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Dicrcl — 1200 Ic 1!MX> R.P.M. 



EFFICIENT, DEPENDABLE POWER 

Distinctive in type and modern in design, the Enterprise Marine Diesel Engine is offered for 
such exacting service as is demanded for fishing vessels, tow boats, tugs, and similar 
craft. Records of efficient and dependable performance in countless marine mstalla- 
tions substantiate every claim for this trim,design. Enterprise Marine Diesel engmes 
efficiently utilize the inexpensive fuels from 24 to 36 Baume with complete com- 
bustion and without fire hazard. Enterprise engineers offer their experience 
without obligation. Sizes range from 10 H.P. to 500 H.P. Ask for catalog 
with description of marine and stationary models. 

^r^^kM.M^.iriJ.i-r.'.di.L' 



frgan 

AMERICAN 
^HIP ASSOCIATION 

rNERS ASSOCIATION 
IE PACIFIC COAST 



Eighteenth and Alabama Sts. 
SAN FRANCISCO 




YOUR COMPETITOR 




HE IS using the tlwell-Farkcr Complete bystem of 
Materials Handling (not merely Elwell-Parker 
Trucks alone) to keep freight moving between freight 
car or motor truck, shed, and dock alongside ship. He 
is doing the work easily and rapidly without accident 
or damage. 

Safety to men and cargo is the keynote! The shipowner 
... the worker . . . the shipper . . . the consignee ALL 
benefit from the Elwell-Parker System. In the hand- 
ling of fragile containers, cartons or sacks, less soilage 
from handling, less damage. The consignee receives 
the shipment in the same condition as it left the manu- 
facturer's plant. Claims, although promptly settled, do 
Pacific Coast Ports now lead in the 

San Franciwo — Ira G. Perin. 200 Davi. Street. 
Tele:>hone: SUller 1476. Also Los Ancercs. 



not replace goods damaged in transit. A "New Deal" 
in safety, without the back-breaking work of the old 
days. Handling cargo in the UNIT or BLOCK system 
is the Modern Method. 
The Elwell-Parker System comprises New Elwell-Parker 
Tiering Fork Trucks (electric, gas, or gas-electric power, 
as preferred); inexpensive wooden pallets or cargo- 
boards, as shown in the picture, compact unit loads of 
merchandise assembled on pallets in Boxes, Bags, Bar- 
rels, or Bales. Trucks are especially designed to lift 
and transport pallet and load together. 
Experienced engineers on the Coast will gladly bring 
you the details. 
use oj The Elwell-Parker System. 

Seattle — Colby Steel Si Engineering Co.. 456 Central BIdg. 
Telephone: ELIiotI 5722. Also Portland. 



^ELUIELIPIIBKER;^^,^ 



INDUSTRIAL POWER TRUCKS 



PACIFIC 

mflRinG 
Review 



J ANUARy, 1935 

VOL. XXXII NO. 1 






401179 



CONTENTS 



Editorial Comment: 

Safety in Ships I 

Twenty-five Years Ago 2 

Reconstruction Finance Corporation 2 

World's Largest and Most Powerful 3 

Queen Mary and Normandie. 

Recent Trends in Marine Engineering and Ship Design with Particular Reference 

to American Practice 4 

Outstanding Trends in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 5 

By Hugo P. Frear. 

Higher Pressures. Temperatures, Powers and Speeds 6 

By W. W. Smith. 

Trends in Fields of Marine Engineering and Naval Architecture in Recent Years.. 8 

By H. Gerrish Smith. 

Progress in Ship Design 9 

By E. H. Rigg. 

Suggestions for Fire Resistant Material Aboard Ship 11 

By E. H. Jerome. 

The Outlook for American Marine Diesels in 1935 12 

By Edward B. Pollister. 

Foreign Trade and the American Merchant Marine 16 

By Roger D. Lapham. 

Geared Steam Turbines in American Ships 19 

By George H. Gibson. 

Diesel Engine Assembly in the Winton Shops 22 

Inspection and Test of Winton Diesel Engines 23 

Safety in the Design of Small Tankers 24 

(Continued from December. 1934) 
By Martin G. Kindlund. 

Freights, Charters, Sales 27 

American Shipbuilding 28 

Progress of Construction 29 

Air and Erosion Elimination 32 

Miscellaneous: 

Personals, Adv. 13; Propeller Club. Adv. 14. 



Entered as second class matter June 10, 1913, at the post office. San Francisco, under the Act of March 3. 1879. Published on the 2 5th of each 
month preceding the publication date. Advertising and editorial forms close on the 15th. Subscription price, a year: Domestic, $1.50; foreign, 
$3; single copies, 25c. Chas. F. A. Mann, Northwest Representative. 1110 Puget Sound Bank Bldg., Tacoma, Washington. 
In New York copies of Pacific Marine Review can be purchased at the news stand of I. Goldberg, 42 Broadway; and the news stand of. 

Jacob Fuchs at 17 Battery Place at 25c per copy. 

James S. Hines Bernard N. De Rochie Alexander J. Dickie M. J. Suitor 

Publisher Advertising-Business Manager Editor Asst. Editor 



10 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



January, 1935 



H^SKEL^ITE 




United States Lines, T.S.S. Washington. 

One quarter million square feet of Haskelite fire re- 
sistant paneling was used on the U.S. Liner T.S.S. 
Washington. This vessel has been acclaimed as the 
finest cabin ship in the world. 

In addition to their use for bulkheads, Haskelite 
panels are also suitable for ceilings and specially con- 
structed fire doors. Haskelite's fire resistance has 
been demonstrated in actual tests. Write us for de- 
tailed reports on this subject. 



with Naval Architects 

for Fire Resistance 

and Beauty 

HASKELITE bulkhead panels* are first choice 
because they combine fire resistance, beauty, 
and utility. They are light and strong, furnish 
good thermal and sound insulation, and are 
readily erected. Above all, they provide a sur- 
face for first class cabins and public spaces 
which is consistent with luxury. 



HASKELITE MFG. CORPORATION 

208 W. WASHINGTON ST. 
CHICAGO 



C. V. LANE, BALFOUR BLDG., SAN FRANCISCO 




Marine Motors, Generators 
and Ventilating Equipment 

DIEHL MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Electrical Division of 

THE SINGER MANUFACTURING CO. 

Elizabethport, New Jersey 

San Francisco Representatives: 
MARINE ELECTRIC CO. C. V. LANE 

Desk and Wall Fans Motors, Generators, etc. 





LUCIAN Q. MOFFITT, INC. 

AKRON. OHIO 



No Other Bearings Offer Advantages of 

GOODRICH GUTLESS BEARINGS 

Soft rubber bearing surface — eiiiciently lubricated by water. 

A bearing suriace resistant to sand and grit that outwears all 
others. 

No scoring of shaft. 

Reduced vibration. 

Easy to install: replaces other bearings without change in size. 



ROBLR'r W. LONG 
S«curitv-Firat Trust Bide.. Wilmingto 



Pacific Marine Review 



VOLUME XXXII 



JANUARY, 1935 



NUMBER 1 



Editorial Comment » » » 




Safety 
in Ships 



The modern sea-going vessel is a 
very complex structure. Giant lin- 
ers in the de luxe passenger express 
services are practically the equiva- 
lent of modern hotels or modern 
towns fitted and equipped to take 
care of the actual and fancied needs 
of four or five thousand human be- 
ings; constructed in such a fashion 
to safely float on calm or raging 
seas, be capable of economic self- 
propulsion through these seas at 
speeds up to 35 miles an hour, and to 
be moorable at anchorages, attach- 
able at buoys and berthable at 
piers. 

Such a structure and its interior 
arrangement, its fittings, furnishing, 
and machinery; its safety and navi- 
gation equipment; its sanitary and 
ventilating systems, form so complex 
and difficult a problem of design, 
coordination, and compromise, that 
experts require years of study and 
research to satisfy themselves that 
their decisions are correct. And yet, 
whenever such a structure fails to 
function, or wherever any component 
part of the complex whole fails to 
an emergency to meet the necessities 
of the case, the American press and 
the American public assume that 
they know why. and so crowd the 



marine experts off the stage that 
public opinion in the United States is 
fast becoming loaded with the idea 
that passenger travel at sea is un- 
safe. 

This idea is fostered by the press 
reports of Steamboat Inspection Ser- 
vice, by the printing of made-up pic- 
tures and made-up stories of horrors 
of sea tragedies. Lists are compiled 
emphasizing sea disasters for the 
last 10 or 50 or 100 years. And thus 
the idea of going on a sea voyage is 
becoming in the minds of too many 
Americans a rather gay way of 
courting a watery grave. 

Now the facts are just the re- 
verse of that picture. Travel at sea 
on a modern ocean liner issafe, not- 
withstanding the stark tragedy of 
such fires as those on the Morro 
Castle, and the Georges Phillipar, 
and notwithstanding such sinkings 
as that of the Vestris. Modern travel 
at sea is not only safe, but it is the 
safest mode of transportation known 
to the modern statistician. It is al- 
most safer, statistically, than sleep- 
ing in your own bed at home. 

Modern sea travel is surrounded 
by all the workable safeguards that 
the brain of man can devise, and as 
quickly as new devices prove them- 
selves of value they are adopted and 
put into use. If the results show 
marked value in preventing loss of 
ships and of life, then these devices 
are almost sure to become a require- 
ment enforceable by law. 

Every phase of construction in 
the hulls and equipment of Ameri- 
can-Duilt ships is covered by the 
rules and inspection of one or more 
federal or international, official or 
semi-official, organization. The Bu- 
reau of Navigation and Steamboat 
Inspection Service of the United 
States, the American Bureau of 
Shipping, the Marine Standards 



Committee of the Department of 
Commerce, the United States Navy, 
the United States Treasury, the Uni- 
ted States Shipping Board Bureau, 
the United States Labor Department, 
the International Convention for 
Safety of Life at Sea, and the United 
States Lighthouse Service are but a 
few of these. 

When any point arises outside the 
jurisdiction of any of these bureas 
and commissions, the United States 
Congress is perfectly willing to take 
a hand in the game and add some 
more rules or commissions or both. 

These bureaus and commissions 
were all originally intended for a 
good purpose and the majority of 
them are still beneficial in their 
functions. Many of them, however, 
overlap in their authority and scope, 
some of them are working under ar- 
chaic rules that were adopted in sail- 
ing ship days, and some have no au- 
thority wherewith to impress their 
excellent ideas on merchant marine 
practice. Between the conflicting 
overlapping authority of commis- 
sions and the impression of mana- 
gerial authority from shore through 
radio channels, the American skipper 
at sea is indeed at sea — mentally as 
well as geographically. This was 
amply illustrated in the case of S.S. 
Vestris and also in the case of the 
S.S. Morro Castle. 

No captain can be a good discip- 
linarian, holding the respect and 
obedience of his crew, when he is 
almost forced to vacillate between 
the action he knows to be right and 
his knowledge that such action is 
sure to bring censure and possible 
lay-off, if it results in added expense 
in maintenance and repair costs on 
the vessel. 

Discipline of unruly or drunken 
passengers is almost unheard of on 
American vessels, and yet it has a 



JANUARY, 1935 



profound effect on the morale, dis- 
cipline, and work of the crew. We 
can assert, that had the crew of the 
Morro Castle, and her officers, been 
under good discipline and proper 
training, neither the ship, herself, 
nor any lives aboard would have 
been lost. The fire would have been 
out almost before it started. The ship 
would have been stopped immediate- 
ly, the entire incident of the fire in- 
vestigated, and every suspicion of 
active fire eliminated. 

Discipline, morale, and training of 
the personnel on shipboard are more 
important and necessary to real safe- 
ty work than are the installation of 
modern equipment in safety devices. 



Twenty-Five 
Years Ago 



i I 



'HEN as today Pacific 
Marine Review was re- 
cording progress in marine engin- 
eering and naval architecture, and 
was fighting the battles of Pacific 
Coast shipowners. 

Pacific Marine Review for Janu- 
ary, 1910, recorded the report of the 
Bureau of Navigation for the fiscal 
year, 1909, showing the smallest 
product of United States shipyards 
since 1898, and practically the whole 
output confined to coastwise or do- 
mestic transportation. On June 30, 
1909, the documented U.S. Merchant 
Marine aggregated 7,388,755 gross 
tons, over one-third of which was 
Great Lakes tonnage. In that year 
only 9.5 percent of American foreign 
trade was carried over-seas under 
the American flag. 

Three American-Hawaiian steam- 
ers, SS. Honolulu, S.S. Kentuckian, 
and S.S. Georgian, were building at 
the Maryland Steel Company's yard. 
Sparrow's Point. 

The Vulcan-Pottinger hydraulic 
transformer for speed reduction and 
reversing had just been patented, 
and the Vulcan yard at Stettin had 
built and equipped a small steamer 
with this device and carried on very 
.successful tests for cruising and 
manoeuvring. 

The U.S. battleship Utah was 
launched at the yard of the New 
York Shipbuilding Cdimpany, Cam- 
den, N.J. 

In the 1909 meeting of the Society 
of Naval Architects and Marine En- 
gineers, several interesting papers 
had shown the trend of the ship- 
building and ship propulsion arts. 



Dr. W. L. R. Emmet, of the General 
Electric Company, had presented his 
epoch-making paper on "Applica- 
tions of Electricity to the Propulsion 
of Naval Vessels," describing and 
analyzing the arrangement and de- 
sign of steam-turbo electric drive 
that was to become practically a 
standard in the U.S. Navy. 

A paper by James Donald, Naval 
Architect, commented on and record- 
ed the proposed new structural rules 
for hulls, as codified and amended 
by a committee of the United States 
Standards Association. This commit- 
tee comprised H. L. Ferguson, New- 
port News Shipbuilding Company; 
T. M. Cornbrooks, Maryland Steel 
Company; George Simpson, Fore 
River Shipbuilding Company; and 
James Donald. 

Two comprehensive papers — one 
by Rear Admiral D. W. Taylor, U.S. 
Navy, and the other by Professor H. 
C. Sadler — dealt with vital factors 
of hull design, the effect of parallel 
middle body upon resistance to pro- 
pulsion, and the influence of the po- 
sion of section of maximum area (or 
middle section). 

The Matson Navigation Company 
of San Francisco had purchased two 
barkentines, the Imgard and S. G. 
Wilder. 

Hon. William Taft, President of 
the United States, said: "On the 
Pacific, the whole shipping trade 
threatens to pass into control of 
Japan. Something ought to be done." 

The Union Steamship Company, of 
New Zealand, had declared a divi- 
dend of 24 cents a share. 

The British Corporation, after ex- 
haustive tests, had approved the use 
of Thermit process welding for re- 
pairs to fractured stern posts, rud- 
der frames, and like sections. 

The Presidential message of 1909 
carried a recommendation for a mer- 
chant marine subsidy, the endorse- 
ment of a complete naval base to be 
constructed at Pearl Harbor, Hono- 
lulu, and a comprehensive scheme 
for the reorganization of navy ad- 
ministration. 



Reconstruction 

Finance Corporation 

Chairman of the Board Explains 
Availability of R.F.C. Loans for In- 
dustrial and Commercial Activities 

Industrial concerns, eligible to 



borrow funds from the Reconstruc- 
tion Finance Corporation for the 
purpose of maintaining and increas- 
ing employment, have not yet taken 
full advantage of the assistance 
which the Corporation is prepared 
to extend. 

Congress provided that such loans 
might be made to industrial and com- 
mercial businesses subject to the 
following requirements: 

(1) That the business must have 
been established prior to Jan- 
uary 1, 1934. 

(2) That such loans be adequately 
secured. 

(3) That maturity of loan must 
not exceed five years. 

(4) That borrower must be sol- 
vent at the time of disburse- 
ment of the loan. 

(5) That credit at prevailing bank 
rates for loans of the charac- 
ter applied for not be avail- 
able at banks. 

(6) That reasonable assui'ance of 
increased or continued em- 
ployment of labor be given. 

(7) That the aggregate of such 
loans to any one borrower 
made directly or indirectly 
shall not exceed $500,000. 

(8) That such other provisions as 
the Reconstruction Finance 
Corporation may impose be 
complied with. 

Accordingly, we suggest to indus- 
trial concerns, to which credit at 
prevailing bank rates for loans of 
such character is not available but 
which can offer adequate security 
(even though such security may be 
frozen and therefore not generally 
acceptable to banks) and which can 
profitably use additional funds for 
labor and materials, that they com- 
municate with the local loan agency 
of this Corporation serving the ter- 
ritory in which such concerns are 
located. 

Each Loan Agency of the Corpora- 
tion will, when requested, assist and 
advise with applicants in determin- 
ing their eligibility and in the prep- 
aration of applications. 

Yours very truly, 

JESSE H. JONES 

Chairman. 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



•AN riiANcisg^ 

PUBLIC UBHAnt 



World's Largest and 

World's Most Powerful 




Artist's idea of S.S. Queen Mary Cunard liner neiw Liiid:'r construction at Clydeb.ink, Scotland. Measuring 73,000 
gross tons, 1018 feet length, 118 feet beam and 135 feet deep, Iceel to bridge, she will be powered with Parsons 
quadruple expansion single reduction gear turbines running on 400 lbs. steam pressure and 700 temperature. 
It is claimed the plant will develop 200,000 horsepower, making her the most powerful ship ever built. 




Artist's idea of the S.S. Ncrmandie, bid of France for supnm.icy on the North Atlantic. Measuring 79,280 gross tons. 1,029 
feet length and beam 1 19 feet 6 inches, the Normandie is the largest ship afloat. She is to be propelled by the steam turbo- 
electric system, developing 160,000 shaft horsepower. 



JANUARY, 1935 



, . . Recent Trends in 

Marine Engineering and Ship Design 

IVith Particular Reference to American Practice 



Any survey of recent develop- 
ments in American marine engineer- 
ing practice, must of necessity be- 
gin in the boiler room, since — right 
or wrong according to the viewpoint 
— most installations in new Ameri- 
can ocean-going ships have been 
steam. 

In the boiler room we find that the 
well defined demand on the part of 
naval architects and shipowners for 
a more economical power plant re- 
quiring less space and weight, and 
higher capacity, has brought about 
the rapid adoption of higher steam 
pressures and temperatures, and 
hence the almost exclusive use of 
water-tube boilers. With the latest 
combined cargo and passenger lin- 
ers, this trend has brought at the 
use of the small-tube express-type of 
boiler. Pressures up to 500 pounds 
and temperatures up to 750 are in 
use with the shipowners reluctant, 
and the boiler and turbine builders 
anxious, to go higher. 



• Steam Generators 

There is, of course, the single ex- 
perimental example of the Hamburg- 
American (German flag) cargo liner, 
Unkermark, which for two years has 
been operating on a Benson steam 
generator at or near 3500 pounds 
boiler pressure, throttled down to 
750 pounds at the turbine valve. But 
this is a single exception and is not 
an American ship or development. 

A paper on "Marine and Naval 
Boilers" by Captain C. A. Jones and 
Lieutenant-Commander T. A. Sol- 
berg, both of the United States Navy, 
read November 16, 1934, before the 
Society of Naval Architects and Ma- 
rine Engineers at New York, notes 
the trend above mentioned and 
shows that it has advanced much 
further in naval practice than in the 
merchant marine. In the navy, heat 
release of 200,000 B.t.u. per cubic 
foot of furnace volume per hour is 
not unusual, whereas, in advanced 
merchant marine practice that fig- 



ure rarely goes above 50,000 B.t.u. 
and in common practice it averages 
about 18,000. This would indicate 
that (even with all due consideration 
being given to the difference be- 
tween merchant marine and navy 
operation) there is ample room for 
further savings in the weight and 
space requirements for merchant 
marine boilers. 

This paper cites a comparison be- 
tween the boilers installed on S.S. 
Washington of the United States 
Lines, and in a new U. S. Navy de- 
stroyer boiler recently tested. The 
two boilers have approximately the 
same heating surface and operate at 
the same pressure and temperature. 
The commercial boiler, including its 
air preheater, is 106,500 pounds 
heavier than the naval unit and its 
evaporative rate per square foot of 
heating surface, exclusive of air 
heater, was about one-third that of 
the naval boilers. Commercial boil- 
ers, as now used in advanced mer- 



Boiler 

Weight, lb. (wet sttaming level) 

Space, cu. ft 

Boiler water heating surface, Eq. ft 

Superheater heating surface, sq. ft 

Economizer heating surface, sq. ft 

Radiant surface, sq. ft 

Caliber length .4 row 

Boiler pressure, lb. per sq. in. gage 

Superheat , deg. F 

Furnace volume, cu ft 

Lb. oil per sq ft., B.W.H.S. (on 19000 

B.t.u. basis) 

Lb. oil per hr. per cu. ft. furnace volume. 
B.t.u. release per cu. ft, furnace volume 

(on 19000 B.t.u. basis) 

Equivalent evaporation B.W.H.S., S.H.S. 

and econ. H.S 

Equivalent evaporation per lb. oil (on 

19CXMJ B.t.u. basis) 

Boiler horsepower 

Boiler efficiency, per cent 

Per cent rating 

Refiactory surface, sq. ft 

Fra< tion cold 

Type fuel 

Ty|;e burner and No. installed 



69000 

1580 

4000 





105.8 

54 

300 



445 

1.029 
9.0 



G3347 

15.39 

1836 

78.64 

459 



Oil 
Oil-13 



B 

114994 

3500 

5221 

521 



133.17 

48 

280 

25 



0.658 
8.16 



13.06 

1354 

06.71 

259 

292.0 



Oil 
Oil-6 



C 

165366 

4171 

10900 

918 



161.8 

95.1 

320 

203.4 

1005 

0.996 
11.38 



155040 216220 
46712 (a) 176843 



16.262 
5125.9 

83.04 
470.27 

453.4 

0.348 
t)il 

Oil- 12 



D 

123200 

4937 

11880 





288.4 

120.6 

290 



1137 

1.184 
10.45 



E 

78383 

3125 

6365 





166 

79.3 

280 



bbb 

0.791 
9.09 



F G H 

153152 2^39680 



6396 

11720 

2090 



285 

76.0 

425 

215 

1140 

0.999 
10.56 



198550 172796 200640 
185976 68311 (a) 185279 



15.714 
.5390.6 
80.26 
453.7 
445.1 
0.582 
oil 
Oil-13 



13.56 

1980 

69.38 

311 

263.15 

" " Oil 



15.81 

5370 

80.73 

458.2 

405 

0.704 

wil 

Cil-14 



3250 

4753 

814 

3700 

143 

104.3 

450 

210 

589 

1.5 
12.32 

234000 

115600 

16.23 

3350 

82.81 

705 

270 

0.529 

i,il 

Oil-10 



4910 

1955 

3024 

160.5 

71-108 

420 

357 

1120 

0.564 
2.49 

47310 

47660 

16.92 

1381 

86.42 

139.7 



/ 

259660 

5238 

10500 

2100 

Air heater 

9120 sq. in. 

410 



276 
3.01 

57209 

55833-1- 

5.8 
1765 
84-4 

168 



19050 
3400 
5544 



600 

260 

16150 



26800 
350000-1- 



o.l 
Oil-5 



oil l->il <i gas 
Oil-10 Oil & gas-6 



A. Habcook & Wilcox sectional Oklahoma class. 

B. Babcock & Wilcox sectional-header Mart/land dass. 

C. Babcock & Wilcox sectional-header express type S-V. 

D. JJabcock & Wilcox 3-druiri A-type express cruiser (PenKocola). 

E. Bureau type battleship 3-druin express boiler (Thoriiycroflj. 

F. Yarrow type 3-druni express boiler for destroyers. 



G. Three-drum expreis boiler with economizer for destroyers (design 

values). 
H. Foater-Wheeler 3-druiii express boiler for Grace Line steamship 

Santa Paula. 
I. Babcock & Wi'cox 3-drum express boiler for United States Lines 

steamship Afaiihallan. 
.1. Foster-Wheeler 33200 8(i. ft. boiler, Humble Oil Company. 



Table showing results of U. S. Naval tests on various marine boilers. 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



chant marine practice, show effici- 
encies of 82 to 86 per cent as com- 
pared with 80 per cent for naval de- 
signs. 

Much experimental work is being 
done on further improvements in 
marine boilers both in America and 
in Europe, and there is every reason 
to predict that the next ten years 
will show a greater change and im- 
provement than has taken place in 
the past decade. 

The higher pressure and tempera- 
ture ranges make necessary new de- 
signs and new materials in boiler 
room auxiliaries, such as feed 
pumps, feed water heaters, water 
gages, air pre-heaters, steam gages, 
steam traps, steam valves, and 
steam pipe fittings. American manu- 
facturers have kept pace in all these 
necessary developments by adopting 
land side power plant practice to 
marine uses. There is still much 
room for improvement particularly 
in the water glass, and much experi- 
mental work is in progress. 

There is much room for greater 
cooperation between the marine en- 
ineer and the naval architect in re- 
organizing ship design to take ad- 
vantage of lighter weight and small- 
er space requirements of boilers and 
turbines and piping due to increases 
in pressure. 



A German marine engineer has re- 
cently patented an arrangement of 
ship machinery wherein the boilers 
are on a half-deck, built out over the 
turbines, or even in a house on the 
main deck. This arrangement, of 
course, means a greater capacity for 
a ship of equal size, or a smaller ship 
for equal capacity as compared with 
the orthodox arrangement. 

The ultimate in this trend is a 
steam generator mounted on top of 
the condenser and inclosing the 
steam turbine, with either mechani- 
cal or electrical reducing gear to 
connect turbine and propeller shafts. 

At least one recent American de- 
sign for a ships' propulsion plant of 
4500 shaft horsepower capacity indi- 
cates a combined boiler and engine 
room to save valuable cargo space. 

• Steam Prime Movers 

Given good steam from the boiler 
the next step is to transform the heat 
energy held by that steam into the 
torque that produces the revolving 
motion of shaft and propeller. For 
this purpose, American marine en- 
gineers have adopted the steam tur- 
bine on the great majority of recent 
seagoing plants. The blades of a tur- 
bine, in order to get high efficiency 
must move with a very high tangen- 
tial velocity, which means in practi- 



cal turbine design, either a turbine 
of comparatively large diameter re- 
volving at a comparatively low rate, 
or a turbine of smaller diameter re- 
volving at a high rate. The maximum 
propulsive efficiency of propellers is 
approchable only at comparatively 
low rates of rotation. Hence, the in- 
troduction of either mechanical or 
electrical reduction gearing between 
the turbine and the propeller. 

During the war shipbuilding boom, 
American manufacturers and the 
United States Shipping Board, built 
and tested out in actual sea service, 
a large number of several varieties 
of turbine and mechanical gearing. 
Good use has been made of this ex- 
perience. During the past ten or 
twelve years, American marine tur- 
bines and reduction gearing have 
reached a very high efficiency, econ- 
omy, and dependability in sea ser- 
vice, and a high degree of standardi- 
zation in manufacturing processes. 
The United States navy also is using 
turbine units for all of its high-pow- 
ered vessels. The navy seems to pre- 
fer electrical gearing where there is 
ample space for machinery purposes, 
and mechanical gearing for installa- 
tions where space and weight are at 
a premium. 

Of the two "world's largest, most 
modern, and most economical" great 



Outstanding Trends in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 

'^y Hugo P. Frear, Naval Architect 



The outstanding trends in the 
fields of Naval Architecture and 
Marine Engineering may briefly be 
said to include the following: 

1. Increasing use of fire resisting 
construction and furnishings. Ma- 
terials, panelling, bulkheading, and 
furniture, etc., are now commer- 
cially available to meet almost any 
degree of fire resistance which 
may be specified or desired with- 
out becoming prohibitive on ac- 
count of cost. 

2. Increasing use of air conditioning. 
The application of air conditioning 
will gradually be extended beyond 
the limits of the dining room to 
include the major part of the ac- 
commodations. 

It is not generally realized that 
open doors, windows, and poi-ts have 
proved to be one of the greatest haz- 



ards contributing to the total loss of 
vessels. The "Titanic", "Empress of 
Ireland" or "Eastland" would not 
have sunk or capsized if doors, ports, 
or windows had been closed. No ves- 
sel during the war would have sunk 
or capsized as a result of any single 
damage had no doors or ports been 
open. (I have made this statement 
verbally many times, and never had 
it challenged.) 

Furthermore it would be difficult 
to have, say. a successful and imme- 
diate general conflagration on a ves- 
sel where all the doors, ports, and 
windows, were closed. 

Air conditioning throughout the 
principal accommodations of a vessel 
would automatically necessitate hav- 
ing the doors, ports and windows 
generally closed. 
3. Increasing attention to streamlin- 



ing superstructures, including 
those of cargo vessels and tankers. 

4. Speeds of from 14 to 16 knots for 
cargo vessels. 

It is now possible to increase the 
speeds of vessels of this type from 
two to three knots without mater- 
ially increasing fuel consumption as 
compared with the average vessel of 
ten years ago. Improved forms and 
lower costs make this possible. 

5. The tendency will be to gain great- 
er improvement in fuel economy 
by increasing pressures and tem- 
peratures. 

6. There may be several more super- 
liners on the Atlantic, but the 23 
to 24 knot vessel will be more com- 
mercially popular. 21 knot vessels 
will continue to be popular on the 
Pacific for another decade. 



JANUARY, 1935 



trans-Atlantic liners, Normandie and 
Queen Mary, now building in France 
and Great Britain respectively, the 
first has electrical speed reduction 
gearing and the second mechanical 
speed reduction gearing. The power 
plant of the Normandie is very sim- 
ilar to that on the U.S. airplane car- 
riers, Saratoga and Lexington, and is 
rated at 160,000 shaft horsepower. 
The power plant of Queen Mary is 
rated at 200,000 shaft horsepower. 

Recent improvements in turbine 
design are largely in the refinement 
of standard practice, the application 
of advanced metallurgical know- 
ledge, and the development of stage 
bleeding of steam for feed water 
heating. 

Before the World War, some of the 
most economical liners afloat were 
those that combined the reciprocat- 
ing engine with the turbine drive, a 
favorite arrangement for large lin- 
ers being three screws w'ith recipro- 
cating engines taking steam at boiler 
pressure on the port and starboard 
shafts, and exhausting into a turbine 
on the central shaft. Since the war, 
this idea has been revived as an ex- 
cellent method of improving the pro- 
pulsive performance of reciprocating 
power plants. The method may be ap- 
plied through either mechanical or 
electrical gear. In either case, the re- 
ciprocating engine exhausts into the 
turbine at a pressure slightly above 
atmospheric and the turbine ex- 
hausts into the most absolute vac- 
uum that the condenser and its 
pumps can maintain. Very consider- 
able gains in capacity and economy 
are made by this method. The turbine 
may drive an electric generator 
which supplies energy to an electric 
motor, geared to the propeller shaft, 
or it may be connected to the propel- 
ler shaft through mechanical gear- 
ing and some form of mechanical or 
hydraulic flexible coupling. Any of 
the larger American builders of ma- 
rine turbines is prepared to supply 
this method of improving the per- 
formance of marine reciprocating 
steam engines. 

• Diesel Engine 

In the American seagoing mer- 
chant marine, actual practical appli- 
cation of the diesel engine as a prime 
mover seems to set an upper limit of 
about 3000 horsepower. In Europe, 
marine diesel power plants are in 
operation up to 25,000 horsepower, 
and giving great satisfaction in oper- 



ating economy and reliability. If the 
record of European shipbuilding 
during the past ten years means any- 
thing, there can be little doubt in 
anybody's mind that had the fine 
fleet of American steamers, built 
since 1928 under the Merchant Ma- 



Higher Pressures, Tempera- 
tures, Powers and Speeds 

By W. W. Smith, 

Chief En.«;ineer, Federal Shipbuild 
ing and Dry Dock Co. 

I believe that the outstanding 
trends in marine engineering will be 
towards higher temperatures and 
pressures. We now have in hand a 
design for a 10,000 H.P. ship, which 
will have steam at 1200 pounds pres- 
sure and 950 degrees temperature. 
The fuel consumption for all pur- 
poses will be .45 pounds of oil per 
shaft horsepower per hour. For re- 
gular ocean going ships, which are 
usually more than 400 feet long, the 
trend seems to be to higher speeds 
and powers. For vessels of this type, 
it appears that the trend will be to- 
wards the use of geared turbine ma- 
chinery and electrical auxiliaries. 

For small ships, for harbor craft, 
for river craft and for boats used 
for inland waters generally, there is 
no very definite trend. Below 1000 
H.P. the trend seems to be to direct 
drive diesel engines. There are a 
number of special types where steam 
engines may continue and still 
others where diesel electric drive 
may be used. 

Conditions of marine engineering 
are very backward on the Great 
Lakes. As far as I know, there are 
not more than one or two modern 
ships in the whole of the Great Lakes 
fleet. The two ships which are fair- 
ly modern are the T. W. Robinson 
and the steamer Bradley, owned by 
the Michigan Limestone Company. 
Otherwise, practically all of the in- 
stallations are steam engines oper- 
ating under low pressure and tem- 
perature and which are about twenty 
years behind the times. 

In general, I consider that any ship 
that uses more than .6 of a pound 
of oil per shaft horsepower hour for 
all purposes is out of date, and that 
any new ships which are built should 
have an oil consumption of less than 
half a pound. 



rine Act, been built in Europe, the 
great majority of them would be mo- 
torships. That American manufac- 
turers can build good diesel engines 
must be admitted. Diesel power 
plants have been given considera- 
tion in a number of recent American 
new ship proposals but have been re- 
jected in favor of steam. The reasons 
for this rejection of the diesel seem 
to be rather complicated. 

Certainly on the count of operat- 
ing economy, there would seem to be 
many arguments in favor of the die- 
sel. 

As compared with the common 
garden variety of steam plant found 
in cargo carriers, the ordinary types 
of marine diesel will save more than 
fifty per cent in the volume or 
weight of the fuel used. There cer- 
tainly must be an Ethiopian in the 
family fuel supply when a well-test- 
ed prime mover with that record for 
fuel savings is given scant consider- 
ation by such operation economy 
lovers as our American shipowners. 
But we are not going into any con- 
troversy over rival claims. Editorial 
life is too short and too sweet for 
such foolishness. This is a survey of 
trends in marine engineering. Diesel 
power plants for marine use are cer- 
tainly a department of marine engin- 
eering, and there are some well de- 
fined trends in that development. 

First there is the trend to reduce 
weights without sacrificing reliabil- 
iy. This is done by: (a) increasing 
speed; (b) perfecting trunk piston 
designs for large powers; and (c) 
using high tensile alloy steels in 
welded construction to replace cast 
iron members in frames and bed 
plates. In each of these methods, 
there has been marked improvement 
during the past 12 months. 

Another trend in marine diesel 
power plants is the revival in de- 
igners' minds of the value of subdi- 
vision into small high speed units 
combined with electric drive on the 
propeller shaft. 

A third trend lies in the more com- 
plete utilization of waste heat from 
the engine exhaust. Steam generat- 
ors designed especially for utilizing 
this heat are becoming more effici- 
ent as practical experience indicates 
improvements in design and the day 
is not far distant when the exhaust 
of the diesel will operate all engine 
room auxiliaries at sea, cook the 
food, heat the crews' and passengers' 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



quarters, and furnish light and ven- 
tilation. 

• Power Plant Auxiliaries 

Much work has already been done, 
and much remains to be done, in the 
simplification and standardization 
of engine room auxiliaries and their 
power applications. 

In several recent American marine 
power plants, alternating current 
motors have been used exclusively^, 
and with very fine results in econ- 
omy and reliability. Aside from ques- 
tions of steam balance and the ad- 
visability of steam pumps and heat- 
ers, it would seem that great practi- 
cal operating advantages would ac- 
crue in an installation having elec- 
tric drive of auxiliaries throughout 
the ship and using exclusively alter- 
nating current induction motors of 
identical types. Control systems and 
apparatus covering all types of ap- 
plication have already been worked 
out to perfection of function in Am- 
erican industry, and could easily be 
transferred to the merchant marine. 

• The Propeller 

Propeller designers are constantly 
nearing their desired goal of a math- 
ematically predictable result in ef- 
fective propulsion. Progress along 
this line is being made both through 
model tank experiments and through 
accurate trial data from the ships. A 
full description of the recent devel- 
opments along these lines would be 
entirely beyond the scope of this 
brief survey. Two papers read at the 
November, 1934, New York meetings 
of the Society of Naval Architects 
and Marine Engineers cover the sub- 
ject very thoroughly. The first was 
by Dr. Karl E. Schoenherr of the 
United States Experimental Model 
Basin in Washington, on the subject 
"Recent Developments in Propeller 
Design." The other paper is "Mea- 
surements of Propeller Thrust on 
Shipboard" by Commander H. E. 
Saunders, U.S. Navy. 

The study of airplane propellers in 
wind tunnels and the detailed exper- 
imental research on the behavior of 
water streams and their reaction to 
impulses from propeller blades as 
carried out at Hamburg and other 
experimental tanks is fast making a 
science out of a hit-or-miss trial de- 
sign process. 

• Naval Architecture 

Now let us turn to the design of 
the hull structure and see wherein 







.<^' 



Diagram showing plate construction in place 
of normal bar type for stem. 

the naval architect has made pro- 
gress. So far as publicity goes, for 
the last few months the American 
naval architect's time has been de- 
voted to the problem of making ships 
more nearly safe in case of fire. Eur- 
ope passed through this phase a year 
or two back, when the French motor- 
liner Georges Phillipar burned in the 
Red Sea with great loss of life, and a 
short time later another large 
French liner (L'Atlantique) became 
a total loss by fire. The problem was 
brought home to American designers 
by the disastrous loss through fire 
of the liner Morro Castle and of a 
large passenger list. The Congres- 
sional and the popular mind are now 
completely occupied by the problem 
of making ships fireproof. 

There are, however, many other 
noticeable trends that are appearing 
in papers before technical societies; 
and some of these have appeared on 
the American horizon through pres- 
entation at the last meeting of the 
Society of Naval Architects and 
Marine Engineers. 

In general, the proposed improve- 
ments in design have to do with in- 




Midship section showing proposed simplified 

hull construction for greater safety and 

lower costs. 



creased safety of operation, less cost 
in building, and greater use of weld- 
ing in place of riveting. 

Edward F. Spanner, a noted Brit- 
ish naval architect, and the inventor 
of the duct keel, presented a paper 
on "Ship Structural Design" which 
proposes some very revolutionary 
and thought-provoking departures 
from orthodox hull design — all cal- 
culated to produce a safer ship that 
will cost less to build. 

Briefly, these suggestions include: 

(a) Using a rounded plate instead 
of the usual bar stem to prevent 
deep cutting into the side of the 
rammed vessel in case of col" 
lision ; 

(b) Establishing greater rigidity at 
the beam-frame corner, so that 
deck-plating may more effec- 
tively aid side plating to resist 
blow of collision; 

(c) Stiffening of main water-tight 
bulkheads to stand possible em- 
ergency loadings due to flood- 
ing of compartments following 
the collision. (The method of 
stiffening suggested eliminates 
brackets, improves hold capac- 
ity, and gives more economical 
disposition of riveting or weld- 
ing) ; 

(d) Building of the main hull of the 
ship of straight line section, 
having sharply sloping sides as 
shown by heavy lines in midship 
section herewith, and thereafter 
adding to it a bulge bilge which 
will form the tanks for fuel, 
feed water, ballast, etc., and will 
be the only double bottom. This, 
the author claims, will give bet- 
ter sub-division than the normal 
design, and better protection 
where it is more needed. This 
manner of construction would 
also lend itself to all-welded con- 
nections with far greater ease 
than does the normal design. No 
patents or other claims attach 
to these ideas, which are ad- 
vanced in the hope that .some de- 
signers will have opportunity 
to explore them fully and that 
they may be of benefit to the 
entire profession and to ship 
operators. 

Mr. Spanner's final proposals are 
for the improvement of bilge pump- 
ing systems, as applied to normal 
double bottom design, and include: 
(a) Improved method of designing 



JANUARY, 1935 



and installing filter bilge covers 
to eliminate clogging of bilge 
suctions; 
(b) Pipe connections so installed 
that all pumping power on ship 
be available for bilge pumping. 

• Welded Ship Construction 
David Arnott, Chief Surveyor, Am- 
erican Bureau of Shipping, read a 
very comprehensive paper on this 
subject before the Naval Architects 
and Marine Engineers, tracing the 
history of the art, and giving in con- 
siderable detail the design and con- 
struction of practically all the all- 
welded vessels built in American 
shipyards. His conclusions are very 
interesting. 

"In the construction of these ves- 
sels, the method of erection depend- 
ed to a large extent on the yard 
equipment, and varied from the 
piecemeal variety of assembly to 
the building in the shop or on the 
ground of large units in those yards 
where adequate handling facilities 
were available. Practically every 
type of joint is represented and in 
some of the earlier vessels bare elec- 
trodes were used exclusively. There 
was no undue distortion in the plat- 
ing of any of these vessels as com- 
pleted, their general appearance 
comparing very favorably with the 
ordinary riveted job. A number of 
these barges have now been in op- 
eration for some considerable time 
and so far have stood the test of ac- 
tual service very well indeed — -so 
well that I am confident that their 
owners will continue to specify weld- 
ed construction for future work. 

• Relative Costs of Welding and 
Riveting 

"If electric welding is going to 
supersede riveting in ship construc- 
tion, it must offer some definite eco- 
nomic advantage to the shipowner, 
such as lower initial costs, reduction 
in weight of hull material or lower 
maintenance charges. Contract price 
is not always a criterion of actual 
cost so that only those shipbuilders 
with experience of building both 
welded and riveted vessels of the 
types described can give any real 
idea of comparative costs. It is prob- 
ably safe to suggest that a welded 
barge of rectangular section can 
now be built somewhat cheaper than 
the corresponding riveted job, but 
that the cost differential in favor of 
welding will be less or may entirely 
disappear if the hull is of ship-shape 
form, especially if the plating seams 



8 



Trends in the Fields of 
Marine Engineering and 
Naval Architecture 

By H. Gerrish Smith, 

President, National Council of 
American Shipbuilders 

In Marine Engineering, during re- 
cent years, there has been a gradual 
and continual improvement in the 
economy of engines of all types for 
the propulsion of vessels. At the 
present time the fuel consumption is 
from thirty to forty percent less than 
it was approximately twenty years 
ago. It has become quite usual for 
oil burning steamships to operate at 
fuel consumptions of less than 0.7 
pound per shaft horsepower per 
hour and for Diesel ships to operate 
at a consumption of less than 0.5 
pound per shaft horsepower per 
hour. 

Due to the introduction of welding 
shipbuilding practice is now under- 
going the most revolutionary change 
in the past fifty years. Vessels up to 
250 feet in length are now being 
completely welded, and in seagoing 
vessels of much larger size welding 
is now applied throughout with the 
exception of certain portions of the 
shells and decks. 

Because of this use of welding in 
ship construction many of the older 
shipyard methods are rapidly becom- 
ing obsolete. The advance of weld- 
ing has been accompanied by the 
gradual elimination of punches and 
drills in the steel fabricating shops, 
and a rapid approach to complete 
elimination of pneumatic riveting 
and drilling tools. Welding requires 
the steel parts to be fitted accurately 
together with a much greater preci- 
sion than is necessary in riveted 
construction. 

Welding has also led to changes in 
the methods of assembling the vari- 
ous parts of the vessel and has 
brought about the assembly of the 
largest possible units before in- 
stallation in the ship. The increase in 
economy of marine engines and the 
advancement of welding in ship con- 
struction are the two most pro- 
nounced trends in marine engineer- 
ing and naval architecture in recent 
years. 



are flush, owing to the increased 
difficulties in erection and the ne- 
cessity for careful fitting. Larger 
vessels cannot be so readily assem- 
bled in pre-constructed units, and, 
since a greater proportion of the 
welding will require to be done on 
the ship, it is difficult to conceive 
of the labor costs working out less 
in welded ships of the ordinary 
ocean-going type. 

"Hull weight is an important fac- 
tor in the economics of ship design 
and one advantage of welding is the 
saving in weight which can be 
effected without sacrifice of struc- 
tural efficiency, and entirely 
apart from any reduction in main 
scantlings, which is somewhat pre- 
mature and should await the results 
of actual service tests. Stiffeners, 
web frames, etc., have been built up 
from plates and flats and apportion- 
ed for the required strength for a 
minimum of weight, but this means 
considerable cutting and welding. 
Such makeshifts as cutting I beams 
to obtain T bars even with modern 
automatic flame-cutting apparatus 
cost money, and the lack of rolled 
sections specially designed for weld- 
ing is a real handicap in welded ship 
construction. 

"An adequate range of symmetrical 
shapes such as bulb plates and T 
bars would be decidedly useful, and 
if these can be used for other than 
shipbuilding purposes so much the 
better. In initiating any proposals 
for new standards with the steel 
manufacturers, an endeavor should 
be made to obtain the co-operation 
of structural engineers with a view 
to the adoption of a common stan- 
dard, so that the new shapes will be 
readily obtainable without any ques- 
tion of extra cost. 

• Designing for Welded 
Construction 

"It is perhaps a commonplace to 
suggest that the ship structure 
should be designed primarily for 
welding, but it will nevertheless bear 
repetition. Reducing as far as pos- 
sible the number of structural mem- 
bers and using large plates to keep 
down the number of joints and inci- 
dentally the amount of welding, will 
obviously make for economic design. 
The location of the joints should be 
such as to be easily accessible for 
sound welding. Suitable appliances 
for handling large assembly units 
and turntables or other suitable 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



equipment should be provided so that 
as far as possible welding can be 
done in the flat, which is the ideal 
position not only for economy but 
for maximum efficiency. The maxi- 
mum amount of welding should be 
done in the shop or at least under 
cover where the welder is protected 
from the weather. Good fitting and 
alignment are essential if only to 
avoid waste of electrodes. 

"The amount of welding should be 
reduced to the minimum consistent 
with the strength requirements, as 
the more welding the more heat de- 
veloped with the consequent ten- 
dency to distortion and greater resid- 
ual stresses. The minimum amount 
of welding can only result from the 
use of welds of the highest quality; 
a "quality" weld being defined as 
one in which the filler metal after 
deposition has essentially the same 
physical characteristics as the base 
metal, and one which is uniformly 
sound and has the proper fusion and 
degree of penetration to the exclu- 
sion of serious porosity, slag inclu- 
sions, or undercutting. Such welds 



can best be obtained by the use of 
light gage covered electrodes in as- 
sociation with multiple runs or 
passes. 

"One cannot over-emphasize the 
importance of careful planning be- 
forehand and laying down before 
construction is started a systemat- 
ized procedure for assembly, erection 
and welding, if undue distortion is 
to be avoided and residual stresses, 
which can easily become serious, 
kept to a minimum. 

"Joints welded with bare electrodes 
can reasonably be expected to de- 
velop the elastic strength of the 
plating and there need be no apology 
for having accepted bare wire weld- 
ing in that small class of vessel 
where single-riveted shell seams and 
double-riveted butts have been 
shown by experience to be sufficient 
for strength considerations. In a 
structure of major importance such 
as that of a large ocean-going ship, 
nothing short of the best should be 
considered, and it is significant that 
some of our shipyards now use cov- 
ered electrodes exclusively." 



This brief survey hits only a few 
high spots. Much might be said on 
such branches of the art as: the 
protection of metal surfaces from 
corrosion; the use of fire-resistant 
or fire-proof materials in passenger 
accommodation partitions and dec- 
oration; the improvements in navi- 
gating and operating control devices; 
the development of machinery for 
handling cargo; the recent trends in 
air conditioning, ventilation and 
heating; the problems of sanitary 
drainage, and hot and cold water 
supply; and the new designs in life- 
saving equipment. 

Some of these features are covered 
in special articles in this issue. 
Others will be forthcoming through- 
out the year, together with more de- 
tailed treatment of the topics touch- 
ed upon herein. 

"The ship, the great brave vessel, 
buffeted, stormed at, patient, dumb," 
is always a subject of interest. To 
designers as well as to poets she is 
an inspiration to heartily dare and 
to strive mightily for perfection. 



Progress in Ship Design 



As regards naval architecture, 
while it is true that a good deal has 
already been done voluntarily in the 
matter of fire protection of ships, it 
is probable that government regula- 
tions will shortly be made more strin- 
gent. 

Fire extinguishing devices have 
recently advanced both as a matter 
of such regulations as well as by 
technical development of modern ap- 
pliances. It is also likely that train- 
ing of personnel will be given more 
attention. 

Many recent passenger liners 
could be named which exceed regu- 
lations as to safe construction in a 
marked degree. It is also true that 
technical progress has been marked 
by several papers in recent years 
both here and abroad, without wait- 
ing for the Morro Castle disaster. 

The National Fire Protection As- 
sociation has recently formed a Mar- 
ine Section, which was at work last 
spring and summer and is continu- 
ing quite actively. 



^y E. H Rigg, Naya Architect 

The collision and sinking risk has 
been materially reduced during the 
last twenty years, by better bulk- 
heading. 

Speeds have been increased in both 
passenger and cargo fields; these 
gains are largely at no increase in 
fuel bill, due to modern engineering 
development and to hull improve- 
ments established on sure ground by 
model basin research. 

From the same source have also 
come better propeller performances. 

Mention of particular vessels is 
not advisable, but without that, it 




can be confidently claimed that 
modern consti'uction does show im- 
provement along all lines, both as to 
ship and as to machinery, the im- 
provements in the latter being more 
readily demonstrable, perhaps. 

It is also noticeable that increased 
attention is being given to the eco- 
nomics of ship design; economics 
have always been with us, it is true, 
but it would appear that we pay 
more attention to the subject these 
days; reasons not hard to find. 

It is unfortunate that our country 
has not yet ratified the 1929 Inter- 
national Convention for Safety of 
Life at Sea. This instrument was 
drawn up after much study by all 
maritime nations and our delegation 
took a leading part in the negotia- 
tions, based on the hard work of our 
preliminary committees. It is very 
discouraging that such efforts to 
improve conditions, with all nations 
on an equal footing, should not be 
followed by our official adhesion to 
the pact. 



JANUARY, 1935 



9 



. . . . Suggestions for 

Fire Resistant Material Aboard Ship 



By H. S. Jerome 

After an Interview with J. B. Weaver, Director of Bureau 

of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection, U. S. Department of 

Commerce, Washington, D. C. 



Recent disastrous fires on board 
passenger vessels of the most mod- 
ern type and under several flags, 
have concentrated the attention of 
marine experts on the problem of 
making ships fireproof. This is in- 
dicated by the formulation of new 
and much more stringent rules for 
French merchant marine practice, 
the publication in England of a not- 
able book, "The Fireproof Ship," by 
Edward F. Spanner, prominent naval 
architect; and the numerous papers 
on this general theme read before 
many technical societies. 

The frightful tragedy of the Am- 
erican steamer Morro Castle has 
brought this subject so prominently 
into America's public thinking that 
the Federal agencies charged with 
the inspection of sea-going vessels 
are making an intensive investiga- 
tion into the basic causes of the 
rapid spread of such fires and into 
the possible profitable use of fire- 
proof and fire-resistant materials. 

It is, of course, axiomatic that the 
greatest safety from fire menace 
aboard ship lies in the elimination 
of fire. No fire should exist and no 
fire should be started aboard ship 
except the fires under boilers or in 
stoves for cooking or heating. Spon- 
taneous combustion may occur in 
certain cargoes in the hold, but it 
can hardly be allowed as a justifi- 
able cause in passenger quarters. 
One of the best methods of elimin- 
ating small outbreaks of fire is the 
insistence on absolute cleanliness. A 
steward personnel, which through 
rivalry or some bonus system is 
made clean-minded, takes pride in 
immaculate condition of all nooks 
and corner.s in staterooms, lockers. 



public rooms, and store rooms, will 
never have any accidental fires that 
spread into conflagrations. As an 
experienced Scotch marine engineer 
said to me the other day, "The safest 
way about fires is to have nae fires." 

But since we are dealing with 
rather frail human nature among 
passengers and stewards alike, and 
since drinking has again become a 
large factor in the American Mer- 
chant Marine, we cannot depend too 
greatly on fire safety through train- 
ing of personnel. Personnel is a 
chain of interlocking personalities, 
and like all chains, is no stronger 
than its weakest link. 

While therefore we should select 
and train the personnel aboard ship 
to be fire conscious and safety-mind- 
ed with regard to fire danger, we 
must at the same time see to it that 
we build the passenger accommoda- 
tions in our ships out of the most 
fire resistant materials that are 
practically suited for the particular 
use. 

• Fire Patrol Systems. 

In recent years large liners have 
been carrying special fire crews 
whose constant duty is to see that 
all safeguards against fire and all 
fire extinguishing apparatus are in 
good order and capable of function- 
ing instantly in case of emergency. 
On an outbreak of fire in any part 
of the ship these men know exactly 
what to do and do it. On ships hav- 
ing such crews there have been many 
recent instances of stateroom and 
public room fires, where the blaze 
was extinguished before any passen- 
ger knew of its existence. 

The last "International Conven- 



tion for the Safety of Life at Sea" 
makes the following provisions in 
regard to detection of fires : "An ef- 
ficient patrol system shall be main- 
tained so that any outbreak of fire 
may be promptly detected. In addi- 
tion, a fire alarm or fire detecting 
system shall be provided which will 
automatically indicate or register at 
one or more points or stations, where 
it can be most quickly observed by 
officers and crew, the presence or in- 
dication of fire in any part of the 
ship not accessible to the patrol sys- 
tem." 

Fire Control Regulations 
In considering the use of fire re- 
sistant materials in the construction, 
equipment, and furnishing of pas- 
senger quarters aboard ship the fol- 
lowing general conditions may be 
assumed from the fire control view- 
point: 

(a) That, regardless of any regu- 
lations, safety propaganda or other 
precautions, fires will occur due to 
such causes as carelessness of pas- 
sengers or crew and short circuits in 
electric wiring. 

(b) That fires when they start are 
of low temperature. 

(c) That a well established fire 
has a temperature of about 1700 deg. 
Fahrenheit. 

(d) That passengers' effects, fur- 
niture, and furnishings will usually 
be of a flammable nature, and that 
substitution of metal furniture, 
while helpful, would not in itself 
prevent the rapid spread of fire. 

(e) That 100 per cent protection 
with methods and materials now 
available is not possible within prac- 
tical limits of weight and cost. 

Naval Architect George C. Sharp, 
of New York City, in a recent paper 
on "Fire Control for Passenger Ves- 
sels," read before the Society of 
Naval Architects and Marine Engin- 
eers, sets forth a series of provisions 
based on these assumptions, and de- 
clares that development of these 
provisions aboard ship would prac- 



10 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



tically control fire and prevent its 
rapid spread. 

These provisions include, for de- 
tection and extinction of fire: Auto- 
matic fire alarm systems with cen- 
tral control stations; 24-hour watch 
at the control station, at sea, in port, 
or laid up; adequate patrol of pub- 
lic rooms; and adequate fire hy- 
drants with powerful water jets. 
They go further and include for 
"safety construction and draft"; ma- 
terials of stateroom and public room 
partitions to be of such nature as to 
"insure the maintenance of their in- 
tegrity for a sufficient period of 
time (say 20 minutes) after the 
alarm registers," as to allow the fire 
patrol to get fire fighting equipment 
on the job; for public spaces the in- 
tegrity of partitions to be maintain- 
ed against fire for the period be- 
tween patrol rounds; elimination of 
all draft in construction of passen- 
ger quarter partitions, except win- 
dows and doors; and means of con- 
trol of the mechanical ventilation 
from the pilot house or central con- 
trol station. 

These provisions are practically 
incorporated in the tentative require- 
ments of the National Fire Protec- 
tive Association, and it has been es- 
timated that compliance with this 
standard in the construction of a 
large passenger vessel would involve 
the additional cost of about 1 per 
cent. 

• Fire Resistant Material. 

There are many fire resistant ma- 
terials available for partition con- 
struction and methods of application 
for these materials have been work- 
ed out by many naval architects. As 
specified in the tentative regulations 
of the "National Fire Protective As- 
sociation," for passenger quarters 
partitions these fire resistant mate- 
rials must be capable of withstand- 
ing 1000 degrees Fahrenheit for 30 
minutes. The classes of these mater- 
ials listed are: 

Hollow sheet metal or aluminum 
panels. 

Sheet metal, hard sheet asbestos, 
or laminated sheet phenolic compo- 
sition glued on untreated plywood 
or composition cores. 

Untreated veneers or composition 
cores having crossbands of not less 
than 1/32 inch sheet asbestos. 

Fireproofed plywood, lumber or 
composition cores (treated) with un- 
treated face veneers. 



Single sheet metal, corrugated or 
stiffened, where there is no flam- 
mable material adjacent to same on 
one side. 

Doors hinged, sliding or rolling in 
such partitions should be of equal 
or better fire resistant material than 
the bulkhead. All glass in doors and 
windows should be metal framed and 
be fire resistant. 

Magnesite, rubber tiling, linoleum, 
mastic tiles, hardwood floors, cement 
and tile, are all considered satisfac- 
tory floor coverings. 

Use of fire resistant paint is rec- 
ommended, and warning is made 
against the use of any Pyroxylin base 
finish paints, particularly where 
face veneers are not fire resistant. 

All dressers, tables, lockers and 
shelving in passenger spaces should 
be constructed of fire resistant ma- 
terial. All beds should be of metal. 
Waste paper baskets should be sup- 
plied in every room and should be of 
first class fire resistant material and 
be shaped with a curved in top edge. 

Thus we see that much work has 
already been done toward formulat- 
ing adequate rules for construction 
looking toward the elimination or 
safe control of fires in passenger 
accommodations aboard ship and 
that these rules recognize an ade- 
quate supply of approved materials 
available at reasonable cost. Ameri- 
can manufacturers have recognized 
the need for this type of material, 
and through research and engineer- 
ing have developed many new ele- 
ments and combinations, together 
with the shop technique to produce 
shapes and sheets to meet practic- 
ally every marine use. 

The Bureau of Navigation and 
Steamboat Inspection maintains at 
Washington and at various United 
States ports a technical staff whose 
services are available to any Amer- 
ican shipowner for advice and coun- 
cil on the important problem of mak- 
ing the ships of the American Mer- 
chant Marine as fireproof and as fire 
resistant as is practical in the pres- 
ent state of the shipbuilding art. 



P. Harnack, fifth edition. 543 (5»i 
inches by 4 inches) pages, bound 
in sky-blue filled cloth with at- 
tractive nautical design in dark 
blue, red and white. Published by 
Alexander Moring, Ltd., The De 
La More Press, London. Price 7/6. 

The contents include such inter- 
esting topics as the making of the 
ship, the sailing of the ship, course 
and direction, distance, time, atmos- 
phere, tides, the history and devel- 
opment of the merchant service, dis- 
tinguishing emblems, signals, lights, 
the buoys of the United Kingdom, 
ship canals, docks, the high seas, 
yachting, "Lloyd's", Lloyd's register 
of shipping, nautical vocabulary and 
many others. In addition to six color 
plates, the book contains many line 
drawings, and charts which add to 
the attractiveness and usefulness of 
the volume. 



ENGLISH WARSHIPS IN THE 
DAYS OF SAIL by A. Guy Vercoe 
— a brief historical guide for mod- 
el makers. 72 pages bound in blue 
cloth. 24 illustration plates. Pub- 
lished by Percival Marshall & Co., 
Ltd., London. Price 3/6. 

Not intended to be a comprehen- 
sive history of English fighting 
ships, this little book sets out to 
trace in small compass the main fea- 
tures of warship design in the days 
of sail for the benefit of beginners 
in ship-modelling, and to indicate to 
them the pitfalls and inaccuracies 
into which they may fall if they rush 
haphazard into the construction of 
models without a certain amount of 
preliminaiy inquiry and research. 



Book Reviews 

SHIPS AND SHIPPING, a handbook 
of popular nautical information 
with numerous diagrams, plans, 
and illustrations. Edited by Edwin 



SALT OF THE SEA, RED SAUND- 
ERS, the chronicle of a genial out- 
cast, by the author of "A Modern 
Sinbad". 352 pages, bound in dark 
blue cloth with white decoration 
and lettering. Published by J. B. 
Lippencott Company, Philadelphia. 
Price $2.50. 

The argosy of a hot-headed Eng- 
lishman who carried a search for 
exciting adventure to the farthest 
outposts of civilization in the South 
Sea Islands and the Indian Ocean. 
Trouble was his meat and he found 
plenty of it. The exciting chronicle 
of one of those swashbuckling he- 
roes of the romantic period towards 
the turn of the last century. 



JANUARY, 1935 



11 



.... The Outlook for 

American Marine Diesels in 1935 



^y Edward B. Pollister 

President 
Busch-Sulzer Bros. Diesel Engine Company 



If the depression has taught us no- 
thing else, so far, it has taught the 
whole country that foreign trade is 
essential to national prosperity. 

We are now definitely committed 
by popular vote of endorsement of 
the present administration to what 
some consider an unorthodox recov- 
ery program. But we shall all do well 
to accept this; and to cooperate fully 
with the government in the solution 
of our most pressing problem — the 
re-employment of ten and one-half 
million workers. 

Two of the six major points in 
Secretary Roper's post election 
speech dealing with the recovery 
plans may well be repeated here: 

"Open foreign markets to secure a 
more extensive exchange of goods. 

"Plan a sound public works pro- 
gram that will provide worthwhile 
projects of general utility, where 
such aid is most needed, without con- 
flicting with private investment and 
private industry." 

The aggressive opening of foreign 
markets demands modern ocean 
transportation — the frequent sailing 
of fast, economical American mer- 
chant ships to all of the principal 
ports of the world. And, in these 
troublesome times, an adequate navy 
to protect our shipping. In war, our 
Navy, even if built to treaty strength, 
must have such fast merchant, sec- 
ond line ships. 

• Merchant Fleet Obsolete 

Our present merchant fleet con- 
sists, largely, of government war- 
built, slow, uneconomical cargo 
boats and only a handful of modern 
passenger steamers. In general, the 
handicap of slow speed and high op- 
erating costs of these cargo boats 
has more than offset any govern- 



mental well intended largess in sell- 
ing price or subsidy. The ship op- 
erators are in distress financially. 
The government must pav extraor- 
Hinarv subsidies to cover the opera- 
tion of obsolete ships, while the de- 
cline of shipbuilding to ninth place 
among the nine leading maritime 
nations of the world marks the un- 
wholesome, steady decline of the 
American Merchant Marine. In the 
expenditure of billions for public 
works to relieve unemployment, the 
government may well replace these 
obsolete, war-purpose, cargo boats 
with a fleet of modern motorized ton- 
nage, which, at the same time will 
anticipate the needs of our growing 
Navy. 

Modern merchant and navy ships 
will meet a present day need and 
future menace; their building will 
be "a project of general utility 
where such aid is most needed, with- 
out conflicting with private invest- 
ment and private industry." For 
funds so spent we will have "some- 
thing for our money" that would be 
very worthwhile. 

Scrap the old ships — which will 
provide employment and material. 
Build modern merchant and navy 
vessels essential to the whole coun- 
try in peace and war. Shipyards as- 
semble the widespread output of 
national industry, spreading employ- 
ment to the mines, forests, fields and 
factories of every state in the Union. 
The old war-cry "ships and more 
ships" may well serve us again. 

Fortunately, our eastern seaboard 
President inherited a knowledge of 
the leading part that maritime activi- 
ties have played in building our na- 
tion and naval prestige in preserving 
it. Our Congress is even now engag- 
ed in preparing new legislation to 



correct past abuses of governmental 
aid; but it will reflect most surely 
the wise viewpoint — that a merchant 
marine, adequately supported by 
government aid and a strong navy 
will, alone, meet the urgent needs of 
national prosperity and peace in the 
years immediately ahead. 

• We Lag in Shipbuilding 

The extent to which our shipbuild- 
ing languishes is revealed by Lloyd's 
Report at the end of the third quar- 
ter, 1934, of the gross tonnage of 
merchant ships under construction 
September 30th with the ranking and 
production of the nine leading mari- 
time nations: 
Great Britain and Ireland ... 604,296 

Japan 149,750 

France 120,868 

Germany 120,816 

Denmark 74,938 

Holland 70,735 

Sweden 64,565 

Italy 37,970 

United States 22,225 

The United States had only two 
merchant ships larger than 2000 tons 
building — and both were steamers — 
while of 80 ships of from 6000 to 
20,000 tons under construction in the 
rest of the world, 67 — 83% per cent 
— were diesel ships. 

In outstanding contrast to the rest 
of the world, we have no modern 
diesel ships, merchant or surface 
naval. The Congress and the Navy 
have all along realized the merit of 
the marine diesel. Ten years ago 
Congress made appropriation for 
dieselizing some twenty odd obsolete 
war-built government steam cargo 
vessels and spread the work among 
five concerns to encourage the devel- 
opment and perfection of American 
designs. About half of these ships, 
fitted with the least experimental of 
these new, large marine diesels, built 
for the first time in America, are, 
today, the most economical ships of 
their class in the United States mer- 
chant fleet — and have an excellent 
record of reliability and mainten- 
ance. 



12 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




World's largest trunk pis- 
ton type diesel engine 30 
inch bore and 52 inch 
stroke, built and tested by 
Busch-Sulzer to solve all 
problems in trunk piston 
diesel engine design for 
large sizes up to 10,000 
horsepower in 12 
cylinders. 



• U.S. Navy Diesels 

The Navy, always a large buyer 
of submarine diesels, has in recent 
years placed liberal orders with no 
less than seven different firms, to 
encourage the development of spec- 
ial, light-weight, high speed Navy 
diesels. The Navy has repeatedly 
recommended re-engining with die- 
sels several of the e.xisting Navy 
tankers, as a part of the public 
works unemployment relief expendi- 
tures. This project will undoubtedly 
receive early and favorable consid- 
eration, with the appropriation by 
the new Congress of additional funds 
for public works. 

Through this recent wise policy 
of Navy supporting orders to private 
industry, three new designs of spec- 
ial Navy type diesels are now avail- 
able for U.S. submarines. Two of 
these are distinctly American. One 
has been produced in the General 
Motors laboratory and built by its 
subsidiary, the Winton Engine Com- 
pany — a single acting, 2 cycle, high 
speed diesel. Another is a promising 
opposed piston type, brought out by 
the Fairbanks Morse Company. The 
third, built under license from 
M.A.N, by the Hooven, Owens, Rent- 



schler Company of the double acting Craft," published in the November, 

type, affords the Navy the benefit of 1934, issue of U. S. Naval Institute 

German development of the type of Proceedings, from which the follow- 

diesel propelling engines of the three ing is extracted: 

56,000 H.P. German pocket battle- "The diesel engine, whether instal- 

ships, and auxiliary cruising diesels jgd as an adjunct to steam or whe- 

of German cruisers of the Leipsic ther it be the main drive, inher- 

class. ently effects savings in fuel which 

Experience with these advanced would more than double the cruis- 

types of light weight, high speed ing radii of our surface craft. It 

diesels must necessarily precede is, certainly, one answer to our fuel 

their adoption for the sole propulsion problem. The accompanying figures 

of high powered war ships. The war from the steaming data of treaty 10,- 

value of the Navy surface diesel 000-ton men-of-war illustrate the 

ship is strongly presented by Lieut.- saving in fuel possible using the 

Commander John 0. Huse, U.S.N., in diesel engine instead of steam for 

an article "Diesel-Driven Surface (A) cruising drive, and (,B) main 

Cruising at 
Economical Speed Steam Diesel 
A Fuel consumption per H.P. for propul- 
sion 1.750 .440 

Fuel consumption per H.P. for all 

purposes 2.000 .630* 

Full Power 

B Fuel consumption per H.P. for propul- 
sion .800 .440 

Fuel consumption per H.P. for all 

purposes .850 .480* 

*Estimated. 

Table showing fuel saving possibilities by using diesel propulsion for 10,000 ton 
naval treaty ships. 

13 



JANUARY, 1935 



drive (the figures given are approxi- 
mately those attained by the 10,000- 
ton treaty cruisers of all nations) : 

"The table demonstrates the fact 
that the diesel engine, in either the 
part diesel or all diesel plant, may in- 
crease our cruising radii over 
threefold at cruising speeds, and 
nearly twofold at full power. 

"Summarizing the arguments 
against the diesel engine on the one 
hand and the arguments for its adop- 
tion on the other, we find: 

• Cruising Diesel Drive 

Disadvantages 

1. Increases weight and space 
slightly. 

2. Costs slightly more than straight 
steam. 

Advantages 

1. Increases the cruising radius of 
our ships threefold. 

2. Permits higher speed running in 
the war areas. 

3. Reduces necessary fuel storage of 
bases and tankers. 

4. Will send our ships into action 
with clean boilers (cruising die- 
sels) or with a plant not subject, 
after long steaming, to loss of 
power or economy (all diesel). 

• All Diesel Drive 

Disadvantages 

1. Reduces reliability because of 
larger number of moving parts. 

2. Reduces reliability because of 
higher pressure and temperatures 
on moving parts. 

3. Reduces reliability because of tor- 
sional vibration. 



4. Costs more for first cost, Navy 
yard overhauls and renewal parts. 

5. Gives higher noise levels and vi- 
bration and hence is less comfort- 
able at sea for the crew than 
steam turbine drive. 

6. Burns a somewhat more danger- 
ous fuel, but this is more than 
offset by the diesel's fuel supply 
system. 

Advantages 

1. Permits high speed in the war 
area at least two to three times 
as long as the steam plant, thus 
reducing the danger of submar- 
ine, aircraft and destroyer at- 
tack. 

2. Enables the fleet to reach thea- 
tre of war and strike more swift- 
ly because of higher economical 
cruising speed. 

3. Gives a propulsion plant in 
which full power is immediately 
available, thus guarding the fleet 
against surprise attack. 

