "Useful Plants of Guam." 

PHYLLANTHUS SIMPLEX Retz. Obs. 5 (1789) 29. 

G. E. S. US, McGregor UIO, also collected in Guam by Gaudichaud, but 
not recorded by Mr. Safford. 

Tropical Asia to Malaya and Polynesia. 

PHYLLANTHUS URINARIA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 982; Safford 352. 

G. E. S. 108. 

Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. (Mr. Safford 
also records Phyllanthus nivosus Bull, from Guam, from plants introduced 
by himself from Honolulu.) 

RICINUS Linnaeus 

RICINUS COMMUNIS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 1007; Safford 364. 
G. E. S. 291, locally known as agaliya. 
In all warm countries, cultivated or wild, probaly a native of Africa. 

ANACARDIACEAE 
ANACARDIUM Linnaeus 

ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 383; Safford 182. 

G. E. A. 218, 368, local name casoy. 

A native of tropical America, now widely distributed in most tropical 
countries in cultivation. 

MANGIFERA Linnaeus 

MANGIFERA INDICA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 200; Safford 315. 

G. E. S. 283, local name manga, as in the Philippines from which group 
it was probably introduced into Guam by the Spaniards. 

MANGIFERA ODORATA Griff. Notul. 4 (1854) 417. 

G. E. S. 20 Jf, near Piti, known as the "Saipan Mango," indicating its 
introduction from the neighboring island of Saipan. Widely distributed in 
Malaya. 

CELASTRACEAE 

GYMNOSPORIA Benth. & Hook. f. 
GYMNOSPORIA THOMPSONII sp. nov. 

Frutex inflorescentiis parcissime puberulis exceptis glaber, 
inerme; foliis ellipticis vel ovato-ellipticis, chartaceis vel sub- 
coriaceis, obtusis vel rotundatis, basi acutis, usque ad 9 cm longis, 
margine distanter leviter crenatis, nervis utrinque circiter 7, 
tenuibus; floribus axillaribus, fasciculatis vel depauperato- 
cymosis, 5-meris; capsulis obovoideis, 8 ad 10 mm longis, 3- vel 
4-angulatis, 3- vel 4-locellatis, seminibus exarillatis. 

A shrub, quite glabrous except the minutely puberulent in- 



IQg The Philippine Journal of Scie7ice lou 

florescence. Branches unarmed, terete, grayish or brownish. 
Leaves elliptic to ovate-elliptic, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, 6 
to 9 cm long, 3 to 6 cm wide, somewhat brownish and slightly 
shining when dry, the apex obtuse to broadly rounded, the base 
acute, margins distantly and not prominently crenate; lateral 
nerves about 7 on each side of the midrib, slender, anastomosing, 
the reticulations slender; petioles 5 to 8 mm long, sometimes 
minutely puberulent. Flowers mostly in axillary fascicles, some- 
times in few-flowered cymes, the pedicels and axis, when present, 
minutely puberulent. Flowers white, 5-merous, about 6 mm 
in diameter, their pedicels in anthesis about 6 mm long, up 
to 12 mm long in fruit, jointed, few to rather many in each 
axil. Calyx-lobes 5, broadly elliptic, rounded, about 1 mm 
long, margins irregularly lacerate-ciliate. Petals oblong-elliptic, 
rounded, about 3 mm long, 1.7 mm wide, margins minutely crenu- 
late. Ovary glabrous, much narrowed above, the style arms 3 or 
4; cells 3 or 4; ovules two in each cell. Capsules in general 
obovoid, somewhat 3- or 4-angled and slightly sulcate, acute or 
obtuse, 8 to 10 mm long, about 8 mm wide, the seeds exarillate. 

McGregor 394, 530, October, 1911, Upi road, in forests; G. E. S. 88 
(type), Apurgan; Costenoble 1189, July, 1906, locally known as luluhut. 

Probably as closely allied to the Philippine Gymnosporia spinosa Merr. 
& Rolfe as to any other known form, differing in being quite unarmed and 
in its entirely different inflorescence, the flowers being chiefly fascicled, 
cymes rarely present. 

SAPINDACEAE 

ALLOPHYLUS Linnaeus 

ALLOPHYLUS TIMORENSIS Blume Rumphia 3 (1847) 130. 

McGregor U97, and, with some doubt, McGregor 389, from Cabras Island. 
Widely distributed along the seashore, Malaya to Polynesia. 

ALLOPHYLUS HOLOPHYLLUS Radlkofer sp. nov. 

Frutex; rami teretes, glabriusculi, juveniles subfusci, dein 
cinerascentes, sparsim lenticellosi ; folia 3-foliolata, mediocria, 
sat longe petiolata; foliola lateralia ovato-lanceolata, basi inae- 
qualia (latere interiore angustiore breviore), breviter petio- 
lulata, intermedia ex oblongo sublanceolata, basi subacuta petio- 
lulis longioribus insidentia, omnia obtusiuscule acuminata, inte- 
gerrima, rigidiuscule membranacea, nervis lateralibus sat crebris 
oblique patulis, utrinque prominule reticulato-venosa, glaberrima 
nee nisi glandulis microscopicis clavatis inspersa, viridia, nitida, 
punctis pellucidis lineoliformibus crebris minutis notata; thyrsi 
axillares, solitarii, ad rhacheos basin ramis 2, rarius 1 tantum, 



IX. c, 2 Merrill: The Plmits of Guam 107 

instruct! (summi eramosi), folia dimidia paullo superantes, 
rhachi quam pedunculus paullo longiore pilis brevibus patulis 
dense cano-puberula, sat dense cincinnigera, cincinnis 2-3-floris 
(summis ad flores singulos reductis) ; flores mediocres, glabri, 
albi, longiuscule pedicellati, pedicellis minutim patule pubescen- 
tibus; fructus — (non suppetebant) . 

Rami 3-4 mm crassi. Folia petiolo 4 cm longo adjecto ca. 15 
cm longa; foliola cum petiolulis 4-10 mm longis 7-11 cm longa, 
3-4.5 cm lata. Thyrsi 6-7 cm longi, ramis 3-4 cm longis. 
Alabastra diametro 1.5-2 mm. Sepala glabra, margine glandu- 
loso-ciliolata ; petala (alabastri) suborbicularia, breviter ungui- 
culata, intus bisquamulata, ungui squamulisque densissime 
villosis; discus in glandulas 4 subtruncatus productus, glaber; 
stamina villosa; pistillum (floris <5 ) rudimentarium, bicoccum, 
puberulum. 

Guam Experivient Station Jt70. 

Obs. Affinis AUophylo timorensi Bl. em., a quo differt habitu graciliori, 
foliolis margine integerrimis, rhachi thyrsorum pedicellisque dense puberulis. 

DODONAEA Linnaeus 

DODONAEA VISCOSA Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. (1760) 19; Safford 263. 
McGregor Jt60, G. E. S. S2B. 
Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

CARDIOSPERMUM Linnaeus 

CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 366; Safford 
214. 
Admitted on the authority of Safford, not represented in our collections. 
All tropical countries. 

BALSAMINACEAE 

IMPATIENS Linnaeus 

I M RATI ENS BALSAM INA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 938; Safford 296. 

G. E. S. 9Jt, locally known as camantigui, its Tagalog name in the 
Philippines. 

A native of India, now cultivated in various forms in all warm countries. 

RHAMNACEAE 

COLUBRINA Richard 

COLUBRINA ASIATICA (Linn.) Brongn. in Ann. Sci. Nat. I 10 (1827) 
369; Safford 246. 
Ceanothus asiatic^is Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 196. 
G. E. S. 52, McGregor 507, locally known as gososo. 
Tropical Africa, Asia, Malaya to Australia and Polynesia, near the sea. 



]^Qg The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

ZIZYPHUS Tournefort 

ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA (Linn.) Lam. Encycl. 3 (1789) 319; Safford 403. 

Rhamnus jujuba Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 194. 

G. E. S. 165, locally known as manzanita. 

An introduced species in Guam; widely distributed in Tropical Asia and 
in Malaya, chiefly in cultivation. 

Mr. Skeels"^ has recently proposed to take up the name Zizyphus mau- 
ritiana Lam. for this species, claiming that Zizyphus jujuba Lam. is in- 
validated by Zizyphus jujuba Mill. (1768), a matter that I am unable to 
check on account of lack of literature. 

ELAEOCARPACEAE 

ELAEOCARPUS Linnaeus 
ELAEOCARPUS JOGA sp. nov. § Dicera. 

Arbor alta, partibus junioribus inflorescentiisque exceptis 
glabra; foliis chartaceis, oblongis ad oblongo-ellipticis, usque ad 
10 cm longis, apice obtusis, basi cuneatis, margine crenatis, 
nervis utrinque circiter 10, distinctis, subtus in axillis valde 
glandulosis; racemis axillaribus et in ramis defoliatis, 5 ad 8 
cm longis, circiter 15-floris; floribus 5-meris, 1.5 cm longis, pe- 
talis usque ad medio laciniatis, subglabris; ovario 5-loculare; 
fructibus ovoideis, 1.5 cm longis, 1-locellatis. 

A tree, from 5 to 10 m in height fide McGregor, but accord- 
ing to Perez, after Safford, yielding logs up to 14 meters 
in length. Branches terete, grayish or reddish-gray, with pro- 
minent scattered petiolar-scars, nearly smooth, glabrous, the 
branchlets sparingly appressed-pubescent with pale, shining 
hairs. Leaves numerous, crowded on the branchlets, charta- 
ceous, oblong to oblong-elliptic, 6 to 10 cm long, 2 to 3 cm wide, 
the apex obtuse, base gradually narrowed, cuneate, margins 
crenate, when young both surfaces with scattered, appressed, 
shining hairs, becoming quite glabrous, the upper surface 
brownish-olivaceous when dry, shining, the lower a little paler; 
lateral nerves about 10 on each side of the midrib, slender, 
distinct, anastomosing, the reticulations distinct, the axils of the 
veins on the lower surface with very prominent glands; petioles 
5 to 10 mm long, pubescent, becoming glabrous. Racemes nu- 
merous, axillary and on the branches below the leaves, 5 to 8 
cm long, about 15-flowered, rachis, pedicels and sepals sparingly 
appressed-pubescent with pale hairs. Flowers white, 5-merous, 
about 1.5 cm long, their pedicels 8 to 12 mm long. Sepals lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, about 11 mm long, 2.5 mm wide. Petals 

"U. S. Dept. Agr. Bureau Plant Industry Bull. 208 (1911) 67. 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 109 

about 1.5 cm long, 5 to 6 mm wide, narrowly obovate, pubescent 
only on the margins in the lower one-third, the upper one-half 
split into 4 or 5 primary, rather narrow divisions, these in turn 
trifid or dichotomously divided into 3 or 4 slender laciniae, the 
base gradually narrowed, acute or obtuse. Stamens about 30; 
filaments short; anthers linear, scabrid, about 4 mm long, one 
cell obtuse, the other a little longer (less than 1 mm), and tipped 
with several short, stiff, white hairs, not apiculate. Ovary ovoid, 
pubescent, 5-celled; ovules several in each cell; style about 1.5 
cm long somewhat pubescent below. Fruit blue, ovoid, smooth 
when dry, subacute or somewhat apiculate, about 1.5 cm long, 
the pulp scanty, the endocarp thick, 1-celled, 1-seeded. 

R. C. McGregor 533 (type), 1^57, October, 1911, Upi road, in forests, 
G. E. S. Jt68, locally known as joga or yoga. 

This is undoubtedly the species that Mr. Safford discusses (pag'e 401), 
under the native name yoga. It is apparently a very distinct and charac- 
teristic form, but I do not know any species of the section to which it is 
especially closely allied. The numerous, compai-atively small, obtuse, prom- 
inently glandular leaves, and the rather large flowers with nearly glabrous 
petals are characteristic features. 

TILIACEAE 

CORCHORUS Linnaeus 

CORCHORUS ACUTANGULUS Lam. Encycl. 2 (1786) 104. 

G. E. S. 176, McGregor 532, locally known as bilimhines chaca. 

Widely distributed in the tropics of the Old World, introduced in the 
West Indies. 

GREWIA Linnaeus 

GREWIA MARIANNENSIS sp. nov. 

Species G. malococcae Linn. f. simillima et afRnis, differt foliis 
basi distincte inaequilateralibus, ramulis inflorescentiisque ad- 
presse hirsutis, baud stellato-tomentosis. 

A shrub or small tree, the branchlets, inflorescences, and the 
leaves on the midrib and nerves of the lower surface appressed- 
hirsute, not at all stellate-pubescent, although the stiff hairs are 
sometimes somewhat fascicled. Branches terete, slender, red- 
dish-brown or brownish. Leaves alternate, ovate to elliptic- 
ovate, chartaceous, 10 to 15 cm long, 4.5 to 8 cm wide, the apex 
sharply acuminate, the base slightly but distinctly inequilateral, 
somewhat narrowed and abruptly rounded, rarely slightly cor- 
date, the margins crenate-serrate, the upi>er surface quite 
glabrous, shining, the lower a little paler, shining, very sparingly 
appressed-hirsute on the midrib and lateral nerves, the lower 
axils prominently bearded; petioles 1.5 to 2 cm long, slightly 
appressed-hirsute. Inflorescence axillary, solitary or two or 



\1Q The Philippine Journal of Science lyn 

three in each axil, appressed-hirsute, 2 to 3 cm long, few-flowered, 
usuallj'- with but three flowers which are umbellately arranged, 
the peduncle 1.5 cm long or less, the pedicels about one-half 
as long; bracteoles lanceolate, acuminate, appressed-hirsute, 
about 7 mm long, deciduous. Sepals 5, elliptic-oblong to oblong- 
lanceolate, 11 to 12 mm long, 4 to 4.5 mm wide, acute, appressed- 
hirsute. Petals narrowly ovate, about 3 mm long, 2 mm wide, 
acute, the scale suborbicular, ciliate, prominent. Stamens indef- 
inite; anthers about 0.5 mm long; filaments 4 to 5 mm long. 
Ovary densely hirsute. 

Guam Experiment Station 133, November, 1911, at Tuition. 

A species manifestly closely allied to the Polynesian Grewia malococca 
Linn, f., and perhaps not specifically distinct. I have seen no complete 
description of this species, and my conception of it is based largely on a 
Samoan specimen so named, Vaupel 2U7. 

GREWIA MULTI FLORA Juss. in Ann. Mus. Paris 4 (1804) 89, t. -47, 
/. 1; Saflford 287. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford, but his specimens should be com- 
pared with the preceding species. 

Widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region. 

TRIUMFETTA Linnaeus 
TRIUMFETTA SEM ITRILOBA Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. (1760) 22. 

Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. 109, locally known as dadangsi. 

Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres, a native of tropical 
America. 

It is strongly suspected that the species recorded by Safford (p. 393) 
as Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq., based on the reference of Triumfetta 
lappula to Guam, by Gaudichaud, is Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq., and not 
T. rhomboidea Jacq. 
TRIUMFETTA PROCUMBENS Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 35; Safford 392. 

Triumfetta fabreana Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 478. 

G. E. S. 85. 

Islands of the Sulu Sea to Australia and Polynesia. 

TRIUMFETTA TOMENTOSA Boj. Hort. Maurit. (1837) 43; Safford 393. 
Credited to Guam by Safford, but the record must be considered a very 
doubtful one. 

BOMBYCACEAE 

CEIBA Gaertner 

CEIBA PENTANDRA (Linn.) Gaertn. Fruct. 2 (1791) 244, t. 133, f. 1; 
Safford 221, pi. i2. 

Bombax pentandrum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 511. 

Eriodendron anfractuosum DC. Prodr. 1 (1824) 479. 

G. E. S. 299, native name algodon de Manila. 

In all tropical countries, where native uncertain, but probably originating 
in tropical America. 



IX, a 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam HI 

MALVACEAE 

ABELMOSCHUS Medicus 

ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS (Linn.) Moench. Meth. (1794) 617; Saf- 
ford 171. 

Hibiscus esculentus Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 696. 
G. E. S. 199. 

The okra is probably a native of tropical America, now cultivated in all 
warm countries. 

ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medic. Malv. (1787) 46. 
Hibiscus abehnoschus Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 696. 
McGregor ^57, G. E. S. 405, locally known as camang. 
Probably a native of tropical Asia, now in all tropical countries. 

ABUTILON Tournefort 
ABUTILON INDICUM (Linn.) Sweet Hort. Brit. (1826) 54; Safford 172. 

Sida indica Linn. Cent. PI. 2 (1756) 26. 

G. E. S. 175, locally known as malbas or matbas. 

The specimen reported from Guam as "Sida maura Link" (manifestly a 
misprint for Sida mauritiana) by Endlicher (Ann. Wien. Mus. 1 (1836) 
132; Safford 374), belongs here. Dr. Ulbrich has kindly examined the 
material in the Berlin herbarium, and although not finding Chamisso's 
specimen, he finds other plants, so named, and indicated as "ex Herb. Link," 
which are the same as Abutilon indicum Sweet. 

Probably a native of tropical Asia, now in all tropical countries. 

GOSSYPIUM Linnaeus 

GOSSYPIUM BRASILIENSE Macf. Fl. Jam. 1 (1837) 72; Watt Cotton 
Plants (1907) 295, pi. 49, 50. 
Gossypium barbadense W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. 

Herb. 9 (1905) 285, non Linn. 
G. E. S. 285, locally known as algodon. 

From the Philippine native names and other data given by Safford there 
is no doubt in my mind but that the species he included as Gossypium 
barbadense is reallj' G. brasiliense Macf. 

GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 693; Safford 285. 

The determination of the Guam material is probably incorrect. There 
are no Guam specimens in our collection agreeing with the figures and 
descriptions of this species, and it is quite unknown from the Philippines. 
G. E. S. 83, 397, two collections apparently representing the same species, 
may be the same species as the plant referred to G. arboreum Linn, by 
Safford, but I have no means of determining the fact; they represent a 
species quite different from Gossypium arboreum Linn., which I am unable 
to determine with satisfaction. 

HIBISCUS Linnaeus 

HIBISCUS MUTABILIS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 694; Safford 294. 
G. E. S. 260, locally known as mapola. 
A native of tropical Asia, now in all tropical countries. 



112 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 294; Safford 294. 
McGregor 359, 360, G. E. S. i35, single and double flowers. 
A native of tropical Asia, now cultivated in all warm countries. 

HIBISCUS TILIACEUS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 694. 

Pariti tiliaceum A. St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Mer. 1 (1825) 256; Safford 347, 

pi. 61. 
McGregor U66, G. E. S. 332, 384, locally known as pago. 
Along the seashore in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

MALACHRA Linnaeus 

MALACHRA CAPITATA Linn. Syst. ed. 12 (1767) 458. 
G. E. S. 28, locally known as pagago. 
A native of tropical America, now in all tropical countries. 

MALACHRA FASCIATA Jacq. Coll. 2 (1797) 352. 

G. E. S. 154., along small streams. 

A native of tropical America, now very common in the Philippines. The 
Guam form is identical with the common Philippine Malachra fascicata 
var. lineariloba (Turcz.) Giirke. 

SI DA Linnaeus 

SIDA ACUTA Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 147; Safford 374. 

G. E. S. 155, locally known as escobilla aduTnelon, the typical form, 
G. E. S. 806, Thompson 25, locally known as escobilla papagu, atypic. 

All tropical countries, where native uncertain. 

The specimens last cited, with the native name escobilla papagu represent 
a form somewhat different from typical Sida acuta Burm. f. Mr. E. G. 
Baker of the British Museum has kindly examined a duplicate of one of the 
specimens and informs me that in his opinion it is only a form of Sida 
carpiyiifolia L. (=Sida acuta Burm. f.). 

SIDA GLOMERATA Cav. Diss. 1 (1785) 18, t. 2, f. 6; Safford 374. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford who quotes Gaudichaud. It is 
strongly suspected, from the native name cited by Gaudichaud, escobilla 
papagu, that the form enumerated by him as Sida glomerata Cav., is really 
the form that I have above referred to Sida acuta Burm. f., and not Cava- 
nilles' species. 

SIDA RHOMBI FOLIA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 684; Safford 375. 

G. E. S. 156, 200, locally known as escobilla dalili and as escobilla apaca. 
All tropical countries, where native uncertain. 

THESPESIA Solander 

THESPESIA POPULNEA (Linn.) Soland. ex Corr. in Ann. Mus. Paris 9 
(1807) 290, t. 8, f. 2; Safford 388. 

Hibiscus populneus Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 694. 

Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. 132, Uh2, locally known as banalo, also its 
most common Philippine name. 

Widely distributed in the tropics along the seashore. 



IX. c. 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 113 

URENA Linnaeus 

URENA LOBATA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 692, var. SINUATA (Linn.) Gagnep. 
in Lecomte Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine 1 (1910) 414. 
Urena sinuata Linn. 1. c; Safford 394. 

Thompson 17, Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. 185, 221, locally known as 
dadangsi, dadanese, and dadangsi apaca. 

Tropics of the World, where native uncertain. I can see no reason for 
considering Urena sinuata Linn, to be specifically distinct from Urena 
lobata Linn. 

STERCULIACEAE 

HERITIERA Dryander 

HERITIERA LITTORALIS Dry. in Ait. Hort. Kew. 3 (1789) 456; Saflford 
282, pi. 52. 

G. E. S. 16, 91, locally known as ufa. 

Along the seashore, tropical Asia to Polynesia. 

MELOCHIA Linnaeus 

MELOCHIA ODORATA Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 302; Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 
47. 

Mrs. Clemens s. n., November 27, 1911. 

New Caledonia to Polynesia. 

The specimen agrees very closely with Balansa S9S from New Caledonia, 
differing in a few slight characters, such as its calyces being hirsute rather 
than velutinous. In both the seeds are quite wingless. The type of 
Melochia odorata was from the Island of Tanna, near New Caledonia. 

MELOCHIA HIRSUTISSIMA sp. nov. § Visenia. 

Frutex, omnibus partibus dense hirsutis ; foliis cordato-ovatis, 
coriaceis, usque ad 8 cm long'is, acuminatis, basi late rotundatis 
cordatisque, margine dentato-serratis ; floribus 8 ad 9 mm longis, 
capsulis ovoideis, acuminatis, non sulcatis, hirsutis, seminibus 
anguste obovoideis, obscure 3-angulatis, angulis rotundatis, baud 
alatis. 

A shrub, size not indicated, densely hirsute with long, pale or 
brownish, more or less shining hairs. Branches terete, very 
dark-brown, older ones glabrous or nearly so, the younger 
branchlets very densely hirsute, pale-brownish or grayish-brown. 
Leaves cordate-ovate, coriaceous, 5 to 8 cm long, 3 to 5.5 cm 
wide, base broadly rounded, rather shallowly cordate or sub- 
truncate, apex shortly acuminate or merely acute, margins rather 
finely serrate-dentate, both surfaces of the same color, uniformly 
hirsute with mostly simple, spreading, rather pale, more or less 
shining hairs which are for the most part on the midrib, nerves, 
and reticulations, the upper surface in young leaves with inter- 
mixed, softer, stellate hairs; basal nerves 3, the lateral 
nerves above the base usually 4 on each side of the midrib; pe- 

125572 2 



114 2"^^ Philippine Journal of Science isu 

tioles densely hirsute, 1.5 to 2 cm long. Panicles cymose, in 
the upper axils, forming, a terminal, leafy inflorescence, densely 
pale-hirsute, the peduncles 10 cm long or less, the flower-bearing 
parts of each cyme 5 cm long or less, the flowers rather densely 
disposed. Bracteoles very broadly ovate, deciduous, prominently 
cillate-hirsute with long spreading hairs, acute or acuminate, 2 
to 2.5 mm long, nearly as wide. Calyx somewhat campanulate, 
hirsute, 6 to 7 mm long, divided to below the middle into 5, 
oblong or oblong-lanceolate, somewhat spreading, acuminate lobes 
about 4 mm long, 2 mm wide. Petals membranaceous, glabrous, 
narrowly oblong-obovoid to obovoid-subspatulate, 8 to 9 mm long, 
3 mm wide, apex truncate-rounded, narrowed in the lower one- 
half, the lower 3 mm 0.5 to 1 mm wide. Stamens 4 to 5 mm 
long; filaments thin, flat, about 1 mm wide; anthers 1.5 mm 
long. Ovary ovoid, densely hirsute; styles slender, about 3 mm 
long, hirsute below, glabrous above. Capsule at maturity ovoid, 
hirsute, not at all sulcate or ridged, about 7 mm long, acute 
or acuminate, composed of 5 cocci which dehisce ventrally, each 
coccus with two, terminal, slender, hirsute, 1 to 1.5 mm long 
awns. Seeds not at all winged, brown, smooth, narrowly obovoid, 
obtuse, about 3.5 mm long, 1.5 mm thick, 3-angled in cross- 
section, the angles rounded. 

R. C. McGregor ^56, hills back of Piti, altitude about 100 meters. 

A species allied to Melochia odorata Linn. f. and to M. aristata A. Gray, 
characterized by its comparatively small, densely hirsute leaves, as well as 
by its densely hirsute branchlets, petioles, and inflorescences. 

THEOBROMA Linnaeus 

THEOBROMA CACAO Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 388; Safford 385, pi 67. 

G. E. S. 317, locally known as cacao. 

A native of tropical America, now cultivated in most tropical countries. 

WALTHERIA Linnaeus 

WALTHERIA AMERICANA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 673; Safford 398. 

Waltheria indica Linn., 1. c. 

Waltheria elliptica Cav. Diss. 6 (1788) 316, t. 171, f. 2. 
McGregor U07, G. E. S. 123, locally called escobilla sabana. 
A native of tropical America, now in all tropical countries. 

GUTTIFERAE 

CALOPHYLLUM Linnaeus 

CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 513; Safford 208. 

G. E. S. 186, 41i, locally known as daog or daok. 

Along the seashore, tropical Africa and Asia, through Malaya to Aus- 
tralia and Polynesia, 



IX. c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 115 

OCHROCARPUS Thouars 

OCHROCARPUS EXCELSUS (Zoll. & Mor.) Vesque in DC. Monog. Phan. 
8 (1893) 525. 

Calophylliun excelsuyn Zoll. & Mor. Nat. Geneesk. Arch. Neerl. Ind. 2 

(1845) 582; Hassk. & Zoll. in Flora (1847) 641. 
Ochrocarpus obovalis Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 335, 

pi. 59. 

Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. It? 6. 

Along the seashore, Java, Christmas Island and Borneo to New Guinea, 
Fiji, and the Admiralty Islands. 

I can see no reason for considering Ochrocarpus obovalis (Miq.) Safford 
to be specifically distinct from 0. excelsus Vesque. Our Guam material 
presents both obovate and elliptic leaves on the same branchlets. It man- 
ifestly represents quite the same species as Ridley 68 from Christmas Island 
(south of Java), distributed as Ochrocarpus ovalifolius Anders. 

BIXACEAE 

BIX A Linnaeus 

BIXA ORELLANA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 512; Safford 199, pi 39. 
McGregor J^26, G. E. S. 128, locally known as achiote or achote. 
A native of tropical America, now found in all tropical countries. 

FLACOURTIACEAE 

PANGIUM Reinwardt 

PANGIUM EDULE Reinw. Syll. Ratisb. 2 (1828) 12; Safford 345. 
G. E. S. 73, locally known as rawel or raudl. 
Widely distributed in the Malayan region. 

FLACOURTIA Commerson 

FLACOURTIA INTEGRIFOLIA sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, inermis, dioica, inflorescentiis exceptis glabra; 
foliis chartaceis, integris, ellipticis, usque ad 8 cm longis, nitidis, 
apice late rotundatis, basi subacutis ad rotundatis, 2-glandulosis, 
nervis utrinque 5 vel 6, tenuibus; inflorescentiis s axillaribus, 
parce pubescentibus, paucifloris, floribus fasciculatis vel in race- 
mis dispositis, longe pedicellatis; sepalis 4, parce pubescentibus, 
2 ad 3 mm longis. 

A small, unarmed, dioecious, nearly glabrous tree, the branches 
terete, wrinkled when dry, brownish or grayish, somewhat lenti- 
cellate. Lreaves alternate, elliptic, chartaceous, 5 to 8 cm long, 
2.5 to 5 cm wide, entire, sometimes with incipient glandular 
teeth at the ends of the veins, the margins slightly recurved, apex 
broadly rounded, sometimes slightly retuse, the base subacute 
to rounded, with two glands at or near the insertion of the 



116 The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

petiole, the upper surface brownish-olivaceous when dry, shining, 
the lower a little paler, shining; lateral nerves 5 or 6 on each 
side of the midrib, distant, slender, anastomosing, the reticu- 
lations slender, fine ; petioles about 5 mm long, sometimes a little 
puberulent. Male flowers in axillary, solitary or sometimes 
fascicled racemes, or the uppermost ones in fascicles, the racemes 
few-flowered, 1 to 1.5 cm long, slightly pubescent; pedicels 5 to 
7 mm long, jointed below to the very short, 1 mm long branch, 
each branch bearing a single flower, and each subtended by an 
ovate, 1 mm long bract. Sepals 4, imbricate, ovate, somewhat 
pubescent, obtuse to acute, 2 to 3 mm long, 1.5 to 2 mm wide. 
Stamens indefinite; filaments 1 to 2 mm long; anthers broadly 
elliptic-ovoid, somewhat curved, 0.8 to 1 mm long. 

Guam Experiment Station Jf66, July, 1912. 

A species differing from most of those in Flacourtia and allied genera 
in its quite entire leaves. It more closely resembles certain species of 
Scolopia in facies than it does Flocourtia, but by definition goes in the 
latter genus. 

CARICACEAE 

CARICA Linnaeus 

CARICA PAPAYA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 377; Safford 215. 
McGregor 335, G. E. S. ^20, the common papaya. 
A native of tropical America, now found in all tropical countries. 

CACTACEAE 

NOPAL E A Salm-Dyck 

NOPALEA COCHIN ELI FERA (Mill.) Salm-Dyck Cact. Hort. Dyck. ed. 2 

(1845) 64. 

Opuntia cochinelifera Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8 (1768) no. 6. 

Opuntia sp.; Safford 338. 

G. E. S. 26J!f, locally known as lengua de vaca, also its common name in 
the Philippines. 

A native of Mexico, now cultivated and sometimes spontaneous in other 
tropical countries. 

Safford records an undetermined species of Opuntia from Guam, citing 
the same native name, which is probably Nopalea cochinelifera. The 
specimens I have examined are in flower, and the generic identification is 
correct. 

THYMELAEACEAE 

WIKSTROEMIA Endlicher 
WIKSTROEMIA ELLIPTICA sp. nov. § Eurvikstroemia. 

Species W. indicae affinis, differt foliis majoribus, ellipticis, 
vel ovato-ellipticis, usque ad 6 cm longis et 3 cm latis, utrinque 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 117 

rotundatis vel apice acutis, ramulis adpresse fulvo-hirsutis, haud 
glabris. 

A shrub, glabrous except the deciduously pubescent branch- 
lets which are distinctly appressed-hirsute with fulvous hairs 
when young. Branches terete, reddish-brown, wrinkled when 
dry, the internodes rather short. Leaves opposite, elliptic or 
ovate-elliptic, chartaceous, dark-olivaceous when dry, lower sur- 
face a little paler, glabrous, 4 to 6 cm long, 2 to 3 cm wide, 
rounded at both ends or the apex somewhat acute; primary 
lateral nerves about 9 on each side of the midrib, rather distinct, 
the reticulations lax, rather distinct on the lower surface; pe- 
tioles 2 mm long or less. Fruit ovoid, fleshy, red, about 8 mm 
long. 

R. C. McGregor 437, October, 1911, hills back of Piti, altitude about 
100 meters. 

A species resembling in appearance Wikstroemia indica Mey., but distin- 
guished by the characters indicated in the diagnosis. It seems to be even 
more closely allied to W. rotundifolia Decne., but its branchlets are hirsute, 
not puberulent. 

LYTHRACEAE 

AMMANNIA Linnaeus 

AMMANNIA COCCINEA Rottb. PI. Hort. Univ. Havn. Progr. Descr. (1773) 
7. 
G. E. S. 67, S60, 4.62, along small streams, locally known astetema. 
Introduced from Mexico; widely distributed in North and South America. 

LAGERSTROEMIA Linnaeus 

LAGERSTROEMIA INDICA Linn. Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1076; Safford 305. 
G. E. S. 436, locally known as melindres. 
A native of tropical Asia, now cultivated in all warm countries. 

LAWSONIA Linnaeus 

LAWSONIA INERMIS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 349; Safford 306. 

G. E. S. 340, locally known as cinnamomo. 

A native of Africa or south-western Asia, now cultivated in all warm 
countries. 

PEMPHIS Forster 

PEMPHIS ACIDULA Forst. Char. Gen. (1776) 68, t. 34; Safford 348. 
McGregor 563, G. E. S. 59, 448, along the seashore, local name nigas. 
Eastern Africa, through tropical Asia and Malaya to Polynesia. 



118 The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

PUNICACEAE 

PUNICA Linnaeus 

PUNICA GRANATUM Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 472; Safford 362. 
G. E. S. 79, locally known as granada. 
A native of south-eastern Asia, now cultivated in all warm countries. 

RHIZOPHORACEAE 

BRUGUIERA Lamarck 

BRUGUIERA CONJUGATA (Linn.) comb. nov. 

Rhizophora conjugata Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 443, non aliorum! 

Rhizophora gymnorhiza Linn. 1. c. 

Bruguiera gymnorhiza Lam. Illustr. 2 (1797) t. 397; Safford 202, pi. UO. 

G. E. S. 339, locally known as mangling lake. 

Along tidal streams on tropical shores from eastern Africa to India, 
Japan, and Polynesia. 

If we follow the rules of nomenclature, as to priority, the acceptance of 
the Linnean specific name conjugata for this species is unavoidable, although 
it has only place priority over Rhizophora gymnorhiza in the original 
publication. Trimen " states : "There is no specimen in Herman's Herb., 
but his drawing is unmistakably this species [Bruguiera gymnorhiza Lam.] 
and it is the whole foundation for Linnaeus's Rhizophora conjugata, which 
name has been since always applied to another plant, R. Candelaria DC, 
to which this bears a strong resemblance in foliage." 

Rhizophora conjugata {R. gymnorhiza), is not always easily distin- 
guished from R. eriopetala W. & A., and various authors have by no means 
always described the same species under the name Bruguiera gymnorhiza. 
Blume's " description of Bruguiera gymnorhiza applies unmistakably to 
typical B. eriopetala W. & A. I have little doubt but that the correct name 
for the species now going under the name of Bruguiera eriopetala W. & A. 
is B. sexangula (Lour.) Poir., which dates from 1790. 

RHIZOPHORA Linnaeus 

RHIZOPHORA CANDELARIA DC. Prodr. 3 (1828) 32; Trimen Fl. Ceyl. 
2 (1894) 151. 

Rhizophora conjugata Auct., non Linn. 

McGregor 368, Mrs. Clemens s. n. 

Along tidal streams from tropical east Africa to Polynesia. 

There is apparently no question as to the validity of the above specific 
name for the present species. It was based on two references, the first to 
Rheede Hort. Malabar, 6 : t. 3U, the second to Rumph. Herb. Amboin. 3 : 
t. 71 , 72, of which the former must be interpreted as the type. Blume " 
however, refers Rumpf's plates to R. mucronata Lam., and Rheede's to R. 
conjugata=:R. candelaria DC. Rumpf's figures are unusually crude, and it 
is quite impossible to determine which of the two species they represent. 
His description seems to me to include both. 

"Fl. Ceyl. 2 (1894) 154. 
"Mus. Bot. 1 (1849) 136. 
"Mus. Bot. 1 (1849) 133, 134. 



IX, c. 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 119 

RHIZOPHORA MUCRONATA Lam. Encycl. 6 (1804) 189; Safford 364, 
pi. 64. 

G. E. S. JtOlf, locally known as mangle. 

Distribution of the preceding; readily distinguished by its much longer, 
several flowered peduncles. 

COMBRETACEAE 

TERMINALIA Linnaeus 

TERMINALIA CATAPPA Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 128; Safford 385. 

McGregor Jf96; said by Safford to be very common, not only along the 
seashore but also inland, locally known as talisai. 

Of wide distribution in the tropics of the eastern hemisphere, introduced 
into tropical America. 

TERMINALIA SAFFORDII sp. nov. § Catappa. 

Arbor ut videtur alta, ramulis junioribus inflorescentiis ex- 
ceptis glabra vel subglabra; foliis breviter petiolatis, late obo- 
vatis, subcoriaceis, usque ad 13 cm longis, apice rotundato- 
truncatis vel latissime rotundatis, basi angustatis, obtusis, subtus 
2-glandulosis ; fructibus 1.5 ad 2 cm longis, 6 ad 8 mm diametro, 
oblongo-ovoideis vel lanceolato-ovoideis, glabris, acuminatis, 
leviter compressis, non carinatis. 

A tree, size not indicated. Branches rather stout, the ultimate 
ones about 7 mm in diameter, glabrous, the branchlets marked 
with scars of fallen petioles more or less densely fulvous-pubes- 
cent. Leaves very broadly obovate, 10 to 13 cm long, 8 to 10 
cm wide, subcoriaceous, the apex broadly rounded or rounded- 
truncate, narrowed below, the base obtuse or rounded, shining, 
the upper surface entirely glabrous, the lower slightly paler, 
glabrous, or the midrib more or less fulvous-villous, and with 
a gland near the insertion of the petiole on each side of the 
midrib ; lateral nerves about 9 on each side of the midrib, rather 
slender, spreading, laxly anastomosing, the reticulations slender, 
distinct; petioles fulvous-pubescent, 10 to 12 mm long. Racemes 
in the upper axils, simple, in fruit up to 8 cm long, more or 
less pubescent. Fruits oblong-ovoid to lanceolate-ovoid, smooth, 
glabrous, 1.5 to 2 cm long, 6 to 8 mm wide, slightly compressed, 
not at all keeled or winged, acuminate, base obtuse, when dry 
brownish and somewhat glaucous. 

Guam Experiment Station A^O, July 1912, locally known as talisai ganee. 

The foliage is somewhat similar to that of Terminalia catappa L., but 
the leaves are much smaller and relatively broader. The fruits are en- 
tirely different, somewhat resembling those of the Philippine Terminalia 
edulis. It may be most closely allied to the Polynesian Terminalia lito- 
ralis Seem. 



120 The Philippine Journal of Science isu 

LUMNITZERA Willdenow 

LUMNITZERA LITTOREA (Jack.) Voigt Hort. Suburb. Calc. (1846) 39; 
Safford 312. 

Pyrrhanthus littoretis Jack Malay Miscel. 2 (1822) 57. 

Laguncularia jmrpurea Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 481, t. lOJt. 

Lumnitzera pedicellata Presl Rel. Haenk. 2 (1830) 23. 

McGregor ^67, Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. 383, locally known as nana. 

The species is very widely distributed along tropical shores from India 
to Polynesia. 

The types of both Lumnitzera pedicellata Presl and Laguncularia pur- 
purea Gaudich. were from Guam, and I can see no reason whatever for 
maintaining Presl's species as a distinct one. The material cited agrees 
with his description, and also agrees with our ample material of Lumnitzera 
littorea (Jack) Voigt, from Malaya and from the Philippines. 

LECYTHIDACEAE 

BARRINGTONIA Forster 

BARRINGTONiA ASIATICA (Linn.) Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. Beng, 45* 
(1876) 70. 

Mammea asiatica Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 731. 

Barringtonia speciosa Forst. Char. Gen. (1776) 76, t. 38; Safford 196, 
pi. 38. 

McGregor 560, G. E. S. 333, locally known as puting. 

Along the seashore from Ceylon to Polynesia. 

The Guam material is referable to the species described by Linnaeus as 
Mammea asiatica; that it is identical with Forster's Barringtonia speciosa 
admits of very little doubt in spite of Miers' conclusions to the contrary. 

BARRINGTONIA RACEMOSA (Linn.) Roxb. Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 634; 
Safford 196. 
Eugenia racemosa Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 471. 

G. E. S. 137, 22U, 297, locally known as langat, langasat, and langaasag. 
Near the sea from India to Malaya and Polynesia. 

MYRTACEAE 

DECASPERMUM Forster 

DECASPERMUM PANICULATUM (Lindl.) Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
46» (1877) 6L 

Nelitris paniculata Lindl. Collect. Bot. (1821) 16. 

McGregor Ull, hills back of Piti. 

Bengal to Formosa southward to Malaya and Australia, eastward to 
the Marianne and Caroline Islands; very closely allied to the Polynesian 
Decaspermum fruticosum. Forst. 

EUGENIA Linnaeus 

EUGENIA JAVANICA Lam. EncycL 3 (1789) 200. 
G. E. S. ^6i, locally known as macupa. 
Very widely distributed in tropical Asia and Malaya in cultivatioji. 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 121 

EUGENIA MALACCENSIS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 470. 

Caryophyllus malaccensis W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 9 (1905) 217. 

Recorded by SafFord, but it is suspected that the identification is erro- 
neous, and that the plants he referred to Eugenia {Caryophyllus) malac- 
censis are E. javanica. Mr. Safford cites the native name macupa for his 
plant. India to Malaya and Polynesia, in cultivation. 

EUGENIA THOMPSON 1 1 sp. nov. § Jambosci. 

Ut videtur arbor alta, glabra, ramis ramulisque teretibus; 
foliis brevissime petiolatis, coriaceis, usque al 18 cm longis, ni- 
tidis, oblongo-ovatis ad oblongo-lanceolatis, basi late rotundatis 
cordatisque, sursum angustatis, apice acutis vel obtusis, nervis 
utrinque circiter 10 ; inflorescentiis paniculatis, fasciculatis, cauli- 
floris, 12 ad 20 cm longis; floribus plerumque in triadibus dis- 
positis, calycibus infundibuliformibus, 8 ad 10 mm longis. 

Apparently a tall tree, quite glabrous. Branches and branch- 
lets terete, reddish-brown or sometimes grayish-red, mostly 
smooth. Leaves opposite, coriaceous, oblong-ovate to oblong- 
lanceolate, 10 to 18 cm long, 3 to 6.5 cm wide, the base rather 
abruptly and broadly rounded, distinctly cordate, narrowed above 
to the acute or obtuse apex, the margins somewhat recurved, 
upper surface brownish-olivaceous, shining, the lower somewhat 
paler, dull or but slightly shining; lateral nerves about 10 on 
each side of the midrib, distant, anastomosing, the reticulations 
lax ; petioles stout, 3 mm long or less. Flowers in panicles which 
are fascicled on the trunk, the panicles 10 to 20 cm long, narrowly 
pyramidal, the lower branches 5 to 7 cm long, the upper shorter, 
all opposite, 3 or 4 pairs to each panicle, mostly spreading. 
Flowers for the most part in threes at the ends of the ultimate 
branchlets, their pedicels short, 1 to 3 mm long. Calyx funnel- 
shaped, 8 to 10 mm long, the lobes 4, very broad and short, 
not prominent. Petals 4, free, orbicular-reniform, rounded, 6 
to 7 mm in diameter, prominently glandular. Stamens indefi- 
nite; filaments 6 to 8 mm long; anthers 1 mm long. Fruit 
when dry about 1.5 cm long, 1 cm in diameter, truncate, black, 
base rounded, ovoid-ellipsoid. 

Guam Experiment Station ^69, no data recorded. 

A striking species on account of its fascicled, rather ample, cauline 
panicles, and its very shortly petioled leaves which are broadly rounded 
and distinctly cordate at the base, and gradually narrowed upward to the 
acute or obtuse apex. 

EUGENIA DECIDUA sp. nov. § Eueugenia. 

Frutex vel arbor parva, glabra vel subglabra; foliis deciduis, 
ovatis ad oblongo-ovatis, chartaceis, usque ad 4 cm longis, obtuse 



122 The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

acuminatis, basi acutis ad rotundatis, puncticulatis, nervis utrin- 
que 6 vel 7, distantibus, tenuibus, anastomosantibus, reticulis 
laxissimis; floribus 4-meris, fasciculatis, axillaribus terminali- 
busque, longe et graciliter pedicellatis, sepalis reflexis, 4 mm 
longis, petalis quam sepalis duplo longioribus. 

A shrub or small tree, nearly glabrous, the leaves deciduous, 
the new ones appearing just before or with the flowers. 
Branches terete, light-gray, the branchlets of the same color, 
slender. Leaves subfasciculate at the tips of very short branch- 
lets, oblong-ovate to ovate, membranaceous, puncticulate, 2 to 
4 cm long, 1.5 to 2 cm wide, olivaceous when dry, somewhat 
shining, the base acute to rounded, the apex rather broadly 
obscurely blunt-acuminate; nerves about 6 on each side of the 
midrib, very slender, obscure, anastomosing, the reticulations 
almost none, very lax; petioles 2 to 4 mm long. Flowers ap- 
parently white, fascicled with the leaves on the very short 
branchlets, axillary and terminal, their pedicels very slender, 1 
to 1.5 cm long, few to rather many flowers together. Sepals 4, 
reflexed, rounded, somewhat pubescent, membranaceous or char- 
taceous, 4 mm long, 2 mm wide, the calyx-tube narrowly funnel- 
shaped, obscurely sulcate. Petals 4, oblong-obovate, membra- 
naceous, apex rounded, narrowed below, 8 mm long, 4 mm wide. 
Stamens many, in several series; filaments slender, 3 to 6 mm 
long; anthers broadly elliptic, 0.8 mm long. Ovary 2-celled, 
ovules numerous, on the central placenta. 

Guam Experiment Station Ml, July, 1912, no native name known. 

A species rather remotely allied to the Philippine Eugenia loheri C. B. 
Rob., well characterized by its thin leaves and their deciduous character, 
its long-pedicelled, fascicled or falsely fascicled flowers, its elongated, nar- 
rowly obovate-oblong petals, and its reflexed sepals. 

EUGENIA PALUMBIS sp. nov. § Eueugenia. 

Frutex, partibus junioribus calycibusque exceptis glabra; 
ramis ramulisque teretibus, tenuibus, brunneis; foliis subcoria- 
ceis, in siccitate pallidis, ellipticis vel ovato-ellipticis, utrinque 
subaequaliter angustatis, basi acutis, apice obtusis, usque ad 
5.5 cm longis, brevissime petiolatis, subtus puncticulatis, nervis 
utrinque circiter 6, tenuibus, obscuris; floribus axillaribus, soli- 
tariis, brevissime pedicellatis, haud 1 cm diametro. 

A small shrub, quite glabrous except the younger branchlets 
and the calyces. Branches and branchlets slender, terete, pale- 
brownish, the largest ones seen but 2 mm in diameter. Leaves 
subcoriaceous, the very young ones membranaceous, elliptic to 
ovate-elliptic, 3.5 to 5.5 cm long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm wide, about 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 123 

equally narrowed to the acute base and to the obtuse apex, the 
margins slightly recurved, when dry pale, dull or very slightly 
shining, uniformly colored on both surfaces, the lower surface 
puncticulate with minute scattered glands ; petioles slender, 3 mm 
long or less; lateral nerves about 6 on each side of the midrib, 
very slender, obscure, obscurely anastomosing, reticulations very 
lax, indistinct. Flowers axillary, solitary, their pedicels stout, 
about 2 mm in diameter. Calyx-tube broadly funnel-shaped, 
pubescent externally, short, the lobes 4, broadly ovate, rounded, 
chartaceous, 3 to 3.5 mm long, 3 mm wide, prominently gland- 
ular, margins, below, slightly pubescent. Stamens indefinite; 
filaments 2 to 3 mm long; anthers 0.7 mm long. Petals not seen. 

H. L. W. Costenoble 1173 collected at Tumbun, August, 1906, locally 
known as agatelang, sheet No. 653738 U. S. National Herbarium. 

A species well characterized by its small, axillary, solitary, very shortly 
pedicelled flowers. It is dedicated to the Reverend Jose Palomo, for many 
years a resident of Guam, who supplied Mr. SafFord with much information 
regarding the island, as well as some botanical material. 

EUGENIA COSTENOBLEI .sp. nov. § Eueugenia. 

Arbor parva (vel frutex) partibus junioribus floribusque ex- 
ceptis glabra; ramis ramulisque tenuibus, teretibus, pallidis; 
foliis coriaceis, late ellipticis ad elongato-ellipticis, usque ad 9 cm 
longis, utrinque subaequaliter angustatis, basi acutis, apice acu- 
minatis, in siccitate nitidis, supra pallide olivaceis, subtus palli- 
dioribus, haud vel obscurissime glandulosis, nervis utrinque 7 vel 
8, non prominentibus ; floribus axillaribus, solitariis, longissime 
pedicellatis, pedicellis 2.5 ad 4.5 cm longis, apice 2-bracteolatis ; 
floribus sub anthesin circiter 2.5 vel 3 cm diametro, calycibus 
tubo utrinque tomentoso. 

A shrub or small tree, the young branchlets, young leaves 
and the flowers more or less pubescent. Branches and branch- 
lets slender, terete, pale, the latter sometimes slightly com- 
pressed, usually appressed-pubescent. Leaves elliptic to elon- 
gate-elliptic, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, the younger ones softly 
pubescent, the adult ones entirely glabrous, 6 to 9 cm long, 3 
to 4.5 cm wide, about equally narrowed at both ends, the base 
acute, the apex rather prominently but bluntly acuminate, the 
upper surface shining, pale-olivaceous, the lower much paler, 
dull, not glandular; lateral nerves 7 or 8 on each side of the 
midrib, not prominent, anastomosing, the reticulations lax, ob- 
scure; petioles 4 mm long or less. Flowers axillary, solitary, 
long-pedicelled, the pedicels usually somewhat pubescent, in age 
glabrous, each with a pair of lanceolate, acuminate, pubescent 



124 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

bracteoles at the apex, these bracteoles about 4.5 mm long, 2.5 
mm wide at the base, gradually narrowed upward, closely ap- 
pressed to the calyx. Calyx-tube broadly funnel-shaped, densely 
tomentose outside, the limb also pubescent within, about 4 mm 
high, 5 mm in diameter, the lobes chartaceous, glandular, broadly 
elliptic-ovate, rounded, up to 8 mm long and 6 mm wide. Petals 
4, deciduous, free, obliquely ovate-reniform, rounded, about 1.5 
cm long. Stamens indefinite, the filaments slender, up to 12 
mm long; anthers 1 to 1.2 mm long. 

H. L. W. Costenoble 1172, collected at- Hilaan, August, 1906, locally 
known as aabang, sheets Nos. G5373G, 653737 U. S. National Herbarium. 

Well characterized by its pubescent younger parts, and especially by its 
solitaiy, axillary, long-peduncled flowers, the calyx-tube being densely 
tomentose outside and the somewhat produced limb pubescent on the inside. 

Another species of the genus, apparently also undescribed, is represented 
by G. E. S. 359, but the specimens are not quite mature. 

PSIDIUM Linnaeus 

PSJDIUM GUAJAVA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 470; SafFord 361. 
McGregor 525, G. E. S. Sh7, UU7, locally known as a6as. 
A native of tropical America, now widely distributed in all hot countries. 

SAFFORDIELLA genus novum 

Genus Baeckeae simillima et affinis, differt fructibus carnosis, 
baccatis, indehiscentibus. 

SAFFORDIELLA BENNIGSENIANA (Volkens) comb. nov. 

Leptospermum hennigsenianum Volkens in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 30 (1902) 
470. 

McGregor U75, October, 1911, hills back of Piti, altitude about 100 meters, 
a shrub, one meter or less in height, with white flowers. 

Leptospermum hennigsenianum, Volkens is rather imperfectly described, 
and was based on two specimens from Yap, Caroline Islands (Volkens 277, 
370), both of which are represented in the herbarium of the Bureau of 
Science. In habit the plant strongly resembles both Baeckea and Lepto- 
spermum. The leaves, however, are always opposite, a character not indi- 
cated by Volkens, and a character that at once excludes the plant from 
Leptospermum. The ovary is 3-celled, with two superposed ovules in each 
cell. The stamens are 1-seriate, not, or at least very obscurely, arranged 
in groups. The flowers are solitary and each has, immediately below the 
calyx, two, linear, 3 to 4 mm. long bracteoles. 

The striking character of the plant, and the one depended on in char- 
acterizing it as a new genus, is its soft, fleshy, berry-like fruit, which is 
crowned by the calyx-lobes, and which is entirely indehiscent. When 
mature the fruit is rather bright-red, and the pericarp is very soft and 
fleshy. Each contains three, subglobose, hard, seeds or seed-like cocci about 



IX. c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 125 

1.5 mm in diameter, embedded in the soft pulp of the berry. All species 
of Leptospermum and Baeckea have dry, dehiscent capsules. 

The genus is dedicated to Mr. William Edwin Safford, author of the 
eminently useful work entitled "The Useful Plants of the Island of 
Guam." " 

MELASTOMATACEAE 

MEDINILLA Gaudichaud 

MEDINILLA ROSEA Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 484, t. 106; Safford 
320. 

McGregor 500, G. E. S. 160. 

This species is the type of the genus Medinilla and is definitely known 
only from Guam. 

MELASTOMA Linnaeus 

MELASTOMA MARIANUM Naud. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill 13 (1849) 276; 
Safford 322. 
McGregor iSO, G. E. S. 350. 
Known only from Guam. 

OENOTHERACEAE 

JUSSIAEA Linnaeus 

JUSSIAEA LINIFOLIA Vahl Eclog. Amer. 2 (1798) 32. 
G. E. S. 5^, locally known as titimo. 
Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

ARALIACEAE 

POLYSCIAS Forster 

POLYSCIAS GRAN Dl FOLIA Volkens in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 30 (1902) 471. 

McGregor 266, at Agafia. 

A species previously known only from the Island of Yap in the Carolines, 
and exceedingly closely allied to the Philippine Polyscias cumingiana (Presl) 
Harms (Paratrophia cumingiana Presl, Panax cumingiana Rolfe) , which 
in turn is possibly not distinct from Polyscias rumphiana Harms {Panax 
pinnatum Lam.), but which can only be deteiTnined when extensive collec- 
tions from Amboina are available for study. The species in facies very 
strongly resembles Anompanax philippinensis Harms, but differs in essential 
floral characters. 

NOTHOPANAX Miquel 

NOTHOPANAX FRUTICOSUM (Linn.) Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. 1' (1855) 765; 
Safford 333. 

Panax- fruticosum Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1763) 1513. 

Commonly cultivated, fide Safford, as it is in the entire Indo-Malayan 
and Polynesian regions. 

"Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium 9 (1905) 1-416, 
plates 70. 



\2Q The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

NOTHOPANAX COCHLEATUM (Lam.) Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. V (1855) 766; 
Safford 333. 

Aralia cochleata Lam. Encycl. 1 (1783) 224. 

Introduced and cultivated, fide Safford; common in cultivation in the 
Indo-Malayan region generally. 

NOTHOPANAX GUILFOYLEI (Cogn. & March.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 242. 

Aralia guilfoylei Cogn. & March. PI. Ornem. 2 (1874) t. 58; Safford 186. 

Cultivated for its variegated foliage, fide Safford; cultivated in most 
wai-m countries, where native uncertain, probably Polynesia. 

UMBELLIFEREAE 

CENT ELLA Linnaeus 

CENTELLA ASIATICA (Linn.) Urban in Mart. Fl. Bras. 11' (1879) 287; 
Safford 221. 
Hydrocotyle asiatica Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 234. 
Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. A6. 
Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

FOENICULUM Tournefort 

FOENICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. Fruct. 1 (1788) 105, t. 23, f. 5. 

Foeniculum foeniculum Karst. Deutsch. Fl. (1880-83) 837; Safford 277. 

Often cultivated by the natives, fide Safford; cultivated in all warm 
countries. 

Ordinary parsley (Apium petroselivium Linn., Petroselinum petroselinum 
Karst.; Safford 349) is occasionally cultivated, but does not thrive, fide 
Safford. 

MYRSINACEAE 

DISCOCALYX Mez 
DISCOCALYX MEG AGAR PA sp. nov. 

Frutex erectus, glaber, ramulis teretibus, crassis; foliis 
oblongo-oblanceolatis, chartaceis, usque ad 20 cm longris, acumina- 
tis, basi longe angustatis, cuneatis, margine integris, utrinque 
reticulatis; paniculis tenuibus, usque ad 10 cm longis, angustis, 
in ramis brevibus specialibus dispositis; floribus 5-meris, 5 mm 
diametro, petalis sepalisque valde glandulosis; fructibus sub- 
globosis, circiter 1 cm diametro, in siccitate striatis. 

An erect glabrous shrub, apparently dioecious. Branches and 
branchlets terete, rather stout, marked with large petiolar scars, 
somewhat brownish. Leaves alternate, chartaceous, oblong- 
oblanceolate, entire, 15 to 20 cm long, 3.5 to 5.5 cm wide, 
narrowed above to the somewhat acuminate apex, and gradually- 
narrowed from about the middle to the cuneate base, the lamina 
merging gradually with the petiole, both surfaces somewhat 
reticulate, shining when dry, the lower a little paler than the 



IX, c. 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 127 

upper ; primary lateral nerves about 8 on each side of the midrib, 
rather slender, curved-ascending, obscurely anastomosing; pe- 
tioles stout, 1 cm long or less. Panicles arranged near the apices 
of special branches, these branches up to 3 cm long, usually 
marked with large petiolar scars, bearing near their apices sev- 
eral reduced leaves and several slender panicles, the reduced 
leaves mostly less than 6 cm long and 1 cm wide, the panicles 5 to 
10 cm long, narrow, rather many flowered. Male flowers pink or 
white, 5-merous, about 5 mm in diameter, their pedicels 4 to 
5 mm long. Calyx 5 mm in diameter, prominently punctate, 
shallowly 4- or 5-lobed, the lobes not reaching the middle, broadly 
ovate, obtuse or rounded, glabrous. Corolla 5-lobed, the lobes 
united for about their lower one-fourth, elliptic-ovate to oblong- 
elliptic, rounded, 2 to 2.5 mm long, prominently glandular. An- 
thers about 1 mm long, not glandular. Rudimentary ovary about 
1.5 mm long, narrowly oblong, glandular. Fruit subglobose, 
bright red when mature, nearly or quite 1 cm in diameter, slightly 
longitudinally ridged when dry. 

R. C. McGregor 558, October, 1911, in forests, Upi road, locally known 
as ohid or otot. 

A well marked species more closely allied to the Philippine Discocalyx 
cybianthoides Mez than to the Marianne D. ladronica Mez. but very dif- 
ferent from both. The type of the latter species may have been from 
Guam, as it was collected in the Marianne Islands by Gaudichaud. This 
is undoubtedly the plant recorded by Safford p. 295 as Icacorea sp. 

No representative of the Primulaceae is known from Guam. Lysimachia 
viauritiana Lam. cited from the Marianne Islands by Pax & Knuth," coll. 
Gaudichaud, may have been from Guam, but was probably from Tinian 
or Rota. At any rate it will probably be found in Guam. 

SAPOTACEAE 

ACHRAS Linnaeus 
ACHRAS SAPOTA Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1763) 470. 

Sapota zapotilla Coville ex SaflFord in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 

369. 
G. E. S. 76, locally known as chico. 
A native of tropical America, now cultivated in all tropical countries. 

SIDEROXYLON Linnaeus 

SIDEROXYLON GLOMERATUM Volkens in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 31 (1902) 
472. 

G. E. S. 477. 

Quite identical with Volken's species which was described from speci- 
mens collected in Yap, Caroline Islands, a duplicate of the type being in 
the herbarium of the Bureau of Science. Very close to .S. ferruginenm 
Hook. & Arn. 

"Engl. Pflanzenreich 20 (1905) 275. 



128 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

OLEACEAE 

J ASM IN UM Linnaeus 

JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUM Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1762) 9; SaflFord 300. 
G. E. S. 369, locally known as hasmin. 
A native of India, now cultivated in most tropical countries. 

JASMINUM MULTIFLORUM (Burm. f.) Roth Nov. Sp. PI. (1824) 6. 
Nyctanthes multiflora Burm. f. Fl. Ind. (1768) 5, t. S, f. 1. 
G. E. S. 310, from cultivated plants. 
A native of India, now widely distributed in cultivation. 

JASMINUM SAMBAC (Linn.) Ait. Hort. Kew. 1 (1789) 8; Safford 300. 

Nyctanthes sambac Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 6. 

Cultivated, fide Safford; probably a native of India, now cultivated in 
all tropical countries. 

JASMINUM MARIANUM DC. Prodr. 8 (1844) 307; Safford 300. 
McGregor 562, Upi road. 
A species known only from Guam. 

LOGANIACEAE 

GENIOSTOMA Forster 

GENIOSTOMA MICRANTHUM A. DC. Prodr. 9 (1845) 27. 

McGregor 52U, 53U. 

A species known only from Guam, described from specimens collected 
by Gaudichaud, the record overlooked by Safford. 

APOCYNACEAE 

ALLAMANDA Linnaeus 

ALLAMANDA CATHARTICA Linn. Mant. 2 (1771) 214. 

G. E. S. UOS, cultivated. Apparently recently introduced as it is not 
enumerated by Safford. 

A native of tropical America, now cultivated in many tropical countries. 

ALYXIA Banks 

ALYXIA TORRESIANA Gaudich. Freyc. Voy. Bot. (1826) 451. 
Gynopogon torresianua K. Schum. & Laut.; Safford 289. 

G. E. S. 32, at Libugan. 

A species known only from Guam, unless the Philippine Alyxia luzo- 
niensis Merr. proves to be identical; the two species are very closely allied. 

CARISSA Linnaeus 

CARISSA GRANDIFLORA (E. Mey.) A. DC. Prodr. 8 (1844) 335. 

Arduina grandiflora E. Mey. Comm. PI. Afr. Austr. (1835-87) 190. 

G. E. S. SIS, a species recently introduced from the Hawaiian Islands, 
cultivated only. A native of South Africa. 



IX, c. 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 129 

CERBERA Linnaeus 

CERBERA LACTARIA (G. Don) Ham. ex DC. Prodr. 8 (1844) 353; Vale- 
ton in Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 12 (1895) 245, t. 26, f. 1-5. 

Tanghinia lactaria G. Don in Sweet Hort. Brit. ed. 3 (1839) 461. 

G. E. S. 196, McGregor 568, along the seashore, locally known as chuti 
or chiute. 

I have followed Valeton in holding this as a species separate from the 
Indian Cerbera odollam Gaertn., although it is not certain whether or not 
the distinguishing characters indicated by him are entirely constant. The 
abundant Philippine material distributed within the past ten years as 
Cerbera odollam Gaertn., is all referable to C. lactaria Ham., as inter- 
preted by Valeton. The species appears to be distributed from eastern 
Malaya to Polynesia. 

A strict interpretation of the generic type of Cerbera, that is, the first 
species cited by Linnaeus, would probably apply the generic appellation 
Cerbera to the plants now placed in the genus Thevetia. Linnaeus de- 
scribed three species, Cerbera ahouai, C. manghas, and C. thevetia in the 
first edition of his Species Plantarum; the first and last are species of 
Thevetia, while Cerbera manghas is in part the same as C. odollam Gaertn., 
and in part Tabemaemontana dichotorna Roxb. I believe that Cerbera 
manghas Linn, should be retained as the oldest name for the species com- 
monly known as C. odollam Gaertn., in spite of the fact that Linnaeus' 
species was a mixture. 

NERIUM Linnaeus 

NERIUM INDICUM Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8 (1768) no. 2. 

Nerium odorum Soland. in Ait. Hort. Kew. 1 (1789) 297. 

Nerium oleander Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 331, non 
Linn.? 

G. E. S. 106, 391, locally known by its Spanish name adelfa. 

A species widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region in cultivation; 
the Guam specimens appear to me to be referable to Nerium indicum Mill. 
{N. odorum Soland.), rather than to N. oleander Linn. 

LOCH N ERA Reichenbach 

LOCH N ERA ROSEA (Linn.) Reichenb, Consp. (1828) 134. 

Vinca rosea Linn. Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 944; Safford 310. 

G. E. S. lOA, 371, McGregor S6U, cultivated in gardens, locally known 
by its Spanish name chichirica. 

A native of tropical America, now widely distributed in the tropics of 
the world in cultivation and as a naturalized plant. To be consistent with 
the American code of nomenclature, the designation of this plant should 
be Ammocallis rosea (Linn.) Small, rather than Lochnera rosea (Linn.) 
Reichenb. under which name Mr. Wight recorded it from Guam. 

OCHROSIA Jussieu 

OCHROSIA MARIANNENSIS A. DC. Prodr. 8 (1844) 357; Safford 336. 

G. E. S. 290, locally known as langiti. 

A species known only from Guam, the above being apparently its 
second collection. It belongs in the section Lactaria. A duplicate of 
No. 290 has been critically compared with the type in the DeCandolle 
herbarium by C. DeCandolle, who writes that they are identical. 

125572 3 



130 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

OCHROSIA OPPOSITI FOLIA (Lam.) K. Schum. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. 
Pflanzenfam. 4' (1895) 156. 

Cerbera oppositifolia Lam, Encycl. 1 (1783) 62. 

G. E. S. 125, McGregor 569, locally known as fago. 

Madagascar through Malaya to the Admiralty Islands and Guam. 

This species, as interpreted by K. Schumann, is of wide distribution, 
and has numerous synonyms. Cerbera oppositifolia Lam., if correctly inter- 
preted, supplies the oldest valid specific name. It is based entirely on 
Lactaria salubris Rumph. Herb. Amboin. 2: 255, t. 8i, which is also the 
type of Ochrosia salubris Blume. Valeton " has queried the correctness 
of K. Schumann's interpretation of Lactaria salubris, retaining Ochrosia 
borbonica Gmel. and 0. salubris Blume as distinct species under the section 
Echinocaryon, and 0. oppositifolia Lam. (as a synonym of O. elliptica 
Labill.) under the section Lactaria. Material from Amboina is essential 
in order properly to interpret Lactaria salubris from which Ochrosia salu- 
bris and 0. oppositifolia must in turn be interpreted. While the Guam 
material does not agree especially well with Rumpf's figure of Lactaria 
salubris as to vegetative characters, the outline and size of the fruit 
agrees very well. The Guam material certainly belongs in the section 
Echinocaryon. 

TABERNAEMONTANA Linnaeus 

TABERNAEMONTANA DIVARICATA (Linn.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. 
Syst. Veg. 4 (1819) 427. 

Nerium divaricatuni Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 209. 

G. E. S. S95, the form with double flowers, from cultivated plants, 
apparently a recent introduction from Manila or from Honolulu. 

Widely distributed in the tropics in cultivation, where native uncertain. 

THEVETIA Linnaeus 

THEVETIA PERUVIANA (Pers.) comb. nov. 

Cerbera peruviana Pers. Syn, PI. 1 (1805) 267. 

Cerbera thevetia Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 209. 

Thevetia nereifolia Juss. ex Steud. Nomencl. ed. 2, 2 (1840) 680. 

Thevetia thevetia Millsp. in Field. Columb. Mus. Bot. 2: 83. 

G. E. S. 12i, cultivated, apparently of recent introduction as it is not 
recorded by SaflFord. 

A native of tropical America, now cultivated in most tropical countries. 

ASCLEPIADACEAE 

ASCLEPIAS Linnaeus 

ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 215; Safford 191. 

McGregor i6Jf, Thompson 15, Mrs. Clemens s. n. 

This pantropic weed, originating in tropical America, is apparently 
common in Guam. 

"Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 12 (1895) 226. 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 131 

DISCHIDIA R. Brown 

DISCHIDIA PUBERULA Decne. in DC. Prodr. 8 (1844) 631; Safford 263. 

An endemic species known only from the original collection made in 
the Marianne Islands, presumably in Guam, by Gaudichaud. 

TELOSMA Coville 

TELOSMA ODORATISSIMA (Lour.) Coville in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 384. 

Cynanchum odoratissimum Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (1790) 166. 
Pergularia odoratissima Sm. Ic. Pict. (1790-93) t. 16. 

An introduced and cultivated species in Guam, fide Saflford, as in the 
Philippines, known as mil-leguas in both places. In 1907 Mr. N. E. Brown 
proposed the generic name Prageluria for Pergularia auct., non Linnaeus, 
at that time being ignorant of the fact that Coville had already published 
the new name Telosma. 

CONVOLVULACEAE 

CALONYCTION Choisy 

CALONYCTION ALBUM (Linn.) House in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 31 (1904) 
591. 
Ipomoea alba Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 161. 
Ipomoea longiflora R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 591. 

G. E. S. 166, along the seashore, Cabras Island, locally known as alaihai- 
tasi. 

Tropics of both hemispheres, near the seashore, perhaps introduced in 
tropical America. 

IPOMOEA Linnaeus 

IPOMOEA BATATAS (Linn.) Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 6 (1804) 14; Safford 
297. 
Convolvulus batatas Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 154. 
G. E. S. 222, commonly cultivated. 
A native of tropical America, now cultivated in all warm countries. 

IPOMOEA CONGESTA R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 485; Safford 298. 
McGregor 501. 
Luzon to northern Australia and Polynesia. 

IPOMOEA GRACILIS R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 484; House in Ann. N. Y. 

Acad. Sci. 18 (1908) 248. 
Ipomoea denticulata Choisy in Mem. Soc. Phys. Genev. 6 (1833) 467, 

non R. Br. 
Ipomoea choisyana W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 

298. 
McGregor JfJfO, G. E. S. 96, 254, local names lagun, lagun tase. 
Along the seashore in the tropics of both hemispheres. 



132 The Philippine Journal of Science i*^* 

IPOMOEA HEDERACEA (L.) Jacq. Collect 1 (1786) 124. 

Pharbites hederacea Choisy Mem. Soc. Phys. Genev. 6 (1833) 440; 
Safford 349. 

Convolvulus hederaceus Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 154. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford, who cites fofgu as its local name; 
frequently confused with the very closely allied Ipomoea nil Roth. 

A native of tropical America, now widely distributed in both hemi- 
spheres. 

IPOMOEA PES-CAPRAE (Linn.) Roth Nov. PI. Sp. (1821) 109; Safford 
299. 
Convolvulus pes-caprae Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 159. 

McGregor 545, G. E. S. 71. 

Along the seashore in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

IPOMOEA REPTANS (Linn.) Poir. in Lam. Encycl. Suppl. 3 (1813) 460. 

Convolvulus reptans Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 158, p. p. 

G. E. S. U8, in wet places, local name cancan, which is also its Tagalog 
name in the Philippines. 

Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

IPOMOEA TRILOBA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 161. 

Ipomoea mariannensis Choisy in Mem. Soc. Phys. Genev. 6 (1833) 468; 
Safford 299. 

McGregor ^50, 

A native of tropical America, introduced into Guam and the Philippines 
at an early date from Mexico, now also found in Singapore, Java, and 
Mauritius. 

There is not the slightest doubt but that Ipomoea mariannensis Choisy, 
the type of which was from Guam, is quite identical with the Linnean 
species, and it is accordingly here reduced. 

MERREMIA Dennstaedt 

MERREMIA GEM ELLA (Burm.) Hallier f. ex Koord in Meded. Lands 
Plantent. 19 (1898) 544; Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
120. 

Convolvulus gemellus Burm. Fl. Ind. (1768) 46. 

G. E. S. 18, locally known as nyetcor. 

India to Malaya. 

MERREMIA HEDERACEA (Linn.) Hallier f. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. ,18 
(1894) 154. 
Convolvulus hederaceus Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 154. 
Thompson 20, November, 1910. 
India to Malaya. 

OPERCULINA Manso 

OPERCULINA TUBEROSA (Linn.) Meissn. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 7: 212. 
Ipomoea tuberosa Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 160. 

McGregor 551, near Agaria. 

Apparently a recent introduction, as it is in the Philippines; a native 
of tropical America. 



IX. c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 133 

OPERCULINA PELTATA (Linn.) Hallier f. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 16 
(1892) 549; Safford 338. 

Convolvulus peltatus Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1194. 

Common in rocky places near the sea, fide Saflford; eastern Malaya to 
Polynesia. 

QUAMOCLIT Tournefort 

QUAMOCLIT PENNATA (Desr.) Boj. Hort. Maurit. (1837) 224. 

Convolvulus pennatus Desr. in Lam. Encycl. 3 (1791) 667. 

Quamoclit quamoclit Britt. in Britt. & Br. 111. Fl. 3 (1898) 22. 

G. E. S. 172, locally known as cebello del angel. 

A native of tropical America, now widely distributed in all warm coun- 
tries. 

STICTOCARDIA Hallier f. 

STICTOCARDIA CAMPANULATA (Hallier f.) comb. nov. 

Ipomoea campanulata Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 160. 

Convolvulus tiliaefolius Desr. in Lam. Encycl. 3 (1791) 544. 

Rivea tiliaefolia Choisy in Mem. Soc. Phys. Genev. 6 (1833) 407. 

Argyreia tiliaefolia Wight Ic. 4 (1850) 12, f. 1358; Safford 188. 

Stictocardia tiliaefolia Hallier f. in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 18 (1893) 159. 

Rivea campanulata House in Muhlenbergia 5 (1909) 72. 

G. E. S. 93, local names alalag, abubo. 

A species of wide distribution in the Indo-Malayan region, introduced 
in other tropical countries. 

In adopting both the generic and specific name of this species much 
depends on interpretation of types, and differences in interpretation accounts 
for many of the synonyms cited above. Dr. House claims that the actual 
type of the genus Rivea is the same species that Hallier more recently 
selected as the type of the genus Stictocardia, but there may be a difference 
as to interpretation for Choisy includes in Rivea, in its original place of 
publication, more than the single species Rivea tiliaefolia, judging from 
Index Kewensis. I am, hence, content to retain Stictocardia in the sense 
that Hallier proposed it, but I do not accept his specific name tiliaefolia, 
which is antedated by Ipomoea paniculata Linn. Hallier** states that the 
specimen in the Linnean herbarium under Ipomoea campanulata is Thes- 
pesia populnea Corr., and in this he is certainly correct. B. Daydon Jack- 
son, Secretary of the Linnean Society, informs me that the specimen is 
named campanulata by Linnaeus himself, and that Sir J. E. Smith has 
pencilled on the sheet "Hibiscus populneus J. E. S." The species is checked 
off in Linnaeus' personal, interleaved copy of his Species Plantarum indi- 
cating that the specimen was in the herbarium if not before the Species 
Plantarum was published, at all events a very few months afterwards. 
However, as to the actual type, the first reference under Ipomoea campanu- 
lata is to Adamboe Rheed Hort. Malabar. 1 1 : 115, t. 56 which is Sticto- 
cardia tiliaefolia = Stictocardia campanulata, and to which the first part of 
Linnaeus' description manifestly applies. The last part of the description 
apparently applies to Thespesia populnea Corr. I maintain that the species 
is to be typified by Rheede's figure, not by the specimen in the Linnaean 

"Meded. Rijks Herb. 1 (1910) 26. 



134 The Philippine Journal of Science wi* 

herbarium. It is to be noted, however, that Trimen," a very careful worker, 
retains the species Ipomoea campanulata Linn., without discussion, generi- 
cally as well as specifically distinct from Argyreia tiliaefolia Wight. 

BORAGINACEAE 

CORDIA Linnaeus 

CORDIA SUBCORDATA Lam. Illustr. 1 (1791) 421, No. 1899; Safford 
248. 
G. E. S. 151. 
Eastern Africa through Malaya to Polynesia, along the seashore. 

HELIOTROPIUM Linnaeus 

HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 130; Safford 291. 

G. E. S. 13, ^75, locally known as herhena or berbana. 

A weed in all tropical countries, probably a native of the eastern hemi- 
sphere. 

HELIOTROPIUM OVAL I FOLIUM Forsk. Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. (1775) 38, 
var. DEPRESSUM (Cham.) comb. nov. 
Heliotropium coromandelinum Retz. var. depressum A. DC. Prodr. 9 

(1845) 542. 
Heliotropium gracile R. Br. var. depressum Cham, in Linnaea (1829) 

457. 
Thompson 2, McGregor 390. 

The type of the variety was from Guam, but the record was overlooked 
by Safford in preparing his enumeration. 

HELIOTROPIUM CURASSAVICUM Linn. Sp. Pi. (1753) 291; Safford 
291. 
Common on sandy seashores, fide Safford. I have seen no Guam spec- 
imens. 

HELIOTROPIUM PERUVIANUM Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1762) 187; Safford 
292. 
Said by Safford to be commonly cultivated in gardens of the natives. 

TOURNEFORTIA Linnaeus 

TOURNEFORTIA ARGENTEA Linn. f. Suppl. (1781) 133; SaflFord 389. 

McGregor 505. 

Common along the seashores of the Indian and Pacific oceans in the 
tropics. 

VERBENACEAE 

CALLICARPA Linnaeus 
CALLICARPA PAUCINERVIA sp. nov. 

Species C. erioclonae simillima et affinis, differt nervis latera- 
libus minus numerosis, 5 utrinque, indumento stellari, haud 
ramoso. 

"FL CeyL 3 (1851) 22L 



IX, c. 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 135 

A shrub or small tree, the branchlets, inflorescences, and 
lower surfaces of the leaves very densely stellate-pubescent with 
pale or yellowish indumentum, the hairs simply stellate, not at 
all plumose-stellate. Branches terete, grayish, older ones 
glabrous. Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, chartaceous to sub- 
coriaceous, 9 to 11 cm long, 4 to 5.5 cm wide, rather abruptly 
narrowed below to the distinctly decurrent-acuminate base, the 
apex somewhat acuminate, the margins crenulate in the upper 
two-thirds, the upper surface, when dry, very dark-brown, shin- 
ing, the reticulations impressed, rather close, ultimately glabrous 
except for the stellate hairs along the midrib and lateral nerves, 
the lower surface pale yellowish-brown or somewhat straw- 
colored, uniformly and densely stellate-pubescent, the glands, if 
present, entirely obscured by the indumentum; lateral nerves 5 
on each side of the midrib, prominent, curved-ascending, anas- 
tomosing; petioles densely stellate-pubescent, 10 to 12 mm long. 
Cymes axillary, one in each axil, peduncled, the peduncles 7 mm 
long or less, dichotomously branched, the whole cyme 2 cm 
long and wide or somewhat less, all parts densely stellate-pubes- 
cent. Flowers numerous, rather crowded. Calyx densely stel- 
late-pubescent, obovoid, truncate or minutely 4-toothed, base 
acute, about 1.5 cm long and nearly as wide. Corolla 3 mm long, 
glabrous, the lobes 4, broadly elliptic-ovate, rounded, about 1.3 
mm long. Stamens exserted; anthers ellipsoid, waxy-glandular 
on the back with small yellow glands, about 1.2 mm long. Fruit 
depressed-globose, glabrous, 2 mm in diameter. 

Guam Experiment Station 292, in rocky places at Asan, January, 1912. 

A species much resembling the Philippine Callicarpa erioclona Schauer, 
and probably as closely allied to that species as to any other. It differs 
notably in its much fewer-nerved leaves. 

CLERODENDRON Linnaeus 

CLERODENDRON COMMERSONII (Poir.) Spreng. Syst. 2 (1825) 758. 
Volkameria commersonii Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 8 (1808) 688. 
Clerodendron nereifolium Wall. Cat. (1829) No. 1789. 
Clerodendron inerme W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
9 (1905) 231, non Gaertn. 

McGregor Jt63, G. E. S. HI, hS2, locally known as lodugao. 

The Guam species is the form named by Wallich Clerodendron nerei- 
folium, which is retained by most authors as distinct from Clerodendron 
inerme Gaertn. Poiret's name is the older and is here retained. The 
species extends from Burma and the Malay Peninsula to southern China, 
Formosa, Malaya, Australia, and Polynesia. 



136 'The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

PREMNA Linnaeus 

PREMNA GAUDICHAUDII Schauer in DC. Prodr. 11 (1847) 631; Saflford 
360. 

G. E. S. 150, 4i9, Captain Bisset s. n., locally known as ahgao. 

Otherwise known only from the Caroline Islands (Yap, Volkens), orig- 
inally described from Guam material. 

PREMNA MARIANNARUM Gaudich. 1. c. 362; Safford 361. 

Originally described from Guam material, and known only from that 
island; not represented in our recent collections. 

STACHYTARPHETA Vahl 

STACHYTARPHETA JAMAICENSIS (Linn.) Vahl Enum. 1 (1804) 206. 

Verbena indica Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 27. 

G. E. S. 289. 

A native of tropical America, now a weed in the tropics of both hemi- 
spheres. 

VITEX Linnaeus 

VITEX NEGUNDO Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 638; Safford 397. 

Collected in Guam by Lesson and by Gaudichaud, recorded by Endlicher 
as Vitex incisa Lam. It is not represented in our recent collections. 

VITEX TRI FOLIA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 638; Safford 397. 

G. E. S. ^39, McGregor 37 9. 

Along the seashore, tropical Africa and Asia to Japan and Polynesia. 

Recently introduced plants of this family are common teak, Tectona 
grandis Linn, f., represented by G. E. S. 253, in flower and fruit, and the 
American Duranta repens Linn., represented by G. E. S. 163. 

LABIATAE 

COLE us Loureiro 

COLEUS BLUM El Benth. Lab. Gen. & Sp. (1832) 56. 

G. E. S. 60. 

A native of the Malay Archipelago, now cultivated in all warm coun- 
tries. 

HYPTIS Jacquin 

HYPTIS CAPITATA Jacq. Coll. 1 (1786) 102. 

Mesosphaerum capitatum O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1791) 525; Safford 

342. 
Hyptis mariannarum Briq. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Planzenfam. 4'" 

(1897) 343. 
Hyptis capitata Jacq. var, mariannarum Briq. in Ann. Conserv. Jard. 

Bot. Geneve 2 (1898) 225. 
G. E. S. 64, Thompson 18, locally known as botones. 

A native of tropical America, found in the Orient only in Guam and in 
the Philippines. 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 137 

HYPTIS PECTINATA (Linn.) Poir. Ann. Mus. Paris 7 (1806) 474, t. SO. 

Nepeta pectinata Linn. Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 1099. 

Mesosphaerum pectinatum O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 525; Safford 
324. 

Collected in Guam by Lesson and by Gaudichaud, but not represented in 
our more modern collections. 

A weed of tropical American origin, now widely distributed. 

HYPTIS SPICIGERA Lam. Encycl. 3 (1789) 185. 

G. E. S. 58. 

A weed of American origin, now also widely distributed in the Philip- 
pines. 

HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS (Linn.) Poir. in Ann. Mus. Paris 7 (1806) 472, 
t. 79, f. 2. 
Ballota suaveolens Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 815. 
G. E. S. IJfU, Thompson 19, locally known as mumutun. 
A weed of tropical American origin, now in most tropical countries. 

HYPTIS sp. 

G. E. S. 183, a form allied to Hyptis suaveolens, but apparently differ- 
ent; it bears the same native name. 

MENTHA Linnaeus 

MENTHA ARVENSIS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 577; Safford 323. 
Cultivated in gardens, fide Safford. 
A native of Europe, now cultivated in most warm countries. 

OCIMUM Linnaeus 

OCIMUM BASILICUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 597; Safford 336. 

G. E. S. 98, in waste places. 

Widely distributed in all tropical countries. 

OCIMUM CANUM Sims Bot. Mag. (1824) t. 2U52; Safford 336. 
Collected in Guam by Gaudichaud, fide SaflFord. 
Widely distributed in the tropics. 

OCIMUM SANCTUM Linn. Mant. 1 (1767) 85; Safford 337. 

McGregor U22. 

Tropics of both hemispheres. 

SOLANACEAE 
CAPSICUM Linnaeus 

CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 214; Safford 214. 

McGregor 522. 

A native of tropical America, now distributed in all warm countries. 

CAPSICUM ANNUUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 188; Safford 213. 

Recorded by Safford, with the varieties cerasiforme Irish, and grossiim 

Sendt. A native of tropical America, exceedingly variable, cultivated in 
all warm countries. 



138 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

CESTRUM Linnaeus 

CESTRUM NOCTURNUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 191; Safford 222. 
G. E. S. 261, locally known as dama de noche. 
A native of tropical America, now widely distributed in cultivation. 

CESTRUM DIURNUM Linn. 1. C. 

Cestrum pallidum W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 223, non Lam. 

McGregor ^20, Mrs. Clemens s. n. 

A native of tropical America, now introduced in various other tropical 
countries. 

I have little doubt as to the correctness of the identification, for the 
specimens agree with a series of American forms, so named, in the her- 
barium of the Bureau of Science, but do not agree with our West Indian 
material of Cestrum pallidum Lam. Mr. Safford states that it is of compar- 
atively recent introduction in Guam, but that it has been distributed all 
over the island by fruit eating birds. He also states that he was not quite 
certain as to the identity of the plant that was referred to C. pallidum 
Lam. 

DATURA Linnaeus 

DATURA FASTUOSA Linn. Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 932; Safford 256. 

G. E. S. 19, locally known as a las doce. 

Widely distributed in tropical Asia, Africa, Malaya, and Polynesia, said 
to have been introduced in tropical America. 

Var. ALBA (Nees) C. B. Clarke in Hook. Fl. Brit. Ind. 4 (1883) 243. 
Datura alba Nees In Trans. Linn. Soc. 17 (1834) 73. 
G. E. S. 20, with the same native name as the preceding. 
Distribution of the species, by some authors considered to be specifically 
distinct. 

LYCOPERSICUM Hill 

LYCOPERSiCUM ESCULENTUM Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8 (1768) No. 2. 
Solarium lycopersicum Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 185. 
Lycopersicon lycopersicon Karst. Deutsch. Fl. (1880-83) 966; Safford 

312. 
G. E. S. 181, locally known as tomate. 
A native of tropical America, now in all warm countries. 

NICOTIAN A Linnaeus 

NICOTIAN A TABACUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 180; Safford 331. 
G. E. S. 338, locally known as chupa. 
A native of tropical America, now cultivated in all warm countries. 

PHYSALIS Linnaeus 

PHYSALIS LANCEI FOLIA Nees in Linnaea 6 (1831) 473. 

McGregor 512, G. E. S. 202, Mrs. Clemens s. n., locally known as tomates 
caputi. 

A native of south America, introduced in Guam and in the Philippines. 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 139 

PHYSALIS ANGULATA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 183; Safford 353. 

G. E. S. 336, McGregor 508, locally known as tomate chaca. 

Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres, probably a native 
of tropical America. 

Mr. Safford records Physalis viinima Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 183, from 
Guam (p. 353), under the same native name as indicated on the specimens 
I have referred to P. angulata Linn. I have seen no Guam material that 
I vv^ould refer to P. minima Linn., which is a very pubescent plant. I sus- 
pect that Mr. Safford's Physalis angulata is the species I refer to P. lancei- 
foiia, and his P. minima is the species I refer to P. angulata. 

SOLAN UM Linnaeus 

SOLAN UM NIGRUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 186. 

G. E. S. i38. 

Temperate and tropical regions of both hemispheres. 

SOLANUM MELONGENA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 186; Safford 375. 
G. E. S. SI, locally known as berenghenas, commonly cultivated. 
Cultivated in all warm countries. 

SOLANUM GUAMENSE sp. nov. 

Frutex vel suffrutex erectus, ramosus, inerme, stellato-tomen- 
tosus ; f oliis valde inaequalibus, ovatis ad elliptico-ovatis, integris 
vel obscure repandis, obtusis vel acutis, minoribus 1 ad 3 cm 
longis, majoribus 4.5 ad 12 cm longis; inflorescentiis axillaribus 
extra-axillaribusque, circiter 4 cm longis, paucifloris, dichotomis, 
floribus 5-meris circiter 12 mm diametro, pedicellatis ; fructibus 
carnosis, globosis, glabris, circiter 6 mm diametro. 

An erect shrub or undershrub, or at least suffrutescent, 
branched, the branches terete, 3 to 4 mm in diameter, dark- 
colored when dry, older ones glabrous, the intemodes short, the 
younger ones densely stellate-pubescent with straw-colored or 
grayish indumentum. Leaves exceedingly variable in size, al- 
ternate or the small ones subfasciculate, chartaceous, in general 
ovate to elliptic-ovate, uniformly and rather densely stellate- 
pubescent on the lower surface, less densely pubescent on the 
upper surface, the indumentum pale or straw-colored, the apex 
blunt or acute, the margins entire or in the larger leaves ob- 
scurely repand, the base broadly rounded to somewhat acute, 
usually slightly inequilateral ; larger leaves 5.4 to 12 cm long, 3.5 
to 8 cm wide, the lateral nerves 4 to 6 on each side of the midrib, 
distinct, laxly anastomosing, the petioles stellate-pubescent, 1 
to 3.5 cm long ; smaller leaves 1 to 3 cm long and about as wide. 
Inflorescence axillary and extra-axillary, stellate-tomentose, 
cymose, rather lax, 3 to 4 cm long, dichotomous, rather many- 
flowered. Flowers 5-merous. Calyx funnel-shapped, 2.5 mm 
long and about as wide at the throat, pubescent, the teeth 



140 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

broadly ovate, less than 0.5 mm long. Corolla funnel-shaped, 
about 12 mm in diameter, pubescent externally, the tube about 
3 mm long, the lobes oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute or 
obtuse, about 5 mm long. Anthers free, oblong, blunt, 2.5 mm 
long; pedicels in fruit stellate-tomentose, 1 to 1.5 cm long. Calyx, 
in fruit, stellate-pubescent, divided at least one-half to the base 
into 5, ovate or oblong-ovate, acute or acuminate, 3 mm long 
lobes. Fruit globose, fleshy, about 5 mm in diameter, the peri- 
carp thin, glabrous, the seeds numerous, flattened, subelliptic 
to somewhat reniform, about 2 mm long. 

Guam Experiment Station 138, H6 (type), on rocks near the sea, Cabras 
Island, locally known as herenghenas halomtana. 

The alliances of the species are not clear to me, but it apparently belongs 
to the group with Solanum verbascifolium Linn. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 

B AGO PA Aublet 

BACOPA MONNIERA (Linn.) Wettst. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 
4'" (1891) 77; Safford 193. 
Gratiola monniera Linn. Cent. PI. 2 (1756) No. 120. 
Herpestis monniera HBK. Nov. Gen, Sp. PI. 2 (1817) 366. 

G. E. S. 10. 

Tropics of both hemispheres. 

BONNAYA Link & Otto 

BONNAYA VERONICAEFOLIA (Retz.) Spreng Syst. 1 (1825) 42. 

Gratiola veronicae folia Retz. Obs. 4 (1786) 8. 

G. E. S. 112. 

Widely distributed in tropical Asia and Malaya. 

LIMNOPHILA R. Brown 

LIMNOPHILA FRAGRANS (Forst. f.) Seem. Fl. Vit. (1865-73) 180. 

Ruellia fragrans Forst. f. Prodr. (1786) 44. 

Limnophila serrata Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 448, t. 57, f. 2. 

Ambulia fragrans Drake Fl. Polyn. Franc. (1892) 140; Safford 181. 

G. E. S. 169, in wet places; Volkens 329 from the Caroline Islands, 
distributed as Lhidei'nia scabra Wettst., is Limnophila fragrans. 

Luzon to Australia and Polynesia. 

LIMNOPHILA INDICA (Linn.) comb. nov. 

Hottonia indica Linn. Syst. ed. 10 (1759) 919. 

Limnophila gratioloides R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 442. 

Ambulia indica W. F. Wight ex Saflford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 181. 

Collected in Guam by Gaudichaud; tropical Africa and Asia to Aus- 
tralia. 



IX, c. 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 141 

LIMNOPHILA SESSI LI FLORA Blurae Bijdr. (1826) 750 ? 
G. E. S. 53, with the native name lumut. 
Tropical Asia and Malaya. 

VANDELLIA Linnaeus 

VANDELLIA PYXIDARIA (All.) Maxim, in Bull. Acad. Petersb. 20 
(1875) 449. 
Lindemia pyxidaria All. Misc. Taur. 3 (1755) 178. 
G. E. S. 238. 
Widely distributed, southern Europe to Polynesia. 

BIGNONIACEAE 

CRESCENTIA Linnaeus 
CRESCENTIA ALATA HBK. Nov. Gen. Sp. PI. 3 (1818) 158; Safford 250. 

G. E. S. 4, locally known as hikara, a corruption of its ancient Mexican 
name. 

A native of western Mexico, from there introduced into Guam and the 
Philippines, now very rare in the latter group. 

PEDALIACEAE 

SESAMUM Linnaeus 

SE8AMUM ORIENTALE Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 634; Safford 373. 
Somewhat cultivated, fide Safford. 
A native of tropical Asia, now cultivated in all warm countries. 

LENTIBULARIACEAE 

UTRICULARIA Linnaeus 

UTRICULARIA BIFIDA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 26. 
McGregor 380, G. E. S. 2UU. 
Widely distributed in tropical Asia and Malaya. 

UTRICULARIS NIVEA Vahl Enum. 1 (1805) 203. 
McGregor 382. 
India and Ceylon to southern China and Malaya. 

AGANTHACEAE 

BARLERIA Linnaeus 
BARLERIA CRISTATA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 636. 

G. E. S. 268, February, 1912, cultivated, and apparently a very recent 
introduction. 

India, now cultivated in many tropical countries. 

BLECHUM P. Browne 
BLECHUM BROWN El Juss. in Ann. Mus. Paris 9 (1807) 270. 

G. E. S. 2Jt2, McGregor 356, Clemens s. n., apparently common. 

This American species is now very common in the Philippines, and is 
also found in Formosa. It has been reported from the Marianne Islands, 



ati. 



142 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

presumably from Guam, by Nees," but is not mentioned by Safford. One 
of the numerous American weeds that reached the Marianne Islands and 
the Philippines through the medium of the Acapulco-Manila galleons in 
early colonial days. 

GRAPTOPHYLLUM Nees 

GRAPTOPHYLLUM PICTUM (L.) Griff. Notul. 4 (1854) 139; Saflford 
285. 
Justicia picta Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1762) 21. 

G. E. S. 312, 352, 367, forms with both the dark-purplish leaves, and 
with variously mottled ones. Apparently cultivated only, as in most coun- 
tries where it is found. 

HEMIGRAPHIS Nees 

HEMIGRAPHIS COLORATA (Blume) Hallier f. in Nov. Act. Acad. Nat. 
Cur. 70 (1897) 204. 

Ruellia colorata Blume Bijdr. (1826) 795. 

G. E. S. SJfS, cultivated in gardens. 

Undoubtedly introduced from Manila, where it is commonly cultivated. 
Malaya; now cultivated in other tropical countries. 

ODONTONEMA Nees 

ODONTONEMA NITIDUM (Jacq.) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 494. 

Justicia nitida Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. (1760) 11. 

G. E. S. 5Jt, 308, 309, from cultivated plants. 

Apparently of recent introduction from Manila, where it is commonly 
cultivated. The native name in Guam is given as San Francisco, a name 
commonly applied, in the Philippines, to various shrubs with variegated 
leaves. It is suspected that this is the species Safford mentions as "an 
Eranthemum with dark-purple foliage," page 173. A native of tropical 
America, now cultivated in other tropical countries. 

THUNBERGIA Linnaeus 

THUNBERGIA ALATA Boj. in Hook. Exct. Fl. (1823-27) t. 177. 

G. E. S. 281, apparently of recent introduction, possibly from Manila 
where it is not uncommon. A native of tropical Africa, now naturalized 
in many other tropical countries. 

RUBIACEAE 

BIKKIA Reinwardt 

BIKKIA MARIANNENSIS Brongn. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 13 (1866) 42. 
Cormigonus mariannensis W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. 
Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 249. 

G. E. S. U07, McGregor 63J^, rocky places near the sea. 
Known only from Guam. 

"DC. Prodr. 11 (1847) 466. 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 143 

COFFEA Linnaeus 

COFFEA ARABICA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 172; Safford 244. 
G. E. S. JtOO, McGregor 515, locally known as cafe. 
A native of southeastern Asia, now cultivated in all tropical countries. 

COFFEA LIBERICA Miers in Trans. Linn. Soc. 2 (1876) 171, t. 24; Safford 
245. 
G. E. S. 2JtS. 
A native of tropical Africa, recently introduced in Guam. 

GEOPHILA D. Don 

GEOPHILA HERBACEA (Jacq.) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. (1891) 300; K. 
Schum. in Engl. & Prantl Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4* (1891) 119. 
Psychotria herbacea Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. (1760) 16. 
Geophila reniformis D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nep. (1825) 136. 
Carintha herbacea W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 

(1905) 216. 
McGregor 397. 
Tropics of both hemispheres. 

GUETTARDA Linnaeus 

GUETTARDA SPECIOSA Linn. Sp, PI. (1753) 991; Safford 288. 

McGregor 550, G. E. S. 119, Mrs. Clemens 8. n., locally known as panao. 
Along the seashore in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

HEDYOTIS Linnaeus 
HEDYOTIS MEGALANTHA sp. nov. 

Herba erecta, ramosa, glabra, usque ad 70 cm alta, ramis 
ramulisque quadrangulatis, in siccitate sulcatis; foliis membra- 
naceis vel chartaceis, oblongo-ovatis vel elliptico-ovatis, usque ad 
11 cm longis, basi acutis ad rotundatis, apice breviter acuminatis, 
nervis utrinque circiter 6; paniculis terminalibus, foliaceis, am- 
plis, divaricato-ramosis ; floribus 4-meris, sepalis oblongo-ovatis, 
circiter 4 mm longis, leviter accrescentibus, persistentibus ; 
corolla circiter 14 mm longa. 

An erect, branched, glabrous, smooth herb, or apparently some- 
times suffrutescent, at least 70 cm high, the stems and branches 
4-angled but not winged, when dry somewhat sulcate. Leaves 
oblong-ovate to elliptic-ovate, membranaceous to chartaceous, 
mostly 9 to 11 cm long, 3 to 4.5 cm wide, those on the panicles 
reduced, base rounded to acute, apex shortly acuminate, both 
surfaces shining, greenish or yellowish-brown, the lower surface 
with scattered cystoliths; lateral nerves about 6 on each side 
of the midrib, slender, curved-ascending, reticulations very lax ; 
petioles about 1 cm long ; stipules short, broad, pectinately divided 
into 10 to 15, stiff, linear-oblong, 3 to 4 mm long lobes. In- 



« 



144 The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

florescence a lax, divaricately branched, more or less leafy panicle 
terminating the stems, the upper leaves much reduced, ovate, 
cordate, sessile, 3 cm long or less, these subtending the branches, 
similar but much smaller ones subtending the branchlets, the 
whole inflorescence 30 cm long or more, rather lax. Flowers 
4-merous, disposed in small lax or rather dense cymes at the 
ends of the branchlets. Calyx-tube broadly funnel-shaped, 
glabrous or somewhat pubescent, about 2 mm long, the lobes 
4, oblong-ovate, about 4 mm long, 2 mm wide, obtuse or acute, 
somewhat accrescent and persistent in fruit, the whole calyx 
somewhat urceolate. Corolla white, the tube cylindric, 12 to 14 
mm long, about 3 mm in diameter, quite glabrous but with 
scattered cystoliths, the lobes 4, spreading or reflexed, oblong- 
ovate, obtuse or acute, 3 mm long. Filaments 4 mm long, ex- 
serted; anthers 2 mm long. Style very slender, 2.5 cm long. 
Capsule somewhat globose or obovoid, 3 mm in diameter, crowned 
by the somewhat spreading calyx-lobes which are 6 mm long, 
3 mm wide, subcoriaceous. Seeds black, sharply 3-angled, 
about 1 mm long. 

R. C. McGregor i58, hills back of Piti, altitude about 100 meters, October, 
1911. 

A striking species on account of its comparatively large flowers, its 
ample, lax, divaricately branched panicles, and its large, persistent, some- 
what spreading calyx-lobes. 

HEDYOTIS MARIANNENSIS sp. nov. 

Suffruticosa, ut videtur erecta, ramosa, glabra, ramis ramu- 
lisque teretibus vel ramulis in siccitate nigris, obscure 4-angu- 
latis ; f oliis membranaceis, oblongis vel oblongo-ellipticis, nitidis, 
usque ad 12 cm longis, apice breviter acuminatis, basi acutis, 
breviter petiolatis, nervis utrinque circiter 5, tenuibus, obscuris ; 
inflorescentiis terminalibus, pedunculatis, 6 ad 9 cm diametro, 
laxis vel subconf ertis ; floribus 4-m-eris; corolla circiter 6 mm 
longa, glabra. 

An erect, somewhat branched suftrutescent or woody plant, 
quite glabrous, the older branches terete, grayish-brown in color, 
3 to 5 mm in diameter, sometimes marked with 4, slender, longi- 
tudinal lines, the branchlets nearly black when dry, somewhat 
4-angled, or with 4 lines, sometimes nearly terete. Leaves 
oblong-elliptic, membranaceous, shining, brownish or olivaceous 
when dry, of the same color on both surfaces, apex shortly and 
sharply acuminate, base acute; lateral nerves about 5 on each 
side of the midrib, slender, obscure, ascending, the reticulations 
very lax, not prominent; petioles 5 mm long or less, usually 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 145 

somewhat winged by the decurrent lamina ; stipules short, wide, 
ending in a prominent but stout and blunt apiculus, sometimes 
with two very short, obscure lateral appendages, not laciniate. 
Inflorescence terminal, peduncled, usually, however, with two 
basal branches which are scarcely longer than the peduncle of 
the inflorescence proper, the whole inflorescence up to 12 cm 
long, dark-colored or nearly black when dry, lax, or the flowers 
somewhat crowded, 6 to 9 cm in diameter, the bracts subtending 
the primary branches linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 5 to 7 mm 
long. Flowers numerous, 4-merous, white, quite glabrous. 
Calyx black when dry, the tube funnel-shaped, 1.5 mm long, with 
4, short, triangular-ovate, acute, 0.5 mm long teeth. Corolla 
nearly black when dry, the tube 4 mm long, slightly enlarged up- 
ward, the lobes 2.5 mm long, oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 
acute or acuminate. Anthers oblong-lanceolate, 1.8 mm long, the 
filaments very short. Capsule turbinate, 3.5 mm in diameter, 
base somewhat acute, apex truncate, the crowning teeth not 
prominent. 

R. C. McGregor 572 (type), Cabras Island, October, 1911, G. E. S. 2S9, 
January, 1912, on rocks at Asan. 

A species apparently well characterized by its obscurely nerved, short- 
petioled leaves, its nearly entire, not at all pectinate stipules, its small 
calyces, and its distinctly dark color in drying. 

IXORA Linnaeus 

IXORA TRIANTHA Volkens in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 31 (1902) 476. 

McGregor S87, 5JfS, Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. 95, 99, 33. 

Quite the same as Volken's Caroline Islands specimens, the species 
otherwise known only from the Island of Yap. 

MITRACARPUM Zuccarini 

MITRACARPUM HIRTUM (Linn.) DC. Prodr. 4 (1830) 572; Safford 325. 

Spermacoce hirta Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1762) 148. 

Mitracarpum torresianum Cham. & Schlecht. in Linnaea 3 (1828) 360. 

McGregor 485. 

A native of tropical America, introduced into Guam through the medium 
of the Acapulco-Manila galleons; reported also from Samoa. The credit- 
ing of M. torresianum C. & S. to Guam was not due to any mixing of labels, 
as suggested by K. Schumann and Lauterbach. 

M OR IN DA Linnaeus 

MORI N DA INDICA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 176; Safford 326. 
Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. U53, locally known as lada. 
Tropical Asia and Africa to Poljmesia. 

125572 4 



146 . The Philippine Journal of Science ini 

MORINDA GLANDULOSA sp. nov. 

Species M. iimbellatae affinis, differt floribus fructibusque 
majoribus, foliis subtus in axillis venarum valde glandulosis. 

A scandent shrub, quite glabrous except for the villous throats 
of the corollas, and the somewhat villous glands. Branches 
terete, light-gray, 3 to 4 mm in diameter, somewhat rugose or 
lenticillate. Leaves oblong, elliptic-oblong, or oblong-lanceolate, 
chartaceous to subcoriaceous, 7 to 10 cm long, 2,5 to 4 cm wide, 
about equally narrowed at both ends, the apex broadly acuminate, 
acute, or obtuse, the base acute or somewhat decurrent-acumi- 
nate, somewhat brownish-gray when dry, uniform in color and 
shining on both surfaces ; lateral nerves about 8 on each side of 
the midrib, slender, arched-anastomosing, the reticulations lax, 
not prominent, on the lower surface each axil usually with a 
prominent, round to elliptic gland 1 to 2.5 mm long, villous within ; 
petioles 1.5 to 2.5 cm long; stipules wide, truncate, about 2 mm 
long, deciduous. Heads laxly um.belled at the tips of the branch- 
lets, about 4 in each umbel, sometimes additional solitary ones 
in the upper axils, the heads, in anthesis, 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter, 
rather dense, globose, their peduncles slender, 1 to 2 cm long. 
Flowers sessile, apparently white. Calyces densely crowded, 
the limbs slightly produced, truncate or minutely denticulate, 
about 1.5 mm in diameter. Corolla-tube cylindric, not con- 
stricted, about 2 mm long, stout, glabrous externally, with 5 or 
6 lobes, the lobes elliptic-oblong, obtuse, 3 to 3.5 mm long, 1.5 to 
1.8 mm wide, glabrous, the throat densely villous. Anthers 
narrowly elliptic-oblong, 2 to 2.3 mm long. Style 2.5 mm long, 
the sigmas stout, 1 mm long. Fruit fleshy, globose, when dry 
and somewhat flattened out, 2 to 2.5 cm in diameter, the pyrenes 
numerous, narrowly oblong, obtuse, 3 to 4 mm long, somewhat 
horny. 

Guam Experiment Station 37, in fruit, November, 1911, 876 (type), in 
flower, March, 1912, Tumon Road. 

The prominently glandular leaves are apparently characteristic. 

OLDENLANDIA Linnaeus 

OLDENLANDIA BIFLORA Linn. Sp. PL (1753) 119. 

Oldenlandia paniculata Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2 (1763) 1667; SafFord 338. 

G. E. S. 62, llA, Thompson 2. 
Tropical Asia to Polynesia. 

OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 119. 
G. E. S. 89. 
Tropics of both hemispheres. 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plavts of G2(am 147 

OLDENLANDIA ALBIDO-PUNCTATA sp. nov. § Gonotheca. 

Species O. pteritae afRnis, differ! foliis plus minusve distincte 
albido-punctatis, inflorescentiis laxis, floribus baud subcapita- 
tis, calycibus vix vel obscurissime alatis, lobis distinctis, ovatis, 
acuminatis, circiter 2 mm longis. 

An erect, branched, glabrous, rather diffuse, annual plant 20 
to 30 cm high, the stems and branches slender, terete, or the 
ultimate branchlets obscurely 4-angled. Leaves narrowly oblong- 
obovate to oblong-elliptic, 1.5 to 2 cm long, 5 to 8 mm wide, 
rather coriaceous, apex usually rounded, sometimes obscurely 
apiculate, base acute, both surfaces usually distinctly puncticulate 
with white dots (apparently short cystoliths) the lateral nerves 
very slender, two or three pairs, ascending, obscure, some- 
times obsolete; petioles 2 mm long or less; stipules very broad, 
abruptly acuminate, the acumen 2 to 3 mm long, sometimes 
shortly trifid. Inflorescence, the whole upper part of the plant, 
a lax, leafy panicle, the ultimate branchlets (peduncles) bearing 
the flowers 2 to 5 cm long, the flowers solitary, in pairs, or in 
threes, the bracteoles lanceolate, acuminate, 1 to 2 mm long, 
the pedicels 1 to 2 mm long, in fruit up to 3 mm long. Calyx 
urceolate, in anthesis 2.5 mm long, the lobes 4, ovate, acuminate, 
prominently reticulate, 1.5 mm long, accrescent in fruit. 
Corolla-tube 1.5 mm long, villous within. Anthers 0.8 mm long. 
Capsules somewhat compressed, obovoid, about 4 mm long and 
wide, narrowed below into the stipe, very obscurely 4-winged, the 
wings, or mere lines, in pairs, lateral, sometimes entirely absent 
in the upper two-thirds, and evident only in the narrowed basal 
part of the capsule, the persistent calyx-lobes ovate, reticulate, 
acuminate, 2 mm long, divided nearly to the base of the calyx-rim. 
Seeds numerous, somewhat angled-globose, brown, pitted, 0.4 to 
0.5 mm in diameter. 

R. C. McGregor 375, Cabras Island, October, 1911. 

In appearance similar to Oldenlandia biflora Linn. (O. paniculata Linn.), 
but with much larger flowers and capsules. The structure of its flowers 
and capsules place it very near Oldenlandia pterita (Blume) Miq., but it 
seems to be specifically distinct in its smaller capsules, which are very 
obscurely or scarcely winged, and in its deeply cleft calyx-limb, the lobes 
extending nearly to the apex of the capsule. 

MUSSAENDA Linnaeus 
MUSSAENDA FRONDOSA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 177; Safford 330. 

Admitted on the authority of Safford. If correctly interpreted the 
species extends from India to Polynesia, but it seems probable that several 
closely allied but distinct species are involved in the present conception of 
Mussaenda frondosa. Guam material should be compared critically with 
Ceylon material, the type of the species being from Ceylon. 



148 l"^^ Philippine Journal of Science isu 

PSYCHOTRIA Linnaeus 

PSYCHOTRIA MARIANA Bartl. ex DC. Prodr. 4 (1830) 522; Safford 362. 

G. E. S. S6, Mrs. Clemens s. n., McGregor 526, locally known as aploc- 
hating or aploghating. 

Known only from the Marianne Islands, represented also by Volkens Ul, 
from the Island of Tinian, distributed as Grumilea. 

PSYCHOTRIA MALASPINAE sp. nov. 

FYutex glaber; foliis chartaceis, usque ad 9 cm longis, 
acuminatis, basi angustatis, acutis, oblongo-obovatis ad obovato- 
lanceolatis vel subellipticis, nervis utrinque circiter 8, tenuibus, 
anastomosantibus, in siccitate utrinque subconcoloribus nitidis- 
que, olivaceis et plus minusve rubro-brunneis ; inflorescentiis 
subterminalibus, brevibus, paucifloris, circiter 2.5 cm longis; 
fructibus circiter 7 mm longis, oblongo-obovoideis, pericarpio 
carnoso; pyrenis rugosis, leviter longitudinaliter carinatis, vix 
sulcatis. 

A glabrous shrub, the branches terete, reddish-brown, the 
younger branchlets slender, with manifest cystoliths. Leaves 
chartaceous, oblong-obovate to obovate-lanceolate or subelliptic, 
6 to 9 cm long, 2 to 4 cm wide, the apex distinctly acuminate, 
base more or less narrowed, acute, when dry olivaceous and 
usually more or less tinged with reddish-brown, prominently 
shining and of about the same color on both surfaces; lateral 
nerves about 8 on each side of the midrib, slender, not prominent, 
anastomosing, the reticulations very lax, slender; petioles 7 to 
10 mm long; stipules very early deciduous. Inflorescence soli- 
tary, subterminal or in the uppermost axils, slender, few-flowered, 
about 2.5 cm long, the primary branches usually three only, the 
flowers white, sessile or subsessile in threes on the ultimate 
branchlets. Calyx somewhat turbinate, truncate or with 4 or 5 
very minute teeth, somewhat narrowed below, about 2 mm long. 
Corolla (from mature buds) 3 mm long, 4-lobed, the throat villous 
inside. Anthers 1 mm long. Fruit 7 to 8 mm long, oblong- 
obovoid, smooth, the pericarp fleshy, apparently red, the apex 
truncate or rounded, base narrowed, acute, the pyrenes hard, 
plano-convex, oblong-elliptic, 6 mm long, 4 mm wide, prominently 
rugose, very obscurely longitudinally keeled, not at all sulcate. 

McGregor 559, Upi Road, October, 1911, in flower (type) ; Asinan, 
Costenoble 1181 (in U. S, National Herbarium), July, 1906, in fruit, 
locally known as aplokhaHng palaoan. 

A species somewhat resembling the Caroline Psychotria arbuscula Vol- 
kens, the Polynesian P. insularis A. Gray, and the Malayan P. viridiflora 
Reinw., but quite distinct from all. It seems to be most closely allied to 
the latter. Dedicated to Alessandro Malaspina, commandant of the cor- 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 149 

vettes "Atrevida" and "Descubierta" which comprised the Malaspina Ex- 
pedition, the first scientific exploring expedition to reach Guam and the 
Philippines. 

RANDIA Linnaeus 

RANDIA RACEMOSA (Cav.) F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 108; Maxim, in 
Bull. Acad. Petersb. 29 (1884) 167. 

Stylocoryna racemosa Cav. Ic. 4 (1797) 45, (. 368. 

G. E. S. 6, Mrs. Clemens s. n., locally known as sumac or sumag. 

The species is common and widely distributed in the Philippines, extend- 
ing nortward to the Liu Kiu Islands. Its other range is obscured by 
complicated synonj-my, but I suspect that it is of wide distribution in the 
Malayan and Polynesian regions. I can see no reason for not referring 
here Ridley 37, from Christmas Island, south of Java, Koorders 30059 from 
Java, both distributed as Randia densiflora, and Volkens UO, from Tinian 
Island, Mariannes, distributed as "Randia nov. spec." Randia densiflora 
(Roxb.) Benth. is certainly very closely allied, and perhaps R. racemosa 
must be reduced to that species. Equally closely allied is Randia graffei 
Reinike, of Polynesia, at least as represented by Volkens 502 and 5S6 from 
Yap, and Vaupel Hi from Samoa. Stylocoryne coffaeoides A. Gray, a 
widely distributed Polynesian species, should also be critically compared. 

By some botanists the specific name racemosa would be considered to 
be invalidated by Randia racemosa Roxb., but in the uncertain state of 
the synonymy of our species, I prefer to make no change. 

TAR EN N A Gaertner 
TARENNA GLABRA sp. nov. 

Frutex vel arbor parva, glabra; ramis teretibus, ramulis 
distincte quadrangulatis ; foliis oblongis vel ovato-oblongis, niti- 
dis, usque ad 12 cm longis, acutis vel obtusis, basi acutis, nervis 
utrinque 7 vel 8 ; inflorescentiis terminalibus, corymbosis, multi- 
floris ; floribus 5-meris, corollae tubo 3 ad 4 mm longo, intus 
villoso, extus glabro; fructibus globosis, in siccitate nigris, 
nitidis, seminibus circiter 16. 

A shrub or small tree, quite glabrous except the corolla-tube 
which is villous inside. Branches terete, brownish or brownish- 
gray, the branchlets about as thick as the ultimate branches, 
distinctly 4-angled, the internodes about 1 cm long. Leaves 
chartaceous, oblong to ovate-oblong, 8 to 12 cm long, 3 to 4.5 cm 
wide, about equally narrowed to the acute or obtuse apex and to 
the acute base, when dry dark-olivaceous, or the upper surface 
nearly black, smooth and shining, the lower surface very slightly 
paler than the upper; lateral nerves 7 or 8 on each side of the 
midrib, rather prominent on the lower surface, curved, anasto- 
mosing, the reticulations slender, very lax; petioles 1 to 2 cm 
long; stipules very early deciduous. Inflorescence terminal, gla- 
brous, corymbose, many-flowered, about 5 cm long, 8 cm wide, the 
lower branches subtended by lanceolate, leaf -like bracts (reduced 



k». 



150 I'h^ Philippine Journal of Science i9h 

leaves). Flowers apparently white, 5-merous. Calyx cylindric, 
cup-shaped, glabrous, 2 mm long, about 1.5 mm in diameter, with 
5, short, blunt, teeth. Corolla-tube 3 to 4 mm long, cylindric, 
externally glabrous, internally villous, the lobes 5, glabrous, 
oblong or narrowly oblong, obtuse, about as long as the tube. 
Anthers lanceolate, 3 mm long, exserted. Style and stigma 10 
to 11 mm long. Fruit globose, black when dry, shining, peri- 
carp somewhat wrinkled, 2-celled, about 8 seeds in each cell, the 
seeds irregular, more or less angular and compressed, about 2 
mm long. 

Guam Experiment Station 26, November, 1911, at Tolijuice. 

A species manifestly allied to Tarenna asiatica O. Ktze., and appar- 
ently also to Stylocoryne sambucina A. Gray, but distinguished from both 
in being entirely glabrous except for the corolla-tube which is villous 
inside. 

I have followed De Dalla Torre and Harms in adopting Gaertner's 
generic name Tarenna, for those species which have been described chiefly 
as Webera and Stylocoryne, but I am by no means certain that these 
authors are correct in their distribution of the synonyms between Tarenna 
and Randia. I suspect that Cupi Adanson is the oldest, and therefore by 
rules of priority, the correct generic name at least for those species of 
Webera, Stylocoryne, and Taremia that have several ovules in each cell. 
It is based entirely on Cupi Rheede Hort. Malabar. 2: 37, pi. 23 which is 
the type of Rondeletia asiatica Linn. De Dalla Torre and Harms, how- 
ever, refer Cupi of Adanson to Randia, but I do not think that Rheede's 
plate and description justifies this disposition of it, and consider that it is 
rather Tarenna than Randia. Webera Schreber cannot be considered, for 
it is invalidated by Webera of Hedwig, a valid genus of mosses. The 
genus Cupia DC. (1830) is typified by the first species cited, C. corymbosa 
DC, which is based on Cupi of Rheede, and the species is hence a synonjrm 
of Tarenna asiatica (Linn.) O. Ktze. King has taken exception to the 
generic name Tarenna on the basis that Gaertner described the flowers as 
4-merous, rather than 5-merous, and he therefore revives the genus Stylo- 
coryne Cav. for those species with 5-merous flowers and several-seeded 
fruits.*' However, Stylocoryne Cavanilles is invalid, as it is a manifest 
synonym of the genus Randia. Trimen, however, considers Tarenna 
zeylanica Gaertn. to be an exact synonym of Webera corymbosa Willd.= 
Tarenna asiatica O. Ktze., in spite of the discrepancy in the number of 
floral-parts. 

CUCURBITACEAE 

BENINCASA Savi 

BENINCASA HISPIDA (Thunb.) Cogn. in DC. Monog. Phan. 3 (1881) 
513. 
Cucurbita hispida Thunb. Fl. Jap. (1874) 322. 
Benincasa cerifera Savi Bibl. Ital. 9 (1818) 158; Safford 197. 
G. E. S. 157, locally known as condor. 
Cultivated in the tropics of both hemispheres. 

"Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 72' (1903) 198. 



IX. c. 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 151 

CUCURBITA Linnaeus 

CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. in Lam. Encycl. 2 (1786) 15L 
G. E. S. 22, locally known as calamasa. 
Cultivated in all warm countries. 

CUCUMIS Linnaeus 

CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1012. 

G. E. S. 2, McGregor ^53, cultivated, locally known as pepino. 

LAGENARIA Seringe 

LAGENARIA LEUCANTHA (Duch.) Rusby in Mem. Torr. Bot. Club 6: 

43. 
Cucurbita lexicantha Duch. in Lam. Encycl. 2 (1782) 150. 
Cucurbita lagenaria Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1010. 
Lagenaria lagenaria Cockerell in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 19 (1892) 95; 

Saiford 304. 

G. E. S. 355, 394, locally known as tagoa. 
Cultivated in all tropical countries. 

LUFFA Adanson 
LUFFA CYLINDRICA (Linn.) Roem. Syn. Pepon. 2 (1846) 63. 
Momordica luff a Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1009. 
Momordica cylindrica Linn. 1. c. 

G. E. S. 409, the wild form, locally known as pacliodag. 
A native of the tropics of the Old World, now wild or cultivated in all 
tropical countries. 

MELOTHRIA Linnaeus 

MELOTHRIA GUAMENSIS sp. nov. § Sole^ia. 

Herba scandens, monoica, glabra; foliis membranaceis, reni- 
formi-ovatis vel suborbiculari-ovatis, usque ad 7 cm latis, basi 
profunda cordatis, apice acuminati=;, margine distanter apicula- 
to-dentatis, nitidis, supra punctis scabridis notatis ; floribus s 
racemosis, campanulatis, 8 ad 10 mm longis ; f ructibus subglo- 
bosis, glabris, circiter 1 cm diametro, seminibus compressis, 
crassis, elliptico-obovoideis, 4 mm longis. 

A slender, climbing, glabrous, monoecious herb, the stems 
striate or sulcate, 1 to 1.5 mm in diameter. Leaves membrana- 
ceous, reniform-orbicular to orbicular-ovate, 6 to 7 cm wide, 6 to 
9 cm long, somewhat acuminate, base deeply cordate, the sinus 
broad, the basal lobes very broadly rounded, the margins rather 
distantly apiculate-dentate, very slightly undulate between the 
teeth, when dry rather dark-green, the upper surface with nu- 
merous, small, whitish, scabrid dots, the lower surface not at 
all scabrid, showing the positions of the dots only; tendrils 
slender, simple, up to 15 cm in length; petioles 3 to 5 cm long. 
Male flowers racemose, the racemes axillary 3 to 4 cm long, 



152 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

few-flowered, lax, the pedicels slender, about 5 mm long. 
Perianth campanulate, 8 to 10 mm long. Calyx 5 mm long, the 
teeth ovate, 1 to 1.5 mm long. Corolla-lobes oblong-ovate, obtuse, 
5 mm long, 3 mm wide, margins slightly short-ciliate, the corolla- 
tube villous inside. Stamens 3; filaments glabrous 2 mm long; 
anthers orbicular, one about 2 mm in diameter, the other two 1.5 
mm in diameter, apices rounded-truncate, short-ciliate, the con- 
nectives broad. Fruit fleshy, globose, about 1 cm in diameter, 
glabrous, somewhat glaucous and much wrinkled when dry. 
Seeds numerous, flat, thickened, elliptic-obovate, rounded, base 
subacute, about 4 mm long, 2 mm wide, and 0.5 mm thick, the 
margins obscurely thickened. 

Guam Experiment Station 11, Tumon, November, 1911. 

A species in vegetative characters strongly resembling Melothria mucro- 
nata Cogn., but not closely allied to that species. Its distinguishing char- 
acters are its being monocious, its comparatively large male flowers, its 
lax, few-flowered racemes, and its globose fruits. It does not appear to 
be very closely allied to any described species. 

MOMORDICA Linnaeus 

MOMORDICA CHARANTIA Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 1009; Safford 326. 
G. E. S. 21, McGregor 4.68, locally known as almagoso. 
In all tropical countries, cultivated and wild. 

GOODENIACEAE 

SCAEVOLA Linnaeus 

SCAEVOLA FRUTESCENS (Mill.) Krause in Engl. Pflanzenreich 54 
(1912) 125. 

Lobelia frutescens Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8 (1768) no. 1. 

Scaevola koenigii Vahl Symb. 3 (1794) 36. 

Lobelia koenigii W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 
(1905) 310. 

McGregor UOl, G. E. S. 8Jt, local name nanaso. 

Mr. W. F. Wight, on the principle of generic types, has referred this 
species to Lobelia, and proposes to refer the species of Lobelia of modem 
authors to Rapuntium, but Mr. Wight's proposition has not been considered 
by Dr. Krause in his recent monograph of the Goodeniaceae. I have dis- 
cussed the matter previously, and prefer to retain the species under Scae- 
vola. Both of the Guam specimens have softly velutinous leaves. 

Along the seashore, India to Polynesia. 

COMPOSITAE 

AGERATUM Linnaeus 

AGERATUM CONYZOIDES Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 839; Safford 176. 
McGregor ^84, G. E. S. 1. 
A native of tropical America, now in all tropical countries. 



IX, c, 2 Merrill: The Plants of Guam 153 

ADENOSTEMMA Forster 

ADENOSTEMMA VISCOSUM Forst. Char. Gen. (1776) 90, t. ^5 ; Safford 
175. 
Collected in Guam by Chamisso, fide Safford 1. c. 
A pantropic weed, its original home uncertain. 

ARTEMISIA Linnaeus 

ARTEMISIA VULGARIS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 848; Safford 188. 

McGregor j^23. 

A native of Europe, now widely distributed in temperate and tropical 
countries. 

BLUMEA DeCandoUe 

BLUMEA MOLLIS (D. Don) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 
395. 
Erigeron molle D. Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 172. 
G. E. S. SJtl, in waste places. 
India to tropical Africa, China, Malaya, and Australia. 

CHRYSANTHEMUM Linnaeus 

CHRYSANTHEMUM INDICUM Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 889; Safford 225. 
G. E. S. 326, with the local name yerba de Santa Maria. 
Widely distributed, in cukivation, in all warm countries. 

COREOPSIS Linnaeus 

COREOPSIS TINCTORIA Nutt. in Journ. Acad. Philadel. 2 (1821) 114. 

G. E. S. SI 6, a cultivated form apparently referable here, of recent 
introduction. 

A native of North America, now widely distributed in cultivation. 

COSMOS Cavanilles 

COSMOS SULPHUREUS Cav. Ic. 1 (1791) 56, t. 79 ? 

McGregor i^2, G. E. S. 267, SUS, cultivated; apparently recently intro- 
duced. 

A native of Mexico, now widely distributed in warm countries. 

ECLIPTA Linnaeus 

ECLIPTA ALBA (Linn.) Hassk. PI. Jav. Rar. (1848) 528; Safford 266. 
Ytrhesina alba Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 902. 
G. E. S. SO, locally known as titirna. 
In all warm countries, where native uncertain. 

ELEPHANTOPUS Linnaeus 

ELEPHANTOPUS MOLLIS HBK. Nov. Gen. & Sp. PI. 4 (1820) 26. 

Thompson 21, McGregor ^81^ G. E. S. U7 , in waste places. 

This form with white flowers is very distinct from Elepkantopus scaber 
Linn, which has purplish flowers. It is a native of Mexico, and is known 
in the Orient only from Guam, the Philippines, and Celebes; it occurs in 
all parts of the Philippines in the settled areas. 



154 ^'^<^ Philippine Journal of Science lai* 

ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 814; Safford 268. 
Admitted on SafFord's record which is undoubtedly correct. 
Widely distributed in the tropics, a native of tropical America. 

ELEPHANTOPUS SPICATUS Aubl. PI. Guin. 2 (1775) 808; Safford 268. 

G. E. S. 111. 

A native of Mexico, now common in the Philippines and Guam, and 
found also in southern China. 

GLOSSOGYNE Cassini 

GLOSSOGYNE TENUIFOLIA (Less.) Cass. Diet. Sci. Nat. 51 (1857) 475; 
Safford 284. 

Bidens tenuiflora Labill. Sert. Austr. Caled. (1824) 44, t. U5. 

McGregor ^06, G. E. S. UUU, slopes back of Piti. 

Southern China and Formosa southward to New Caledonia, Australia, 
and Fiji. 

{Lactuca sativa Linn., the common lettuce, is admitted by Safford, but 
it is dependent on seeds imported from year to year and does not thrive.) 

SYNEDRELLA Gaertner 

SYNEDRELLA NODI FLORA (Linn.) Gaertn. Fruct. 2 (1791) 456, t. 171; 
Safford 380. 
Verhesina nodiflora Linn. Cent. PL 1 (1755) 28. 

Mrs. Clemens s. n., G. E. S. H9. 

A weed in all tropical countries, originating in tropical America. 

VERNON I A Schreber 

VERNONIA CINEREA (Linn.) Less, in Linnaea 4- (1829) 291; Safford 
396. 

G. E. S. 70. 

A weed of pantropic distribution, probably a native of the eastern hemi- 
sphere. 

VERNONIA PATULA (Dry.) Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 
439. 
Conyza patula Dry. in Ait. Hort. Kew. 3 (1789) 184. 
Vernonia chinensis Less, in Linnaea 6 (1831) 105, 674. 
Vernonia villosa W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 396. 

G. E. S. Jt56. 

India to Formosa and Malaya. 

WED ELI A Jacquemont 
WEDELIA BIFLORA (Linn.) DC. in Wight Contrib. (1834) 18. 
Verhesina biflora Linn. Sp. PL, ed. 2 (1763) 1271. 
Wollastonia scabriuscula DC. ex Dene, in Nuov. Ann. Mus. Paris 3 

(1834) 414; Prodr. 5 (1836) 547. 
Stem7nodontia biflora W. F. Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 (1905) 

377. 
Collected in Guam by Haenke, and reported from there by DeCandolle 
as Wollastonia scabHivscula DC. 

Tropical Asia to Polynesia, especially along the seashore. 



IX. c. 2 Merrill: The Plants of Gnm 155 

WEDELIA CANESCENS (Gaudich.) comb. nov. 

Verhesina canescens Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 463. 

Wedelia chamissonis Less, in Linnaea 6 (1831) 161. 

Wollastonia canescens DC. Prodr. 5 (1836) 547. 

Stemmodontia canescens W. F. Wight ex Safford in Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 9 (1905) 377, pi. 63. 

McGregor 50U, G. E. S. ^56. 

A species manifestly allied to Wedelia biflora DC., but much more pubes- 
cent. Known only from Guam, but with a closely allied form in Samoa 
{Vaupel 96). Possibly the form that has been credited to Guam as W. 
biflora DC. 

WEDELIA ARGENTEA (Gaudich.) comb. nov. 

Verbesina argentea Gaudich. Bot. Freyc. Voy. (1826) 463; Safford 395. 

G. E. S. 351, March, 1912. 

This species is closely allied to the preceding, but is probably specifically 
distinct. Dr. F. Gagnepain has kindly looked up Gaudichaud's type speci- 
mens in the Paris Museum of Natural History and states that while the 
two species are allied they are probably distinct. He states that Verbesina 
canescens has its leaves covered with appressed hairs but the hairs suffi- 
ciently distant so that the surface of the leaf can be seen, while V. argentea 
has much more numerous hairs that entirely cover the surface; that in 
V. canescens the teeth of the leaves are larger, more sharply pointed, and 
the petioles much longer and more slender than in V. argentea which has 
small teeth, and short petioles. Abundant material from Guam may show 
intermediate characters, but so far as our material goes two closely allied 
species appear to be represented. The type was from Guam and the species 
is known only from that Island. 



The Philippine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 2, April, 1914. 



FUNGI FROM NORTHERN PALAWAN 

By H. and P. Sydow 
{Berlin, Germany) 

The fungi here recorded were collected by Mr. E. D. Merrill 
during the months of April and May, 1913, the dry season, in 
the northern part of Palawan Island, a region previously unex- 
plored botanically. Up to the present time but a single paper 
dealing with the fungi of this island has been published. This 
was written by ourselves and entitled "Fungi from the Island 
of Palawan."^ The fungi listed in this paper, however, were 
all gathered in the southern and central part of the island. 

As will be seen from an examination of the following enu- 
meration, the region is exceedingly rich in Pyrenomycetes, in- 
cluding Dothideaceae and Microthyriaceae, while it is poor in 
Uredineae, Ustilagineae, and Discomycetes. We wish to express 
our thanks to Messrs. G. Bresadola, H. Diedieke, and F. Theissen 
for valuable suggestions regarding critical species. 

ANTHRACOPHYLLUM Cesati 

ANTHRACOPHYLLUM NIGRITA (Lev.) Kalchbr. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8850, 8904, April and May, 1913. On dead 
fallen branches in forest. 

PAN US Fries 

PAN US RUDIS Fr. (syn. Lentinus chaetophorus Lev.). 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8848, 8863, April and May, 1913. On rotten 
logs in thickets. 

LENTINUS Fries 

LENTINUS BAVIANUS Pat. (ut videtur, exemplar vetustum). 
Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8865, May, 1913. On rotten logs. 

LENTINUS JAVANICUS Lev. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8858, 8881, May, 1913. On rotten logs in 
forest. 

LENZITES Fries 

LENZITES STRIATA (Lev.) Fr. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8727, April, 1913. On dead logs in forest. 

'Leafl. Philip. Bot. 5 (1912) 1533-1547. 

157 



158 ^^6 Philippine Journal of Science ism 

FAVOLUS Fries 

FAVOLUS CUCULLATUS Mont. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill 8975, April, 1913; Taytay, Merrill 
8758, April, 1913. On rotten logs in forest. 

GANODERMA Patouillard 

GANODERMA OCHROLACCATUM (Mont.) Bres. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8896, May, 1913. On dead mangrove {Bru- 
guiera) trees. 

POLYSTICTUS Fries 

POLYSTICTUS DISCI PES Berk, (vetustus). 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8893, May, 1913. On prostrate rotten logs. 

TRAMETES Fries 

TRAMETES STRIGATA (Berk.) Bres. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 88J,6 p. p., April, 1913. On dead logs in 
thickets. 

TRAMETES BADIA (Berk.) Bres. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 88Jt6 p. p., April, 1913. On dead logs in 
thickets. 

HEXAGON I A Fries 

HEXAGONIA BIVALVIS (Pers.) Bres. 

Palawan, Lake Mangao, Merrill 89^5, April, 1913. On dead fallen trees 
in forest. 

HEXAGONIA API ARIA Pres. f. Wightii Klotzsch. 

Palawan, Silanga, Merrill 8922, May, 1913. On dead logs in forest. 

STEREUM Persoon 

STEREUM AUSTRALE (Kalchbr.) Bres. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8862, May, 1913. Terresterial in old clearing, 

SEPTOBASIDIUM Patouillard 

SEPTOBASIDIUM SUBOLIVACEUM Syd. sp. nov. 

Longe lateque effusum, papillas hemisphaericas vel depresse 
hemisphaericas majusculas 2-5 mm longas 2-4 mm latas et 1-2 
mm altas formans, subolivaceum, molliusculum, baud rimosum, 
nee ad marginem fimbriatum, ex hyphis dilute olivaceis ramosis 
(ramis rectangulariter vel fere rectangulariter distantibus) 2.5- 
3.5 /i, crassis parcissime septatis, articulis inde praelongis, com- 
positum; hyphis basidiiferis superne pallidis, subhyalinis, 2-2.5 
IJL crassis; basidiis cylindraceo-clavatis, plerumque curvatis, 25- 
35 jLt longis 6-8 /^ latis, 2-4-septatis, pallide brunneolis usque 
subhyalinis; sporis non visis. 



IX. c, 2 H. and P. Sydoiv: Fungi from Palawan 159 

Palawan, Taj'tay, Merrill 8761, April, 1913. On living stems of Schizos- 
tachyum. 

The fun^s lives on scale insects and under every papilla of the fungus 
one or a few coccides are to be found. 

CYATHUS Hallier 

CYATHUS ELMERI Bres. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 9075, May, 1913. On earth, in dense bamboo 
thickets. 

PHYSARUM Persoon 

PHYSARUM BOGORIENSE Racib. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill S916, May, 1913. On dead leaves. 

ARCYRIA Wiggers 

ARCYRIA DENUDATA (L.) Sheldon. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill, 8914, 8915, 8917, May, 1913. On dead sticks. 

FULIGO Haller 

FULIGO CINEREA (Schw.) Morg. 

Palawan, Taj'tay, Merrill 8913, May, 1913. On dead leaves and sticks. 

AECIDIUM Persoon 

AECIDIUM BLUMEAE P. Henn. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8740, April, 1913. On leaves of Blumea 
balsavtifera. 

AECIDIUM RHYTISMOIDEUM B. et Br. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill 8969, April, 1913. On leaves of 
Diospyros discolor; Mt. Capoas, Merrill 9093, April, 1913. On leaves of 
Diospyros. 

USTILAGO Persoon 

USTILAGO ANDROPOGONIS-ACICULATI Petch. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill, S 185, May 10, 1913. On Andropogon acicu- 
latus. 

MELIOLA Fries 

MELIOLA AGLAIAE Syd. sp. nov. 

Amphigena, plagulas orbiculares minutas 2-4 mm latas tenu- 
issimas atras formans ; mycelio hyphis radiantibus laxuiscule 
ramosis septatis fuscis 6-8 /x crassis composito; hyphopodiis cap- 
itals sat numerosis, solitariis vel saepius in longa serie perfecte 
oppositis bicellularibus, oblongis, 12-16 /x longis, 7-8.5 fx latis, 
cellula, basali brevi vel brevissima, superiore late rotundata; 
hyphopodiis mucronatis rarioribus, usque 18 /* longis; setis my- 
celicis numerosis, subrectis vel lenissime falcato-curvatis, 350- 
700 fi longis, inferne 7-9 ^ crassis ad apicem acutis, inferne 
opacis, superne dilutioribus et pellucidis, septatis; peritheciis 



160 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

paucis in quaque plagula, globosis, 120-150 /a diam., vix verru- 
cosis; ascis 2-3-sporis; sporidiis oblongis, utrinque late rotunda- 
tis, non vel vex constrictis, fuscis, 34-38 fx long-is, 14-17 /x latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 888Jt, May, 1913. On leaves of Aglaia. 

MELIOLA MERREMIAE Rehm. 

Palawan, Mt. Capoas, Merrill 9090, April, 1913. On leaves of Mer- 
remia nymphaeifolia; Merrill 9085, April, 1913. On leaves of Merremia 
viti folia. 

MELIOLA CANARII Syd. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8816, April, 1913. On leaves of Canarium; 
Mt. Capoas, Merrill 9088, April, 1913. On leaves Canarium. 

PARODIELLA Spegazzini 

PARODIELLA GRAMMODES (Kze.) Cke. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8897, May, 1913. On leaves of Desmodium 
capitatum. 

BALLADYNA Raciborski 

BALLADYNA MELODORI Syd. sp. nov. 

Amphigena, saepius epiphylla, plagulas primitus orbiculares 
3-10 mm diam. atras opacas tandem confluentes et magnam 
folii partem obtegentes formans; mycelio ex hyphis valde irre- 
gulariterque ramosis fuscis vel obscure brunneis 5-9 n crassis 
saepius binis trinis lateraliter connatis torulosis irregularibus 
composito; hyphopodiis alternantibus, irregulariter distributis, 
continuis, globulosis usque oblongis, fuscis, 8-12 fj. longis, 6-9 
IX latis; setis mycelicis numerosis, erectis, rigidis, 80-110 /x 
longis, basi 4-8 /x crassis, apicem versus attenuatis et acutis, ad 
apicem 2-2.5 fi crassis, obscure brunneis, opacis, continuis; 
peritheciis numerosis, sessilibus vel brevissime stipitatis, glo- 
bosis usque ovatis vel breviter piriformibus, 50-65 yu, altis, 40-48 
fi latis, nonvascigeris, pariete indistincte parenchymatico sordide 
olivaceo-brunneo vel sordide flavo-brunneo tenaci; ascis globosis 
vel subglobosis, 40-50 /x longis, 35-40 /x latis, aparaphysatis ; 
spordiis oblongis, utrinque late rotundatis, medio 1-septatis et 
constrictis, levibus, primitus hyalinis, tandem olivaceo-brunneis, 
bi- tristichis, 17-19 ft longis, 4-4.5 /x latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8885 (type). May, 1913. On leaves of Melo- 
dorum; same locality, Merrill 8795, April, 1913. On leaves of Melodorum. 

BALLADYNA VELUTINA (Berk, et Curt.) v. Hoehn. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8792, 8891, April and May, 1913. Both on 
leaves of Gardenia glutinosa; Taytay, Merrill 8887 p. p., May, 1913. On 
leaves of Plectronia, in society with Asterinella palawanensis Syd.; Lake 
Manguao, Merrill 897U, April, 1913. On leaves of Gardenia. 



IX, c. 2 H. and P. Sydoiv: Fungi from Palawan 161 

DIMEROSPORINA v. Hoehnel 
DIMEROSPORINA DINOCHLOAE Syd. sp. nov. 

Epiphylla, maculas minutas parum perspicuas rotundatas 
2-4 mm latas tandem confluentes atro-griseas formans; subiculo 
superficiali, parce evoluto, ex hyphis brevibus cellulos (cellulis 
ca. 8-12 n longis vel latis) conidia helminthosporioidea obclavata 
4-6-septata non constricta flavidulo-fuscidula 55-75 fi longa 11-14 
/A lata crasse tunicata (membrana 2-3 /x crassa) generantibus 
composite, fusco, ubique setis numerosis erectis rectis vel vix 
flexuosis apice semper obtusis atro-olivaceis 100-220 /u, longis 9-11 
fi latis septatis (articulis 15-25 fi longis) obsito; pycnidiis nume- 
rosis, primitus globulosis, dein obovatis, stipitatis, spermatia mi- 
nutissima hyalina 2 fx longa 1 [j. lata includentibus ; peritheciis 
eadem forma et magnitudine ac pycnidiis, pedicello brevi crasso 
5-20 fi longo 5-10 /x lato suffultis, primitus globoso-clausis, dein 
obovatis, et imperfecte ostiolatis, 40-50 /x diam,, contextu tenaci 
olivaceo-fuligineo ex cellulis 6-8 /j. diam. composito; ascis 
sporidiisque nondum maturis. 

Palawan, Mount Capoas, Merrill 9089, April, 1913. On leaves of Dino- 
chloa scandens; Taytay, Merrill 8736, April, 1913. On leaves of same host. 

We regret not to have seen mature perithecia. They seem to include 
more than one ascus, hence we have placed the fungus in the genus Dimeros- 
porina. 

HENNINGSOMYCES Saccardo 

HENNINGSOMYCES PH ILIPPINENSIS Syd. sp. nov. 

Plagulas epiphyllas opacas atras perexiguas 150-300 /j. tan- 
tum latas vel etiam confluendo majores et usque 2-3 mm diam. 
metientes formans; mycelio superficiali, matrici arete adnato, 
ex hyphis longuisculis remote septatis (articulis 20-50 fj. longis) 
obscure olivaceo-brunneis vel atro-olivaceis parum ramosis 
5-7.5 fx crassis tenuiter tunicatis composito ; peritheciis ad latera 
hypharum mycelii sessilibus vel brevissime stipitatis, plerumque 
perfecte globosis et 60-70 ix diam., haud ostiolatis, contextu te- 
naci minute parenchymatico atro-olivaceo, setis paucis (2-6) 
rectis vel parum flexuosis ad apicem obtusis concoloribus vel 
pallidioribus plerumque 20-50 jx longis et 5-6 yu. latis obsitis ; ascis 
paucis in quoque perithecio, ellipticis, ovatis vel oblongis, 
subsessilibus, 45-50 fx longis, 22-25 fx latis, octosporis, aparaphy- 
satis vel indistincte paraphysatis ; sporidiis tristichis vel conglo- 
batis, oblongis, utrinque rotundatis, medio vel circa medium 
1-septatis et leniter constrictis, ex hyalino brunneis, levibus, 
20-25 fx longis, 7.5-8 fx latis. 

125572 5 



152 The Philippine Journal of Science wu 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 882S, April, 1913. On living leaves of Mo- 
rinda. 

Besides the mature perithesia numerous small bodies looking like hypho- 
podia are situated on the hyphae. We believe that these bodies represent 
only very young perithecia. 

HENNINGSOMYCES PUSILLIMUS Syd. sp. nov. 

Hypophylla, plagulas orbiculares vel irregulares 1-2 cm diam. 
griseo-fumosas formans; mycelio tenuissimo, ex hyphis longius- 
culis non vel parce ramosis remote septatis (articulis 30-50 /x 
longis) dilute olivaceo-brunneis tenuiter tunicatis baud hypho- 
podiatis 2.5-3.5 fi crassis composite ; peritheciis in mycelio dense 
sparsis, hyphis superficialiter insidentibus, una vel pluribus hy- 
phis suff ultis, globosis vel ovato-globosis, sessilibus vel centro bre- 
vissime stipitatis, 30-45 /x diam., baud ostiolatis, contextu tenaci 
obscure olivaceo-brunneo minute parenchymatico ex cellulis 4-5 
fi diam. compositio, superne setis paucis (4-8) erectis rectis vel 
subrectis continuis apice acutis fuscis (3-5) in quoque perithe- 
cio, globosis usque ovato-globosis, crassiuscule tunicatis, 20-24 
fi diam., non vel indistincte paraphysatis, octosporis; sporidiis 
oblongis, circa medium 1-septatis, vix constrictis, 12-15 fi longis, 
3.5-4 ft latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8882, May, 1913. On leaves of Adina. 

EUTYPA Tulasne 

EUTYPA BAMBUSINA Penz. et Sacc. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8731^, April, 1913. On dead Dinochloa scan- 
dens. Same locality, Merrill 8762, 8770, April, 1913. On dead Schizostcv- 
chyum; same locality, Merrill S 187, May, 1913. On dead Schizostachyum. 

EUTYPELLA Nitschke 
EUTYPELLA spec. 

Stromatibus ramos plus minus aequaliter circumdantibus, 
rotundatis, pulvinatis, 1-1.5 mm diam., peridermio superne 
rupto cinctis, cortice immersis, atris; peritheciis 3-8 in quoque 
acervulo, globulosis, 300-450 /a diam collo brevi; ostiolis vix vel 
parum prominulis, distincte 4-sulcatis; ascis anguste cyHndra- 
ceis, p. sp. 25-35 ix longa, 4-4.5 ^ lata, octosporis; sporidiis allan- 
toideis vel subrectis, hyalinis, in cumulo pallide flavidis, 7.5-9 
fi longis, 1.5-2 IX latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8871, May, 1913. On dead stems of Desmo- 
dium umhellatum. 

We think that the fungus here described is the same as Diatrype rus- 
sodes B. et Br., which certainly will prove to belong to Eutypella. However 
we cannot say if our identification is correct as the original description of 
Diatype russodes is too poor, hence we do prefer not to name our specimen. 



IX, c. 2 H. and P. Sydoiv: Fungi from Palawan 163 

EUTYPELLA REHMIANA (P. Henn. et E. Nym.) v. Hoehn. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8757, April, 1913. On dead stems of Cala- 
mus; Taytay, Merrill 8876, May, 1913, On dead Pandanus Merrillii; Tay- 
tay, Merrill 8898, May, 1913. On dead Areca. 

The species is incorrectly described by Hennings, hence we give a new 
diagnosis of the fungus. 

Stromatibus gregariis, erumpenti-superficialibus, discretis et 
rotundatis vel subinde pluribus aggregatis et e mutera pressione 
irregularibus, matricis laciniis cinctis, semigloboso-pulvinatis, 
1-1.8 mm longis, 0.7-1.25 mm latis, opacis, nigris, asperulis, 
intus albido-flavis ; peritheciis 10-30 in quoque stromate, parie- 
tibus tenuibus, plerumque globosis, 100-150 /m diam., ostiolis vix 
vel lenissime prominulis; ascis clavato-cylindraceis, apice rotun- 
datis, parte sporifera 22-28 /la longa, 5-6 (j. lata, longe stipitatis, 
aparaphysatis, octosporis; sporidiis allantoidiis, hyalinis, 8-10 
n longis, 1.5 fi latis. 

PERON EUTYPELLA Berlese 
PERONEUTYPELLA GRAPHIDIOIDES Syd. sp. nov. 

Stromatibus sparsis vel aggregatis, forma valde irregularibus, 
rotundatis vel elongatis, saepe etiam trigonis vel irregularibus 
conflentibus, Graphidis habitum subinde aemulantibus, 0.75-2 
mm longis, confluendo subinde usque 3 mm longis, cortice exte- 
riore immersis, peridermium elevantibus ab eoque arete cinctis, 
atris, ostiolis fere solis erumpentibus; peritheciis in singulo 
stromate numerosis (15-60), globulosis vel e mutua pressione 
angulatis; ostioles inter se liberis, cylindraceis, apice rotundatis, 
non sulcatis, 300-800 /j. longis, 100-120 /i latis ascis jam elapsis; 
sporidiis allantoideis vel subrectis, hyalinis, 3.5-4.5 n longis, 1 
fi latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 872k, April, 1912. On dead bark of Termi- 
nalia catappa. 

PERONEUTYPELLA COCOES Syd. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8747, April, 1913. On dead husks of Cocos 
nucifera. 

PERONEUTYPELLA ARECAE Syd. sp. nov. 

Stromatibus plerumque dense gregariis, 0.5-1.25 mm diam., 
e basi irregulariter orbiculari subpulvinatis, immersis, epider- 
midem pustuliformiter elevantibus et ejusdem laciniis arete 
cinctis, ostiolis fere solis erumpentibus, atris, carbonaceis; peri- 
theciis in singulo stromate 5-20 (plerumque 8-10), 200-300 ^ 
diam., collo pro situ plus minus longiore instructis; ostiolis inter 
se hberis, cylindraceis,. apice rotundatis, non sulcatis, 300-600 
/x longis, rectis; ascis anguste clavatis, superne rotundatis, sub- 



164 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science lou 

sessilibus, p. sp. 10-20 /m longa, 4-6 /x lata, octosporis; sporidiis 
irregulariter distichis vel conglobatis, allantoideis, rectis vel 
leniter curvatis, hyalinis, 5-7 /^ longis, 1 /* latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8859, May, 1913. On dead Areca catechu in 
forests. 

In external appearance this species agrees entirely with Peroneutypella 
Cocoes Syd., differing only in the somewhat larger sporidia and the host. 

DIDYMELLA Saccardo 
DIDYMELLA ACUTATA Syd. sp. nov. 

Peritheciis epiphyllis, subepidermicis, plus minus aequaliter 
sparsis, saepe aequali distributione folia tota obtegentibus, de- 
presso-globosis, 120-170 fi diam., atris, epidermide quasi clype- 
iformiter denigratula tectis, contextu opaco paremchymatico ex 
cellulis 8-10 /A diam. composite; ascis variabilibus, saepe cur- 
vatis, clavatis vel subsaccatis sursum plerumque angustioribus, 
ad apicem incrassatis, 85-120 fi longis, 10-17 /u, latis, octosporis, 
parcissime paraphysatis ; sporidiis plerumque distichis, raro 
tristichis, fusoideis, medio 1-septatis, non constrictis, utrinque 
acutissimi acuminatis et quasi acute apiculatis, hyalinis, 28-38 
/x longis 6-8 fji latis. 

Palawan, Lake Maguao, Merrill 8953, April, 1913. On dead fallen 
leaves of Orania. 

DIDYMELLA PANDANICOLA Syd. sp. nov. 

Peritheciis amphigenis, aequaliter distributis, plerumque 2-4 
densius aggregatis et cuticula nigrificata maculiformi tectis, ap- 
planato-globosis, 150-170 fx diam., atris; ascis cylindraceo-clava- 
tis, subsessibus, 75-95 fx. longis, 14-16 fx latis, octosporis, parcis- 
sime paraphysatis ; sporidiis distichis, fusiformibus, medio 1-sep- 
tatis, non constrictis, hyalinis, utroque apice seta 8-10 /n longa 
1 /x lata auctis, 28-33 /a longis (sine setis), 7-8 fx latis. 

Palawan, Silanga, Merrill 8918, May, 1913. On dead leaves of Pan- 
darius. 

MERRILLIOPELTIS P. Hennings 

MERRILLIOPELTIS PARVULA Syd. sp. nov. 

Peritheciis sparsis vel saepius laxe seriatim ordinatis, rotun- 
datis, minutis, 0.12-0.18 mm diam., subinde fere confluentibus et 
substromatice positis, epidermide elevata et subinde clypeifor- 
miter denigrata obtectis, lenticularibus, ostiolo globoso minimo 
prominente; ascis cylindraceis, teneris, 100-130 fi longis, 8-10 n 
latis, octosporis; paraphysibus filiformibus, perpaucis; sporidiis 
distichis vel fere distichis, fusiformibus, rectis, rarius leniter 
curvatis, medo 1-septatis, non constrictis, utroque apice longe 
acutissimis, hyalinis, 45-54 ix longis, 3.5-4.5 fj. latis. 



IX. c, 2 H. and P. Sydoiv: Fungi from Palawan 165 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill 8961 (type), S960, 8956, April, 1913. 
All specimens on dead fallen petioles of Orania. 

MERRILLIOPELTIS CALAMI P. Henn. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill 8951 p. p., April, 1913. On dead 

Calamus. 

DIDYMOSPHAERIA Fuckel 

DIDYMOSPHAERIA MINUTELLA Penz. et Sacc. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8755, April, 1913. On dead Dinochloa scan- 
dens; Silanga, Merrill 8933, 89 Ul, May, 1913. On dead Schizostachyum. 

OPHIOBOLUS Riess 
OPHIOBOLUS LICUALAE Syd. sp. nov. 

Peritheciis sub epidermide bullatim elevata dense aggregatis, 
greges 0.5-5 mm latos et longos formantibus, baud immersis, 
sed epidermide tandem ab papillulis minutis perforata tectis, 
e basi lata obtuse conoideis, 130-160 p. altis, 60-125 /x crassis, 
atris, ad basim hyphis paucis circumdatis, contextu obscure 
fusco parenchymatico ex cellulis 6-8 p. diam. composito; ascis 
fasciculatis, cylindraceis, subsessilibus, filiformiter paraphysatis, 
90-120 p longis, 10-12 p latis; sporidiis parallelis, filiformibus, 
rectis vel leniter curvatis, 2-4-septatis, guttulatis, hyalinis, 70-85 
p longis, 2.5 p latis. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill 8946 (type), April, 1913 and Taytay, 
Merrill 8730, April, 1913. Both on dead petioles of Licuala spinosa. 

ANTHOSTOMELLA Saccardo 
ANTHOSTOMELLA BICINCTA Syd. sp. nov. 

Peritheciis densiuscule sparsis, omnino immersis, atris, glo- 
bosis, 350-425 p diam., epidermidem atro-nitidulam leniter ele- 
vantibus, coriaceo-mollibus ; ascis cylindraceis, apice obtusis, 
100-125 p longis, 13-16 p latis, octosporis, poro jodi ope coeru- 
lescente; paraphysibus leniter mucosis; sporidiis recte monos- 
tichis, continuis, ellipsoideis, utrinque rotundatis, ex hyalino mox 
fuscis, centro zona latiuscula (2-4 p lata) dilutiore vel subhya- 
lina cinctis, praeterea strato mucoso 1.5-2.5 p lato distinctissimo 
circumdatis, 15-18 p longis, 9-10 fi latis (sine muco). 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8879, May, 1913. On dead petiole of Caryota. 

The fungus might be considered as belonging to the Massariaceae, resem- 
bling Massariopsis (see Rehm in Annal. Mycol. 4: 269), from which it 
differs only in the unicellular sporidia. We place our fungus, however, 
to Anthostomella, as numerous other similar exotic species have been 
described under Anthostomella. Perhaps this genus must later be divided. 

The sporidia of the new species are surrounded by a very distinct and 
comparatively large mucous layer. They are at first hyaline, soon becom- 
ing brownish and then showing a very distinct, clear, nearly hyaline band 
around the center in the same way as are often shown the conidia of 
Anthostomella. 



Igg The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

ANTHOSTOMELLA COCOINA Syd. sp. nov. 

Peritheciis plerumque dense dispositis, subinde maculiformiter 
confertis, immersis, epidermidem denigratam hemsphaerice ele- 
vantibus, semper tectis, modo papilla minuta poro perspicua per- 
tusa tandem prominente globosis, glabris, atris, 200-300 p. diam. ; 
ascis cylindraceis, apice rotundatis, 75-95 /x longis, 6-7 p. latis, 
octosporis; sporidiis monostichis, ellipsoideis, utrinque rotun- 
datis vel leniter attenuatis, continuis, fuscis, exappendiculatis, 
8-10 fx. longis, 3.5-5 /x latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8892, 9077, May, 1913. On dead petioles and 
leaf rachis of Cocos nucifera. 

ROSELLINIA De Notaris 

ROSELLINIA TRUNCATA Syd. sp. nov. 

Peritheciis in glomerulos irregulares 2-5 mm longos vel con- 
fluendo majores sine ordine denseque dispositis, rarius solitariis, 
subiculo copioso crasso persistenti ex hyphi fuscis septatis 3-5 
fi crassis composito insidentibus, globoso-conicis, in maturitate 
ad verticem distincte truncatis ibique subinde etiam leniter 
depressis, distincte nitideque papillatis, ca. 1 mm diam. subinde 
binis connatis et fere confluentibus, atris, glabris, levibus; ascis 
jam resorptis; sporidiis oblongis, utrinque rotundatis, continuis, 
fuscis, 15-17 fx longis, 7.5-8.5 fi latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8782, April, 1913. On fallen branches in 
forest. 

ROSELLINIA COCOES P. Henn. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8911, May, 1913, and Lake Manguao, Merrill 
8966, April, 1913. On very old fallen petioles of Orania. 

ROSELLINIA PERUSENSIS P. Henn. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8768, April, 1913. On decorticated logs. 

AMPHISPHAERIA Cesati et De Notaris 

AMPHISPHAERIA PALAWANENSIS Syd. sp. nov. 

Peritheciis sparsis vel binis trinis coalitis, per corticem fissum 
prorumpentibus ab eoque cinctis, lenticulari-conoideis, atris, 
glabris, 1 mm diam., distincti nitiduleque papillulatis ; ascis 
crasse cylindraceis, apice rotundatis, 170-250 p longis, 18-25 fx 
latis, octosporis, copiose paraphysatis ; sporidiis monostichis, 
ellipsoideis vel oblongo-ellipsiodeis, utrinque medio 1-septatis et 
constrictis, castaneo-brunneis, 30-35 p longis, 15-16 p latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 88iS, April, 1913. On dead twigs of Uncaria. 



IX, c, 2 H. and P. Sydoiv: Fungi from Palaiuan 167 

MELANOMMA Nitschke et Fuckel 
MELANOMMA PHILIPPIN ENSE Syd. sp. nov. 

Peritheciis sparsis, soltariis, subsuperficialibus, e basi lata 
conoideis, 0.5-1 mm diam., atris, carbonaceis, distincte papillatis, 
glabris, opacis; ascis .cylindraceis vel cylindraceo-clavatis, apice 
obtusis et incrassatis, 140-180 /z long-is, 17-22 /x latis, octosporis ; 
paraphysibus copiosissimis, filiformibus, 1 fj. crassis; sporidiis 
oblique monostichis usque subdistichis, in superiore asci parte 
saepe recte monostichis, fusiformibus, utrinque obtuse attenuatis, 
primo 1-septatis, dein 3-septatis, ad septum medium tantum 
constrictis, dilute fuscis, 30-38 ix longis, 10-11 ^ latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 9076 (type), May, 1913. On very old pros- 
trate logs; same locality, Merrill 8756, April, 1913. On dead stump; Malam- 
paya Bay, Merrill 89^0, May, 1913. On dead logs; Lake Manguao, Merrill 
8955, April, 1913. On dead decorticated Fagraea fragrans. 

NUMMULARIA Tulasne 

NUMMULARIA GLYCYRRHIZA (Berk, et Curt.) Sacc. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill 8950, April, 1913. On dead trees in 
forest. 

NUMMULARIA URCEOLATA Rehm. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8731, April, 1913. On dead trees. 

HYPOXYLON Bulliard 

HYPOXYLON CULMORUM Cke. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8841, April, 1913. On dead Dinochloa scan- 
dens; Taytay, Merrill 8912, May, 1913. On dead Schizostachyum; Lake 
Manguao, Merrill 8964. On dead Schizostachyum. 

Sporidia 13-18 fj. long, 7-9 ix broad. In the larger stromata 
the loculi do not always occupy all parts of them. They often 
leave a part of the stroma sterile and flat. The smallest stro- 
mata usually contains one loculus only. Hypoxyloyi Chusqiiiae 
P. Henn. certainly does not differ from H. culmorum Cke. 

HYPOXYLON MARGINATUM (Schw.) Berk. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8765, 8767, April, 1913. On fallen branches; 
Lake Manguao, Merrill 8965, April, 1913. On fallen branches. 

HYPOXYLON SUBEFFUSUM Speg. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill 8978, April, 1913. On dead logs in 
forest. 

LORANTHOMYCES v. Hoehnel 

LORANTHOMYCES SORDIDULUS (Lev.) v. Hoehn. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8990, May, 1913. On leaves of Loranthus. 



Igg The Philippine Jouiifial of Science lau 

GIBBERELLA Saccardo 

GIBBERELLA CREBERRIMA Syd. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8732, April, 1913. On living stems of Scleria. 

PHYLLACHORA Nitschke 

PHYLLACHORA CONNARI Syd. sp. nov. 

Stromatibus sparsis, innatis, in utraque foliorum pagina cons- 
picuis, minutis, rotundatis vel angulatis, non confluentibus, 1-3 
mm longis, atris, in epiphyllo planis opacis, in hypophyllo ob 
loculos prominulos parum nitidulos rugulosis; loculis 10-40 in 
quoque stromate, globosis; ascis cylindraceo-clavatis, subsessili- 
bus, 70-88 IX longis, 10-13 ju, latis, octosporis; sporidiis oblique 
monostichis usque distichis, oblongis, utrinque rotundatis, saepe 
superne angustioribus, continuis, hyalinis, 16-18 /x longis, 3.5-4 
fi latis. 

Palawan, Malampaya Bay, Merrill 8936, April, 1913. On leaves of 
Connartis. 

PHYLLACHORA OCHNAE Pat. et Har. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8835, April, 1913. On leaves of Ochna. 

PHYLLACHORA LUZONENSIS P. Henn. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8800, 8989, 907A, April and May, 1913. On 
leaves of Millettia; same, locality, Merrill S 18^, May 9, 1913. On leaves 
of Millettia; Lake Manguao, Merrill 8973, April, 1913. On leaves of Mil- 
lettia. 

PHYLLACHORA JAPENSIS (P. Henn.) Syd. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8813, April, 1913. On leaves of Derris; Lake 
Manguao, Merrill 8968, April, 1913. On leaves of Derris. 

Phyllachora Lagunae Rehm in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 396, is 
the same as P. japensis. Another synonym is Auerswaldia derridis P. 
Henn. in Hedwigia 47 (1908) 255, which is incorrectly described. 

PHYLLACHORA PTEROCARPI Syd. 

Palawan, base of Mt. Capoas, Merrill 9084, April, 1913. On leaves of 
Pterocarpus indicus. 

PHYLLACHORA PONGAMIAE (B. et Br.) Petch {Phyllachora Pongamiae 
P. Henn.) 
Palawan, Malampaya Bay, Merrill 8938, May, 1913. On leaves of Pon- 

gamia mitis (P. glabra). 

PHYLLACHORA APOENSIS Syd. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8888, May, 1913. On leaves of Ficus. 

PHYLLACHORA INFECTORIA Cke. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill 8982, April, 1913. On leaves of Ficus. 



i 

V 



IX, C, 2 



H. and P. Sydoiv: Fungi from Palawan 



169 



PHYLLACHORA SPOROBOLI Pat. 

Palawan, Malampaya Bay, Merrill 89S5, April, 1913. On leaves of 
Sporoholus. 

PHYLLACHORA TJANGKORREH Rac. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8791, 9073, April, 1913. On leaves of Dino- 
chloa scatidens. 

MICRODOTHELLA Syd. gen. nov. Dothideacearum. 

(Etym. micros minutus, quasi Dothideacea minuta.) 

Stromata minuta, convexa, basi stromatum in epidermide sita, 
atra, radiatim contexta, 1-2-loculigera. Asci ovati usque oblongi, 
plerumque octospori, paraphysati. Sporidia elliptica vel oblon- 
ga, continua, hyalina. 




Fig. 1. Microdothella culmicola Syd. a. Longitudinal section through part of a stroma 
(X 370) ; b, very young stroma seen from above (X 370) ; c, two asci (X 370) ; d, 
two sporidia (X 625). 

MICRODOTHELLA CULMICOLA Syd. sp. nov. (Fig. 1.) 

Stromatibus sparsis vel hinc inde aggregatis, subinde binis 
confluentibus, minutis, 200-450 /a diam., rotundatis, leniter con- 
vexis, atris, cum basi in epidermide sitis in hypodermidem hyphas 
paucas solitarias fuscas tantum emittentibus, centro opacis, ad 
marginem dilute fuscis, ex hyphis radiantibus 2-3 /x. latis remote 
septatis (articulis 10-18 n longis) maeandrice curvatis contextis; 
loculis 1-2 in quoque stromate, poro rotundo 15-20 fx lato tandem 
apertis; ascis primitus globulosis, mox ovatis vel oblongis, apice 
rotundatis, sessilibus, octosporis, rarius 4-sporis, 35-55 fi longis, 
18-22 fj. latis, paraphysatis; sporidiis plerumque distichis, ellip- 



170 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



soideis vel oblongo-ellipsoideis, continuis, hyalinis, 17-20 /u, longis, 
8-9 /Lt latis. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill 8952, April, 1913. On dead culms of 
Ischaemum (type) ; Silanga, Merrill 8932, May, 1913. On dead culms of 
Chloris incompleta. 






Fig. 2. Heterodothis leptotheca Syd. a. Longitudinal section through a stroma (X 160) ; b, 

longitudinal section through a stroma (X 370) ; c, part of the yellow-brown stroma 

seen from above ( X 370 ) ; d, longitudinal section through a stroma with loculus 

(X 370) ; e, pycnidiospores (X 620) ; /, three ascospores (X 620) ; ff, two asci with 

paraphyses (X 620). 

HETERODOTHIS Syd. gen. nov. Dothideacearum. 
(Etym. heteros diversus et Dothis, pro Dothideacea.) 

Stromata plana, subcrustacea, hypostromate in epidermide 
evoluto, heterogenee contexta, contextu partim atro opaco, partim 
flavo-brunneo. Loculi minuti, numerosi, discreti, e stromate atro 



IX, c, 2 H. and P. Sydow: Fungi from Palaivan 171 

formati. Asci cylindracei, octospori, paraphysati. Sporidia 
didyma hyalina. Pycnidiosporae bacillares, continuae, hyalinae. 

HETERODOTHIS LEPTOTHECA Syd. sp. nov. (Fig. 2.) 

Stromatibus sparsis, quo ad formam et magnitudinem varia- 
bilibus, saepe ambitu orbicularibus et 2-6 mm diam., tenuibus, 
subinde valde irregularibus, planis, atris, hypostromate in epi- 
dermide evoluto et ejus cellulas dense ambiente, plus minus 
distincte humiliterque costatis, contextu heterogeneo, partim atro 
opaco indistincte celluloso, partim flavo-brunneo ex cellulis 5-8 
fjL longis et 3-4 /.i latis regulariter seriatis composito; loculis 
numerosis in quoque stromate, discretis, globulosis vel applanato 
globulosis, minutis, 100-150 fj. diam., extus nitidulis, e stromate 
atro formatis et partibus stromatis flavo-brunnei obtectis, ascis 
sessilibus, cylindraceis, apice obtusis, 38-45 fx longis, 4-5.5 fi 
latis, octosporis; paraphysibus filiformibus, ascos longe superan- 
tibus, hyalinis, vix 1 ^ crassis; sporidiis distichis, cylindraceis, 
utrinque obtusis, medio 1-septatis, non constrictis, hyalinis, 10-13 




Fig. 3. Palawania grandis (Niessl.) Syd. Longitudinal section through a stroma with under- 
lying hypostroma (X 130). 

fi longis, 2.5 fi latis ; pycnidiosporis bacillaribus, continuis, utrin- 
que obtusis, hyalinis, 4 /x longis, 1-1.5 /a latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 87U, April, 1913. On living leaves of Gly- 
cosmis cochinchinensis. 

The fungus is strongly characterized by the peculiar composition of the 
stromata. These are very flat, usually rounded, but sometimes confluent 
and quite irregular in outline. A good hand lens shows that they are more 
or less distinctly costate on the surface. They are composed of two kinds 
of tissue: a yellow-brown one whose cells are arranged in regular lines, and 
a dark-black one surrounding the yellow stroma (6). The dark stroma por- 
tions which extend into the epidermis and fill up the space between the 
cells, divide and so form the loculi which remain covered by parts of the 
light stroma (d). On the same stromata asci- and pycnidiospore bearing 
loculi are to be found which do not differ from each other. 

PALAWANIA Syd. gen. nov. Dothideacearum. 
(Etym. ab insula Palawan.) 

Stromata ascigera superficialia, minuta vel confluendo majus- 
cula, atra, carbonacea, intus plurilocularia, pluristratosa, radia- 



172 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



tim contexta, hypostromate sub epidermide bene evoluto, per 
stomata erumpente et stromata ascigera formante, strato basali 
tenui. Loculi discreti, baud ostiolati, strato obtegente tandem 
poro rotundo disrumpente. Asci elliptic!, sessiles, copiose para- 
physati, octospori. Sporidia didyma, fusca. 

PALAWAN I A GRANDIS (Niessl.) Syd. comb. nov. (Fig. 3.) 

Microthyrium grcmde Niessl. in Rebenh. Fg. eur. no. 2467. 

Seynesia grandis Wint. in Hedwigia (1886) 107. 

Seynesia calamicola P. Henn. et E. Nym. in Warb. Monsunia (1899) 160. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8739, 8757, 879Jt, April, 1913. All on dead 
petioles and rachis of Calamus; Merrill 8808, on dead leaf-rachis of Oncos- 
pervia horrida; Merrill, 8872, on dead Flagellaria indica; Merrill 88i7, on 
dead stems of Drynaria quercifolia. 

We have compared the Palawan specimens with the types of Microthy- 




FiG. 4. Falawania cocoes Syd. a, Longitudinal section through a part of the superficial ascus- 
bearing stroma, showing one loculus (X 250) ; b, margin of the stroma seen fi'om 
above (X 250) ; c, ascus with paraphyses (X 275) ; d, sporidium (X 450). 

rium grande and Seynesia calamicola, and have found that all these repre- 
sent the same fungus. Theissen, to whom we are much indebted for the 
accompanying figure of this fungus, drawn after the Palawan specimen on 
Calamus, has taken up the fungus as a doubtful Seynesia in Oesterr. Bot. 
Zeitschr. (1912) 23 extr., but because of the poor specimen seen by him at 
that time. Falawania grandis is nearly related to the following P. cocoes, 
but differs in its external appearance, and the somewhat longer and less 
septate (articles 8-15 m long) hyphae. 

The specimens growing on Calamus must be considered as typical. The 
forms growing on the other hosts mentioned seem not to differ. 

PALAWAN I A cocoes Syd. sp. nov. (Fig. 4.) 

Stromatibus ascigeris tota longitudine matrici adnatis, super- 
ficialibus, minoribus rotundatis vel oblongis et 0.3-1 mm longis, 
saepe plus minus confluentibus et tunc multo majoribus, usque 8 



IX, c, 2 H. and P. Sydow: Fungi from Palawan 173 

mm longis, atris, opacis, carbonaceis, pluristratosis, in medio 
crassis, marginem versus tenuioribus, radiatim ex hyphis fuscis 
3.5-4.5 fi latis crebre septatis (articulis 6-9 /x longis) rectis vel 
fere rectis contextis, ad ambitum integris vel lenissime crenatis, 
hypostromate sub epidermide bene evoluto, strato basali tenui 
f usco, hypothecio fibroso ; loculis in stromatibus minoribus duobus 
vel paucis, in stromatibus majoribus copiosioribus, discretis, baud 
confluentibus, non ostiolatis, sed strato obtegente tandem poro 
rotundo disrumpente, ascis ellipsoideis, sessilibus, apice rotun- 
datis et incrassatis, 50-75 /x longis, 20-26 fj. latis, octosporis; 
paraphysibus numerosissimis, hyalinis, filiformibus, sursum 
saepe leniter mucoso conjunctis; sporidiis distichis usque tristi- 
chis, oblongo ellipsoideis, utrinque obtusis vel leniter attenuatis, 
medio vel circa medium 1-septatis et leniter constrictis, ex hya- 
line fuscis, 22-24 fi longis, 8-10 /x latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 87GU, April, 1913. On dead spathes of Cocos 
nucifera. 

This new genus is related to Hysterostoynella and Polystomella, differing 
from the former by the presence of paraphyses, and from the latter by the 
colored sporidia. The hypostroma of both species, P. grandis and P. Co- 
coes, consists of fuliginous, many septate hyphae running deeply in the 
tissue, creeping upward between the sclerenchyma bundles and forming 
thick effused balls beneath the epidermis. The hypostroma breaks through 
the stomata of the epidermis and so forms superficial ascus-bearing stro- 
mata. The latter are adnate with their whole base to the substratum. 
They are either small or more or less confluent and large, and are pluris- 
tratose like the shell of an oyster so that the center is very thick and 
carbonaceous. The margin is entire or very slightly crenate in P. Cocoes, 
and sometimes more fimbriate-dentate in P. grandis. The loculi have no 
ostioles, but the covering stratum is finally cracked and a round opening 
formed over them. The ripe sporidia are somewhat longitudinally plicate 
in P. Cocoes. 

STIGMATODOTHIS Syd. gen. nov. Dothideacearum. 

(Etym. stigma punctum et Dothis, quasi Dothideacea exigua.) 

Stromata subcuticularia, exigua, 1-loculigera, carbonacea, 
superne pluristratose et irreguariter radiatim contexta, baud 
ostiolata sed superne tandem poro rotundo aperta, strato basali 
tenuissimo, hypostromate parco per epidermidem profunde in 
contextu matricis penetrante massam compactam baud formante. 
Asci ovato-oblongi, 8-spori. Paraphyses baud typicae, cellulo- 
sae, submucosae. Sporidia transverse pluriseptata hyalina. 

STIGMATODOTHIS PALAWANENSIS Syd. sp. nov. (Fig. 5.) 

Stromatibus amphigenis, sparse vel laxe gregariis, baud macu- 
licolis, rotundatis, depresse hemisphaericis, 130-170 /* diam., 
atris, pro ratione facile secedentibus, sed inter cuticulam et 



174 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



epidermidem ortis, tota basi in pariete exteriore epidermidis 
sessilibus, primitus cuticula dein rupta et plus minus evanes- 
cente obtectis, carbonaceis, superne pluristratose irregulariterque 
radiatim contextis, baud ostiolatis, sed tandem poro rotundo 
apertis, hypostromate inter epidermidis celluas in contextu 
matricis profunde penetrante, strato basali tenuissimo piano 
brunneolo; ascis ovato-oblongis, sessilibus, tenuiter tunicatis, 
apice rotundatis, 26-30 fx longis, 14-16 fi latis, octosporis; para- 
physibus baud typicis, cellulosis, submucosis, sporidiis tristichis, 
clavulatis, superne rotundatis, deorsum angustioribus, transverse 
3-septatis, non constrictis, rectis vel lenissime in aequilateris 
hyalinis, 14-17 /x longis, 3.5-4 y^ crassis. 




Fig. 6. Stigmatodothis palawanensis Syd. a. Longitudinal section through a stroma, showing 
an empty loculus at the left with the cuticula above (X 260) ; b, margin of a stroma 
with hypostroma creeping between the epidermal cells, seen from above (X 250) ; 
c, ascus (X 600) ; d, sporidium (X 250). 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8909, May, 1913. On living leaves of Dendro- 
bium. 

This minute fungus can only be placed among the Dothideaceae. The 
hypostroma forms cords of brown hyphae which deeply penetrate between 
the epidermis cells into the tissue of the leaves, but never forming thick 
balls. The stromata are formed beneath the cuticula and are at first wholly 
covered by the cuticule which soon is ruptured and then partly falls away. 
It is not easy to make a good longitudinal section through a fertile stroma, 
as the fungus and the overlying cuticule are too brittle in this stage of 
development. Hence our figure shows only a section through an undevel- 
oped stroma without asci. 

ACTINODOTHIS Syd. gen. nov. Dothideacearum. 

(Etym. actin radius et Dothis, quasi Dothideacea radiatim contexta.) 

Stromata superficialia, orbicularia, discoidea, lenissime con- 
vexa, carbonacea, pluristratosa, radiatim contexta; 1- plurilo- 



IX. C. 2 



H. and P. Sydow: Fungi from Palawan 



175 



cularia (loculis discretis baud ostiolatis tandem apertis), parte 
marginali stromatis piano libero ex hyphis radiatibus dendritice 
ramosis composito, hypostromate in vel sub epidermide parce 
evoluto ; asci ovati usque oblongi, bispori, aparaphysati ; sporidia 
oblonga, pluriseptata, fusca. 

ACTINODOTHIS PIPERIS Syd. sp. nov. (Fig. 6.) 

Stromatibus epiphyllis, singulis subinde hypophyllis, sine 
maculis, sparsis, superficialibus, ambitu semper orbicularibus, 
1.5-3 mm diam., discoideis, lenissime convexis, parte marginali 




Fig. 6. Actinodothis Piperis Syd. a. Longitudinal section through the central part of a 
stroma, showing a loculus (X 250) ; b, part of the margin of the stroma (X 260) ; 
c, two sporidia (X 475). 

piano quasi alatis, carbonaceis, opacis, radiatim contextis, centre 
ex hyphis crebre septatis compositis, parte marginali libero 
matrici baud adnato ex hyphis radiantibus valde dentriticeque 
ramosis (ramulis obtusis) fuscis 7-12 fi latis septatis (articulis 
9-15 fi longis) composito ; loculis 1 vel pluribus, sive paucis (2-4) , 
sive copiosioribus (usque 15) in quoque stromate, discretis, haud 
confluentibus, non ostiolatis, sed tandem superne spertis, minutis ; 
hypostromate in vel sub epidermide parce evoluto, filiformi, 
hypothecio pallido strato basali tenui brunneolo; ascis ovatis vel 



176 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

oblongo-ovatis, apice obtusis, bisporis, aparaphysatis, 42-50 /x 
longis, 20-26 fi latis ; sporidiis parallele positis, oblongis, utrinque 
late rotundatis, 3-4-septatis, ad septa leniter constrictis, fuscis, 
33-40 IX longis, 12-15 /* latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8819 (type), April, 1913. On living leaves 
of Piper; same locality, Merrill 8851, April, 1913, On leaves of Piper; 
Mt. Capoas, Merrill 9092, April, 1913. On leaves of Piper. 

The genus is related to Polystomella, differing chiefly by the pluricellular, 
colored sporidia and the scantily developed hypostroma. 

AULACOSTROMA Syd. gen. nov. Dothideacearum. 

(Etym. awZax = sulca et stroma.) 

Stromata sub parte exteriore epidermidis evoluta, dein erum- 
pentia, Crustacea, plana, atra, peripherice in hyphas radiantes 
ramosas bulbillulas axillares gerentes dissoluta. Perithecia elon- 
gata, linearia, rima longitudinali aperta, radiatim contexta, nucleo 
mucoso. Asci subglobosi vel ovati, paraphysati, octospori. Spo- 
ridia ex hyalino f usca, didyma. 

AULACOSTROMA PALAWANENSE Syd. sp. nov. (Fig. 7.) 

Epiphyllum plagulas primitus minutas orbiculares mox con- 
fluentes multo majores et irregulares formans, subinde folia 
exteriore epidermidis evoiuto, atro, grumuloso, piano, crustaceo, 
ad ambitum in hyphas radiantes abeunte; hyphis longiusculis, 
alternatim ramosis, fuscis, rectis vel irregulariter flexuosis, re- 
mote septatis, 4-5.5 jx crassis, in axillis bulbillulas irregulares vel 
oblongas concolores vel parum obscuriores gerentibus ; peritheciis 
plus minus numerosis in quoque stromate, laxe vel densiuscule 
dispositis, ab reliquis epidermidis ruptae obtectis, linearibus, 
atris, 0.3-1.2 mm longis, 150-220 /* latis, rectis vel varie curvatis 
aut geniculatis, rima longitudinali apertis, contextu atro-fusco, 
marginem versus fusco ex hyphis rectis vel subrectis remote sep- 
tatis (articulis 15-25 ii longis) 2.5-3.5 fx crassis ad apicem dicho- 
tomo-partitis composito, nucleo hyalino-viridulo mucoso; ascis 
subglobosis, ovatis vel ovato-oblongis, sessilibus, apice rotundatis, 
48-55 IX longis, 25-35 /a latis, octosporis; paraphysibus superne 
hyalino-viridulis 1.5-2 /^ crassis, mucosis; sporidiis distichis vel 
tristichis aut conglobatis, ellipsoideis vel oblongo-ellipsoideis, 
utrinque late rotundatis, medio 1-septatis, constrictis, ex hyalino 
fuscis, levibus, 20-25 ix longis, 10-12 /i, latis; pycnidiosporis in 
peritheciis similibus evolutis, sessilibus, cylindraceis, utrinque 
obtusis, continuis, hyalinis, 8-12 fx longis, 2-2.5 /x latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill S 175, 8751, April, May, 1913. On leaves of 
Pandanus MerrilUi. 



IX, C, 2 



H. and P. Sydow: Fungi from Palawan 



177 



At first the fungus forms small round colonies surrounded by the radiat- 
ing hyphae. The colonies soon become larger, irregular, very often con- 
fluent and spreading over the entire leaf-blade. In the larger colonies the 
surrounding hyphae are only scarcely, if at all, visible, because they more 
or less disappear in age. The hyphae are branched, bearing axillary bulbils 
the structure of which we have not been able to make out. The stromata 
develop beneath the outer portion of the epidermis (see fig. 2). When the 
stromata increase in size the spidermis is broken and pieces of it are to be 





Fig. 7. Aulacostroma palawanense Syd. a. Stroma seen from above (X 6) ; b, longitudinal 
section througrh a very young: stroma showing its position beneath the outer 
layer of the epidermis (X 370) ; c, longitudinal section through a mature peri- 
thecium (X 370) ; d, ascospore (X 640) ; e, branched hyp ha with axillary 
bulbils (X 370). 



found on the mature perithecia. The cells of the epidermis themselves are 
only sparsely filled with hyphal threads. The asci become blue-tinted with 
potassium iodide. 

There are two fungi described from leaves of Pandanus, viz. Aulogrcu- 
phuni Pandani Cke. and A. intricatum Berk, et Br., which are similar to 
the Philippine fungous and seem to belong to the same genus. We have 
seen the types of both species, which are preserved in the Kew Herbarium. 
Aulacographum Pandani differs in having smaller perithecia which are 

125572 6 



178 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

arranged in the midst of the stromata, while A. intricata has the same 
perithecia, but a much less developed stroma. 

We have placed A^dacostroma among the Dothideaceae but it might per- 
haps better be considered as belonging to the Hysteriaceae. The limits 
between these two families, however, are not clear and they very much 
need a revision. 

DICTYOTHYRIUM Theissen 

DICTYOTHYRIUM GIGANTEUM Syd. sp. nov. 

Peritheciis plerumque hypophyllis, sparsis, sine maculis, 
omnino superficialibus, sine mycelio, atris, opacis, rotundatis, 
500-700 ft diam., carbonaceis, planis, centrum versus lenissime 
elevatis, poro rotundato distinct© 25-35 /a lato instructis; con- 
textu centrali omnino opaco obscure atro-coeruleo, peripheric© 
laxiore dilutiore amoene coeruleo usque hyalino ex hyphis tenuis- 
simis 1-1.5 fi latis dense ramosis et maeandrice conjunctis com- 
posito ; ascis subsaccatis, ad basim latis, apicem versus plerumque 
angustioribus, sessilibus, crasse tunicatis (praecipue ad apicem), 
90-125 IX longis, 35-45 ix latis, 2-4-sporis, copiosissime filiformiter 
paraphysatis ; sporidiis oblongo-cylindraceis, utrinque late rotun- 
datis, ad septum constrictis, hyalinis, intus densissime granulosis, 
65-100 /x longis, 16-18 ^ latis, loculis sive aequalibus, sive quoad 
longitudinem inaequalibus. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8773 p. p., April, 1913. On leaves of Meme- 
cylon lanceolatuvi, in society with Morenoella Memecyli Syd.; same locality, 
Merrill 8811, April, 1913. On leaves of Memecylon. 

MICROPELTELLA Sydow 
MICROPELTELLA MERRILLII Syd, sp. nov. 

Peritheciis amphigenis, sine maculis, sparsis, superficialibus, 
facile secedentibus, opace atro-coeruleis, lenticulari-scutatis, 
250-420 IX diam. marginem versus coerulee pellucidis ibique ex 
hyphis 1-1.5 fx latis maeandrice denseque conjunctis contextis, 
praeterea margine hyalino cinctis, ostiolo distincto rotundato 
20-25 IX lato; ascis fusoideo-clavatis, sessilibus, aparaphysatis, 
60-75 IX longis, 14-18 ix latis, plerumque octosporis ; sporidiis dis- 
tichis, tereti-clavulatis, apice late rotundatis, deorsum attenuatis, 
rectis vel leniter curvatis, 3-4-septatis, ad septa parum con- 
strictis, hyalinis, 24-30 ^ longis, 4-6 ix latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8725 (type), April, 1913. On leaves of Schef- 
fiera; same locality, Merrill 87U6, 875U, 8820, April, 1913. On leaves of 
Glycosmis cochin chinensis and Celastrus paniculatus. 

STEPHANOTHECA Syd. gen. nov. Hemisphaeriacearum 

(Etym. Stephanos corona et theca ascus.) 

Perithecia dimidiato-scutata, sed haud inversa, omnino super- 
ficialia, subiculo nuUo, minuta, centro substipitato matrici affixa, 



IX. C. 2 



H. and P. Sydow: Fungi from Palawan 



179 



irregulariter radiatim contexta, ex hyphis brevissime parenchy- 
matice septatis composita, atra. Asci ad marg-inem perithe- 
ciorum tantum evoluti et in strato dilutiore siti, ovati usque 
oblongi, octospori, aparaphysati. Sporidia oblonga, hyalina, 
pluriseptata, loculis paucis longitudinaliter septatis. 

STEPHANOTHECA MICROMERA Syd. spec. nov. (Fig. 8.) 

Peritheciis sparsis, sine maculis, omnino superficialibus, subi- 
culo nullo, atris, 200-300 jx diam., ambitu orbicularibus, baud 







c:> C3 CZ3 '=^ ^=3 O cizj ciP 



Tio. 8. Stephanotheca viicromera Syd. a, Perithecium seen from above (X 110) ; b, margrin 
of the perithecium with ascus-bearing portion (X560); c, longitudinal section 
through the fungus (X 320) ; d, sporidia (X 1200). 

inversis, centro elevato praeditis, subtus quasi brevissime crasse- 
que pedicellatis, irregulariter radiatim contextis, contextu ex 
hyphis brevissime parenchymatice septatis crasse tunicatis 
(articulis 2-3 /t longis et 2-2.5 /j. latis) obscure fuscis marginem 
versus dilutioribus usque subhyalinis compositio; ascis ad 
marginem peritheciorum in strato diluto sitis, ovatis usque oblon- 
gis, sessilibus, supeme rotundatis, 20-28 /u, longis, 14-19 ix latis, 
octosporis, aparaphysatis, quoque asco in loculo proprio site; 



180 1'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

sporidiis 2-4-stichis, oblongo-clavulatis, apice late rotundatis, 
basim versus attenuatis, 3-5-septatis, non constrictis, cellula una 
alterave saepe semel verticaliter aut oblique septata, 11-16 fi 
long-is, 4.5-5.5 /x latis. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill 8979, April, 1913. On living leaves 
of Taxotrophis ilicifolia. 

Stephanotheca micromera represents a most peculiar fungus quite dis- 
tinct from any other known to us. It forms small, black, superficial, 
rounded bodies provided with an elevated center above. A very small and 
thick foot decends from the central portion to the epidermis. The peri- 
thecia are composed of irregular radiating hyphae divided by numerous 
septa into many thick-walled and dark cells. Toward the margin the cells 
become lighter coloured. Around this dark body, which is entirely sterile, 
the ascus-bearing stratum is developed. This stratum is very clear and 
nearly hyaline. Every ascus is lying in its own cavity or chamber with 
a distinct fibrose-cellulose wall, hence the whole body might perhaps better 
be called stroma than perithecium. At first sight one might believe that 
the ascus-bearing portion is quite naked. However we are inclined to think 
that a very thin, nearly hyaline pellicle covers this portion. The young 
sporidia are 1-septate; somewhat later they become 3-5-septate and in full 
maturity many of them are irregularly and vertically or obliquely septate. 

ASTERINA Leveille 
ASTERiNA NODULIFERA Syd. sp. nov. 

Amphigena, saepius epiphylla, plagulas minutas 2-4 mm diam. 
opacas formans; mycelio radiante, ex hyphis rectiusculis oppo- 
site- vel alternatim ramosis obscure brunneis opacis 6-10 p. latis 
non hyphopodiatis sed regulariter globoso-nodulosis (nodos 10-15 
/i crassis) composite; peritheciis inversis, in centro plagularum 
laxe dispositis, rotundatis, 250-340 fx diam., plano-conoideis, 
tandem stellatim dehiscentibus, radiatim contextis, ex hyphis 
brunneis subrectis vel flexuosis 3-4 p. crassis (articulis 10-14 p. 
longis) compositis; ascis globulosis usque ovatis, 40-55 p longis, 
38-44 p latis, aparaphysatis ; sporidiis octonis, oblongis, utrinque 
late rotundatis, ad septum non vel vix constrictis, totis 30-35 fx 
longis, levibus, ex hyalino brunneis, cellula superiore globosa 
11-13 /A diam., inferiore cylindracea 20-24 /* longa et 10-12 p. 
lata. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8901, May, 1913. On leaves of Angelesia 
splendens. 

The species is nearly related to the Brazilian Asterina Schroeteri (Rehm) 
Theiss., from which it differs by the thicker hyphae, and the sporidia, the 
lower cell of the latter being only twice as long as the upper cell. 
A. Couepiae P. Henn. is also a very nearly related species which, however, 
has thinner hyphae and somewhat smaller sporidia and perithecia. 



IX, c, 2 H. and P. Sydow: Fungi from Palawan 181 

ASTERINA DILLENIAE Syd. sp. nov. 

Epiphylla, plagulas orbiculares 2-5 mm latas atro-griseas for- 
mans; mycelio radiante, ex hyphis longiusculis ramosis obscure 
castaneo-brunneis regularibus remote septatis crasse tunicatis 
7-9 fjL latis composito; hyphopodiis baud numerosis, alternantibus 
vel unilateralibus, continuis, globulosis, truncatis vel breviter 
cylindraceis, castaneo-brunneis, rotundatis vel parum lobatis 
aut angulatis, 10-15 fx longis, 9-11 ^ latis; peritheciis sparsis, 
planis, inversis, rotundatis, 140-200 ^ diam., stellatim dehiscen- 
tibus, contextu subatro opaco ex hyphis 4-5 /i, crassis composito ; 
ascis globosis usque ovatis, paraphysatis, 40-60 ti longis, 35-45 /x 
latis, octosporis; sporidiis conglobatis, oblongis, utrinque late 
rotundatis, medio 1-septatis et constrictis, ex hyalino fuscis, 
verrucosis, 20-25 jx longis, 10-12 ^ latis. 

Palawan, Tajrtay, Merrill 877U, April, 1913. On leaves of Dillenia. 

ASTERINA LOBULIFERA Syd. sp. nov. 

Epiphylla, plagulas tenuissimas irregulares primitus minutas 
dein plus minus confluentes griseo-atras formans ; mycelio ex 
hyphis rectis vel rectiusculis fuscis ramosis septatis 4-6 yx crassis 
composito; hyphopodiis numerosis, alternantibus, totis 10-16 /x 
longis, cellula basali plerumque brevissima vel usque ad 6 /i 
longa, cellula superiore grosse 2-4-lobata et 10-12 fx lata; peri- 
theciis densiuscule dispositis, tenuibus, rotundatis, 100-140 /x 
diam., inversis, mox stellatim dehiscentibus, contextu ex hyphis 
obscure fuscis 3-3.5 fx crassis rectis crebre septatis (articulis 
8-10 /x longis) regulariter strato simplici composito; ascis glo- 
bosis, aparaphysatis, 25-30 /x longis, 20-25 /x latis, octosporis; 
sporidiis conglobatis, oblongis, utrinque rotundatis, medio 1- 
septatis, parum constrictis, levibus, ex hyalino fuscis, 16-18 fx 
longis 7-8.5 fx latis ; pycnidiosporis simul praesentibus continuis, 
fuscis, centro zonula hyalina cinctis, 15-18 /x longis, 8-10 /x latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8737, April, 1913. On leaves of Glochidion. 

The species comes very near to Asterina lobata Syd. which, however, 
differs by its smaller hyphopodia, the flexuose hyphae, and the more con- 
spicuous colonies. 

ASTERINA PEMPHIDIOIDES Cke. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8738, 8788, April, 1908. On leaves of Euge- 
nia; summit of Mt. Capoas, Merrill 9082, April, 1913. On leaves of Euge- 
nia; Taytay, Merrill S 179, May 3, 1913. On leaves of Eugenia. 

ASTERINA ELMERI Syd. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8891, April, 1913. On leaves of Champereia 
manillana. 



\g2 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

ASTERINA SPISSA Syd. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8821, April, 1913. On leaves of Jasminum 
bifarium. 

ASTERINELLA Theissen 

ASTERINELLA PALAWANENSIS Syd. sp. nov. 

Plagulas hypophyllas atras 0.5-1.5 cm diam., orbiculares for- 
mans; mycelio ex hyphis tenuibus 3-5 /x crassis dilute fuscis 
parce septatis sed copiose anastomosantibus et saepe lateraliter 
conjunctis flexuosis composito, hyphopodiis nullis; peritheciis 
sparsis, rotundatis, applanato-convexis, atris, opacis, 200-350 /j, 
diam., ad ambitum fimbriatis, contextu opaco; ascis ovatis vel 
oblongis, brevissime stipitatis, 45-55 fi longis, 24-34 fx latis, 
octosporis; paraphysibus numerosis, ascos superantibus, 1 fi 
crassis; sporidiis distichis, oblongis, utrinque rotundatis, medio 
1-septatis et constrictis, levibus, ex hyalino fuscis, 18-24 /x longis 
7-8.5 fx latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8887 p. p., May, 1913. On leaves of Plec- 
tronia, in society of Balladyna velutina. 

ASTERINELLA RAMULIGERA Syd. sp. nov. 

Amphigena, plagulas griseo-atras mediocres vel majusculas 
0.5-3 cm latas irregulares formans; mycelio laxiusculo, ex hy- 
phis longis fuscis 6-8 fi crassis remote septatis ramosis haud 
hyphopodiatis, sed cum ramulis novellis copiosis 20-30 fi longis 
ad apicem lobatis et hyphopodia erecta simulantibus obsitis com- 
posito; peritheciis sparsis, ambitu orbicularibus, inversis, 
140-200 fx diam., non vel parum fimbriatis, stellatim dehiscenti- 
bus, contextu obscure brunneo, ex hyphis ca. 3 fx crassis crebre 
septatis (articulis 7-10 ix longis) composito; ascis globulosis vel 
ovatis, aparaphysatis, tenuiter tunicatis, 35-48 fx longis, 30-40 
^ latis, octosporis, sporidiis oblongis, utrinque late rotundatis, 
medio 1-septatis et constrictis, ubique verrucosis, ex hyalino fus- 
cis, 20-26 fx longis, 10-12 /x latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8793, April, 1913. On living leaves of Micro- 
desmis casearifolia. 

ASTERINELLA CALAMI Syd. sp. nov. 

Hypophylla, irregulariter distributa, magnam folii partem 
occupans; mycelio perparco, ex hyphis fuscis parce ramosis 
septatis (articulis 10-12 /x longis) 3-5 ix latis rectiusculis com- 
posito; hyphopodiis nullis; peritheciis inversis, irregulariter 
sparsis, planis, ambitu irregulariter rotundatis 250-420 fx diam., 
contextu ex hyphis toruloso-flexuosis copiose anastomosantibus 
fuscis 3-4 fx crassis composito, centro subatro opaco ; ascis ovato- 
globosis, paucis tantum visis ; sporidiis ellipsoideo-oblongis, utrin- 



IX, c, 2 H. and P. Sydoiv: Fungi from Palawan 183 

que rotundatis, medio 1-septatis et constrictis, levibus, obscure 
brunneis, 34-36 ^ longis, 15-17 tx. latis. 

Palawan, Mount Capoas, Merrill 9081, April, 1913. On living leaves of 
Calavius. 

Differs from Asterina globidifera (Pat.) by the absence of nodules in 
the hyphae. 

L EM BOS I A Leveille 

LEMBOSIA NERVISEQUIA Syd. sp. nov. 

Amphigena, praecipue nervos sequens, plagulas atras plus 
minus elongates confluentes formans; mycelio parco, ex hyphis 
fuscis vix septatis 5-7 ^ crassis anastomosantibus flexuosis com- 
posite; hyphopodiis nullis vel saltem non visis; peritheciis den- 
siuscule dispositis, primitus rotundatis 200-300 ^ diam., dein 
elongatis 300-550 fx longis, 150-180 /a latis, rima longitudinal! 
dehiscentibus, contextu centrali atro-fusco opaco, marginem ver- 
sus fusco ex hyphis rectis 4-4.5 /* crassis (articulis 8-11 /x lon- 
gis) composite; ascis gleboso-ovatis, parce paraphysatis, 50-58 
fjL longis, 40-46 ^u, latis, octosporis; sporidiis conglobatis, ellipsoi- 
deis, utrinque late rotundatis, medio 1-septatis, vix vel leniter 
constrictis, minutissime verruculosis, ex hyalino sordide olivaceis, 
23-26 ^l longis, 12-13 fx latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8789, April, 1913. On living leaves of Litsea. 
LEMBOSIA INCONSPICUA Syd. sp. nov. 

Epiphylla, plagulas tenuissimas vix conspicuas 2-8 mm latas 
formans; mycelio ex hyphis dilute fuscis dense ramosis septatis 
irregularibus 3-4 fi crassis composite; hyphopodiis rarissimis, 
continuis, brevissimis ; peritheciis sparis vel laxe aggregatis, 
anguste eblongis usque linearibus, plerumque 150-350 ^ longis 
et 100-150 IX. latis, subinde valde elongatis et tunc usque 1 mm 
longis, tenuibus, rectis vel subrectis, epace atris, rima lengitu- 
dinali latiuscula apertis, contextu epace atre ex hyphis tenuibus 
rectis vel subrectis ca 2 /x crassis composite; ascis ovatis, apice 
late rotundatis et incrassatis, sessilibus, 26-32 /u, longis, 14-20 jn 
latis; paraphysibus cepiesis, superne leniter incrassatis, obtusis, 
ad apicem 2-2.5 p. latis, hyalinis; sporidiis ectonis, conglobatis, 
elongato-evatis, levibus, ex hyaline tandem fuscis, 11-15 /x longis, 
3.5-5 IX. latis, leculo superiere globuloso, inferiore augustiore et 
longiere, ad septum non vel vix constrictis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill S 176, April 10, 1913. On leaves of Guioa. 
MORENOELLA Spegazzini 
MORENOELLA MEMECYLI Syd. spec. nov. 

Peritheciis hypophyllis, in mycelio parcissime eveluto ex hyphis 
ramosis vix vel parce septatis fuscidulis 3.5-4.5 ;u, crassis levibus 



184 The Philippine Journal of Science i9n 

composito baud hyphopodiato (hyphopodiis saltern non visis) 
insidentibus, superficialibus, primitus orbicularibus, tendem 
elongatis, 200-450 /x longis, 120-160 /* latis, plerumque rectis, 
rima latiuscula debiscentibus, contextu opaco ex bypbis radian- 
tibus obscure brunneis 3-3,5 /a crassis crebre septatis" (articulis 
7-9 ix longis) composito; ascis subglobosis vel ovatis, rarius 
leniter elongatis, aparapbysatis, 35-55 /x longis, 26-35 /x latis, 
octosporis; sporidiis oblongis, utrinque rotundatis, medio 1-sep- 
tatis, leniter constrictis, levibus, ex byalino fuscis, 20-23 ii 
longis, 8-10 /x latis, cellula superiore parum latiore quam 
inferiore. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8773 p. p., April, 1913. On leaves of Meme- 
cylon lanceolatum, in society with Dictyothyrium giganteum Syd. 

HYSTEROSTOMELLA Spegazzini 

HYSTEROSTOMELLA TETRACERAE (Rud.) V. Hoehn. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8750, April, 1913. On leaves of Tetracera 

sarmentosa. 

RHYTISMA Fries 

RHYTISMA LAGERSTROEMIAE Rabh. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill 89If9, April, 1913. On leaves of Lagers- 
troemia speciosa. 

A L DON A Raciborski 

ALDONA STELLA NIGRA Rac. 

Palawan, base of Mount Capoas, Merrill 9086, April, 1913. On leaves 
c± Pterocarpus indicus. 

PARMULARIA Leveille 
PARMULARIA JAVANICA (Pat.) Sacc. et Syd. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill S 186, May 28, 1913. On leaves of Nipa frut- 

ICQ/TtS 

GLONIUM Muhlenberg 
GLONIUM BAMBUSINUM Syd. 

Palawan, Malampaya Bay, Merrill 8939, May, 1913. On dead logs in 
forest; Lake Manguao, Merrill 89^7, April, 1913. On rotten logs. 

Many of the perithecia are 0.5-1 n'im long, as in the type specimen on 
Bambusa, some, however, are up to 2 mm long. 

TRYBLIDIELLA Saccardo 
TRYBLIDIELLA MINDANAOENSIS P. Henn. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8825, April, 1913. On dead branches of Po- 
metia pinnata. 

PHOMOPSIS Saccardo 

PHOMOPSIS ARECAE Syd. sp. nov. 

Pycnidiis dense sparsis, aequaliter distributis, diu epidermide 
tectis, tandem vertice prominulis, globosis, minutissimis, 75-100 
IX diam., atris, contextu opaco indistincto ex cellulis crasse tuni- 



IX, c, 2 H. and P. Sydow: Fungi from Palawan 185 

catis composito; sporulis aliis anguste ellipsoideis vel subfuso- 
ideis, utrinque attenuatis, hyalinis, plerumque guttulatis, 8-10 
p. longis, 2-2.5 fx latis ; aliis filiformibus, rectis vel parum curvatis, 
hyalinis, 18-24 ii longis, 1 fx. latis. 

PAM.WAN, Silanga, Merrill 8930, 89S^, May, 1913. On dead petioles and 
leaf-rachis of Areca cathechu. 

DIPLODIA Fries 

DIPLODIA COCOCARPA Sacc. var. MALACCENSIS Tassi. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8830, April, 1913. On pericarp of mature 
coconut. 

CENTHOSPORA Greville 

CENTHOSPORA GARCINIAE Syd. sp. nov. 

Stromatibus hyphophyllis, sine maculis, plerumque plus minus 
aequaliter sparsis, minutis, 250-400 fj. diam., globoso-conicis, 
profunde immersis, vertice tantum prominulis, atris, intus ple- 
rumque imperfecte locularibus, subinde distincte bilocularibus ; 
basidiis indistinctis, brevibus; sporulis bacillaribus, continuis, 
hyalinis, 4.5-6 /x longis, 1-1.3 /x latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill S 177, April 22, 1913. On fallen leaves of 
Garcinia; Taytay, Merrill 8777, April, 1913. On leaves of Garcinia; Lake 
Manguao, Merrill 89^3, April, 1913. On leaves of Garcinia. 

PHELLOSTROMA Syd. gen. nov. Sphaeropsidearum. 

(Etym. phellos suber et stroma.) 

Stromata subsuperficialia, magna, hypoxyloidea, extus atra, 
intus ferruginea, suberosa, loculis monostichis omnino immersis 
praedita, contextu hyphoso circa loculos parenchymatico. Spor- 
ulae e strato interiore loculorum hyalino oriundae, continuae, 
ellipsoideae vel oblongae ; basidia nulla. 

PHELLOSTROMA HYPOXYLOIDES Syd. sp. nov. (Fig. 9.) 

Stromatibus subsuperficialibus, hypoxyloideis, magnis, sparsis 
vel pluribus aggregatis, primitus rotundatis et ca. 2-3 mm diam., 
tandem majoribus irregularibus confluendo usque 1 cm longis et 
latis, saepe parum lobatis vel plicatis, 1-3 mm altis, extus atris 
glabris vix rugulosis, intus ferrugineis, suberosis, contextu 
fibroso ex hyphis fuscidulis 2.5-3.5 ^ crassis, circa loculos paren- 
chymatico ex cellulis 9-11 fi diam. composito; loculis monosti- 
chis, omnino immersis, globulosis, ovatis vel ellipticis, 130-180 fi 
diam., nucleo albo; sporulis e .strato interiore loculorum hyalino 
oriundis, continuis, ellipsoides vel ellipsoideo-oblongis, utrin- 
que rotundatis, 1-2-guttulatis, hyalinis, 7-9 ft longis, 3 fx. latis; 
basidiis nullis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 889^, May, 1913. On dead Areca in forests. 



Igg The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

ISCHNOSTROMA Syd. gen. nov. Leptostromatacearum. 

(Etym. ischnos tenuis et stroma.) 

Pycnidia in stromate effuso tenui omnino superficiali radiatim 
contexto atro immersa vel potius ab eodem obtecta, pariete 
ubique evoluto, compluria in quoque stromate, minuta, intus 
ubique sporuligera. Sporulae filiformes, hyalinae, e strato tenui 
fibroso hyalino oriundae. Basidia nulla. 

ISCHNOSTROMA MERRILL!! Syd. sp. nov. (Fig. 10.) 

Stromatibus epiphyllis, singularis subinde etiam hypophyllis, 
sparsis vel plus minus aggregatis, maculiformibus, orbicularibus, 
1-5 mm diam., subinde confluentibus, omnino superficialibus, 




Fig. 9. 



PhelloKtroma hypoxyloides Syd. a. External appearance of the fungus (X2) ; 6, 
longitudinal section through a stroma (X 10) ; c, tissue of the stroma (X 380) ; d, 
spores (X 1300). 



tenuissimis, atris, opacis, ex hyphis radiantibus rectis vel parum 
flexuosis remote septatis fuscis 2.5-3.5 /x latis marginem versus 
laxioribus radiato-fimbriatis et ramosis composito; pycnidiis 
stromate obtectis, numerosis in centre stromatum, hemisphaeri- 
cis vel depresso-globosis, 70-90 fj. diam., centro poro rotundo 
apertis, pariete ubique evoluto, ad basim ex una serie celiularum 
regularium dilute brunnearum composito ; basidiis nullis ; sporu- 
lis e strato tenui hyalino fibroso oriundis, breviter filiformibus, 
continuis, saepe biguttulatis, rectis vel leniter curvatis, hyalinis, 
15-18 /A longis, 1-1.5 /x latis. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill S 180, April 27, 1913. On living leaves 
of Talauma. 



XX. c, 2 H. and P. Sydow: Fungi from Palawan 

PYCNOTHYRIUM Diedicke 



187 



PYCNOTHYRIUM PANDANI Syd. sp. nov. 

Pycnidiis densiuscule sparsis, plerumque aequaliter distributis, 
superficialibus, orbicularibus, 300-400 ^ diam., tenuibus, atris, 
contextu radiato, ex hyphis crebre septatis (articulis 4-6 fx 
longfis) 4 fi crassis strato simplici composito fusco ; basidiis nullis ; 
sporulis elongatis, subfiliformibus, continuis, minute guttulatis, 
rectis vel subrectis, hyalinis, 15-17 fj. longis, 1.5-2 fi latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8766, 88JtJt, April, 1913. Both specimens on 
dead leaves of Pandanus tectorius, on seashore. 




Fig. 10. IschixostToma merriUii Syd. a, LonKitudinal section throuKh a stroma showing one 
loculus (X 370) ; b, part of the margrin of the stroma (X 400) ; c, spores (X 650). 

ASCHERSONIA Montagne 
ASCHERSONIA MACULARIS Syd. sp. nov. 

Stromatibus epiphyllis, in maculis flavo-brunneolis usque 1 cm 
diam., plus minus distincte circinatim congestis, minutis, 100-200 
(JL diam., globulosis, margine albido alatis, ochraceis; pycnidiis 
omnino immersis; basidiis obtusis, 12-16 fi longis, 1.5-2 fi latis; 
sporulis oblongis, utrinque obtusis, continuis, hyalinis, 5-6 /* 
longis, 2-2.5 ix latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8855, May, 1913. On living leaves of Mischo- 
carpus. 



188 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

COLLETOTRICHUM Corda 
COLLEJOTRICHUM ARECAE Syd. sp. nov. 

Acervulis erumpenti-superficialibus, sparsis vel maculiformiter 
aggregatis, minutissimis, 100-150 ^i diam., atris, rotundatis; setis 
sparsis, erectis vel curvatis, opace castaneis, continuis, 35-65 /a 
longis, ad basim 4 /x crassis, sursum angustioribus ; conidiis cylin- 
draceis, utrinque rotundatis, continuis, 12-16 p. longis, 4-5 ix latis. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill 8958 p. p., April, 1913. On dead leaf- 
sheaths of Areca aff. A. cathecu, in forests, in society with Zygosporium 
oscheoides Mont.; Silanga, Merrill 8919, May, 1913. On dead sheaths of 
Areca cathecu. 

PESTALOZZIA De Notaris 

PESTALOZZtA PALMARUM Cke. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 87Jf3, April, 1913. On leaves of Cocos nuci- 
fera; Taytay, Merrill S 182, May 3, 1913. On leaves of Cocos nucifera. 

CONIOSPORIUM Link 

CONIOSPORIUM PUNCTIFORME Sacc. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8775, April, 1913. On leaves of Dinochloa 
scandens; same locality, Merrill 8900, May, 1913. On dead leaves of Schi- 
zostachyum. 

ZYGOSPORIUM Montagne 

ZYGOSPORIUM OSCHEOIDES Mont. 