4. Reduces vulnerability under gun- 
fire, torpedo fire and bombing. 

5. Reduces space requirements over 
the steam plant. 

6. Reduces necessaiy height of ar- 
mor belt. 

7. Immunizes all machinery spaces 
from gas attack. 

8. Eliminates stacks and makes 
smoke prevention easier. 

9. Improves flight deck and flying 
conditions. 

10. Reduces operating personnel. 

11. Improves water-tight compart- 
mentation and localizes damage 
in action. 



12. Increases number of main power 
units and, hence, reliability in 
action. 

13. Saves money on fuel bill, at least 
until diesel fuel cost increases. 

14. Halvies the necessary capacity 
of the distilling plant and elim- 
inates reserve fuel stowage. 

"Our Navy, above all others, needs 
the Diesel engine. The arguments 
for the development and adoption of 
all-diesel drive are more compelling 
in Washington than in London, Tok- 
yo, Paris, Rome, or Berlin. 

"Let us put diesel cruising drive 
in all new construction. 

"Let us take the lead in the future 
development of the all-diesel man-of- 
war." 

Early adoption of cruising diesels 
for the highest powered war-ships 
and all diesel propulsion for other 
surface navy vessels may be reason- 
ably anticipated, as well as the ad- 
vocacy by the Navy of diesel propul- 
sion for merchant vessels, govern- 
ment financed. The 10,000,000 tons 
of foreign flag, long radius, diesel 
merchantmen will play a new and 
most advantageous part in the next 
war, in carrying neutral trade, 
troops, war supplies and in acting 
as auxiliary war-ships. With strate- 
gic fuel supply ports closed, diesel 
ships can make long round voyages 
where steamers could not be used at 
all. The 24 armed ocean liners that 
carried out "single-handed the block- 
ade of Germany night and day, 
through summer and winter in the 
stormiest seas to be found anywhere 




Hold plan of Ferry Pcralta. Upper, as originally built with double end turbo-electric drive. Lower, as converted to single 

end direct diesel drive. 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



viiiable) 
., ^ight, lower 
.11, and lower cost diesel for di- 
jct propulsion. This engine is a 
compelling answer to the principal 
claims of steam advocates for mer- 
chant ships, and removes most of the 
diesel disadvantages listed by Lieut.- 
Commander Huse. For naval surface 
ships the possibilities of this large 
trunk piston diesel have not yet been 
fully explored. A cylinder of 35 in. 
bore and 35 in. stroke would not pre- 
sent an excessive piston speed, 1458 
feet per minute, for the quadruple 
screws of our battleships, which 
turn up to 250 R.P.M. (German poc- 
ket battleships 350 revolutions) for 
maximum ship speed. In twelve cy- 
linders, four such units would pro- 
vide a maximum output of 60,000 
H.P. in the simplest form of diesel. 
Operating over 90 per cent of the 
time at cruising speeds, such diesels 
should be extremely reliable, low in 
upkeep, quiet in operation and long 
lived. Present battleships have 40,- 
000 H.P. (before modernization) and 
some, turbo electric drive, of greater 
machinery weight than is readily 
possible with this new type of large 
trunk piston diesel, coupled directly 
to propellers without gears, and with 
self-contained scavenging blowers. 
A glance at the plans for replacing 
the 2,250 H.P. turbo-electric drive 
machinery of the Peralta with a sin- 
gle unit 3,000 H.P. trunk piston die- 
sel will show the remarkable simpli- 
fication of apparatus as well as the 
saving in space and weight. This 



}\ represents remarkable 
toward simplification of 
oowers compared with the 
' high speed diesels and 
■r pressures and tempera- 

jodern steam plant, so dis- 
vulnerable to naval ves- 

-•tion. 

pie Units 

such diesel units could be 

,ted in pairs by water-tight 

;ads into two complete power 

5, below water-line. Their 

it could be further reduced by 

ning the hull framing to receive 

ie;igine shaft bearings, thus 

.ing the bedplate weight, in 

.. The crankcase frames could 

be fabricated at the shipyard 

the weight of the cylinder blocks 

iced by substituting structural 

.teel, welded, in place of cast iron. 

For higher powers — all diesel 
drive — the combination of such direct 
connected simple diesels for cruis- 
ing, supplemented by less tried, high 
speed diesels for full power, at once 
suggests an answer to most of the 
disadvantages presented in the study 
of all diesel propulsion by Lieut. - 
Commander Huse. 

Although three of these larger 
trunk piston diesels, 3,000 H.P. each, 
have been installed in land plants, 
with from two to three years of 
satisfactory service, the only marine 
installation is of 2200 H.P. in the 
ferry Chippewa, of the Puget Sound 
Navigation Company, running from 
Seattle to Bremerton. A record for 
this unit of 950 days of consecutive 
daily service, covering 210,000 miles, 
with any necessary drydocking dur- 
ing occasional Sunday layovers, 
prompted the recent order of a 3000 
H.P. unit of the same type for the 
diesel conversion of the turbo elec- 
tric ferry Peralta. 

Surely, the depression years have 
witnessed a remarkable advance in 
diesel development in America — 
stream-lined diesel trains and heav- 
ier diesel freight, passenger and 
switching locomotives, that promise 
to bring the cost of land transporta- 
tion down to that of diesel pumped 
oil through pipe lines — three new 
types of special high speed navy die- 
sels, and the large, moderate speed, 
simple trunk piston diesel for both 
Navy and merchant ship direct-pro- 
pulsion. The potential market for all 
of these is of staggering proportions. 
Here, then, is an ideal outlet for pub- 



lic relief expenditures that will prove 
of lasting benefit to all the people, 
will be self-liquidating expenditures 
that will return the capital through 
diesel economy, will put the durable 
goods industry back to work, and 
provide long-radius modern merchant 
and naval ships which are absolute- 
ly essential to national prosperity in 
times of peace and safety in times 
of war. 



by 



Obvious Trends in 
American Marine Practice 
a Prominent Marine 
Engineer 

Merchant shipbuilding having 
been practically at a standstill dur- 
ing the past year, nothing new has 
developed, but it is pretty certain 
that when it gets going again there 
will undoubtedly be an extension of 
the use of welding in the hull struc- 
ture, as a result of progress along 
this line in naval work. 

Tankers will be required in the 
near future, as they wear out more 
rapidly than other vessels, due to 
the corrosive action of their cargoes, 
and the tendency will be for higher 
speeds in this class of vessel and and 
cargo boats generally (13, 14, and 15 
knots where 10 to 12 knots was pre- 
viously employed). 

When passenger ships are built 
again there will be a big step made 
in the employment of non-combus- 
tible materials as a result of the 
Morro Castle disaster. 

In the engineering field the so- 
called high pressure steam installa- 
tions put in during the last few years 
have given a very good account of 
themselves, and 400 lbs. pressure and 
700 degrees temperature will become 
the minimum standard of the future. 
The trend will be towards higher 
pressures, 500 or possibly 600 lbs., 
for the larger power installations 
only. Increase of temperature above 
750 degrees, owing to the special ma- 
terials required, is very undesirable 
in marine work as yet. 

The advantages of diesels as 
against steam is becoming more and 
more recognized for the small powers 
up to about 1500 H.P. per shaft, and 
in the future they will be used in 
conjunction with gears where the 
revolutions of the engine do not fit 
properly. 



JANUARY, 1935 



15 



Foreign Trade and the 
American Merchant 

^y Roger D. Lapham 

President of the American-Hawaiian Steamship ( 



I do not claim to be an expert on 
all the ramifications of Foreign 
Trade. My interest, however, is a pri- 
mary one. No shipowner can live in 
foreign trade unless he has cargo 
to carry; yet the development of 
that trade is largely beyond the 
shipowner's control. True, service 
and freight rates have a distinct 
bearing, but they cannot overcome 
economic and political barriers, 
tariffs, quotas, and the constant 
changes in monetary standards. 

Recently I have been much impres- 
sed by the report of the Commission 
of Inquiry on National Policy in In- 
ternational Economic Relations. This 
Committee, headed by its Chairman, 
Dr. Robert Hutchins of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, was asked by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt to study and to make 
recommendations on this complicat- 
ed subject. 

After an exhaustive and extensive 
survey, during which hearings were 
held in all sections of the country, 
and representative men of different 
interests were heard, the Committee 
made public its report a week ago. 
The opening paragraph of the Com- 
mittee's recommendations reads: 

"In order to advance the recovery 
of the world, the United States must 
promote the interchange of goods 
and services among nations. We be- 
lieve that this policy is indispensable 
to the recovery and development of 
the United States." 

And to effectuate this policy the 
committee further recommends cer- 
tain political, economic and adminis- 
trative measures which I won't touch 
upon here, except to say that they 
are well worth reading. 
Nationalism and Internationalism 

In the report, Nationalism is de- 
fined as "the policy of withdrawing 



'Address delivered before the Western Divi- 
sion of the United States Chamber of Com- 
merce Meeting at Los Angeles, Dec fi, 1934. 



from intercourse 
pies to the greate 
a policy directed 
self-containment 
the modern worlc 
ism is defined, wl 
nomic matters, as 
tween nations on 
possible from an 
The report further 

"No National pol 
ionalistic, none whc 
istic. Every policy 
compromises; each is 
the sense that it is intended lo . 
mote the interests of the nation that 
adopts it. Internationalism is nation- 
al in the sense that it is never fol- 
lowed in practice except with the in- 
tent to promote the interests of the 
nation." 

Looking at the subject, then, from 
the selfish standpoint of the United 
States, is it not in our interest to 
promote economic internationalism 
as one of the means to pull ourselves 
out of the quagmire we are in to- 
day? Personally, I believe it is, both 
from the standpoint of our industrial 
and our agricultural welfare. 

The World War and Science have 
developed our industrial production 
capacity, and have helped the farmer 
to grow more than he ever did be- 
fore. I am not unmindful that other 
nations have progressed along the 
same lines we have, and undoubtedly 
we have had much to do in teaching 
some of them increased industrial 
and agricultural production. Wit- 
ness the five-year-plan of Russia, 
and the adoptive methods of our Jap- 
anese friends. 

Since 1918, and particularly in the 
last five years, the world has under- 
gone, and is still undergoing, a poli- 
tical and economic upheaval, and all 
in the direction of economic nation- 
alism. 

Remember the ideals and hopes of 



leave ^^^ 

• The World Moves Towara 
Broader Relationships 

Right now we seem to be in the 
dumps of a nationalistic cycle, and, 
therefore, there is all the more rea- 
son to believe that a swing is due 
toward an economic internationalis- 
tic frame of mind. Compare the sit- 
uation of today with that of a hund- 
red years ago — on this Pacific Coast, 
no trade with Japan or Australia, 
and that with South America prac- 
tically none. Can anyone doubt that 
in the long pull, the world moves to- 
wards broader relationships? We 
could not prevent it even if we want- 
ed to; and the growth of transporta- 
tion and communication has been an 
outstanding factor in the develop- 
ment of these broader affinities. 

The development of the telephone, 
of the radio, and of the airplane dur- 
ing the last few years has been re- 
markable, and today we are on the 
threshold of a trans-Pacific air ser- 
vice which may make it possible for 
a letter to reach the Philippines or 
China in three or four days. Can 
anyone doubt that the establishment 
of such an air service to the Far East 
will promote, in spite of political 
hindrances, trade expansion? We 



16 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



may retard, but we cannot prevent a 
111 tr exchange of goods and a wider 
reoiioniic dependence on other na- 
tions. 

I am confident that the tide, grant- 
ed that it ebbs and flows, moves to- 
wards economic internationalism, 
simply because economic internat- 
ionalism, in the end, will best serve 
the national interests of all coun- 
tries. So much for the foreign trade 
phase of my talk. 

And now to the subject of the Am- 
erican Merchant Marine, about 
which, having spent all my business 
lifetime in it, I can speak with more 
authority. I shall confine myself to 
the operation of American-flag ves- 
sels in foreign trade. 

• Coordination of Domestic 
Transportation. 

The vessels employed in the pro- 
tected intercoastal and coastwise 
ti'ades are substantial in number and 
tonnage, and are perhaps the back- 
bone of our Merchant Marine. But 
the problems of these protected 
trades are internal ones, involving 
no foreign relations; and if I read 
the signs right, will probably be dealt 
with along the lines advocated by 
Mr. Eastman, and that is — coordina- 
tion of all forms of domestic trans- 
portation. 

However, it is plain that no such 
nationalistic treatment can be ap- 
plied to vessels in foreign trade. We 
can make our interstate carriers con- 
form to the wishes of the country as 
expressed by Congress. But we can- 
not expect the Britisher, the Scandi- 
navian or the Japanese to accept, 
without natural resentment and re- 
taliation, any legislation adopted in 
Washington affecting them, and 
which they may consider against 
their own national interests. It is 
my belief that American shipowners 
in foreign trade made an ill-advised 
and short-sighted move when they 
attempted to write into a proposed 
shipping code, some means of con- 
trolling freight rates on traffic mov- 
ing outward from American to for- 
eign ports. The code proposed was 
not approved by the President, and 
properly so, because of objections 
raised by various foreign nations. 

It is true that Congress could pass 
a law, in effect fixing minimum out- 
ward foreign rates, and it is equally 
true that insofar as foreign-flag ves- 
sels are concerned, there could be no 
practical way of policing the collec- 
tion of any prescribed rates at des- 



tination. Certainly, the passage of 
such legislation would only invite 
retaliatory measures of some kind. 

• Cooperation on Stabilized 
Freight Rates. 

The only effective means of sta- 
bilizing freight rates in foreign 
trade is through some cooperative 
action by the countries involved, and 
while stabilization (a word much us- 
ed these days) may be desirable, par- 
ticularly from the standpoint of any 
shipowner with an established liner 
service, I very much doubt whether 
it is possible to secure it. Importers 
and exporters in foreign trade are 
interested primarily in buying and 
selling on the cheapest basis, and 
freedom of the seas has always im- 
plied freedom of barter. 

• American- and Foreign Flag 
Ship Costs. 

The American shipowner in for- 
eign trade is required to operate Am- 
erican-built vessels. That is right 
and necessary if the American ship- 
builder and American shipbuilding 
labor are to live. It is obvious that 
if the American shipowner is to 
start in foreign trade on an even 
level with his foreign competitor, 
his capital and operating costs must 
approximate those of the foreign 
shipowner. 

Without going into d<?tails, I shall 
ask you to accept my statement that 
an American-built and an American- 
manned vessel costs substantially 
more to build and to run than a for- 
eign-built or -operated ship. This 
broad statement can be verified by 
data in the files of the Department 
of Commerce and the old Shipping 
Board. The losses sustained by lines 
formerly operated in foreign trade 
by the government have amply dem- 
onstrated this. 
Government Aid Essential. 

Accepting that broad statement, it 
is evident that an American vessel 
in foreign trade cannot be run pro- 
fitably without some form of govern- 
mental aid, at least sufficient to off- 
set the differential between foreign 
and American building and operat- 
ing costs. 

You have all heard of the Ocean 
Mail Contract Act of 1928, under 
which 56 ocean mail contracts were 
awarded, and which now costs the 
government approximately $30,000,- 
000 per annum. 

The term "Ocean Mail Contract" 
is a misnomer, and has proved a 
boomerang to shipowners holding 



these contracts. There is no use 
mincing words. Substantially all of 
the mail pay under this Act is a sub- 
sidy to the American shipowner, 
without which he could not continue 
to run his vessels in foreign trade. 

# Government Subsidies Essentially 
For Trade Routes, Not For 
Mail Carriage. 

The 1928 Act was adopted by Con- 
gress without a dissenting vote, and 
it is very plain to me that this unani- 
mous action would not have been 
possible if Congress had intended 
the sums to be appropriated under 
the Act merely as pay for the car- 
riage of mail. This belief is streng- 
thened by the wording of Section (1) 
of the 1928 Act, which re-affirms the 
preamble of the 1920 Shipping Act, 
reading as follows: 

"That it is necessary for the nat- 
ional defense and for the proper 
growth of its foreign and domestic 
commerce that the United States 
shall have a merchant marine of the 
best equipped and most suitable 
types of vessels sufficient to carry 
the greater portion of its commerce 
and serve as a naval or military aux- 
iliary in time of war or national 
emergency, ultimately to be owned 
and operated privately by citizens of 
the United States; and it is here- 
by declared to be the policy of 
the United States to do whatever 
may be necessary to develop and en- 
coui-age the maintenance of such a 
merchant marine, and, insofar as may 
not be inconsistent with the express 
provisions of this Act, the United 
States Shipping Board shall, in the 
disposition of vessels and shipping 
property as hereinafter provided, in 
the making of rules and regulations, 
and in the administration of the 
shipping laws, keep always in view 
this purpose and object as the prim- 
ary end to be obtained." 

To an impartial observer, the pri- 
mary purpose of this 1928 Ocean 
Mail Contract Act must be apparent. 
It is easy enough to demonstrate that 
ocean mails can be effectively and 
expeditiously handled at far less cost 
than the $30,000,000 annually paid 
for that purpose. The Post Office 
Department is now conducting hear- 
ings in Washington to determine 
whether these ocean mail contracts, 
most of which expire in the next four 
or five years, should be cancelled or 
modified. In these hearings much em- 
phasis has been given to the fact that 
some terrific sum like $15,000 is be- 



JANUARY, 1935 



17 



ing paid for carrying a sack of mail 
from San Francisco to Yokohama, or 
from New York to West Africa. 

In very many cases, however, 
the testimoney has developed that 
even with such excessive mail 
pay, the operators are either losing 
money or making very little, and that 
without the assistance now being re- 
ceived, many shipowners would have 
been forced to the wall long since. 

• U.S. Needs Merchant Marine 
Sufficient To Carry Most 

Of Our Trade. 

In these hearings little has been 
said about the broad shipping policy 
now the law of the land, viz., that we 
should have a Merchant Marine suf- 
ficient to carry a greater portion of 
our trade (and that means foreign 
trade), and to act as a national de- 
fense auxiliary. Whether the neces- 
sary assistance given the American 
shipowner in foreign trade is called 
"Mail Pay," or "Service Pay," or 
whatnot, is of little moment. The 
main thing is that he must have that 
assistance if he is to survive. Un- 
questionably the shipowner weakens 
his case by pleading for aid. The 
broad shipping policy of the nation 
will stand the light of day only if 
it is in the best interests of the 
whole country, rather than to the 
benefit of a mere handful of opera- 
tors. 

I recognize that anyone seeking 
financial aid from the government 
must assume certain obligations; 
that at all times he must be prepared, 
speaking colloquially, to live in a 
glass house, and to justify his over- 
head and operating expenses. I do 
not deny that there have been what 
may be termed irregularities on the 
part of certain contractors who have 
received mail pay under the 1928 
Act; but that is no reason, in itself, 
why the American shipowner, as a 
class, should be damned, or that a 
subsidy plan is wrong. 

• Aid To Shipping Should 
Not lie Camouflaged. 

I agree with President Roosevelt 
that if we are to continue this broad 
shipping policy we should not cam- 
ouflage the methods of obtaining it. 
Personally, I should like to see the 
misnomer "Mail Pay" dropped and 
the Post Office Department pay for 
the carriage of mail only such sums 
as this service is properly worth. 

I should like to see new vessels 
built in American yards, the Ameri- 
can shipowner paying to the Ameri- 



can shipbuilder the amount it would 
cost to build the vessel abroad, and 
the government paying to the Ameri- 
can shipbuilder a bounty represent- 
ing the difference between the do- 
mestic and the foreign cost. 

I should like to see the American 
ship operator paid for his services in 
operating a fleet over a given route 
at stated intervals for a stated per- 
iod, a sum equivalent to at least the 
difference between American- and 
foreign-flag operating costs. 

And, lastly, I am opposed to the 
direct operation by the government 
of American ships in any foreign 
trade. 

I do feel (and this has been ahiply 
demonstrated by experience) that a 
private owner can operate more eco- 
nomically than any governmental 
body. And above all, there are grave 
risks to international relations when 
any government competes in the 
shipping business with private own- 
ers of other nations. 

The Merchant Marine In 
National Defense. 

I have not stressed the necessity 
of a merchant marine from the 
standpoint of national defense, be- 
cause that necessity must be appar- 
ent to all practical men who know 
that human nature does not change, 
and that a nation must always be 
prepared to defenditself.lt looks as if 
no international agreement on naval 
limitations is possible today, and if 
we are going to spend money to build 
up our navy, it is equally essential 
that we spend money to build up the 
necessary auxiliary of the navy — 
that is, an adequate merchant 
marine. 

These are difficult times, both in- 
ternal and external, and the man in 
the White House carries a heavy 
load on his shoulders. We may criti- 
cise and object to much that has 
been done in Washington, but I won- 
der how many of us have asked the 
question, "What would we do, our- 
selves, if we were sitting in the Pre- 
sident's chair?" 

I am confident that the President 
and the country want an American 
Merchant Marine in foreign trade, 
not only from the standpoint of the 
development of that trade, but for 
the purposes of national defense as 
well. And I am hopeful that Congress 
will intelligently back the Presi- 
dent's purposes and such methods of 
accomplishment as he may recom- 
mend. 



Improvements in Marine 

Electrical Equipment 

In connection with the Govern- 
ment naval building program, there 
were constructed equipments con- 
sisting of turbine-gear propelling 
machinery of an advanced design for 
destroyers, auxiliary turbine gener- 
ator sets, motors and control for nu- 
merous auxiliaries, searchlights, ra- 
dio, ordnance control, switch-gear, 
and miscellaneous apparatus. 

Diesel-electric propelling equip- 
ments and electric auxiliaries were 
provided for four U. S. Coast Guard 
cutters. 

The completion of designs for the 
use of alternating-current motors to 
meet practically every Navy ship- 
board requirement made possible the 
first practical installation of this 
type on the U. S. S. Farragut, the 
first of eight new destroyers. 

The advantages that the substitu- 
tion of alternatingcurrent auxiliaries 
offered over those of the direct-cur- 
rent type comprise simplified design 
for the synchronous generators, the 
squirrel-cage induction motors, and 
the motor starters and a notable re- 
duction in the weight of the electric 
equipment, particularly cable, which 
is especially important in marine 
equipment. The simplicity in design 
thus secured will tend toward great- 
er reliability in service, and will un- 
doubtedly effect a reduction in main- 
tenance expense as compared with 
that of previous equipments. 

Before the substitution could be 
made, however, there were two major 
difficulties to be overcome. In the 
first place, there was the question of 
such adjustable-speed applications 
as the steering gear, the anchor 
windlass, and certain kinds of deck 
machinery which required direct 
current. Secondly, a certain amount 
of direct current was essential for 
searchlights and battery-charging 
equipment. 

The adoption of electro-hydraulic 
systems, employing constant-speed 
motors, solved the first problem. The 
second was overcome by adding a 
small direct-current generator to the 
ship's turbine-generating set. This 
generator also supplies excitation for 
the synchronous generators. Motor- 
generator sets or power-tube recti- 
fiers also offer a source of necessary 
direct current. (John Liston's Gen- 
eral Electric Review.) 



18 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Geared Steam Turbines 
in American Ships 



By Geo. H. Gibson 



Tanker G. Harrison Smith and the Dc Laval geared 
turbine in her engine room. 



American ship ownei-s are some- 
times chided because of their stead- 
fast adherence to steam power in 
preference to newer systems of pro- 
pulsion. 

Questions of this nature, however, 
are ultimately decided by the eco- 
nomic outcome, into which enter not 
only such highly important matters 
as fuel consumed per shaft horse- 
power, but also considerations relat- 
ing to space occupied, weight, first 
cost, cost of attendance, adaptability 
to various fuels, and, most important 
of all, reliable performance of power 
plant. Improvements to the steam 
cycle have been continuous and rapid 
during the past ten years, and many 
ships equipped with modern steam 
plants have in extended service given 
ample assurance of reliable and eco- 
nomical operation, and have also 
demonstrated in practice the super- 
ior fuel savings aimed at in recent 
developments, even though the im- 
provement in efficiency has by no 
means as yet reached its culmina- 
tion. The progress which has been 
made in steam power equipments can 
be studied in the following illustra- 
tive cases. 

The earliest example in this coun- 
try of a high speed, compound steam 
turbine with double reduction gears, 
using relatively high pressure, high 
temperature steam and air heaters, is 
afforded by the S.S. Dixie, of the 
Southern Pacific Line, for which a 



De Laval compound turbine with 
double reduction gears was selected 
after extended experience by the 
same line with similar equipment in 
the steamers El Oceano and El Cos- 
ton. The Dixie has now given some 
six and one-half years of uninterrup- 
ted service on the New York-New Or- 
leans route, with a total expenditure 
for repairs to the turbine and gears 
of only $1591.53, or but $245 per year. 
The turbine, which uses steam at 375 
lb. with 200 degrees Fahrenheit of 
superheat, was designed to develop 
7100 h.p. at 91 r.p.m. propeller speed, 
but provides a maximum of 8000 h.p. 
The saving in cost of fuel by the 
Dixie, as compared with the recipro- 
cating-engined Creole of the same 
line, was found to amount to $1398.75 
per round trip, and as compared with 
the Momus, also of the Southern Pa- 
cific Line, $991.25, all ships burning 
oil at $1.25 per bbl. In addition, the 
Dixie saves about $1000 per month on 
wages and subsistence as compared 
with the reciprocating engined ships. 
In 1930 the Standard Shipping Co., 
New York, put into service two 20,615 
ton bulk oil tankers, the G. Harrison 
Smith and the W. S. Farish, each 
driven by De Laval compound double 
geared turbines developing a maxi- 
mum of 4400 s.h.p. at 77.5 r.p.m. pro- 
peller speed and 4000 s.h.p. at 75 
r.p.m., and using steam at 400 lb. 
gage and 750 degrees Fahrenheit to- 
tal temperature. The electric driven 



auxiliaries normally receive current 
from a generator coupled to the 
highly efficient main units, current 
being supplied at other times by aux- 
iliary turbine driven generators. The 
boiler feed water is heated regener- 
atively by steam extracted from the 
main unit, while waste heat is re- 
covered from the flue gases by an air 
heater. In three years' service, up 
to the end of 1933, the G. Harrison 
Smith had transported 65 cargoes, 
and the W. S. Farish 59 cargoes. The 
engine room logs for 1931-2-3 are 
summarized in the table herewith: 



G. Harrison W. S. 
Smith Farish 



Total miles at sea-loaded „ , , , 

and ballast 229,330 227,244 

Total bbl. fuel used at sea 

loaded and ballast 140.417 139,089 

Average bbl. fuel per day 

loaded 166.3 163.9 

Average bbl. fuel per day 

ballast 1'8.3 155.5 

Average speed in knots 

loaded , 1126 10.87 

Average speed in knots 

ballast 1110 10;91 

Average r.p.m. — loaded.. 67.8 66.7 

Average r.p.m. — ballast...- 68.3 66.4 

Bbl. of fuel per mile — 

loaded 61 .63 

Bbl. of fuel per mile — 

ballast - '9 .605 

Average horsepower — all 

purposes 3.940 3,801 

Fuel per h.p. hr. lb. load- 
ed all purp 613 .619 

Fuel in lb. per 1000 ton 
miles cargo carried at 



10.8^ 10.86 



The pounds of fuel per 1000 ton 



JANUARY, 1935 



19 



miles of cargo carried was obtained 
by dividing the total pounds of fuel 
by the product of average cargo per 
loaded voyage and miles from sea 
buoy to sea buoy. 

Comparison of the G. Harrison 
Smith with the reciprocator-powered 
John D. Archibald, of the same line 
and of approximately the same size, 
shows that during the period from 
October 1930 to September 1931, 
when the Smith averaged 11.11 knots 
and the Archibald 10.5 knots, the 
Smith's fuel consumption averaged 
165 bbl. daily and the Archibald 285 
bbl. The turbine ship's average con- 
sumption of fuel per shaft horsepow- 
er per hour was approximately .61 
lb. while that of the reciprocating 
tanker was more than twice as much. 

Two other tankers, the Virginia 
Sinclair and the Harry F. Sinclair 
Jr., of the Sinclair Navigation Com- 
pany, have made remarkable records 
for both speed and fuel consumption. 
Each is propelled by a De Laval com- 
pound turbine with double reduction 
gears and has De Laval turbine 
driven auxiliary generators and boi- 
ler feed pumps. The Virginia Sin- 
clair, which is of 9275 tons dead- 
weight, 435 ft. long, 57 ft. beam, and 
25 ft. 6% in. draft, with a total ma- 
chinery weight of 500 tons, develops 
4500 s.h.p. at 76 r.p.m. propeller 
speed and made 14.1 knots on her 
trial run. The two Sinclair tankers 
have been in continuous service on 
the Houston-Marcus Hook route for 
more than two years, and figures are 
shown herewith for the Virginia Sin- 
clair for the six months ending June 
30. 1932: 

On two long voyages the average 
speed was 13.55 knots, with a fuel 
oil consumption per s.h.p., including 



Average steam pressure 3801b. 

Average steam temperature 685 deg. F. 

Number of trips 21 

Average speed, deep loaded 12.54 knots 

Average fuel oil consumption per 

day at sea, loaded 141 bbl. 

Average fuel oil consumption per 

s.h.p. including auxiliaries 0.602 lb. 

Cost of fuel oil per day, loaded $108.57 

No. of men in engine dept. crew 13 

On the basis of six months" oper- 
ation, lubricating oil would cost 
per year $126.57 

Table six months performance data for 
tanker Virginia Sinclair. 

auxiliaries, of 0.553 lb., and a fuel 
oil cost per day of |100.79. 

• Conversion Installations. 

A little over three years ago the 
Baltimore Mail Steamship Company 
purchased five 10-year old cargo 
vessels of 15,000 tons displacement 
each, and had the hulls lengthened 
and the bow and stern lines modi- 
fied and the original geared turbine 
and turbo-electric propelling equip 
ments replaced with De Laval com- 
pound geared turbines. One of the 
rebuilt vessels, the City of Baltimore, 
on her trial trip developed an aver- 
age speed of 17.77 knots as against 
11 knots before conversion and 16 
knots contracted for; while the City 
of Newport News has developed an 
average of 18.4 knots. The City of 
Havre made the run from Newport 
News to Havre, 3341 nautical miles, 
in 8^4 days, consuming only 76.3 
tons of bunker oil per day, and on 
the return trip she docked a day 
ahead of time for the emergency 
landing of a passenger. The City of 
Hamburg and the City of Norfolk 
have shown equally satisfactory per- 
formances. Each of the five vessels 
has logged to date more than a 
quarter of a million miles, as shown 
by the following table: 



Began Miles logged 
Service toJuneI,'J4 

City of Norfolk Aug. 13. 1931 237.B7r| 

City of Havre Oct. 28. 1931 212. B76 

City of Hamburg Ort. 1.1931 229. 47<) 

City of Newport News Dec. 16. 1931 205.7il 

City of Baltimore July 2. 1931 23S. r,<4 

The reliability and endurance of 
the propelling equipment is reflected 
in the maintenance costs of the five 
ships, which, including the entire ex- 
penses for services, materials, over- 
hauling and traveling expenses, 
amounts to only $6100 for the three 
yeai-s, or approximately $400 per 
ship per year. There have been no 
interruptions in the schedule of ad- 
vertised sailings on account of the 
geared turbines, which, with the 
greatly increased speed, has contri- 
buted to the absolute regularity of 
service for which the Baltimore Line 
is renowned. 

• Sea Trains 

Where freight can be received and 
delivered in carload lots, with rail- 
road connections at terminals and 
the total length of voyage not too 
long, a new era in freight carrying 
has been initiated by ships of the 
"seatrain" design, as represented by 
Seatrain New York and Seatrain 
Havana, now maintaining regular 6- 
day schedules both ways on the New 
York-Havana-New Orleans route. 
Each ship has a deadweight tonnage 
of 10,945 at 26 foot 3 inch draft, 
measures 470 feet overall and will 
carry 100 loaded freight cars. The 
De Laval compound double geared 
turbines are rated at 8000 horsepow- 
er, at 105 revolutions per minute of 
the propeller for 16i:i knots, and op- 
erate ordinarily with steam at 285 
pounds pressure and 675 degrees 
Fahrenheit at the throttle, but will 
also use economically steam at 400 
pounds delivering 8800 shaft horse- 



m 



%tei-.- 



yr. 



^<mHVBmiiiitiiHmiiim*'^|^^w«^ 




S.S. Dixie, powered 
with De Laval geared 
turbines developing 
8000 horsepower has 
given 6I2 years unin- 
terrupted service at a 
total maintenance cost 
for turbines and gears 
of ^1593.51 or ap- 
proximately 30 cents 
per horsepower year. 



20 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



power at 110 revolutions per minute 
propeller speed and giving a speed in 
excess of 17 knots. 

The light weight, simplicity and 
reliability of operation of modern 
steam equipment has led to its 
choice for services where these, 
rather than efficiency, are the main 
considerations, as for example in 
Coast Guard cutter service. Recently 
three sister ships of 100 tons each 
and equipped with 1500 horsepower 
De Laval turbines and double reduc- 
tion gears, the Onondaga, Tahoma 
and Escanaba, have been placed in 
service by the U. S. Coast Guard. 
The Escanaba, launched in 1932, has 
been assigned to service on Lake 
Michigan, where she has demon- 
strated the ability to steam steadily, 
without backing and filling, through 
20 inches of solid ice. 

These vessels also have De Laval 
auxiliary equipment, including: tur- 
bine driven generating sets (two 
eac*^^ turbine driven main circulat- 
ing pump of the high speed propeller 
type, motor driven auxiliary circu- 
lating pump of the centrifugal type, 
motor driven main condensate 
pumps (two each), motor driven aux- 
iliary condensate pump, turbine driv- 
en fire pump, motor driven bilge 
pump and motor driven sanitary 
pump, and, in the case of the 
Onondaga and Tahoma, De Laval- 
IMO fuel oil pumps, one turbine driv- 
en and one motor driven, DeLaval- 
IMO auxiliary fuel oil pumps, De 
Laval-IMO lubricating pumps (two 
each), and a De Laval-IMO lubri- 
cating pump built into the main unit. 
# Turbine Reduction Gears 

High turbine speeds and moderate 
propeller speeds, both of which are 
necessary for good fuel economy, im- 



ply the use of speed reducing gears, 
which for vessels of moderate speed 
and size are preferably of the double 
reduction type. Satisfactory opera- 
tion of such gears, without repair or 
overhauling, over long periods of 
time is, therefore, an essential fac- 
tor in the success of steam turbine 
power plants. An example of the en- 
durance of such gears is found in the 
single screw steamship Munargo, of 
the Munson Steamship Line, which 
entered service on the New York-Nas- 
sau-Havana-Miami route in 1921. On 
April 27, 1928, when more than one 
million miles had been covered, the 
report of an inspection of the 6000 
horsepower propelling equipment, 
including the De Laval double re- 
duction gears, stated: "There is 
nothing to do to the gears as they 
are in first class condition." The 
gears were again inspected in the 
latter part of December, 1933, when 
the vessel had traveled approximate- 
ly 1,600,000 miles, and were found to 
be in excellent condition. The De 
Laval gears in the steamship Malolo 
have also completed over one million 
miles of satisfactory service; while 
the operation of the more than 2,- 
000,000 horsepower of De Laval re- 
duction gears on U. S. Naval vessels 
has been characterized by high effi- 
ciency and excellent and quiet me- 
chanical operation. Six of the scout 
cruisers now in service, of which the 
Pensacola and Salt Lake City may be 
taken as examples, are each equip- 
ped with four 26,500 horsepower De 
Laval two-pinion double helical re- 
duction gears, and similar gears are 
being installed on numerous naval 
vessels now building. 
• Exhaust Turbine Installations 
Many of the reciprocating engine 




Co.ist gu.ird cutter S.S. Onondaga, built for winter service on Lake Michigan, is equipped 

with a De Laval double reduction geared steam turbine developing 

1500 shaft horsepower. 



plants now in service, while in excel- 
lent mechanical condition, use too 
much fuel or do not develop suffici- 
ent power to enable the ships to com- 
pete successfully with more modern 
vessels. The reciprocating steam en- 
gine is highly efficient in expanding 
steam at the high pressure end of 
the cycle, but does no make good use 
of the work available from expansion 
between atmospheric and condenser 
pressures, wherein the volume of the 
steam increases enormously. This 
shortcoming can be remedied by the 
use of an exhaust turbine system, of 
which the Bauer-Wach is most prom- 
inent, having been installed on near- 
ly 200 vessels. In the 7600 dead- 
weight ton Point Ancha, of the Gulf 
Pacific Mail Line, Ltd., which may 
be taken as a representative installa- 
tion, the power output of the origi- 
nal triple expansion engine has been 
increased 30 per cent, without in- 
creased fuel consumption, by an ex- 
haust turbine of 1075 shaft horse- 
power. The increased volume of con- 
denser circulating water for the 
maintenance of the higher vacuum 
is supplied by a De Laval geared 
turbine driven propeller circulating 
pump. In the Bauer-Wach system, 
shocks arising from the reciprocat- 
ing engine and from the propeller 
are absorbed in the patented Vulcan 
hydraulic coupling, which also pro- 
vides for automatically cutting out 
the turbine and gears when maneuv- 
ering. The turbine is piped to receive 
high pressure steam as well as low 
pressure steam, and the ship can be 
driven at about half speed by the 
turbine alone, with the reciprocator 
disconnected, giving in effect the 
safety advantages of a duplicate 
power plant. 

From this record it will be evi- 
dent that the engineers of the De 
Laval Steam Turbine Company 
have successfully adapted De 
Laval steam turbines and De 
Laval gearing to all types of ships 
and all classes of sea service. This 
machinery has given a very high 
record for low fuel consumption, 
low maintenance costs, high effic- 
iency and continuous service. The 
De Laval organization has spec- 
ialized for generations on the 
problems of accurate gear cutting 
and the perfect balancing of mass- 
es rotating at high speeds. The re- 
sult of this specialization is re- 
flected in the satisfactory service 
of their turbines and gears. 



JANUARY, 1935 



21 



Diesel Engine Assembly 

in the Winton Shops 




Above, left, assembling main 
bearings on a Winton twin- 
eight diesel engine; right, fitting 
cylinder heads. Center view 
shows exhaust ends of seven 16 
cylinder (twin eight) Winton 
diesels. 




Below: two pictures in the erect- 
ing shop of the Winton plant at 
Cleveland, Ohio, showing seven 
16-cylinder diesel engines prac- 
tically complete on the floor. 



22 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



. . . . Inspection and Test of 

Winton Diesel Engines 




te^rwfr-i^ilfcsri 



The latest addition to the Cleve- 
land shops of the Winton Die- 
sel Engine Company is a fine 
new wing devoted exclusively to 
tests and fitted with all the latest 
equipment for that purpose. 




Above and center, final inspec- 
tion of Winton diesels before 
testing. Below, two views in the 
new test shop showing a num- 
ber of finished diesels under- 
going a rigid test run under 
varying load and overload 
conditions. 




JANUARY, 1935 



23 




Marine Insurance 



.... Safety in 

The Design of Small Tankers 



S^y Martin G. Kindlund, Naval Architect 



• Cargo Pumps and Piping 

Cargo pumps as installed in mod- 
ern tankers are usually of the steam 
reciprocating type or the rotary type, 
although centrifugal pumps are oc- 
casionally used. The rotary and the 
centrifugal pumps may be driven by 
Diesel engines, gasoline engines, 
electric motors or steam turbines. 
From the standpoint of safety 
against fire and explosion, the steam- 
driven pump with steam supplied 
from shore heads the list. When 
steam is furnished by a boiler on the 
vessel itself or from a towboat 
alongside, the hazard accompanying 
the burning of coal or oil in close 
proximity to the cargo tanks is pre- 
sented. At some marine stations this 
method of discharging Class-A pet- 
roleum products is prohibited. At 
others it is permitted, provided that 
spark arresters are fitted on the 
smoke stacks and additional meas- 
ures taken to insure safety. The 
jrreat majority of the modern self- 
propelled and non-propelled barges 
are equipped with rotary pumps 
driven by internal-combustion en- 
gines or electric motors. The latter 
may have current supplied by a gen- 
erator on board, or current may be 
taken from a shore connection. Each 
method has its advantages and dis- 
advantages, and in each case there 
are particular measures of safety to 
be complied with. 

As regards the pump room, all 
tankers present more or less the 
same problem. From the mass of 
rules and regulations that are in 
force, or that have been recom- 
mended to reduce the ever-present 

'Continued from December, 1934, 
Paciftc Marine Review. 



danger of fire in the pump room, the 
following provisions appear to cover 
the situation most adequately. Many 
of them involve maintenance work 
only and do not concern us in this 
paper, but to others the designer and 
builder can contribute something of 
value, and notes have been added 
that indicate what these ma.y be. 

(1) Cargo pumps and piping 
should be free of leakage. 

Pumps of the best quality and of 
suitable size and design should be 
selected, to avoid springing of shafts, 
overheating of lubricating oil, fail- 
ure of bearings, and generally being 
worked beyond their rated capaci- 
ties. 

Gland packing should be carefully 
chosen to suit the conditions before 
the pumps ai-e operated, and not af- 
ter damage may have been done. 

Pumps should be carefully lined 
up with the engines that drive them, 
and they should be firmly secured to 
their foundations with fitted bolts 
and double nuts. 

Pipe lines in the pump room must 
be installed with the utmost care and 
only by qualified pipe fitters. They 
should be lined up properly before 
the flanges are bolted tightly togeth- 
er. There is no work that deserves 
greater time and care expended on 
it. 

Pipe should be welded or expanded 
into steel fl-anges. Threaded pipe 
screwed into flanges should not be 
allowed, unless they are welded. 

Bulkhead joints of the "sandwich" 
type are not reliable. Special fittings 
should be used that can be calked or 
welded to the bulkhead. Extra heavy 
pipe nipples, welded to the bulkhead 
on both sides, are extensively em- 



ployed at present and they give sat- 
isfactory results. 

The proper selection of gasket ma- 
terial is also a matter of importance. 
It should not be too thin nor too 
thick and, if a selection can not be 
made as a result of experience, the 
recommendations of a reliable man- 
ufacturer should be obtained. 

All valves and fittings should be 
of the best quality and designed 
specially for the service. 

(2) Cargo drippings should not be 
allowed to accumulate in the pump 
room. 

Thorough drainage will be facili- 
tated by providing as much rise of 
bottom from center to side as condi- 
tions permit; by taking care that the 
bottom plating is free from hollows; 
and by cutting an adequate number 
of large limber holes in the bottom 
framing. 

Manholes should be cut in the 
transverses and girders of sufficient 
number and size to permit convenient 
access to all parts of the pump-room 
bilges. 

Floor plates should be small 
enough to be handled without too 
much effort; they should be care- 
fully fitted to give free clearance, 
and provided with lifting holes. 

A di'ip pan with coaming should be 
fitted under each pump, and means 
provided for disposal of the drain- 
age. A good arrangement is to have 
a small connection on the pump suc- 
tion to permit attaching a hose for 
this purpose. 

Bilge pump suctions should have 
bell mouths to permit fitting them 
closely to the bottom plating; they 
should be accessible and provided 
with large strainers that can be re- 
moved and cleaned. 



1 



24 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Dependable 
Insurance 
Since 1863 



'y/re ■ Automobile • Marine • (Pasua/ty • IJide/ifi/ ■ Surety 



iREMAN's Fund Groud 

3ireman's ZJund Insurance Company — Occidental Insurance Gompany I 

Home 'yire & Marine Insurance Company I 

l7ireman's'^nd Indemnity Company— Occidental Indemnity Company I 



New-'^brk • Chicago • S.\N FR.ANCISCO • Boston • Atlanta 



Strength 

Permanence 

Stability 



Bilges should be well painted, pre- 
ferably a bright color, to show up 
dirt and drippings, and to reflect 
light into the corners. 

A sufficient number of electric 
lights should be installed, properly 
located, to afford good illumination. 

(3) Oily ra,gs and waste must not 
be allowed to accumulate. 

Special containers should be fur- 
nished for the purpose and conveni- 
ently stowed adjacent to the ladder 
so that the material can be removed 
frequently. In addition, containers 
should be furnished for clean rags 
and waste to permit storing an ade- 
quate supply. 

(4) Cargo pump relief valves 
should be tested frequently and kept 
in good repair. 

Relief valves are of great import- 
ance to prevent excessive pressures 
in the discharge line, and particular- 
ly in the discharge hose. They open 
very seldom — some may never have 
to open — but when called upon they 
must not fail. They should be of the 
best quality and type to secure reli- 
ability, and should be adjusted be- 
fore installation to open at the speci- 
fied pressure. As regards size, the 
area based on the nominal diameter 
of the valve is often about 40 per 
cent of the area of the discharge 
pipe, which should give not less than 
33-1/3 per cent net area through the 
valve. Smaller relief valves, having 
an area of 25 per cent of the pipe, or 
even less, have appeared to work 
satisfactorily, but where conditions 
permit, it is preferable to hold to the 
larger size. 

(5) Pressure gages should be test- 
ed frequently. 

Where cargo pumps are engine or 
motor driven, it is advisable to have 
two pressure gages for each pump. 



one in the engine room and the other 
in the pump room, the latter adja- 
cent to the companionvvay. The gages 
should be of the best quality, having 
dials of ample size, and readings to 
suit the range of working pressures, 
from 50 to 100 pounds per square 
inch. Connections to the pump dis- 
charge should be made of seamless 
drawn annealed copper tubing, care- 
fully run and protected against me- 
chanical injury. Lights should be so 
placed that the dials are properly il- 
luminated. 

(6) Cargo hose should be examin- 
ed frequently. 

Only hose of the highest quality 
should be supplied for gasoline dis- 
charge service. Some oil companies 
whose vessels are provided with all 
the modern equipment, such as in- 
ert-gas systems and remote venting 
facilities, consider the cargo hose as 
the weakest link in the chain of safe- 
ty with which they surround them- 
selves. In some cases steel pipe with 
flexible joints is used in place of 
rubber hose. It is stated that this has 
given complete satisfaction mechan- 
ically, although the difficulty of 
handling steel pipe is far greater. 
The cost, over a term of years, ap- 
pears to be in favor of the steel pipe. 

Where hose nipples are held by 
clamps, they should be tested for 
tightness before starting the pumps. 
It is advisable, however, to have the 
nipples furnished by the manufac- 
turer as an integral part of the hose. 
This eliminates all chance of leak- 
age. 

Hose flanges shoud be made of 
brass to prevent a spark if the hose 
is dropped on deck. The deck hose 
connection should consist of a flang- 
ed nipple outside the valve in order 
to facilitate bolting up and making a 



tight joint. Every precaution should 
be taken to prevent leakage of gaso- 
line on the deck. 

As part of the list of provisions to 
increase safety in connection with 
the cargo piping, the following may 
be mentioned: 

Valves, stuffing boxes, and suc- 
tion bells in the tanks to be of the 
best quality, specially designed for 
the service, in order that entering 
the tanks for emergency repair work 
may be unnecessary. 

Valve operating rods to be of am- 
ple size and attached to the valve 
stems in the best manner to prevent 
working loose, for the same reason. 

Stuffing boxes on deck to be weld- 
ed to plating if possible, and to have 
brass glands with a good depth of 
packing. Leakage at the valve-rod 
stuffing box is not uncommon. 

Deck piping should be as carefuly 
installed as that in the pump room, 
and substantial stools provided to 
guard against movement, especially 
at the hose connections. If the deck 
line is of such length that expansion 
has to be provided for, the expansion 
joint should have a stuffing box of 
extra depth to guard against any 
leaks. 

Provision should always be made 
for loading cargo through the suc- 
tion lines, by-passing the pumps in so 
doing. Cargo should never have to 
be loaded through the hatch. 

Two valves should be installed be- 
tween the sea box and the cargo suc- 
tion piping in the pump room, one of 
which can be locked when the valve 
is closed. This will prevent possible 
leakage of cargo overboard, as well 
as leakage of water into the cargo 
lines. 

Cargo pumps should not be con- 



JANUARY, 1935 



25 



^nHnuunuunuHnmnnunHnuuumuunnnnnnHnummuunmmmmmmmuuunuuumuuu^ 

\ MARINE INSURANCE DEPARTMENT ^ 

I BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & Co., Limited 

I 

% AGENTS FOR 

i American and Foreiqn • Union oF Canton • British and F 

I North China • Yang-Tsze • Pennsylvania 

I 

San Francisco Los Angeles Seattle Tacoma Portland Vancouver, B.C. ^ 

%nmHnnunumnuuuunununmHnmmnnuuuuunnmnnnununnnnnnmnnnimmnnnnun^. 



-I 



Johnson & Higgins 67 Wall Street New York 



Johnson & Higgins 



OF CALIFORNIA 



311 CALIFORNIA STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Average Adjusters 

and 

Insurance Brokers 



MARINE - FIRE 
AUTOMOBILE 



LIABILITY 
AVIATION 



SURETY 
LIFE 



SWITZERLAND 

General Insurance Co., Ltd. 

THAMES & MERSEY 

Marine Insurance Co., Ltd. 

LIVERPOOL & 
LONDON & GLOBE 

Insurance Co., Ltd. 

(Marine Department) 

HARTFORD 

Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. 

(Marine Department) 



CANTON 

Insurance Office, Ltd. 



H Louis 



Louis Rosenthal Co., Ltd. 

General Agent 
302 California Street 



nected to the bilge suctions in the 
pump and engine rooms. 

Where two pumps, and two suc- 
tion and discharge liens are install- 
ed, and they are cross connected to 
permit either pump to draw from 
and discharge to either line, double 
valves should be provided in the con- 
nections between the pumps. One of 
these valves, in both suction and dis- 
charge, should be fitted with a lock. 
The danger of contamination is 
thereby greatly reduced. Some oil 
companies prohibit the transporta- 



tion of gasoline and burning oils of 
any description on the same vessel. 
This rule is considered by them to be 
of vital importance, regardless of 
the number of pumps and pipe lines, 
since there i's always the possibility 
of the wrong valve being opened in a 
manifold and the product contamin- 
ated. It appears to the author that if 
a separate suction line is provided 
for each pair of tanks or group of 
tanks, and a pump is installed for 
each suction line discharging to a 
separate line on deck, and no cross 



connections are fitted either in the 
tanks or in the pump room, this ob- 
jection would be overcome. There 
would be no chance for contamina- 
tion as far as the piping is concern- 
ed. Bulkhead leaks, of course, have 
to be considered, but with welded 
construction this is a remote possi- 
bility. There is no human element in- 
volved. The ability to carry mixed 
cargoes is almost a transportation 
necessity, and the vessel should be 
designed to make this possible. 
[To be Continued] 



26 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



ROY C. WARD GEO. B. DINSMORE WILFRED PAGE 

GEO. E. BILLINGS CO. 

308-12 CAIJFOR^rIA STREET, SAN FRANCISCO GAHieU 364« 

INSURANCE 

BROKERS FOR THE ASSURED— AVERAGE ADJUSTERS 



Freights, Charters, Sales 



We have the following fixtures to 
report : 

GRAIN: British Steamer Leeds 
City, Vancouver, B.C. to Manchester, 
December/January; British Steamer 
Bencruaehan, British Columbia to 
Immingham and Leith, January, An- 
glo Canadian Shipping Co.; British 
Motorship Dallington Court, British 
Columbia to Liverpool, January, An- 
glo Canadian Shipping Co.; British 
Steamer Langleebrook, British Co- 
lumbia to Hull. 20/6, January, An- 
glo Canadian Shipping Co.; British 
steamer Umberleigh, British Colum- 
bia to London, January, Anglo Can- 
adian Shipping Co.; British Steamer 
Antonio, British Columbia to U.K., 
February, Canadian Transport Co.; 
British Steamer Harmattan and Nor- 
wegian Motorship Belpamela, British 
Columbia to U.K., January, Canadian 
Transport Co.; British Steamer Lang- 
leebrook, Vancouver, B.C. to London, 
option Plymouth and London, 20/6, 
December; A Lyle Steamer Rosario 
to Los Angeles/Vancouver range, 
18/-, option North Atlantic same 
rate, December; British Steamer 
Marthara, San Lorenzo to Los An- 
geles/Vancouver Range, 17/6, Decem- 
ber/January; A Weir Steamer, San 
Lorenzo to Los Angeles/Vancouver 
range, heavy grain, 17/6, January; 
British Steamer Court, San Lor- 
enzo to Los Angeles/Vancouver 
range, 17 6, December /January. 



GEO. E. Billings 

CO. 

Pacific Coaat General Agcntt 

Standard Marine Insurance Co. 

National Union Fire Ins. Co. 

Mercantile Insurance Co. 

of America 

312 CALIFORNIA STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO - - CALIFORNIA 

Telephone GArfield 3646 

Seattle OHictM: Coknan Bldg. 

Telephone SEnea 1478 



LUMBER: British Steamer Anglo 
African, North Pacific to Shanghai, 
lump sum £5,375, January, Anglo 
Canadian Shipping Co.; British 
Steamer Ovington Court, North Pa- 
cific to Shanghai, option up river 
ports, lump sum £4,300, December/ 
January, Anglo Canadian Shipping 
Co.; British Steamer Tilsington 
Court, British Columbia to Japan, 
lump sum £5,100, December, Anglo 
Canadian Shipping Co.; Danish 
Motorship Nordfarer, British Colum- 
bia to Yokohama, Nagoya and Take- 
toyo, December, Anglo Canadian 
Shipping Co.; British Steamer Rush- 
pool, Willapa and Grays Harbor to 
Shanghai, December, Anglo Cana- 
dian Shipping Co.; British Steamer 
Kensington Court, North Pacific to 
Shanghai lump sum £4,100, f.i.o., 
January/February, Anglo Canadian 
Shipping Co.; Norwegian Motorship 
Siljestad, North Pacific to Shanghai, 
three districts loading, $6.75, Decem- 
ber; British Steamer Alnmoor, Brit- 
ish Columbia to Shanghai, lump sum 
£5,100, f.i.o., December/January; 
British Steamer Catherine Radcliffe, 
Columbia River to Shanghai, lump 
sum, £5,000, f.i.o., January, Canadian 
Transport Co. ; Norwegian Motorship 
Danwood, lump sum $26,000 f.i.o., 
Shanghai, option other ports: option 
$25,500 to three ports Japan January, 
Anglo Canadian Shipping Co.; Brit- 
ish Steamer Grangepark, British Co- 
lumbia to Shanghai, lump sum £4,000 
f.i.o., six loading ports, January; 
British Steamer Masunda, North Pa- 
cific to Shanghai, lump sum £4.800, 
option Nanking/Pukow £4,900 f.i.o., 
January; British Steamer Dalhanna, 
Columbia River to Shanghai, lumber 
and ties, January, Canadian Trans- 
port Co.; British Steamer Quarring- 
ton Court, Columbia River to Shang- 
hai, lumber and ties, January, Cana- 
dian Transport Co.; British Steamer 
Sheaf Crown. North Pacific to Syd- 
ney, $22,500 lump sum, f.i.o., Novem- 
ber/December; British Steamer Ny- 
anza, British Columbia to Sydney, 
lump sum $20,000 f.i.o., December/ 
January; British Steamer Harpalion, 



North Pacific to Sydney, January; 
British Steamer Manzanares, North 
Pacific to Australia, January; Nor- 
wegian Motorship Borgestad, Colum- 
bia River and Puget Sound to South 
Africa, January, H. R. MacMillan 
Export Co. 

TANKERS: Br. Tank Steamer 
Gretafield, California to Japan, dirty, 
10/3, January; Norwegian Tank 
Steamer Ferm, California to Japan, 
dirty, 10/3, January; Norwegian 
Tank Motorship Hilda Knudsen, Cal- 
ifornia to Japan, dirty, 10/3, op- 
tion Dalny 10/9, January; Ameri- 
can Tank Steamer Elizabeth Kellogg, 
Los Angeles to two ports Japan, fuel, 
diesel and crude oil, December, 
Mitsui & Co.; American Tank Steam- 
er Kellogg, California to two 

ports Japan, dirty, 38 cents, Janu- 
ary; American Tank Steamer Mana- 
tawny, Los Angeles to Balboa, fuel 
oil, 25 cents, December. 

TIME CHARTER: Norwegian Mo- 
torship Belpareil, Pacific Trade, de- 
livery and redelivery Orient, 3/3, 
December, United Ocean Transport 
Co.; Danish Motorship Stensby, 
North Pacific to South Africa, Jan- 
uary, South African Despatch Line; 
Norwegian Tank Motorship Brajara, 
12 months trading, between Califor- 
nia and Japan, delivery California, 
redelivery Far East, dirty, 4/9, De- 
cember; Danish Motorship Stjerne- 
borg, delivery Pacific Coast, redeliv- 
ery China, Japan and Australia, 5 to 
7 months, December, Yamashita 
Shipping Co. 

MISCELLANEOUS : Swedish 
Steamer Roxen, Leningrad to Ta- 
coma, ore, 11/6, f.i.o., December. 

SHIPPING SALES: American 
Schooner Fanny Dutard, J. E. Mathe- 
son to Frank Lloyd and E. Dobszin- 
sky of Ketchikan. 

PAGE BROTHERS Brokers. 




JANUARY, 1935 



27 





m 



American Shipbuilding 



MOORE DRYDOCK TO 
BUILD GOLD DREDGE 

Contract for a gold dredge, to be 
completed within three months for 
the Hillcome Steamship Company of 
San Francisco, was recently award- 
ed to Moore Drydock Company of 
Oakland. The craft will have a 
length of 143 feet, depth 10 feet, and 
beam 48 feet. Its digging depth will 
be 50 feet. The dredge will go into 
commission at the old mining town 
of Rocklin, California. 

John H. Cordes. San Francisco 
marine surveyor, will be in fharge 
of construction. 



STOCKTON YARD 
LAUNCHES KETCH 

A 46-foot ketch-rigged sailing ship 
was launched late in December at 
the Ingersoll Boat Works at Stock- 
ton, California. The craft, which is 
being prepared for Dr. L. H. Purnor 
of Los Angeles, will have a sail 
spread designed to attain 9 knots 
speed, with two masts, 65 and 45 
feet in height respectively. An aux- 
iliary 55-horsepower Gray marine 
motor also will be installed. 

Stateroom accommodations are 
provided for seven passengers and 
a two-man crew. Modern touches in- 
clude an electric water pressure sys- 
tem, gas range, radio, and lighting 
plant. 

The vessel was started two years 
ago by the late George Ingersoll. 
When completed her owner plans an 
extended cruise in the South Seas. 



32 VESSELS BUILDING 
IN UNITED STATES 

Vessels under construction in the 
United States on December 1, 1933, 
totaled 32 vessels, with a tonnage of 
31,082, according to the report of the 
American Bureau of Shipping. Of 
these, 9 vessels (1 deck barge, 3 oil 
tankers, 2 towboats, 1 deck and oil 
barge, and 1 hospital barge), of 20,- 
910 gross tons are building to Ameri- 
can Bureau of Shipping classifica- 
tions; and 23 vessels (14 barges, 1 
lighthouse tender, 1 coast guard pat- 
rol, 2 side-wheel dredges, 1 towboat, 
1 snag boat, and 3 cutters), of 9927 




gross tons, not of the American Bu- 
reau of Shipping classifications. In 
addition to the above, one wooden 
vessel, a survey boat, of 245 gross 
tons, is also under construction. 



TWO NEW TUNA 
CLIPPERS ORDERED 

Contracts were signed in Novem- 
ber and work has now started on 
two tuna clippers at the Campbell 
Machine Company yards at San 
Diego, California. The two contracts 
total $208,000.00— one craft being 
ordered by J. M. and M. O. Medina, 
tlie other by Claude Corum. 

The former, Hull No. 43, is one of 
the largest tuna clippers ever built, 
having a length of 130 feet, beam 29 
feet, and depth 13 feet 6 inches. She 
will feature the raised forward deck, 
sharp prow, and graceful lines. Her 
main power is a 6-cylinder, 550 
horsepower Union diesel. Auxiliaries 
to operate the live bait and bilge 
pumps, refrigeration system, etc., are 
a 75 horsepower , 3 cylinder, 400 
revolutions per minute, Union diesel 
dii-ect connected to 50 kw. d.c. West- 
inghouse generator; and a 52 horse- 
power, 2 cylinder Union connected to 
35 kw. 125 volt generator. Essential 
bait pumps, charged with preserving 
for weeks at a time some 150,000 live 
sardines feature the latest develop- 
ments in this equipment. Two 12- 
inch suction, 10-inch discharge 
pumps will be driven by vertical mo- 
tors mounted on top of the pumps. 

She will carry 25,000 gallons of 
fuel (enough for a voyage of 7500 
miles), 650 gallons of lubricating oil, 
and 1750 gallons of fresh water. Ac- 



commodations are provided for a 
crew of 17, on both the main and the 
upper decks. 

In the pilot house, a special feature 
will be a radio steering device, the 
third in the Southern California fleet 
to be so equipped. 

The other clipper, Hull No. 44, is 
of the raised forward deck type, her 
length being 125 feet, her beam 27 
feet, and her depth 12 feet. She will 
have a speed of 12i,2 knots, being 
equipped with a 6-cylinder, 425 
horsepower, airless injection Union 
diesel of direct reversing type. 
Auxiliaries will consist of a 75 horse- 
power, 3-cylinder, 400 revolution per 
minute Union diesel direct connected 
to a 50 kw. d.c. Westinghouse gener- 
ator, and a 52 horsepower, 2 cylinder 
Union connected to a 35 kw. 125 volt 
generator. Bait pumps will consist 
of two 10-inch suction, 8-inch dis- 
charge vertical pumps driven by 10 
horsepower vertical motors mounted 
on top of the pumps. 

The refrigeration system will show 
absence of bait wells and substitu- 
tion of large tanks on deck. Nearly 
5000 feet of 1^2 inch ammonia pipe 
will be in six banks, so spaced that 
the main hold will be uniformly re- 
frigerated for protection of cargo as 
well as of some 110 tons of chipped 
ice. 

Accommodations will be provided 
for a crew of 16 men. 

Fuel capacity will provide for a 
cruising range of 6500 miles. 



NOVEMBER MOTORSHIP 
ORDERS 

The orders for large motorships 
last month, according to The Motor 
Ship, totalled 90,000 tons gross, in- 
cluding three passenger liners, four 
tankers and three cargo ships. The 
contracts, which were fixed for the 
construction of new steamers, aggre- 
gated 37,000 tons gross. 

At the present time there are oil- 
carrying ships of about 500,000 tons 
gross under construction, the major- 
ity of them (450,000 tons gross) be- 
ing motor ships. A year ago only a 
quarter of this tanker tonnage was 
being built. 



28 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Progress of Construction 

The following Report Covers the Shipbuilding Work in Progress at the Leading 
Shipyards of the United States as of December i, ig^ 



Pacific Coast 



<;k.\kk.\i, k\<;i\kki{i.\(; and 

ItKVIKM K CO. 

I'dot of Kil'lh Avenue 
Oaklaiul, Ciilil. 

DRYDOCK. PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: S.S. Kdwiii Cliiisteiison, I'.S.A.T. 
^leijis, Yaelit Hfi-iiiit, S.S. Harbai-a C, 
S.S. Mala, S.S. 'lalioe. M.S. Staiulard 
Service, S.S. I>is|iat<'li Xo. ;5, Ijaiiiich 
Xorthei-n Linlit. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: HiUI No. 29, 
Kerry Boat, building for the State of 
California; L.B.P. 56'0", beam 24'0", 
loaded draft 2'2"; keel laid late Novem- 
ber, lfl34. No further dates set. 

Hull Xo. SO, Ferry IJoai : same as 
Hull No. 29. 



LAKE UNION DRYDOCK & MACHINE 

WOHKS 

Seattle, Wash. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
10;{, .Vriadne, U.S. Coast Guard patrol 
boat; keel laid March 23, 19 34, launch- 
ed July 1, 1934; delivered. 

Hull No. 104, Cyane, U.S. Coast Guard 
patrol boat; keel laid June 12, 1934; 
launched August 25, 1934; delivered. 



THE LOS ANtJELES SHIPBUILDING 
& DRY DO( K CORP. 

Los Angeles Harbor 
San Pedro, Calif. 
DRYDOCK, PAINT MISCELLANE- 
OUS: Yt. Happy Days, S.S. S. C. T. 
Dodd, AV. T. Barse No. 14, Tug Peacock, 
Whaler Port Saunders, .^L V. Velma, 
Whaler Hawk, Tug Listo, \'t. Enchant- 
ress, Tug- Vivo, S.S. Kekoskee, S.S. Lake 
(jialewood. 



THE MOORE DRYDOCK CO. 
f)akland, Calif. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: Willliilo, U.S.S. U.S. (Jrant, Santa 
Ke Barge No. K, Point San Pedro, Tug 
.lohn Cudahy, (Jolden (Jale Cutter, Stan- 
ley Dollar, Pennsylvanian. Nosa Chief, 
Chailes L, Whe<-ler, .Ir., Barge Crockett, 
Bai'ge Hawaiian, Slielton, (Jolden Sun, 
Nelson Travelei-, (Jolden State. 

PRINCE RUPERT DRYDOCK 

AND SHIPYARD 

Prince Rupei't, K.V. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: 1 fishing boat, docked, cleaned, 
painted, misc. hull and engine repairs; 
21 ship repair jobs not requiring dock- 
ing; 29 commercial jobs. 



THE I'UGET SOUND NAVY Y'ARD 

Bremerton, Washington 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: U.S.S. Wor- 
den (Destroyer No. 352), LBP, 334'; 
beam 34'2»^"; loaded draft, lO'lO"; 



geared turbine engines; Yarrow type 
water-tube boilers; keel laid Dec. 29, 
1932; launched October 27, 1934. 

U.S.S, Cushing (Destroyer No. 376); 
LBP, 334'; beam, 35'%"; loaded draft, 
lO'lO"; geared turbine engines; express 
type boilers; keel laid August 15, 1934. 

U.S.S. Perkins (Destroyer No. 377); 
LBP 334'; beam, 35'%"; loaded draft, 
lO'lO"; geared turbine engines; express 
type boilers; building under provisions 
of National Industrial Recovery Act; 
keel laid November 15, 1934. 

Two 1,'SOO-ton destroyers for U. S. 
Navy; contract received August 22, 
1934. 

Care and Preservation (out of Com- 
mission): Aroostook, Jason, Kear.sarge, 
Patoka, Pawtucket, Prometheus, Pyro. 

DRYDOCK. PAINT. MISCELLANE- 
OUS: Maryland, New Y'ork. California, 
(^oncord, Richmond, Saratoga, Astoria, 
Haida, Swallow, Mahopac, Tatnuck, 
Challenge, Wando. 



UNITED STATES NAVY Y'ARD 

Mare Island, Calif. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Smith, U.S. 
torpedo boat destroyer (DD:{7K); stan- 
dard displacement, 1500 tons; keel laid 
October 27, 1934; estimated completion 
date. Feb., 1936. 

Preston, U. S. torpedo boat destroyer 
(DD-:?79); standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid. October 27, 1934; esti- 
mated conuiletion date, May, 1936. 

DD:«)1, Destroyer for U.S. Navy; 
standard displacement 1500 tons; esti- 
mated delivery November, 1936. 

SS1S1, Pompano, Submarine, estimat- 
ed delivery, May, 1937. 



Atlantic, Lakes, Rivers 

AMERICAN BRIDGE COMPANY' 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: One derrick 
hull for Ohio Kivir Company. 10' x 40' 
X (i'H". 

BATH IRON WORKS 
Bath, Maine 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
154, Dewey (DD :?4»), torpedo boat de- 
stroyer for U.S. Navy; keel laid Dec. 16, 
1932; launched July 28, 1934; deliv- 
ered October 3, 1934. 

Hull No. 159, Drayton (DD »««). tor- 
pedo boat destroyer. U.S. Navy; keel 
laid, March 20. 1934; launching, no 
date set; estimated delivery November, 
1935. 

Hull No. 160, Lamson (DD .S07). tor- 
pedo boat destroyer, for U.S. Navy; 
keel laid. March 20, 1934; launching, 
no dates set; estimated delivery, Janu- 
ary, 1936. 



BETHLEHEM SHIPBUILDING 

CORPORATION 

Fore River I'lant, 

Quincy, Mass. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Heavy Cruis- 
er CA-39, Quincy, 10,000 tons. Estimat- 
ed delivery January, 1936. 

Heavy Cruiser CA44, Vlncennes, 10,- 
000 toiis. Estimated delivery January, 
1937. Keel laid January 2, 1934. 

Four Tor|)edo Boat Destroyers; DD- 
360, Phelps, keel laid January 2, 1934; 
estimated delivery, December. 1935. 

DD361, Clark, keel laid January 2, 
1934; estimated delivery February, 
1936. 

DD:J02, Moffett, keel laid, January 2, 
1934; estimated delivery April 191'6. 

DD3(>;{, Batch, keel laid, April, 1934; 
estimated delivery. June. 1936. 

DD-;580, 1,'>00 Ton Destroyer. Esti- 
mated delivery, January 19 37. 

DD-3S2, 1.500 Ton Destroyer. Esti- 
mated delivery, April 19 37. 



CHARLESTON DRYT)OCK CO. 

Charleston, S.C. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Contract for 
one 5,000-barrel all-welded steel tank- 
er for Messrs. Thurber & Powers of 
Boston; estimated completion date, 
Dec. 1, 1934. 



DEFOE BOAT AND MOTOR 
WORKS 
Bay City, Mich. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: U. S. Coa.st 
Guard Cutter No. 1.V2 Tahonia; dis- 
placement tonnage 1000; geared tur- 
bine drive; B. & W. boilers; 1500 h.p.; 
keel laid Dec. 15, 1933; launched Sept. 
5, 19 34; estimated delivery, Oct. 20, 
1934. 



THE DRAVO CONTRACTING CO. 

Engineering Works Dept., 
Pittsburgh, Pa., and Wilmington, Del, 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
997. one diesel stern wheel tow boat of 
91 gross tons. 

Hull No. 11«4, 750 h.p. twin screw 
diesel towhoat for stock. 

Hull No. 1202; Lightliouse Tender 
•lasniine, for U. S. Lighthouse Service; 
187 gross tons. 

Hull No. 1203, Steam Sternwheel 
SOO H.p. towboat for Pittsburgh Coal 
Company. 