Palawan, Lake Mangnao, Merrill 8958 p. p., April, 1913. On dead leaf- 
sheaths of Areca aff. A. cathecu, in forests, in society vath Colletotrichum 
Arecae Syd. 

The specimen at hand is very well developed. It forms irregular, nearly 
black, often confluent, thin colonies up to 2 cm in length. The fertile 
hyphae are straight, brown, 35-50 m long, at the base about 3 a^ broad, taper- 
ing upward, but on the top enlarged and hyaline, usually 1 -septate in the 
lower portion. The conidia are broadly elliptic, 10-12 m long, hyaline or 
nearly so. 

CERCOSPORA Fresenius 

CERCOSPORA LICUALAE Syd. sp. nov. 

Caespitulis sparsis, maculis effusis arescentibus insidentibus, 
minutis; hyphis fasciculatis, rectis, erectis, subrigidis, fuscis, 
pluriseptatis (articulis 15-35 /a longis), 100-180 /x longis, 4-4.5 
ij. crassis; conidiis acrogenis, anguste obclavatis, ad apicem sub- 
flagellatis, spurie 3-5-septatis, dilutissime olivaceis, 75-110 /x 
longis, 5-7 IX latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 87^8, April, 1913. On leaves of Licuala spi- 
nosa. 

CERCOSPORA NICOTIANAE Ell. et Ev. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8903, May, 1913. On leaves of Nicotiana ta- 
bacum. 



IX. c, 2 H. and P. Sydoiv: Fungi from Palawan 189 

CERCOSPORINA Spegazzini 
CERCOSPORINA HELICTERIS Syd. sp. nov. 

Maculis amphigenis, orbicularibus, 1-4 mm diam., olivaceo- 
viridulis; caespitulis hypophyllis, in tomento folii absconditis, 
minutissimis, olivaceis; hyphis pallide olivaceo-fuscidulis, 50-70 
/i longis, 4-6 /I latis; conidiis cylindraceis, utrinque obtusis vel 
leniter attenuatis, 3-6-septatis, non constrictis, hyalinis, 30-50 
/x longis, 2.5-3.5 ^i latis. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8907, May, 1913. On leaves of Helicterea 
hirstita. 

STIGMELLA Leveille 

STIGMELLA PALAWANENSIS Syd. sp. nov. 

Amphigena, saepius hypophylla, plagulas griseas primitus 
minutas mox confluendo majores irregulares formans; hyphis 
longiusculis, dilute fuscis, ramosis, remote septatis, hyphopodia 
numerosa saepe conferta et saepe etiam longa serie omnino 
opposita semiglobosa continua concoloria 7-9 fx lata gerentibus, 
conidiis in ramulis acrogenis inaequaliter globosis vel subcu- 
boideis 20-24 p. diam., cruciatim vel radiatim septatis, atrobrun- 
neis, opacis, levibus, ex cellulis 4-8 compositis; cellulis singulis 
8-10 ^i diam. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8832, April, 1913. On living leaves of Celas- 
trus paniculatus. 

Differs from Stigtnella manilensis Sacc. by the thinner and longer hy- 
phae provided with numerous hyphopodia, and by the smaller conidia. 

STILBELLA Lindau 

STILBELLA CINNABARINA (Mont.) Lindau. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8878, May, 1913. On dead twigs of Brug- 
uiera caryophyllacea in mangrove swamp. 

EXOSPORIUM Link 

EXOSPORIUM CALOPHYLLI Syd. sp. nov. 

Sporodochiis sparsis, per corticem erumpentibus ab eoque fisco 
cinctis, rotundatis, applanato-globulosis, pulvinatis, 0.25-0.3 mm 
diam., atris, contextu cellulose obscure olivaceo; sporophoris 
brevibus, 8-14 /t longis; conidiis oblongo-fusiformibus vel sub- 
clavulatis, dilute fuscidulis vel olivaceo-fuscidulis, in maturitate 
3-4-septatis, con constrictis, levibus, crasse tunicatis, 32-38 fi 
longis, 11-13 fj. latis, 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 8784, April, 1913. On dead twigs of Calo- 
phylluvi inophyllum. 

[Vol. IX, No. 1, including pages 1 to 96, was issued April 13, 1914.] 



z;.'^- 



OBITUARY 

Cftarles^ ^uhh i\obmson, ^v. 

W}sil)tVt&i it has occurred in the wise and unknowable provi> 
dence of God that Charles Budd Robinson, M. A., Ph. D., for 
many years a botanist of the Bureau of Science of the Govern- 
ment of the Philippine Islands, should, in the peaceful pursuit 
of his profession and in his zealous endeavors to augment the 
sum of human knowledge, be struck down by the hands of ignor- 
ant and savage natives in the Island of Amboina, Dutch East 
Indies, and there done to death on the fifth day of December, 
nineteen hundred and thirteen; and 

W^\)tttHi Charles Budd Robinson was held in the highest 
esteem by every member of this institution alike for his scientific 
ability and lovable personality; therefore, be it 

B^tS^Olbeb, That we, the members of the staff of the Bureau of 
Science, desire to express hereby our very deep sorrow at the loss 
which we so keenly feel; a loss which not only bereaves us per- 
sonally, but leaves the cause of science the poorer and his aged 
parents the more desolate because of his well-known filial attach- 
ment and care; and be it further 

3^tSiOlbCl)i, That we extend to Doctor Robinson's father, mother, 
and sister our most sincere sympathy; and be it further 

3i^tSfolbttl» That a copy of these resolutions be sent to Doctor 
Robinson's parents, a copy be engrossed and hung in the library 
of the Bureau of Science, copies be sent to the Bureau of Civil 
Service and to the archives of the Bureau of Science for file, 
and that they be published in the forthcoming number of The 
Philippine Journal of Science as evidence of the love and appre- 
ciation which we have for him and the reverence in which we 
shall ever hold his memory. 

For the staff of the Bureau of Science. 

ALVIN J. COX, 
H. D. GIBBS, 
[L. S.] MERTON L. MILLER, 

CHARLES S. BANKS, 
ELMER D. MERRILL, 
JOSE GUERRERO, 

Committee. 

At Manila, Philippine Islands, this twenty-fourth day of Feb- 
ruary, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and 
fourteen. 



hi 



THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

C. Botany 



Vol. IX JUNE, 1914 No. 3 



CHARLES BUDD ROBINSON, Jr.^ 
By E. D. Merrill 

The devotees to the study of natural history can be numbered 
by thousands and tens of thousands, but in this day and age the 
thought of the possibility of violent death, in the pursuit of field 
work, comes to practically none of them. On June 17, 1913, Dr. 
C. B. Robinson left Manila for Singapore, en route to Java and 
Amboina, for the purpose of making a botanical exploration of 
the Island of Amboina. Among his many friends and associates 
in Manila, no one considered for a moment the question of 
personal danger in the undertaking, from the fact that Amboina 
was thoroughly known, entirely peaceful, for centuries under 
the control of the Portuguese and the Dutch, and was and is still 
thoroughly safe, so far as any country can be so considered. 
The news of the murder of Doctor Robinson, which flashed over 
the wires on the 22d of December, came as a distinct shock to 
all who had been in any way associated with him and to the 
scientific world at large. 

Charles Budd Robinson, jr., was born in Pictou, Nova Scotia, 
October 26, 1871, and at the time of his death, December 5, 1913, 
was somewhat over 42 years of age. His early education was 
obtained in the public schools of Pictou and at Pictou Academy. 
In 1887 and again in 1889 he won bursaries at Dalhousie Univer- 
sity, Halifax, and received his master's degree from this univer- 
sity in the year 1891. In 1897-98 he was a student at Cambridge 
University, and during the following year was a fellow of Christ's 

* Abstract of an address given at a memorial meeting of the Science 
Club at the Bureau of Science, February 21, 1914. 

126079 191 



192 'l^^^G Philippine Journal of Science idu 

College, Cambridge. From the time of his graduation from 
Dalhousie University to the time he entered Cambridge Univer- 
sity he was a teacher, first in the academy at Kentville, Nova 
Scotia, and afterv^^ards in Pictou Academy in his native town. On 
his return from England in 1899, he again took up his profession 
as a teacher in Pictou Academy, where he remained until 1903. 
In this year, he went to New York and entered Columbia Univer- 
sity as a postgraduate student in botany, at the same time holding 
a position as laboratory assistant at the New York Botanical 
Garden. He received the degree of doctor of philosophy in botany 
from Columbia University in 1906, and was immediately ap- 
pointed assistant curator of the herbarium at the New York 
Botanical Garden. His productive work as a botanist commenced 
with this year. 

Among his duties at the New York Botanical Garden was the 
arrangement and determination of the large and valuable collec- 
tions made by Mr. R. S. Williams in various parts of the Philip- 
pines during the years 1903 to 1905, which led to his developing 
great interest in Philippine botanical problems and eventually 
to his accepting the position of economic botanist in the Bureau 
of Science, in March, 1908. For more than three years he was 
busily engaged on various problems presented by the Philippine 
flora as a mere glance at the appended bibliography will show. 
In August, 1911, he resigned from the Philippine service and 
returned to New York, again accepting an appointment at the 
New York Botanical Garden. Our correspondence continued, 
however, as he retained an intense interest in everything per- 
taining to the Philippine flora, and this led to his accepting 
reappointment in the Philippine service. He returned to Manila 
for his second tour of duty in December, 1912. 

Several times during his period of Philippine service we dis- 
cussed the desirability of a thorough botanical exploration of 
the region to the south of the Philippines, especially on account 
of the rather striking floristic relationships between the Philip- 
pines and Celebes. At various times the subject of Amboina 
was also brought up as we had occasion to interpret Philip- 
pine species by reference to the work of Rumphius, and any bot- 
anist who has had much experience in interpreting species by 
Rumphius' figures alone will fully appreciate the difficulties 
involved. 

During his absence in the United States the idea of a botanical 
exploration of Amboina had been taking form, and in a letter 
addressed to Doctor Robinson in Singapore we asked him 
seriously to consider undertaking the project. Tn April, 1913, 



IX, c, 3 Me7iill: Charles B. Robinson, Jr. 193 

the proposed exploration was approved.- He had become in- 
tensely interested in the possibilities offered by the Amboina 
proposition, declined a very attractive offer from the New York 
Botanical Garden, and entered with great enthusiasm on the 
final work in preparation for the trip to Amboina. This in- 
volved a thorough examination of Rumphius' "Herbarium Am- 
boinense" and the preparation of several thousand index cards, 
which were arranged under different heads and cross referenced, 
involving all the native names cited by Rumphius, the Latin 
names of plants to which the Rumphian figures and descriptions 
had been referred to by various authors, and these arranged 
under different heads so that everything was accessible for 
ready reference. To this work he devoted most of his energies 
for over two months, and frequently worked in the office until 
late at night, in order that, once in Amboina, he could determine 
with as little delay as possible those species that most needed 
attention in the field and at the same time connect his current 
collections with the work of Rumphius. 

Both Doctor Robinson and myself considered the exploration 
of Amboina to be one of the most important botanical under- 
takings in the entire Malayan region, not that any large per- 
centage of novelties was to be expected, but on account of the 
bearing that the Amboina collections would have on delimiting 
and definitely settling the status of many species of the older 
authors that were wholly or partly based on Rumphius. 

Our plan for exploring Amboina was not the first one. The 
late Dr. J. G. Boerlage of the Botanical Garden, Buitenzorg, 
selected Amboina in 1900 as the scene of his first and only trip for 
purposes of botanical exploration in the Malay Archipelago, for 
the sole reason that it was a classical locality in the botany of the 
Archipelago and that many of the Rumphian species could not 
clearly be understood without material from the places in which 
they were originally collected by Rumphius. Doctor Boerlage's 
trip, like Doctor Robinson's, had a most unfortunate ending, for 
after about a month in Amboina he contracted a fever from 
which he died on August 24 at Ternate, w^hile on his return to 
Java.2 

Doctor Robinson arrived in Amboina on July 15, 1913, and 
immediately commenced his botanical exploration, utilizing the 
town of Amboina as a base and gradually extending his opera- 

' Merrill, E. D. The Botanical Exploration of Amboina by the Bureau 
of Science, Manila. Science N. S. 38 (1913) 499-502. 

'Treub, M. Natuurk. Tijdschr.. Ned. Ind. 60 (1901) 396-412; Verslag. 
's Lands Plantent. Buitenz. 1900 (1901) 21-25. 



194 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

tions to various parts of the island. At first he made trips alone, 
but later almost invariably took with him the Javanese assist- 
ant, Mardjoeki, supplied by the botanical garden at Buitenzorg, 
and usually also one or two natives of Amboina. He soon came 
to be widely known among the natives, who named him Tuan 
Doctor Kembang (literally, "the flower doctor") . His relations 
with both the Europeans and the natives were most cordial. 

In view of the peculiar nature of his death, peculiar in that 
his murder was so entirely unexpected and unlooked for, it has 
been considered advisable to give the following data, for the 
most part taken from the official report prepared by the assistant 
resident of Amboina, Mr. Van Dissel, and submitted by the 
resident of Amboina, Mr. H. J. A. Raedt van Oldenbarnevelt, 
to his Excellency Governor-General Idenburg of the Netherlands 
East Indies : 

Doctor Robinson left the town of Amboina on the morning of December 
5, unaccompanied, for the purpose of making a botanical excursion through 
the country to the south of the town through Amahoesoe, Eri, Silalei, Latoe- 
halat, Aerlo, and Seri, back to Amboina, a distance of about 21 miles, 
stating that he would return that evening. His failure to return that 
night excited no special comment, but on the following day the native 
Javanese assistant, Mardjoeki, instituted a search on his own account 
which proved to be fruitless. The matter was, after a few days' delay, 
reported to the police authorities who at once instituted a most vigorous 
search. The general impression at first prevailed that Doctor Robinson 
had met with some accident, as he was, in the course of his work, in the 
habit of frequenting remote places. As in many parts of Amboina the 
ground is full of covered and hence invisible holes and crevices and as 
the island was considered entirely safe, so far as the natives were concerned, 
this belief was only natural. 

The report of the disappearance of Doctor Robinson having been received 
with so many days' delay, the finding of the right clue was rendered difficult 
during the first days of the investigation by misleading and most fantastic 
and contradictory reports, this despite the tireless search made by the 
police with the active cooperation of the populace in all parts of the terri- 
tory where one might expect to find the body of Doctor Robinson, for all 
thought of finding him alive had been abandoned. Finally, a mere chance 
gave rise to the suspicion that there had been foul play. 

A Boetonese, who had stated that he had met Doctor Robinson, on closer 
examination gave contradictory replies, whereupon the magistrate who was 
investigating the affair suspected that the witness knew more than he had 
stated regarding the disappearance of Doctor Robinson. This man soon 
confessed that Doctor Robinson had not met with an accident, but that 
he had been murdered. However, due to the distance that Doctor Robinson 
had traveled and the difficult nature of the country, several days elapsed 
before the matter was completely cleared up. 

Having left Amboina in the morning, Doctor Robinson arrived at noon 
on December 5 between the hamlets Aerlo and Seri, at a settlement of 



IX, c. 3 Merrill: Charles B. Robinson, Jr. 195 

Boetonese gardeners, which was established several years ago and which 
consists of about thirteen houses. This settlement is, via Seri, about 9 
miles from Amboina. 

A young Boetonese who had climbed a coconut tree to get some coconuts, 
on starting to descend, saw Doctor Robinson standing at the foot of the 
tree. Doctor Robinson spoke to him, but the boy, apparently frightened 
at seeing a European in such a remote spot and dressed in such an unusual 
fashion, slid down the tree and hurried to the settlement. Here he caused 
excitement among the people by telling them that he was being pursued by 
a European. Doctor Robinson, who had followed the boy, then arrived at 
the settlement and asked for a drink, whereupon a woman handed him a 
glass of water. He then left in the direction of Seri, 

From certain statements made by the boy, it is to be deduced that the 
people of the settlement were in great fear that Doctor Robinson would do 
them some harm. In the Moluccas there is a current rumor that in the 
months of November and December, year after year, strange people wander 
about who for some reason must cut off a human head — the notorious 
potong kalapa (Malay for decapitator). Finally, the headman of the 
settlement, armed with an ax, followed Doctor Robinson, saying to one of 
his countrymen: "There goes a dangerous European who wants to cut off 
our heads; I am going to kill him." 

Overtaking Doctor Robinson, as he was passing over a small bridge, he 
struck him down with his ax. He then called for help, whereupon five 
Boetonese came running up, among them the man to whom the headman 
had said the words above quoted, and gave the dying Robinson the finishing 
blows. This must have taken place at about 3 o'clock in the afternoon. 

The murder having been committed on the open road, the body was, 
from fear of discovery, conveyed to a remote place. The natives then 
waited until evening, when the body was wrapped in coconut leaves, weighted 
with stones, and sunk in the sea at a long distance from the shore. 

This misfortune would never have happened to Doctor Robinson had he 
been accompanied by somebody. A few months previously I personally 
earnestly advised Doctor Robinson not to go out alone," but I acknowledge 
that the reason for my advice was not the fear that he might be murdered, 
but that he might meet with some accident while in a remote spot, on 
account of the peculiar nature of the soil of Amboina. 

I can well imagine how natives living in a remote spot, like the Boetonese 
already mentioned, and already unreasonably afraid of Europeans, should 
have been much frightened by the aspect of Doctor Robinson, who was 
dressed in khaki, who wore a felt hat, and carried a kind of a hunting 
knife, looking quite different from the Europeans that one meets here. 
According to my mind. Doctor Robinson was the victim of superstitious 
fear which was caused by his sudden and unexplained appearance in this 
remote place. The natives killed him just as they would have killed a 
dangerous reptile. The murder had scarcely been committed when reflec- 
tion followed, and in order to cover up the traces of their deed they sunk 
the body in the sea without looting it. 

Further the report states that all of Amboina had been deeply- 
impressed by the sad occurrence, as Doctor Robinson had gained 
the affection of the entire European community; that when the 
criminals were brought to the town of Amboina the natives 



196 ^'^^ Philippine Joinmal of Science im 

gathered and reviled them, acting as if they desired to lynch 
them. 

A man of great intellectual ability, broad training, and untiring 
energy. Doctor Robinson had already established his reputation 
as a painstaking and careful botanist. The long list of papers 
published between the years 1906 and 1914 gives but a vague 
idea of the actual amount of work involved in their preparation. 
His interest in botany was intense, and most of his other in- 
terests were subordinated to it. It would be difficult to find a 
man more thoroughly devoted to his work or who showed a 
keener interest in it. Day after day, early and late, he could 
be found at work, frequently working until far into the night. 
His entire botanical collections made in Amboina, comprising 
many thousands of specimens, are now at the Bureau of Science, 
and it is characteristic of the dead botanist and of his work 
that his notes were completely written up each day and that his 
material was carefully arranged. His progress report, written 
from day to day in Amboina and for the most part written late 
in the evening, comprises at least 115,000 words, and it is to be 
noted under date of November 30 that late in the evening, after 
having walked more than 25 miles, he was busily engaged in 
writing up his report for the day. 

Doctor Robinson was unmarried. He is survived by his aged 
parents and a sister. He was particularly devoted to his parents, 
and this devotion seemed to be his one great interest in life other 
than his beloved botany. It is the irony of fate that this upright, 
talented, trained, and energetic man should meet his end at the 
hands of a few superstitious and ignorant Malays, toward whom 
he had only the kindliest feelings. 

The appended bibliography will serve to give some idea of the 
amount of work accomplished by Doctor Robinson in the few 
years that he devoted to botany as a profession. 

THE BOTANICAL PUBLICATIONS OF CHARLES BUDD ROBINSON, JR. 

1. The Chareae of North America. Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 4 (1906) 

244-308. 

2. The History of Botany in the Philippine Islands. Journ. N. Y. Bot. 

Gard. 7 (1906) 104-112. 

3. Some Features of the Mountain Flora of the Philippines. Journ. N. Y. 

Bot. Gard. 8 (1907) 113-117. 

4. Some Affinities of the Philippine Flora. Torreya 7 (1907) 1-4. 

5. Ipomoea triloba L. in the Philippines. Torreya 7 (1907) 78-80, 

6. Botrichiums in Sand. Torreya 7 (1907) 219, 220. 

7. The Seaweeds of Canso; being a Contribution to the Study of Eastern 

Nova Scotia Algae. Further Contrib. Canad. Biol. (1907) 71-74. 



IX. c, 3 Merrill: Charles B. Robinson, Jr. 197 

8. Contributions to a Flora of Nova Scotia, I. Dull. Pictou Acad. Sci. 

Assoc. 1 (1907) 30-44. 

9. Alabastra Philippinensia, I. Bull. Ton: Bot. Club 35 (1908) G3-75. 

10. Sugar-cane Smut (Ustilago sacchari). PhiliiJ. Agr. Review 1 (1908) 

295-297. 

11. Alabastra Philippinensia, II. Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 175- 

218. 

12. Perrottet and the Philippines. Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 303- 

306. 

13. Philippine Chloranthaceae. Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 69-70. 

14. Philippine Phyllanthinae. Philip. Joiirn. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 71-105. 

15. Philippine Boraginaceae. Philip. Journ. Sci. 4 (1909) Bot. 687-698. 

16. A Preliminary Revision of Philippine Myrtaceae. Philip. Journ. Sci. 

4 (1909) Bot. 331-407. 

17. Philippine Urticaceae. Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Bot. 465-453; 6 

(1911) Bot. 1-33, pi. IS. 

18. Philippine Hats. Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 93-131, pis. 4-11. 

19. Botanical Notes on the Island of Polillo. Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 

Bot. 185-228. 

20. Urticaceae from the Sarawak Museum. Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) 

Bot. 291-298. 

21. Philippine Urticaceae, II. Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 299-314. 

22. Alabastra Philippinensia, III. Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 319- 

358. 

23. Philippine Bryophytes and Lichens. Bryologist. 15 (1912) 32, 33. 

24. Roxburgh's Hortus Bengalensis. Philip. Journ, Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 

411-419. 

25. The Geographic Distribution of Philippine Mosses. Philip. Journ. Sci. 

9 (1914) Bot. 199-218. 



The Philippine Journal of Science, C. Botany, 
Vol. IX, No. 3, June, 1914, 



THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PHILIPPINE MOSSES 

By C. B. Robinson 

{From the Botanical Section of the Biological Laboratory, Bureau of Science, 

Manila, P. I.) 

Practically all collections of Philippine bryophytes, through 
whose determination the literature on the subject has been com- 
piled, have been made by persons who themselves had made no 
special study of the groups concerned. Their interest, often 
none the loss keen, has been derived and twofold, in order that 
the flora of the Islands might more perfectly be ascertained, and 
that light might be thrown on various questions of more general 
application. . 

Prolonged efforts, often of a highly intensive nature, have been 
made to solve problems relating to the higher groups of plants, 
and although those who are most closely in touch with this work 
realize perhaps better than any others how far this task is from 
completion, yet enough has been ascertained to permit a number 
of generalizations to be formulated with regard to the general 
relationships of the flora, so far as flowering plants and ferns 
are concerned. 

The Archipelago consists of a very large number of islands, 
the two largest, Luzon and Mindanao, respectively, the most 
northern and the most southern of the large islands, having 
each an area approximately that of the State of Kentucky, or 
slightly more than that of Holland, Belgium, and Switzerland, 
taken together. The islands of second rank form an irregular 
row between these two, with a westward extension, the area of 
Samar, the most eastern and the largest of these, being about 
one-eighth that of Luzon. North of Luzon are two groups of 
much smaller islands, the Batanes and Babuyanes, whose flora 
has been suflficiently investigated to show that it is typically 
Philippine,^ although Formosa is little more distant than the 
nearest point on Luzon. The Philippines link geographically 
with northeastern Borneo along two nearly parallel lines, one 
from southwestern Luzon through Mindoro, Palawan, Balabac, 

* Merrill, E. D. On a collection of plants from the Batanes and Babu' 
yanes Islands. Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 385-442. 

199 



200 ^^^^ PhUi^ypiyie Journal of Science isu 

and smaller islands, the other from southwestern Mindanao 
through a long chain of fair-sized islands, of which Basilan, 
Jolo, and Tawi Tawi are the most important. Unfortunately the 
southwestern corner of the Archipelago is still almost unknown 
botanically ; but there is at present a strong balance of evidence 
to favor the view that somewhere or other there is a definite 
break between the floras of Borneo and of the Philippines as a 
whole. Statements have to be guarded, as so little is known of 
Borneo, but while the plants of the two regions are generally 
similar, there appears to be a very small percentage of specific 
identity. If the smaller islands near Borneo should prove to 
resemble it in their flora, and the trivial evidence at hand tends 
in that direction, it will merely prove that botanically the^y 
belong with the larger island, and that the political and botanical 
boundaries of the Philippines and Borneo are not the same. 

Whether or not this proves i% be the case, it is thoroughly 
established that with regard to flowering plants, there is such 
a thing as a definite Philippine flora, containing an unusually 
high percentage of endemic species; that its aflfinities are 
primarily Malayan; moreover, that there is a strong Himalayan 
element, especially in northern Luzon, although some of the 
species so considered extend also to Malaya; that there is a 
small but very definite Australian element; and finally a most 
important Pacific alliance. All of these points, except the last, 
have been fully discussed in papers previously published. - 

If any outside area can be indicated as more nearly similar 
botanically to the Philippines than is any other, the present 
evidence is strongly in favor of Celebes. In spite of this, it is 
certain that mere proximity is not the only factor, for whether 
the determining basis be the number of identical species or the 
general resemblance of the flora as a whole, the Philippines 
come closer to the Malay Peninsula and to Java than to Borneo 
or Annam, to Samoa than to Formosa. 

It might then be supposed that when botanical boundaries 
come to be dravni within the PhiUppines, the separate islands 
would be found to have quite distinctive floras. This is not 

' See Rolfe, R. A. On the Flora of the Philippine Islands, and its prob- 
able Derivation. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 21 (1886) 283-316; Merrill, E. D, 
New or Noteworthy Philippine Plants, V. Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 
Suppl. 169^246; Merrill, E. D. The Malayan, Australian and Polynesian 
elements in the Philippine Flora. A^m. Jard. Bot. Bidtenz. Suppl. 3 (1910) 
277-306; Copeland, E. B. The Comparative Ecology of San Ramon Poly- 
podiaceae. Philip. Journ. Sci. 2 (1907) Bot. 1-76; Copeland, E. B. The 
Ferns of Mount Apo. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3 (1910) 791-851. 



IX, c, 3 Robinson: Distribution of Philippine Mosses 201 

the case. It is perfectly true that hundreds of species are 
known each from a single island, on which there is at present 
every reason to believe that they are endemic ; but this is equally 
true of localities on a single island. It appears to be well estab- 
lished that the general course of migration of plants and human 
beings into the Philippines has alike been from the southwest 
and the south; on the other hand, there are good reasons in 
discussing the floral provinces of the Philippines for starting 
nearly at the north. 

Much of northern Luzon is highly mountainous, the so-called 
Mountain Province being separated from the China Sea on the 
west by a narrow coastal plain and terminated on the east by 
the valley of the Cagayan River. Very many species are known 
or known in the Philippines only in this region ; many others 
occurring there are also found on the tops of the mountains 
farther south, such as Mariveles, Banajao, or even Apo. Still 
others have a more continuous distribution, following down the 
ranges of the eastern or the western coast or both, their range 
terminating at Mariveles, or in the hills of Rizal, eastern Laguna, 
or Tayabas, or extending still farther to the south. It is open 
to discussion whether such species are to be regarded as more 
properly belonging to the Mountain Province but with more 
southern extension, or whether the opposite is the case. 

Apart from the Mountain Province, there are two rather 
distinct but by no means absolutely separate plant-provinces, in 
close correlation with the distribution of rain throughout the 
year. The eastern coast of Luzon shares with the greater part 
of the Visayan or central islands and with the southern islands 
a very equable rainfall, the dry season being comparatively 
short; the western side of Luzon has a prolonged dry season. 
The ranges of mountains forming the divide lie much nearer 
to the eastern coast than to the western, but are broken in 
various places, so that the division is far from complete. The 
general result is that there are two fairly definite areas of 
distribution in accordance with these facts, although the dif- 
ference is not so great, nor the lines so sharply drawTi, as in 
various other countries, as for instance between the northern 
and southern slopes of certain of the islands of the West Indies. 

It has seemed to be of some general value to determine whether 
the facts believed to have been established for the flowering 
plants hold equally true for the lower groups, and for several 
reasons the mosses have been selected for the comparison. 
Thanks to the courtesy of Doctor V. F. Brotherus, who has had 
a wealth of material from all parts of the world for comparison, 



202 I'he Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

we not only have identifications of practically all of our moss 
collections, except the most recent, but know the range of those 
species which are not confined to these Islands. There still 
remain a considerable number of species obtained in the Philip- 
pines by previous collectors, which are not represented in this 
herbarium, and as for the purposes of the present paper, the 
localities assigned to them are too indefinite, they are not herein 
considered, further than to say that what investigation has been 
possible regarding them indicates that if their exact localities 
had been specified, they would not materially affect the conclu- 
sions based on those actually at hand. The latter number 351 
species, with a qualification to be considered later. It might 
fairly be questioned whether collections obtained by persons 
whom a bryologist might consider mere amateurs, form a suffi- 
cient basis for conclusions. The best answer that can be made, 
without entering into details, is that the facts are nowhere more 
definite than in the case of the species most conspicuous to the 
eye. 

There is one very great difference between the moss and the 
phanerogamic floras of the Philippines. Great areas of the 
lower levels have been wholly or largely denuded of their original 
vegetation by human agencies, and the plants now found there 
are well nigh identical in every part of the Archipelago, and a 
high proportion of these must be considered as introductions, 
deliberate or more often accidental. Thus the investigations for 
the Flora of Manila^ showed that over 1,000 species of flowering 
plants and ferns are represented within the chosen limits. It 
is probable that a complete moss flora for the same area would 
not reach a dozen species, except for temporary and accidental 
introductions in association with orchids or ferns from the 
provinces. 

Moreover, just as the phanerogamic flora of Manila is almost 
exactly that of every other town in the Philippines, so is the 
moss flora of those towns as poor as is that of Manila, except 
in both these groups of plants when there is primeval forest 
within easy access. Not only the endemic but also the indig- 
enous elements among the flowering plants found in the vicinity 
of the towns are proportionally much smaller than in the Philip- 
pines as a whole. On the other hand, the entire moss flora can 
be considered as indigenous, Barbula orientalis (Willd.) Broth, 
being probably the only species open to suspicion. In the ulti- 

' Merrill, E. D. A Flora of Manila. 1-490. Manila, 1912; Notes on 
the Flora of Manila with special reference to the Introduced Element. 
Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 145-208. 



IX, c, 3 Robinson: Distribution of Philippine Mosses 203 

mate analysis, of course, many species must be considered to 
have been introduced. 

One consideration that should always be kept at least sub- 
consciously present in discussing the relationships of floras, is 
that a species has not necessarily had its origin in nature at the 
place or even in the country from which it was first described, 
not even if that place or country has supplied its specific name. 
Yet it is difficult to avoid a mental bias in this direction, above 
all when a species has been known for a long period of time 
only from the general region where it was first discovered, 
especially as it is practically always very difficult and usually 
impossible to get definite evidence as to its actual place of origin. 
In the case of species of mosses of wide distribution, this can 
only be a matter of inference. 

This inevitably colors the whole of the present discussion, for 
the ascertained moss flora of the Philippines has multiplied five- 
fold in the last ten years, and among these added species are 
ver>" many that have been known for long periods of time from 
other regions. They are thus spoken of as Malayan, or as 
whatever else they appear to be, and there is the less general 
objection to this, in that the Philippines are known to be of 
comparatively recent geologic origin. Yet there have originated 
here, so far as present knowledge permits statement, no less than 
five endemic genera of mosses and numerous endemic species. 
It is by no means impossible, therefore, that here also may be 
the original home of many other species, that have been first 
collected in or described from other groups of islands, and will 
herein be discussed as if they more properly belonged to the 
latter. 

Nothing is more conspicuous to even the most careless ob- 
server, who climbs any of the higher mountains of the Philip- 
pines, than to find that at a certain elevation, differing on different 
mountains, the trees become more or less dwarfed, and are 
clothed with mosses and hepatics. This is so distinctive that 
this class of vegetation has received the name of "mossy forest." 
The lower limit of this formation depends roughly on the humid- 
ity, and is higher as a rule on the higher mountains. A very 
large proportion of our mosses occur within this zone ; the range 
of others extends to sea level. They are epiphytic or terrestrial, 
in somewhat strong contrast to the hepatics and lichens, very 
few are epiphyllous, and these not truly so, extending over the 
surface of leaves because they happen to find them along their 
line of growth. 

As a preliminary to detailed discussion, it is desirable to 



204 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



enumerate the known and published species of Philippine mosses 
by families, distinguishing between those known from the Moun- 
tain Province only, those that have not been found in the Moun- 
tain Province, and those that occur both there and elsewhere 
within the Archipelago, For this purpose, Nueva Vizcaya was 
considered as within the Mountain Province, which is not true 
politically ; but this proved to affect only a single species, Weisia 
flavipes Hook. f. & Wils., which has, however, one of the most 
striking areas of distribution of any of the species herein dis- 
cussed. It may further be remembered that more than half of 
the Mountain Province collections come from Benguet, and that 
practically all of the remainder are from Bontoc and Lepanto. 



Family. 


Total species in Philippines. 


Endemic. | 

! 


I^'ound in 
Mountain 
Province 

only. 


Not found 

in the 
Mountain 
Province. 


Found in 
both areas. 


Mountain 
Province. 


Not in 
Mountain 
Province. 


Found in 
both areas. 




3 


2 


1 


2 








9 

1 
4 
1 
5 
5 


si 11 3 


.1 i 2 




12 3 ; 2 

2 1 2 1 1 1 1 










10 
1 

15 
1 




1 
1 i 3 




Pottiaceae - - - 


2 
4 


4| 1 
3 6 


1 
1 






1 




Funariaceae ! 1 

Bryaceae ' 15 


1 
4 
1 


1 
7 




5 
1 

1 
1 
1 


.1 






2 


1 1 






2 
3 






Bartramiaceae ' 8 

Buxbaumiaceae 


1 1 












6 


5 
1 


2 1 


2 1 2 


Da wsoniaceae 


Cryphaeaceae 2 

Prionodontaceae 




1 


1 
1 


liii 


Cyrtopodaceae 




! i 1 




Ptychomniaceae 

Myuriaceae 


1 


1 1 

2 - . -1 1 1 






Spiridentaceae .-- 






2 


, 




Neckeraceae 


17 
3 
2 


12 
3 


16 
3 


el 8 i 1 

2 1 1 1 




1 
3 


1 1 


Hookeriaceae 

HypopteryKiaceae 

Rhacopilaceae 


3 


12 




3 




2 

1 

2 

12 


3 


1 

1 
3 


1 2 




1 


Leskeaceae 


4 
30 

1 
19 

4 


9. 




Hypnaceae . . . . 


8 7 


17 i 4' ' 


Leucomiaceae - . 


1 1 


Sematophyllaceae 

Brachytheciaceae 

Hjrpnodendraceae 


4 
2 


4 
2 


3 

1 


7 

1 
3 


1 




5 




Total .,.. 








111 164 


76 


51 j 72 


13 



IX, c, 3 Robinson: Distribution of Philippine Mosses 205 

It would be expected, and so it proves, that those species whose 
range within the .Philippines is widest, especially if they be 
found ahke in the Mountain Province and elsewhere, should 
be also the most widely distributed without the Philippines. 
Perhaps, rather, it may be held surprising that even among 
these the percentage of endemism reaches 17, while for those 
that are found in the Mountain Province only, or not in the 
Mountain Province at all, the percentage of endemism is 46 and 
44 respectively. For the whole number of species considered, 
351, the percentage of endemism is 39. This is in rather singular 
agreement with the estimate made by Mr. Merrill in the case 
of the flowering plants of the Philippines.* The mosses, there- 
fore, agree most emphatically with the phanerogams in that a 
remarkably high proportion are confined to the Philippines. 
High as these figures are, they are not fair to the endemic 
element. There are in this herbarium collections bearing 27 
additional specific names, apart altogether from such as can be 
relegated to synonymy, and apparently except in one instance 
Doctor Brotherus has considered these to be new species, at 
least on preliminary examination. The sole exception may be 
a clerical error for a Malayan species not otherwise enumerated 
here. Should this supposed status prove correct, the percentage 
of endemism for Philippine mosses becomes 43; for the species 
confined to the Mountain Province, 48; for those not yet found 
in the Mountain Province, 50; for those in both regions, 18. 

Considering only the 136 endemic species indicated in the 
above table, which are distributed amongst 78 genera in 27 
families, the percentage of these found only in the Mountain 
Province is 37.5 ; not in the Mountain Province, 53 ; in both areas, 
9.5. Should the 26 above referred to all prove new species, 
these percentages will become 35, 56, and 9 respectively. 

Five, genera are endemic, Merrilliobryum (Fnbroniaceae) 
Elmeriohryum and Plagiotheciopsis (Hypnaceae) , Pseudorcelo- 
ptis (Polytrichaceae) , and Porotrichodendron (Lembophyllaceae) . 
The first two of these are known only from the Mountain Prov- 
ince, the third from Davao in southeastern Mindanao, the fourth 
from Cagayan Province in the extreme north of Luzon but not in 
the Mountain Province, and the last, not included in the previous 
summary because it has not been found by recent collectors, 
appears from the specific name of its only species to be from 
near Majayjay, Mount Banajao. 

On investigating the 63 non-endemic species found both in 

* Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 171. 



206 ^^^^ Philippine Joui^nal of Scierice lou 

the Mountain Province and elsewhere in the Philppines, it is 
at once apparent that they are very largely Malayan, but that 
to the west many extend to Cej'^lon, or to the Himalayas or other 
mountains of India; that a smaller number extend to Japan, or 
to Polynesia; and that other species have a wide or very wide 
distribution. 

Outside of the Philippines, Hypnodendron forrtiosicum Card, 
is known only from Formosa; Trematodon drepanellus Besch. 
only from Formosa and Japan ; Pseudospiridentopsis horrida 
(Mitt.) Fleisch. only from Bhotan and Formosa; Dicranodon- 
tium dictycyon (Mitt.) Jaeg. only from Sikkim. Every one of 
the other 59 species is found in at least one of the islands ex- 
tending from Sumatra to New Guinea. Even if the latter island 
be considered to lie outside the limits of Malaya, only two species, 
Spiridens longifoUus Lindb. and Calyptothecium philippinense 
Broth, would thereby be excluded. But such exclusion is not 
advocated here, quite the opposite, and at the other extremity 
of Malaya, the Peninsula would have been included, had there 
happened to be any species that would thereby have been added 
to the Malayan list. Fifteen of the remaining 57 species are 
not found outside of these limits, hence the exclusively Malaj^^an 
element ^vill be stated as 17. Two of these, Trematodon acutus 
C. M. and Philonotis secunda (Doz. & Molk.) Bryol. Jav., were 
known only from Java; Warburgiella mipressinoides C. M. only 
from Batjan; Schistomitrmm nieutvenhuisii Fleish. only from 
Borneo. Every one of the remaining eleven is known from 
islands west of Celebes, but five only range to the east of that 
island. 

Species found within the Malay Archipelago and not to the 
west or north of Sumatra, but which extend to New Caledonia 
or to Polynesia, number 7, one of which is also found in Tas- 
mania, another in New Zealand. Five other species found in the 
Malay Archipelago are also in Ceylon but not elsewhere; nine 
others are also in India or in Ceylon and India, but with no 
additional distribution, except that one has been collected in 
Malacca. Two others range from Ceylon or southern India to 
Australia or Polynesia ; two occur only in the Malay Archipelago 
and Tonkin ; these other Malayan species extend to India or 
Ceylon, or both, and also to China ; seven others with the distri- 
bution of these last are also in Japan or Formosa, one of the 
seven even extending to North America. The remaining seven 
are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. 

When the 60 non-endemic species found in the Mountain Prov- 



IX. c, 3 Rohiiison: Distribution of Philippine Mosses 207 

ince come to be considered, their distribution proves to be quite in 
different proportion from that of the species more widely dis- 
tributed in the Philippines, as just detailed. The habitat of 
the former being at once more northern and on an average more 
elevated than that of the latter, it would be expected that they 
would show more northern alliances. It must be remembered, 
however, with respect to elevation, that while the Mountain 
Province as a geographic unit is on an average of much greater 
height than any other large area in the Philippines, from the 
standpoint of moss collections the difference is definitely less, 
as so many of these have been obtained here only on the tops of 
the mountains farther south. 

The actual figures obtained from these 60 species are that only 
12 are exclusively Malayan, that 22 are not Malayan, while the 
remaining 26 are found both in Malaya and elsewhere; with 
this additional qualification, that in many cases among the 26 
the species are more typical of regions west or north of Malaya 
but extend into the latter, whereas in the cases previously con- 
sidered nearly all were more typically Malayan but extended 
to other countries. 

The exclusively Malayan species are Trematodon paucifolius 
C. M., Dicranella coarctata (C. M.) Bryol. Jav., Leiomela java- 
nica (Ren. & Card.) Broth., Pogonatum junghuhnianum (Doz. & 
Molk.) Bryol. Jav., and Fabronia curvirostris Doz. & Molk., these 
five reported outside of the Philippines only from Java; Braun- 
felsia dicranoicles (Doz. & Molk.) Broth., only from Java and 
New Guinea; Pohlia leptocarpa (Bryol. Jav.) Fleisch. only from 
Java and Borneo; Barbella rutilans (Bryol. Jav.) Broth, and 
Oxyrrhynchium muelleri (Brj''ol. Jav.) Broth, from Java and 
Sumatra ; while Leucobryiim scalare C. M., Macromitrium angus- 
ti folium Doz. & Molk., and Taxithelium lindbergii (Bryol. Jav.) 
Ren. & Card, are of wider distribution within the Archipelago 
bwt do not exceed its limits, except that the first of the three 
is also reported from Singapore. 

Of the 26 species found both in Malaya and elsewhere, two, 
Bryum argenteum L. and Ceratodon stenocarpus Bryol. Eur., 
have a very wide distribution, and Anoectangium euchloron 
(Schw.) Mitt, has been reported from tropical America, tropical 
west Africa, and Java. Five others extend to the east or south 
of New Guinea, and three of these five also to the west or north 
of Sumatra; yet only one of them, Pilopogon exasperatus 
(Brid.) Broth., seems to be widely distributed in the group, 
extending also to Ceylon and Hawaii. Glyptothecium sciuroides 



208 l'^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

(Hook.) Hampe is reported from New Zealand, Tasmania, 
eastern Australia, and New Guinea, but not otherwise except 
from Java and the Philippines. The other three have been 
found in Malaya only in Java, but Trachyloma tahitense Besch. 
has also been collected in Ceylon and Tahiti ; Brachymeiiium 
coarctatum (C. M.) Bryol. Jav. in New Caledonia and New 
Zealand; Philonotis turneriana (Schw.) Mitt, in the Himalayan 
region, Khasia, and the Hawaiian Islands. 

Of the remaining 18, Pogonatum spinulosum Mitt, occurs in 
Java and China, and Hypopterygitim ceylanicum Mitt, in Ceylon, 
Sumatra, and Java. All of the others are found both in India 
and Malaya, and only Philonotis mollis (Doz. & Molk.) Bryol. 
Jav. fails to reach either to the Himalayan region, or to Khasia, 
or to both, ranging to the east as far as Java. Calyptothecium 
tumidn/m (Dicks.) Fleisch. has the widest distribution of these, 
Nepal to Ceylon and New Guinea. Taking the Himalayan region 
as one limit of distribution, Trachypodiopsis crispatula (Hook.) 
Fleisch. reaches Ceylon, Yunnan, and Halmaheira; Pinnatella 
alopecuroides (Hook.) Fleisch. to Ceylon and Sumbawa; Anomo- 
bryum cymbifolium (Lindb.) Broth, to Amboina; Sphagnum 
cuspidatulum C. M., Acrocryphaea concavifolia (Griff.) Bryol. 
Jav., Papillaria fuscescens (Hook.) Jaeg., and Meteoriopsis 
reclinata (C. M.) Fleisch. to Ceylon and Celebes, the last of 
these also to Formosa. Homaliodendron ligulae folium (Mitt.) 
Fleisch. gets no farther into Malaya than Sumatra, but reaches 
Ceylon, Formosa, and Japan ; the remaining six find their Mala- 
yan limit in Java. Fissidens anomalus Mont, and F. schmidtii 
Broth, extend to Ceylon, Brachymenium exile (Doz. & Molk.) 
Bryol. Jav., and Bryum ramosum (Hook.) Mitt, to Ceylon and 
Formosa; RhaphidostegiuTn tristiculum (Mitt.) Jaeg. to Ceylon 
and Indo-China; while Mnium succulentum Mitt, has not been 
reported from Ceylon and on the continent finds its greatest 
eastern extension in Assam. 

Twenty-two non-endemic Mountain Province mosses are not 
found in any part of Malaya, and of these the species of widest 
distribution is that which would be least expected in the Philip- 
pines, for Pohlia eloyigata Hedw. is found in the colder regions 
or the mountains of Europe and North America; in the Cau- 
casus; in the Himalayas, Yunnan, Amur region, and Japan, in 
Asia; in Algeria and on Kilimandjaro, in Africa; and on Ker- 
geulen Land in the Antarctic. In the one Philippine locality 
where it has been collected, it is not unusual for a thin film of 
ice to form on standing water during the nights of the cooler 
months of the year, but snow is unknown there as elsewhere in 



IX, c, 3 Robinson: Distribution of Fhilippi7ie Mosses 209 

the Archipelago. It is not, however, the point of greatest 
elevation, even in the Mountain Province. 

The next most singular case is that of Weisia flavipes Hook, 
f. & Wils., for it is otherwise known only from New Zealand, 
Tasmania, and eastern Australia; the genus, however, having 
no apparent preference for any particular quarter of the globe. 
Two other cases of far-reaching northern distribution are 
Brothera leana (Sull.) C. M. and Plagiothecium neckeroideum 
Bryol. Eur., both found in the Himalayas and Japan, the former 
also in Manchuria and North America, the latter in southwestern 
Austria and in Switzerland, 

Trachypus humilis Lindb. is otherwise known only in Japan ; 
Pohlia scabridens (Mitt.) Broth, and Pilotrichopsis dentata 
(Mitt.) Besch. only in Japan and Formosa; Meteorium helmin- 
thocladum (C. M.) Fleisch. in Japan, Formosa, and eastern 
China; and Catharinaea flaviseta (Mitt.) Broth, from Japan 
and the Himalayas. 

None of the rest occur in Japan, but all are found in the 
mountains of India, and seven of them there only, except the 
Philippine locality. These are Philonotis falcata (Hook.) Mitt., 
P. griffithiana (Wils.) Mitt., P. speciosa (Griff.) Mitt., Pogonatum 
nudiusculum Mitt., Trachypus subbicolor C. M., Rhacopilum 
schmidii (C. M.) Jaeg., and Stereodon deflexifoliiis (Mitt.) 
Broth. Bartramidida roylei (Hook, f.) Bryol. Eur., Ctenidium 
lychnites (Mitt.) Broth., and Pogonatum microstomum (R. Br.) 
Brid. extend to Ceylon, the last of these also to Yunnan; Fissi- 
dens areolatus Griff, and Leptohymenium tenue (Hook.) Schw. 
from the Himalayas to Burma; and lastly Erythrodontium jula^ 
ceum (Hook.) Par. to Mysore in one direction and to Yunnan 
and Tonkin in the other. 

It therefore appears that among the non-endemic Mountain 
Province mosses, the species not found in Malaya, and those 
found in Malaya and elsewhere, are approximately equal in 
number, and that each of these is about twice as many as the 
purely Malayan species. In the species found both in the 
Mountain Province and elsewhere in the Philippines, the number 
of non-Malayan species was very small, and those found both 
in Malaya and elsewhere were two and a half times as many as 
those confined to Malaya. 

The 92 non-endemic species which have not been found in 
the Mountain Province give results altogether at variance with 
those found only in that region, and differ from these which 
have been collected in both regions in one very important respect, 
while they are in most thorough agreement with them in 



210 The Philivvme Jour-nal of Science ii)u 

another. For the species known only from outside Malaya are 
but 4, those from Malaya alone are 48 ; and 40 are both Malayan 
and extra-Malayan. The purely Malayan species are over half 
of the total number, or 52 per cent, as contrasted with 20 and 
27 per cent in the case of the Mountain Province and the more 
generally distributed species, respectively. 

The four species which have not been found in Malaya are 
Sphagnum japonicum Warnst., known only from the most 
northern province of Luzon and from Japan, the Philippine 
form sufficiently different from the type to be considered by 
Warnstorf as an endemic variety; Neckeropsis crinita (Griff.) 
Fleisch., found in the Province of Nueva Ecija in Luzon, and in 
Assam, Ceylon, and Tonkin; Pseudoleskeopsis decurvata (Mitt.) 
Broth., from Mount Mariveles and Japan ; and Dawsonia superba 
R. Br., from Mount Malindang in northeastern Mindanao, and 
in eastern Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. 

It further appears from this, that if the line of demarcation 
of the floral provinces were artificially drawn at the latitude of 
Manila, every single species of this group from south of the line 
would have other Malayan distribution, with the sole exception 
of one known at present from the Australian region only. 

There were also four non-Malayan species among those found 
both in the Mountain Province and elsewhere. In every one of 
these, the Philippines supply the most southern known station for 
the species. In the case of Hypnodendron formosicum Card., that 
limit is Mount Canlaon, in Negros; for Trematodon drepanellus 
Besch. it is Mount Abangan, in Mindoro; for Pseudospiriden- 
topsis horrida (Mitt.) Fleisch., it is Zambales; for Dicranodon^ 
tium dictycyon (Mitt.) Jaeg., Mount Banajao in Luzon. It is 
thus apparent that among all the non-endemic species, the 
Australasian representative above mentioned in the only non- 
Malayan species found in Mindanao; that only one other non- 
Malayan species has been found elsewhere than in Luzon; 
that even if that island be included, there are only eight 
non-endemic non-Malayan species in the Philippines, except in 
the Mountain Province. Up to this point, the results are very 
definitely in accord with those found by Doctor Copeland for the 
ferns, but in the case of the latter group, there is no reversal 
of affinities in the Mountain Province as with flowering plants 
and mosses. For, in the mosses, the percentage of strictly 
Malayan non-endemic species is only 20, and while an additional 
43 per cent are found both in Malaya and elsewhere, an attempt 
has already been made to show that many of these species are 
only secondarily Malayan. At the lowest possible estimate, 37 



IX, c. 3 Robinson: Distribution of Philippine Mosses 211 

per cent of the Mountain Province species are not Malayan at all. 

Returning to the 88 species not found in the Mountain Province 
which are on record from Malaya, only one, Bryum coronatum 
Schw., is found in both hemispheres; one other, HolomitHum 
vaginatum Brid., has been collected in southern and eastern 
Africa, Java, and Tahiti. The extreme range of the remaining 
86 is from Ceylon or India to Polynesia; none of them have 
been found in Australia, Tasmania, or New Zealand. 

Only two extend to Japan, Homaliodendron scalpellifolium 
(Mitt.) Fleisch., otherwise known from the Moluccas to Ceylon 
and Tonkin, and Leucobryiim boivHngii Mitt., Himalayas and 
Ceylon to Celebes, also in Hongkong and Formosa. One other 
reaches the Liu Kiu Archipelago, Thuidium glaucinum Broth., 
whose southeastern limit is New Mecklenburg; while Disticho- 
phyllum mittenii Bryol. Jav. is scattered from Ceylon to Formosa 
and New Caledonia. 

Aerobryopsis lanosa (Mitt.) Broth, is the only one of the 
remainder to reach China; Rhynchostegium celebicum (Bryol. 
Jav.) Jaeg. and R. mencdense (Bryol. Jav.) Jaeg. are confined 
to the Philippines, Celebes, and Tonkin. Three species, Hypno- 
dendron reinwardtii (Hornsch.) Broth., Trichosteleum hamatum 
(Doz. & Molk.) Jaeg., and Syrrhopodon albo-vaginatus Schw. 
are Malayan except for an extension to Polynesia; the other six 
species which reach Polynesia are not only in Malaya, but also 
in Ceylon or India or both. These are Leucobryum sanctum 
Hampe, Leucophanes cayididum (Hornsch.) Lindb., Syrrhopodon 
muelleri (Doz. & Molk.) Lac, Callicostella papillata (Mont.) 
Jaeg., Thuidium plumulosum (Doz. & Molk.) Bryol. Jav., and 
Taxithelium papillatum (Harv.) Broth. Trismegistia rigida 
(Reinw. & Hornsch.) Broth, and Macromitrium salakanum C. M. 
extend from New Caledonia to Sumatra, and to Java, 
respectively. 

Twenty others occur in India, Ceylon, or Burma, and in one 
to several of the islands of the Malay Archipelago. This list 
comprises Symblephans reinwardtii Broth., Dicranoloma blumei 
(Nees) Ren., Leucobryum angustifolium Wils., Syrrhopodon 
ciliatus Schw., S. tristichus Nees, Macromitrium fasciculare 
Mitt., Bryum compressidens C. M., Racelopus pilifer Doz. & 
Molk., Myurium rufescens (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Fleisch., DaU 
tonia angustifolia Doz. & Molk., Chaetomitrium papillifolium 
Bryol. Jav., Thuidium trachypodum (Mitt.) Bryol. Jav., Ectro- 
pothecium cyperoides (Hook.) Jaeg., Tnsmegistia lancifolia 
Harv.) Broth., Taxithelium nepalense (Schw.) Broth., Vesicular- 
via reticulata (Doz. & Molk.) Broth., Meiothecium jagori (C. M.) 



212 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



Broth., M. microcm-piim (Harv.) Mitt., Trischosteleum boschii 
(Doz. & Molk.) Jaeg., and Hypnodendron arborescens (Mitt.) 
Lindb. 

There still remain 48 species, these entirely confined to the 
Malay Archipelago, with the exception in a very few cases of 
an extension into the lower end of the Malay Peninsula; these 
are here held to be exclusively Malayan. It is perhaps rather 
an index of the comparative intensity of botanical exploration 
than of anything else, to say that exactly one-third of these have 
only been collected in one island outside the Philippines, and 
that in ten cases that island is Java. Labuan is credited with 
two; and Borneo, Celebes, the Great Natunas, and New Guinea 
with one each. Thirty-one of the remaining thirty-two have 
been reported from islands west of Celebes, nineteen from 
Celebes or islands to the east. It is apparent from these figures 
that eighteen are found in both of these divisions, and that only 
one fails to occur west of Celebes, its actual distribution being 
New Guinea, Ceram, and the east coast of Luzon. This would 
seem to indicate that the focus of distribution lies to the west 
of Celebes, but the same statement is so emphatically true of 
botanical exploration that it may be premature to attempt a final 
judgment. 

The following table shows concisely the contrast in the three 
sets of Philippine species, as developed above in greater detail. 



Non-endemic Philippine mosses occurring in 
the Philippines in — 



Also in 

Malaya, 

but not 

elsewhere. 



Not in 
Malaya. 



Both in 
Malaya and 
elsewhere. 



Mountain Province only 

Not in Mountain Province 

Mountain Province and elsewhere 



77 



30 



108 



It is therefore contended that the facts just detailed not merely 
throw light on the relationships of the Philippine flora, but 
afford ample justification for the segregation of the Mountain 
Province as an area to be treated apart from the rest of the 
Archipelago. Its selection was not arbitrary. The Mountain 
Province, as such, is a political division, created because its 
inhabitants, while differing amongst themselves in various ways, 
possess many characteristics in common which tend to differ- 
entiate them from the rest of the peoples of the Philippines, 
nowhere more strikingly than from their nearest neighbors. 
But they have preserved, acquired, or developed these differ- 
ences, because the geographic difficulties of the region held them 



IX. c, 3 Robinson: Distribution of Philippine Mosses 213 

largely isolated from the peoples of the less elevated provinces. 
Moreover, choice of this particular portion of the Philippines 
was made, because the study of flowering plants had led to the 
formation of certain theories regarding their distribution in the 
Archipelago, which were briefly stated at the beginning of this 
paper. 

It would be entirely fair to object that exploration is not yet 
sufficiently advanced, and that it is probable that further investi- 
gation will modify these figures. It is freely conceded, that had 
there been no very obvious tendency, it would have been perilous 
to base conclusions on such work as has yet been done. But the 
results are their own justification, and while they will unques- 
tionably be modified in scores of details, by exploration outside 
tlie Philippines as well as within them, an examination of the 
actual cases renders it quite as probable that the contrasts will 
be intensified as that they will be weakened. 

So far, then, as the moss flora can be taken as a criterion, it 
seems clear — 

1. That the percentage of endemism in Philippine species is 
very high. 

2. That the Mountain Province is botanically a natural sub- 
division of the Philippines. 

3. That the flora of the rest of the Philippines is overwhelm- 
ingly Malayan. 

4. That the flora of the Mountain Province can not be 
considered strictly Malayan, but is related to it in much the 
same way as is that of Sikkim, Nepal, or Khasia. 

It remains to be seen whether the ascertained distribution of 
the moss flora afl^ords any support to two other propositions 
briefly stated at the outset for flowering plants; whether any 
species whose focus of distribution in the Philippines appears 
to be the Mountain Province extend to the south along definite 
lines, in general those of the various ranges or broken ranges 
of mountains; and secondly, whether floral subprovinces can be 
established for the rest of the Philippines. 

From both of these inquiries, the species found only in the 
Mountain Province must be excluded, but with an important 
reservation. If it be well established that the great mountain 
mass, nearly at the north of the Islands, has a flora in rather 
definite contrast to that not only of less elevated areas but even 
of the summits of the mountain farther south, it would logically 
follow that it could constitute a focus of distribution, from which 
more adaptible species could reach other localities. 

But, on this point, the data for drawing conclusions are 



214 The Philipvine Journal of Science ioh 

scanty. There are 76 species found both in the Mountain 
Province and elsewhere in the Philippines, but 63 of these are 
known outside the limits of the Archipelago, and all except four 
of these 63 are Malayan and therefore less in consonance with 
the ascertained affinities of the flora of the Mountain Province 
than with that of the rest of the Philippines. However, our 
present knowledge of the Philippine distribution of these 59 
Malayan species is, that there extend to the Mountain Province 
from, or less likely extend from the Mountain Province to: 

Eastern Luzon, but not the more southern islands 9 

Western Luzon but not the more southern islands 2 

Both eastern and western Luzon, but not the more southern islands.... 2 

Eastern but not western Luzon and more southern islands 8 

Western but not eastern Luzon and more southern islands 6 

Eastern and western Luzon and more southern islands 8 

Southern islands but not in Luzon .south of Mountain Province 24 

There is some room for argument that the Philippine center 
of distribution of at least the first thirteen of these is the Moun- 
tain Province, but their Malayan distribution would throw sus- 
picion on any such conclusions, and it should be more profitable to 
confine attention to the four non-Malayan and the thirteen endemic 
species found both in the Mountain Province and elsewhere. 

With respect to the four, the presumption is strong that their 
spread has been from the north, for the ascertained areas of 
distribution are Formosa, Mountain Province, Canlaon; Japan, 
Formosa, Mountain Province, Mindoro ; Bhotan, Formosa, Moun- 
tain Province, Zambales; and Sikkim, Mountain Province, Bana- 
jao, respectively. The thirteen will be listed, as in practically 
every case, it will be open to question whether they have migrated 
to the Mountain Province from more southern hills or have 
taken the opposite route. 



Species. 


Ascertained distribution outside of the 
Mountain Province. 


Braunfelsia huonensis Broth. 
Pilopogon subexasperatus Broth. 
Trichostomum subduriusculum (C. M.) Broth. 
Schlotheimia wallisii C. M. 
Pogonaturn albo-marginatum (C. M.) Jaegr. 
Pilopogon spurio-eirraUim Broth. 
Symphysodontella subulata Broth. 
Entodon longidens Broth. 
Ectropothecium assimile Broth. 
Ectropotkecium micropyxis Broth. 
Ectropothecium subintorquatum Broth. 
Vesicularia campylothecium Broth. 
Meiothecium attenuatum Broth. 


Zambales. 

Zambales, Banajao. 

Butuan. 

Zambales, Banajao. 

Zambales, Abu, Mariveles, Lanao. 

Banajao. 

Negros. 

Apo, Lanao. 

Rizal, Maquiling, Butuan, Bukidnon. 

Maquilingr, Butuan, 

Maquilins, Canlaon, Zamboang-a. 

Lagnina. 

Laguna. 



IX. c, 3 Robinson: Distribution of Philippine Mosses 215 

From a general consideration of the species of the genera 
concerned, as well as of the Philippine localities cited, it would 
appear that Trichostomum subduriuscnlum and Entodon longi- 
dens offer no conclusive evidence in either direction, while the 
three species of Ectropothecium, Symphysodontella subulata, Ve- 
sicidaria campylothecium, and Meiothecium attenuatnm have 
more likely originated farther south and thence migrated to the 
Mountain Province. 

Similar arguments render it probable that the remaining five 
originated in the Mountain Province, and have spread thence 
to a greater or less extent, along two lines of distribution. Two 
are known both from Banajao and the mountains of Zambales, 
and it is much less probable that they passed directly from 
either of these to the other than that they have reached both 
from Benguet. Moreover, one other is known only in the Moun- 
tain Province and on Banajao; neither of the others is known 
from Banajao, but both occur in Zambales, one of the latter 
extending through what is the same and a continuation of the 
same range to Abu and Mariveles, and to a far-off station in 
Mindanao. 

It is admitted that very little has been proven on this head, 
but it is to be remembered that nothing would be more de- 
structive of one of the main points here sought to be established, 
than the discovery that any very high proportion of the species 
which seem to have originated in the Mountain Province had 
migrated to the south. 

When the essential of the east-west coast theory of distribu- 
tion is understood, its inherent probability will be universally 
conceded. For it is no more than this. Can the plants of the 
Philippines be divided into two physiological groups, those which 
can withstand a long-continued period of drought, and those 
which can not? Briefly, the answer is in the aflirmative, but 
complications are at once introduced by plants which prefer the 
one set of conditions but tolerate the other, and by the ascer- 
tained fact that the humidity of any part of the Philippines 
is high even in its dry season. The facts are capable of another 
explanation. Both groups of plants may prefer the one set of 
conditions, presumably in at least most cases the more even 
distribution of rain. Under such conditions, the one group may 
be superior to the other in the struggle for existence. When 
confronted with less desirable conditions, that group may no 
longer be able to compete on favorable terms, and thus will yield 
supremacy to their rivals. From a purely floristic point of 
view, it is of little consequence which of these furnishes the better 



216 ^/^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

explanation of the facts, or whether both contain elements of 
truth. In either case, the same species might be found in regions 
of quite dissimilar rain-distribution ; so that the contrast between 
such I'egions, if based on the mere presence and absence of 
species, would have to be between plants with strong preference. 
It is sufficiently assured that there are certain trees, for example, 
that grow under both sets of conditions, but much better under 
one. But it is obvious that it is impossible for very definite 
statements to be made on this point for more than a very few 
of the forest species. 

What the theory seeks is to establish a correlation between the 
rainfall and the geographic distribution of species. In northern 
Luzon, the narrow western coastal plain is separated from the 
broad Cagayan Valley and the east coast by the whole mass of 
the Mountain Province, but the hills taper down to the north, 
and the plant evidence is that in the extreme northwest, namely 
in at least the northern part of the Province of Ilocos Norte, 
there is an extension of species found on the east coast but not 
in the more southern provinces of western Luzon. On this point 
the mosses in this herbarium furnish no evidence, for not one 
species has yet been collected in either Ilocos Norte or Ilocos 
Sur, and not many in Union. Their total is probably small. 
Nor are there many from the Batanes Islands, nor from Cagayan, 
nor Isabela, but some of these have proven of considerable 
interest. There is nothing from the east coast until just north 
of the latitude of Manila, the intervening country being to-day 
about the least accessible region in the Philippines. Then follows 
the best known portion, bryologically, of eastern Luzon, Infanta, 
Polillo, San Antonio in Laguna Province, and especially two 
of the hills of the Banajao group, Banajao proper, and the lesser 
Banajao or Lucban. It is again to be remembered, also, that 
the mosses differ from the great majority of the species of 
flowering plants, in that the latter have been collected at all 
levels, whereas the former have mostly come from high eleva- 
tions, especially the "mossy forest," where the humidity is great, 
at all seasons and on all slopes. 

In practice, therefore, all that can be ascertained here is 
whether the mosses known from the western provinces of Ilocos 
(none) , Union, Pangasinan (none) , Tarlac, Pampanga, Bulacan, 
Zambales, Bataan, and Cavite seem to differ from those of In- 
fanta, Polillo, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, and Albay on the 
east, and whether either of these groups seems to show any 
preference for extension into the Visayan and the southern 
islands, or outside the Archipelago. Rizal Province is not a 



IX. C. 3 



Robinson: Distribution of Philippine Mosses 



217 



natural division, from a botanical point of view; the species 
from near Manila have been counted as definitely west coast; 
those from the northeastern part of the province have been 
counted as east coast when they have also been found in other 
localities, whether east or west; when this was their only Philip- 
pine station of record, they were omitted altogether, as were those 
of Nueva Ecija and Batangas (one only), this omission indi- 
cating uncertainty in the mind of the writer as to the exact 
point at which the dividing line should be drawn. Bryologically, 
Bulacan may prove to be east coast, as the hill country in its 
eastern part, almost uninhabited, will yield far more species 
should collections be made there than can the much better known 
and populous plain to the west. 

The figures are as follows, but it should be noted that the 
totals do not correspond to the sum of the separate columns, 
for while the first three columns are mutually exclusive, the 
second must and the third may be included in the fourth. Also 
species are included in the total that do not appear in any 
of the other columns, for example when a species is known only 
from Benguet and Zambales. 



Species of mosses found in the west- 
ern provinces above named, but 
not in the eastern 

Species found in the eastern prov- 
inces, but not in the western 

Species found in both eastern and 
western provinces 



Endemic | tR,'?k?1°?,?„ to more 
'Ph.hppine gouthern 



Philippine 
locality. 



Istation, but 
joutside dis- 
tribution. 



f^..^^ j:„„ I With extra-' 
^.''.'t:?f:2^i Philippine! 
distnbu- 



islands i 

within Phik 

ippines. I 



tion and { 
one or more 
Philippine 
stations. 



Total. 



22 32 

! 

46 i 70 

! 

18 24 



In view of what has previously been stated, this diflference 
seems surprising, but while the details are much more likely to 
be modified by future collections than in any of the cases pre- 
viously considered, it is highly probable that there will remain 
a very considerable number of species known only from one or 
the other slope.^ The figures do appear to argue strongly against 
one opinion based upon flowering plants, namely that the species 
of eastern Luzon are the more likely to be found in the more 
southern islands, and are also more likely to extend without the 



See Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Bot. 190, 191. 



218 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Archipelago. In view of the supposed reason for the distinc- 
tion of the two floras, this is a point of some importance. Before 
a final opinion can be formed, it will be necessary to have fairly 
full collections from critical districts, such as the Angat country 
in Bulacan and Mount Maquiling in Laguna: the latter are 
being obtained. 

A side result suggested but not fully stated in the above table 
is that the number of endemic species in the Mountain Province 
is nearly twice that of the rest of Luzon taken together; for 
the number credited to the latter consists of the 21 in the first 
column of the table, 6 others from Rizal and Cagayan, and a 
single species endemic in two adjoining localities on the eastern 
slope. This disproportion may not prove permanent. 

It has been seen that the study of moss distribution gives the 
same result on all main points of inquiry as had already been 
held for flowering plants; but that it only partly agrees with 
those obtained for the ferns. So many weeds and other undoubt- 
edly introduced species have had to be enumerated among the 
flowering plants that their apparent percentage of endemism 
has been materially lowered; so that among so-called native 
species the mosses really have a slightly greater tendency to 
extend to other regions. But as all species are taken as origi- 
nating at a single point, this practically amounts to saying, that 
in the Philippines, natural and artificial introduction, taken to- 
gether, have brought about practically identical results in the 
case of the groups here contrasted. Probably also the average 
range of the moss species is greater than that of the phanerogams, 
but the question hardly permits more than vague opinion. 



The Phiuppine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 3, June, 1914. 



THE GENUS MACROGLOSSUM COPELAND 

By Douglas H. Campbell 
(Stanford University, California, U. S. A.) 

In 1909, Professor E. B, Copeland described a new Marattia- 
ceous fern, to which he gave the name Macroglossum Alidae. 
The specimen was collected near Bau, in Sarawak, Borneo, where 
in February, 1913, the writer collected at the original station 
abundant material for a morphological study of this interesting 
fern. After leaving Borneo, a visit was made to Buitenzorg, 
and in the famous botanical garden there a single fruiting speci- 
men of what was taken to be the same plant as Macroglossum 
Alidae, was growing. This specimen was labeled Angiopteris 
Smithii Raciborski, and inquiry showed that it was the type of 
that species. It had been growing in the garden for about 
twenty years, but its origin was unknown. It was conjectured 
that the plant had been sent from either Borneo or Sumatra, 
but no record of its origin was extant. 

Material from this plant was shown to Professor Copeland 
who thought it was identical with the Sarawak species ; but the 
sporangia were immature, and a careful comparison of mature 
sporophylls of the two plants has shown that they are not iden- 
tical, although doubtless closely related. It is also evident that 
the genus Macroglossum cannot be united with Angiopteris. 
Raciborski's AngiopteHs Smithii must therefore be transferred 
to the genus Macroglossum.^ 

The two species of Macroglossum closely resemble each other 
in habit, but the Buitenzorg plant was considerably smaller than 
the larger specimens of M. Alidae. The leaves of the latter were 
about 4 meters in length, while those of M. Smithii scarcely 
reached 3 meters. 

A comparison of Macroglossum. with Angiopteiis shows a 
number of notable differences. The habit of the plants is quite 
unlike, the upright simply pinnate leaves of Macroglossum being 
more numerous than the broad-spreading bipinnate leaves of 

' MacrogloGsum Smithii (Raciborski) Campbell (Angiopteris Smithii 
Raciborski in Bull. Int. Acad. Cracov. (1902) 54). 

219 



220 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



1914 



most species of Angiopteris. In habit Macroglossuyn much re- 
sembles the larger species of Danaea, although much larger than 
these. In its simply pinnate leaves it also recalls Archangiop- 
teris, with which it closely agrees also in the structure of the 
sporangium. The pinnae, which in M. Alidae may exceed 50 
cm in length, have entire margins, while in all of the species of 
Angiopteris that were examined, the margin of the pinnules is 
more or less strongly serrate. 












J^2l\ -^ 



Fig. 1. A, a cross section of the leaf-lamina of Macroglossum Alidae, traversing three sori. 
X 25 ; in, indusial hairs ; m, mucilage ducts. B, a similar section of the leaf of M. 
Smithii. C, a similar section of the leaf of Angiopteris evecta ( ?). 

The anatomy of the lamina is very different in Macroglossum 
and Angiopteris. The material of Angiopteris used for compar- 
ison, was a species collected at Peradeniya, Ceylon, under the 
name of A. evecta. Sections through the sori show that the 
lamina of the leaflet at this point is at least three times as thick 
in Macroglossum as in Angiopteris, although the sporangia them- 
selves are smaller (fig. 1). The palisade tissue is extremely 
conspicuous in Macroglossum, while in Angiopteris it is much 
less developed although there is a good deal of difference in this 
respect in different species. Traversing each vein in Macro- 



IX, c, 3 Campbell: Macroglossum Copeland 221 

glossum is a conspicuous mucilage duct (m), which is wanting 
in the leaf of Angiopteris. A striking feature in Macroglossum 
is the development of a conspicuous ridge separating the elon- 
gated sori, so that the latter are sunk in a sort of trough, very- 
much as is the case in Danaea. This is especially marked in 
M. Alidae, where only the upper portion of the sporangium is 
free. In Angiopteris (fig. 1, C), the sporangia are entirely 
exposed. 

In Macroglossum there is a conspicuous indusium composed 
of branching hairs, which form a fringe on either side or the 
sorus. In M. Alidae these hairs reach nearly or quite to the 
summit of the sporangia, and are very much like those found 
in Archangiopteris.- These indusial hairs are much less devel- 
oped in Angiopteris. 






Fic. 2. Surface cells of the sporangium seen from the side ; the tannin cells are shaded. 
A, MacroglossuTn Alidae; B, M. Smithii; C, Anfriopteris. 

The elongated sorus of Macroglossum presents a quite different 
appearance from that of Angiopteris. On account of the sub- 
mersion of the sorus between the ridges referred to, the sporangia 
project only slightly above the level of the leaf-surface, and 
they are so closely crowded as to be scarcely distinguishable, 
even with a lens, so that the sorus closely resembles superficially 
the elongated solid synangium of Danaea. The individual spo- 
rangia are smaller, but much more numerous than in Angiopteris 
where there are usually from 6 to 15 sporangia in each sorus. 
In Macroglossum Alidae there may be more than 60 sporangia 
in the sorus. 

Seen in median section (fig. 2, C) the sporangium of Angiop- 
teris is nearly circular in outline, being strongly convex both 
dorsally and ventrally. In MacroglossuTn (fig. 2, B) a simi- 
lar section is nearly pear-shaped, the sporangium being much 
less convex dorsally than in Angiopteris, and having the ventral 
surface almost flat. 

'Christ & Giesenhagen, Pteridographische Notizen, Flora 86 (1899). 

126079 3 



222 



The Philippine Jouvjial of Science 



1914 



In both genera the superficial dorsal cells of the sporangium 
are dark brown in color, due to the presence of dense cell- 
contents which probably contain tannin, and which stain very 
strongly with safranine (fig. 3). In A7igiopteris these tannin 
cells cover the entire dorsal surface, but in Maci'oglossum Alidae 
they are absent from the dorsal region for nearly half the height 
of the sporangium. M. Smithii is intermediate between Angiop- 
teris and M. Alidae in this respect. 

Similar brown cells are also found upon the inner or ventral 
face of the sporangium in Angioptens, forming a band on each 
side of the line of dehiscence, and extending to the base of the 
sporangium. In MacroglossuTn Synithii two patches of these 
cells occur on either side of the line of dehiscence near the apex 



B 






Fig. 3. A, median sections of the sporanpia of Macroglossttm Alidae: B, Macroglossum 
Smithii; C, Anffiopt.eris evecta (?) ; an, arnulus ; t, tapetum. The tannin cells are 
shaded. X about 75. 

of the sporangium, but in M. Alidae they are entirely wanting 
on the ventral face of the sporangium. (Fig. 3, A.) 

In Aiigiopteris a conspicuous annulus (fig. 4, C, an) of lig- 
nified cells occupies the apex of the sporangium. In Macro- 
glossum Smithii, a similar, but much less evident annulus occurs ; 
but in M. Alidae, this is almost entirely wanting. 

These differences, i. e., the fonn and anatomy of the leaf; 
the structure and arrangement of the sporangia and indusium, 
would seem amply sufficient to separate Macroglossum from 
Angiopteris. Of the two species M. Alidae m.ay be considered 
to be less specialized in regard to the sporangium. The num- 
ber, arrangement and structure of the sporangia are more like 
Archangiopteris than like Angiopteris, and on the whole, Macro- 
glossum may be considered to be most nearly related to the 
former genus. Like Archangiopteris there are suggestions of 
a possible relationship with Danaea; but the entirely separate 



IX, C, 3 



Campbell: Macroglossum Copeland 



223 



sporangia in both genera forbid their close association with 
Danaea, and indicate their inclusion in the family Angiopterideae. 
The most obvious difference between M. Alidae and M. Smithii 
is in the number of sporangia in the sorus, this being about 
twice as great in M. Alidae where there may be upwards of 60. 
Some of the smaller sori in M. Smithii are scarcely longer than 
is sometimes found in Angiopteris. The sporangia of M. Alidae 




Fig. 4. Apex of the sporangium showing the annulus, an. A, Macroglossum Alidat; B, M. 
Smithii; C, Angiopteris. X 250. 

are somewhat smaller and more crowded, so the resemblance 
of the sorus of this species to Danaea is specially marked. 
(Plate I, A) . 

The leaf -lamina in M. Alidae is somewhat thicker than in 
M. Smithii, and there are in M. Alidae obscure pseudo-nerves 
between the veins, which are absent in M. Smithii. Finally the 
true annulus in the sporangium of M. Smithii, and the less 
developed indusium, distinguish it from M. Alidae. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE 

Plate I. A, part of a pinna of Macroglossiivi Alidae, about natural size; 
B, C, Macrogloseum Smithii, showing the much smaller size of 
the sori. 

225 



ll-l- 



226 




The Phiuppine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 3, June, 1914. 



NEW SUMATRAN FERNS 

By E. B. COPELAND 

(From the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, 
Los Banos, P. I.) 

Mr. Cecil J. Brooks, to whose zeal and skill as a collector 
much of the recently acquired knowledge of the fern flora of 
Borneo is due, is now living at Lebong Tandai, Benkoelen, Su- 
matra. From this locality he recently sent me for determi- 
nation a most interesting collection of 111 specimens from which 
the following fourteen are described as new. There are also 
a considerable number of other additions to the known flora of 
Sumatra. The study of the collection leaves me with the opinion 
that the floras of Borneo and Sumatra are much more closely 
related than has hitherto been supposed. 

The numbers accompanying the following descriptions are 
those attached to the specimens by Mr. Brooks. The locality 
is given on all labels as "Lebong Tandai, Benkoelen." 

MARATTIA CAUDATA sp. nov. 

Rhachi castanea vel atrocastanea, glabra, fere laeve: pinnis 
suboppositis, usque ad 50 cm longis, stipitatis, stipite 4-7 cm 
longo; rhachi laeve, atrocastanea, exalata; pinnulis suboppositis, 
maximis superioribus, usque ad 15 cm longis, 12-15 mm latis, 
basi cuneatis, stipitatis, stipite 2-3 mm longo nigro, serratis vel 
deorsum integris, apice in caudam ca. 2 cm longam 1.2 mm 
latam sursum solummodo serratam angustatis, papyraceis, gla- 
bris; venis fere omnibus simplicibus, opacis; soris margine 
remotis, loculis 6-8-paribus, indusio atro-fusco. 

No. Jtl. "In thick jungle on steep bank of stream. A large fern." 
The remarkably caudate pinnules give this species a very distinct appear- 
ance. 

TRICHOMANES PULCHERRI M UM sp. nov. 

Rhizomate late repente, 3-4 mm crasso, dense et breviter 
nigro-piloso, in ala frondis quaeque frondes reductas 1 vel 2 
dissectas segmentis setaceis emittente: stipite 10-20 cm alto, 
castaneo, glabrescente, sursum rhachique angustissime alatis; 

227 



228 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

fronde ultra 30 cm alta, oblonga, acuminata, 4-5-pinnatifida 
rhachi decidue puberula, castanea, lamina viride diaphana, prae- 
cipue ad costas pilis longis paucis adspersa; segmentis ultimis 
vix 0.5 mm latis, ad apices plerumque retusis; venis spuriis 
nullis; indusio anguste turbinato-cylindrico, exalato, margine 
subbilabiato et paullo dilatato, receptaculo exserto. 

No. 26. Scandent on base of trunks in shady jungle. 

A remarkably beautiful fern; related to Trichomanes speciosum Willd., 
and superficially much like T. aphlebioides Christ, of New Guinea. The 
larger frond sent me wants the upper part; it was probably 60 cm high. 

DRYOPTERIS PALEATA sp. nov. 

D. Hallieri (Christ) C. Chr. affinis et similis, rhachi ubique 
paleis magnis lanceolatis, et indusiis persistentibus pilosis dis- 
tincta; pinnis insigniter ciliatis, sterilibus 30 cm longis, 4 cm 
latis, fertilibus gracilioribus, apicibus venarum interdum in 
sinubus confluentibus. 

Nos. 136, fertile, and 68, sterile, compose the type specimen. 
Related to Dryopteris Hallieri, as already stated, and also to D. crinipes 
(Hooker) O. K., the veins of which regularly anastomose. 

TECTARIA (PLEOCNEMIA vel ARCYPTERIS) OLIVACEA sp. nov. 

Stipite fere 1 cm crasso, deorsum paleis filiformibus rufo- 
castaneis crinitis densissime vestito, sursum nitido, castaneo; 
fronde magna, rhachibus nitidis ; pinnae infimae desunt ; sequen- 
tibus ca. 60 cm longis, 20 cm latis, brevistipitatis, acuminatis, 
inferioribus stipitatis, basi cordato-truncatis, 1.5 cm latis, ultra 
mediam laminam pinnatisectis, glabris, papyraceis, superne 
castaneo-viridibus, subtus olivaceis; lobis falcato-oblongis, ob- 
tusis, integris; venis inconspicuis, interdum more Pleocnemiae 
seriem unam areolarum efformantibus, saepius areolas irregu- 
lares paucas margini vel sinu propiores includentibus ; soris 
medialibus, utroque latere costulae 5-7, nudis. 

No. 172. 

This can easily be mistaken for Tectaria leuzeana, from which it differs 
in superficial view in the exceeding fineness of the basal scales and in the 
less cut pinnules; the slightly different venation is correlated with the pre- 
ceding character. The naked sori would make this an Arcypteris, but the 
appearance is rather that of Pleocnemia. 

TECTARIA (DIGRAMMARIA) ELLIPTICA sp. nov. 

Stipite 50 cm alto, sordide nigro-brunneo, deorsum paleis 
paucis lanceolatis adsperso; fronde ultra 50 cm alta, 35-40 cm 
lata, abrupte acuminata, apice pinnatifida, alibi bipinnatifida ; 
pinnis 5-8-paribus, sessilibus vel superioribus adnatis, infimis 
quam sequentibus brevioribus et latioribus, baud deltoideis sed 



IX. c, 3 Copelajid: Neiv Sumatran Feims 229 

potius basi basiscopica abscissa; pinnis medialibus usque ad 
25 cm longis, 6 cm latis, valde acuminatis, ad partem utroque 
latere costae ca 1 cm latam integram lobatis, herbaceis, in 
sinubus minute ciliatis, aliter glabris; lobis falcatis, 5-8 mm 
latis, integris ; venis inconspicuis, anastomosantibus, in segmentis 
series areolarum utroque latere costulae 1 vel 2 includentibus ; 
soris medialibus, nudis, plus minus elongatis. 

No. 81. "In shady jungle by stream." 

Intermediate between Tectaria ambigua (Presl) and T. gigantea (Blume). 

TECTARIA SINGAPORIANA (Wall.) Copel. 
Aspidium singaporianum Wall. (1827). 
No. 89. 

LEPTOCHILUS OVATUS sp. nov. 

Fronde sterile lata, venarum ramis prope marginem praestan- 
tioribus; frondis fertilis stipite 35 cm alto, gracile, lamina 
anguste ovata, vix 6 cm longa, 2.5 cm lata; aliter L. decurrenti 
Bl. similis. 

No. 155. "Scandent near base of small trees, in moist shade." 
ATHYRIUM BROOKSII sp. nov. 

Species gregis A. Swartzii (Bl.) {Diplazii Sivartzii Bl. Enum. 
(1828) 191) rhizomate erecto ; stipitibus rhachibusque inermibus 
nudis stipite 20-35 cm alto; fronde 30 cm alta, ovata, pinnata, 
pinna terminale inciso-serrata non hastata, aliis argute grosse- 
serratis; pinnis suboppositis, utroque latere ca, 5, stipitatis, 
acuminatis, basi rotundatis baud truncatis, coriaceis, glabris, 
sterilibus 15 cm longis, 3.5 cm latis; venis versus sinus anas- 
tomosantibus; soris laminam fere obtegentibus. 

No. 103. 

A decidedly distinct member of the group of "Diplazum proliferum." 

ASPLENIUM (THAMNOPTERIS) OBLANCEOLATUM sp. nov. 

Rhizomate 2 mm crasso, radicibus profunde obtecto; stipite 
subnullo; fronde 40-60 cm alta, 4 cm lata, anguste oblanceolata, 
acuta, deorsum sensim longe attenuata, glabra, viride, subcoria- 
cea; costa utraque facie prominente, inferne obscure carinata; 
venis erecto-patentibus, infra marginem anastomosantibus ; soris 
brevibus, a costa vix ^ ad marginem protensis, indusio nitido, 
integro, persistente. 

No. 28. "On trunk." 

In form of frond approaching broad forms of Asplenium colubrinum 
Christ, from which it differs in being broader, especially upward, and in 
the shorter and less spreading sori. 



230 I'he Philippine Journal of Science lou 

MICROLEPIA BROOKSII sp. nov. 

Pinnis infimis ca. 30 cm longis, 13 cm latis, acuminatis; pin- 
nulis gracili-stipitatis, deltoideo-lanceolatis, argute acuminatis; 
segmentis orbiculari-oblongis, rotundatis, infimo acroscopico 
maximo plus minus inciso excepto proximis et interdum imbri- 
catis, integris, sparsius puberulentibus, aliter ut M. trichosticha 
J. Sm. 

No. 105. 

The peculiar form of the pinnules and segments distingfuishes this from 
Microlepia Speluncae as well as from M. trichosticha. The latter has the 
pinnae much longer but hardly wider at the base, the pinnules less dilated 
at the base and relatively broad above and less sharply acuminate, and the 
lobes narrower, farther apart and only the smaller ones near the apex 
entire. The enlarged base of the trichomes is not a very good distinctive 
character. 

HUMATA INTERMEDIA C. Chr. 

No. 39. 

Already published as from Borneo and Perak. The Sumatra plant is 
identical with one determined as this species, from Pahang. 

DAVALLiA SUMATRANA sp. nov. 

Rhizomate repente, ca. 7 mm crasso, dense paleaceo; stipite 
50-60 cm alto, castaneo; fronde 80 cm vel ultra alta, 50-60 cm 
lata, vix tripinnata, apice invisa, rhachi per 75 cm non alata; 
pinnis stipitatis, infimis 35 cm longis, 15 cm latis, deltoideo-lan- 
ceolatis, acuminatis, rhachi sursum alata, pinnis sequentibus 
paullo brevioribus; pinnulis stipitatis, infimis 8 cm longis, 3.5 
cm latis, acuminatis, pinnatifidis ; segmentis infimis ala angustis- 
sima connexis, pinnatifido-lobatis, lobo infimo acroscopico maxi- 
mo; segmentis sequentibus lineari-oblongis obtusis, serratis vel 
crenatis, coriaceis, glabris, olivaceis ; venulis simplicibus, venulis 
spuriis nullis ; soris multis, haud marginalibus, immersis ; indusio 
plerumque plus quam 1 mm lato et minus quam 1 mm alto, trun- 
cato, laete brunneo cum basi nigra. 

No. 1U7. "A very large fern." 

I imagine that this is the "D. decurrens" reported from Sumatra by van 
Alderwerelt, who describes the indusium as "as long as broad." The real 
Davallia decwrrens of Hooker has the indusia distinctly longer than broad, 
and notably small. Of Hooker's figures, Sp. Fil, 1, Plate XLIV B, 2 is 
correct, but 3, representing a single sorus, is defective, the upper part of 
the indusium being gone. It is possible that D. lobbiana Moore is D. suma- 
trana, but it is described as very much smaller and less cut, but as bearing 
copious sori. 

PTERIS FURCANS Baker. 

No. 20. "Common on newly cut soft rock." 

Hitherto known only from Borneo. The Sarawak plants are more slender, 
but not otherwise distinguishable. 



IX. c, 3 Copeland: New Sumatraji Ferns 231 

PTERIS BROOKSII sp. nov. 

Species gregis P, quadriauritae pinnis ovato-lanceolatis decur- 
rentibus anguste pectinatis; stipitibiis usque ad 60 cm altis, 
stramineis, deorsum paleis paucis castaneis horizontalibus ves- 
tito, sursum minute f urf uraceo, glabrescente ; fronde 40 cm alta, 
25 cm lata, pinnata cum pinna utroque latere infima furcata, 
rhachi sub manu molle sub lente minutissime asperula, strami- 
nea; pinnis usque ad 7 utroque latere, usque ad 16 cm longis, 
ca. 4 cm latis, cum cauda Integra 2-3 cm longa 2 mm lata ter- 
minantibus, stipitatis cum stipite alato, fere ad costam supeme 
setigeram pectinatis, herbaceis, laete viridibus; segmentis inte- 
gris, obtusis, rectis, ca. 2.5 mm latis, proximis, glabris, media- 
libus vel inframedialibus longissimis, fere ad apices fertilibus; 
venis furcatis. 

No. 96. "On rocks in deep shade." 

Decidedly distinct from other forms in this very comprehensive group. 

MONOGRAMMA TRICHOIDEA J. Sm. 

No. 119. On smooth trunk of palm. 

The published range is "The Philippines and Borneo." I have also a 
specimen from Pahang. 

MONOGRAMMA INTERMEDIA Copel. 
No. 1S5. 
Previously known from Negros. 

VITTARIA (TAENIOPSIS) SESSILIS sp. nov. 

Rhizomate breve, paleis fere nigris e base 1 mm lato ovato 
in setam angustissimam integram 7-8 mm longam angustatis 
dense vestito ; frondibus conf ertis, usque ad 35 cm altis, ca. 7 
mm latis, usque ad rhizoma 2-3 mm latis, coriaceis, glabris, 
costa immersa ; soro intramarginale, immerso ; paraphysium ca- 
pitibus lineari-cyathif ormibus ; sporis reniformibus. 

No. 183. 

So many species of Vittaria have been inadequately described that it is 
difficult to be certain that any apparently new form is not one of them. 
In Euvittaria it would be possible to identify this plant satisfactorily; but 
it is unmistakably and obviously a Taeniopsis, and in this group its broad 
base is in itself diagnostic. 

PROSAPTIA SEMICRYPTA sp. nov. 

Rhizomate brevirepente ; stipitibus 1-2 cm altis, deorsum vel 
ubique nigris, minute pilosis; fronde 20-40 cm alta, usque ad 
8 cm lata, deorsum abrupte angustata, costa infeme pilis sparsis 
caducis ornata, aliter glabra nee enim ciliata, herbacea, ad alam 
0.5 mm latam pinnatifida; pinnis costam versus abrupte dila- 



232 The Philippine Journal of Science isu 

tatis, aliter linearibus, usque ad 4 cm longis, 2-2.5 mm latis, 
acutis, leviter crenatis ; soris subremotis, submarginalibus, versus 
marginem apertis; parvis. 

No. 93 (type), No. UO. On trunks and bases of trunks. 

In position of sori, this is similar to Prosaptia ancestralis Copel. of Min- 
danao, but is very much more delicate and finely cut. Although it seems 
to me to be distinctly a Prosaptia, I have tried to find a name for this plant 
in Polypodiuni; but the only species it would seem even possibly to be is 
P. brevifrons Scort. in van Alderverelt's Handbook, p. 600; and a diagnosis 
of this has never been published. Prosaptia semicrypta is distinct in several 
respects from Polypodium repanduluni Mett. 

LOXOGRAMME FORBESIl sp. nov. 

Rhizomate 3 mm crasso, radicibus pilosissimis more Antro- 
phyi aquam conservantibus dense obtecto; stipite 1 cm alto, ni- 
gro, valido ; f ronde ca. 60 cm alta, 10 cm lata, oblanceolata, 
acuminata, deorsum ad pedem fusco-siccam truncatam sensim 
angustata, Integra vel minute crenulante, glabra, vix coriacea, 
infra pallida, costa superne tereta, subtus deorsum carinata; 
venis, pede sicca excepta, inconspicuis ; soris multis, a costa 
fere ad marginem protensis, prope costam curvis. 

No. 121. On trunk. 

I suppose this to be Raciborski's var. Forbesii of L. blumeana Presl, but 
am quite unable to regard it as a variety of that species. The widened 
base has the same biological significance as those of Polypodium musifolium 
and P. linguaeforme and Asplenium Nidus. The texture is thinner and the 
veins more evident than in large forms of L. blumeana, and the appearance 
of the sori is very distinct. I have made Brooks' plant the type of the 
species in order to avoid any possible doubt as to the plant which the name, 
as a specific one, fits. 

LOXOGRAMME BROOKSII sp. nov. 

Species unica generis foliis vero lanceolatis; rhizomate late 
repente, 1 mm crasso, paleis parvis angustis vetustate deciduis 
vestito; stipitibus distantibus, 1 cm longis; fronde uniforme, 
lanceolata, 12-20 cm alta, 10-12 mm lata, infra mediam latissi- 
ma, deinde utrinque angustata, valde acuminata, deorsum vix 
in alam decurrente, integra, coriacea ; costa praecipue superne 
prominente; venis omnino inconspicuis, in parte majore frondis 
seriem unam solummodo includentibus ; soris brevibus, erecto- 
patentibus, non imbricatis, leviter immersis nee non superne 
elevatis. 

No. 12Jf. 

The fronds of Loxo gramme lanceolata are usually widest above the middle; 
they are also much more decurrent than this plant, and have longer and 
broader sori, which are more elevated above the upper surface. 



IX, c. 3 Copeland: New Sumatran Ferns 233 

POLYPODIUM (PHYMATODES) CRASPEDOSORUM sp. nov. 

Rhizomate repente, 1 mm crasso, paleis e basi minuta peltata 
anguste setiformibus, 6 mm longis, rubidis, apicem versus pal- 
lescentibus; stipitibus 4-6 cm altis, 0.5 mm crassis, glabris; 
frondibus subdimorphis, sterile 10-12 cm alta, 6-8 mm lata, 
utrinque angustata, obtusa, Integra, margine angustissime car- 
tilaginea coriacea, fertile 12-20 cm alta, ca. 4 mm lata, costa 
gracile, superne elevata et minute sulcata, subtus tereta; venis 
omnino occultis, tenuissimis, irregularibus, areolarum series 1-3 
utroque latere includentibus ; soris submarginalibus, leviter 
immersis et superne paullo praestantibus, plerisque oblongis 
et margini parallelis. 

No. isi^. 

Differs from all other species known to me with sori near the margin, 
Diblevima samarense, Polypodium revolutum, etc., in the setaceous clothing 
of the rhizome, and from each species in several other respects; apparently 
a very distinct novelty. 



The Phiuppine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 3, June, 1914. 



PHILIPPINE BASIDIOAIYCETES, II 

By Paul W. Graff 

(From the Botanical Section of the Biological Laboratory, 
Bureau of Science, Manila, P. I.) 

HYMENOMYCETES 
TREMELLINEAE 

HIRNEOLA Fries 

HIRNEOLA POLYTRICHA Mont, in Bel. Voy. Ind. Or. Crypt. 154, sub 
Exidia Fr. ex Wahl. F. Nat. (1848) 2G. 
Exidia purpurascens Jungh. Plant. Java Crypt. (1845) 25 fig. 3. 
Aurindaria polytricha Sacc. Misc. 1 : 12. 
Batanes Islands, Bur. Sci. 3879 Fenix, May-June, 1907. 
Distributed through the American and Asiatic tropics and the islands of 
the Pacific. 

GUEPINIA Fries 

GUEPINIA RAMOSA Curr. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 1 (1876) 127. 

Luzon, Province of Cagayan, For. Bur. 1682i Curran, March, 1909: Prov- 
ince of Nueva Ecija, Cabanatuan, Bur. Sci, 5258 McGregor, September, 
1908: vicinity of Manila, Merrill 8597, February 10, 1913, on bamboo fence 
posts. 

Previously reported from India. 

GUEPINIA SPATHULARIA (Schw.) Fr. Blench. (1828) 32. 

Merulius spathularia Schw. in Schr. Nat. Ges. Leip. 6: 20. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Morong, Bur. Sci. H52 Ramos, August, 1906. 

Previously reported from the American tropics and Ceylon. Probably of 
general tropical distribution. 

THELEPHOREAE 

STEREUM Persoon 

6TEREUM HIRSUTUM (Willd.) Fr. Epicr. (1838) 549. 
Thclephora hirsuta Willd. Flor. Ber. Prod. (1787) 397. 
Auricularia reflexa Bull. Hist. Champ. France (1791-1798) 274. 
Auricularia aurantiaca Schum., var. cristulatum Quel. Champ. Jura. 3 

(1873) pi. 1, fig. 15. 
Leyte, Wenzel 12, September 30, 1913, on log in forest at an elevation 
of 60 m. 

Of general tropical distribution, 

235 



236 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

CLADODERRIS Persoon 

CLADODERRIS DENTRITICA Pers. ex Fr. Fung. Natal (1848) 22. 

Thelephora dendritica Pers. ex Gaud. Bot. Frey. Voy. (1826) pi. 1, fig. U; 
Fr. Epicr. (1838) 536. 

Actinostroma crassum Klotz. ex Meyen Beitr. Bot. (1843) 237. 

Cladoderris crassa Fr. Fung. Natal. (1848) 22. 

Beccariella insignls Ces. Myc. Born. (1879) 9, pi. k- 

Luzon Province of Rizal, Bosoboso, Bur. Sci. 1189 Ramos, July, 1906. 
Mindanao, District of Davao, Sibulan River, Copeland, April 27, 1904, on 
decaying wood. 

It is very probable that Cladoderris elegans (Jungh.) Fr., should also 
be included in the list of synonyms or, at least, be classed as a variety of 
C. dendritica. There is a very slight difference between the two; the most 
marked one being in the presence of a greater number of warty or papillate 
excresences on the hymenial folds. 

Reported from Ceylon, India, Borneo, Cuba and Brazil. Probably of very 
general tropical distribution. 

POLYPOREAE 

POLYPORUS Micheli 

POLYPORUS BENGUETENSIS (Murr.) comb. nov. 

Coltrichia benguetensis Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 35 (1908) 391. 

Polystictus benguetensis Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 312. 

Luzon, Province of Benguet, Elmer 60^7, March, 1904, on dead Pinus 
insularis; Baguio, Merrill 5003, October-November, 1905, on earth above 
prostrate logs of Pinus insularis. 

Broken surface pileus shining golden yellow-brown, poriferous layer of 
the same color as the upper surface, brown and quite distinct from the 
flesh of the pileus. This species should be placed in the genus Polyporus 
without question. 

Known only from the Philippines. 

FOMES Fries 

FOMES FASTUOSUS (Lev.) Cooke in Grevillea 14 (1886) 18. 

Polyporus fastuosus Lev. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill 2 (1844) 190. 

Luzon, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, Dupax, Bur. Sci. l^S6i McGregor, 
March-April, 1912: Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles, Copeland H5, 
January 30, 1906; Lamao, For. Bur. 15568 Curran, November, 1908: Prov- 
ince of Rizal, Antipolo, For. Bur. 70U Curran, May, 1907. Mindoro, Mount 
Halcon, Merrill 61 U, November, 1906. Babuyanes Islands, Camiguin, 
Bur. Sci. U171 Fenix, June-July, 1907. Mindanao, Lake Lanao, Camp 
Keithley, Clemens, June-July, 1907. 

On comparing the material in the Bureau of Science herbarium it is 
found that Pyropolyporus fastuosus (Lev.) Murr., this name having been 
first used and published by Murrill for Philippine material,^ is a misnomer. 
The specimen given that name by him is in reality Fomes spadiceus (Berk.) 

'Murrill in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 34 (1907) 179. 



IX. c, 3 Graff: Philippine Basidiomycetes, II 237 

Cooke. The name Pyropolyporus fastuosus, therefore, becomes a synonym 
for Fomes spadiceus rather than F. fastuosus. 
Previously collected in Malacca. 

FOMES KORTHALSII (Lev.) Cooke in Grevillea 14 (1886) 19. 

Polyporus korthalsii Lev. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill 5 (1846) 133. 

Pyropolyporus subextensus Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 35 (1908) 
413. 

Fomes subextensus (Murr.) Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 288. 

Luzon, Province of Benguet, Pauai, Bur. Sci. 8732 McGregor, June, 
1909. Negros, For. Bur. 1911 D Curran, September, 1909, on dead Skorea. 
Mindanao, District of Davao, Mt. Apo, Elmer 10646, May, 1909: Lake 
Lanao, Camp Keithley, Mary Strong Clemens, September, 1907 (cotype of 
Pyropolyporus subextensus Murr.) 

The typical material of Pyropolyporus subextensus Murr., proves on 
comparison to be Fomes korthalsii (Lev.) Cooke rather than a distinct 
species. 

Previously collected in Sumatra. 

FOMES LAMAOeNSIS (Murr.) Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 
287. 

Pyropolyporus lamaoensis Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 34 (1907) 
479. 

Pyropolyporus williamsii Murr. 1. c. 479. 

Fomes williamsii (Murr.) Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 289. 

Luzon, Province of Cagayan, For. Bur. 16710 Bacani, March, 1909: 
Province of Benguet, Bur. Sci. 12878 Fenix, November-December, 1910: 
Province of Rizal, Montalban, Merrill 5089, March, 1905; Bosoboso, For. 
Bur. 9526 Curran, February, 1908: Province of Bataan, Lamao, For. Bur. 
15593 Curran, November, 1908, For. Bur. 19210, 19218 Curran, November, 
1909. MiNDORO,. For. Bur. 12235 Rosenbluth, April-June, 1908; Mt. Halcon, 
Merrill 6120, November, 1906. Babuyanes Islands, Bur. Sci. ^177 Fenix, 
June-July, 1907. Negros, Gimagaan River, Copeland 15, January, 1906, 
For. Bur. 19109 Curran, September, 1909. Mindanao, District of Davao, 
Catalonan, Copeland 922, April, 1904: Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Cle- 
mens, s. n., July, 1907: Province of Agusan, Mt. Urdaneta, Elmer 13679, 
September, 1912. Polillo, Bur. Sci. 10552 McGregor, October-November, 
1909. 

As Pyropolyporus lamaoensis Murr., appears first in publication this 
name has precedence over P. williamsii Murr., though it is based on an 
immature specimen of the species described further on in the article under 
the latter name. The description, therefore, of P. lamaoensis should be 
emended by being made to agree with MurriU's diagnosis of P. williamsii. 

Collected only in the Philippines. 

FOMES PACHYPHLOEUS Pat. in Journ. Bot. (1889) 257, pi 8; Bres. in 
Bull. Soc. Myc. (1890) 41. 

Elfvingia elmeri Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 34 (1907) 476. 

Ganoderma elmeri Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 295. 

Luzon, Province of Bataan, For. Bur. 19222, 192^0 Curran, November- 
December, 1909; Moron, For Bur. 6^19 Curran, February, 1907, on Parkia 
roxburghii; Lamao, For. Bur. 15587 Curran, November, 1908, on dead Al- 
bizzia procera; Mt. Mariveles, Elmer 6961, November, 1904 (Type number 

126079 4 



238 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science im 

of Elfvingia elmeri Murr.), For. Bur. 19253 Curran, January, 1910, on 
Albizzia retusa. Culion, Merrill 3570, December, 1902, on decaying portion 
of a living tree. Mindanao, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Clemens s. n., 
July, 1907. POLILLO, Bur. Scl 10526, 105 5 A McGregor, October-November, 
1909. 

Collections of this species have been made in Cameroon and in the Fiji 
Islands. 

FOMES ROSEO-ALBUS (Jungh.) Bres. in Hedwigia 53 (1912) 57. 

Polyporus roseo-albus Jungh. Plant. Jav. Crypt (1845) 43. 

Fomes ynortuosus Fr. Nov. Symb. Myc. (1851) 64. 

Polyporus endapalus Berk, in Journ. Linn. Soc. 13 (1873) 163. 

Polyporus caliginosus Berk, in Journ. Linn. Soc. 16 (1878) 46. 

Coriolopsis copelandi Mutt, in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 35 (1908) 392. 

Polystictus copelandi Sacc. & Trot. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 322. 

Luzon, Province of Bataan, Lamao, Copeland 1U7, February, 1904: 
Province of Rizal, Bosoboso, Bur. Sci. 12H Ramos, July, 1906. Mindanao, 
District of Davao, Copeland 71U, March 28, 1904 (Type number of Corio- 
lopsis copelandi Murr.) ; Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Bur. Sci. 21319, 21320, 
21321 Clemens, June, 1907. 

This is a rather common species of Fomes in the Philippines and Murrill's 
Coriolopsis copelandi must be referred to it without question. 

Reported from Malacca and other portions of the Asiatic tropics. 

FOMES SPADICEUS (Berk.) Cooke in Grevillea 14 (1886) 20. 

Polyporus spadiceus Berk, in Ann. Nat. Hist. I 3 (1839) 388. 

Pyropolyporus fastuosus Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 34 (1907) 479. 