This makes a total of 4 hulls under 
contract, with a total gross tonnage of 
1328. 



ELECTRU' BOAT CO. 

(iroton. Conn. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 19. 
fleet submarine, Shark, (SS174) : L.B.P. 
298'; beam., 25': standard displace- 
ment, 1315 tons; keel laid. October 24, 
1933; estimated launching, April, 1935. 



JANUARY. 1935 



29 



Hull No. 20. Tarpon (SS175) : L.B.P. 
298'; beam, 25'; standard displacement, 
1315 tons; keel laid, Dec. 22. 1933; 
estimated launching. February. 19 35; 
possible delivery. November. 1935. 

Hull No. 23. Penh, S.S. 176. building 
for U.S. Navy; estimated keel laying. 
February 25. 1935; estimated launch- 
ing. June 23. 1936. 

Hull No. 2 4. Pickerel, S.S. 17 7. es- 
timated keel laying. March 25. 19 35; 
estimated launching. September 23. 
1936. 

Hull No. 25. Pinna, S.S. 178. esti- 
mated keel laying, June 6, 1935; esti- 
mated launching, December 22, 1936. 



THE FEDER.\L SHTPBUTLDING 

AXD DRYDOCK COMPANY 

Keamy, X. J. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Two destroy- 
ers, DD368 tlusser and DD369 Reid for 
the U. S. Navy, estimated completion 
dates — Flusser, Nov., 1935; Reid, 
February, 19 36. 



>L\XITOWOC SHIPBOLDIXG CO. 
Manitowoc, Wis. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Three U.S. 
Coast Guard Patrol Boats, Hull Xos. 
277 Dione; 278 Electra; and 279 Pan- 
dora; L.B. P. 165'; beam 25'3"; loaded 
draft, 8'6"; speed loaded, 18 knots; 
Diesel engines, 1300 S.H.P. ; all three 
launched June 30, 1934; estimated de- 
livery dates: Dione, Sept. 29, 1934; 
Electra, Oct. 11, 1934; Pandora, Oct. 
27, 1934. 

Hull No. 280, Lighthouse tender. 
Tamarack, L.B.P. 111'8"; beam 29'; 
loaded draft. 7'; speed loaded 10% 
knots; diesel electric, 450 S.H.P. ; esti- 
mated delivery Nov. 1, 1934. 



THE MARIETTA MANUFACTtTRING 
COMPANY 

Point Pleasant, W. Va. 

Three 165' Patrol Boats for U.S. 
Coast Guard, Washington, D. C, Nike, 
Nemesis, and Triton, 2 5' 3" beam, 13' 
2" depth; will draw approximately 7'; 
twin-screw type, propelled by two 650 
horsepower Winton Diesel engines. To- 
tal displacement of each vessel approxi- 
mately 300 tons; required speed 16 
knots — now under construction; Nike 
launched June 2 3. 19 34; Nemesis 
launched, July 7, 1934; Triton launch- 
August 8, 19 34; estimated delivery 
dates, Oct. 9, 1934; Oct. 29, 1934; and 
Nov. 18, 1934 respectively. 

Two Side Wheel Self-Propelled 34" 
Pipe Line Dredges of the Dustpan Type. 
Total contract price $1,016,500.00. De- 
livery In 180 and 210 days — Length, 
molded, 270'0"; length overall, 277' 
1%"; breadth, molded, 50'0"; breadth 
overall, 84'8%"; depth, molded, 8'6"; 
depth midships, 9'3", first keel laid 
May 2, 1934; second keel laid June 28, 
1934; launched Sept. 1, 1934 and Oct. 
6, 19 34, respectively. 

One twin screw diesel driven tow- 
boat for U. S. Engineer's office, Vicks- 
burg, Miss.; length molded 17 6'; 
breadth, 38'; depth 8'6"; two 650 H.P. 
diesel engines; two 75 and one 15 K.W. 
diesel driven generating sets; contract 



price 1314,750.00, delivery at Vicks- 
burg. Miss., in six months, estimated 
keel laying Oct. 10. 19 34. 

Ten 175'x26'xll' Steel Coal Barges of 
1000 tons capacity each for West Ken- 
tucky Coal Co.. of Paducah, Ky. Deliv- 
ery, May 1935. 



estimated delivery, August 1937. 



MIDLAND BARGE COMPANY 

(Subsidiary of Tread well Construction 

Company. ) 

Midland and Erie, Pa., 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Four barges, 

100'x26'x6'6" for stock. 



NASHVILLE BRIDGE CO., 
Nash\'llle, Term. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
286, Snag boat for U.S. Government, 
keel laid April 1, 1934: launched, June 
24, 1934; L.B.P. 170'; beam 38'; load- 
ed draft 41/2'; 600 I. H.P. engine; 2 
boilers; delivered Nov. 16, 1934. 

Hulls Nos. 297, 298, 299, three 
barges for stock; 100x2 6x61,^; launched 
October 2, 12 and 23 respectively. 

Hull No. 300; barge for Davidson 
County; 60'xl6'x3%'; launched Octo- 
ber 15, 19 34, delivered Oct, 23, 1934, 

Hull No. 301 and Hull No. 302; 2 
barges for stock, 100'x26'x6 %'; esti- 
mated launching January 5, and 10, 
1935, respectively. 



NEWPORT NEWS SHIPBUILDING & 
DRYDOCK CO. 

90 Broad Street, New York 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: H 359 air- 
craft carrier CVS, Yorktown, for U. S. 
Navy; keel laid May 21, 1934; estimat- 
ed delivery, October 3, 1936. 

H360 aircraft carrier, CV6, Enter- 
prise, for U.S. Navy.; keel laid July 16, 
1934; estimated delivery February 3. 
1937. 

H361, light cruiser for U.S. Navy; 
completion time 34 months after date 
of formal award. Date of contract Aug. 
22, 1934. 



THE NEW YORK SHIPBUILDING 
COMPANY 

Camden, N. J. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Contract for 
four destroyers: Hull No. 408, Porter 
(DD356); Hull No. 409, Selfridge (DD- 

357) ; Hull No. 410, McDougal (DD- 

358) ; Hull No. 411, Winslow (DD- 
359); of 1850 tons each; keels laid. 
Dec. 1933. 

Two light cruisers; Hull No. 412, 
Savannah (CL42), Hull No. 413, Nash- 
vill (CL43), of 10.000 tons each for the 
U. S. Navy Department; estimated de- 
livery dates are as follows: DD356, 
Porter, Dec, 1935; DD357, Selfridge, 
Feb., 1936; DD3.58, McDougal, Apr., 
1936; DD359, Winslow, June, 1936; 
CL4a, Savannah, Aug., 1936; CL43. 
Na.shville, Dec. 1936. 

Oil tanker. No. 414, and oil tanker 
No. 415, for Standard-Vacuum Trans- 
portation Company, 15,000 tons D.W. 
each; keels laid March 2 6, 1934; deliv- 
ery early 1935. 

(C.L. 46) One light cruiser, Hull No. 
416, for U.S. Navy; weight 10,000 tons; 



THE PUSEY & JONES CORP. 
Wilmington, Del. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION; Nos. 56, Al- 
gonquin; 57, Comanche; and 58, Mo- 
hawk; cruising cutters, building for 
Treasury Department. U. S. Coast Guard 
Service; L.B.P., 150'; beams, 36'; load- 
ed draft 13'; speed loaded, 15 miles per 
hour; turbine engines, 1500 S.H.P.; two 
watertube boilers, 325 pounds pressure, 
construction schedule; No. 5 6, keel laid, 
January 16, 1934; launched July 25, 
1934; delivered, October 20, 1934; No. 
57, keel laid January 17. 1934; launch- 
ed September 6, 19 34; delivered De- 
cember 1, 1934; No. 58, keel laid, Feb. 
ruary 1, 1934; launched October 23, 
1934; delivered December 31, 1934. 



SPEDDEN SHIPBUILDING CO. 

Baltimore, Md. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 274 
(Diesel), Electric, wrought iron hull. 
Boarding Cutter, for the U. S. Public 
Health Service, Staten Island, N. Y.; 
keel laid March 15. 1934; launched, 
August 8, 19 34; delivered Nov. 23, 
1934; L.B.P. 100'8"; beam, 23'; loaded 
draft, 10' speed loaded, 12 knots; two 
360 B.H.P. Fairbanks Morse engines. 

UNITED DRYDOCKS, Inc. 
Staten Island, N.Y. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: DD364, de- 
stroyer Mahan, estimated delivery, Oct. 
1935; L.B.P. 334'0"; beam 35'0"; mean 
draft, lO'lO"; keel laid June 12. 1934; 
estimated delivery Dec. 20. 19 35. 

DD365, destroyer Ciunmings, esti- 
mated delivery, Dec, 1935, for U. S. 
Navy; L.B.P. 334'0"; beam 35'0"; mean 
draft lO'lO"; keel laid June 26, 1934; 
estimated delivery, Dec. 30, 1935. 

DD 384, Destroyer for U.S. Navy; es- 
timated delivery. May, 1936. 

DD 385, Destroyer for U.S. Navy; es- 
timated delivery, July 1936. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 

Boston, Mass. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Destroyer 
DD370, Case, L.B.P. 334'; beam 35'; 
keel laid, Sept. 19, 1934; estimated de- 
livery, Feb. 1936. 

Destroyer DD371, Con>Tigham, L.B.P. 
334'; beam 35'; keel laid Sept. 19, 
1934; estimated delivery. May, 19 36. 

Destroyer DD354, Monaghan, L.B.P. 
334'; beam 34'2"; keel laid November 
21, 1933; estimated delivery. May, 
1935. 

Destroyer DD351, Macdonough, keel 
laid May 15, 1933, L.B. P. 334'; beam 
34'2"; launched Aug. 22, 1934; esti- 
mated delivery, March, 19 35; for the 
U.S. Navy. 

DD389 and DD.390, two light destroy- 
ers; estimated delivery: 389, Nov. 1, 
1936; 390, Feb. 1. 1937. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 

Charleston, S.C. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: U.S.S. 

Charleston, gunboat (PG51) for U. S. 

Navy, building period assigned by Navy 



30 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Department. Nov. 1, 1933, to Feb. 1, 
1936. Keel laid October 27, 1934. 

Coast Guard Harbor Cutters 61, 63, 
and «4; work started Feb. 1, 19 34; 
keels laid June 8, 1934; launched Sept. 
28, 1934. No. 61 delivered; Nos. 63 and 
64 to be delivered Dec. 15 and January 
15 respectively. 

One Coast Guard Cutter (2000 tons). 
No dates set. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 
New York, N. Y. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: DD350. Hull, 
destroyer; L.B.P. 334'; beam, 34'2"; 
standard displacement, 1500 tons; 
geared turbine engines; express type 
boilers; keel laid Margh, 1933; launch- 
ed Aug. 11. 1934; estimated delivery 
July, 1935. 

DD 353, Dale, destroyer, dimensions 
same as above; keel laid. February 10, 
1934; estimated delivery, July, 1935. 

CL 40, Brooklyn, light cruiser, L.B. 
P. 600'; beam 61'8"; standard displace- 
ment. 10,000; geared turbine engines; 
express type boilers; estimated keel 
laying, March 1, 1935; estimated deliv- 
ery, March 24, 193 6. 

PG. 50, Erie, gunboat; L.B. P., 308'; 
beam, 41"; standard displacement, 
2000 tons; geared turbine engines; ex- 
press type boilers. Building for U.S. 
Navy, estimated keel laying Dec. 17, 
1934; estimated delivery, December, 
1936. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

CL41, Phila<lelphia, L.B.P. 600', 0"; 
beam 61',7%"; molded depth at side to 
main deck amidships 42'0%"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement 
21', 8 >,^"; standard displacement 10,- 
000 tons; date of completion as report- 
ed by building yard, January, 19 37. 

DD355, .A.vlvvin, L.B.P., 334'0" beam 
34'.2i^"; depth molded at side to main 
deck amidships. 19', 7-7/8"; draft corre- 
sponding to normal displacement 10', 
2-13/16"; standard displacement 1500 
tons; keel laid September 23, 1933; 
launched July 10, 1934; estimated de- 
livery April 1, 1935. 

DD372, Cassin.L.B.P., 334',0"; beam, 
35', 0-1/8"; depth molded at side to 
main deck amidships 19', 7-7/8"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement, 
10', 10"; standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid. October 1, 1934; esti- 
mated completion date, March 15, 1936. 

DD373, Shaw, L.B.P. 334', 0"; beam, 
35', 0-1/8"; depth molded at side to 
main deck amidships, 19'7-7/8"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement, 
10', 10"; standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid October 1, 1934; esti- 
mated completion, June 15. 1936. 

Four coast guard cutters, L.B.P., 
308', 0"; beam 41', 0"; depth molded at 
side to main deck amidships, 23', 6"; 
draft corersponding to normal displace- 
ment, 12'6"; standard displacement, 
2000 tons; no dates set. 



Book Review 

THE PAGEANT OF CHINESE HIS- 
TORY by Elizabeth Seeger. Illus- 
trated by Bernard C. Watkins. 377 
pages with an 8-page index. Bound 
in Chinese red with black mark- 
ings. Published by Longman's, 
Green & Company, New York. 
Price $3.00. 

Beginning with the mythical ac- 
counts of nomad leaders and legen- 
dary kings, Miss Seeger traces the 
story of a great nation through feu- 
dal times, and the five hundred 
years of civil war; through the near- 
ly nine hundred years of the Chou 
dynasty (1122-255 B.C.) to the re- 
union of the provinces and the es- 
tablishment of the empire under Shi 
Huang Ti ; through the Han dynasty 
of territorial expansion and inven- 
tion, and growing trade with the 
Roman Empire; through the con- 
quest of the Northern Provinces by 
the Tartars to the Renaissance und- 
er the Tang emperors — a time of lux- 
ury and elegance, art, literature, 
painting and the invention of print- 
ing; through the Sung dynasty which 
increased these cultural values; 
through the conquest by the Mon- 
gols (1280-1368) followed by the 
coming of Marco Polo and other Eu- 
ropeans; through the Ming dynasty 
when China was won back from the 
Mongols; and through the Manchu 
conquest (1644) when foreigners 
were again shut out and wars with 
Europe arose. There follows the 
story of ports forced open to trade, 
and to admit foreign envoys to the 
emperor; the war with Japan when 
Europeans seized many seaports; the 
Boxer Rebellion; and finally the re- 
forms leading up to the foi'mation of 
the republic. 



United States Civil 

Service Examinations 

The United States Civil Service 
Commission has announced open 
competitive examinations as follows: 

Chief EnRineering Draftsman 

Principal Engineering Draftsman 

Senior Engineering Draftsman 

Engineering Draftsman 

(For work on ships) 

Applications for the positions of 
Chief Engineering Draftsman, Prin- 
cipal Engineering Draftsmen, Senior 
Engineering Draftsman, and Engin- 
eering Draftsman (for work on 
ships), must be on file with the U. S. 
Civil Service Commission, Washing- 
ton, D. C, not later than January 14, 
1935. 

The entrance salary for Chief En- 
gineering Draftsman is $2,600 , a 
year, for Principal Engineering 
Draftsman, $2,300 a year, for Senior 
Engineering Draftsman, $2,000 a 
year, and for Engineering Drafts- 
man, $1,800 a year, subject to a de- 
duction of not to exceed 5 per cent 
during the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1935, as a measure of economy, 
and also to a deduction of 3':; per 
cent toward a retirement annuity. 

Optional branches are (1) Ship 
piping, (2) ship ventilation, (3) mar- 
ine engines and boilers, and (4) elec- 
trical (ship). 

Certain specified education and ex- 
perience are required. 

Full information may be obtained 
from the Secretary of the United 
States Civil Service Board of Ex- 
aminers at the post office or custom- 
house in any city which has a post 
office of the first or the second class, 
or from the United States Civil Ser- 
vice Commission, Washington, D. C. 



CA45, Heavy Cruiser, L.B.P., 600', 0"; 
beam, 61'.9%"; depth molded at side to 
main deck amidships, 42', 0-3/8"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement, 
21', 10"; standard displacement, 10,- 
000 tons; no dates set. 

UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 
I'ortsniouth, N. H. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: SS 172, 
Porpoise; keel laid, October 27, 1933; 
estimated delivery, Feb. 1936. ,SS 173, 
Pike, keel laid, Dec. 20, 1933 estimated 
delivery. May, 1936. SS 179 Plunger, 
estimated delivery, Feb., 1937; -SS 180 
Pollack, estimated delivery. May, 1937; 
L.B.P. 289'0"; beam 24'-ll-l/16"; load- 
ed draft 13'-9"; diesel electric engines. 

C<>a.st (iuard Harbor Cutter 62, Hud- 
son; estimated delivery, Nov. 1934; 



L.B.P. 104'0"; beam 24'-0"; loaded 
draft 10'-6"; diesel electric engines 
delivered Nov. 8, 1934. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 

Portsmouth, Va. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Torpedo 
Boat Destroyer Tucker (DD374) for 
U.S. Navy, 341 ft. long; beam 35'; 
loaded draft, lO'lO"; treaty stand- 
ard displacement, 1500 tons; No. 4 
boilers; 35 knots speed; estimated de- 
livery, February, 1936. 

Torpedo Boat Destroyer D o w n e s 
(DD37.'j) for U.S. Navy, 344 ft. long; 
beam 35'; loaded draft, lO'lO"; treaty 
standard displacement, 1500 tons; No. 
4 boilers; 35 knots speed; estimated 
delivery. May, 1936. Laying down lines 
under way in mold loft. 



JANUARY. 1935 



31 



Air and Erosion 

Elimination 



In the specialty field of heat ex- 
change maintenance and manufac- 
ture, the Condenser Service and En- 
gineering Company, Hoboken, N.J., 
has continually endeavored to de- 
velop ways and means of decreasing 
maintenance cost and simplifying 
operation of heat exchange equip- 
ment. 

In the surface condenser, from 
records developed as far back as 
condenser use goes, they found a 
constantly increasing annoyance due 
to the various deteriorating factors 
that take place in condensers which 
in effect are large batteries with a 
flowing electrolyte which is the cir- 
culating water and the varied and 
different metals used fn the manu- 
facture. 

Through continually experiment- 
ing and improving on a practical 
device that would eliminate the ef- 
fects of the various actions they 
eventually developed an air and ero- 
sion eliminator, on which they ob- 
tained patents for the United States 
and foreign countries. The result in 
service of the use of this apparatus 
in industrial plants, public utilities, 
marine condensers and — after a trial 
of a year and a half — in oil refiner- 
ies, was found to be such that con- 
denser tube life was quadrupled. 
Many instances were found of great- 
er than double or triple life with the 
condensers still going strong, and no 
failures. 

The history of results, over a per- 
iod of five years, is distributed in 
such a way that it is definitely 
shown that heat exchange equipment 
of any type, where water circulates 
through the tubes, is afforded pro- 
tection to the extent that tube life 
is multiplied many times. 

The following isolated cases of in- 
stallations and actual results are a 
matter of record, and full data can 
be obtained from the executives in 
charge of operations of the various 
companies mentioned. 

The Condenser Service and Engin- 
eering Company have twenty-three 
installations for the United States 



Steel Corporation. Five years ago, in 
January, one of their ships, the S.S. 
Montgomery City, was to be retubed ; 
the tubes were then eight years old. 
They agreed to try an air and ero- 
sion eliminator. In less than two 
months this installation will be five 
years old, and after tubes were con- 
demned. 

The steamship President Roose- 
velt of the United States Lines has 
had unusual condenser tube trouble, 
retubings taking place in periods 
between twelve and eighteen months. 
They ultimately obtained 28 months 
from a set of tubes. They were so 
completely discouraged with the re- 
sults that in 1930, during a retubing 
which was done in April of that year, 
they decided to put in Muntz metal 
tubes, for salt water service. At this 
time, with the air and erosion elim- 
inators, the Muntz metal tubes re- 



main in the condenser with no fail- 
ures. 

The Bethlehem Steel Company, in 
April 1931, installed an eliminator 
in a condenser on one of their Ore 
steamships. The tubes in these con- 
densers eat up on the ends only in a 
period of from 18 to 21 months. After 
40 months of this installation they 
examined the condenser tubes, no 
failures had taken place during the 
period and they then ordered four 
additional installations. 

The New York Edison Company, 
Waterside Station, installed an elim- 
inator in a single pass condenser, 
10,000 tubes, where they were then 
losing an average of 50 tubes per 
week. The tube failures gradually 
decreased, practically stopping at 
the end of four months. 

The Atlantic Refining Company 
have heat exchange units through 
which salt water circulates for cool- 
ing. An installation was made, on 
trial, approximately 1'^ years ago. 
The service life was decidedly im- 
proved, and while these tubes were 
bad and were giving trouble, they 
have had no further trouble with the 
particular unit since the installation 
of the air and erosion eliminator. 



Book Reviews and Trade Literature 



CACHETS OF THE U.S. FRIGATE 
CONSTITUTION. Compiled and 
edited by D. C. Hartley, U.S.C.S. 
No. 44, Seattle, Washington. 
This copiously illustrated booklet 
is the history of the Pacific Coast 
cruise of Old Ironsides as told by the 
cachets sponsored at each port of 
call, and will be of great interest to 
all philatelists, of whom there are 
many in the U. S. Merchant and Nav- 
al services. 

MARINE BOILERS. By I. C. S. Staff 
and Edgar R. Trask. 154 pages 
(5 in. x 7 in.) with numerous il- 
lustrations bound in blue pantasote 
with gold stampings. Published by 
International Text Book Company, 
Scranton, Pa. 

A handy, practical treatise on 
types and construction details of 
marine boilers, this is the standard 
text book of the International Corre- 
spondence Schools brought up to 
date. 



Driven Type S.A. 400, is the title of 
a folder which the Lincoln Electric 
Company, Cleveland, Ohio, has re- 
cently issued in regard to their 
"Shield Arc"welder. Regular and op- 
tional equipment is fully described 
and illustrated. A copy may be ob- 
tained from the manufacturers or 
from Pacific Marine Review. 



General Specifications for Engine 



New Diesel Engine Catalog. Inger- 
soll-Rand Company has recently is- 
sued a catalog describing its sta- 
tionary-type diesel engine. This unit 
is of the 4-cycle, single-acting, solid- 
injection type. It has a box-type 
housing, cylinder liners, and an over- 
head chain-driven camshaft, and is 
fully inclosed and provided with au- 
tomatic lubrication throughout. 

The I-R diesel engine is built in 
sizes ranging from 175 to 1,500 brake 
horsepower and is applicable for di- 
rect-connected alternating - current 
generator drive, gearing to pumps, 
direct connection to compressors, for 
belting to line shafting, and for sim- 
ilar work. 



32 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



A Sea-Going Yarn from 

the Radio Room 



'^y Ray Meyers^ 



Freddie Martin, A.B.. paused in 
front of the radio shack door of the 
freighter Alice O'Leary. "Sparks," 
the operator, had just read aloud, 
"Instructions for handling Christ- 
mas messages, using the 'canned 
text' method." Message No. 10 sound- 
ed sorta nice — "I wish I might be 
with you in person to wish you a 
Merry Christmas and a Happy New 
Year." All those words for just $1.60 
— sure it was a bargain. Ordinarily 
it would cost 21 cents a word to send 
a radio message to Frisco, and then 
the address and signature had to be 
paid for as additional words — cable 
count. So Freddie invested and filed 
a greeting message for the folks back 
home. 

Sparks had explained that with his 
old-time spark transmitter, he want- 
ed to get rid of all his "GTG" mes- 
sages as soon as possible. Frisco 
would only be able to read his sig- 
nals another day or two; and now 
that the Mariposa had passed north- 
bound, it was next to imposible to 
relay anything through, for none of 
the packets cruising around the 
South Seas, excepting the two Mat- 
son liners on the Australian run, 
were equipped with the latest short 
wave apparatus. 

It was just a week later that the 
Limey tramp Wentworth Castle ran 
alongside an abandoned lifeboat of 
the Alice O'Leary. Frantic radio 
calls brought a scout cruiser on the 
scene, and a day or so later, one of 
her tiny seaplanes reported sighting 
the wreckage of the O'Leary. An- 
other empty lifeboat was located — 
nothing more. An old story to those 
that follow the sea — foundered with 
all hands. 

Three weeks passed without fur- 
ther information. The papers no 
longer mentioned the incident. John 
Q. Public soon forgets. 

Christmas morning came around 

*Radio Operator, Pacific Coast Station, 
Radiomarine Corporation of America. 



and a smartly dressed messenger boy 
handed Mrs. Daniel Martin a mes- 
sage . . . the O'Leary was still afloat 
.... here was a message from Fred- 
die. A quick phone call to dad, 
working in the Chronicle pressroom, 
furnished itiformation that appeared 
to be a scoop, but the city desk traced 
the message and it liecame the sad 
duty of the city editor to inform old 
Dan Martin — it is just one of those 
unfortunate things that happens to 
bring back unpleasant memories . . . 
the message was filed along with a 
dozen or so more on December 3rd, 
to be released by the coastal radio 
station on Christmas Eve. It was too 
bad — perhaps Dan better go home 
and console the folks — those things 
happen, you know — Merry Christ- 
mas, Dan. . . . 

To most of the Martin family it 
was just December 25th. The tree 
that Johnny brought home on his 
little wagon was trimmed and light- 
ed, but somehow — it didn't look just 
right. Johnny thought it was swell, 
but Johnny didn't understand, and 
besides he didn't know Freddie very 
well — always away on a big boat. 
"He's a sailor, a chief mate or sum- 
thin' — betcha he's a captain" was 
his usual boast to Tim, his playmate 
next door. It hurt Fred when he 
came home from a long voyage that 
Johnny would run and hide from 
this stranger. The table was set, the 
turkey placed at dad's place for the 
carving, and then Sis discovered she 
forgot to stuff it. Everything was 
going wrong this year. Anyway, 
Fred's place was set as though he 
were there to enjoy the meal. Even 
that message showed he wanted to 
be home on Christmas. . . . Surely he 
was there in spirit. 

Slowly the door opened . . maybe 
the sudden draught of cool air or 
the creaking of the iron hinges caus- 
ed everyone to face about. It opened 
wider, and in stepped Fred . . . Per- 
haps the funny look on Mom's face 
caused him to stop dead in his tracks 
and stare. . . They all looked kinda 



funny. Johnny broke the spell — "It's 
him, Mom; he ain't dead. A "Hush, 
Johnny," from Sis brought Fred to 
his senses. . . "Aw, heck — gee, I'm 
dumb . . . sure it's me, folks — Merry 
Christmas . . . gee, I forgot about the 
schooner that rescued us not having 
any wireless ... we just landed, and 
boy, did I tear up the road getting 
home . . . had to knock some goofy 
immigration officer for a loop when 
he tried to tell me I wouldn't be 
able to land until morning on account 
of this being a holiday — Christmas. 
"The heck I can't," says I, "that's 
just why I'm leaving this tub of salt 
pork and dried bean.s — just 'cause 
it's Christmas." 

Ray Meyers. 
November 30, 1934. 




Berry E. Dunn, who heads up new 
M.Trine Refrigeration department of C. C. 
Moore Sc Co., engineers. 

An alumnus of San Francisco shipbuilding 
and marine supply training, Mr. Dunn's 
business career dates back to old Union Iron 
days. 

During the Shipping Board regime he was 
co-worker of William Chisholm. 

C. C. Moore & Co., engineers, have 
inaugurated a Refrigeration Depart- 
ment at their San Francisco head- 
(juarters and have placed Berry E. 
Dunn in charge. 

This news will interest many of 
his friends in Pacific ship operating 
circles, where Berry Dunn has been 
prominently identified as a marine 
refrigeration expert for the past de- 
cade or more. Numerous marine in- 
stallations on Pacific ships have 
been made under his supervision. 

C. C. Moore & Co., engineers, the 
long established Pacific Coast 
branch of The Babcock & Wilcox 
Company, have been appointed rep- 
resentatives of the Worthington- 
("ardoiidale line of refrigeration 
machinery. 



JANUARY, 1935 



13 



Official News of the 




PROPELLER CLUB <?/CaIifornia 



• Luncheon meetings 

December, despite the incui'sion of 
the holidays witnessed two very out- 
standing programs, which go down 
on the records to the credit of Presi- 
dent Haviside's administration. 

— PC — 

• McCormick Executive 

The address by Charles Wheeler, 
vice-president of McCormick Steam- 
ship Company, at the December 4 
meeting was noteworthy. Mr. Wheel- 
er's splendid talk was received with 
real enthusiasm by Propellers and 
their guests — a red-letter day in the 
Club's fine calendar of events! 

— PC — 

• December 18 

Sea Scouting, as sponsored by the 
Propeller Club was reviewed on De- 
cember 18. We were fortunate in hav- 
ing Clyde V. Pearson as the main 
speaker of the day, with Captain L. 
M. Edelman as chairman. The of- 
ficers of the Sea Scout Ship Alert 
were our guests and a team of lads 
from the ship gave us an interesting 
demonstration of their training in 
life-saving and first aid work. 

The club can well be proud of this 
estimable work — the development of 
character and manhood — under their 
fine sponsorship. 

— PC — 

• Fine Entertainment 

A charming personality was intro- 
duced to the audience in the appear- 
ance of June De Roche who captivat- 
ed all hands with songs and smiles. 
Miss De Roche, featured in the rec- 
ord-breaking production"The Drunk- 
ard" at the Palace Hotel for the past 
eight months, sang delightfully to 
the accompaniment of Virginia Rose 
Boyle. 

— PC — 

• Al Porter Improving 

His many friends will welcome the 
good news of Al Porter's convales- 



HEADQUARTERS 

320 Market Street, Room 249 
San Francisco 

President 
H. T. Haviside 

Secretary-Treasurer 
Stanley E. Allen 



cence. Secretary Stanley E. Allen 
paid him a visit around the Christ- 
mas holidays and reports that Al is 
doing fine and will be back on the 
quarter deck real soon. 

Best wishes, Al, from your fellow 
Propellers! 

— PC — 

On Tuesday noon, January 8, the 
annual business and election of offi- 
cers is scheduled. 

The nominating committee has 
named the following officers for 
1935: 

For president, Charles H. Robert- 
son. 

For governors — three-year terms 
H. T. Haviside 
Phil Coxon 
Edward Harms 
L. M. Edelman. 

The nominating committee con- 
sisted of F. M. Edwards, chairman, 
W. C. Empey, A. T. Hunter, R. H. 
Haviside and John Parker. 

It is hoped that a record-breaking 
attendance will be present to con- 
gratulate the out-going administra- 
tion on their splendid achievements 
of the year now closing — and to wish 
"bon voyage" and God-speed to the 
new custodians of the club's tradi- 
tions and ideals. 

— PC — 

• Christmas Banquet Hailed 
Success 

They're still talking about the 
Christmas Jinks! Wherever a group 
of Propellers foregather you'll hear 
prideful remarks. It was a bell-ring- 
ing, 100 per cent affair — well plan- 
ned for the enjoyment of all who 
came aboard. 

The main dining room of the Fair- 
mont Hotel was a colorful location. 
Maritime atmosphere prevailed .... 
might almost spell it "merrytime" . . 
. . because good fellowship reigned. 

The reception room idea was 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 
Charles H. Robertson, Chairman 

Robert E. Christy C. M. Le Count 

James A. Cronin W. Edgar Martin 

Francis M. Edwards Bernard Mills 

Wm. C. Empey Fletcher Monson 

Joseph J. Geary Ralph W. Myers 
John T. Greany 

grand. Here doughty Propellers 
some of us "swivel-chair skippers", 
some of us "pavement pounding deck 
officers" mingled with the genuine 
sea-going members of the good ship's 
crew-list. That's the pleasant thing 
about these get-togethers — the hand- 
shakes, the introductions, the words 

of real companionship between 

all of us who are linked in the com- 
mon love of the sea and ships. 

A splendid turn-out of Bar Pilots 
— with Captain Alec Swanson giving 
us his now famous "Tacking Ship" 
version ! 

The banquet fare was a credit to 
Mrs. Fairmont. A lively orchestra 
furnished the obligate during the re- 
past. 

After the demi-tassing, the foot- 
lights flared, and the show was on! 
Variety was the key-note of unusu- 
ally good entertainment with Dick 
Glissman crooning announcements 
into the "mike". Best reception ever 
said the lads in charge of the show. 

A special work of praise is due 
Chairman of Entertainment Frank 
Depue. He knows how! He was aided 
and abetted by such stalwarts as 
Eddie Martin, Eddie Harms, Eddie 
De Rochie and Eddie Glissman. 
Plenty of work was performed by 
Stanley E. Allen, Fletcher Monson 
and various committee-men on reser- 
vations, arrangements, dinner, re- 
freshments, and show. 

President Haviside received an 
overwhelming tribute from the mem- 
bers of the Propeller Club. Charles 
H. Robertson made the presentation. 
At the appointed cue, one of the fair 
damsels of the show brigade wheeled 
out, perambulator fashion, a "tea" 
wagon which upon inspection proved 
to be the very last word in a first-aid 
kit — first aid to Hosts is what we 
mean! 

President Harry responded with a 
sincere declaration of thanks. 



« 



14 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



# "True Captain 

of his Soul — and Ship" 

Countless friends will share the 
bereavement of the San Francisco 
Bar Pilots in the loss of their be- 
loved shipmate Captain Edward W. 
Mason. 

No more fitting tribute could be 
penned than that of Captain James 
Shanly, Honorary Bar Pilot, in which 
he quotes Tennyson's beautifully ap- 
propriate lines, followed by a very 
fine personal tribute. We quote: 

A TRIBUTE 

. . . to . . . 

CAPTAIN EDWARD W. MASON 

Sunset and evening star, 

And one clear call for me! 

And may there be no moaning of the bar. 

When I put out to sea! 

But such a tide as moving seems asleep. 
Too full for sound and foam. 
When that which drew from out the hound- 
less deep 
Turns again home. 

Twilight and evening bell 

And after that the dark; 

And may there be no sadness of farewell 

When I embark: 

For though from out our bourne of time and 

space 
The flood may bear mc far, 
I hope to see my Pilot face to tace 
When I have crossed the bar. 

How wonderfully typical of Ed- 
ward W. Mason! The sea — the atmo- 
sphere — -the thought — for Captain 
Eddie Mason has been piloted across 
the bar of the Golden Gate of Eter- 
nity by the Grand Master Pilot, who 
guides and guards all of our des- 
tinies ... he has passed the portals 
into the Snug Harbor of everlasting 
peace and happiness. 

A true captain of his soul and ship 
... a true laborer in the cause of 
right and life, Captain Mason gave 
his best for the betterment of his 
fellow man . . . with kindly words 
and gracious acts he paved a path- 
way for the weary sailor and lands- 
man alike . . . guided the footsteps 
of the faltering . . . lightened the 
burden of the heavy-laden and caus- 
ed sunshine to be cast upon the dark- 
ness of despair. 

His hands, always outstretched to 
perform a gracious act, are stilled 
. . . the heart that pulsated and 
throbbed with kindly thoughts has 
ceased, but the lingering memories 
of his good deeds are "images and 
precious thoughts that shall not die 
and cannot be destroyed." 

Captain Mason's record as a mas- 



ter was an enviable one. Keen of 
thought, quick of decision, undaunt- 
ed and unafraid, he met conditions 
as presented — were it a fire at sea 
or a hurricane — in a manner which 
inspired confidence and caused him 
to be admired, yes, beloved by pas- 
sengers and crew alike, and highly 
esteemed by shipping men and own- 
ers. 

As a pilot he brought cheer and 
courage to many weary and storm- 
tossed masters when he boarded on 
to relieve them of the hazardous and 
intricate task of piloting their ships 
through the treacherous currents, 
baffling winds and puzzling fogs off 
the Golden Gate bar to a safe an- 
chorage or alongside a dock. 

Among associates of the San Fran- 
cisco Bar Pilots the Captain was 
held in the highest esteem and his 
passing has left a void which will 
be hard to abridge, a break which 
time alone can heal. Possessed of an 
astute, analytical mind, his counsel 
was most valuable in fathoming 
many and varied problems and his 
work of advancing the interests of 
the association was noteworthy. 

But to the non-marine-minded he 
was best known, beloved and honor- 
ed as a loving husband, a devoted 
father and a friend whose loyalty 
was as steadfast and certain as time. 

Now his cheery voice is but an 
echo of the past, his winsome smile 
is but a shadow of the thought that 
the tide of grief has ebbed, and yet 
we know that: 

"When the stream 
Which overflowed the soul had passed away 
A consciousness remained that it had left 
Deposited upor the silent shore of memory 

Images and precious thoughts 
That .-.han not die and cannot be destroyed."" 



At the annual election of officers 
of the Rail and Water Club re- 
cently, Frederic Pique was unani- 
mously elected president. Mr. Pique, 
who is with the Hammond Shipping 
Company, was vice-president of the 
organization in 1934. Other new of- 
ficers are: H. F. Guide and R. Y. 
Handasyde, first and second vict- 
presidents, respectively; Jack Saipe, 
secretary, and E. H. J. Eggert, treas- 



• De Laval 

Sales Executive, Visitor 

ting with H. V. Petersen, newly ap- 
pointed General Sales Manager of De 
Laval Steam Turbine Company. Mr. 
Petersen had just put into port after 
a business survey, in the interests of 
his company, of the major cities in 
the middle west. He also spent some 
time in Seattle and Portland, report- 
ing a fine pick-up in the Pacific 
Northwestern marine situation. Mr. 
Petersen told us of the new naval 
contracts recently placed with his 
Trenton plant, and expressed his 
opinion that 1935 would see a gener- 
al improvement in construction work 
for private accounts. His firm is 
justly proud of the distinctive instal- 
lations which they have made in 
merchant marine vessels and we 
were glad to report to him that this 
edition of Pacific Marine Review 
would carry a resume of outstanding 
De Laval performances. 

Mr. Petersen's promotion to gen- 
eral sales manager is a fortunate 
one, as he brings to this position a 
background of engineering know- 
ledge combined with a splendid sell- 
ing personality. He knows turbines! 

On our part — it is always gratif.v- 
ing to have an executive of an East- 
ern marine - manufacturing firm 
come out to the Coast to get the true 
picture of our Pacific maritime ac- 
tivity. 



James F. Collins, general manager 
of the port of Long Beach since 1931, 
has announced his resignation from 
that position to devote his entire 
time to private business. 

For approximately fifteen years, 
Mr. Collins has been an exponent of 
a greater harbor at Long Beach and 
has worked officially and unofficial- 
ly to that end. In submitting his res- 
ignation, he stated that he believed 
the major items in the harbor pro- 
gram undertaken in 1931 have been 
completed. 



At the San Francisco office, head- 
ed by Carroll Reeves we had the ex- 
treme pleasure of meeting and chat- 



V. H. Carson, associated with the 
Dollar Steamship Company for over 
ten years, as chief rate clerk in the 
freight department, passed away at 
his San Francisco residence, on De- 
cember 13. Known affectionately as 
"Pete" to his fellow employees, Car- 
son will be missed by his many 
friends in the Dollar organization. 



JANUARY, 1935 



15 



16 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



January, 1935 




MeCormiek Steamship Company 

461 Market St., San Francisco Phone: DOuglas 2561 



SWAYNE &) HOYT, I.td. 

Shipo-wners and Agents 

GULF PACIFIC LINE . . 

Service between Tacoma, Seattle, Portland, Oakland, San Francisco, Los 
Angeles and Houston, Corpus Christi, Beaumont, Lake Charles, Tampa, 
Mobile and New Orleans. 



/^/SHIPOWNERSX^ 
^ AND AGENTS Lj 



GULF PACIFIC MAIL LINE, LTD. 

U. S. Mail Steamers Direct to Puerto Colombia, Kingston, Tampico, Canal 
Zone, Colombia, Dutch West Indies, Venezuela, Cuba, Vera Cruz. 



SWAYNE & HOYT, LTD. 



215 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 



TRAVEL By 
FREIGHT LINER 



LUCKEHEACH 



PASSENGERS 
. . AND . . 
FREIGHT 



EASTBOUND SERVICE 
5-DAY SAILINGS 

MANHATTAN — BROOKLYN — PHILADELPHIA 

Fortnightly Service To and From Gulf of 

Mexico Ports: 

NEW ORLEANS - MOBILE - HOUSTON 



WESTBOUND SERVICE 
WEEKLY SAILINGS 

BOSTON 



Coastwise Services Between Pacific Coast Ports: 

LOS ANGELES - SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND 

PORTLAND - SEATTLE - TACOMA 



LVCKEXBACH LINES 

310 Sansome Street, San Francisco 
Head Office: 120 Wall Street, New York 

THE LARGEST AND FASTEST FREIGHTERS IN THE INTERCOASTAL TRADE 




SUPERIOR! 

T EADING steamship companies 
■^now recognize the superiority of 
TA-PAT-CO Life Preservers. Fill- 
ing, Private Estates kapok — six 
times more buoyant than cork. Puts 
on hke a vest — reversible both sides 
alike. Turns wearer on back if un- 
conscious. Approved by U.S. Steam- 
boat Inspection. Sold by represen- 
tative ship chandlers. Prices on re- 
quest. 

THE AMERICAN PAD AND 
TEXTILE CO. 

122 Read Si., Gretnfield, Ohio. 



|7/^ KELVIN 
WHITE 

C^ 112 STATC ST. tS 




January, 1935 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



17 



KQSZCEI Pacific Coast Shippers 

CONTINUOUSLY £. 
CONSCIENTIOUSLY 




dpe4u^ 



ADMIRAL LINE 





PUGET SOUND • COLUMBIA RIVER. SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA PORTS 



STEAMSHIP LINES 



S.S. LURLINE - S.S. MARIPOSA - S.S. MONTEREY - S.S. MALOLO 



\ *f 




12 Island days in three weeks' 
round trip. Low cost luxury voy- 
aging to Springtime pleasure 
isles. . . . Complete escape from 
mainland winter to South Sea 
tropic enchantment. 

MATS ON 
SOUTH PACIFIC CRUISES 

A VSTRALIA and NEW ZEALAND ma 
Bauiaii, Samoa, Fiji. Atl-Inrlu»ive Coal. 
PerMonatly escorted. Saileveryfour uteekn. 

46 care-free days. Over 17,000 
miles of romantic roaming to un- 
spoiled lands. South Seas Cruise 
MATSOX LMIVE ■ 

:15 Market Street. DOuglas 5233, San 
2421. Los Angeles - - 814 Se( 



Ships S.S. Mariposa and S.S. 
Monterey. Low fares include 
shore excursions and entertain- 
ment in every port both going 
and returning — except ports of 
departure. 

ROUND THE WORLD via ALSTRAUA 
Fine choice of routes. Low f.ires. 
Superb ships. 

SHIPPER S 

The "'Monterey"' and the "Mariposa" 
offer express speed and unexcelled refrig- 
facilitics— New Zealand 15 days; 



Australia 18 days. 

- OCEANiC LiXE 

Francisco - - 723 W. 7th Street, VAndikc 
ond Avenue. Main 3677. Seattle. 



GRACE LINE 

Passenger . Freight . Mail . Express 




Regular Sailings between New York 

and Pacific Coast — directly serving 

MEXICO - GUATEMALA 

EL SALVADOR - PANAMA 

COLOMBIA - CUBA 

WEST COAST 
SOUTH AMERICA SERVICE 

COLOMBIA - EQUADOR - PERU - CHILI 

(Via Central American Ports and 

Panama when inducements offer — 

cargo accepted for Bolivia) 

M.S. Nosa Chief carries Combustibles 

GRACE LIIVE 

GEN ERAL OFFICES 
2 Pine Street. San Francineo SUtter 3800 

Los Angeles. 525 W. Sixth Street. TRinity 9461. Seattle, 1508 

fourth Avenue, SEneca 4?00. Portland, Hammond Lumber Co., 

Musev Dock. Victoria. B.C., Rilhet'n Dock. 




fanama facific Qne 

INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE MARINE CO. 

Fastest ImiteirecDastall Seirvic® 

DIRECT CONNECTIONS FOR EUROPE 

Sailings every other Saturday from San Francisco. Every other Monday from Los Angeles. Direct fast Freight. Passenger and Refrigerator Service between 
NEW YORK and SAN DIEGO, LOS ANGELES, SAN FR.XNOSCO, OAKLAND, ALAMEDA. Through bills of lading issued to and from Portland, 
Seattle, Tacoma and Vancouver, and rapid transshipment to and from the Orient, Hawaii and Australia. Through bills of lading issued and direct con- 
nections made at New York with International Mercantile Marine Company Lines. 



SAN FRANCISCO— «87 Market St. DOuglas 8680. 
LOS ANGELES— 715 West 7th Street. TRinity 8261. 
PORTLAND— McCormick Terminal. ATwatcr 9161. 



OAKLAND — Grove St. Terminal. GLencourt 4817 

SAN DIEGO— Broadway Pier. MAin 8141 
SEATTLE— 216 Vance BIdg. ELIiot 4630 



18 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



January, 1935 



FEIIMM/ 




Our Greetings 

to shipowners, operators and 
the ship maintenance personnel. 

Our Thanks 

for your fine acceptance of 
Federal Marine Paints and 
Compositions during the many 
years we have served you . . . 

Our Pledge 

of highest standards of service 
and quality for 1935 

The Federal Composition & 
Paint Co., Inc. 

33 RECTOR STREET, NEW YORK 



R. B. SHEPPARD, 
101 MARINE AVENUE 
WILMINGTON, CALIF. 

A. T. B. SHIELS, 

108 WEST LEE STREET. 

SEATTLE. WASH. 



PILLSBURY a: CURTIS, 

310 SANSOME STREET, 

SAN FRANOSCO, CALIF. 

CHALMERS SHIPPING COMPANY 

BOARD OF TRADE BUILDING, 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



Slocks and Agencies at all Ports of the World 



DOLLAR STEAMSHIP LINES 



EXPRESS FRElGHT-PASSEhKERgjAWlllAND REFRIGERATOR SERVICES 

•transpacific 

WEEKLY SAILINGS from Los Angeles Harbor and 
San Francisco to Honolulu, Yokohama, Kobe, Shang' 
hai, Hongkong, Manila, FORTNIGHTLY to Singa- 
pore, Penang, Colombo, and round-the-world ports. 
FORTNIGHTLY SAILINGS from Manila, Hong- 
kong, Shanghai, Kobe, Yokohama, and Honolulu to 
San Francisco, and Los Angeles Harbor. 

•ATLANTIC-FAR EAST 

WEEKLY SAILINGS from New York, FORT- 
NIGHTLY from Boston to Honolulu, Yokohama, 
Kobe, Shanghai, Hongkong, and Manila. 
FORTNIGHTLY SAILINGS from Manila, Hong- 
kong, Shanghai, Kobe, Yokohama, Honolulu to New 
York and *Boston. 
*Transhipment New York. 

•mediterranean - U. S. A. 

FORTNIGHTLY SAILINGS from Alexandria, 
Naples, Genoa, and Marseilles to New York, Boston, 
Los Angeles Harbor, San Francisco. Cargo destined 
Oakland, Portland, Seattle or Vancouver subject to 
San Francisco transhipment. 

•round-the-world 

FORTNIGHTLY SAILINGS between Boston, New 
York, Havana, Colon, Balboa, Los Angeles Harbor, 
San Francisco, Honolulu, Kobe, Shanghai, Hong- 
kong, Manila, Singapore, Penang, Colombo, Bombay, 
Suez, Port Said, Alexandria, Naples, Genoa, Mar- 
seilles, thence New York. 

•transpacific freight service 

TRI-MONTHLY SAILINGS between Los Angeles 
Harbor, San Francisco, Pearl Harbor, Guam, Manila, 
Cavite, Iloilo, Cebu and other ports as inducement 
offers. 

•INTERCOASTAL 

WEEKLY SAILINGS from New York, FORT- 
NIGHTLY from Boston to Los Angeles Harbor and 
San Francisco. 

FORTNIGHTLY SAILINGS from San Francisco and 
Los Angeles Harbor to New York. 
Cargo destined or shipped from Oakland, Portland, 
Seattle or Vancouver subject to San Francisco 
transhipment. 

Dollar Steamship Lines 
Iiie.^ Ltd. 

Robert Dollar Bldg., San Francisco - DAvenport 6000 



BOSTON 
CHICAGO 
CLEVELAND 
DETROIT 
LOS ANGELES 



SEATTLE 

NEW YORK 

PORTLAND, ORE. 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 



OFFICES & AGENCIES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD 



Personal Sketches of 
Newly Appointed 

Shipbuilding Executives 



In our last issue we were privil- 
eged to bring to our readers the an- 
nouncement of the appointment of 
John F. Metten to the presidency of 
the New York Shipbuildin,?; Company. 
We now take pleasure in publishing 
brief personal "sketches" of C. N. 
Kaltwasser and Roy S. Campbell, re- 
cently appointed to executive posi- 
tions in the same company. 

C. M. Kaltwasser, recently elect- 
ed executive vice-president and a 
member of the executive committee 
at the New York Shipbuilding Cor- 
poration in Camden, New Jersey, is 
advanced from his position as assis- 
tant to the president which he has 
held for the past several months. 

Mr. Kaltwasser took his degree in 
mechanical engineering at Stevens 
Institute of Technology, Class of 
1905, in Hoboken, New Jersey. Im- 
mediately upon graduation, he start- 
ed his career in the power-house of 
a public utility. 

From this rugged start, he came 
into the management of electric 
light, power and street railway prop- 
erties, giving him an extremely va- 
ried experience with one of the ear- 
liest forms of public service that has 
been supervised first, by state, and 
then by federal statutes. His con- 
cluding connection in utilities was 
as Vice-President and General Man- 
ager of the Harrisburg (Pa.) Light 
and Power Company until 1917. 

This broad experience fitted him 
for management accomplishments in 
other industries. He became vice- 
president and general manager of 
the Salisbury Axle Company in 
Jamestown, N.Y., and when Mr. C. A. 
Dana of New York City acquired the 
Brown-Lipe Gear Company of Syra- 
cuse, New York, he became vice- 



president and general manager of 
this operation also until 1929. 

Mr. Kaltwasser then became vice- 
president of the Timken-Detroit Axle 
Company of Detroit, Michigan, after 
which he became associated with the 
Cord Corporation. He keenly appre- 
ciates the scope involved in ship- 
building, which includes so many 
crafts, such large volumes of mater- 
ial, such exceptionally skilled re- 
quirements, and the enormous ton- 
nages of materials accurately to be 
fabricated. 

The aim of the new ownership is 
to continue the highly successful 
contribution of the New York Ship- 
building Corporation to the marine 
industries, both merchant and naval. 
Large contracts now on hand will be 
pressed to completion. Additional la- 
bor will be employed, as rapidly as 
required, thereby increasing one of 
the largest payrolls in the Philadel- 
phia area. 



Mr. Roy S. Campbell, the new gen- 
eneral manager of the New York 





General Manager. 



Executive Vice President. 

Shipbuilding Corporation, is a grad- 
uate of the University of Michigan, 
Class of 1912, in Marine Engineer- 
ing. 

All of his business experience 
thereafter has been in shipbuilding, 
or in such closely related arts as the 
manufacture and installation of boil- 
ers and other propulsion apparatus. 
From the University of Michigan, in 
1912, he went into the mold loft at 
the Newport News Shipbuilding and 
Drydock Company, Newport News, 
Va. Shortly thereafter, he became 
master mechanic and so continued 
until, in 1917, he went with the Beth- 
lehem Shipbuilding Corporation, 
Harlan Plant, at Wilmington, Dela- 
ware, as superintendent of machin- 
ery. 

In 1919, he was transferred to 
their Sparrows Point Plant in the 
same capacity. In 1922 he was trans- 
ferred to the Bethlehem Shipbuild- 
ing Plant at Fore River, Massachu- 
setts. Initially the assistant general 
superintendent, he shortly became 
general superintendent and conclud- 
ed his fifteen year association with 
Bethlehem operations in 1932. 

For the past two years, Mr. Camp- 
bell has been associated with the 
enormous Babcock & Wilcox projects 
at Boulder Dam as superintendent. 
The scope of this development is 
even greater than the many crafts 
and industries required in shipbuild- 
ing design and construction. 

Hence, Mr. Campbell's coming to 
the New York Shipbuilding Corpor- 
ation adds another able shipbuilding 
operator to the executive staff. 



JANUARY, 1935 



19 



20 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



January, 1935 




A 



The £eesvtJ/e: Built by Pennsylvania Shipyards, Inc. This new vessel is the third 
Winton-powered craft recently placed in service by The Texas Compony. It is a shallow 
draft workboat designed for towing oil barges in waters of southern Louisiana, 



-lfCU4i THE TEXAS COMPANY SELECTS 
WINTON-DIESEL POWER jor efficient 'Performance 



B' 



ROAD EXPERIENCE in the operation of a large fleet of workboats has taught The Texas 
Company the fine points of what to expect in operation and maintenance costs. Last 
year The Texas Company launched the Texaco 325 and the Caillou, both powered by Winton-Diesel 
engines. After months of strenuous operation, Winton- power so completely proved its economy, 
both from the standpoint of operation and maintenance, that when two new boats were laid down 
this year, the unanimous choice was again for Winton-Diesel power. Illustrated is the Leesville, the 
first of the two new boats to be launched. It is powered by a six-cylinder, airless-injection, four-cycle 
Winton-Diesel engine. Revolutionary engineering advances embodied in new type Winton engines 
add materially to the significance of the phrase "Powered by Winton" .... developments that will 
interest those who seek maximum economy from both new and replacement power installations. 




The Leesvilte is powered by this 
Model 152-6 six-cylinder, airless- 
injection, four-cycle Winton- 
Diesel engine, developing 180 
h.p. at 425 r.p.m. 




Tou are cordially invited to imped our exhibit at the /pjj National Mttor Boat Show, Grand Central 'Palace, New York City, Jan. i8 to 26 

WINTON ENGINE CORPORATION, CLEVELAND, OHIO, U.S.A.] 

SUBSIDIARY OF GENERAL MOTORS CORPORATIOn| 



January, 1935 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



21 



John Clerico, 
McCormick Port Engineer 

A recent announcement at McCor- 
mick headquarters was the promo- 
tion of John Clerico as Port Engin- 
eer of their South American, inter- 
coastal, and coastwise fleets. 

Born in Kansas, Mr. Clerico serv- 
ed his machinist apprenticeship with 
the Santa Fe Railroad at Topeka. 
After a short period at sea, he came 
ashore to work for the New London 
Shipbuilding and Engineering Com 
pany for a time, before returning to 
the sea as third assistant engineer. 
He remained at sea this time until he 
got his license raised, then came 
ashore again where he obtained a 
job with the Morse Drydock and Re- 
pair Company at Brooklyn and at- 
tended the il.S.S.B. school at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy. In 1920 he came to the coast. In 
1923 he joined the McCormick Steam- 
ship Company, in whose employ he 
has held various positions aboard 
ship, until his present appointment. 



A. P. Hammond, traffic manager 
of the Nelson Steamship Company, 
announced, effective December 22, 
the opening of offices by his com- 
pany in Stockton. S. J. Meyer, for- 
merly with the Parr Terminals, is 
district freight agent. 




Pacific Marine Review here presents to its 
readers the newly-appointed Port Engineer of 
McCormick Steamship Company, John Cler- 
ico. Splendidly fitted for this responsibility, 
this promotion climaxes interesting engineer- 
ing career. (Sec first column). 



Edward N. Tormey, district man- 
ager of the Los Angeles branch of 
the Interocean Steamship Corpora- 
tion, spent some time during last 
month in San Francisco conferring 
with officials of the company. 



L. G. Cushing, formerly of the Nel- 
son Steamship Company, is now af- 
filiated with Sudden & Christenson. 



Lee E. Dickinson, agent for the 
Alaska Steamship Company at Cor- 
dova, spent the holidays in Seattle 
with his wife and son. 



Rumor has it that J. H. Murray, 

of the Fisher Body Corporation, and 
R. V. Cornell, of the W. J. Lake Com- 
pany, Seattle, are to become respec- 
tively president and secretary-trea- 
surer of the Seattle Transportation 
Club. 



A. F. Haines, vice-president of the 
American Mail Line, accompanied 
by Mrs. Haines, returned from 
Washington, D.C., to their home in 
Seattle a few days before Christmas. 
They sailed from New York to Seat- 
tle aboard the President Wilson, 
stopping in San Francisco on their 
way. 



Alert Shipowners and their 
Engineering Experts Know the Answer! 

ELECTROLYSIS — one of the most costly expenses in the engine-room. The men responsible for operating 

economy know that. 

Unnecessary millions have been spent on condenser tube failure. Unnecessary.' Yes — decidedly yes! 

The constant warfare waged since the first marine power-plant installation is now finding the deadly enemy 

on the run ! 

Alert shipowners and their engineering experts know the answer. Corrosion, pitting, electrolysis can be 

eliminated. 

Here is a partial list of installations of Marine Electrolysis Eliminators: 

Canadian Pacific, St. Johns, N. B.; Kingcome Navigation Co., Vancouver, B. C; Mystic Steamship 
Co. (Mellon Line), Boston (8 vessels); Boston Pilot Relief Assn., Boston; South Atlantic S. S. 
Co., Charleston, S. C; Wilson Line, Wilmington Delaware; Sinclair Navigation Co., Houston, 
Texas; Mississippi Shipping Co., New Orleans, La.; Young Brothers, Honolulu, T. H. (3 ves- 
sels); Inter-Island Steam Navigation Co., Honolulu; Libby, McNeill dC Libby, Honolulu, (4 ves- 
sels); U. S. Coast Guard; U. S. Lighthouse Dept.; U. S. Engineers Dept.; U.S. Quartermaster Dept.; 
U. S. Treasury Dept.; U. S. Fisheries Dept.; Luckenbach Steamship Company, New York. 
Why not get the facts right away.' 

Marine Electrolysis Eliminator Corporation 

Arley Cheadle, President. William Calvert, Sccy.-Treas. 

19 COLMAN DOCK, SEATTLE, WASH. 

Smith-Meeker Engineering Co., 125 Barclay St., New York 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



January. 1935 




NYS "YARD" WHEN WORKING AT FULL CAPACITY 



1 HE NYS "YARD" covers 190 
acres of ground, with a frontage of 
4270 feet on the Delaware River. 
There are 56'/^ acres under roof, 
including the area of separate floors 
under the same roof. As an idea of 
the size of the structures, shown on 
the Air-View, Way "O" is 826 feet 
long from the Machine Shop to the 
end of the roof. 

Almost all types of Merchant and 
Naval ships have been designed 
and produced by NYS; from harbor 
tugs and ferry boats to battle ships, 
and such palatial liners as the 
"WASHINGTON"and "MANHATTAN." 
Fast cruisers and destroyers have 
established high standards of speed, 
fuel efficiency and reliability, pro- 
pelled by NYS-built turbines. 

A ship at sea is a floating city. 
All the utilities necessary — power. 



heat, lights, refrigeration, telephone, 
radio, laundry, commissary, etc., — 
are self-served, out in the middle of 
the ocean, away from any base of 
supplies. A Naval vessel, in addi- 
tion, embodies all the equipment 
and appliances that progress has 
made available for the defense of 
the Nation. 

Hence, a wide variety of crafts is 
required in shipbuilding, involving 
the employment of all the manufac- 
turing arts in the yard, drawing 
room and office, and in the plants of 
widely scattered, large and small, 
associated manufacturers. 

NYS "YARD" was one of the 
very first built solely for the design 
and production of metal ships, w^ith- 
out any adaptation from facilities for 
building wooden vessels. 



NEW YORK SHIPBUILDING CORPORATION 

Camden, New Jersey, U. S. A. 





Ill'jw 9:m 



\\ 



1/ Organ 

C AMERICAN 
SHIP ASSOCIATION 

VNERS ASSOCIATION 
IE PACIFIC COAST 



l|W "'^ 



The McCormick Steamship Funnel 

Emblem of Service 
IN THE BIG 4 TRADE ROUTES 
Pacific Coastwiit . . . Pacific West Indies . . . Pacific 




*This ruler is 15 inches 
long. Compare the 
size of the rope. 



Quite a piece of rope — this giant hawser recently made by us foi 
Port of Los Angeles! Sixteen inches in circumference! An estim 
breaking strength of over 165,000 pounds! Weight of coil. - 
pounds! Ninety fathoms in length! 

It is seldom, indeed, that a rope is required to meet specificatioi 
rigid as these. Yet. when needed, Tubbs is prepared to "fill the bill 
This mighty hawser was EXTRA SUPERIOR MANILA— tlic 
rine Rope that has proved its dependability on the seven seas t( 
years. EXTRA SUPERIOR MANILA is built to serve under the 
exacting conditions of the sea. It is both water repellent and ro 
sistant. 

For safety and long run economy make Tubbs EXTRA SUPER 
MANILA Marine Rope the standard of your cordage equipment 



abbs C^ordasle C^ompan^ 

200 BUSH STREET • SAN FRANCISCO j j 

Mills in San Francisco ^^^^11 



PACIFIC 

mflRinE 
Review 



FEBRUARY, 1935 

VOL. XXXII NO. 2 



CONTENTS 



Editorial Comment: 

Some Thoughts Regarding the President's Message 33 

Developing an Adequate American Merchant Marine 34 

An Interesting Article Reflecting Some of the Ideas of the Administration, 

and Wntten Expiessly for Pacific Marine Review. 

By Daniel C. Roper 
A Constructive Program for Increasing Employment 36 

Some Suggestions fcr Using Federal Make-Work Funds to Produce Large 

Payrolls. 

By A. J. Dickie 

Analysis of American Merchant Marine Trade Routes 41 

How the Shipowners Have Helped in the Study of Specific Needs in Various 
Trade Areas and Routes. 
By Joseph B. Weaver 

Ships, Do We Need Them? 44 

By R. J. Baker 

World's Largest Press Brake - 46 

Safety Treads for Ships' Companions 47 

Twenty-Five Years Ago 48 

Functions and ActiWties of the Lighthouse Service 49 

By George R. Putnam 
Elliott Marine Type Deaerating Heater 51 

German Cruiser, Karlsruhe 52 

A Remarkable Turbine Installation Giving 65,000 Horsepower for Propulsion 
on 6.000 Tons Displacement. 

Beachcomber's Loot 53 

Book Reviews and Trade Literature 55 

Marine Insurance: 

Les.^ons From the Morro Castle Disaster 56 

By R. J. Alexander 

Radio Beacon Distance Finding 56 

New Incandescent Lamp for Marine Signal Lights 57 

New Home for Veteran Pacific Coast Underwriting Firm 58 

Freights, Charters, Sales 60 

American Shipbuilding: 

Shipbuilding in the United States and Abroad During 1934... 61 

Progress of Construction 62 

Miscellaneous: 

Pacific Marine Personals, Adv. 9; Propeller Club, Adv. 10. 



Entered as second class matter June 10, 1913, at the post office. San Francisco, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Published on the 25th of each 
month preceding the publication date. Advertising and editorial forms close on the 15th. Subscription price, a year: Domestic, $1.50; foreign, 
$3; single copies, 25c. Chas. F. A. Mann, Northwest Representative, 1110 Puget Sound Bank Bldg., Tacoma, Washington. 
In New York copies of Pacific Marine Review can be purchased at the news stand of I. Goldberg, 42 Broadway; and the news stand of 

Jacob Fuchs at 17 Battery Place at 25c per copy. 

James S. Hines Bernard N. De Rochie Alexander J. Dickie M. J. Suitor 

Publisher Advertising-Business Manager Editor Asst. Editor 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



P^ebruary, 1935 




SHIPBUILDING 

Serves the Nation's 
Commerce and Security 




NEW YORK SHIPBUILDING CORPORATION 

Camden, New Jersey, U. S. A. 



Pacific Marine Review 



VOLUME XXXII 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



NUMBER 2 



Editorial Comment » » » 



Thoughts from 

The President's Message 

There is much food for thought, and much en' 
couragement for the shipping industry in many of 
the paragraphs of the general and the budget mes' 
sages of President Roosevelt: 

"I am not willing that the vitality of our people be 
further sapped by the giving of cash, of market bas- 
kets, of a few hours of weekly work cutting grass, 
raking leaves, or picking up papers in the public 
parks. We must preserve not only the bodies of the 
unemployed from destitution, but also their self-re- 
spect, their self-reliance and courage and determina- 
tion. 

"There are approximately three and one-half 
million employable people who are now on relief 
rolls. 

"It is a duty dictated by every intelligent consid- 
eration of national policy to make it possible for the 
United States to give employment to all of these 
three and one-half million employable people now 
on relief, pending their absorption in a rising tide of 
private employment. 

"It is my thought that with the exception of cer- 
tain of the normal public building operations of the 
Government, all emergency public works shall be 
united in a single new and greatly enlarged plan. 

"Projects should be undertaken on which a large 
percentage of direct labor can be used. 

"Preference should be given to those projects 
which will be self -liquidating in the sense that there 
is a reasonable expectation that the government will 
get its money back at some future time. 

"The projects undertaken should be selected and 
planned so as to compete as little as possible with 
private enterprises. This suggests that if it were not 
for the necessity of giving useful work to the unem- 
ployed now on relief, these projects in most instances 
would not now be undertaken. 



"Efforts should be made to locate projects where 
they will serve the greatest unemployment needs as 
shown by present relief rolls, and the broad program 
of the national resources board should be freely used 
for guidance in selection. Our ultimate objective be- 
ing the enrichment of human lives, the Government 
has the primary duty to use its emergency expendi- 
tures as much as possible to serve those who cannot 
secure the advantages of private capital. 

"Ever since the adjournment of the seventy-third 
Congress the Administration has been studying from 
every angle the possibility and the practicability of 
new forms of employment. As a result of these stud- 
ies I have arrived at certain very definite convictions 
as to the amount of money that will be necessary for 
the sort of public projects that I have described. I 
shall submit these figures in my budget message." 

In the Budget message. President Roosevelt 
recommended that "four billion dollars be appro- 
priated by Congress in one sum subject to allocation 
by the executive principally for giving work to those 
unemployed on the relief rolls." He also recommend- 
ed eight hundred millions for national defense, which 
would make the largest peace time budget for that 
purpose ever proposed in America. This latter pro- 
posal reflects, of course, the determination of the 
administration and of Congress to lose no more time 
in building up the navy to full treaty strength. 

Pondering over the proposals we have come to the 
conclusion that the diversion of part of this make- 
work fund to the purpose of building fast tankers 
and cargo-carriers such as the Navy needs badly in 
case of emergency is certainly a project on which 
"a large percentage of direct labor can be used," 
which would not "compete with private enterprise," 
which would be located so as to serve "the greatest 
unemployment need," and from which the govern- 
ment would ultimately derive a very considerable 
benefit. 

This idea, together with some of the merchant 
marine thoughts of the administration, is elaborated 
more fully in the following pages of this issue of 
Pacific Marine Review. 



FEBRUARY, L935 



33 



. . . . Developing an 

Adequate American Merchant Marine 

An Interesting Article Reflecting Some of the Ideas of the Administration and 
Written Expressly for Pacific Marine Review 

'By Daniel C. Roper 

Secretary of Commerce 



The foreign trade development of the United 
States depends largely upon the use of American 
ships for carrying American goods. It is essential 
that we maintain the American Flag tonnage on im- 
portant trade routes, to serve the needs of our com' 
merce and to safeguard against war and other emef 
gencies which might disturb the normal flow of 
American commerce. 

But it is not alone from the competitive and eco- 
nomic standpoint that we view the development of 
our merchant marine. It is an important factor in 
our national defense. Obviously, it is not practicable 
to maintain within the Navy all the vessels which 
might be necessary in event of war. To do so would 
require a huge outlay of taxpayers' money and might 
tend to encourage unnecessary defense expenditures. 

Thus, from both the commercial and defense 
standpoints, it would seem that for the economic 
self'support, the military self-respect and the pride 
of the nation, an adequate and proper development 
and maintenance of an American merchant marine 
is a fundamental necessity. 

• How Equalize Costs? 

In view of these conditions, the practical ques- 
tion, which early arose and is still before us, is how 
labor and otlier extra cost inequalities can be met 
and equah^ed so as to permit of tlie building and 
sustaining of a requisite merchant marine. An equal- 
ly important aspect of this question is the necessity 
of fixing the amount of the subsidy at a point where 
it will equalize these differentials and stimulate 
rather than discourage private initiative. 

We can readily see that nationality determines 
the political and economic conditions under which 
a ship operates. The owner of an American vessel 
buys his repairs, employs most of his labor, a greater 
portion of supphes in the protected domestic mar- 
ket. His stock in trade is ship's space; which he 
sells in an unprotected, competitive world market. 
Naturally the ship operator looks to the national in- 



terest which may be inherent in his business to neu- 
tralize resulting handicaps. 

We all agree that we must maintain our standard 
of living as against the lower standards of other 
countries. By so doing we automatically impose a 
handicap upon American ship owners. The best 
answer that Congress has worked out to this prob- 
lem of meeting differential costs and expenses is to 
have the Federal Government supplement the dif- 
ferentiating costs for our country with money from 
the Federal Treasury. The next question is: What 
is the safest and most effective manner of putting 
this principle into practicable operation? Congress 
decided to let this excess cost represent service ren- 
dered by the American shipping Hnes in carrying 
the mail and has seen fit to designate this financial 
aid as ocean mail pay. 

Even with the much lower costs existing in other 
maritime nations, our chief competitors have found 
subsidies necessary in order to build and maintain 
their merchant marines. Great Britain, France and 
Japan, with their much lower costs, have found 
subsidies necessary to maintain their commercial 
fleets for both economic and national defense pur- 
poses. It should not be difficult to understand, there- 
fore, that a subsidy poHcy is essential in the build- 
ing and maintenance of our merchant marine, at least 
until a better method is developed. 

• Mail Contracts. 

The designation of payments made to ship opera- 
tors by the government as "ocean mail pay" is some- 
what misleading. "Mail pay" is a misnomer, for 
payments are not made primarily as compensation 
for carrying the mail. If they were, these payments 
would only be a fractional part of what they are at 
present. Hence, it would seem to me that there 
would be less misunderstanding if these payments 
were clearly and frankly designated as direct sub- 
sidies. 

A private company operating an essential trade 
route under the American flag would require a capi- 



34 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



tal investment and a continuing cost which, against 
foreign competition, would give no hope of a reas- 
onable return over a period of years, but which 
would result in heavy losses instead. Consequently, 
the government of the United States determines es- 
sential trade routes and agrees to assist the ship op- 
erator by sharing in the venture through a "contract 
service" or subsidy payment. 

Since the transfer of the Shipping Board to the 
Department of Commerce as a regular bureau of the 
Department, the Secretary of Commerce is charged 
with the responsibility of fostering the development 
of our merchant marine. After a study of the coun- 
try's shipping pohcy in e'ffect during the post-World 
War period, I am convinced that we must initiate 
a sounder and more adequate merchant marine and 
subsidy program. To accomplish this objective there 
are several major considerations which it seems to 
me deserve careful attention. 

* Equitable Competition 

We all stand for fair and equitable competition in 
all lines of trade and commerce, but we all know that 
competition can be carried to such extremes as to 
destroy the purpose for which proper competition is 
designed. For instance, when tlie Government sup- 
ports one line of ships on an essential trade route 
through subsidy payments, it is very foolish and de- 
structive to make loans to enable other lines to 
build ships and engage in commerce in competition 
with the very lines which the Government is already 
supporting and through which it is trying to build 
a merchant marine. 

Inasmuch as Government aids to shipping have 
as tlieir objective the estabhshment of an efficient 
and ultimately self-sustaining merchant marine, the 
essential trade routes to be served should be deter- 
mined by analyzing the flow and volume of traffic 
with due consideration to such other factors as de- 
fense requirements, trade policies, and industries and 
agricultural needs. 

When these requirements are determined. Gov- 
ernment aid should be given to ship lines necessary 
to fulfill these requirements and aid should be with- 
held from any other domestic operators seeking to 
enter into direct competition with the line already 
receiving Government aid. 

It seems to me that the present system of aid in 
the form of compensation for the carrying of ocean 
mails might properly be replaced by specific subsidies 
granted for the maintenance of essential services. 
The subsidies granted should be based on differen- 
tials in building and operating costs, but should be 
flexible enough to permit adjustments as changes in 
conditions and circumstances may warrant. Further- 



more, subsidies should not be granted to more than 
one line competing in the same trade route. 

• Specific Subsidies 

In order to facilitate the proper handling of sub- 
sidies, two broad classifications of subsidies might 
be made: First, a subsidy to cover the differences in 
shipbuilding costs here and abroad so long as Gov- 
ernmental policy provides for compensation for this 
differential, and, second, a subsidy to offset the dif- 
ference in operating costs with competing foreign 
companies. 

The governmental agency administering the 
subsidy should also have discretionary authority to 
make allowances in the national interest to meet ex- 
ceptional trade developments. With these factors as 
a basis, subsidy payments could be made with maxi- 
mum equality, because some operators would have 
the major requirement of a construction subsidy, 
others an operating subsidy and another, perhaps, 
under certain conditions, a trade-development sub- 
sidy. 

The application of this subsidy policy must take 
into consideration present conditions in the merchant 
marine industry and a proper audit and check-up on 
merchant marine as a safeguard to Government ex- 
penditures. In respect to the latter requirement, the 
Government should have authority to examine 
books at frequent intervals of the creditor compan- 
ies, establish uniform accounting, and scrutinize 
carefully all items of cost. On such data readjust- 
ments of the direct subsidies or cost differentials 
can and should be made at not less than annual in- 
tervals. 

• Regulation of Shipping 

It seems clear to me that the subsidy is only a part 
of the problem of developing an adequate merchant 
marine. The shipping acts reflect the intent of Con- 
gress that the shipping industry should be properly 
regulated. Without such regulation, no subsidy, 
however well administered, can accomplish its in- 
tended purpose. Furthermore, it should be our ob- 
jective to create an all-American crew and work for 
more marine-mindedness among our people gener- 
ally. The communities served by American shipping 
hnes must supplement governmental aid and support 
by doing everything within their power to encour- 
age and promote business on these American lines. 

The United States can expect to attain the highest 
degree of efficiency and progress in our merchant 
marine activities only by the sliip operators and the 
communities served by our shipping lines fulfilling 
in every sense their responsibilities, which are fully 
as great as tliose of the Government. 



FEBRUARY. 1935 



35 



A Constructive Program 

Some Suggestions for Using Federal Make-Work. Fudns to Produce 

Large Payrolls in Building New Fast Cargo and Tanker Tonnage 

and Scrapping Obsolete Ships 



That the President of the United 
States is ship minded is evidenced 
by the appointment of a strong inter- 
departmental committee of represen- 
tatives of cabinet officers to make a 
thorough study of this subject. The 
resultant report will probably be the 
basis of suggestions to the present 
Congress to enact further legislation 
to insure an adequate American 
Merchant Marine as a necessary 
trade facility and an important nav- 
al auxiliary. 

That America is falling behind in 
the maintenance of a modern com- 
petitive merchant marine fleet is ev- 
idenced by the latest figures on 
world shipbuilding which show that 
American shipyards have under con- 
struction only about 1.5 per cent of 
the total merchant shipping being 
built. 

That American ships in foreign 
trade are on the firing line in world 
competition is evidenced by the 
gradual decline in the proportion of 
American exports and imports car- 
ried in American flag ships. The 
laws under which our merchant 
ships operate declare it to be the 
purpose of the United States of 
America that American flag ships 
shall carry at least fifty per cent of 
our exports and imports. Under the 
influence of government assistance, 
that proportion rose to about 46 per 
cent. It has now fallen to 32 or 33 
per cent. This is due to intensive 
competition with new modern fast 
cargo liners under the flags of Great 
Britain, Japan, Sweden, Norway, 
Denmark, Holland, France and Italy. 
The Shipping Board keeps statistics 
on these matters under three col- 
umns: (1) United States flag ships; 
(2) British flag ships; (3) Foreign 
flags other than British. The signifi- 
cant trend in American foreign trade 
during the past ten years has been 



% A. J. Dickie 



REPL.^CE.MEXT NECESSITY 

LEG.\LLY RECOGNIZED 



The necessity tor the replace- 
ment of vessels owned by the 
United States and in the i)osses- 
sion or under the control of the 
board and the construction for the 
board of additional up-to-date 
cargo, coiiibi nation cargo and pas- 
senger and passenger ships, to 
give the Unite<l States an adequate 
merchant marine, is hereby rec- 
ognized and the boai'd is author- 
ized and directed to present to 
Congress from time to time, rec- 
ommendations setting' forth what 
new vessels are required for per- 
manent operation under the Unit- 
ed States flag in foreign trade, 
and the estimated cost thereof, to 
the end that Congress may, from 
time to time, make provisions for 
replacements and additions. All 
vessels built for the board shall 
be built in the United States, and 
they shall be planned with refer- 
ence to their iK)ssible usefulness 
as auxiliaries to the naval and 
military serrices of the United 
States. 

[Merchant Marine Act, 1928.] 



the growth of column 3, until it has 
achieved first place in total tonnage 
carried. 

That the United States navy needs 
an auxiliary fleet of fast modern 
tankers and cargo vessels is evident 
to anyone who will give the subject a 



moment's thought. In fact, the navy 
experts have prepared plans and spe- 
cifications for a fleet of fast tankers 
and are very actively trying to have 
the large oil shipping firms arrange 
their replacement programs to build 
to these plans. 

That American shipowners are 
keenly awake to these facts is evi- 
denced by the number of plans for 
ships which have been advanced in 
recent years only to retire before the 
high cost of construction in Ameri- 
can yards, and/or the uncertainty as 
to future administrative policy. 

President Roosevelt in his mes- 
sage to Congress and in his budge- 
tary plans emphasizes that American 
unemployment is still at a danger- 
ously high point, and the consequent 
high cost of federal relief and de- 
clares for a policy of shifting to less 
relief and more made-work. The 
President will doubtless obtain from 
Congress enormous appropriations to 
carry out this policy. It seems to us 
that, in planning to allocate these ap- 
propriations for increasing employ- 
ment, there are several important 
considerations in respect to national 
needs and policies which entitle 
shipbuilding to a very high rating. 

• Our Naval Program 

Under the status of existing trea- 
ties. United States of America is en- 
titled to a much stronger navy. The 
present administration has declared 
the policy of building as rapidly as 
is practicable to full treaty strength 
and has made a good start in that di- 
rection. In the present disturbed 
world policies, the strong are the 
safe. This building program could 
be speeded up with great advantage 
to the employment situation in many 
lines of manufacture. That may be 



36 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



For Increasing Employment 



one of the projects in the President's 
mind when he asks for large unallo- 
cated funds to be used by the admin- 
istration in creating emergency em- 
ployment. At present, the shipyards 
of the United States are almost whol- 
ly dependent on government work, 
and that largely naval, so far as new 
construction is concerned. There are 
now employed on shipbuilding, and 
allied manufacturing processes, 
some 40,000 men. By judicious appli- 
cation of a small fraction of the fed- 
eral employment funds, this naval 
building program could easily be 
doubled. Such a policy needs no ad- 
ditional government overhead, no 
new inspectors, no new federal pay- 
roll and of the total cost of the ves- 
sels so acquired, fully 80 per cent 
would go directly to labor payroll. 

• Naval Merchant Auxiliary 

The United States navy lists all 
merchant ships under the American 
flag, studies the possibilities of 
each, and plans the part each will 
take in any possible war. It is no se- 
cret that the statisticians of the navy 
are much concerned over the slow 
speed and small cruising radius of 
the great majority of the cargo-car- 
riers, and the tankers, of the Ameri- 
can fleet. These points are particu- 
larly disturbing when the cargo-car- 



THE MERCHANT M.\RIXE 

AS A CUSTO.MER 



Merchant Marine expenditures 
are an important influence in the 
internal economy of the nation. 
Ships are customers of the first 
magnitude, .\merican vessels buy 
the bulk of their supplies in tliis 
country. These supplies come to 
seaboard from every section of 
the country. Thousands of tons of 
ecpiipment and c<mimodities an- 
nually go aboard ships of the 
American .Merchant .Marine. >Iil- 
lions are spent for crockery, silver, 
textiles, utensils and the m>Tiad 
other items re<|uired for catering 
to the public. 

.Senator R. S. roi>eland. 



MERCHANT .M.\RIN'E .\ND 

INTERNATIONAL REL.\TIONS 



I want to emphasize that the 
growing tendency toward iden- 
tical competition in world markets 
makes ships more important than 
ever before. When Germany had a 
monopoly on dyestuffs and we 
could sell all the cotton we could 
grow, the problem was simple. To- 
day, with India and Brazil and 
Egypt challenging our cotton, and 
with the manufacturing of dyes 
flouiishing in several nations, a 
very natural basis for the ex- 
change of business has been de- 
stroye<l. This is but one example. 
The list could be multiplied indef- 
initel.^'. The further we progress 
fi'oin a natural interchange of 
commodities — that is, an inter- 
change where one nation is able 
to supply what another nation 
lacks — the more necessary it be- 
comes that we have ships subject 
to our OW11 control. Ships aid in 
the development of markets, and 
they are our only guarantee of 
fast, adequate and economical 
transiwrtation between our shores 
and the shores of other lands. 

A. E. MacKiiuion, 
Director Bureau of 

Shipping Information. 



riers of the American fleet are com- 
pared with the cargo-carriers of 
other naval powers. The effect of 
this condition is by no means confin- 
ed to the emergencies of actual war- 
fare. 

Speaking on this subject before 
the 21st National Foreign Trade 
Convention at New York, November 
1, 1934, Rear Admiral Yates Stirling. 
Jr., U.S.N., says: "Lacking adequate 
elements of sea power we must rea- 
lize that the commerce of the Far 
East is not for us. The door will be 
shut in our face, and valuable mar- 
kets (to which our pioneer merchant 
mariners have pointed, and on which 
they have worked for generations) 
will go to the more powerful sea 
powers who have taken to heart the 
lessons of history. 

"If we are to maintain equality of 
market in the Orient we must be cap- 



able of exerting our sea power there. 
We can do this only with an adequate 
fleet, fully manned and securely bas- 
ed in the area of possible conflict, 
and a large and modern merchant 
fleet capable of carrying the greater 
part of our foreign trade and of act- 
ing as an auxilliary to the war fleet 
in emergencies. There is no other 
way. 

"Only the most scientifically plan- 
ned and executed program in all the 
elements of sea power can save this 
country's Oriental trade from being 
left out literally on the doorstep of 
China. The remedies are now being 
applied too half-heartedly, and too 
uncertainly, and unless we awake 
and shake off this lethargy our share 
of this rich prize may be irretriev- 
ably lost to us." 

Naval tacticians estimate that for 
the adequate prosecution of any ma- 
jor war with an overseas enemy this 
nation would require 1000 cargo ves- 
sels as a minimum to carry supplies 
to armed forces. In sea-going vessels 



THE .AIERCHANT MARINTE 

AS AX EMPLOYER 



The American Merchant Mar- 
ine gives employment to approxi- 
mately 300,000 men aboard ship 
and on harbor craft. Other thou- 
sands find work on the piers and 
in the offices of steanuship com- 
panies. Vessels of 2000 tons or 
over afford employment to 100,- 
OOO officers and men. Foreign 
trading vessels alone employ 4.3,- 
000 i)ersons, exclusive of turnover. 
The shipbuilding industry gives 
entployment to liO,(»00 persons in 
the yards and to an e<|ual niunber 
in i-elated industries. More than 
80 per cent of the cost of a ship 
goes to labor. Eighty-five per cent 
of the ship oiK'rating dollar even- 
tually finds its way into the hands 
of the wage-earn»-rs. Labor gets a 
higher |)ercentage of the ship op- 
erating dollar than for any other 
indtistry except construction, ac- 
cording to a report compiled by 
the Federal Trade (Commission. 

Senator R. S. Copeland. 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



37 






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I IC^CiU 



Graph showing widespread distribution of payroll benefit from shipbuilding investment. 



of 5000 tons gross or over, we now 
have documented on our ocean coasts 
a total of 1005 steamers and 60 mo- 
torships. This fleet takes care of our 
overseas, coastwise, and intercoastal 
trades, assisted by approximately 
1000 more ships of 1000-5000 gross 
tons measurement. 

In other words, if we were involv- 
ed in any major war, in the near fu- 
ture, either our overseas maritime 
commerce or our overseas expedi- 
tionary forces would be sadly crip- 
pled for lack of American flag ships. 

• Tanker Situation 

The naval authorities are particu- 
larly concerned over the tanker situ- 
ation. There are large fleets of tank- 
ers under the American flag but 
considered in the light of the fact 
that America is the world's leading 
petroleum producer, refiner, and us- 
er, these fleets are ridiculously inad- 
equate for our commercial shipments 
of petroleum and its product. 

There has been comparatively little 
replacement in these fleets in recent 
years. The effective life of a tanker 
middle body in many trades is only 
ten years. Many American tankers 
now operating have been in sei^vice 
from twelve to sixteen years. The op- 
erating owners have large replace- 
ment programs planned. but costs are 
very high, and the U. S. navy desires 
these replacements to be of much 
higher speed than is commercially 
advisable. Here is an opportunity for 
the funds designed to create employ- 
ment. Why cannot the employment 
funds through the navy absorb this 
difference in cost, thereby creating 
much more than 100 per cent utiliza- 
tion of the funds in direct payroll? 

It can be confidently asserted that 
if the building of fast modern tank- 
ers is made a commerically attrac- 
tive proposition, the fifty or more 
such auxiliaries desired by the U. S. 
Navy will be speedily contracted 
with responsible shipyards by re- 
sponsible operating firms. 

Cargo Carriers 

Practically no sea-going cargo car- 
riers have been built in the United 
States since the close of the Ship- 
ping Board Emergency Fleet build- 
ing program. In other words, the 
great bulk of the American cargo 
carrying fleet was designed and laid 
down 17 or more years ago. It may, 
therefore, be concluded that a very- 
high percentage of this fleet is not 



MEIU HAXT FLEET AUXIL- 

I.ARIES MXST BE BUILT 



For the first tinie since the war 
the Vnite<l .States has embarked 
upon a real naval program and 
if a balanced fleet is to be ob- 
tained the necessary merchant 
ship aiLviliaries must be con- 
strncte«l. For onimercial pur- 
poses tlie vital need of such a 
merchant fleft is ackno\vledge<l 
by all familiar with the subject, 
and it is their earnest hoi>e that 
the investigations now under way 
will clear away misunderstandings 
anil le.id to a practical solution in 
the sliai)e <if a definite plan for 
replacement by which there will 
be added to our merchant fleet 
each year a number of up-to-date 
efficient ships which is essential 
to the maintenance of onr mer- 
chant marine and which would 
parallel the i)resent plan of build- 
ing up the navy. In this connec- 
tion the President said recently 
"that there need be no fear on the 
jjart of the shipping industry or 
othei-s as to the intention of this 
administration to maintain an ad- 
eijuate merchant marine." 

Aside from the economic need 
for merchant shii)s scientifically 
designed anil constructed, there is 
also a military need, in that a 
navy without a merchant marine 
is a navy in name only. Auxiliary 
cruisers, supply and repair ves- 
sels. transi>oi^s. hospital ships, 
munition carriers, refrigerator 
shii>s, tankers, cable ships, etc.. 
all are recruited from the mer- 
chant marine. There is at present 
a very serious deficiency in ships 
of proper type for a balance<l 
naval auviliary. 

Only superficial study of the 
question is needed to reveal the 
fact that, under present condi- 
tions, a naval mobilization, draw- 
ing as it would from commerce 
the tankers, cargo ships, etc.. nec- 
essary for the use of the Fleet, 
would result in seriously dislocat- 
ing water transportation and in 
gi-eatly re<luced commercial sup- 
plies and distribution of a vast 
ntimber of commodities. 

Rear Admiral G. H. Rock, 

c. c, r, s. \. 

President Society of Xaval 
.Architects and Marine Engineers. 



only obsolete, but also very far gone 
in depreciation. (On this, see figures 
in article by J, B. Weaver, page 41 
this issue.) Here, then, we have an- 
other opportunity for cooperation be- 
tween the ship-owners planning to 
build many new ships, and their gov- 
ernment planning to spend large 
sums for the creation of employment. 
Part of such funds should be made 
available for shipbuilding employ- 
ment under conditions that would 
make it possible for the American 
ship operator to build new ships at a 
cost and at terms comparable with 
those he could obtain if building at 
an European yard. 

The ships should be fast enough, 
and of sufficient hull strength to 
suit naval auxiliary requirements 
and should be recapturable at a cost 
to the United States fixed by the 
original cost to shipowner less de- 
preciation allowance. The shipowner 
should turn in at least an equal ton- 
nage capacity in old hulls to be 
scrapped, and thus provide more 
self-liquidating employment for labor 
in the scrapping process. 

In American ship operations there 
are four major types of sea-service: 

(a) Overseas foreign trade; 

(b) Contiguous foreign trade; 

(c) Intercoastal service; and 

(d) Coastwise. 

Certain features of ship type are 
known to be most suitable for each 
of these services. A certain measure 
of standardization would be advis- 
able in any wholesale building and 
scrapping program so as to lower 
costs for both hull and machinerj-. 
Such standardization, however, would 
only bridge a small fraction of the 
gap between American and Euro- 
pean costs. The balance of this gap 
would have to be bridged by Federal 
funds. 

Our proposition is that the Fed- 
eral Emergency Employment Funds 
go into the shipbuilding business be- 
cause by so doing they will produce 
the following results: 

(1) The largest amount of actual 
payroll for the sum invested; 

(2) A well balanced modern mer- 
chant fleet that will get a larger 
share of our international trade and 
keep more freight money in Ameri- 
can channels; 

(3) An adequate navj' so that in 
times of emergency we can stand 
on our own feet and choose our own 
path ; 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



39 



(4) An adequate auxiliary trans- 
port and scouting fleet for that navy 
so that, if necessary, we can show 
or use our naval strength where it 
will be most effective. 

That employment generated by 
such a program would be spread all 
over the country and would stimu- 
late much additional activity in many 
lines of industry will be evident 
from the graph reproduced herewith, 
which shows the contributions to the 
shipbuilding industry by each state 
in the union. 

Other great advantages of such a 
program are that the plans of many 
ships, both naval and merchant, are 
ready for the builder; that the ship 
and engineering plant is ready and 
eager to tackle the job ; that there 
are many skilled craftsmen available 
who are more than eager to go to 
work; and that adequate designing, 
supervising, and inspection staffs 
are readily available. 

It is highly important that these 
latter advantages be conserved by 
keeping the plants busy, and keeping 
these staffs occupied. 

It will, of course, be argued that 
this simply is another subsidy pro- 
posal — that we are now paying too 
much subsidy to ship owners. That 
argument is very superficial. As 
Senator Copeland points out in a re- 
cent address: 

"The merchant fleet represents 
about one-third of the effective 
strength of the navy. That fleet is 
today being assured by the payment 
of approximately 20 millions a year 
in government mail contracts. This 
sum equals about 5 per cent of the 
current annual naval budget, and 
represents a per capita expenditure 
of about 17 cents a year." 

There is only one precedent in 
history for the legislation now pend- 
ing in Congress, wherein it is propos- 
ed to turn over to the President of 
the United States four billions, eight 
hundred millions of dollars to carry 
on relief work for the unemployed. 
That precedent applies only in the 
magnitude of the funds. We refer to 
the appropriation for a war emer- 
gency merchant navy — the four bil- 
lion dollars turned over to President 
Wilson to "bridge the Atlantic with 
ships" and get supplies and men over 
to Europe to help our allies win the 
world war. Let us remember the les- 
sons learned then — the value of pre- 
paredness — the great loss and waste 



WERE WE AT WAR? 



We could carry few supplies 
and the N'avy, which has super- 
vised tlie nigsliug merchant con- 
struction of recent years (even to 
tlie placing of hidden gun mount- 
ings on i)assenger liners), would 
be without our auxiliaries. This 
is considere<l quite a handicap in 
time of national emergency. 

Japan luiderstands this. She is 
building one fast cargo boat after 
another. England sees it. Whilst 
protesting to the world against 
the national subsidy as a horrend- 
ous i)oIicy, she is handing approxi- 
mately !}i50,000,0OO to the Cunard- 
White Star merger to help along 
with the new giant Queen Mary. 
There is also pending a matter of 
$10,000,000 in aid to tramp ship- 
I)ing, but for some obscure reason 
this is not considered a subsidy. 
And there are other forms of aid 
which England, winking at the 
world, hands her 'merchant fleet.' 

Germany knows the value of 
naval anxiliai'ies, of swift liners 
that could, within a few hours, 
be stripped off and converted into 
auxiliaries or actual fighting ships, 
capable of crossing the ocean in 
less than five days. Italy knows it, 
too, and is likewise subsidizing 
her rapidly growing merchant 
mai'ine in niore abstruse and de- 
vious ways than any other coun- 
tr> in the world. 

Geo. F. Home, 
New Outlook Jan. 1935. 



due to emergency hurry — the heart 
breaking delay. 

A comparatively small fraction of 
the total funds proposed for relief 
and make-work would give the Unit- 
ed States the auxiliary merchant 
navy that we must have to make our 
fighting navy effective. 



A program of building such as is 
here proposed should produce in two 
or three years a total of fifty fast 
tankers and fifty fast cargo carriers 
on a net federal expenditure of ap- 
proximately $135,000,000.00. By net, 
we mean that the cost of these 100 
ships built in American shipyards 
would be approximately $135,000,- 
000.00 more than if they had been 
built in European shipyards. The 
federal government or any American 
shipowner building such ships in 
American yards is therefore up 
against the handicap of that $135,- 
000,000.00 as a steady standing 
charge against operating expense. 
The total cost of the 100 ships built 
in American yards would probably 
be around $240,000,000.00, and their 
sale value as new ships on the 
world's ship market would be the 
difference between those two fig- 
ures, or $105,000,000.00. 

These figures do not pretend to be 
accurate estimates. They are propor- 
tionately approximate and illustrate 
the problem of the shipowner and 
the reason why replacements are not 
being made. 

If, however, these large Federal 
funds are being spent in making 
work for unemployed and if im- 
portant federal departments are crip- 
pled for lack of ships as necessary 
auxiliaries, why not use some of the 
make-work money to build the nec- 
essary ships on some such plan as 
outlined herein? This seems to us 
only an application of common sense, 
particularly as we know that such 
make-work funds invested in ship- 
building will produce more payroll 
than if they were invested in any 
other industry. 

Pacific Marine Review would ap- 
preciate frank comments and con- 
structive criticism on this proposal 
from any of its readers. 







40 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



. . . Analysis of 

American Merchant Marine Trade Routes 



How the Shipowners Have Helped in the Study of 

Specific Needs in Various Trade Areas 

and Routes 

^y Joseph B. Weaver 

Director, Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection 



The tonnage of the world is in ex- 
cess of the requirements for the car- 
riage of the world's trade. Notwith- 
standing this fact, every important 
maritime nation has substantially in- 
creased its tonnage over that in exis- 
tence in 1914, resulting in a total in- 
crease of over 20,000,000 gross tons. 
This increase is further aggravated 
by reason of the fact that this ton- 
nage, to a large extent, consists of 
modern type and higher speed vessels 
and can, therefore, render more ser- 
vice than the older tonnage. 

The United States participated in 
this increase to the extent of approx- 
imately 8,000,000 gross tons, princi- 
pally due to emergency construction 
for the World War. 

The increase in the United States 
tonnage, therefore, cannot be consid- 
ered to be the types and kind of ton- 
nage that would have been con- 
structed as a result of a careful 
study and survey of the requirements 
of our merchant marine. Much of 
this tonnage, therefore, is unsuitable 
and obsolete. 

• Age of Vessels 

The age of vessels is a very defi- 
nite measure of the character of the 
equipment. The following facts, 
therefore, are of interest. 

In the American merchant marine, 
considering vessels of two thousand 
gross tons or over, only 10 per cent 
of this tonnage is under eleven years 
of age. The corresponding figure for 
Great Britain indicates approximate- 
ly 43 per cent of their total tonnage 
under eleven years of age; for Japan, 
21.5 per cent; for Italy, 28.3 per cent; 



and for the world's tonnage, 31.5 per 
cent. 

• Speed of Vessels 

The speed of vessels is becoming 
more important and the following 
figures, therefore, indicate the infer- 
iority of the American merchant ma- 
rine in comparison with the mer- 
chant marines of our competitors. 

Considering American vessels of 
the class above referred to, we find 
that approximately 28 per cent of our 
tonnage is twelve knots or over in 
speed. Compared to the other nations, 
Great Britain has approximately 57 
per cent of its tonnage of twelve 
knots or over; Italy 43 per cent; Ja- 
pan 49.2 per cent; and of the world's 
tonnage, 47.2 per cent. 

Of the so-called "monster ton- 
nage," the United States has only one 
vessel, which is practically obsolete 
— • the S. S. Leviathan — as against 
two vessels in the German merchant 
marine, two vessels in the Italian 
merchant marine, and one in the 
French merchant marine; with Eng- 
land building the so-called Hull 534, 
now known as the Queen Mary, soon 
to be commissioned, and France 
building a similar "monster" ship, 
The Normandie, which will soon be 
in operation. 

• American Fleet Inadequate 

These facts, together with the 
knowledge that the American mer- 
chant marine is transporting only a 
bare 30 per cent of our direct in- 
bound and outbound commerce, clear- 
ly indicate that the American mer- 
chant marine is inadequate, obsolete 
from the standpoint of speed and age 



JAP.WESK .SHIPS DISl'LACIXG 
AMERICAN SHIPS 



Japan is rontiniiiiig to build up 
an efficient merchant marine and 
Is now oi»erating: to our jMirts 
many fine modern passenger 
steamers and fast freighters, the 
latter includinR- 18-knot motor 
sliips. These steamers are displac- 
ing American shijxs in the Japan 
trade. Whereas the American 
people to a certain extent appear 
indifferent to the maintenance 
and employment of our merchant 
vessels, and engage foreign ships 
extensively, It has been observed 
that the Japanese consistently 
support the services under their 
flag, specify shipment of Ameri- 
can purchases on their vessels, 
and patronize their passenger 
services. The extent to which this 
support has been given, and the 
effect, is demonstrated by the fact 
that six lines of freight steamers, 
including two under the American 
flag, which formerly inaintaiiie<i 
regular sailings from Xew York 
to Japan, several years ago discon- 
tinued such services due to lack 
of sufficient cargoes. If we, as 
Americans, would generally spec- 
ify shipment of our imiK>rts or a 
substantial percentage on .Amer- 
ican vessels, it would encourage 
.\merican steamship companies to 
emulate our JajMinese friends in 
building fast, motlern vessels and 
they thereby establish an adequate 
merchant marine which Is in need 
of greater .support. This should 
facilitate traxle between all of the 
Far Ea,st and the United States to 
the mutual atlvantage of all 
concerned. 

W. T. Corbett, 
\'ice Pres. V. S. Steel Products Co. 



of vessels, and in dire need of con- 
structive legislation promptly enact- 
ed and of a permanent character. 

If we are to maintain a merchant 
marine and if we intend to have the 
merchant marine of the United 
States "carry the greater portion of 
its commerce and serve as a naval or 
military auxiliarv in time of war or 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



41 



i 



national emergency" this legislation 
must be framed as not only to main- 
tain the merchant marine which we 
now have but appreciably to increase 
the merchant marine now existent. 

These facts are so obvious that it 
would seem a waste of time to enter 
into a detailed study of the existing 
conditions of our merchant marine as 
a whole, which can only lead to these 
broad conclusions, but rather to de- 
vote our attention to a comprehen- 
sive survey of the individual trade 
routes which if properly analyzed 
will, in addition to confirming these 
facts, point out the definte steps to 
be taken to formulate a coordinated 
policy which will provide remedies 
for present conditions. 

It likewise seems unnecessary to 
dwell at great length on the import- 
ance of the National merchant ma- 
rine as an aid and final defense of 
our foreign commerce and its con- 
sequent importance in our economic 
life. 

Our claim to the right of establish- 
ing a merchant marine capable of 
handling at least 50 per cent of our 
direct foreign commerce is amply 
justified by the fact that the United 
States originates approximately 10 
per cent of the world's ocean-borne 
commerce; our national position en- 
titles us to a navy second to none, 
and our secondary navy, or merchant 
marine, is entitled to have the same 
position. To fulfill these require- 
ments, we should have a properly 
balanced fleet of merchant vessels 
consisting of suitable units of proper 
speed and other specifications which 
are inherently essential to such a 
fleet. 

• Complex Problem 

In approaching the subject one is 
impressed with the large and com- 
plex problem presented by American 
navigation in foreign trades; and to 
arrive at the solution of such prob- 
lem, it is practically impossible, un- 
less certain well known principles 
are applied. 

No matter how large or complex a 
problem may be, if it is intelligently 
broken down into its component 
parts, there results a series of indi- 
vidual problems all of which can be 
intelligently analyzed, resulting in 
definite conclusions as to causes, ef- 
fects and remedies. 

Therefore, following the engineer- 
ing formula for making the usual 
survey of such problems, it becomes 
necessary to break our foreign com- 



THE MERCHANT MARINE 

AS A BUILDER OF TRADE 



Nations, like individuals, do not 
willingly entrust their goods to 
the delivery wagons of coinnier- 
fial rivals. Fast, frequent, friend- 
ly and economical service is es- 
sential to success in foreign trade. 
None of these things can be as- 
sui'ed by alien carriers over whom 
we have little or no control. More- 
over, a too great dependence upon 
foreign bottoms leaves us oi>en to 
those i>eriodic interruptions to 
service that have proved so costly 
in the past. The United .States has 
at times suffered incalculable 
damage through a sudden with- 
drawal of foreign tonnage from 
our shores. The merchant who 
cannot offer continuous service 
by ships of his own flag is in a 
precarious situation indeed. 

American exporters were for 
years handicapped by inferior ser- 
vice to various markets. The es- 
tablishment of domestic flag lines 
to these regions was almost in- 
variably accompanied by a healthy 
growth of trade. Safe-guarding of 
trade information is another ben- 
efit that results from non-depend- 
ence upon the conveyances of 
trade comijetitors. 

The upbuilding of a strong 
American mai'ine is our only guar- 
antee of fair rates and adequate 
service. Domestic-flag vessels not 
only aid in the maintenance of 
present markets; they have in the 
past create<l and still create mar- 
kets of themselves. They also 
blaze the way for the investment 
of capital in constructive foreign 
enterprises. In this way, ships 
serve capital. And capital, once 
established in a certain field, is 
then able to retiu-n the favor. 
Such a relationship offers sound 
encouragement for the develop- 
ment of an adequate commercial 
fleet. 

Senator R. S. Copeland. 



merce down into the commerce of 
trade routes and services in those 
trade routes. To have an intelligent 
understanding of our foreign com- 
merce on which to base a construc- 
tive program, these studies are nec- 
essary; otherwise if an emergency 
does arise, we may see history repeat 
itself and it may again be necessary 
to spend billions of dollars in at- 
tempting to build up this essential 
national requirement. 



Again shipyards will be erected 
without regard to efficiency or intel- 
ligent program. The construction of 
millions and millions of dead weight 
tons of vessels will be undertaken. 
Again these vessels will be hastily 
designed and hastily constructed. 

In the hysteria of the moment, 
we may attempt to construct 
wooden vessels of such sizes that 
they will be inherently incapable of 
serving a useful purpose. Again we 
may embark on a program of con- 
crete construction which will be 
equally unintelligent. Obsolete de- 
signs may be seized upon only be- 
cause they exist in complete detail 
and vessels constructed to such de- 
signs will again obviously be obso- 
lete at the time their keels are laid. 

Therefore, it is the intent of the 
administration to proceed vigorously 
with these important studies; and 
based upon the facts developed by 
such studies, to take the necessary 
steps to place and put into effect a 
program which will establish our 
merchant marine on a basis commen- 
surate with our national I'equire- 
ments. 

• Analysis of Problem 

To the engineer a problem of this 
kind requires an analysis of certain 
basic conditions which exist in con- 
nection with such a project. These 
conditions may be summarized as the 
financial aspect of the project, the 
present extent of the activities, the 
trend of these activities, the plant or 
facilities connected with the activi- 
ties, the capacity of such plant as re- 
ferred to the demand, the competi- 
tion which exists or which may exist, 
and the effect of increased effici- 
ency and/or capacity as represented 
by the definite project upon the en- 
tire activities being analyzed. 

In applying these general rules of 
analyses to the merchant marine and 
specifically to a trade route and a 
service in such trade route, it is nec- 
essary to utilize all available infor- 
mation. Much of this information 
and data is in the possesion of the 
government, but unfortunately is 
widely scattered among the various 
departments and bureaus. It there- 
fore is necessary to gather together 
pertinent data from the various gov- 
ernmental sources and such data 
must be supplemented by informa- 
tion which only the intelligent effici- 
ent ship operator can supply; and in 
approaching the study of trade 
routes, it has been found necessary 



42 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



to request of the ship operators their 
careful consideration of replies to a 
questionnaire which has been devel- 
oped for the purpose of not only as- 
certaining from the ship operators 
the facts, but obtaining from them 
opinions, suggestions and recommen- 
dations. 
# Aid from Shipowners 

The intelligent and efficient ship 
operators, in the judgment of the 
writer, have a more intimate know- 
ledge of the conditions surrounding 
their particular service than it is 
possible to gain by sporadic investi- 
gations of government experts, and 
the intelligent response received 
from the ship operators justifies this 
conclusion. 

There are possibly any number of 
ways in which the pertinent informa- 
tion in regard to these studies could 
be grouped; but from the standpoint 
of the writer, it seems essential that 
to arrive at any intelligent conclu- 
sion, such a report should be so ar- 
ranged that a clear mental picture 
can be quickly visualized of the trade 
route, the service, the region served, 
the character of the population, the 
trend of the civilization, the history 
of the trade route, the economics as 
represented by the balance of trade, 
the volume and kinds of commodities 
entering into the commerce, the arti- 
ficial barriers of restrictions upon 
this commerce, and the opportuni- 
ties in the regions under considera- 
tion of increasing the present volume 
of commerce and diversifying this 
commerce by means of reciprocal 
agreements in which either credits, 
engineering services or other assist- 
ance may be rendered by those na- 
tions in the trade most fitted to sup- 
ply such elements. 

After a comprehensive understand- 
ing is thus obtained of the trade 
route in all its elements, a detailed 
study of the various steamship ser- 
vices of all flags must be made to in- 
telligently determine the relative po- 
sition of the American flag services, 
both liner and tramp. With a know- 
ledge of the existing competition 
which confronts the American flag 
vessels and with a knowledge of the 
proposed modifications or additions 
that our foreign competitors may 
contemplate introducing into such 
services, the requirements become 
apparent which are necessary to 
place our steamship operators in a 
competitive position in regard to 
their equipment, frequency of sail- 



>1K1UH.\\T MAKIXE 

AM) FORKIGX TUADK 



At the prt-sfiit time the Gov- 
ernment is Intensely intereste<l in 
problems having to do with the 
maintennnoe of our merchant 
marine. 

Wliat con.sitlerations s h o n 1 d 
jBovern tiie establishment of ship- 
ping routes? 

What standards should deter- 
mine the payment of subsidies? 

What justification, if any, 
should call for (ioveriunent sub- 
vention in the construction of 
new shipping? 

We have come to think of our 
merchant marine as being a thing 
indejjendent in itself. Aside from 
considerations of national de- 
fense, the merchant marine is 
mainly a very imiKirtant agency 
for the trans|M>rtation of men and 
commodities. 

(\K)rdination and collective ac- 
tion are ne<'essary if the nation's 
foreigii trade interests are to be 
develoi)ed with foresight and in- 
telligence. The (iovernment with 
its many agencies, the individual 
with his siieciali/ed problems, the 
organizeii groups with their com- 
mon interests must synchronize 
their efforts in a determine<l and 
well considered crusade for the 
maintenance of .\merican exiK>rts 
ami the i)reservation of American 
imiKirtance in international econ- 
omic relationships, 

Claudius T. Murchison, 
Director Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic ("ommerce. 



ing, etc. 

These detailed studies bring to 
light matters of vital interest to all 
of our citizens who are interested in 
our foreign commerce, its expansion 
and diversification. 
• Use of Information 

The study of some 50 reports pre- 
pared generally in accordance with 
the above and in which there are 
combined the reports of the ship op- 
erators emphasizes the statement 
above made. Vital information is con- 
tained therein which should be used 
in the governmental effort to effect 
reciprocal trade agreements which 
would overcome the activities of the 
other nations in regard to regula- 
tions which are harmful to not only 
our shipping but our commercial in- 
terests. These reports further empha- 
size the unfair and unreasonable re- 



strictions and handicaps affecting 
our commerce as a whole, and proper 
steps for retaliation or protection of 
our interests are immediately appar- 
ent. All of this, of course, is in addi- 
tion to the determination of the prop- 
er action which we shall take in re- 
gard to our shipping interests. 

These studies and reports can, af- 
ter completion, be combined with nu- 
merous others. For example, the full 
information which is developed in 
connection with operating companies 
enables a very intelligent estimation 
of their capacities, accomplishments 
and efficiency. Should consolidations 
of routes and services be desirable in 
the public interest, the basis for such 
decisions in regard to consolidations 
will be found in these analyses. The 
studies develop conclusively the es- 
sential characteristics of certain 
trade routes and point out where 
great improvements could be accom- 
plished by the extension of some ser- 
vices, by the elimination of overlap- 
ping services, by the introduction of 
new services and combinations of 
services; and when completely ana- 
lyzed for our entire foreign com- 
merce, they give the definite answer 
in regard to the number, type, speed 
and characteristics of vessels requir- 
ed to provide a well-balanced mer- 
chant marine. 

• Transfer and Replacement 

These studies conclusively demon- 
strate that certain services require 
types of tonnage which may well be 
transferred from the services in 
which they are at present occupied. 
The shifted tonnage might well be 
replaced with new vessels especially 
adapted to the peculiar service or 
trade route. In this manner effici- 
ency of operation will be kept at a 
maximum, waste reduced to a mini- 
mum and no vessel need be out of 
step with the requirements of its ser- 
vice. 

The great value that these reports 
have to American navigation is quite 
obvious for a preliminary study of 
the subject; however, a continual re- 
view of each study reflecting chang- 
ing conditions should be made a rou- 
tine procedure. In this manner those 
entrusted with the development and 
encouragement of our merchant ma- 
rine could be continually informed 
in regard to such changes and trends 
and could plan programs and govern- 
mental action which would anticipate 
the requirements of these changing 
conditions. 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



43 



. . . . Ships 

Does America Need Them? 



% R. J. Baker 

President 
American Steamship Owners Association 



Shipping is no longer a free com- 
petitive agent. It is a public utility 
of national and international com- 
plexion. Few if any industries are so 
hedged about by government control 
and so endowed with government in- 
terest as is shipping. This applies 
not only to the United States but to 
other countries as well. Ships have 
become a pawn of and in world af- 
fairs. They are not sent out to com- 
pete in the world market according 
to their individual strength. They 
are maneuvered like chessmen to aid 
their own competitive position and 
to render them more effective as 
agents of commerce and auxiliaries 
of defense. 

Outside of tramp steamers, which 
are definitely on the wane, vessels 
today operate not where their own- 
ers might like to send them but 
where the national interest dictates. 
Tramps may roam the ocean at will, 
picking a cargo here and there as 
the opportunity presents itself. Na- 
tionally-supported shiplines stick to 
their routes. They sacrifice many a 
cargo in so doing, but only through 
such discipline can they render con- 
sistent service to the Nation as a 
whole. Trains do not wait for a full 
load before departing the station. 
That might be more profitable for 
the railroad but it would be tragic 
for the rest of us. The same depend- 
ability of schedule has become im- 
portant in the field of transportation 
by water. 

The nation which gives its com- 
merce to foreign vessels has little 
control over this final and necessary 
link in every international transac- 
tion — transportation. Rates are de- 
termined by the savage competition 
of the seas. Service the same. This 



free play of international forces will 
at times result in rates below the 
cost of production. More often than 
not, however, it is likely to bring 
rates that place us at a severe disad- 
vantage with our competitors abroad. 
The real tragedy of the latter situa- 
tion is that it inevitably develops at 
the time when ships are just about 
indispensable. 

The same condition applies to ser- 
vice. Ordinarily foreign lines can 
give us more ships than we require. 
Let a war come along, however, or a 
strike or some other emergency, and 
we find ourselves suddenly cut off 
from the rest of the world by a with- 
drawal of alien tonnage from our 
shores. This has happened more than 
once in the past and we may safely 
anticipate its recurrence in the fu- 
ture. There is no substitute for the 
existence of an American Merchant 
Marine, flying the American flag 
and subject to call in any emergency 
that may arise. These ships may be 
deployed to serve the needs of trade, 
in peace and in war. They go where 
there are American cargoes to be car- 
ried, regardless of the amount avail- 
able at any particular moment. They 
are subject to control in the matter 
of rates. They prevent the formation 
of foreign monopolies. They cannot 
abandon us when we need them 
most. 

Do we need ships? — Just ask any- 
one engaged in the business of for- 
eign trade. 

Eloquent answer to this question 
is also forthcoming from the ranks 
of foreign business. Just as we re- 
quire vessels under our own registi-y 
to protect the interests of American 
commerce, so do the shippers of 
other lands demand tonnage amen- 



able to the needs of their trade. We 
do not deny them this right. In re- 
turn we expect no interference with • 
our own very reasonable program for 
a Merchant Marine adequate to the 
needs of the country. 

Foreign countries guard shipping 
much more zealously than do we in 
the United States. Foreign shippers 
almost invariably route their goods 
by vessels of their own registry. For- 
eign governments, meanwhile, ex- 
tend financial support to a degree 
unthought of in the United States. 
Thus France is contributing to ship- 
ping this year a sum equal to ap- 
proximately $23,000,000 at curent 
rates of exchange. Italy is spending 
$15,500,000; Japan, $10,000,000 and 
Germany an undetermined amount 
estimated all the way from $10,000,- 
000 to $40,000,000 for the present fis- 
cal year. 

All of these amounts are relative- 
ly much greater than the $23,000,000 
a year now extended in the form of 
mail contracts by the United States. 
The American expenditure is actual- 
ly an extremely modest investment 
when we take into account the great- 
er population of this country, our 
long coastline, tremendous resources 
and volume of trade. Foreign expen- 
ditures represent a far larger propor- 
tion of the national budget than do 
those of the United States. Ship- 
building loans guaranteed by the 
government of North Ireland, for ex- 
ample, would — if defaulted — double 
the national debt. The cost of our 
maritime program represents but one 
two-thousandth of the annual in- 
come of our people, a per capita ex- 
penditure of exactly 17 cents. Cos- 
metics, chewing gum, motion pic- 
tures and a host of other items make 
our shipping expenditure appear tri- 
fling by comparison. 

It is no wonder that those who are 
in the business of foreign commerce, 
and therefore familiar with these 
facts, are enthusiastic supporters of 
an American-owned trading fleet. 
Their attitude is duplicated by oth- 
ers who know from experience the 



44 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



PUBLIC LIBRABV 



importance of merchant vessels as 
iuxiliary strength to the Army and 
S'avy. 

Do we need ships? Ask any naval 
tnan. Ask any General. Ask any 
ioughboy ! 

Throughout history merchant ship- 
ping has been second only to the 
irmed forces of the Nation as a fac- 
tor in offensive and defensive war- 
jfare. Once the ships of peace were 
Identical, except for armament, with 
Ithe ships of war. Although this is no 
^onger true, merchant ships are suf- 
jficiently important from the auxil- 
Jiary standpoint to merit the distinc- 
tion of being our "Second Line of 
[Defense." Only the Army and Navy 
re closer to the theater of action 
ban are the vessels of our commer- 
ial fleet. 

Merchant vessels and merchant 
seamen have taken an active part in 
very war in which the United 
tates has been engaged. The devel- 
pment of the airplane, mines, tor- 
pedoes and the submarine has made 
shipping more hazardous, and there- 
fore more necessary, than ever be- 
fore. England lost more than 2,000 
merchant ships during the World 
War. That is just five times as many 
as we now have in international 
trade. 

General Pershing declared after 
the War that there was scarcely a 
day during the conflict when we 
were not handicapped by a lack of 
adequate transportation facilities. 
"Everything depended upon ships," 
he wrote. "Our troops and most of 
our supplies had to come from the 
United States. Two lessons stand out 
clearly from our experience in the 
World War. One is the wisdom of 
England's historic policy in main- 



taining a strong Merchant Marine. 
But for her merchant fleet and her 
ability to replace losses rapidly, the 
U-Boat campaign might well have 
been succesful. The other lesson is 
the unwisdom of America, and our 
risk of defeat, because we had prac- 
tically no ships on the high seas 
when we entered the War." 

Almost all of our military men 
have expressed themselves in lan- 
guage similar to that of General 
Pershing. The anniversary of the 
birth of Theodore Roosevelt, observ- 
ed annually as Navy Day, this year 
was characterized as a twin tribute. 
Admiral William H. Standley. chief 
of naval operations, in a letter ad- 
dressed to the service, announced 
that the general theme of the 
day would be "The treaty Navy, 
fully manned, backed by an adequate 
Merchant Marine." 

Admiral Mahan, the greatest auth- 
ority on seapower who ever lived, 
pointed out many years ago that no 
maritime nation ever won a war in 
which it lost control of the sea. The 
Allied victory in the World War was 
but one more vindication of Admiral 
Mahan's historic pronouncement. 

"The first point at which we may 
expect attack, if attack there may 
be," writes Commander A. B. Court, 
U. S. Navy, "is on our seapower, our 
shipping and our overseas communi- 
cations. The Merchant Marine, being 
nearest to this point except for the 
Navy itself, carries jointly with the 
Navy the responsibility of being in 
the first line of defense." 

Do we need ships? Commerce and 
defense reply with a single voice. 
The answer is, yes! 

[Abstract of recent speech.] 



New Line of 

Gate Valves 

The Kennedy Valve Manufactur- 
ing Company announces a new line 
of rising stem heavy standard bronze 
gate valves for 150 pounds working 
steam pressure and 250 pounds work- 
ing water, oil or gas pressure. 

The operating mechanism employs 
solid wedge discs which are simple, 
heavily proportioned and accurately 
machined, and with no small quick- 
wearing parts which might cause 
trouble in service. This mechanism 
has been used for many years in 
other Kennedy Valve types and oper- 
ates with ease and certainty in any 
position. 

A flexible conection is provided 
between the disc and the stem so 
that the stem will not bind or spring 
when the valve is closed. The stem is 
made of a bronze composition with 
high tensile and torsional strength, 
and has a large number of contact 
threads in the bonnet. 

The bonnet hexagon has been 
made extra-large and close to the 
body so that w^hen a wrench is ap- 
plied for installing or disconnecting, 
there will be no danger of distorting 
the bonnet. Additional features of 
this new design are the deep stuffing 
box with gland and square section 
molded packing rings, the large non- 
heating malleable-iron hand wheel 
which is secured to the stem by a 
nut, and the heavy, wide pipe-end 
hexagons with generous number of 
threads. 





'J Ik 



^^B^ t^^aftT sgtsSs^^^-iter.^ ] , 



'•^Ji* 



\ftl-4i ^B i m , m . 




S.S. Manh.ltt.in .,nd Iv 



client examples of the t>'pe of vessel, moro >•( 
n passenger trade. 



FEBRUARY, 19 35 



45 



World's Largest Press Brake 



Constructed to handle steel plates 
up to 1 inch in thickness in lengths 
up to 12 feet inches and steel plates 
^4 inch in thickness in lengths up to 
18 feet inches, the largest machine 
of its type ever built for bending, 
flanging, forming and multiple 
punching has recently been complet- 
ed by The Cincinnati Shaper Co., 
Cincinnati, Ohio. The press brake has 
been installed in the By-Products di- 
vision of Lukens Steel Company at 
Coatesville, Pa., and will enable Lu- 
kens to supply bent or formed plates 
in extremes of thickness and length 
as required by its customers as well 
as for use in the manufacture of the 
welded steel structures produced by 
the Lukenweld division for machin- 
ery and equipment manufacturers. 

Of the characteristic design of the 
standard line of all-steel press 
brakes manufactured by The Cincin- 
nati Shaper Co., it has a clear dis- 
tance between the housings of 12 
feet 6 inches with an overall working 
length of die surface of 18 feet 
inches through a 14-inch throat. 

The ram has a stroke of 6 inches 
and an adjustment of 6 inches, with 
a distance of bed to ram, stroke down 
and adjustment up of 14 inches. In- 
dependent adjustment to each end of 
the ram is provided to take care of 
fade out or cone work. Two speeds 



are provided through a gear shift 
transmission so that the machine 
may be operated at either five 
strokes per minute or twenty strokes 
per minute. The clutch is hydrauli- 
cally operated by electrical control 
from each or all of several stations 
for convenient and effortless opera- 
tion. 

One set of five dies gives complete 
range for general purpose work in 
plates ranging in thickness from No. 
10 gauge up to 1 inch. The machine 
will develop safe working loads up to 
1,000 tons. A direct-reading load in- 
dicator shows the load developed 
during any operation of the press, 
and also has a maximum load hand 
recording continually the heaviest 
load to which the machine has been 
subjected at any time. 

The frame is built throughout of 
heavy steel plates of analyses espe- 
cially adapted to flame-cutting and 
welding which were supplied by Lu- 
kens Steel Company. The housings, 
flame-cut from two steel plates 8 
inches in thickness, 87 inches in 
width, and 13 feet 8 inches in length, 
weigh 33,000 pounds each. The bed 
and ram were flame-cut from two 
steel plates 7 inches in thickness, 72 
inches in width, 18 feet inches in 
length and weigh 31,000 pounds each. 
Main drive gears are of welded steel 



construction, with high carbon steel 
providing the requisite tooth 
strength and wear resistance in the 
gear rim. All welding was done with 
Fleetweld rods furnished by Lincoln 
Electric Company. The curved rim of 
the gear guards and the heavy top 
brace between the housings, which 
is almost a complete box section in 
one piece, were formed on the ma- 
chine itself before they were put in 
place. The total weight of the ma- 
chine complete is approximately 145,- 
000 pounds. 

Divided pitman rods in conjunc- 
tion with cylindrical supports for 
the bed and ram, assure the load of 
the press brake being carried direct- 
ly on the center line of the housings. 
The screw in each pitman is a heat- 
treated Nickel-Chromium alloy steel 
forging cut with a buttress thread, 
having a full ball and socket joint, 
with ball ends hardened and ground. 
The ram adjustment shaft bearings 
were supplied by The Timken Roller 
Bearing Co. 

Another interesting feature is the 
use of ball bearings supplied by the 
New Departure Manufacturing Com- 
pany under the steel flywheel, which 
is 56 inches in diameter, weighs 4,- 
000 pounds, and runs at 600 revolu- 
tions per minute. The flywheel shaft 
is mounted on two double Timken 




Front and end view of largest press brake. 



46 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



bearings. 

The several electrical control sta- 
tions permit operation with the ma- 
chine making either a complete cycle 
with the stop at the top, or for con- 
tinuous running, or for a jogging or 
hunching operation. General Electric 
Company's floor type push buttons 
are used, with the solenoid, limit 
switch, contactor and jog switch of 



the electric clutch control being fur- 
nished by Cutler-Hammer, Inc. 

An oiling system supplied by Man- 
zel Bros., Co., Buffalo, N. Y., with 
two stations, one on each housing, 
furnishes complete automatic lubri- 
cation. The press brake is driven by 
a General Electric 50-horsepower 
high torque motor, connected by vee- 
belts to the flywheel. 



Safety Treads for Ship^s 

Ladders and Companions 



The half tones reproduced here- 
with illustrate ladders aboard ship 
on which the application of alundum 
rubber bonded safety treads has 
eliminated the ship hazard which is 
so prolific in causing lost time and 
even fatal accidents. 

The steepness of ladders aboard 
ships almost wholly confines traffic 
contact to the nosing edge and a 
very short distance behind it. For 
this reason dense materials have a 
tendency to wear smooth and slip- 
pery in a comparatively short time. 
This hazard becomes materially ac- 
celerated when the treads are sub- 
jected to wet conditions. In slipping 
on a steep ladder it is much more 
difficult to regain one's balance in 
an effort to prevent a fall. 

Furthermore many of these lad- 
ders are out-of-doors and others are 
likely to be in dark locations. Ex- 
posed ladders aboard ship by reason 
of salt air conditions have a tendency 
to gradually deteriorate. Subdued 
light adds to a slippery nosing haz- 
ard because the worn polished edge 
is not properly disclosed under such 
conditions. 




Ship ladders fitted with Alundum Rubber 
Bonded Safety Treads. Above on S.S. Cristo- 
bal; at right on outside and an inside ladder 
on a Coast Guard cutter. 




Coast Guard cutters Ariadne and Daphne at the Governors Island base inner 
harbor, Oakland, California. 




These things were considered in 
the equipment of three United States 
Coast Guard cutters recently built at 
the Lake Union Drydock Company's 
plant at Seattle, Wash. For ladders 
of the type illustrated each of these 
ships required 80 treads, 17 inches 
long by 14 inch thick by 4V2 inches 
wide; and 9 treads, 17 inches long 
by 1/4 inch thick, by 7 inches wide. 
Alundum Rubber Bonded Safety 
Treads were selected as meeting the 
requirements most effectively: 

1st. Because they cannot wear 




FEBRUARY, 1935 



47 



smooth on the pivoting point of nos- 
ing contact. 

2nd. Because they offer a high re- 
sistance to wear and even when ap- 
preciably worn still retain their full 
non-slipping efficiency. 

3rd. Because they have a level sur- 
face with every conceivable precau- 
tion against tripping hazards. 

4th. Because the hard rubber base 
and the abrasive aggregate in its 
wearing surface do not deteriorate 
under the conditions encountered at 
sea. 

5th. Because they are so service- 
able they are also economical. 



That these treads give satisfac- 
tory service is shown by repeat ord- 
ers and by the equipment of entire 
ships after trial on a small order. 
For instance an initial application 
of these treads was made in June, 
1934, on the exposed ladders aboard 
the cargo carrier S. S. Cristobal of 
the Panama Steamship Lines. Since 
then two additional applications 
have been made on the same ship. 
One of these was on an indoor stair- 
way in the popular buff color to give 
an attractive appearance, while ad- 
vantage was being taken of the max- 
imum type of efficiency obtainable 
for walkways of this character. 



Twenty-Five Years Ago 

Pacific Marine Review. Volume VII., No. 2, February, 1910 

"The First Established and Only Exclusively Marine Paper Published on the 

Pacific Coast" 



Then published in Seattle, this 
magazine proclaimed editorially un- 
der the caption "1910 Prospects," 
that "If the opinion of the people 
who know is worth anything, at this 
time, the year 1910 promises to be 
a banner year in shipping and its al- 
lied industries." .... and cited many 
instances of world trends to bolster 
that idea. The editorial concludes 
with the statement: "In the mean- 
time. United States shipowners and 
shipbuilders are anxiously awaiting 
the action of Congress in connection 
with the proposed subsidy bill." 

The San Francisco Bay Steamer 
Napa Valley for the San Francisco- 
Vallejo run, building at the Union 
Iron Works, San Francisco, was 
launched February 10. She was 240 



feet long, 49 feet beam, and 16 feet 
deep. She was powered with a triple 
expansion engine and four Scotch 
type oil burning marine boilers, cal- 
culated to give her a speed of 20 
miles an hour. 

Owing to the Newcastle coal min- 
ers' strike, the majority of the Aus- 
tralian Mail Line steamers were tied 
up in Sydney awaiting return car- 
goes. 

We then viewed with alarm the 
agitation directed toward the estab- 
lishment of a Federal government- 
owned line of steamers between San 
Francisco and Panama. 

Some of our advertisers had sent 
in "Reports of Progress for 1909." 
Among others we find: 

The Welin Davit and Lane, De 



Groot Company of New York report 
that they equipped a large number of 
vessels — ■ in particular the Matson 
steamer Wilhelmina,and the steamers 
Bear and Beaver of the San Francis- 
co and Portland Steamship Com- 
pany; the S. S. Makuro Maru, S. S. 
Tenyo Maru, S.S. Chinyo Maru, S.S. 
Chanslor and the U.S.S. Patterson. 

The Willamette Iron and Steel 
Works, Portland, had under con- 
struction a steel tug and five steel 
barges, and regarded the outlook for 
1910 as particularly encouraging. 



DIESEL ENGINE DESIGN by Har- 
old F. Shepherd. 227 pages copi- ' 
ously illustrated with diagrams, 
drawings, and photographs, bound 
in red buckram with gold stamp- 
ings. Published by John Wiley & 
Sons, New York. Price $3.50 net. 
This is a real piece of book mak- 
ing. The experience of a competent 
American diesel-engine designer, ' 
checked with the published experi- 
ence of a world of diesel engineers, 
and set down in terse readable busi- 
ness English is given us in this com- 
pact volume. The 145 illustrations 
are all relevant to the text and great- 
ly illuminate its analyses and con- 
clusions. An adequate index makes 
every item available for ready refer- 
ence. The design formulae are all 
made practical and put in under- 
standable and readily remembered 
form. Along with each is the infor- 
mation required for its intelligent 
application. We should say, without 
hesitation, that this book would be 
worth many times its price to anyone 
interested in the design and manu- 
facture of diesel engines. 



1 






1 




k 






^^F™Br„ 


i i^lS'cir 


> 




ItaH^Ld 




Our flefct of tankers is inadequate for our petroleum industry and is composed largely of slow, much depreciated units.. 



48 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



. . The Functions and 

Activities of the Lighthouse Service 

S^y George R. Putnam, Commissioner 



Hawaii, the crossroads of the Paci- 
fic, is now far astern, 2,000 miles 
and more away. Bound in from the 
Orient, on the southerly track from 
I Honolulu, one of the crack ships of 
I the Pacific is standing in for the 
jbold California coast. The master is 
: anxious to fix his position definitely, 
I for during the past two days the 
I weather has been such that no ob- 
I servations were possible, and there 
may be fog ahead. Steaming out of 
'Honolulu and through the Kaiwi 
I Channel, a departure had been taken 
I from the Makapuu Point Lighthouse 
on the southeastern end of the is- 
land of Oahu. Forty miles out, the 
.flashing white light of Molokai was 
I seen on the starboard beam, and all 
during the night the radio-beacon at 
iMakapuu could be heard, its bearing 
being over the stern. But from then 
on, the ship's position had been de- 
itermined only by sights and by dead 
j reckoning, and now for two days 
j there have been no sights, the sky 
i being entirely overcast, yet the coast 
lis just ahead. 

j In the public rooms of the ship 
11,000 persons are engaged in the 
Igayeties of the last night aboard, for 
[tomorrow they will land in San Fran- 
icisco. Little groups are talking about 
the jagged pinnacle rocks known as 
|the Farallon Islands, about the San 
;Francisco Lightship, and the appear- 
ance of the new bridge which is to 
span the majestic Golden Gate. On 
the bridge of the vessel, shrouded in 
darkness, the navigating problems 
iare being worked out which will ter- 
minate the voyage in safety. 

At 11 o'clock, the festivities are in- 
terrupted by wisps of damp fog 
which begin to blow along the deck. 
;The awning stanchions, rail, and 
ineck houses are soon dripping wet, 
and then the air is split by the loud 
,roar of the fog whistle high up on 
the stack. 

I Unnoticed by the passengers, the 
ivessel's course has been changed 
jsomewhat, not because of the fog, 
fcut because the ship has come within 



THE LIGHTHOUSE 

It knows no lands, no flags, no kings. 
These are inconsequential things. 
The one important thing tonight: 
That every seaman, black or white. 
Who seeks a harbor sees a light. 

We talk about world brotherhood. 
But only here we make it good. 
We go on building ships of war, 
But, God be praised, do one thing 

more ; 
We build a lighthouse on the shore. 

The lighthouse has no special 

friends. 
No special foes, when night descends. 
In all the earth the only place. 
Though statesmen talk and kings 

embrace. 
Where man becomes one common 

race. 

— Douglas Malloch in 
San Francisco Chronicle 



the range of a radiobeacon signal. 
The navigating officer has the head- 
phones of his radio-compass on. He 
is listening intently, and slowly turn- 
ing the handwheel before him. "Dash, 
dash," faintly at first, and then, with 
the turn of a dial, a little louder, 
"dash dash," San Francisco Light- 
ship is heard 100 miles away. At fre- 
quent intervals through the night, 
these radiobeacon signals are picked 
up, and, by them, the ship's course is 
laid straight for the Golden Gate. It 
is shortly before two in the morning 
that another radiobeacon signal is 
heard, the "dot dash dot" of the sta- 
tic on the Farallon, and with this as 
a check, the navigator knows exactly 
his position. 

By three o'clock the diaphone fog 
signal of the Farallon Light Station 
can be heard, a blast followed by a 
group of two blasts, forming "12." It 
is on the port bow but swings farther 
to port and becomes louder and loud- 
er. As the ship progresses, the dark 
outlines of the high cliffs appear for 



a moment and, in the gray light of 
morning, the beams from the light- 
house can be seen. 

Ahead again there is another sig- 
nal, but with a different note. It 
blows for two seconds and is then 
silent for 28. This is the big steam ty- 
fon fog signal on San Francisco 
Lightship. 

A shift of the wind has now 
carried most of the fog away, and be- 
fore the incoming ship is abreast the 
lightship the fog has disappeared, re- 
vealing the vessel's red hull. Its 
masthead light is still burning and 
on its side are the large white letters 
"SAN FRANCISCO." 

At 5 o'clock, the little lightship has 
been left astern, and the homeward- 
bound vessel is passing through the 
channel marked by lighted buoys on 
either side and leading across the 
bar to the harbor. Straight ahead, a 
cleft in the bold bluffs, is the Golden 
Gate. There are lights ahead, flash- 
ing dimly against the rising sun, and 
then ceasing altogether. Mile Rocks 
Lighthouse is to the south and Point 
Bonita Lighthouse to the north. 
Farther in is the white lighthouse at 
Point Diablo. But here is the new 
Golden Gate Bridge, and the jour- 
ney's end; Alcatraz light is out there 
on the port bow, and to the starboard 
is the waterfront of San Francisco. 

Maneuvers of the same character 
are constantl.v being worked out by 
navigators on all parts of the coasts 
and on the Great Lakes. It is the 
work of the Lighthouse Service to 
establish and maintain the light- 
houses, lightships, buoys, beacons, 
and day marks necessary for the safe 
and expeditious movement of ships. 
There are in use today more than 
22,000 of these aids to navigation, 
ranging all the way from the power- 
ful coastwise lights, offshore light- 
ships, and radiobeacons, to the un- 
attended lights of very small candle- 
power which mark the smaller rivers. 

• Lighthouses 

There are lighthouses of many dif- 
ferent types upon our coasts, their 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



49 



outward appearance varying with 
the character of the land and with 
the relative importance of the light. 
Upon the Atlantic coast, where the 
land is, as a rule, comparatively low, 
are many tall towers, some of them 
nearly 200 feet in height. In the 
north, these towers are mostly of 
stone, the building materials coming 
from no great distance. In the Middle 
Atlantic States and in the south, 
where building stone is less fre- 
quently found, brick has been used in 
the construction. There are also 
many towers, particularly in the 
south, of skeleton iron construction, 
this type having the advantage of of- 
fering less resistance to hurricanes. 

On the Pacific Coast, which is 
generally bold and high, a low tower 
erected upon a prominent headland 
frequently serves the mariner in ex- 
actly the same manner as the taller 
towers of the Atlantic coast. Light- 
houses which were built in early 
years on the Great Lakes were most- 
ly masonry towers or structures of 
wood, but those of recent construc- 
tion, particularly where they stand 
on submarine foundations, have been 
of steel and concrete. 

On the Pacific coast Tillamook 
Rock and St. Georges Reef stand out 
because of the spectacular condi- 
tions under which the keepers must 
reach their stations. Cape Flattery, 
Point Reyes, and Point Loma have 
long been connected with the history 
of the coast, and Farallon is remem- 
bered by many, standing high on a 
pinnacle-like rock. 

The flashing characteristics and 
their variations in color are of inter- 
est to every observer, and have been 
so planned that mariners will have a 
definite means of identifying each 
light. 

• Lightships 

The outermost marks along the 
ocean coasts and at danger points on 
the Great Lakes are the lightships, 
some of them moored fifteen miles 
or more offshore. They are in reality 
floating lighthouses, being equipped 
with masthead lights, powerful fog 
signals, and many of them also with 
radiobeacons.They are established at 
points where it is impracticable to 
build lighthouses, usually because of 
the depth of water. Lightships have 
an advantage possessed by few shore 
stations, for, as they are moored in 
deep water, vessels may steer direct- 
ly for them and pass them close to. 



This is particularly valuable in time 
of fog, for it enables mariners to fix 
their position with certainty. 

Most of the 35 lightship stations 
mark the approaches to important 
harbors or rivers, and others mark 
dangerous shoals and reefs. A crew 
of fifteen is required to man the 
larger lightships. All the newer ves- 
sels are self-propelling, carry fuel 
enough to remain on station for a 
year, and are designed to withstand 
the heaviest storms. 

Of these lightships, those best 
known to travelers include Nantuck- 
et, Ambrose, Barnegat, Diamond 
Shoals; and, on the Pacific coast, 
San Francisco, Umatilla Reef, Blunts 
Reef, and Columbia River. 

• Radiobeacons 

Radiobeacons are installed at light- 
houses and on lightships, sending 
out radio signals in all directions for 
the guidance of ships. Vessels equip- 
ped with radiocompasses may inter- 
cept these signals, and from them de- 
termine the direction in which the 
sending station lies. Each lighthouse 
or lightship radiobeacon broadcasts 
a distinctive dot-and-dash signal so 
that it may readily be identified, and 
the reception of signals from two or 
more stations provides a cross bear- 
ing accurately establishing the re- 
ceiving vessel's position. Radiobeac- 
ons have greatly increased the effec- 
tiveness of lighthouses and light- 
ships, for they may be heard many 
miles away when the sending station 
lies below the horizon or is invisible 
because of fog, rain, or snow. There 
are more than 100 of these radio- 
beacons now in operation, having 
ranges of from 10 to 300 miles, and 
covering the entire coasts of the 



United States and the Great Lakes. 

9 Automatic Lights 

Automatic lights of many types 
are in service throughout the coun- 
try, providing navigational facilities 
in many of the secondary channels, 
and supplementing, along the coasts, 
the larger attended lighthouses. Au- 
tomatic lights in considerable num- 
bers are to be found in such water- 
ways as the Hudson River, the Dela- 
ware River, Chesapeake Bay and its 
tributaries, the sounds of North Car-, 
olina, the Houston Channel, the Col-li 
umbia River, and the extensive in-t' 
land waters of Alaska. The principalis 
types of automatic light are those op- i 
erated either by acetylene gas or, 
electricity. Lights operated by acety- 
lene gas in small containers and | 
under pressure will burn without at-:| 
tention for as long as six months. 
Electric lights, deriving currenti 
from self-contained primary cells, 
are used in many cases where a light 
of low candlepower is sufficient. 
About 45 per cent of all coast and 
lake lights are now operated auto- 
matically. 