Luzon, Province of Bataan, For. Bur. 19233 Curran, December, 1909; 
Lamao, For. Bur. 15585 Curran, November, 1908: Province of Nueva Ecija, 
Cabanatuan, Bur. Sci. 52^0 McGregor, September, 1908. Mindanao, Zam- 
boanga, For. Bur. 8972 Whitford & Hutchinson, January, 1908. 

Curran 19233, named by Murrill, Pyropolyporus fastuosus (Lev.) Murr., 
proves, on an examination of the material of the same collection retained 
in the herbarium of the Bureau of Science, to be not Fomes fastuosus Lev., 
but F. spadiceus (Berk.) Cooke, or, according to Murrill's classification, 
should have been called Pyropolyporus spadiceus (Berk.). It differs from 
F. fastuosus in that the context is yellow-brown instead of brown, and is 
much thinner. The pore layers are also thinner and the top has a slightly 
dull velvety appearance rather than being shiny-velvety. There is an evi- 
dent relationship between this species and Polystictus spadiceus (Jungh.) 
Fries. 

Previously collected in India. 

FOMES SUBCHINONEUS (Murr.) comb. nov. 

Tyromyces subchioneus Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 35 (1908) 406. 

Polyporus subchioneus Sacc. & Trott. SylL Fung. 21 (1912) 278. 

Mindanao, District of Davao, Mount Apo, Copeland 1074, April 20, 1904 
(Cotype of Tyromyces subchioneus Murr.) 

This species should be transfered to Fomes rather than Polyporus as 
was done by Saccardo and Trotter. The cotype specimen preserved in 
the herbarium of the Bureau of Science shows the presence of three distinct 
pore layers. 

So far, only reported from the Philippines. 



IX. c. 3 Graff: Philippine Basidiomycetes, II 239 

FOMES UNGULIFORMIS (Murr.) comb. nov. 

Tyromyces unguliformis Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 35 (1908) 406. 

Polyporus unguliformis (Murr.) Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 
277. 

Balabac, Tamburot, Bur. Sci. 533 Mangubat, March-April, 1906, (Co- 
type of Tyromyces uiiguliformis Murr.) 

The cotype material of this species, like that of the preceding, has sev- 
eral pore layers and, hence, belongs in the genus Fomes. 

Reported only from the Philippines. 

POLYSTICTUS CERVINO-GILVUS (Jungh.) Fr. Nov. Symb. (1851) 94. 

Polyporus cervino-gilvus Jungh. Flor. Crypt. Jav. (1838) 45, pi. 9. 

Trametes dermatodes Lev. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ill, 2 (1844) 196. 

Polyporus dermatodes Lev. Bot. Voy. Bonite, (1846) 180, pi. 138, fig. 2. 

Polyporus peradeniae Berk. & Br. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 14 (1875) 51. 

Hexagonia vitellina Ces. in Nap. Accad. Atti 8 (1879) 8. 

Coriolopsis dermatodes Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 34 (1907) 466. 

Coriolopsis mellco-flavus Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 35 (1908) 393. 

Polystictus melleo-flavus Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 324. 

Luzon, Subprovince of Ifugao, Bur. Sci. 20035 McGregor, February, 
1913: Province of Nueva Vizcaya, Bur. Sci. 20280, 20292 McGregor, Jan- 
uary, 1913: Province of Nueva Ecija, Cabanatuan, Bur. Sci. 5239 McGregor, 
September, 1908: Province of Rizal, Bosoboso, Bur. Sci. 2158 Ramos, Feb- 
ruary 1907; Jalajala, Bur. Sci. 11958 Robinson, October 27, 1910: Province 
of Bataan, Lamao, For. Bur. 15584. Curran, November, 1908, 19216 Curran, 
November, 1909. Mindoro, Bulalacao, Bur. Sci. 6669 Robinson, March 
14-24, 1909. Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, San Ramon, Copeland 
492, 733, May, 1904; Zamboanga, For. Bur. 9238 Whitford and Hutchinson, 
January, 1908, on dead wood (cotype of Coriolopsis melleo-fiavus Murr.). 

The pore bearing surface of this fungus changes its color w^ith age. 
In young growing specimens it is of a lemon-yellow color while later it 
becomes tawny or reddish brown to dull brown. The specimens described 
by Murrill as Coriolopsis melleo-flavus had been gathered while growing 
and were well preserved, hence his new name for the species, and his reason 
for creating it. 

Collected previously in Borneo, Java, and Ceylon. 

POLYSTICTUS DEALBATUS (B. & C.) Saccardo Syll. Fung. 6 (1888) 
218. 

Polyporus dealbatus B. & C. in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. II, 12 (1853) 432. 

Polyporus mutabilis B. & C. 1. c. 433. 

Polyporus petaliformis B. & C. in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 10 (1868) 307. 

Polyporus polygrammus B. & C. 1. c. 307. 

Polyporus ravenelii B. & C. in Grevillea 1 (1872) 38. 

Polystictus cretatus Cooke in Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 13 (1878) 137. 

Polyporus cervicoiins Cooke in Grevillea 17 (1889) 59. 

Microporellus dealbatus Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 32 (1905) 483. 

Luzon, Province of Zambales, For. Bur. 8203 Curran & Merritt, Novem- 
ber-December. 1907. Mindanao, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Mrs. Clemens 
8. n. July, 1907. 



240 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science im 

Saccardo publishes this as Polystictus dealbatus but fails to give the 
authority for the change from Polyporus as published by Berkeley and 
Curtis. 

Reported mainly from the American tropics. 

POLYSTICTUS FUNALIS Fr. Epicr. (1838) 459. 

Funalia funalis Pat. Tax. Hymen. (1900) 95. 

Luzon, Province of Benguet, Elmer 6355, May, 1904, on fallen logs. 

This species has also been reported from here as Polystictus mons-veneris 
Jungh. Previous collections have been made in Madagascar, Guinea, and 
Brazil. 

POLYSTICTUS INQUINATUS Lev. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ill 5 (1846) 
140. 

Microporellus subdealbatus Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 34 (1907) 
471. 

Polystictus subdealbatus Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 309. 

Polystictus subdealbatus Bres. in Hedwigia 53 (1912) 65. 

Luzon, Province of Bataan, Lamao, Merrill 3511, October, 1903, on 
prostrate logs (Cotype of Microporellus subdealbatus Murr.). Mindanao, 
District of Zamboanga, Quinital, For. Bur. 9226 Whitford & Hutchinson, 
January, 1908. 

Previously reported from India. 

POLYSTICTUS MELEAGRIS (Berk.) Cooke in Grevillea 14 (1886) 79. 

Polyporus meleagris Berk, in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 16 (1878) 42. 

Coriolus clemensiae Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 35 (1908) 394. 

Polystictus clemensiae Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 318. 

Luzon, Province of Cagayan, Camatauiogan, For. Bur. 16875 Bacani, 
February, 1909: Province of Laguna, Los Banos, Bur. Sci. 9670 Robinson, 
February 28, 1910, on dead w^ood; Paete, For. Bur. 96ii Currant, March, 
1908: Province of Bataan, For. Bur. 19228 Curran, November, 1909; Lamao 
River, Copeland 185, 2U7 , February, 1904. Negros, Gimagaan River, Cope- 
land 10, January 6, 1904, on a decaying log. Mindanao, Lake Lanao, 
Camp Keithley, Clemens s. n. September-October, 1907 (cotype of Coriolus 
clemensiae Murr.) : Province of Surigao, Caraga, Merrill 5J!f60, October 6, 
1906: District of Davao, Copeland i.58, 925, March, 1904. POLILLO, Bur. 
Sci. 6860 Robinson, August, 1909, Bur. Sci. 10539 McGregor, October- 
November, 1909. Lumbacan, Merrill 5281, October 7, 1906, on dead Calo- 
phyllum inophyllum. 

On comparison of the cotype material of Coriolus clemensiae Murr., 
with the specimens of Polystictus meleagris (Berk.) Cooke, in the herba- 
rium of the Bureau of Science there can be no doubt of their being ident- 
ical. 

Previously collected on the Island of Aru by the Challenger Expedition. 

POLYSTICTUS MURINUS (Lev.) Sacc. Syll. Fung. 6 (1888) 226. 
Polyporus murinus Lev. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ill 2 (1844) 185. 
Coriolus murinus Pat. Tax. Hymen. (1900) 94. 
Coriolus currani Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 35 (1908) 395. 
Polystictus currani Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 319. 



IX, c. 3 Graff: Philippine Basidiomycetes, II 241 

Luzon, Province of Cagayan, For. Bur. 16639 Curran, February, 1909, 
Bur. Sci. 7593 Ramos, March 1909: Subprovince of Ifugao, Payauan, Bur. 
Sci. 20039, 20052 McGregor, February, 1913: Province of Laguna, Los 
Baiios, Bur. Sci. 9669 Robinson, February 2-8, 1910; Mt. Maquiling, For. 
Bur. 8965, Curran & Merritt, October 23-24, 1907 (Cotype of Coriolus 
currani Murr.) ; San Antonio, For. Bur. 132^2 Curran, March, 1912; Paete, 
For. Bur. 96JfO Curran, March, 1908: Province of Tayabas, Mauban, For. 
Bur. 9591, 9592 Curran, March, 1908; Dapdap Point, Bur. Sci. 13122 Fox- 
worthy, March, 1911; Mt. Pular, Bur. Sci. 19398 Ramos, January, 1913. 
Negros, Gimagaan River, Copeland 5, January 6, 1904. 

A comparison of the cotype material of Coriolus currani Murr., with 
authentically named specimens of Polystictus murinus Lev., discloses their 
identity and the necessity of reducing Murrill's species to a synonym of 
the latter. 

Previously reported from Java. 

POLYSTICTUS SPADICEUS (Jungh.) Fries Nov. Symb. Myc. (1851). 

Polyporus spadiceus Jungh. Flor. Crypt. Java (1838) 54, pi. SO. 

Polystictus microcyclus Zipp. ex Lev. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill, 2 (1844) 
188. 

Polystictus tabacimis Mont, ex Gay Hist. Fisica Pol. Chile 7 (1845) 361, 
pi. 7, fig. 6. 

Fomes substygius B. & Br. ex Cooke Praec. Polyp, n. 522. 

Polystictus xerampelinus Kalchbr. in Grevillea 4 (1876) 72. 

Cycloporellus microcyclus Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 34 (1907) 468. 

Polystictus substygius Bres. in Hedwigia 53 (1912) 66. 
. Luzon, Province of Cagayan, Bur. Sci. 759U Ramos, March, 1909: Prov- 
ince of Nueva Vizcaya, Dupax, Bur. Sci. H371 McGregor, March-April, 
1912: Subprovince of Ifugao, Bur. Sci. 20037 McGregor, February, 1913: 
Province of Benguet, Sablang, Bur. Sci. 128^8 Fenix, November-December, 
1910: Province of Rizal, Bur. Sci. 1860 Ramos, January, 1907, Bur. Sci. 
lSJf59 Ramos, February, 1911; San Isidro, Bur. Sci. 8U Foxworthy, January, 
1906; Montalban, Merrill 5086, March, 1906: Province of Laguna, Mt. 
Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 15956, 15981 Graff, February 23-28, 1912; Paete, 
Bur. Sci. 10065 Ramos, July, 1909: Province of Bataan, Lamao, For. Bur. 
15570 Curran, November, 1908; Mt. Mariveles, Merrill 3707, January, 1904, 
on prostrate logs, Copeland 166, January, 1906: Province of Tayabas, 
Mt. Malaraya, For. Bur. 8960 Curran & Merritt, November, 1907; Lagui- 
manoc, Merrill i023, March, 1913. Negros, For. Bur. 13739, 19108 Curran, 
September, 1909, on decaying logs. Negros, Dumaguete, Elmer 10019, 
April, 1908. Mindanao, District of Lanao, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, 
Mrs. Clements, s. n., July-September, 1907 : Subprovince of Butuan, Weber 
12S7, 1271, March-July, 1911; District of Davao, Mt. Apo, Elmer 1060U, 
May, 1909: PoLlLLO, Bur. Sci. 6836 Robinson, August, 1909. 

This species is exceedingly common throughout the Archipelago. Some 
slight variation is found in the upper surface, which may be velvety or 
nearly lack the short tomentum, and in the texture, which may be thin 
and flexible or somewhat rigid. These differences, however, are not so 
great but that all forms may be found in a single collection when repre- 
sented by a number of specimens. From an observation of material col- 
lected in quantity and from a number of localities there can be no doubt 



242 The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

but that the various isolated specimens known specifically as P. bpadiceus, 
P. microcyclus, P. tabacinus and P. substygius really belong to the same 
species. P. callimorphus Lev. is a near relative. 

Previously reported from Chili, Juan Fernandez, New Zealand and Java. 

POLYSTICTUS SPADICEUS (Jungh.) Fr. var. BARBATUS (Murr.) 
comb. nov. 

Cycloporellus barbatus Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 35 (1908) 397. 

Polystictus barbatus Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 321. 

Luzon, Province of Zambales, For. Bur. 8208 Curran & Merritt, Novem- 
ber-December, 1907. 

It hardly seems warranted to make a distinct species of this fungus as 
in microscopic and macroscopic characters the fruiting surface and context 
are identical with that of P. spadiceus (Jungh.) Fr. The distinction occurs 
in that the specimens of this collection, as the name given it implies, 
possess a long tomentose covering on the upper surface. This surface is 
also somewhat darker. The tomentum varies from short hairs at the outer 
margin, up to 3 mm in length near the place of attachment of the pileus. 
In typical specimens of P. spadiceus the upper surface varies in character 
from short-tomentose to smooth and appears velvety rather than hairy. 

Collected only in the Philippines. 

POLYSTICTUS SUBVERNICIPES (Murr.) Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 
(1912) 320. 

Coriohis subvernicipes Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 35 (1908) 397. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Bosoboso, Bur. Sci. 21IfJt Ramos, February, 
1907, on Cassia fistula (cotype of Coriolus subvernicipes Murr.), Bur. Sci. 
21U5 Ramos, February, 1907, on Mangifera altissima. 

This species is published by Saccardo and Trotter as P. subverniceps, an 
error in the spelling of the specific name. 

Reported only from the Philippines. 

POLYSTICTUS VINOSUS Berk, in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. II, 9 (1852) 196. 

Nigroporus vinosus Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 32 (1905) 361. 

Luzon, Province of Benguet, Sablang, Bur. Sci. 1286U Fenix, November- 
December, 1910: Province of Rizal, Bosoboso, Bur. Sci. 21i8 Ramos, Feb- 
ruary, 1907: Province of Bataan, Mt. Mariveles, Merrill 3695, January 1, 
1904. Mindanao, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Mrs. Clemens s. n., June, 
October, 1907. 

The previous collections of this fungus were made in Cuba, which spe- 
cimens were made the type of Murrill's genus Nigroporus. This is not the 
same as Polyporus badius Jungh., as reported by Bresadola in Hedwigia 
53 (1912) 54, but quite distinct. As Murrill states for the Cuban material, 
"the species is easily recognized by by its wine-colored context." The same 
characterization holds true for the Philippine specimens. Besides this, in 
the Philippine collections, the pore surface of the young growing specimens 
is also of the same color ; changing later to brown. The pileus of P. badius 
is considerably thicker than that of P. vinosus and is striate to fibrillose- 
striate while the latter shows no signs of striae. The pores of P. vinosus 
measure but 100 m while those of P. badius are 285 m across. Both species 
are well represented in the herbarium of the Bureau of Science. 



IX. c. 3 Graff: Philippine Basidiomycetes, I J 243 

TRAMETES Fries 

TRAMETES ELMERI (Murr.) comb. nov. 

Tyromyces elmeri Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 34 (1907) 475. 

Polyporus elmeri Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 279. 

Luzon, Province of Bataan, Mt. Mariveles, Elmer 695J!t, November, 1904 
(cotype of Tyromyces elmeri Murr.). 

The habit of this fungus is very similar to that of the resupinate forms 
of Trametes corrugata (Pers.) Bres. 

Reported only from the Philippines. 

DAEDALEA Persoon 

DAEDALEA I M PON ENS Cesati in Nap. Accad. Atti. 8 (1879) 7. 

Funalia philippinensis Murr. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 34 (1907) 469. 

Polystictus philippinensis Sacc. & Trott. Syll. Fung. 21 (1912) 321. 

Luzon, Province of Bataan, Lamao, Copeland 157, January 29, 1904, 
For. Bur. 19189 Curran, November, 1909. 

A slight tendency is shown in some specimens toward a Polystictus type 
of pore. The labyrinthine type, however, is usually strongly pronounced. 

Previously collected by Beccari in Sarawak, Borneo. 

LASCHIA Fries 

LASCHIA (FAVOLASCHIA) CALMICOLA P. Henn. & E. Nym. in Warburg 
Monsunia 1 (1899) 13. 

Luzon, Province of Bataan, Lamao, Bur. For. 20607 Curran, December, 
1909. 

This material averages slightly larger than that originally described 
from Java, being 2.5 to 5 mm wide, 2 to 5 mm long and with a stipe 1.5 
to 2 mm long and 0.5 mm thick. 

AGARICINEAE 
LEPIOTA Fries 
LEPIOTA CEPAESTIPES (Sow.) Quel. Champ. Jura 1 (1873) 73. 

Agaricus cepaesfipes Sow. Engl. Fungi (1797) pi. 2. 

Luzon, Manila, Bur. Sci. 21327 Graff, July 21, 1913, growing in grass 
on a lawn. Bur. Sci. 21326 Graff, July 23, 1913, growing at the base of a 
clump of bamboo. 

Spores 5.5 x 7.5 m with very large, usually single, guttulae averaging 2.5 
x3.8 M. Basidia broad clubshaped, 11.5x15 m, with four sterigmata, 3.8 
M long. Stipe stuffed at first, later becoming hollow. 

Collected previously in the warmer parts of Europe, India and Brazil. 

LEPIOTA ESCULENTA (Mass.) Sacc. & Syd. Syll. Fung. 16 (1902) 2. 

Chlorophyllum esculentum Mass. in Kew Bull. (1898) 135. 

Lepiota chlorospora Copel. in Ann. Myc. 3 (1905) 28; Govt. Lab. Publ. 
28 (1905) 143. 

Luzon, Manila and vicinity, Bur. Sci. 168H, 20979 Graff, August, 1912, 
growing on lawn. 

It hardly seems sufficient reason for designating L. esculenta and L. 
chlorospora two distinct species when there is no more difference than the 



244 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

fact that the annulus was movable in the material from which the original 
diagnosis was written in the case of the former species and fixed in the 
latter. While fixed in the growing specimens it tends frequently to become 
loosened in the Philippine material as it dries. The specimens collected 
about Manila also show a considerable variation in the number of flocculent 
scales on the upper surface of the pileus. In some collections made they 
are numerous while in others they are almost entirely lacking. 

First described from material collected in British Guiana. Found so 
far only in the American tropics and the Philippines. 

LEPIOTA FUSCO-SQUAMEA Peck in Rep. State Mus. New York, 25: 50. 

Luzon, Manila, Merrill 9170, July 24, 1913, growing in lawn. 

Cap 3 to 4 cm in diameter, stipe 4 to 5 cm long and 4 mm thick, basidia 
9.5 by 24.5 m, spores 5 by 11.5 t^. 

Previously collected in the United States. 

LEPIOTA MANILENSIS Copel. in Ann. Myc. 3 (1905) 29; Govt. Lab. Publ. 
28 (1905) 145. 

Luzon, Manila, Bur. Sci. 21325 Graff, July 30, 1913, in grass by road- 
side. 

Mature spores of these specimens average 7.5 by 11.5 m, slightly larger 
than those of Copeland's collection but none reach the size given as the 
dimension of the largest found by him. The stipe is stuffed at first but 
may become hollow at maturity. 

Reported only from the Philippines. 

LEPIOTA PULCHERRIMA nom. nov. 

Lepiota Candida Morg. in Journ. Myc. 12 (1906) 202, non Copel. 

Luzon, vicinity of Manila, Sanchez 56, September, 1913, growing on 
lawn. 

Unfortunately Morgan's name is antedated by L. Candida Copel., and, 
what is still more unfortunate, the type of Copeland's species has been lost. 
There can be little doubt but that this collection represents a form of Mor- 
gan's species, the only difference being in the size of the spores, those of 
the Manila specimens measuring 4.5 to 5.5 by 7 to 8 m while Morgan's 
figures are 3 to 4 by 5 to 7 m, and in the surface of the pileus and stipe 
which are more floccose than fibrillose. Copeland's species is described as 
shining, almost naked and with spores measuring 6 by 9.5 m. The "strongly 
fusiform lower third of the stipe" is characteristic of both Copeland's and 
Morgan's specimens as well as the other material under discussion. The 
spores of this collection average half way between the other two in size 
while the surface of the pileus of L. Candida Morg., is intermediate in 
character between Copeland's species and this last Manila collection. It 
seems possible that, could Copeland's species be reestablished, his name 
would be the proper one for this fungus. Until this can be done, however, 
it will be necessary to consider them as two distinct species. 

Collected previously in the United States. 

LEPIOTA REVELATA B. & Br. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 11 (1871) 510. 

Luzon, Manila, Bur. Sci. 2132i Graff, July 24, 1913, growing on lawn. 
Collected previously in Ceylon. 



IX, c, 3 Graff: Philippme Basidiomycetes, II 245 

LEPIOTA SULPHOPENITA sp. nov. 

Solitaria vel pauci-caespitosa ; pileo primo globoso dein e cam- 
panulato expanse, sulphuric, minute-flocculoso, unicolor vel raro 
centre umbone aurantiaco-flocculoso, membranaceo-carnoso, 5 ad 
6 cm diam., came tenui sulphuric, margine striato-sulcato ; la- 
mellis liberis, sulphureis, membranaceis ; stipite cylindraceo, basi 
elongato-bulboso praedita, sulphuric flccculcsa, cave, 8 ad 10 cm 
Icngis, 7 ad 10 mm latis; annulo membranaceo, secedente; sporis 
ovatis, pallide luteis, uniguttulatis, apiculatis, 5.5 /x latis, 11.5 /i 
longis. 

Plants grcwing sclitary or gathered in tufts cf a few. Pileus 
at first globose, then developing from campanulate to broadly 
expanded, sulphur yeflcw, covered with fine floccose scales which 
may disappear in older specimens, for the most part cf one color 
throughout, rarely found with the center of the cap of an or- 
ange color, thin-fleshy, 5 to 6 cm in diameter, margin deeply 
striate-furrowed, flesh yellow. Stipe cylindric with an elon- 
gate bulbose base, sulphur yellow, floccose, hollow, 8 to 10 cm 
long, 7 to 10 mm broad. Annulus thin and separating easily 
from the stipe. Spores ovate, pale yellow, uniguttulate, apicu- 
late, 5.5 by 11.5 /t. 

Luzon, Manila, Merrill 8U17, September, 1912, growing on decaying 
wood. 

TRJCHOLOMA Fries 

TRICHOLOMA TENUIS sp. nov. 

Pileo carnoso, convexo, piano dein concavo, centrum badio- 
fusco evade circa marginem albi, margine striato-sulcato, floc- 
coso ; flocculis sparsis, badio-f uscis ; came tenue, 2 mm crassa, 
alba; stipite pilei concolori, carnoso-fibrilloso, solido dein cavo, 
5 cm longo, basi vix incrassatulo 8 mm, medio 5 ad 6 mm; 
lamellis albis, adnatis, 5 mm latis; basidiis longo-clavatis, 7.5 
fi latis, 38 /i, longis; sporis ellipsoideis ad irreguliter ellipsoideis, 
3.5 /A latis, 7.5 fx longis, uniguttulatis, hyalinis. 

Plants growing solitary. Pileus fleshy, convex to expanded 
and concave in old specimens, odor slight, of a red-brown color 
in the center with striae of the same color extending outward 
toward a sulcate margin, in the outer half of the radius of the 
cap the red-brown of the center becomes diminished to white. 
Over the white portion are scattered a few flocculent reddish- 
brown scales. The cap averages about 6 cm in diameter. The 
flesh is thin, about 2 mm in thickness, white. Margin thin and 
becoming more or less irregularly lacerated. Stipe of a similar 
color to the center of the pileus but somewhat diluted, fleshy- 



246 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science wu 

fibrous, inner portion fibrous becoming hollow at maturity, 5 
cm long, diameter varying gradually from 8 mm at the base to 
6 mm near the middle and 5 mm at the top. Lamellae white, 
varying in length, 5 mm broad at the center and rounding off 
at both ends; to a thin margin on the outside and being slightly 
adnate at the inner extremity. Basidia long, narrow, club- 
shaped, 7.5 by 38 /a. Spores elliptic to irregularly-elliptic, 3.5 
by 7.5 n, uniguttulate, colorless. 

Luzon, Manila, Bur. Sci. 21660 Graff, August 5, 1913, in grass on lawn. 

MARASMIUS Fries 

MARASMIUS CAPILLIPES Sacc. F. Ven. Ser 5: 162. 

Luzon, Manila, Merrill 8399, October 2, 1912, on decaying roots of 
Streblus asper. 

Previously reported from Italy. 

MARASMIUS ERUMPENS Mass, in Kew Bull. (1898) 119. 

Luzon, Manila, Sanchez 57, September 5, 1913, on dead tree branches. 
Previously collected in Borneo. 

MARASMIUS PATOUILLARDI Sacc. & Syd. Syll. Fung. 14 (1890) 113. 

Ma/rasmius nigripes Pat. in Journ. Bot, (1897) 337, not Schw. 

Luzon, Province of Bataan, Lamao, For. Bur. 20606 Curran, December, 
1907, on dead twigs. Babuyanes Isands, Bur. Sci. 3929 Fenix, June, 1907. 

Collected previously in Tonkin. 

MARASMIUS SICCUS Schw. in Schrift. Nat. Ges. Leip. 6: 677, ex Fries 
Epicr. (1838) 382. 
Luzon, Province of Laguna, Paete, Bur. Sci. 10066 Ramos, July, 1909. 
Collected previously in the United States. 

LENTINUS Fries 

LENTINUS LAGUNENSIS Graff in Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (1913) Bot. 302. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, San Antonio, Bur. Sci. 16839 Ramos, June, 
1912, in forest; Mt. Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 16696 Brown, October, 1912, in 
forest. 

This second collection of the species has all the characteristics of the 
first except size, the specimens averaging somewhat smaller. Height 10 to 
12 cm, pileus 6 to 8 cm in diameter, stipe 5 to 6 cm high and 4 to 8 mm 
thick. 

Known only from the Philippines. 

LENTINUS MACGREGORII sp. nov. (Plate IL) 

Pileis carnoso-membranaceis, lentis, infundibuliformis vel 
crateriformis, fuscis vel fulvis, nitidis, glabris, nudis, 6 ad 8.5 
cm latis; margine acuto, involute; stipite brevi, solido, duro, 
centrale vel subexcentrico, 10 ad 15 mm longo, 7 ad 10 mm 
crasso, melleo-albicante, annulo siccate f uligineo praedito ; lamel- 
lis decurrentibus, membranaceis, inaequalibus, concoloribus ; 



IX, c. 3 Graff: Philippine Basidiomycetes, II 247 

basidiis clavatis, 5 ad 19 /n; sporis hyalinis, 2 ad 2.6 /i, sphaero- 
ideo-ellipsoideis. 

Pileus fleshy, thin, tough, flexible, funnel shaped to crateri- 
form, tawny to dark brown, smooth, with a shining surface, 
slightly fibrillose-striate, 6 to 8.5 cm in diameter. Margin acute, 
somewhat involute, thin. Stipe short, solid and hard, central 
to subexcentric, 10 to 15 mm long, 7 to 10 mm thick, yellowish, 
somewhat bulbous, to which part slight remanants of a veil 
remain attached and below which the stipe is attenuated into a 
root-like prolongation. Lamellae decurrent, membranaceous, 
unequal, of the same color, as the stipe. Basidia clavate, 5 by 
19 IX. Spores hyaline, 2 by 2.6 /x, round-ellipsoid. 

Luzon, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, vicinity of Dupax, Bur. Sci. HS7U 
McGregor, March-April, 1912. 

LENTINUS PRAERIGIDUS Berk, in Hook. Kew Card. Journ. 6 (1854) 132. 

Lentinus kurziatuis Berk. & Curr. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 1 (1876) 
120, pi. 20, fig. 2. 

Babuyanes Islands, Camiguin, Bur. Sci. ^179 Fenix, June-July, 1907. 
Luzon, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, vicinity of Dupax, Bur. Sci. H373 
McGregor, March-April, 1912: Province of Zambales, Subic, For. Bur. 7028 
Curran, May, 1907: Province of Rizal, Mt. Paimlan, Bur. Sci. 13^66 Ramos, 
February 3, 1911, on dead tree; Montalban, Merrill 509^, March, 1906: 
Province of Bataan, Lamao, For. Bur. 19232 Curran, December, 1909; 
Mt. Mariveles, Merrill 3703, 3710, January 1, 1904, Bur. Sci. 16765 Graff, 
April, 1912. Mindanao, Subprovince of Butuan, Weber 126U March-July, 
1911. 

Previously collected in India. 

LENTINUS STRIGOSUS (Schw.) Fr. Elench. 1 (1828) 47. 

Agaricus strigosus Schw. in Schrift. Natur. Ges. Leip. 1 (1822) 89. 

Panus rudis Fr. Epicr. (1836-1838) 398. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 881,8, 8863, April and May, 1913, on rotten 
logs in thickets. Mindanao, District of Cotabato, PoUok Harbor, Cope- 
lamd 330, March 2, 1904. 

Collected previously in the United States, Cuba, Guinea, Ceylon, and 
Madagascar. Probably to be found growing throughout the tropics. 

LENTINUS WOODII Kalchbr. in Grevillea 9 (1881) 136. 

Luzon, Manila, Bur. Sci. 16851 Schultze, September 14, 1912, growing 
on lawn. 

Previously collected in Natal. 

NAUCORIA Fries 
NAUCORIA PEDIADES Fr. Syst. Myc. 1 (1821) 290; Hym. Eur. (1874) 
260. 
Agaricus pusillu^ SchaefF. Fung. Bav. Pal. Ic. (1762-1774) pi. 203. 
Agaricus pumilus Pers. Myc. Eur. 3 (1822-1828) 163. 
Agaricus arvalis Fr. Epicr. (1836-1838) 197. 
Agaricus semiorbicularis Vent. Stud. Micol. (1842) 467, pi. H2, fig. 1. 



248 3^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

Luzon, Manila, Copeland 1358, July 2, 1904, growing on lawn. Bur. Set. 
22007 Graff, December 21, 1913, Bur. Set. 22008 Graff, December 27, 1913, 
growing on lawn. 

Found in Europe, Abyssinia, Ceylon, Australia, Siberia and the United 
States. 

NAUCORIA SEMIORBICULARIS (Bull.) Quel. Champ. Jur. 1 (1873) 132. 

Agaricus longipes Scop. Flora Carn. (1760-1772) 446. 

Agaricus seviiorbicularis Bull. Hist. Champ. France (1791-1798) 467, 
pi. U22, fig. 1. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, San Ramon, Copeland 773, May 27, 
1904, growing in sand near the sea. 

Collected in Europe, northern Africa, India and the United States. 

GALERA Fries 

GALERA SILIGINEA Fr. Obs. Myc. 2 (1815-1818) 168; Hym. Eur. (1874) 
267. 
Agaricus foraminulosus Bull. Hist. Champ. France (1791-1798) 304, pi. 

535, fig. 1. 
Agaricus tener Pers. Syn. Met. Fung. (1801-1808) 386. 
Agaricus pilosellus Pers. 1. c. 387. 
Luzon, Manila, Merrill 8^.05, July 29, 1912. 
Previously collected in Europe, Ceylon, and northern India. 

AGARICUS Linnaeus 
AGARICUS BOLTON I Copel. in Ann. Myc. 3 (1905) 27; Govt. Lab. Publ. 
28 (1905) 144. 
Mindanao, District of Davao, Copeland ^33, April, 1904, growing in 
meadows. 

This number is Copeland's type material and is in the herbarium of 
the Bureau of Science. The species has only been collected in the Philip- 
pines. 

AGARICUS LU20NENSIS sp. nov. 

Pileo carnoso, convexo-expanso, centre badio, 7 ad 9 cm diam. ; 
margine tenuo, albo, fibrilloso; fibrillis badiis, minutis; came 
albo; stipite solido, fibrilloso, albo vel albo-brunneo, 9 cm longo, 
6 ad 9 mm crasso, basi subbulboso, levi supra annulo flocculoso; 
annulo membranaceo, certo in parte superiore; lamellis albis, 
6 mm latis, obtusis, margine laceratis; basidiis clavatis, 5.5 fx 
latis, 9 [X longis; sporis brunneis, ellipticis, 2.5 ad 3 jn latis, 5 
ad 5.5 fx longis, guttulatis. 

Plants solitary, odor slight. Pileus fleshy, convex to ex- 
panded, clothed completely, except for the solid red-brown 
center, with delicate red-brown fibrils, the outer two-thirds 
showing the white flesh of the cap between, soft, smooth, with 
a thin margin, 7 to 9 cm in diameter. Flesh white, 5 mm^ thick. 
Margin with, usually, remanants of the membreanaceous veil 
attached. Stipe varying in diameter from 9 mm just above the 



IX. c, 3 Graff: Philippme Basidiomycetes, II 249 

slightly swollen base to 6 mm at the insertion into the pileus, 
long, solid, fibrous throughout, white to light brown, smooth 
except above the annulus where it is slightly flocculent. Annu- 
lus well up on the stipe, membranaceous, persistant. Lamellae 
white but appearing very dark at the maturity of the fungus 
because of the color of the ripe spores, 6 mm broad, both ends 
obtuse, margin minutely notched and showing the white color 
of the gills even at maturity. Basidia club-shaped, 5.5 by 19 /x. 
Spores dark brown, small, elliptic, 2.5 to 3 by 5 to 5.5 /x, often 
uniguttulate. 

Luzon, Manila, Bur. Set. 21661 Graff, August 7, 1913. 

AGARICUS PERFUSCUS Copel. in Ann. Myc. 3 (1905) 28; Govt. Lab. 
Publ. 28 (1905) 145. 

Luzon, Manila, Copeland 1353, June 25, 1904, growing on lawn. 

A comparison of the date of collection with the date of publication of 
the species leads one to think that this collection may be Copeland's type 
material. There is nothing on his label, however, to indicate this. The 
material agrees very nicely with his description and there can be no doubt 
but that the species is a good one. 

The species has only been collected in the Philippines. 

STROPHARIA Fries 
STROPHARIA RADICATA sp. nov. 

Pileo carnoso, compacto, ex hemisphaerico expanso, glabro, 
subviscido, fulvo, margine demum substriato, 2.5 ad 3.5 cm 
latis ; lamellis adnatis, mollis, ex albido nigro-f uscentibus ; stipite 
aequali, gracili, flexuoso, albido-fusco, striato, farcto subinde 
demum fistuloso, 3.5 ad 6.5 cm longo, 3 ad 4 mm lato, attenuate 
radicato, radicis 1 ad 2.5 cm longis; annulo membranaceo, plus 
minusve persistente; sporis ellipsoideis, e flavido- vel purpureo- 
brunneis, 6.5 ad 7.5 /n latis, 7.5 ad 9.5 ix longis. 

Pileus fleshy, from subglobose to expanded, smooth, somewhat 
viscous and shiny, tawny with occasionally a reddish-brown 
center, margin becoming at length slightly sulcate-striate, 2.5 
to 3.5 cm in diameter. Gills soft and pliant, adnate, changing 
from pale to dark brown. Stipe cylindrical, slender, flexible, 
fibrous, light brown, striate, at first stuffed but soon becoming 
hollow, 3.5 to 6.5 cm long, 3 to 4 mm in diameter, the lower 
end attenuated into a root-like growth from 1 to 2.5 cm long. 
Annulus membranaceous, persisting usually but occasionally at 
length falling away. Spores ellipsoid, changing as they ripen 
from yellow- to purple-brown, 6.5 to 7.5 by 7.5 to 9.5 fi. 

Luzon, vicinity of Manila, Merrill 8390, October 3, 1912, growing in 
beach sand. 



250 The Philippine Journal of Science is'u 

COPRINUS Persoon 

COPRINUS CONFERTUS Copel. in Ann. Myc. 3 (1905) 25; Govt. Lab. 
Publ. 28 (1905) 142. 
Luzon, vicinity of Manila, Copeland s. n., June 23, 1909, on horse dung. 
This species has only been collected in the Philippines. 

COPRINUS DELIQUESCENS (Bull.) Fr. Epicr. (1838) 249; Elench. Fung. 
1 (1828) 43; Hym. Eur. (1874) 327. 
Agaricus deliquescens Bull. Hist. Champ. France (1798) pi. 558, fig. 1; 

Weinm. Hym. Cast. Petro. (1836) 273. 
Luzon, Manila, Merrill 8391, July 29, 1912. 
Collected in southern Europe. 

COPRINUS FIMBRIATUS B. & Br. in Journ, Linn. Soc. 11 (1871) 561. 

Luzon, Manila, Bur. Sci. 21329 Jones, July 24, 1913, on dead leaf bases 
of Cocos micifera. 

Previously collected in Ceylon. 

COPRINUS FLOS-LACTUS sp. nov. 

Solitariis vel agregatis; pileo hemispherico dein plano-ex- 
panso, 2.5 ad 4 cm lato, brunneo-flos-lacto, plicato-sulcato, flocce 
sparcis praeditis, margine integro vel late fisso; lamellis griseis 
dein nigris, a stipite leviter adherentibus, dein libris, 3 mm latis, 
obtusis; stipite tenaci cylindraceo, 2.5 ad 3.5 cm longo, 3 ad 4 
mm crasso, lucidulo-albo, cavo, fibrilloso, basi incrassato; sporis 
ovoideo-pyriformibus, atro-brunneis, levibus, 3.5 ad 5.5 /x latis, 
7.5 ad 11.5 fi longis, vacuolatis; basidiis clavatis, 9 ^ latis, 23 /* 
longis; sterigmatibus 4 fi longis. 

Plants solitary to gregarious. Pileus hemispheric, with age 
becoming flatly expanded, 2.5 to 4 cm in diameter, a light creamy 
brown in color, remanants of a universal veil remain as a few 
scattered floccose scales, sulcate, the margin entire at first but 
splitting later. While young the cap is crisp and brittle, crum- 
bling on being handled, and on becoming mature tends more 
toward drying up than deliquescing. Lamellae pale-gray at 
first, later changing through grayish-brown to dark brownish- 
black and black. The darkening begins first at the margin of 
the pileus and slowly advances toward the center, edge of the 
gills usually remaining conspicuously white even at maturity, 
slightly adherent to the stipe at first then becoming free after 
the pileus has become expanded, 3 mm broad at the broadest part, 
somewhat obtuse at either end. Stipe cylindrical and of an 
equal diameter throughout, 2.5 to 3.5 cm long, 3 to 4 mm thick, 
shining white, hollow, fibrillose, with an unthickened base. 
Spores from ovoid to pyriform, very dark brown at maturity, 



IX. c. 3 Graff: Philippine Basidiomycetes, II 251 

smooth, 3.5 to 5.5 by 7.5 to 11.5 /i, vacuolate, usually with a 
single vacuole. Basidia clavate, 9 by 23 fi. Sterigmata 4 ^ 
long. 

Luzon, vicinity of Manila, Bur. Set. 2200S Graff (type), December 21, 
1913, on recently burned over ground, Bur. Sci. 22005 Graff, December 22, 
1913, on ground containing a quantity of coal ashes, Btir. Sci. 2200U Graff, 
December 26, 1913, on burned over ground. 

COPRINUS NEBULOSUS ZoU. in Flora (1847) 305. 

Luzon, Manila, Bur. Sci. 22006 Graff, December 20, 1913, on moist soil. 

Pileus from 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter when expanded, gills adnate, stipe 
5 to 7 cm long and 1 to 1.5 mm thick, spores 6.5 to 9 by 11.5 to 13 m, dark 
brown. 

COPRINUS PLICATILIS (Curt.) Fr. Epicr. (1836^1838) 252; Hym. Eur. 
(1874) 331. 

Agaricus plicatilis Curt. Flor. Lond. (1828) pi. 200. 

Agaricus striatus Bull. Hist. Champ. France (1798) 552. 

Agaricus pulcher Pers. Syn. Fung. (1801) 404. 

Luzon, Manila, Brown & Graff s. n., February 4, 1912, growing on horse 
dung. 

This fungus has been reported previously from tropical Africa. 

COPRINUS STERCORARIUS Fr. Epicr. (1836-1838) 251; Hym. Eur. 
(1874) 330. 
Luzon, Manila, Brown & Graff s. n., February 4, 1912, on horse dung. 
Previously collected in Europe, Tasmania, Victoria, New South Wales, 
and Queensland. 

PANAEOLUS Fries 

PANAEOLUS PAPILIONACEUS (Fr.) comb. nov. 

Agaricus papilionaceus Fr. Syst. Myc. 1 (1821) 301. 

Agaricus equinus Alb. & Schw. Consp. Fung. Lus. (1805) 3. 

Agaricus campanulatus L. Fl, Suec. 2 (1755) 1213. 

Agaricjis carbon Batsch Elench. Fung. (1783) 6. 

Agaricus varius Pers. Icon. Desc. Fung. (1800) 40. 

Panaeolus campanulatus Berk. Outl. Br. Fung. (1860) 175. 

Luzon, Province of Cagayan, Aparri, For. Bur. 171^3 Curran, March, 
1909, growing on carabao dung: vicinity of Manila, Merrill 5008, September, 
1905, growing on lawn. 

Of wide tropic and subtropic distribution. Reported from North Amer- 
ica, Australia, Borneo, Ceylon, Madagascar and northern Africa. 

GASTEROMYCETEAE 

NiDULARIACEAE 

CYATHUS Haller 

CYATHUS MONTAGNEI Tul. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill 1 (1844) 70. 
Cyathus byssisedus Tul. 1. c. 

Nidularia byssisedus Jungh. in Verh. Bat. Genoot. Kunst. Vett. 17 (1838). 
Cyathus elmeri Bres. in Hedwigia 51 (1912) 324. 



252 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Luzon, Manila, Bur. Sci. 16805 Graff, October, 1912, on decaying bamboo: 
Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Baker 511, coll. Raimundo, December 
1, 1912. Leyte, Province of Leyte, Palo, Elmer 7229, January, 1906 (cotype 
of C. elmeri Bres.). Palav^^an, Taytay, Merrill 9075, May, 1913, on earth 
in dense bamboo thickets. 

This species has been previously collected in Cuba, South America, Aus- 
tralia, Borneo, Java, and Ceylon. 

CYATHUS PLICATUS (Fr.) Tul. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill 1 (1844) 76. 

Nidularia plicata Fr. in Linnaea 5 (1830) 523; Berk, in Hook. Lond. 
Journ. Bot. 2 (1843) 639. 

Cyathus poeppigii Tul. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill 1 (1844) 77. 

Cyathus plicatulus Poepp. Plant. Cubenses Exs. n. 47. 

Cyathus sulcatus Kalch. in Grevillea 10 (1881) 107. 

Luzon, Manila, Biir. Sci. 5285 McGregor, October 26, 1908, Merrill 6685,. 
July 1909, Bur. Sci. 168^7 McGregor, July 10, 1910. Mindoro, Alag River, 
Merrill 559Jf, November, 1906. Panay, Iloilo, Copeland S3, January 2, 
1904, on dead bamboo. Negros, Gimagaan River, Copeland SJf, January 
6, 1904. POLILLO, Bur. Sci. 10532 McGregor, October-November, 1909. 

Collected in North and Central America, Brazil, North and Central 
Africa and Natal. 

LYCOPERDACEAE 

TYLOSTOMA Persoon 
TYLOSTOMA EXASPERATUM Mont, in Ann. Sci. Nat. II 8 (1837) 362. 

Schizostoma exasperatum Lev. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill 5 (1846) 165. 

Luzon, Province of Benguet, Pauai, Bur. Sci. 8716 McGregor, June, 1909, 
at an altitude of about 2,100 m. 

Spores echinulate, 6 to 10 a^, averaging a little larger than those described 
by Montagne. It is very evident, though this specimen is not quite mature, 
that it belongs to the group Schizostoma, as limited by Ehrenberg. 

Previously the collections of this species have been limited to the West 
Indies. 

GEASTER (Micheli) Fries 

GEASTER HYGROMETRICUS Pers. Syn. Fung. (1801-1808) 135; Fr. 
Syst. Myc. 3 (1832) 19. 
Geaster medius Mich. Nov. PI. Gen. (1729) 220, pi. 100, fig. 5. 
■ Lycoperdon stellatum Scop. Flora Carn. 2 (1760-1772) 489. 
Geaster vulgaris Corda Icon. Fung. 5 (1837-1842) 64, pi. i, fig. i2. 
Luzon, Province of Bataan, Lamao, Copeland s. n., August, 1904, For. 
Bur. 13555 Alvarez, August, 1909. 
Of very general distribution. 

GEASTER SACCATUS Fr. Syst. Myc. 3 (1832) 16. 

Lycoperdon coronatum Plum. Des. Plant. Amer. (1793) pi. 169, fig. 9. 

Geaster capensis Thiim. Mycoth. Univ. (1875-1884) no. 715. 

Negros, Gimagaan River, Copeland 32, January 6, 1904, growing on soil 
in the forest. 

Collected previously in North and South America, Cuba, Ceylon, Aus- 
tralia, Tasmania, and Africa. It is evidently of very general distribution 
throughout the tropics and the warmer temperate regions. 



IX, c, 3 Graff: Philippine Basidiomycetes, II 253 

BOVISTELLA Morgan 

BOVISTELLA ASPERA (Lev.) Lloyd in Mycol. Notes 23 (1906) 285. 
Bovista aspera Lev. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill 5 (1846) 162. 
Lycoperdon asperum Speg. in Ann. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires II 3 (1899) 
195. 

Luzon, Manila, Bur. Sci. 21659 Graff, September 12, 1913, growing among 
moss on stone walls. 

Peridium 8 to 15 mm broad. Spores globose, 4 m in diameter, with slender 
appendages which vary in length from 6 to 10 m. Capillitium long and 
branching, 4 /^ wide, tapering toward the ends. Spores and capillitium olive 
to olive-yellow at maturity. 

Previously collected in Brazil and Chili. 

CALVATIA Fries 

CALVATIA LILACINUM (Mont. & Berk.) comb. nov. 

Bovista lilacina Mont. & Berk, in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 4 (1845) 64. 

Lycoperdon Hlacinum Speg. in Ann. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires, II 3 (1899) 
110. 

Luzon, Manila, Copeland 1352, June 10, 1904, growing on a lawn. Min- 
danao, District of Zamboanga, Zamboanga, Copeland 332, March 1, 1904, 
growing in a meadow. 

Probably of very general tropic and subtropic distribution as the species 
has been reported from North and South America, Central and South Africa, 
Siberia and Ceylon. 

LYCOPERDON Tournefort 

LYCOPERDON PUSILLUM Batsch Elench. Fung. 2 (1789) 228; Fr. Syst. 
Myc. 3 (1832) 33. 

Lycoperdon furfuraceum Schaeff. Fung. Bav. Palat. Icon. 3 (1770) pi. 
29U. 

Lycoperdon bovista Bolt. Hist. Fung. (1788-1791) pi. 117, fig. C. 

Lycoperdon cepiforme Bull. Champ. France (1791-1798) pi. U35, fig. 2, 
non Chev. 

Bovista pusilla Pers. Syn. Fung. (1801) 138. 

Lycoperdon pratense Schum. Enum. Plant. Sael. 2 (1803) 193. 

Lycoperdon polymorphum Vitt. Mon. Lycop. (1842) 183, pi. 2, fig. 8. 

Globaria furfuracea Quel. Champ. Jura. 3 (1873) 370, pi. 3, fig. 6. 

Utraria furfuracea Quel. Enchir. (1886) 241. 

Lycoperdon todayense Copel. in Ann. Myc. 3 (1905) 25; Govt. Lab. Publ. 
28 (1905) 141. 

Luzon, Manila, Bur. Sci. 11003 Brown & Graff, December 5, 1911, growing 
on lawn, Merrill s. n., January, 1904, on earth, Copeland 1351, April 12, 
1904, on lawn. Basilan, Bur. Sci. 9981 Robinson, June 12, 1910. 

There is no distinction, in Lycoperdon todayense Copel., sufficient to 
warrant a specific separation from the much described L. pusillum Batsch. 
The separation of the fertile gleba from the sterile base seems to be more 
or less constant in the Philippine material but is not a character of sufficient 
importance, all other things being equal, to warrant the creation of a new 
species. 

126079 6 



254 '^f^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

From the localities in which this fungus has been collected it is evidently 
of very general tropic and subtropic distribution. It has been collected in 
North America, Europe, South Africa, Siberia, Ceylon and Java. 

SCLERODERMA Persoon 

SCLERODERMA VULGARE Fr. Syst. Myc. 3 (1832) 46. 

Lycoperdon viajus Vail. Bot. Paris (1727) 122, pi. 16, fig. 8. 

Lycoperdon cervinum Bolt. Hist. Fung. (1788-1791) 116. 

Lycoperdon aurantium Bull. Champ. France (1791-1798) 158. 

Scleroderma aurantmni Pers. Syn. Fung. (1801) 153. 

Scleroderma citrinum Pers. 1. c. 153. 

Lycoperdon tessulatum Schum. Enum. Plant. Sael. 2 (1803) 191. 

Scleroderma squamatum Chev. Fl. Gen. Paris (1827) 357. 

Babuyanes Islands, Camiguin, Bur. Sci. ^17U Fenix, June-July, 1907. 
Luzon, Province of Bataan, Mt. Mariveles, Merrill 3689, January 1, 1904, 
on damp earth. 

Previously reported from North America, Europe, Algiers, Australia, 
and New Zealand. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATE 

(Photograph by Cortes) 

Plate II. Lentinus macgregorii Graff sp. nov. Bur. Sci. 1US7U McGregor 
(Type). 

255 



b'^ • 



Cbaff: Basidiomycf.tks. II. 1 



I Phil. Journ. Sci.. IX. C, No. 3. 





PLATE II. LENTINUS MACGREGORIl GRAFF. 



The Philippine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 3, June, 1914. 



A NEW SPECIES OF ROTTBOELLIA 

By F. Tracy Hubbard 
(Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A.) 

In a small collection of grasses made near Taytay, northern 
Palawan, May 15 to 31, 1913, and sent to me through the courtesy 
of Mr. E. D. Merrill, there was an extremely interesting and 
rather anomalous new species of Rottboellia. After a critical 
study of the material I was unable to convince myself as to its 
generic status so I sent a specimen of it to Mrs. Agnes Chase of 
the Department of Agriculture at Washington, D. C, who was 
noncommittal in her reply ; consequently I sent a specimen to Dr. 
E. Hackel who pronounced it a "distinct new species, somewhat 
anomalous in the genus Rottboellia." I beg to express my 
thanks to both specialists. 

ROTTBOELLIA TRIFLORA sp. nov. 

Perennis, ad basin plicata, aliquando caespitosa, 30 ad 50 cm 
altitudine, radicibus fibrosis. Culmi basin versus vaginis im- 
bricatis plus minusve obtecti, foliis breviores vel ea superantes, 
canaliculati, infra nodos dense barbatos pubescentes aliter gla- 
bri, ramis floriferis 3-7-nis. Vaginae inferiores breviter ad- 
presseque pubescentae, superiores aliquando subglabrae, ad folii 
junctionem cum annulo pubescente munitae, marginibus ciliatis. 
Ligula fibrillosa, circa 2 mm longa. Folia erecta, inflorescentiis 
breviora vel saepe eas superantia, rigidiuscula, linearia, longe 
acuminata, basin versus conduplicata et angustata aliter plana, 
12 ad 30 cm longa, 3 ad 9 mm lata ; lamina subtus glabra vel saepe 
breviter pubescens, supra glabra. Racemi cylindracei, 3.5 ad 
6 em longi, circa 2 ad 3 mm in diametro, graciliter pedicellati, 
flavidi-viridi vel sordide violascentes. Articuli recte disjungen- 
tes, disjunctis apice foramine profunde excavatis, in parte in- 
feriora racemi trispiculati cum spiculis duobus sessilibus her- 
maphroditis a spiculo libere pedicellate sterile et valde reducto 
separatis, in parte superiori racemi normaliter bispiculati, arti- 
culi spiculis sessilibus breviores, glabri. Spiculae sessiles 3.5 ad 
5 mm longae, 1.5 mm latae, rhacheos cavum apice superantes, 
cum callo annuliformi dense breviter barbato; gluma prima 
acuta marginibus, paullum incurvatis, dorso cum pills rigidulis 

257 



258 The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

e tuberculis distinctis orientibus instructa, intus plurinervis; 
gluma secunda paullo brevior, elliptico-ovata, chartacea, margi- 
nibus ciliolatis; lemma sterile vacuum, hyalinum, gluma secunda 
circa aequans; lemma fertile et palea hyalina quam lemma 
sterile breviora. Spiculae pedicellatae ad squamas duas mem- 
branaceas circa 0.5 mm longis reductae. 

Only collection seen, near Taytay, northern Palawan, Philippine Islands, 
May 15-31, 1913, G. Ledesma. Type in herb. Hubbard, duplicate type 
deposited in the Gray Herbarium, in the United States National Herbarium, 
in the Herbarium of the Bureai* of Science, and in the Herbarium of Dr. 
Edward Hackel. 

Rottboellia triflora belongs in the subgenus Coelorhachis of Hackel's 
treatment of Rottboellia ^ and is allied to R. glandulosa Trin. but is very 
distinct in the 3-spikeleted internodes of the lower portion of the racemes. 
Doctor Hackel in his letter to me, in regard to the position of this species 
in the genus, says: "The new species seems to have the same relation to 
the older ones (especially Rottboellia glandulosa) , as has Ophiurus laevis 
Benth. (0. perforatus Trin.) to O. monostachyus Presl, and others. In 
Ophiurus laevis the disposition of the spikelets is, at least in the lower 
part of the spike, the same as in your new Rottboellia, and the only diifer- 
ence consists in the pedicels of the rudimentary spikelets being adnate to 
the rachis. Ratzeburgia differs from your new Rottboellia chiefly in the 
thin rachis of the compressed spike. Your new species points to the view 
that the differences between Rottboellia, Ophiurus, and Ratzeburgia are of 
less weight than we thought." 

' DC. Monog. Phan. 6 (1889) 278-313. 



The Philippine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 3, June, 1914. 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY AQUATIC PLANTS 

By C. H. Ostenfeld 
{Copenhagen, Denmark) 

In a miscellaneous collection of aquatic and subaquatic plants 
submitted to me by the Bureau of Science, the following novelties 
were found. The bulk of the collection was from the Philip- 
pines, but it contained also a set of the aquatic plants collected 
by the late Dr. C. B. Robinson in the vicinity of Nha-trang, 
Annam, Indo-China, in March, 1911. A single species is based 
on the Annam material, the others being Philippine. 

HYDROCHARITACEAE 

OTTELIA Persoon 
OTTELIA PHILIPPINENSIS sp. nov. 

Planta submersa mediocris, 6 ad 15 cm alta. Foliorum petioli 
laminis longiores. Laminae ovatae vel cordato-ovatae, 4 ad 7 
cm longae, 2 ad 3.5 cm latae, apicibus obtusiusculis. Flores 
foliis breviores, petiolis 2 ad 7 cm longis. 8patha ca. 2 cm longa, 
oblonge ovata, fructifera ovata, alls bene evolutis usque 5 mm 
latis crispis ornata. Sepala oblonge obovata, obtusa, ca. 7 mm 
longa, nervis obsoletis. Petala alba. Stamina stigmataque ca. 
6 mm longa. Semina dense hirsuta ut in 0. alismoidi. 

Differt ab O. alismoidi statura minore, foliorum laminis ovatis, 
ab 0. japonica spathae alls latis crispisque etc. 

Luzon, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, Dupax, Bur. Sci. IIUIU McGregor, 
March, 1912 (type in the Herbarium of the Botanical Museum of Copen- 
hagen, cotype in the Herbarium of the Bureau of Science, Manila), locally 
known as tangila and used as a potherb. Mindoro, Bulalacao, Bur. Sci. 
6679 Robinson, March, 1909. 

CALDESIA Parlatore 

CALDESIA SAGITTARIOIDES sp. nov. 

Caules f.oriferi 10 ad 20 cm alti, erecti, verticillatim racemosi, 
foliis aequilongi vel breviores. Foliorum nutantiorum laminae 
late ovatae, 1.5 ad 1.8 cm latae, 2.5 ad 3 cm longae, acutiusculae, 
7-nerviae ; foliorum emersorum laminae hastatae vel late sagit- 
tiformes, 1.8 ad 2 cm latae, 2 ad 3 cm longae, 9-11-nerviae; lobi 

259 



260 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

basilares 1 ad 2.5 cm longi, divergentes, angusti acutique. Se- 
pala subrotunda, marginibus membranaceis. Petala alba (?), 
sepalis longiora. Stamina 6. Ovaria 9, oblique obovata vel obo- 
vato-reniformia, dorso costis obtusis subtuberculatis instructa, 
unispermia; stylus ovario subaequilongus, usque 1 mm longus, 
erectus. Fructus maturi ignotus. 

DifFert a C. parnassifolia cui proxima prasertin foliis hastatis 
sagittiformibus, ovariis costis subtuberculatis. 

Indo-China, Annam, Nha-Trang and vicinity, C. B. Robinson 1168, 
March 11-26, 1911 (type in the Herbarium of the Botanical Museum of 
Copenhagen, cotype in the Herbarium of the Bureau of Science, Manila). 

NAJADACEAE 

NAJAS Linnaeus 
NAJAS FOVEOLATA A. Br., var. AURICULATA var. nov. 

A typo differt foliorum dentibus majoribus, vaginis longi us 
auriculatis, spathis apice paullulum laceratis. 

Luzon, Provinces of Albay-Camarines, For. Bur. 12262 Curran, June, 
1908 (type in the Herbarium of the Botanical Museum of Copenhagen, 
cotype in the herbarium of the Bureau of Science, Manila), 

POTAMOGETONACEAE 

POTAMOGETON Linnaeus 

POTAMOGETON NIPPONICUS Makino 111. Fl. Japan 1 (1891) 2, t. 56; 
Graebn. in Engl. Pflanzenreich 31 (1907) 89. 

This rare species seems to be represented by specimens collected by Mary 
Strong Clemens in Lake Lanao, Mindanao, No. 215, February, 1906, s. n., 
April, 1906. The specimens are sterile, however, and accordingly the iden- 
tification is not absolutely certain. Mr. A. W. Bennett agrees with the 
above identification of the material. 



The Phiuppine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 3, June, 1914. 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY PHILIPPINE PLANTS 

By E. D. Merrill' 

{From the Botanical Section of the Biological Laboratory, 
Bureau of Science, Manila, P. I.) 

The tenth paper under the above title consists of the descrip- 
tions of new species in the following families: Gramineae, Cy- 
peraceae, Moraceae, Loranthaceae, Olacaceae, Hernandiaceae, 
Rutaceae, Meliaceae, Buxaceae, Celastraceae, Icacinaceae, Ster- 
culiaceae, Theaceae, Dilleniaceae, Lecythidaceae, Flacourtiaceae, 
Araliaceae, and Ebenaceae. The genus Worcesterianthiis of the 
Olacaceae, is proposed as new, while the genera Buettneria and 
Fh'Tniana are new to the Philippine flora. A few species of 
older authors have been recorded from the Archipelago for the 
first time and a few changes in nomenclature are proposed. 
A total of eighty-six species are described as new. The last 
number of the series appeared in the year 1912.- 

GRAMINEAE 

ISACHNE R. Brown 
ISACHNE CONFERTA sp. nov. 

Planta parva, prostrata, ramosa, ramis floriferis erectis vel 
suberectis, 6 ad 8 cm longis ; foliis numerosis, lanceolatis, acumi- 
natis, circiter 2 cm longis, subtus leviter pilosis, supra scabridis ; 
paniculis exsertis, angustis, 1 ad 2 cm longis, vix 5 mm latis, 
ramis paucis, erectis, 4-1-floris; spiculis confertis, circiter 1.8 
mm longis, plus minusve purpureis; glumis sterilibus tenuiter 
7- vel 9-nerviis, supra leviter hispidis; glumis fertilibus ellip- 
soideis vel elliptico-oblongis, inferioribus glabris, 1.6 mm longis, 
superioribus I brevioribus, apice minute cihatis. 

A small, slender, prostrate, branched plant, rooting at the 
nodes, the flowering branches erect or suberect, 6 to 8 cm long. 
Sheaths ratKer lax, longer than the internodes, glabrous; ligule 
a ring of short white hairs. Leaves lanceolate, about 2 cm long, 
2.5 to 3 mm wide, narrowed to the acute base and the acuminate 

' Associate Professor of Botany, University of the Philippines. 
'Philip. Journ. Sci. 7 (1912) Bot. 259-357. 

261 



262 ^^'^ Philippine Journal of Science vn\ 

apex, the lower surface somewhat pilose with scattered white 
hairs, the hairs arising from minute papillae, the upper surface at 
first papillate and sparingly pilose, becoming scabrid. Panicles 
exserted above the upper leaves, the peduncles 1.5 cm long or less, 
narrow, 1 to 2 cm long, less than 5 mm wide, the branches ap- 
pressed, the lower ones 6 mm long or less and usually 4-flowered, 
the upper ones shorter, the uppermost usually bearing solitary 
spikelets. Spikelets crowded, about 1.8 mm long, more or less 
tinged with purple. Empty glumes about 1.8 mm long, slenderly 
7- or 9-nerved, slightly hispid externally in the upper part, obtuse. 
Flowering glumes two, the lower one elliptic-oblong, obtuse, 
quite glabrous, 1.6 mm long, the upper one ellipsoid, slightly 
ciliate near the apex, usually about one-third shorter than the 
lower one. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Dahican River back of San Antonio, Bur. 
Set. HOlJt Ramos, June, 1912, on stones along the river. 

A rather characteristic species, distinguishable by its very narrow, 
dense panicles. It is perhaps most closely allied to Isachne pauciflora Hack., 
but is distinguished by its narrow leaves and glabrous flowering glumes. 

DIMERIA R. Brown 

DIMERIA CILIATA sp. nov. 

Caespitosa, erecta, vaginis foliisque pilis longis albis mollibus 
instructis; racemis digitatis vel subfasciculatis, 4 ad 6, tenuibus, 
usque ad 12 cm longis, rhachibus circiter 0.7 mm latis, triangu- 
laribus, glabris vel leviter pubescentibus ; spiculis 4 mm longis, 
glumis I et II carinatis, carinis longe ciliato-pilosis. 

A densely tufted, erect, perennial grass 50 to 80 cm high, the 
culms slender, the sheaths and leaves rather densely clothed with 
long, soft, white hairs, some longer (5 mm) and somewhat stiff er 
ones intermixed with the shorter and softer ones, the nodes 
bearded. Leaves linear-lanceolate, acuminate, base slightly or 
not narrowed, 8 to 15 cm long, 3 to 4 mm wide, softly ciliate- 
pilose on both surfaces; ligule about 1 mm long, truncate. In- 
florescence long-exserted, of 4 to 6 digitate or fasciculately 
arranged racemes, the racemes slender, 7 to 12 cm long, at first 
pale, soon turning pale-brownish, the rachis 3-angled and some- 
what flattened, about 0.7 mm wide, glabrous or slightly pubescent, 
the internodes 2 to 4 mm long. Spikelets 4 mm long ; first glume 
somewhat boat-shaped, keeled, 4 mm long, acute or 6btuse, prom- 
inently ciliate-pilose with long white hairs on the keel; second 
glume similar but lanceolate, and also prominently ciliate-pilose 
on the keel ; third glume shorter, hyaline, the awn slender, about 
10 mm long. 



IX. c, 3 Merrill: Noteivorthij Philippine Pla7its 263 

Palawan, Taytay, in open swampy places at sea level, Merrill 9320, May 
28, 1913. 

A species allied both to Dimcria chloridiforinis K. Schum. & Lauterb., 
of the Marianne Islands, and to the Indian Dinieria fuscescens Trin., diflfer- 
ing from the former in its smaller spikelets and narrower, not ciliate 
rachises, and from the latter in its prominently ciliate-pilose sheaths and 
leaves and its prominently ciliate-pilose keels of the empty glumes. 

ISCHAEMUM Linnaeus 

ISCHAEMUM GLAUCESCENS sp. nov. § Eziiscftaewum. 

Species /, aristato affinis, ditfert planta majoribus, 1 ad 3 m 
longis, plus minusve glaucescens, racemis usque ad 15 cm longis, 
spiculis majoribus, 8 mm longis, glumis I spiculae sessilis in i 
inferiore prominente transverse rugosis, rugis 4 vel 5, elevatis. 

A rather coarse, wiry, perennial grass reaching a height of 
from 1 to 1.5 m, the stems long-prostrate, scarcely or only 
slightly branched, reaching a total length of from 2 to 3 m, 
about 5 mm in diameter, hard, more or less glaucous under the 
sheaths. Leaves narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, glab- 
rous, 15 to 20 cm long, about 1 cm wide, acuminate, base grad- 
ually narrowed, acute or obtuse, not at all cordate ; sheaths about 
as long as the internodes, rather loose; ligule truncate, 2 to 3 
mm long. Racemes two, closely appressed, 12 to 15 cm long, 
long-exserted, the joints of the rachis about 6 mm long, 3-angled, 
bearded on the outer angle. Sessile spikelets about 8 mm long, 
lanceolate; first glume coriaceous, 8 mm long, 2 mm wide, 
glabrous, somewhat glaucous, acuminate, margins incurved 
throughout, borders in upper part minutely scabrid, the dorsal 
part in the lower one-half with 4 or 5 prominent transverse 
ridges; second glume coriaceous, lanceolate, acuminate, keeled, 
7 mm long; third glume hyaline, lanceolate, acuminate, 7 mm 
long; fourth glume similar to the third, a little shorter, cleft 
to the middle, bearing in the cleft a twisted, geniculate, 12 to 13 
mm long awn. Anthers 3 mm long. Pedicellate spikelets 
dimidiate, their pedicels 2.5 mm long, stout, 3-angled, bearded 
on the outer angle, the first glume lanceolate, 8 mm long, 3 
mm wide, acute or acuminate, coriaceous, one side rather broadly 
winged, the wing short ciliate-toothed ; second glume somewhat 
lanceolate, 6 to 7 mm long, acuminate, the remaining ones 
somewhat shorter, hyaline. 

Palawan, Lake Manguao, Merrill OUoS, April 23, 1913, gregarious along 
the more or less swampy grassy borders of the lake in the openings of 
narrow valleys, with or without streams of water, areas submerged during 
periods of high water in the lake, altitude about 50 meters. The grass 
is abundant in suitable habitats, and is utilized by the crocodiles in build- 



264 1'^^^ Philippine Journal of Science im 

ing their nests. One nest examined by members of our party, containing 
numerous eggs, consisted of a large mound made entirely of sand and this 
grass very closely packed. 

The species is manifestly allied to Ischaemum aristatum Linn., but diflfers 
in so many characters that it has been considered advisable to treat it as 
a distinct form. 

ISCHAEMUM PUBESCENS sp. nov. § Euischaemum. 

Species /. aristato affinis, differt foliis pilosis, spiculis paullo 
minoribus, glumis I spiculae sessilibus utrinque nodulis 2 obs- 
curis praeditis, dorso parce piloso. 

An erect perennial grass about 1 m high, the sheaths and 
leaves rather softly pilose with long white or pale hairs, the 
nodes rather densely ciliate-bearded, the internodes, under the 
sheaths, somewhat glaucous, about 3 mm in diameter. Leaves 
narrowly lanceolate, 10 to 18 cm long, 8 to 12 mm wide, acu- 
minate, base of the upper ones truncate, of the lower ones 
narrowed, margins scabrid, both surfaces softly pilose with 
scattered, long hairs; sheaths rather lax, pilose; ligule brown, 
cleft, somewhat pubescent, 2 to 3 mm long. Kacemes binate, 
closely appressed, 8 to 10 cm long, long-exserted, rather promin- 
ently white-ciliate, the joints 3-angled, bearded on all angles, 4 
mm long. Sessile spikelets oblong, obtuse, about 5 mm long, 1.8 
mm wide, the callus bearded ; first glume coriaceous, obtuse, mar- 
gins inflexed throughout, with two, broad, obscure undulations 
(scarcely nodules) near each side in the lower part, the back 
usually with very few, scattered, ciliate hairs; second glume 
lanceolate, acuminate, somewhat keeled, 5 mm long; third and 
fourth glumes hyaline, the fourth cleft to the middle, bearing in 
the cleft a geniculate, somewhat twisted, scabrid awn about 
13 mm long. Pedicellate spikelets dimidiate, 5 to 6 mm long, 
the. pedicels stout, 2 mm long, bearded ; first glume widely winged 
on one side, springly ciliate-pilose on the back, smooth, the 
wing obscurely denticulate. 

DUMARAN, Bur. Sci. 21639 Escritor, August, 1913. 

Similar to Ischaemum aristatum, Linn., and manifestly allied to that 
species. It is characterized, however, by its prominently pilose leaves and 
sheaths, its white-ciliate racemes, and the first glume of the sessile spikelets 
with very obscure marginal undulations which can scarcely be called 
nodules; the very short rachis-joints, and the bearded callus is also charac- 
teristic. 

CYPERACEAE 

ELEOCHARIS R. Br. 

ELEOCHARIS ACICULARIS (L.) R. & S. Syst. 2 (1817) 154; Clarke in 
Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 628, et in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36 
(1903) 225. 



IX. c, 3 Merrill: Noteworthy Philippine Plants 265 

Luzon, Benguet Subprovince, Baguio, Merrill 7665, May, 1909, on seepage 
slopes about rice paddies, altitude about 1,450 m. 

Not previously reported from the Philippines, an additional •distinct 
northern type in the flora of northern Luzon. Widely distributed in North 
America, throughout Europe and northern Asia, extending southward only 
in China. 

FIMBRISTYLIS Vahl 
FIMBRISTYLIS CAPITULIFERA sp. nov. § Trichelostylis. 

Planta perennis glabra, subrigida, usque ad 40 cm alta; foliis 
numerosis, angustis, culmo brevioribus ; spiculis omnibus sas- 
silibus, capitato-congestis, capitulis umbellato-dispositis ; glumis 
numerosis, 5-nerviis, oblongis, subobtusis, marginibus latis, sca- 
riosis; nucibus compressis vel plano-convexis, minutissime stria- 
tis, circiter 0.7 mm longis; stylo trifido. 

A glabrous, somewhat rigid, apparently densely caespitose, 
glabrous, perennial plant 20 to 40 cm high. Leaves very nu- 
merous, sheathing the bases of the stems, subrigid, flat or nearly 
so, 1 to 2 mm wide, 8 to 18 cm long. Culms terete, striate, 
exserted, rather slender. Inflorescence umbellate, consisting of 
a central sessile head and from 3 to 6 peduncled ones, each head 
with from 10 to 20 sessile, densely disposed spikelets 3 to 6 mm 
in length. Glumes numerous, oblong, about 2 mm long, some- 
what keeled, closely 5-nerved in the median portion, wuth broad, 
somewhat scarious and thin margins, apex somewhat obtuse, 
usually apiculate. Nut obovate, brown, about 0.7 mm long, 
somewhat compressed or plano-convex, not trigonous, minutely 
striate; style glabrous, slender, about 2 mm long, 3-fid. 

Batanes Islands, Batan, Bur. Sci. 3575 Fenix, Bur. Sci. 10203 McGregor, 
Bur. Sci. 3171, 3172, 3173 Mearns. Babuyanes Islands, Babuyan Islands, 
Bur. Sci. 3926 Fenix. Camiguin Island, Bur. Sci. U0h2 Fenix (type). 

This species was previously recorded by me under the name of Fimbris- 
tylis spathacea Vahl, to which it does not seem to be closely allied. It is 
well characterized by its spikelets being all sessile and disposed in dense 
heads, the qentral head sessile, the others peduncled; the rays of the umbel 
vary from 1 to 4 cm in length. The species belongs in the section Triche- 
lostylis, and is probably as closely allied to Fimhristylis junciformis Kunth 
as to any other species. It differs from Kunth's species in its much smaller 
umbels, the spikelets much more numerous in each head, none of them 
being solitary, and in the style being quite glabrous, not villous below the 
fork. 

FIMBRISTYLIS PALUDOSA sp. nov. § Trichelostylis. 

Densissime caespitosa, erecta, glabra, efoliosa, 60 ad 100 cm 
alta, culmis distincte 3- vel 4-angularibus ; umbellis decompositis, 
2 ad 4 cm longis; spiculis numerosis, ovoideis, 2.5 ad 3.5 mm 
longis, brunneis, glumis usque ad 10, ovatis, acutis vel obtusis, 



266 ^'^^ Philippme Journal of Science -.5)14 

obscure carinatis; nucibus obovoideis, triangularibus, laevibus 
vel obscurissime transverse lineatis ; stylo 3-fido. 

A densely caespitose, leafless, perennial plant 0.6 to 1 m high 
from stout rhizomes, the lower parts of the culms with 3 or 4 
rather loose, imbricate sheaths, the lower ones ovate to oblong- 
ovate, 1 to 2 cm long, the upper one up to 10 cm long, the mouth 
oblique, with a broad, browTi, membranaceous margin. Culms 
prominently 3- or 4-angled, rather stiff. Inflorescence termi- 
nal, 2 to 4 cm long, open, umbellately decompound, subtended 
by one or two, lanceolate, acuminate, leaf-like, 1 cm long bracts. 
Spikelets numerous, not fascicled, usually one sessile median one 
and two lateral pedicelled ones on each ultimate branchlet, 2.5 
to 3.5 mm long, brown, ovoid, the pedicels scabrid; glumes 10 
or fewer, brown, ovate, acute or obtuse, obscurely keeled. 
Stamens 3. Nut obovoid, 3-angled, white, 0.8 to 1 mm long, 
smooth or veiy obscurely transversely lineate; style-arms 3. 

Luzon, Benguet Subprovince, Baguio, Williams 12S9 (type), May, 1904, 
Elmer 6^97, June, 1904, Phil. PL 551 Merrill, June, 1911. 

Apparently a very characteristic species allied to Fimbristyiis iniliacea 
Vahl, F. quinquangularis Kunth, etc.. but differing in its leafless stems, 
large rhizomes, smooth or nearly smooth nuts, and other characters. 

FIM BR I STY LIS PINETORUM sp. nov. § Trichelostylis. 

Erecta, glabra, culmis e rhizomate crasso, solitariis, gracilibus, 
20 ad 40 cm altis, basi f oliosis ; foliis paucis, subsetaceis, usque ad 
13 cm longis; inflorescentiis simpliciter umbellatis; spiculis pau- 
cis, 3 ad 7, brunneis, oblongo-ovoideis, 6 ad 11 mm. longis; nucibus 
obovoideis, verruculosis, albidis, 1 ad 1.2 mm longis, obscure 
triangularibus ; stylo trifido. 

A solitary, erect, slender, perennial plant from stout, woody 
rhizomes, the rhizomes clothed with membranaceous, lanceolate, 
usually brownish scales or sheaths, usually about 1 cm long. 
Culms striate, 20 to 40 cm high, the base with several imbricate 
leafless sheaths, and at or near the base 2 to 4 leaf-bearing 
sheaths, the sheaths oblique, their margins membranaceous, the 
leaves linear or setaceous, involute when dry, 1 to 1.5 mm wide, 
4 to 13 cm long. Inflorescence usually a simple umbel, rarely 
compound, 2 to 3 cm long, the subtending bract lanceolate, acu- 
minate, usually less than 1 cm long. Spikelets oblong-ovoid, 
brown, many-flowered, 6 to 11 mm long, 3 to 7, one sessile, the 
others mostly slenderly pedicelled, the pedicels 1 to 2 cm long. 
Glumes ovate, concave, keeled, glabrous, acute to obtuse, often 
retuse, the margins thinner and paler. Stamens 3. Nut white, 
obovoid, 1 to 1.2 mm long, obscurely 3-angled, apex broadly 



IX, c. 3 Merrill: Noteworthy Philippine Plants 267 

rounded or subtruncate, verruculose, not at all reticulate. Style- 
arms 3. 

Luzon, Bengruet Subprovince, Bapuio, Merrill 766^ (type) , Phil. PL, 
658 Merrill, June, 1911, scattered on slopes amone: various grasses in thin 
pine forests, altitude about 1,550 m. 

A species apparently well characterized by its solitary, not at all caes- 
pitose stems, \\oody rhizomes, narrow leaves, usually simple inflorescence 
of few spikelets, and verrucose, not at all reticulate, white, obscurely trian- 
gular nuts. It is allied to Fimbristylis monticola Steud., and to F. pierotii 
Miq., of India, the latter extending to Japan. 

MAPANIA Aublet 

MAPANIA PALUSTRIS (Hassk.) F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1882) 309; C. B. 
Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1894) 681. 

Pandanophylhtvi palustre Hassk. in Tijdschr. Nat. Vereen. Ned. Ind. 10 
(1843) 119; Boeck. in Linnaea 37: 138; Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. Beng 
38:' 78. 

Lcpironia paluatris Miq. 111. Fl. Archip. Ind. (1871) 63, t. 25. 

Mindanao, Agusan Subprovince, Waloe, in muddy places along small 
streams in forests, Merrill 7298, October, 1910. 

Except for F.-Villar's previously unverified record, not before reported 
from the Philippines; Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. 

There is some doubt as to the proper specific name for this plant, for 
Clarke, /. c, states that Hasskarl's description calls for a bifid style and 
3 to 5 spikelets, which does not apply to Mapania palustris; however, these 
statements may have been based in part on erroneous observations. Miquel 
definitely states that the number of spikelets in a head is variable, and his 
drawing shows a 2-cleft style. It is not clear, that in case Mapania palus- 
tris is distinct from Pandanopkyllum palustre Hassk., why the specific name 
is retained, for if not based on Hasskarl's description, then it was based 
on a later one under the same name by Boeckler or Kurz. It seems only 
reasonable to suppose that Boeckler and Miquel were familiar with type or 
typical material of Hasskarl's Pandanophyllum palustre, and under the 
circumstances it seems best to retain the specific name palustris, at least 
until opportunity is had to examine Hasskarl's type. Incidentally Clarke 
credits Bentham with authorship of the combination Mapania palustris; 
this is incorrect, for Bentham did not make the actual transfer, but only 
indicated Pandanophyllum to be a synonym of Mapania. F.-Villar appears 
to be the first to make the actual transfer of the species. 

MAPANIA GRACILL:MA Kukenthal & Merrill sp. nov, 

Rhizoma breve, lignosum, crassum. Culmi laterales scapi- 
formes, 5-10 cm alti, gracillimi, obtusanguli, striati, asperi, basi 
vaginis nonnullis lanceolatis fuscis nervosis tecti et in medio 
vagina unica aequali obsiti. Folia culmos longe superantia, 4-5 
mm lata, plane utrinque attenuata, marginibus aculeato-scabra, 
coriacea, glaucescentia. Spica parva, primo lineari-ellipsoidea 
demum ovata, densa, 5 mm longa, 4 mm lata, bracteae squami- 
formes. Spiculae baud numerosae oblongae. Squamae late 



268 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

ovatae, apice rotundatae, rufae. Squamellae 4 squama longiores, 
2 exteriores navicularis in carina valde setulosae. Nux ellip- 
soideo-lageniformis, 2 mm longa, medio turgidula, straminea, 
laevis, sessilis, erostrata. Stylus brevissimus. Stigmata 3 vel 4. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, Sax River Mountains back of San 
Ramon, Merrill 8205. 

Omnium Mapaniarum gracillima, foliis pro ratione angustissimis spicaque 
minima ab omnibus affinibus bene distinguenda. Squamellas non nisi 4 
observari, sed forsan 6 adsunt, quarum duae jam elapsae. 

8CH0ENUS Linnaeus 

SCHOENUS FALCATUS R. Br. Prodr. (1810) 232; Benth. Fl. Austral. 7 
(1878) 372; Clarke ex Hemsl. in Journ Linn. Soc. Bot. 36 (1903) 
261. 

Luzon, Province of Zambales, Bur. Sci. 5036 Ramos, December, 1907. 

Not previously reported from the Philippines; tropical Australia and 
Queensland, Borneo, and Formosa. 

The specimens differ from the species, as described by Bentham, in having 
somewhat smaller panicles, and in some of the flowering-glumes being dis- 
tinctly retuse. A distinct Australian type, the fifth species of the genus 
to be found in the Philippines. 

SCIRPIODENDRON Zippel 

SCIRPIODENDRON GHAERI (Gaertn. f.) comb. nov. 

Chionanthus ghaeri Gaertn. f. Fruct. 1 (1788) 190, t. 29, fig. a-e; Boerl. 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 31 (1896) 246. 

Scirpiodendron costatum Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 38' (1869) 85; 
Clarke in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1904) 684; Merr. in Philip. Journ. 
Sci. 2 (9107) Bot. 422. 

Scirpiodendron sulcatum Miq. 111. Fl. Archip. Ind. (1871) 65, pi. 28. 

Luzon, Province of Cagayan, Abulug River, For. Bur. 19612 Curran, 
January, 1911. PoLiLLO, Bur. Sci. 102^9 McGregor, October, 1909. Pa- 
lawan, San Antonio Bay, Merrill 5257, October, 1906; Taytay, Phil. Pi. 
1295 Merrill. MINDANAO, District of Zamboanga, Malasugat, Merrill Slli, 
December, 1911. 

Chionanthus ghaeri Gaertn. f., which was described and figured from 
detached fruits alone, remained a doubtful species until the year 1896, when 
Boerlage was able to determine its identity from examination of the orig- 
inal material used by Gaertner in describing and figuring it. Gaertner's 
name is by far the earliest one for the species, and there is no reason why 
it should not be adopted. 

MORACEAE 

ARTOCARPUS Forster 
ARTOCARPUS OVATI FOLIA sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 40 m alta, stipulis parce brevissime pubescen- 
tibus exceptis glabra; foliis coriaceis, ovatis, integris, usque ad 
30 cm longis, acutis vel breviter acute acuminatis, basi acutis 



IX. c, 3 Merrill: Notcirortliy Philippine Plants 269 

vel subrotundatis, nervis prominentibus, utrinque circiter 8; 
stipulis membranaceis, caducis, lanceolatis, 10 cm longis; fruc- 
tibus globosis vel subglobosis, circiter 6 cm diametro (imma- 
turis), anthocarpiis numerosissimis, apicibus subovoideis, obtusis, 
vix 2 mm longis, dense ceraceo-furfuraceis. 

A tree about 40 m high, glabrous or nearly so. Branches dark 
reddish-brown, smooth, the ultimate ones nearly 1 cm in diame- 
ter, marked with slender annular rings less than 1 cm apart. 
Leaves ovate, coriaceous, glabrous, 10 to 30 cm long, 7 to 20 cm 
wide, entire, the apex acute or very shortly and acutely acum- 
inate, or apiculate-acuminate, base acute or somewhat rounded, 
both surfaces slightly shining, of about the same color and 
somewhat brownish when dry ; lateral nerves about 8 on each side 
of the midrib, prominent, spreading, curved only near their tips, 
the ultimate reticulations slender, subparallel; petioles 3 to 5 
cm long; stipules caducous, lanceolate, acuminate, membrana- 
ceous, 10 cm long, outside sparingly pubescent with very short, 
somewhat appressed hairs. Flowers unknown. Immature 
fruits globose or subglobose, about 6 cm in diameter (immature), 
composed of very numerous, slender anthocarps, the projecting 
tips of the anthocarps ovoid or subovoid, about 2 mm long, 
rounded or obtuse, about 2 mm in diameter, densely covered with 
waxy-furfuraceous scales. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, San Antonio, in forests. Bur. Sci. 150U0 
(type), 20530 Ramos, June, 1912, February, 1913, fruits yellow. 

A very characteristic species, manifestly, however, in the same group 
as Artocarpus communis Forst. In texture and venation the leaves re- 
semble those of Forster's species, but are always quite entire. In being 
almost glabrous the present species differs also from Artocarpus communis 
Forst. The waxy-furfuraceous tips of the anthocarps is characteristic. 

FICUS Linnaeus 

FICUS CAMARINENSIS sp. nov. § Urostigma. 

Arbor alta, glabra, ramis ramulisque rugosis; foliis alternis, 
oblongo-ellipticis, subcoriaceis, nitidis, laevis, usque ad 23 cm 
longis, integris, apice abrupte tenuiter acute acuminatis, basi 
rotundatis, 3-plinerviis, nervis lateralibus utrinque 10 ad 
12, subpatulis, prominentibus, anastomosantibus ; petiolo 2.5 cm 
longo; receptaculis axillaribus, solitariis, sessilibus, ellipsoideis, 
in siccitate brunneis, 3 ad 3.5 cm longis, bracteis 3, reniformibus, 
3 mm longis, 5 mm latis. 

A tall tree, quite glabrous except the bud-scales which are 
appressed-hirsute. Branches and branchlets prominently rugose 
when dry, somewhat lenticellate, with distinct stipular scars, the 
latter 5 to 6 mm in diameter. Leaves alternate, subcoriaceous, 

126079 6 



270 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science im 

brown and shining when dry, smooth, oblong-elliptic, 14 to 23 
cm long, 7 to 11 cm wide, entire, 3-plinerved, base rounded, apex 
abruptly and usually slenderly acutely acuminate, the acumen 
1.5 to 2 cm long; primary lateral nerves prominent, spreading, 
straight, 10 to 12 on each side of the midrib, anastomosing near 
the margin, the reticulations rather lax, anastomosing between 
each two lateral nerves into less distinct secondary nervs ; petioles 
2.5 cm long; bud-scales lanceolate, acuminate, 1.5 cm long, 
appressed-hirsute. Receptacles axillary, solitary, sessile, ellip- 
soid, brown when dry, smooth or somewhat warted, 3 to 3.5 
cm long, 2 to 2.5 cm in diameter, the apex rounded, the umbil- 
icus distinct. Basal bracts 3, reniform, brown, coriaceous, 3 
mm long, 5 mm wide. Gall flowers numerous, their perianth 
segments usually 3, about 2 mm long. Male flowers few and 
chiefly near the orifice, anthers 1 mm long. 

Luzon, Province of Camarines, Niog, Phil. PL 15U7 Ramos, December 
17, 1913, locally known as balete. 

A species well characterized by its large, ellipsoid, sessile, solitary, axil- 
lary receptacles. Its alliance is apparently with Ficus forstenii Miq. (F. 
vidaliana Warb.) from which it differs in its much larger receptacles and 
larger leaves. 

FICUS PRODUCTA sp. nov. § Sycidium. 

Frutex erectus, circiter 2 m altus, foliis utrinque ramulisque 
scaberulis; foliis alternis, subcoriaceis, usque ad 18 cm longis, 
oblongis ad oblongo-obovatis vel ovato-ellipticis, aequilateralibus, 
basi 3-nerviis, acutis vel obtusis, apice longe tenuiter caudato- 
acuminatis, margine irregulariter grosse dentatis vel dentato- 
serratis, baud lobatis, in siccitate subviridis, nervis utrinque 
circiter 8, subtus cum reticulis valde prominentibus ; receptaculis 
axillaribus, solitariis vel in paribus dispositis, subglobosis vel 
leviter obovoideis, scabridis, pedunculatis, 8 ad 10 mm diametro. 

An erect shrub about 2 m high, scabrid. Branches terete, 
slender, pale-brownish when dry, glabrous, the branchlets 
scabrid. Leaves alternate, rather prominently scabrid in both 
surfaces, otherwise glabrous, oblong to oblong-obovate or even 
ovate-elliptic, 12 to 18 cm long, 4 to 7 cm wide, equilateral, the 
base shortly 3-nerved, acute or obtuse, the apex rather abruptly 
long and slenderly caudate-acuminate, the acumen 2 to 3.5 cm 
long, narrow at the base, entire, acute or apiculate, the margins 
rather coarsely dentate or dentate-serrate, not lobed, the teeth 
irregular, mostly 5 mm apart or more, both surfaces when dry 
somewhat greenish, shining, scabrid, the lower very slightly paler 
than the upper ; lateral nerves about 8 on each side of the midrib, 
very prominent on the lower surface, anastomosing, the reticula- 



IX, c, 3 Merrill: Noteworthy Philippine Plants 271 

tions very prominent, the lower surface more or less punctic- 
ulate ; petioles about 1 cm long, scabrid. Receptacles orange-red, 
scabrid, solitary or in pairs, axillary, subglobose to somewhat 
obovoid, 8 to 10 mm in diameter, their peduncles 5 to 7 mm long, 
scabrid, the apical bracts small, ovate, about 1 mm long, the 
wall of the receptacle ciliate-hispid inside. Perfect female 
flowers numerous, the perianth-segments narrowly lanceolate, 
obtuse or acute, membranaceous, about 2 mm long, prominently 
ciliate-hispid in the upper part, one about twice as broad as the 
other three and cleft to about the middle, the narrower three 
often somewhat spatulate. Ovary ovoid-ellipsoid, obtuse, sube- 
quilateral, about 1.2 mm long, the styles distinctly lateral, 1.2 
to 1.8 mm long. 

Mindanao, Subprovince of Butuan, Veruela, C. M. Weber 1132 (type), 
June 19, 1911, in thickets; Talacogon, Bur. Sci. 1131 Weber, July 20, 1911, 
among abaca plants. 

A species in the ulmifolia group, but with equilateral leaves which are 
abruptly, long and slenderly caudate-acuminate, and with somewhat smaller 
receptacles than in F. xilmifolia Lam., under which name the specimens 
were distributed. Its closest ally is Ficus euphlebia Merr., which has less 
prominently acuminate, more distinctly and closely toothed leaves which 
are acute or merely obtuse at the base, not rounded; in the present species 
the interior of the receptacle and the perianth-segments are also promi- 
nently ciliate-hispid with stiff white hairs. 

FICUS GRANDIDENS sp. nov. § Covellia. 

Arbor circiter 6 m alta, ramulis adpresso-hirsutis exceptis 
glabra; foliis oblongis vel late oblongis, subcoriaceis vel charta- 
ceis, usque ad 23 cm longis, glabris, laevis, nitidis, acuminatis, 
basi acutis, margine grosse irregulariter sinuato-lobato-dentatis, 
dentibus vel lobis 1 vel 2 utrinque; receptaculis obovoideis, 
pedunculatis, in fasciculis densis hemisphericis caulinis dispo- 
sitis. 

A tree 5 to 6 m high, quite glabrous except the appressed- 
hirsute younger branchlets. Branches terete, smooth, grayish- 
brown, the ultimate ones about 4 mm in diameter. Leaves 
oblong or broadly oblong, subcoriaceous or chartaceous, glabrous, 
smooth, 14 to 23 cm long, 5 to 11 cm wide, narrowed more or less 
at both ends, apex acuminate, base acute, the margins very coarse- 
ly sinuate-lobed or -toothed, the lobes or teeth 1 or 2 on each side, 
obtuse or acute, the upper surface shining, dark-colored when 
dry, the lower surface slightly shining, paler; nerves 5 or 6 on 
each side of the midrib, prominent, usually brownish when dry, 
anastomosing, the reticulations distinct, rather slender; petioles 
1 to 2 cm long ; stipules lanceolate, acuminate, 10 to 12 mm long, 
subpersistent. Fruits fascicled on stout protuberances on the 



272 The Philippine Jownal of Science in* 

trunk, forming very dense, hemispheric masses 8 to 10 cm in 
diameter. Receptacles obovoid, often more or less compressed- 
angular by pressure of contiguous ones, 10 to 12 mm in diameter, 
green, glabrous or nearly so, the umbilicus about 3 mm in 
diameter; peduncles slender, 1.5 to 2 cm long, with three small 
bracteoles at the apex. Fertile female flowers numerous, their 
pedicels up to 1.5 mm in length; perianth short, sheathing the 
pedicel below, truncate, about 1 mm long. Ovary ovoid, 1.5 
mm in diameter; style lateral. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, Sax River Mountains back of San 
Ramon, Merrill 8089, November 28, 1911, in forests, altitude about 800 m. 

A species manifestly closely allied to Ficus rubrovenia Merr., and very 
similar to that species, differing in its somewhat appressed-hirsute, not 
glabrous, branchlets, and its very coarsely lobed-toothed, not merely undu- 
late leaves. 

FICUS RIVULARIS sp. nov. § Eiisxjce. 

Frutex circiter 4 m altus ramulis minute puberulis exceptis 
glaber; foliis alternis, lanceolatis vel anguste lanceolatis, leviter 
falcatis, usque ad 25 cm longis, utrinque angustatis, apice longe 
tenuiter caudato-acuminatis, basi acutis, integris, subcoriaceis, 
laevis, subtus albido-punctatis, ner-vis utrinque circiter 20 ; recep- 
taculis axillaribus, solitariis, obovoideis, 1 ad 1.5 cm diametro, 
pedunculatis, bracteis circiter 2 mm longis. 

An erect, nearly glabrous shrub about 4 m high. Branches 
terete, slender, reddish-brown, glabrous, the younger branchlets 
somewhat puberulent. Leaves alternate, subcoriaceous, lanceo- 
late to narrowly lanceolate, 12 to 25 cm long, 1.5 to 3 cm wide, 
somewhat falcate, narrowed at both ends, the apex very slenderly 
caudate-acuminate, the acumen up to 4 cm in length, minutely 
apiculate, the base equilateral, usually acute, rarely slightly 
obtuse, minutely cucullate on the upper surface, the margins 
quite entire, somewhat revolute, the upper surface smooth, gla- 
brous, shining, rather pale or somewhat olivaceous when dry, 
the lower surface somewhat paler, or brownish, distinctly white- 
puncticulate under a lens; lateral nerves about 20 on each side 
of the midrib, rather distinct, anastomosing, the ultimate retic- 
ulations distinct, angular, about 1 mm in diameter; petioles 5 
to 10 mm long; membranaceous, deciduous, linear-lanceolate or 
narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, 1.5 to 2 cm long. Receptacles 
axillary, solitary, obovoid, 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter, glabrous, 
somewhat narrowed at the base into a very short pseudo-stalk, 
their peduncles slender, 5 to 10 mm long, with three, ovate, 
obtuse, 2 mm long bracts at the summit. Gall flowers very num- 
erous, in general obovoid, sessile or shortly pedicelled, about 2.5 



IX, c, 3 Merrill: Noteicorthy Philippine Plants 273 

mm long-, the perianth brown, chartaceous or coriaceous, irreg- 
ularly 3-lobed, the lobes short, the perianth itself glabrous, about 
2 mm in diameter. 

Luzon, Province of Cagayan, For. Bur. 17806 Curran (type), January, 
1912, Bur. Sci. 7399 Ramos, March, 1909: Province of Tayabas, Piapi, 
For. Bur. lOlSi Curran, March, 190;!(, all the specimens indicated as grow- 
ing on the banks of rivers, and frcm their "stenophyllous" leaves, appar- 
ently in places subject to submergence in times of floods or high water. 

The specimens have been previously referred to Ficus linearifolia Elmer, 
with which they have very little relationship, except some resemblance in 
leaf-form, and manifestly the present species belongs in an entirely different 
section from Elmer's species. The very narrow, entire, slenderly caudate- 
acuminate, somewhat falcate leaves which are white-puncticulate beneath 
are characteristic. 

FICUS LAGUNENSIS sp. nov. § Eusyce. 

Frutex scandens, glaber, vel ramulis parcissime ciliato-hirsu- 
tus ; foliis alternis, ovatis vel oblongo-ovatis, coriaceis, in siccitate 
plus minusve brunneis, usque ad 20 cm longis, acuminatis, basi 
late cordatis, integris; nervis utrinque circiter 7, subtus cum 
reticulisque valde prominentibus ; receptaculis axillaribus, soli- 
tariis vel fasciculatis, obovoideis, glabris, pedunculatis, circiter 
7 mm diametro. 

A scandent shrub, the young branchlets sometimes emitting 
rootlets, glabrous or nearly so. Branches terete, brown, wrin- 
kled when dry, glabrous or with few scattered long hairs. Leaves 
alternate, coriaceous, ovate to oblong-ovate, 10 to 20 cm long, 
5 to 10 cm wide, entire, the apex acuminate, the base broadly 
rounded, cordate, the upper surface glabrous, shining, the 
nerves impressed, the lower surface very prominently reticulate, 
glabrous or with very scattered hairs along the midrib and pri- 
mary nerves; lateral nerves 7 on each side of the midrib, very 
prominent, the anastomosing, primary reticulations subparallel ; 
petioles 1.5 to 3 cm long, somewhat ciliate-pubescent or glabrous; 
stipules lanceolate, acuminate, deciduous, about 1.5 cm long. 
Receptacles axillary, solitary or fascicled, obovoid, glabrous, 
smooth, about 7 mm in diameter, their peduncles 5 to 8 mm in 
length. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Dahican River, back of San Antonio, Phil. 
PI. 1123 Ramos, September 17, 1912, in forests. 

A species very similar to and manifestly closely allied to Ficus pro- 
pinqua Merr., and to Ficus viilosa Bl., perhaps even too closely allied to 
the former to be distinguished as a true species. Its glabrous receptacles 
and leaves distinguish it from Blume's species, while from the Philippine 
F. propinqua it is distinguishable by its longer peduncled, obovoid, not glo- 
bose receptacles, its glabrous or nearly glabrous leaves, and its only slightly 
hirsute branchlets. 



274 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science )9i4 

FICUS WEBERI sp. nov. § Sycidium. 

Frutex circiter 4 m altus, ramulis stipulis et subtus foliis ad 
nervos plus minusve brunneo-hirsutis ; foliis alternis oppositis- 
que, oblongo-ovatis ad obovato-oblongis, chartaceis, 10 ad 20 cm 
longis, acuminatis, basi acutis, truncatis, vel leviter cordatis, 
subaequilateralibus vel leviter inaequilateralibus, nervis utrinque 
circiter 10; stipulis anguste lanceolatis, acuminatis, usque ad 
3 cm longis; receptaculis axillaribus, sessilibus, ovoideis, sub- 
glabris, circiter 1.5 cm longis, basi 3-bracteatis. 

An erect shrub about 4 m high. Branches terete, brown, 
hirsute with spreading brownish hairs. Leaves alternate, a 
few also opposite, chartaceous, brown and slightly shining when 
dry, paler beneath, oblong-ovate to obovate-oblong, 10 to 20 
cm long, 6 to 10 cm wide, the upper surface smooth and glabrous, 
the lower hirsute with spreading, scattered, brown or pale hairs 
along the midrib and lateral nerves, apex rather slenderly and 
abruptly acuminate, base acute but more often truncate or 
slightly cordate, usually somewhat inequilateral, one side some- 
times acute and the other rounded, margins slightly crenulate; 
nerves about 10 on each side of the midrib, prominent, the 
reticulations rather lax; petioles hirsute, 1 to 3 cm long; stipules 
narrowly lanceolate, long-acuminate, 2 to 3 cm long, hirsute on 
the back, subpersistent. Receptacles green, axillary, sessile, 
ovoid, about 1.5 cm long, glabrous or nearly so, the base with 
three, triangular-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 3 to 5 mm 
long bracts. Male flowers not seen. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, Veruela, Weber 1002, in second growth 
forests, June 19, 1911. 

A species probably most closely allied to Ficus carpenteriana Elm., but 
differing from that species in its much broader leaves, nearly glabrous 
receptacles, and other characters. 

FICUS WORCESTER! sp. nov. § Sycidium. 

Arbor parva, erecta, glabra, circiter 4 m alta, ramulis teretibus ; 
foliis alternis, circiter 20 cm longis, chartaceis, in siccitate palli- 
dis, utrinque leviter scabridis vel laevis, concoloribus, equilate- 
ralibus, apice abrupte subcaudato-acuminatis, basi acutis vel 
obtusis, 3-nerviis, margine integris vel leviter obscure undulatis, 
nervis utrinque circiter 10, distinctis; petiolo 1.5 ad 4 cm longo; 
receptaculis axillaribus, solitariis vel fasciculatis, pedunculatis, 
subglobosis, aurantiacis, 1 cm diametro. 

A small, erect, glabrous tree about 4 m high, the branches 
terete, smooth, somewhat straw-colored. Leaves alternate, char- 
taceous, very slightly scabrid on both surfaces or smooth, slightly 



IX. c, 3 Merrill: NotewoHhy Philippine Plants 275 

shining, of the same color on both surfaces when dry, and rather 
pale-yellowish-green, about 20 cm long, 8 to 10 cm wide, oblong, 
the apex rather abruptly subcaudate-acuminate, the acumen 1 cm 
long, the base equilateral, acute or obtuse, shortly 3-nerved, the 
margins entire or slightly and obscurely undulate ; lateral nerves 
about 10 on each side of the midrib, prominent, straight, some- 
what anastomosing, the reticulations subparallel, distinct, rather 
lax; petioles 1.5 to 4 cm long. Receptacles axillary, solitary or 
somewhat fascicled, orange-red when mature, globose, about 1 
cm in diameter, their peduncles 8 to 10 mm long, ebracteolate 
or with small bracteoles near the base. 

Cavilli Island, Sulu Sea, Merrill 7178, September 24, 1911. 

Common in thickets near the sea on both Cavilli Island, and the neigh- 
boring smaller islet known as Arena Island. Apparently allied to Ficus 
uhnifolia Lam., F. hlepharostoma Warb., and similar forms, distinguishable 
at once by its smooth or nearly smooth leaves. Dedicated to the Honorable 
Dean C. Worcester, formerly Secretary of the Interior of the Philippine 
Government, tf> whom I am indebted for opportunity botanically to explore 
Cavilli Island. 

FICUS HEMICARDIA sp. nov. § Sycidium. 

Arbor parva, erecta; foliis oblongis, brevissime petiolatis, 
scabris, inaequilateralibus, 10 ad 30 cm longis, valde oblique 
cordatis, uno latere angustatis altero latissime rotundatis; re- 
ceptaculis ovoideis vel subglobosis, circiter 11 mm diametro, 
hispidis, pedunculatis, solitariis vel binis in axillis foliorum vel 
in ramis vel caulis fasciculatis. 

An erect tree, apparently of small size. Branches terete, 
light-gray, glabrous. Leaves varying greatly in size, 10 to 30 
cm long, 3 to 11 cm wide, oblong, very harsh and scabrous on 
both surfaces, not pubescent, somewhat shining when dry, oblong, 
strongly inequilateral, margins coarsely dentate, apex rather 
prominently acuminate, base very strongly obliquely cordate, 
one side very much narrower than the other, narrowly rounded, 
the other broadly rounded, the sinus narrow; petioles stout, 5 
mm long or less ; lateral nerves very prominent as are the coarse 
reticulations, 6 or 7 on each side of the midrib above the base, 
the basal nerves radiating, the narrow side of the leaf usually 
with one, the broad side with four. Receptacles ovoid or sub- 
globose, about 11 mm in diameter, hispid with scattered, spread- 
ing, white, bristle-like hairs, solitary or in pairs in the axils of 
the leaves, or solitary or fascicled on the larger branches and 
on the trunk near its base, th peduncles hispid, about 4 mm 
long, with 2 or 3, ovate, acute, 1.5 m.m long bracts near the apex. 
Male flowers not seen. Fertile female flowers pedicelled, the 



276 y^c Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

perianth lobes hyaline, equaling or a little longer than the ovary 
which is about 1.1 mm in length; style sublateral, 1.5 mm long. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, Mount Hilong-Hilong, Weber 1001, 
March 11, 1911, altitude about 130 m, on rocky slopes near streams. 

The species is allied to Ficus fiskei Elm., differing in its short-petioled, 
differently shaped leaves and hispid fruits, and also to F. odorata Merr., 
differing from that species especially in its smaller fruits that are not 
densely hirsute. It is one of the most strongly marked species of the 
genus known from the Philippines, well characterized by its harsh, inequi- 
lateral, prominently and obliquely cordate, subsessile leaves. The recep- 
tacles are borne in the axils of the leaves on the ultimate branches, on 
the large branches below the leaves, and on the trunk of the tree near its 
base, a varied distribution that is quite unusual in the genus, although 
occasionally one finds the allied Ficiis odorata Merr. with most of its 
receptacles in the leaf-axils, and a few supplementary ones near the base 
of the trunk. 

FICUS CAMIGUINENSIS sp. nov. 

Species F. paucinerviae Merr. similis et ut videtur afRnis, 
differt foliis majoribus, receptaculis minoribus glabris. 