• Buoys 

Buoys now occupy a very important 
place in the system of aids to navi- 
gation. They were not so important 
in the early days of lighthouse work, 
when sailing vessels were guided 
mainly by the lighthouses built on, 
headlands and at harbor entrances. 
But in the last half century buoys 
have been increasingly depended 
upon. This change is due to the in- 
creased speed of vessels and the im- 
portance of their following the short 
est routes or narrow-dredged chan- 
nels, and the fact that buoys furnisl 




U. S. Lighthouse Tender Hemlock. 



50 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEV 



the ready means of marking these 
channels. Buoys have the great ad- 
vantage that they may be moored 
L'lose to the track of vessels, so as to 
hark both sides of a channel. They 
b-e also used to mark turning points, 
Obstructions, anchorage grounds, 
feind isolated dangers. They are an- 
bhored in position and cared for by 
the lighthouse tenders, which are 
provided with special lifting appar- 
atus for handling them. Buoys weigh 
from 350 pounds to 12 tons or more. 
Many of them are lighted and may be 
provided also with whistles or bells. 
Lighted buoys are capable of func- 
:ioning for several months without 
ittention. They are, however, suscep- 
ible to many accidents, and constant 
iittention is necessary to keep them 
S-fficient. Various types of buoys are 
'•onstructed, some suited only for 
ise in sheltered waters, while others 
ire able to withstand the battering 
i)f the open sea. Under favorable 
tonditions, their lights are visible 
Jp to about ten miles, and their 
^ound signals may be heard for two 
\>v three miles. 

• Organization of Service 

The executive offices of the Light- 
house Service are in Washington, 
leaded by the Commissioner of 
Lighthouses. Under this officer are 
;he offices of the Chief Engineer, 
:he Divisions of Architectural and 
Marine Engineering, the Hydro- 
jraphic Division, and the various 
idministrative sections of the Bu- 
reau. The field service is divided in- 
lo seventeen districts, each in charge 
[if a superintendent of lighthouses 
laving an office at some important 
teaport in the district. At each dis- 
rict headquarters there is a techni- 
cal staff for the construction and 
Tiaintenance of both land stations 
md floating equipment, as well as a 
•lerical force. Each district has one 
>r more lighthouse tenders for the 
:)urpose of delivering supplies to 
ighthouses and lightships, for trans- 
Jorting men and materials on con- 
itruction and repair work, and for 
naintaining the buoyage system. At 
east one lighthouse depot is situated 
li each district, and used as the base 
"or storage and distribution of sup- 
plies and apparatus. The depots us- 
lally have facilities for construction 
^nd repair work. 

The work of the Lighthouse Ser- 
vice is one of the oldest of Govern- 
nent activities, being provided for 



in one of the first acts of Congress, 
adopted in 1789. The first lighthouse 
in America was that erected on an 
island in Boston Harbor in 1716, and 
it is still in service. Other light- 
houses were erected or planned by 
the Colonial Governments, and in 
1789, upon the formation of the Fed- 
eral Government, ten lighthouses 
were transferred to it. These lights 
were all on the Atlantic coast, the 
farthest south being at Charleston 
Harbor, S.C. During the next fifty 
years about 170 lighthouses were 
erected and three lightships placed 
on stations. The extension of trade 
westward via the Great Lakes 
brought a call for lighthouses from 
a new quarter, and in 1819 the first 
light was built on these inland wat- 
ers at Presque Isle, Pa., on Lake 
Erie. At the time of the gold rush to 
California in 1849 there was not a 
single light on the Pacific coast to 
aid mariners, but in 1854 a light was 
established at Alcatraz, just within 
the Golden Gate, and several lights 
were built in the following year. The 
growth of the Lighthouse Service 
has followed the expansion of the 
country, until today navigational 
aids are maintained on all parts of 
the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, the 
Great Lakes, Puerto Rico, Alaska, 
the Hawaiian Islands and the ap- 
proaches to the Panama Canal. 



Elliott Marine Type 
Deaerating Heater 

The Elliott Company, Jeannette, 
Pennsylvania, has developed a spe- 
cial type deaerating heater for use 
in marine service. This deaerating 
heater gives the same ideal perform- 
ance on shipboard as is obtained in 
heating feedwater by direct contact 
in conventional stationary type de- 
aerating heaters. These heaters, by 
removing dissolved gases from the 
feedwater, prevent corrosion in boil- 
ers, feedlines and steam lines, and 
heat the feedwater exactly up to the 
saturated steam temperature. 

The two Elliott marine type deaer- 
ating heaters as shown are for in- 
stallation on two large oil tankers, 
each heater having a capacity of 54,- 
000 pounds per hour. They are de- 
signed for smooth, continuous, un- 




Two Elliott marine type deaerating heaters 

for two large oil tankers. Each has a capacity 

of 54,000 pounds per hour. 



varying performance on shipboard 
where the deaerating heater, being 
rigidly secured to the ship's struc- 
ture, is subject to the roll and pitch 
of the ship. 

The deaerating element is of spe- 
cial design and construction and is 
particularly efficient from the stand- 
point of allowing intimate contact of 
water and steam, and uniform distri- 
bution of water, regardless of the 
roll and pitch of the ship. 

Flexibility of design is employed 
so that the heaters can be fitted into 
the space available for installation on 
shipboard. Because of the headroom 
available on the oil tankers, the two 
illustrated heaters were built along 
conventional lines with vent con- 
denser on top and storage tank verti- 
cal. The deaerating heater heads are 
of the non-storage type, made of cast 
iron to give maximum resistance to 
corrosion. This was considered of 
more importance than the disadvan- 
tage of the extra weight of a cast 
iron structure over steel plate. 

The standard material for the 
shell and end heads of the deaerating 
heater is copper bearing steel or 
Armco ingot iron, as preferred, for 
the primary reason of minimum 
weight. If the importance of greater 
corrosion resistance is sufficient to 
offset the disadvantage of added 
weight, cast iron material can be 
used as in the units illustrated. Stor- 
age tanks are always of copper bear- 
ing steel or Armco ingot iron; vent 
condensers of steel plate or cast iron. 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



51 



German Cruiser Karlsruhe 



A Remarkable Turbine Installation Giving Sixty-five Thousand 

Horsepower for Propulsion on Six Thousand 

Tons Displacement 



On October 12, 1934, the German 
cruiser, Karlsruhe left Germany on 
a training cruise for naval midship- 
men. She has visited various ports in 
the West Indies and along the east 
and west coasts of South America; 
and is scheduled to reach San Fran- 
cisco on March 1 for a stay of twelve 
days before proceeding to Vancou- 
ver. 

Karlsruhe is one of a class of three 
cruisers laid down at German yards 
in 1926, and commissioned in 1929. 
She was constructed in the Deutsche 
Werf yard at Kiel, and her propul- 
sion machinery was built by Krupp. 
The design called for 65,000 horse- 
power to produce 32-knot speed on 
6000 tons displacement. In other 
words, the maximum horsepower rat- 
ing called for an entire ship weight 
of approximately 185 pounds per 
shaft horsepower. The only item not 
included in this displacement ton- 
nage are fuel supply and water sup- 
ply. 

The hull measures: 
571.53 feet length over all 
554.47 feet length between perpendic- 
ulars 
50.20 feet beam 
17.39 feet designed draft 
She is equipped with a battery of 
nine 5.9 inch guns in three triple 
gun turrets, four 3.45-inch guns, 
eight 1.46-inch guns, four machine 
guns, and twelve 19.7-inch torpedo 
tubes in triple tube units. She car- 
ries a complement of 603 persons, of 
whom 20 are line officers, 6 engin- 
eering officers, 2 doctors, 2 paymas- 
ters, and 1 chaplain. Captain Luet- 
jius is her commander, and Captain 
Schiller her first officer. 

The main propelling plant, design- 
ed for a steam pressure of 242 
pounds per square inch, consists of 
six double-ended oil fired boilers 
(two of 13,500 square feet and 4 of 



10,900 square feet heating sui-face) 
and four independent two-cylinder 
steam turbine units driving the two 
propeller shafts through reduction 
gears. One pair of units constitutes 
the main turbines, the other pair the 
cruising turbines, and they are so 
arranged that either of the units or 
both together can drive the shaft. 

To this geared-turbine propelling 
plant has been added an economical 
oil engine cruising plant, which con- 
sists of two very lightly built ten- 
cylinder Diesel engines, developing 
about 800 shaft horsepower at about 
900 revolutions per minute and a 
maximum of about 1000 shaft horse- 
power at about 1000 revolutions per 
minute. This cruising plant was not 
provided in the original design of 
these cruisers and the Diesel engine 
was developed for a different pur- 
pose. But when this type of engine 
which weighs only 5.5 kilograms 
(12.15 pounds) per brake horsepower, 
gave such brilliant results on test 
stand of the builder and particularly 
demonstrated a high degree of reli- 
ability, it was deemed highly desir- 
able to use these engines in the new 
cruiser to give it thereby a highly 
economical plant for cruising, and so 
increase immensely its cruising ra- 
dius. Space could be made available 
in the after part of the vessel and the 
very light weight of the units per- 
mitted their use without e.xceeding 
the limits prescribed by the treaty of 
Versailles. It was, therefore, decided 
to incorporate these Diesel units 
even though they would have to be 
carried as dead weight when using 
the turbines. In a later design for 
the cruiser Leipzig now building this 
drawback has been corrected and the 
cruising diesels help at high speed. 

The cruising diesel engines are of 
the reversing, single-acting, four 
cycle type with mechanical injection 



of fuel, having working cylinders of 
10.236 inches bore and 12.992 inches 
stroke. They work supercharged and 
transmit their output through a hy- 
draulic clutch and reduction gear to 
the propeller shafts. The hydraulic 
clutch prevents impacts and torsional 
oscillations from being transmitted to 
the gears. The gear ratio is about 7.65 
to 1. When the steam turbines are 
operating, the cruising diesel en- 
gines are disconnected by means of 
the hydraulic clutches. If it is desir- 
ed to operate on oil engines, these 
must be connected and the turbines 
disconnected while the shafts are 
fully stopped. 

The cruising turbines used alone 
give the vessel 15 knots speed and a 
cruising radius of 5500 miles on the 
original design. The cruising diesel 
engines give a speed of 10.5 knots 
and with the diesel oil bunker capa-' 
city a cruising radius of 8000 miles.: 
If all bunkers are filled with diesel 
oil and that fuel used for steam boil- 
ers when full speed is required, the 
Karlsruhe has a possible cruisingr 
radius of 18,000 miles at 10 knots. 
The installation of this enormous 
power on such small displacement 
was possible only through very care- 
ful design to minimize weights in 
hull structure and in all propulsion 
and auxiliai-y machinery. 

Welding, the use of high tensile 
steels, the use of aluminum alloys, 
and aluminum paints, all contribut- 
ed to keep down weight. In short, the 
cruiser Karlsruhe is a practical dem- 
onstration of the possibilities in ad- 
vanced design and construction ol 
boilers, turbines, diesel engines, ma- 
rine auxiliary machinery and marine 
equipment as well as of the hull am 
its attachments. Every mai-ine engin 
eer and naval architect in San Fran 
Cisco should use every opportunitji 
to study this ship. J 



52 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



. . . The 

Beachcomber's Loot 



Another Sailing Record: In 1905, 
|he British iron barque, Lalla Rookh, 
pwned and operated by the famous 
;oap tycoons, Lever Brothers of Port 
Sunlight, was long overdue from 
Brisbane, Australia, She was posted 
nissing, and insurance paid on her 
lull and cargo, but she later limped 
Into Falmouth — 199 days out from 
Brisbane. She was not such a poor 
bailor as this long passage record 
ould seem to indicate, and she had 
2 years of active service and a long 
nteresting history to her credit 
A'hen she was broken up in 1928 at 
Bruges. 

I Built of iron in 1876, she register- 
ed 814 tons, was 196.5 feet long, 31.8 
'eet beam, and 19.6 feet deep. She 
lailed in all parts of the world under 
several British owners, but after her 
ong passage referred to above, she 
'.vas sold to Norwegian owners and 
later became the Norwegian barque 
5ffendi. then the Norwegian barque 
Jelona. and in 1924 the Finnish 
)arque Karhu. Finally in 1926 she 
Uppeared under the famous house 
flag of Gustav Erickson of Marie- 
pamm with her original name Lalla 
[iookh. 

I That she could do fast sailing is 
proved by such passages as Buenos 
Aires to New York in 37 days. Fred- 
•ikstad to Sydney in 87 days, Ade- 
aide to Durban in 40 days. 



A Dummy Helmsman. Donald Mc- 
ay of Boston, in 1854 built for 
tames Baines and Company of Liver- 
pool an extreme clipper named 
Champion of the Seas that was a 
.ast sailer, and was for some years a 
javorite in the Baines "Black Ball" 
line of Liverpool-Australia packets. 
jn her latter days she was in the 
l-hina trade and on July 18, 1875, ar- 
rived in San Francisco 39 days from 
flong Kong with Captain Wilson in 
command. 

I At San Francisco, she was chart- 
ered to load guano at Peruvian ports 
or Cork. She loaded at Pabellon de 
ca, and cleared for Ireland but had 



to be abandoned in a sinking condi- 
tion off Cape Horn, all hands being 
taken off by the British barque 
Windsor. Just as the captain of the 
Windsor was about to give the order 
"Fill away!", he noticed a sailor 
standing on the poop of the sinking 
Champion. Calling to Captain Wilson 
he said, "Captain, you have left one 
of your men aboard!" Captain Wil- 
son took a look through the glass 
and explained to his rescuer that the 
Champion of the Seas had a life-size 
wooden sailor boy for a binnacle 
stand. 



Mutiny on the Challenge. Clipper 
ship. Challenge, built for No Loss 
and All Gain Griswold by W. H. 
Webb of New York, was launched 
May 24, 1851. She was the largest 
and longest merchant vessel built in 
the United States up to that date. 
Length 224 feet, beam 43 feet, depth 
of hold 25 feet, tonnage 2006. She 
sailed from New York for San Fran- 
cisco on July 31, 1851, with Captain 
Robert H. ("Bully") Waterman in 
command with a crew of sixty, all 
foreigners except two, and only six 
knowing enough to take their trick 
at the wheel. 

Captain Waterman had a reputa- 
tion as a great driver and there was 
much betting that the Challenge 
would make the Golden Gate in nine- 
ty days from Sandy Hook. In fact, 
the captain was promised $10,000.00 
bonus if he made it in ninety days or 
less. However, neither crew nor 
winds nor weather favored a record, 
and she arrived 108 days out from 
New York with serious crew trouble. 

Captain Waterman's own story is 
"When off Rio, about fifty of the 
crew fell on the mate with the inten- 
tion of killing him and afterwards 
me, by their own confession. I was 
on the poop taking observations 
while the mate stood forivard at the 
gallery. They stabbed him, and had 
beaten him shockingly before I could 
get to him. I struck down three of 
them, rescued the mate, quelled the 




mutiny. I flogged eight of them. Off 
Cape Horn, three men fell from the 
mizzen top sailyard and were killed, 
and a few weeks later, four more 
died of dysentary." In the opinion of 
those best qualified to judge. Cap- 
tain Waterman was justified in his 
severe measures. 

The Challenge later made some ex- 
cellent sailing records. Her run from 
opposite Japan to San Francisco in 
18 days has never been surpassed by 
a sailing ship. 



Another Vanished Ship. An Amer- 
ican extreme clipper ship was built 
by Donald McKay of Boston in 1852 
and named Bald Eagle. On October 
15, 1861. this vessel sailed from 
Hong Kong for San Francisco with 
a full cargo of rice, sugar, and tea, 
and $100,000 in treasure. She was 
never heard from after clearing and 
is supposed to have foundered with 
all hands in one of the typhoons 
which were known to be raging in 
the China Sea at about that time. No 
trace of her has ever been found. 
She was owned at the time by George 
B. Upton, was in good condition, 
classed A-1. Insurance paid on the 
hull and cargo was $300,000.00. 



Cradled in the Deep. During the 
four years that Captain Edgar Wake- 
man was master of the American 
medium clipper ship Adelaide, he 
was always accompanied by his wife 
who was equal in sailing ability to 
her husband. Two children were 
born to this couple aboard the ves- 
sel. The first — a daughter — was ap- 
propriately named Adelaide Seaborn 
Wakeman. The four years were 
punctuated by fierce gales, and by 
mutiny, murder and rapine, but the 
Wakeman family came through un- 
scathed and retired from sail with a 
comfortable competence. 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



53 



Back from the Dead. A most curi- 
ous incident is the tale of what be- 
fell the six men who formed the crew 
of one of the Whalesey "sixtreens". 
They reported that the storm came 
on unexpectedly, accompanied by 
violent showers of hail, so heavy 
that, along with the water shipped 
by the open boat, it was all the crew 
could do by bailing to keep afloat. 
Struggling their hardest to keep 
their boat's head into the wind, the 
men noticed a large vessel bearing 
down upon them. This proved to be 
a Danish barque bound for America. 

A rope was thrown to the fisher- 
men, and one by one they scrambled 
to the barque's deck. One member of 
the crew, exhausted with cold, lost 
his hold of the rope and fell back 
into the sea. The five survivors were 
well cared for, and by the time the 
gale had gone down, the coast of 
Shetland was a dim speck on the 
horizon, so the captain of the vessel 
resolved to hold on his course. 

Philadelphia, in America, was 
reached, and the story of the rescue 
was told to the British Consul of that 
city, where the Whalesey men in 
their fishing rig-out of coarse native- 
wove "wadmal," thick jackets, long 
leather boots, thick "haaf" mittens 
and showing signs of their terrible 
ordeal, came in for many a curious 
scrutiny from the folk of the Quaker 
center. At that time there was little 
intercourse between Britain and the 
United States, and it took some 
months before the Consul procured 
a free passage for the five "haaf" 
men. In the interval, however, their 
story aroused much sympathy among 
the kindly Quakers, and they were 
given work which kept them from 
having to rely on charity. 

In time they got a passage on an 
east-bound ship, landed in Liver- 
pool, and arrived north, in Lerwick, 
on Sunday, the fifth day of January, 
1833. The news of their arrival "back 
from the dead" caused a great sensa- 
tion all over Shetland, and some men 
hauled a sixaern from her winter 
"noost" and landed the five returned 
wanderers in Whalesey that same 
afternoon. 

"Da Misforn Knotts." Among these 
same Shetland fisherfolk was the 
superstition of the "misforn knotts." 
The "haaf" boats or "sixaerns" — un- 
decked, six-oared boats from 18 to 
24 feet of keel, each carrying a crew 
of six men — were built of Norway 



pine, imported from Norway ready 
for putting together. The knots in 
these timbers were called by the 
Shetlanders "da misforn knotts" and 
various sea lore attached to the vari- 
ous kinds of knots. 

Old seamen who understood this 
sea lore were always sent for to 
"finn 'oot da misforn knotts" be- 
fore any boat was launched. Round 
black knots were "misforn knotts" — 
which was to say that a boat con- 
taining this kind of knots was sure 
to be cast away. There were "windy 
knotts" — or knots with sprains out 
from them — which told that the boat 
with these knots would always fall in 




with gales and bad weather; and 
"good knotts" or "lucky knotts" 
which took the shape of ling, cod or 
tusk fish. Sixaerns with these lucky 
knots always had good fortune and 
sailed to the stations with big hauls 
of cod and ling. Then there were 
"blood knotts" or "njuggle knotts" — 
a portent of disaster; and the most 
dreaded knot of all — one shaped in 
the image of a cat! The cat was ab- 
solutely taboo, and any timbers con- 
taining her image were cast away 
and others substituted. 

Whoopee! The old iron barque, 
Coriolanus, one time queen of British 
jute clippers, now a sea-wracked 
relic of Scottish shipwrights' artistry, 
holds the speed record for sailing 
ships between England and Calcutta. 

Once when nearly 50 years old she 



went out from New Bedford to the 
Cape Verde Islands in llV-i days. 
More often she was a month or six I 
weeks on the passage. One night, ' 
during a wild westerly, Coriolanus 
kicked up her ancient heels, and i 
burst forth with an amazing turn of 
speed. Her Portuguese mate hove the 
log and got 16 knots. He gave vent to 
his feelings with the one word of 
English that he knew — "Whoopee!" 

The skipper was skeptical. As the 
barque raced on during the darkness 
and the gale, the mate again hove 
the log, and still found her making 
16 knots. "Whoopee!" 

On that voyage Coriolanus carried 
70 second-hand automobiles, stowed 
in the holds and secured on deck; 
these old cars would fetch a lot in 
trade at the Islands. Forward, lashed 
to the foremast was an old piano. An 
era of jazz and flivvers rode the gale 
on the wings of Coriolanus, and right 
into the habits of the Cape Verde 
Islanders. The owner sold the cargo 
at a profit of $8,000. Old Coriolanus, 
at the end of half a century, was still 
making whoopee. 

"For behoof' of ye Kirk's roof- 
boards". Some strange vows have 
been made by the masters of vessels 
over-taken by storm. A large timber- 
laden sailing vessel caught in the full 
fury of a gale off the exposed west 
side of Shetland was being rapidly 
carried to her doom when the cap- 
tain, espying land through the storm 
haze, made a solemn vow on his bend- 
ed knees that if his ship was brought 
to safety by God's providence, he 
would give as much wood as was nec- 
essary to the nearest house in need 
of a new roof. By some strange 
chance the vessel reached a voe in 
Shetland, and at the place a church 
was in course of erection, but the 
builders did not know where to get 
roof-timbers. The skipper, mindful 
of his vow "before God" gave the 
people a "very vast quantity of wood- 
timbers from off of ye shippe for 
behoof of ye Kirk's roof-boards." 

Tradition has it that one of the 
ill-fated Spanish Armada galleons 
was wrecked on the coast near Rea- 
wick, and that the ruins of the small 
"Chapel of the Virgin" on an isle 
known as Kirkholm are those of a 
chapel which the survivors built in 
thanksgiving to the Virgin Mary for 
their lives being spared before the 
wrath of the "barbarians of the 
North." 



54 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Book Reviews and Trade Literature 



FLAGS OF ALL NATIONS. Publish- 
ed by Brown, Son, & Ferguson, 
Ltd., Glasgow. Price, hanging edi- 
tion 10,6; postage (foreign) 2/-; 
cheap edition 1/6 (postage 2d ex- 
tra.) 

There have been so many changes 
in the world's flags within the last 
^hree or four years that a new pub- 
cation giving the alterations in 
heir original colors and in a form 
hat may place them at a glance is 
elcome.This new edition of Brown's 
lags of All Nations has been en- 
rely re-drawn so that the Flags are 
how dimensionally correct. A section 
includes the new International Code 
pf Signals, while another shows 76 
jflags flown by the leading Yacht 
plubs in Britain and abroad. 



j Fine Lumber from Forest to Car. 

i — Something new and unusual has 
jjust been released by Tennessee 
Eastman Corporation, Kingsport, 
[Tennessee, in the form of a large 
booklet showing pictorially the man- 
ufacture of fine quality Appalachian 
Hardwoods. Tennessee Eastman is 
jne of the outstanding producers of 
iuch lumber. 

Large pictures, with small explan- 
atory notes, are used to show the en- 
tire operation from the woods to the 
finished product. Tennessee East- 
hian's production of wood chemicals, 
kvhich permits the use of all low 
grade timber in their wood distilla- 
tion plant and the utilization of only 
the very finest timber for sawlogs, is 
Interestingly shown. 



I "Precautions and Safe Practices" 

k new revised edition by The Linde 
Air Products Company. Since the 
briginal publication of this booklet 
Several years ago, it has come to be 
laccepted as the standard reference 
|Work on this important phase of 
Safety in industry, as attested by the 
thousands of copies that have been 
Idistributed. While the subject of 
safety is well standardized, and 
Itherefore subject to but little change, 
the advances in the oxy-acetylene 
.process itself, and its widening use 
Wuring recent years, have shown 
'where additional emphasis in safety 
precautions is needed, and have nec- 
essitated some new suggestions. All 



of this has been incorporated in the 
new edition of this valuable booklet, 
to fill the demand for a more up-to- 
date handbook on this subject. Many 
provisions in the text have been re- 
grouped to form a more coordinated 
whole, and considerable amplifica- 
tion of ideas can be noted through- 
out. 

"Recommended Practices for Gas 
Cutting of Structural Steel," by The 
Linde Air Products Company. This 
is the first complete and authorita- 
tive treatment of this subject, and 
for the fii-st time sets up qualifica- 
tion tests for the predetermination 
of good workmanship from the 
standpoint of dimensional accuracy 
and smoothness of cuts. These tests, 
of course, apply only to hand blow- 
pipes, and are for the present re- 
stricted to the plain low carbon 
steels. 

Copies of both of these booklets 
will gladly be furnished upon re- 
quest. 



By-Products Steel Corporation, 

Coatesville, Pa., offers a new econ- 
omy for manufacturers and other 
buyers of steel plates in a folder, re- 
cently issued showing the many 
sheared, blanked, and pressed shapes 
which the firm is prepared to supply. 
Those wishing a copy of the folder 
may obtain it free from the company 
or from Pacific Marine Review. 



A 12-page booklet dealing with the 
subject of arc welders has recently 
been issued by the General Electric 
Company, Schenectady, New York. 
Entitled "General Electric Arc Weld- 
ers," the brochure is a helpful collec- 
tion of tables, illustrations, and des- 
criptive matter for those interested 
in this subject. A copy may be ob- 
tained free upon request from Paci- 
fic Marine Review or from the G. E. 
Company direct. 



"Welding Electrodes and Acces- 
sories" is the title of a 15-page cata- 
log recently put out by the General 
Electric Company, Schenectady, N.Y. 
The booklet is generously illustrated 
and contains tables and descriptive 
matter of value. Copies may be had 
free, on request to Pacific Marine 
Review or to the G. E. Company. 



The Lukens Steel Company, Coates- 
ville, Pa., are distributing to those 
interested a reprint from the 1934 
addenda to the Material Specifica- 
tions Section A.S.M.E. Boiler Con- 
struction Code. The reprint is entit- 
led "Specifications for Chrome-Man- 
ganese-Silicon Alloy Steel Boiler 
Plate." Copies of this 7-page book- 
let may be obtained free from the 
Lukens Company or from Pacific 
Marine Review. 



The Vulcan - Sinclair Hydraulic 
Coupling for Variable Speed Drive is 
presented in a folder recently 
brought out by the Hydraulic Coup- 
ling Corporation, Detroit, Michigan. 
Diagrams, charts, illustrations and 
descriptive matter make this an in- 
teresting folder for anyone concern- 
ed W'ith the hydraulic coupling. 
Copies may be obtained from the 
company direct, or from Pacific Ma- 
rine Review. 



Four folders recently put out by 

the Worthington Pump and Machin- 
ery Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y., com- 
prehensively covering the subject of 
centrifugal pumps, are entitled 
"Single-stage Volute, Type L, No. 8"; 
"Single-stage Volute, Type L, Nos. 3 
to 6"; "Single-stage Volute, Types 
LA and LC, Nos. 6 to 12"; and 
"Worthington MonoBloc Centrifugal 
Pumps, Two Stage, Types G, GA and 
GB." All four are well illustrated 
and contain tables and descriptive 
matter of interest to pump users. 
These folders may be obtained, upon 
request, from Pacific Marine Review 
or from the Worthington Corpora- 
tion. 



"Shield-Arc Welding Builds Better 
Ships" is the announcement of Lin- 
coln Electric Company in a folder 
lavishly illustrated to uphold the 
statement. These illustrations picture 
arc welding used in the construction 
or repair of tugs, tankers, freighters, 
motor cruisers, barges and dredges. 
A comprehensive caption with each 
cut tells the story. This folder may 
be obtained free, upon request to 
Pacific Marine Review, or to the Lin- 
coln Electric Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio. 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



55 




Marine Insurance 



.... Lessons from 

The Morro Castle Disaster 

£By R. J. Alexander 



The report of the Morro Castle 
disaster submitted by the Assistant 
Director Dickerson N. Hoover after 
the investigation made by the Bureau 
of Navigation and Steamboat Inspec- 
tion under his direction, contains 
some pertinent comments under the 
heading "Lessons Learned and Con- 
sequent Recommendations." Mr. 
Hoover and his associates in the Bu- 
reau have long recognized the ad- 
visability and necessity of many of 
the changes suggested and it is hoped 
that the focussing of public opinion 
on these matters by the Morro Castle 
tragedy may bring about the fulfill- 
ment of a strengthened inspection 
service and a closer control of per- 
sonnel and morale in American 
crews. A summary of the principal 
recommendations follow: 

(a) Granting of A.B. certificates 
for seamen to require at least three 
years service at sea, and the passing 
of a satisfactory physical examina- 
tion by the local inspectors; 

(b) Rules and regulations to pro- 
vide standard form of boat and fire 
drills; 

(c) Fireproof construction of pas- 
senger ships; 

(d) Adequate thermostatic fire 
alarms covering all public spaces 
aboard ship; 

(e) Licensing and disciplining of 
operators to be transferred to Bu- 
reau of Navigation and Steamboat 
Inspection; 

(f) Possible revision of limitation 
of liability and salvage status; 

(g) Organization of competent 
technical staff at Washington to 
pass upon construction and safety 
equipment; 

Chj Higher and more uniform 



56 



standard of examinations for offi- 
cers licenses with all examination 
questions prepared at Washington. 

• Ratify the Safety Convention 

In 1929, the representatives of 
seventeen maritime nations, includ- 
ing the United States, signed a con- 
vention outlining international rules 
for the Safety of Life at Sea. The 
governing bodies of 16 of these coun- 
tries have ratified this convention, 
and it is now in force — the Safety of 
Life at Sea Rules for the Civilized 
World. The Senate of the United 
States had the convention presented 
in the proper manner during the fall 
of 1929. And the Senate, for some 
reason best known to itself, and de- 
spite the pleas of shipowners, ship- 
builders, and ship operators at ev- 
ery session since that time, the Sen- 
ate has failed to act. 

There is every reason to believe 
that had the Senate in 1929 given 
prompt ratification to this conven- 
tion, so that it became the American 
law, the ship-minded citizens of the 
United States would not now be 
hanging their heads in shame over 
the terrible tragedy of the Morro 
Castle fire. 

This convention provides among 
other good rules that: 

(1) Special duties for the event of 
an emergency shall be allotted to 
each member of the crew, and that 
the men shall be trained in such 
duties; 

(2) All ships shall be sufficiently 
and efficiently manned; 

(3) All new ships shall be fire- 
proof and changes made in existing 
ships to make them as nearly fire- 
proof as is practicable and reason- 
able. 



Can anyone doubt that such regu- 
lations in force on the Morro Castle i 
would have prevented or promptly i 
extinguished the fire? 

If the highest court of the nation 
can for five years practically say 
"To Hell with rules for safety of life 
at sea," who can blame the stewards' 
personnel on a passenger liner for 
carelessness? 
• Firemen at Sea. 

The United Fruit Company has as- 
signed twelve retired New York City 
firemen to six of its cruise liners for 
the purpose of checking water pres- 
sure, hose, and fire extinguishing 
apparatus daily and so guarding 
against fire. These men will carry a 
rating of chief petty officer and wear 
special uniforms denoting their 
functions. They will report directly 
and exclusively to the captain. 

They have four hour shifts patrol- 
ling the ship from 4 p.m. to 8 a.m. 
both at sea and in port and have no 
other duty than to guard against ' 
fire. 



Radio Beacon 



Distance Finding 



Effective about February 1, 1935, 
the Lighthouse Service will change 
radio-beacon operating schedules for 
four lighthouses on the southern 
coast of California, and at the same 
time establish at these stations syn- 
chronized sound signals for distance 
finding. The stations involved are 
Los Angeles Harbor light. Point Ar- 
guello light, Anacapa Island light, 
and Point Sur light. 

Operating Schedules. — All trans- 
mission both for fog and clear 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Dependable 
Insurance 
Since 1863 



'y/re ■ Auiomobf/e • Marine • Casualty • 'J/de/iti/ • Surety 



HREMAN's Fund Groud 

I 'y/reman's'yund Insurance Compani/ — Occidental Insurance Compani/ I 
I Nome Zfire & Marine Insurance Company I 

JL Uireman's'yund Indemnity Company —Occidentai Indemnity Company I 



New^brk • Chicago • SAN FRANCISCO • Boston • Atlanta 



Strength 

Permanence 

Stability 



weather schedule will be changed to 
'l minute out of each 3. Los Angeles 
I Harbor, Point Arguello, Anacapa 
(Island, and Point Sur will follow 
leach other in order, the last two 
'operating together on the same 
I minute. All stations will transmit on 
I this schedule during the first 15 
minutes of each hour regardless of 
iweather conditions. 
I Distance Finding. — Whenever the 
sound signal is operating, a group 
of two radio dashes, a short and a 
I long, 1 second and 5 seconds respec- 
ftively, is transmitted at the end of 
ithe radiobeacon minute of operation. 
I A group of two sounijl signal blasts 
of corresponding length is sounded 
at the same time, taking the place 
of one or more of the characteristic 
I code blasts. [When within 'audible 
j range of the sound signal, and when 
; provided with a radio receiver 
'capable of receiving radiobeacon 
I frequencies (285 to 315 kc), navi- 
i gators may readily determine their 
idistance from the station, in nauti- 
ical miles, by observing the time in 
seconds which elapses between hear- 
ing any part of the distinctive group 
of radio dashes, say the end of the 
'long dash, and the corresponding 
part of the group of sound blasts, 
jsay the end of the long blast, and 
■dividing the result by 5 (or more 
exactly by 5.5). The error of such 
|results should not exceed 10 per 
I cent. 



New Incandescent Lamp 
for Marine Signal Lights 

Greater dependability and effec- 
tiveness of minor marine signal 
lights in our harbors and along our 
internal waterways has been achiev- 



ed with a new lamp that produces a 
more uniform beam flash, according 
to an announcement by the Westing- 
house Lamp Company , Bloomfield, 
New Jersey. 

For a number of years, engineers 
of the Lighthouse Bureau, Depart- 
ment of Commerce, with the cooper- 
ation of Westinghouse Lamp engin- 
eers, have been planning a simpler 
standardization for marine signal 
lamps, and this new lamp brings 
order out of chaos with a single de- 
sign for minor marine signal lights. 
The only variation is in amperage, 
which is necessary to meet the need 
for different intensities. 

Foremost among the improvements 
embodied in the design is a prefocus- 
ing collar which encircles the bayo- 
net base. Such a device was recently 
adopted to eliminate the trouble of 
focusing for automobile headlight 
lamps. 

Three slots in this prefocusing 
collar are so spaced that the lamp 
can be inserted in the signal in one 
position only. This position is pre- 
determined so that, as the lamps are 
changed by an automatic device 
which revolves them into position, 
the filaments always come to rest at 
the exact point which affords the 
most effective light beam. 

Another important feature is an 
improved filament construction 
which contributes to a more efficient 
utilization of the light. The vertical 
support for the filament in the old 
design has been replaced by a spiral 
of wire in the new lamp. Because it 
is spiral, the support wire cannot be 
silhouetted and cast a shadow on the 
lens by the light of the filament. 
Therefore, the light flash is the same 
intensity in every direction and wat- 
erway navigation at night is expect- 



ed to enjoy greater safety. 

A third improvement is a new fila- 
ment coil which approaches the ideal 
in efficiency in the lenses used and 
which is designed to withstand the 
abuse and strain of constant flash- 
ing. 

During their rated life of 500 
hours, many of these marine signal 
lamps will flash more than 7,000,000 
times. The strain of such operation 
must be taken into consideration in 
the design of the filament. The fila- 
ment coil, which would withstand 
this strain in the past, did not give 
the best light beam from a stand- 
point of uniformity. An ideal fila- 
ment, or a straight coil standing ver- 
tically in the signal, has been provid- 
ed in the new lamp. Tests have shown 
its ability to stand up under this se- 
vere type of service. 

In addition, the coil is precisely of 
the right length to utilize the full 
spread of the fresnel lenses in ma- 
rine signals. Instead of the bright- 
est light emanating almost in a plane 
through the middle of the lens, as 
was the tendency in the past, consid- 
erably more light is now visible be- 
low and above the horizontal. This 
promises to facilitate, especially dur- 
ing inclement weather, the observa- 
tion of signal lights by the pilots of 
small river craft as well as by the 
masters on the high bridges of large 
ships. 

Designed with an S-11 clear glass 
bulb, the new lamp has a filament 
center length of 1-1/8 inches, and a 
maximum overall length of 2-8/8 
inches. In standardizing upon this 
one group of lamps, the voltage oper- 
ation was restricted to 6 volts. Minor 
marine signals, however, require dif- 
ferent beam intensities, depending 
upon their location and function. To 
(Page 59, Please) 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



57 



Three views of new offices of Math> 
cws 8C Livingston, San Francisco. Left 
(o right: Office and desk of J. A. 
Mathews; Underwriters room; and 
desk and office of S. A. Livingston. 




New Home for Veteran Pacific 

Coast Marine Underwriting Firm 



Mathews and Livingston, marine 
underwriters of the Pacific Coast 
have recently moved their home of- 
fice into new and spacious quarters 
on the ground floor of 200 Bush 
Street, San Francisco, where they 
are adequately equipped to conserve 
the marine insurance interests of 
their large and growing clientele. 

This firm was organized in San 
Francisco during the year 1922. J. A. 
Mathews, the senior partner, was the 
Pacific Coast representative of the 
marine department of the Aetna In- 
surance Company of Hartford. When 
that corporation retired from the 
marine insurance business in 1922, 
Mathews, with S. A. Livingston, or- 
ganized a firm to do general marine 
underwriting representing the Queen 
Insurance Company of America. 

John Livingston, father of S. A. 
Living-ston, and one of the pioneer 
marine underwriters of San Francis- 
co, was the senior partner in Living- 
ston, Smith and Company, represent- 
ing the Maritime Insurance Com- 
pany of Liverpool. In 1923, John Liv- 
ingston retired, and this agency was 
transferred to Mathews and Living- 



ston. During the same year the new 
firm was appointed Pacific Coast 
Marine Representative of the Fidel- 
ity-Phoenix Fire Insurance Company 
of New York. 

In 1926, the firm entered the Pro- 
tection and Indemnity field taking 
over Pacific Coast representation in 
that field both for the Fidelity-Phoe- 
nix Fire Insurance Company of New 
York, and for the Aetna Insurance 
Company of Hartford. 

The Aetna Insurance Company re- 
entered the ocean marine insurance 
field in 1934, together with its sub- 
sidiary, the World Fire & Marine In- 
surance Company. J. A. Mathews had 
continuously acted as Pacific Coast 
Marine General Agent for these com- 
panies, and Mathews & Livingston 
now took over aggressive representa- 
tion. They immediately broadened 
the operations of the firm by estab- 
lishing an inland Marine department 
and a yacht department. 

Each of the departments of Math- 
ews and Livingston is under a qua- 
lified expert in that particular line. 
The office is under the management 
of A. J. Marshall. Underwriting is 



supervised by Chief Underwriter F. 
A. Jansen. The specialist on Hull 
underwriting is Kenneth Lawson. 
Yacht insurance is taken care of by 
Harold O. Martinsen. Inland Marine 
Insurance is in charge of Richard 
Law. The Loss Department is under 
the management of Al Seabury 
and has achieved an enviable repu- 
tation for prompt and fair settle- 
ments. 

In October, 1933, Mathews and 
Livingston opened an office in Se- 
attle under the management of W. J. 
Shackelford, with offices in the Col- 
man Building. A Los Angeles office 
was opened in May, 1934, at 111 West 
7th Street with Clyde R. Thornton 
as manager. The Hawaiian represen- 
tation is in the Home Insurance Com- 
pany of Hawaii at Honolulu, Ralph 
E. Clark, manager. 

Another agency was added to the 
line on January 1, 1935, when Math- 
ews and Livingston were appointed 
Pacific Coast representatives of the 
Commercial Hull Department of the 
Automobile Insurance Company of 
Hartford, Connecticut. 

Pacific Marine Review joins with 
the many friends of this popular 
firm in wishing for them a great ex- 
pansion of satisfactory business at 
their new quarters in 1935, and 
throughout the years to come. 



58 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




(Continued Irom Page 57) 

allow for this flexibility, the new 
lamp is available in seven amper- 
ages, namely, (.46), (.70). (.92), 
(1.40), (1.84). (2.80). (4.20). 
• Factor of Safety 

To provide a high factor of safety, 
the lighthouse bureau has standar- 
dized upon the use of automatic 
lamp changing devices carrying 
hree spare lamps. The burning 
schedules of the lamps is set so that 
in general one set of four lamps 
would burn for over 12 months. This 
long period of service is obtained by 
the use of sun-valves and flashing 
schedules. Every six months the 
lamps will be renewed which results 
in extremely high dependability. 

The arrangement of replacing bat- 
teries every six months has also been 
specified by the Lighthouse Bureau 
for the same purpose. The storage 
battery is so designed that it dissi- 
pates less than its full power in that 
time. Thus lamps and a charged bat- 
Itery may be installed on semi-annual 
servicing trips, to provide a wide 
factor of safety. 



Has No Country— 

Man Stays at Sea 

Joseph Gibson is a man without a 
country. 

For the last twelve years he has 
been serving on American ships as 
an American seaman. On a voyage of 



Geo. E. Billings 



PmdBc CoM« Gannl Agtota 

Standard Marine Insurance Co. 

National Union Fire Ins. Co. 

Mercantile Insurance Co. 

of America 

312 CAUFORNIA STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO . . CAUPORJNIA 

TtUpbone GArGcId 3646 

S««tb OfScm: Calau BU«. 

TtkplwM SEaeo 1478 



the Matson liner Monterey he was a 
member of the crew, and paid off 
with the rest at San Francisco. 

Before he had time to spend any of 
his hard-earned dollars, however, he 
was seized by immigration officials 
who said to him: "You can't stay in 
this country, buddy." 

He asked them, then, to send him 
to his almost-forgotten home coun- 
try, England, but the British auth- 
orities would have none of him. 

So he was placed aboard the Mon- 
terey again. On arrival in Sydney he 
was told that Australia could not 
have him. 

"So here I am," he said. "A man 
without a country." Gibson has been 
serving on American ships for so 
long that he has come to regard him- 
self as an American. 

He has no British papers — and 
that's where the trouble lies. 



FREIGHTS, CHARTERS, SALES 

January 17, 1935. 

We have the following fixtures to 
report : 

GRAIN: British Steamer Bradburn, 
Vancouver, B.C. to U.K./Cont., 18/6 
option Prince Rupert loading, 19/3, 
January; British Motorship Vancou- 
very City, British Columbia to U.K./- 
Cont., 18/6. January/February; Brit- 
ish Steamer Benledi, British Colum- 
bia to East coast of U.K., February, 
Anglo Canadian Shipping Co.; Brit- 
ish Steamer Brandon, British Colum- 
bia to Liverpool, January, Anglo Can- 
adian Shipping Co.; British Steamer 
Everleigh, British Columbia to U.K., 
February, Anglo Canadian Shipping 
Co.; British Steamer Canonesa, Brit- 
ish Columbia Puget Sound & Colum- 
bia River to United Kingdom, March, 
Blue Star Line. 

LUMBER: British Motorship Sheaf 
Holme, British Columbia to Sydney 
and Newcastle, lump sum $21,500, 
January/February, J. J. Moore & Co., 
Inc.; British Steamer Anglo Saxon, 
British Columbia to Australia, Feb- 
ruary; British Steamer Harpenden, 
Columbia River to Shanghai, Febru- 
ary, Dant & Russell ; British Steamer 
Harmanteh, British Columbia to 



Shanghai, lump sum £4700, Febru- 
ary, Anglo Canadian Shipping Co.; 
British Steamer Induna, British Co- 
lumbia to Shanghai, lump sum £4300, 
January March, Canadian Transport 
Co.; A Harrison Steamer, Coos Bay 
and Columbia River to Shanghai, 
lump sum $24,000, March, Dant & 
Russell; British Steamer Sinnington 
Court, British Columbia to 2 ports 
Japan, lump sum £4700, February- 
March ; Norwegian Motorship Da- 
grun British Columbia to Japan, 
January/February; British Steamers 
Harlingen and Harlesden, Coos Bay 
and Columbia River to China, lump 
sum i$24,000, March, Dant & Russell. 

TANKERS: American Tank Steam- 
er Gertrude Kellogg, California to 
Formosa (dirty) 40 cents, March; 
Dutch Tank Steamer Mijdrecht, Cali- 
fornia to U.K./Cont. (clean), 13/-, 
December/January ; British Tank Mo- 
torship Athelfoam, California to 
Japan (dirty) 10/-, February/March; 
Norwegian Tank Motorship Gylfe, 
California to Tocopilla (dirty) 36 
cents, January; Norwegian Tank 
Motorship Sir Osborn Holmden, Cal- 
ifornia to Japan, three voyages 
(dirty) 10/3, January/February; 
Norwegian Tank Motorship Glittre, 
California to U.K./Cont. (clean) 15/6, 
February. 

TIME CHARTER: British Steam- 
er Llanarth. deliveiy Japan, redeliv- 
ery Japan via North Pacific, by Yam- 
ashita Shipping Co., prompt; British 
Steamer Carlton, Vancouver, B.C. to 
Atlantic range. Continental Grain 
Co.; Norwegian Tank Motorship 
John Knudsen, 12 months, 4/9, option 
12 months additional 5/3, delivery 
California, redelivery Far East, Feb- 
ruary. 

MISCELLANEOUS: British 
Steamer Uffington Court, reported 
fixed charter; American Steamer 
American Eagle, Intercoastal trade, 
one trip, February, Pacific Continen- 
tal Grain Co.; British Motorship Elm- 
worth, Odessa to Tacoma, ore, 12/-, 
f.i.o., prompt. 

SALES: U. S. Steamer Savannah. 
U. S. Government to Northland 
Transportation Co., Seattle, Wash- 
ington; American Steamer Tilla- 
mook, Hammond S. S. Co. to Law- 
rence Phillips Steamship Co., terms 
private; American Bark Star of Eng- 
land, Rosenthal & Lerner to Island 
Tug & Barge Co., Victoria, B.C. 
$5,000. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 

Brokers. 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



59 



^nunnnnnnmunmunnunnnnunnunHnHnumnmunnmmmmnnnmnnnnmnnumuumu^ 

I MARINE INSURANCE DEPARTMENT \ 

I BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & Co., Limited | 

i I 

g AGENTS FOR | 

I American and Foreisn • Union of Canton • British and Foreign ^ 

% North China • Yang-Tsze • Pennsylvania ^ 

% % 

^ San Francisco Los Angeles Seattle Tacoma Portland Vancouver, B.C. ^ 

%mnunnuumuuHnmnHHnnmnnmnHnunumHnmmmmnimumuunnmunmnnmHnmuA 



Johnson & Higgini 67 Wall Street New York 



Johnson & Higgins 



OF CALIFORNIA 



311 CALIFORNIA STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Auerage Adjusters 

and 

Insurance Bro^rs 



«>*-? 



MARINE - FIRE 
AUTOMOBILE 



LIABILITY 
AVIATION 



SURETY 
LIFE 



SWITZERLAND 

General Insurance Co., Ltd. 

THAMES & MERSEY 

Marine Insurance Co., Ltd. 

LIVERPOOL & 
LONDON dC GLOBE 

Insurance Co., Ltd. 

(Marine Department) 

HARTFORD 

Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. 

(Marine Department) 

CANTON 

Insurance Office, Ltd. 



Louis Rosenthal Co., Ltd. 

General Agent 
302 California Street 



The Merchant Marine and the Navy 



Nelson Macy, president of the 
Navy League of the United States, 
delivers an address on "The Rela- 
tion of the Merchant Marine to Our 
Navy." 

Mr. Macy might well be selected 
as champion of the merchant marine 
cause. He is well versed in facts 
and figures, a convincing speaker, 
and describes in a graphic way the 
interdependence of naval and auxil- 



iary power. 

This interdependence, the Navy 
League president points out, has 
long been understood by foreign 
powers. 

For twelve years— 1922 to 1934— 
we laid down only 44 ships of all 
types, while Japan laid down 153 
ships; Great Britain, 151 ships 
which totalled greater tonnage. Italy, 
not bound by treaty, added 145 ships. 



295,494 tons; and France, also out- 
side the treaty, added 150 ships. 

"By adding modern ships as fast 
as we can build them — like the new 
aircraft carrier. Ranger — and de- 
stroyers like the Farragut — we will 
have a Navy second to none," de- 
clared the speaker. 

"Support the President and Con- 
gress in the long delayed building 
program! 

"Our Navy is for one purpose only 
— to protect America. Keep it fit to 
fight!" 



60 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




American Shipbuilding 



Shipbuilding — 

m the United States and Abroad During 1934 

"By H. Gerrish Smith* 



; United States remains at the bot- 
jtom of the list among the principal 
(maritime nations in the volume of 
jmerchant tonnage under construc- 
ition. 

! On January 1, 1934, there were 12,- 
373 gross tons of merchant vessels 
above 100 gross tons under construc- 
jtion in American shipyards which 
(was less than 1.6 per cent of world 
(merchant tonnage under construc- 
Ition at that time. 

On September 30, 1934, the total 
jtonnage of merchant vessels under 
(Construction in the United States 
Iwas 22,225 gross tons or only 1.7 per 
|cent of the world total under con- 
Istruction. During 1934, the shipyards 
iof the United States were engaged 
jalmost wholly in the construction of 
inaval vessels. 

{• Value of New Construction 

On January 1, 1934, the private 
shipyards of the United States were 
(building two cargo vessels, three 
jsmall tankers, and twenty-seven nav- 
ial vessels, representing an aggregate 
lvalue of unfinished business totaling 
^approximately $147,000,000. 
I In the current year contracts were 
^awarded for two 15,000 deadweight- 
;ton tankers, one small tanker and 
jeleven naval vessels, with an approx- 
iimate total value of $57,000,000. 
I The approximate value of work 
jperformed on new construction dur- 
'ing the year, totaled $85,000,000. The 
jgreater part of this amount was ex- 
jpended for the purchase of ship- 
Ibuilding materials and equipment 
jfrom allied industries. This amount 
jgave employment to about 45,000 
[persons throughout the year. The va- 

•l're..i,lrnt. Nai.onal Cuncl .American .ShiphuiUrrs. 



lue of unfinished business on hand 
at the end of 1934 was approximate- 
ly $119,000,000. 

There has been no construction of 
new merchant vessels on the Great 
Lakes during the year, and construc- 
tion on the Great Rivers has been be- 
low normal. 

• Employment in Shipbuilding 
and Shiprepairing 

The trends in employment on new 
construction and ship repair work 
during the year are shown by the 
table herewith : 



1934 with the calendar year of 1933 
discloses little difference. 

A survey of the shiprepair yards 
discloses a small decrease in man- 
hours worked on repairs in the entire 
United States during the six months 
period April 1, to September 30, 
1934, as compared with the six 
months period October 1, 1933 to 
March 31, 1934. 

• Signs of Improvement 

Certain factors upon which the 
building of merchant vessels depend 
have shown improvement in the past 



Jan. 1, 1934 
Apr. 1, 1934 
July 1, 1934 
Oct. 1, 1934 



Niunber 


Employed 






OJ Plants 


On New 


Employed On 




Reporting 


Construction 


Shiprepairing 


Total 


30 


9,472 


10,101 


19,573 


31 


11,569 


10,176 


21,745 


31 


11.195 


11,956 


23,151 


31 


12,252 


10,086 


22,338 



The figures are for member plants 
of the National Council of American 
Shipbuilders and cover the greater 
part of the Industry. 

• Shiprepairing 

During the calendar year of 1934 
there were months which showed im- 
provement in the shiprepair yards 
due to the absolute necessity of re- 
pairing many ocean-going vessels 
that had been delaying repairs that 
would have been made under better 
business conditions and to the fur- 
ther fact that a few idle vessels had 
been put into service. A comparison, 
however, of the amount of shipre- 
pairing performed on ocean-going 
merchant vessels in the United 
States during the calendar year of 



year as follows: 

(a) Both the import and export 
trade of the United States dur- 
ing the first nine months of 1934 
increased considerably over the 
corresponding period of 1933, 
the actual figures being $2,141,- 
663,000 for import and export 
trade combined in 1933 and $2,- 
782,362,000 in 1934 or an in- 
crease of thirty per cent. 

(b) During the first nine months of 
1934 the volume of intercoastal 
trade increased 18 per cent over 
that of the corresponding period 
in 1933 and 49 per cent over the 
same period in 1932. 

(c) Panama Canal Traffic in 1934 
has shown a marked improve- 

(Continucd on Page 64) 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



61 



Progress of Construction 

The following Report Covers the Shipbuilding Work in Progress at the Leading 
Shipyards of the United States as of January i, 7955 



Pacific Coast 



BETHLEHEM SHIPBl ILDIXG 

CORPORATIOX, LTD. 

(Union Plant) 

San Francisco 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: M.S. Asia, U.S.S. Mississijipi, S.S. 
El Segundo, .M.B. Rcdline, S.S. Admiral 
Peoples. S.S. President Harrison, S.S. 
Antigua, U.S.O.O. Barge 1922, U.S.A.T. 
Slocnm, Shell Oil Co. Barge No. 1, S.S. 
President Taft, S.S. Qulnault, S.S. Calis- 
toga, S.S. Santa Inez, S.S. President 
Lincoln, .S.S. Santa Elena, S.S. Ruth 
Alexander, S.S. Point Gorda, S.S. Tala- 
nianca, M.S. Pegasus, S.S. Mo.jave, S.S. 
Mauiiganiii, Dredge Major Tilden, Tug 
Governor Markhani, S.S. President Wil- 
son, S.S. Maunaloa, Tug P. A. Douty, 
S..S. Matsonia, S.S. Chirlciui, S.S. Presi- 
dent Hoover, U.S.A.L.H. Tender Lupine, 
S.S. Dungannon, Tug Governor Irwin, 
S.S. .-ilvarado, S..S. Alaniar, S.S. Santa 
Paula, S.S. President Johnson. 



GEXERAL EXGIXEERIXG .\XD 
DRYDOCK CO. 

Foot of Fifth Avenue 
Oakland, Calif. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull Xo. 29, 
Ferry Boat, building for the State of 
California; L.B.P. 56'0", beam 24'0", 
loaded draft 2'2"; keel laid late Novem- 
ber. 1934, No further dates set. 

Hull Xo. 30, Ferry Boat: same as 
Hull No. 29. 



HOXOLULU lUOX WORKS 
Honolulu, T. H. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: S.S. .'Vdmiral Schley, S.S. .'Vdniiral 
F'arraKUt, .S.S. Golden Bear, .S..S. Maki- 
kl, S.S. Selma City. 

LAKE ^^^ox drydock & machine 

WORKS 
Seattle, Wash. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
103, Ariadne, U.S. Coast Guard patrol 
boat; keel laid March 23, 1934, launch- 
ed July 1, 1934; delivered. 

Hull Xo.104, Cyane, U.S. Coast Guard 
patrol boat; keel laid June 12. 19 34; 
launched August 25, 1934; delivered. 



THE LOS ANGELES SHIPBUILDING 
& DRY DOCK CORP. 

Los .Angeles Harbor 
San Pedro, Calif. 
DRYDOCK, PAINT MISCELLANE- 
OUS: S.S. El Capitan, S.S. Warwick, 
S.S. Larry Doheny, S.S. Hamlin F. Mc- 
Cormlck, S.S. Tillamook, S.S. Yale. 



THE MOORE DRYDOCK CO. 
Oakland, Calif. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: Bridge Builders Bargo Xo. 2, 



Paul Shouj), Golden Horn, C. (i. Cutter 
Taniaroa, Barge 1923, Kern, Hawiian 
.Standard, Xebraskan, Fort Suffer, and 
Callstoga. 



PRINCE RUPERT DRYDOCK 
AXD SHIPYARD 

Prince Rupert, B.C. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: two fishing boats — docked, clean- 
ed, painted, miscellaneous hull and en- 
gine repairs; eight ship repair jobs not 
requiring docking; sixteen commercial 
jobs. 



THE PUGET SOUND NAVY YARD 

Bremerton, Washington 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: U.S.S. Wor- 
den (Destroyer No. 352), LBP, 334'; 
beam 34'2y2"; loaded draft, lO'lO"; 
geared turbine engines; Yarrow type 
water-tube boilers; keel laid Dec. 29, 
1932; launched October 27, 1934. 

U.S.S. Cushing (Destroyer No. 376); 
LBP, 334'; beam, 35'%"; loaded draft, 
lO'lO"; geared turbine engines; express 
type boilers; keel laid August 15, 1934. 

U.S.S. Perkins (Destroyer No. 377); 
LBP 334'; beam, 35'%"; loaded draft, 
lO'lO"; geared turbine engines; express 
type boilers; building under provisions 
of National Industrial Recovery Act; 
keel laid November 15, 1934. 

Two 1500-ton destroyers for U. S. 
Navy; contract received August 22, 
1934. 

Care and Preservation (out of Com- 
mission ) : Aroostook, Jason, Kearsarge, 
Patoka, Pawtucket, Prometheus, Pyro. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: X>w York, California, Richmond, 
Omaha, Astoi-ia, Saratoga, Lexington, 
Kanawha, Haida, Swallow, Mahopac, 
Tatnuck, Challenge, Wando. 



TODD DRYDOCKS, INC. 
Seattle, Wash. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: S.S. Lewis Luckenbach, S.S. Wal- 
ter A. Luckenbach, S..S. Jacob Lucken- 
bach, S.S. Conunander, S.S. President 
Madison. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 

Mare Island, Calif. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Smith, U.S. 
torpedo boat destroyer (DD378) ; stan- 
dard displacement, 1500 tons; keel laid 
October 27, 1934; estimated completion 
date, Feb., 1936. 

Preston, U. S. torpedo boat destroyer 
(DD-379); standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid, October 27, 1934; esti- 
mated completion date. May, 1936. 

DD.391, Destroyer for U.S. Navy; 
standard displacement 1500 tons; esti- 
mated delivery November, 1936. 

SS181, Pompano, Submarine, estimat- 
ed delivery. May, 1937. 



WESTERN BOAT BUILDIXG CO. 

Tacoma, Wash. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: .Sea Gull 
(purse seiner) — Reducing length from 
56' to 50' (between perpendiculars) 
thereby allowing owner fo fish for sal- 
mon in Alaska. 

Clipi)er (Halibut Schooner) — Com- 
plete remodelling from schooner type 
to purse seine type thereby allowing 
this boat to be used as a halibut boat, 
for sardine fishing and as a cannery ten- 
der. This boat is 82' long with a 180 
horsepower Washington engine and is 
the first remodelling job of this kind. 
It may result in other work of this type. 



WIXSLOW' MARINE RAILWAY AXD 
SHIPBUILDIXG COMPAXY 

Seattle, Wash. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Tug build- 
ing for Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co.; 
72' X 18'; 275 I.H.P. diesel engine; 
keel laid Dec. 14, 1934. 

Three barges for same owner — self- 
dumping rock barges; 101' x 34'; keels 
laid Dec. 12, 1934. 



Atlantic, Lakes, Rivers 

AMERICAN BRIDGE COMPANY 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: One derrick 
hull for Ohio River Company, 10' x 40' 
X 6'6". 



BATH IRON WORKS 

Bath, Maine 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. i 
159, Drayton (DD 366), torpedo boat; 
destroyer. U.S. Navy; keel laid, March' 
20, 1934; launching, no date set; esti- 
mated delivery November, 19 35. 

Hull No. 160, Lamson (DD 367), tor- 
pedo boat destroyer, for U.S. Navy; 
keel laid, March 20, 1934; launching, 
no dates set; estimated delivery, Janu- 
ary, 1936. 



BETHLEHEM SHIPBUILDING 
CORPORATION 
Fore River Plant, 
Quincy, Mass. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Heavy Cruis- 
er CA-39, Quincy, 10,000 tons. Keel 
laid Nov. 15, 1933; Estimated delivery 
January, 1936. 

Heavy Cruiser CA44, Vincennes, 10,- 
000 tons. Estimated delivery January, 
1937. Keel laid January 2, 1934. 

Four Torpedo Boat Destroyers; DD- 
360, Phelps, keel laid January 2, 19 34; 
estimated delivery, December, 1935. 

DD361, Clark, keel laid January 2, 
19 34; estimated delivery February, 
1936. 

DD362, Moffett, keel laid, January 2, 
1934; estimated delivery April 1936. ! 



62 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



DD363, Balch, keel laid, April, 1934; 
estimated delivery, June, 1936. 

DD-380, 1500 Ton Destroyer. Esti- 
mated delivery, January 19 37. 

DD-382, 1500 Ton Destroyer. Esti- 
mated delivery, April 19 37. 



CHARLESTON DRYDOCK CO. 

Charleston, S.C. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: One 5,000- 
barrel all-welded steel tanker for 
Messrs. Thurber & Powers of Boston. 

COLLIXtaVOOD SHIPYARDS, IXC. 

Colllns^vood, Ont. 
PAINT, DRYDOCK, MISCELLANE- 
3US: Dredge R..M.C. Xo. 10, S.S. Jolni 
Kricsson, -S.S. .Manitou. S.S. D. B. Han- 
la, S..S. <;eo. R. Donovan, SI. S. Xorniac, 
i.S. Imperoyal. 



THE DRAVO CONTRACTING CO. 

Engineering Works Dept., 
Pittsburgh, Pa., and Wilmington, Del. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull Xo. 
)97, one diesel sternwheel towboat of 
)1 gross tons. 

Hull No. 1202; Lighthouse Tender 
Fasmine, for U. S. Lighthouse Service; 
187 gross tons. 

Hull No. 1203, Steam Sternwheel 
?00 H.P. towboat for Pittsburgh Coal 
Company. 

Hulls Xos. 1204 and 1305, Steel Ser- 
,ice Itoat.s, 42'xl6'.\3'6", for U.S. Engin- 
?ers' Office, Huntington, W. Va., 40 
ons. 

This makes a total of 5 hulls under 
contract, with a total gross tonnage of 
18. 



ELECTRIC BOAT CO. 

Groton, Conn, 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 19, 
leet submarine. Shark, (SS174) : L.B.P. 
'98'; beam,, 25'; standard displace- 
nent, 1315 tons; keel laid, October 24, 
933; estimated launching, April, 1935. 
Hull No. 20, Tarpon (SS175) : L.B.P. 
i98'; beam, 25'; standard displacement, 
315 tons; keel laid, Dec. 22, 1933; 
•stimated launching, February, 1935; 
■lossible delivery, November, 1935. 

Hull No. 23, Perch, S.S. 176, building 
,or U.S. Navy; estimated keel laying, 
(-Vbruary 25, 1935; estimated launch- 
ing. June 23, 1936. 

I Hull No. 24, Pickerel, S.S. 17 7, es- 
Mmated keel laying, March 25, 1935; 
'Stimated launching, September 23 
1936. 

i Hull No. 25, Pinna, S.S. 178, esti- 
mated keel la>-ing, June 6, 1935; esti- 
mated launching, December 22, 1936. 



THE FEDERAL SHIPBUILDING 
AND DRYDOCK COMPANY 

j Kearny, N. J. 

1 NEW CONSTRUCTION: Two destroy- 
rs, DD.<i68 Plusser and DD369 Reid for 
'he U. S. Navy, estimated completion 
lates — Flusser, Nov., 1935; Reid, 
february, 1936. 



PHE 



MARIETTA MANUFACTXmiNG 
COMPANY 
Point Pleasant, W. Va. 
Three 165' Patrol Boats fQr U.S. 



Coast Guard, Washington, D. C, Nike, 
Nemesis, and Triton, 2 5' 3" beam, 13' 
2" depth; will draw approximately 7'; 
twin-screw type, propelled by two 650 
horsepower Winton Diesel engines. To- 
tal displacement of each vessel approxi- 
mately 300 tons; required speed 16 
knots — now under construction; Nike 
launched June 23, 1934; Nemesis 
launched, July 7, 1934; Triton launch- 
August 8, 1934; estimated delivery 
dates, Oct. 9, 1934; Oct. 29, 1934; and 
Nov. 18, 1934 respectively. 

Two Side Wheel Self-Propelled 34" 
Pipe Line Dredges of the Dustpan Type. 
Total contract price $1,016,500.00. De- 
livery in 180 and 210 days — Length, 
molded, 270'0"; length overall, 277' 
1%"; breadth, molded, 50'0"; breadth 
overall, 84'8%"; depth, molded, 8'6"; 
depth midships, 9'3", first keel laid 
May 2, 1934; second keel laid June 28, 
1934; launched Sept. 1, 1934 and Oct. 
6, 1934, respectively. 

One twin screw diesel driven tow- 
boat for U. S. Engineer's office, Vicks- 
burg. Miss.; length molded 17 6'; 
breadth, 38'; depth 8'6"; two 650 H.P. 
diesel engines; two 75 and one 15 K.W. 
diesel driven generating sets; contract 
price $314,750.00, delivery at Vicks- 
burg. Miss., in si.\ months, keel laid 
Oct. 10, 1934. 

Ten 175'x26'xll' Steel Coal Barges of 
1000 tons capacity each for West Ken- 
tucky Coal Co., of Paducah, Ky. Deliv- 
ery, May 1935. 



SHDLAND BARGE COMPANY 

(Subsidiary of Treadwell Construction 

Company. ) 

Midland and Erie, Pa., 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Four barges, 

100'x26'x6'6" for stock. 



NASHVILLE BRIDGE CO., 
Nashville, Term. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hulls Xos. 
297, 298, 299, three barges for stock; 
100'x26'x6'6"; launched October 2, 12 
and 3 3 respectively. 

Hull No. 301 and Hull No. 302; 2 
barges for stock, 100'x26'x6yo'; esti- 
mated launching January 5. and 10, 
1935, respectively. 



NEWPORT NEWS SHIPBUILDING & 

DRYDOCK CO. 

90 Broad Street, New York 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: H 359 air- 
craft carrier CV5, Yorktown, for U. S. 
Navy; keel laid May 21, 19 34; estimat- 
ed delivery, October 3, 1936. 

H360 aircraft carrier, CV6, Enter- 
prise, for U.S. Navy.; keel laid July 16, 
1934; estimated delivery February 3, 
1937. 

H361, light cruiser for U.S. Navy; 
completion time 34 months after date 
of formal award. Date of contract Aug 
22, 1934. 



THE NEW YORK SHIPBUILDING 
CO.MPANY 

Camden, N. J. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Contract for 



four destroyers: Hull No. 408, Porter 
(DD356); Hull No. 409, Self ridge (DD- 
357) ; Hull No. 410, McDougal (DD- 
358); Hull No. 411, Winslow (DD- 

359); of 1850 tons each; keels laid. 
Dec. 1933. 

Two light cruisers; Hull No. 412, 
Savannah (CL42), Hull No. 413, Nash- 
vill (CL43), of 10,000 tons each for the 
U. S. Navy Department; estimated de- 
livery dates are as follows: DD356, 
Porter, Dec, 1935; DD357, Self ridge, 
Feb., 1936; DD358, McDougal, Apr., 
1936; DD359, Winslow, June, 1936; 
CL42, Savannah, Aug., 19 36; CL43. 
Nashville, Dec. 1936. 

Oil tanker. No. 414, and oU tanker 
No. 415, for Standard-Vacuum Trans- 
portation Company, 15,000 tons D.W. 
each; keels laid March 26, 1934; deliv- 
ery early 19 35. 

(C.L. 46) One light cruiser, Hull No. 
416, for U.S. Navy; weight 10,000 tons; 
estimated delivery, August 1937. 



THE PUSEY & JONES CORP. 

Wilmington, Del. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION; Nos. 56, Al- 
gonquin; 57, Comanche; and 58, Mo- 
hawk; cruising cutters, building for 
Treasury Department, U. S. Coast Guard 
Service; L.B.P., 150'; beams, 36'; load- 
ed draft 13'; speed loaded, 15 miles per 
hour; turbine engines, 1500 S.H.P. ; two 
watertube boilers, 325 pounds pressure, 
construction schedule; No. 56, keel laid, 
January 16, 1934; launched July 25, 
1934; delivered, October 20, 1934; No. 
57, keel laid January 17, 1934; launch- 
ed September 6, 1934; deUvered De- 
cember 1, 19.34; Xo. 58, keel laid, Feb. 
ruary 1, 1934; launched October 23, 
1934; delivered December 31, 1934. 



SPEDDEN SHIPBUILDING CO. 

Baltimore, Md. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: HuU No. 274 
(Diesel), Electric, wrought iron hull. 
Boarding Cutter, for the U. S. Public 
Health Service, Staten Island, N. Y. ; 
keel laid March 15, 1934; launched, 
August 8, 1934; delivered Nov. 23, 
1934; L.B.P. 100'8"; beam, 23'; loaded 
draft, 10' speed loaded. 12 knots; two 
360 B.H.P. Fairbanks Morse engines. 



UNITED DRYDOCKS, Inc. 
Staten Island, N,Y. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: DD364, de- 
stroyer Mahan, estimated delivery, Oct. 
1935; L.B.P. 334'0"; beam 35'0"; mean 
draft, lO'lO"; keel laid June 12, 1934; 
estimated delivery Oct. 30, 1935. 

DD365, destroyer Cxminiings, esti- 
mated delivery. Dec, 1935, for U. S. 
Navy; L.B.P. 334'0"; beam 35'0"; mean 
draft lO'lO"; keel laid June 26, 1934; 
estimated delivery, Dec. 30, 1935. 

DD 384, Destroyer for U.S. Navy; es- 
timated delivery. June 9, 1936. 

DD ;i85, Destroyer for U.S. Navy; es- 
timated delivery, August 9, 1936. 



UNITED STATES N.WY Y.ARD 

Boston, Mass. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Destroyer 
DD,370, Case, L.B.P. 334'; beam 35'; 
keel laid, Sept. 19, 1934; estimated de- 
livery, July 1936. 



PEBRUARY, 1935 



63 



Destroyer DD371, Conyngham, L.B.P. 

334'; beam 35'; keel laid Sept. 19, 
19 34; estimated delivery. Oct. 19 36. 

Destroyer DD3o4, Monaghan, L.B.P. 
334'; beam 34'2"; keel laid November 
21, 1933; estimated delivery, May, 
1935. 

Destroyer DD351, Macdonough, keel 
laid May 15, 1933, L.B. P. 334'; beam 
34'2"; launched Aug. 22, 1934; esti- 
mated delivery. April, 1935; for the 
U.S. Navy. 

DD389 and DD390, two light destroy- 
ers; estimated delivery: 389, Nov. 1, 
1936; 390, Feb. 1, 1937. 



UNITED STATES NA\Tf YARD 

Charleston, S.C. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: XJ.S.S. 
Charleston, gunboat (PG51) for U. S. 
Navy, building period assigned by Navy 
Department, Nov. 1, 1933, to Feb. 1, 
1936. Keel laid October 27, 1934. 

Coast Guard Harbor Cutter 64; work 
started Feb. 1, 1934; keel laid June 8, 
1934; launched Sept. 28, 1934; to be 
delivered January 15. 

One Coast Guard Cutter (2000 tons). 
No dates set. 



rXITED STATES Ji.WY YARD 

New York. N. Y. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: DD350. Hull, 
destroyer; L.B.P. 334'; beam, 34'2"; 
standard displacement, 1500 tons; 
geared turbine engines; express type 
boilers; keel laid March, 1933; launch- 
ed Aug. 11, 19 34; estimated delivery 
July, 1935. 

DD 353, Dale, destroyer, dimensions 
same as above; keel laid, February 10, 
1934; estimated delivery, Feb. 1, 1935. 

CL 40, Brooklyn, light cruiser. L.B. 
P. 600'; beam 61'8"; standard displace- 
ment, 10,000; geared turbine engines; 
express type boilers; estimated keel 
laying, March 1, 1935; estimated deliv- 
ery, March 24, 1936. 

PG. 50, Erie, gunboat; L.B.P., 308'; 
beam, 41"; standard displacement, 
2000 tons; geared turbine engines; ex- 
press type boilers. Building for U.S. 
Navy, keel laid Dec. 17, 19 34; estimat- 
ed delivery, March 1, 19 36. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

CL41, Philadelphia, L.B.P. 600,0"; 
beam 61',7%"; molded depth at side to 
main deck amidships 4 2'0%"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement 
21',8V4"; standard displacement 10,- 
000 tons; date of completion as report- 
ed by building yard, January, 1937. 

DD355, .Aylwln, L.B.P., 334'0" beam 
34', 2 '/4"; depth molded at side to main 
deck amidships, 19', 7-7/8"; draft corre- 
sponding to normal displacement 10', 
2-13/16"; standard displacement 1500 
tons; keel laid September 23, 1933; 
launched July 10, 1934; estimated de- 
livery April 15, 19 35. 

DD372, Ca.ssin.L.n.P., 334', 0"; beam, 
35', 0-1/8"; depth molded at side to 
main deck amidships 19', 7-7/8"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement, 
10', 10"; standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid, October 1, 1934; esti- 
mated completion date, March 15, 1936. 



DD373. Shaw, L.B.P. 334', 0"; beam, 
35', 0-1/8"; depth molded at side to 
main deck amidships, 19'7-7/8"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement, 
10', 10"; standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid October 1, 19 34; esti- 
mated completion, June 15, 1936. 

Four coast guard cutters, L.B.P., 
308', 0"; beam 41'. 0"; depth molded at 
side to main deck amidships, 23', 6"; 
draft corersponding to normal displace- 
ment, 12'6"; standard displacement, 
2000 tons; keels to be laid May 15, 
1935; no further dates set. 

CA45. Heavy Cruiser, L.B.P., 600', 0"; 
beam, 61',9%"; depth molded at side to 
main deck amidships, 42', 0-3/8"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement, 
21', 10"; standard displacement, 10,- 
000 tons; no dates set. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 
Portsmouth, Va. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Torpedo 
Boat Destroyer Tucker (DD.374) for 
U.S. Navy, 341 ft. long; beam 35'; 
loaded draft, lO'lO"; treaty stand- 
ard displacement, 1500 tons; No. 4 
boilers; 35 knots speed; estimated de- 
livery, February, 1936. 

Torpedo Boat Destroyer Dowues 
(DD375) for U.S. Navy, 344 ft. long; 
beam 35'; loaded draft, lO'lO"; treaty 
standard displacement, 1500 tons; No. 
4 boilers; 35 knots speed; estimated 
delivery. May, 1936. Laying down lines 
under way in mold loft. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 

Portsmouth. N. H. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: SS 173, 
Porpoise; keel laid, October 27, 1933; 

estimated delivery, Feb. 19 36. SS 173, 
Pike, keel laid, Dec. 20, 1933 estimated 
delivery. May, 1936. SS 179 Plunger. 
estimated delivery, Feb., 1937; SS 180 
Pollack, estimated delivery, May, 1937; 
L.B.P. 289'0"; beam 24'-ll-l/16"; load- 
ed draft 13'-9"; diesel electric engines. 
Coast Guard Harbor Cutter 62. Hud- 
son; estimated delivery, Nov. 1934; 
L.B.P. 104'0"; beam 24'-0"; loaded 
draft 10'-6"; diesel electric engines 
delivered Nov. 8, 1934. 



WINSLOW HAS TWO 
NEW CONTRACTS 

The Winslow Marine Railway and 
Shipbuilding Company of Winslow, 
Washington, has under construction 
a towboat for the Alaska-Juneau 
Gold Mining Company, Juneau, Al- 
aska. The craft will be 72 x 18 x 9 
feet and will be equipped with a 275- 
horsepower diesel engine. The cost 
will be approximately $60,000.00, and 
delivery is planned for April, 1935. 

Also building at the Winslow yard 
are three barges for the same owner, i 
These will be self-dumping, wooden 
barges, 100 x 34 x 9.2 feet. Delivery 
at the same time as the towboat. 



Shipbuilding in 1934 

(Continued from Page 60) 

ment over that in 1933. The per- 
centage of American vessels re- 
mains about the same for each 
year, 
(d) Idle tonnage throughout the 
world declined from 8,891,000 
gross tons on January 1, 1934 to 
(),035,000 gross tons on October 
1, 1934. 

• Replacement 

As is well known most of our for- 



eign-trade merchant fleet was con- 
structed during the World War per- 
iod and these vessels now average 
more than fifteen years old. 

If the United States is to continue 
its present position in the carriage of 
its own foreign trade in its own 
ships a replacement program must 
be begun without delay. Based on 
the present tonnage of American ves- 
sels in foreign trade it will require 
an annual construction program of 
at least 150,000 gross tons of sea- 
going merchant vessels each year to 
carry one-third of our trade in our 
own ships. 



Comparative Summary Statement of Shipbuilding in Private Shipyards of the 

United States During 1933 and 1934 

(Steel Vessels Each of 1000 Gross Tons or Over) 



Under Construction on January 1st Number Tons* 

Privately Owned 5 13,265 

Government Owned 27 134,300 6 

X'essels Contracted for During the Year 

Privately Owned 3 19,211 5 

Government Owned 11 33,600 22 

V'essels Launched During the Year 

Privately Owned 6 14,476 

Governnipnt Owned 2 3,000 3 

Vessels Delivered During the Year 

Privately Owned 6 14,476 4 

Government Owned 5 27,900 1 

Vessels Under Construction December 31st 

Privately Owned 2 18,000 5 

Government Owned 33 140,000 27 

(*) TONS — Gross Tons For Privately Owned Vessels 

Displacement Tons For Government Owned Vessels 



1933 
Number Tons* 

4 53,652 

6 37,900 



13,265 
106,400 



24,900 



53,652 
10,000 



13.265 
134,300 



64 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Bradford Type 
Metallic Packing 
for Kingsbury 
Thrust Bearings 



The United States Metallic Pack- 
ng Company of Philadelphia has de- 
veloped its Bradford type rotary 
phaft packing in a special form suit- 
ible for marine Kingsbury Thrust 
Bearings in sizes from 1 inch shaft 
liameter up to the largest afloat. 
Dur illustration shows an installa- 
ion on the United Fruit Company's 
ntercoastal cargo and passenger lin- 
r, Antigua. 

The design of this packing is such 
hat no wear is taken on the shaft 
tself. The soft packing gasket makes 
in absolute seal on the shaft and re- 
'olves with it. The main parts of this 
)acking assembly are a clamp, a fol- 
ower, a vibrating cup and a back 
)late. The clamp, follower and vi- 
)rating cup revolve with the shaft, 
ind the back plate is stationary. In 
he larger sizes and in the installa- 
ion on the Antigua these parts are 
ill made up in split form so that they 
■an be installed without pulling the 
(haft. 

The back plate is bolted securely 
o the face of the stuffing box with 
f soft packing seal. The vibrating 
tup is next clamped around the shaft 
vith a slight clearance between its 
ore and the shaft diameter so that 
t is free. Adjoining faces of back 
date and cup form a ground joint 
I'hich is the only wearing surface in 



United Fruit Company liner 
Antigua and two closeups 
of the installation of metal- 
lic packing on her thru.st 
block. 



the assembly. Packing is then placed 
in the cup and follower clamped 
around the shaft. In the follower are 
a suitable number of drilled and 
reamed holes. Through these holes 
special cap screws are inserted and 
screwed into the cup face. A should- 
er on the cap screw engages the face 
of the follower. Other holes in the 
follower carry springs. The clamp is 
now placed around the shaft and set 
up axially until there is sufficient 
compression on these springs to hold 
the cup in close bearing contact with 
the back plate. The clamp is then se- 
curely tightened on the shaft. All 
adjusting cap screws project through 
holes in the clamp — these holes be- 
ing a working fit on the enlarged 
portion of the cap screw head. The 
screws are set up on the follower 
until a good oil seal is obtained with 
the shaft packing and the installa- 
tion is ready to run. 

The large surface of the ground 




joint and its perfect lubrication 
through special oil grooves make a 
perfect seal against oil leakage and 
insure very low friction loss. This 
packing has been used in numerous 
installations afloat and ashore on 
rotating speeds up to 1750 revolu- 
tions per minute, and at all practical 
pressures and vacua. 

It has the following practical oper- 
ating advantages: 

(1) It is not necessary to pull 
shaft to install or renew; 

(2) It eliminates wear, scoring, or 
grooving on the shaft; 

(3) It is not necessary to machine 
shaft; 

(4) It is self adjusting; and 

(5) It forms a perfect seal against 
leakage. 

The U. S. Metallic Packing Com- 
pany's products are distributed in 
the San Francisco district by C. V. 
Lane, marine sales representative. 



EBRUARY, 1935 




• New Leaders 

The successful administration of President Harry T. Haviside 
marking another milestone in the progressive history of the 
Propeller Club was honored at the annual meeting of members. 
Mr. Haviside turns the helm over to Charles H. Robertson, 
unanimously elected for 1935 leadership. The new Board of 
Governors have chosen Captain F. M. Edwards as Chairman. 




Capt. Francis M. Edwards, newly 

chosen chairman. Board of 

Governors. 



Charles H. Robertson takes the 
helm as President. 



Oflftcial News of the 




HEADQUARTERS 

320 Market Street, Room 249 
San Francisco 

President 
Charles H. Robertson 

Secretary-Treasurer 
Stanley E. Allfn 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 
Francis M. Edwards. Chairman 
Philip Coxon 
James A. Cronin 
L. M. Edelman 
Joseph J. Geary 
John T. Greany 
E. H. Harms 
H. T. Haviside 
C. M. Le Count 
W. Edgar Martin 
Fletcher Monson 



Annual Meeting: Held January 8, 
1935, in Red Room, Fairmont Hotel, 
San Francisco; various business 
matters were taken in hand includ- 
ing certain revisions to by-laws, af- 
ter which the annual election of of- 
ficers was held, the following offic- 
ers being elected: 

President, Charles H. Robertson. 
Governors: Philip Coxon, Capt. L. M. 
Edelman, E. H. Harms and H. T. 
Haviside. 

The retiring President, H. T. Havi- 
side, reported to the members a 
statement of assets and thanked the 



PROPELLER CLUB o/ California 



various committees and retiring gov- 
ernors for their wholehearted coop- 
eration, the retiring governors being 
Ralph W. Myers, Bernard Mills, Robt. 
E. Christy, and Wm. C. Empey. All 
hands stood in silence in respect to 
members who passed away during 
1934, those members being: 

Mr. James M. Botts, Mr. John 
H. Hind, Capt. Andrew Martin, 
Mr. J. J. Moriarty, Capt. Edward 
Mason, Mr. Edward Tucker. 
Mr. Haviside then turned the meet- 
ing over to the President elect, Mr. 
Robertson, who thanked the members 




Stanley E, Allen carries on the good 
work as Secretary-Treasurer. 

for theii: confidence in making his 
election unanimous; he talked of the 
aims and policies of the Club and ad- 
vised all hands that with everyone's 
cooperation and support there would 
be a continuation of the fine pro- 
gress that the club has been making. 
Mr. Robertson then turned the 
meeting over to the Entertainment 
Committee who had provided some 



fine entertainment. When the show 
was completed the Entertainment 
Committee turned the meeting back 
to the Chairman and there being no 
further business the group adjourn- 
ed until January 22, 1935. 

— PC — 

January 22, 1935, a very fine mov- 
ing picture was shown through the 
courtesy of the Tubbs Cordage Co., 
depicting the culture and manufac- 
ture of manila rope. One of the mem- 
bers, Mr. Herman Nichols, Vice- 
President of the Tubbs Cordage Co., 
gave a very interesting talk in con- 
junction with the picture. 

— PC — 

At the meeting of the Board of 
Governors held January 10, 1935, at 
the St. Francis Yacht Club, San Fran- 
cisco, Capt. F. M. Edwards was 
unanimously elected Chairman of the 
Board. 

Mr. E. H. Walter, popular naval; 
officer and ship broker, was appoint- 
ed to complete the term of Mr. C. H. 
Robertson, the vacancy being due to 
Mr. Robertson's election to the Presi- 
dency. 

— PC — 
Capt. Edwards has appointed thf 

following Entertainment and Lunch- 
eon Committee to serve for the yeai 
1935: 

Bern De Rochie, Chairman, Did 
Glissman, W. Edgar Martin, R. H 
Haviside, E. H. Walter, Georg< 
Swett, Stanley E. Allen. '• 

This Committee went right to worl 
and at a meeting held January 21 
organized and started making plan;' 
for another successful year. ' 



10 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEV 



Pacific Marine Personals 



NAMES ARE NEWS" 



BY BERNARD De ROCHIE 



Edward T. Ford, vice-president of 
. R. Grace & Co., and president of 
e Grace Line and Fred L. Doelker, 
icific Coast manager of the Grace 
ne were hosts one evening in Jan- 
iry to the officials and employees 
both concerns aboard the liner 
lanta Rosa." More than three hun- 
ted of the pier and uptown office 
Irsonnel attended. Entertainment 
IS provided by radio stars and per- 
rmers at downtown theatres, fol- 
wed by dancing in the night club of 
e ship. Everyone agreed — "one 
and party!" 



The second annual dinner of the 
In Francisco employees of the 
hierican-Hawaiian S. S. Company 
Us held during Januai-y at the Com- 
brcial Club. John E. Gushing was 
ikipper" for the 1935 "cruise," with 
I F. Howland, and J. E. Calway 
astmasters. Guests of honor were 
rmer president Gary W. Cook, 
■esident Roger D. Lapham, Sir 
larles Kingsford-Smith, and E. L. 
cCormick of Williams, Dimond & 



A. L. Becker, noted consulting en- 
heer, left his San Francisco head- 
larters on January 26 for a 3- 
jnth stay in Los Angeles where he 
II supervise the reconditioning of 
k? Texas tanker Australia. 

[This vessel is under-going an elab- 
ate job of reconstruction at the 
ird of the Los Angeles Shipbuilding 
id Drydock Company. 



iVisiting at the home office of the 
>llar Line during January wa.s Rob- 
i W. Bruce, general agent for the 
Impany in Chicago, accompanied by 
h wife and 12-year old daughter, 
le family came around through the 
nal from New York on the Presi- 
nt Johnson, left the ship at Los 
igeles and came to San Francisco 
train. 



At the annual meeting of the San 
Francisco Waterfront Employer's 
Union recently Thomas G. Plant was 
unanimously re-elected to the posi- 
tion of president. J. A. Lunny was 
elected vice-president; Charles King, 
second vice-president; and A. Boyd, 
secretary-ti'easurer. 

The following directors were chos- 
en: Thomas G. Plant, American-Ha- 
waiian S. S. Co.; W. P. Bannister, 
Pacific S. S. Lines; Hugh Gallagher, 
Matson Navigation Co.; J. G. Ludlow, 
California Stevedore and Ballast Co.; 
Joseph A. Lunny, McCormick Steam- 
ship Co.; W. E. Jones, Associated 
Terminals Co.; C. King, Dollar 
Steamship Line; F. L. Doelker, Grace 
Line; R. G. Sullivan, Seaboard Steve- 
doring Co.; M. J. Wright, Lucken- 
bach S. S. Co.; J. J. Walsh, Furness 
Pacific Ltd.; E. Wright, Kerr S. S. 
Co. 




Capt. Charles A. Berndston. 

"Skippering" the Matson Liner 
Lurline when she sails to Hawaii and 
back this summer will be Captain 
Charles A. Berndston, U.S.N.R. com- 
mander. Among his crew Captain 
Berndston will have G. R. Muni'o, 
chief officer; H. T. Abbott, U. S. N. 
R., chief engineer; J. H. Pringle, as- 
sistant chief engineer; D. C. Walker, 
purser; R. S. Myers, assistant purs- 
er; E. Gibson, cabin class purser; 
Dr. E. H. Cornell, surgeon; A. Gerz, 



chief steward; C. Martin, cabin class 
steward; H. Schurz, executive chef. 



Changes in Luckenbach personnel 
which became effective in January 
included the appointment of A. L. 
Either, formerly assistant general 
western freight agent at Chicago, to 
the position of general western 
freight agent to replace J. O. Rob- 
erts, deceased; while J. R. Weiler, 
formerly in charge at the Cleveland 
office was transferred to Chicago as 
assistant general western freight 
agent. Arthur Wallack was shifted 
from his former location as travel- 
ling representative at Buffalo to take 
charge of the Cleveland office. 



P. P. Mesquita, who several weeks 
ago was appointed to the position of 
secretary-treasurer of the General 
Engineering & Drydock Company of 
Oakland, has been allied with trans- 
portation, either directly or indirect- 
ly since 1919 when he joined the 
Moore Drydock Company at Oakland 
as manager of the accounts-payable 
department. Later he engaged in the 
importing and exporting business 
with M. A. Katz & Co. where he was 
accountant and office manager, as 
well as manager and attorney in fact 
on the many occasions when his em- 
ployer was in the Orient. His ad- 
vancement since first joining the 
General Engineering and Drydock 
Company has been rapid. 



J. B. Walbridge, engineer in the 
marine department of the Westing- 
house South Philadelphia works, vis- 
ited the Pacific Coast during Decem- 
ber, coming through the canal with 
the naval force. Mr. Walbridge was 
the guest of the San Francisco West* 
inghouse marine expert, W. Edgar 
Martin, at the banquet of the Pro- 
peller Club of California, and was 
introduced to many Pacific Coast 
merchant marine leaders who were 
attending this annual get-together. 



EBRUARY, 1935 



11 



Dan E. Gould, assistant general 
passenger agent. American Mail 
Line, at Portland has been named 
first junior citizen of Portland for 
1934. This award is made annually 
through the Portland Junior Cham- 
ber of Commerce to the man under 
35 years of age whose civic accom- 
plishments during the year are con- 
sidered most outstanding in the 
city. Gould is past president of Port- 
land Breakfast Club and is member 
of a long list of associations, lodges, 
and clubs. 



H. F. Clifford, Pacific Coast audi- 
tor for Luckenbach Steamship Co., 
Inc., was a visitor in Portland during 
the month of January. 

Arthur W. Kinney, president of 
Kinney Shipping Company of Port- 
land, was elected president of Port- 
land Steamship Operator's Associa- 
tion at the annual meeting of that 
organization in January. Other offi- 
cers elected include John C. Settle, 
district manager of General Steam- 
ship Corp., as vice-president; and 
George Eggers, operating manager 
of States Steamship Co., as secre- 
tary-treasurer. 



H. E. Bennet was elected president 
of the Board of Marine Underwriters 
of Seattle in the Chamber of Com- 
merce at their annual meeting in 
January. Mr. Bennet, who is manag- 
er of the marine department of See- 
ley & Co., succeeds V. A. Norman, 
Jr., of the Insurance Company of 
North America. 



J. R. West, formerly general man- 
ager and chief engineer of the Port 
Commission of Seattle has joined the 
Waterfront Employers of Seattle 
where he will be associated with 
Frank P. Foisie, manager of the la- 
bor relations department. Mr. West 
will be actively engaged in the solu- 
tion of marine terminal problems. 



Colonel W. C. Bickford, well known 
consulting engineer of Seattle, will 
replace J. R. West as general man- 
ager and chief engineer of the Port 
Commission of Seattle. 



R. J. Ringwood, freight traffic 
manager of the Panama Pacific Line 
at San Francisco is in the East 
where he will visit Chicago and New 
York City. 




T. H. Bossert. 

J. F. Metten, President, announces 
another promotion from within the 
ranks of the New York Shipbuilding 
Corporation. 

T. H. Bossert is appointed Naval 
Architect in charge of Construction 
Drawing Office, and will be directly 
responsible for progress on working 
plans. 

E. H. Rigg will remain Naval 
Architect in charge of Design, as- 
sisted by Mr. J. W. Thompson, both 
continuing a long period of service 
in such capacities. 

Mr. Bossert's experience includes 
accomplishments at Cramps and, dur- 
ing the War, he was busily applied 
upon the Hog Island class ships. He 
has made engineering contributions 
to merchant shipping such as the 
Grace, and Shawnut Lines, and to 
diesel freighters for the American 
Hawaiian Company. 

In 1929, Mr. Bossert was appoint- 
ed Assistant Naval Architect at the 
New York Shipbuilding Corporation 
from which he is now promoted to 
Naval Architect. He is a member of 
the American Society of Naval Arch- 
itects. 



Dearborn Clark, Pacific Coast 
traffic manager for American-Ha- 
waiian Steamship Company, was in 
Portland during the month confer- 
ring with Fred N. Mills, district man- 
ager there. 

Colonel T. B. Esty, Pacific Coast 
representative of Inland Waterways 
Corporation retired in January due 
to ill health. With the Colonel's res- 



ignation the position is automatical- 
ly abolished and D. E. Fee, general 
agent at Los Angeles has been trans- 
ferred to San Francisco as general 

agent. 



Guy E. Buck, Grace Line District 
Manager, recently appointed Joseph 
Sweeney foreign freight agent of the 
company in southern California. Mr. 
Sweeney succeeds Daniel Wilson, 
transferred to the New York office.s. 
Sweeney was formerly purser of the 
Santa Ana and Santa Monica; hav- 
ing formerly held the same position 
with the Panama Mail Line on the 
El Salvador, San Juan, and Colom- 
bia. He was a member of the foreign, 
freight department of San Francisco 
until recently. 



Announcement was made recently 
by J. F. Craig, president of the Long' 
Beach Board of Harbor Commission- 
ers of the appointment of Walter J. 
Willis as port manager and chief en- 
gineer. Mr. Willis succeeds James F. 
Collins, port manager, and Major 
Roy S. Malone, chief engineer, re-| 
signed. 



William Chantland, Los Angeles 
manager of Schafer Brothers Steam-! 
ship Line, announces that Val Lar-i 
sen, formerly with McCormick Steam- 1 
ship Company has been appointed 
district freight agent for his com- 
pany at Los Angeles. 

I 



McCormick Steamship Companj 
personnel changes of the month: K 
C. Conyers, formerly freight agen 
in Portland, takes Mr. Conyer's placi 
in Seattle and E. J. Barringtoo 
formerly freight agent at Spokane 
assumes Mr. Nordgren's position a 
general freight agent in Portland. 



Elbridge Thorp, one of the old Pa 
cific Mail group, and N.Y.K. Lin 
agent for a number of years, passei 
away at his home recently followini 
a heart attack. Mr. Thorp was witl 
the Pacific Mail in Yokohama fo 
over a decade. On his return t 
America, he joined the old T.K.K 
Line and remained with it until th 
N.Y.K. Line absorbed the T.K.K. sei 
vices in 1926. Since that time he wa 
with the N.Y.K. Line. 



12 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEV 




New Tanker Joins Texaco Fleet 



One of the newest and finest of 
he Texas Company's international 
eet, the tanker "Europe" made her 
laiden appearance on the Pacific 
oast this month under the command 
f Captain K. Hallen. 

' The "Europe" was built in Odense, 
Jenmark and is owned by The Texas 
jompany of Norway. She was launch- 
fi in September of last year, and will 
^ put into active trans-Pacific ser- 
ice between here and the Far East 
id Australia. 

With the addition of the "Europe," 



Some of the West's best-known oil men 
greeted the new Texaco tanker Europe when 
she recently visited Los Angeles on her maid- 
en trip to the Pacific Coast. Included in the 
boarding party above (left to right) were the 
following officials of The Texas Company of 
California: D. J. Shrimpton, C. E. Emmons, 
A. S. Patrick, H. F. Faerber, Ben Halloran, 
C. C. Stanley, James Wood, C. W. Chandler, 
A. S. Schreck, Bruce Martin, R. T. Hcmdon, 
L. R. Holmes. 



the Texaco fleet is now composed of 
more than 37 ocean-going tankers, of 
which the oil company owns 28 and 
charters the remainder. This fleet 



represents nearly 350,000 deadweight 
tons, or more than twice the entire 
American tanker tonnage in 1913. 

The "Europe" is 465 feet long, of 
12,750 deadweight tons, with a 
moulded beam of 62 feet and a 
moulded depth of 34 feet 3 inches. 
Her 3,150-horsepower diesel engine 
will provide a speed of 12 knots. 
Loaded she draws 26 feet, 11 '/a 
inches of water. 

She has a capacity of 115,000 bar- 
rels of oil in bulk, carrying in addi- 
tion 21,000 cubic feet of dry cargo. 




The tanker Europe makes 

maiden appearance 

on Coast. 



EBRUARY, 1935 



12a 



• Another Convert 

A. Conhagan, district manager in 
New York for the U. S. Metallic 
Packing Company is spending two 
weeks on the Coast supervising the 
installation of metallic packing on 
the thrust blocks of the Antigua, 
Talamanca, and Chiriqui. 

Mr. Conhagan tells us that his 
firm has contracted to pack the en- 
tire fleet of United Fruit Company, 
including the liners on the East 
Coast. 

C. V. Lane, who handles the local 
marine sales agency for these Phila- 
delphia manufacturers, arranged for 
some typical "June in January" 
weather to cheer Mr. Conhagan on 
his big job. Our New York friend, 
meanwhile, is receiving letters from 
the family in New Jersey, recounting 
blizzards and subzero spells, and 
opines it will be tough to leave the 
balmv shores of the Pacific. 



Thanks to J. E. McConkey, district 
manager of Sperry in San Francisco, 
for this item. 

On January third, the Marine De- 
partment of the Sperry Gyroscope 
Company, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., re- 
ceived notice of award for salinity 
indicator equipment for eight de- 
stroyers and two cruisers which are 
part of the Navy's 1934 building pro- 
gram. 

There is a fairly large number of 
ships now in commission with this 
company's salinity indicators and 
the general results being obtained 
are excellent. This is reported to be 
the first salinity indicator system 
that the service has had that has 
been entirely satisfactory. A num- 
ber of instances have been reported 
where condenser leaks have been dis- 
covered with the aid of the system 
where considerable damage would 
have probably resulted had it not 
been in use. The system's simplicity 
and reliability are making friends 
wherever it is in service. 



Annual Life-Boat Races 
Organized 

John D. Reilly, President of the 
Todd Shipyards Corporation, was 
again elected President of the Inter- 
national Lifeboat Racing Associa- 
tion, Inc., at the annual meeting held 
at the Maritime Exchange. 

The Ninth Annual Race will be 
held next Labor Day over a course to 



be determined later. Discussion cen- 
tered on the type of lifeboat eligible 
to compete in this year's race and it 
was the unanimous opinion that com- 
peting boats should be of a standard 
type. The International Rules and 
Regulations Committee was instruct- 
ed to give this earnest consideration 
and make its recommendations next 
week. Capt. George Fried, U. S. Sup- 
ervising Inspector of the Bureau of 
Navigation and Steamboat Inspec- 
tion, was elected Vice-Chairman of 
this Committee. 

Other officers and directors elect- 
ed were : 
Vice-Presidents 

Joseph J. Kelleher, United Fruit Co. 
Fred B. Dalzell, Dalzell Towing Co. 
Henry Herberman, Export Steamship 

Corp. 
Treasurer 
Robert F. Hand, Standard Shipping 

Co. 
Secretary 

Capt. John F. Milliken, United Li- 
censed Officer's Association. 
Asst Treasurer & Asst. Secretary 
M. D. Stauffer, Standard Shipping 

Co. 
Directors 
Hon. Edward P. Mulrooney, State 

Alcoholic Beverage Board. 
Robert L. Hague, Standard Shipping 

Co. 
John M. Franklin, International 

Mercantile Marine. 
Ira A. Campbell, Admiralty Lawyer. 
Oakley Wood, Barber Steamship Co. 
Ernest M. Bull, Bull Steamship Co. 
Franklin D. Mooney, AGWI Lines. 
R. J. Baker, American S. S. Owners 

Association. 
Joseph W. Powell, United Dry Docks. 
Capt. John McGrath, John W. Mc- 

Grath Corp. 
A. Palanca, Italian Line. 
E. F. Johnson, Admiralty Lawyer. 
Capt. William Drechsel, Hamburg 

American-North German Lloyd. 
E. P. Rees, Furness, Withy & Co., 

Ltd. 



• Charles L. Wheeler Made 
Executive Vice-President 

Mr. George A. Pope, President of 
Chas. R. McCormick Lumber Co., and 
the McCormick Steamship Company, 
announced recently the reorganiza- 
tion of the Executive Staff. Mr. Pope 
stated a more closely coordinated re- 
lationship between the parent com- 
pany and its subsidiaries was desir- 
ed, and that the adjustments affect- 



ed were made immediately necessary 
to insure the proper operation of 
their manufacturing units under the 
quotas allotted by the National Lum- 
ber Code Authority. 

To accomplish the coordination 
desired the position of Executive 
Vice President has been created in 
the parent company and its subsidi- 
aries. Mr. Charles L. Wheeler will 
fill this position. 

The announcement includes the 
following changes in personnel: the 
retirement of Charles E. Helms and 
Guy E. Smith from the Chas. R. Mc- 
Cormick Lumber Co., and its subsidi- 
aries — the appointment of Vice Pres- 
ident F. C. Talbot as assistant to the 
President in the Chas. R. McCormick 
Lumber Co., and the McCormick 
Steamship Company — the appoint- 
ment of George A. Pope, Jr., as Pres- 
ident of the Pacific-Argentine-Brazil 
Line, Inc. 

The companies involved include: 
Chas. R. McCormick Lumber Co. of 
Delaware; Chas. R. McCormick Lum- 
ber Co. of Los Angeles; McCormick 
Steamship Company; Pacific Argen- 
tine Brazil Line, Inc.; Wallingford 
Steamship Company; Silverado 
Steamship Company. 



• Our Cover 

Our good friend, Hal Wiltermood, 
of the Port of Oakland, is to be cred- 
ited — and most enthusiastically — for 
the attractive art-photograph used 
as the front cover of this edition of 
Pacific Marine Review. 

Mr. Wiltei-mood's hobby is photo- 
graphing striking and unusual ef- 
fects . . . and our readers will agree 
that he captured a truly artistic 
theme in this subject of a McCormick 
freighter alongside a Port of Oak- 
land pier. The shading, composition 
and contrasts are admirable. 



Sam Clein, who has been associat 
ed with the Pacific Steamship Lines 
in Seattle since 1913, and more re- 
cently identified with the Alaskt 
service of that company, is occupy 
ing the position of Chief Clerk, traf 
fie department of the Alaska Stea 
ship Company. 







</i.rr^ 



12b 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEV 



' 



PACIFIC 

mflRinG 
Review 



^ARCH 
935 




TOWBOATS 
"Mamo" 
"Mikiiaiki" 
"Mahoe" 
"Mikioi" 
"Makaala" 



LAUNCHES 

"Waterwitch" 

"Pilot" 

•P. D. Q." 

"Momi" 



TUG 

"Helen" 

FREIGHT BOAT 

"Moi" 

FIRE BOAT 

"Leiciona" 



PASSENGER FERRY' BOAT Mikiala 



OUR SERVICES 

TOWING - - FIRE BOAT - - BARGES 

TERRITORIAL PILOTS 

FREIGHTING AND DREDGE TENDERS 



tW Organ 

FIC AMERICAN 
^ASHIP ASSOCIATION 



YOUHG BROTHERS, Ltd, 

W. F. Dillingham, Pres. - • J. A. Young. Gen. Mgr. 4; First \'ice-Pres. 

HONOLULU, T. H. 
Cable Address, "Waterwitch." 



3WNERS ASSOCIATION 
FHE PACIFIC COAST 



Tabb^ R^ope at 9ea 



ANCHORS 
A' WE 





When your ship leaves her snug harbor berth 
and points her bow to the open sea, opera- 
tors, captain and crew know that much dc 
pends upon the safety and dependability of 
the equipment aboard. That is why you will 
fmd Tubbs SUPERCORE Marine Rope the 
choice of so many lines. SUPERCORE has 
been proved in service under the most exact' 
ing conditions of the sea. It is a true Marine 
rope — one that is water repellent, rot resist' 
ant, easy to handle. Built into every strand 
of SUPERCORE is the safety, the long life 
dependability, that makes it the most econ- 
omical rope to use, measured in terms of 



« «■««•« 



*^vV» 



2.\ 



Tubb^ €Ior€las|e C^ompaii 

200 BUSH STREET • SAN FRANCISCO , 

Mills in San Francisco nl 



PACIFIC 

mflRine 
Review 



MARCH, 1935 

VOL. XXXII NO. 3 



CONTENTS 



Editorial Comment: 

This Fog Must Be Cleared 6T 

Rationalization of International Merchant Shipping 66 

Certain possibilities of international agreement with regard to the scrapping 
of old or obsolete tonnage, the utilization of existing tonnage and the laying 
down of old ships. 
By A. J. Dickie. 

Constructive Ideas for Increasing Employment 71 

Some notes by a prominent San Francisco business executive on possibilities 
of shipbuilding on the Pacific Coast. 

Possibilities of Lighter than Air Ships 72 

An analysis of the piacticability of dirigibles for trans-Pacific aerial navigation. 
By S. H. Phillips. 

Shoddy Competition in International Trade 75 

Seagoing Banks on Australian Lines 75 

The Gyro-Compass in Polar Latitudes 76 

New Motorship Jutlandia 77 

Marine Use of Corrosion Resisting Steels 78 

A summary of their use in the U. S. Navy and some conclusions. 
By Ernest E. Thum. 

Pacific Navigation School 80 

A San Francisco institution where young officers of the Pacific Coast mar- 
chant marine may perfect themselves for advancement. 

General Characteristics of the French Super Liner Normandie 81 

A statement of the principal facts to date concerning the hull and machinery 

of the world's largest ship. 
Practicable Port Development 83 

A discussion of some of the problems surrounding new port projects and 

their economic practicability on the Pacific Coast. 

By A. H. Abel. 

Beachcomber's Loot 86 

Here's to Lloyds' Register of Shipping 88 

Marine Insurance: 

Fireman's Fund Reports Progress 89 

Marine Insurance Notes 90 

Freights, Charters, Sales 91 

American Shipbuilding 92 

Progress of Construction 93 

Miscellaneous: 

Trade Notes and Literature, 96; Personals. Adv. 9: Propeller Club. Adv. 10. 



Entered as second class matter June 10, 1913, at the post office. San Francisco, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Published on the 25th of each 
month preceding the publication date. Advertising and editorial forms close on the 15th. Subscription price, a year: Domestic, $1.50; foreign, 

$3; single copies, 25c. Chas. F. A. Mann, Northwest Representative, 1110 Puget Sound Bank Bldg., Tacoma, Washington. 
In New York City copies of Pacific Marine Review can be purchased at the news stands of I. Goldberg, 42 Broadway; Jacob Fuchs, 17 Battery 
Place; Philip Mandara, Greenwich Street and Battery Place at 25c per copy. 

James S. Mines Bernard N. De Rochic Alexander J. Dickie M. J. Suitor 

Publisher Advertising-Business Manaa»' Editor Asst. Editor 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



March, 1935 




I j^irr 






^ra. re 



,.^5-. r^ 










* 


1. 


_\ 


I 




Ki 


u 


m^ 


'^ 



MUSKEGON 




TURECAMO GIRLS 




PRESCOTONT 



Vessel owners and operators, in selecting suitable engines for work- 
boat service, always face one dominant question — that of operating 
cost. Low operating cost involves so many factors that it cannot be 
ignored. That is one reason why Winton consistently, year after year, 
powers of the majority of large American-built Diesel workboats 

WINTON ENGINE CORPORATION, CLEVELAND, OHIO, U. S. A. 



I 



I 



WINTON » POWERED 



I 



Pacific Marine Review 



VOLUME XXXII 



MARCH, 1935 



NUMBER 3 



Editorial Q)mment » » » 




This Fog 

Must be Cleared 

An American merchant vessel in good seaworthy 
condition is lying oft the Pacific Coast, hove to in a 
heaN-y fog. The sea is fairly high, but not danger- 
ous. There is no gale, only a fresh trade wind, but 
the ship is surrounded by a heax-y fog. Her master 
has had no sights at the sun or landfalls for some 
weeks, and is now completely ignorant of his true 
position. Soundings taken every few seconds show 
amazing differences in depth, none of which indicate 
danger of stranding, and none any certainty as to a 
fix on the chart. Attempts to get a radio compass fix 
result in the same uncertainty. The captain there- 
fore heaves to and lies waiting with steam up and 
ready to get away from any threatened collision — 
with anchors ready at a moment's notice to keep off 
a lee shore. Such a situation for a modem American 
vessel equipped with all the latest aids to safe navi- 
gation would be considered impossible. If, by some 
strange combination of sabotagic, meteorologic, and 
psychologic conditions a single American vessel 
should suddenly find herself in such a state, then the 
headlines would scream, and the radios buzz, and all 
over this great land there would be excitement and 
discussion until she was rescued. Her officers and 
crew would be popular heroes over night, and might 
even retire on the revenues from advertising endorse- 
ments, movie appearances, etc. 

Yet for nearly a year, the American Merchant 
Marine, considered as a unit, has been in just about 
the condition described. 

It is navigating over seas heavily obscured by fog. 
Its fathometer soundings indicate no bottom, or one 
that shifts with amazing rapidity. Its requests for 



U.S. radio bearings, so that it can get a true position, 
bring answers evasive and so unsatisfactory that the 
only safe course is to heave to and mark time. 

American shipping is doing just that. British and 
"other foreign" shipping are forging ahead. Is it not 
high time that the present administration at Wash- 
ington gave its unqualified endorsement to some for- 
ward-looking policy that would clear away this fog 
of uncertainty and doubt that is besetting the pro- 
gress of America's Merchant Marine? 

This pohcy should include: 

(a) A definite program of fair and gradually re- 
ducing tolls at the Panama Canal: 

(b) Direct government aid for a sensible scrap- 
ping and building program based on the needs of es- 
sential trade routes and the needs of the na\y and 
army: 

(c) Direct government aid for American ship op- 
eration on essential international trade routes; 

(d) Proper codification of American maritime 
law, with cancellation of the archaic laws, rules, and 
regulations which, as a heritage from the sailing ship 
era, are simply obstructions to progress in modem 
transportation; 

(e) Estabhshment at Washington, of a single mer- 
chant marine authority charged with the execution 
and supen.-ision of the pohcy and regulation of the 
American merchant marine. 

In brief outhne, as we see it, this type of pohcy 
would clear away the fog that is keeping the Ameri- 
can merchant marine from needed replacement pro- 
grams. If this fog were cleared away, Washington 
would find the decks cleared ready for action. The 
plans for new ships would come off the drawing 
boards and into the mold lofts. The shipyards would 
begin to echo to the clatter of rivet hammers, the 
sputter of arc welding, and the hiss of the cutting 
torch. 

Let's get busy and clear the atmosphere. 



MARCH. 1935 



65 



Rationalization of 

International Merchant Shipping 

Certain Possibilities of International Agreement with Regard to the Scrapping of Old or 
Obsolete Tonnage, the Utilization of Existing Tonnage and the Laying Down of New Ships 

"By A. J. Dickie 



In our February issue we called at- 
tention to the wonderful opportunity 
offered by the present proposals of 
the Federal administration to substi- 
tute made-work for relief doles. This 
proposal, combined with the evident 
need of the United States merchant 
marine for replacements and the ur- 
gent requirements of the United 
States navy for fast modern auxili- 
aries, suggests that in the building 
and selling of this greatly needed 
tonnage the Federal administration 
would create employment for thous- 
ands, and would at the same time 
create a very useful and much need- 
ed product. We suggested also in 
that article, the wisdom of scrapping 
much of the present slow and obso- 
lete American tonnage and the re- 
allocation of more suitable routes of 



much of the usable present tonnage. 
In other words, we were proposing a 
method whereby the United States 
might effect a rationalization of her 
merchant marine and at the same 
time produce a payroll considerably 
in excess of 100 per cent of the Fed- 
eral funds invested. 

For some years back, the entire 
business world has been increasing- 
ly interested in rationalization of in- 
ternational commerce. Various in- 
dustries and a number of govern- 
ments have been studying and exper- 
imenting with methods calculated to 
adjust prices, stabilize currencies, 
rehabilitate the economic system, 
bring order out of chaotic competi- 
tion in industry, and prevent over 
production in agriculture. 

Some of these schemes have been 



initiated and carried out from the in- 
side of certain industries. Still a 
third class have been worked coop- 
eratively with the participation and ■ 
support of the government. A few . 
examples of such rationalization are 
the international agreements in sev- 
eral metal industries, and in analine 
dyes, wheat, rubber, and tea. 

The World Monetary and Economic 
Conference on the 27th of July, 1933, : 
recognized this trend and laid down i 
eight general conditions to which ! 
such international rationalization : 
agreements should conform. These ■ 
conditions are reproduced herewith 
in one of the boxed inserts. 

The preparatory commission to 
this world conference had laid down 
this dictum: "In case of shipping. 





Kig 


Fuel 








Country 


steam 


Motor 


Oil 


Coal 


Total ■ 




Reciprocating 
engines' 


Turbine engines ^ 


Auxiliaries 


Motorships 3 


Auxiliaries 


T 


America (United 
States) 


S'umber 

2.265 

14S 

265 

459 

1,238 

1,406 
535 
749 

1,376 
747 

1,455 
64 
377 
632 
907 

2,054 


Gross lOTts 

8, 273, 706 

331.826 

444,539 

595, 828 

2, 448, 678 

2,433,210 
1,492,140 
1, 728, 367 
3, 093, 333 
1,378,817 

2.145,451 
,19,446 
643,477 

867, 795 
1,008,229 
3,1. -^9, 233 


Number 
528 

7 

is' 

72 

59 
2 
48 
44 
59 

9 
2 
4 
11 
12 
15 


Oross Ions 

3,314,128 

16, 303 

""49,173' 
561,497 

573,817 
9,578 
523.961 
254,056 
452, 470 

33,869 
5, 157 
9,319 
71,826 
33,631 
59, 952 


Number 


Oross tons 


Number 
297 
35 
19 
124 
110 

246 
3 
142 
301 
461 

375 
33 

100 
79 

150 

199 


Oro.ij tons 
707,085 
63,937 
46,237 
438, 518 
240, 382 

617,088 
537 
596, 576 
630,572 
761,790 

1,789,446 
11,326 
284,161 
214,737 
526,808 
416,069 


Number 
19 
2 
9 
87 
38 

316 
10 
89 
170 
140 

49 
10 
7 
53 
180 
111 


Gross tons 
7,977 
1,166 
3.738 
16, 597 
8,684 

54,382 
5,005 
25,682 
27,003 
19,300 

8,569 
3,094 
1,858 
8,798 
28,746 
34,919 


Number 
1,881 
47 
28 
233 
322 

644 
13 
363 
572 
773 

629 
43 
121 
159 
345 
.582 


Gross ^OTIS 

8, 729, 298 

112,846 

49, 975 

513,630 

1,268,680 

1,416,603 

5,542 

1,513,427 

1,316,076 

1, 645, 295 

2, .501. 559 

14,420 
322.632 
348,388 
613, 709 
1, 132,059 


Number 

1,228 

145 

266 

453 

1,137 

1,388 
637 
668 

1,377 
634 

1,275 
66 
368 
623 
964 

1,801 


Gross tons 

3, 673, 598 

30O, 386 

444,639 

587. 148 

1,990,914 

2, 263, 750 
1,501,718 
1,361,756 
2, 756, 632 
967, 082 

1,478,642 
W,603 
616, 776 
816, 101 
983, 005 

2, 639, 136 


Number 

3,109 

192 

293 

686 

1,459 

2,032 
550 
1,031 
1,949 
1,407 

1.904 

109 

489 

782 

1,309 

2,3,'« 


Gross toni 
12,302,896 








413.232 




i" 

1 

5 


662' 

353 

1,856 


494. 514 




1,100,778 




3,259.594 




3,680,353 




1,607,260 


Italy 


3 

58 


697 
17,743 


2, 875. 183 




4.072.707 




2,612,377 




16 


2,766 


3,980,101 




79,023 


Russia (Soviet Union) . 


1 
7 


493 
1,333 


939,308 
1,164,489 




1,597,314 


Other countries 


4 


1,022 


3, 671, 195 




6,151 

655 

458 
687 


12,051,422 

1.079,489 

514,556 
950, 474 


324 

16 

6 
4 


2,861,443 

114,781 

28,623 
50,992 






561 

104 

49 
100 


2.703,569 

114,581 

70,998 
30,098 


71 

22 

30 
40 


13, 114 

6,957 

5,698 
8,924 


1.446 

224 

79 
302 


7,953,621 

416,624 

76, 596 
511,458 


5,661 

673 

464 
631 


9, 676, 027 

899,184 

643, 179 
530, 879 


7,107 

797 

543 
833 


17,629.548 


British Dominions: 






1,316,808 


Australia and New 






619, 775 




2 


1,849 


1,042,337 






Toul British 


7, 951 


14,595,941 


350 


3, 055, 839 


2 


1,849 


814 


2,919,246 


163 


34, 693 


2,051 


8,9.58,199 


7,229 


11,649,209 


9,280 


20, 607, 468 


World total 


22,6«8 


44,700,016 


1,237 


9, 024, 476 


98 


28,774 


3,488 


10,314,515 


1,453 


290,011 


8,806 


30, 41)2, 237 


20,158 


33,895,565 


28,964 


54.357.7M 



1 Includes 263 vessels ot 1,868.071 gross tons, fitted with a combination of reciprocating and turbine engines. 
' Includes 42 vessels of 444,648 gross tons, fitted with a turbo-elcclric drive. 
' Includes 53 vessels ol 118,853 gross tons, fitted with a Diesel-electric drive. 

World's steam and motor vessels of 100 gross tons and up classified as to nationality, motive power, and fuel according to 

Lloyd's Register of Shipping. 



« 



66 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



cjrtain possibilities might be coiisid- 

d with regard to the scrapping of 

ch tonnage, the utilization of exist- 

f tonnage and the laying down of 

w ships." 

This view was confirmed in almost 

jntical terms by the Vienna Con- 
jess of the International Chamber 

Commerce in June, 1933. 

International Shipping 
Conference 

Representatives of shipowners as- 
ciations in the principal maritime 
untries have recently met in Lon- 
< n and have drafted a rationaliza- 
fj)n scheme for world shipping. This 
ijheme is now being studied by the 
i^tional associations, and if approv- 
<(, will be adopted at a full meeting 
it the International Shipping Con- 
jjrence to be held at an early date, 
iln general, the scheme follows the 
pes of the International Tanker 
bol, and other international plans 
pr coordinating industry. It pro- 
ves to form an International Ship- 
ng Corporation to administer ra- 
jonalization through a Council com- 
bsed of not more than fifty repre- 
fntatives of the various countries 
'n v o 1 v e d . These representatives 
iould be appointed on a graduated 
ale of representation based on cur- 
nt tonnage and calculated in such 
way as to ensure that no absolute 
'ajority could be held except by a 
pol of the representatives of at 
fast four nations. 

• The object of this corporation 
ould be in general to foster the in- 
irests of international shipping and 
,1 particular to promote an adjust- 

ient of the supply of world tonnage 
fit the world demand for marine 
, ansport. 

' The Council of the Corporation in 
bnformity with these objects shall: 

(1) encourage owners to lay up 
and/or scrap tonnage which 
from time to time appears to 
be in excess of requirements; 

(2) meet the entire cost of such 
laying-up or scrapping by 
contributions from shipping, 
itself; 

(3) ensure equality of contribu- 
tion by securing the coopera- 
tion of governments in the 
levy and collection of a special 
tonnage due whereby ship- 
owners will create a fund to 
compensate for the laying up 
and/or scrapping program; 



WOKLD MONETARY AND 

Ki'ONOMir CONFEREXCE, JULY 

•Z7, 1».« ON INTEKNATIOXAL 

CO.M.MODITY A(;KKEMKNTS 

Any asreeiiients to Rive effect 
to such plans should conform gen- 
erally to the following conditions: 

(a) The commodity must be 
ime of great im|>ortance for inter- 
national trade in which there is 
such an excess of pi-odiictlon or 
stocks as to call for special con- 
certed action. 

(b) The agreement should be 
comprehensive a.s regards the coni- 
iiKMlities to be regulated, that is, 
it should not be so narrowly drawn 
as to exclude related or substitute 
products, if their inclusion is nec- 
essary or desii'able to ensure the 
success of the plan. 

(c) It should be comprehensive 
as I'egards producers, that is: 

(i) it should in the first in- 
stance command a general mea- 
sure of assent amongst export- 
ing countries, and within these 
countries a substantial majority 
of the producers themselves; 

(ii) where necessary or de- 
sirable foi' the success of the 
plan, it should jM-ovide for the 
co-operation of non-ex|)orting 
countries whose production is 
considerable. 

(d) It should be fair to all par- 
ties, both producers and consum- 
ers, it should be designed to se- 
cure and maintain a fair and re- 
numerative price level, it should 
not aim at discriminating against 
a |>articular country, and it should 
as far a-s jxtssible be worked with 
the willing co-operation of con- 
suming interests in importing 
countries who are equally con- 
cerned with producers in the 
maintenance of regular supplies 
at fair and stable prices. 

(e) It should be administra- 
tively practicable, that is, the ma- 
chinery established for its admin- 
istration must be workable, and 
the individual Governments con- 
cerned must have the i)ower and 
the will to enforce it in their re- 
si>ective territories. 

(f) It should be of adequate 
diu'ation, that is it should contain 
provisions for its continuance for 
such a period as to gi\e assurance 
to all concerned that its objects 
can be achieved. 

(g) It should be flexible, that 
is, the plan should be such as to 
liermit of and provide for the 
prompt and oi'derly expansion of 
supply to meet improvement in 
demand. 

(h) Due regard should be had 
in each country to the desirability 
of encouraging efficient produc- 
tion. 



(4) study closely the course and 
prospects of international 
trade, the movements of steel 



scrap and freight market, and 
the effectiveness of the mea- 
sures taken to induce laying 
up and scrapping; and, 
(5) from time to time to decide its 
policies in regard to quantity 
and kind of tonnage to be laid 
up, and/or scrapped, and the 
price to be paid for that ton- 
nage. 
It is proposed that the tonnage due 
shall be levied at a uniform rate per 
net registered ton per annum; shall 
be collected by customs or other au- 
thority at the ports of participating 
countries; shall be payable in twelve 
monthly installments or may be com- 
pounded in advance with rebate pro 
rata if vessel be laid up for any com- 
plete calendar month. 

Amounts so collected in the cur- 
rency of each country would be paid 
to the Bank of International Settle- 
ments and be passed to the credit of 
the International Shipping Corpora- 
tion at exchange parities fixed from 
time to time by the bank. The rate of 
due would be fixed for certain per- 
iods by the Corporation at such a 
figure as would bring an estimated 
total yield of the funds deemed nec- 
essary for the objects of the Corpor- 
ation. This rate, the appropriate ex- 
change parities, and the estimated 
total yield would then be passed on 
to the governments of participating 
countries. 

Several classes of tonnage would 
be exempt from participation in this 
contribution. Certificates of exemp- 
tion would be issued by the Corpora- 
tion, covering passenger space, and/ 
or refrigerated cargo spaces. 

Entire vessels or vessel space en- 
gaged in purely coastwise trade 
would be exempt. 

Tankers entered in the Interna- 
tional Tanker Pool would not pay 
dues to the International Shipping 
Corporation. 

No dues would be taken from 
whalers, fishing vessels, sailing 
ships, other non-cargo carrying ves- 
sels, nor vessels of less than a pre- 
determined tonnage. 

The Council would have power to 
vary the rules or make new rules for 
the administration of the scheme; to 
delegate their powers to special or 
sub-committees; to appoint officers, 
agents, and others, and give them 
appropriate powers; to borrow or 
lend funds. 

Any disputes or questions shall be 
decided by the Corporation, and pre- 



1ARCH. 1935 



67 



Flag 


1900 


1914 


1920 


1930 


1931 


1932 


1933 


1934 


American (United States).. 


Xumbir 
S 


Gross tons 
10.S90 


Xumbcr 
54 


Gross Ions 
150,685 


Nu mb(r 
318 


Gross tons 
1.471.615 


Kumbtr 
514 
21 


Gross tons 

2, i$i, 126 

84,0-46 


Xumber 
522 


Gross tons 

2,011.160 

90, 025 


Kumbe'r 
549 
23 


Gross tons 

2, 643, 005 

93, 237 


Xumber 
456 
22 


Gross tons 

2, 694, 773 

80,866 


Xumber 
427 
26 


Gross t9t 

2,472,4- 

111,71 




1 
3 
73 


2,370 

6.6S0 

235,800 










Belgian -- 


S 
183 


25,811 
837.410 


7 
243 

1 


22.078 
1,241,136 

2,583 


g 
509 

2 

1 

10 
14 

1 
77 

2 
31 
33 

5 
68 
22 

6 


53,781 
2,668,441 

7,586 

510 

15.301 

61.699 

120. 210 

1.970 
283. 67S 

1.907 
186, 1S7 
136,032 

9,852 
297,058 
109, 533 
11,967 


8 
644 

1 
7 
13 
19 

1 
95 

2 
34 
38 

5 
71 
27 

3 


53,790 
2, 929. 634 

7,872 

510 

14. 756 

82.296 

179,924 

1.970 
410,169 

1,907 
198. 573 
153, 524 

12, 279 

321.011 

143. 050 

9,705 


8 
517 

2 

8 
15 
22 


50,470 
2,985,101 

7,872 

3,547 

15, 301 

105,253 

216,624 


9 
646 

2 
2 
6 
17 
24 


67,326 
2, 960, 287 

7,872 

3,547 

7,479 

121,228 

250, 370 


11 

639 

2 


74,71 
2,916,9! 

7,8; 
























3 


3, 5S0 
3, 4SI 



17 
26 


7.4; 
122, i; 

266,32 




2 


439 


1 


743 


Danzie 


TV>mini™n 


















14 


34. 129 


35 


81.408 


38 


93.591 


102 
3 
43 
36 

_6 

32 
3 


484,753 

8,315 

244, 177 

136, 257 

17,429 

346, 292 

153, 547 

9,705 


96 
3 
42 
35 

_6 

31 
3 


460.604 
8.464 

243,082 
126,661 

17.429 

321, 707 

159,211 

9,705 


100 
3 
45 
33 

62 
37 
3 

1 

226 
4 

I 


498,41 




8,46 




7 
20 

1 


13.&46 
62. WO 

1,6615 
2,966 


3 
47 

1 
3 
4 
4 


11.232 
216, 572 

1,633 
16,007 
19,803 
13,464 


7 
8 


24. 514 
32. 787 


257,072 




144, K 




22,18 




4 
2 
4 


21.503 
2.552 
12.541 


282.38 




213.6* 


Mexican 






9.70, 








M 




3 


3,117 


10 


49,296 


21 


107. 484 


141 
1 

2 
1 
2 

3 
14 
10 
12 

1 

20 
3 


924, 498 

8,947 

9,015 

988 

2,822 

14.737 
65, 642 
32. 239 
91,208 
630 

49, 877 
18, 577 


202 
3 
2 
1 
3 

3 
15 
10 
21 

21 
1 


1,395,943 

24,824 

9,015 

988 

4,817 

14.737 
67,606 
36, 356 
142, 990 
2,840 

62, 543 
640 


222 
3 


1, 652, 507 
24,829 
9,015 


222 
4 
2 


1,549.925 
26.505 
9,016 


1.693,011 




26,50. 
















2,821 
































3 

3 

16 
14 
27 

2 

20 
1 


4,817 

14, 737 
80,654 
63,042 
180, 365 
2,840 

49,957 
640 


4 

3 

17 
18 
27 
1 

19 

1 


9,599 

14, 737 
78,930 
75, 143 
171,475 
630 

49,080 
640 


4 

3 
21 
18 
27 

1 

16 


9,73- 












1 
6 
3 


3.051 
11.965 
3,667 


14,73, 
106,27 

80,91. 

174, 18- 

63 

39,64) 


Russian (Soviet Union) 


43 

5 


40.003 
6.243 


6 

1 
1 


14, 371 

672 

2,092 






























































Total 


182 


424. 589 


366 


1,441.196 


673 


3, 068. 130 


1,542 


7. 753. 059 


1.698 


8, 974, 454 


1,791 


9, 604, 178 


1,690 


9, 405, 792 


1,671 


9, 464. 66; 







I Exclusive of Navy, Admiralty, and otber Oovernment tankers. 



Above table shows the growth during this century of the world's tanker tonnage classified by nationality according to Lloyds. 
America is losing out to Britain and both are losing to Norway. The interesting table below shows the recent bid of Japan for 
leadership in the Pacific as an international common carrier. There is much food for thought along rationalization lines in these 
statistics. Lower table was compiled by National Council of American Shipbuilders. 



HIOH SPIED JiPAKiaE CAEOO VESSELS BOILT OH BUILHIITO SINCE THE BBJINmHO OJ IJSJ 















Oroee 


Trial 












Wane of Veseel 


Lloyds Besiater 


Dimesaiotts 


Tons 


Speed Owner 


Builder 




BemarkB 




Sj-dJiey liaru 


380.0 


z 


5U.5' 


z 


3l*.2' 


5.1*25 


1* knots Oaaka Sbosen Ealsha 


Yokohama Dock Company 


Delivered . . 


Nov. 


192S 


Eob*a Kara 


U17.0 


X 


56. 0' 


X 


31.7' 


5.379 


u 


Showa Shosen Kaleha 


Uraga Dock Company 


" 




" 




Uld« lUru 


1400.9 


X 


53.0' 


z 


uols' 


5.256 


Ll* 


Tochikl Shojl Eaiaha 


Harlma Shipbuilding Co. 


" 




Nov. 


1930 


B»lfo Waru 


1*60.0 


X 


6O.0' 


z 


9.816 


Lfa 


Nippon Yueen Eaiaha 


Oaaka Iron Works 


■ 




Mar. 


1930 


Rlul liaru 


U:.6.o 


X 


60,5' 


X 


1*0.7' 


3.360 


8 


Osaka Shoaen Ealsba 


Ultsublehl Dockyard Co, 


" 




Jun, 


1930 


Tokal Uaru 


^6.0 


X 


60.5' 


z 


1*0.7' 


3,360 


8 


Osaka Sbosen Ealsha 


Ultsublshl Dockyard Co. 


" 




Aug. 


1930 


Sar^ya Uaru 


uue.ri 


X 


60.5' 


X 


1*0.7' 


3,360 


S 


Osaka Shoe en Eal3ha 


Mitsubishi Dockyard Co. 


" 




Oct, 


1931 


Bolcuroloi U&ru 


kkS.o 


X 


60.5' 


X 


1*0.7' 


3,360 


8 


Osaka Shoaen Ealsha 


Mitsubishi Dockyard Co. 


■ 




Nov, 


1931 


Kwacto aaru 


Wl.7 


X 


bl.5> 


z 


39.7' 


3,607 


6 


Elshlmoto El sen Kalsha 


YokobajiA Dock Company 


■ 




Sept 1930 


E»ar.6al Uaru 


1*61.7 


X 


61.5- 


z 


39.7' 


3,611* 


6 


Elehlmoto El sen Ealsba 


Yokohama Dock Company 


" 




Dec, 


193! 


Byoyo Itoni 


^15.0 


X 


56.0 ' 


z 


31.8' 


5.971* 


1* 


Toyo El sen Eaiaha 


Eawasakl Dock Yard Co. 


» 




Jan. 


193: 


Soyo Uaru 


U15.0 


X 


56. 0' 


X 


31. «' 


6,031 


1* 


Toyo Elsen Ealsha 


Harlma Shipbuilding Co. 


" 




Jan, 


1931 


Shohel Uaru 


1*37.0 


X 


53.O' 


X 


35.0' 


7.256 


6 


Shlmatasl Elsen Ealsbi 


Ultsul Buasan Co. 


" 




Uar. 


1951 


Klrlehloa Uaru 


1+1*3.1 


X 


6O.O' 


z 


30.0 ' 


5.959 
5,3110 


3 


Eokusal Elsen Ealsha 


Eawasakl Dock Yard Co. 


" 




July 1931 


Zatff-axa^l Uaru 


W+3.6 


X 


fcO.O' 


X 


30.0 ' 


3 


Eokusal Elsen Ealsha 


Uraga Dock Company 


" 




Oct. 


1931 


Eoryu Uaru 


U36.1* 


X 


53.5' 


X 


32.3' 


6,630 


LS 


Hlrouml Shojl Eaiaha 


Ultsublehl Dockyard Co. 


" 




Sec. 


1951 


Euraoa Uaru 


^33.0 


X 


53. 0' 


X 


33.'" 


6.791 


15 


Eokusal Elsen Ealsha 


Uraga Dock Con^jany 


" 






1931 


Johore Uaru 


U11.7 


X 


56. 0' 


X 


32.5' 


6,131 


L6 


lahlhara Oooel Eaiaha 


Harlma Shipbuilding Co. 


■ 




Aug. 


1932 


Uago/a Uaru 


1*06.3 


X 


■15.51 


X 


32.5' 


6,050 


6 


lehlhara Somsi Ealsha 


Mitsubishi Dockyard Co, 


" 




Aug. 


1932 


Saakal Uaru 


V*6.8 


X 


60.5' 


X 


1*0.7' 


3,U16 


3 


Osaka Shosen Ealsha 


Ultsublehl Dockyard Co. 


" 




Jan. 


193, 


KoMl Uaru 


U36.1* 


X 


58.5' 


X 


32.8' 


6,666 


6 


Elrouml Shojl Ealsha 


Mitsubishi Dockyard Co. 


" 




Uar. 


193: 


Eokical Uaru 


1*1*6.3 


X 


60.5' 


X 


1*0.7' 


3,1*16 


3 


Osaka Shosen Ealsha 


Mitsubishi Dockyard Co. 


" 




Uar. 


19J, 


AruoaBan Uaru 


U5U.0 


X 


60. 0' 


X 


37.0' 


7.61U 


3 


Ultsul Busaan Eaiaha 


Ultsul Bussan Eaiaha 


" 




Aug. 


193: 


Uyo Uaru 


;3b.^ 


z 


53.5' 


X 


32.3' 


7.501* 


L6 


Toyo Elsen Ealsha 


Mitsubishi Dockyard Co. 


" 




Oct. 


193: 


Asaglaan Uaru 


1^1*. 


X 


60.0' 


X 


37.0' 


7.621* 


,8 


Ultsul Buaean Ealsha 


Mlta-ul Buasan Ealsha 


■ 




Dec. 


19), 


Eosiajcl Uaru 


1^3.6 


X 


bl.O' 


X 


30.0 ' 


6,6U3 


3 


Eokusal Elsen Eaiaha 


Harlma Shipbuilding Co, 


Maiden 


Voyage 


Jan. 


193I1 


loyal Uaru 


1*36.1* 


z 


53.5' 


X 


32.3' 


6.771* 


6 


Takachlho Shosen Ealsha 


Mitsubishi Dockyard Co, 


Delivered 


Jan, 


193l< 


Shlnt-.u Uaru 


360.5 


X 


50. 0' 


X 


29.0' 


U.OOO 


fa 


Acuoa Elsen Ealsha 


Mitsubishi Dockyard Co. 


" 




?eb. 


193'< 


lano Uari 


1*50.0 


z 


61. 0' 


X 


1^.0' 


6.990 


S 


Eokusal Elsen Ealsha 


Uraga Dock Company 


Maiden 


Voyage 


7eb. 


1931 


Elchlyo liaru 


1*36.3 


z 


53.5' 


X 


32.3' 


7.509 

7.'*50 


6 


Toyo Elsen Ealsha 


Mitsubishi Dockyard Co, 


Delivered 


Uar. 


193'( 


3«t»uyo Uaru 


1*35.0 


X 


53.5' 


X 


32.3' 


b 


Toyo Elsen Ealsha 


Mlts-Jblshl Dockyard Co, 


" 






19311 


Klyoratl Mara 


1*50.0 


z 


fcl.O' 


X 


1*0.0' 


7.000 


3 


Eokusal Elsen Kalsha 


Eawasakl Dock Yard Co. 


Maiden 


Voyage Apr. 


193"* 


ZOL,go Uaru 


UJO.O 

1*1*6.0 


z 


61. 0' 


X 


1*0.0' 


7.000 


3 


Eokusal Elsen Ealsha 




" 




July 


19ll< 


Sahara '^ar^ 


X 


62.3' 


X 


31*.!*' 


7.300 


13 


Hlppon Yueen Ealsha 


Yokohama Dock Con^jany 


Building 






Barulo :iaru 


Wt6.0 


z 


62.3' 


z 


31*.'*' 


7,300 


3 


Nippon Yusen Ealsha 


Yokohama Dock Conjjany 


" 








Sake Uaru 


1*1^.0 


X 


62.3' 


X 


3i*.i*' 


7.300 


8 


Nlpoon Tusen Kalsha 


Uraga Dock Company 


" 








Voto Uaru 


ui.6.0 


z 


62.3' 


z 


31*. "4 ' 


7.300 


3 


Blppon Yusen Ealsha 


Mitsubishi Dockyard Co. 


" 








Sojlro Uaru 


1*1*6.0 


z 


62.3' 


X 


3U,i*' 


7.300 


3 


Nippon Yusen Ealsha 


Ultsublshl Dockyard Co. 


" 








Bojaaa Uaru 


1*1*6.0 


z 


62.3' 


z 


3'*.'*' 


7.300 


3 


Nippon Yusen Ealsha 


Ultsublehl Dockyard Co. 


" 








TOIAL 




9 


re seal 


a 


• • 


277.260 

















68 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEV 




trans-Pacific cargo and passenger motor liner Chichibu Maru is one of three on the San Frai 



I .una run. 



rably through arbitration under 

es and regulations set up by the 

rporation. 
he scheme would remain in force 
two years and thereafter from 
ar to year the right of withdrawal 

six months notice. 
In the mind of anyone who has had 

y contact with recent trends in in- 
rnational shipping, there can be 

doubt that some drastic remedy is 
eded to clear up the chaotic condi- 
)ns due to present oversupply of 
nnage and under development of 
)rld trade. The oversupply of ton- 
ge is so widespread over maritime 
untries of the world that only a 
uly international scheme could 
ipe to effect any improvement. Any 
asonable minded shipowner would 

the first to admit that any scheme 
hich would in a fair unbiased man- 
•r induce an adequate lay-up of 
mpetitive tonnage would raise the 
neral level of freights sufficiently 

more than compensate for the lay- 
). 

Many shipowners are now care- 
lly analyzing this scheme of an In- 
rnational Shipping Corporation 
id it seems reasonable to hope that 
eir combined intelligence will pro- 
ice something verj- well worth 
lile for the International Shipping 
inference to adopt and put into op- 
ation. 

American shipowners in interna- 
)nal trade are sadly handicapped in 
itering into these international 



OOBAH QOIHQ laRCHAlff TUBTCS OF PRISCIPAL lORima MAnCBS 
U 07 JAHOABT 1. 19^4 

(7l£urea Are For Vessels loch Of 2,000 Oross Tonn Or Over. 
Qreat Lakes Teesels ire bcluded. Bat The Shlppiiij; Board's 
Idle n.eet Is Included) . 



IfatlOB 

Oreat Britain 

DirziEO siAsse 

Japan 
Norvay 
G«raaa]r 
France 
Italy 

Metherlaods 
Other nations 
BORLD TOTAL 



Qross Tomuige 
Of Teseels 

l6,60U,lt61t 
9.024,933 
3.i67.'425 
3,07U,llU 

2,95'*.135 
2,812,261 

2,578.772 
2,206,838 

6.973.737 

'«.396,679 



c 



An interesting comparison. Figures compiled and graphically represented by 
National Council of American Shipbuilders. 



ARCH. 1935 



69 



shipping conferences because of un- 
certainty as to the policy of Congress 
in dealing with the merchant marine. 
In recent years, the official American 
delegates to several international 
conferences on shipping and allied 
matters have, at considerable expense 
of time and money, brought the ship- 
ping men of the world around to an 
American viewpoint on more than 
one issue, and then have come home 
only to have the findings of the con- 
ference ignored, disregarded, or op- 
enly flouted by their own govern- 
ment. 