A small tree about 6 m high. Branches terete, wrinkled and 
brownish when dry, the ultimate ones about 5 mm thick. Leaves 
alternate, somewhat crowded at the ends of the branchlets, 
chartaceous or thinly coriaceous, subelliptic or elliptic-ovate, 
greenish and shining when dry, narrowed to the acute or obtuse 
base, the apex shortly and slenderly caudate-acuminate, the 
acumen 1 cm long or less, 14 to 22 cm long, 8 to 13 cm wide, 
entire, the uper surface glabrous, the lower one more or less 
white-ciliate on the nerves and reticulations; basal nerves a 
single pair, extending to about the middle of the leaf, straight, 
prominent; lateral nerves above the basal pair 4 or 5 on each 
side of the midrib, ascending, straight, prominent, the reticu- 
lations distinct, subparallel; petioles ciliate-pubescent, 3 to 4.5 
cm long ; stipules caducous, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 5 to 8 mm 
long, densely appressed-pubescent, the stipular scars prominent. 
Receptacles mostly in pairs in the axils of fallen leaves, sometimes 
solitary, sometimes somewhat fasciculate, numerous, their pe- 
duncles 4 to 8 mm long, with three prominent bracts at the apex 
or somewhat below the apex, glabrous, yellow, globose, about 
8 mm in diameter. 

Camiguin de Mindanao, in mossy forests probably above an altitude of 
1,200 m, Phil. PL 1197 Ramos, March 24, 1912. 

Apparently a distinct species, at least not matched in our extensive 
collections. I have also been unable to refer it to any of the numerous 
Malayan species of which the descriptions are available here. It is similar 
to Ficus paucinervia Merr. (F. integrifolia Elm.), apparently closely allied 
to it, aJid certainly belongs to the same section of the genus. 



IX, c, 3 Merrill: Noteicorthy Pliilippine Plants 277 

LORANTHACEAE 

LORANTHIS Linnaeus 
LORANTHUS LUCIDUS sp. nov. § Dendrophthoe. 

Frutex parasiticus, subscandens, glaber, ramis ramulisque te- 
retibus; foliis oppositis vel suboppositis, usque ad 12 cm longis, 
breviter petiolatis, oblongo-ovatis ad lanceolatis, utrinque valde 
nitidis, longe acute acuminatis, basi late rotundatis cordatisque 
rariter subobtusis; inflorescentiis terminalibus et in axillis supe- 
rioribus, 5 ad 10 cm longis, floribus 6-meris, circiter 1.6 cm longis, 
in triadibus dispositis, lateralibus pedicellatis, intermedio sessile, 
triadibus racemose dispositis. 

A parasitic shrub, apparently somewhat scandent along its 
host, glabrous, the branches stout, terete, gray, slightly lenti- 
cellate, the younger ones somewhat reddish-brown, smooth. 
Leaves opposite or subopposite, coriaceous, oblong-ovate to lan- 
ceolate, normally 8 to 12 cm long, 3.5 to 5 cm wide, broadly 
rounded and prominently cordate at the base, exceptionally lan- 
ceolate, 1.5 to 3 cm wide, and subobtuse at the base, prominently 
shining on both surfaces, gradually narrowed upward to the 
long and sharply acuminate apex; lateral nerves 6 to 8 on each 
side of the midrib, slender, indistinct; petioles 3 to 7 mm long. 
Inflorescence terminal and in the uppermost axils, 5 to 10 cm 
long, the axis and lateral branches gray, obscurely furfuraceous, 
composed of racemosely disposed triads. Lateral branches of 
the panicles (peduncles of the triads), spreading, 1 cm long or 
less, each bearing a central sessile fertile flower, and two lateral 
flowers, each flower subtended by a broadly ovate, acute or acu- 
minate bracteole as long as the calyx, the pedicels of the lateral 
flowers 4 to 5 mm long. Flowers 6-merous. Calyx subcylindric, 
3 mm long, truncate, the rim not produced, very minutely and 
obscurely 6-denticulate. Corolla about 1.3 cm long, the basal 
part somewhat inflated, about 3 mm in diameter, the lobes united 
for the lower 2 mm, narrow, very slender upward, the reflexed 
part above the insertion of the stamen spatulate, 5 mm long. 
Filament very slender, 3 mm long; anther narrowly oblong, 
continuous, 2 mm long. Fruit very soft and fleshy, ovoid, about 
8 mm long. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, San Antonio (Dahican River), Bur. Sci. 
1664.7 Ramos, September 16, 1912, parasitic on Worcesteranthus, in forests. 

A species in the same group with Loranthus ahemianus, L. acuminatis- 
simns, L. saccatus, and L. ovatifolius, differing from the first three in its 
very much smaller flowers, and other characters, and from the latter in its 
very different vegetative and floral characters. 



278 ^^^ Philippine Joujiial of Science im 

LORANTHUS FRAGILIS sp. nov. § Dendropthoe. 

Frutex parasiticus, glaber, ramis ramulisque crassis, teretibus, 
fragilis; foliis late ovatis, crasse coriaceis, nitidis, usque ad 15 
cm longis, ovatis, sessilibus vel, subsessilibus, obtusis, basi late 
rotundatis vel leviter cordatis; inflorescentiis in axillis superio- 
ribus, floribus omnibus sessilibus, 6-meris, pallide flavidis, circiter 
2.4 cm longis, in triadibus brevissime pedunculatis racemose 
dispositis. 

A species in the alliance with LoratitJius secundiflorus Merr., 
and L. mindanaeyisis Merr., distinguished at once by its sessile 
or subsessile, broadly rounded or subcordate leaves. Branches 
up to 1 m in length, stout, terete, smooth and shining when dry, 
grayish-brown, very brittle when fresh, branches 1 cm in diam- 
eter breaking very readily. Leaves ovate, subopposite, thickly 
coriaceous, pale greenish-olivaceous when dry, shining, 9 to 15 
cm long, 5.5 to 9 cm wide, apex rounded or obtuse, base broadly 
rounded or somewhat cordate, sessile or subsessile, the lateral 
nerves not prominent, 6 or 7 on each side of the midrib. Inflores- 
cence in the upper axils, usually fascicled, about 4 cm long, the 
flowers 6-merous, all sessile in triads on very short peduncles 
which are racemosely disposed. Flowers pale-yellow, their sub- 
tending bracts broadly ovate, obtuse, 1 mm long, the peduncles 
bearing the triads of flowers very stout, about 2 mm long. Calyx 
oblong-ovoid, truncate, 3.5 to 4 mm long. Corolla about 2 cm 
long, the petals 6, united for the low^er 2 to 3 mm, the reflexed 
parts of the petals above the insertion of the anthers 5 mm long. 
Filaments 1.5 long; anthers continuous, linear, 2.5 mm long. 

Palawan, Taytay, on Vernonia in forests at sea level, May 31, 1913, 
Merrill 92US. 

A species well characterized by its brittle stems, its thickly coriaceous 
leaves, which are almost fleshy and very brittle when fresh, and which 
are sessile or subsessile, broadly rounded or somewhat cordate at the base. 
Its inflorescence is of the type found in Loranthus secundiflorus Merr., and 
L. mindanaensis Merr., that is, the flowers sessile in triads, the triads 
shortly peduncled and racemosely disposed. 

LORANTHUS LEYTENSIS sp. nov. § Dendrophthoe. 

Frutex parasiticus, inflorescentiis puberulis exceptis glaber; 
foliis oppositis, alternis, vel subverticillatis, petiolatis, crassissime 
coriaceis, oblongis, usque ad 6 cm longis, acutis, nervis lateralibus 
obsoletis. Inflorescentiis axillaribus, pedunculatis, floribus 5- 
meris, circiter 3.3 cm longis, in triadibus umbellatim dispositis. 

A stiff, parasitic shrub, glabrous except the inflorescence, the 
branches stout, reddish-brown or grayish, terete, the ultimate 
branchlets about 3 mm in diameter, the nodes often thickened, 



IX, c, 3 Merrill: NoteivortJiy Philippine Plants 279 

the internodes not elongated. Leaves opposite, alternate, or 
somewhat whorled at the lower nodes, thickly coriaceous, opaque, 
oblong, 4 to 6 cm long, 1.5 to 3 cm wide, acute, the base rounded, 
obtuse, or acute, usually brownish when dry, slightly or not at 
all shining, the lateral nerves obsolete ; petioles about 1 cm long. 
Inflorescence axillary, solitary, umbellate, the peduncles about 
2 cm long, all parts more or less gray-puberulent, each peduncle 
bearing about 8, umbellately arranged, 5 mm long, primary 
branches, each branch bearing at its apex a triad of one middle 
sessile flower and two lateral, very shortly pedicelled flowers, 
each flower subtended by a broadly ovate, concave, obtuse, 1 to 
1.5 mm long bracteole, the pedicels of the lateral flowers 2 mm 
long or less. Flowers 5-merous, reddish or yellowish, about 
3.3 cm long. Calyx 3 mm long, puberulent, truncate, the limb 
scarcely produced. Corolla cylindric in bud, the lobes quite 
united below, forming a 4 mm long tube, the reflexed parts of 
the lobes above the insertion of the stamens narrowly oblong, 
obtuse, 5 to 6 mm long, 1 mm wide. Filaments 4 mm long; 
anthers continuous, oblong, 1.5 mm long. 

Leyte, Mount Ibuni back of Dagami, Bur. Sci. 13243 Ramos, August 22, 
1912, growing in the tops of trees. 

A species in the same group with Loranthus haenkeanus Presl, and mani- 
festly closely allied to that species. It is distinguishable by its very much 
smaller, differently shaped leaves. 

LORANTHUS HOPEAE sp. nov. § Dendrophthoe. 

Frutex inflorescentiis minute puberulis exceptis glaber; ramis 
ramulisque teretibus, bi- vel trichotomis, rigidis ; f oliis oppositis, 
crasse coriaceis, sessilibus, ovatis, in siccitate pallidis, nitidis, 
usque ad 9 cm longis, apice rotundatis, basi late cordatis ; inflores- 
centiis axillaribus, solitariis, brevibus, paucifloris; floribus extus 
puberulis, 5-meris, circiter 17 mm longis. 

A parasitic shrub usually less than 50 cm in length, glabrous 
except the minutely grayish-puberulent inflorescence. Branches 
and branchlets terete, stiff, brownish or grayish, smooth, di- or 
trichotomously branched, more or less divaricate, the ultimate 
branchlets about 2 mm in diameter. Leaves opposite, sessile, 
ovate, thickly coriaceous, pale and equally shining on both sur- 
faces when dry, smooth, 5 to 9 cm long, 4 to 6 cm wide, apex 
broadly rounded, base broadly cordate, often prominently so; 
lateral nerves 5 or 6 on each side of the midrib, very obscure 
or nearly obsolete. Inflorescence solitary, axillary and at the 
nodes, minutely puberulent, 2.5 cm long or less, with few, usually 
4, lateral branches which are less than 1 cm in length, each 
bearing at its apex 2 or 3 sessile flowers, the bracteoles puber- 



280 ^^'^ Philippine Jommal of Science i9i4 

ulent, reniform, about 2.5 mm wide, 1.5 mm long, rounded. 
Flowers 5-merous, orange, the tips of the petals glaucous. Calyx 
cylindric, 5 mm long, puberulent, the limb slightly produced, 
very obscurely crenulate or entire. Corolla 12 mm long, puber- 
ulent externally, slightly inflated, cylindric, the lobes united for 
the basal 3 to 4 mm, forming a tube, the reflexed part above 
the insertion of the anthers oblong, obtuse, 2.5 mm long. 
Anther lanceolate, sessile, 2 mm long. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, coast opposite Olutanga Island, For. 
Bur. 13297 Foxworthy, De Mesa, & Villaviil, May 18, 1912, on Hopea sp., 
altitude about 20 meters, 

A very characteristic species, recognizable by its opposite, sessile, coria- 
ceous leaves which are rounded at the apex and cordate at the base, its 
few-flowered, axillary, puberulent inflorescences, and puberulent flowers. 
In leaf-form it is quite similar to Loranthus merrillii Elm., but is entirely 
different in its inflorescence. 

LORANTHUS DEMESAE sp. nov. § Dendrophtkoe. 

Frutex glaber, ramis ramulisque teretibus; foliis oppositis, 
sessilibus, coriaceis, nitidis, usque ad 10 cm longis, ovatis 
vel late elliptico-ovatis, apice acutis vel leviter acuminatis, basi 
rotundatis, reticulatis ; nervis utrinque circiter 10, tenuibus ; in- 
florescentiis axillaribus, solitariis, brevibus, paucifloris; floribus 
circiter 2 cm longis 6-meris; corolla inflata, infra cylindrica, 
supra acute 6-angulata. 

A glabrous parasitic shrub the branches and branchlets terete, 
brownish or somewhat grayish, smooth. Leaves opposite, ses- 
sile, coriaceous, shining when dry, brownish-olivaceous, of about 
the same color on both surfaces, 6 to 10 cm long, 4 to 6 cm wide, 
the apex acute or somewhat acuminate, the base rounded ; lateral 
nerves about 10 on each side of the midrib, slender, not promi- 
nent, the reticulations rather fine, the lateral nerves anastomosing 
near the margin. Inflorescence axillary, solitary, few-flowered, 
the rachis 5 mm long or less, the flowers 2 or 3 (rarely more?). 
Calyx oblong-cylindric, truncate, 3 mm long, 1.8 mm in diameter. 
Corolla red, about 18 mm long, much inflated, 6 mm in diameter, 
the lower one-half cylindric, the upper part sharply and promi- 
nently 6-angled, the tube two-thirds to three-fourths as long as 
the corolla, the lobes about 4 mm wide at the base, narrowed to 
the insertion of the anthers and there 2 mm wide, thence 
gradually narrowed to the acute or obtuse apex, the reflexed 
portion above the insertion of the anthers 5 to 6 m.m long, 
lanceolate. Anthers oblong, 2 mm long, much more slender than 
are the thick, cylindric, 2.5 mm long filaments. 



IX. c, 3 Merrill: Noteworthy Philippine Plants 281 

Mindanao, District of Zamboan^a, Talisay, on tall trees, altitude 40 to 
50 meters. For. Bur. 1S788 Foxworthy, DeMesa, & Villamil, June 19, 1912. 

A species well characterized by its ovate, sessile leaves which are acute 
or acuminate at the apex and rounded at the base, by its axillary, very 
short, few-flowered inflorescences, and its much inflated corollas which are 
cylindric below and sharply and prominently 6-angled above. 

LORANTHUS LAGUNENSIS sp. nov. § Dendrophthoe. 

Frutex glaber; foliis coriaceis, ovatis vel oblongo-ovatis, 
brunneis, oppositis, breviter petiolatis, usque ad 11 cm longis; 
floribus 6-meris, sessilibus, circiter 1.7 cm longis, in fasciculis 
axillaribus vel lateralibus dense confertis, fasciculis vix involu- 
cratis, circiter 8-floris. 

A glabrous shrub, the branches verj' stout, rough, brownish 
or grayish, the ultimate ones about 5 mm in diameter, lenticel- 
late. Leaves opposite, thickly coriaceous, ovate to oblong-ovate, 
6 to 11 cm long, 3,5 to 6.5 cm wide, brown when dry and some- 
what shining on both surfaces, the lower a little paler than the 
upper, the apex obtuse, the base usually acute; lateral nerves 
about 7, very obscure or subobsolete, the reticulations entirely 
obsolete; petioles stout, about 5 mm long. Inflorescence of 
solitary, sessile, axillary or at the nodes, very dense, non-in- 
volucrate fascicles, about 8 flowers in each fascicle. Flowers 
sessile, subtended by a solitary bracteole which is reniform, 
rounded, about 2 mm wide and 1.5 to 2 mm long. Calyx globose 
or ovoid, 2 mm long, truncate. Corolla about 1.5 cm long, the 
tube 1.5 mm long, the lobes 6, linear, narrow, the reflexed part 
above the insertion of the stamens thick, obtuse, 4 mm long. 
Anthers linear-lanceolate, acuminate, sessile, 3.5 mm long. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Dahican River back of San Antonio, Bur. 
Sci. 1506It Ramos, June, 1912, host not indicated. 

A species apparently in the group with Loranthus haenkeanus PresI, 
in spite of the differences in the characters of the inflorescence in the 
species. If the fascicles were involucrate the species might well be placed 
in the section Lepiostegeres, but there is quite no indication of an involucre 
in the material examined. 

LORANTHUS FENICIS sp. nov. § Dendrophthoe. 

Frutex parasiticus, inflorescentiis exceptis glaber, ramis ramu- 
lisque teretibus; foHis altemis, ovatis, opacis, crasse coriaceis, 
usque ad 10 cm longis, acutis vel acuminatis, basi late rotundatis, 
nervis utrinque circiter 5, obscuris vel obsoletis; pedunculis 
solitariis, axillaribus, floribus umbellatim dispositis; floribus 
5-meris, circiter 3.3 cm longis, extus puberuiis, in triadibus 
dispositis, omnibus sessilibus. 

A species manifestly allied to Loranthus haenkeanus, differing 



282 ^^^6 Philippine Journal of Science lou 

in its few-flowered umbels and in its flowers all being sessile, the 
lateral ones of each triad not pedicelled. Branches stout, terete, 
grayish or reddish-brown, the branchlets grayish-brown, terete, 
rather slender, the internodes 1 to 3 cm long. Leaves alternate, 
thickly coriaceous, opaque and rather pale or brownish when dry, 
ovate, 5 to 10 cm long, 3.5 to 6 cm wide, the apex acute or acumi- 
nate, the base broadly rounded; lateral nerves usually about 5 
on each side of the midrib, obscure, sometimes obsolete ; petioles 
about 8 mm long. Umbels solitary, in the axils of leaves on the 
larger branches, gray-puberulent, the peduncles about 1.5 cm long, 
the primary umbellately arranged branches few, about 6 mm 
long, each bearing at its apex a triad of three sessile flowers, the 
subtending bracteoles triangular-ovate, acute, 2.5 mm long, 
puberulent. Calyx pubescent, narrowly obovoid, 4 mm long, the 
limb slightly produced, obscurely and broadly 5-toothed. Corolla 
puberulent, in bud cylindric, the tube about 6 mm long, the lobes 
5, about 1.5 mm wide, the part above the insertion of the stamens 
narrowly oblong, 6 to 7 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, acute. Fila- 
ments 4 to 5 mm long; anthers continuous, oblong, obtuse, 2 to 
2.5 mm in length. 

Mindanao, District of Davao, Baganga, Bur. Sci. 15852 Fenix, August 
20, 1912, the flowers green and purplish. 

LORANTHUS MARITIMUSsp. nov. § Dendrophthoe. 

Frutex epiphyticus inflorescentiis exceptis glaber; ramis 
ramulisque teretibus; foliis alternis oppositisque, oblongis, in 
siccitate pallidis, utrinque concoloribus, opacis, usque ad 8 cm 
longis, petiolatis, nervis obsoletis vel subobsoletis ; inflorescentiis 
e ramis vetustioribus, pedunculatis, umbellato-subcapitatis, 
pedunculatis ; floribus circiter 3.3 cm longis, 5-meris. 

A parasitic shrub glabrous except the inflorescence. Branches 
stout, terete, reddish-brown, the branchlets terete, slender, gray- 
ish, the ultimate internodes 2 mm in diameter or less, up to 3 
cm in length, frequently much shorter. Leaves oblong, alternate, 
opposite or subopposite, coriaceous, uniformly pale when dry, 
opaque, 5 to 8 cm long, 1.5 to 3 cm wide, the apex rounded or 
obtuse, the base acute; midrib prominent below, frequently 
evanescent below the apex, the lateral nerves entirely obsolete 
or very faint and about 3 on each side of the midrib, ascending ; 
petioles about 5 mm long. Inflorescence from the larger 
branches, lateral, not axillary, scattered along the internodes, 
the peduncles 1.5 to 2 cm long, all parts gray-puberulent. Pri- 
mary branches umbellately arranged at the apex of the pedun- 



IX. c, 3 Merrill: Noteworthy Philippine Plants 283 

cle, 3 mm long or less, stout, rather numerous, each bearing a 
terminal triad of 3 sessile flowers, the three bracteoles broadly 
ovate, obtuse, 1.5 mm long, connate below, the persistent calyces 
after the fall of the corollas appearing like a rather lax globose 
head. Calyx puberulent, narrowly obovoid, truncate, 3.5 mm 
long, the limb very slightly produced. Corolla cylindric in bud, 
3 cm long, purplish and green, puberulent externally, the lobes 
5, united below and forming a cylindric tube about 6 mm long, 
the lobes about 1 mm wide below, the reflexed part above the 
insertion of the stamens linear-oblong, obtuse, 7 mm long, 1 
mm wide. Filaments 6 mm long; anthers continuous, oblong, 
obtuse, 2.4 mm long. 

Mindanao, Province of Surigao, Tamano, Bur. Sci. 1582^ Fenix, August 
16, 1912, on trees along the seashore. 

A species manifestly in the same group with Loranthus haenkeanus Presl, 
but only distantly allied to that species. It is characterized by its inflores- 
cences being scattered along the older branches, not axillary, rather dense, 
and its flowers all sessile, the two lateral ones not at all pedicelled as in most 
of the forms in this group. 

LORANTHUS ALTERNIFOLIUS sp. nov. § Lepiostegeres? 

Frutex glaber, ramis ramulisque teretibus, tenuibus, brunneis, 
internodiis elongatis; foliis alternis, usque ad 11 cm longis, 
anguste oblongis ad oblongo-lanceolatis, subcoriaceis, nitidis, 
petiolatis, apice obtusis, basi acutis ; floribus 6-meris, axillaribus, 
fasciculatis, sessilibus, 2 cm longis, fasciculis in alabastro in 
bractea solitaria inclusis. 

A glabrous shrub, the branches elongated, slender, terete, 
smooth or somewhat striate, dark-brown when dry, the inter- 
nodes 3 to 9 cm long, the ultimate branchlets 1.5 mm in diameter. 
Leaves subcoriaceous, brittle when dry, olivaceous, of about the 
same color and shining on both surfaces, 7 to 11 cm long, 2 to 
3 cm wide, narrowly oblong to oblong-lanceolate, the apex 
rounded, the base gradually narrowed, acute ; lateral nerves very 
slender, obscure or subobsolete, 6 or 7 on each side of the midrib ; 
petioles 1 to 1.5 cm long. Flowers in sessile, axillary, solitary fas- 
cicles at the nodes, 9 sessile flowers in each fascicle, in bud entirely 
enveloped by a single, brown, coriaceous or subcoriaceous bract, 
which bursts irregularly and falls at anthesis. Bracteoles sub- 
tending the flowers one to each calyx, orbicular or reniform, 
about 2 mm long. Calyx 2 mm long and about 2.5 mm in 
diameter, truncate. Corolla yellow, 6-merous, 18 mm long, 
cylindric, slightly gibbous, more or less inflated, the lobes united 
below forming a 5 mm long tube, the free portions 2 mm wide 



284 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

below, gradually narrowed upwards to the acute apex, the parts 
above the insertion of the anthers lanceolate, 5 mm long. 
Anther sessile, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 4 mm long. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga opposite the Island of Olutanga, in 
forests, altitude 30 meters, For. Bur. 13295 Foxivorthy, DeMesa, & Villamil, 
May 17, 1912. 

A characteristic species probably belonging in the section Lepiostegerea, 
although the involucre enclosing the buds is composed of a single bract. 
Its comparatively narrow leaves which are rounded or obtuse at the apex 
and acute at the base, as well as its 9-flowered, axillary, sessile fascicles 
are its distinguishing features. 

LORANTHUS WORCESTERI sp. nov. § Macrosolen. 

Glaber, ramis ramulisque teretibus, griseis; foliis oppositis, 
sessilibus, anguste oblongis ad late ovatis, nitidis, obtusis, basi 
obtusis, late rotundatis, vel distincte late cordatis, nervis utrin- 
que 4 ad 8, laxis, irregularis, tenuibus ; inflorescentiis axillaribus, 
pedunculis solitariis (vel fasciculatis) , 3 ad 5 mm longis, 2-floris, 
floribus sessilibus, 6-meris, circiter 2 cm longis. 

A glabrous, parasitic shrub, the branches and branchlets terete, 
glabrous, light-gray, the bark slightly wrinkled when dry. 
Leaves opposite, sessile, exceedingly variable in size, narrowly 
oblong to broadly ovate, 6 to 11 cm long, 2 to 7 cm wide, pale 
when dry, shining on both surfaces, the apex obtuse or rounded, 
the base obtuse, broadly rounded, or broadly and distinctly cor- 
date ; nerves 4 to 8 on each side of the midrib, slender, irregular, 
anastomosing, the reticulations lax. Peduncles axillary, solitary 
or few in each axil, 3 to 5 mm long, each bearing at its apex 
two sessile flowers, each flower subtended by an ovate, obtuse, 
3 mm long bract and two similar but smaller, free, orbicular, 
1.5 mm long bracteoles. Calyx cylindric, about 7 mm long, the 
limb produced about 1.5 mm, slightly spreading, thin, truncate. 
Corolla pink and yellow, the lobes 6, very slightly united below, 
the buds cylindric, in anthesis more or less swollen above the 
base, lobes 6, about 1.5 cm long, 2.5 mm wide above the base, 
then narrowed to 1,5 mm at the insertion of the anthers, the 
produced part above the anthers narrowly oblong, obtuse or 
acute, very thick, 6 to 7 mm long, about 1.8 mm wide and thick. 
Anthers sessile, linear, 5 mm long. 

Mindanao, Bukidnon Subprovince, near Sumilao, Bur. Sci. 15673 Fenix, 
August, 1912. 

A species with much the floral and inflorescence characters of Lorantkus 
geminatus Merr., but not closely allied to that species, being at once distin- 
guishable by its very diversely shaped sessile leaves. Named in honor of the 
Honorable Dean C. Worcester, formerly Secretary of the Interior of the Phil- 



IX. c. 3 Merrill: Noteworthy Philippine Plants 285 

ippine Government, through whose invitation I was able to send a collector 
with him on his southern trip of inspection in 1912. 

LORANTHUS ELMERI sp. nov. § Macrosoleii. 

Frutex parasiticus, glaber, ramis ramulisque teretibus; foliis 
oblongo-ovatis, crassissime coriaceis, oppositis, breviter petiolatis, 
usque ad 14 cm longis, sursum angustatis, obtusis vel obscure 
acuminatis, basi acutis, nervis lateralibus obscuris, utrinque cir- 
citer 7; racemis brevissimis, paucifloris, axillaribus, solitariis 
vel fasciculatis, baud 1 cm longis; floribus 6-meris, circiter 1.8 
cm longis, basi bracteis bracteolisque 2 ornatis, pedicellis circiter 
1.5 mm longis. 

A parasitic shrub, quite glabrous, the branches and branchlets 
gray or grayish-brown, stout, terete. Leaves opposite, very 
thickly coriaceous, oblong-ovate, 8 to 15 cm long, 3.5 to 5 cm 
wide, brownish-olivaceous when dry, the upper surface shining, 
narrowed upward to the acute or obscurely acuminate apex, the 
base acute; lateral nerves very faint, about 6 on each side of the 
midrib ; petioles stout, 4 to 8 mm long. Inflorescence of axillary, 
solitary and fascicled, very short, few-flowered racemes, the 
racemes 1 cm long or less. Flow^ers 6-merous, their pedicels 1 
to 1.5 mm long, each bearing at its apex one, broadly ovate, acute, 
1.5 mm long bract and two smaller but similar bracteoles which 
are usually more or less connate. Calyx ovoid, about 3 mm 
long, truncate. Corolla 1.5 cm long, the tube about 6 mm 
long, 3.5 mm in diameter, somewhat inflated and obscurely 
angled, the lobes 6, rather abruptly narrowed, about 1 mm wide 
below the insertion of the stamen, the reflexed parts thickened 
upward, 7 mm long, acute or obtuse; filament about 3.5 mm 
long; anther continuous, 2 mm long. 

Palawan, Mount Pulgar, Elmer 12749 (type), 13138, March and May, 
1911, both distributed as Loranthus mirabilis Huerk & Muell.-Arg., a 
species that is quite different and which belongs in an entirely different 
section. 

The alliance of Loranthus elmeri is with L. ampullaceus Roxb. It is 
readily distinguished, however, by its very short racemes. 

LORANTHUS SERIATUS sp. nov. § Heteranthus. 

Frutex parasiticus glaber, ramis ramulisque teretibus, inter- 
nodiis elongatis; foliis oppositis, breviter petiolatis, oblongo- 
ovatis, coriaceis, opacis, usque ad 12 cm longis, apice breviter 
obtuseque acuminatis, basi acutis, nervis lateralibus obscuris, 
circiter 6 utrinque, subobsoletis ; floribus 5-meris, circiter 2,5 
cm longis, in triadibus breviter pedunculatis dispositis, triadibus 

126079 7 



286 ^^'^ Philippine Journal of Science \m 

in raniis seriatim dispositis et ad nodos f asciculatis ; petalis 
intus ad basim ligulatis. 

A parasitic glabrous shrub, the branches and branchlets 
terete, reddish-brown, smooth except where the flowers are 
borne, the internodes 10 to 15 cm long, the ultimate branchlets 
about 2 mm in diameter. Leaves opposite, coriaceous, oblong- 
ovate, 8 to 12 cm long, about 5 cm wide, greenish-olivaceous on 
both surfaces when dry, not shining, the apex shortly and obtusely 
acuminate, the base acute, sometime a little decurrent; lateral 
nerves slender, very obscure, nearly obsolete, about 6 on each 
side of the midrib; petioles 3 to 5 mm long. Flowers red, 
5-merous, the peduncles of the double triads stout, 2 mm long, 
fascicled at the nodes and also numerous ones seriately arranged, 
along one side of the branches along the internodes. Flowers 
6 on each peduncle, sessile in two triads, each flower subtended 
by a reniform-orbicular, rounded, obscurely pubescent, 2 mm 
long bracteole. Calyx cylindric, 3.5 to 4 mm long, the limb 
produced about 1 mm, truncate, minutely ciliate-pubescent. 
Buds cylindric. Petals 5, free, 1.8 mm wide below, 1.5 mm 
wide above, 2 to 2.2 cm long, the reflexed part above the insertion 
of the stamens 6 to 7 mm long, each petal with a membrana- 
ceous, reflexed, ovate, obtuse, 1 mm long, ligule-like organ on the 
inner side attached about 3 mm above the base. Filaments 
about 2 mm long; anthers continuous, linear, 3 to 4 mm long. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, Mount Pulongbato, Bur. Sci. 16^24 
Reillo, September 28, 1912. 

A very characteristic species, distinguishable by its peculiarly arranged 
flowers, the flowers sessile in double triads on very short peduncles which 
are fascicled at the nodes and serially arranged along one side of the 
internodes. The peculiar ligule-like growth on the inner surface of the 
petals shortly above the base is characteristic, both of the present species 
and of the very similar and closely allied Loranthus cauliflorus Merr. 
Loranthus seriatus is distinguished from L. cauliflorus by its very obscurely 
veined leaves and its flowers in double triads, that is, 6 flowers in two 
triads sessile at the apex of each peduncle, not with three flowers only as 
in the latter species. 

LORANTHUS FALCATI FOLIUS sp. nov. § Heteranthus. 

Frutex scandens, glaber, ramulis teretibus; foliis oppositis, 
usque ad 16 cm longis, brevissime petiolatis, oblongo-lanceolatis, 
leviter falcatis, coriaceis, opacis, acuminatis, basi acutis vel obtu- 
sis, nervis utrinque circiter 8, obscuris, subobsoletis ; floribus 
5-meris, ad nodos fasciculatis, sessilibus, circiter 2.5 cm longis, 
alabastro cylindraceo. 

A scandent, parasitic, glabrous shrub, the stems long-climbing 
on the host, the branches and branchlets terete, the latter reddish- 



IX, c, 3 Merrill: Noteworthy Philippine Plants 287 

brown or grayish, 3 mm in diameter or less, the internodes 5 to 
8 cm long. Leaves opposite, subsessile or very shortly petioled, 
oblong-lanceolate, 10 to 16 cm long, 3 to 6 cm w^ide, somewhat 
falcate, not shining, coriaceous, the apex acuminate, the base 
obtuse or acute, brownish or greenish when dry; lateral nerves 
subobsolete, about 8 on each side of the midrib, very obscure; 
petioles 2 mm long or less. Flowers 5-merous, axillary, sessile, 
fascicled, 12 or less at each node, red below, yellow above, the 
buds rather slender, cylindric, outside very obscurely pubescent 
with very short scattered hairs. Calyx 3.5 to 4 mm long, straight 
or somewhat curved, the limb produced about 2 mm, membrana- 
ceous, somewhat spreading, truncate, margins minutely ciliate- 
pubescent. Petals 5, quite free, 1.5 mm wide below, very 
slightly narrowed upward, the apex obtuse, the reflexed portion 
above the insertion on the stamens linear-oblong, about 8 mm 
long, 1 mm wide. Filaments 4 mm long; anthers continuous, 
linear, 2 mm long. 

Mindanao, Bukidnon Subprovince, Sumilao, on trees in forests, Bur. Sci. 
157U6 Fenix, August 3, 1912. 

A species well characterized by its scandent habit, its opposite, subsessile, 
subfalcate, obscurely nerved, coriaceous leaves, and its quite sessile, axillary, 
fascicled flowers. It is perhaps as closely allied to Loranthus cuernoaensis 
Elm. as to any other species, but is very different from that form. 

LORANTHUS M EDINILLICOLA sp. nov. § Heteranthus. 

Frutex scandens, parasiticus, inflorescentiis exceptis glaber; 
ramulis teretibus, tenuibus; fohis verticillatis, lanceolatis vel 
ovato-lanceolatis, coriaceis, acuminatis, usque ad 10 cm longis, 
nervis utrinque 4 vel 5, obscuris ; inflorescentiis axillaribus, soli- 
tariis, pedunculatis, subumbellatis, paucifloris; floribus 4-meris, 
circiter 3 cm longis. 

A slender, nearly glabrous, scandent, parasitic shrub, the 
branches and branchlets rather slender, terete, light-gray or 
brownish, mostly smooth, the ultimate branchlets 2 mm in 
diameter or less. Leaves whorled, usually 4 at each node, the 
internodes 4 to 8 cm long, the leaf -blades coriaceous, lanceolate 
or oblong-lanceolate, 6 to 10 cm long, 1 to 3.4 cm wide, narrowed 
below to the acute base and above to the rather slenderly acumi- 
nate apex, rather dull when dry; lateral nerves 4 or 5 on each 
side of the midrib, slender, obscure, ascending; petioles 4 to 8 
mm long. Inflorescence axillary, solitary, the peduncle slender, 
1.5 to 2 cm long, sparingly pubescent, bearing at its apex 4 or 
more subumbellately arranged branchlets, each branchlet bear- 
ing two, spicately arranged, sessile flowers, the branchlets pubes- 
cent, about 4 mm long. Flowers sessile, 4-merous, bright yellow 



The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

above, reddish toward the base, about 3 cm long, the basal 
bracteole narrowly ovate, 1 mm long or less. Calyx narrowly 
funnel-shaped, pubescent, about 3 mm long, the throat about 
2.5 mm wide, the limb produced, truncate, obscurely 4-toothed. 
Petals 4, entirely free, about 2.8 cm long, 2 mm wide, pubescent 
externally. Filaments 5 to 6 mm long; anthers continuous, 
narrowly oblong, obtuse, 3.5 mm long. Fruit not seen, said by 
the collector to be white. 

Luzon, Subprovince of Ifugao, Mount Polis, Bur. Sci. 198^2 McGregor, 
February 10, 1913, on MediniUa. 

Apparently most closely allied to Loranthus acutiis Engl., but with much 
larger flowers than that species. It also resembles L. polillensis C. B. Rob., 
in some respects, but has smaller leaves, and more numerous, pubescent 
flowers. 

OLACACEAE 

WORCESTERIANTHUS genus novum 

Flores unisexuales. Calyx parvus, 5-dentatus, vix auctus. 
Petala 5, angusta, puberula. Fl. s : Petala valvata. Stamina 
petala duplopluria, alternatim inaequalia, filamentis gracilis; 
antherae orbiculari-ovoidae, rimis intus dehiscentibus. Ovarium 
rudimentum cylindricum, elongatum, puberulum, Fl. 9 : Petala 
imbricata. Stamina vel staminodia nulla. Ovarium ovoideum, 
glabrum vel basi pubescens, 2-loculare, loculis 1-ovulatis, ovula 
pendula. Stigma sessile, breviter 2-lobata. Drupa ovoidea vel 
subovoidea, 2-locellata, carne crasse coriacea vel sublignosa, pu- 
tamine crustaceo. Arbor dioica, parva, glabra vel subglabra. 
Folia alterna, ovata vel oblongo-ovata, penninervia, integerrima. 
Flores parvi, axillari, breviter pedicellati, i numerosi, 9 subso- 
litari. 

WORCESTERIANTHUS CASEARIOIDES sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, usque ad 12 m alta, partibus junioribus floribus- 
que exceptis glabra; foliis alternis, glabris, ovatis ad oblongo- 
ovatis, chartaceis, in siccitate nitidis, pallidis, usque ad 15 cm 
longis, basi acutis vel subrotundatis, apice acuminatis, nervis 
utrinque circiter 5, distantibus, laxe anastomosantibus, promi- 
nentibus; floribus parvis, 5-meris, $ circiter 3 mm longis $ 
paullo longioribus; fructibus solitariis, glabris, circiter 1.5 cm 
longis, acutis. 

A small tree reaching a height of about 12 m, glabrous except 
the young branchlets and the flowers, dioecious. Branches gray, 
terete, slender, the young ones very obscurely angled, the growing 
tips finely grayish-puberulent. Leaves alternate, exstipulate. 



IX. c. 3 Merrill: Noteivorthy Pliilippine Plants 289 

ovate to oblong-ovate, chartaceous, 9 to 15 cm long, 4 to 7 cm 
wide, entire, the base slightly inequilateral, acute or somewhat 
rounded, the apex blunt-acuminate, the acumen broad, short, 
both surfaces shining when dry, rather pale and of about the 
same color, or the upper surface somewhat olivaceous; lateral 
nerves about 5 on each side of the midrib, very prominent on 
the lower surface, curved or curved-ascending, distant, promi- 
nently looped-anastomosing, the reticulations fine, distinct; peti- 
oles about 5 mm long. Flowers greenish-white, small, axillary, 
shortly pedicelled, the males numerous fascicled, the females 
solitary or subsolitary. Male flowers: Calyx shallowly cup- 
shaped, about 1.3 mm long, somewhat pubescent, shallowly and 
acutely 5-toothed, the teeth broad. Petals 5, free, valvate, 
alternating with the calyx-teeth, narrowly oblong, puberulent on 
both surfaces, acute or obtuse, about 3 mm long, 1.2 mm wide. 
Stamens 10, all fertile, 5 long ones alternating with 5 short ones, 
inserted in a single row on the rather obscure, ferruginous- 
pubescent disk; longer filaments 2.3 mm long, the shorter ones 
1.5 mm long, glabrous, slender; anthers broadly ovoid or orbic- 
ular-ovoid, 0.5 mm long. Rudimentary ovary stout, cylindric, 
puberulent, 2.5 mm long, truncate. Female flowers 5-merous, 
sohtary or subsolitary, their pedicels 2 mm long. Calyx about 
as in the males. Petals lanceolate, puberulent, imbricate, acute 
or somewhat acuminate, about 4 mm long, 1.6 mm wide. Rudi- 
mentary stamens or staminodes wanting. Ovary ovoid or 
narrowly ovoid, glabrous except the ferruginous-pubescent base, 
narrowed above to the sessile stigma, 2-celled, each cell with a 
solitary apical ovule. Stigma 2-lobed, curved or spreading, ses- 
sile, about 2 mm long. Fruit ovoid, acute, about 1.5 cm long, 
glabrous, the pericarp thick, very coriaceous or almost woody, the 
putamen crustaceous, 2-celled, cells 1-seeded. Mature seeds not 
seen. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, between San Antonio and Paete, Bur. Set. 
H9Jt3 (type), 165^1 Ramos, the former with male flowers, June, 1912, the 
latter with nearly mature fruits and few female flowers, September, 1912: 
Province of Cagayan, For. Bur. 18U36 Alvarez, February, 1909, in fruit. 

This apparently represents a very distinct generic type, and one pre- 
viously not described. It belongs in the Tribe Olaceae, and apparently 
near Ximenia Plum., and Scorodocarpus Becc, although not at all closely 
allied to either. The alternate leaves, dioecious flowers, the males fasci- 
cled and the females solitary, the 10 stamens, 5 short ones alternating with 
5 longer ones, and the absence of staminodes or reduced stamens in the 
female flowers are distinguishing characters. 

The first specimen received, in fruit, was tentatively referred by me 
to the Olacaceae, but later was transferred to the Flacoiirtaceae, but with 
no further attempt to determine it, on account of the similarity of its 



290 Tlie Philippine Journal of Science iftu 

leaves to a specimen named Erythrospermuin phytolaccoides Gardn., in 
the Herbarium of the Bureau of Science. The next coJlection received, 
with male flowers, that I have made the type, was hurridly determined and 
erroneously referred to Casearia solida Merr., which in leaf-characters and 
in the position and size of its flowers it rather closely resembles; the dupli- 
cates of this number were distributed as Casearia solida Merr. The next 
collection yielded female flowers and nearly full grown, but immature, 
fruits, and a study of all the available specimens shows that it is well 
worthy of being described as a new genus. There appears to be nothing 
in the Olacaceae that very closely approaches it, although there is no 
doubt whatever in my mind but that it properly belongs in this group. 

The genus is dedicated to the Honorable Dean C. Worcester, for many 
years Secretary of the Interior of the Philippine Government, in recogni- 
tion of his interest in and great services to the advancement of the scientific 
work in the Philippines. 

HERNANDIACEAE 

HERNANDIA Linnaeus 

HERNANDIA OVIGERA Linn. Amoen. Acad. 4 (1757) 125; Meissn. in DC. 
Prodr. 15' (1864) 262; F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 182. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, Mount Pulongbato, Bur. Sci. 16U2 
Reillo, Sept. 20, 1912. Camiguin de Mindanao, Bur. Sci. 17^24 Ramos, 
April, 1912. 

This species was based on Arbor ovigera Rumph. Herb. Amboin. 3: 103, 
pi. 123, and is characterized by its leaves not being peltate. In other 
respects it is very similar indeed to Hernaudia peltata Meissn., and it 
seems to be doubtful whether or not the two are really distinct. In the 
Philippines Hernandia peltata Meissn., is common and widely distributed 
along the seashore, and this seashore form apparently always has peltate 
leaves, although sometimes but slightly so, as in Copeland 13S1 from the 
strand at Tagalaya, Davao, Mindanao. At any rate, if the type of Her- 
nandia sonora L. be interpreted as the American species, which seems to 
be the logical course to follow, H. ovigera L. is the oldest name for the 
oriental form, should H. peltata Meissn. and H. ovigera L. be united. 
Hernandia ovigera L. has already been reported from the Philippines by 
F.-Villar, but the record has not previously been verified. 

Both specimens cited above are from the interior forests, not from the 
coast; Hernandia peltata Meissn. is confined to the beach forests. 

Malay Archipelago, Java to Amboina. 

ILLIGERA Blume 
ILLIGERA MEGAPTERA sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, inflorescentiis exceptis glaber; foliis 3-folio- 
latis, foliolis oblongo-ovatis ad ovato-ellipticis, coriaceis, nitidis, 
usque ad 15 cm longis, breviter acuminatis, basi late rotundatis, 
integris, nervis utrinque 5 vel 6, prominentibus ; fructibus 3.5 
cm longis, cum alis 10 ad 12 cm latis. 

Scandent, glabrous except the inflorescence, the stems 
terete, at least 5 mm diameter, dark-colored when dry, striate. 



IX, c, 3 Merrill: Noteworthy Philippine Plants 291 

Leaves 3-foliolatc, their petioles 9 to 12 cm long. Leaflets 
oblong-ovate to elliptic-ovate, coriaceous, entire, 13 to 15 cm 
long, 8 to 9 cm wide, apex shortly acuminate, base broadly 
rounded, pale-olivaceous when dry, both surfaces equally shining ; 
lateral nerves 5 or 6 on each side of the midrib, prominent, the 
reticulations distinct; petiolules 1.5 to 2 cm long. Flowers not 
seen, the infructescence at least 20 cm long, subferruginous- 
pubescent, the mature fruits 3.5 cm long, including the wings 10 
to 12 cm wide, the wings brown, shining, elliptic-ovate, broadly 
rounded, firmly chartaceous to subcoriaceous, 3.5 to 4 cm wide. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subproyince, Bur. Sci. 21511 Escritor, August, 1913, 
locally known as caba^aba. 

Very characteristic on account of its relatively large leaflets and its 
very large fruits, the broad long wings being rather remarkable. 

ILLIGERA RETICULATA sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, subglaber; foliis 3-foliolatis, foliolis coria- 
ceis, late ovatis, acuminatis, basi rotundatis vel leviter cordatis, 
usque ad 11 cm longis, nervis utrinque 5 vel 6, subtus cum 
reticulis prominentibus ; fructibus 3.5 cm longis, 3-alatis, alis 
lateralibus coriaceis, nitidis, late ovatis, rotundatis, circiter 4 
cm longis, altero 1 ad 1.5 cm longis latisque. 

A scandent shrub, nearly glabrous (flowers unknown). 
Leaves 3-foliolate, the petioles about 8 cm long; leaflets broadly 
ovate, coriaceous, about 11 cm long, slightly acuminate, entire, 
base rounded or somewhat cordate, pale when dry, the lower 
surface bearded in the axils; lateral nerves 5 or 6 on each side 
of the midrib, prominent, the reticulations lax, also prominent; 
petiolules 2 cm long. Panicles ample, in fruit glabrous. Fruits 
about 3.5 cm long, 3-winged, the lateral wings broadly ovate, 
coriaceous, rounded, shining, about 3.5 cm long and 3 cm wide, 
the other one much reduced, 1 to 1.5 cm long and wide and 
confined to the lower one-half of the fruit, the opposite side 
with a mere keel, not at all winged. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, For. Bur. 7?fil Curran 
& Merritt, October 24, 1907, on trees, open cogon slopes, altitude 160 meters. 

A species well characterized by its prominently reticulate leaves and its 
comparatively large, 3-winged fruits, the lateral wings very large, the 
other very much reduced, and the fourth represented by a mere ridge or 
keel. 

ILLIGERA ELLIPTIFOLIA sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens inflorescentiis exceptis glaber; foliis trifolio- 
latis, foliolis ellipticis, 7 ad 13 cm longis, utrinque rotundatis, 
in siccitate pallidis, nitidis, nervis utrinque circiter 6; infruc- 
tescentiis laxis, amplis, circiter 20 cm longis, dense olivaceo- vel 



292 The Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

subfeiTugineo-pubesccntibus; fructibus junioribus circiter 8 cm 
longis, bialatis, alis chartaceis, circiter 2 cm longis, ovatis, 
rotundatis. 

A scandent shrub, glabrous except the inflorescence. Stems 
terete, about 5 mm in diameter, nearly black when dry. Leaves 
3-foliolate, the petioles up to 12 cm long; leaflets entire, sub- 
coriaceous, elliptic, 7 to 13 cm long, 4 to 7.5 cm wide, rounded at 
both ends, pale and somewhat shining when dry, the petiolules 
1 to 2.5 cm long; lateral nerves about 6 on each side of the midrib. 
Inflorescence lax, subpyramidal, about 20 cm long, the branches 
few, scattered, the lower ones up to 9 cm long, all parts rather 
densely olivaceous- or subferruginous-pubescent with short hairs. 
F'lowers unknown. Fruits (immature) about 3 cm long, 
2-winged, the wings rather thin, ovate, rounded, about 2 cm 
long. 

Mindanao, Agrusan SubprOvince, in forests along streams southeast of 
Nasipit, altitud about 20 meters, For. Bur. 20571 Miranda, September, 1913. 

Well characterized by its lax, rather densely pubescent panicles, its two- 
winged fruits, and its elliptic leaflets. 

ILLIGERA CARDIOPHYLLA sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, glaber (floribus ignotis) ; foliis 3-foliolatis, 
foliolis late ovatis, coriaceis, 9 ad 12 cm longis, base late 
rotundatis cordatisque, apice late, abrupte, obtuse acuminatis; 
fructibus 3 cm longis, 4-alatis, alis coriaceis, late rotundatis, 
glabris, lateralibus 3.5 cm longis, ceteris triplo brevioribus. 

A scandent glabrous shrub (flowers unknown). Branches 
terete, black when dry, 4 to 5 mm in diameter. Leaves 3-foIio- 
late, the petioles 8 to 10 cm long; leaflets broadly ovate, coria- 
ceous, 9 to 12 cm long, nearly or quite as wide, olivaceous and 
somewhat shining when dry, base broadly rounded, rather 
prominently cordate, apex abruptly, shortly, and obtusely acu- 
minate; lateral nerves 5 to 6 on each side of the midrib, the 
reticulations lax, not prominent; petiolules 1.5 to 2 cm long. 
Panicles in fruit 15 cm long, glabrous or nearly so; fruits 
glabrous, 4-winged, about 3 cm long, the lateral wings coria- 
ceous, rounded, broadly ovate, about 3.5 cm long, the other two 
about one-third as long as the lateral, ones. 

Babuyanes Islands, Camiguin, Bur. Sci. 4082 Fenix, June 28, 1907, in 
thickets near old clearings. 

The characteristic features of this species are its broadly ovate, rather 
prominently cordate leaves and its comparatively large, 4-winged fruits. 

(To be concluded) 

[Vol. IX, No. 2, including pages 97 to 189, was issued June 23, 1914] 



t/tv 



THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

C. Botany 



Vol. IX AUGUST, 1914 No. 4 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY PHILIPPINE PLANTS, X 

By E. D. Merrill * 

{From the Botanical Section of the Biological Laboratory, Bureau of 

Science, Manila, P. I.) 

( Concluded ) 
RUTACEAE 

ATALANTIA Correa 
ATALANTIA MARITIMA sp. nov. 

Species A. distichae (Blanco) Merr. affinis, differt foliis ellip- 
ticis baud prominente acuminatis, margine - leviter crenulatis 
vix integris. 

An unarmed shrub or small tree 2 to 6 m in height, glabrous 
except the inflorescence, or the younger branchlets sometimes 
slightly pubescent. Branches terete, slender, usually reddish- 
brown when dry, the branchlets greenish or straw-colored and 
more or less angled or compressed near the nodes. Leaves 
alternate, subcoriaceous or coriaceous, elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 
shining, rather pale when dry and of nearly the same color 
on both surfaces, 5 to 10 cm long, 2.5 to 6 cm wide, subequally 
narrowed at both ends, the base acute, the apex obtuse and dis- 
tinctly retuse, not gradually narrowed to an acumen, the margins 
above distinctly but distantly crenulate, not entire, glandular- 
punctate beneath; lateral nerves very numerous, close; petioles 
5 to 10 mm long. Panicles axillary and terminal, 3 to 6 cm long, 
pubescent, many-flowered, narrow, the lower branches 2 cm long 
or less, the panicles usually larger in fruit and up to 11 cm in 
length. Flowers 5-merous. Calyx pubescent, cup-shaped, about 

* Associate Professor of Botany, University of the Philippines, Manila, 
P. L 

129553 293 



294 The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

3 mm in diameter, 5-lobed, the lobes orbicular-reniform, rounded, 
about 2 mm long and somewhat wider than long, pubescent. 
Petals 5, about 6 mm long, glandular-punctate, oblong-obovate, 
rounded. Stamens 10, 2-seriate; filaments flattened, free, the 
longer ones about 5 mm long, the shorter 4 mm in length ; anthers 
ovoid, rounded at both ends, 1.3 mm long. Disk annular, 
surrounding the base of the ovary. Ovary glabrous, ovoid or 
globose; style thick, cylindric. Fruit globose, yellow, glabrous, 
about 8 mm in diameter, fleshy, with a single seed. 

Apo Island, Mindoro Strait, Bur. Sci. 178 Bermejos (type), November, 

1905. TiCAO, For. Bur. 1060 Clark, May, 1904. Panay, Capiz, Copeland 
107, January, 1904. Bohol, Tagbilaran, Bur. Sci. 1278 McGregor, July, 

1906. Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, Port Banga, For. Bur. H69, 9270 
Withford & Hutchinson, February, 1908. Palawan, For. Biir. 3796 Curran, 
February, 1906, Bur. Sci. 623 Foxworthy, March, 1906. 

The species is manifestly closely allied to Atalantia disticha (Blanco) 
Merr., from which it may be easily distinguished by its very differently 
shaped leaves vi^hich are not gradually narrowed upward to an acuminate 
apex and which are distinctly crenulate, not entire. All the specimens are 
indicated as growing in thickets or forests at the edge of the beach, on 
beach-cliffs, or near mangrove swamps. The Visayan name in Ticao is 
indicated by Clark as carucabagao. 

CLAUSENA Burmann 
CLAUSENA GRANDIFOLIA sp. nov. 

Frutex 2 ad 3 ^n altus, vix aromaticus, glaber vel subglaber; 
foliis usque ad 40 cm longis, foliolis 11 ad 15, chartaceis vel 
subcoriaceis, 9 ad 15 cm longis, oblongo-ovatis ad obiongis, 
inaequilateralibus, acuminatis; paniculis circiter 20 cm longis 
angustis, leviter pubescentibus ; floribus parvis, 5-meris; fruc- 
tibus globosis, carnosis, 7 ad 10 mm diametro. 

A shrub 2 to 3 m high, glabrous except the slightly puberulent 
younger parts and the inflorescence, not aromatic. Branches 
terete, stout, brownish-gray. Leaves alternate, 25 to 40 cm long, 
the petioles and rachis minutely puberulent, becoming glabrous ; 
leaflets 11 to 15, alternate, oblong-ovate to oblong, the larger 
ones up to 15 cm long and 6 cm wide, the smaller ones about 
10 cm long and 3 to 4 cm wide, those in the upper part of the 
rachis longer than the lower ones, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, 
strongly inequilateral, entire, acuminate, base rounded to acute, 
rather pale, shining, and of about the same color on both sur- 
faces when dry ; lateral nerves 7 to 9 on each side of the midrib, 
prominent, distant, irregular, anastomosing, the reticulations 
lax; petiolules about 3 mm long. Panicle terminal, narrowly 
pyramidal, about 20 cm long, somewhat puberulent, the lower 



IX, c, 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 295 

branches 7 cm long or less, the upper gradually shorter. Flowers 
apparently numerous, somewhat crowded at the apices of the 
branchlets, 5-merous, the pedicels very short. Calyx shallow, 
1.5 mm in diameter, 5-lobed, lobes broadly ovate, acute. Petals 
5, imbricate, elliptic-ovate, 2.5 mm long, glandular, glabrous. 
Stamens 10, somewhat 2-seriate; anthers oblong, 1 to 1.2 mm 
long, much longer than the filaments which are somewhat 
enlarged below. Ovary cylindric, prominently rugose, glabrous, 
5-celled. Fruit globose, fleshy, up to 1 cm in diameter, 
with from 1 to 3 seeds; seeds about 7 mm long, the cotyledons 
thick, plano-convex. 

Palawan, Mount Capoas, Merrill 9544, April 21, 1913, on talus slopes, 
steep forested ridge, altitude about 800 meters. 

A species well characterized by its unusually large leaves and leaflets. 

EVODIA Forster 
EVODIA LAXIRETA sp. nov, 

Frutex vel arbor parva, glabra; foliis 3-foliolatis, foliolis 
coriaceis vel subcoriaceis, nitidis, anguste oblongo-obovatis, usque 
ad 12 cm longis, 3 ad 5 cm latis, obtusis, basi sensim angustatis, 
cuneatis; nervis lateralibus utrinque circiter 10, prominentibus, 
reticulis laxis, distinctis; inflorescentiis in axillis superioribus, 
anguste paniculatis, circiter 5 cm longis; coccis 1 vel 2, ovoldeis 
vel ellipsoideis, circiter 4 mm longis. 

A shrub or small tree, quite glabrous (flowers not seen) ; 
branches terete, pale-brownish, shining, rather stout, wrinkled 
when dry. Leaves 3-foliolate, the petioles 2.5 to 5 cm long; 
leaflets narrowly oblong-obovate, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, 
when dry prominently shining and of about the same color on both 
surfaces, 9 to 12 cm long, 3 to 5 cm wide, entire, the apex obtuse, 
below gradually narrowed to the acute or cuneate base; lateral 
nerves about 10 on each side of the midrib, prominent, anas- 
tomosing, the reticulations lax, the nerves and reticulations 
about equally prominent on both surfaces; petioles about 1.5 cm 
long. Panicles solitary, in the upper axils, narrowly pyramidal, 
about 5 cm long, shortly peduncled, the branches few, the lower 
ones 1.5 cm long or less. Fruit of 1 or 2 cocci, the cocci ovoid to 
ellipsoid, rounded, about 4 mm long. 

Mindanao, Bukidnon Subprovince, Bur. Sci. 21407 Escritor, July 27, 
1913, locally known as pamintang gubat. 

Thus species may prove to belong to the genus Melicope when the flowers 
are known. In general it resembles Melicope triphylla (Lam.) Merr., but 
differs in its thicker leaves which are prominently and laxly reticulate 
on both surfaces. 



296 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science im 

EVODIA CAMIGUINENSIS sp. nov. 

Arbor parva partibus junioribus inflorescentiisque villosis; 
foliis trifoliolatis, foliolis anguste oblongis, anguste oblongo- 
obovatis, vel oblongo-oblanceolatis, utrinque angustatis, apice 
acuminatis, usque ad 9 cm longis, nitidis, glabris, vel subtus ad 
costa parce villosis; inflorescentiis axillaribus, paniculatis, 
pallide subdense villosis, quam folia multo brevioribus. 

A small tree, the branches light-gray, shining, glabrous, sub- 
terete or very obscurely 4-angled, the younger parts slightly 
villous. Leaves 3-foliolate, their petioles 1 to 3.5 cm long, 
sparingly villous, becoming nearly glabrous, glandular; leaflets 
narrowly oblong, narrowly oblong-obovate or oblong-oblanceo- 
late, chartaceous or submembranaceous, green and shining 
when dry, of nearly the same color on both surfaces, 6 to 9 
cm long, 1.5 to 3 cm wide, narrowed at both ends, the apex 
rather distinctly acuminate, the base acute, the upper surface 
quite glabrous, the lower one glabrous or slightly villous along 
the midrib, prominently glandular-punctate with very numerous, 
small, dark-colored glands; petiolules 3 to 5 mm long; lateral 
nerves about 12 on each side of the midrib, very slender, anas- 
tomosing, distinct but not prominent. Panicles axillary, nar- 
rowly pyramidal, rather prominently villous-pubescent with 
pale hairs, 5 to 7 cm long, open, rather lax, the branches spread- 
ing, the lower ones 2 cm long or less, the upper ones gradually 
shorter. Female flowers: Pedicels 1.5 to 2 mm long, pubescent. 
Sepals 4, oblong-ovate obtuse, pubescent, about 1.2 mm long. 
Petals 4, oblong, obtuse, about 2.4 mm long, 1.2 wide. Stami- 
nodes 4, very slender, 1 mm long. Ovary densely villous; style 
slender, 1.5 mm long, villous below. Male flowers and fruits 
not seen. 

Camiguin de Mindanao, Bur. Sci. lJf66A Ramos, April, 1912. 

A species distinguishable by its rather narrow leaflets, but more espe- 
cially by its open, narrowly pyramidal panicles which are prominently 
villous with pale hairs. It has somewhat the appearance of the Asiatic 
Evodia pteleaefolia (Champ.) Merr., but is quite distinct from that species. 

EVODIA VILLAMILII sp. nov. 

Arbor alta, glabra, gemmis inflorescentiisque exceptis glabra; 
foliis 3-foliolatis, foliolis subcoriaceis, oblongis ad oblongo- 
ellipticis, usque ad 22 cm longis, in siccitate pallidis, breviter 
acuminatis, basi angustatis, plus minusve decurrento-acuminatis, 
subsessilibus vel brevissimme petiolulatis, nervis utrinque cir- 
citer 20, prominentibus ; inflorescentiis axillaribus, 5 ad 8 cm 
longis, breviter pedunculatis, dense multifloris, floribus rosaceis, 
4-meris, circiter 5 mm longis. 



IX. c, 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 297 

A tree about 20 m high, glabrous except the buds and the 
inflorescence. Branches stout, oHvaceous. Leaves opposite, 
their petioles 5 to 10 cm long, the leaflets 3. oblong to oblong- 
elliptic, or sometimes narrowly elliptic-obovate, subcoriaceous, 
pale and somewhat shining when dry, 15 to 22 cm long, 6 to 12 
cm wide, the apex somewhat acuminate, the acumen short, the 
base narrowed, usually somewhat decurrent-acuminate, sessile or 
the petiolules very short; lateral nerves about 20 on each side of 
the midrib, prominent. Inflorescence of solitary, axillary, 
densely many flowered, peduncled, somewhat pubescent cymes 5 
to 8 cm long. 6 to 11 cm in diameter, all parts more or less gray- 
pubescent. Flowers pink, their pedicels pubescent, 5 mm long. 
Sepals 4, orbicular-reniform, rounded, 1.5 mm in diameter. 
Petals 4, pink, ovate to ovate-elliptic, acute, 5 mm long, 3 mm 
wide, appressed-pubescent inside. Stamens 4 ; filaments 6 to 
7 mm long, glabrous, the upper 1 mm much narrowed and 
abruptly inflexed ; anthers versatile, oblong, 2 mm long. Ovary 
deeply 4-lobed, densely villous, the cells 2-ovuled ; style glabrous, 
6 mm long; stigma punctiform. Cymes in fruit about 7 cm in 
diameter, rather dense, the cocci cartilaginous, about 5 mm long, 
the seeds jet black, shining, ellipsoid, about 3 mm long. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, For. Bur. 20653 (type), 
S0880 Villamil, October, 1913, February, 1914, in forests, altitude 300 to 
350 meters, the former in flower, the latter in fruit and from the same 
tree; also C. F. Baker Uh^, November, 1912, detached inflorescence only. 

A very striking species not closely allied to any other known Philippine 
form, readily recognizable by its short, dense, hemispheric, many flowered, 
short-peduncled cymes, the flowers retaining their pink color long after 
being dried. 

EVODIA TERN ATA (Blanco) comb. nov. 

Orixa ternata Blanco Fl. Filip. (1S37) 62, ed. 2 (1845) 45, ed. 3, 1: 84. 

Evodia robusta F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 34, non Hook. f. 

Evodia triphijUa Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 68, non DC. 

For this Philippine form that has been confused with two different 
species, Evodia robusta Hook. f. and E. triphylla DC, it appears necessary 
to establish a new name, for it is apparently a distinct and valid species. 
I have rather arbitrarily typified the species by Blanco's Orixa ternata, 
transferring his specific name to the proper genus. It is, however, impos- 
sible definitely to determine whether or not the material referred here, 
and below described, is really the species Blanco described, due to his im- 
perfect description. So far as his description goes, it applies, not only in 
the characters ascribed by him to the species, but also in its time of 
flowering. It is, moreover, the only form known to me to which Blanco's 
Orixa ternata can be referred. F.-Villar's reduction of Orixa ternata to 
Evodia robusta Hook. f. is manifestly incorrect, for the latter species does 
not occur in the Philippines. The following description is typified by Lei- 
berg 6133. 



298 ^^'^ Philippine Joiwnal of Science i9u 

A shrub or small tree 2 to 4 m high, glabrous except the in- 
florescence and the younger parts. Branches rather stout, 
smooth, more or less compressed, usually brownish when dry, 
the growing tips more or less pubescent. Leaves opposite, 
3-foliolate, their petioles 4 to 9 cm long; leaflets chartaceous, 10 
to 18 cm long, 5 to 9 cm wide, elliptic, oblong, or oblong-obovate, 
of about the same color on both surfaces, shining when dry, oli- 
vaceous or yellowish-brown, the apex distinctly acuminate, the 
base acute; lateral nerves about 15 on each side of the midrib, 
rather slender, distinct, anastomosing ; petiolules 3 to 8 mm long. 
Panicles axillary, narrowly pyramidal, slightly pubescent, 
about 9 cm long, the branches distant, spreading, the lower 
ones about 2 cm long on staminate inflorescences, on female 
ones, in fruit, the panicles up to 15 cm long, and the lower 
branches 5 cm in length. Male flowers: Pedicels short. Sepals 
4, slightly pubescent, orbicular-ovate, obtuse, about 1 mm long. 
Petals 4, elliptic-oblong, acute, 2.5 mm long, about 1.5 mm wide, 
glabrous. Stamens 4; filaments 2.5 to 3 mm long; anthers 
elliptic-oblong, 1.2 mm long. Rudimentary ovary densely villous. 
Female flowers not seen. Cocci subellipsoid, 5 mm long, the 
shining black seeds 2.5 to 3 mm in diameter. 

Luzon, Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles, Leiberg 6133, July, 1904, 
with d" flowers, For. Bur. 2055 Borden, For. Bur. H.7U Ahem's collector, 
both in fruit, August, 1904: Province of Rizal, Bur. ScL 13601 Ramos, 
August, 1911, in fruit: Province of Cagayan, Claveria, Bur. Sci. 10732 
McGregor, August, 1909, with immature c? flowers. 

The species is perhaps as closely allied to Evodia glabra Blume as to 
any other, but has quite different leaves and venation. It resembles quite 
closely the Asiatic material referred to Evodia pteleaefolia (Champ.) Merr., 
but is specifically distinct. 

EVODIA SUBCAUDATA sp. nov. 

Species quoad foliis inflorescentiisque E. tematae (Blanco) 
Merr. simillima differt foliolis subcaudato-acuminatis, nervis 
lateralibus magis numerosis, floribus hermaphroditis. 

A shrub or small tree the branches, branchlets, inflorescences, 
petioles and lower surfaces of the leaflets on the midribs and 
lateral nerves rather softly pubescent with short grayish hairs. 
Branches and branchlets terete, or the tips of the latter a little 
compressed. Leaves opposite, 3-foliolate, their petioles 4 to 9 cm 
long, those of the same pair of leaves unequal in length. Leaflets 
membranaceous, oblong to oblong-elliptic, or obovate-elliptic, 
subequally narrowed to the acute base and to the slenderly sub- 
caudate-acuminate apex, the acumen 1 to 1.5 cm long, the termi- 
nal leaflet up to 15 cm long and 6 cm wide, the lateral ones 



IX. c. 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 299 

somewhat smaller, all entire, the upper surfaces smooth, glabrous, 
shining, the lower slightly paler, pubescent on the midrib and 
lateral nerves, minutely glandular-punctate; lateral nerves 17 to 
20 on each side of the midrib, prominent, anastomosing, the retic- 
ulations slender, rather lax ; petiolules 2 to 3 mm long. Panicles 
axillary, pubescent, solitary, about 8 cm long, narrowly pyramidal, 
the lower branches 2.5 cm long or less, densely many flowered. 
Flowers 4-merous, perfect, their pedicels 1 to 1.2 mm long, the 
bracteoles less than 0.5 mm in length. Sepals ovate, acute, pubes- 
cent, about 0.8 mm long. Petals oblong, obtuse or acute by the 
inflexed tips, 2 mm long. Stamens 4 ; filaments 2 mm long, the 
oblong anthers 1 mm in length. Ovary depressed-globose, 
4- lobed, minutely pubescent, the cells 1-ovuled; style 2 mm long. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, Bur. Sci. 15922 Fenix, August, 1912. 

A species quite similar in general appearance to the Philippine Evodia 
ternata (Blanco) Merr., redescribed above, and probably most closely 
allied to that form, differing in some vegetative details, much more pubes- 
cent, more slenderly acuminate leaflets with more numerous nerves, and 
especially in its perfect, not dioecious flowers. As to the Asiatic forms 
it is apparently most closely allied to Evodia pteleae folia (Champ.) Merr., 
but is abundantly distinct. 

LUNASIA Blanco 
LUNASIA MOLLIS sp. nov. 

Species L. amarae affinis, differt partibus junioribus inflores- 
centiis foliisque subtus molliter stellato-pubescentibus. 

A shrub or small tree, the branchlets stout, yellowish-brown, 
densely stellate-pubescent with short, yellowish-brown hairs, the 
same type of indumentum on the inflorescence, petioles, and lower 
surfaces of the leaves. Leaves oblong-obovate, subcoriaceous, 18 
to 24 cm long, 6 to 10 cm wide, entire, the upper surface green, 
shining, glabrous except for the more or less stellate-pubescent 
midrib, the lower surface pale, rather densely stellate-pubescent, 
prominently glandular-punctate, the apex rounded, obtuse, or 
very obscurely, broadly, and obtusely acuminate, narrowed below 
to the abruptly rounded base; lateral nerves 15 to 17 on each side 
of the midrib, prominent, spreading, anastomosing, the reticula- 
tions rather lax ; petioles 4 to 5 cm long ; inflorescence a very 
narrow panicle, solitary, axillary, denselj' stellate-pubescent, 7 to 
15 cm long, none of the branches (in young bud) exceeding 1 cm 
in length, but perhaps longer in age. Young buds densely stel- 
late-pubescent, globose. Open flowers and fruits not seen. 

Cebu, Limusan, Bur. Sci. 11026 Ramos, on dry hills, March 14, 1912. 
This proposed new species, although represented by immature material, 
certainly belongs in the genus Lunasia, and is so different from our common 



300 ^^'^ Philippine Jomiial of Science 1914 

and variable Lunasia amara Blanco, that I have no hesitation whatever 
in describing it as new. Lunasia amara Blanco is distinctly lepidote, not 
at all stellate-pubescent. L. mollis may be more closely allied to L. babu- 
yanica than to L. amara, for L, babuyanica is more or less stellate-pubescent, 
although not all to the degree of L. mollis; there are also vegetative 
differences. 

LUNASIA OBTUSIFOLIA sp. nov. 

Species L. amarae afRnis differ! foliis apice late rotundatis vel 
obtusis, vix acuminatis, baseque distinct cordatis vix acutis. 

A shrub, the young branches, petioles, and inflorescence densely 
pale-lepidote. Leaves oblong-obovate, membranaceous, shining, 
of nearly the same color on both surfaces or the lower one a 
little paler than the upper when dry, 8 to 17 cm long, 4 to 8 cm 
wide, entire or the upper part very obscurely undulate, the apex 
broadly rounded or obtuse, narrowed from about the middle or 
somewhat above to the distinctly cordate base, the base 1 to 
1.5 cm wide, the lobes rounded, the sinus narrow, shallow, both 
surfaces with few, scattered, pale, lepidote scales when young, 
in age glabrous or nearly so, glandular-punctate; lateral nerves 
up to 15 on each side of the midrib, spreading, prominent, 
slenderly anastomosing, the reticulations slender, lax, not prom- 
inent; petioles 3 to 6 cm long. Male panicles up to 30 cm in 
length, narrow, their branches few, the lower ones up to 3 cm 
in length, the flowers straw-yellow, in scattered, small, globose 
heads. Sepals about 0.5 mm long. Petals oblong-ovate, acute 
or acuminate, about 2 mm long. Filaments about 0.5 mm long. 
Female flowers and fruits not seen. 

BOHOL, Tagbilaran, on beach cliffs, Bur. Sci. 1273 McGregor, July 12, 
1906. 

A species decidedly similar to and manifestly very closely allied to 
Lunasia amara Blanco, differing in its broadly rounded or obtuse, not 
acuminate leaves which are also distinctly cordate and not acute at the 
base; another distinguishing character is its elongated male panicles, some 
of which greatly exceed the leaves in length, while in Lunasia amara 
Blanco the panicles are shorter than the leaves. 

LUNASIA MACROPHYLLA sp. nov. 

Species L. amarae affinis, differt foliis multo majoribus, usque 
ad 45 cm longis, coriaceis, integerrimis, nervis usque ad 45 
utrinque. 

A shrub about 2 m high, the younger parts, petioles, and in- 
florescence densely pale-lepidote. Leaves pale when dry, coria- 
ceous, shining and of about the same color on both surfaces, the 
upper surface glabrous, minutely and obscurely beaded along the 
reticulations, the lower surface very sparingly lepidote, the apex 



IX, c, 4 Meti'ill: Philippine Plants, X 301 

prominently acuminate, narrowed from the upper two-thirds to 
the acute or abruptly obtuse base, the margins quite entire; 
lateral nerves, at least on larger leaves, up to 45 on each side 
of the midrib, very prominent, faintly anastomosing near the 
margins, the reticulations slender, not very prominent; petioles 
stout, thickened at their apices, about 10 cm long. Male pani- 
cles axillary, in young bud narrow, spike-like, the linear bracts 
about 5 mm long. Open flowers and fruits not seen. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, Port Banga, For. Bur. 9299 Whitford 
& Hutchinson, January 7, 1908, in dipterocarp forests, altitude about 50 
meters. 

A species distinguishable by its very large, quite entire., coriaceous leaves 
which have about 45 pairs of very prominent lateral nerves. 

LUNASIA NIGROPUNCTATA sp. nov. 

Species L. amarae simillima et afRnis, differt foliis subtus valde 
nigro-punctatis, capsulis vix rostratis. 

A shrub about 4 m high, the branches, branchlets, petioles, 
and inflorescences densely pale-lepidote, somewhat shining. 
Leaves subcoriaceous, oblong-oblanceolate to narrowly obovate- 
oblancolate, 22 to 25 cm long, 5.5 to 6.5 cm wide, rather gradually 
narrowed from above the middle to the acute or somewhat obtuse 
base, the apex broadly blunt-acuminate, the margins irregularly 
undulate or slightly repand, the upper surface dark-olivaceous 
when dry, shining, glabrous, or with scattered lepidote scales 
along the midrib, the lower surface much paler, with scattered 
lepidote scales, and with numerous, black, shining, round glands 
which are distinct to the naked eye, 1 to 4 glands to each ultimate 
reticulation; lateral nerves about 25 on each side of the midrib, 
prominent, anastomosing; petioles 5 to 6 cm long. Inflorescences 
axillary, solitary, apparently narrowly paniculate, in fruit 6 
cm long or less. Capsules usually of three cocci, by abortion 
sometimes reduced to two, rarely to one, densely lepidote, pale, 
shining, the individual cocci obovoid, base rounded, apex trun- 
cate, about 12 mm long, 9 to 10 mm wide across the top, concen- 
trically wrinkled when dry, the outer corner scarcely rostrate, or 
very shortly so. 

Luzon, Province of Tayabas, Baler, Bur. Sci. 21188 Escritor, June, 1913. 

A species manifestly closely allied to Lunasia amara Blanco which it 
strongly resembles, but from which it differs in its rather remarkable black 
glandular-punctate leaves and in its scarcely rostrate capsules. In Lunasia 
amara, while the leaves are glandular-punctate, the glands are never black 
and shining as in the present species, while the capsules are very promi- 
nently rostrate on the upper outer angle of each coccus. 



302 ^''^ Philippine Journal of Science im 

LUNASIA AMARA Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 783. 

This species is common in forests and of very wide distribution in the 
Philippines. It is exceedingly variable in its vegetative characters, but 
seems to be decidedly constant in floral and fruit characters. The normal 
form has nearly entire leaves, usually distinctly, often prominently, acumi- 
nate. In his original description Blanco describes the leaves as "serpen- 
teadas," which is best translated as undulate, and many of our specimens 
show this character. The extreme repand form, however, is so distinct, 
that were no intergrades present most botanists would not hesitate to 
describe it as new. I had even written up a diagnosis of the form as a 
new species, but distinct intergrades being present, and no characters other 
than vegetative ones being detected by which to distinguish the forms, I 
have considered it best to indicate the repand-leaved type as a variety. 

Var. RE PAN DA var. nov. 

A typo differt f oliis prominente undulato-repandis vel repandis. 

Luzon, Province of Cagayan, Bur. Sci. 7S2B Ramos: Province of Nueva 
Vizcaya, Bur. Sci. 11264, 1118U McGregor, For. Bur. 11,876 Darling, For. 
Bur. 15825 Curran & Merritt. Mindanao, District of Davao, B^ir. Sci. 
15842 Fenix, August, 1912 (type). 

The first two specimens cited have very large leaves, up to 45 cm in 
length, but the others have medium-sized or small leaves, those on the 
type being less than 15 cm in length. 

LUVUNGA Hamilton 

LUVUNGA SCAN DENS (Roxb.) Hamilt. in Wall. Cat. (1832) no. 6382. 

Limonia scandens Roxb. Fl. Ind. 2 (1832) 380. 

Palawan, Malampaya Bay, Binaloan, Merrill 9405, May, 1913, forested 
slopes, altitude 20 meters. 

India to the Malay Peninsula and Indo-China; new to the Philippines. 

MELIACEAE 
AGLAIA Loureiro 
AGLAIA BERNARDOI sp. nov. § Euaglaia. 

Arbor alta partibus junioribus subtus foliolis inflorescentiis- 
que dense stellato-pubescentibus ; f oliis circiter 70 cm longis; 
foliolis circiter 15, oblongis, membranaceis vel chartaceis, 
acuminatis, basi cordatis, usque ad 15 cm longis, supra glabris, 
subtus densissime brunneo-stellato-pubescentibus ; paniculis ju- 
venilibus quam folia multo brevioribus, floribus numerosis, 
sessilibus, in ramulis glomeratim dispositis. 

A tree reaching a height of 20 meters, the younger parts, 
inflorescence, petioles, rachis, and lower surfaces of the leaves 
densely stellate-pubescent with pale-brownish hairs, or some- 
times ferruginous in color. Ultimate branches terete, 8 to 10 
mm in diameter. Leaves alternate, about 70 cm long, the leaflets 
about 15, oblong, membranaceous or chartaceous, 10 to 15 cm 



IX. c. 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 303 

long, 3.5 to 5 cm wide, acuminate, base cordate, the upper 
surface brown when dry, strongly shining, glabrous or slightly 
stellate-pubescent along the midrib; lateral nerves straight, 
parallel, distinct, 20 to 27 on each side of the midrib ; petiolules 
pubescent, about 3 mm long. Panicles axillary, when young 
less than one-half as long as the leaves, peduncled, vStellate- 
pubescent, about 25 cm long, the primary branches less than 4 cm 
long, densely many flowered, the flowers glomerate. Flowers 
5-merous, sessile, the buds globose, 1.5 mm in diameter, the calyx 
densely stellate-pubescent externally. Petals 5, orbicular, gla- 
brous, rounded, about 1 mm long. Staminal tube depressed- 
globose, free from the petals, truncate, the anthers inserted at 
the base, reaching the orifice but hardly protruding, 0.6 mm 
long. 

Luzon, Province of Cagayan, Gattaran, in open forests, altitude about 
20 meters, For. Bur. 15205 Bernardo, May 27, 1912. 

A species manifestly belonging in the group with Aglaia argentea Blume, 
but entirely distinct from that species in its floral, vegetative, and indu- 
mentum characters. 

AGLAIA TRUNCIFLORA sp. nov. § Euaglaia? 

Arbor circiter 18 m alta ramulis inflorescentiis petiolis subtus 
foliisque ad costa dense stellato-tomentosis ; foliis imparipinnatis, 
foliolis 7, ellipticis vel oblongo-ellipticis, usque ad 25 cm longis, 
subcoriaceis, basi obtusis vel subrotundatis, apice abrupte sub- 
caudato-acuminatis, nervis utrinque circiter 17; paniculis cauli- 
nis, circiter 25 cm longis, fructibus ellipsoideis, circiter 2 cm 
longis. 

A tree about 18 m high, the branches, branchlets, inflorescence, 
petioles, rachis, petiolules, and midribs on the lower surfaces of 
the leaflets densely stellate-tomentose with brown hairs, not at 
all lepidote. Branches terete, the ultimate ones about 4 mm in 
diameter. Leaves alternate, rather distant, about 45 cm long; 
leaflets 7, the lower pair less than one-half as large as the 
upper ones, ovate, the others elliptic to oblong-elliptic, up to 25 cm 
long, and 10 cm wide, rather pale-brownish when dry, the upper 
surface glabrous and slightly shining, the lower surface of the 
same color, nearly glabrous except for the stellate-tomentose 
midribs, the base obtuse or rounded, the apex abruptly subcau- 
date-acuminate, the acumen narrow, blunt, about 1.5 cm long; 
lateral nerves about 17 on each side of the midrib, very prominent 
on the lower surface, obscurely anastomosing, the reticulations 
lax, indistinct; petiolules stout, about 8 mm long. Panicles 
from the trunk, stellate-tomentose, 20 to 25 cm long. Flowers 
not seen (5-merous). Fruit ellipsoid, brown when dry, minutely 



304 ^^^<^ Philippine Journal of Science leu 

stellate-tomentose with brown hairs, rounded at both ends, 
about 2 cm long, the persistent calyx with 5 short teeth. 

Leyte, Dagami, in forests along streams, Mount Ibuni, Bur. Sci. 152SS 
Ramos, August 21, 1912. 

A species probably allied to Aglaia cauliflora Koord., of Celebes, which 
is inadequately described. The Philippine form agrees with Koorders's 
species in the peculiar character of its cauline inflorescence, which although 
not uncommon in other genera of the Meliaceae, is exceedingly rare in 
Aglaia. It differs in its stellate-tomentose, not lepidote, indumentum, its 
smaller leaves, 7 instead of 5 leaflets, and slightly larger fruits. 

DYSOXYLUM Blume 
DYSOXYLUM ROSTRATUM sp. nov. § Eudysoxylum. 

Arbor alta, partibus j unioribus inflorescentiisque brunneo-pube- 
rulis exceptis glabra ; foliis alternis, circiter 40 cm longis ; foliolis 
10, alternis, oblongis, coriaceis, nitidis, rectis, subaequilateralibus, 
acuminatis, in siccitate brunneis, nervis utrinque 8 ad 11, subtus 
valde prominentibus, reticulis obscuris, tenuibus, laxis; inflores- 
centiis brunneo-puberulis, paniculatis, multifloris, in axillis 
superioribus, circiter 20 cm longis; floribus 4-meris, circiter 7 
mm longis, petalis glabris, liberis; tubo utrinque villoso; ovario 
pubescente ; f ructibus 1-locularibus, ad 4 cm longis, valde inaequi- 
lateralibus, apice lateraliter rostratis. 

A tall tree, the younger parts and the panicles appressed 
brown-puberulent, otherwise glabrous. Branchlets less than 1 
cm in diameter, brown, wrinkled, the older parts glabrous. 
Leaves alternate, about 40 cm long, the rachis at first puberulent, 
soon entirely glabrous; leaflets 10, .alternate or subalternate, 
oblong, coriaceous, brown when drj^ straight, subequilateral or 
entirely equilateral, the apex rather prominently acuminate, the 
acumen blunt, the base rounded to acute or somewhat decurrent, 
the upper surface shining when dry, the lower slightly paler, also 
shining; lateral nerves 8 to 11 on each side of the midrib, promi- 
nent on the lower surface, impressed on the upper surface, not 
anastomosing, the reticulations very slender, lax, obscure, 
often nearly obsolete; petiolules 1.5 to 2 cm long, when young 
grayish-puberulent. Panicles in the upper axils, forming a sub- 
terminal inflorescence, all parts brown-puberulent, about 20 cm 
long, oblong in outline, the lower branches 5 to 7 cm in length, 
the flowers numerous, white, racemosely arranged on the ultimate 
branchlets, 4-merous, their pedicels 2.5 to 4 mm long. Calyx 
disk-shaped or shallowly saucer-shaped, about 3 mm in diameter, 
irregularly but often rather prominently 4-toothed, some of the 
teeth often apiculate-acuminate. Petals 4, entirely free, glab- 
rous, about 7 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, obtuse. Staminal-tube 



IX, c, 4 Merrill: Philippine Playits, X 305 

somewhat villous on both surfaces, cylindric, 6 mm long, 10- 
toothed, the teeth distinct, short. Anthers 10, sessile, included, 
about 1 mm long. Disk cup-shaped, villous, about 1.5 mm high. 
Ovary ovoid, somewhat pubescent, the style glabrous, about 2.5 
mm long. Fruit in general obovoid, falcate, 3 to 4 cm long, 
2 to 2.5 cm in diameter, 1-celled, with a single large seed, the tip 
of the fruit projecting laterally as a stout, more or less strongly 
recurved beak 1 to 1.5 cm long. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Papot, near San Antonio, Phil. PL 1U7S 
Ramos (type), February 26, 1913, in forests; Dahican River, Bur. Sci. 
16552 Ramos, September, 1912, in fruit. 

Apparently in the same group with Dysoxylum alliaceum Blume. The 
inequilateral, 1-seeded, rostrate fruit is very characteristic. 

DYSOXYLUM EUPHLEBIUM sp. nov. § Eudysoxylum. 

Arbor alta, glabra, ramulis crassis, 1 ad 1.5 cm diametro; 
foHis 20 ad 40 cm longis, circiter 7-jugis, alternis, foliolis alter- 
nis vel supoppositis, coriaceis, nitidis, oblongo-ovatis, late obtuse- 
que acuminatis, inaequilateralibus, plus minusve falcatis, usque 
ad 12 cm longis, nervis utrinque circiter 9, valde prominentibus, 
reticulis obsoletis; paniculis ramosis, anguste pyramidatis, dense 
multifloris, folia subaequantibus, terminalibus ; floribus 4-meris, 
circiter 8 mm longis, petahs glabris, tubo libero, utrinque villoso, 
ovario pubescente. 

A tall tree, entirely glabrous except the staminal tube and 
the ovary. Branchlets stout, terete, brownish, much wrinkled, 
1 to 1.5 cm in diameter, marked with very large petiolar scars. 
Leaves alternate, 20 to 40 cm long, about 7-jugate, the rachis 
and petiole brown and somewhat longitudinally rugose when dry. 
Leaflets thickly coriaceous, oblong-ovate, more or less falcate, 
inequilateral, 8 to 12 cm long, 3 to 6 cm wide, apex shortly and 
bluntly broad-acuminate, base rounded to acute, brownish-oliva- 
ceous when dry, the upper surface very strongly shining, the 
lower of about the same color but dull; lateral nerves about 9 
on each side of the midrib, very prominent on the lower surface, 
not anastomosing, the reticulations obsolete; petiolules about 5 
mm long. Panicles in the uppermost axils forming a terminal 
inflorescence, the individual ones narrowly pyramidal, often as 
long as the leaves, the branches spreading, the lower ones about 
8 cm long, densely many-flowered, the flowers crowded, shortly 
pedicelled or subsessile, 4-merous. Calyx disk-like or shallowly 
saucer-shaped, obscurely toothed, about 3 mm in diameter. 
Petals 4, oblong, obtuse, 8 mm long, 3 mm wide, glabrous, quite 
free. Staminal-tube cylindric, 7 to 8 mm long, somewhat villous 
inside and outside, truncate. Anthers 10, sessile, 0.8 mm long. 



306 ^^'^ Philippine Jouimal of Science 1914 

included. Disk cylindric, truncate, about 1.5 mm high, villous. 
Ovary sparingly appressed-pubescent ; style glabrous, 7 mm long. 
Fruit (immature) globose or obovoid, about 3 cm in diameter. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Gumihan, near San Antonio, Phil. PI. lUOU 
Ramos (type), February 27, 1913, in forests; between San Antonio and 
Paete, Bur. Sci. 15102 Ramos, June, 1912. 

A species manifestly in the group with the Malayan Dysoxyhim, allia- 
ceum Blume, but differing from that and allied forms in many characters. 
The strongly shining leaves, with prominent primary nerves and entirely 
obsolete reticulations, and the densely flowered panicles are characteristic. 
The dried flowering specimens have a strong, very disagreeable odor that 
is characteristic of various parts of many species in the genus. 

TURRAEA Linnaeus 
TURRAEA MEMBRANACEA sp. nov. § Euturraea. 

Arbor parva, circiter 5 m alta ; f oliis membranaceis, ovatis vel 
oblongo-ovatis, utrinque angustatis, acuminatis, usque ad 9 cm 
longis, nervis utrinque circiter 7, vetustioribus glabris vel sub- 
glabris; racemis axillaribus, brevissimis, paucifloris; floribus 5- 
meris, circiter 2.5 cm longis, tubo apice 10-laciniato, ovario glabro, 
5-loculare; fructibus 5-locellatis, valvis valde recurvatis, crassis- 
sime coriaceis, 12 mm longis. 

A small tree 4 to 5 m high, deciduous, the branchlets, young 
leaves, and inflorescence more or less pubescent, in age nearly 
glabrous. Branches slender, terete, glabrous, brown or reddish- 
brown, the branchlets gray-pubescent. Leaves simple, alternate, 
membranaceous, ovate to oblong-ovate, subequally narrowed to 
the acute base and to the acuminate apex, 5 to 10 cm long, 2 to 
4 cm wide, when young slightly pubescent on both surfaces, at 
least on the midrib and nerves, in age nearly or quite glabrous, 
slightly shining ; lateral nerves about 7 on each side of the midrib, 
prominent; petioles about 1 cm long, pubescent. Racemes axil- 
lary, very short, pubescent, few-flowered, the flowers appearing 
with the new leaves, the rachis of the racemes 5 mm long or 
less. Flowers yellowish-white, their pedicels slender, 2 cm long. 
Calyx cup-shaped, about 3 mm long, pubescent, 5-toothed, the 
teeth ovate-acute, about 1.5 mm long. Petals 5, free to the 
base, 2 to 2.3 cm long, linear, above somewhat narrowly spatulate, 
below 1 mm wide, near the apex 3 to 3.5 mm wide, glabrous. 
Staminal-tube glabrous, slender, 2.5 cm long, laciniate-lobed at 
the apex, the lobes thin, linear, acuminate, about 2 mm long, 
alternating with the anthers ; anthers subsessile, attached appar- 
ently at the very apex of the tube, 1.8 mm long. Ovary ovoid, 
5-celled ; cells 2-ovuled ; style slender, exserted 6 to 7 mm beyond 
the end of the staminal-tube; stigma about 2 mm in diameter. 



IX, c. 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 307 

Fruit before dehiscence apparently ovoid, glabrous, splitting into 
5 valves, the valves strongly recurved, very thickly coriaceous, 
almost woody, ovate to oblong-ovate, acute or acuminate, about 
1.2 cm long, longtudinally keeled along the inside and grooved 
along the back. Seeds obovoid, black and shining when dry, 
about 6 mm long. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Bosoboso, Bur. Set. 977 Ramos (type), June, 
1906, in flower: Province of Pampanga, Mount Arayat, Merrill 3913, Oc- 
tober, 1904, For. Bur. 9619 Zschokke, October, 1907, both in fruit. 

This is in all probability the form that has been credited to the Phil- 
ippines by several authors as Turraea pubescens Hellen. The Philippine 
record was based on Vidal 165i from Marinduque, which I have examined 
in the Kew Herbarium, and which I have noted as being matched by two 
of the specimens cited above as well as by Loher 4-6A3 from Arayat. At 
the time the Kew material was examined it was noted that the Philippine 
material differed from T. pubescens Hellen., in its differently shaped leaves, 
glabrous ovary, and larger, quite different fruit. I now have a specimen 
of Turraea pubescens in the herbarium of the Bureau of Science, Cochin- 
china, Pierre 2772, which confirms the above notes. The fruits are remark- 
ably different both in texture and in shape, the valves being merely coria- 
ceous and not reflexed. It is quite evident from the material at present 
available that the Philippine form is specifically very distinct from the 
one found in southeastern Asia, and that Turraea pubescens Hellen. does not 
extend to the Philippines. 

TURRAEA PALAWAN ENSIS sp. nov. § Euturraea. 

Suffrutex parvus, circiter 20 cm altus, erectus, partibus junior- 
ibus pubescentibus ; foliis membranaceis, oblongis, usque ad 10 
cm longis, irregulariter lobatis vel undulato-lobatis, costa nervis- 
que subtus pubescentibus; racemis paucifloris; floribus 4 ad 4.5 
cm longis. 

A species similar and allied to Turraea humilis (Blanco) 
Merr., and T. pumila Benn. An undershrub about 20 cm high, 
the woody parts slender, reddish-brown, glabrous or slightly 
pubescent, not or but sparingly branched, the growing parts 
gray-pubescent. Leaves alternate, oblong in general outline, 
membranaceous, 5 to 10 cm long, 2 to 4.5 cm wide, the apex 
obtuse, the base decurrent-acuminate, the margins irregularly 
lobed or undulate lobed, the lobes usually 3 on each side, the 
upper surface glabrous or nearly so, the lower one very slightly 
paler then the upper and more or less pubescent on the midrib 
and lateral nerves; lateral nerves 4 or 5 on each side of the 
midrib, prominent, usually forked, the reticulations very lax; 
petioles 2 cm long or less, pubescent. Racemes axillary, solitary, 
3-flowered or less, pubescent. Flowers white, 4 to 4.5 cm long, 
the bracts linear, 2 to 3 mm long. Calyx pubescent, the lobes 
5, linear, acuminate, pubescent, 6 to 8 mm long, about 1 mm 



308 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

wide. Corolla slender and tube-like below, the tube-like portion 
about 3 cm long and 2 mm in diameter, the lobes 5, oblong, 
narrowed at both ends, about 1.5 cm long, 6 mm wide, acute, 
narrowed below into the long and slender claws that make 
up the tube-like part. Staminal tube slender, glabrous, ex- 
serted from the tube-like part of the corolla about 1.5 cm, 
the reflexed laciniae at its apex 9 or 10, linear, acuminate, 4 
mm long. Filaments filiform, inserted inside the tube, the 
oblong anthers sparingly hispid, just exserted, about 1.5 mm 
long, blunt at both ends, the apex obliquely apiculate. Ovary 
ovoid, pubescent, 5-celled; ovules 2 in each cell; stigma depressed- 
globose, 0.5 mm in diameter. 

Palawan, San Miguel, near the seashore, Bur. Sci. 15563 Fenix, July 
10, 1912. 

A species very similar to and manifestly allied to both Turraea humilis 
(Blanco) Merr., and to T. pumila Benn., differing from both in its larger 
flowers. The latter species was described from Javan specimens, and is at 
present unknown outside of that island unless the Philippine T. humilis 
proves to be identical. Both F.-Villar and myself have considered the 
Philippine and Javan plants to be identical, the former reducing Blanco's 
Plagianthus humilis to Turraea ■pumila Benn., while I retained Blanco's 
specific name as the valid one, it being the older. It seems, judging from 
Bennett's description of T. pumila, that his species is not the same as the 
Philippine one described by Blanco as Plagianthus humilis and which I 
have transferred to Turraea as a valid species. Turraea humilis (Blanco) 
Merr, is known only from Luzon, and it is exceedingly local and rare. It 
is represented by the following specimens: 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, San Juan del Monte, near Manila, Merrill 
6232, June, 1908: Province of Laguna, San Antonio, Bur. Sci. H99i. Ramos, 
June, 1912. 

The leaves are 3 to 6 cm long, ovate or elliptic-ovate, undulate but not 
lobed, and the flowers are 3 to 3.5 cm in length. 

WALSURA Roxburgh 

WALSURA VILLAMILII sp. nov. 

Species distinctissima ap omnibus adhuc cognitarum differt 
filamentis baud I connatis, foliis 7-foliolatis. 

A tree about 13 m in height, nearly glabrous, or the inflores- 
cence and younger parts very sparingly pubescent, the growing 
parts distinctly brownish-puberulent. Branches glabrous, 
brownish-olivaceous, lenticellate. Leaves 7-foliolate, about 50 
cm long, the petiole 10 to 15 cm in length, brown when dry. 
Leaflets oblong to oblong-lanceolate, coriaceous, entire, glabrous, 
15 to 20 cm long, 3 to 5.5 cm wide, the apex slenderly subcau- 
date-acuminate, the base acute, the upper surface, when dry, 
pale-greenish-olivaceous, shining, the lower one glaucescent, the 



IX. c. 4 Met-rill: Philippine Plants, X 309 

prominent nerves and slender reticulations brown ; lateral nerves 
about 16 on each side of the midrib, very prominent on the 
lower surface, somewhat curved, anastomosing near the mar- 
gins; petiolules 2 to 5 mm long. Panicles terminal and in 
the upper axils, brown when dry, very slightly pubescent, 
in fruit up to 40 cm long. Immature fruits obovoid, 1 to 
1.5 cm long, externally densely covered with a short, dense, 
bro\vnish-purple indumentum, the persistent petals oblong, 
pubescent, 4 mm long. Staminal tube very short, 0.5 mm long 
or less, the filaments flattened, ciliate-pubescent, about 1.5 mm 
long, obtuse, the anthers 0.5 mm in length. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, near Margosatubig, in hill forests, 
For. Bur. lS76Jf Foxtvorthy, DeMesa, & Villa7nil, May 11, 1912, altitude 
about 120 meters, and locally known to the Moros as sasd. 

A very distinct and characteristic species, readily distinguished from 
all previously described ones by its 7-foliolate leaves and its short staminal 
tubes. 

BUXACEAE 
BUXUS Linnaeus 
BUXUS RIVULARIS sp. nov. § Eubuxus. 

Frutex circiter 1 m altus, glaber; foliis coriaceis vel sub- 
coriaceis, lanceolatis, usque ad 5 cm longis, utrinque subaequaliter 
angustatis, apice acute acuminatis, basi acutis; racemis axillari- 
bus, solitariis, 1 ad 2 cm longis. 

A shrub about 1 m high, glabrous, the branches slender, light- 
gray, terete, the branchlets distinctly angled. Leaves lanceolate, 
2.5 to 5 cm long, 5 to 12 mm wide, rather pale when dry, of 
about the same color and slightly shining on both surfaces, 
subequally narrowed to the acute base and to the sharply acum- 
inate apex, subsessile or very shortly petioled, often a little fal- 
cate; nerves very faint, anastomosing in a distinct marginal 
nerve. Racemes axillary, solitary, 1 to 2 cm long, glabrous, male 
flowers below, the terminal flower usually female, the pedicels 
about 3 mm long, the bracteoles ovate, acute, 1 mm long. Male 
flowers: Outer two sepals lanceolate, acuminate, about 2.2 mm 
long, 1 mm wide, the inner two as long but ovate or oblong-ovate, 
acute, 1.5 mm wide. Filaments about 2.5 mm long. Rudimen- 
tary ovary depressed-globose, entire. Female flowers at the 
end of the raceme bearing the male flowers. Bracteoles linear- 
lanceolate, the outer 2 sepals ovate, a little longer than the inner 
four which are broadly ovate, acute, 2.2 mm long, slightly ciliate- 
pubescent, all slightly accrescent in fruit, persistent, and about 
3 mm long. Ovary glabrous. Young fruit ovoid, glabrous, 5 

129553 2 



310 The Philippine Journal of Scierice i»i4 

to 6 mm long, crowned by the prominent styles and recurved 
stigmas. 

Luzon, Province of Tayabas, Guinatacutan, Bur. Sci. IS 169 Foxworthy 
& Ramos, March, 1911, on rocks along the river, altitude 75 to 100 meters, 
the flowers white and greenish. 

A most characteristic species, recognizable by its small size and its 
lanceolate, sharply acuminate leaves. The narrow leaves have doubtless 
been developed to meet the exigencies of its habitat, for the plant undoubt- 
edly grows in situations subject to overflow during heavy rains. It has 
almost exactly the habit and appearance of Atalantia linearis (Blanco) 
Merr., and Eugenia mimica Merr., which grow in similar habitats, and in 
fact in making the preliminary identifications of the Guinatacutan collec- 
tion, the specimens were referred to Atalantia linearis. 

Stenophylly, due to habitat, is not as highly developed in the Philippines 
as in the neighboring Island of Borneo, and aside from the widely distrib- 
uted Hornonia riparia Lour., we have the endemic species Atalantia linearis 
Merr., Eugenia mimica Merr., Buxus rivularis Merr., and Ficus rivularis 
Merr., and doubtless others remain to be noted. The rather numerous 
Bornean forms have been considered by Beccari.* 

BUXUS PACHYPHYLLA sp. nov. 

Arbor glabra ; foliis crassissime coriaceis, nitidis, oblongis, 
usque ad 11 cm longis, 3 ad 5.5 cm latis, basi acutis vel acumina- 
tis, apice acute acuminatis, margine valde revolutis; capsulis 
axillaribus, solitariis, breviter pedunculatis, ovoideis, circiter 1 
cm longis. 

A glabrous tree, size not indicated. Branches terete, pale- 
olivaceous, the branchlets slender, somewhat sulcate on two sides. 
Leaves oblong, very thickly coriaceous, 9 to 11 cm long, 
3 to 5.5 cm wide, narrow^ed below to the acute or somewhat 
acuminate base and above to the sharply acuminate apex, the 
margins strongly recurved, both surfaces shining, the lower 
usually a little paler than the upper; lateral nerves slender, up 
to 30 on each side of the midrib, irregular, sometimes rather 
indistinct and confused with the secondary ones and the reticula- 
tions; petioles 5 to 7 mm long. Peduncles solitary, axillary, in 
fruit 5 mm long or less, with numerous, spreading bracteoles, 
the lower ones smaller than the upper. Flowers not seen. 
Capsules ovoid, about 1 cm long, solitarj% smooth, somewhat 
glaucous-purple when dry. 

Luzon, Province of Tayabas, Mount Cadig near Guinayangan, Bur. Sci. 
20828 Escritor, March 9, 1913. 

Well characterized by its very thickly coriaceous leaves, and its solitary, 
few, short-ped uncled fruits. 

'Nelle Foreste di Borneo (1902) 524. 



IX. c. 4 Merrill: Philippiyie Plants, X 311 

BUXUS LOHERI sp. nov. 

Arbor glabra ; foliis lanceolatis, coriaceis, usque ad 6 cm longis, 
utrinque angustatis acuminatisque, in siccitate brunneis, nitidis, 
margine revolutis, nervis primariis utrinque 15 ad 20, tenuibus, 
obscuris; capsulis terminalis axillaribusque, solitariis vel binis, 
circiter 1 cm longis; pedunculo circiter 1 cm longo. 

A glabrous tree, size not indicated. Branches terete, pale- 
gray or somewhat brownish, the younger branchlets slender, dark 
reddish-brown, somewhat angled or sulcate. Leaves lanceolate, 
thickly coriaceous, 4.5 to 6 cm long, 1.5 to 2 cm wide, when dry 
brownish and shining on both surfaces, the lower surface usually 
a little paler than the upper, about equally narrowed and acumi- 
nate at both ends, the margins strongly revolute; lateral nerves 
slender, not prominent, in fact often indistinct, 15 to 20 on each 
side of the midrib, irregular, usually more or less confused by 
the secondary' ones. Flowers unknown. Capsules ovoid, about 
1 cm long, solitary or in pairs, terminal and in the leaf-axils, 
the peduncles about 1 cm long, each with several scattered brac- 
teoles, the caljTc, in fruit, about 7 mm in diameter, the lobes 5, 
broadly ovate. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Montalban, Loher 6857, February, 1905. 

A species probably as closely allied to Buxus rolfei Vid. as to any other 
species, but distinguished by its narrow, brown, lanceolate, much smaller, 
obscurely nerved leaves. 

CELASTRACEAE 

GYMNOSPORIA Bentham & Hooker 
GYMNOSPORIA NITIDA sp. nov. 

Frutex vel arbor parva, glabra, inermis; foliis ellipticis ad 
oblongo-obovatis, coriaceis, supra valde nitidis, usque ad 7 cm 
longis, apice obtusis vel rotundatis, basi acutis, margine crenu- 
latis ; capsulis anguste obovoideis vel oblongo-ellipsoideis, circiter 
1.5 cm longis, valvis crassissimJs. 

A shrub or small tree, quite glabrous, unarmed. Branches 
pale-gray, slender, somewhat wrinkled and shining when dry. 
Leaves rather thickly coriaceous, elliptic to oblong-obovate, 4 to 
7 cm long, 2 to 3.5 cm wide, the upper surface strongly shining 
when dry, the lower much duller, apex obtuse or rounded, base 
acute, margins crenulate; lateral nerves about 8 on each side of 
the midrib, slender, not prominent, rather laxly anastomosing; 
petioles 8 to 10 mm long. Inflorescence axillary', apparently 
cyroose, in fruit up to 3 cm long. Flowers unknown. Capsules 



312 ^/'6 PkUippine Journal of Science 1914 

narrowly obovoid to oblong-ellipsoid, about 1.5 cm long, 8 to 10 
mm in diameter, rounded at the apex, the valves 3, very thick. 

Luzon, Province of Pangasinan, Salasa, For. Bur. 11836 Domingo, 
November 20, 1912. 