Many American shop operators in 
world trade are now doing business 
on a daily or monthly basis because 
of this uncertainty. They have 
bought or built ships at American 
prices and have to operate them on 
an American scale, because they are 
getting a form of American subsidy. 
Under present conditions this would 
be a superman's task, even if the 
American government were 100 per 
cent in favor of subsidy and the 



ClMJUkTIVE (BOSS TON!USE 0? SKAOODIO FREIOHiaRS 

BUILT SINCB JANUART 1, 1322 AT THE BBOUOIUO OF KACH TSAR 

raOU 1923 TO 1931* IMCLDSITO 

(Vessels Bach Of 2,000 Oroa^ Todjb Or Ov»r) 





pats 


CNirSD 
STATSS 


Oreat 
Britain 


JiH)an 


Oenuar 


France 


Jan 


. 1, 1923 


51,867 


390,961 


1*7,011* 


23^,312 


71.829 


•• 


I92U 


62,630 


701,228 


62,1*88 


370,1*65 


U9,U2 


• 


1925 


69.916 


1,283,006 


110,92s 


"♦19,958 


13^,667 


" 


1926 


80,U75 


1,831, 6U6 


138,233 


1*38.273 


161,01*7 


- 


1927 


80,1*75 


2,13U,l481 


168.637 


51*2,880 


170,31s 


- 


192s 


80,1+75 


2.563.8U2 


182,171* 


654,991* 


186,999 


" 


1929 


88,159 


3.'*20,750 


207.196 


739.839 


191,571 


" 


1930 


96.981 


l*,108,2l«6 


253.735 


81*8,153 


2ii.5"t5 


." 


1931 


96,9Sl 


U, 667, 891 


332,01*2 


916,91*5 


251*, 506 


" 


1932 


96.981 


U, 771.281 


1*02,751 


92U,5l*3 


272,01*5 


" 


1933 


113.103 


U,sl*7,5UU 


1*07,1*51 


92l*,5l*8 


29l*.OS5 


" 


195^ 


113.103 


U. 897,221* 


U52,059 


921*. 51*8 


309.197 






(Source: 


Dnlted States 
Departaont of 


Shipping Board 
Cooaeree) 


Bureau, 





(BOSS TOHUOB OT lORCHMir TlMm V SIX PRUniFAL UARITIIII RKITDia 
OH JAnOART 1, I93I* - CLASSiriZO AOOORDIHa TO AOB 

(rigures Are tor Teasels Bach Of 2.000 Orosa Toss Or Over. Tbaj Bzclode Oreat 
L«kea Teasels Aad Tte Shipping Board's Idle Rest}. 

Built Frco Built Froo BuiXt 

192U-1933 IBc. 191U-1923 Inc. Prior To 1911* TOTAL 

Tonnage Percent TTniWT Percept Ibanage Percept '''nf.nflf;. Percent 



PASaWMR A OABOO 



chuxo stazbs 


530,1*97 


35 


635,891 


1*2 


Oreet Britain 


1.531.751 
218 ,91*8 


38 


1.515.739 


37 


Japan 


27 


21*2,706 


31 


Tnac* 
rtalT 


397.822 
l*7^.i»36 


51 


555,213 
2'*7.933 


1(2 
29 


Oeraan; 


522.728 


1*81.323 


50 


fniaaas 










ONTTCD BTAnS 


50. '♦73 


1 


3,1*16,881* 

H. 505,1*11* 

l.'*36.979 


91 


Great Britain 


'♦.195.996 


1*1 


^ 


Japan 


3S9.571 


17 


Praoce 


190,085 
19i*,7l6 


11 


783.3'^3 


bo 


ItalT 


705.959 


50 


Oernsn/ 


55'^.083 


31 


910.932 


51 


tmxM 










OriTBD STA1BS 


261,251 


U 


2,016.797 


su 


(b«at Britain 


1.269.535 
71,926 


g 


1.022.1*73 


1*1 


Japan 


30.182 


26 


France 


"V,:^ 


-W 


109,308 


'♦5 


Italy 


IS 


102,187 


^ 


Oeraanr 


50,22U 


1*1 


»a.65l» 


ALL TTFIS OF TBaSBLS 









OCTD fTAnt 

areat Britain 

Japan 

France 

Italy 

Oeraaar 



81*2.221 

6.997,282 

680.1*1*5 

705.697 

728.820 
1.127.035 



6.069.572 
7.01*3.626 
1.709.867 
1.U27.861* 
1.056.079 

l.'»33.909 



31*2.1*72 
1.007.51*6 
337. "isi 
339.312 
lUl,332 
32.923 



291 .807 
.362,661* 
«3.795 
325,1*1*9 
1*97,022 

330.151 



127.819 
192.31*6 
15.887 
13.939 
155.519 
30.117 



762,098 
2.563.556 
777.113 
678,700 
793.873 
393.191 



1,508,360 
"♦.055.036 

799.085 
1,272,31*7 

865,701 
1.036,97'* 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

100 



3.759.I6I* 100 

10, 061*, 071* 100 

2,250,31*5 100 

1,298,877 100 

1.397.697 100 

1.795.166 



100 



2.1*05.867 100 

2,1*85,35^ 100 

U7.995 100 

21*1,037 100 

315,371* 100 

121.995 100 



7.673.891 

l6,6ol*.i<6i* 

3,167,1*25 
2.812.261 
2.578.772 
2.95'^.135 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



American people were patronizinj 
their own ships 100 per cent. If wi 
are to judge by speeches in Congress 
and by proportions of Americai 
goods carried overseas under thi 
American flag, Congress would be i 
small majority in favor of subsid) 
and the American people consider 
ably under fifty per cent in favor o: 
shipping under the American flag 
This exhibition of a luke warm atti 
tude toward an American flag mer 
chant marine is not calculated to in 
spire confidence in the mind of thi 
American shipowner as he face; 
world problems and world competi 
tion. 

It seems to us that the lay-up an( 
scrap scheme of the Internationa 
Shipping Conference, as outlined ii 
this article, would fit in beautifull; 
with the plan to use make-worl 
funds in needed shipbuilding as out 
lined in our article in the Februar; 
issue of Pacific Marine Review. 

If adopted, the International plai 
would remove much of the instabilit; 
of rate structures in internationa 
trade routes, and would greatly sim 
plify the American problem of build 
ing up a better balanced, more mod 
ern merchant marine in world tradt 
The plan to use make-work funds fo 
building needed ships would then b 
used in American overseas shippini 
to give each trade the special ship 



70 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEV 



I 



equired and to scrap or transfer to 

lore suitable trades those ships that 

re not required. 

Since the International Shipping 
Conference plan has no effect on 
[inkers or on coastwise and inter- 

oastal vessels, the make-work funds 
I'ould be especially adaptable, and 
I'ould have a free hand in these 
trades; and it is in precisely these 
Irades that modernization and a gen- 
iral speeding up is most necessary 
ind would be most useful to the 
American shipper and to the United 
states army and navy. 

As we go to press the American 
Merchant Marine is eagerly and an.x- 
lously waiting for the message of 
President Roosevelt concerning Fed- 
eral aid to American shipping and 
he future policy of the United 
i^tates in international commerce. 



VESSELS, BACH OF 2,000 GROSS TONS OR OVER, 

NGRUALLT EMPLOYED IN 1HE OARRIACBl 0? OOODS AND PASSENOBIRS 

IN IHE INraRNATIONAL TRADE AS OF DECEMBER Jl, I933 



Nation 



Great Britain 

UNITED STATES 

Japan 

Norway 

Germany 

France 

Italy 

Netherlands 

Sweden 

Spain 

Denmark 

Others 



Total! 



Number 




Of Vessels 


Gross Tbna 


2,TLg 
U8S 


ll+,119,000 


3,08U,000 


6O8 


3,oU9,ooo 


^ 


1,582,000 


2,832,000 


1+76 


2,571,000 

2,261+, 000 


383 


328 


1,891,000 


171 


707,000 


189 


7^,000 


131+ 


5U6.OOO 


996 


3.986.000 


6.9U9 


37,389.000 



Constructive Ideas for 

Increasing Employment 

Some Notes by a Prominent San Francisco Business Executive 
on Possibilities of Shipbuilding on the Pacific Coast 



I have read with much interest 
your article in the February issue of 
Pacific Marine Review under the 
heading "A Constructive Program 
for Increasing Employment." This 
article suggests a constructive meth- 
od of employing many men, and 
building up the American merchant 
marine — both of which would be 
greatly beneficial to the country as 
a whole. 

Our federal and state governments 
are spending billions of dollars to re- 
lieve unemployment by creating new 
jobs for our vast army of men and 
women out of work. I can conceive of 
no more constructive way to spend 
part of these funds than to build the 
ships which are so vitally essential 
to our commercial prosperity, and so 
necessary in the service of our army 
and navy during any national emer- 
gency. 

Our federal government has made 
a large start in the right direction, 
by appropriation of funds for build- 
ing the navy up to treaty strength. 
This has resulted in a nice lot of con- 
tracts for naval ships to be built in 



the private yards on the Atlantic 
coast, and in the navy yards of both 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts. These 
contracts have not only produced a 
large amount of new employment in 
shipyards and manufacturing plants, 
but they are bridging a gap in mer- 
chant ship construction wherein the 
craft of the shipbuilder might have 
become a lost art in America. 

The privately owned shipyards on 
the Pacific Coast have a past record 
in building naval vessels second to 
none of their type built in the United 
States, and all Pacific Coast ship- 
yards now active have a splendid 
wartime record of efficient produc- 
tion of cargo vessels and tankers. 

Should the federal government de- 
cide on a program of merchant ton- 
nage, the Pacific Coast shipbuilders 
could participate in that program 
with comparatively little expenditure 
to get their yards ready to build 
these vessels. During the past few 
years, the shipyards of the Pacific 
Coast have depended almost exclus- 
ively on the repairing of vessels op- 
erating out of Pacific Coast ports. 



The result is that these shipyards 
are working at about 10 per cent of 
their normal capacity. This condition 
is very disastrous both to the work- 
men who have followed the crafts of 
shipbuilding, and to the shipbuilding 
employer who has tried to stay in 
business and keep his organization 
together. 

During the past year in the San 
Francisco Bay area, approximately 
350,000 man hours of labor were ex- 
pended on actual ship repairs which 
would represent constant employ- 
ment for approximately 1230 men. 
Total spent on merchant ship repairs 
in this district, including material 
and labor, was approximately four 
and one-half million dollars. 

Working at normal capacity on 
new work, and with the normal ship 
repair volume, the privately owned 
shipyards of this area could employ 
10,000 men. This would, of course, 
mean the employment of many other 
men, directly in the building of ma- 
chinery and equipment, and indirect- 
ly in the general services made pos- 
sible through the renewed spending 
of these men. 

Weighing all these factors, it 
seems to me that your arguments for 
using make-work funds to build up 
the American merchant marine with 
the types of ships necessary to its va- 
rious functions are essentially sound 
arguments. Everyone, therefore, who 
is ship minded, should lend a hand 
toward the adoption of such a pro- 
gram. 



MARCH, 1935 



71 



'^Possibilities in 

Commercial Lighter Than Air Ships 

An Analysis of the Practicability of Dirigibles for Trans-Pacific 
Aerial Navigation 

'By S. H. Phillips^ Aeronautical Engineer 



This article is written to suggest 
the possibilities of dirigible trans- 
portation across the Pacific, possi- 
bilities which should so vitally con- 
cern the shipping industry on the Pa- 
cific Coast. The goal in the mind of 
anyone promoting such an enterprise 
must be the ability to fly to the Far 
East with reliability and comfort in 
the space of 100 hours, and to the 
Hawaiian Islands in less than 30 
hours. 

Certainly we must take no unnec- 
essary risk in planning the airships 
in which we hope to achieve this ob- 
jective. The governmental policy in 
regard to lighter-than-air vessels has 
fluctuated violently in the past, and 
although at the moment it seems to 
be pressing on with legislation for 
future development, there seems lit- 
tle reason to believe that it has suf- 
ficient determination to resist the 
shock of another set-back like the 
loss of the Akron. The Akron (and as 
we are writing the Macon) disasters 
leave us faced with the necessity of 
a much more intense study of meteor- 
logical conditions as applied to the 
safe navigation of airships and a 
much more careful analysis of theory 
and technique in design and con- 
struction of airship structures. 

We must tackle this business from 
the very beginning, and trust to such 
intelligence as we can muster for its 
solution. We must design by theory 
as well as practice, and in the future 
larger ships, we must employ a type 
of construction which lends itself 
better to theoretical treatment. We 
must develop afresh the technique of 
girder construction and by using 
stouter materials we can employ 
more of the experience which we 
have already gained. 

It is obvious that the task would 
have been easier if airship research 
and construction had been allowed to 



As this article was being pre- 
pared, news of the disaster of the 
IVIaoon came to hand. The cause 
of tlie accident would appeal' to 
have been due to the failure of the 
top fin. Whether due to structui'- 
al weakness, by design error, or 
pool' workmanship remains sonio- 
what in doubt. Whichever the 
cause, the writer is still of opinion 
that the development of large air- 
ships should proceed, and should 
preferably be taken along coniuier- 
«'ial lines. Two points of some im- 
portance have been stressed: 

( 1 ) A more theoretical treat- 
ment of design pi'oblems. 

(2) The use of more I'Ugged 
sections in girder construction to 
eliminate dangers due to corrosion 
and |M>or workmanship. 



proceed without interruption. Much 
controversy and propaganda cloud 
the airship horizon, and it would ap- 
pear essential that public interest 
should be stimulated. Before we pass 
from the above considerations, I 
should like to make one general ob- 
servation : We ought to take care that 
an abnormal standard of values is 
not unthinkingly retained, as though 
it had a fundamental and permanent 
significance. And I believe that, had 
this scientific attitude been more in 
evidence, we might have seen less 
emphasis laid on speed as a dominat- 
ing factor in civil aviation. Of course, 
aviation has in speed an advantage 
over other forms of transport which 
it must be careful to retain, but until 
commercial flying becomes a real 
factor in every-day life — so long as 
the problem set by the ordinary man 
is not so much to impress him with 
what has been done in the air, so as 
to induce him to fly — speed is not 
necessarily the feature on which em- 
phasis should be laid. Safety, com- 
fort and reliability — these are the 
true essentials. Until these can be 
guaranteed — so long, that is, as the 



saving of time which travel by air 
should render possible is only proble- 
matic — aviation will have attractions 
only for the few. Given these any ; 
saving of time over the older forms 
of transport will have its effect. 

An airspeed over transoceanic 
routes of around 80 miles per hour i 
will suffice in general, to achieve a 
sufficiently impressive saving of t 
time over other forms of transport. 
In fact in the less frequented portions 
of the world, a much lower speed I 
would suffice, indeed in such places 
the airship once established as eco- 
nomic and reliable, would hardly 
have a competitor. Do not these con- 
siderations warrant the policy of 
safety first. It is better to satisfy 
than to create a demand. 

All methods of transport are judg- 
ed by their cost of operation and the 
revenue they produce, and the com- 
parison, therefore, of the cost of ton- 
miles provides a useful but not the 
only basis from which conclusions 
can be drawn as to efficiency and 
utility of such services. Vehicle, 
train, ship, or air miles and their cost 
must also be considered as well as 
ton-miles, and above all the factors 
of speed and the completeness of the 
service from the point of view of the 
user must be taken into account. 

It must be remembered that during 
the early stages of any new kind of 
industry or of transport, such as 
transport by air, it may be advisable 
from a national point of view to give 
definite help in order that it may 
survive its initial difficulties. But it 
is desired to impress at the outset 
that though help may be given for a 
definite purpose or for a stated time 
in the early stages of dirigible trans- 
portation it cannot, like other means 
of transport, survive eventually un- 
less it earns sufficient revenue to 
pay for the cost of operation plus a 



72 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



I 




tific point of view this must be so, 
because increased speed involves 
more resistance to travelling through 
the medium such as air or water as 
well as greater friction in the pro- 
pelling and power-transmitting ma- 
chinery, demanding, therefore, more 
expenditure of power. Speed, let us 
remember is a comparative and not 
an exact term and what is called 
speed varies much in rate of miles 
per hour in each element and in each 
kind of transport. The fastest sea 
speed, for instance, is a speed con- 
sidered moderate on land, while the 
fastest land speed is moderate com- 
pared with the latest achievements 
of the airplane. In the case of air 
transport today, we must assume 
that high reliable speeds compared 
with other means of transport is its 
greatest asset, and that for certain 
goods and passengers this kind of 
high speed will always be in demand. 
Moreover, the longer the journey the 
greater the advantage conferred by 
high speed. This last consideration is 
important to our present problem 
and emphasizes the superiority of the 
dirigible in its long range ability 
over the airplane. 



As shown by these two charts, fairly precise 
information is available about the prevailing 
'and periodic winds at sea level in various 
latitudes. However little co-ordinated work 
'has been done in charting generally the pre- 
vailing and seasonal winds of the highet 
levels of the atmosphere. esp>ecially over the 
oceans. 

We know that in many cases the direc- 
Ition and strength of the wind changes greatly 
iwith height and that high-level wind may 
blow in the direction opposite to that of a 
wind below it. .At high altitudes constant 
'K-inds of 30 to 40 miles per hour arc com- 
mon. The impo.'tance to aeronautics of chart- 
ing the upper air has been recognized and 
recently organized efforts to do this are be- 
ling made. 

I If the prevailing direction of these winds 
were known to airship navigators, the dura- 
tion of a journey could, in many cases be 
shortened by taking advantage of them. 

As to general wind conditions, the Pacific 
is much more stable and satisfactory than 
the Atlantic. 



reasonable interest on the capital in- 
volved. 

I The actual cost of transport does 
|not matter, or that one form of 
Itransport is more costly than anoth- 
|er, if the particular type has some 
(inherent qualities which appeal to 
|the public who use it and who will 
jpay enough for its use. Speed is one 
jsuch quality. Speed much in excess of 
the normal or most economical speed 
always costs a good deal more wheth- 
er by land, sea or air. Fi-om a seien- 




MARCH, 1935 



73 



Ordinary economic conditions, 
such as the cost of ton-miles, do not 
apply in many cases. The fastest 
trains, motor cars and liners are 
largely used because they save time, 
and time to many persons means the 
capacity of making or saving money. 
In other words, the saving of time in 
transit is willingly paid for by a sec- 
tion of the public, and the minutes, 
hours, or days saved by high speed 
can be sold in the open market at 
varying prices, in addition to the 
right of transportation between the 
points of departure and arrival. 

For instance, the route from San 
Francisco to Tokio by airship is 
about 5500 miles, and at an average 
speed of 65 miles an hour this jour- 
ney would take about 85 hours or 
about 3*2 days, while the fastest 
journey by the existing mail ship 
route today takes 15 days. Such a 
dirigible service, which is quite a 
practical proposition from a mechan- 
ical point of view, would save at 
least eleven days over any existing 
route, and these eleven days would 
to certain passengers be worth so 
much for money making, important 
political work, urgent private af- 
fairs, or other special reasons. In the 
case of fast transport, therefore, the 
company providing the transport is 
really selling not only the right to 
the individual to be transported from 
A to B but a certain saving of time 
in comparison with the next most 
rapid means of conveyance. This is 
the real reason why high speed is 
commercially valuable and will al- 
ways be so. Flying is admittedly the 
fastest method of transport, and it is 
difficult for the human mind to think 
of any faster method of travel. Com- 
mercial companies are able to sell 
transportation by air, chiefly be- 
cause of the saving of time which 
speed is able to achieve. 

This brief discussion on the value 
of speed must be considered. Any 
transport statistics, especially ton- 
mile statistics, are not only a matter 
of cost per mile or ton or per passen- 
ger, but in comparing the different 
methods of transportation, the value 
of speed as well must be included if 
a useful comparison is to be made. 
Before we pass on from this refer- 
ence to speed there is much reason 
to assume that the larger we build 
our dirigibles the higher will be the 
speed in which they will travel, if we 
double every dimension, its resist- 
ance at the same speed is increased 



by four, its gasoline capacity by 
eight, therefore flying at the same 
speed it will have twice the endur- 
ance of the smaller craft — that is it 
can fly twice as far. 

There are also certain advantages 
in respect to strength which comes 
from increased size. Suppose that we 
took an existing airship and de- 
creased every dimension by two. Ac- 
cording to dimensional theory it 
could still fly and it would have ade- 
quate strength; but in reality its 
structure would have become impos- 
sibly flimsy. Divide this by four, and 
you would have material which the 
slightest corrosion would weaken al- 
most to vanishing point. Conversely, 
by increasing the size, and employing 
material of stouter gage, we lessen 
the importance of corrosion and we 
render possible methods of construc- 
tion which were not practicable be- 
fore, and lastly, since our whole con- 
struction has become more robust, we 
lessen the chance of accidental 
damage. 

This last is a factor which dimen- 
sional theory does not assess, but it 
is very important. Whatever the scale 
of the airship it will have to be navi- 
gated by men of constant size and of 
constant clumsiness. We have no rec- 
ognized term to represent the capac- 
ity for damage which is latent in one 
standard mechanic and a large mon- 
key wrench, but it is a physical unit 
of real significance, which decreases 
in importance as the ship structure 
becomes more robust. 

(To be continued) 



Nickel Steel Gives 
Dependability in 

Stern Frame 

On one of the proverbial "dark and 
stormy nights" of the present winter, 
the Belgian Line freighter Emile 
Francqui was plowing through the 
heavy seas 400 miles off the coast, 
two days out from New York and 
bound for Antwerp, Belgium. Sud- 
denly the man at the wheel noticed a 
complete loss of steering control. An 
S-O-S was sent out, but was later 
cancelled when a sister ship of the 
Francqui hove in view and towed the 
crippled ship to Halifax, though dis- 
aster was narrowly averted when the 
buffeting waves almost drove her on 
the rocks outside the harbor. 



Safe in the dry docks of the Hali- 
fax Shipyards, Ltd., a thorough in- 
spection developed that the stern 
frame, a steel casting weighing S'/a 
tons, was broken. A wire was dis- 
patched to J. A. Nash and Co., New 
York agents for the Line, and Mr. J. 
A. Nash, accompanied by Mr. John 
G a r m e y , engineering consultant, 
rushed to the scene. The stern frame 
was of a special patented design, 
which necessitated obtaining the 
drawings from Belgium, creating an 
unavoidable delay of several days. 
Upon the receipt of the drawings, 
Mr. Garmey had patterns made up in 
Halifax as quickly as possible and 
hopped the first express train to 
Montreal, the heavy patterns also go- 
ing by express on a special car at- 
tached to the same train. On arrival 
in Montreal the patterns were rushed 
to the plant of the Canadian Steel 
Foundries, Ltd., who had been noti- 
fied to prepare for a rush job. 

When the question of materials 
was broached Mr. Nash called Ant- 
werp on the transatlantic telephone. 
The owners not only agi-eed that the 
job should no longer be entrusted to 
ordinary carbon steel, but insisted 
that nickel steel be specified on ac- 
count of its proven toughness and 
dependability. Accordingly a low 
carbon 2 per cent nickel steel heat 
was made in the open hearth fur- 
nace, this composition having many 
times demonstrated its superior per- 
formance in railroad and marine 
castings turned out at the Canadian 
Steel Foundries plant. In 6 days from 
the arrival of the patterns, the 17,000 
pound casting was poured, cooled, 
removed from the mold, normalized 
and tempered, and tested. 

The composition and properties of 
the steel used were as follows: 

Carbon 0.23 per cent 

Manganese 1.16 per cent 

Nickel 2.20 per cent 

Ult. Tensile Strength 

95,160 Ibs./sq. in. 

Yield point 57,000 Ibs./sq. in. 

Elongation in 2 in 30 per cent 

Reduction of Area 

58.1 per cent 

Bend test 180 degrees 

In addition to the tensile and bend 
tests, it was required that the cast- 
ing itself be hoisted to a height of 
fifteen feet and dropped on a con- 
crete floor — a severe test for any 
material — yet the toughness of this 
nickel steel was equal to the occa- 
sion. 



74 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Shoddy Competition 

in International Trade 

Quality Products will hold Quality Markets 
at Reasonable Prices 



In some circles of exporters, there 
has arisen in recent months a state 
of mind almost bordering on panic 
over the competition offered by for- 
eign nations, and especially by Japan. 
This competition generally takes the 
form of extremely low price for mer- 
chandise having the appearance of 
high quality. 

This state of mind leads in many 
instances to the misinterpretation of 
trade statistics and in this particular 
phase it seems to be invading even 
the civil service statisticians of our 
federal departments. 

A case in point is a release from 
the Department of Commerce, ab- 
stracting a report from the Lima of- 
fice of the department, entitled "For- 
eign Trade of Peru Shows Improve- 
ment." This leaflet contains the fol- 
lowing statements: 

"Imports in the first nine months 
of 1934 totalled 119,234,834 soles 
(current value of the Peruvian sole 
is approximately 25 cents) as against 
67,437,530 soles in the corresponding 
period of the preceding year. 

"The share of the United States and 
Great Britain in the import trade of 
Peru remained practically unchang- 
ed. During the first nine months of 
1934 the United States furnished 27 
per cent of the total imports as 
against 25 per cent for the corre- 
.sponding period of 1933. Great Brit- 
ain furnished 17.6 per cent for the 
first nine months of 1934 as against 
20.4 per cent in the corresponding 
period. 

"Japan has made consistent pro- 
gress in the Peruvian market in the 
past two years. While the value of 
Japanese products imported in the 
first nine months of 1934 amounted 
to only 5.4 per cent of the total im- 
ports, the trend is definitely upward 
and indicates a future displacement 
of a large share of Peruvian market 



for certain American and European 
products." 

When we break down the figures 
we get a rather different picture 
than is indicated by these words. 

The 25 per cent share of total im- 
ports enjoyed by the United States 
in the first nine months of 1933 
would have a value in round num- 
bers of 16,850.000 soles. Her share of 
27 per cent in 1934 equals 32,200,000 
soles, a gain of 15,350,000 soles or 
roughly 91 per cent. One would 
hardly call this "practically un- 
changed." 

On the face of the department's re- 
port it would look as though Great 
Britain had taken a loss. However, 
the figures show her 20.4 per cent 
share in 1933 to have the value of 
13,600,000 soles while the 17.6 per 
cent share in 1934 has a value of 
nearly 21,000,000 soles. So that Great 
Britain's percentage loss turns out 
to be an actual gain of 7,300,000 soles 
or 53 per cent. 

Japan's 5.4 per cent share in 1934 
totals 6,400,000 soles. 

Since United States merchandise 
in Peru and other foreign markets 
must be sold on a quality basis, is it 
not more reasonable to assume that 
in the long run the dumping of cheap 
merchandise by Japan and other na- 
tions will compete rather with the 
cheap home products? 



Sea Going Banks for 

Australian Liners 

A "sea-going bank" was installed 
by the American Trust Company of 
San Francisco on the Oceanic trans- 
Pacific liner Mariposa the early part 
of February. Offering complete for- 




Tcller and customer at American Trust Com- 
pany branch on board Oceanic liner Mariposa. 

eign exchange facilities, this bank- 
ing office has for its purpose the in- 
creasing of shipboard service for the 
convenience of passengers. 

Planned under the direction of 
Mr. P. A. Kinnoch, vice-president of 
the American Trust Company and 
manager of that organization's for- 
eign department, the traveling bank 
agency will prove its particular va- 
lue in the exchanging of U. S. dollar 
currency (the standard used aboard 
ship) for the foreign currencies and 
coins in use in ports beyond the 
American frontier at Honolulu. No 
deposit accounts will be accepted, 
explained the banking officials, but 
other usual services required by 
travelers — the cashing of drafts 
against letters of credit, and the 
cashing and sale of travelers checks 
— will be available. 

To the shipping fraternity the in- 
stallation is a particularly interest- 
ing one. It has created a new term 
in the glossary of the merchant ma- 
rine, for on a parity with the "navi- 
gating officer," "deck officer," and 
what have you, the nautical cashier 
becomes the "banking officer." 

For the Matson-Oceanic Line the 
service brings a new feather to the 
company's cap, in that it is the lat- 
est of a long line of "firsts" this org- 
anization has pioneered on the Paci- 
fic. Early March will see a similar 
installation on the Mariposa's sister 
ship, the Monterey. 



MARCH, 1935 



75 



The Gyro-Compass 

in Polar Latitudes 



tic Circle, the Expedition need have 
no cause for alarm as to the depend- 
ability of their Gyro-Compasses. 



Both Bear of Oakland and Jacob 
Ruppert, the two vessels being used 
by the Byrd Expedition, are equipped 
with the Gyro-Compass, the one on 
the Ruppert being the identical one 
used by Sir Hubert Wilkins on the 
Nautilus. 

Although the Quest of the Shackle- 
ton-Rowett Expedition and the S.S. 
Franconia of the Cunard Line re- 
ported respectively 69° 70' south in 
1922 and 71' 30' north in 1926, the 
Gyro-Compass of the Wilkins-EUs- 
worth Expedition went into higher 
latitudes than any reported before or 
since. When Sir Hubert attempted to 
reach the North Pole in 1931 in the 
ex-Navy submarine Nautilus, it was 
found that even at 83" north latitude 
his Gyro-Compass behaved in a per- 
fectly normal manner, and no errors 
were reported beyond the limits of 
the speed and latitude correction 
tables provided. 

As a Gyro-Compass is brought 
nearer and nearer either Pole, its 
directive force is reduced. At 85° lati- 
tude the directive force is about one- 
twelfth as great as at the equator, or 
one-eighth as great as in the latitude 
of New York. Beyond this the direc- 
tive foi-ce drops off rapidly, being 
about one-sixtieth at 89° latitude, and 
at the Poles its directive force is zero. 
The directive indicating ability of 



the Sperry Gyro-Compass is created 
by the effect of gravity on the ballis- 
tic when, due to its rotation, the 
earth causes the gyro's rotating axis 
to tilt. At the Poles the earth's rota- 
tion will not produce any tilt because 
the gyro axis will be exactly at right 
angles to the axis of rotation of the 
earth; hence the Compass will no 
longer have any directive properties. 
Due to the rapidly decreasing di- 
rective force of the compass a point 
would be reached where the friction 
and mechanical limitations of the 
compass would make its indications 
unreliable. Just how many degrees 
from the Pole this would be it is im- 
possible to determine, but from the 
experience of Sir Hubert Wilkins 
with the Gyro-Compass at 83° north 
latitude, we have every assurance 
that the Gyro-Compass will act with 
entire satisfaction as a compass to 
within 300 miles of the Pole. This 
would, of course, apply to either 
Pole. So any who feel like trying a 
"farthest north" excursion aboard a 
vessel need have no fear of the Gyro- 
Compass going dizzy just when they 
will most need it. In any event, all 
reports i-eceived from Jacob Ruppert 
and Bear of Oakland indicate that 
their Gyro-Compasses are giving good 
service in the vicinity of Little Am- 
erica. Should they eventually push 
somewhat closer within the Antarc- 




In the polar seas 
where the sun 
shines at midnight 
in summer, the win- 
ter night is long 
and navigation is 
uncertain, the gyro- 
compass has proved 
its reliability. 



Unsinkable 

Motor Lifeboats 

for Super Liner 

Twenty-four unsinkable lifeboats, 
made of steel, each having a capa- 
city of 145 persons, will safeguard 
the passengers and crew of the 
Queen Mary, new Cunard White Star 
superliner. 

Twenty-two of the lifeboats are 36 
feet long, 12 feet wide, and 5 feet 
deep, while the remaining two are 30 
feet long, 9 feet wide, and 4 feet 
deep. Each of the boats is powered 
with an 18 horsepower diesel engine, 
exceptionally large for this type of 
lifeboat. 

Each of these boats is also fitted 
with the latest type of wireless ap- 
paratus, and has enough buoyancy 
chambers to float its steel hull, en- 
gine and 145 passengers, plus an ex- 
cess buoyancy capacity of 15 per 
cent. 

A notable feature lies in the fact 
that each lifeboat, when loaded to ca- 
pacity, may be lowered by one man 
with the engines going. A single lev- 
er, which lowers both ends of the 
lifeboat simultaneously from the 
davits, eliminates all danger of foul- 
ing the ropes. 

Exhaustive tests have proved the 
remarkable stability and safety of 
the Queen Mary's lifeboats under all 
emergency conditions likely to be en- 
countered by the huge liner. Even in 
a fully flooded condition the Diesel 
lifeboat engine can be started up and 
will run until the fuel supply is ex- 
hausted. The motor is enclosed in a 
watertight casing, all controls and 
starting handles being carried out- 
side, and a watertight hatch and air 
inlet are fitted on top of the casing. 

As a protection against freezing, 
the watertight casing round the mo- 
tor is also heavily insulated with 
blue asbestos lagging 1^2 inches 
thick all over the inside to keep out 
the cold and retain the heat. The 
heat is supplied by a non-flame type 
of heater, fitted inside the casing 
connected to the ship's circuit by 
plug, automatically disconnecting 
when the lifeboat is launched. 



76 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



«AN FflANClSC« 
t^BDC LIBRARY 



New Motorship Jutlandia 



Successful completion of the maid- 
en voyage of M.S. Jutlandia, the East 
Asiatic Company's newest addition to 
its fleet of 27 motorships, is reported 
by Christian Jensen, Pacific Coast 
manager for the company. 

Jutlandia, which is in the Copen- 
hagen-Bangkok run, is notable be- 
cause she is the first East Asiatic 
vessel to be built with the new Maier- 
form bow, which is designed to re- 
duce the resistance of the sea, pro- 
vide smoother riding and increase 
speed. The new type bow is a remind- 
er of the old clipper ships. On her 
test runs, Jutlandia, built in the 
Nakskov Shipyard, made a speed of 
17.1 knots. The contracted speed is 
15 knots at sea fully loaded. 

Original Jutlandia built in 1912, 
was the second large ocean-going 
Diesel motorship in service for any 
company. East Asiatic Motorship 
Selandia was the first. Both ships 
are still in service. The Selandia is 
still operated by the East Asiatic 
Company. The first Jutlandia which 
was recently engaged in the Pacific 
Coast-Orient service for the East 
Asiatic Company, has been sold to 
the Flood lines. Her name was chang- 
ed to the Nuomea, and she is now op- 
erated in the Pacific Coast-South 
Seas and Australia service. 

The new Jutlandia is built accord- 
ing to British Lloyds highest class, 
-f-lOO-A-l, and has the following di- 
mensions : 

Length (overall) 461'0" 

Breadth (mid.) 61'0' 

Depth (mid.) 36'0" 

Gross tonnage 8,457 tons 

Net tonnage 5,204 tons 

She is provided with water-tight 
bulkheads in conformity to the Lon- 
don Convention for Safety of Life 
at Sea. 

The main engine, which consists 
of two 5-cylinder B. & W. two-stroke 
motors, develops normally 8,000 
LH.P. Power for auxiliary machin- 
ery, light and heat is provided by 
three electric generators, each driven 
by a 3-cylinder two-stroke diesel 
motor, supplied by Burmeister and 
Wain. 




Most prominent featun 



Two steel decks extend throughout 
the length of the ship, and a third 
deck in Nos. 1, 2 and 3 holds. There 
are five large hatches leading to the 
cargo holds, which have a capacity 
of 539.570 cubic feet. These are 
served by sixteen cargo derricks with 
electrical winches. Their lifting ca- 
pacity varies from 3 to 10 tons. In 
addition, the vessel is provided with 
one 40 ton derrick. The steering en- 
gine and windlass are both electric- 
ally operated. 

Passenger accommodations consist 
of 25 double and 9 single staterooms. 
All are large and roomy, are pro- 
vided with broad beds, and all 
double staterooms have private bath. 

A large dining room seats 70 per- 
sons. There are also a handsomely 
furnished smoking room, ladies' 
lounge and bar. Opposite the dining 
room is a play and dining room, de- 
signed like a modern English nurs- 
eiy, for children. All staterooms and 
social rooms can be ventilated and 
heated by either warm or cold air 
and thus the ordinary electric fans 
and heating apparatus have been 
avoided. 

Her galley is fully electric and 
there are roomy refrigerated store- 
rooms for the provisions. A modern 
distilling plant insures pure drink- 
ing water and washing water. On 
the fore-deck is a swimming pool for 
the passengers. In the aft deck-house 
is a laundry with washing machines, 
drying machines and ironing ma- 
chines, all electrically operated. 



Jutlandia is her Maiertorni bov 



Fort Point 

Light Station 
Discontinued 

On September 1 the Fort Point 
Light Station, San Francisco, prob- 
ably the second light to be estab- 
lished in California, was discontin- 
ued. Alcatraz Light, the first to be 
established in the State, was built 
in 1854, and Fort Point, together with 
Bonita Point, Farallon Islands, Point 
Pinos, and Point Loma, were built 
the following year, in 1855. 

Discontinuance of Fort Point is 
brought about by the erection of the 
new Golden Gate Bridge, the north 
pylon of which has been constructed 
outside of the fog signal and light, 
cutting them off from vessels pass- 
ing through the Golden Gate. The 
headland at Fort Point, and the off- 
lying shoal are now marked by a 
light and fog signal maintained joint- 
ly by the State highway commission 
and the contractor, and when the 
bridge is completed these aids will be 
permanently located on the main 
bridge pier. 

One of the main anchorages for 
the bridge was constructed in the 
rear of the station and adjacent to 
the location of the old station rain 
shed. In excavating for this pier the 
adobe walls of a portion of the old 
Spanish fort were uncovered. These 
structures were probably among the 
first to be erected on San Francisco 
Bay. 



MARCH, 1935 



77 



Marine Use of 

Corrosion Resisting Steels 

A Summary of Their Use in the United States Navy and Some Conclusions as to 
Their Practical Value in Various Uses Aboard Ship 

^y Ernest E. Thum 



Rumors of serious failures of cor- 
rosion resisting steel in warships of 
the U. S. Navy have been circulating 
for several months, and finally have 
reached publication on the first page 
of the New York Times and in an 
Associated Press dispatch saying the 
Navy had decided to eliminate such 
steel from vessels now under con- 
struction. This bad news (quite in- 
accurate) has traveled fast, and, al- 
though quickly denied by responsible 
naval officers, has disturbed many 
consumers of the corrosion resisting 
steels, and raised some doubts as to 
the utility of these alloys for severe 
service. The facts are worthy of 
record : 

The Bureau of Construction and 
Repair, U. S. Navy, has been inter- 
ested in corrosion resisting steels 
ever since their commercial produc- 
tion. They offered opportunities for 
weight saving and permanence when 
replacing galvanized steel or wrought 
iron; the latter either had to be used 
in extra heavy section to provide for 
corrosion losses or replaced before 
the ship became obsolete. Weight 
saved on the top sides increases the 
stability of the ship and permits an 
equal increase in power plant or 
armament. Consequently the Navy 
has put an important tonnage of 
strip and sheet analyzing 18 per cent 
chromium, 8 per cent nickel (the so- 
called 18-8) into deck houses, floors, 
hatch covers, and a variety of other 
structures exposed to atmospheric 
corrosion in port and to dashing 
spray or water in a seaway. In these 
places the metal has served excel- 
lently, and the Navy has no intention 
of avoiding such uses in the future. 
The same may also be said of some 
other applications of corrosion re- 



sistant steel where the metal is at- 
tached to the hull so it is submerged 
almost continuously, such as rods 
and arms for operating diving fins 
on submarines, and stranded wire 
cables for mooring. 

These satisfactory results encour- 
aged the naval constructors to put 
corrosion resisting steel into two ap- 
plications in which unfortunately it 
did not stand up — namely, gasoline 
stowage tanks and fire lines. Let us 
examine the circumstances surround- 
ing such failures. 

Salt water is pumped into the bot- 
tom of the tanks so the gasoline can 
be drawn off under hydraulic pres- 
sure at all times; consequently the 
stowage tanks contain variable quan- 
tities of gasoline, doped with tetra- 
ethyl lead and ethylene dibromide, 
and sea water more or less fouled 
with marine organisms or diluted 
sewage. Tanks on the first aircraft 
carriers had been made of galvanized 
steel plate, welded, with welds tinned 
— a reasonably satisfactory construc- 
tion. On the newer ships the tanks 
were to be built into the hull in quite 
inaccessible locations, and the use of 
18-8 promised absolute immunity 
from leakage (most dangerous in 
confined spaces aboard ship!) for 
the entire life of the hull. 

The second unsatisfactory experi- 
ence was with fire lines of thin-wall- 
ed seamless tubing, installed on the 
latest 10,000-ton cruisers. In older 
ships galvanized steel or iron pipe 
has been used, much heavier in wall 
thickness and of less life than the 
hull. It was anticipated that the 18-8 
would resist sea water perfectly, and 
not only save considerable weight, 
but also the cost of expensive re- 
placements. 



In both situations the stainless 
steel failed by pitting in as short a 
time as six months! These two are 
the applications which have given all 
the trouble, which are being removed 
from existing ships, and which will 
not be resumed until the cause is 
definitely known and cured. It would 
be a dis-service to corrosion resisting 
steel to gloss over the facts, and 
allow other users to stumble into 
similar troubles. A multitude of 
laboratory salt spray tests and ex- 
tensive naval experience prove that 
commercial 18-8 is totally resistant 
to common salt (sodium chloride), 
sea salt, and sea water when moving 
vigorously and aerated, or to sea- 
shore and marine atmospheres. 
Trouble by pitting apparently exists 
only in stagnant sea or harbor water, 
and there is not the least cause for 
worry about a multitude of applica- 
tions in dozens of industries where 
chloride ions, stagnant solutions, and 
foul deposits are not encountered or 
not permttied. 

Very serious study has been given 
to these failures, both by naval per- 
sonnel and various metallurgists. It 
would be well to list some of the 
findings to date. 

The first gasoline tanks were of 
welded plate, and the heat treatment 
subsequent to fabrication was impro- 
perly done. Damaging pits occurred 
in locations where the metal had not 
been quenched rapidly enough in 
final heat treatment, a condition 
which makes 18-8 susceptible to in- 
tergranular corrosion, as is well 
known. To avoid this condition on 
later tanks they were made of metal 
higher in alloying elements (ap- 
proaching 19 per cent chromium, 9 
per cent nickel), lower in carbon (be- 



78 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



low 0.06 per cent), and unusually 
clear of solid non-metallic inclusions 
— all matters which are believed to 
increase the stability of the alloy — 
yet serious pitting occurred in a few 
months! Location of these pits could 
not be correlated with welds, bends, 
or position of plate. Large areas 
were unaffected. Some pits were so 
small or tightly closed as to elude 
careful inspection and were located 
only by "weeping" of gasoline out- 
side. The under-surface cavities, 
when cut into, are of various shapes, 
and contain entrapped moisture so 
tenaciously that bubbles of corrosion 
products are exuded even after 
jmonths in dry, warm storage. Others 
jare open at the top, as big as oyster 
ishells. 

I Pits in the fire-line piping were 

also independent of position, prox- 
jimity to welds, pipe ends, or contact 
I with dissimilar metals. Cast 18-8 
ivalve fittings were punctured as 

rapidly as the pipe walls only 25 per 
jcent as thick. The worst pitting in 
jthis line occurred in dead ends where 

the water had been almost com- 
ipletely stagnant since installation. 
I The conclusion which may be 
I reached from the data is that general 
I attack by chemical reaction with sea 
] water is not a factor in these two 
j services; neither is corrosion by 

oxidation, by intergranular attack, 
I nor by electrolysis set up by contact 

with dissimilar metals. Some experi- 
[menters blame the trouble on (a) 
.contact corrosion" under non- 
imetallic substances (either scale or 

inclusions), or under solid particles 
jbrought in by the water, or (b) cor- 
;rosion by "oxygen concentration 
jcells" existing in porosities and pits 
lor caused by lodgment of organisms 
|or even dead organic matter which 
jhas a reducing or deoxidizing nature. 

If these conclusions are correct, 
then a successful 18-8 for these two 
I services must be free of non-metallic 
inclusions with polished surfaces, 
and the sea water must be filtered 
I even of microscopic organisms and 
' particles of metal from pumps or 
.valves. Obviously, none of these re- 
1 quirements can now be met, either by 
steel maker, fabricator or naval en- 
|gineer, and the decision to abandon 
18-8 for gasoline tanks and fire lines 
until more accurate information is 
available is not to be criticized. On 
the other hand, investigation may 
show that the situation is not nearly 
as hopele.ss as it appears to the 



theorist. 

It is noteworthy that the condi- 
tions for successful naval service 
differ from the unsuccessful ones in 
that the sea water in the first case is 
freely circulating and well aerated, 
whereas in the latter it is relatively 
stagnant. Idle boats in lake waters 
also pit severely, whereas busy boats 
have no such troubles with hull 
plates. 

Extensive experimentation by re- 
search laboratories of at least two 
steel producers indicates that attach- 
ed particles of matter, either organic 
or inorganic, do not start a pit, even 
when using harbor water as the cor- 
I'odent, and particles of muck taken 
from the damaged pipe and tanks as 
accelerators. On the other hand, fair- 
ly rapid pitting can be induced in 
18-8 by special solutions ("pitting 
solutions," they may be called) such 
as ferric chloride and sodium hypo- 
chlorite, and by certain solids, such 
as graphite and rubber. 

Consideration leads to the thought 
that the pitting corrosion may best be 
avoided by an alloy of considerably 
different analysis from 18-8 — one 
that is better capable of resisting at- 
tack by an o.xygen concentration cell. 
The Bureau of Construction and Re- 
pair, U. S. Navy, has therefore con- 
sidered the desirability of selecting 
individual ships in each of which 
will be installed a complete system of 
pipe of material which offers defi- 
nite promise of being free from the 
pitting type of corrosion in sea 
water. Preliminary investigations in- 
dicate five such materials: (a) 18-8 
with 3 per cent molybdenum; (b) 
18-8 with 5 per cent manganese and 
1 per cent copper; (c) monel metal; 
(d) 70 per cent copper, 30 per cent 
nickel alloy; (e) rubber-lined steel. 
Results of such trial installations 
will be awaited with the greatest in- 
terest. 

While the unexpected failures of 
18-8 in two classes of naval service 
are extremely regrettable, there is no 
need for consternation among other 
users. It is not the first misapplica- 
tion made with a new material — even 
the corrosion resisting steels have 
successfully recovered the ground 
lost after a failure in a service for 
which they have been mistakenly 
recommended when another analysis 
or another alloy of different nature 
was far better fitted. 

While the cause and cure of pit- 
ting in stagnant sea water has not 



yet been discovered, the search is 
vigorous enough to warrant success. 
We know enough about it already 
that any intelligent user of stainless 
steel can appraise the conditions 
which exist in his service, and deter- 
mine whether there is any cause for 
worry. If chloride solutions are han- 
dled in high chromium steels they 
should be kept neutral, entirely free 
from ferric chloride, in continuous 
circulation, and free from organic or 
inorganic solids. Periodic cleaning of 
the equipment is also quite desirable. 
Precautions such as these have been 
in use for years in innumerable wa- 
ter piping systems where an intelli- 
gent effort to mitigate corrosion has 
been made. 

[Reprinted in Abstract from 
Metal Progress.] 



Marine Insurance 

Business for 1934 

The year 1933 witnessed, as will be 
remembered, an almost unprecedent- 
ed disaster in the burning of the 
French liner L'Atlantique. Last year 
had a similar loss, and, singularly 
enough, from the same cause, viz.: 
fire, in the burning of the Morro 
Castle, which unfortunately caused 
a very serious loss of life as well as 
a loss to underwriters of over $4,- 
000,000. 

Another major disaster was the 
City of Cambridge which went ashore 
between Manila and China. This re- 
sulted in probably the largest single 
cargo loss of the year. The typhoon 
and tidal wave in the vicinity of 
Kobe and Osaka also involved cargo 
underwriters in substantial losses. 
An unusual disaster, because of its 
dramatic interest, was the sinking of 
the Nantucket Shoals Lightship on 
May 15th by the White Star liner 
Olympic. 

Our marine premium income for 
the year amounted to $3,300,000 
against $2,869,000 in 1933. This re- 
flects an increase in Inland rather 
than Ocean business although the 
Department of Commerce reports for 
the year — exports from the United 
States to the value of $2,101,000,000 
for 1934 against $1,647,000,000 in 
1933 and imports of $1,635,000,000 
against $1,433,000,000. 

Losses incurred during 1934 were 
$1,939,000 against $1,571,000 in 1933 
(Page 80, Column 3) 



MARCH, 1935 



79 



Pacific Navigation School 

A San Francisco Institution where Young Officers in the Pacific Coast Merchant 
Marine may Perfect Themselves for Advancement 



Recent tragic and partly unac- 
countable disasters at sea in the 
American Merchant Marine have fo- 
cussed the attention of Congress and 
of the maritime bureaus of the De- 
partment of Commerce, on the desir- 
ability of revising the standards for 
qualifying American seamen to the 
various grades of office in the Am- 
erican Merchant Marine. This atti- 
tude has already resulted in a 
strengthening of the Bureau of 
Navigation and Steamboat Inspec- 
tion, and in several proposals to use 
the experience of U.S. navy officers 
in giving perhaps more unbiased in- 
spection on ship safety and sea- 
worthiness. 

Published articles emanating from 
the Department of Commerce indi- 
cate that the master and deck officer 
of the future, before being given his 
papers, will have a much more thor- 
ough test than has been the custom 
in the past. 

Such matters as a working knowl- 
edge of the principles of radio, of the 
elements of a ship's power plant, or 
of the basic truths of naval architec- 
ture, may be added to the present 
requirements. 

There may be great differences in 
opinions as to the possible benefit to 
the standards from such a course. 
After all, it is experience and char- 
acter that count, and these are not 
always revealed in written and oral 
tests. Nevertheless, there can be no 
doubt that the present trend is to 
raise the standard of deck officer 
personnel through the drastic rais- 
ing of requirements in these tests. 

It was to meet the need for an ade- 
quate school along these lines that 
Captain Henry Holm of San Fran- 
cisco founded the Pacific Navigation 
School. Here, thorough and careful 
instruction in the basic fundamentals 
of their profession will be obtainable 
at moderate cost by ambitious deck 
officers. 

Captain Holm started his sea ex- 
perience in 1917 as a deck boy on the 
famous bark John Ena, and served 
in that capacity for two years. He 




Capt. Henry Holm 

then served on various steamers as 
third mate, second mate and chief 
mate. Finally in January, 1925, hav- 
ing passed all requirements for un- 
limited license as master some time 
previously, he was appointed Cap- 
tain of the steamer Captain A. F. 
Lucas. At that time he was the 
youngest master in the Standard Oil 
of California fleet of tankers. He 
had double I'esponsibility in this, his 
first command, since tanker Captain 
A. F. Lucas almost constantly towed 
the oil barge S. 0. Co. No. 93. 

Since that first command. Captain 
Holm has been master at various 
times of practically every tanker in 
the fleet of Standard Oil Company of 
California. With this experience as 
a background he will be able to give 
the students at the Pacific Naviga- 
tion School a very practical view- 
point on the application of their 
theoretical knowledge in the various 
courses. As he, himself, expresses it: 

"Feeling sure that American Ship- 
ping has a. bright future and that the 
class of men who will fill the respon- 
sible positions will have to have good 
fundamental knowledge of their pro- 
fession, it seems only natural that a 
place should be provided where this 
can be obtained. With this in mind, 
I have ventured to establish a Naut- 
ical School. 

"At the present time the average 



man wishes to obtain merely the 
scant knowledge necessary to pass 
the elementary examinations as now 
given. It is my belief that some time 
in the near future the whole system 
of examinations will undergo a 
change so that a more thorough 
knowledge and understanding of the 
profession will be required. There- 
fore as the standards of the require- 
ments are raised, so will the stand- 
ards of the American Nautical 
Schools be raised, and a more thor- 
ough and intensive course of in- 
struction can be given. 

"It is to the young men of today 
that the ship owner will intrust his 
property later on and it behooves i 
these young men to prepare them- 
selves for this great responsibility." 



Marine Insurance 

(Continued from Page 79) 

which clearly reflects the heavy loss 
record for the year. 

According to the annual report of 
Lloyd's Register of Shipping for the 
year ending June 30, 1934, the laid- 
up tonnage of the world has been re- 
duced from 15,000,000 tons on June 
30, 1932, to 8,000,000 tons on the 
same date in 1934. Much of this re- 
duction, however, can be accounted 
for by the fact that almost 3,000,000 
tons of idle tonnage were sold for 
breaking-up purposes. 

During 1934 there were two out- 
standing launchings — one, the Cun- 
ard White Star liner Queen Mary, 
73,000 gross tons; the other the 
French liner Normandie (this launch 
of course took place October 29, 
1933), 79,000 tons — the latter, with 
an overall measurement of 1,029 feet, 
being the largest vessel afloat. These 
vessels are being built for transat- 
lantic service and will cost in the 
neighborhood of $35,000,000 each — 
an amount far beyond the carrying 
capacity of the marine underwriting 
markets of the world. 

(Annual Report President Levison, Fireman's 
Fund Insurance Company.) 



80 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



'Proposed New Deal for 

American Merchant Marine 



Full Text of Salient ^arts of President Roosevelt's Message 
on Shipping, March ^th, 75)35 



To me there are three reasons tor answering this 
question in the attirmative. The first is that in time 
of peace subsidies granted by other nations, shipping 
combines and other restrictive or rebating methods 
may well be used to the detriment of American 
shippers. The maintenance of fair competition alone 
calls for American Flag ships of sufficient ton- 
nage to carry a reasonable portion of our foreign 
commerce. 

Second, in the event of a major war in which the 
United States is not involved, our commerce, in the 
absence of an adequate American merchant marine, 
might find itself seriously crippled because of its 
inability to secure bottoms for neutral peaceful for- 
eign trade. 

Third, in the event of a war in which the United 
States itself might be engaged, American Flag ships 
are obviously needed not only for naval auxiliaries, 
but also for the maintenance of reasonable and neces- 
sary commercial intercourse with other nations. We 
should remember lessons learned in the last war. 

In many instances in our history the Congress has 
provided for various kinds of disguised subsidies to 
American shipping. In recent years the Congress has 
provided this aid in the form of lending money at 
low rates of interest to American shipping companies 
for the purpose of building new ships for foreign 
trade. It has, in addition, appropriated large annual 
sums under the guise of payments for ocean mail 
contracts. 

This lending of money for ship building has in 
practice been a failure. Few ships have been built 
and many difficulties have arisen over repayment of 
the loans. Similar difficulties have attended the grant- 
ing of ocean mail contracts. The Government today 
is paying annually about $30,000,000 for the carry- 



ing of mails which would cost, under normal, ocean 
rates, only $3,000,000. The difference, $27,000,000, 
is a subsidy, and nothing but a subsidy. But given 
under this disguised form it is an unsatisfactory and 
not an honest way of providing the aid that Govern- 
ment ought to give shipping. 

I propose that we end this subterfuge. If the Con- 
gress decides that it will maintain a reasonably ade- 
quate American merchant marine, I believe that it 
can well afford honestly to call a subsidy by its right 
name. 

Approached in this way, a subsidy amounts to a 
comparatively simple thing. It must be based upon 
providing for American shipping Government aid to 
make up the differential between American and for- 
eign shipping costs. It should cover first the differ- 
ence in the cost of building ships; second, the differ- 
ence in the cost of operating ships, and, finally, it 
should take into consideration the liberal subsidies 
that many foreign governments provide for their 
shipping. Only by meeting this threefold differential 
can we expect to maintain a reasonable place in ocean 
commerce for ships flying the American Flag, and 
at the same time maintain American standards. 

In setting up adequate provisions for subsidies 
for American shipping the Congress should provide 
for the termination of existing ocean mail contracts 
as rapidly as possible, and it should terminate the 
practice of lending Government money for ship 
building. 

It should provide annual appropriations for sub- 
sidies sufficiently large to cover the differentials 
that I have described. 

I am submitting to you herewith two reports deal- 
ing with American shipping: A report of an inter- 

( Continued on Page 8nD) 



MARCH, 1935 



80A 



Bethlehem, Union Plant, 

Launches Another Stee 
• • . for Youm 



The sea-going all-steel bai-ge YBIO 
took the water at the Bethlehem 
Shipbuilding Corporation's yard on 
Saturday. February 23. 

The keel of the barge was laid on 
January 2. and the design and con- 
struction follows closely the com- 
panion vessels built in 1931 by the 
Union plant for the same owners. 

The YBIO grosses 730 tons, with 
726 net tonnage available for the 
transport of thirty-five to forty 
thousand cases of pineapple. She is 
175 feet long. 45 foot beam, and 11 
foot depth. Our illustrations show 
the method of stowing the cases, 
with channel-iron girders and wood- 
en beam uprights. This new barge 
will augment the famous Young 
Brothers' fleet which has for over 
thirty-five years engaged in towing, 
freighting and barging services in 
the Hawaiian Islands. In this work 
they maintain a fleet of seven deep- 
sea tugs, one freight boat, one fire 
boat, and numerous deep-sea barges, 
both wood and steel. 

The bulk of the towing work is 
open, deep sea service, between the 
islands, and this work has developed 
in their personnel and management 
a remarkably efficient technique in 
handling heavy deep-sea tows. 

The YBIO was officially christen- 
ed at a dignified and colorful cere- 
mony presided over by A. S. Gunn, 
vice-president of the Bethlehem yard 
at San Francisco. 

Mrs. William Lass, wife of an ex- 
ecutive of Alexander and Baldwin, 
Ltd., was the sponsor and J. A. 
(Jack) Young, first vice-president 
and general manager of Young 
Brothers, Ltd., of Honolulu, repre- 
sented the owners. 

The new barge took the water 
gracefully, while proudly displaying 



her four official flags. The appear- 
ance of the Hawaiian territorial flag 
was interesting to all in attendance. 
Our readers will identify it in the 
accompanying views, along with the 
Young Brothers' house flag, the 
Union Jack, and the American flag. 
The Hawaiian flag, Mr. Young told 
us, is reverenced by the true island- 




Mrs. William Lass, sponsor, with 
J. A. (Jack) Young. 



ers, and every vessel launched for 
the Young Brothers' fleet has borne 
this emblem. 

On the launching platform were 
many invited guests prominent in 
Pacific maritime affairs. 

At a neighboring pier was berthed 
the oceangoing Diesel tug, Mamo, re- 
cently arrived from Honolulu. This 
now famous twin-screw tug was dis- 
patched by the owners across 2100 
miles of ocean to tow the new barge 
to her Honolulu home. 

The Mamo, in command of Captain 
Robert (Bob) Purdy,made the voyage 
in 8 days and 10 hours, and is expect- 
ed to return to the islands in the re- 
markable towing time of ten days. 



Readers will remember the maiden 
voyage of the Mamo "Chief of 
Chiefs." Back in April of 1931, she 
sailed through the Golden Gate with 
two husky barges in tow and report- 
ed in Honolulu in 10 days, 15 hours 
— a noteworthy run. 

The Mamo, ninth vessel of the 
Young Brothers' fleet to be powered 
with Fairbanks-Morse diesels, was 
given an engine inspection at the 
Bethlehem yard, upon her arrival 
February 22 — practically four years 
since she went into service. The main 
propulsion engines, twin 750 horse- 
power, 5 cylinder, were found in 
wonderful condition with virtually 
no wear, which the finest calipering 
could detect. 

The departure of the Mamo with 
the YBIO in tow, scheduled for Mon- 
day, March 4, will attract consider- 
able notice along the San Francisco 
front, but to Jack Young and her 
sturdy skipper. Captain Purdy, it's 
all in the day's work, and to them a 
little jaunt across two thousand 
miles of the Pacific is just a ferry- 
boat ride. 

Four years ago, two towing lines 
were used. Barge number one of the 
tandem was handled with a 12'-inch 
Tubbs Supercore towing hawser. The 
second barge was towed with a wire 
hawser submerged under the first 
barge. This method of handling two 
or more barges is a favorite with 
Jack Young who, in his thirty-five 
years of coping with unusually stren- 
uous towing situations, has won an 
enviable reputation as a real "tug- 
boat man." 

Pacific Marine Review will bring 
its readers in our April edition, de- 
tails of the Mamo's crossing. 

She is a tidy craft, of 129 feet 
length, beautifully designed for her 
(Continued on Page SOD) 



SOB 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



i 



arge . . 
rothers 



Progressive views telling 
the story of the launch- 
ing of the Y B 10— all- 
steel barge constructed at 
the Union Plant of the 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding 
Corporation for Young 
Brothers of Honolulu. 
The barge will be towed 
to the Islands by the 
Diesel Tug Mamo for 
service in pineapple trans- 
porting. The Y B 10 will 
handle 40,000 cases 
or more. 




MARCH. 1935 



80C 



The Mamo Tows New 

Steel Barge 2100 Miles 



(Continued from Paso SOA) 



service and a marvel for maneuver- 
ing and long hauls. We were impress- 
ed with her comfortable quarters. In 
the forward end of the deck house 
on the port side is a nice stateroom 
with two berths for the mates; and 
on the starboard side, the officers' 
mess. Aft of these rooms is a com- 
partment housing the galley on the 
starboard side and the crew's mess 
port side. The galley is equipped 
with an oil-burning range and with 
a Frigidaire refrigerator. Between 
the after end of the engine room and 
the forward end of the towing en- 
gine room there is a nice stateroom 
and office for the chief engineer aiid 



crew and officers' washrooms. 

The crew has a large room below 
the main deck forward, reached by 
passageway from the engine room or 
by companion from the deck. This is 
fitted with eight galvanized pipe 
standee berths, a table, and individ- 
ual steel lockers for each man. This 
room has an air of spaciousness and 
good ventilation not usually found in 
a tug's forecastle due to the con- 
struction of the fuel and lubricating 
oil tanks, the tank tops of which are 
about four feet below the deck and 
so leave a clear space of that depth 
for the full width of the hull and ex- 
tending from the after end of the 



crew'.s quarters to the forward bulk- 
head of the engine room. 

Captain Purdy is the "commodore" 
of the Young Brothers' fleet and one 
of the most skillful towboat naviga- 
tors on the Pacific. 

Bon voyage to the Mamo and to 
the YBIO! 

• Flash! 

As we go to press with this last 
form of our March edition, we learn 
that the Mamo got away at 9:3.5 on 
Tuesday morning, March 5. Officials 
of Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corpora- 
tion's Union Plant were impressed 
with the tug's magnificent handling 
of her steel barge tow down the Bay. 

Aboard are Captain Bob Purdy, 
picturesque skipper, and Jack A. 
Young, Jr., navigation officer. 

We'll have details of the voyage in 
our next edition. 



President Roosevelt's Message on 

Shipping Subsidy, March 4, 1935 



(Continued from Page 80A) 



departmental committee known as the committee on 
shipping policy, appointed June 18, 1934, by the 
Secretary ot Commerce, and a report to me from 
the Postmaster General on ocean mail contracts pre- 
pared pursuant to an executive order of July 11, 
1934. 

Reports which have been made to me by approp' 
riate authorities in the executive branch of the Gov- 
ernment have shown that some American shipping 
companies have engaged in practices and abuses 
which should and must be ended. Some of these have 
to do with the improper operating of subsidiary com- 
panies, the payment of excessive salaries, the engag- 
ing in businesses not directly a part of shipping, and 
other abuses which have made for poor management, 
improper use of profits and scattered efforts. 

Legislation providing for adequate aid to the Am- 
erican merchant marine should include not only ade- 
quate appropriation for such purposes and appro- 
priate safeguards for its expenditure, but a reorgan- 
ization of the machinery for its administration. The 
quasi'judicial and quasi-legislative duties of the pres- 



ent shipping board bureau of the Department of 
Commerce should be transferred for the present to 
the Interstate Commerce Commission. Purely ad- 
ministrative functions, however, such as information 
and planning, ship inspection and the maintenanc 
of aids to navigation should, of course, remain in 
the Department of Commerce. 

An American merchant marine is one of our mosi 
firmly established traditions. It was, during the first _' 
half of our national existence, a great and growing 
asset. Since then it has declined in value and import- 
ance. The time has come to square this traditional 
ideal with effective performance. 



i 



4 



Free competition among the nations in the build- 
ing of modern shipping facilities is a manifestation 
of wholly desirable and wholesome national ambi- 
tion. In such free competition the American people 
want us to be properly represented. The American 
people want to use American ships. Their Govern' ■ 
ment owes it to them to make certain that such ships 
are in keeping with our national pride and national 
needs. 



SOD 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



General Characteristics of 

French Super Liner Normandie 

A Statement of the Principal Facts Published To Date Concerning 
the Hull and Machinery of the World's Largest Ship 



On May 29. next, the French Line 
Will enter the new super-liner, Nor- 
mandie, in the North Atlantic ferry 
(competition, running from Havre to 
New York via Plymouth. She will be 
by far the largest ship in service in 
the world. Her characteristics and 
;capacities are, therefore, of great 
interest to all ship-minded folk. 

To date, as published from official 
sources of French Line publicity, her 
principal measurements are: 



length overall 1029 (t. 

Len^h between perpendiculars 963 ft. 

Bejm at main deck 117 h. 9 ins. 

£eatn corbelled promenade deck 1 19 ft. 6 ins. 

Heipbt keel to top chart house I 28 ft. 

Height (ore mast above keel Over 2 10 ft. 

Height jftermast above keel - Over 207 ft. 

Loaded draft _ 36 ft '^ ins. 

Height of foremast above waterLne Over 193 ft 6 ins. 
Height of aftermast above waterlinc-Over 170 ft. 6 itis. 

Height of funneb above waterline Over 154 ft. 

Circumference of funnels 160 ft. 6 ins. 

Loaded displacement „ _ _ 67,500 tons 

Registered gross measurement _ 79,280 tons 

Cargo spaces _ 123,295 cu. ft. 



Notwithstanding the use of 5000 
tons of high tensile steel in the 
strength members of the hull, the 
steel structure weighs 30.000 tons. 
Many exceptionally large and heavy 
steel forgings enter into this total, 
as, for instance, the stern frame in 
two pieces — the "heavier of which 
weighs over 74 tons; the four spec- 
tacle frames each weighing fifty 
tons; and the rudder and rudder post 
weighing together over 125 tons. 

Welding was extensively used in 
fabricating and assembling the hull, 
but there were enough riveted joints 
to require the driving of over eleven 
million rivets. 

Eleven watertight transverse bulk- 
heads divide the hull into twelve 
main water-tight compartments. Over 
the entire middle portion of the ship 
occupied by the boiler and engine 
rooms, longitudinal bulkheads form 



a double shell. The space between 
the outer and inner shells on each 
side of the ship is subdivided into 27 
compartments or a total of 54 which 
are used: 30 to carry fuel oil, 22 to 
carry feed water for boilers, and two 
always empty. 

The double bottom extends over 
the entire length and is subdivided 
by water- and oil-tight bulkheads in- 
to 32 compartments, of which 20 are 
for boiler feed water, 18 for fuel oil, 
and four for sea water. 

A great deal of experimental re- 
search and model testing was done 
in arriving at the final design for 
Normandie's hull. She goes further 
in stream line effect than any ship 
yet produced. Perhaps her most ad- 
vertised and most prominent feature 
is the turtle back deck over the fore- 
castle. This deck sweeps back from 
her sharp but widely flared stem to 




Scale model of the huge new terminal at Havre from which Normandie will clear on her transatlantic voyages. 



MARCH. 1935 



81 




View of new Havre marine terminal from the sea sfiowing Normandie and Isle de France alongside. 



the break of the forecastle and with- 
out a projection of any kind, such as 
windlass, ventilators, bitts or chocks. 
The after end of this turtle back 
deck ends in a coaming modeled 
much like that of a fast, stream-lined 
motor-boat. The naval architects re- 
sponsible for Normandie's design 
claim that this turtle back forecastle 
deck will be a revelation in economy 
of propulsion against head seas. 

Figures for some of the public 
rooms and promenades give an idea 
of the vast open and inclosed spaces. 
The funnel construction carries the 
flues up the sides of the hull to meet 
above the boat deck, thus leaving the 
lower deck spaces clear amidships. 
The main first class dining saloon, 
over 300 feet long and three decks 
high, is unparalleled on any ship. 
Her first class built-in swimming 
pool is the largest afloat, being 112 
feet long and 30 feet wide. The sun 
deck has an unobstructed space 300 
feet long by 75 feet wide. Boats are 
carried on overhead McLaughlin 
davits, giving an open promenade 
900 feet long and 20 feet wide. On 
the promenade deck which is enclos- 
ed for its entire length there is a 
first class promenade space 450 feet 
long and 15 feet wide on each side of 
the ship. 

Normandie will carry passengers 
in three classe.s — first class, tourist 
class, and third class. She will carry 
a crew of 1339, including officers, 
105 deck hands, and 184 engine room 
hands. There will be one captain, 
one associate captain, one first of- 
ficer, one assistant first officer, six 
navigating officers, two apprentices, 
three petty officers (boatswain, car- 
penter and master-at-arms), one 
chief engineer, one a.ssistant chief 
engineer, fifteen senior engineer of- 



ficers, nineteen junior engineer offi- 
cers, three doctors, one chief purser, 
one assistant chief purser, three jun- 
ior pursers, six wireless officers, 
and, last but not least, eighteen se- 
curity patrolmen. 

• Propulsion Machinery. 

Normandie's propulsion machinery 
is on the steam turbo-electric sys- 
tem. Twenty-nine water tube boilers 
supply steam at 400 pounds per 
square inch pressure, and 660 de- 
grees F. temperature to four steam 
turbines. Each of these turbines 
drives a three phase 5000 volt A. C. 
generator. The current from these 
generators energizes four motors, 
each of which drives one of the four 
propeller shafts. This electrical drive 
including the turbo-generators was 
designed and built by the Alsthom 
Company of Belfort, and at capacity 
develops 160,000 shaft horsepower. 
It is expected that the Normandie 
will make 30 knots fully loaded. 

Her hull and propulsion machinery 
are designed to make the voyage 
from Havre via Plymouth to New 
York in well under five days, regard- 
less of weather. Her schedule calls 
for a round voyage every two weeks. 

Electrical energy for auxiliary 
power, lighting, heating and cooking 
is supplied by six turbo generators, 
having a combined capacity of 60,000 
amperes at 220 volts. 

• Safety at Sea 

In addition to the great degree of 
water-tight subdivision in the hull, 
there are many features of design 
and equipment that minimize perils 
at sea on this great liner. The special 
care taken to minimize fire hazard is 



especially interesting. Partitions be- 
tween all cabins are made of a spe- 
cial wall board consisting of a sheet 
of duralumin between layers of as- 
bestos. The asbestos layers are fin- 
ished with fire-proof paint. Each i 
stateroom has fire detecting equip- 
ment installed, which not only rings : 
an alarm bell at the central fire sta- 
tion, but also automatically closes ;' 
all ventilators in the section involv- 
ed, and so eliminates drafts. All fire ij 
alarms will be instantly answered by d 
a force of well-trained men, whose n 
sole duty is inspection of the fire- i 
detecting equipment, fire alarm, fire 
isolation and fire extinguishing fea 
tures of the ship. In a recent test on 
a big French Line ship, the president 
of the International Federation of 
Firemen turned in an alarm without 
warning from the most remote part 
of the vessel. In one minute and 45 
seconds, a security squad headed by 
the security chief was on hand with 
all equipment necessary to handle a 
fire. 