Well characterized by its strongly shining leaves and its very thick 
capsule-valves. Not closely allied to Gymnosporia spinosa Merr. & Rolfe, 
the only other known Philippine species. 

EUONYMUS Linnaeus 

EUONYMUS VIBURNIFOLIUS (Juss.) comb. nov. 

Aegiphila viburnifolia Juss. in Ann. Mus. Paris 7 (1806) 76; Walp. 
Repert. 4 (1844-48) 124; Schauer in DC. Prodr. 11 (1847) 655. 

Euonymus philippinensis Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 3 (1908) Bot. 238. 

Jussieu's species has long been a doubtful one, for manifestly it could 
not belong in the genus Aegiphila which is confined to tropical America. 
The type, Commerson, in Herb. Mus, Paris, was from the Philippines. The 
original specimen was examined and photographed by the late Dr. C. B. 
Robinson in November, 1911, and from an examination of the photograph 
and notes I am now able definitely to refer the species to the Celastraceae, 
and very definitely to the species I described a few years ago as Euonymus 
philivpinensis. 

ICACINACEAE 

MIQUELIA Meissner 
MIQUELIA RETICULATA sp. nov. 

Scandens, partibus junioribus subtus foliis inflorescentiisque 
leviter breviter hirsutis; foliis oblongis, chartaceis, usque ad 17 
cm longis, in siccitate pallidis, nitidis, apice tenuiter acuminatis, 
basi rotundatis leviter cordatisque, nervis lateralibus circiter 6, 
subtus cum reticulis laxis valde prominentibus ; floribus 9 
umbellatis, 4-meris, 3.5 mm longis. 

A scandent, apparently woody plant, the branchlets terete, 
pale when dry, slender, sparingly hirsute with short hairs. 
Leaves oblong, entire, 14 to 17 cm long, 4 to 6 cm wide, pale and 
somewhat shining when dry, the upper surface smooth and 
glabrous, the lower prominently reticulate and sparingly hirsute, 
the apex slenderly and prominently acuminate, somewhat 
narrowed below to the rounded and slightly cordate base; basal 
nerves 3 pairs, the lower two pairs very short, the lateral nerves 
above the base 5 or 6 on each side of the midrib, anastomosing, 
very prominent on the lower surface, the reticulations lax, 
prominent ; petioles pale, 1.5 to 8 cm long, very sparingly hirsute. 
Female flowers umbellate, on slender, axillary, simple peduncles 
at anthesis about 3 cm long, elongated in fruit, about 10 in 
each umbel, the pedicels sparingly pubescent, slender, 6 to 8 
mm long. Calyx very minute or nearly obsolete. Petals 4, 



IX. c, 4 Menill: Philippine Plants, X 313 

oblong, 3.5 mm long, 1.2 mm wide, slightly pubescent outside, 
apex acute or obtuse, more or less inflexed. Staminodes none. 
Ovary oblong-ovoid, somewhat hirsute, 2 mm long; stigma shal- 
lowly cup-shaped, about 1.3 mm in diameter. Fruit narrowly 
ovoid, somewhat compressed, about 2 cm long, 1.3 cm wide, 
wrinkled when dry, the pseudostipe about 8 mm long, the per- 
sistent petals recurved, pulp scanty, the endocarp crustaceous, 
coarsely foveolate. 

Camiguin de Mindanao, Panatayuan, Bttr. Sci. 1J,67U Ramos, March 
28, 1912, in forests, the flowers greenish-yellow. 

Quite distinct from our other Philippine species, Miquelia cumingii Baill., 
and readily recognizable by its prominently reticulate leaves and its sparse 
pubescence of short, pale, hirsute hairs. 

PLATEA Blume 

PLATEA PHILIPPINENSIS sp. nov. 

Platea latifoUa Merr. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 58, non 
Blume. 

Species P. latifoUae Bl. affinis, differt foHis minoribus, basi 
acutis, partibus junioribus inflorescentiisque ferrugineo-lepidotis, 
vix tomentosis, fructibus minoribus. 

A dioecious tree 8 to 20 m high, the branches terete, nearly 
black when dry, glabrous, the branchlets densely lepidote, the 
scales minute, older ones pale, the younger ones ferrugineous. 
Leaves oblong-ovate, coriaceous 7 to 12 cm long, 2.5 to 6.5 cm 
wide, the apex rather prominently acuminate, the base acute, 
the upper surface dark-colored when dry, glabrous, somewhat 
shining, the lower pale, densely lepidote; lateral nerves 10 to 
12 on each side of the midrib, prominent on the lower surface, 
darker colored than the surface itself, usually anastomosing; 
petioles 2 to 3 cm long, more or less lepidote. Male panicles 3 
to 6 cm long, narrow, interrupted, the rachis, branches, and 
calyces ferruginous-lepidote, the scales somewhat ciliate, not 
tomentose, the lower branches 2 cm long or less, the upper ones 
reduced to fascicles of flowers. Flowers sessile, glomerate, 
numerous, the buds globose or depressed-globose. Calyx about 
2 mm in diameter, the sepals nearly free, ovate, acute, about 1 
mm long. Petals narrowly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, slightly 
united at the base, glabrous, 2.5 to 3 mm long. Anthers broadly 
elliptic, about 1.2 mm long. Male racemes axillary, solitary, 
about 2 cm long, 3- to 5-flowered, ferruginous-lepidote, the 
pedicels very stout, 2 to 3 mm long. Calyx somewhat cup- 
shaped, the lobes very broadly ovate or orbicular-ovate, about 
2.5 mm long, 3 mm wide. Ovary densely stellate-lepidote, the 



314 The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

thick and short style as broad as the ovary, glabrous. Fruit 
narrowly ovoid, gradually narrov^^ed upward to the acute or 
obtuse apex, 2.5 to 3 cm long, apparently black when mature, 
the pulp scanty, the endocarp hard, deeply longitudinally pitted 
and sulcate. 

Luzon, Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles, Elmer 6835, November, 
1904, in fruit; For. Bur. 2098 Borden, November, 1904, in fruit; Whitford 
1202 (type), March, 1905, vi^ith pistillate flowers. Leyte, Dagami, Bur. 
Set. 15242 Ramos, August, 1912, in fruit. Camiguin de Mindanao, Bur. 
Sci. 14651 Ramos, March, 1912, with staminate flowers. Negros, Cuernos 
Mountains, Elmer 977 7, March, 1908, with staminate flowers. 

The material from Mount Mariveles, consisting of specimens with pistil- 
late flowers and fruits, was originally referred by me to the Javan Platea 
latifolia Blume, to which the Philippine form is manifestly closely allied. 
On receipt of staminate material all the specimens were reexamined with 
the result that it has been considered advisable to describe our local form 
as a distinct species. The original description of Platea latifolia Blume 
Bijdr. (1826) 647 is quite inadequate, and the later one by Miquel Fl. 
Ind. Bat. 1 :* 793 is also too short. Reorders,* however, gives an excellent 
and detailed description of the Javan species of the genus, on which my 
conception of Platea latifolia Blume is based. Sterile specimens from Java 
are also in the herbarium of the Bureau of Science. Platea philippinensis 
grows in forests at and above an altitude of 900 meters. 

STERCULIACEAE 

FIRM I AN A Marsigli 
FIRMIANA MERRITTII sp. nov. 

Arbor alta; foliis orbiculari-ovatis vel late ovatis, acuminatis, 
integris, basi latissime rotundatis, profunde et anguste cordatis, 
vetustioribus glabris, usque ad 18 cm longis; folliculis 8 ad 9 
cm longis, circiter 4 cm latis, inflatis, chartaceis, laxe reticulatis, 
tarde dehiscentibus. 

A large tree, reaching a height of 30 m and a trunk diameter 
of 90 cm, deciduous. Leaves broadly ovate to orbicular-ovate, 
coriaceous or thickly chartaceous, in maturity glabrous, up to 18 
cm long and about as wide, entire, the apex acuminate, the base 
very broadly rounded, deeply and narrowly cordate, palmately 
7- or 9-nerved, the reticulations distinct; petioles 20 cm long. 
Follicles inflated, tardily dehiscent, narrowly oblong-ovate, base 
acute, apex obtuse, 8 to 9 cm long, 4 cm wide, the valves laxly 
reticulate, glabrous or nearly so, thickly chartaceous, not mem- 
branaceous or coriaceous, each containing 1 or 2 seeds. 

MiNDOBO, Igsoro River, west coast. For. Bur. 8555 Merritt, February 4, 
1908, in forested river flats, altitude about 10 meters. 

*Meded. 's Lands Plantent. 33 (1900) 156. 



IX, c. 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 315 

The first species of the genus to be found in the Philippines, and remark- 
able among the few members of the genus in its very tardily dehiscent 
follicles. In my material, which consists of fallen leaves and follicles, the 
seeds are nearly mature, yet the follicles scarcely show a sign of opening. 

MELOCHIA Dillenius 

MELOCHIA UMBELLATA (Houtt.) comb. nov. 
Visenia umbellata Houtt. Handl. 8 (1777) 309. 
Wisenia indica Gmel. Syst. 2 (1791) 515. 
Melochia arborea Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 524. 

Melochia indica A. Gray ex F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 29; K. Sch. in 
Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 9 (1887) 209. 

This widely distributed and much-named plant has a peculiarly compli- 
cated synonymy, and for the last twenty years has been considered by many 
botanists, after K. Schumann, under a specific name that was neither pub- 
lished by the original author flouttuyn under Visenia, as V. indica, and 
was never transferred to Melochia, as M. indica, by A. Gray until the 
transfer was made by F.-Villar and K. Schumann and wrongly credited to 
Gray. Houttuyn in 1777 published the species as Visenia um,bellata, and 
this is apparently the oldest valid specific name. Gmelin seems to have 
made the first use of the specific name indica, for he publishes it as Wisenia 
indica with a reference to Christmann and Panzer's German edition of 
Houttuyn's work Vol. 6 (1780), where, however, the species appears as 
Visenia umbellata. Gmelin, then, simply proposed a new specific name, 
indica, to replace that proposed by Houttuyn. Hasskarl ° seems to have 
been the first author to credit the combination Visenia indica to Houttuyn, 
which he later repeated in his Platae Javanicae Rariores, from whence it 
passed into Miquel's Flora Indiae Batavae and other works. K. Schumann 
manifestly took up the specific name from Miquel. 

Asa Gray never published the combination "Melochia indica (Houtt.) 
A. Gray" in the Botany of the Wilkes Expedition as credited to him by 
K. Schumann' but simply indicates that: "Visenia cannot be generically 
distinguished from Melochia." K. Schumann was, hence, in error both in 
taking up the specific name indica, and in crediting its transfer to Melochia 
to A. Gray. Vise7iia umbellata Houtt. seems to supply the correct specific 
name, under Melochia, for this very common and widely distributed species, 
and is accordingly here taken up. 

Fernandez-Villar is the first author actually to make the combination 
Melochia indica, but his publication of the combination has been entirely 
overlooked by later authors, and does not appear in Index Kewensis. In 
the Novissima Appendix to the third edition of Blanco's Flora de Filipinas 
(1880) 29 the name Melochia indica appears, but is erroneously credited 
to A. Gray on the authority of Bentham & Hooker f. Gen. PI. 1 (1862) 
224. Bentham & Hooker f., however, do not make the transfer, but simply 
state: "Cetera omnia Riedleiae conveninunt et monente Grayo Viseniam 
pro sectione Melochiae potius quam genere proprio habemus." 

Other synonyms of this species are: Visenia tomentosa Miq., Riedleia 
tiliaefolia DC, R. velutina DC, Glossospermum velutinum Wall., G. cor- 

•Tijdschr. Nat. Gesch. 12 (1845) 122. 
"Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 9 (1887) 209. 



316 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

datum Wall., Alewodendron album Reinw., Melochia velutina Bedd., and 
Hypericum pentandrum Blanco. 

I am indebted to Sir D. Prain, director, Royal Gardens, Kew, for refer- 
ences from the publications of Houttuyn and Gmelin, which are not avail- 
able in Manila, and for a memorandum covering the case as to the oldest 
specific name for the species. 

BUETTNERIA Linnaeus 

BUETTNERIA ECHINATA Wall. Cat. (1829) no. 1149; Gagnep. in Le- 
comte Fl. Gen. Indo-China 1 (1911) 520. 

MiNDORO, near Calapan, Bur. Sci. 21268 Escritor, July, 1913. 

The identification has been made after Gagnepain, the Mindoro specimen 
agreeing well with Pierre S7U6 from Tay-ninh, Cochin China, so named by 
Gagnepain, and with his description of the species. Masters refers the 
Wallichian species with doubt to Buettneria crenulata Wall., while Gagne- 
pain cites the latter as a synonym of B. echinata. The genus is new to the 
Philippines. 

Nepal and Burma to Indo-China. 

THEACEAE 

ADINANDRA Jack 
ADINANDRA ROSTRATA sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 30 m alta partibus junioribus exceptis glabra; 
foliis subcoriaceis, nitidis, oblongo-ovatis vel oblongo-ellipticis, 
integris, usque ad 14 cm longis, utrinque angustatis, apice acumi- 
natis, basi acutis vel decurrento-acuminatis, nervis utrinque 
circiter 14, tenuibus; fructibus axillaribus, solitariis, longe 
pedunculatis, ovoideis, 1.5 cm longis, longe caudato-rostratis. 

A tree about 30 m high, glabrous except the branchlets (flowers 
not seen). Branches terete, brownish, glabrous, the branchlets 
sparingly pilose, the tips rather densely so. Leaves entire, 
subcoriaceous, the younger ones thinner, oblong-ovate to oblong- 
elliptic, 8 to 14 cm long, 3.5 to 6.5 cm wide, narrowed at both 
ends, the apex acuminate, the base acute or decurrent-acuminate, 
shining, of about the same color on both surfaces and somewhat 
yellowish when dry ; lateral primary nerves about 14 on each side 
of the midrib, slender, anastomosing, the reticulations rather lax ; 
petioles 5 to 10 mm long. Flowers not seen. Fruits axillary, 
solitary, their peduncles 4 cm long, the persistent sepals subor- 
bicular to subreniform, coriaceous, glabrous, rounded, about 
8 mm wide, the outer ones somewhat smaller than the inner, 
the fruit ovoid, about 1.5 cm long, 1.2 to 1.4 mm thick, glabrous, 
prominently caudate-rostrate, the beak 1 to 1.4 cm long, 3-celled, 
the pericarp thick. Seeds two or three in each cell, about 6 



IX, c. 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 317 

mm long, flattened, reddish-brown, obovate, shining, the cotyle- 
dons hippocrepiform. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Dahican River, Phil. 1567 Ramos, September 
13, 1912, in forests. 

A species characterized by its few, comparatively large seeds, in which 
it differs from most species in the genus. It is possible that when flowers 
are known it will be necessary to transfer the species to some other genus, 
but in general appearance and in all characters, perhaps other than the 
seed, it is apparently an Adinandra. 

ADINANDRA M AQUILINGENSIS sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, ramulis foliisque junioribus pilosis, vetustioribus 
glabris vel subglabris ; f oliis coriaceis, 3.5 ad 6 cm longis, nitidis, 
oblongo-ellipticis ad oblongo-obovatis breviter acuminatis, basi 
acutis, margine in h superiore crenulato-denticulatis, nervis 
utrinque circiter 12, tenuibus; sepalis 5, subaequalibus, oblongo- 
ovatis, obtusis, 8 mm longis; ovario leviter piloso, 5-loculare. 

A tree about 12 m high, the very young branchlets and young 
leaves rather softly pilose with appressed hairs, the older parts 
glabrous or nearly so. Branches terete, very dark-gray or nearly 
black, rather smooth, the branchlets brownish. Leaves coria- 
ceous, 3.5 to 6 cm long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm wide, oblong-elliptic to 
oblong-obovate, the base acute, the apex shortly acuminate, the 
margins in the upper one-half crenulate-denticulate, below entire, 
both surfaces shining, the lower a little paler than the upper, 
yellowish-green when dry; lateral nerves about 12 on each side 
of the midrib, slender, distinct but not prominent, about equally 
evident on both surfaces, anastomosing ; petioles 3 to 5 mm long. 
Flowers axillary, solitary, the pedicels stout, curved, glabrous, 
about 2 cm long. Sepals subequal, oblong-ovate, 8 mm long, 
5 mm wide, obtuse, somewhat appressed-pubescent. Petals and 
stamens not seen. Very immature fruit ovoid, 7 mm long, 5- 
celled, sparingly pilose, the style 8 mm long. Ovules very 
numerous in each cell, apparently but few developing into seeds. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, in forests on the upper 
slopes, altitude probably about 1,000 m, Bur. Sci. 13650 Ramos, September, 
1911, from the Batangas side of the mountain. 

A species well characterized by its comparatively small leaves. 

ADINANDRA CORIACEA sp. nov. 

Arbor glabra; foliis integris, oblongo-ellipticis, coriaceis, 12 
ad 15 cm longis, basi acutis, apice latissime breviter obtuse 
acuminatis, nervis utrinque circiter 15, distinctis, tenuibus, pe- 
tiolo circiter 1 cm longo; fructibus brunneis, ovoideis, laevis, 
apiculatis, circiter 1.5 cm longis, 2-locellatis ; seminibus 10 ad 



318 The Philippine Journal of Science leu 

12, plants, anguste ovoideis, utrinque sulcatis, nitidis, 6 mm 
longis; sepalis persistentibus, margine leviter ciliatis. 

A glabrous tree, size not indicated. Branches terete, reddish- 
brown or grayish, smooth. Leaves coriaceous, entire oblong- 
elliptic, 12 to 15 cm long, 4 to 6.5 cm wide, subequally narrowed 
at both ends, the base acute, the apex very broadly, shortly, and 
bluntly acuminate, the upper surface pale-olivaceous when dry, 
the low^er brownish, paler, both slightly shining and very minutely 
puncticulate, glabrous; lateral nerves about 15 on each side of 
the midrib, slender, rather distinct, about equally prominent on 
both surfaces, anastomosing, forming a double row of arches, 
the reticulations lax, indistinct; petioles stout, about 1 cm long. 
Flowers not seen, the pedicels in fruit stout, 2 to 2.5 cm long, 
the persistent calyx lobes coriaceous, at first apparently some- 
what pubescent, becoming quite or nearly glabrous, the outer 
two smaller than the inner three which are more or less reni- 
form, entire or nearly so, somewhat reniform or very broadly 
rounded-ovate, about 8 mm wide, margins deciduously ciliate, in 
age glabrous or nearly so. Fruit ovoid, about 1.5 cm long, 
smooth, brown, somewhat shining, entirely glabrous, 2-celled, the 
pericarp rather thick, dry and brittle in texture. Seeds 10 to 
12, brown, shining, flattened, narrowly obovoid, rounded at the 
apex, about 6 mm long, longitudinally grooved along the middle 
of both faces. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Cavinti, For. Bur. 19667 Racelis, August, 
1912. 

A species manifestly closely allied to the Malayan Adinandra acuminata 
Korth., from which it differs in its differently shaped, very broadly and 
obtusely acuminate, more numerously nerved leaves, longer petioles, and 
other characters. 

ADINANDRA LOHERI sp. nov. 

Arbor, gemmis petalis staminibusque exceptis glabra; foliis 
ellipticis, coriaceis, usque ad 10 cm longis, basi decurrento-acumi- 
natis, apice late rotundatis ad brevissime late acuminatis, mar- 
gine crenulatis vel denticulato-crenulatis, subtus obscurissime 
glanduloso-maculatis, nervis utrinque tenuibus, distinctis, circiter 
15; floribus 5-meris; sepalis glabris; petalis extus in partibus 
medianus villosis, 1.8 cm longis; staminibus circiter 50, leviter 
hirsutis; ovario 5-loculare, glaber. 

A tree, quite glabrous except the vegetative buds and some 
parts of the flowers. Branches terete, grayish or dark-colored, 
the young branchlets reddish-brown, the vegetative buds pale- 
villous. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic, 6 to 10 cm long, 3.5 to 5 



IX. c, 4 Meri'ill: Philippine Plants, X 319 

cm wide, the apex broadly rounded to broadly and shortly obtuse- 
acuminate, base somewhat decurrent-acuminate, margins crenu- 
late or crenulate-denticulate, the upper surface smooth and 
shining, dark-olivaceous when dry, the lower surface paler, 
brown, obscurely glandular-maculate ; lateral nerves about 15 
on each side of the midrib, slender, distinct, anastomosing, more 
prominent on the lower than on the upper surface; petioles 5 to 7 
mm long. Flowers 5-merous, axillary, solitary, the peduncles gla- 
brous, curved, stout, about 2 cm long. Calyx glabrous, the lobes 
orbicular to orbicular-reniform, broadly rounded, coriaceous, 
concave, about 7 mm long, 6 to 8 mm wide, margins sometimes 
slightly ciliate, not glandular. Petals obovate, broadly rounded, 
about 1.8 cm long, 1.3 cm wide, the exposed median portions of 
the back rather densely appressed-pubescent with pale hairs 
otherwise glabrous. Stamens about 50; filaments 4 to 8 mm 
long, slightly hirsute ; anthers oblong-lanceolate, acute or acumi- 
nate, slightly hirsute, 4 mm long. Ovary ovoid, glabrous, 
narrowed upward into the glabrous style, 5-celled, the ovules 
indefinite. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Oriud, Loher 560Jt, December, 1905. 

A characteristic species, apparently allied to Adinandra lamponga Miq., 
but differing in many details. It is well characterized, among the Phil- 
ippine forms, by being nearly glabrous, the only pubescent parts being the 
very small vegetative buds, the median parts of the petals, outside, and the 
stamens. 

ADINANDRA MACGREGORII sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 15 m alta, plus minusve villosa; foliis coriaceis, 
ellipticis ad oblongo-ellipticis, usque ad 10 cm longis, supra 
nitidis, gabris, subtus adpresse villosis, basi acutis ad subro- 
tundatis, apice breviter acuminatis, margine distincte minute- 
que glanduloso-denticulatis, nervis utrinque 12 ad 15, distinctis; 
sepalis extus villosis, petalis late ellipticis, rotundatis, circiter 
1.4 cm longis; staminibus 35, antheris parce villosis; ovario 
4-loculare, dense pallide villoso. 

A tree about 15 m in height, the buds and growing branchlets 
very densely appressed-villous with pale hairs, the petioles, lower 
surfaces of the leaves, and flowers less densely villous. Branches 
terete, grayish, glabrous. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic to oblong- 
elliptic, 5 to 10 cm long, 2.5 to 4 cm wide, apex shortly acuminate, 
base somewhat rounded to somewhat acute, margins very 
minutely glandular-denticulate, the upper surface olivaceous 
when dry, glabrous and shining, the lower much paler, with 
scattered, more or less appressed, pale hairs; lateral nerves 



320 ^''^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

12 to 15 on each side of the midrib, slender, distinct, anasto- 
mosing, about equally evident on both surfaces; petioles densely 
villous, 3 mm long. Flowers axillary, solitary, 5-merous, their 
peduncles stout, curved, somewhat villous, about 2.5 cm long. 
Sepals about 1 cm long, 7 mm wide, coriaceous, ovate, acute or 
slightly acuminate, glabrous inside, outside somewhat densely 
appressed-villous with pale, short hairs, the margins minutely 
glandular-denticulate. Petals broadly elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 
rounded, not at all retuse, 1.4 cm long, 1 cm wide, externally 
appressed-villous in the exposed median parts, inside and the 
broad margins externally glabrous. Stamens 35; filaments 
glabrous, 4 to 5 mm long; anthers lanceolate, acuminate, 5 mm 
long, very sparingly villous with long stiff hairs on the back. 
Ovary ovoid, densely villous, 4-celled, the ovules indefinite; style 
stout, about 8 mm long, widened below to the ovary, prominently 
villous except near the glabrous apex, cleft into four 1.5 to 2 mm 
long arms, the stigmas capitate. 

Luzon, Benguet Subprovince, Pauai, Bur. Sci. 8^25 McGregor, June, 
1909, in forests, altitude above 2,100 m. 

A species manifestly allied to Adinandra elliptica C. B. Rob., but distin- 
guishable at once by its much larger flowers, as well as by numerous details 
in vegetative and floral characters. 

ADINANDRA NIGRO-PUNCTATA sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 10 m alta, subglabra; foliis coriaceis, ellipticis 
ad oblongo-obovatis, 4 ad 7 cm longis, nitidis, basi acutis, apice 
late acuminatis vel obtusis, minute retusis, margine minute 
glanduloso-denticulatis, subtus glandulis minutis sparsis nigris 
instructis, nervis utrinque circiter 7; sepalis 5, subaequalibus, 
ellipticis, glabris; staminibus circiter 50, densissime hirsutis; 
ovario glabro, 5-loculare. 

A tree about 12 m in height, glabrous except the flowers and 
the growing tips of the branchlets. Branches stout, terete, 
reddish-brown, glabrous, the terminal buds pubescent. Leaves 
coriaceous, elliptic to oblong-obovate, 4 to 7 cm long, 1.5 to 3 
cm wide, the base acute, the apex very broadly and shortly 
blunt-acuminate, sometimes merely obtuse, usually minutely 
retuse, margins very obscurely and minutely glandular-denticu- 
late, in the lower part quite entire, the upper surface somewhat 
olivaceous when dry, strongly shining, usually minutely ver- 
ruculose, the lower surface a little paler, with small, scattered, 
black glands; lateral nerves about 7 on each side of the 
midrib, slender, not prominent, about equally evident on 
both surfaces; petioles 5 mm long. Flowers axillary, soli- 



IX. c. 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 321 

tary, white, their pedicels glabrous, stout, about 2 cm long. 
Sepals subequal, glabrous, elliptic, broadly rounded, usually 
somewhat retuse, 10 mm long, 8 mm wide. Petals broadly ellip- 
tic, about 1.8 cm long, 1 to 1.3 cm wide, coriaceous broadly 
rounded, slightly retuse, the median exposed parts very densely 
pale-hirsute, otherwise glabrous. Stamens about 50; filaments 

5 mm long, densely hirsute; anthers ovate-lanceolate, somewhat 
acuminate, 4 mm long, densely hirsute. Ovary glabrous, ovoid, 
5-celled, ovules very numerous in each cell; style glabrous, 12 
mm long, the stigma minute, subcapitate. 

Leyte, Dagami, in forests, Bur. Sci. 15S55 Ramos, August 13, 1912. 

A characteristic species, distinguishable by its rather large flowers which 
are glabrous except for the densely hirsute median parts of the petals exter- 
nally and the stamens, subequal broadly elliptic petals, subequal broadly 
elliptic sepals, and its vegetative characters; the scattered, minute, black 
glands on the lower surface are characteristic. 

DILLENIACEAE 
DILLENIA Linnaeus 
DILLENIA MONANTHA sp. nov. § Wormia. 

Arbor glabra, usque ad 12 m alta ; foliis coriaceis, ellipticis ad 
obovato-ellipticis, usque ad 12 cm longis, obtusis, acutis, vel 
latissime breviter acuminatis, basi acutis, decurrentibus, margine 
subintegris vel distanter irregulariter dentatis, nervis utrinque 

6 ad 8 ; floribus flavidis, in axillis superioribus, solitariis, circiter 
10 cm diametro, sepalis extus cinereo-pubescentibus ; carpellis 5, 
leviter hirsutis; staminibus interioribus quam exterioribus mul- 
to longioribus, antheris poro terminalibus dehiscentibus. 

A glabrous tree reaching a height of 12 m, the branches terete, 
rugose, reddish-brown or grayish. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, 
rather pale when dry, shining, elliptic to elliptic-obovate, 8 to 12 
cm long, 5 to 8 cm wide, the apex subacute, obtuse, or broadly 
and shortly acuminate, the base acute, the lamina decurrent on 
the petiole as narrow wings, the margins subentire to distantly 
dentate; lateral nerves 6 to 8 on each side of midrib, curved, 
anastomosing, distinct; petioles stout, narrowly decurrent- 
winged, 1 to 1.5 cm long. Flowers solitary in the upper axils, 
yellow, about 10 cm in diameter, their peduncles 2 to 4 cm long. 
Sepals 5, elliptic to elliptic-obovate, rounded, concave, coriaceous, 
1.5 to 2 cm long, 1 to 1.4 cm wide, outside more or less cinerous- 
pubescent. Petals yellow, obovate, membranaceous, about 5 cm 
long, 3.5 cm wide. Stamens very numerous, the interior ones up 
to 1.8 cm long, the exterior ones gradually shorter, the outermost 



322 The Philippine Journal of Science nu 

8 to 10 mm long, the anthers opening by terminal pores. Car- 
pels 5, slightly hirsute, 7 mm long, oblong, subcyhndric; styles 
5, about 1 cm long ; ovules about 16, 2-seriate. Fruit not seen. 

Palawan, Taytay, Merrill 9237 (type), flowering from April 10 to June 
and probably later, 1913; Malampaya Bay, Bur. Sci. 21555 Escritor, August, 
1913, For. Bur. 4518 Curran, June 21, 1913. Dumaran, Bur. Sci. 216^2 
Escritor, August, 1913. Culion, Bur. Sci. 156j!^? Fenix, July 11, 1913. 

This species is common at low altitudes in northern Palawan, growing 
in thin, second growth forests, and in and along the borders of open cogo- 
nales, that is, areas occupied by the cogon or lalang grass (Imperata cylin- 
drica) . It is, perhaps, most closely allied to the Malayan Dillenia pulchella 
(Jack) Gilg, and among the Philippine species to Dillenia sibuyanensis 
(Elm.) {Wormia sibuyanensis Elm.). Its solitary flowers, together with 
its somewhat decurrent laminae and its few carpels are striking differential 
characters. 

LECYTHIDACEAE 

BARRINGTONIA Forster 
BARRINGTONIA PTERITA sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, glabra; foliis ad apices ramulorum plus minusve 
confertis, oblanceolatis, sessilibus vel subsessilibus, usque ad 40 
cm longis, acuminatis, basi sensim angustatis; racemis circiter 
70 cm longis, pendulis; fructibus oblongis, 6 cm longis, longi- 
tudinaliter 4-alatis. 

A small glabrous tree, 10 m high fide Ramos. Branches terete, 
the ultimate ones about 6 mm in diameter, above with rather 
prominent petiolar scars. Leaves somewhat crowded at the ends 
of the branchlets, oblanceoiate, 20 to 40 cm long, 4 to 8 cm 
wide, entire, rather pale when dry, somewhat shining, charta- 
ceous, the apex rather sharply acuminate, gradually narrowed 
from above the middle to the base, the base 1 cm wide or less, 
then abruptly acute or rounded, the petiole none, or stout and 
4 mm long or less; lateral nerves about 20 on each side of the 
midrib, rather prominent on the lower surface. Racemes pend- 
ulous, about 70 cm long, the flowers unknown. Fruit oblong 
or narrowly oblong, 6 cm long, 1.5 to 2.5 cm wide, the base acute 
the pedicels about 1 cm long, the persistent sepals crowning the 
apex about 1 cm in length, the four angles longitudinally winged, 
the wings subcoriaceous, about 5 mm wide. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Dahican River back of San Antonio, Bur. 
Sci. 1512J Ramos, June, 1912. 

A species manifestly allied to Barringtonia racemosa Blume, but at once 
distinguishable by its prominently longitudinally 4-winged fruits, in this 
character differing from all the previously known Philippine species. Elmer 
9168 from Lucban, Tayabas Province, is undoubtedly a small leaved form 
of the same species; it was distributed as Barringtonia racemosa Blume. 



IX. c, 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 323 

FLACOURTIACEAE 

HYDNOCARPUS Gaertner 
HYDNOCARPUS CAU LI FLORA sp. nov. § Euhydnocarpus, Oliganthera. 

Arbor parva inflorescentiis exceptis glabra ; foliis late oblongis, 
chartaceis vel tenuiter coriaceis, usque ad 30 cm long-is, nitidis, 
acuminatis, basi late cordato-rotundatis, nervis utrinque circiter 
15, valde prominentibus, petiolo vix 1 cm longo; inflorescentiis 
fulvo-villosis, usque ad 15 cm longis, anguste paniculatis vel 
racemosis, caulinis. 

A small tree, glabrous except the inflorescence. Branches 
slender, terete. Leaves alternate, broadly oblong, chartaceous 
or thinly coriaceous, of the same color and shining on both sur- 
faces when dry, 23 to 30 cm long, 9 to 12 cm wide, the base 
broad, rounded, somewhat cordate, the apex shortly acuminate; 
lateral nerves about 15 on each side of the midrib, very 
prominent, somewhat curved, anastomosing near the margin, 
the primary reticulations rathers lax, the ultimate ones 
slender, rather dense; petioles stout, 5 to 8 mm long. 
Inflorescence of very narrow raceme-like panicles or of simple 
racemes fascicled on the trunk, 5 to 15 cm long, densely fulvous- 
villous. Male flowers: Pedicels stout, villous, 3 mm long, the 
subtending bracteole densely villous, narrowly oblong, 2 mm 
long. Sepals 5, free, concave, villous, rounded, about 5 mm long. 
Petals 5, free, imbricate, thinner than the sepals, elliptic, 
rounded, 3 mm long, somewhat appressed-pilose on the back, 
the basal scale cleft, the lobes reflexed, about 1 mm long. Fila- 
ments villous-bearded, 1.5 mm long. Anthers ovoid, 1 to 1.2 
mm long. Rudimentary ovarj'^ villous, small. Female flowers 
and fruits not seen. 

Mindanao, District of Cotabato, Lebak, For. Bur. 11799 Whitford, March, 
1912, in dipterocarp forests at low altitudes. 

A very characteristic species, its inflorescence looking more like that of 
Ryparosa than of Hydnocarpus. The structure of its flowers, however, 
place it in Hydnocarpus. It is strongly characterized by its broadly oblong 
leaves which are prominently nerved and broadly rounded-cordate at the 
base, and especially by its cauline inflorescence. 

XYLOSMA Forster f. 
XYLOSMA LUZON ENSIS (Presl) comb. nov. 

Prockia luzonensis Presl Rel. Haenk. 2 (1835) 94. 

Xylosma cumingii Clos. in Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 8 (1857) 252; F.-Vill. 
Novis. App. (1880) 13; Vid. Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 94, Rev. 
PI. Vase. Pilip. (1886) 49. 

Luzon, without definite locality, Haenke in Herb. Prague (type) : Prov- 
ince of Cagayan, For. Bur. 17 IH Curran, For. Bur. 18506 Alvarez, For. 



324 ^^^^ Philipjnne Journal of Science i9i4 

Bur. 11^758, 1^7^.8 Darling: Province of Ilocos Norte, Cumhig 1250: Prov- 
ince of Ilocos Sur, Cuming 1123: Province of Nueva Vizcaya, For. Bur. 
158AU Curran & Merritt: Benguet Subprovince, Elmer 6423: Province of 
Pangasinan, For. Bur. 8376 Curran & Merritt: Province of Zambales, Bur. 
Sci. 5042 Ramos, Merrill 2916: Province of Rizal, For. Bur. 1893 AherrCa 
collector: Province of Tayabas (Principe), Merrill 1018. 

This species appears to be common and widely distributed in northern 
Luzon. The specimens cited above show considerable variation but are 
all apparently referable to a single species. Presl's description was based 
on at least two specimens, one in flower, and one in fruit. The type in the 
herbarium of the Museum des Konigreichs Bohmen at Prague, consists of a 
fruiting and a flowering specimen mounted on the same sheet, and is, at 
least in part, identical with the later Xylosma cumingii Clos. The earliest 
name is here adopted. 

XYLOSMA SULUENSIS sp. nov. 

Frutex glaber circiter 5 m altus ; ramulis pallidis, f oliis oblongo- 
ovatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, chartaceis, nitidis, basi acutis, 
apice acuminatis, margine integris, usque ad 18 cm longis ; race- 
mis axillaribus, solitariis, glabris, quam petiolo paullo longiori- 
bus, paucifloris; fructibus globosis, 6 ad 8 mm diametro. 

A glabrous shrub about 5 m high, the branches and branchlets 
slender, terete, very pale, with few, scattered lenticels. Leaves 
oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, entire, 9 to 18 cm long, 3.5 to 
6 cm wide, chartaceous, shining and of about the same color on 
both surfaces, when dry brownish-olivaceous, the base acute, the 
apex acuminate, gradually narrowed upward from below the 
middle, the base often with one or two small glands on the 
margins near the insertion of the petiole ; lateral nerves slender, 
ascending, about 10 on each side of the midrib; petioles 8 to 10 
mm long. Racemes axillary, solitary, glabrous, 2 cm long or 
less, few-flowered. Flowers unknown. Fruits usually about 
five to each raceme, globose, 6 to 8 mm in diameter, crustaceous 
when dry, smooth, crowned by the very short style, their pedicels 
3 to 4 mm long, the subtending bracteoles ovate-lanceolate, 1.5 
mm long or less. Seeds 4, black, concave, about 4 mm wide. 

Ubian Island, Sulu Archipelago, Merrill 5398, October 12, 1906, in 
thickets back of the beach. 

A species well characterized by its entire leaves with are considerably 
larger than are those of our other species, Xylosma luzonensis (Presl) 
Merr, 

FLACOURTIA Commerson 

FLACOURTIA EUPHLEBIA sp. nov. 

Frutex spinosus circiter 4 mm altus subtus foliis ad nervos 
dense pubescentibus ; foliis oblongis, subcoriaceis, usque ad 18 
cm longis, basi acutis vel rotundatis, apice breviter acuminatis, 
margine distincte crenato-serratis ; nervis utrinque circiter 10, 



IX, c. 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 325 

valde prominentibis, anastomosantibus ; fructibus subovoideis, 
circiter 1 cm longis, in siccitate circiter 7-sulcatis. 

A spiny shrub about 4 m high, the younger branchlets, petioles, 
and nerves on the lower surfaces of the leaves more or less 
pubescent. Branches terete, reddish-bro\Mi or brown, glabrous, 
lenticellate, the younger ones with solitary or paired, sharp, 
nearly straight, 5 to 10 mm long spines subtending each leaf, or 
the spines often scattered along the branchlet. Leaves oblong, 
subcoriaceous, brownish when dry and of about the same color on 
both surfaces, 12 to 18 cm long, 5 to 8 cm wide, the base acute or 
somewhat rounded, usually with a pair of glands near the in- 
sertion of the petiole, the apex rather abruptly and shortly 
acuminate, margins, except near the base, distinctly crenate- 
serrate, the midrib and lateral nerves on the lower surface, and 
in younger leaves on the upper surface, rather densely brown- 
pubescent; lateral nerves about 10 on each side of the midrib, 
very prominent on the lower surface, straight, looped-anas- 
tomosing near the margin; petioles pubescent, becoming nearly 
glabrous in age, stout, 4 to 12 mm long. Flowers unknown. 
Fruit ovoid, fleshy, edible, acid, about 1 cm long, black, when 
dry, and rather distinctly 7-sulcate. 

Mindanao, District of Davao, Todaya, Williams 2572, April 4, 1905. 

The specimen has been identified as Flacourtia montana Grah., which 
species, to a certain degree, it resembles. It is, however, entirely different 
in its leaf-venation, and does not agree with any previously described 
species of the genus so far as I am able to determine. It is remarkable 
for its very prominently veined leaves. 

RYPAROSA Blume 
RYPAROSA CAULI FLORA sp. nov. 

Species R. longipedunculatae Boerl. similis et ut videtur affinis, 
differt foliis majoribus, usque ad 35 cm longis, late oblongo- 
obovatis, apice late rotundatis, nervis utrinque circiter 9. 

A shrub or small tree, apparently glabrous except the more 
or less puberulent inflorescence. Branches terete, brownish 
when dry. Leaves alternate firmly chartaceous, broadly oblong- 
obovate, up to 35 cm long and 17 cm wide, shining when dry, 
the upper surface brownish-olivaceous, the lower surface pale 
and somewhat glaucous, the base acute, the apex broadly 
rounded; nerves 9 on each side of the midrib, curved-ascending, 
prominent, the reticulations distinct, rather lax; petioles about 
9 cm long, geniculate above. Inflorescence apparently racemose, 
the racemes solitary, springing from the trunk or from the 
larger branches, up to 35 cm in length, cinereous-puberulent. 

129558 3 



326 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science im 

Flowers unknown. Immature fruits globose, wrinkled when dry, 
subglobose, 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter, gray-puberulent externally. 

TiNAGO Island, Ahem 416, collected by Quadras between February and 
May, 1901, locally known as bunganon. 

The species above described was previously determined by me as Rypa- 
rosa longipedunculata Boerl., but comparison with authentic material from 
specimens cultivated in the Botanical Garden at Buitenzorg, show that it 
is a species quite different from that, although probably closely allied to it. 

CASEARIA Jacquin 
CASEARIA BREVIPES sp. nov. § Pitumba. 

Arbor parva, glabra; foliis oblongis vel late oblongo-lanceo- 
latis, chartaceis vel subcoriaceis, in siccitate brunneis, usque ad 20 
cm longis, subintegris vel distanter minuteque glanduioso-dentic- 
ulatis, utrinque angustatis, apice longe acuminatis, basi acutis 
vel subrotundatis, brevissime petiolatis, nervis utrinque 8 ad 
10 ; floribus axillaribus, f asciculatis, 5-meris, pedicellatis. Stami- 
nibus 10, staminodeis oblongis, apice capitatis, dense ciliatis. 

A small tree, quite glabrous, the branches prominently zigzag, 
terete, grayish, rather slender. Leaves oblong to broadly oblong- 
lanceolate, 14 to 20 cm long, 4 to 7 cm wide, subentire or with 
widely scattered, minute, gland-like, obscure teeth, chartaceous 
to subcoriaceous, when dry somewhat brownish, the upper sur- 
face slightly shining, the lower a little paler, narrowed at both 
ends, the base acute or somewhat obtuse, rarely somewhat 
rounded, equilateral, the apex rather long-acuminate, the acumen 
blunt; lateral nerves 8 to 10 on each side of the midrib, rather 
prominent on the lower surface, somewhat curved-ascending, 
anastomosing near the margin, the reticulations distinct; peti- 
oles stout, 2 to 3 mm long. Flowers axillary, few, fascicled, on 
thickened, prominent, axillary tubercles, 5-merous. Pedicels 
glabrous, up to 3 mm long, jointed, each subtended by two 
broadly ovate bracteoles about 1 mm long. Sepals 5, broadly 
elliptic, rounded, concave, glabrous, membranaceous, 3 to 4 mm 
long. Stamens ten, 3 mm long, the tubular part about 1 mm 
long, glabrous, the free parts of the filaments and the anthers 
each about 1 mm long, the ten, alternating, free staminodes 
oblong, shorter than the stamens, the apical parts suborbicular- 
capitate, densely ciliate. Ovary narrowly ovoid, about 2 mm 
long, narrowed upward to the sessile or subsessile capitate 
stigma, glabrous, or with very few scattered hairs. Fruit 
unknown. 

Basilan, Bur. Sci. 1611S Reillo, August 31, 1912, along streams. 

The species is well characterized by its leaves being narrowed at both 



IX. c. 4 Merrill: PhilippiJie Plants, X 327 

ends, prominently acuminate at the apex and usually acute at the base, the 
distant, minute, gland-like marginal teeth, the very short petioles, and the 
subcapitate tips of the staminodes. 

CASEARIA LOHERI sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, 4 ad 6 m alta, partibus junioribus floribusque 
exceptis glabra; foliis chartaceis, oblongo-ovatis ad obovatis, 
usque ad 18 cm longis, breviter petiolatis, in siccitate brunneis, 
integris, basi rotundatis, apice late acuminatis, nervis utrinque 
5 vel 6; floribus axillaribus, fasciculatis, paucis, 5-meris, extus 
leviter hirsutis. Staminibus 10. 

A small tree 4 to 6 m high, quite glabrous except the flowers 
and the growing tips of the branchlets which are sparingly 
hirsute with short, appressed hairs. Branches slender, terete, 
smooth, grayish. Leaves chartaceous, oblong-ovate to obovate, 
8 to 18 cm long, 4 to 8 cm wide, entire, the upper surface rather 
dark-brown or olivaceous-brown when dry, slightly shining, the 
lower somewhat paler, the base usually broad, rounded, some- 
times subacute, equilateral or nearly so, the apex with a short, 
broad acumen; lateral nerves 5 or 6 on each side of the midrib, 
distant, rather prominent on the lower surface, curved or curved- 
ascending, anastomosing, the reticulations distinct ; petioles 4 to 7 
mm long. Flowers 5-merous, axillary, fascicled and few or sub- 
solitary, their pedicels very short, jointed, the subtending brac- 
teoles 2, reniform or very broadly ovate, somewhat connate, 
broadly acuminate, externally somewhat pubescent with short 
hairs. Sepals 5, elliptic, rounded, slightly pubescent externally, 
concave, 3.5 to 4 mm long. Stamens 10, their filaments united 
below with the alternating staminodes, the tubular part glabrous, 
0.8 mm long, the free parts of the filaments slender, glabrous, 
1.4 mm long; anthers oblong-ovate 0.8 mm long. Alternating 
staminodes shorter than the stamens, oblong, obtuse, 1 to 1.2 
mm long, glabrous externally, prominently ferruginous-hirsute 
at the apex. Ovary ovoid, 1.2 mm long, ferruginous-hirsute in 
the upper one-half, narrowed to the subsessile or sessile capitate 
stigma. Fruit ovoid or ellipsoid, glabrous, fleshy, reddish when 
mature, 2 cm long, the valves coriaceous. Seeds about 15, 
obhquely obovoid, about 5 mm long, externally densely covered 
with roundish, distinct, pale dots. Aril thin, submembrana- 
ceous, 8 to 10 mm long, enveloping the seed, the upper part more 
or less lacerate. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, San Isidro, Bur. Sci. 1S525 Ramos (type), 
August, 1910, in forests. Bur. Sci. 1851 Ramos, January, 1907, in fruit; 
Oriud, Loher 6215. 



328 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science lau 

A species manifestly allied to Casearia fuliginosa Blanco, but readily- 
distinguishable by its fewer-nerved leaves. In C. fuliginosa Blanco the 
nerves are usually about 10 on each side of the midrib, in C. loheri 5 or 6 
on each side. The type was from Rizal Province, not from Laguna Province 
as distributed. 

CASEARIA SUBCORDATA sp. nov. § Pitumba. 

Arbor parva partibus junioribus floribusque exceptis glabra; 
foliis coriaceis, oblongis, nitidis, in siccitate brunneis, usque ad 
15 cm longis, breviter acute acuminatis, basi abrupte subtrun- 
cato-cordatis, leviter inaequalibus, margine serratis, nervis 
utrinque circiter 12; floribus axillaribus, fasciculatis, ut videtur 
numerosis, 5-meris, tenuiter pedicellatis ; fructibus anguste 
ovoideis vel ellipsoideo-ovoidis, 1 ad 1.4 cm longis, acutis, in 
siccitate leviter 6-sulcatis. 

A small tree, nearly glabrous except the younger parts. 
Branches terete, lenticellate, grayish-brown or reddish-brown, 
glabrous, the younger branchlets distinctly hirsute with short 
hairs. Leaves oblong, coriaceous, 8 to 15 cm long, 3.5 to 5.5 cm 
wide, the base abruptly and somewhat obliquely subtruncate- 
cordate, the sinus shallow, the basal lobes broadly rounded, the 
apex shortly but rather sharply acuminate, the margins regularly 
and rather finely serrate throughout, brown when dry, the upper 
surface strongly shining, the lower a little paler, shining, glabrous 
or when young with few short hairs on the lower surface ; lateral 
nerves about 12 on each side of the midrib, prominent, some- 
what curved, anastomosing, the reticulations fine, distinct; 
petioles 5 to 8 mm long, the younger ones slightly pubescent. 
Flowers 5-merous, axillary, fascicled, their pedicels slender, 3 
to 6 mm long, slightly pubescent. Sepals 5, oblong-ovate, glab- 
rous or nearly so, coriaceous, obtuse, 3 mm long slightly accres- 
cent and persistent in fruit, somewhat hirsute on the median 
portion inside. Stamens apparently 10; filaments 0.5 mm long; 
anthers a little longer; staminodes shorter than the stamens, 
densely ciliate-hirsute. Ovary narrowly ovoid, glabrous, nar- 
rowed upward to the short style, the stigma capitate. Fruit 
narrowly ovoid to ovoid-ellipsoid, 1 to 1.4 cm long, glabrous, 
numerous, 2 to 6 or more in each axil, shallowly longitudinally 
6-sulcate when dry, acute; valves thickly coriaceous. Seeds 
about 12 in each fruit, smooth, brown, somewhat inequilaterally 
obovoid or oblong-obovoid, 4 mm long; aril fleshy, about 5 mm 
long, quite inclosing the seeds, irregularly lacerate and divided. 
Peduncles of the fruits about 1 cm long. 

Mindanao, Bukidnon Subprovince, Bur. Sci. 15698 Fenix, August, 1912. 
A species manifestly very closely allied to Casearia polyantha Merr., 



IX, c, 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 329 

which it greatly resembles, but distinguishable by its leaves being truncate- 
cordate at the base. Its leaf-form is somewhat similar to that of C. cinerea 
Turcz., and C. grewiae folia Vent., but these two species are at once distin- 
guished by their pubescence. G. truncata Bl., is also apparently closely 
allied. 

ARALIACEAE 

BOERLAGIODENDRON Harms 
BOERLAGIODENDRON HETEROPH YLLUM sp. nov. 

Arbor erecta, ramosa, circiter 5 m alta, glabra; foliis palma- 
tim 3- ad 7-foliolatis, foliolis valde inaequalis, oblongo-obovatis 
vel late oblongo-lanceolatis, acuminatis, inferioribus vix 12 cm 
longis, superioribus usque ad 35 cm longis, acuminatis, lobatis 
dentatisque, basi sensim angustatis; umbellis densis, floribus sub- 
capitato-dispositis, 4-meris. 

An erect, branched tree about 5 m high, glabrous, the trunk 
about 8 cm in diameter. Leaves chartaceous, palmately 3- to 
7-foliolate, or somxetimes some of the leaves very deeply 3-parted, 
the lobes extending almost to the base; leaflets very unequal in 
size, when 5 or 7 are present the lower two usually 12 cm long 
or less, the upper ones larger, the middle one up to 35 cm in 
length, oblong-obovate to broadly oblong-oblanceolate, acuminate, 
usually lyrately lobed, dentate, the lobes broadly ovate, acumi- 
nate, the base gradually narrowed, the petiolules of the middle 
leaflets up to 3 cm in length, of the others gradually shorter; 
petioles 10 to 25 cm long, the basal part with four or more 
somewhat pectinate crests. Umbels terminal, about 30 termi- 
nating each branch, forming a dense cauliflower-like inflores- 
cence, the peduncles 10 to 15 mm long, each with two lanceolate, 
8 to 10 mm long bracts at the apex subtending the two lateral 
branches. Central head of each peduncle almost sessile, sub- 
capitate, of numerous sterile flowers, their pedicels 3 to 4 mm 
long, the ovaries ellipsoid, about 3 mm long. Lateral two um- 
bels about 1 cm in diameter, dense, subcapitate, their peduncles 
8 to 10 mm long. Flowers numerous, sessile or subsessile, 
4-merous. Petals 2 mm long. Anthers about 1 mm long, 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, Mount Hilong-Hilong, Weber 1126, 
March 29, 1911, in forests, altitude about 550 m. 

A species most closely allied to Boerlagiodendron dementis Merr., of 
Mindanao, but at once distinguished by its leaves being palmately compound. 

SCHEFFLERA Forster 

8CHEFFLERA OBOVATA sp. nov. § Euschefflera, Heptapleurum. 

Frutex epiphyticus, inflorescentiis exceptis glaber; foliis pal- 
matim 5- ad 7-foliolatis, foliolis subcoriaceis, nitidis, obovatis, 



330 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

integris, basi angustatis, acutis, apice abrupte caudatis, nervis 
primariis utrinque 5 vel 6, quam secondariis reticulisque baud 
magis distinctis; inflorescentiis terminalibus, racemis circiter 8, 
racemose dispositis, circiter 15 cm longis, fructibus 5-locellatis, 
An epiphytic shrub, glabrous except the inflorescence. 
Branches terete, grayish, striate when dry. Leaves alternate, 
their petioles 6 to 7 cm long, inflated and clasping at the base, 
the leaflets 5 to 7, palmately arranged ; leaflets obovate, subcori- 
aceous, 5 to 8 cm long, 2 to 4 cm wide, entire, narrowed gradually 
to the acute or cuneate base, the apex abruptly and prominently 
acuminate, the acumen stout, 5 to 8 mm long, acute, the upper 
surface shining, the lower dull, of about the same color; lateral 
nerves 5 or 6 on each side of the midrib, the basal ones sharply 
ascending, distinct but not more prominent than are the second- 
ary ones and the reticulations, all equally prominent on both 
surfaces ; petiolules 1.5 to 2.5 cm long, those of the outer leaflets 
somewhat shorter than of the middle ones. Inflorescence ter- 
minal, sparingly furfuraceous-pubescent with short pale hairs, 
the rachis short, about 2 cm long, stout. Racemes usually about 
8, 12 to 15 cm long, bearing numerous fascicled fruits, the pedi- 
cels slender, 3 to 4 mm long, usually 2 or 3 fruits in each fascicle. 
Fruits reddish-yellow when fresh, glabrous, ellipsoid, when dry 
prominently longitudinally 5-sulcate, 5-celled, crowned by the 5, 
round, sessile stigmas. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Dahican, Phil. PL 1108 Ramos, September 
27, 1912. 

A species manifestly allied to Schefflera caudata Vid. (S. acuminatissima 
Merr.) from which it differs especially in its quite differentially shaped, 
much smaller leaves. 

Additional material from the same province {Bur. Sci. 10001, 10973 
Ramos), the specimens in flower, is very similar to the species above de- 
scribed, but in both the flowers are in racemosely disposed umbels, while 
in the type of S. obovata the flowers are merely fascicled, not at all 
umbellate. 

SCHEFFLERA DEMESAE sp. nov. § Euschefflera. 

Frutex scandens, glaber; foliis alternis, palmatim 5-foliolatis, 
foliolis chartaceis, usque ad 24 cm longis, integris, nitidis, apice 
breviter acuminatis, basi rotundatis, nervis tenuibus, utrinque 
usque ad 25, petiolulis valde inaequalibus ; inflorescentiis termi- 
nalibus, pedunculatis, floribus 5-meris, racemosis, racemis elon- 
gatis, subumbellatim dispositis. 

A scandent glabrous shrub, the stem reaching a diameter of 
about 3 cm, purplish, the ultimate branches terete, about 5 mm 
in diameter, striate when dry, grayish or brownish. Leaves 



IX. c. 4 Men-ill: Philippine Plants, X 331 

palmately 5-foliolate, their petioles inflated at the base, about 
5 cm long. Leaflets oblong- to elliptic-oblong, chartaceous, shin- 
ing, 15 to 24 cm long, 7.5 to 9.5 cm wide, entire, the apex shortly 
acuminate, the base rounded; lateral nerves slender, about 25 
on each side of the midrib, the reticulations distinct ; petiolule of 
the central leaflet 7 cm long, of the next two inner leaflets 2.5 
to 3 cm long, of the outer leaflets about 1 cm long. Inflorescence 
terminal, peduncled, the peduncle up to 15 cm long, usually with 
two distant, ovate bracts, the lower one 5 mm long, the upper 
one twice as long. Branches of the inflorescence subumbellately 
disposed near the apex of the peduncles, usually 6, slender, about 
30 cm long, many-flowered. Flowers racemosely disposed, usually 
fascicled at the nodes, few in each fascicle, pale-green, their pedi- 
cels about 6 mm long. Calyx short, truncate, somewhat disk-like 
Petals 5, oblong-ovate or ovate, acute, appendaged at the apex 
inside, 3 mm long, 3-nerved. Filaments 2 mm long; anthers 
broad, about 1.3 mm long. Fruit not seen. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, Siay River, For. Bur. 13396 Fox- 
worthy, DeMesa, & Villamil, May 29, 1912, on river banks, known to the 
Moros as canoyiucan. 

Apparently a very distinct species, characterized by being quite glabrous ; 
by its peduncled inflorescence, with its elongated subumbellately disposed 
primary branches; and its 5-foliolate, entire, ample leaves with their very 
unequal petiolules. 

SCHEFFLERA CAUDATI FOLIA sp. nov. § Euschefflera. 

Frutex scandens, glaber, ramis ramulisque teretibus; foliis 
palmatim 5-foliolatis, foliolis subcoriaceis, nitidis, oblongis ad 
oblongo-lanceolatis, usque ad 10 cm longis, utrinque angustatis, 
basi acutis, apice longe tenuiter caudato-acuminatis ; floribus 
racemosis, 5-meris, racemis subterminalis, solitariis vel binis, 
tenuibus, usque ad 13 cm longis. 

A scandent shrub, quite glabrous, the branches and branchlets 
terete, when dry light-gray, wrinkled. Leaves scattered, pal- 
mately 5-foliolate, their petioles 4 to 8 cm long, inflated at the 
base; leaflets oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 10 cm long, 2 to 
3.4 cm wide, subequally narrowed to the acute base and to the 
slenderly caudate-acuminate apex, entire, the acumen straight 
or falcate, up to 2 cm long, the upper surface subolivaceous, 
shining, the lower shining, paler than the upper; lateral nerves 
5 or 6 on each side of the midrib, rather distinct, anastomosing; 
petiolules 1 to 2 cm long. Inflorescence terminal, of one or two 
rather slender racemes, the racemes up to 13 cm long. Flowers 
5-merous, solitary, in pairs, or somewhat fascicled, their pedicels 



332 '^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

about 4 mm long. Calyx small, less than 2 mm in diameter. 
Petals 5, oblong-ovate, about 2.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, blunt, 
inflexed-keeled at the apex inside. Anthers about 1.5 mm long. 
Fruit 4 to 5 mm long, about 2.5 mm in diameter, oblong, longi- 
tudinally 5-sulcate, apparently somewhat fleshy when fresh, 
brown when dry. 

Luzon, Province of Camarines, Mount Isarog, Bur. Sci. 20062 Ramos, 
November 8, 1913, on forested slopes. 

Probably most closely allied to Schefflera obovata Merr., but with quite 
different leaflets. 

SCHEFFLERA CRASSI FOLIA sp. nov, § Euschefflera. 

Frutex scandens, glaber; foliis palmatis, foliolis 6, oblongis, 
coriaceis, nitidis, acuminatis, usque ad 18 cm longis, subtus palli- 
dis, nervis reticulisque valde prominentibus ; racemis 3 ad 6 in 
ramulis junioribus plus minusve confertis, usque ad 35 cm longis ; 
floribus fasciculatis vel solitariis, pedicellatis, 5-meris ; fructibus 
ellipsoideis, longitudinaliter 5-sulcatis, 5 ad 6 mm longis. 

A scandent shrub, quite glabrous, or the very young parts 
sometimes slightly furfuraceous. Branches terete, lightly-gray, 
striate or wrinkled when dry. Leaves palmately compound, 
scattered, their petioles 5 to 10 cm long, inflated at the base, 
clasping the stem. Leaflets 6, oblong, thickly coriaceous, 10 to 
18 cm long, 3.5 to 7 cm long, entire, the base rounded to subacute, 
apex rather abruptly and prominently acuminate, the acumen 
straight or somewhat falcate blunt, up to 2 cm long; upper sur- 
face olivaceous, prominently shining, the veins and reticulations 
distinct, the lower surface pale, grayish-yellow, the veins and 
reticulations very prominent, the lateral nerves about 10 on each 
side of the midrib, spreading, anastomosing; petiolules about 3 
cm long. Inflorescence terminal, the racemes 3 to 6, arranged 
near the apices of the branchlets, the individual racemes up to 
35 cm long, dark-brown when dry. Flowers numerous, fascicled 
and solitary along the racemes, their pedicels 3 to 4 mm long. 
Fruits apparently somewhat fleshy, when dry brown, ellipsoid, 
5 to 6 mm long, about 4.5 mm in diameter, longitudinally 
5-celled. 

Luzon, Province of Camarines, Sagnay, on trees in damp forests, Bur. 
Sci. 22152 Ramos, December 15, 1913 (type) : Province of Albay, Adumoy 
hills, For. Bur. 1238^ Curran, June, 1908, locally known as caranglang. 

A species well characterized by its palmately 6-foliolate leaves, the leaflets 
very thick and with prominent nerves and reticulations, and its elongated 
racemes which are somewhat crowded at the apices of the branchlets. Its 
alliance seems to be with Schefflera dementis Merr., but the flowers are 
all in strict racemes, not in racemosely arranged umbels. 



IX, c, 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 333 

EBENACEAE 

MABA Forster 
MABA EUPHLEBIA sp. nov. 

Frutex vel arbor parva (ex Ramos 3 m alta) ; foliis alternis, 
breviter petiolatis, oblongis, usque ad 33 cm longis, acuminatis, 
basi rotundatis, supra glabris subtus parce pubescentibus ; nervis 
utrinque circiter 12, distantibus, valde prominentibus ; floribus 
paucis, sessilibus, bracteolatis, fasciculatis, axillaribus; stamini- 
bus 12; corolla circiter 1.5 cm longa, extus dense fulvo-hirsuta. 

A shrub or small tree (3 m high ex Ramos) , the branchlets and 
lower surfaces of the leaves somewhat pubescent, the flowers 
densely so, otherwise glabrous. Branches slender, terete, brown 
or grayish, Leaves subcoriaceous or thickly chartaceous, oblong, 
20 to 33 cm long, 7 to 9 cm wide, somewhat shining when dry, 
the upper surface olivaceous, glabrous, the lower pale-brownish, 
distinctly pubescent on the midrib and nerves, the base somewhat 
narrowed, rounded, the apex acute or acuminate; lateral nerves 
about 12 on each side of the midrib, very prominent, curved, 
distinct, anastomosing, the reticulations lax, prominent; petioles 
stout, pubescent, about 3 mm long. Flowers few, 2 or 3, rarely 
more, in axillary, sessile fascicles, each flower subtended by three 
ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, hirsute, about 3 mm long 
bracteoles. Calyx about 5 mm long, slightly hirsute, cup-shaped, 
3-lobed, the lobes broadly ovate, acute or acuminate, one about 
as long as the calyx-tube. Corolla in nearly mature bud about 
1.5 cm long, cylindric, 3 mm in diameter below, narrowed above, 
outside very densely hirsute-pubescent with appressed fulvous 
hairs. Stamens 12, in three series, the anthers linear-oblong, 
2 to 3 mm long, the filaments of the inner series about 2 mm 
long, of the outer series about 6 mm long, flattened. Female 
flowers and fruits not seen. 

Luzon, Province of Tayabas, Tagcauayan, in forests, altitude about 
90 meters. Bur. Sci. 13SS5 Ramos, March 15, 1911. 

A very characteristic species, distinguishable by its comparatively large, 
prominently nerved leaves which are pubescent beneath, and its few, axil- 
lary, fascicled, sessile flowers. It is, perhaps, most closely allied to Maba 
venosa King & Gamble, of Singapore, but is entirely distinct from that 
species as described. 

DIOSPYROS Linnaeus 

DIOSPYROS TRIFLORA sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, floribus exceptis glabra, ramis ramulisque tenu- 
ibus, teretibus; foliis oblongis, usque ad 23 cm longis, subcoria- 
ceis, supra nitidis, acuminatis, basi acutis, leviter decurrento- 



334 ^^^^ Philippine Journal of Science lou 

acuminatis, vel subrotundatis, eglandulosis, nervis utrinque 
circiter 9, tenuibus, baud prominentibus ; inflorescentiis $ 
axillaribus, solitariis, pedunculatis, circiter 2 cm longis, 3-floris; 
floribus 5-meris, calycibus cylindraceis, 6 mm longis, leviter 
S-dentatis; corolla extus dense pubescens; staminibus 10. 

A small tree, glabrous except the flowers. Branches and 
branchlets slender, terete, smooth, the latter black, the former 
black when dry. Leaves oblong, subcoriaceous, 12 to 23 cm long, 
4 to 9 cm wide, the apex distinctly acuminate, the acumen blunt, 
the base acute, somewhat decurrent-acuminate, or somewhat 
rounded, eglandular, the upper surface very smooth and strongly 
shining when dry, the lower surface of nearly the same color 
but duller; lateral nerves 8 to 10 on each side of the midrib, 
slender, not prominent, loosely anastomosing, the reticulations 
not prominent, lax; petioles about 8 mm long. Male inflores- 
cences axillary, solitary, about 2 cm long, the peduncles 5 to 10 
mm long, each bearing three, subumbellately arranged, pedicelled 
flowers, ebracteolate. Male flowers 5-merous, their pedicels 
pubescent, 2 to 3 mm long, the calyx, in bud, cylindric, black 
when dry, slightly pubescent, about 6 mm long, 2 to 2.5 mm in 
diameter, the base obtuse, somewhat narrowed, the apex trun- 
cate and slightly 5-toothed, the teeth acute, 0.5 mm long or less. 
Corolla (in young bud) narrower than the calyx, externally 
densely gray-pubescent, the tube apparently short, the lobes 
elongated, imbricate. Stamens 10, in two series, the anthers 
lanceolate, acuminate, up to 3 mm long (immature) . Female 
flowers and fruit not seen. 

Balabac, Cape Melville, Bur. Scl 15652 Fenix, July 18, 1912, along trails 
at low altitudes. 

A species well characterized by its 3-flowered, peduncled, solitary inflores- 
cences, and its cylindric and truncate, obscurely 5-toothed calyces. It is 
apparently allied to the Malayan Diospyros truncata ZoU. & Mor., but has 
a peduncled, not fasciculate inflorescence, and quite differently shaped leaves. 

DIOSPYROS FASCiCULIFLORA sp. nov. 

Arbor parva subtus foliis junioribus ramulis floribusque ex- 
ceptis glabra, ramis ramulisque teretibus; foliis chartaceis vel 
subcoriaceis, oblongis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, usque ad 20 cm 
longis, utrinque angustatis, acuminatis; nervis lateralibus cir- 
citer 12, subtus valde prominentibus, arcuato-anastamosantibus, 
reticulis laxis, distinctis; floribus 4-meris, ferrugineo-pubescen- 
tibus, solitariis vel fasciculatis in axillis defoliatis vel in ramis 
infra foliis, calycibus post anthesis brevibus, rotatis, circiter 12 
mm diametro ; ovario 4-loculare, dense hirsuto ; fructibus 4-locel- 



IX, c, 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 335 

latis, globosis vel globoso-obovoideis, circiter 2 cm diametro, 
seminibus 4, albumine vix ruminato. 

A small tree, glabrous except for the flowers, the younger 
branchlets, and the lower surfaces of young leaves. Branches 
and branchlets terete, slender, dark-gray or brownish-black 
when dry, wrinkled, lenticellate, the younger branchlets somewhat 
ferruginous-pubescent. Leaves oblong, chartaceous or subcor- 
iaceous, 12 to 20 cm long, 3.5 to 8 cm wide, narrowed at both 
ends, the apex rather sharply acuminate, the base acute, eglandu- 
lar, the upper surface smooth and shining when dry, brownish 
or olivaceous, the lower surface usually much paler, slightly 
shining, when young rather softly pubescent or puberulent, 
often becoming glabrous or nearly so; lateral nerves about 12 
on each side of the midrib, very prominent, arched-anastomosing, 
the reticulations lax, prominent; petioles up to 1 cm in length. 
Female flowers solitary or fascicled in the axils of fallen leaves, 
or fascicled on rather prominent protuberances on the branchlets 
below the leaves, 4-merous, sessile or very shortly and stoutly 
pedicelled. Calyx densely ferruginous-pubescent, the tube very 
short, broad, the lobes immediately after flowering orbicular- 
reniform, rounded, densely ferruginous-pubescent on both sur- 
faces, about 3 mm in diameter, soon accrescent, spreading, 
reniform, 5 mm long and 8 mm in diameter, often recurved, 
thickly coriaceous. Corolla and stamens not seen. Ovary ovoid, 
densely ferruginous-pubescent, 4-celled. Fruit apparently fleshy, 
globose or obovoid-globose, when dry about 2 cm in diameter and 
often grayish, the pericarp glabrous, wrinkled, the coriaceous 
calyx-lobes persistent at the base of the fruit. Seeds 4, one in 
each cell, 12 to 15 mm long, about 1 cm wide and thick, the 
albumen hard but scarcely bony, smooth, whitish or yellowish 
when dry, not at all ruminate. 

Basilan, Bur. Sci. 16101 Reillo, August, 1912 (type). 

I refer also to this species the following material : Luzon, without definite 
locality, Loher 6562, in fruit: Province of Tayabas, Bur. Sci. 10283 Curran, 
in fruit. Cebu, Asturias, For. Bur. 6U50 Everett, in fruit. Mindanao, 
District of Zamboanga, San Ramon, Hallier, in fruit. The only recorded 
native name is the Cebuano panangtilong. 

DIOSPYROS Ml RAN DAE sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 30 m alta inflorescentiis exceptis glabra; foliis 
crasse coriaceis, oblongis, nitidis, utrinque concoloribus, usque 
ad 12 cm longis, acuminatis, nervis utrinque circiter 10, tenuibus, 
vix prominentibus, reticulis densis; floribus 9 5-meris, axilla- 
ribus, in racemis brevibus paucifloris dispositis; calycibus in 



336 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

alabastra obovoideis, 6 mm diametro, crassissime coriaceis, 
longitudinaliter plicatis, lobis renif ormibus ; ovario 10-locellato. 
A dioecious tree about 30 m high, glabrous except the in- 
florescence. Branches terete, grayish, lenticellate. Leaves 
alternate, thickly coriaceous, oblong, 8 to 12 cm long, 3 to 5 
cm wide, shining and of about the same color on both surfaces, 
base rounded or subacute, apex shortly acuminate ; lateral nerves 
about 10 on each side of the midrib, slender, not prominent, 
anastomosing, the reticulations slender, dense; petioles about 5 
mm long. Female flowers in short, axillary, solitary, few- 
flowered, pubescent, spike-like racemes, the whole about 2 cm 
long. Flowers 5 or less in each raceme, their pedicels very stout, 
jointed, pubescent, about 2 mm long. Calyx in bud, just before 
anthesis, obovoid, pubescent, about 6 mm long and wide, with 
5 reniform, rounded lobes, very thickly coriaceous, 3 mm long 
and 6 mm wide, the lobed portion longitudinally plicate or 
folded-plicate, star-shaped in cross-section, pubescent inside. 
Corolla-tube 6 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, cylindric, basal part gla- 
brous, pubescent above, the lobes broadly ovate, spreading in 
anthesis, 5, pubescent on both surfaces, about 5 mm long, acute. 
Ovary ovoid, densely appressed-pubescent, narrowed upward 
into the thick style, ovary and style about 5 mm long, 10-celled. 
Staminodes 5, inserted at the base of the corolla, the sterile 
anthers linear, about 2 mm long. 

Mindanao, District of Cotabato, southeastern ridge of Mount Glan, For. 
Bur. 18752 Miranda (type), For. Bur. H2Jf8 Tarrosa, June 6 and May 25, 
1912, in forests, altitude 90 to 125 meters, locally known to the Moros as 
hantulinay. 

A species well characterized by its peculiar calyx which is somewhat 
of the type of that of Diospyros affinis Thw. The flowers are said to be 
white and fragrant, and the heart-wood is described as black. 

DIOSPYROS PLICATA sp. nov. 

Arbor dioica, 8 ad 25 m alta, partibus junioribus inflorescent- 
iisque exceptis glabra; foliis junioribus pubescentibus, vetus- 
tioribus glabris, oblongis, usque ad 18 cm longis, coriaceis, nitidis, 
subtus pallidioribus, acuminatis, nervis utrinque circiter 12, 
distantibus, patulis, distinctis, anastomosantibus ; floribus 9 
axillaribus, fasciculatis, dense fulvo-pubescentibus, 5-meris, 
sepahs in anthesis breviter connatis, longitudinaliter plicatis et 
horizontaliter undulato-plicatis, accrescentibus et 2.5 cm longis. 

A tree 8 to 25 m high. Branches terete, slender, nearly black 
when dry, the growing parts, the young leaves, and the flowers 
appressed-pubescent. Leaves oblong, coriaceous, 12 to 18 cm 



IX. c. 4 Merrill: Philippine Plants, X 337 

long, 2.5 to 8 cm wide, shining on both surfaces, the lower 
somewhat paler than the upper, the apex blunt-acuminate, the 
base acute or rounded ; nerves about 12 on each side of the midrib, 
spreading, distant, prominent on the lower surface, looped- 
anastomosing, the reticulations very lax, distinct; petioles 3 to 
8 mm long. Female flowers 5-merous, axillary, in few-flowered 
fascicles, densely fulvous-pubescent. Calyx in bud densely 
pubescent, the sepals oblong-lanceolate, longitudinally folded or 
plicate, the reflexed margins very prominently horizontally un- 
dulate-plicate, free nearly to the base. Corolla cylindric, 6 mm 
long in bud, densely pubescent. Ovary densely appressed-hir- 
sute, narrowly ovoid, 5- or 6-celled. Young fruit narrowly 
ovoid, obtuse, pubescent, about 1 cm long (very young) quite 
free from the accrescent, involucre-like calyx. Accrescent 
calyx-lobes ovate, somewhat foliaceous, coriaceous, slightly 
pubescent, 2.5 cm long, free except at the very base, folded back 
longitudinally and also prominently horizontally undulate- 
plaited, forming an ovoid involucre surrounding but free from 
the fruit, this accrescent calyx 5 cm in diameter when spread. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, near Margosatubig, For. Bur. 13281 
Foxworthy, DeMesa, & Villamil, May 11, 1912 (type), in hill forests, altitude 
about 120 meters, specimens with young fruit: District of Cotabato, Cabla- 
can, For. Bur. 1/^901 Tarrosa, May, 26, 1912, near the seashore; Buluan Point, 
For. Bur. 1828U Miranda, May 27, 1912, the last two -with young flowers. 

A very striking species, well characterized by its accrescent calyx which 
is quite free from the fruit, and which is longitudinally folded or plicate 
and at the same time very prominently horizontally undulate-plicate. Its 
leaves are very similar to those of our common Diospyros pilosanthera, to 
which, however, it is not otherwise at all closely allied. 



The Philippine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 4, August, 1914. 



THE POTAMOGETONS OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

By Arthur Bennett 
{Croydon, England) 

Through the kindness of Mr. E. D. Merrill I have been enabled 
to examine the representatives of the genus Potamogeton be- 
longing to the herbarium of the Bureau of Science. This has 
enabled me to add one species to the flora. For the sake of 
convenience I have considered the species in the order that they 
appear in Ascherson and Graebner's monograph of the family.^ 
I have also noted the species of surrounding countries in the 
hope that they may eventually be found in the Philippines. 
Those species which have actually been found in the Archi- 
pelago I have indicated v^^ith an asterisk. 

1. POTAMOGETON JAVANICUS Hassk. in Act. Soc. Ind.-Neerl 5' (1856) 
26. 

Potamiogeton heterophyllus Ham. in WaU. Cat. (1831) no. 5181. 

Potamogeton tenuicaulis F. Muell. Frag. Phyt. Austral. 1 (1858) 90 
244; 7 (1865) 217. 

Potamogeton hybridus Hook. f. & Th. (non Michx.). 

Potamogeton parvifolia Buchenau in Abh. Natui*w. Ver. Bremen 7 (1880) 
32. 

Java, Forbes lOJf! Formosa, Oldham 881,637! Corea, Wilford 968! 
China, Maingay 170! 

India, Khasia Hills, 6,000 ft. alt.! Himalaya, 7,000 ft.! Sikkim 9,000 
ft.! Africa! Australia! 

Although Doctor Schinz and I have considered these all to belong to 
one species, at the present time I am in doubt as to whether or not this 
is true. The figure of the fruit given by Ascherson & Graebner ^ certainly 
does not belong to Potamogeton javanicus Hassk. but may have been 
drawn by mistake from P. orientalis Hagst. Hasskarl in his description 

says "fructus drupacei viridi subrotunda 3-cristata cristis lateralibus 

minus promunalis 2 gibbis, intermedia sinuata 3-4 gibba." Buchenau has 

"Fructus dorso carinati, basi bituberculata", and Mueller "carpi- 

dis dorso tricarinatus et repando-denticulatis." 

But in the species of Potamogeton with tubercled fruits, the variation 
in this character is great; for instance the range of variation from P. tri- 

'EngL Pflanzenreich 31 (1907) 1-184. 
* L. c. 47, fig. lU C. 

339 



340 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

choides Cham & Schlecht. to P. condylo carpus Tausch may be quoted, 
and on this Schumann in Flora Brasiliensis 3' (1894) 709 very rightly 
puts stress, showing that care is needed and that slight differences must 
be taken into account, not as specific, but as endemic, or edaphic variations, 
and especially this has to be considered in the Australian species of the 
genus. 

2. POTAMOGETON CRISTATUS Kegel & Maack Fl. Ussur. (1861) 9, t. 
10, f. 3-6. 
Potamogeton hybridiis Makino (non Michx.) 111. Fl. Japan 2 (1891) 

t.55. 
China! Mandschuria! Japan! Formosa, Faurie 528! 
The most extraordinary fruited species of the genus. 

*3. POTAMOGETON TEPPERI A. Benn. in Journ. Hot. 25 (1887) 178. 

Luzon, Subprovince of Benguet, Trinidad, Topping 45, January, 1903, 
growing in a small lake; Baguio and vicinity. Bur. Sci. 1^110 Robinson, 
May, 1911, Elmer 5952, April, 1904, common about margins of a small 
pond. China, Province of Yunnan, Abbe Delavay ex M. Franchet! Aus- 
tralia, Cygnet River, at Knicks, O. Tepper! 

The description of Potamogeton Tepperi needs revision: Stem 18 to 24 
inches long, sparingly branched. Leaves, lower, 3 to 44 inches long by 
I to 11 in. wide; petioles li inches long with 7 principal nerves and 10 
secondary ones. Upper leaves suborbicular. Stipules IJ to 2 inches long, 
persistent to time of flowering, acute, with numerous nerves. 

As indicated below there are two species confused, or combined, under 
the name P. Tepperi. The original plant belongs to the Australian series 
of thick leaved species in the floating leaves; some are almost leathery 
in consistence while the others placed under P. Tepperi are like the 
European species, thin leaved and the nerves generally semiexposed. 

4. POTAMOGETON INDICUS Roxb. Fl. Ind. ed. Wall. 1 (1820) 471. 

Potamogeton Roxburghianus Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. Mant. 3 (1827) 

367. 
Sumatra, Teysmann in herb. Buchenau, Bremen ! Japan, Faurie in 
herb. Boissier 7530 ! India ! Thibet ! Upper Burma ! Assam ! 

*5. POTAMOGETON ANGUSTIFOLIUS Berchtold & Presl Rostlinar 2 
(1821) 19. 
Potamogeton Zizii Mert. & Koch ex Cham, & Schlecht. in Linnaea 2 

(1827) 202. 

Potamogeton heterophyllus Schreb. var. latifolius Mert. & Koch Deutch. 

Fl. ed. 3 (1823) 845. 
Potamogeton lucens L., var. heterophyllus Fries Nov. Fl. Suec. ed. 2 

(1828) 34. 

Luzon, Subprovince of Benguet, Trinidad, Loher 1597 in herb. Kew. ! 

Kasmir, C. B. Clarke 29139 ! Himalaya, Strachy & Winterbottom ! 
China, Yunnan, Abbe Delaway in herb, Paris ! Upper Burma, Abdul 
Khalil ex Dr. Prain ! Europe ! N. America ! Cuba ! Madagascar ? 



IX, c. 4 Bennett: Potamogetons of the Philippines 341 

*6. POTAMOGETON M ALAIN A Miq. 111. Fl. Arch. Ind. (1871) 46. 

Potamogeton viucronatus Presl Epim. Bot. (1851) 245, non Schrad. 

Potamogeton japonicus Franch. & Sav. Enum. PI. Jap. 2 (1879) 15 
nomen solus. 

Potamogeton Wrightii Morong in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 13 (1886) 
158, t. 59. 

Potamogeton lucens Vidal Phan. Cuming. Philip. (1885) 155 (Cuming 
1381). 

Potamogeton heterocarpus Maxim, in herb, et in litt. 

Luzon, "Cuming 1381, July, 1839, Prov. Albay" herb. Prague ! Prov- 
ince of Sorsogon, For. Bur. 12249 Curran ! June, 1908, specimen poor 
but probably belongs here: Province of Laguna, Lake Bay R. S. Williama 
20U ! July, 1905. Merrill 5107 ! March, 1906, Bur. Sci. 11892 Robinson 
& Ramos ! October, 1910. Mindanao, Lake Lanao, Mrs. Clemens 515, 
U8 ! 

Distribution: Borneo, Motley 671 ! Celebes, Teysmann ex Miquel 
1. c, Koorders 1895 in herb. Vienna ! Java, Zollinger 3278, 3778, S78U ! 
China, Yunnan, Delavay 1887, herb. Paris. ! Formosa, Henry 1203a ! 
Lien Chau, Graves in herb. Hance 22226 ! LiUKlu, C. Wright 320 ! 
COREA, Faurie 219 (1906), 690 (1901)! Mandschuria, Litwinow 16^6, 
2377, 3350 ! JAPAN, Franchet et Savatier 209 ! Maximowicz "iter secun- 
dum" ! India, Bengal, Hamilton; Kashmir, Schlagihveil 4615 ! 

. Graebner in Das Pflanzenreich gives "Cuba, Wright No. 3714", but my 
specimen under than number is P. angustifolius Bercht. & Presl, and 
"Jamaica, MacFayden No. AU'\ this I have not seen but I doubt it belong- 
ing to P. Malaina; it is more likely to be P. occidentalis Sieber. The 
specimens referred to P. malaina from Guatemala, Morong in "PI. Gaut. 
3, 189S (J. Donnell Smith)" are P. lucens L. var. Floridanus A. Benn.; 
Dr. Hance in Journ. Bot. (1885) 329, A. Bennett 1. c. (1890) 298, (1891) 
154, Bull, Herb. Boiss. (1895) 254, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36 (1903) 194. 
Potamogeton Gaudichaudii Cham, et Schlecht. in Linnaea 2 (1827) 199 
which I formerly queried as malaina, is a lucens form, but certainly not 
angustifolia Bercht. & Presl (P. Zizii C. & S.) as considered by W. F. 
Wight in Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9: 360. 

7. POTAMOGETON SUMATRANUS Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1860-61) 

259, 597. 

"Sumatra occid. in fossis prope Padang et prope Padang Pandjang, in 
lacu Singkara" Teysmann leg., Vienna herb.!, Zollinger 1801. "In Stooten 
Padang, W. R. Sumatra leg. Teysmann No. 1139, herb. Sulp. Kurz." Herb. 
Bogor. 

An obscure species. Zollinger's specimen at Vienna has one flower spike 
only; the structure and shape of the leaves are much as in P. lucens, but in 
shape the leaves are very different from those of P. malaina. 

8. POTAMOGETON CRISPUS Linn. I have seen specimens from Sumatra, 

but failed to note in what collection. 

9. POTAMOGETON OXYPHYLLUS Miq. Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd-Bat. 3 

(1867) 161. 
This occurs in Japan! and Corea! 

129563 4 



342 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

* 10. POTAMOGETON MAACKIANUS A. Benn. in Journ. Bot. 42 (1904) 74. 

Potamogeton serrulatus Kegel & Maack in Kegel Tent. Fl. Ussur. (1861) 
139, non Schrader, nee. Opiz. 

Potamogeton crispus Linn var. serrulatus Schrad. "Japan" ex Science 
College, herb. Kew. ! 

Potamogeton Robbinsii Oakes var. japonicus A. Benn. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 
4 (1896) 257. 

Mindanao, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Mrs. Clemens 216, February, 
1906, growing with P. malaina. 

Distr. UssuRl, Regel & Maack! Mandschuria, Taladschao, Litwinow 
SSA6'. COREA, Nai piang, Faurie 693! July, 1901. China, Yangtsee River, 
Warburg 59^0 teste Graebner. Formosa, Warburg 10712, teste Graebner. 
Japan, Faurie 10712, No. U, US (1897) ! Hakone 1883, herb. Kew. 

The Asiatic representative of the North American P. Robbinsii Oakes! 
The species stands apart from any other, except P. Robbinsii Oakes, to 
which it is the nearest. The fruits are much alike in facies, but the 
leaves are quite different. The nerves are mostly 5 (against 18 to 24 in 
P, Robbinsii) and the structure of the leaf is totally different. In P. 
Robbinsii the marginal and central nerves are continued to the apex, but 
in P. Maackianus, on the contrary, the central nerve alone extends to the 
apex, the secondary nerves stop short, form an arch at the end, but the 
leaf is drawn in and continued beyond to an obtuse end. 

* 11. X POTAMOGETON PH ILIPPIN ENSIS nova hybrid:=P. ma/a^r^MS X 

m.aackianus. 

Mindanao, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Mary Strong Clemens, April, 
1906. 

A duplicate of this specimen previously examined by Dr. Ostenfeld and 
myself was thought to come nearest to P. nipponicus Makino, a Japanese 
species, but on receipt of the original specimen from the Bureau of 
Science and a comparison of it with Makino's species, it became evident 
that it could not be so named. Both the supposed parents grow in Lake 
Lanao, and, short of the actual production of the hybrid by cultivation, 
I think it can only be so referred. Traces of both species are plainly 
visible, and of the two, it is doubtless nearer to P. malainus. The very 
peculiar intricate branching of the upper part, with the stipules, shows 
characters of P. Maackianus. There are no flowers or fruit with the speci- 
men. The habit is between that of malaina and that of Maackianus. Stems 
branching, and, toward the top, much branched with stiff, densely arranged 
patent leaves, with extremely short internodes, the stipules filling up the 
spaces. Lower leaves linear-lanceolate, the apex with a point drawn out 
about 8 mm, 4 cm long, 8 to 15 mm wide. Here and there a leaf shows an 
approach to the apical condition of those of P. Maackianus. Leaves on the 
crowded upper branches 3 cm long, 6 mm wide, mostly incurved and simi- 
rigid. Stipules persistent but mostly frayed. Leaves 5-nerved, with a 
strong mid-nerve. 

* 12. POTAMOGETON PUSILLUS Linn. Sp. PI. (1753) 127. 

Luzon, Subprovince of Benguet, Baguio, Elmer 5951, in shallow stagnant 
water, common where found. 

The nearest recorded stations seem to be Formosa, Faurie 530 pp. (1903) ; 



IX. c. 4 Bennett: Potamogetons of the Philippines 343 

COREA, Faurie 22U (1906); Japan, many localities; China, Chihli, David 
191 G. Also in Europe, Africa, and North America, but not recorded from 
Australia, New Zealand, or Polynesia. 

* 13. POTAMOGETON PERVERSUS A. Benn. sp. nov. 

Caulis simplex, 1.5 ad 2.5 dm altus. Folia submersa inferora 
1 dm longa et 1 ad 3 cm lata. 11-nervia, basi et apice angustata; 
superiora lanceolata vel ovato-lanceolata. Folia natantia ovata 
vel ovato-lanceolata, basi angustata, 13- ad 16-nervia, ca. 7 cm 
longa et 3 cm lata, coriacea, longipetiolata (ca. 4-10-5 cm 
longa). Stipulae deciduae. Pedunculi 5-7 cm longa. Spicae 
2-3 cm longae, densae. Fructus semi-obvali, ventre convexae 
cum bulla centralis, dorso semicircularis, carina media subacuta, 
lateralibus indistinctus, carinae intermedius striatus, drupa com- 
pressa cum dua bulla, bullae connectiva cum striae. 

Habit of the European F. polygonifolius Pourr., but the fruit very 
different. Four habitats in Australia given for P. Tepperi must for the 
present remain uncertain as there is not sufficient material to say to which 
of the two species, now separated, they belong; but Mr. Tepper's original 
specimens are well matched by the Philippine ones, and this material also 
shows more definitely the lower leaves. For some time I have realized that 
two species have been confounded under P. Tepperi, but the want of 
fruiting specimens with so many so-named, especially the Japanese spec- 
imens, has been a bar to separate them. But keeping to the original 
specimens from Mr. O. Tepper, it proves to be a far rarer species than 
I had supposed, while the numerous other specimens placed under it seem 
to conform to one general type, and I now make this a separate species. 
P. Tepperi seems to be one of the species that by their much thickened 
leaves, form a small section of the genus nearly confined to Australia, but 
occuring in Malaya, and more rarely in China; with perhaps an outlier in 
Mauritius, but the specimens from Mauritius are too poor to so refer with 
any certainty. Many Australian specimens want the lower leaves, hence 
they have been simply referred to P. natans, although in fruiting char- 
acters they are not allied to that species. Gradually as more perfect 
specimens are collected we shall be able to deal with them in a more 
definite manner. 

An extension of this species may eventually have to be made to North 
America. Dr. Morong, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 13 (1886) 145 describing 
P. Curtissii from Florida remarks: "Mr. Curtiss also sent what appears 
to be a peculiar form of P. natans. It looks exactly like specimens in the 
Torrey herbarium ' from India, which are labelled P. natans var." These 
are Hooker and Thompson's Khasia Hills plant and are P. perversus ! 
And I believe that Dr. Small's P. Flotidanus * is the same plant, but in 
writing to Dr. Small he told me that there were no duplicates; so it must 
remain an open question until specimens can be compared. 

Distribution: China, Pekin, Bretschneider 778 ! Ichang, Herny 2366, 

= Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 13 (1886) 156. 
'Fl. S. E. U. S. (1903) 37. 



344 '^he Philippine Journal of Science 

3602 ! Hokiang, Faber SlU ! Foumosa, Oldham 6S6 ! Mandschuria 
Litwinow 2H5 ! S3 51 ! India, Khasia, Hooker & Thomson ! Kasmir, 
C. B. Clarke ! Siberia "ad ostium fl. Lena" Maack ! Japan, Aomori, 
Faurie ! Hitroyoshi, Faurie 4305 ! (Many other Japanese specimens 
which are too poor to name may belong to this species.) Corean Archipel- 
ago, Oldham 824 ! Philippine Islands, Luzon, Subprovince of Bontoc, 
Vanoverbergh 209, 2684, eight specimens on three sheets, altitude 1,290 me- 
ters, the Igorot name ibas. 

Potamogeton polygonifolius Pourr. Act. Toul. 3 (1788) 325. 

Java, Zollinger 3784, teste Graebner in Pflanzenreich 1907. 

This is the only record I have of it from Malaya and I should not be 
surprised if it were P. perversus. I have not seen the specimens. Hooker 
Fl. Brit. Ind. 6 (1893) 566 gives for this "Singapore ? Wallich." Speci- 
mens of P. polygonifolius under the name of P. elegans Wall. No. 5178 are 
labelled "Singapur?" in Wallich's herbarium! 

Of the species of restricted distribution P. Maackianus extends north to 
40°; P. malaimis, north to 46°; and P. Tepperi, to 17° 30'. 



The Philippine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 4, August, 1914. 



ENUMERATION OF PHILIPPINE BASIDIOMYCETES 

By G. Bresadola and H. Sydow 
{Trient, Austria, and Berlin, Germany) 

LEN2ITES Fries 

LENZITES PLATYPHYLLA Lev. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 160U1 Brown, 
February, 1912: Province of Rizal, Bur. Sci. 12469 Ramos, February, 1911. 
Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1240, March-July, 1911. 

LENZITES PALISOTI Fries. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 15951 Graff, 
February, 1912. Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1282, 
March-July, 1911: District of Zamboanga, Bur. Sci. 15820 Fenix, August, 
1912. Palawan, Bur. Sci. 15622 Fenix, July, 1912. 

LENZITES STRIATA Sw. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Antipolo, Ramos S. 7S, October, 1912. 

POLYPORUS Micheli 

POLYPORUS OSTREIFORMIS Berk. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 125S, 1284, March-July, 
1911. 

POLYPORUS DURUS Jungh. 

Luzon, Province of Tayabas, Dapdap Point, Bur. Sci. 13121 Foxworthy 
and Ramos, March, 1911. 

POLYPORUS ZONALIS Berk. 

Luzon, Manila, Sanchez 29, August, 1913: Province of Laguna, Mount 
Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 16045 Brown, February, 1912. 

POLYPORUS RHODOPHOEUS Lev. 

Luzon, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, Bur. Sci. 14S54, 14369 McGregor, 
March- April, 1912: Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 
15936 Graff, Bur. Sci. 16043, 16061 Brown, February, 1912. 

POLYPORUS NILGHERIENSIS Mont. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Bur. Sci. 13468 Ramos, February, 1911. 

POLYPORUS LUTEO-UMBRINUS Romell. 
Palawan, Bur. Sci. 15627 Fenix, July, 1912. 

POLYPORUS RAMOSII (Murr.) Bres. 

Luzon, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, vicinity of Dupax, Bur. Sci. 14356 
McGregor, March-April, 1913. 

345 



346 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science im 

POLYPORUS RUBIOUS Berk. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 1602U Graff, 
February, 1912. 

POLYPORUS GRAMMOCEPHALUS Berk. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1225, March-July, 1911. 

POLYPORUS BICOLOR Jungh. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 16055 Brown, 
February, 1912. Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1267, 1269, 
March-July, 1911. 

POLYPORUS BICOLOR Jungh. f. resupinata. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1239, March-July, 1911. 
Palawan, Bur. Sci. 15611 Fenix, July, 1912. 

FOMES (Fries) Cooke 

FOMES MELANOPORUS (Mont.) Cke. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sd. 16037 Brown, 
February, 1912. 

FOMES EXOTEPHRUS (Berk.) Bres. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 16009 Graff, 
Bur. Sci. 16036 Brown, February, 1912. 

FOMES RECTI NATUS (Kl.) Gillet. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 15931, 16011 
Graff, February, 1912. Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1265, 
March-July, 1911. 

FOMES SCALARIS Berk. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1270, March-July, 1911. 

FOMES WILLIAMSII (Murr.) Bres. {Fomes laviaensis Murr.) 

Luzon, Province of Tayabas, Kabibihan, Bur. Sci. 13155 Foxworthy and 
Ramos, March, 1911 : Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 
16035 Brown, February, 1912. 

FOMES VELUTINUS Bres. nova forma MICROCHAETA Bres. (in F. tenuis- 
simum Murr. transiens.) 

Differt a typo setulis minoribus (15-21 /x longis, 5-7 /x latis), 
sporis pallidioribus, stramineis (3-3, 5 /x longis, 2, 5-3 /x latis) 
et hyphis pilei etiam angustioribus (2-3 fi latis). 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 12Jt6, March-July, 1911. 

FOMES KORTHALSII (Lev.) Cke. {Pyropolyporus subextensus Murr.) 
Luzon, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, vicinity of Dupax, Bur. Sci. H.36U 

R. C. McGregor, March-April, 1912. 

Setulae fulvae, 21-30 m longae, 6-7, m latae. Hyphae pilei 2-4 m crassae, 

hymenii 1, 5-3, 5 m crassae. 

FOMES ALBO-MARGINATUS (Lev.) Cke. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1258, March-July, 1911. 



IX. c, 4 Bresadola and Sydow: Philippine Basidiomycetes 347 

FOMES SEMITOSTUS (Berk.) Cke., forma juvenilis. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1218, March-July, 1911. 

FOMES WEBERIANUS Bres. et P. Henn., forma juvenilis. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Bur. Sci. 1S467, M. Ramos, February, 1911. 

The specimens agree very well with the type, but the fungrus undoubtedly 
is only a form of Polystictus tabaciniis Mont., hence no Fomes. 

FOMES LIGNOSUS (Kl.) Bres. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1287, March-July, 1911. 

FOMES PACHYPHLOEUS Pat. 

Luzon, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, vicinity of Dupax, Bur. Sci. 1US75 
McGregor, March-April, 1912. 

GANODERMA Karsten 

GANODERMA AUSTRALE (Fr.) Pat. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 16028 Broxvn, 
February, 1912. 

GANODERMA TORNATUM (Pers.) Bres. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 16033, 16039 
Brown, February, 1912: Province of Nueva Vizcaya, vicinity of Dupax, 
Bur. Sci. U376 McGregor, March-April, 1912. 

GANODERMA SUBTORNATUM Murr. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 16025 Graff, 
February, 1912. Palawan, Bur. Sci. 15631 Fenix, July, 1912. 

GANODERMA AMBOINENSE (Lam.) Pat. 

Negros, Bur. Sci. 13731, 19118 Curran, September, 1909. Mindanao, 
Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 127U, March-July, 1911. POLILLO, Bur. 
Sci. 1053 Jf McGregor, October-November, 1909. 

PORIA Persoon 

PORIA CRYPTACANTHA Mont. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1268, March-July, 1911. 

POLYSTICTUS Fries 

POLYSTICTUS AFFINIS (Nees) Fr. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 1595U Graff, 
February, 1912: Province of Nueva Vizcaya, vicinity of Dupax, Bur. Sci. 
H367 R. C. McGregor, March-April, 1912. Mindanao, Butuan Subprov- 
ince, C. M. Weber 1220, March-July, 1911. 

POLYSTICTUS LUTEUS (Bl. et Nees) Fr. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1263, March-July, 1911. 

POLYSTICTUS FLABELLIFORMIS Kl. (forma stipite consueto breviori.) 
Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 15933 Graff, 
February, 1912. 



348 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

POLYSTICTUS NEPHELODES Lev. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Fo7- Bur. 8963 Curran 
and Merritt, October, 1907. 

POLYSTICTUS SQUAMAEFORMIS (Berk.) Cke., forma FUSCATA. 

Luzon, Province of Bataan, Lamao River, Copeland 177a, February, 1904. 

POLYSTICTUS BRUNNEOLUS (Berk.) Fr. 

Luzon, Province of Tayabas, Dapdap Point, Bur. Sci. 13122 Foxworthy 
and Ramos, March, 1911. 

POLYSTICTUS XANTHOPUS Fr. 

Palawan, Bur. Sci. 15620 Fenix, July, 1912. 

POLYSTICTUS SUBDEALBATUS (Murr.) Bres. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1219, March, 1911. 
Est tantum forma junior P. elongati Berk. 

POLYSTICTUS MELEAGRIS (Berk.) Cke. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, San Antonio, For. Bur. 132U2 Curran, 
March, 1912. 

POLYSTICTUS TABACINUS Mont. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Bur. Sci. 134^59 Ramos, February, 1911; Prov- 
ince of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 15956 Graff, February, 1912. 

POLYSTICTUS VELLEREUS Berk. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1275, March-July, 1911. 

POLYSTICTUS ATYPUS Lev. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1262, March-July, 1911. 
MiNDORO, Puerto Galera, Graff S30, June, 1912. 

POLYSTICTUS CROCATUS Fr. 

Luzon, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, vicinity of Dupax, Bur. Sci. 1A355 
McGregor, March-April, 1912, 

POLYSTICTUS OCCIDENTALIS (Kl.) Fr. 
Luzon, Manila, Sanchez 28, August, 1912. 

POLYSTICTUS MEYENII Kl. 

Palawan, Bur. Sci. 1561U Fenix, July, 1912. 

POLYSTICTUS CON FUN DENS Ces., forma juvenilis. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1227, 12^8, March-July, 
1911. 

POLYSTICTUS P0LY20NUS Pers. 

Luzon, Nueva Ecija, Cabanatuan, Bur. Sci. 52U, 52^8, McGregor, 
September, 1908. 

POLYSTICTUS SPADICEUS (Jungh.) Cke. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1214, 1276, March-July, 
1911. Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 15981 Graff, 
February, 1912. 



IX. c, 4 Bresadola and Sydoiv: Philippine Basidiomycetes 349 

POLYSTICTUS ABIETINUS (Dicks.) Fr., forma PALLIDA. 

Luzon, Bontoc Subprovince, Vanoverbergh 1117, February-March, 1911, 
on bark of Pinu.s insiilaris. 

POLYSTICTUS FLOCCOSUS (Jungh.) Fr., forma SUBRESUPIN ATA. 
Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1259, March-^uly, 1911. 

POLYSTICTUS MONS-VENERIS Jungh. 

Luzon, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, vicinity of Dupax, Bur. Sci. H365 
McGregor, March-April, 1912. 

TRAMETES Fries 

TRAMETES MUELLERI Berk. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovincia, C. M. Weber 1260, March-July, 1911. 
Luzon, Province of Cagayan, Bur. Sci. 7581 Ramos, March, 1909; Province 
of Nueva Vizcaya, For. Bur. 1582Jt Curran and Merritt, December, 1908. 

TRAMETES INCANA Lev. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1260, March-July, 1911. 
Luzon, Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles, Graff S157, S158, November, 
1912. 

TRAMETES CORRUGATA (Pers.) Bres. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 16027 Graff, Bur. 
Sci. 16062 Brown, February, 1912. 

TRAMETES CINNABARINA (Jacq.) Fr. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, Bur. Sci. 15819 Fenix, August, 1912. 

TRAMETES PALEACEA Fr., forma minor. 

Luzon, Nueva Ecija, Cabanatuan, Bur. Sci. 52k7 McGregor, September, 
1908. 

TRAMETES ASPERA (Jungh.) Bres., forma in Trametem strigatam 
transiens. 
Luzon, Manila, Sanchez 26, 27, August, 1912, Merrill SS%, September, 
1912. 

TRAMETES STRIGATA (Berk.) Bres. 

Luzon, Manila, Bur. Sci. Magna S81, December, 1909. Mindanao, Dis- 
trict of Zamboanga, Biir. Sci. 15816 Fenix, August, 1912. 

DAEDAL E A Persoon 

DAEDALEA FLAVIDA Lev., forma POLYPOROIDEA. 

Mindanao, District of Zamboanga, Bur. Sci. 15821 Fenix, August, 1912. 

DAEDALEA PRUINOSA Lev., forma TRAMETOIDEA. {Hexagonia glabra 
Lev.) 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 16015 Graff, 
February, 1912. 

DAEDALEA LURIDA Lev. {Daedalea subconfragosa Murr.) 

Mindanao, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley, Clemens "V", July, 1907. 



350 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

ELM ERIN A Dresadola 

ELMERINA CLADOPHORA (Berk.) Bres. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Jalajala, Btir. Sci. 11925 Robinson, October, 
1910. 

ELMERINA SETULOSA (P. Henn.) Bres. 

Luzon, Subprovince of Benguet, Sablang, Bur. Sci. 12822 Fenix, No- 
vember-December, 1910. 

HEXAGON I A Fries 

HEXAGONIA THWAITESII Berk. (Hexagonia cyclophora Lev.) 
Palawan, Bur. Sci. 15610 Fenix, July, 1912. 

GLOEOPORUS Montagne 

GLOEOPORUS CONCHOIDES Mont. (Thelephora dolosa Lev.) 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, B2ir. Sci. 15952, 15972 
Graff, Bur. Sci. 16063 Brown, February, 1912. 

LASCHIA Fries 
LASCHIA MINIMA Jungh. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1229, "March-July, 1911. 

IRPEX Fries 
IRPEX FLAVUS KL 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Antipolo, Ramos S7U, S75, October, 1912. 

CLADODERRIS Persoon 

CLADODERRIS ELEGANS (Jungh.) Fr. (Forma in Clad, infundibuli- 
formen transiens.) 
Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1283, March-July, 1911. 

STEREUM Persoon 

STEREUM PURPUREUM Pers. 

Luzon, Bontoc Subprovince, Vanoverbergh 1117, February-March, 1911. 

STEREUM NOTATUM Berk., forma resupinato-pileata. 

Luzon, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, vicinity of Dupax, Bur. Sci. H357 
McGregor, March-April, 1912. 

LLOYDELLA Bresadola 

LLOYDELLA AFFINIS (Lev.) Bres. (Stereum Mellisii Berk.) 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1228, March-July, 1911. 

VELUTICEPS Cooke 

VELUTICEPS PHILIPPINENSIS Bres. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1279, March-July, 1911. 



IX, c. 4 Bresadola and Sydoiv: Philippine Basidiomycetes 351 

HYMENOCHAETE Leveille 

HYMENOCHAETE SUBFERRUGINEA Bres. et Syd. sp. nov. 

Pileo dimidiato, sessili, coriaceo-submembranaceo, 2.4 cm 
diam., ferrugineo, subtenui, marginato, sericeo-velutino, zonis 
angustis concoloribus ; hymenio obscure ferrugineo ; setulis num- 
erosissimis, tereti-acuminatis, 40-60 n longis, basi 8-9 ^ latis, 
30-35 fi prominentibus, fulvis; hypis contextus 3-4 /x crassis; 
basidiis clavatis; sporis non visis. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Biir. Sci. 159A6 Graff, Feb- 
ruary, 1912. 

HYMENOCHAETE SUBPURPURASCENS (Berk, et Br.) Bres. (Stereum 
subpurpurascens Berk, et Br.) 
POLILLO, Bur. Sci. 105U5 McGregor, October-November, 1909. " 

HYMENOCHAETE ATTENUATA Lev. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Bur. Sci. ISUGJt Ramos, February, 1911. 

HYMENOCHAETE RHEICOLOR (Mont.) Lev. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 159U8 Graff, 
February, 1912. 

HYMENOCHAETE DEFLECTENS Bres. et Syd. sp. nov. 

Longe lateque effusa, resupinata, fusco-ferruginea, levis, cras- 
siuscula; hyphis contextus 3-4 fx crassis; setulis sparsis, varia- 
bilibus, flavidis vel flavo-fulvis, 45-65 ii longis, basi 6-8 ^ latis; 
ad apicem obtusis; basidiis clavatis; sporis continuis, 8-10 (x. 
longis, 4-5 ft latis. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1286, March-July, 1911. 

HYMENOCHAETE AMBOINENSIS P. Henn. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Bur. Sci. 13%62 Ramos, February, 1911. 

HYMENOCHAETE PELLICULA Berk, et Br. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Bur. Sci. lSi60 Ramos, February, 1911. 

HYMENOCHAETE CROCICREAS Berk. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 1261, March-July, 1911. 

SEPTOBASIDIUM Patouillard 

SEPTOBASIDIUM SUBOLIVACEUM Syd. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Bur. Sci. 1S465 Ramos, February, 1911, on 
bamboo stems. 

SEPTOBASIDIUM SUFFULTUM (Berk, et Br.) Bres. {Thelephora suf- 
fulta Berk, et Br.) 
Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 12U9, March-July, 1911. 



352 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 

PTERULA Fries 

PTERULA PUSIO (Berk.) Bres., forma major. {Clavaria pusio Berk.) 
Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C M. Weber 12S0, March-July, 1911. 

AURICULARIA Bulliard 

AURICULARIA LOB ATA Sommerf. 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Antipolo, Ramos S12S, October, 1912. 
AURICULARIA RUGOSISSIMA (Lev.) Bres. {Phlebia rugosissima Lev.) 

Luzon, Province of Rizal, Antipolo, Ramos S76, October, 1912. 

HIRNEOLA Fries 

HIRNEOLA AFFINIS (Jungh.) Bres. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, Bur. Sci. 1593 It Graff, 
February, 1912. 

HIRNEOLA AURICULA-JUDAE (L.) Berk. 

Palawan, Bur. Sci. 15608 Fenix, July, 1912. 
HIRNEOLA PORPHYREA (Lev.) Fr. 

Luzon, Province of Nueva Vizcaya, vicinity of Dupax, Bur. Sci. 14.3'58 
McGregor, March-April, 1912. 

GUEPINIA Fries 

GUEPINIA SPATHULARIA (Schw.) Fr. 

Mindanao, Butuan Subprovince, C. M. Weber 12H, 1250, March-July, 
1911. 

LYCOPERDON Tournefort 

LYCOPERDON VANDERYSTII Bres. 

Luzon, Manila, Merrill "X," January, 1904. 

G EASTER Micheli 

GAESTER MIRABILIS Mont. 

Luzon, Province of Benguet, Sablang, Bur. Sci. 12850 Fenix, November- 
December, 1910. Mindanao, Bukidnon Subprovince, Bur. Sci. 157H. Fenix, 
August, 1912. 

CORA Fries 

CORA PAVONSA Web. et Mohr. 

Luzon, Benguet Subprovince, Baguio and vicinity. Bur. Sci. 14-107 Rob- 
inson, May, 1911. 

CORA? GYROLOPHIA Fr. 

Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Banajao, Merrill 7540, February, 
1911. 



The Philippine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 4, August, 1914. 



PLANTAE WENZELIANAE, II 

By E. D. Merrill * 

(From the Botanical Section of the Biological Laboratory, Bureau of Science, 

Manila, P. I.) 

The first paper of this series was published in November, 
1913 ^ in which twenty-eight species were proposed as new. 
One of these, Scleria trigoiia Merr., has been indicated to me 
by the Rev. G. Kiikenthal, to whom a specimen was sent, as 
being identical with Scleria motleyi C. B. Clarke, the type of 
which was from Borneo, but the species also credited to the 
Philippines in its original place of publication- ;, Selena trigona 
Merr. should then be reduced to .S. motleyi C. B. Clarke. 

During the past year Mr. Wenzel has prosecuted his field 
work with energy, extending his numbered series to somewhat 
over 900. The material, submitted to me for identification, has 
presented a high percentage of novelties, and accordingly this 
second paper of the series has been prepared. The present 
paper contains the descriptions of forty-three species, proposed 
as new, with notes on several previously described ones. The 
genera Kunstleria of the Leguminosae and Nothophoebe of the 
Lauraceae, are credited to the Philippines for the first time. A 
representative of the peculiar monotypic genus Trigonopleura, 
of the Euphorbiaceae is in the collection, which on further study 
may prove to be specifically distinct from the Malaya Peninsula 
species ; a specimen of this has been sent to Kew for comparison 
with the type. 

ZINGIBERACEAE 

ALPINIA Linnaeus 

ALPINIA WENZELII sp. nov. § Hellenia. 

Planta glabra, usque ad 90 cm alta; foliis 5 ad 8, lanceolatis, 
tenuiter acuminatis, usque ad 13 cm. longis, 1.6 cm latis; pani- 

*Associate Professor of Botany, University of the Philippines, Manila, 
P. I. 

'Philip. Journ. Sci. 8 (191.3) Bot. 363-390. 
'L. c. 2 (1907) Bot. 104. 

353 



354 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

culis circiter 10 cm longis, floribus parvis, vix 1 cm longis, 
glabris, bracteis vix 1 mm longis, labellum bis bifidum. 

A slender, glabrous, perennial plant up to 90 cm in height, 
the stems, including the sheaths, less than 5 mm in diameter. 
Leaves 5 to 8 on each plant, chartaceous, lanceolate, up to 13 
cm long, 1.6 cm wide, the apex slenderly acuminate, base acute ; 
sheaths loose ; ligule obtuse, about 3 mm long. Panicles slightly 
exserted, glabrous, about 10 cm long, the basal branch up to 3 
cm long, the others much shorter. Flowers rather numerous, 
white and flesh-colored, the bracts about 1 mm long, caducous. 
Ovary quite glabrous, globose, the calyx-tube above the ovary 
cylindric, 5 mm long. Corolla-tube as long as the calyx, the 
lobes elliptic, rounded, about 5 mm long. Lip 3 mm long, twice 
bifid, the central cleft extending nearly to the base, the lateral 
ones much shorter, the outer lobes 1.2 mm wide, the inner ones 
0.4 mm wide, all obtuse. Stamen about 5 mm long, the anther 
2.5 mm long, connective not produced. 

Leyte, Dagami, in forests, altitude 500 meters, C. A. Wenzel 623, 
March 11, 1914. 

A species closely allied to Alpinia bj'evilabris Presl, differing in its 
smaller flowers, glabrous ovary, and much smaller panicles and leaves. 

FAGACEAE 

CASTANOPSIS Spach 
CASTANOPSIS GLABRA sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, inflorescentiis exceptis glabra ; foliis lanceolatis 
ad oblongo-lanceolatis, subcoriaceis, usque ad 14 cm longis, in- 
tegris, utrinque angustatis, basi acutis, apice longe late acu- 
minatis, in siccitate pallidis, utrinque valde nitidis, nervis 
utrinque circiter 10, subtus prominentibus, reticulis tenuibus, 
obscuris; inflorescentiis axillaribus, spiciformis, 15 ad 20 cm 
longis, pubescentibus ; fructibus junioribus obovoideis, dense 
cinereo-pubescentibus. 

A tree about 7 m high, quite glabrous except the inflorescence. 
Branches dark reddish-brown, terete, rather slender, even the 
ultimate branchlets quite glabrous. Leaves lanceolate to ob- 
long-lanceolate, 10 to 14 cm long, 2.5 to 4 cm wide, entire, 
subequally narrowed to the acute base and to the rather long- 
acuminate apex, the acumen rather broad, blunt, prominently 
shining on both surfaces, the upper pale or pale-greenish, the 
lower much paler than the upper; lateral nerves about 10 on 
each side of the midrib, prominent on the lower surface, curved- 
ascending, obscurely anastomosing, the reticulations obscure; 



IX. c. 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 355 

petioles glabrous, about 8 mm long. Inflorescence spike-like, 
solitary, axillary, 15 to 20 cm long, somewhat cinereous-pubes- 
cent, the pistillate flowers scattered, sessile or on very short 
pedicels. Very young fruits obovoid, densely cinereous-pubes- 
cent, about 7 mm in diameter, densely covered with short, spine- 
like processes 2 mm long or less, which, at maturity, are prob- 
ably greatlj' elongated as in many other species of the genus. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 737, May 25, 1914, in 
forests, altitude about 500 meters. 

Apparently most closely allied to Castanopsis philippensis Vid., differ- 
ing especially in its much larger leaves, which are entirely glabrous, 
and their more numerous nerves. 

MORACEAE 

CONOCEPHALUS Blume 
CONOCEPHALUS DIFFUSUS sp. nov. 

Frutex epiphyticus, subscandens, inflorescentiis exceptis gla- 
ber; foliis coriaceis, usque ad 22 cm longis, ovatis ad oblongo- 
ovatis, integris vel leviter undulatis, acuminatis, basi subacutis 
vel obtusis, nervis utrinque circiter 12, valde prominentibus ; 
stipulis 4 cm longis, coriaceis, persistentibus, navicularibus, 2- 
carinatis; inflorescentiis 9 axillaribus pedunculatis, dichotomis, 
circiter 16 cm longis, usque ad 25 cm latis, ramulis junioribus 
parce f urf uraceo-pubescentibus ; capitulis numerosis, 5 mm dia- 
metro, globosis. 

An epiphytic, subscandent shrub, glabrous except the inflor- 
escence, the branches terete, grayish-brown, about 8 mm in 
diameter. Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, coriaceous, dark-colored 
when dry, slightly shining, 15 to 22 cm long, 9 to 13 cm wide, 
margins entire or slightly undulate, base acute, obtuse, or some- 
times somewhat rounded, apex rather abruptly short-acuminate, 
the lower surface with cystoliths along the ultimate reticulations, 
the upper minutely and rather densely verruculose ; lateral nerves 
12 on each side of the midrib, straight, anastomosing near the 
margins, the reticulations slender; petioles 4 to 6 cm long; 
stipules boat-shaped, falcate, coriaceous, persistent, about 4 cm 
long, 2-keeled. Staminate inflorescence diffuse, axillary, soli- 
tary, peduncled, dichotomously branched, about 16 cm long, up 
to 25 cm wide, the younger parts somewhat furfuraceous-pubes- 
cent, the younger inflorescences with subcoriaceous, orbicular, 
deciduous bracts up to 1 cm in diameter which enclose the heads. 
Heads very numerous, in fruit about 5 mm in diameter, each 
with from 15 to 20, somewhat compressed, narrowly ovoid, acute. 



356 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science m* 

glabrous achenes about 2 mm long, the stigmas obscurely peni- 
cillate. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, in forests, C. A. Wenzel 857, in forests, 
altitude about 500 m, fruits pink. 

A species in the same group with Conocephalus acuminatus Tree, but with 
larger, more numerously nerved leaves, and more ample inflorescence. 
It is also apparently allied to the species of Conocephalus described by 
Weddell, from staminate specimens, as Procris grandis, but that species 
has the leaves rounded or subcordate at the base. 

Var. OBTUSUS var. nov. 

A typo differt foliis orbiculari-ovatis, apice obtusis vel rotun- 
datis, vix acuminatis. 

Same locality, C. A. Wenzel 908, June, 1914. 
ANONACEAE 

OROPHEA Blume 
OROPHEA WENZELII sp. nov. 

Arbor parva partibus junioribus floribusque exceptis subgla- 
bra; foliis chartaceis, oblongis, nitidis, usque ad 12 cm longis, 
tenuiter acuminatis, basi acutis, nervis utrinque adscendentibus, 
utrinque 7 ad 9, subtus prominentibus ; inflorescentiis axillaribus, 
paucifloris, 1 ad 1.5 cm longis, leviter pubescentibus ; floribus 
parvis, petalis exterioribus sepalisque reflexis, petalis interiori- 
bus circiter 6 mm longis, longe unguiculatis, patulis, 

A tree about 6 m high, the younger parts and inflorescence 
more or less pubescent. Branches slender, terete, reddish-brown, 
the branchlets, petioles, inflorescences and leaves on the midrib 
and lateral nerves beneath sparingly pubescent with brownish 
hairs. Leaves oblong to oblong-elliptic, chartaceous, pale-oliva- 
ceous when dry, shining, the upper surface glabrous, base acute, 
apex rather slenderly acuminate; lateral nerves 7 to 9 on each 
side of the midrib, prominent, rather sharply ascending, an- 
astomosing, the reticulations slender, subparallel; petioles 2 to 
3 mm long. Flowers in depauperate cymes or frequently soli- 
tary, the cymes 1 to 1.5 cm long, somewhat pubescent; pedicels 
about 5 mm long, with a single broadly ovate, 1.5 mm long 
bracteole at about the middle. Sepals broadly ovate, acute, 
pubescent, 1.5 mm long, generally reflexed. Outer three petals 
ovate-elliptic, 4 mm long, strongly reflexed, obtuse or acute, 
somewhat pubescent outside and near the apex inside; inner 
three petals about 6 mm long, somewhat spreading, long-clawed, 
the claw glabrous, about 3 mm long and 1 mm wide, the limb 
thickened, ovate, about 2.2 mm wide, puberulent in the upper 



IX, c. 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 357 

one-half on both surfaces. Stamens 6, less than 1 mm long. 
Carpels 6, pubescent, about 1 mm long. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, in forests, altitude about 500 meters, 
C. A. Wenzel 082, May 18, 1914. 

Apparently most closely allied to Orophea unguiculata Elm., distin- 
guished by its differently shaped leaves, and more numerous, ascending 
nerves. 

LAURACEAE 

BEILSCHMIEDIA Nees 
BEILSCHMIEDIA LEYTENSIS sp. nov. 

Arbor glabra, usque ad 20 m alta; foliis oppositis, coriaceis, 
nitidis, oblongo-ovatis vel oblongo-ellipticis, usque ad 13 cm 
longis, obtusis vel obscure obtuse acuminatis, basi acutis, nervis 
utrinque circiter 8, subtus distinctis ; paniculis pseudo-terminali- 
bus, usque ad 9 cm longis, floribus circiter 4 mm longis; fruc- 
tibus anguste obovoideis, 2 ad 2.5 cm longis, apice rotundatis 
vel minute apiculatis. 

A glabrous tree reaching a height of about 20 meters, the 
branches terete, gray or brownish, the terminal buds oblong- 
ovoid, swollen below, narrowed above into a stout, acuminate 
beak, dark-brown, usually about 1 cm long. Leaves opposite, 
coriaceous, sometimes subcoriaceous, shining, oblong-ovate or 
elliptic-ovate, 9 to 13 cm long, 3.5 to 5.5 wide, obtuse or shortly 
and obtusely acuminate, base acute, margins usually slightly 
revolute; lateral nerves about 8 on each side of the midrib, 
distinct, anastomosing, the reticulations rather close, distinct; 
petioles 7 to 17 cm long. Panicles in the uppermost axils, 
pseudo-terminal, few, comparatively few-flowered, about 9 cm 
long. Flowers yellow, 4 mm long, their pedicels about 4 mm 
long, racemosely or subumbellately disposed on the ultimate 
branchlets. Perianth-tube funnel-shaped, about 1.5 mm long, 
the lobes elliptic-oblong, obtuse, about 2.5 m.m long, 1.2 mm wide, 
the inner three a little narrower than the outer ones. Fertile 
stamens 9, in three rows, the outer 6 with introrse anthers, the 
inner three with extrorse ones, all anthers 2-celled, the innermost 
row reduced to subsessile or very shortly stalked, broadly ovoid, 
acute staminodes about 1 mm long and wide. Ovary narrowly 
ovoid, glabrous, narrowed upward into the short style, the ovary 
and style about 1.8 mm long. Fruit narrowly obovoid, dark- 
brown, shining, smooth, 2 to 2.5 cm long, 1 to 1.4 cm in dia- 
meter, narrowed below, the apex rounded, often with a small 
apiculus. 

Leyte, Dagami, C. A. Wenzel 183, 501 (type), the former in fruit, 
June, 1913, the latter with flov*rers and fruit, September, 1913; For. 
129553 6 



358 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science im 

Bur. 116SS Whitford, with very young fruits. Negros, Faraon, Fo7-. Bur. 
1S561 Meyer & Foxtvorthy, August, 1909, in fruit. 

A characteristic species, perhaps best recognizable by its peculiar 
terminal buds which are present on all the specimens examined. 

LITSEA Lamarck 
LITSEA WENZELII sp. nov. 

Species L. luzonicae affinis, differt foliis angustioribus, subtus 
albidis vel griseo-albidis, glabris, apice acuminatis, umbellis fas- 
ciculatis, distincte pedicellatis. 

A shrub about 5 m high, glabrous except the ferruginous- 
pubescent inflorescence, the younger branchlets sometimes slight- 
ly pubescent. Branches terete, slender, reddish-brown, smooth. 
Leaves opposite, oblong-lanceolate, subcoriaceous, 9 to 15 cm long, 
2.5 to 4 cm wide, subequally narrowed to the acute base and the 
acuminate apex, the upper surface pale-greenish when dry, shin- 
ing, the lower nearly white or grayish-white, quite glabrous; 
lateral nerves 9 to 12 on each side of the midrib, curved upward, 
prominent on the lower surface, anastomosing; petioles about 1 
cm long. Umbels axillary, fascicled, 3-flowered, the peduncles up 
to 4 cm long and with the bracts ferruginous-pubescent; bracts 
broadly ovate to obovate, 2.5 mm long. Calyx-tube 2.3 mm long, 
the pedicels about 1 mm long, the lobes 5, oblong-ovate, acuminate, 
1 mm long. Ovary glabrous. 

Leyte, Dagami, C. A. Wenzel 626, March 12, 1914, in forests, altitude 
about 500 meters. 

Minfestly closely allied to Litsea luzonica (Bl.) F.-Vill., from which 
it is readily distinguished by its leaves being white or grayish-white be- 
neath and entirely glabrous. 

NOTHOPHOEBE Blume 

NOTHOPHOEBE MALABONGA (Blanco) comb. nov. 

Ajovea malabonga Blanco Fl. Filip. (1837) 233. 

Laurus hexandra Blanco 1. c. ed. 2 (1845) 222, ed. 3, 2 (1878) 52, non 
Willd. nee Spreng. 

Iteadaphne confusa F.-Vill. Novis. App. (1880) 181, non Blume. 
Luzon, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling, For. Bur. 20^.86 Villamil: 
Province of Camarines, Ragay, For. Bur. 22662, 226S7 Alvarez, March, 
1913. MiNDORO, For. Bur. UOS Merritt, May, 1906. Leyte, Buenavista, 
near Jaro, Wenzel SOS, April, 1914. Negros, Bais, For. Bur. 112^2 Everett, 
April, 1908. 

This species is closely allied to Nothophoebe umbelliflora Blume, and many 
of the specimen cited above were placed under that name in the herbarium. 
It seems, however, to be sufficiently distinct, and accordingly Blanco's name 
is adopted for the Philippine form. There is no doubt as to the identity of 
Blanco's species as the material agrees with his description in all essential 
characters and in Laguna it is still known as malabonga. 



IX, c. 4 Mernll: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 359 

ROSACEAE 

PYGEUM Gaertner 
PYGEUM PUBESCENS sp. nov. 

Species P. glanduloso similis et affinis, differ! foliis subtus dis- 
tinct pubescentibus, nervis utrinque magis numerosis, utrinque 
8 vel 9, spicis multo brevioribus, 2 ad 3 cm longis. 

A tree reaching a height of 10 m, the branches terete, dark 
reddish-brown, slender, glabrous, obscurely lenticellate, the 
younger ones densely brown-pubescent. Leaves entire oblong- 
ovate to oblong, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, 10 to 15 cm long, 
4 to 6.5 cm wide, green or brownish when dry, the upper surface 
somewhat shining or dull, glabrous except for the pubescent mid- 
rib and lateral nerves, the lower surface paler, rather uniformly 
pubescent with scattered hairs, the midrib and nerves more 
densely pubescent than the surface otherwise, the apex obtuse 
to acuminate, the base acute the rounded, with two prominent 
glands, one on each side of the midrib, projecting on the upper 
surface, appearing as a small opening on the lower ; lateral nerves 
about 8 on each side of the midrib, prominent; petioles pubescent, 
4 to 7 mm long; stipules oblong-ovate, pubescent, about 5 mm 
long, deciduous. Inflorescence of dense, axillary, solitary, pubes- 
cent spikes or spikelike racemes, 2 to 3 cm long. Flowers sessile 
or subsessile, crowded, each subtended by a reniform, pubescent 
bracteole about 1.5 mm wide. Calyx-tube funnel-shaped, about 
3 mm long, densely pubescent, with 10 similar or subsimilar lobes 
which are oblong, 1.5 mm long, densely pubescent. Stamens 20, 
the filaments 2 to 4 mm long. Ovary densely pubescent, nar- 
rowly ovoid, narrowed upward into the 3.5 mm long style. Fruit 
very broadly ovoid, about 12 mm in diameter, somewhat apiculate, 
sparingly pubescent. 

Leyte, Dagami, C. A. Wenzel 18, S9, 217, SSI, 33S (type), May to July, 
1913, in forests, altitude about 60 meters. Samar, Gandara, For. Bur. 
128S5 Rosenbluth, February, 1909. 

Manifestly closely allied to the more northern Pygeum glandulosum 
Merr., differing in its pubescent, more numerously nerved leaves and in 
its short spikes. Its closest extra-Philippine ally appears to be the Malayan 
Pygeum parviflorum Teysm. & Binn. 

LEGUMINOSAE 

KUNSTLERIA Prain 
KUNSTLERIA PHILIPPIN ENSIS sp. nov. 

Frutex alte scandens, partibus junioribus subtus foliis ad costa 
nervisque inflorescentiis plus minusve ferrugineo-pubescentibus ; 



360 I'h^ Philippine Journal of Science i»i4 

foliis usque ad 20 cm longis, foliolis 5, ovatis ad oblongo-ovatis, 5 
ad 12 cm longis, subcoriaceis, nitidis, acuminatis, basi rotundatis 
vel leviter cordatis, nervis utrinque circiter 5, prominentibus ; in- 
florescentiis paniculatis, terminalibus, quam folia longioribus; 
floribus 7 mm longis ; leguminibus oblongis, 8 ad 12 cm longis, 2 
cm latis, chartaceis, apice subrotundatis, extus adpresse ferru- 
gineo-pubescentibus. 

A woody vine reaching a height of 30 m, younger part, nerves 
on the lower surface of the leaves, inflorescence, and pods more 
or less brown- or ferruginous-pubescent with short hairs. 
Branches terete, brown, glabrous. Leaves pinnate, alternate, 12 
to 20 cm long, petioles, rachis, and petiolules somewhat pubescent ; 
leaflets 5, exstipellate, ovate to oblong-ovate, subcoriaceous, when 
dry pale, shining, entire, apex somewhat acuminate, base rounded, 
sometimes obscurely cordate, 5 to 12 cm long, 3 to 6 cm wide; 
lateral nerves about 5 on each side of the midrib, prominent, 
somewhat curved-ascending, anastomosing, reticulations prom- 
inent, lax ; petiolules 5 to 9 mm long. Panicles terminal, rather 
narrow, 25 cm long or more, dark brown-pubescent, many 
flowered. Flowers pink, rather crowded on the ultimate branch- 
lets, 7 mm long, their pedicels not fascicled, nodes not thickened, 
the bracteoles oblong-ovate, acuminate, 1.8 mm long, the pedicels 
about as long as the bracteoles. Calyx pubescent, 3.5 to 4 mm 
long, the upper two teeth nearly united, forming one broad some- 
what cleft tooth, the other three narrowly ovate, acute, 1.5 mm 
long. Standard 7 mm long and wide, orbicular-reniform, 
rounded, base somewhat cordate, the claw 2 mm long, narrowed 
downward; wings equaling the standard, claw slender, 2 mm 
long, limb oblong, 2.2 mm wide, obtuse, base with a decending, 
somewhat incurved auricle, the opposite margin somewhat 
ciliate ; keel as long as the standard, the limb oblong-ovate, some- 
what falcate, petals somewhat connate, base auricled on one side. 
Vexillary filament free, 4 mm long, the other 9 all fertile, united 
for the lower 5 mm, the free parts alternating long and short; 
anthers 0.5 mm long. Ovary pubescent, sessile or nearly so, 
pubescent, including the style 6 mm long, the style curved ; ovules 
2. Pods strap-shaped, chartaceous, thin, 6 to 16 cm long, 2 cm 
wide, apex broad, somewhat rounded, the valves somewhat retic- 
ulate, prominently pubescent with dark-brown, short, somewhat 
shining hairs; seeds 2, flat, thin, 2 cm long, 1 cm wide (imma- 
ture) , situated in the middle part of the pod, not near the ends. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 818, 836 (type), the former 
in bud, the latter with mature flowers, in forests, altitude about 500 m, 
June, 1914. Basilan, Bvr. Sci. 16114 Reillo, September, 1912, in fruit. 



IX. c. 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 361 

The genus is new to the Philippines. So far as known there are five 
species in the Malay Peninsula, one extending to Sumatra, and apparently 
a few undescribed forms in Borneo. 

DERRIS Loureiro 

DERRIS LEYTENSIS sp. nov. § Aganope. 

Frutex scandens partibus junioribus inflorescentiisque breviter 
adpresse hirsutus exceptis glaber; foliis 3-foliolatis, foliolis 
oblongo-ovatis, subcoriaceis, acutis vel obtusis, basi obtusis ad 
rotundatis, usque ad 11 cm longis, in siccitate pallidis, nervis 
utrinque 7, prominentibus ; paniculis axillaribus terminalibusque, 
folia subaequantibus, multifloris; floribus albis, circiter 7 mm 
longis; fructibus ignotis. 

A scandent shrub reaching a height of 15 m, the branches 
terete, brown, glabrous, the younger ones more or less appressed- 
hirsute with short browTiish hairs. Leaves 3-foliolate, the pe- 
tioles 4 to 5 cm long, the basal part somewhat thickened, gray, 
the rest brown; petiolules gray, 5 to 7 mm long; leaflets ex- 
stipellate, oblong-ovate, subcoriaceous, shining, pale when dry, 
6 to 11 cm long, 2.5 to 5.5 cm wide, acute or obtuse, base acute 
to rounded ; lateral nerves 7 on each side of the midrib, prominent 
on the lower surface, curved-ascending, anastomosing, the reti- 
culations slender. Panicles terminal and in the upper axils, 
about as long as the leaves, many-flowered, the branches few, dis- 
tant, spreading, all parts appressed-hirsute with short brownish 
hairs. Flowers white, about 7 mm long, their pedicels 1 to 1.5 
mm long. Calyx cup-shaped, somewhat pubescent, 3 mm long 
and wide, the upper two teeth more or less connate, the lower 
three small. Standard orbicular, 7 mm wide, the claw 1 mm 
long, apex refuse, base subacute, not callose; wings equaling the 
standard, narrowly oblong-obovate, rounded, the limb 5 mm long, 
2.5 mm wide, claw slender, 2.5 mm long, base obscurely auricled 
on the broader side ; keel equaling the claw, petals slightly coher- 
ent, the claw 3 mm, the limb 4 mm long, 2 mm wide, obscurely 
auricled at the base on one side. Vexillary filament free through- 
out, 3 mm long, the others united for the lower 2 to 3 mm, glab- 
rous. Ovary sessile, oblong, pubescent, including the style 7 mm 
long; ovules 2; style pubescent below, glabrous above, more or 
less curv'ed. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, in forests, altitude about 500 m, C. A. 
Wenzel 8U, June 5, 1914. 

A species of the section Aganope, leaflets 3, exstipellate, standard not 
callose at the base, the vexillary filament free throughout. It is best 
characterized by its 3-foliolate leaves, and its alliance seems to be with 
Derris palawanensis Elm. 



362 ^^6 Philippine Journal of Science i^u 

RUTACEAE 

EVODIA Forster 
EVODIA CRASSI FOLIA sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, inflorescentiis exceptis glabra; foliis 3-foliolatis, 
foliolis coriaceis, oblongis, nitidis, usque ad 18 cm longis, integris, 
basi acutis, apice rotundatis, obtusis, vel obscure late obtuseque 
acuminatis, nervis utrinque 9 ad 13, subpatulis, distinctis, anas- 
tomosantibus ; paniculis axillaribus, 9 ad 14 cm longis, dense mul- 
tifloris; floribus albis, confertis, circiter 3 mm longis. 

A small tree, entirely glabrous except the younger parts of the 
inflorescence. Branches stout, smooth, terete or somewhat com- 
pressed, pale yellowish-brown. Leaves 3-foliolate, their petioles 
5 to 9 cm long; leaflets coriaceous, brownish or pale-olivaceous 
when dry, shining on both surfaces, 10 to 18 cm long, 4.5 to 7.5 
cm wide, rounded, acute, obtuse, or broadly and shortly blunt- 
acuminate at the apex, base acute, of the central leaflet equila- 
teral, of the lateral ones somewhat inequilateral; lateral nerves 
9 to 13 on each side of the midrib, prominent, anastomosing, 
somewhat spreading, the reticulations evident on both surfaces; 
petiolules 5 to 8 mm long. Panicles axillary, solitary, 9 to 14 
cm long, mostly pyramidal, the lower branches up to 6 cm long, 
spreading or ascending, glabrous except the ultimate branches 
and branchlets which are more or less pubescent. Flowers very 
numerous, white, densely crowded at the apices of the ultimate 
branchlets, the pedicels pubescent, 2 to 3 mm long. Sepals 
broadly ovate, rounded, 1 mm long. Petals ovate, obtuse or 
acute, 2.5 cm long. Stamens 4; filaments 3 to 3.5 mm long; 
anthers 1.2 mm long. Ovary densely pubescent, ovoid; style 
cylindric, stout, about as long as the ovary. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 699 (type) 715, April, 1914, 
in forests, altitude about 500 meters. 

A species characterized by its comparatively thick leaflets, its ample, 
densely many flowered panicles, and in being entirely glabrous except the 
younger parts of the panicles, the pedicels, and the ovaries. It approaches 
several other Philippine forms in some characters, but does not appear 
to be particularly closely allied to any known to me. 

MELICOPE Forster 
MELICOPE NITIDA sp. nov. 

Frutex 5 m altus partibus junioribus inflorescentiisque leviter 
pubescentibus exceptis glaber; foliis trifoliolatis, foliolis charta- 
ceis vel subcoriaceis, oblongo-obovatis vel elliptico-obovatis utrin- 
que valde nitidis, usque ad 15 cm longis, basi acutis, apice rotun- 
datis ad abrupte late obtuseque acuminatis; nervis utrinque 11 



IX. c, 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 363 

ad 14, prominentibus, anastomosantibus, reticulis laxis, distinctis ; 
paniculis axillaribus, solitariis, numerosis, pyramidatis, ut videtur 
multifloris, usque ad 9 cm longis leviter pubescentibus; coccis 
ellipsoideis, 3 ad 3.5 mm longis. 

A shrub about 5 m high, the younger parts and the panicles 
slightly pubescent, otherwise glabrous. Branches terete, light- 
gray. Leaves 3-foliolate, the petioles 3 to 5 cm long; leaflets 
chartaceous or subcoriaceous, oblong-obovate to elliptic-obovate, 
9 to 15 cm long, 4 to 7 cm wide, entire, both surfaces strongly 
shining, rather pale when dry, the apex rounded to abruptly, 
shortly, and obtusely acuminate, base somewhat narrowed, acute, 
equilateral; lateral nerves 11 to 14 on each side of the mid- 
rib, prominent, anastomosing, the reticulations lax, prominent on 
the lower surface ; petiolules 7 to 10 mm long. Panicles axillary, 
solitary, numerous, pyramidal, up to 9 cm long, the lower 
branches spreading, about 5 cm long, the upper ones gradually 
shorter, apparently densely flowered. Flowers unknown. Fruits 
numerous, mostly consisting of a single coccus, sometimes of two 
which are slightly united at the base, the cocci ellipsoid, brown- 
ish-olivaceous, rounded, 3 to 3.5 mm long, the seeds globose, 
black, shining. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C A. Wenzel 82 J, in forests, altitude 
about 500 meters, June 3, 1914. 

A characteristic species distinguishable by its strongly shining, prom- 
inently and laxly reticulate leaflets. This was originally described as 
an Evodia, but Wenzel 1002, in flower, received just as the last proof was 
being read, is identical with the type and is a Melicope. 

BURSERACEAE 

CANARIUM Linnaeus 
CANARIUM WENZELII sp. nov. § Choriandra. 

Species C. villoso affinis, difi'ert ramulis, petiolis, subtus foliolis 
paniculisque ferrugineo-pubescentibus, foliolis coriaceis, majori- 
bus. 

A tree about 20 m high, the branchlets, petioles, and inflor- 
escence densely ferruginous-pubescent with short hairs which 
are more or less deciduous, with similar ones on the midrib and 
ner\'^es of the leaflets on both surfaces. Branches terete, the 
ultimate ones 5 to 7 mm in diameter, longitudinally striate, 
pale-brownish, not marked with scars of fallen leaves. Leaves 
alternate, about 40 cm long, the petiole and rachis densely fer- 
ruginous-pubescent, the stipules persistent, rather thick, linear- 
oblong, curved, acuminate, entire, 1 cm long or less. Leaflets 
coriaceous, oblong to elliptic-oblong, usually 7, opposite or sub- 



364 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science isu 

opposite, the median and upper ones elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 
17 to 25 cm long, 7 to 9 cm wide, the lower ones relatively 
shorter and broader, entire, prominently acuminate, the base 
rounded, usually somewhat inequilateral, the upper surface spar- 
ingly short-pubescent with ferruginous hairs on the midrib and 
lateral nerves, pale-greenish, the lower surface slightly paler, 
more brownish, the pubescence more evident and extending to the 
reticulations, the midrib and lateral nerves brown in contrast to 
the yellowish-green lower surface ; lateral nerves very prominent 
on the lower surface, about 18 on each side of the midrib, curved- 
anastomosing close to the margin, the primary reticulations 
subparallel, prominent, brownish; petiolules densely brown- 
pubescent, about 1.5 cm long. Panicles in the upper axils, nar- 
rowly pyramidal, up to 35 cm in length, densely brown-pubescent, 
the branches few, scattered, the lower primary ones up to 15 cm 
in length. Flowers 4 mm long, sessile, more or less glomerate 
or fascicled on the short ultimate branchlets, sometimes irreg- 
ularly spicate. Calyx densely ferruginous-pubescent, 2.5 mm 
long, divided one-half to the base into three, broadly ovate lobes. 
Petals 3, free, obovate to subelliptic, 3.5 mm long, 2 to 2.5 mm 
wide, thick, somewhat ferruginous pubescent outside in the lower 
part. Stamens 6, free, inserted outside of the disk, their fila- 
ments 2 mm long; anthers oblong, 1.2 mm long. Disk promi- 
nent, thick, glabrous below, villous on the top, usually obscurely 
lobed. Perfect flowers and fruits not seen. 

Leyte, Dagami, C. A. Wenzel 351 (type), S92, August, 1913, in forests, 
altitude about 30 meters. 

A species manifestly in the alliance with Canarium villosum F.-Vill. 
(C. cumingii Engl.), but readily distinguished by its rather dense, dark- 
brown indumentum which is composed of short hairs. It is even closer 
allied to Canariurn dementis Merr., in which species, however, the indu- 
mentum entirely covers the entire lower surface of the leaflets. 

CANARIUM PAUCINERVIUM sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 17 m alta, ramulis foliis inflorescentiisque plus 
minusve hirsutis; foliis circiter 30 cm longis, foliolis 7, ellipticis 
ad oblongo-ovatis, integris, usque ad 13 cm longis, acuminatis, 
basi acutis, nitidis, subtus ad costa nervisque dense hirsutis, 
nervis lateralibus utrinque circiter 8, prominentibus ; infructe- 
scentiis terminalibus, paniculatis, circiter 20 cm longis, fructibus 
2.5 cm longis, acutis, trigonis, in siccitate valde rugosis, parce 
hirsutis. 

A tree about 17 m high, the branches terete, lenticellate, brown, 
the ultimate ones about 5 mm in diameter, brown-pubescent and 
with scattered stiff hairs. Leaves alternate, about 30 cm long, 



IX, c. 4 Merrill: Plaritae Wenzelianae, II 365 

petioles, rachis, petiolules, nerves and midribs of the leaflets 
on the lower surface densely ferruginous-hirsute with spreading 
hairs; leaflets 7, firmly chartaceous or subcoriaceous, elliptic to 
oblong-ovate, shining, 8 to 13 cm long, 5 to 6 cm wide, entire, 
when dry pale-olivaceous, the upper surface glabrous except 
for the somewhat pubescent midrib, base acute, apex rather 
abruptly subcaudate-acuminate, the acumen slender, blunt, about 
1 cm long; lateral nerves about 8 on each side of the midrib, 
prominent on the lower surface, curved, anastomosing, the reti- 
culations lax, prominent; petiolules 5 mm long; stipules decidu- 
ous, not seen. Panicles terminal, about 20 cm long in fruit, 
brown-puberulent and with scattered hirsute hairs, the primary 
branches few, unbranched. Flowers not seen, apparently few, 
racemosely arranged on short pedicels. Persistent calyx-lobes 
ovate, acute, 2.5 mm long, coriaceous, ferruginous-pubescent. 
Fruit 2.5 cm long about 1.5 cm in diameter, ovoid in outline, 
acute, prominently trigonous, when dry prominently wrinkled 
and with few, scattered, ferruginous, stiff hairs. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 825, June 3, 1914, in forests, 
altitude 500 m. 

Apparently belonging in the same group with Canarium ahemianum 
Merr., differing in its indumentum, its shorter leaves, fewer leaflets, and 
much fewer lateral nerves. 

MELIACEAE 

AMOORA Roxburgh 
AMOORA CUPULIFERA sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 15 m alta, inflorescentiis puberulis; foliis circi- 
ter 75 cm longis, foliolis circiter 8, oblongo-elliptics, coriaceis, 
in siccitate pallidis, nitidis, usque ad 30 cm longis, breviter acu- 
minatis, nervis utrinque circiter 16, prominentibus ; inflorescen- 
tiis paniculatis, circiter 45 cm longis ; floribus 5-meris, calycibus 
cupulatis, 8 mm longis, truncatis, petalis extus pubescens, intus 
glabris, 2 cm longis, liberis; tubo cylindraceo, 1.5 cm longo, 
5-lobato ; discus nullus. 

A tree about 15 m high, the inflorescence, petioles, and to a 
slight degree the lower surfaces of the leaflets gray-puberulent. 
Leaves ample, about 75 cm long, the rhachis minutely gray- 
puberulent; leaflets about 8, oblong-elliptic or oblong, 25 to 30 
cm long, 9 to 11 cm wide, coriaceous, pale and somewhat shining 
when dry, the upper surface quite glabrous, the lower much paler 
and minutely puberulent on the midrib and lateral nerves, the 
apex shortly acuminate, the base rounded or somewhat acute; 



366 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

lateral nerves about 16 on each side of the midrib, prominent, 
scarcely anastomosing, the reticulations lax, obscure; petiolules 
stout, 1.5 to 2 cm long, opposite. Inflorescence narrowly pani- 
culate, up to 45 cm long, gray-puberulent, the branches distant, 
the lower primary ones 7 cm long or less, the upper gradually 
shorter, the flowers racemosely arranged. Flowers white, 5- 
merous. Calyx cylindric-cup-shaped, about 8 mm long and 7 mm 
in diameter, truncate, slightly contracted at the mouth, outside 
densely gray-puberulent. Petals 5, about 2 cm long, 3.5 to 4 mm 
wide, thick, in anthesis somewhat recurved, densely appressed- 
pubescent outside, glabrous within, acute, keeled-thickened and 
somewhat appendiculate at the apex inside. Staminal-tube cy- 
lindric, about 1.5 cm long, 4 mm in diameter, the basal 4 to 5 
mm glabrous, somewhat angled and narrower than the pubescent 
upper part, appressed-pubescent inside, 5-lobed, lobes oblong, 
3.5 mm long, 2 mm wide, truncate, alternating with 5, linear, 
2.5 mm long teeth. Anthers 5, inserted at the base of the cleft 
between the large lobes, sessile, oblong, 3.8 mm long, included. 
Disk none. Ovary narrowly ovoid, pubescent, gradually nar- 
rowed upward to the cylindric, pubescent style, the style and 
ovary 15 mm long; stigma capitate; ovary 2-celled. 

Leyte, Dagami, C. A. Wenzel 311, August 3, 1913, in forests, altitude 
about 60 meters. 

A very characteristic species of the section Pseudoguarea, entirely dif- 
ferent from all other Philippine forms. The entire, truncate, cup-shaped 
calyx, the large leaves, the 5-lobed staminal-tube, and the 2-celled ovary are 
characteristic features. 

DYSOXYLUM Blume 
DYSOXYLUM PALLIDUM sp. nov. § Eudysoxylum. 

Arbor circiter 20 m alta, inflorescentiis exceptis glabra; foliis 
alternis, circiter 40 cm longis, foliolis circiter 9, in siccitate 
pallidis, coriaceis, ovatis ad oblongo-ovatis, inaequilateralibus, 
acuminatis, usque ad 13 cm longis, nervis utrinque 7 vel 8, pro- 
minentibus, reticulis obsoletis; inflorescentiis axillaribus, usque 
ad 15 cm longis, simplex vel leviter ramosis; floribus 4-meris, 
circiter 12 mm longis, petalis liberis, extus pubescentibus ; ovario 
pubescens, tubus stamineus liber. 

A tree about 20 m high, glabrous except the inflorescence. 
Branches terete, gray, the ultimate ones 5 mm in diameter. 
Leaves alternate, up to 40 cm long ; leaflets alternate, pale when 
dry, about 9 to each leaf, coriaceous, alternate, ovate to oblong- 
ovate, inequilateral, 7 to 13 cm long, 4 to 7 cm wide, acuminate, 



IX. c, 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 367 

base rounded to acute, or rounded on one side and acute on the 
other; lateral nerves 7 or 8, prominent, the recticulations obso- 
lete; petiolules about 1 cm long. Inflorescence axillary, 15 cm 
long or less, stout, unbranched or with one or two short branches 
1.5 cm long or less, brown when dry, the younger parts slightly 
pubescent. Flowers 4-merous, about 12 mm long, on short stout 
petioles. Calyx subcylindric, truncate, 4 mm long and wide, 
pubescent externally. Petals 4, free, narrowly oblong, obtuse, 
12 mm long, 3 mm wide. Staminal-tube cylindric, glabrous, 10 
mm long, 3 mm in diameter, mouth slightly crenulate. quite free ; 
anthers 8 or 9, inserted near the apex, 2 mm long, included. 
Disk cylindric, 5 mm long, 2 mm in diameter, the mouth some- 
what ciliate-pubescent, otherwise entirely glabrous. Ovary and 
style continuous, cylindric, 10 mm long, pubescent; stigma capi- 
tate; ovary 4-celled. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 771, May 28, 1914, in for- 
ests, altitude about 500 meters, flowers flesh-colored. 

A species well characterized by its coriaceous, pale, prominently nerved 
leaflets in which the secondary veins and reticulations are entirely obsolete. 
It apparently belongs in the group with Dysoxylum latifolium Blume ac- 
cording to the arrangement of C. DeCandolle. 

DYSOXYLUM WENZELII sp. nov. § Eudysoxijlnni. 

Arbor circiter 10 m alta, pubescens; foliis alternis, usque ad 
35 cm longis, foliolis 9 vel 11, oblongis, pallidis, usque ad 11 cm 
longis, breviter obtuse acuminatis, base acutis, inaequilateralibus 
subtus ad costa nervisque molliter pubescentibus ; inflorescentiis 
axillaribus, solitariis, racemiformis, usque ad 9 cm longis; flori- 
bus cylindraceis, 9 mm longis, brevissime pedicellatis, 4-meris, 
petalis pubescentibus, tubus stamineus liber, glaber, ovario 
hirsuto. 

A tree about 10 m high, pubescent. Branches terete, 7 mm 
in diameter, grayish-olivaceous, glabrous, the younger ones pu- 
bescent. Leaves alternate, up to 35 cm long, the petioles, rachis 
and leaflets rather softly pubescent with grayish hairs; leaflets 
9 or 11, oblong, 9 to 11 cm long, 3.5 to 4.5 cm wide, the apex 
broadly and shortly acuminate, base acute or acuminate, strongly 
inequilateral, both surfaces pale-grayish when dry, the upper more 
or less pubescent on the midrib and nerves, the lower softly 
pubescent. Inflorescence solitary, spiciform, axillary and from 
the axils of fallen leaves, 7 to 9 cm long, pubescent, rather many 
flowered, the branchlets 3 mm long or less, each bearing usu- 
ally three flowers, the pedicels pubescent, very short. Flowers 
4-merous, 9 mm long, flesh-colored. Calyx shallow, broadly 



368 1"^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

4-toothed, pubescent. Petals 4, free, pubescent outside, 3 to 3.5 
mm wide, obtuse. Staminal tube cylindric, 7 mm long, glabrous, 
truncate, the stamens 8, inserted below the apex, the anthers 
sessile, less than 1 mm long. Disk shallow, glabrous, crenulate, 
1.5 mm high, about 2 mm in diameter, free. Ovary hirsute; 
style 5 mm long, hirsute below, glabrous above. 

Leyte, Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 6^2, March 21, 1914, in forests, altitude 
about 500 meters. 

In C. DeCandolle's arrangement this species falls in the group with 
Dysoxyluni pallens Hiern and D. flavescens Hiern, but is apparently not 
closely allied to either. In general aspect it is nearest to the Philippine 
Dysoxylum pyi'iforme Merr., but has an entirely different inflorescence 
and flowers, 

EUPHORBIACEAE 

APOROSA Blume 
APOROSA LEYTENSIS sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 7 m alta, ramulis inflorescentiisque dense pubes- 
centibus; foliis chartaceis vel subcoriaceis, usque ad 15 cm longis, 
oblongis ad elliptico-oblongis vel lanceolato-oblongis, tenuiter 
acuminatis, basi rotundatis, integris, subtus ad costa nervisque 
pubescentibus, nervis utrinque 8 vel 9, prominentibus ; inflores- 
centiis 5 et 9 axillaribus, fasciculatis vel subsolitariis, usque 
ad 4 cm longis, spicatis, ovario densissime hirsuto. 

A dioecious tree about 7 m high, the branches terete, glabrous, 
pale-brown, the branchlets pubescent. Leaves oblong to elliptic- 
oblong or even oblong-lanceolate, chartaceous or subcoriaceous, 
10 to 15 cm long, 3.5 to 6.5 cm wide, entire, apex rather slenderly 
acuminate, base rounded, rather pale when dry, shining, the 
lower surface pubescent on the midrib and lateral nen'-es ; lateral 
nerves 8 or 9 on each side of the midrib, prominent, anasto- 
mosing, the reticulations distinct; petioles pubescent, about 8 
mm long. Staminate and pistillate inflorescences axillary, spi- 
cate, densely pale ferruginous-pubescent, up to 4 cm long, fas- 
cicled or sometimes subsolitary. Female flowers 4-merous, the 
calyx teeth broadly ovate, acute, 1 mm long, the ovary narrowly 
ovoid densely pale-pubescent, the flowers shortly pedicelled, the 
subtending bracteoles up to 1.2 mm long and 3 mm wide. 

Leyte, Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 61^ (type) female flowers, 587 male flowers 
(very young), March and February, 1914, in forests, altitude 500 to 600 
meters. 

Apparently most closely allied to Aporosa microcalyx Hassk., among 
the Philippines species, differing in its more slenderly acuminate leaves 
which are quite entire, and in its very much longer spicate or spike-like 
inflorescences. 



IX. c. 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 369 

CYCLOSTEMON Blume 
CYCLOSTEMON ELLIPSOIDEUS sp. nov. 

Frutex circiter 3 m altus, glaber; foliis aequilateralibus, vel 
subaequilateralibus, integris, oblongis, chartaceis, nitidis, usque 
ad 13 cm longis, obtusis vel obscure acuminatis, basi acutis, 
breviter petiolatis; nervis lateralibus utrinque circiter 5, distan- 
tibus, tenuibus; fructibus junioribus ellipsoideis, axillaribus, soli- 
tariis, apice rotundatis, 2-locellatis, parce breviter adpresse 
hirsutis, pedicellatis, pericarpio coriaceo. 

A shrub about 4 m high, quite glabrous except the fruits 
(flowers unknown). Branches slender, terete, light-gray. 
Leaves equilateral or subequilateral, oblong, chartaceous, rather 
pale when dry, shining and of the same color on both surfaces, 
9 to 13 cm long, 2.5 to 4.5 cm wide, narrowed upward to the 
obtuse or obscurely acuminate apex and below to the acute base, 
entire ; lateral nerves about 5 on each side of the midrib, distant, 
slender, curved-ascending, anastomosing, the reticulations lax; 
petioles 2 to 3 mm long. Flowers unknown. Fruits axillary, 
solitary, ellipsoid, when young (seeds undeveloped) the pericarp 
coriaceous, externally slightly appressed-pubescent with short 
hairs, rounded at both ends, 2-celled, about 1 cm long; pedicels 
about 4 mm long. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 828, in forests, altitude 
about 500 m, June 3, 1914. 

A species characterized by its ellipsoid, pedicelled fruits, its thin pericarp, 
and its equilateral or nearly equilateral, entire leaves. It seems to be most 
closely allied to Cyclostemon gitingensis Elmer, but its fruits are entirely 
different from those of that species. 

RHAMNACEAE 

VENTILAGO Gaertner 
VENTILAGO MULTINERVIA sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, inflorescentiis exceptis glaber; foliis sub- 
coriaceis, oblongis, integris, nitidis, usque ad 12 cm longis, obtusis, 
subsessilibus vel breviter petiolatis, basi plerumque leviter in- 
aequilateralibus, obtusis, nervis utrinque circiter 10, prominenti- 
bus ; paniculis terminalibus, usque ad 22 cm longis, leviter pubes- 
centibus, pauciramosis ; floribus circiter 3 mm diametro, petalis 
obcordatis; fructibus circiter 3.5 m longis, 8 mm latis, leviter 
pubescentibus. 

Scandent, reaching a height of 15 m, glabrous except the 
inflorescence. Branches dark-brown, terete, glabrous. Leaves 
oblong, subcoriaceous, pale when dry, shining, 7 to 12 cm long, 



370 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i»i4 

2.5 to 5 cm wide, entire, apex obtuse, base usually slightly 
inequilateral, obtuse, subsessile or shortly petioled ; lateral nerves 
about 10 on each side of the midrib, prominent on the lower 
surface, the reticulations slender, subparallel; petioles 2 mm 
long or less. Panicles terminal, each consisting of few elongated 
branches, up to 22 cm in length, distinctly pubescent or puberu- 
lent with short brownish hairs. Flowers numerous, green, soli- 
tary or somewhat fascicled, externally pubescent, the pedicels 
1 to 1.5 mm long. Calyx 3 mm in diameter, base acute, teeth 
triangular, acute, 1.2 mm long. Petals obcordate, 1 mm long, 
base cuneate. Filaments about 1 mm long, the anthers less 
than half as long. Young fruit densely pubescent, when mature 
or nearly so, including the wing, 3.5 cm long, 8 mm wide, 
brown, densely pubescent in the lower part, less pubescent above, 
the wing thin, brown when dry, the styles persistent as a minute, 
cleft apiculus. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 8U9, in forests, altitude about 
600 meters. 

A species well characterized by its rather numerously nerved, oblong, 
entire leaves. It is not closely allied to any other Philippine form so far 
collected. 

VITACEAE 

TETRASTIGMA Planchon 
TETRASTIGMA TRIFOLIOLATUM sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens, inflorescentiis parcissime pubescentibus ex- 
ceptis glaber; foliis 3-foliolatis, foliolis subcoriaceis, in siccitate 
brunneis, ellipticis ad oblongo-ellipticis, acuminatis, usque ad 20 
cm longis, margine irregulariter dentatis, nervis utrinque circiter 
8, reticulis obsoletis vel subobsoletis ; infructescentiis axillari- 
bus, circiter 7 cm longis, fructibus junioribus circiter 1.5 cm 
longis. 

A scandent shrub, glabrous except the inflorescence, the 
branches dark-colored w^hen dry, terete, lenticellate. Leaves 
3-f oliolate, their petioles about 12 cm long ; leaflets subcoriaceous, 
brown when dry, slightly shining, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 14 
to 20 cm long, 7 to 10 cm wide, base acute, apex rather promi- 
nently acuminate, margins irregularly and rather coarsely 
toothed in the upper one-half; lateral nerves about 8 on each 
side of the midrib, slender, distinct, the reticulations obsolete or 
nearly so ; petiolules of the lateral leaflets 3 to 4 cm long, of the 
terminal one, including the prolongation of the rachis 8 cm. 
Infructescence axillary, cymose, very slightly pubescent, the 



IX. c. 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 371 

immature fruits oblong, 1.3 to 1.5 cm long, somewhat inequila- 
teral, blunt. 

Levte, Dag-ami, C. A. Weuzel .544, February 6, 1914, in forests, altitude 
about 500 meters. 

A species well characterized by its 3-foliolate leaves and its ample leaflets. 

ELAEOCARPACEAE 

ELAEOCARPUS Linnaeus 
ELAEOCARPUS WENZELII sp. nov. § Ganitrus. 

Arbor circiter 20 m alta, partibus junioribus inflorescentiisque 
exceptis glabra; foliis subcoriaceis, glabris, nitidis, oblongis ad 
oblongo-ovatis, breviter acuminatis vel obtusis, basi acutis, usque 
ad 15 cm longis, nervis utrinque circiter 12, subtus in axillis 
glandulosis; racemis e axillis defoliatis, circiter 8 cm longis; 
floribus 5-meris, circiter 7 mm longis, petalis usque ad medio 
fissis, laciniis circiter 14 ; ovario 5-loculare. 

A tree about 20 m high, glabrous except the younger parts 
and the inflorescence. Branches terete, dark-colored, glabrous, 
the very young parts somewhat puberulent. Leaves subcoria- 
ceous, oblong to narrowly oblong-obovate, 10 to 15 cm long, 
4 to 6 cm wide, the apex shortly acuminate, base acute, margins 
distantly and obscurely crenulate, when dry pale-olivaceous, 
shining, the lower surface paler than the upper and with promi- 
nent glands in the axils of the lateral nerves; lateral nerves 
about 12 on each side of the midrib, prominent; petioles about 1 
cm long. Racemes solitary, numerous, in the axils of fallen 
leaves, about 8 cm long, appressed-pubescent with short gray 
hairs. Flowers yellow and white, numerous, 5-merous, their 
pedicels about 8 mm long, sparingly pubescent. Sepals 5, oblong, 
lanceolate, acute or somewhat acuminate, somewhat pubescent, 
5.5 to 6 mm long, 1.8 mm wide. Petals 5, 7 mm long, 3 mm wide, 
narrowed below, divided for the upper one-half into about 14, 
slender laeiniae, these more or less irregular, sometimes in pairs, 
the lower one-half somewhat pubescent along the back near the 
base, and along the margins, otherwise glabrous. Stamens 
about 30, the anthers linear, scabrid, 3 to 4 mm long, one cell 
slightly longer than the other and with a tuft of few, short 
hairs. Ovary densely pubescent, 5-celled; style 5.5 mm long, 
slightly pubescent in the lower part. 

Leyte, Dagami, C. A. Wenzel 365, July 13, 1913, in forests, altitude 
about 60 meters. 

Closely allied to Elaeocarpus ramifiorus Merr. of Luzon, differing in 
its larger flowers and its broader leaves. 



372 The Philippine Journal of Science lau 

ELAEOCARPUS DOLICHOPETALUS sp. nov. § Ganitrus. 

Arbor alta, subglabra; foliis oblongis ad oblongo-lanceolatis, 
chartaceis, usque ad 13 cm longis, utrinque subaequaliter angus- 
tatis, leviter acuminatis, margine crenatis, supra glabris, nitidis, 
subtus parcissime adpresse pilosis vel glabris, nervis utrinque 9 
vel 10, prominentibus ; racemis numerosis, e ramulis defoliatis, 
5 ad 7 cm longis, leviter albido pilosis; floribus 5-meris, circiter 
1.5 cm longis, sepalis petalisque extus leviter adpresse pilosis; 
ovario 5-loculare. 

A tall tree, 35 m high fide Wenzel, subglabrous. Branches 
terete, lenticellate, dark-colored when dry, the branchlets ap- 
pressed pubescent with short hairs. Leaves oblong to oblong- 
lanceolate, 10 to 13 cm long, 3 to 4 cm wide, chartaceous, about 
equally narrowed at both ends, apex slightly acuminate, base 
slightly decurrent-acuminate, margins crenate, the upper surface 
olivaceous when dry, glabrous, shining, the lower somewhat 
paler, glabrous, or with few, scattered, appressed, obscure, pilose 
hairs; lateral nerves about 9 on each side of the midrib, prom- 
inent, anastomosing, the axils not glandular; petioles 1 to 1.5 
cm long. Racemes numerous, on the branches below the leaves, 
solitary from the axils of fallen leaves, 5 to 7 cm long, appressed- 
pilose with white, shining, scattered hairs. Flowers 10 to 15 in 
each raceme, white, 5-merous, about 1.5 cm long, their pedicels 
about 1 cm long. Sepals lanceolate, acuminate, 10 to 11 mm 
long, 2 mm wide, outside slightly pubescent with scattered white 
hairs, margins densely puberulent. Petals about 15 mm long, 
3 to 3.5 mm wide, back in the lower one-third sparingly ap- 
pressed pubescent with shining white hairs, margins densely 
pubescent, the upper two-fifths cut into 4 or 5 primary divisions, 
these narrow and bifid or trifid. Stamens about 30; anthers 
linear, scabrid, 4 to 5 mm long, one cell slightly longer than the 
other and terminated by a bristle. Disk densely gray-pubescent. 
Ovary densely pubescent, 5-celled; style glabrous, 1.3 cm long. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 897, June 13, 1914, in forests, 
altitude about 500 meters. 

This species much resembles Elaeocarpus wenzelii Merr., but has 
much larger flowers. The rather long, comparatively narrow petals are 
characteristic. 

ELAEOCARPUS AFFINIS sp. nov. § Dicera. 

Species E. argenteo similis et ut videtur afRnis, differt racemis 
tenuibus, paucifloris, pedunculis longioribus tenuioribusque, rha- 
chibus subglabris, floribus minoribus. 

A tree about 10 m high, white glabrous except the inflorescence. 
Branches terete, brownish. Leaves numerous, rather crowded, 



IX. c. 4 Mernll: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 373 

coriaceous, oblong to elliptic-oblong-, 4 to 7 cm long, 2 to 3 cm 
wide, shining, apex blunt-acuminate, base acute, margins coarsely 
crenate; lateral nerves 5 to 7 on each side of the midrib, prom- 
inent, anastomosing, the axils with prominent glands; petioles 
6 to 15 mm long. Racemes axillary, solitary, up to 7 cm in length 
the rachis slender, glabrous or only slightly pubescent, usually 
about 10-flowered. Flowers 5-merous, 5 to 6 mm long, their 
pedicels slender, appressed-pubescent with scattered, shining, 
white hairs, 5 to 7 mm long. Sepals lanceolate, obscurely acum- 
inate, 5.5 mm long, 1.6 mm wide, appressed pubescent with 
scattered shining hairs. Petals as long as the sepals, slightly 
wider, the upper one-third cleft into 6 or 7 slender divisions, 
the lower one-half densely silvery pubescent on the back, margins 
densely pubescent, inside pubescent along the median line below. 
Stamens 15 ; anthers oblong, cells blunt, scabrid, about 2 mm 
long. Ovary ovoid very densely silvery pubescent, 2-celled. 

Leyte, Masaganap near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 788, in forests, altitude 
about 600 meters. 

In vegetative characters very closely resembling Elaeocarpiis argenteus 
Merr., but quite different from that species in its inflorescence and flowers. 

ELAEOCARPUS MOLLIS sp. nov. § Dicera. 

Arbor parva subtus foliis partibus junioribus inflorescentiis- 
que molliter pubescentibus ; foliis subellipticis, firmiter charta- 
ceis, usque ad 10 cm longis, basi acutis, apice breviter late 
obtuseque acuminatis, nervis utrinque 6 vel 7, prominentibus ; 
racemis axillaribus, circiter 3 cm longis, plerumque 6-floris ; flori- 
bus 5-meris, circiter 6 mm longis; ovario 2-loculare; fructibus 
2 ad 2.5 cm longis, obovoideo-ellipsoideis, 1-locellatis, 

A tree 6 to 8 m high, rather prominently and softly pubescent 
with short spreading hairs. Branches terete, brown, glabrous, 
the younger ones softly pubescent. Leaves subelliptic, firmly 
chartaceous, 6 to 10 cm long, 2.5 to 5 cm wide, entire or with 
distant obscure teeth, about equally narrowed to the short, blunt, 
broadly acuminate apex and to the acute base, the upper surface 
olivaceous when dry, pubescent on the midrib and nerves, the 
lower surface paler softly pubescent with scattered, spreading, 
short hairs; lateral nerves 6 or 7 on each side of the midrib, 
prominent, anastomosing, the axils sometimes bearded; petioles 
pubescent, 1 to 1.5 cm. long. Racemes solitary, axillary, pubes- 
cent with short spreading hairs, about 3 cm long, usually 6- 
flowered, the pedicels 5 to 7 mm long. Flowers 5-merous, 5 to 
6 mm long. Sepals oblong, acute, about 5 mm long, 1.2 mm 
wide, ciliate-pubescent with short spreading hairs. Petals 6 

129553 6 



374 The Philippine Journal of Science i»i4 

mm long, the lower part about 1 mm wide, ciliate on the margins, 
glabrous on the back, the median line inside also ciliate, the 
upper part glabrous, the upper 2 mm cleft into 6 or 7 primary, 
slender divisions, these usually bifid. Stamens 15; anthers 
oblong, obtuse, scabrid, the anthers narrowed below, 2 mm long. 
Ovary densely pubescent, ovoid, 2-celled ; style 3 mm long, ciliate 
in the lower one-half, glabrous above. Fruit obovoid-ellipsoid 
to cylindric-ellipsoid, base usually narrowed, apex rounded; 
smooth, the pericarp thin, 2 to 2.5 cm long, about 1 cm in dia- 
meter, the endocarp bony, rugose, 1-celled. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 698 (type), April, 1914, 
in flower; near Dagami, Wenzel J!fl6, September, 1913, in fruit, in forests, 
altitude 60 to 500 meters. 

This species is closely allied to Elaeocarpus villosiusculus Warb., of 
the Philippines, with which the latter number cited above was at first 
identified. It differs, however, in its less acuminate leaves and especially 
in its sepals not being densely pubescent. It is also allied to Elaeocarpus 
teysmannii Koord. & Valeton, of Celebes, but does not approach that species 
as closely as does E. villosiusculus Warb. 

TILIACEAE 

TRICHOSPERMUM Blume 
TRICHOSPERMUM LEYTENSE sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, circiter 8 m alta, ramulis junioribus foliis in- 
florescentiisque plus minusve pubescentibus ; foliis oblongis, char- 
taceis, aequilateralibus, usque ad 14 cm longis, prominente 
acuminatis, margine serrulato-denticulatis, basi rotundatis, 3- 
nerviis, supra glabris vel subglabris, subtus leviter pubescen- 
tibus; nervis lateralibus adscendentibus, utrinque 5 vel 6; 
infructescentibus axillaribus terminalibusque, paniculatis, cir- 
citer 8 cm longis; fructibus 2-valvis, compressis, plus minusve 
inflatis, circiter 1.5 cm longis, 2 ad 2.5 cm latis, extus dense 
ciliato-pilosis. 

A tree about 8 m high, the younger parts, leaves, and inflor- 
escence more or less pubescent. Branches glabrous, terete, very 
dark reddish-brown or nearly black when dry, the younger 
branchlets, inflorescence, and petioles rather densely pubescent 
with short, pale-brownish hairs. Leaves oblong, chartaceous, 
equilateral, 9 to 14 cm long, 3.5 to 6 cm wide, prominently and 
rather slenderly acuminate, base broadly rounded, 3-nerved, 
margins uniformly and distinctly serrulate-denticulate. The 
upper surface somewhat shining, brownish when dry, glabrous 
or with few hairs along the midrib and lateral nerves, the lower 
surface paler, the midrib, nerves, and reticulations more or less 



IX. c. 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 375 

pubescent ; lateral nerves, including the basal pair, 5 or 6 on each 
side of the midrib, prominent, rather sharply ascending, nearly 
straight ; petioles about 1 cm long ; panicles axillary and terminal, 
in fruit about 8 cm long, densely pubescent with short brownish 
hairs. Fruits subreniform, 2-celled, base truncate, apex slightly 
apiculate, compressed but at the same time distinctly inflated, 
about 1.5 cm long, 2 to 2.5 cm wide, the valves coriaceous densely 
and softly pubescent with shining brownish hairs of two types, 
short, rather densely matted ones, intermixed with very numer- 
ous, long, appressed-sp reading, shining ones. Seeds 1.5 to 2 mm 
long, with numerous, long, shining, pale hairs. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 837, June 5, 1914, in forests, 
altitude about 500 m. 

A species characterized by its leaves which are entirely or nearly glabrous 
above and comparatively slightly pubescent beneath, and its 2-valved, com- 
pressed, densely pubescent fruits which are distinctly inflated. It may 
belong in the genus I have previously designated as Halconia, which, per- 
haps, should be merged with Trichospermum. 

DILLENIACEAE 

TETRACERA Linnaeus 
TETRACERA PH ILIPPI N ENSIS sp. nov. 

Frutex scandens ? vel arbor, partibus junioribus inflorescen- 
tiisque plus minusve pubescentibus ; f oliis leviter scaberulis, ellip- 
tico-ovatis, coriaceis, in siccitate pallidis, fragilis, nitidis, 
usque ad 12 cm longis, acutis vel leviter acuminatis, basi 
rotundatis vel subacutis, nereis utrinque 11 ad 13, valde pro- 
minentibus, margine integris vel sursum obscure subundulato- 
crenulatis; paniculis terminalibus, amplis, 20 ad 25 cm longis; 
carpellis 3, glabris. 

A scandent shrub or a tree, the branches terete, minutely sca- 
brid, dark-brown, younger ones sparingly appressed-hirsute. 
Leaves coriaceous, pale, shining and brittle when dry, somewhat 
scabrid on both surfaces, elliptic-ovate, 8 to 12 cm long, 3.5 to 
6 cm wide, entire, or near the apex obscurely undulate-crenulate, 
apex acute or somewhat acuminate, base rounded to subacute, 
margins sometimes slightly decurrent along the petioles, the 
lower surface puncticulate ; lateral nerves 11 to 13 on each side 
of the midrib, verj^ prominent ; petioles 1.5 to 2 cm long. Pani- 
cles terminal, ample, 20 to 25 cm long, sparingly appressed- 
hirsute. Flowers green and white. Sepals 5 or 6, the outer two 
much smaller than the inner ones, subcoriaceous, ciliate on the 
margins, the inner ones elliptic-obovate, concave, rounded, 6 mm 
long. Petals membranaceous, obovate, 5 to 6 mm long, deciduous. 



376 ^^^ Philippme Journal of Science i9u 

Stamens 3 to 4 mm long. Carpels 3, narrowly ovoid, narrowed 
upward into the style, glabrous, including the style 4 mm long. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 812, June 2, 1914, in forests, 
altitude about 50 meters, said by the collector to be a tree 15 m high with 
the trunk about 50 cm in diameter although the specimens look as though 
they were from a vine rather than from a tree. It is characterized by its 
rather numerously nerved, entire or nearly entire leaves, its ample pani- 
cles, and its glabrous carpels, three carpels in each flower. The leaves 
are glandular-puncticulate on the lower surface. 

SAURAUIA Willdenow 

SAURAUIA WEN2ELII sp. nov. 

Frutex circiter 5 m altus, leviter adpresse setosus, partibus 
junioribus minute farinosus; foliis coriaceis, oblongo-obovatis 
vel oblongo-ellipticis, usque ad 27 cm longis, subcaudato-acumi- 
natis, basi rotundatis vel leviter cordatis, nervis utrinque circiter 
17; injflorescentiis paniculatis, plus minusve foliaceis haud brac- 
teatis; floribus cymosis, confertis, circiter 1.5 cm diametro, 
ovario 3-locellato. 

An erect shrub about 5 m high, the branchlets, inflorescence, 
petioles, and to a slight degree the leaves with scattered, ap- 
pressed setae, the younger parts somewhat farinose, otherwise 
nearly glabrous. Leaves oblong-obovate, or oblong-elliptic, co- 
riaceous, somewhat olivaceous when dry, shining, the lower 
surface a little paler than the upper, the latter entirely glabrous 
except for few, appressed, scale-like setae on the midrib and 
nerves, the lower surface glabrous except for similar scales, 15 
to 27 cm long, 7 to 9 cm wide, rather slenderly subcaudate- 
acuminate, base somewhat narrowed, rounded, or slightly 
cordate, often a little inequilateral, the margins minutely setose- 
denticulate; lateral nerves about 17 on each side of the midrib, 
prominent; petioles stout, about 1.5 cm long, appressed-setose. 
Inflorescence a pseudo-terminal, somewhat leafy panicle from 
the upper axils, about 15 cm long, appressed-setose and somewhat 
farinose, composed of few, (about 5) alternate, long peduncled, 
many-flowered, rather congested cymes intermingled with more 
or less reduced leaves, the leaves on the main rachis up to 7 cm 
long, in the partial inflorescence taking the place of bracts and 
1 cm long or less. Flowers numerous, white, numerous in each 
partial inflorescence which is from 3 to 4 cm in diameter, the 
individual flowers in anthesis about 1.5 cm in diameter. Sepals 
orbicular-obovate, rounded, about 5 mm in diameter. Petals 
broadly obovate, about 6 mm in diameter, rounded, somewhat 
united below. Stamens about 20, 1-seriate ; filaments 2 mm long, 
the anthers a little shorter. Ovary depressed-ovoid, glabrous, 



IX, c, 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 377 

about 2.5 mm in diameter, 3-celled; style-arms 3 or 4, about 2 
mm long, united for the lower 1 mm. 

Leyte, Dagami, C. A. Weitzel 321^, July, 1913, in forests, altitude about 
60 meters. 

A comparatively well characterized species on account of its few, ap- 
pressed, more or less scale-like setae, its leaves otherwise glabrous, and 
its peculiar inflorescence, the few, partial, many-flowered, cymose inflores- 
cences being arranged in a more or less leafy panicle. 

THEACEAE 
ADINANDRA Jack 
ADINANDRA LEYTENSIS sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 17 m alta, partibus junioribus floribusque ex- 
ceptis glabra, ramulis in siccitate distincte verruculosis ; foliis 
coriaceis, subellipticis, usque ad 8 cm longis, obtusis, basi acutis 
vel decurrento-acuminatis, margine obscure denticulatis, utrin- 
que obscure verruculoso-puncticulatis ; nervis utrinque circiter 
12, reticulis distinctis ; floribus circiter 3 cm diametro, sepalis 6, 
interioribus gradatim majoribus, crasse coriaceis, 2 ad 8 mm 
longis, petalis 5, late ovato-ellipsoideis, coriaceis, circiter 15 mm 
longis, rotundatis; staminibus circiter 50. 

A tree about 17 m high, glabrous except the very youngest 
parts and the flowers. Branches terete, brown, glabrous, the ter- 
minal buds appressed-hirsute, the younger branchlets distinctly 
verruculose as are also the midribs of the leaves on the lower 
surface. Leaves alternate, coriaceous, subelliptic, 5 to 8 cm 
long, 2.5 to 4 cm wide, brownish or subolivaceous when dry, some- 
what shining, apex rounded or sometimes merely obtuse, base 
narrowed, acute or decurrent-acuminate, margins obscurely 
denticulate, both surfaces minutely and obscurely puncticulate 
or verruculose-puncticulate; lateral nerves about 12 on each side 
of the midrib, rather prominent, anastomosing, the reticulations 
distinct; petioles 5 mm long or less. Flowers solitary, axillary, 
white, about 3 cm in diameter. Sepals usually 6, thickly coria- 
ceous, outer two 3 to 4 mm long, rounded, inner gradually larger, 
innermost orbicular, rounded, 7 to 8 mm in diameter, somewhat 
pubescent, concave. Petals 5, broadly elliptic-ovate, appressed 
pubescent externally, coriaceous, about 15 mm long, 12 mm wide, 
concave. Stamens about 50, the filaments united into a 4 mm 
long tube, more or less hirsute ; anthers hirsute, lanceolate, acute 
or acuminate, 5 mm long. Ovary ovoid, glabrous, the ovules 
rather few; style stout, about 6 mm long, slightly hirsute. 

Leyte, Masaganap, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 760, May 27, 1914, in 
forests, altitude about 600 m. 



378 "^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

The alliance of this species is apparently with Adinandra loheri Merr., 
of Luzon, differing in its more hirsute stamens, more prominently reti- 
culated leaves, and verruculose branchlets and midribs. The leaves also, 
at least when young, present on the lower surface very scattered, short 
hairs. 

GUTTIFERAE 

GARCINIA Linnaeus 
GARCINIA OLIGOPHLEBIA sp. nov. § Eugarcinia. 

Arbor glabra, circiter 8 m alta; foliis oblongo-obovatis ad 
late oblongo-oblanceolatis, usque ad 7 cm longis, acuminatis, basi 
angustatis, cuneatis, nervis utrinque circiter 8, adscendentibus ; 
floribus c? axillaribus, fasciculatis, sessilibus, 4-meris, circiter 
3 mm longis, rubris; antheris 4, longitudinaliter dehiscentibus, 
ovarii rudimento nullo. 

A glabrous dioecious tree about 8 m high, the branches terete, 
brownish, the younger ones greenish-brown. Leaves subcoria- 
ceous, oblong-obovate to broadly oblong-oblanceolate, 4 to 7 cm 
long, 1.5 to 3 cm wide, rather abruptly acuminate, base gradually 
narrowed, cuneate; lateral nerves about 8 on each side of the 
midrib, ascending, rather more prominent on the upper than on 
the lower surface; petioles 1 cm long or less. Male flowers 
axillary, fascicled, sessile, red, 3 to 7 in a fascicle, about 3 mm 
long. Calyx-lobes ovate-elliptic to obovate, 2 mm long, the inner 
two somewhat narrower then the outer. Corolla about 3 mm 
long. Anthers 4, subsessile, 1 mm long, longitudinally dehiscent, 
2-celled, the rudimentary ovary none. 

Leyte, Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 632, March 15, 1914, in forests, altitude about 
500 meters. 

A species similar to and very closely allied to Garcinia rubra Merr., 
differing manifestly in its smaller, fewer-nerved leaves. 

BEGONIACEAE 

BEGONIA Linnaeus 
BEGONIA MEGACARPA sp. nov. § Petermannia 1 

Herba glabra, monoica, caulibus scandens, radicantibus, levi- 
ter ramosis; foliis in siccitate membranaceis, suboblique late 
ovatis, acuminatis, margine repandis, basi late truncatis vel sub- 
cordato-truncatis, leviter inaequilateralibus, usque ad 15 cm 
longis; floribus fasciculatis, magnis; capsulis obovoideis vel 
turbinatis, subaequaliter 2-alatis, basi acutis, apice subrotundato- 
truncatis, circiter 3 cm longis. 

A glabrous, epiphytic, scandent, sparingly branched herb, 



IX, c, 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 379 

monoecious, the stems brown when dry, emitting numerous roots 
along the lower side, the internodes 3 to 5 cm long. Leaves 
alternate, when dry brownish-green, slightly shining, membran- 
aceous, subobliquely broadly ovate, 8 to 15 cm long, nearly as 
wide, shortly acuminate, margins repand, sometimes also spar- 
ingly denticulate, the base broadly truncate or subcordate-trun- 
cate, slightly inequilateral; basal nen'es about 6; petioles up to 
8 cm long; stipules brown, persistent, ovate to oblong-ovate, 1.5 
to 2 cm long. Flowers pink and white, in the upper axils, fas- 
cicled, numerous male and few female ones in the same fascicle, 
the former short-pedicelled, the latter apparently long-pedicel- 
led, the fascicles subtended by several large, persistent, brown, 
bracts. Male flowers : Sepals 2, membranaceous, broadly elliptic- 
ovate, about 12 mm long, 10 mm wide. Petals none. Stamens 
about 30, on an elongated torus; anthers narrowly elliptic- 
oblong, obtuse, 2 mm long, their filaments shorter. Female 
flowers not seen. Capsules obovoid to turbinate, subequally 3- 
winged, about 3 cm long, including the wings about 2 cm wide, 
the apex rounded-truncate, the base acute, dehiscent near the 
wings, the placentae cleft, ovulate on all sides ; peduncles slender, 
up to 3 cm long. 

Leyte, Dagami, climbing on shrubs in forests, altitude about 60 meters, 
C. A. Wenzel 437, September, 1913 (type). Mindanao, Butuan Subprov- 
ince, Bunauan, E. H. Taylor, September, 1913. 

A very characteristic species well distinguished by its scandent habit, 
its fascicled, comparatively large flowers, and its unusually large capsules. 
It has no close allies among the Philippine species. 

BEGONIA LEYTENSIS sp. nov. § Diploclinium. 

Planta scandens, glabra, ramosa, tenuis; foliis usque ad 4 cm 
longis, subaequilateralibus, ovatis, chartaceis, acuminatis, basi 
rotundatis ad subacutis, 5-nerviis, margine denticulatis ; inflor- 
escentiis axillaribus, dichotomis, paucifloris, bracteis s orbi- 
cularibus, usque ad 9 mm diametro; capsulis suborbicularibus, 
late rotundatis, circiter 1.4 cm diametro, subaequaliter 3-alatis. 

A slender, monoecious glabrous, branched, scandent plant, 
the stems creeping along the trunks of trees, when dry reddish 
or reddish-brown. Leaves small, ovate, chartaceous when dry, 
apparently fleshy when fresh, the base subequilateral, rounded 
to somewhat acute, apex acuminate, margins with small, distant 
teeth, base usually 5-nerved, reticulations obsolete or nearly so; 
petioles slender, 1 cm long or less; stipules brown, lanceolate, 
acuminate, about 6 mm long. Inflorescence axillary, staminate 
and pistillate similar, borne on the same plant, few-flowered, the 



380 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

rachis short, dichotomously branched. Male flowers few, pink, 
the bracts orbicular, membranaceous, 9 mm in diameter, in pairs, 
bracteoles similar and a little smaller, deciduous. Sepals 2, in 
nearly mature buds reniform, somewhat cordate, 5 mm long, 6 
mm wide. Stamens about 40; anthers obovoid, 0.8 mm long. 
Female flowers about 1.5 cm in diameter, the segments 5, ellip- 
tic to obovate, rounded; styles 3, dichotomous, the arms spirally 
twisted, 2 to 3 mm long. Capsules suborbicular in outline, 1.4 
cm in diameter, subequally 3-winged, broadly rounded at both 
base and apex, not at all truncate. 

LmfTE, Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 580, Februai-y 11, 1914, on trees in forests, 
altitude about 500 meters. 

A close ally of Begonia aequata A. Gray and B. lagunensis Elmer, but 
with rather longer petioles and thicker leaves than the former, and larger 
leaves than the latter, the capsules suborbicular, not at all truncate or 
subtruncate as in those species. 

MYRTACEAE 
EUGENIA Linnaeus 
EUGENIA WENZELII sp. nov. § Sijzygmm. 

Arbor alta, glabra ; f oliis subellipticis, coriaceis, utrinque suba- 
equaliter angustatis, basi acutis, apice obtuse acuminatis, subtus 
verruculoso-puncticulatis, nervis lateralibus tenuibus, obscuris; 
inflorescentiis terminalibus, paniculatis, usque ad 8 cm longis; 
floribus in triadibus dispositis, sessilibus, circiter 1.5 cm longis, 
calycis tubo sub anthesin deorsum valde angustatis plus tarde 
incrassatis, margine 5-dentatis, dentibus obtusis. 

A tall tree, the trunk 2 m in diameter, entirely glabrous. 
Branches terete, brown, the branchlets grayish-brown, rather 
slender. Leaves opposite, coriaceous, rather pale when dry, sub- 
elliptic, 5 to 8 cm long, 3 to 4 cm wide, subequally narrowed 
to the acute base and to the short, broad, blunt acumen, the 
lower surface verruculose-puncticulate ; lateral nerves very slen- 
der, obscure, the primary ones scarcely more distinct than the 
secondary, rather densely arranged; petioles 5 to 8 mm long. 
Inflorescence terminal and in the upper axils, cymose-paniculate, 
up to 8 cm long, the flowers sessile, disposed in triads on the 
ultimate branchlets. Flowers in anthesis slender, 12 to 15 mm 
long, the calyx limb cupshaped, 4 mm in diameter, with 5 rather 
prominent, blunt, thick teeth, abruptly narrowed into the long 
pseudostalk, this in anthesis 1.5 mm in diameter or less, after 
anthesis much thickened, 1.5 cm long, 5 to 6 mm in diameter 
in the upper third, gradually narrowed to the acute base. Petals 



IX, c. 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 381 

united, forming a calyptra about 3 mm in diameter which falls 
as a whole ; filaments very short. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. .4. Weuzel 770, May 28, 1914, in forests, 
altitude about 500 meters. 

A very large tree, its height indicated by Mr. Wenzel as 60 meters, the 
trunk 2 meters in diameter. Its alliance is with Eugenia claviflora Roxb., 
E. rosenbluthii C. B. Rob., etc., but it is well characterized by its elongated 
flowers, the pseudo-stalk in anthesis narrow, abruptly enlarged at the apex 
by the spreading calyx-limb, in young fruit thickened, and gradually 
tapering to the acute base. 

EUGENIA PUNCTICULATA sp. nov. § Jamhosa. 

Arbor glabra, 10 ad 15 m alta; foliis coriaceis, oppositis, 
oblongis, usque ad 22 cm longis, subtus valde puncticulatis, 
acuminatis, basi acutis, nervis prominentis, utrinque circiter 
12, irregularibus, prominente arcuato-anastomosantibus ; panicu- 
lis terminalibus axillaribusque, pyramidatis, paucifloris, circiter 
10 cm longis; floribus in anthesis circiter 7 cm diametro, petalis 
obovatis, circiter 1.3 cm longis. 

A glabrous tree 10 to 15 m high, the branches terete, light- 
gray or somewhat brownish, slender. Leaves opposite, oblong, 
coriaceous, slightly shining when dry, the lower surface a little 
paler than the upper and prominently puncticulate, 13 to 22 
cm long, 5 to 8 cm wide, the base acute, the apex rather pro- 
minently acuminate; lateral nerves about 12 on each side of 
the midrib, rather irregular, very prominent on the lower sur- 
face, some of the secondary ones nearly as prominent as the 
primary ones, arched-anastomosing and forming an irregular, 
submarginal nerve about 5 mm from the margin of the leaf, 
the reticulations slender, rather distinct; petioles about 1.5 cm 
long. Panicles terminal, rarely also lateral, pyramidal, open, 
comparatively few-flowered, about 10 cm long, the ultimate 
branchlets with from one to three flowers each, the pedicels 
mostly less than 1 cm long. Calyx in bud obovoid, about 1.5 
cm long, narrowed below into a short pseudostalk, ebracteolate, 
jointed with the pedicels, the lobes 4, concave, coriaceous, reni- 
form or orbicular-reniform, in anthesis spreading, about 1 cm 
wide. Petals white, obovoid, about 1.3 cm long. Stamens very 
numerous, the filaments 3 to 4 cm in length. 

Leyte, Dagami, C. A. Wenzel S8U (type), 369, August, 1913, in forests, 
altitude about 60 meters. 

Among the numerous Philippine species apparently m.ost closely allied to 
Eugenia lutea C. B. Rob., but differing from that species in many char- 
acters. Its prominently puncticulate leaves is an evident differential 
character. 



382 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

MELASTOMATACEAE 
MEDINILLA Gaudichaud 
MEDINILLA MINI AT A sp. nov. § Eumedinilla. 

Frutex epiphyticus circiter 2 m altus, glaber, ramulis crassis, 
4-alatis, nodis dense setosis ; f oliis oppositis, sessilibus, coriaceis, 
oblongo-ovatis ad obovato-subellipticis, usque ad 33 cm longis, 
abrupte acuminatis, basi angustatis, 13-plinerviis, nervis pro- 
minentibus, arcuato-adscendentibus, reticulis obsoletis vel sub- 
obsoletis; paniculis terminalibus, longe pedunculatis, partibus 
floriferis circiter 10 cm longis, pyramidatis, ramis verticillatis, 
inferioribus circiter 4 cm longis, superioribus gradatim brevio- 
ribus; bracteis rubris, persistentibus, elliptico-ovatis, acutis, 
chartaceis vel subcoriaceis, circiter 4 cm longis ; floribus 5-meris, 
confertis ; calycibus cupulatis, subtruncatis, circiter 6 mm longis ; 
petalis inaequlateraliter oblongis vel oblongo-obovatis, obtusis, 
15 mm longis, 5 mmlatis; staminibus 10, subaequalibus, antheris 
lanceolatis, acuminatis, 8 and 9 mm longis. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 653, May 12, 1914, in forests, 
altitude about 500 m. May 12, 1914. 

A species manifestly allied to Medinilla magnifica Lindl., but with smaller, 
much denser panicles, smaller bracts, and larger flowers. From the allied 
M. teysmannii Miq., it differs in its large persistent bracts and much 
smaller panicles. 

SYMPLOCACEAE 

SYMPLOCOS Jacquin 
SYMPLOCOS PHANEROPHLEBIA sp. nov. § Bobua. 

Arbor circiter 10 m alta subtus foliis ad nervis petiolis in- 
florescentiisque plus minusve hirsutis vel pubescentibus ; foliis 
oblongis, chartaceis, usque ad 11 cm longis, acuminatis, basi 
rotundatis, serrato-crenatis, nervis utrinque circiter 6, subtus 
valde prominentibus, arcuato-anastomosantibus ; inflorescentiis 
axillaribus, brevibus, paucifloris, floribus subfasciculatis vel 
in racemis brevibus dispositis; staminibus circiter 25, ovario 
3-loculare. 

A tree about 10 m. high, the branchlets, inflorescence, and 
lower surface of the leaves more or less hirsute or pubescent. 
Branches brownish, terete, pubescent, becoming glabrous or 
nearly so. Leaves chartaceous, green when dry, oblong, 8 to 11 
cm long, 2 to 4 cm wide, apex acuminate, base rounded, margins 
serrate-crenate, the teeth somewhat glandular, the upper surface 
glabrous, shining, the lower a little paler, sparingly hirsute on 



IX. c, 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 383 

the midrib and nerves, the lateral nerves 6 on each side of the 
midrib, impressed on the upper surface, very prominent on the 
lower, looped-anastomosing, the reticulations lax, rather pro- 
minent; petioles 5 mm long or less. Flowers white, rather 
crowded in axillary, short racemes, the whole inflorescence 1.5 
cm long or less, pubescent. Calyx-lobes broadly ovate, obtuse, 
about 1.5 mm long. Petals glabrous, elliptic-ovate, rounded, 
3 mm long. Stamens about 25, their filaments nearly free, gla- 
brous, 3 to 4 mm long. Ovary 3-celled. Fruit ovoid, glabrous, 
green, about 8 mm long, crowned by the persistent calyx-tube 
and teeth. 

Leyte, Dagami and Jaro, in forests, altitude about 500 meters, C. A. 
Wenzel 552 (type), 736, February 6 and May 25, 1914. 

A species resembling and apparently allied to the Malayan Symplocos 
fasciculata Zoll. but its flowers in short, crowded, fascicled, axillary racemes, 
not in true fascicles. 

SYMPLOCOS MEGABOTRYS sp. nov. § Bobua. 

Arbor circiter 25 m alta, inflorescentiis exceptis glabra ; f oliis 
subcoriaceis, oblongo-ellipticis, usque ad 20 cm longis, nitidis, 
acuminatis, basi acutis ad rotundatis, margine crenatis, nervis 
utrinque 8 vel 9 ; paniculis folia aequantibus, axillaribus termin- 
alibusque, partibus junioribus pubescentibus ; sepalis petalisque 
pubescentibus, staminibus circiter 100, ovario 3-loculare. 

A tree about 25 m high entirely glabrous except the inflor- 
escence. Branches and branchlets terete, reddish-brown, smooth, 
glabrous. Leaves subcoriaceous, oblong-elliptic, 13 to 20 cm 
long, 5 to 8 cm wide, shining, brown or yellowish-green when 
dry, the apex acuminate, base acute to rounded, margins crenate ; 
lateral nerves 8 or 9 on each side of the midrib, prominent; 
petioles 1.5 to 2.5 cm long. Flowers in ample panicles, the 
panicles axillary and terminal, numerous, as long as the leaves, 
the branches up to 12 cm in length, the younger parts appressed 
cinereous-pubescent, the bracteoles oblong, pubescent, 3 to 4 mm 
long. Calyx 3 mm in diameter, pubescent, the lobes broadly- 
ovate, obtuse, about 1.5 mm long. Petals elliptic-oblong, rounded, 
4.5 mm long, pubescent on both surfaces. Stamens about 100, 
somewhat pentadelphous, glabrous. Ovary 3-celled. 

Leyte, Dagami, C. A. Wenzel 298, June 30, 1913, in forests. 

The specimens are in young flower with numerous immature buds some- 
what crowded near the ends of the branchlets, and few mature flowers. The 
species is most closely allied to Symplocos patens Presl and S. floridissima 
Brand, but is readily distinguished from both by its numerous, unusually 
long panicles and glabrous branchlets. 



384 l'^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9m 

LOGANIACEAE 

GENIOSTOMA Forster 
GENIOSTOMA BREVIPES sp. nov. 

Arbor parva, circiter 7 m alta, ramulis junioribus parce pube- 
rulis; foliis oblongis, chartaceis, usque ad 11 cm longis, subtus 
parce puberulis, basi acutis ad subacutis, apice briviter acumi- 
natis, nervis utrinque circiter 6 ; fructibus axillaribus, obovoideis 
vel subglobosis, circiter 7 mm diametro, subsessilibus vel breviter 
pedunculatis. 

A tree about 7 m high, except for the somewhat puberulent 
branchlets and the lower surfaces of the leaves glabrous, the 
branches terete, slender, light-gray. Leaves oblong, pale-green- 
ish when dry, slightly shining, 8 to 11 cm long, 2.5 to 4 cm wide, 
the base somewhat rounded to subacute, the apex shortly acu- 
minate ; lateral nerves about 6 on each side of the midrib, slender, 
distinct on the lower surface, obscurely anastomosing, the retic- 
ulations lax; petioles about 3 mm long. Flowers not seen. 
Fruit axillary, fascicled, obovoid to subglobose, dark-colored 
when dry, about 7 mm in diameter, the seeds reddish-yellow; 
peduncles 2 mm long or less, the persistent calyx-lobes about 
1.5 mm long. 

Leyte, Dagami, C. A. Wenzel HI, September 16, 1913, in forests, alti- 
tude about 60 meters. 

Among the Philippine species most closely allied to Geniostoma philip- 
pinense Merr., but in that species the leaves are larger and usually turn 
dark-colored in drying, while the pedicels are much longer. 

APOCYNACEAE 

PARSONSIA R. Brown 

PARSONSIA APOENSIS (Elm.) comb. nov. 

Aganosma apoensis Elm. Leafl. Philip. Bot. 4 (1912) 1445. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 722, May 20, 1914, in forests, 
altitude about 500 m. 

The type of this species is Elmer 11719 from Mount Apo, Mindanao, 
and an examination of this number shows the plant to be a typical Par- 
sonsia, belonging in the group of those species in which the filaments are 
straight, not twisted around the style. The species, which is apparently 
distinct, is here transferred to its proper genus. It is further character- 
ized by having verticellate leaves, most or all of the other species in the 
genus having opposite leaves. 



IX. c. 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 385 

VERBENACEAE 

CLERODENDRON Linnaeus 
CLERODENDRON WENZELII sp. nov. 

Frutex circiter 1.5 m altus, hirsutus; foliis ovatis ad oblongo- 
ovatis, chartaceis, usque ad 15 cm longis, acuminatis, basi corda- 
tis, margine distanter denticulatis, supra parce hirsutis, subtus 
hirsutis glandulosisque; inflorescentiis terminalibus, paniculatis, 
paucifloris, calycibus 1.5 cm longis, inflatis, extus pilis longis 
atro-purpureis crispatis obtectis; corolla circiter 2 cm longa. 

A shrub about 1.5 m high, most parts prominently hirsute. 
Branches terete, pale-brownish, rather densely hirsute. Leaves 
chartaceous or subcoriaceous, ovate to somewhat oblong-ovate, 

9 to 15 cm long, 5 to 9 cm wide, greenish-olivaceous, slightly 
shining, rather sharply acuminate, base cordate, margins dis- 
tantly denticulate, the upper surface with scattered, long, weak 
shining hairs, the lower surface rather densely hirsute on the 
midrib, nerves and reticulations and with numerous, minute, 
shining, yellow glands; lateral nerves about 8 on each side of 
of the midrib, prominent, the reticulations distinct; petioles 2 
to 6 cm long, densely hirsute. Panicles terminal, few-flowered, 

10 cm long or less, peduncled, all parts rather densely covered 
with dark-purple, crisped, spreading hairs, the bracts linear, 1 
cm long or less, the bracteoles similar, smaller. Flowers white. 
Calyx somewhat inflated, oblong-ovoid, 1 cm long, at anthesis 
about 8 mm in diameter, the lobes lanceolate, acuminate, about 
8 mm long. Corolla-tube cylindric, 2 cm long, 2 mm in diameter, 
glabrous below, above with scattered hairs, the lobes spreading, 
elliptic to obovate, rounded, 8 to 9 mm long, outside sparingly 
hirsute. Exserted parts of the filaments as long as the corolla- 
lobes. 

Leyte, Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 627, March 12, 1914, in forests, altitude about 
500 meters. 

A species allied to Clerodendron cumingianuni Schauer, but with an 
open, few-flowered panicle, distinctly larger calyx which is covered with 
dark-purple crisped hairs, and the corolla-tube less than twice as long as 
the calyx. 

GESNERIACEAE 

CYRTANDRA Forster 
CYRTANDRA WENZELII sp. nov. § Polynesiae. 

Frutex 2 m altus subtus foliis ramulis junioribus inflorescen- 
tiisque f usco- vel ferrugineo-tomentosus ; foliis oblongo-lanceola- 
tis, in paribus subaequalibus, usque ad 8 cm longis, utrinque 



386 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

ang-ustatis, acuminatis, margine irregulariter undulato-dentatis 
vel subintegris, nervis utrinque 5 vel 6, subtus valde prominenti- 
bus; inflorescentiis axillaribus, pedunculatis, bracteatis, 3-floris, 
floribus circiter 3 cm longis, calycis lobis longe caudato-acu- 
minatis. 

A shrub about 2 m high, closely allied to Cyrtcmdra citrranii 
Kranzl., from which it differes in its much smaller leaves. 
Branches gray, subterete, glabrous, the younger ones, the lower 
surface of the leaves, and the inflorescence prominently brown- 
er ferruginous-tomentose. Leaves in equal pairs or one of each 
pair somewhat smaller than the other, oblong-lanceolate, firmly 
chartaceous, 5 to 8 cm long, 1.3 to 3 cm wide, subequaily nar- 
rowed to the acute base and to the acuminate apex, margins 
obscurely undulate-toothed or subentire, the upper surface dark- 
colored when dry, glabrous, the lower surface with dark-brown 
nerves and primary reticulations; petioles 5 to 10 mm long. 
Inflorescence axillary, ferruginous-tomentose, 3-flowered, but one 
flower developing at a time or the two lateral ones imperfect, the 
peduncles about 1.5 cm long, dark-brown, pubescent, the bracts 
ovate, tomentose, about 12 mm long, prominently acuminate. 
Flowers white, about 3 cm long. Calyx tomentose, 2 to 2.3 cm 
long, inflated, the lobes lanceolate, long and slenderly caudate- 
acuminate, tomentose, 1.5 to 1.7 cm long. Corolla 3 to 3.2 cm 
long, the lower 9 mm cylindric, 3 mm in diameter, then rather 
abruptly inflated, the larger lobes suborbicular, about 1 cm in 
diameter. Disk cylindric, glabrous, truncate, 2 mm high. Fila- 
ments 9 mm long, the connective glandular; anthers 2 mm long. 
Ovary densely tomentose; style prominently capitate-glandular; 
stigma 2-cleft. Young fruit narrowly ovoid, 1 cm long, hirsute. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 665, May 15, 1914, in forests, 
altitude about 500 meters. 

Closely allied to Cyrtandra curranii Kranzl. which it much resembles, 
differing in its much smaller leaves and smaller flowers. 

RUBIACEAE 

NAUCLEA Linnaeus 
NAUCLEA WEN2ELII sp. nov. 

Species valde peculiaris, foliis subtus ad nervos ramulis junio- 
ribus pedunculisque pubescentibus, floribus 6-meris, calycis lobis 
aciculatis, 2 mm longis, persistentibus ; frutex 5 m altus, myr- 
mecophilus ; foliis coriaceis, late ellipticis ad obovatis, usque ad 
17 cm longis, abrupte subcaudato acuminatis, nervis utrinque 
circiter 8, cum reticulis valde prominentibus ; capitulis solitariis, 
globosis, circiter 3 cm diametro. 



IX, c. 4 Merrill: Plantae Wenzelianae, II 387 

A shrub about 5 m high, the younger branchlets, the peduncles, 
and the lower surfaces of the leaves more or less pubescent. 
Branches terete, pale-gray, sometimes compressed at the nodes, 
the uppermost internodes sometimes hollow, perforated, some- 
what enlarged, and the abode of ants. Leaves coriaceous, broadly 
elliptic to obovate, 13 to 17 cm long, 8 to 12 cm wide, brownish- 
olivaceous, shining, the upper surface glabrous, with prominently 
impressed nerves and reticulations, the lower surface pubescent 
with scattered hairs, apex abruptly caudate-acuminate, the 
acumen obtuse, 1.5 to 2 cm long, rather slender, the base acute 
or abruptly decurrent-acuminate ; lateral nerves about 8 on each 
side of the midrib, very prominent as are the primary reticula- 
tions; petioles stout, 1.5 to 2 cm long. Heads terminal, solitary, 
their peduncles 3 to 4 cm long, prominently brown-pubescent, the 
heads in anthesis and in fruit globose, about 5 cm in diameter, 
the heads of persistent calyces after the corollas have fallen 1.5 
cm in diameter. Calyx tube about 3 mm long, with 6 linear- 
acicular, acuminate, stiff, persistent, 2 mm long lobes. Corolla 
white, glabrous, 11 mm long, the tube very slender, widened in 
the upper part, the lobes 6, pubescent, oblong, obtuse, 2 mm long. 
Style 2 cm long; stigma globose, 1 mm in diameter. Capsules 
6 mm long, apices pubescent. Seeds numerous, including the 
two laciniate wings, nearly 3 mm long. Bracts of the heads on 
the peduncles at or below the middle, brown, broadly ovate, 
obtuse, 1.5 cm long. 

Leyte, Dagami, C A. Wenzel 3^8, July 10, 1913, in forests, altitude about 
60 meters. 

A most striking species, well characterized by its very prominently nerved 
and reticulate leaves, in this character differing from all Philippine species, 
in its somewhat pubescent leaves and its pubescent peduncles, and especially 
in its 6-merous, not 5-merous flowers, it being the only species of the genus 
known to me with 6-merous flowers. In its seed characters it is also aber- 
rent in Nauclea, both wings being laciniate. 

PLECTRONIA Linnaeus 

PLECTRONIA WENZELII sp. nov. 

Arbor circiter 17 m alta, P. monstrosae similis et affinis, differt 
subtus foliis inflorescentiisque parce pubescentibus, nervis late- 
ralibus magis numerosis, utrinque circiter 8. 

A tree about 17 m high, nearly glabrous except the sparingly 
pubescent lower surfaces of the leaves and the more distinctly 
pubescent inflorescences. Branches terete, reddish-brown, 
smooth, glabrous, the branchlets usually somewhat compressed 
at the nodes, ven,-^ slightly pubescent with scattered hairs. 
Leaves membranaceous, 12 to 15 cm long, 6 to 8 cm wide, elliptic- 



388 1'he Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

ovate to oblong-ovate, rather dull when dry, pale-olivaceous, 
nearly uniform in color on both surfaces, acuminate, base 
rounded, the upper surface glabrous, the lower with few, 
scattered, deciduous hairs; lateral nerves about 8 on each side 
of the midrib, prominent, the reticulations lax; petioles about 

1 cm long; stipules early deciduous (not seen). Cymes axillary, 
solitary, up to 5 cm long, dichotomously branched, many-flowered, 
distinctly pubescent. Flowers white, their pedicels pubescent, 

2 to 3.5 mm long. Calyx between cup-shaped and urceolate, 2 
mm long and wide, the tube pubescent, the limb thin, produced, 
obscurely 5-toothed. Corolla-tube 2.5 mm long, the lobes 5, 
oblong-ovate, somewhat acuminate, 4 mm long, obscurely glan- 
dular-punctate with elongated dashes, the throat villous. 
Anthers sessile, 2.5 mm long. Style about 3 mm long; stigma 
ellipsoid, 1.8 mm long. 

Leyte, Dagami, C. A. Wenzel 899, August 30, 1913, in forests, altitude 
about 60 meters. 

A species similar to and manifestly closely allied to Plectronia mons- 
trosa Rich., from which it differs in its pubescent cymes and slightly pubes- 
cent leaves, and in its more numerous lateral nerves. 

TIMONIUS DeCandolle 

TIMONIUS TRICHOPHORUS sp. nov. 

Arbor parva subtus foliis petiolis ramulis junioribus inflo- 
rescentiis valde ciliato-hirsutis ; foliis chartaceis, usque ad 12 
cm longis, obovatis, obtusis ad rotundatis, basi angustatis, acutis 
vel obtusis, nervis utrinque circiter 10, prominentibus ; inflores- 
centiis axillaribus, tenuibus, solitariis, circiter 4 cm longis, 
longe pedunculatis, furcatis, floribus spicatim dispositis, inflo- 
rescentiis sub fructu valde elongatis. 

A tree about 7 m high, prominently ciliate-hirsute with long, 
spreading, pale or brownish hairs. Branches terete, glabrous, 
brown, the branchlets, petioles, inflorescence, and lower surfaces 
of the leaves, especially on the midrib and lateral nerves, promi- 
nently ciliate-hirsute. Leaves obovate, chartaceous, 6 to 12 cm 
long, 5 to 9 cm wide, shining, the lower surface paler than the 
upper, apex obtuse to rounded, narrowed below to the acute or 
obtuse base ; lateral nerves about 10 on each side of the midrib, 
prominent; petioles very densely ciliate-hirsute, 8 to 15 mm 
long. Inflorescence axillary, slender, about 4 cm long, the slender 
peduncles in anthesis about 2 cm long, densely hirsute, bearing 
at the apex two divaricate branches 2 cm long or less, these 
branches bearing a series of short pedicelled flowers along the 
upper side, pedicels and calyx very densely ciliate-hirsute with 



IX, c, 4 Merrill: Plnntae Wenzelianae, II 389 

long, spreading, pale hairs. Calyx truncate, about 3.5 mm long. 
Infructescence elongated, slender, the peduncles up to 4 cm long, 
the branches nearlj^ as long, slender. Fruits ovoid or somewhat 
ellipsoid, about 6 mm long, apparently somewhat fleshy when 
fresh, somewhat longitudinally striate or sulcate, with few scat- 
tered hairs, the apex very densely hirsute, 15- to 20-celled. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 99U, June 13, 1914, in forests, 
altitude about 500 m. 

A species strongly characterized by its numerous, long, spreading, pale 
or brownish, ciliate-hirsute hairs. It is entirely different, in this character, 
from all other Philippine species known to me. 

WILLIAMSIA Merrill 

WILLIAMSIA CAUDATA sp. nov. 

Frutex 2 ad 3 m altus, glaber; foliis usque ad 15 cm longis, 
lanceolatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, valde caudato-acuminatis, basi 
obtusis ad rotundatis, chartaceis vel subcoriaceis, nervis utrinque 
10 ad 12, valde prominentibus ; floribus solitariis, axillaribus, 
sessilibus; calycibus circiter 5 mm longis, 4- vel 5- dentatis; 
petalis 6, patulis vel subreflexis, lanceolatis, 5 mm longis. 

A shrub 2 to 3 m high, entirely glabrous except for the throat 
of the corolla and for few scattered hairs on the calyx and stipules. 
Branches terete, brown or olivaceous, rather slender, the young 
branchlets usually verruculose when dry, greenish. Leaves 
lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, 10 
to 15 cm long, 3 to 6 cm wide, gradually narrowed upward to 
the long and slender caudate-acuminate apex, base rounded to 
obtuse, when dry pale or pale-greenish, somewhat shining; lat- 
eral nerves 10 to 12 on each side of the midrib, very prominent 
on the lower surface, curved-ascending, anastomosing; petioles 
1 to 1.5 cm long; stipules linear to linear-oblong, 1.5 to 2 cm 
long, blunt. Flowers white, sessile, axillary, solitary, 6-merous, 
the basal involucres two, the upper one much larger than the 
lower and as wide as the calyx cup-shaped to somewhat urceolate, 
about 5 mm long, with 4 or 5 broad teeth. Throat of the corolla 
densely villous ; petals spreading or somewhat reflexed, lanceolate, 
acuminate, about 8 mm long. Immature fruits glabrous, ovoid- 
urceolate, about 8 mm long. 

Leyte, Buenavista, near Jaro, C. A. Wenzel 686, May 18, 1914 (type) ; 
also Wenzel 7, June, 1913, from near Dagami. In forests, altitude 60 to 
500 meters. 

Closely allied to WUlia7)isia sablanensis (Elm.) Merr., with which species 
Wenzel 7 was previously identified. The leaves, however, are very different 
in shape, prominently caudate-acuminate, and the flowers are 6-merous. 

[Vol. IX, No. 3, including pages 191 to 292, was issued June 27, 1914.] 



■^il 



THE PHILIPPINE 

Journal of Science 

C. Botany 



Vol. IX SEPTEMBER, 1914 No. 5 



THE PIONEER VEGETATION OF TAAL VOLCANO 

By Frank C. Gates 

(From the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, 

Los Banos, P. I.) 

Eight plates 

INTRODUCTION 

The classic illustration of the redevelopment of vegetation on 
volcanic islands is of course Krakatoa. This island has been 
visited by various botanists during the thirty years since its last 
eruption, so that the history of its vegetation is well known. 
While Taal may offer less of interest than does Krakatoa, it is 
important because of the short lapse of time since its latest erup- 
tion and because of its ready accessibility. 

Taal Volcano is a low mountain, rising from the middle of 
Bombon Lake in longitude 120° 59' east and latitude 14° 2' north. 
Bombon Lake, frequently called Taal Lake, occupies a basin 
about 22 kilometers long and 14 kilometers wide, in Batangas 
Province, Luzon, and is some 63 kilometers south of the city of 
Manila. Near the middle of the lake are a few islands, mostly 
of very small size. The largest of these islands, known as Vol- 
cano Island or Taal Island, is about 7 kilometers long and 5.5 
kilometers wide. It is the location of the active crater of the 
volcano. The surface of the island is very rugged and the active 
erosion is rapidly making it more so. In addition to the large 
crater in the center of the island smaller craters are present 
around it. 

The latest eruption of Taal culminated on January 30, 1911, 
and resulted in the entire destruction of the villages on the 

891 



392 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

island as well as some of those on the mainland, with a loss of 
about 1,400 lives. Ashes, pumice, small stones, and acid vapors 
were thrown across the lake to the mainland, devastating the 
country to the west and southwest of the volcano. Ashes were 
thrown over large areas of surrounding country, resulting in 
the defoliation of the vegetation not otherwise affected. Sev- 
eral illustrated accounts of this eruption have been published.^ 

Since the disaster of 1911, residence on the island has been 
forbidden. It is visited regularly, however, by the Filipino 
fishermen of the neighboring shores and frequently has been 
explored by tourists. The new vegetation has been virtually 
uninfluenced by man and is still in virgin condition. 

From the summit of Mount Maquiling, at an altitude of 1,010 
meters, 34 kilometers to the northeast, no evidence of vegetation 
was apparent in September, 1912, but a year later the uniform 
ashy color was relieved by areas of grayish green in the ap- 
parent center of the island and extending in tongues from the 
shore toward the crater rim. 

Knowing that the original vegetation was destroyed, it is of 
considerable interest to place on record an account of its con- 
dition after three years of development. The following trips 
were made to the volcano: October 24-26, 1913, in company 
with Dr. H. A. Gleason and Mr. B. E. Quick, then visiting from 
the University of Michigan, and Mr. J. C. Bundles of the Col- 
lege of Agriculture, by way of Baiiadero ; December 19-23, 1913, 
in company with E. Quisumbing, V. Sulit, and A. Damo, students 
of the College of Agriculture, as collectors, by way of Pansipit; 
and April 17-22, 1914, with E. Quisumbing, N. Catalan, and 
V. Sulit by way of Banadero. 

Mainland vegetation. — The rain of ashes and stones, the pres- 
ence of acid vapors, as well as the mechanical effect of the 
rush of wind and of tidal waves, all combined to kill the vege- 
tation to the ground over wide areas. This was most severe on 
the western and southern sides of Bombon Lake and least so 
on the northeastern side.^ In the latter place defoliation was 
the most prominent result. The vegetation which has since de- 
veloped, although largely pioneer and rather poor in species, is 

* Saderra Maso, Miguel. The Eruption of Taal Volcano, January 30, 
1911. Weather Bureau, Manila (1911) 1-45, Pis. I-VII. English and 
Spanish.— Pratt, Wallace E. Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Sec. A 63-85, Pis. 
I-XIV, figs. 1-3.— Martin, Charles. Philip. Journ. Sci. 6 (1911) Sec. A 
87-91, Pis. I-VII. — Worcester, Dean C. National Geographic Magazine 23 
(1912) 313-367. 

' See the map in article by Worcester, cited in footnote 1. 



IX. c, 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 393 

more diverse than that of the island. Around the shore are the 
customary swamp and strand associations, followed by parang ^ 
shrubs, particularly Acacia faniesiana,* and later by a number 
of trees. Near the shore, especially on the south and west, are 
large groves of bamboo. 

TAAL ISLAND 

In October, 1913, the volcano island, itself, was not devoid of 
vegetation, but vegetation was very restricted, occuring only 
near the shore and part way up some of the slopes. 

The physiography of the main body of the island is of unusual 
interest. As it is entirely covered with a deposit of loose ashes 
and mud and is unprotected by a covering of vegetation, the 
heavy tropical rains, which amount to from 1,750 to 2,000 mm 
per year, run off with great rapidity. The amount and diversity 
of erosion is enormous. The formation of sharp drainage sys- 
tems, the development of gorges, and the deposition of fans and 
deltas have proceeded to a remarkable degree. The steeper 
slopes of the ridges are scarred with small vertical fissures, 
which quickly concentrate the rain water in the valleys below. 
In rushing to the lake the rain water scours out deep canons. 
Of a number of these cafions that were explored the follow- 
ing account, taken from a letter written by Doctor Gleason, is 
typical : 

Beginning as a narrow channel about a meter wide and deep, with flat 
bottom and vertical sides, it followed a sinuous course for over a kilometer 
to its mouth. As small lateral tributaries joined it, it increased in size 
until it became 50 meters wide with vertical turreted walls, 25 meters high. 
At intervals the depth is suddenly increased by abrupt drops of 1 to 4 
meters, and there the canon walls may approach each other until one's 
shoulders touch both sides as he passes through. It is noteworthy that in 
such places the width of the canon is always greatest at the bottom, 
indicating a rapid growth of the stream system. At the mouth of such 
a system it broadens out into a huge fan, in some cases half a kilometer 
across, piled with boulders at its head, with smaller debris in the middle, 
while at the lake shore the deposits are of sand, fine gravel and pumice. 

There are scores of such embryonic river systems, large and 
small, on the island. The inner face of the crater is similarly 
eroded. 

Between the drainage channels, which are perfectly dry ex- 

*A local Philippine term indicating thickets and second growth forests. 

* The identifications of the seed plants were either made or verified by 
Mr. E. D. Merrill, botanist in the Bureau of Science, Manila, P. L; those 
of the ferns by Dr. E. B. Copeland of the College of Agriculture, Los 
Banos, P. I. 



394 The Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

cept during rains, the ridges may rise as high as 150 meters. 
They are covered with ash and mud, although in many places 
the erosion has uncovered the original soil or has exposed layers 
of coarse cinders or rock. 

The active crater is in the center of the island. It is about 
2.3 kilometers long and 1.7 kilometers wide at the top. More 
than half of the bottom is occupied by a lake, whose elevation 
is about 2.5 meters above sea level, the same as that of the 
surrounding Lake Bombon. The water of the crater lake is 
clear, although dark colored, and salty. Its temperature de- 
creased from about 37" C. in October, 1913, to about 32° in 
April, 1914. Swimming in it, although much like salt water 
bathing, was of course more exciting. Very little steam, if any, 
arose from the lake in either October or December, 1913, but 
in April, 1914, some steam was noticed arising from a few 
places along the shore of the lake, as well as from small vents 
in the north crater wall, both inside and outside the crater. 
From certain points on the crater rim sulphurous odors are 
noticeable, but none were detected in the bottom of the crater. 
Steep precipitous walls formed the boundary of the crater on 
all sides. At the foot of the walls, especially on the east side, 
large quantities of ash and mud have been washed down and have 
accumulated. The crater rim is highest on the south and north 
sides with altitudes of 304 and 230 meters, respectively. Nearly 
all of the west side is low, the minimum elevation being about 
95 meters. There are other low points on the east side. 

Radiating from the crater rim are steep ridges. The slopes 
are about as steep as ashes can maintain. This is steeper than 
in sand dunes, on account of the adhesive properties of some of 
the constituents of the ash. At the comers of the island are 
peaks, which were former centers of eruptive activity, in the 
case of Mount Binintiang Malaki, as late as 1707. 

Previous to the eruption of 1911, the region outside of the 
crater was vegetated from the strand to the rim of the crater. 
The vegetation could all be summed up as trees, parang, grass- 
land, and culture in various combinations. Some trees over 
75 cm in diameter were present even on the crater slope. With- 
in the crater a tree of Ficus indica was present. A number 
of barrios were located along the shore, particularly in the north- 
em part of the island and in their vicinity a number of cul- 
tivated plants are even yet to be found. 

During the eruption of 1911 the ground was entirely denuded 
of vegetation, virtually all of which was completely destroyed. 



IX. c. 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 395 

In a very limited number of well protected places the root sys- 
tems of a very few plants escaped death. 

With so thorough a sterilization of the soil, before vegetation 
could reappear the excess of acid had to be leached out of the 
soil and seeding accomplished. How much or how soon seeding 
took place is not known, but no vegetation appeared during 
the dry season immediately after the eruption. During the 
first rainy season the protected parts of the northeastern and 
northwestern areas began to recover. A few stumps sprouted 
and various seeds grew, producing a heterogeneous mixture in 
which tree species soon became dominant. 

Vegetation began to make its appearance in earnest, on the 
island as a whole, in the rainy season of 1912. In the extreme 
southern and in the northern parts, the strand became inhabited 
first with Ipomoea pes-caprae and a little later often also with 
Canavalia lineata. Later in the same rainy season, grass sprang 
up over wide areas on the north slope above the shore and 
extending upward to about 150 meters. The grass appeared 
over most of the area at about the same time, and with no 
opposition, rapidly became established and spread in all direc- 
tions. Not long after, shrubs and trees, particularly those dis- 
tributed by birds, made their appearance in isolated spots and 
spread rapidly both with and into the grass. 

By December, 1913, vegetation was quite well established on 
the northern side of the island to an altitude of about 175 meters. 
It consisted largely of grass — entirely dense at lower altitudes, 
but thinning and opening out above — parang, and trees. Over 
most of the vegetated areas parang was at least incipiently 
present, but in the northeastern and the northwestern regions it 
was best developed and had already driven out a considerable 
amount of grass. At this time there were no plants within the 
crater and but one very small patch at a place on the rim. At 
the southern end of the island, the strand was fairly well devel- 
oped. Grass and a little parang were present on Mount Binin- 
tiang Munti ; but between it and the crater, as well as in the 
eastern and the western parts of the island, the ground was 
without vegetation. 

By April of the following year great strides were visible 
in the vegetation. On the northern slope virtually all of the 
ground except the crests of ridges and the bottoms of the valleys 
was vegetated. The proportion as well as the distribution of 
parang and trees had materially increased. Grass had con- 
tinued its invasion to the crater rim. Although not yet abund- 



396 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

ant, its presence on the rim and below it inside the crater 
demonstrated that it could live there. To the northeast and 
to the northwest trees and parang were rapidly gaining over 
the grass. At the southern end of the island both grass and 
parang had spread, although they were far from being dense 
or widely distributed. Eastward and westward of the crater, 
vegetation had put in an appearance and was very sparingly 
present near the shore on the sides of gullies. 

Bananas were present in October, 1913, in the vicinity of the 
former towns, Pirapiraso and Binintiang, and by the following 
April were becoming abundant and spreading, while other cul- 
tivated plants had appeared in isolated patches. In October, 

1913, a few clumps of bamboo were present in some of the 
ravines on both sides of Mount Pirapiraso in the northeastern 
region. They were slightly more abundant in December, but 
by April, 1914, they had increased considerably in size and 
were reappearing in other localities both in the northeastern 
and northwestern regions. 

It is logical to expect that this development will go on, faster 
on the northern than on the southern sides, until the slopes are 
covered with vegetation, characteristically by trees and shrubs 
on the sides of ridges, while the crest is more likely to be occupied 
with grass, at least for some time to come, although ultimately 
even the crests should became forested. The development of 
the standard dipterocarp forest for these altitudes in this region 
is possible, although very improbable, for accidents in the shape 
of eruptions are likely to intervene before it has had a sufficiently 
long time to develop. Dipterocarps are present on Mount Ma- 
quiling, 34 kilometers to the northeast, but seeding takes place 
during the southwest winds. Even during a typhoon in June, 

1914, dipterocarp seeds were carried less than 0.5 kilometer 
from a parent tree on the grounds of the College of Agriculture. 

REGIONAL DESCRIPTION 

Mount Binintiang Munti, a low peak at the extreme southern 
end of Taal Island, is characterized by abundant rock outcrop. 
Very round-crested steep ridges of what appears to be cooled 
lava extend into the lake. The vegetation of the crests of these 
ridges is very similar to that of the strand, even at elevations 
considerably above lake level. Long runners of Ipomoea pes- 
caprae spread over the crest of the ridge and extend upward 
to elevations greater than 25 meters. While Canavalia lineata 
is not absent, it is conspicuously less abundant. Wedelia biflora 
and Vernonia cinerea, a weed, occasionally are present. At 



IX, c, 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 397 

the water front the lake has cut back the ridges so that steep 
bluffs, exhibiting tilted strata, are ver>' prominant. The faces 
of these bluffs are quite generally plantless, except as vines may 
hang over from the top. Between the ridges, steep narrow 
gullies have been worn down to the lake where they may form 
pockets. In December, 1913, the sides of most of these gullies 
were vegetated with coarse grasses, Saccharum spontaneum and 
Themeda gigantea, sometimes present in sufficient quantity to 
form a nearly closed stand. On steeper slopes were isolated 
bunches of Themeda. A few common weeds were present in 
interstices in the grass areas, while the coming of parang or 
wooded conditions was heralded by the presence of a few 
clumps of Ficus indica and of Tahernaemontana subglobosa just 
below the crests of ridges. By April, 1914, the density had 
greatly increased and Antidesma rostratum and Eugenia jam- 
bolana had put in their appearance. 

The vegetation of the pockets next to the lake was char- 
acteristically a jumble of convolvulaceous vines, together with 
Momordica ovata and Canavalia lineata- With these vines there 
might also be a few weeds. Where the beach had been built up 
as a spit in front of the bluffs, Ipomoea pes-caprae extends from 
the pockets and occupies a normal strand position. Very rarely 
does this Ipomoea respond to the encroaching grass by growing 
up into it as other convolvulaceous vines generally do. 

On the north side, this peak is a high point in a rim which 
nearly surrounds a shallow basin, which except for a dozen 
clumps of Saccharum and two stools of Themeda is plantless; 
the slopes are essentially so, a few clumps of Saccharum and 
an occasional shrub of Ficus indica or Psidium guujava at the 
heads of small gullies, representing the progress in revegetation. 

Mount Binintiang Munti is connected with the main body of 
Taal Island by a wide peninsula, across which is placed Mount 
Saluyan, a short ridge somewhat over 50 meters high. On its 
moderately gullied sides were relatively very few plants in 
October, 1913 — Saccharum spontaneum, Acacia farnesiana, and 
Ficus indica. Their density was noticeably increased by the 
following April, by which time Tabei'naemontana subglobosa and 
Morinda bracteata had also appeared. On the side away from 
the volcano are a few stumps of large trees, blown over and 
buried, but now being exposed as the mud is being washed away. 

North of this ridge is the outlet valley of a basin, separated 
from the crater by a razor-back part of the rim and bordered by 
steep ridges. A lake may be present during a rainy period. 



398 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Many colored rocks are strewn over the floor. The presence of 
a few dead stumps indicates a former vegetation, but at present 
the basin is plantless. 

Near the shore of Bombon Lake were a few strand plants 
and a little farther back an occasional clump of Saccharum 
spontaneum. By April, 1914, the strand flora and especially 
the flora of the area just back of the strand showed increased 
development. In addition to Saccharum, there were shrubs as 
follows: Acacia farnesiana (1), Taber7iaemontana subglobosa 
(several), Ficus indica (several), Wendlandia luzoniensis (1), 
Morinda hracteata (very few), Semecarpus cuneiformis (1), 
and a hemiparasitic vine, Cassytha filiformis. 

In December, 1913, the whole slope east and southeast of the 
crater was plantless, presenting a gully-worn rugged surface 
from the rim of the crater to the lake. By April, 1914, how- 
ever, a number of plants were established on the strand and 
extended a short way up the sides of the gullies. On the strand 
was Ipomoea pes-caprae and back of it, in addition to the clumps 
of Saccharum, were Ficus indica (several), Acacia farnesiana 
(several), Tabernaemontana subglobosa (several), Pandanus 
tectorius (2) , Eugenia jambolana (2), Trema amboinensis (1), 
and a vine, Rourea erecta (1). Higher were a few clumps of 
Saccharum, well scattered to be sure, but exhibiting considerable 
advance over the four months previous. As yet shrubs were not 
present, and the upper slopes to the very rim of the crater were 
plantless. 

Northeastward from the crater runs a depression between 
two high ridges. In December, 1913, this valley as well as the 
ridge on each side was plantless. A narrow precipitous divide 
separates this valley from a basin 75 meters below. On this 
divide in December, 1913, were a few well scattered plants, 
including Saccharum spontaneum, Themeda gigantea, Ficus in- 
dica, and two clumps of Pandanus tectorius. By April, 1914, 
considerable plant development had taken place. On the ridges, 
particularly the western one. Mount Pinag-Ulbuan, there were 
a number of plants, some being present clear to the summit 
(250 meters). There were more grasses in point of number 
of individuals, but most of the vegetational appearance was 
given by the shrubs, Ficus indica, Morinda bracteata, Wend- 
landia luzoniensis, and Acacia farnesiana. 

The basin, formerly an eruptive center, is now the flat bed 
of a lake during the rainy season. With the exception of a very 
few bunches of Saccharum it was plantless. The walls have 
but little vegetation. It consists of bunches of Saccharum with 



IX, c, 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 399 

a few bushes of Ficiis indica and Morinda bracteata; and, on 
rock ledges near the basin level, some ferns, Onychium siliqu- 
losurn and Pteris longifolia, and a few plants of Vandellia 
Crustacea. 

North of this crater and north of Mount Pinag-Ulbuan is a 
valley in which the work of erosion is very strikingly well devel- 
oped. Except the deltal fan at the lake, the floor of the valley 
is plantless. On its southern slope, which is an outside slope of 
the crater, the vegetation was very sparse in December, 1913, 
and reached only one-third of the way to the crater rim. By 
April, 1914, the vegetation, although by no means dense, was 
more abundant and extended clear to the rim of the crater. 
Clumps of Saccharum, but particularly, scattered bushes of 
Acacia farnesiana, Ficus indica, Morinda bracteata, Trema am- 
boinensis, Tabernaemontana subglobosa, and Wendlandia luzo- 
niensis, gave a characteristic appearance, which is shown in Plate 
VII, fig. 1. 

Toward the north, vegetation on Mount Mataas-na-golod con- 
sisted nearly entirely of Saccharum in October, 1913, in clumps 
about two-thirds of the way to the top. By December it had 
reached the top, but still was not dense except at low elevations. 
By April, 1914, the entire western, eastern, and northern slopes 
of this peak were covered with a closed stand of Saccharum, 
except the very crest which was largely bare. On its southern 
slope Saccharum was by all odds the characteristic plant, but 
there it did not begin to occupy nearly all of the available space. 
Shrub and even tree invasion into the Saccharum was progress- 
ing rapidly, especially on the north and northeast sides. The 
more conspicuous were Acacia farnesiana, Antides77ia ghesaem- 
billa, Psidium guajava, Wrightia laniti, Cordia myxa, Tabernae- 
montana subglobosa, Macaranga tanarius, Bridelia stipularis, 
Ficus nervosa, Albizzia procera, and Callicarpa bla^icoi. A few 
convolvulaceous vines were represented but Momordica ovata 
was more commonly present. 

Between Mount Mataas-na-golod and Mount Ragatan, farther 
to the northeast, is a long divide, with its steeper slope toward 
the south. This slope was rather densely vegetated with grass 
and invading parang, which is true of the whole of Mount Ra- 
gatan. South of this, on the deltal flat mentioned above, vegeta- 
tion was very scanty, consisting of a few clumps of Saccharum 
on higher places in the flat and the regular strand plants near 
Lake Bombon. 

A long, rather low divide extended northeastward from 
Mount Ragatan to Mount Bignay. All of this region, which may 



400 'J'he Philippine Journal of Science i9i4 

be called the Northeast Cape, is vegetated, mostly with rather 
dense vegetation, the densest at present on the island. The 
divide between the former towns, Pirapiraso and Bignay, is 
covered with two grasses, Imperata cylindrica koenigii and 
Saccharum spontaneum. This grass vegetation continues up the 
crests of ridges to the peaks. The valleys or gullies and the 
steeper slopes in general are more likely to be vegetated with 
parang with the tree species quite well developed. A few of the 
commoner species are: Trema amboinensis, Pithecolobium 
dulce, Bridelia stipularis, Coi'dia myxa, Casearia cinerea, Acacia 
farnesiana, Macaranga tanarius, Wrightia laniti, Tahernae- 
montana subglobosa, Callicarpa blancoi, Ficus hauili, Mallotus 
moluccanus, MeUcope triphylla, Allaeanthus luzonicus, Moringa 
oleifera, Litsea glutinosa, Alstonia scholaris, Ficus ulmifolia, 
and Streblus asper among the shrubs and trees ; Dioscorea luzon- 
ensis, Dioscorea bulbifera, Streptocaulon baumii, Momordica 
ovata, Lygodium japonicum, Abrus precatorius, Tournefortia 
sarmentosa, Rourea erecta, and Celastrus paniculata among the 
vines ; and a few herbaceous weeds, such as Synedrella nodiflora, 
Erigeron linifolius, Triumfetta bartramia, Ageratum conyzoides, 
and Ricinus communis. In some of the ravines on the west, 
but particularly on the east, sides of Mounts Pirapiraso and 
Bignay clumps of bamboo, Bambusa blumeana, were present in 
October, 1913, but became much more abundant by April, 1914. 

Successions are going on rapidly and the grass is as rapidly 
being driven from the crests of the ridges by the invading parang 
and trees. The northeast slopes are steep, but are well wooded, 
having the highest genetic development found on the island. 
At the shore the ridges terminate in bluffs. With the sinking 
of the shore during the eruption many trees became partially 
submerged. Their tops had been torn away by the force of 
the eruption and the jagged stumps have been the germinating 
ground of several bird-distributed seeds of both Ficus indica 
and Macaranga tanarius. The flats between the bluffs are 
largely Phragmites-syvamips, now badly overgrown with vines 
and rapidly giving way to woody plants. A hemiparasite, Cas- 
sytha filiformis, in some places along the shore completely loads 
down the Phragmites. Below in the shade its stems are green, 
but in the sunlight they are a typical Cuscuta-y eWow. 

The northern slope of Mount Ragatan is very largely parang 
with a large admixture of grass. The region back of the bay 
has a strand flora, quite diversified in species, including Ipomoea 
pes-caprae, Canavalia ensiformis, Canavalia lineata, Vigna lutea, 



IX, c, 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 401 

Ipomoea triloba, Ipomoea pes-tigiidis, Wedelia biflora, besides 
many weeds, Ricinus communis, Heliotropiiim indicum, Vernonia 
cinerea, Bidbostylis barbata. Datura alba, and Scoparia dulcis. 
Back of this is a widespread Phragmites association, developed 
above the level of the lake and rapidly being invaded by shrubs, 
Acacia farnesiana and Gliricidia sepium, as well as by the grass 
Sacchamm. Farther back the vegetation is largely grass with 
invading shrubs. When the slope begins to be pronounced the 
amount of grass is much less in proportion to the amount of 
woody vegetation. At the foot of the slope are a number of 
bananas, relics of former cultivation. 

West from Mount Mataas-na-golod to Mount Balantoc is 
the north central region, an area essentially vegetated with 
grass, nearly all of which is Sacchamm spontaneum, into which 
many shrubs and vines have already come and are rapidly be- 
coming more numerous, so much so that many ridges which 
in October, 1913, were apparently nothing but grass, in April 
of the following year presented a very decided shrubby ap- 
pearance. Two large deltal flats occur in this part of the island, 
both of them sparingly vegetated with the Phragmites associa- 
tion. The development of the strand is very poor, but consider- 
able debris, together with algae, Vallisneria, Pistia, and Cerato- 
phyllum, is continually washed up during the northeast mon- 
soon. In October, 1913, the vegetation in this region had spread 
only about two-thirds of the way to the crater rim and was 
very scattered above one-half way up. By December, in ad- 
dition to the clumps of Saccharum found at one spot on the 
crater rim, there were other clumps near the rim and the vege- 
tation was denser. By April, 1914, there were a considerable 
number of scattered clumps of Saccharum on the outer slope 
clear to the rim. Clumps were frequent above two-thirds of the 
way up (125 meters). Lower down the clumps had become so 
close that they gave the appearance of closed vegetation which 
shrubs and trees were rapidly invading. In this region was 
found a single palm tree, Arenga, and the uncommon moraceous 
Artocarpus nitida. 

The north and northeast slopes of Mount Balantoc were largely 
wooded, although plenty of grass, here Themeda gigantea, was 
mixed with the woody species. The slopes terminate at the lake 
in abrupt bluffs, which are rapidly being eroded by the lake. 
The sinking of the coast has given the lake a better chance to 
eat away the bluffs. The vegetation of the eroding bluffs is 
essentially of trees; that of the face is virtually nil; while at 



402 The Philippine Journal of Science im 

the bottom it is very heterogeneous, here frequently existing 
where it has fallen only until the next typhoon. Some strand 
plants are found in pockets at the shore and some wet ground 
beach and meadow plants, such as, Panicum repens, Cynodon 
dactylon, and Wedelia bi flora, seem to be flourishing in spite 
of the general unfavorable habitat. 

Mount Balantoc is a large horseshoe-shaped ridge, highest 
(125 meters) farthest east, lying between Mount Binintiang 
Malaki and the crater. On the side exposed to the violence of 
the eruption, the vegetation at the present time is largely grass 
with a few shrubs, such as. Acacia farnesiana, Cordia myxa, 
Trema amboinensis, and Tabernaemontana subglobosa. Where 
not so exposed, the vegetation consists largely of vines, Strep- 
tocaulon baiimii, Momordica ovata, Celastriis paniculata, in 
addition to convolvulaceous ones; shrubs and small trees, such 
as Cordia myxa, Albizzia jjy^ocera, Tabernaemontana subglobosa, 
Acacia farnesiana, Trema amboinensis, Eugenia jambolana, 
Psidium guajava, Macaranga tanarius and AntideswM ghesaem- 
billa; with rather a small amount of grass in the open places. 
On the crest of the ridge are a number of dead trees, blown 
over and pointing away from the crater. This is particularly 
noticeable on the northern side of the horseshoe. A meager 
representation of the weed association, containing Erigeron 
linifolius, Ageratum conyzoides, Pterocaidon cylindrostachyum, 
and Waltheria americana, may also be present on the crest of 
the ridge. 

Within the area thus partly encircled, the vegetation is fairly 
well developed and contains a number of fair-sized trees. In 
addition to the woody species mentioned above are Semecarpus 
cuneiformis, Stercidia foetida, Oroxylum indicum, Casearia 
cinerea, Wrightia laniti, and Morinda bracteata as well as sev- 
eral banana plants. 

Forming the northwest corner of Taal Island is a peak, 
Mount Binintiang Malaki, whose summit, somewhat over 250 
meters, is, with the exception of the southern part of the crater 
rim, the highest point on the island. The slopes of this peak 
are decidedly steep and are precipitous on the eastern side. 
With such steep slopes the gullies are relatively shallow. An 
arc-shaped ridge, of which the summit is the highest place, 
partly encloses a small basin, the former eruptive center. The 
soil of this peak differs from the rest of the island in being 
somewhat reddish. The occurrence of Btdbostylis barbata, Van- 
dellia pusilla, Polanisia viscosa, and a species of Oldenlandia 



IX. c. 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 403 

around small flats on the back of the summit ridge is suggestive 
of the strand, although located far above it. Over the greater 
part of the slopes, and always on the steeper ones, a coarse grass, 
Themeda gigantca, with open well-spaced clumps gives the char- 
acteristic appearance. On the sides of the gullies, bushes may 
frequently be present and on the northwestern side, away from 
the crater, trees of Sterculia foetida, Oroxylum indicum, Albizzia 
procera, Acacia faniesiana, Pithecolohium dulce, and WHghtia 
laniti, up to 4 or 5 meters in height, occur. The general vegeta- 
tion is dense, especially nearer the level of Lake Bombon. A 
number of large tree trunks are strewn about on the north- 
western side of the peak, which in the apparent absence of anay 
(termites) still remain intact. 

The low divide (30 meters) which separates this peak from 
one end of the horseshoe, Mount Balantoc, contains even now 
remnants of the effects of the eruption in the presence of over- 
turned clumps of bamboo and the corner posts of houses. In 
October, 1913, but three clumps of bananas were seen in this 
part of the island and not even a single live clump of bamboo. 
In December, while no bamboos were seen, bananas were a little 
more plentiful and some were in fruit, but in April, 1914, 
bananas were fairly abundant and indicated quite well the posi- 
tions of many of the former houses, while a number of clumps of 
bamboo had grown to nearly their normal height along two of 
the drainage channels not far from the former tow», Panipihan. 

To the west on the shore of Lake Bombon and at the foot of 
Mount Binintiang Malaki, the strand was rather well devel- 
oped and a back strand association, Sesbania, was present. 

Between Mount Balantoc and the crater there are two 
basins which almost merge into one. Before the last eruption 
these were two low craters whose bottoms were below sea level, 
but now they are filled to a higher level. Water is retained 
after each rain until it evaporates. The lakes are salty. Around 
them no living plants were found, although seeds were very 
abundant both along the shore and along the stream courses 
leading into them. The seeds of Themeda giga7itea, Saccharum 
spontaneum, Acacia farnesiana, and Streptocaulon baumii were 
recognizable, and those of many other species were present. 
The region between these lakes and the crater was exceedingly 
scantily vegetated with very well scattered plants of Saccharum 
spontaneum and Ficus indica and with two clumps of Miscanthus 
sinensis. 

The region to the west was plantless even to the shore in 



404 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

December, 1913, but in April, 1914, there were beginnings of the 
development of the strand associations near the shore. A short 
distance from the water on the sides of two gullies were half 
a dozen clumps of Saccharum. 

South of this, including all the land west of the crater clear 
to the shore, and southwest of the crater from a short distance 
south of the low ridge south of Mount Balantoc quite to the 
southwest corner, the land was plantless through December, 
1913. Even by April, 1914, there was but the most meager 
representation of Saccharum in the vicinity of Gunao Point and 
near the shore south of Mount Tabaro. This was the region 
of severest devastation. 

The walls of the crater in the center of the island are very 
steep, although seldom rising sheer from the bottom to the top. 
In many places strata are clearly shown, especially in wet 
weather. For geological treatment the reader is referred to 
Adams.^ The foot of the crater wall is everywhere hidden by the 
masses of ash and mud which have been washed down. The 
accumulation of this wash is considerable in the eastern part of 
the crater. 

The rocky floor of the crater is plantless, as were also the 
walls through December, 1913, but in April, 1914, at several 
places on the north wall, especially on ledges within the crater 
rim even 15 meters from the top, were well developed clumps of 
Saccharum, perfectly normal as far as could be seen from the 
distance necessarily intervening. Lower on another rock ledge 
on the north crater wall was a bush of Ficus indica, apparently 
about 1 meter in radius. No other plants were found, but 
there were many swallows' nests and kingfishers were frequently 
seen. It is demonstrated that plants can grow inside the crater, 
although their present distribution is very limited. 

THE STRUCTURE OF THE VEGETATION 

Considering dynamic ecology more in detail, the revegetation 
of the island is proceeding along two main genetic lines, depend- 
ing on the drainage of the soil. A dry ground genetic series 
revegetates the shore with strand plants; it revegetates the 
slopes first with grasses and later with shrubs and trees. The 
second revegetates the damp ground of low places with marsh 
plants, mostly herbaceous in nature. The associations belong- 
ing to the former series inhabit the ash slopes and the uplands 
in general, while those of the latter are limited to the low areas 

' Philip. Journ. Sci. 5 (1910) Sec. A 57-116. 



IX. c, 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 405 

near the lake and to some of the deltal flats at the ends of stream 
channels. 

A third genetic series is very poorly represented in the waters 
of Lake Bombon surrounding the island. 

THE AQUATIC GENETIC SERIES 

This series in which aquatic plants tend to build up the bot- 
tom of a body of water is very poorly represented in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the volcano at the present day. Prior to 
the 1911 eruption it was present in the water around the island, 
particularly along the north coast. Along the coast of the main- 
land near Baiiadero it is now plentiful and typical. 

THE VALLISNERIA ASSOCIATION 

The Vallisnena association, completely destroyed around the 
island by the eruption, reappeared within a year in the water 
along the western part of the north shore at the foot of bluffs. 
In December, 1913, the association was well represented along 
the coast at the foot of Mount Balantoc, by well-spaced, small, 
very red seedlings of Vallisneria gigantea. In most of the shel- 
tered coves along the north shore, broken leaves of this species 
are washed up on the shore. Four months later, the patch of 
Vallisneria had increased materially in size and density. In it 
were a few plants of Ceratophyllum demersum and plants of 
a floating aroid, Pistia stratiotes, caught by their leaves in shal- 
low water. At this time, there were cast upon the shore all 
along the north coast and about one-third way down the east 
coast quantities of Vallisneria, as well as plants of Ceratophyl- 
lum, Pistia and Lemna, and seeds of Sterculia foetida. The 
mechanical action of the water, however, was too great for the 
establishment of the association. A single small plant of Jus- 
sieua repens, a floating or rooted aquatic, was found in one of 
the sheltered bays. 

The associations which normally succeed this are entirely lack- 
ing. The transition between associations of the aquatic series 
and the marsh or dryland series is as yet noncontiguous. 

THE MARSH GENETIC SERIES 

This series of associations, inhabiting wet ground in progres- 
sively drier stages to dry ground, is clearly indicated in a few 
places on the island, but nowhere is well developed. For the 
most part, it occurs at the mouths of deep ravines on deltal 
flats which are formed just behind the low narrow shore ridge 
pushed up by the waves or in coves along the faces of bluffs. 



406 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science i9u 

The ground is wet on account of its close proximity to the water 
table level of Lake Bombon. Later on, more associations may- 
become established, but at present only the following can be 
satisfactorily recognized and none of them are particularly well 
developed : 

THE CYNODON ASSOCIATION 

This association of grasses, which grows along the shore, 
sometimes down into the water, is fairly well represented in a 
few places at the foot of bluffs in the western part of the north 
shore. It is sparingly present in the bays in the northeast 
region and is indicated in a few other places along the shores 
of the northern parts of the east and the west coasts. 

With the dominant species, Cynodon dactylon, may occasion- 
ally be associated Dactyloctenium segyptium, Mariscus stuppeus, 
and Ricinus communis, while to a limited extent Panicum repens 
and Phragmites vulgaris may be present as invaders. 

THE PANICUM REPENS ASSOCIATION 

At the foot of the bluffs on the north coast, sometimes project- 
ing into the water, is a poor representation of this moist ground 
grass association. With it may occur Wedelia biflora and in 
one instance Vernonia cinerea and a few seedlings of Muntingia 
calabura were observed. This association is apparently not 
making much headway for it is subject to being washed away 
by the lake during storms, to being buried as a result of erosion 
of the bluffs, and to being shaded out of existance by Phragmites 
in flats or by shrubs at the foot of the bluff. 

THE PHRAGMITES ASSOCIATION 

This association of tall marsh grass is represented by plants 
of Phragmites vulgaris, openly disposed. Nowhere has the 
typical dense growth been attained. Very few plants are to 
be found associated with it where the ground is wet to the 
surface. This is probably due to the thorough control of the 
ground by the very extensive root system possessed by Phrag- 
mites. On slightly higher ground invasion into the fairly open 
above-ground growth of Phragmites is not difficult, as the abund- 
ance and diversity of species testifies. These are Wedelia biflora, 
Ricinus communis (many), Ipomoea triloba, Portulaca oleracea, 
Canavalia ensiformis, Sida acuta, Triumfetta bartramia, Maris- 
cus stuppeus, and Leucas javanica as well as seedlings of Trema 
amboincTisis, Macaranga tanariu^. Acacia farnesiana, and Mun- 
tingia calabura. Long above-ground runners from plants of 



IX, c. 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 407 

Phragmites, radiating in all directions but particularly along 
the shore, are tending toward its rapid establishment, but the 
presence of seedlings of trees, undoubtedly established, bespeak 
the probable early elimination of the Phragmites association in 
these situations. 

On the deltal flats, the individual plants of Phragmites are 
widely spaced, yet secondary species are so nearly absent that 
successional tendencies are hardly indicated. It is possible for 
the ground to become dominated by Phragmites or by Acacia 
farnesiana, which is very abundant in the immediate vicinity, 
or in the case of a lowering of the water table level by Sac- 
charum spontaneum, the most abundant plant on the island. 

Thus the three years since the eruption have resulted in only 
a poor representation of this series of associations in spite of 
the fact that there is' a large amount of apparently suitable 
ground. The excellent drainage developed in the mud and ashes 
probably has considerable to do with this. 

THE DRYGROUND GENETIC SERIES 

In this series belong the associations which vegetate the 
drained ground. On this island they are far in the ascendency. 
Four formations can easily be recognized, namely, the strand, 
the grassland, the shrub, and the tree formations, all normal to 
the Philippine area in the Indo-Malayan plant province. 

THE STRAND FORMATION 

THE IPOMOEA PES-CAPRAE ASSOCIATION 

This well-known association has been described previously 
for a sea coast locality in the Philippines by Whitford.^ Al- 
though the strand on Taal is a fresh water habitat, the structure 
of the vegetation is essentially similar to that of the salt water 
strand. The two dominant species of this association on Taal 
Island are Ipomoea pes-caprae and Canavalia lineata. These 
are so similar in growth form and color that it is impossible to 
distinguish between them at a distance unless they are in flower. 
The plants trail over the ground for long distances, sometimes 
more than 45 meters, rooting freely at the nodes. They tend to 
extend into the water and maintain a sharp tension line with the 
limit of severe mechanical injury by storm waves. In this 
respect Ipomoea is hardier than Canavalia. Landward the 

*Whitford, H, N., The Vegetation of the Lamao Forest Reserve, Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 666. 

129821 2 



408 The Philippine Journal of Science iqh 

limit is usually other vegetation, but in case there is no other 
vegetation, Canavalia tends to extend inward away from the 
water to a very much greater extent than Ipomoea, which is 
usually confined to the shore. Exceptions occurred on the lava 
ridges of Mount Binintiang Munti, where Ipomoea spread a 
considerable distance from the shore, and in a few places on 
the eastern side of the island, where unaccompanied with Cana- 
valia, Ipomoea spread back several meters and attained an 
altitude of about 30 meters on the mud slope. 

The ridges which separate the low deltal flats from Lake 
Bombon are sometimes vegetated with this association but more 
frequently are bare. Except in extremely sheltered coves or 
bays, secondary species were absent from this association. In the 
bay near Pirapiraso, where Ipomoea was barely holding its own, 
there were many secondary species, most of which were weeds, 
as Ricinus com.munis, Datura alba, Bulhostylis barbata, Eleusine 
indica, Wedelia biflora, Amaranthus spinosus, Ipomoea pes-tigri- 
dis, Ipomoea triloba, Hewittia sublobata, Eclipta alba, Leucas 
javanica, Portulaca oleracea, Heliotropium indicum, Scoparia 
dulcis, Polanisia viscosa, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Citrullus 
vulgaris, Digitaria consanguinea, and seedlings of Acacia farne- 
siana. These were all jumbled together, as though many seeds 
had started to grow at one time, but the typical adjustments had 
not yet taken place. 

Over much of the area little successional relationship was ex- 
hibited in relation to this association, for the areas occupied by 
other plant associations were noncontiguous with that occupied 
by this one. The Ipomoea association, therefore, was limited 
in extent only by the physiological requirements of the individual 
plants. Where the shore was narrow and the upward slope 
abrupt, this association was succeeded by the cogon association, 
whose grasses quickly shaded the Ipomoea out of existence. Ca- 
navalia responded for a while by growing up into the grass, 
but ultimately gave way also. 

THE SESBANIA STRAND ASSOCIATION 

A back strand association, which also occurs along Lake Bay 
to the northeast, is present along the west coast of Taal Island 
at the foot of Mount Binintiang Malaki and, to a more limited 
extent near the foot of Mount Balantoc. Although not extensive 
it is entirely normal, consisting of open bushes of Sesbania can- 
nabina, with no secondary species here represented. It is readily 
and rapidly invading the Ipomoea pes-caprae association back 



IX. c, 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 409 

of the line of ordinary storm-wave action, although it has not 
yet acquired sufficient density to eliminate Ipomoea. Meager 
evidence of further successional relations indicates the develop- 
ment of the Themeda consocies of the cogon association, or of the 
Acacia consocies of the parang. The extreme intolerance of 
Sesbania makes this association very easy to replace by shading. 
The presence of two plants of Pandanus tectorius in the back 
strand of the southeastern region and one of Enjthrina indica 
near Pirapiraso is all that there is at present to indicate the 
development of the Pandanus strand association, one which is 
quite common on the seacoast strand elsewhere in the Philip- 
pines, but no other strand associations were indicated. 

THE COGONAL OR GRASSLAND FORMATION 

THE COGON ASSOCIATION 

This association of grasses in one or another of its consocies 
is the most widespread association on the island, although almost 
nowhere does it reach its normal density. As this association 
is characterized by certain species of grasses, nearly any one of 
which may develop to the exclusion of the others in a given 
area, the whole association is easily divided into consocies, based 
on the specific identity of the grass which dominates. On Taal 
Island three of the consocies of this association are definitely 
represented, namely, the Saccharum spontaneum, the Themeda 
gigantea and the Imperata cylindrica consocies, while there is 
a suggestion of a fourth, the Miscanthus consocies, in a very few 
places. On the devastated slopes the first two of these have 
appeared, the first in greatest abundance, while the third has 
made its appearance in the ridges and valleys of the northeast 
cape, where the devastation was not so severe. 

The Saccharum spontaneum consocies. — The light, silky- 
haired, wind-distributed seeds abundantly produced by Saccha- 
rum spontaneum were widely distributed over Taal Island by 
the northeast monsoon. The sides of ridges, particularly those 
facing to the northeast, were first vegetated, the sweep of the 
wind and the lack of water preventing seeds from lodging on 
the backs or the crests of ridges and the wash of water after 
rains preventing them from remaining in the drainage channels. 
From these many centers of dispersal, vegetative reproduction, 
together with the plants from the excessively abundant crop 
of seeds produced on the island in 1913, is fast obliterating the 
striking relation of seeding to exposure to wind. 

From ash-buried rhizomes one would have expected the ap- 



410 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

pearance of a dense stand, even at first, but the grass appeared 
in definite, well-separated bunches, by whose development an 
ordinary stand is being built up. This is taking place measur- 
ably faster at lower elevations, as one would naturally expect, 
with the chance to obtain more water through seepage. Inves- 
tigation of the root system of a number of plants of Saccharum 
seemed to indicate that they were of recent origin and could not 
have been developed previous to the eruption. 

At higher altitudes Saccharum forms compact, somewhat 
dwarfed bunches, widely separated on the sides of the ridges 
near the heads of drainage channels. At lower elevations the 
bunches occur nearer together until a fairly dense stand occupies 
the lower slopes, yet even in these places the great growth 
activity has not yet succeeded in obliterating the bunch-grass 
habit and covering the ground. 

The outposts of Saccharum in both directions indicate that 
the consocies is tending to spread both up the ash slope to the 
crater rim and out on the flats close to the level of Lake Bombon. 
As the ground is so open, it can readily do this and real com- 
petition for the ground has hardly begun. Secondary species, 
at best very few in this consocies, are even fewer here on Taal, 
being more frequently represented by Desmodium triflorum than 
by any other. In the ecological center of the area occupied by 
this consocies the association of grasses is closed against ecolog- 
ically inferior species by the dense gro^vth of the grass. Any 
other species growing there must do so in successful competi- 
tion against the grass. Quite naturally such species would be 
most likely to be shrubs or trees. Such are present, nowhere yet 
in very great numbers in most parts of the island, but thoroughly 
well scattered and thriving. 

As an invading association it has virtually no plants to contend 
with, only the edaphic conditions of the situation. Working 
toward the crater rim there is no competition and it is merely 
a matter of time until the invasion of the slopes is entirely 
accomplished. On the flats, where the soil is nearly water- 
soaked, Saccharum occupies only little ridges or higher spots in 
the flat. In wet ground it cannot displace Phragmites, and con- 
sequently reaches its limit. Everywhere else Saccharum is the 
most important pioneer species in the open ashy ground. Ul- 
timately it should be replaced by shrubs or trees, but for a long 
time it will remain represented as part of a mixture, ecologically 
inferior to the shrubs and trees, but on the ground ready to take 
advantage of any opening afforded. 



IX. c. 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 411 

The Themeda gigantea consocies. — Themeda gigantea is a 
bunch-grass of fair size, nowhere spreading into a "sod" grass- 
land. The area occupied by this species is not nearly so ex- 
tensive as that occupied by Saccharu7n. Where the two grasses 
occur together, the structure of the vegetation is so open that 
there is no visible competition between them. Its distribution on 
Taal is rather limited; it occurs in greatest abundance on the 
steep slopes of Mount Binintiang Malaki, but is found also on 
Mount Balantoc on ridges radiating from the crater toward 
the northwest and in the rocky soil of the lake exposure of 
Mount Binintiang Munti. It occupies areas which have not been 
severely devasted. 

The plant itself forms bunches by the development of many 
buds from the central rootstock or a very few very short hori- 
zontal ones. The leaves which are about 0.5 meter in length 
are closely 2-ranked at the base. The many, open, loose, tall 
(from 1.5 to 2 meters) flower stems which develop in December, 
after the rainy season, give the area the appearance of the 
Sorghasti'um nutans bunch-grass prairie in the northeastern 
Illinois sand-dune region. The bunches are rather well spaced, 
with from 1 to 1.5 meters of open ground between them. Even 
with this space between the bunches, when they grow on very 
steep slopes it appears from a little distance as if the entire 
ground were covered with grass. Apparently this makes a 
very open association, but this open association may be due 
largely to the extensively developed fibrous root system. Good 
control of the space is also evidenced in the scantiness of second- 
ary species. 

The association is best developed on the southern and western 
sides of Mount Binintiang Malaki, preferring the steeper, more 
rocky slopes, where it is very frequently associated with reddish 
rocks and iron in the soil. Apparently the consocies is in a 
relatively static condition, for it does not appear to be invading 
the open ground stretching out from the foot of Mount Binintiang 
Malaki, although the top of this peak has been reached. A heavy 
crop of seeds was set in December, 1913, but results are not yet in 
evidence. The seeds are too large to be widely distributed by 
ordinary winds, but were found in large numbers in April, 
1914, along stream courses and around the salt lake south of 
Mount Balantoc. 

Succession into Themeda is progressing, particularly on the 
northern slopes of Mount Binintiang Malaki, where conditions 
are much milder than those on the southern slopes. A number 



412 3^^6 Philippi7ie Journal of Science 1914 

of shrubs and trees, especially Albizzia procera and Sterculia 
foetida, have come in. It appears that the parang and tree 
species will keep on increasing in number and importance and 
will come to occupy a great deal of the ground now dominated 
by Themeda. Unless a dense mountain forest should develop, 
however, it seems improbable that Themeda will be driven from 
the steepest slopes for a long time. 

The Imperata cylindrica consocies. — The third of the important 
consocies represented on Taal Island is dominated by cogon 
or lalang grass, Imperata cylindrica koeyiigii. This grass is very 
abundant on the mainland in all directions from the volcano, and 
its very light, very numerous seeds are so easily carried to the 
island that it is a wonder that this consocies is not extensively 
present on the island, instead of being so limited in distribution. 
Although a few individuals of this grass species occur in a 
number of habitats on the island, as an association its distribu- 
tion is limited to the region back of the bay near Pirapiraso. 
Previous to the eruption this grass was fairly abundant in the 
parang land. The area that it now occupies, barring fires, will 
become parang in the near future, but at present there are 
some areas that are characteristically grass. The consocies 
occupies the crests of ridges for the most part, although it is 
well developed in the wide, shallow valley reaching back from 
Pirapiraso, in land that was more or less in cultivation previous 
to the eruption. 

The structure of the association is in every way typical of 
its normal appearance, that is, a compact close "sod" develop- 
ment of grass covering the ground, excluding species ecologic- 
ally inferior and often ecologically superior ones also. In the 
grassland, especially toward the edges are shrubs and small 
trees, which clearly indicate the fate of this association under 
undisturbed dynamic conditions. In case of the frequent occur- 
rence of fires, this association can maintain itself against the 
shrubs and trees, which otherwise will soon come to dominate. 
Fires may be set more or less willfully either by tourists or 
fishermen. 

The only open ground within reach of this association is 
the beach and the flats, which this association does not ordinarily 
invade. Therefore, in so far as the least devastated region of 
the volcano is concerned, this consocies is occupying virtually 
its maximum area. Further area can be gained only through 
accident to the woody vegetation. In the absence of disturbance 
the area of this consocies will gradually decrease, possibly to 



IX, c. 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 413 

zero, but more likely not quite so far, as there will be several 
situations where the grass can hold forth in the parang. 

The Miscanthus consocies of mountain cogon. — The develop- 
ment of this mountain consocies is only indicated above 160 
meters by the presence of a few isolated clumps of Miscanthus 
sinensis near the crests of a few of the ridges near the crater 
rim. The plants are dwarfed and exhibit other xerophytic 
adaptations. 

WOODY PLANTS 

Vegetation in which the tree type of growth form prevails 
is naturally to be expected, sooner or later, over the greater 
part of the island. Whitford, dealing with the vegetation of 
the Lamao reserve, has grouped both the trees and the shrubs 
under the head of a single association, entitled by him the 
Bambusa-Parkia formation, consisting of a climax type and a 
parang type, the parang type generally derived from the other 
by reduction, brought about by disturbing human influences. 
He also recognized that the parang might be a developmental 
stage from open ground to the Bambusa-Parkia association. 

On Taal Island, where only developmental stag;es are present, 
many characteristically parang species are present and well 
defined successions indicate that the parang can be logically 
considered an association. 

THE PARANG OR SHRUB-SMALL-TREE FORMATION 
THE PARANG ASSOCIATION 

This large, heterogeneous, much diversified, conglomerate as- 
sociation is a natural one to succeed grass. It is already present 
in many localities and actively progressing everywhere. The 
association readily splits into a number of consocies, each dom- 
inated by a single species. Although at first they seem quite 
distinct, many intergradations and mixtures soon take place, 
so that separating them as associations would but needlessly 
complicate matters. Essentially the association consists of 
shrubs and small trees ; the latter may develop to the exclusion 
of the others in the course of time. Vines, both woody and her- 
baceous, may be present in considerable numbers, but herbaceous 
plants are of minor importance. A number of families are re- 
presented in parang, but particularly the Euphorbiaceae, Legu- 
minosae, Moraceae, and the Apocynaceae, in many of whose 
species, except those of the Leguminosae, latex is present. Birds 
play an important part in the distribution of the seeds of most 



414 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

of these plants. As most birds frequent land which already 
has vegetation rather than bare ground, the parang species 
are more likely to be found growing in previously vegetated 
areas, in spite of the fact that the bare ground seems entirely 
suitable. Once the seeds actually effect ecesis, which may often 
be difficult in the dense grass, it does not take long for them 
to dominate. Height development in either shrubs or trees 
cuts off light from the grass, to which the grass can respond 
by growing somewhat higher, but soon reaches its limit and 
has to give way. The fact that grass dies down to the ground 
in the unfavorable season, while shrubs and trees retain their 
elevation, makes the struggle ail the more one-sided. Generally 
grass can get into a place quicker and obtain a readier start 
and so comes to occupy the ground ; but, barring fires, it cannot 
hold forth forever where conditions are favorable for the devel- 
opment of higher vegetation. 

On the slopes of Taal the opportunities for shrub ecesis are 
rather great for the grass is in general not dense, and over 
large areas decidedly not so. Still most of the invading parang 
species do not obtain a foothold in this ground, but seem to 
prefer to wait until the grass becomes established and then 
drive it out. So shrubs become established in many different 
places and furnish many centers of distribution for further in- 
vasion of the grassland. With the establishment of shrubs, 
larger numbers of birds visit the area and the number of vines 
increases very decidedly. In the room afforded under the shrubs 
when the grass has been driven out, certain herbaceous plants 
find their way and thus the parang association is built up. 

As this association now exists on Taal Island it is largely in 
the distribution stage, that is, mostly as isolated plants with here 
and there little groups. In the northeastern part of the island, 
where devastation was least severe, the vegetation obtained an 
earlier start and succession is rapidly replacing both the grass 
and the parang with species of the Bambusa-Parkia association, 
so that at present a large part of the ridges and most of the 
valleys are vegetated with woody plants to the exclusion of the 
grass. On some of the edges of the ridges even trees from 5 
to 6 meters in height have had time to develop. Establishment 
of tree covering is going on very much faster with the island 
uninhabited, as fire — the greatest accident that normally oc- 
curs — is kept at a minimum, thus giving the shrubs a chance. 

Greater detail of the parang association follows under the 
separate consocies recognized. 



Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 415 

SHRUB CONSOCIES 

The Ficus indica consocies. — This consocies of the parang as- 
sociation occurs in the ash of the recently vegetated parts of 
the volcano. It appeared during the second rainy season after 
the appearance of Saccharum. At present, while it seems to 
follow Saccharum, in about as many other places it invades the 
open ground. The particular topographical habitats that seem 
most suitable for it are the heads of ravines and the steep slopes 
of drainage channels, especially near their source. The seeds 
are normally avevectant, yet one sometimes wonders just how 
they came to be lodged in the particular situations where they 
are often found. The seedling develops into a bushy shrub, from 
1 to 2 meters in diameter, with very thick, tough, leathery leaves. 
From their position the plants obtain little water during the 
dry season and the extreme xerophytic adaptations bespeak the 
same condition. The peculiar grayish green of the leaves of 
Ficus indica makes it possible to locate the heads of the drainage 
channels from a distance. The root system is extensive, but 
the shoot system is decidedly not in comparison. Everywhere 
this species is a pioneer, and one which stands but little com- 
petition. Consequently its further distribution is limited to new 
fields. Ficus indica was the first of the shrubs to invade the 
higher ground and in April, 1914, was the commonest of the 
shrubs present on the highest ridges, in addition being the only 
'shrub present inside the crater. Occasionally bushes of Psidium 
guajava and Ficus ulmifolia appear to be associated with Ficus 
indica at lower elevations. 

The Tahernaemontana consocies. — A pioneer consocies of small 
shrubs which is invading the grassland from many centers of 
distribution between altitudes of 15 and 125 meters is charac- 
terized by the dominant species, Tabernaemontana subglobosa. 
This consocies differs from most of the others in its ability to 
invade the crests of ridges, whereas the sides are the usual 
points of invasion. The seeds become established both in dense 
grass and in the spaces between clumps and the shrubs grow 
to a height of 1.5 meters. Although the consocies is best rep- 
resented on the fairly steep ash slopes which radiate from the 
crater, it is there very likely to be mixed in with other con- 
socies. On the crests of ridges it stands out distinctly. 

After establishment this species is rather intolerant and so 
disappears as taller shrubs or trees invade its areas. Where 
fires occur it keeps on by sprouts, thus contributing to the 



416 The Philippine Jow^nal of Science 1914 

mixture of grassland and parang vegetation that clothes the 
northern slopes at lower altitudes. 

The Acacia farnesiana consocies. — Readily invading the upper 
part of the deltal flats and the lower sides of the ash ridges 
in the more devastated areas, as well as the Imperata areas in 
the less devastated parts, is a shrub parang consocies dominated 
by Acacia farnesiayia. This consocies has started from many 
centers of distribution both in grassland and in nonvegetated 
areas. It is spreading rapidly, as it is a fast grower, produces 
many seeds normally distributed by birds, and is associated with 
nitrifying bacteria which make it relatively independent in the 
poor soil. Although the leaves are small, the aggregate shade 
cast by this species aft^r its branches begin to spread over the 
surrounding vegetation soon eliminates the grass and establishes 
thicket conditions, which are not easily displaced except by 
trees. 

The consocies is perfectly typical, containing many individuals 
of the dominant species and very little of anything else. In 
this area it generally does not enter into pioneer competition 
with other parang consocies, but readily invades all grass con- 
socies where conditions are at all favorable for the Acacia. Al- 
though it mixes with some of the other parang consocies as the 
distribution proceeds from the centers, it is not readily dis- 
placing any of them, but rather is living conjointly with them. 
In spite of the density of the Acacia thicket, there is abundant 
opportunity for seedlings of trees to become established. The 
gro^vth of these causes the Acacia to become more treelike to 
the upper limit of its growth, after which the trees obtain control 
of the situation. Like the Tabernaemontana consocies it will 
come in on crests of ridges at various elevations, but generally 
there it occurs in depressions or potholes or close to the side 
of the crest. 

The Antidesma consocies. — This consocies of the parang asso- 
ciation, a characteristic invader in grassland areas in many parts 
of the Philippines, is on Taal but feebly represented as a con- 
socies by Antidesma ghesaembilla and Antidesma hunius, asso- 
ciated with Callicarpa blancoi, invading grassland on Mount 
Mataas-na-golod. These species of plants are represented some- 
what more abundantly in the general parang, but apparently 
will not be a conspicuous feature in the revegetation of Taal 
Volcano. 

The Gliricidia consocies. — This easily characterized consocies 
of tall shrubs, abundantly present on the mainland, is very poorly 



IX, c. 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 417 

represented on the volcano in the vicinity of the former town, 
Pirapiraso, by a number of plants of Gliricidia sepium, occurring 
in the grassland as parts of the parang association rather than 
as a separate consocies. The plants show more than usual 
xeromorphy. 

The Morinda consocies. — On Taal Island, Morinda bracteata 
fills a somewhat different role than customary. In addition 
to being one of the dominant species in the general parang, 
it characterizes a consocies which invades unvegetated ground in 
the eastern and southern parts of the island. In appearance 
it differs from Ficiis indica in being dark green. It alternates 
with Ficus indica in pioneer parang invasion, but the distri- 
bution of Morinda on the island is more limited. It differs from 
Ficns indica in readily being assimilated as a unit in general 
parang. 

TREE CONSOCIES 

The Trema consocies. — The Trema consocies is one of a group 
of parang consocies in which small trees rather than shrubs 
are the dominant species. While this consocies may invade open 
ground, and frequently invades grassland, it is particularly suc- 
cessful in young thickets. The dominant species, Trema am- 
boinensis, is a very rapid grower and a very intolerant tree. 
Once started it soon outstrips other trees and then may obtain 
dominance in the area. If it were more tolerant, it might 
establish itself longer and better, but it seldom lasts more than 
one generation as a dominant tree. More usually this tree does 
not obtain controlling dominance in a^- area, but is only one 
among several trees, coming into notice so particularly on ac- 
count of its very rapid growth which gives it a decided start. 

The tree seeds abundantly and sprouts easily. Although there 
are large numbers of seedlings in certain of the ash-covered 
slopes of the northern side of the island the largest trees, many 
of which are from 25 to 30 cm in diameter and 7 meters high, 
are sprouts which have come up from old trees buried beneath 
the ash. This was particularly demonstrated along an erosion 
channel which was filled with ash which was later washed away 
exposing sprouts 20 cm in diameter from a trunk 35 cm in 
diameter. The Trema consocies becomes mixed up with others 
before very long and so merges into the general parang, which 
may include trees of Trema for a long time. 

The Cordia consocies. — The consocies dominated by the tree 
Cordia myxa is present on a number of the northern slopes, being 
established on the sides of ridges just below the crest, where 



418 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

it readily forms groves of trees. It is not usually exclusive, and 
tends to become one of a number of dominant trees in a parang 
area. As it is fairly tolerant it can drive out less tolerant 
species and with its heavy crops of seeds is rapidly pushing into 
and superseding the grass areas. 

The Pithecolobiitm consocies. — The parang consocies dominated 
by Pithecolohium dulce is fairly abundant and widespread on 
the island, occurring especially on the crests of ridges. It is 
most abundant in the northeastern region, developing as small, 
often bushy trees up to about 4 meters high. In April, 1914, 
the seed crop was very heavy. Many birds were noticed eating 
the sweetish, white, popcorn like arillus surrounding the seeds. 

Pithecolohium mixes with Acacia to a considerable extent, but 
the Acacia is a pioneer in more different places and particularly 
at higher elevations. The shade from Pithecolobium readily 
eliminates any grass which is present. This consocies starts 
most frequently in rather open grassland but later may mix with 
the other consocies in a general parang and persist in the more 
xerophytic places. 

GENERAL PARANG 

As indicated above, the parang association is made up of a 
number of shrubs and small trees, forming very mixed vegetation 
which may be one of the stages leading up to the development 
of forest. The association is present on Taal in its distributional 
stages. Wherever shrubs or small trees occur they form units 
in parang. As certain species appear in one place and others 
in another the result is the development of consocies, the sub- 
sequent mingling of which brings about the existence of the 
general parang. In addition to those species which may charac- 
terize separate consocies are certain shrubs, which on Taal at 
least always occur as individuals in the general parang, but do 
not characterize consocies. The following list includes all such 
species and in addition many invading species of the Bambusa- 
Parkia association, which have not yet come to dominate : 

Species of plants in the pai-ang association. 

DOMINANT SPECIES. 

Acacia farnesiana. Breynia cernua. 

Antidesma bunius. Breynia rhamnoides. 

Antidesma ghesaembilla. Bridelia stipularis. 

Antidesma rostratum. Buddleia asiatica. 

Atalantia disticha. Callicarpa blancoi. 

Blumea balsatnifera. Casearia cinerea. 



IX, c. 6 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 



419 



Species of plants in the parang association — Continued. 



DOMINANT SPECIES— Continued. 



Clerodendron minahassae. 
Cordia niyxa. 
Ehretia microphylla. 
Erythrina indica. 
Ficus cumingii. 
Ficus indica. 
Ficus nervosa. 
Ficus tinctoi-ia. 
Ficns uhnifolia. 
Fluggea virosa. 
Gliricidia sepiutn. 
Glochidion triandrum. 
Macaranga tanarius. 

Abrus precatorius. 
Canavalia ensiformis. 
Capparis horrida. 
Capparis micracantka. 
Celastrus paniculata. 
Cissampelos pareira. 
Cidsus repens. 
Cissus trifolia. 
Deeringia baccata. 
Derris polyantha. 
Dioscorea bulbiferu. 
Dioscorea pentaphylla. 
Elaeagnns philippensis. 
Gymnema pachyglossum. 
Hevnttia sublobata. 



Morinda hracteata. 
Moving a oleifera. 
Muntingia calabura. 
Phyllanthus reticjilatus. 
Pithecolobium duke. 
Pipturus arborescens. 
Psidiu7n guajava. 
Senieca7'pus cuneiforniis. 
Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. 
Tabernaeinontana snbglobosa. 
Trerna amboinensis. 
Wendlandia luzoniensis. 



VINES. 



Ipomoea obscura. 
Ipomoea triloba. 
Luff a cylindrica. 
Lygodium japonicum. 
Mezoneurum latisiliquum. 
Momordica ovata. 
Mo mo rdica cochinchinen sis. 
Operculina turpethum. 
Pericampylus incanus. 
Phaleria cumingiana. 
Quisqualis indica. 
Rourea erecta. 
Streptocaulon baumii. 
Tetrastigma harmandii. 
Tournefortia sartnentosa. 



MISCELLANEOUS SPECIES, WEEDS, AND CULTIVATED SPECIES. 



Adiantum philippense. 
Ageratum conyzoides. 
Amorphophallus campanulatus. 
Carica papaya. 
Commelina nudiflora. 
Datura alba. 
Desmodium capitatum. 
Desmodium scorpiiirus. 
Ipomoea batatas. 
Lycopersicum esculen turn. 
Manihot utilissima. 
Miisa sapientum. 
Nephrolepis biserrata. 



Odontosoria chinensis. 
Onychium siliqulosiim. 
Pteris longifolia. 
Pteris quadriauHta. 
Ricinus communis. 
Selaginella sp. 
Sida acuta. 
Sida rhombifolia. 
Tephrosia dichotoma. 
Triumfetta bartramia. 
Vandellia Crustacea. 
Waltheria america7ia. 



RELIC SPECIES. 



Canavalia lineata. 
Imperata cylindrica. 
Phragmites vulgaris. 



Saccharum spontaneum. 
Themeda gigantea. 



420 2^^^ Philippine Journal of Science im 

Species of plants in the parang association — Continued. 
INVADING SPECIES. 

Albizzia procera. Ficus hauili. 

Allaeanthus luzonicus. Litsea glutinosa. 

Alstonia scholatis. Maesa cumingii. 

Arenga sp. Mallotus moluccanus. 

Artocarpus nitida. Melicope triphylla. 

Bambusa blunieana. Oroxylum indicum. 

Ceiba pentandra. Premna naziseosa. 

Celtis philippensis. Sterculia foetida. 

Cratoxylon blancoi. Vitex parviflora. 

Eugenia jambolana. Wrightia laniti. 

THE LOW ALTITUDE TREE FORMATION 
THE BAMBUSA-PARKIA ASSOCIATION 

This very typical association, formerly well represented on 
Taal Island especially in the northern part, as well as upon 
all the adjacent islands, now occurs on Taal Island on the north- 
eastern cape and on Mounts Binintiang Malaki and Balantoc 
in the northwestern region. The bamboo growth form — ^tall, 
treelike grasses — is a characteristic part of this association. It 
mixes, or alternates, with the Parkia type — moderately tall trees 
which are either deciduous or have their transpiration surface 
materially reduced for a part or all of the dry season. The 
bamboo element is represented on Taal by Bambusa blumeana on 
the slopes of Mounts Pirapiraso and Bignay in the northeast 
and at the foot of Mount Balantoc near Panipihan in the 
northwest. The bamboos must have regenerated from root- 
stocks beneath the mud and ashes for there has been no recent 
seeding of this species. Spreading by purely vegetative means 
is very slow. It will take a very long time for the bamboo 
thus to occupy the land apparently very suitable for it. Ba7n- 
busa readily displaces any of the parang trees, forming a 
thicket of such density that but very few secondary species of 
minor importance can develop. The bamboo can be displaced 
only at higher elevations where conditions are less suitable for it. 

While Parkia timoriana, itself, has not yet invaded the island, 
its growth form is represented by other species, particularly 
Albizzia procera, Oroxylum indicum, Alstonia scholarns, 
Wrightia laniti, Eugenia jambolana, Ceiba peyitayidra, Stercidia 
foetida, Celtis philippensis, Mallotus moluccanus, and Ficus 
hauili. For a complete list of the species so far present the 
reader will note the species listed as invading the parang. Some 
of these trees invade the grassland and others the parang, but 
seldom do any of them invade unvegetated ground. Their re- 



IX, c, 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 421 

lation to Bambusa in this area is evidenced by the fact that the 
majority of them occur in or near the areas where the bamboos 
also occur. Almost all of the species become higher than the 
parang species and so can replace parang. Particularly are they 
accomplishing this at lower altitudes. They have equal op- 
portunity to invade the areas contemporaneously with parang 
species. Generally the parang species make faster initial growth, 
but many of the trees soon catch up. Between October, 1913, 
and April, 1914, it was very evident that species of this asso- 
ciation were rapidly invading many new places in the parang 
and more than successfully competing with it in areas already 
invaded. In the absence of destructive factors, within a few 
years the northern part of the island should be vegetated with 
the Bamhusa-Parkia association. . From there it will gradually 
spread along both sides of the island to the southern corner. 

THE WEED ASSOCIATION 

The weed association is likely to be found in cultivated 
ground, after fires, and in clearings, when such areas are better 
represented on Taal, but at present in no place does it assume 
the appearance of an association. For the most part the weeds 
occur isolated in openings in other vegetation or under the partial 
shade of some trees. In the absence of cultivated land and the 
abundance of cogonal grasses, weeds have but little chance. 
Even when once started their brief life period permits them 
dominance only for a short time, and they are readily replaced 
by other vegetation. The weed association is represented by 
scattered plants of Erigeron linifolms, Ageratum conyzoides, 
Syyiedrella nodiflora, Pterocaulon cylindrostachyum, Ama- 
ranthus spinosus, Heliotr opium indicum, Blumea sp., Emilia 
sonchifolia, Vernonia cinerea, Leucas javanica, Po7'tidaca olera- 
cea, Scoparia dulcis, and Datura alba. 

CULTIVATED PLANTS 

Although not a proper association, there are here grouped a 
few plants which have persisted from previous cultivation in the 
vicinity of the former towns, Bignay, Pirapiraso, Panipihan, and 
Binintiang. For the most part these plants are merely growing 
in the parang and in course of time will succumb to it. Of these 
cultivated plants, Musa sapientum is the largest and the most 
abundantly represented at a number of places near the northern 
coast of the island. Small trees of Carica papaya occur in a few 
places near former houses. The remaining ones were limited 
in distribution to the vicinity of Pirapiraso, Ipomoea batatas 



422 '^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

is represented by a few plants which appeared to be commencing 
their development in December, 1913. There were a few small 
plants of the tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum, three plants of 
the peanut, Arachis hypogaea (one with partly ripe fruit), a few 
plants of cassava, Mmiihot utilissima, a single plant of rice, Oryza 
sativa, and one of sincamas, Pachyrrhizns erosus. 

While the Bambusa-ParJcia association may well be considered 
the logical climax association for the lower altitudes, it is not 
the climax for the higher altitudes on the volcano. There is as 
yet no evidence, however, indicating the steps nor the climatic 
type of vegetation, toward which succession leads. 

ANNOTATED LIST OF SPECIES FOUND ON TAAL ISLAND SINCE THE 

ERUPTION OF 1911 

PTERIDOPHYTA 
POLYPODIACEAE 

Adiantum philippense L. 6772. Local in a deep ravine. Mount Ragatan. 
Nephrolepis biserrata Schott 7378. Local in ravine, Mount Pirapiraso. 
Odontosoria chinensis J. Sm. 6849, 6850, 7341. In ravines. 
Onychium siliqulosum (Desv.) C. Chr. 6762, 6880, 7373, 7447. Ravines 

or rocky bluffs. 
Pteris longifolia L. 6769, 7376, 7450. On rocky bluffs or ravine sides; 

not conunon. 
Pteris quadriaurita Retz. 6776, 7346. Local in a deep ravine. Mount 

Ragatan. 
Pteris sp. 6765. In a deep ravine. 

SCHIZAEACEAE 

Lygodium japonicum (Thunb) Sw. 6760, 7328, 7435. Local in ravines; 
not common. 

SELAGINELLACEAE 

Selaginella sp. 6758, 6882. Local in a few ravines, north side. 

SPERMATOPHYTA 
PANDANACEAE 

Pandanus tectorius Sol. 6851. Four plants, two of which were found 
on the strand and two on an ash ridge. 

HYDROCHARITACEAE 

Vallisneria gigantea Graebn. 6703. Submerged aquatic; northern parts. 

GRAMINEAE 

Bambusa blumeana Schultes f. 6730, 7457. On bottoms and sides of 
ravines, northeast cape and at the foot of Mount Ealantoc. 

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. 6805, 7409, Local on wet strand in the 
northern parts. 



IX, c, 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 423 

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. 6701. Local on the strand. 

Digitaria consanguinea Gaud. 6757, 7362. Local on the strand. 

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. 7400. Local on the strand and in pockets. 

Imperata cyVmdrica koenigii Benth. 6733. Fairly well distributed in the 
northeastern part. 

Miscanthus sinensis Andr. 6863, 7398. Very infrequent in isolated 
clumps at higher elevations. 

Oryza sativa L. One specimen seen. 

Panicum caudiglume Hack. 7335. Bottom of deep valley; rare. 

Panicum distachyuvi L. 6792. In grassy parang on Mount Binintiang 
Malaki. 

Panicum re pens L. 6847. Locally abundant in pockets at bluff ends and 
on the strand. 

Paspalum scrobiculatum L. 6751, 7462. Local on the strand. 

Paspalum sp. 7325. Ravine, foot of Mount Mataas-na-golod. 

Phragmites vulgaris (Lam.) Trin. 6745, 6800. Fairly abundant on low 
wet areas at the outer ends of ravines. 

Saccharum spontaneunx iyidicnm Hack. 6884, 7363, 7405. A very common 
grass, widely distributed in virtually all parts of the island where 
any vegetation is present, particularly on all slopes and sides of 
ravines; a few plants below the rim of the crater on the inside. The 
most abundant plant on the island. 

Themeda gigantea (Cav.) Hack. 6705, 6796, 6864, 6881. Locally abun- 
dant, especially on Mounts Balantoc and Binintiang Malaki. 

CYPERACEAE 

Bidbostylis barbata Kth. 6780, 6783, 7349, 7408, 7461. A strand plant; 

feund also in similar situations elsewhere on the island. 
Cypenis compressus L. 6702. Local on the strand. 
Cyperus diffusus Vahl. 7380, 7428. Strand plant. 
Cyperus distans L. 6801, 7329, 7360. On the strand and in ravines. 
Cypems radiatns Vahl. 6704. Local on the strand. 
Mariscus stuppeus (Forst.) Merr. 6825, 6848, 7606. On the strand and 

in the Phragmites marsh. 

PALMAE 
Arenga sp. One tree invading parang in north central region. 

ARACEAE 

Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. 6855. In parang near Pira- 

piraso and one plant in a Phragmites marsh. 
Pistia stratiotes L. 7464. Floating aquatic washed up along the shore. 

LEMNACEAE 

Lemna trisulca Hegelm. Washed up on the shore with Pistia. 

COMMELINACEAE 

Commelina nudiflora L. 6868. Trailing herb; grown up through ash in 
a ravine near Pirapiraso. 

129821 3 



424 ^he Philippine Journal of Science nn 

DIOSCOREACEAE 

Dioscorea bulbifera L. 6815, 6915, 7336, 7431, 7437. Woody vine in 

parang, particularly in the northeastern part. 
Dioscorea luzonensis Schauer. 6788, 6789, 6831, 6835, 7438. Vine in 

parang with the preceding. 

MUSACEAE 

Musa sapientum L., var.? 6823. Local near former towns in the northern 
parts of the island. 

ULMACEAE 

Trema amboinensis BI. 6711, 6718, 6748, 6770, 6782, 6802, 6877, 6891. A 
common parang tree in grassland, well distributed over much of the 
vegetated part of the island; many seedlings present, but the largest 
trees are sprouts from buried stumps. 

MORACEAE 

Allaeanthus luzonicus F.-Vill. 7375, 7454. Tree, locally invading the 

parang. 
Artocarpus nitida Tree. 7459. One tree of this rare species invading 

parang in north central region. 
Ficus cumingii Miq. 6908, 6909, 6910. Small tree in parang. May be 

but a variety of F. uhnifolia. 
Ficus hauili Blanco. 6854, 7443. A tree, locally invading parang. 
Ficus indica L. 6742, 6862. Common shrub or small tree; characteristically 

a first invader of the open ground at the upper ends of gullies and 

ravines. 
Ficus nervosa Heyne. Small shrub in parang. 
Ficus tinctoria Forst. 6816, 6834, 6945, 6948 (?), 6949 (?). A tree in 

parang. 
Ficus ulmifolia Lam., with its many forms. 6799, 6898, 7331, 7429, 7444, 

7337. A common parang tree. 
Ficus sp. 7410. A tree in parang on Mount Binintiang Malaki. 
Streblus asper Lour. 7389. Small tree, local in parang. 

URTICACEAE 

Pipturus arborescens (Link) Rob. 6713, 6771, 7324, 7352. A small tree in 
the parang and in ravines. 

AMARANTHACEAE 

Aei'ua lanata (L.) Juss. 6738. A few small plants on the wet strand. 
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. 6852. A few plants on the strand. 
Amaranthu^ spinostis L. 7384. A few small plants on the strand and in 

pockets worn in bluffs. 
Deeringia baccata (Retz.) Moq. 6746, 6841. Vine in parang; uncommon. 

PORTULACACEAE 

Portulaca oleracea L. 7355. Local on the strand. 



I 



IX. c. 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 425 

CERATOPHYLLACEAE 

Ceratophyllum demersum L. 7369. Submerged aquatic, thrown up on the 
strand. 

MENISPERMACEAE 

Cissampelos pareira L. 6726, 7432. A vine in the parang. 
Pericampylus incanus Miers. 7357. Vine, scarce in parang. 

LAURACEAE 

Cassytha filiformis L. 7449, 7467. Hemiparasitic vine, loading down 

Phragmites in wet strand. 
Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob. 7351. Tree; local on ridges; north 

east. 

CAPPARIDACEAE 

Capparis horrida L. 7370, 7415. A vine in the parang. 
Capparis micracantha DC. 6898. A vine in the parang. 
Crataeva religiosa L. 6829, 7416. Tree, invading parang. 
Polanisia viscosa (L.) DC. 7393. Weed on the strand. 

MORINGACEAE 

Moringa oleifera Lam. 6944, 7327. Tree; local in parang on Mount 
Ragatan. 

CONNARACEAE 
Rourea erecta (Blanco) Merr. 6712, 7353, 7372, 7445. Vine in parang. 

LEGUMINOSAE 

Abrus precatorius L. 6830, 7367, 7441. A vine in the parang. 

Acacia famesiana (L.) Willd. 6804, 6839. An abundant parang shrub 

on the ash slopes and a very successful invader in grass. 
Albizzia procera (Roxb.) Benth. 6735, 6737, 6741, 7424. A tree; locally 

abundant in places in the northwest which were not exposed to the 

full force of the volcano. 
Alyscicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC. 6793, 6795. A vine in the parang on 

Mount Binintiang Malaki. 
Arachis hypogaea L. 6764. A few plants in the parang near Pirapiraso, 

remnants of former cultivation. 
Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC, formae. 6820, 7338, 7379, 7463. A 

variable vine; in both the grassland and the parang. 
Canavalia lineata DC. 6853, 6869, 7466. With Ipomoea pes-caprae; a 

characteristic vine on the strand. 
Cantharospermum scarabaeoides (L.) Baill. 6731, 6899. A vine; local 

in the parang or on bluffs. 
Crotalaria sp. 6890. Local on the strand. 

Derris polyantha Perk. 7412, 7442. A vine in parang on sides of ridges. 
Desmodium pulchellum Benth. 6717, 7350. A shrub, invading grassland; 

not common. 
Desmodium scorpiurus (Sw.) Desf. 6775. Herb, in a ravine. 



426 I'he Philippine Journal of Science lau 

Desmodiuin triflorum (L.) DC. 6781. Low plant, not uncommon in grass- 
land. 
Desnwdium sp. 7366. Herb, in parang. 

Erythrina iyidica Lam. 7386. Tree, in grass on back strand. 
Gliricidiu sepiuvi (Jacq.) Steud. A parang tree; very local in grassland 

back of Pirapiraso. 
Millettia sp. 7390. One plant on a rock in water, east side of northeast 

cape. 
Mezonewnim latisiliquum (Cav.) Merr. 7460. A vine invading grassland, 

north central part. 
Pachyrrhi'^us erosus (L.) Urb. A single plant found. 
Pithecolohium dulce Benth. 6708, 6752, 6837, 7458. A common tree, in 

parang on ridges. 
Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Pers. 6824. Abundant on the back strand in 

a place near the foot of Mount Binintiang Malaki. 
Tephrosia dichotoma Desf. 6876, 6884, 7339. Occasional in grass and 

parang on the sides of ridges. 
Vigna lutea (Sw.) A. Gray. 6895, 7465. Local on the strand at the edge 

of a bluff. 

RUTACEAE 

Atalantia disticha Merr. 7470. Tree on island next to Taal. 

EUPHORBIACEAE 

Antidesma bunius (L.) Spr. 6860, 7385, 7456. Small tree, in the parang 

on ridges. 
Antidesttm ghesaembiUa Gaertn. 6723, 6785, 6827, 6887, 7332, 7334. An 

abundant small parang tree. 
Antidesma rostratum- Tul. 6914, 6951. Small parang tree on Mount 

Binintiang Munti. 
Breynia comua (Poir.) Muell.-Arg. 6767. Shrub or small tree, in the 

parang. 
Breynia rhamnoides (Retz.) Muell.-Arg. 7440. A single small tree in 

parang. 
Bridelia stipularis (L.) Bl. 6814, 6905, 6912, 7345, 7446. Common small 

parang tree. 
Fiuggea virosa (Willd.) Baill. 6719, 6732, 7348. Small parang tree. 
Glockidion triandrum C. B. Rob. 7451. Small tree, in parang. 
Macaranga tanarius (L.) Muell.-Arg. 6836, 6842, 7413. Common small 

parang tree; seedlings abundant in places on the strand. 
Mallotus moluccmms (L.) Muell.-Arg. 7356, 7426. Tree, invading the 

parang. 
Manihof utilissima Pohl. A few plants near Pirapiraso. 
Phyllantkus reticulaUis Poir. 6753, 7371. A shrub in the parang. 
Phyllanthns (erythrotrichus C. B. Rob.?) 7423. A single shrub in 

parang. 
Ricinus communis L. 6813, 6817, 7359. A common herb on the strand. 

Occasionally a tree 3 meters high, in the parang in ravines. 

ANACARDIACEAE 

Semecarpus cuneiformis Blanco. 6729, 7403. A small tree or shrub in 
the parang on the sides of ridges. 



IX. c. 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 427 

CELASTRACEAE 

Celastnis paniculata Willd. 7397, 7420, 7468. Vine on trees and shrubs 
on the crests of ridges; not frequent. 

VITACEAE 

Cissiis trifolia (L.) K. Sch. 6807. Vine in parang. 

Cissus repens Lam. 6872. Vine in parang. 

Tetrdstigma hartnandii Planch. 7381. A vine in the parang; rare. 

ELAEOCARPACEAE 

Muntingia calahiira L. 6740, 7340. Seedlings on the strand and trees in 
the parang on the slopes of Mount Ragatan. 

TILIACEAE 

Triumfetta bartramia L. 6739, 7358. Weed in the parang and on the 
strand. 

MALVACEAE 

Sida acuta Burm. Seedling in a Phragmites marsh. 
Sida cordifolia L. 6833. A weed on an adjacent island. 
Sida rkombifolia L. 6777, 7353. Weed in the parang, local. 

BOMBACACEAE 

Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. 7387. A few trees in the parang near 
Pirapiraso. 

STERCULIACEAE 

Sterculia foetida L. 6803. Small to fair-sized trees on the outer sides 

of Mounts Binintiang Malaki and Pirapiraso. 
Waltheria americana L. 6709, 6725, 7434. Weed in the grassland and 

parang. 

HYPERICACEAE 

Cratoxylon blancoi Bl. 6728, 7399. Tree, sprouting from buried stumps, 
local in the northwestern parts. 

FLACOURTIACEAE 

Casearia cinerea Turcz. 6714, 6830, 6843, 6858, 6888, 7342, 7407. Small 
tree; fairly abundant in the parang on sides of ridges. 

CARICACEAE 

Carica papaya L. 6845. A few scattered plants in ravines in northern 
parts of the island in the vicinity of former towns. 

THYMELEACEAE 

Phaleria cumingiana F.-Vill. 7392. A vine in a parang thicket; infre- 
quent. 

ELAEAGNACEAE 

Elaeagnus philippensis Perr. 6828. Vine in parang; infrequent. 



428 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science nu 

COMBRETACEAE 

Quisqualis indica L. 7419, Vine in the parang; northeast cape. 

MYRTACEAE 

Eugenia janibolana Lam, 7404, Tree invading parang on the ridges ; one 

on Mount Balantoc is a sprout from a 17 cm stump. 
Psidium guajava L. 6774, 6911. Common parang tree. 

OENOTHERACEAE 

Jussieua repens L. 7418. A single plant found floating in a mass of 
Vallisneria. 

MYRSINACEAE 

Maesa cumingii Mez 6763, 7347, 7430. A vine invading parang; seed- 
lings present in ravines, 

LOGANIACEAE 

Bitddleia asiatica Lour. 6721, 6755, 6787, 7377, 7425, Shrub in the pa- 
rang; locaL 

APOCYNACEAE 

Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. 7391. Tree in the parang on Mount Ra- 

gatan. 
Parsonsia (?) 6818. A single small vine in the parang. 
Tabemaemontana pandacaqui Poir. 7382, A very few plants on a ridge 

to Mount Pirapiraso seem to belong to this species. 
Tabemaemontana subglobosa Merr. 6790, 6819, 6821, 6857 (dwarfed), 

6873, 6889, 6894, 6907, 7344. Common and widely distributed parang 

shrub; invading the Saccharum areas. 
Wrightia laniti (Blanco) Merr. 6759, 6838, 7383, 7411. Tree; invading 

parang on sides of ridges, 

ASCLEPIADACEAE 

Gymnema pachyglossum Schltr. 7368. Vine, in the parang on Mount 

Pirapiraso, uncommon. 
Streptocaulon baumii Decne. 6743, 6826, 6861, 6892, 6902, 7333, 7436, A 

common vine in the grass and parang; widely distributed. 

CONVOLVULACEAE 

Hewittia sublobata (L, f.) OK. 6773. Vine, local on the strand and in 

parang near it. 
Ipomoea batatas (L.) Poir. 6844. A few vines near Pirapiraso, 
Ipomoea obscura (L,) Ker, 6810. Vine in parang. 
Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) Roth. 6871. Abundant vine; characteristic of 

the strand, 
Ipomoea pes-tigridis L. 6716, 6744, 6794. Local on the strand and in 

pockets in bluffs, 
Ipomoea triloba L, Local on the strand in a Phragmites marsh, ' 
Operculina turpethum (L.) Manso 6870, 7455, Vine; local on the strand. 



IX. c, 5 Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcaiio 429 

BORAGINACEAE 

Cordia myxa L. 6706, 6722, 6786, 6874, 6885, 6901. A common parang 

tree; invading grassland. 
Heliotropiiim indicum L. 6707, 6811. Weed on the strand. 
Tournefortia sarmentosa Lam. 6724, 6806, 6879. A vine growing over 

strand plants, also in parang on ridges. 

VERBENACEAE 

Callicarpa blancoi Rolfe 6727, 6904, 7401. A fairly common shrub in 

the parang. 
Clerodendron minahassae T. & B. 6809, 6893, 6896, 7427. Shrub; local in 

the parang at low elevations in the northwest. 
Premna nauseosa Blanco 6797, 7422. Shrub, local in the woods in the 

northwest. 
Vitex parviflora Juss. 6840. Small tree on Mount Binintiang Malaki near 

the lake; not common. 

LABIATAE 

Leucas javanica Benth. 7330, 7439. Weed; local on the strand. 

SOLANACEAE 

DaUira alba Nees 6950. Infrequent on the strand and in pockets in 

bluffs. 
Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Perhaps remaining from former cultivation 

near Pirapiraso. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 

Lindenbergia philippensis (Cham.) Benth. 6710. A single plant in a 
pocket on the face of an eroding bluff. Mount Binintiang Munti. 

Scoharia dulcis L. 6734, 6749, 7417. Weed on the strand and on the crests 
of a few ridges. 

Vandellia Crustacea (L.) Benth. 7374. Weed, local in grassland. 

Vandellia pusilla (Willd.) Merr. 6784, (6798?). Local on lava strand. 

BIGNONIACEAE 

Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. 6946, 7395. An occasional tree invading 
the parang in the northwest and the northeast. 

RUBIACEAE 

Morinda bracteata Roxb. 6866, 6867, 6895. Fairly common as isolated 
clumps both in the grass and at the heads and edges of erosion gullies. 

Oldenlandia sp. 7402. Local on Mount Binintiang Malaki. 

Spermacoce hispida L. 6768, 6779, 7452. Local on the strand. 

Wendlandia luzoniensis DC. 6856, 7448. Shrub; local on sides of ravines 
and on a ridge near the crater rim. 

CUCURBITACEAE 

Citndhis vulgaris (L.) Schrad. 7388. Local on the strand. 



430 The Philippine Journal of Science 1914 

Luffa cylindrica Roem. 6822. Vine in thickets, Mount Binintiang Malaki. 

Momordica charantia L. 6754. Vine; local in the parang. 

Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. 6878, 6886. Common vine 

in both grass and parang. 
Momordica ovata Cogn. 6865, 6906, 7354, 7421. With the preceding and 

doubtfully distinct from it. 

COMPOSITAE 

Ageratum conyzoides L. 6766, 6791, 7365. Weed, not uncommon. 
Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. Two seedlings and one small shrub on the 

northeast cape in April, 1914. 
Blumea sp. 7433. Weed, on crest of a ridge. 

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. 6715, 6900. Locally abundant on strand. 
Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. 7326. Weed, present in one locality. 
Erigeron linifolius Willd. 6756, 7394. Weed, now present under trees. 
Pterocaulon cylindrostachyum C. B. Clarke 7396. Weed, five plants on 

crest of Mount Balantoc. 
Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. Weed in parang; not common. 
Vemonia cinerea (L.) Less. 7364. Weed, on the strand and adjacent 

grassland. 
Wedelia biflora (L.) DC. 6778, 6897, 7414. Common on the open strand 

and in all the associations living on the strand. 

CONCLUSIONS 

1. The last eruption of Taal Volcano culminated January 30, 
1911, resulting" in the devastation of the island by a rain of hot, 
acid, mud and ash. Before revegetation could take place, the 
excess of acid had to be leached out of the soil and reseeding take 
place. This occupied a little more than a year. With the com- 
mencement of the second rainy season revegetation began to take 
place rapidly. By the end of the third rainy season, virtually 
all of the northern third of the island was vegetated, the densest 
vegetation being in the northeastern and northwestern corners. 
With the exception of Mount Binintiang Munti in the extreme 
southern corner and a very few places near the shore on the 
east and the west coast, the rest of the island was bare. 

2. While in a few protected situations revegetation consisted 
of the sprouting of buried stumps, more than 99 per cent of the 
vegetation is the result of seeding. 

3. Invasion took place first along the shore by plants with 
water-dispersed disseminuls. Soon after, the wind-distributed 
seeds of cogon grasses developed, forming grassland, which was 
barely established before birds brought in seeds of vines, shrubs, 
and small trees, which invaded the grass. 

4. With so much available ground, given areas have been in- 
vaded by representatives of more than one association. Com- 
petition among individuals has led to the localization of succession 



IX. C, 5 



Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Volcano 



431 



to many small areas. The extension in all directions from these 
centers gives expression to the general succession. 

5. As the vegetation back from the shore of the mainland to 
the west and southwest was devastated, seeds were not furnished 
for dispersal by the southwest winds, wherea.s the northeast 
monsoon winds, blowing over area but little affected, furnished 
seeds to the northeastern exposure of the island. There revege- 
tation has been most pronounced. 

6. The structure of the vegetation is quite simple, censisting 
of nine associations in three genetic series. The water along 
the shore contains aquatic plants, low damp areas are vegetated 
with marsh plants, and the strand with strand plants. The 
slopes up to the crater are generally vegetated first with grasses 
and then with shrubs and small trees (parang). At least at 
lower altitudes the parang is being followed by trees and treelike 
grasses (bamboo). 

7. Progress in revegetation is now very rapid. The following 
table gives a summary of the species of higher plants found on 
the island up to April, 1914 : 





Families. 


Genera. 

7 

25 
111 


Species. 
9 

32 
138 


Pteridophyta .. 


3 

10 
44 


Spermatophyta: 




Total 


57 


143 


179 





Mosses, lichens, algae, and fungi were exceedingly poorly rep- 
resented. 

8. In contradistinction to Krakatoa, ferns are but a very 
minor element, due to the comparative lack of them on the 
neighboring mainland, the exceeding dryness of the island, and 
the low altitude of the volcano. Taal agrees with Krakatoa in 
that water- and wind-distributed species appeared before bird- 
distributed species. The time element is much smaller on Taal 
because the distances involved are less. The distances from 
Taal Island to the nearest points on the mainland are as follows : 
North to Talisay, 6.3 km; northeast to Banadero, 7.7 km; east 
to Lipa Point, 5 km; south, 13 km; southwest to Pansipit, 7.5 
km ; and west to Baiios Point, 3.2 km. 

9. On account of the relative accessibility and the government 
prohibition against inhabitation the island presents excellent 
opportunities to study natural revegatation to its best advantage. 



I 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES 

Plate III 

Map showing the revegetation following the eruption of 1911. Map adapted 
from Adams, Geological Reconnaissance of Southwestern Luzon. Philip. 
Joum. Sci. 5 (1910) Sec. A. 

Plate IV 

Diagram showing climatic conditions. (From Weather Bureau records.) 

Plate V 
Diagrams showing the successions exhibited between the plant associations. 

Plate VI 

Fig. 1. Dead stumps in the top of which seedling trees, Ficus indica and 
Macaranga tanarius, are growing. East coast of the northeast 
cape. April 21, 1914. 

2. The northeast cape from Mount Ragatan, showing Mounts Pirapi- 
raso and Bignay covered with parang and trees. Bamboos are 
present in the gullies. The valley in the middle of the picture is 
vegetated with Iniperata. April 19, 1914. 

3. Southward from Mount Bignay. Mount Ragatan on the extreme 

right center of the picture, back of it Mount Pinag-Ulbuan, 
vegetated with Ficus indica and Morinda bracteata. East of the 
latter, in the center of the background, is an old crater. The 
vegetation of the foreground is largely Saccharum with a few 
shrubs and small trees. April 19, 1914. 

Plate VII 

Fig. 1. Westward from C 6 on the map. Mount Pinag-Ulbuan with 

Morinda and Ficus indica on the left, Mount Mataas-na-g-olod 

with Saccharum and parang in the background on the right. 

The upper part of the delta in the foreground with clumps of 

Saccharum. April 19, 1914. 

.^ 2. Southwestward up the valley to the crater rim from the southern 

t slope of Mount Mataas-na-golod. Vegetation at low altitudes 

V; is Saccharum. On Mount Pinag-Ulbuan, on the left are parang 

shrubs in addition to Saccharum. Note also the erosion! April 

j^ 20, 1914. 

3. Southwestward from Mount Pirapiraso showing a valley with 
Imperata. On the other side is Mount Ragatan with parang 
and trees, beyond and more to the right is Mount Mataas-na- 
golod with Saccharum and parang. Toward the left in the 
extreme background is a part of the crater rim. April 19, 1914. 

433 



I 



434 ^^^ Philippine Journal of Science 

Plate VIII 

Fig. 1. A deltal flat in the north central region, showing the sparse devel- 
opment of the Phragimtes association. Mount Tibag in the 
middle on the right and back of it Mount Binintiang Malaki. 
October 25, 1913. 

2. Looking northward from near the crater rim toward Mount Tibag 

in the north central region. Vegetation almost entirely Saccha- 
riim spontanum. October 25, 1913. 

3. Eastward from Mount Binintiang Malaki. The horseshoe ridge, 

Mount Balantoc, in the foreground, back of it the north central 
region. The rounded peak on the left is Mount Mataas-na-golod 
and to the right of it is Mount Pinag-Ulbuan. April 18, 1914. 

Plate IX 

Fig. 1. The foot of Mount Balantoc near the former town of Panipihan. 
Vegetation is mostly bamboo and trees. April 1'8, 1914. 

2. South fi-om the summit of Mount Binintiang Malaki. Beyond Mount 

Balantoc is a basin with a lake. In the background is the crater 
with its high southern wall. In the extreme background is Mount 
Macolod on the mainland. In the background on the Tight from 
the crater are Mounts Tabaro, Saluyan, and Binintiang Munti. 
April 18, 1914. 

3. From the southern crater rim northwestward across the crater, 

showing Mounts Balantoc and Binintiang Malaki. April 20, 1914. 

Plate X 

Fig. 1. The crest of Mount Balantoc. The heavily vegetated, left-hand side 
is away from the crater. Mount Sungay in the extreme back- 
ground on the mainland. April 18, 1914. 

2. A regenerated tree, Sterculia foetida, on the lower lee slope of Mount 

Balantoc near Binintiang. Note also the indications of a former 
fence! April 18, 1914. 

3. A portion of the crater wall on the northeast showing a shrub of 

Ficus indica within the crater. April 20, 1914. 



/ 



Gates: Pioneer Vegetation ok Taal Volcano.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci.. IX, C, No. 5. 




PLATE III. REVEGETATION OF TAAL VOLCANO FOLLOWING THE ERUPTION OF 1911. 



t 



^n 



Gates: Pioneer Vegettation of Taal Volcano.] 



[Phil Joubn. Sci., IX, C, No. 5. 




PLATE V. 



DIAGRAMS SHOWING THE SUCCESSIONS EXHIBITED BETWEEN THE PLANT 
ASSOCIATIONS ON TAAL VOLCANO, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, 1914. 



The approximate distribution in altitude Is shown by the extent of the lines with reference to 
the scale on the left. The relative abundance of the associations at various altitudes is indicated 
by the thickness of the lines. Arrows pointing above the horizontal indicate succession to a 
higher genetic association. 



Gates: Pioneer Vegetation of Taal Voloano.I 



[Phii.. JoiRN. Sci.. IX, C. No. 5. 




?r-. 







^■jp* 



^M^ 




Fig. 2. 




< 



Gates: PiosKhJt Vkc.ktathin hk Taal Volcano. 1 



[Pun.. .loi'RN. Sn.. IX. C. No. 5. 





Fig. 2. 




Fio. 3. 
PLATE VII. 



Gates: PioNKKJi Vk(^rtation ok Taai. Volcano,] 



(Phil. .Ioi-rn. Scl, IX, C. No. 5. 






Gates: Pionekji 



NEKJt Vk<;etati'>n "F Taal Volcano.! 



[Fh!i.. JoiRS. Sri.. IX. C, No. 5. 



k 




Fig. 2. 




<.•■•«' 



Gates: PioNEtx Vegetation ok Taal Volcano.] 



[Phil. Journ. Sci., IX, C, No. 5. 




Fig. 1. 






^^^^S^^^^^^L^iEf*^^Cw^jL^^9 


4 


uf j.^^P'' ■ " '*• ^ 







Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 



PLATE X. 



I 



The Philippine Journal of Science, C. Botany. 
Vol. IX, No. 5, September, 1914. 



\ 



HAWAIIAN FERNS COLLECTED BY M. L'ABBe U. FAURIE 

By Edwin Bingham Copelano 

(From the College of Agriculture, University of the Philippines, 
Los Bancs, P. I.) 

More than three years ago, M. I'Abbe Faurie placed in m^'' 
hands a remarkably complete collection of the ferns of Hawaii, 
which he made during the years 1909 and 1910. Partly because 
of the pressure of other duties, and partly because I understood 
that two other students of ferns were preparing general pub- 
lications on the ferns of the Hawaiian Archipelago, I postponed 
the careful study of this collection until recently. One of these 
works has now been published,' and it is my understanding that 
the other work in question has been given up. 

The fenis of the Hawaiian Islands have probably received 
from Doctor W. J. Hillebrand ■ more careful study than any man 
has ever given to those of any other limited area in the tropics. 
Lying as they do on a main route of the world's travel, the 
Hawaiian Islands have from early times been visited by many 
collectors, and for this reason, as well as because of the long 
sojourn of Doctor Hillebrand in the islands, their ferns are 
particularly well known. On the one hand, the admirable de- 
scriptions in Doctor Hillebrand's Flora make the study of these 
ferns easier than they would be if they came from almost any 
other part of the tropics. On the other hand, the ferns of 
Hawaii constitute in themselves a group of phenomenal difficulty. 
The isolated position of the Archipelago has resulted, in several 
genera, in the development of a flora altogether peculiar and 
local. Thus in the ferns, we have two genera, Diellia and Sad- 
leria, each with a considerable number of species which have 
unquestionably been developed locally from a common ancestor. 
In both cases, the ancestor can be fixed with a considerable 
measure of certainty and exactness. 

' W. J. Robinson, The Ferns of the Hawaiian Islands, BuU. Torrey Bot. 
Club 40 (1913). 

= W. J. Hillebrand, Flora of Hawaii (1888). 

435 



436 ^'^^ Philippine Journal of Science i-ju 

The local development of a series of forms, which has taken 
place in the two genera just mentioned, has taken place also 
in the large genus AsjAenium, apparently from a number of 
immigrant ancestral forms, and with the result that the derived 
groups have developed until they overlap, and the differentia- 
tion of groups, and the assignment of species and forms to the 
different groups, is onlj'- possible to a person who has something 
like the complete knowledge of the flora which Doctor Hille- 
brand possessed. 

In both Aspleninm and Sadleria, I have ventured to describe 
new species, and in Aspleninm I have raised some of his forms 
to specific rank. The most of the species which I describe 
as new in this paper are, I believe, plants which Doctor Hille- 
brand had not seen. It must be remarked that the Abbe Faurie 
is himself a collector of very long experience, that he is a good 
student of ferns, and that he devoted himself for about a 
year and a half wholly to the collection of the Hawaiian plants. 
Even in a land where the ferns have been as well studied as in 
Hawaii, it would be very strange if the Abbe Faurie had not 
succeeded in finding a number of previously unknown plants. 
In fact, knowing as I do the work of Abbe Faurie, I consider 
the small number of new spyecies which I can find in this collec- 
tion almost as strong a testimonial as is Hillebrand's own work 
to the thoroughness with which Doctor Hillebrand has covered 
his field. Almost all of the species described by Doctor Hille- 
brand, and a wide range of forms which are not treated as 
species, are found in the Faurie collection. 

It was once raised as an objection to systematic botanical 
work even on the Philippine flora, and has since been raised 
against work with plants coming from without the Philippines, 
that the opportunities for careful work of this kind in a place 
as remote as the Philippine Islands are hardly sufficient to 
justify the dangers which must result from hasty publication 
or publication without proper facilities. For the work with 
these Hawaiian ferns, I have had available, in the library of 
the Bureau of Science, every publication which I have known 
I would like to consult with the exception of the volume on ferns 
by Brackenridge in the report of the United States Exploring 
Expedition. I have previously consulted the Brackenridge vol- 
ume, in the library of