Here is an item from the galley. 
The main electric range is 51 feet, 3 
inches, long; 6 feet, 10 inches wide; 
has 32 roasting ovens with a roasting 
capacity for 768 chickens simultane- 
ously, and weighs 20 tons. This range 
requires nearly 900 horsepower of 
energy when in full operation. 

Normandie is certainly an ambi- 
tious bid for supremacy on the North 
Atlantic ferry and here's hoping she 
wins that pennant, and holds it for a 
time at least. The French designers 
started the rest of the world on the 
right track in naval architecture, 
and it is only fitting that French de- 
signers, French builders, and French i 
shipowners should present to the 
maritime world the first 1000 foot 
super-ship. 



82 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Practicable Port Development 

A Discussion of Some of the Problems Surrounding New Port Projects 
and Their Economic Practicability on the Pacific Coast 



SBy A. H. Abel 

'Port Manager and Chief Engineer, Port oj Oakland 



Several years prior to 1914, the 
ports then in operation took definite 
steps to improve and enlarge their 
terminal facilities to adequately 
serv^e the greatly increased shipping 
expected as a result of the opening 
of the Panama Canal. This was the 
beginning of a comprehensive and 
concerted port development program 
along the entire coast for the hand- 
ling of general cargo for, previous 
to that time, with the exception of 
San Francisco, the ports were, so to 
speak, specialized ports to handle 
more particularly local commodities, 
such as lumber, grain, flour, canned 
fish, and petroleum products. The 
port situation was, under the then 
existing conditions, well balanced. 

Probably the most important and 
far reaching result, so far as the 
port situation was concerned, was 
the definite and permanent entrance 
of communities, as port authorities, 
in the construction and operation of 
water terminal facilities, generally 
through the medium of port districts 
and the expenditure of public funds 
therefor. 

Due to the rapidly expanding com- 
merce of this country and the world 
at large, the port business, as a 




Adequate carloading platform area and de- 
pressed trackage between transit sheds arc 
features of Oakland modern pier design. 

whole prospered, and communities, 
which had expended large sums of 
money for port improvements, were 
satisfied with their investments, and. 
undoubtedly. other communities, 
which had not then entered the field. 



felt that they had missed something 
and still had and, it is believed con- 
tinue to have, hopes of reaping large 
benefits by joining the procession. 
The port situation still was fairly 
well balanced, with very little over- 
plus in port facilities. 

Later the general decline in ship- 
ping left man.v empty berths and 
much vacant shed space, which still 
is in evidence, even at older and 
major ports. 

• Unbalanced Situation 

In more recent years other ports 
have been added and the port situa- 
tion and distribution now decidedly 
out of balance is apt to remain so for 
some time and may possibly be fur- 
ther complicated by the entrance of 
other new ports. 

By the Rivers and Harbor Act of 
March 2, 1919, the Board of United 
States Engineers was required to ad- 
vise with local authorities in the 
planning of terminals with respect 
to the provision of adequate public 
terminal facilities at all localities 
where river and harbor improve- 
ments are authorized. The polic.v of 
the government as to terminal facil- 




Four deep sea ships at berth, Oakland's outer harbor. 



MARCH, 1935 



83 



ities for new projects as contained in 
the Transportation Act of 1920, 
states: "It is hereby declared to be 
the policy of the Congress that water 
terminals are essential at all cities 
and towns located upon harbors or 
navigable waterways and that at 
least one public terminal shall exist, 
constructed and owned and regulat- 
ed by the municipality or other pub- 
lic agency of the state and open to 
the use of all on equal terms. The 
Secretary of War, through the Chief 
of Engineers, shall give full public- 
ity, as far as may be practicable, to 
this provision." 

This, it is believed, accounts to a 
great extent, for the addition of a 
number of ports during the last ten 
years or so, and it still is a standing 
inducement for others to follow, for, 
in such new projects referred to in 
the Act, it means that the govern- 
ment will give substantial aid in the 
dredging and maintenance of chan- 
nels to serve the municipal port ter- 
minal facilities. 

• Federal Aid 

Then, again, as a later and further 
aid, the Public Works Administra- 
tion will approve Federal loan and 
an outright grant of a portion of the 
cost of the improvements for new 
projects or for the enlargement of 
existing projects. The latest example 
of a new port project, to be financed 
under this plan, is that of the Port 
of Hueneme, Ventura County, Cali- 
fornia, about seventy miles north of 
Los Angeles harbor. According to 
press reports, the cost of the project 
is estimated at $2,600,000.00. The 
loan from the government will be ob- 
tained through a bond issue of $1,- 
600,000.00 and it is proposed to fin- 
ance the balance of the construction 
funds through the issuance of $1,- 
000,000.00 in stock. It is also proposed 
to issue an additional $400,000.00 in 
stock to provide working capital. 

Press reports further state that 
Ventura, located close by, in normal 
years handles approximately 20,- 
000,000 barrels of oil and 19,000,000 
F.B.M. of lumber through its port. 

As already referred to, prior to the 
Panama Canal era of port develop- 
ment, the terminal facilities were, 
with the exception of San Francisco, 
mostly railroad or privately owned 
and operated. At the present time 
the railroad owned terminals, gen- 



erally speaking, have been leased to 
steamship lines or private interests 
and are no longer a major factor in 
port operations. Private terminals 
either continue to be operated by 
the owners or are leased to steam- 
ship lines. The public terminals are, 
as a general rule, the most modern 
and are, to a large extent, directly 
operated by the port authorities. 
This is the port situation on the 
Pacific Coast today, with the dis- 
tribution or location of its principal 
ports, as indicated above. 

# Prospective Port* 

There is, however, another port 
problem in the offing, which, for the 
present, will have to be reckoned 
with and this is the prospective 
"ports", which will, because of cer- 
tain, or rather uncertain provisions 
in the Intercoastal Shipping Act of 
1933, be claiming recognition from 
the steamship lines by extension of 
common carrier services to such 
"ports". The list of such prospective 
"ports" is by no means of small pro- 
portions. We have some on San Fran- 
cisco Bay, but the majority of them 
are located along the shores of Puget 
Sound and on the Columbia and 
Willamette rivers. 

While the recent Intercoastal in- 
vestigation by the United States 
Shipping Board Bureau of this par- 
ticular subject may wholly, or in part 
determine this issue, it must be re- 
membered that the question of ex- 
tension of common carrier services 
to additional ports rests, to a great 
degree, with the steamship lines 
themselves, and this has been so 
since the Act went into effect. 



• Preventing Unsound Competition 

Unquestionably, it would be very 
desirable if some regulatory body 
could be clothed with authority to 
pass on the necessity for new or ad- 
ditional ports, in somewhat the same 
manner as new railroad construction 
or extensions are governed, to pre- 
vent unsound competition or dupli- 
cation of facilities and services. To 
the writer it would appear doubtful 
if such a plan is capable of practical 
application, for the reason that such 
a body would have to deal with self- 
governing communities, the State, 
County, or City, and not with private 
corporations like railroads, motor 
truck lines, etc. 

There may, however, be another 
and more practical approach and sol- 
ution of this important problem. Be- 
fore Federal aid is extended to new 
port projects, a complete survey and 
investigation should conclusively 
show that such new project will 
create new business and will not be- 
come an agency for diverting busi- 
ness from established ports which 
have made heavy investments in per- 
manent facilities and are capable of 
handling existing tonnage — and fu- 
ture business by comparatively nom- 
inal expenditures for expansion — at 
fair and reasonable rates for ser- 
vices rendered shippers and steam- 
ship lines. Such new port project.s 
should serve more than a locality or 
local interests. 

It must be axiomatic that no port 
can grow to importance except by 
direct call of vessels. It cannot be ac- 
complished by the extension of ter- 
minal rates by trans-shipment ab- 





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Handling lumber products at Oakland's inner harbor terminals. 



84 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



sorptions, which practice is definite- 
ly questionable, if not wholly illegal. 
Absorptions result from over-com- 
petitive conditions and are only a 
temporary expedient likely to be dis- 
continued at any time and no port 
would seem justified in making 
much of a fight for its retention or 
to expect to derive any permanent 
benefits therefrom. 

This brings up another and im- 
portant point on which the proper 
authorities should render a clear cut 
decision at an early date, and this is 
"What Constitutes a Port to which 
regular and direct service can or 
should be extended by vessels engag- 
ed in the intercoastal trade and 
which could also be accepted by the 
foreign lines as a practical and reas- 
onable proposition?" This point was 
gone into rather fully during the re- 
cent hearings held by the Shipping 
Board Bureau. It is hoped an early 
opinion or decision will be forthcom- 
ing, as it would definitely dispose of 
this unnecessarily cont r o v e r s i a 1 
question, in connection with new 
port projects. 

# Regimenting Port Business 

It seems to the writer that, as a 
general rule, at ports which do not 
now have or are likely to control suf- 
ficient tonnage to warrant all ves- 
sels in a particular trade to regular- 
ly call at such ports, the steamship 
lines should determine among them- 
selves, by conference agreement or 
otherwise, the lines or number of 
vessels of such lines which could ad- 
vantageously call at such ports, or to 
leave this question to be determined 
by the Shipping Board as to the ser- 
vice which such ports should be en- 
titled to, under a general allocation 
plan. 

Certainly the limit of practicabil- 
ity of new ports is involved in this 
question, for it manifestly would be 
unreasonable to require a large num- 
ber of vessels to call for a split-up 
portion of the limited amount of 
cargo available for shipment and 
which could be more economically 
handled by a small number of ves- 
sels. 

It is the opinion of the writer that 
the need for new port projects is less 
evident now than at any prior peri- 
od, for the reason that improved ser- 
vices for the assmbling. and distribu- 
tion of commodities is now furnish- 

MARCH, 1935 




Unloading bulk coke direct to railroad 
cars, Oakland. 



ed, at highly competitive rates, by 
such agencies as the railroads, in- 
land waterways carriers and truck- 
ing lines. These services are more 
flexible and surely can be rendered 
at a much less cost than the expense 
that is involved in the provision and 
upkeep of new ports. In any event, the 
success of ports is dependent on the 
cooperation and support of steam- 
ship lines and will be doubly assured 
by a large volume of cargo regularly 
available to vessels calling at the 
ports. 

• Port of Oakland Experience 

When the Oakland Port Commis- 
sion took over the control of the port 
and the municipal terminal facilities 
in 1927, one of its first actions was 
the establishment of uniformity and 
fairness of rates and practices, as 
between the private operators and 
the port itself, as of vital concern to 
shippers and steamship lines, as this 
would assure that charges for ser- 
vices rendered would be uniform to 
all alike. For this purpose there was 
formed a Terminal Operators Com- 
mittee with the Port Traffic Manager 
acting as its secretary. The meetings 
of this committee, held weekly at the 



Port's office, have been fairly well 
maintained throughout the years 
since its inception. 

To begin with, the terminal opera- 
tors represented on the Committee 
were the Port of Oakland, Howard 
Terminal, Encinal Terminals and 
Parr-Oakland Terminal, and, at 
times, railroad officials. Later, the 
Committee was enlarged by includ- 
ing the State Terminal, San Fran- 
Cisco, Parr-Richmond Terminals, 
and lastly, the Port of Stockton. 

The policy adopted by the Commit- 
tee was that tariff changes could not 
be made until they had been fully 
considered and agreed to at a regu- 
lar or special meeting. 

The Committee's efforts were 
greatly strengthened, when, in 1929, 
the California Railroad Commission 
assumed jurisdiction over the pri- 
vate operators, as public wharfing- 
ers, requiring them to file their tar- 
iffs with the Commission, as this ac- 
tion greatly assisted in the mainten- 
ance of fair and uniform port 
charges. 

While municipalities are not sub- 
ject to the control of the Railroad 
Commission, they have, with a few 
exceptions, adopted the tariff rates 
approved by the private operators, so 
that, in practice, uniformity con- 
tinues to exist. 

It may be further stated, that very 
few tariff changes have been made 
by the Committee and practically all 
of them were reductions. Any in- 
creases in tariff rates, so far as the 
private operators are concerned, 
must have the approval of the Rail- 
road Commission, usually only after 
public hearing. The public operators 
conform in this respect by the pas- 
sage or ordinances, which are pub- 
lished in an official newspaper. For 
the further information of the Asso- 
ciation, it is a pleasure to record 
that the railroads operating in the 
East Bay area, have adopted uniform 
tariffs with those of the private and 
public operators. 

The work of the Committee has 
been very harmonious, helpful and 
constructive in the permanent stabi- 
lization of port charges and prac- 
tices, and the writer believes that 
this procedure can be adopted by 
other ports similarly situated, with 
excellent results. 



(Discussion reprinted from proceedings of 2 1 si 
Convention of Pacific and Far East Ports.) 



85 



. . The 

Beachcomber's Loot 



Some Sea Lore Gathered Where Found without 

Authority and Passed Along to You 

as Found. Sans Souci 



"Bell Struck For The Last Watch." 
When sailors have utterly abandoned 
hope of being saved, they are said to 
have done some queer things. One 
man went into his hammock and re- 
quested his mates to lash him tight 
up. Others have stripped naked, wait- 
ing for the final plunge. It is said 
that many seamen, seeing their end 
at hand, have donned their best 
clothes and clean shirts, in order to 
be ship-shape when their "bell 
struck for the last watch." 

A peculiar story is told of the 
wreck of the Pegasus. After the 
wreck, an open boat was found wash- 
ing about, full of water. In the boat 
a man was seated, half drowned. He 
was insensible, but on being carried 
on board the rescuing ship, he re- 
vived and spoke: "How are the 
fires?" He had been one of the en- 
gine-room staff. 

Lifted Over the Rocks to Safety. 
In the gale of July, 1881, several 
fishing boats were caught on the 
north-east coast of Shetland. Several 
ran before the gale until the Skerries 
was sighted "one mass of boiling 
foam." The men knew it was mad- 
ness to try and gain the shallow en- 



trance of the small harbor at the 
north head. However, the skipper of 
one of the boats shouted "Hold her 
to it, men! God be wir saviours!" He 
then headed the frail open boat full 
into the white surge boiling at the 
harbor mouth. Just as the boat was 
making for a cluster of needle-like 
rocks and all expecting instant 
death, a huge wave came, and, in the 
words of the men, "lifted the boat 
clean in over the rocks to safety." 
Another boat which had attempted 
this was smashed to bits, and the 
sorrowing folk of the isle were drag- 
ging ashore the dead bodies when 
the lucky boat drew close inshore 
to the place of refuge. 

Pacific Brooks No Queens. The 
name Queen has almost invariably 
been unlucky in sailing ship history. 
American clipper ship. Queen of the 
Clippers, finished at the yard of Rob- 
ert E. Jackson, in East Boston, early 
in 1853, was looked upon as one of 
the great masterpieces of the ship- 
building art. Beautifully modelled, 
and amply sparred, she was confi- 
dently expected to make a record run 
to San Francisco on her maiden voy- 
age. She left New York on June 30, 





1853, and leaking badly made San 
Francisco in 119 days. She was 58 
days from San Francisco to Callao 
on the return voyage. She left Callao 
February 6', 1854, in ballast, and af- 
ter putting into Bahia for caulking, 
finally reached New York on June 
8, nearly a year for the round trip. 
She was then chartered and after- 
wards sold to French owners for 
Mediterranean service. 

Another clipper ship. Queen of the 
East, was lost on a reef in the South 
Pacific, April 1872, on a voyage from 
San Francisco to Newcastle, N.S.W. 

The medium clipper. Queen of the 
Pacific, built in 1852, on three out 
of five completed voyages was fore 
ed to put into ports en route for re- 
pairs, and was finally broken in two 
on a reef of Pernambuco. On her 
maiden voyage she took 194 days to 
run from Sandy Hook to the Golden 
Gate. 

Another famous example was 
Queen of the Seas, built in the yard 
of Paul Curtis in 1852. "In materials 
and strength of construction she was 
not surpassed by any ship of her 
size." She was a very fast sailer, but 
made no records. About September 
21, 1860, she disappeared in the For- 
mosa Channel in a hurricane and i.f 
supposed to have foundered, taking 
all hands with her. 



Ships That Pass. In the spring of J 
1873 five famous American clipper 
ships were together in San Fran- 
cisco Bay. These were Messenger, 
Young America, David Crockett, 
Fleetway and Lookout. All five ships 
had last met at the same port in 



86 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



August, 1855. It was a matter for 
much comment in the press, and con- 
siderable entertaining of the offic- 
ers, that these brave beautiful ships 
after eighteen years of varied exper- 
ience and service in all seas and to 
all ports should once again find ref- 
uge within the friendly portals of the 
Golden Gate. 



Neat Seamanship. On August 1,1851, 
the fully loaded clipper ship, N. B. 
Palmer, with Captain Charles Porter 
Low in command, arrived in San 
Francisco. The pilot anchored her in 
the stream, refusing to bring her up 
to the wharf without a towboat. Cap- 
tain Low, assuming full charge and 
responsibility, hove up the anchor, 
set all sails including skysails, and 
with a light beam wind went along 
nicely on the ebb-tide until she was 
close enough to the wharf. The main 
yard was backed at the precise mom- 
ent necessary and she was brought 
alongside without a jar. Such work 
is possible only with a captain of re- 
markable judgment and a prefectly 
trained crew who have absolute con- 
fidence in their ship and her skipper. 
N. B. Palmer was a remarkable sail- 
ing ship and among the fastest afloat 
in her day. Her runs of 82 days, 
Shanghai to New York; and 82 days, 
Honolulu to New York, have been 
equalled but never beaten. On May 
26, 1852, she made 396 nautical miles 
noon to noon, or 16' 2 knots speed. 
This was in the Atlantic, three days 
out from New York on her way to 
San Francisco. In 1856, on passage 
from New York to Hong Kong she 
averaged 335 nautical miles a day — 
approximately 14 knots — for 4 days, 
and 288 nautical miles a day — 12 
knots — for 12 days. 

On July 1, 1852, N. B. Palmer met 
the famous Flying Cloud, 32 degrees 
south in the Atlantic, the former be- 
ing 41 days out from New York, and 
the latter 49 days. 

There was always considerable 
rivalry between these two ships. Cap- 
tain Low conceded that on a wind 
Flying Cloud could easily pass his 
ship but that N. B. Palmer was 
speedier running before the wind. 



Eggs a la Ardenclutha. An amus- 
ing story is told in connection with 
the Ardenclutha, later lost at Iqui- 
que. They ran short of stores and put 
into the Island of Mauj'itius for sup- 
plies, several dozens of eggs being 



purchased. One day at dinner the 
mate asked the steward what had be- 
come of the eggs. The steward asked, 
"How would you like them cooked, 
sir?" The mate sang out, "Put them 
in the pea soup tomorrow!" Sure 
enough, the next day the soup was 
served with the eggs floating on top. 
The mess declared they never tasted 
better soup. 



Luckiest of Ships 





1* 


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American bark Germania of San Francisco 

can justly claim this title. When scrapped in 

1900 she had served 50 years at sea 

without accident. 



Columbian Rope Calendar — 1933 

shows the famous clipper-packet ship 
Dreadnought of the Red Cross Line 
signaling for a Sandy Hook pilot 
while the morning mists still obscure 
the light of the sun. The picture is a 
beautiful reproduction in color of a 
painting by Charles R. Patterson, en- 
titled "The Wild Boat of the Atlan- 
tic." 

The principal dimensions of 
Dreadnought were: length, 212 feet; 
beam, 41.6 feet; tonnage 1413. 
Launched October 6, 1853 at New- 
buryport, Massachusetts. 

For over ten years this ship suc- 
cessfully competed in the North At- 
lantic passenger trade with the 
early steamship and other packet 
lines. Under Captain Samuels, it was 
claimed she was never hove to on ac- 



count of heavy weather. As Captain 
Samuels put it, "She was built for 
hard usage and to make a reputation 
for herself and me, and I intended 
that she should do her duty, or that 
we both should sink". Due to the un- 
ceasing vigilance and splendid sea- 
manship of her captain and his con- 
fidence in the ability of his ship to 
stand driving in the worst weather, 
the Dreadnought maintained a high 
average of speed. Records of twenty 
of her passages between New York 
and Liverpool are available, and 
these show an average of exactly 19 
days. In November 1854, her time 
was 13 days, 11 hours. In February 
1859, she made the voyage in 13 days, 
8 hours. She is credited by some writ- 
ers with a remarkable run of 9 days, 
17 hours, from Sandy Hook to Cape 
Clear in June 1859. 

In the distance is shown the Col- 
lins Line Steamship Pacific, one of 
the important steam propelled liners 
of that day under the Stars and 
Stripes. She, with her sister ship, the 
Atlantic, and the early ships of the 
British, Cunard Line, were the fore- 
runners of the great passenger liners 
that were to drive the majestic 
"Windjammers" from this trade. The 
Pacific sailed from Liverpool for 
New York on June 29, 1856 and was 
never thereafter heard from. 

In 1864, the Dreadnought was put 
in the Cape Horn trade under com- 
mand of Captain Gushing, who was 
later relieved by Captain Mayhew. In 
1869, under Captain Mayhew. she 
met her end by going ashore in the 
roaring breakers that surged among 
the bleak and forbidding cliffs of 
Cape Penas, Tierra del Fuego. 




MARCH, 1935 



87 




Marine Insurance 



Heres to 

Lloyd's Register of Shipping 



"In the first place you have classi- 
fied more ships than all the other 
classification societies in the world 
put together, for many long years. 
You have done so on an international 
basis which has given uniformity to 
the trades you serve so well. 

"In the second place, you have 
standardized everything that is best 
in material and design. 

"In the third place, you have made 
a contribution to the safety of travel 
which could not have been made by 
any other means. 

"Tonight is a very suitable occa- 
sion for wishing well to Lloyd's Reg- 
ister. This anniversary can well be 
repeated for many generations to 
come, for in spite of recent events 
many of us still believe that it will 
still be necessary occasionally to 
travel by sea. You have been looking 
ahead, and if travel by sea were to 
come to an end, I have no doubt 
Lloyd's Register would be devoting 
itself to the standardizing of equip- 
ment, horsepower, and possibly the 
pilots of the flying services of the 
world. 

"I wonder if there is any publica- 
tion in the world like those amazing 
annual volumes of the Register. They 
are monuments of accuracy. They 
contain a mass of material, every de- 
tail of which can be vouched for as 
accurate. There are many books pub- 
lished nowadays of which that can 
not be said. But you can rely on 
Lloyd's Register. There i.s nothing 
wrong there, and if perchance there 
is some slip, then within seven days 
it is put right for you. 

"I think we may well say that the 
services of Lloyd's Register have 
been not only to the shipping indus- 
try but to all who travel by sea. It is 
in this spirit that I ask you to rise 



tonight and express your gratitude 
to those who devised its organization 
and have done so much to build up 
its fame." 

So spoke the right honorable Wal- 
ter Runciman, M.P. and President of 
the Board of Trade, in proposing the 
toast "Lloyd's Register of Shipping," 
at the great centenary dinner held at 
Savoy Hotel, London, Thursday, Oc- 
tober 25, 1934. At this dinner were 
present representatives of Lloyd's 
from all the great world ports, and 
all maritime countries. It has been 
said of the great and truly interna- 
tional organization that it has scat- 
tered throughout the world , more 
represe^ntatives than has any nation 
on earth in its diplomatic corps. 

The first "Register Book" of ship- 
ping was founded by a handful of 
marine underwriters in Lloyd's Cof- 
fee House, London, in 1760. For 
many years prior to that date, lists 
of ships had been published from 
time to time by underwriters and 
merchants and shipowners using 
Lloyd's Coffee House as a meeting 
place. In 1734 began the world fa- 
mous Lloyd's List, a shipping news- 
paper which has been published in 
unbroken sequence since that date, 
and with the sole exception of the 
official London Gazette, claims to be 
the oldest newspaper in existence 
today. 

The Register Book was issued to 
members only, and for some years 
there were' strict prohibitions under 
drastic penalties to prevent any 
member allowing access to the Reg- 
ister' Books by any non-member. 
These books were posted by hand at 
frequent intervals, and constituted 
a private record held by the under- 
writers on which they based premi- 
um charges. This Register Book fig- 



ured prominently in some of the ba- 
sic court decisions which underlie 
much of the present marine insur- 
ance and admiralty practique. Not- • 
able among these was the famous 
Mills Frigate case which settled the 
"onus of seaworthiness" on the ship 
owner. 

This 1760 Register became known 
as the Green Book. 

In 1798 a change was made in the 
registry system that was unsatisfac- 
tory to the shipowners who in 1799 
issued another register known as the 
Red Book. At the beginning of the 
year 1800, the Green Book had 233 
subscribers and the Red Book only 
125. During that year the Red Book 
gained 76 subscribers one of whom 
took twelve copies, while the Green 
Book showed a gain of only 31 new 
members. The first listing of a 
steamer to appear in either register 
was in the Green Book for 1822, with 
the entry of the James Watt, 294 
tons, built at Greenock in 1821 for 
the London, Leith, and Edinburgh 
Shipping Company. By 1832 there 
were 100 steamers listed. 

During the early years of the nine- 
teenth century the Register Book 
(Green Book) assumed the name 
Lloyd's Register of Shipping. From 
1823 to 1832 efforts were made to 
combine the Green and Red Books 
and finally they both suspended pub- 
lication in 1833 to make way for "an 
union of the committees of the two 
Registers for the purpose of estab- 
lishing one good and efficient Reg- 
ister." 

This combined committee after 
tremendous labors brought out the 
first edition of Lloyd's Register of 
British and Foreign Shipping on Oc- 
tober 21, 1834, and it was the cen- 
tenary of this event which was cele'- 
brated last October in London. 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Dependable 
Insurance 
Since 1863 



'y/re • Automobile • Marine ■ Casualty • 'Jidelity ■ Surety 



iREMAN's Fund Groud 

Uireman's'yund Insurance Compani/ — Occidental Insurance Gompani/ I 
Home 'jfire & Marine Insurcmce Company I 

^Uireman's'jtund Indemnity (Company —Oea'dentaf Indemnity Company I 



New'^brk . Chicago • SAN FRANCISCO • Boston • Atlanta 



Strength 

Permanence 

Stability 



fireman's Fund 

; Reports Progress 

The seventy-second annual meet- 
ling of Fireman's Fund Insurance 
iCompany was held February 5, 1935, 
iand President J. B. Levison present- 
ed the company's annual statement. 
I Based on values fixed by Insur- 
!ance Commissioners' Convention, 
igross assets are $33,337,000 and pol- 
icy holders' surplus $18,360,000. 
'■ At actual market values, as of De- 
'cember 31, 1934, gross assets total- 
lied $33,429,000, an increase of $4,- 
[429,000 over the previous year. Poll- 
ley holders' surplus stands at $18,- 
1452,000, an increase of $3,960,000. 
I Total premium income from all 
isources amounted to $13,928,000 for 
|1934 compared with the 1933 total of 
i$12,658,000, an increase of $1,270,- 
)000. 1934 was the first year showing 
'an upward trend in premiums since 
:1929. 

I Fire premiums written by Fire- 
man's Fund aggregated $8,150,000 in 
1934 against $7,575,000 in 1933. Ma- 
rine premiums were $3,300,000 com- 
'pared with $2,869,000 in 1933. Auto- 
mobile premiums were $2,474,000 in 
il934 against $2,208,000 for the pre- 
vious year. 

Net investment income was $1,- 
il94,000 for 1934. The 1933 total was 
,$1,181,000. The year's operations 
yielded a net underwriting profit of 
!$820,000. 

Fire losses throughout the United 
'States showed a further decline in 
1934, establishing this depression as 
'the first in which fire losses have 
not gone up as business activity di- 
minished. 

In the portfolio of Fireman's Fund 
and the affiliated companies taken 



as a group, the holdings — exclusive 
of stock in affiliated companies — 
consisted of 83 per cent in bonds and 
17 per cent in stocks at market va- 
lues. 

It was also revealed that approxi- 
mately 10,000 insurance agencies 
throughout the United States and 
Canada represent one or more of the 
companies of the Fireman's Fund 
Group. Of this number 23 have rep- 
resented Fireman's Fund for over 
fifty years and 759 for over twenty- 
five years. 

In his concluding remarks Levison 
said, "Although the growing burden 
of taxation and other allied prob- 
lems give cause for concern and ne- 
cessitate the utmost caution in the 
conduct of our future operations, 
there is justification for the hope 
that business conditions will con- 
tinue to be encouraging in 1935. As 
commerce and industry move for- 
ward, insurance will keep in step 
and Fireman's Fund and its affili- 
ates will find increasing opportuni- 
ties for enlarged service to the pub- 
lic. Amid the difficulties that have 
beset our country during the last 
five years the companies of the Fire- 
man's Fund Group have demonstrat- 
ed their ability to meet and over- 
come problems; this record will 
prove a priceless heritage in the 
years that lie ahead." 

Directors as follows were re-elect- 
ed: Frank B. Anderson; Edward T. 
Cairns; Edward L. Eyre; Mortimer 
Fleishhacker; A. P. Giannini; J. B. 
Levison; C. O. G. Miller; Henry D. 
Nichols; Charles R. Page; Henry 
Rosenfeld; and Franklin A. Zane. 

Following the shareholders' meet- 
ing the Board of Directors met and 
re-elected the officers of the com- 
pany. 



Occidental 

Insurance Company 

Shareholders of the Occidental In- 
surance Company attending the an- 
nual meeting held today (February 
5) were informed by President J. B. 
Levison that the company's policy- 
holders' surplus was increased by 
$657,000 as a result of operations in 
1934. 

The statement shows gross assets 
of $3,982,000 on December 31, 1934. 
against $3,890,000 at the end of 1933. 
Policy holders' surplus is $3,049,000, 
against $2,392,000 for 1933. 

The total premium income for 1934 
was $828,000 against $765,000 for the 
previous year. 

The following directors were re- 
elected: Edward T. Cairn; Mortimer 
Fleishhacker; L. M. Giannini; A. 
Crawford Greene; R. B. Henderson; 
J. B. Levison; Atholl McBean ; C.O.G. 
Miller; Charles R. Page; R. S. Shain- 
wald; and Frank E. Sullivan. 

Following the stockholders' meet- 
ting the directors met and re-elected 
the officers of the company. 




MARCH, 1935 



89 



^mimmmmmmmmmumnHmnmmmmnmmnMmmnmHumnHmmumimnuumnnmnM^ 

\ MARINE INSURANCE DEPARTMENT 

^ BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & Co., Limited 

AGENTS FOR 
American and Foreign • Union of Canton • British and Foreign 

Vang-Tsze • Pennsylvania 



North China 






5 5 

$ San Francisco Los Angeles Seattle Tacoma Portland Vancouver, B.C. ^ 

inuNHunHHHUUunHnnHnnunnnnHHUHNHiinnniHnNnunniuunnnuinunniHiniuuininiuili 



Johnson & Higgins 



67 Wall Street 



New York 



Johnson & Higgins 



OF CALIFOR 



311 CALIFORNIA STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 



A verage Adjusters 

and 

Insurance Brokers 



MARINE - FIRE 
AUTOMOBILE 



LIABILITY 
AVIATION 



SURETY 
LIFE 



SWITZERLAND 

General Insurance Co., Ltd. 

THAMES & MERSEY 

Marine Insurance Co., Ltd. 

LIVERPOOL SC 
LONDON & GLOBE 

Insurance Co., Ltd. 

(Marine Department) 

HARTFORD 

Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. 

(Marine Department) 






CANTON 

Insurance Office, Ltd. 



Louis Rosenthal Co., Ltd. 

General Agent 
302 California Street 



Marine Insurance Notes 



The Institute of London Under- 
writers held its 51.st annual meeting 
at 37 Lime Street, E.C 3, on January 
15, 1935. Two rather important pro- 
nouncements were brought out at 
this meeting. 

In the annual report it is recom- 
mended after much study, that at the 
next conference of the International 
Marine Insurance Union, the Mon- 
treux resolution on General Average 



Deposits be rescinded. This resolu- 
tion adopted in 1933 ordered that all 
general average deposits made in 
currencies other than that in which 
the general average statement is 
drawn up, should be converted into 
the currency of the statement at the 
earliest possible moment. 

At the International Union meet- 
ing in London, 1934, the General 
Average Committee re-drafted this 



resolution to make the General Aver- 
age Bond take care of conversion of 
currencies, hoping in this way to al- 
lay criticism of the- resolution. The 
new draft was sent to the various 
national underwriters' organizations 
for study and report. 

It is very likely that many other 
organizations will follow the lead of 
the Institute. 

The other important item was a 
proposal by the chairman, Mr. H. T. 
Russel Ross, that the time was ripe 
for the development of a new form of 
hull insurance — a policy that would 

(Continued on Page 91, Col. 3) 



90 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Freights, Charters, Sales 



February 19, 1935 

We have the following fixtures to 
eport : 

Grain: British steamer Frumen- 
on, Vancouver, B. C. to U.K./Cont., 
(wheat), February, Wm. H. Pirn, Jr.; 
{British steamer Langleetarn. Van- 
jouver, B. C. to U.K./Cont., vv-heat, 
'lumber and general, 17/6, f.i.o., Feb- 
l.-uary, Anglo Canadian Shipping Co.; 
|British steamer Langleecrag, Prince 
Rupert, B. C, to U.K./Cont, Bor- 
iieaux-Hamburg Range, wheat, 18/6, 
'January/February; British steamers 
■Antonio and Framlington Court, San 
Lorenzo to Los Angeles/Vancouver 
Irange, January; British motorship 
Nairnbank, San Lorenzo to Los An- 
igeles/Vancouver range, January, 17/ 
,8; British steamer Cape Nelson, 
North Pacific to U.K., Cargill Grain 
iCo. ; Danish motorship Nordfarer, 
iBritish Columbia to Grangemouth 
land Leith, February, Anglo Canadi- 
an Shipping Co.; British steamers 
■Winkleigh and Rossington Court, 
British Columbia to London, Febru- 
tary, Anglo Canadian Shipping Co.; 
JBritish steamer Marthara, Vancouv- 
er, B. C. to Birkenhead, March, Ang- 
jlo Canadian Shipping Co.; British 
steamer Appledore, Vancouver, B. C. 
to Hull, March, Anglo Canadian 
IShipping Co.; Danish motorship 
iNordbo, Vancouver, B. C. to Birken- 
ihead and Glasgow, March, Anglo 
[Canadian Shipping Co.; British 



Geo. E. Billings 

CO. 

Puific Coaa Gcaml Ageou 

Standard Marine Insurance Co. 

National Union Fire Ins. Co. 

Mercantile Insurance Co. 

of America 

312 CALIFORhOA STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO - - CAUFOW^IA 

Telephone GArSeld 364« 

Semla OfiicM: Colmaa Bldg. 

Telephone SGneca 1478 



steamer Rushpool, British Columbia 
to Hull, March, Anglo Canadian 
Shipping Co. 

Lumber: British steamer Loch 
Ranza, Columbia River to Shanghai, 
February, Dant & Rusell; British 
steamer Langleetarn, Vancouver, B. 
C. to U.K./Cont., wheat, lumber and 
general, 17/6, f.i.o., February, Anglo 
Canadian Shipping Co.; British mo- 
torship Neptunian, British Columbia 
to Australia, January, J. J. Moore & 
Co. ; British steamer Masunda. North 
Pacific to China, lump sum, March, 
Dant & Russell; British steamer Rio 
Dorado, British Columbia to Shang 
hai, February, British Canadian S S. 
Co.; British .steamer Geddington 
Court, British Columbia to Yoko- 
hama and Osaka. February/March, 
Anglo Canadian Shipping Co.; Brit- 
ish steamer Jevington Court, British 
Columbia to Orient, February, Anglo 
Canadian Shipping Co.; British mo- 
torship Nairnbank, North Pacific to 
Shanghai, option to Tsingtau, £4,650 
lump sum, f.i o., March, Anglo Cana- 
dian Shipping Co.; British steamer 
Pennington Court, North Pacific to 
Shanghai £4,200 lump sum, option 
Shanghai and Wuhu £4,300 lump 
sum, f.i.o., H. R. MacMillan Export 
Co.; Norwegian steamer Zaphyros, 
North Pacific to Shanghai, £4,000 
lump sum. February/March, J. J. 
Moore & Co.; British motorship Oak- 
bank, Columbia River to China, Ap- 
ril, Dant & Russell. 

Tankers: Norwegian tank motor- 
ships Storstad and O. A. Knudsen, 
California to Japan, 11/-, March; 
British tank steamer Scottish Chief. 
California to Donges, 15/4' 2, March 
April; Norwegian tank motorship 
Aino, California to Japan, 11/6 first 
voyage, 10/6 next four voyages, Feb 
ruary. 

Miscellaneous: British steamer 
Langleetarn. Vancouver, B.C., to U. 
K./Cont., wheat, lumber and general, 
17/6, fio., February, Anglo Canadian 
Shipping Co.; British motorship 
Cape Horn, two ports Santa Domingo 



to San Francisco, sugar, February, 
$3.00. 

Sales: American steamer Cricket, 
Cricket S. S. Co. to Owens Park Lum- 
ber Co. of Los Angeles, terms pri- 
vate; American steamer John C. 
Kirkpatrick, sold by U. S. Marshal to 
John H. Mulkey of Portland, Oregon, 
$10,700; American steamer Admiral 
Peoples, Portland California S. S. 
Co. to Northern Transportation Co. 
of Seattle; American schooner Fort 
Laramie, American barkentine Mon- 
itor and American schooner Thistle, 
Charles Nelson Co. to Neider & Mar- 
cus, terms private. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 

Brokers. 



Marine 

Insurance Notes 

(Continued from Page 90) 

give the shipowner greater protec- 
tion than the F.P.A. form, but less 
than the full sea perils. ... a policy 
which would make the shipowner a 
co-insurer to a certain definite per- 
centage on each and every claim; an 
economical policy that would give 
shipowners full protection against 
serious losses, but would have a de- 
ductible franchise when vessels in- 
curred casualties or liabilities. 




MARINE DEPARTMENT 
Aetna Insurance Co. 



Queen Insurance 


Co. 


Maritime Insurance Co., 


Ltd. 


Fidelity Pheni.x Fire Ins 


Co. 


Commercial Hull Dept. 

Automobile Ins. 


Co. 



MA THE \\S & M.I\i\OSTO\ 

Marine Underwriters 
200 BUSH ST. SAN FRANCISCO 

Offices at 

Colman Bldg. 1 1 1 West 7th St. 

Seattle Los Angeles 



MARCH, 1935 



91 




American Shipbuilding 



SAN FRANCISCO FIRM BUILDS 
STAND-BY BOATS 

Under construction at the yard of 
the George W. Kneass Company, boat 
builders, San Francisco, are two 
boats for the Pan American Airways. 
These craft will be general utility, 
or "stand-by" boats for the Hawaiian 
Islands to be used in search of miss- 
ing planes, and other emergencies 
which may arise. The approximate 
cost of each job is $10,000. The boats 
are 38 feet in length overall, with a 
12-foot beam. They are powered by 
twin-screw Hall Scott motors and 
will have a carrying capacity of ten 
people. Keels were laid on February 
7 and delivery is expected about 
March 21. 



TWO NEW SHIPS PLANNED BY 

AMERICAN- SOUTH AFRICAN 

LINE 

Application has been made by rep- 
resentatives of the American-South 
African Line to the United States 
Shipping Board Bureau of the De- 
partment of Commerce for a con- 
struction loan under the Merchant 
Marine Act of 1928 to build a fast 
combination passenger and cargo 
vessel for the New York-South Afri- 
can service on Ocean Mail Route, 
F.O.M. No. 6. A second vessel is also 
under consideration. 

James A. Farrell, Jr., president, 
and L. C. Palmer, vice-president, of 
the line conferred with J. C. Peacock, 
director of the Shipping Board Bu- 
reau. Mr. Farrell said that the com- 
pany has been preparing for several 
months to take this step, having laid 
aside the required 25 per cent for 
cash payment. 

Action has been deferred, pending 
the government's announcement on a 
shipping program. Commercial nec- 
essity now makes it imperative, how- 
ever, to go on with the work at once, 
and the American-South African 
Line is proceeding with the building 
of the first vessel in the belief that 
the necessary government support 
for a strong merchant marine will be 
forthcoming shortly. 

"It is also expected that competi- 
tive prices will permit the laying 



down of a second vessel at the same 
time, although the company's pur- 
pose at the present time is to con- 
struct one vessel immediately," Mr. 
Farrell stated. "The construction of 
such vessels as these will add to nav- 
al auxiliary service as well as pro- 
vide employment for a great number 
of American workmen." 



MONTHLY REPORT OF AMERI- 
CAN BUREAU OF SHIPPING 

According to the Februaiy report 
of the American Bureau of Shipping. 
21 vessels with a total tonnage of 
25,340, were building in private 
yards to the American Bureau of 
Shipping classification at that time. 
Other vessels in United States yards 
included 14 vessels with a total ton- 
nage of 4,837. Of wooden vessels 
there were a total of 3, with a ton- 
nage of 1225. This makes a grand 
total of 38 vessels and a tonnage of 
31,402. 

The 21 vessels in the first classifi- 
cation above include 1 deck barge, 1 
hospital barge, 5 drop deck barges, 
8 coal barges, four oil tankers, and 
2 towboats. The list of builders in- 
cludes Bethlehem Shipbuilding Cor- 
poration, San Francisco; Charleston 
Dry Dock Company, Charleston, S.C.; 
Dravo Contracting Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; John H. Mathis Com- 
pany, Camden, N. J.; Jones and 
Laughlin Steel Corporation; McClin- 
tic Marshall Corporation; New York 
Shipbuilding Company, and United 
Dry Docks. 

The 14 vessels in the second classi- 
fication include 1 oil barge, 10 coal 
barges, 1 lighthouse tender, 1 dredge 
and 1 ferry, building by the Bethle- 
hem Shipbuilding Corporation, 
Dravo Contracting Company, Mari- 
etta Manufacturing Company, Moore 
Dry Dock Company, and Norfolk 
Shipbuilding and Drydock Company. 

Of the wooden vessels, two fishing 
boats by the Campbell Machine Com- 
pany, and 1 sternwheel steamer by 
the Lake Union Drydock and Ma- 
chine Works makes up the three. 



pany, Inc., Tacoma, Washington, 
have under construction two fishing 
boats, each of 75 foot length and 19 
foot beam. The first of these craft 
is being built for Nick Mardesich of 
Everett, Washington, the second for 
a Mr. Jacobson of Seattle. The Mar 
sedich boat will be powered by a 180 
horsepower Atlas engine. The pro- 
pulsion machinery for the other ves- 
sel has not been chosen. 



WASHINGTON YARD HAS 
REBUILDING JOB 

The ferry Skookum Chief, which 
was badly damaged by fire recently 
is being completely rebuilt by the 
Western Boat Building Company of' 
Tacoma, Washington. The Skookum 
Chief is the property of the Puget 
Sound Navigation Company of Se- 
attle. 



KEEL LAYING SOON ON FOUR 
COAST GUARD CUTTERS 

Announcement has been made by 
the United States Navy Yard at Phil 
adelphia. Pa., that the keels of four 
new coast guard cutters for the Unit- 
ed States navy will be laid at that 
yard early in April. The four cutter.s, 
to be known respectively as No. 65 
George W. Campbell, No. 66 Samuel 
D. Ingham, No. 67 William J. Duanp, 
and No. 68 Roger B. Taney, have an 
L.B.P. of 308 feet, a beam of 41 feet, 
and a molded depth at side to main 
deck amidships of 23 feet, 6 inches. 
Their draft corresponding to normal 
displacement will be 12 feet, 6 
inches, and standard displacement 
2000 tons. Completion dates esti- 
mated for the four in the order 
named above are July, 1936; Septem- 
ber, 1936; November, 1936; and Jan- 
uary, 1937. 



TACOMA YARD BUILDS 
TWO FISHING BOATS 

The Western Boat Building Com- 



LAKE UNION LAUNCHES 
NEW STERNWHEELER 

The Harvester, stern wheel steam- 
boat for the Skagit River Navigation 
Company, was launched at the yard 
of the Lake Union Drydock and Ma- 
chine Works of Seattle, Washington, 
on February 16. Delivery will be 

(Continued on Page 95) 



92 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Progress of Construction 

The following Report Covers the Shipbuilding Work in Progress at the Leading 
Shipyards of the United States as of February i, 1955 



Pacific Coast 

BETHLKHKM SHIPUVILDING 

CORPOHATIOX, LTD. 

(Union Plant) 

San Francisco 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull Xo. 

A51, barse ^^5-10; building for Young 

irothers, Honolulu. T.H.; keel laid 

anuary 2. 1935; launched February 

1, 1935; length 175'. beam 45', depth 

1'. 

DRYDOCK. PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
)US: .S.S. Sage Hrush. M.S. .\iistraliu, 
i.S. Sidney .M. Haiiptnian, S.S. Lurline, 
[l.S. Sinaloa, S..S. I'resident Pierce. S.S. 
ritle-s Koolniotor, Tug F. .\. Douty, S.S. 
ifegira, .S.S. .Admiral Peoples, S.S. Ann 
•chafer. S.S. Santa Kosa, S.S. Chiriqni, 
S.S. Pomona, S.S. >Ialolo, .S.S. Keeko- 
ikee, M.S. Kibe, S.S. Caspar, S.S. D. (J. 
I'cofield, S.S. Yale, S.S. President .Mon- 
■oe, S.S. ■». .\. Moft'ett, S.S. .Antigua. S.S. 
Hubert Schal'er, S.S. ("apt. .A. F. Lucas, 
j.S. Constance Chandler, S.S. President 
Lincoln, S.S. Dungannon, S.S. Santa 
Klena, S..S. Admiral Senn, S.S. Paul 
.■ihoup, S.S. Pres. Coolidge, S.S. Tala- 
jnanca, S.S. Oakniar, S.S. Halo, S.S. 
'•res. Van Uuren, S.S. Capac, S.S. Maiin- 
Iwili. S.S. .Maui. 



(iEXERAL EXGIX'EERIXG AXD 
DRYDOCK CO. 

Foot of Fifth .Avenue 
Oakland. Calif. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull Xo. 29, 
Perry Boat, building for the State of 
:;aUfornia; L.B.P. 56'0", beam 24'0", 
oaded draft 2'2"; keel laid late Novem- 
ler, 1934. Delivered Jan. 23, 1935. 
I Hull Xo. ;i(l. Ferry Boat: same as 
Hull No. 29. Delivered Jan. 23, 1935. 
I DRYDOCK. PAINT MISCELLANE- 
OUS: S.S. West < amargo, C.S.L.H. Ten- 
der .Se<|Uoia, S..S. Cottoneva, W.P. Car- 
hoat \o. 1, S..S. Kewanee, S..S. Rich- 
jnoml, U.S. Engineer Office, S.S. Bertie 
Hanlon, S.S. Helen \Vhittier. 



HONOLULU IROX WORKS 
Honolulu, T. H. 

DRYDOCK. PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: S..S. President Coolidge, S..S. 
■Maunalei, S.S. liossingttm Court, S.S. 
■•teel Xavigator, .>L.S. Carriso, S.S. Dry- 
'len, S.S. Lurline, S.S. Montgomery City. 



LAKE UXIOX DRYDOCK & MACHINE 

WORKS 

.Seattle, Wash. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 

108, Ariadne, U.S. Coast Guard patrol 

iwat; keel laid March 23, 1934, launch- 

3d July 1, 1934; delivered. 



Hull No. 104, Cyane, U.S. Coast Guard 
patrol boat; keel laid June 12. 19 34; 
launched August 25. 19 34; delivered. 

Hull Xo. 10.5, Sternwheel steamboat 
Harvester; building for Skagit River 
Navigation Company; L.B.P. 165', beam 
39'7". loaded draft fi'; keel laid Dec. 
18. 1934, launched Feb. 16, 1935, esti- 
mated delivery .\pril. 1935. 



THE LOS AXGELES SHIPBUILDING 
& DRY DOCK CORP. 

Los .Angeles Harbor 
San Pedro, Calif. 
DRYDOCK. PAINT MISCELLANE- 
OUS: Yt. Happy Days, Tug .lohn X. 
Stewart, Tug Milton S. Patrick, .Assoc- 
iated Oil Barge Xo. », S.S. S.C.T. Dodd, 
Barge Pico, S..S. La Brea, yi.\. .Australia, 
M.V. Svea.jarl, S.S. Frank G. Drum, 
M.V. Storanger, S.S. El Segundo. 



THE MOORE DRYDOCK CO. 
Oakland, Calif. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: Scotia, Marian Otis Chandlei', 
Dauntless, (>olden Peak, Charlie Wat- 
son, Wallingford, Barge 14, Lightship 
83, .San Leandro, .Standard Oil Barge 
X'o. 1, Star of England, Eureka, I'oint 
San Pedro, Tyee, .Sobre Los Olas, 
Ohioan. 



PRINCE RUPERT DRYDOCK 
AND SHIPYARD 

Prince Rupert, B.C. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT. MISCELLANE- 
OUS: Can. Xational Steamship S.S. 
Prince Ru|)ert, 2 fishing boats, 14 ship 
repair jobs not requiring docking, 30 
commercial jobs. 



THE PUGET SOUND NAVY YARD 

Bremerton, Washington 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: U.S.S. Wor- 
den (Destroyer No. 352), LBP, 334'; 
beam 34'2^4"; loaded draft, lO'lO"; 
geared turbine engines; Yarrow type 
water-tube boilers; keel laid Dec. 2 9, 
1932; launched October 27, 1934. 

U,S.S. Cushing (Destroyer No. 376); 
LBP, 334'; beam, 35'%"; loaded draft, 
lO'lO"; geared turbine engines; express 
type boilers; keel laid August 15, 1934. 

U.S.S. Perkins (Destroyer No. 377); 
i.BP 334'; beam. 35'i^"; loaded draft. 
lO'lO"; geared turbine engines; express 
type boilers; building under provisions 
of National Industrial Recovery .\ct; 
keel laid November 15, 1934. 

Two 1500-ton destroyers for U. S. 
Navy; contract received August 22. 
1934. 

Care and Preservation (out of Com- 
mission ) : Aroostook, Jason, Kearsarge, 



Patoka, Pawtucket, Prometheus, Pyro. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: California, West \'irginia, Rich- 
mond, Ohama, Portland, .Astoria, Lex- 
ington, .Swallow, .Mahopac, Tatnuck, 
Challenge, Wando. 



TODD DRYDOCKS. IXC. 
Seattle, Wash. 
DRY'DOCK, PAINT. MISCELLANE- 
OUS: S.S. Bright Star, S.S. Victoria, S..S. 
Commander, S..S. .Alaska, S.S. .Andrea 
Luckenbach, S,S. .1. L. Luckenbacli. S.S. 
Lewis Luckenbach. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 
Mare Island, Calif. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Smith, U.S. 
torpedo boat destroyer (DD378) ; stan- 
dard displacement, 1500 tons; keel laid 
October 27, 1934; estimated completion 
date, Feb., 1936. 

Preston, U. S. torpedo boat destroyer 
(DD-379); standard displacement. 1500 
tons; keel laid. October 27. 1934; esti- 
mated completion date. May, 1936. 

DD391, Destroyer for U.S. Navy; 
standard displacement 1500 tons; esti- 
mated delivery November, 1936. 

SS181, Ponipano, Submarine, estimat- 
ed delivery, May, 19 37. 



WESTERN BOAT BUILDING CO. 
Taconia, Wash, 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Sea Gull 
(purse seiner) — Reducing length from 
56' to 50' (between perpendiculars) 
thereby allowing owner to fish for sal- 
mon in Alaska. 

Clipper (Halibut Schooner) — Com- 
plete remodelling from schooner type 
to purse seine type thereby allowing 
this boat to be used as a halibut boat, 
for sardine fishing and as a cannery ten- 
der. This boat is 82' long with a 180 
horsepower Washington engine and is 
the first remodelling job of this kind. 
It may result in other work of this type. 

Hull Xo. 109, fishing boat, L.B.P. 75', 
beam 19'. 180 h.p. .Vtlas engine; keel 
laid January 10, 1935; estimated deliv- 
ery May 1. 1935. 

Hull Xo. no, fishing boat, propor- 
tions same as above, hull laid Feb. 15. 
1935; no further dates set. 



WIX.SLOW' MARINE RAILWAY AND 
.SHIPBUILDING COMPAXY 

Seattle, Wash. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Tug build- 
ing for -Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co.; 
72' X 18'; 275 l.H.P. diesel engine; 
keel laid Dec. 14. 1934. 

Three barges for same owner — self- 
dumping rock barges; 101' x 34'; keels 
laid Dec. 12. 1934. 



MARCH, 1935 



93 



Atlantic, Lakes, Rivers 

A»IERICAN BRIDGE COMPANY 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: One derrick 
hull for Ohio River Company, 10' x 40' 
X 6'6" delivered. Repairs to 10 coal 
barges for Carnigie Steel Company. 

BATH IRON WORKS 
Bath, Maine 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
159, Drajton (DD 366), torpedo boat 
destroyer. U.S. Navy; keel laid, March 
20, 1934; launching, no date set; esti- 
mated delivery November, 1935. 

Hull No. 160. Lamson (DD 367), tor- 
pedo boat destroyer, for U.S. Navy; 
keel laid, March 20, 1934; launching, 
no dates set; estimated delivery, Janu- 
ary, 1936. 



BETHLEHEM SHIPBUILDING 

CORPORATION 

Fore River Plant, 

Qnincy, Mass. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Heavy Cruis- 
er CA-S9, Qulncy. 10,000 tons. Keel 
laid Nov. 15, 1933; Estimated delivery 
January, 19 36. 

Heavy Cruiser CA44, Vincennes, 10,- 
000 tons. Estimated delivery January, 
1937. Keel laid January 2, 1934. 

Four Torpedo Boat Destroyers; DD- 
360, Phelps, keel laid January 2, 1934; 
estimated delivery, December, 1935. 

DD361. Clark, keel laid January 2, 
1934; estimated delivery February, 
1936. 

DD362, Moffett, keel laid, January 2, 
1934; estimated delivery April 1936. 

DD363. Balch, keel laid, May 16, 
1934; estimated delivery, June, 1936. 

DD-380, 1.500 Ton Destroyer. Esti- 
mated delivery, January 1937. 

DD-382, 1500 Ton Destroyer. Esti- 
mated delivery, April 19 37. 



CHARLESTON DRYDOCK CO. 

Charleston, S.C. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: One 5,000- 
barrel all-welded steel tanker for 
Messrs. Thurber & Powers of Boston. 

I'AINT. DRYDOCK, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: Tug Oki.sko, Tug Cecilia, Tug 
tlark. Water barge. 



COLLINGWOOD SHIPYARDS, IXC. 
Collingwood, Ont. 

PAINT, DRYDOCK, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: Dredge R..M.C. No. 10, S.S. .John 
Ericsson, S.S. Manitou, S.S. D. B. Han- 
na, S..S. Geo. 1{. Dono\an, M. S. Normac, 
S.S. Iniperoyal. 



THE DRAVO CONTRACTING CO. 

Engineering Works Dept., 
Pittsburgh, Pa., and Wilmington, Del. 

NEW CON.STRUCTION: Hull No. 
997, one diesel sternwheel towboat of 
91 gross tons. 

Hull No. 1202; Lighthouse Tender 
Jasmine, for U. S. Lighthouse Service; 
187 gross tons. 

Hull No. 1203, Steam Sternwheel 
800 H.P. towboat for Pittsburgh Coal 
Company. 

Hulls Xos. 1204 and 120.'>, Steel Ser- 



vice Boats, 4 2'xl6'x3'6", for U.S. Engin- 
eers' Office, Huntington, W. Va., 40 
tons. 

Hulls Xos. 1206, 1207; (2) steel Coal 
Barges 130'.\34'xl4'3" for Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company; gross tons 1060. 

Hulls Xos. 1208, 1209 and 1210; (3) 
type "R" riveted steel coal barges 175'x 
26'xll' for stock; gross tons 1416. 

Hulls Xos. 1211, 1212 and 1213; (3) 
type "W" welded steel coal barges, 
175'x26'xll' for stock; gross tons 1416. 

This makes a total of 13 hulls under 
contract, with a total gross tonnage of 
4610. 



ELECTRIC BOAT CO. 
Grot on. Conn. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 19, 
fleet submarine, Shark. (SSI 74) : L.B.P. 
298'; beam,, 25'; standard displace- 
ment, 1315 tons; keel laid, October 24, 
1933; estimated launching. May, 1935. 

Hull No. 20. Tarpon (SS175) : L.B.P. 
298'; beam, 25'; standard displacement, 
1315 tons; keel laid, Dec. 22. 1933; 
estimated launching, July, 1935; pos- 
sible delivery. November, 1935. 

Hull No. 23, Perch, S.S. 176, building 
for U.S. Navy; estimated keel laying, 
February 25, 1935; estimated launch- 
ing, June 23, 1936. 

Hull No. 24, Pickerel, S.S. 177, es- 
timated keel laying. March 25, 1935; 
estimated launching, September 23, 
1936. 

Hull No. 25, Pinna. S.S. 178, esti- 
mated keel laying, June 6, 1935; esti- 
mated launching, December 22, 1936. 



THE FEDERAL SHIPBTTILDING 
AND DRYDOCK COMPANY 

Kearny, N. J. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Two destroy- 
ers. DD.S68 Flusser and DD3fl9 Reld for 

the U. S. Navy, estimated completion 
''ates — Flusser. Nov., 1935; Reid, 
•i'ebruary, 19 36. 



THE MARIETTA MANTJPACTXJRING 

COMPANY 

Point Pleasant. W. Va. 

Three 165' Patrol Boats for U.S. 
Coast Guard. Washington. D. C, Nike. 
Nemesis, and Triton, 25'3" beam, 13' 
2" depth; will draw approximately 7'; 
twin-screw type, propelled by two 650 
horsepower Winton Diesel engines. To- 
tal displacement of each vessel approxi- 
mately 300 tons; required speed 16 
knots — now under construction; Nike 
launched June 2 3, 19 34; Nemesis 
launched. July 7. 1934; Triton launch- 
August 8. 1934; estimated delivery 
dates. Oct. 9. 1934; Oct. 29, 1934; and 
Nov. 18. 1934 respectively. 

Two Side Wheel Self-Propelled 34" 
Pipe Line Dredges of the Dustpan Type. 
Total contract price $1,016,500.00. De- 
livery in 180 and 210 days — Length, 
molded, 270'0"; length overall. 277' 
1%"; breadth, molded. 50'0"; breadth 
overall, 84'8%"; depth, molded. 8'6"; 
depth midships. 9'3", first keel laid 
May 2, 1934; second keel laid June 28, 
1934; launched Sept. 1, 1934 and Oct. 
6, 1934. respectively. 

One twin screw diesel driven tow- 



boat for U. S. Engineer's office, Vicks- 
burg. Miss.; length molded 176'; 
breadth, 38'; depth 8'6"; two 650 H.p! 
diesel engines; two 75 and one 15 K.W. 
diesel driven generating sets; contract 
price $314,750.00, delivery at Vicks- 
burg. Miss., in six months, keel laid 
Oct. 10, 1934. 

Ten 175'x26'xll' Steel Coal Barges of 
1000 tons capacity each for West Ken- 
tucky Coal Co., of Paducah, Ky. Deliv- 
ery, May 1935. 



MIDLAND BARGE COMPANY 

(Subsidiary of Treadwell Construction 

Company. ) 

Midland and Erie, Pa., 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Four barges, 

100'x26'x6'6" for stock. 



NASHVILLE BRIDGE CO.. 
Nashville, Tenn. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hulls Xos. 
297, 298, 299, three barges for stock: 
100'x26'x6'6"; launched October 2, 1;; 
and 33 respectively. 

Hull No. 301 and Hull No. 302; 2 
barges for stock, 100'x26'x6 V2'; esti-; 
mated launching January 5, and 10, 
1935, respectively. 



NEWPORT NEWS SHIPBUILDING * 

DRYDOCK CO. 

90 Broad Street, New York 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: H 359 air- 
craft carrier CV5, Yorktown, for U. S. 
Navy; keel laid May 21, 1934; estimat- 
ed delivery, October 3, 1936. 

H360 aircraft carrier, CV6, Enter- 
prise, for U.S. Navy.; keel laid July 16, 
1934; estimated delivery February 3. 
1937. 

H361, light cruiser for U.S. Navy; 
completion time 34 months after date 
of formal award. Date of contract Aug. 
22, 1934. 



THE NEW YORK SHIPBUILDING I 

COMPANY 1 

Camden, N. J. i| 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Contract for '' 
four destroyers: Hull No. 408, Porter 
(DD356); Hull No. 409, Selfridge (DD- 
357); Hull No. 410, McDougal (DD- 
358); Hull No. 411, Winslow (DD- 
359); of 1850 tons each; keels laid. 
Dec. 1933. 

Two light cruisers; Hull No. 412, 
Savannah (CL42), Hull No. 413, Nash- 
via (CL43). of 10,000 tons each for the 
U. S. Navy Department; estimated de- 
livery dates are as follows: DD356, 
Porter, Dec, 1935; DD357, Selfridge, 
Feb., 1936; DD358, McDougal, Apr., 
1936; DD359, Winslow, June, 1936; 
CL42, Savannah, Aug., 1936; CL43. 
Nashville, Dec. 19 36. 

Oil tanker. No. 414, and oil tanker 
No. 415, for Standard-Vacuum Trans- 
portation Company, 15,000 tons D.W. 
each; keels laid March 2 6, 1934; deliv- 
ery early 1935. 

(C.L. 46) One light cruiser, Hull No. 
416, for U.S. Navy; weight 10,000 tons; j 
estimated delivery, August 1937. | 



94 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



SPEDDEN SHIPBUILDING CO. 
Baltimore, Md. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 274 
(Diesel), Electric, wrought Iron hull, 
Boarding Cutter, for the U. S. Public 
Health Service, Staten Island, N. Y.; 
keel laid March 15, 1934; launched, 
JAugust 8, 1934; delivered Nov. 23, 
1934; L.B.P. lOO'S"; beam, 23'; loaded 
'draft, 10' speed loaded, 12 knots; two 
i:!60 B.H.P. P'airbanks Morse engines, 
jcompleted and delivered. 



SIV .SHIPBl'ILDIVG .\.\D DRY 
DO<'K CO. 
Chester, Pa. 
DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: S.S. .Shenandoah, structural re- 
newals throughout vessel; U.S. Dredges: 
\labaina, .Mantua, Wni. T. Rossell, Dela- 
ware, New Orleans, Gillespie, general 
annual overhauling. 



UNITED DRYDOCKS, Inc. 
I Staten Island, N.Y. 

I NEW CONSTRUCTION: DD364, de- 
Istroyer Mahan, estimated delivery, Oct. 
1935; L.B.P. 334'0"; beam 35'0"; mean 
Idraft. lO'lO"; keel laid June 12, 1934; 
lestimated delivery Oct. 30, 1935. 

DD365, destroyer Ciunmings, esti- 
mated delivery, Dec, 1935, for U. S. 
Navy; L.B.P. 334'0"; beam 35'0"; mean 
draft lO'lO"; keel laid June 26, 1934; 
estimated delivery, Dec. 30, 19 35. 

DD 384, Destroyer for U.S. Navy; es- 
'timated delivery, June 9, 1936. 

DD 385, Destroyer for U.S. Navy; es- 
ftimated delivery, August 9, 1936. 

I U^^TED STATES NAVY YARD 
I Boston, Mass. 

I NEW CONSTRUCTION: Destroyer 
|DD370, Case. L.B.P. 334'; beam 35'; 
|keel laid, Sept. 19, 1934; estimated de- 
livery, July 1936. 

I Destroyer DD371, Conyngham, L.B.P. 
!334'; beam 35'; keel laid Sept. 19, 
11934; estimated delivery. Oct. 1936. 
j Destroyer DD354, Monaghan, L.B.P. 
334'; beam 34'2"; keel laid November 
,21, 1933; launched Jan. 9. 1935; esti- 
mated delivery. May. 1935. 
; Destroyer DD351, Macdonough, keel 
ilaid May 15, 1933, L.B. P. 334'; beam 
|34'2"; launched Aug. 22, 1934; esti- 
I mated delivery, April, 1935; for the 
I U.S. Navy. 

I DD389 and DD390, two light destroy- 
, ers; estimated delivery: 389, Nov. 1, 
1936; 390, Feb. 1, 1937. 

UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 

Charleston, S.C. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: U.S.S. 
Charleston, gunboat (PG51) for U. S. 
Navy, building period assigned by Navy 
Department, Nov. 1, 1933, to Feb. 1, 
1936. Keel laid October 27, 1934. 

Coast Guard Harbor Cutter 64; work 
started Feb. 1, 1934; keel laid June 8, 
1934; launched Sept. 28, 1934; to be 
delivered January 15. 

One Coast Guard Cutter (2000 tons). 
No dates set. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 
New York, N. Y. 
NEW CONSTRUCTIONr DD350. Hull, 
destroyer; L.B.P. 334'; beam, 34'2"; 



MARCH, 1935 



standard displacement, 1500 tons; 
geared turbine engines; express type 
boilers; keel laid March, 1933; launch- 
ed Aug. 11, 1934; estimated delivery 
July, 1935. 

DD 35 3, Dale, destroyer, dimensions 
same as above; keel laid, February 10, 
1934; estimated delivery, Feb. 1, 1935. 

CL 40, Brooklyn, light cruiser. L.B. 
P. 600'; beam 61'8"; standard displace- 
ment, 10,000; geared turbine engines; 
express type boilers; estimated keel 
laying, March 1, 19 35; estimated deliv- 
ery, March 24, 1936. 

PG. 50, Erie, gunboat; L.B.P., 308'; 
beam, 41"; standard displacement, 
2000 tons; geared turbine engines; ex- 
press type boilers. Building for U.S. 
Navy, keel laid Dec. 17, 1934; estimat- 
ed delivery, March 1, 1936. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: CL41, Phila- 
delphia, L.B.P. 600'0"; beam 61'.7%"; 
molded depth at side to main deck 
amidships 42'0%"; draft corresponding 
to normal displacement 21', 8%"; stan- 
dard displacement 10,000 tons; date of 
completion as reported by building yard. 
January. 19 37. 

DD355, Aylwin, L.B.P., 334'0" beam 
3 4',2V^"; depth molded at side to main 
deck amidships, 19', 7-7/8"; draft corre- 
sponding to normal displacement 10', 
2-13/16"; standard displacement 1500 
tons; keel laid September 23, 1933; 
launched July 10, 1934; estimated de- 
livery April 15, 1935. 

DD372, Cassin. L.B.P., 334', 0"; beam, 
35', 0-1/8"; depth molded at side to 
main deck amidships 19', 7-7/8"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement, 
10',10"; standard displacement. 1500 
tons; keel laid, October 1, 1934; esti- 
mated completion date, March 15, 1936. 

DD373, Shaw, L.B.P. 334', 0"; beam, 
35', 0-1/8"; depth molded at side to 
main deck amidships, 19'7-7/8"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement, 
10', 10"; standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid October 1, 1934; esti- 
mated completion, June 15, 1936. 

Coa.*! (Juard ("utter Xo. «.■>, (Jeorge 
W. Campbell; L.B.P. 308', beam 41'. 
depth molded at side to main deck 
amidships 23'6", draft corresponding to 
normal displacement 12'6", standard 
displacement 2000; estimated date of 



keel laying April, 1935; estimated date 
of co^ipletion, July, 1936. 

Coast Guard Cutter Xo. 66, Samuel 
D. InKliain; L.B.P. 308', beam 41', depth 
molded at side to main deck amidships 
2:'.'fi", draft corresponding to normal 
displacement 12'6", standard displace- 
ment 2000; estimated date of keel lay- 
ing April, 1935; estimated date of com- 
pletion. September, 1936. 

Coast Guard Cutter Xo. 67, William 
.r. iniane; L.B.P. 308'. beam 41'. depth 
molded at side to main deck amidships 
23'6", draft corresponding to normal 
displacement 12'6", standard displace- 
ment 2000; estimated date of keel lay- 
ing April, 1935; estimated date of com- 
pletion. November, 1936. 

Coast Guard Cutter Xo. 68, Roger B. 
Taney; L.B.P. 308', beam 41', depth 
molded at side to main deck amidships 
23'6", draft corresponding to normal 
displacement 12'6", standard displace- 
ment 2000; estimated keel laying April, 
19 35; estimated completion, January 
1937. 

C.A45 Wichita, L.B.P. 600, beam 61' 
9%", depth molded at side to main deck 
amidships 42'0 3/8", draft correspond- 
ing to normal displacement 21'10"; 
standard displacement 10,000; estimat- 
ed completion January 1, 1938. 



UNITED STATES NA\T YARD 

Portsmouth, N. H. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: SS 172, 
Porpoise; keel laid, October 27, 1933; 

estimated delivery, Feb. 1936. SS 173, 
Pike, keel laid, Dec. 20, 1933 estimated 
delivery. May, 19 36. SS 179 Plunger, 
estimated delivery, Feb., 1937; SS 180 
Pollack, estimated deliverv. May, 1937; 
L.B.P. 289'0"; beam 24'-li-l/16"; load- 
ed draft 13'-9"; diesel electric engines. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 
Portsmouth, Va. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Torpedo 
Boat Destroyer Tucker (DD374) for 

U.S. Navy, 341 ft. long; beam 35'; 
loaded draft, lO'lO"; treaty stand- 
ard displacement, 1500 tons; No. 4 
boilers; 35 knots speed; estimated de- 
livery, February, 1936. 

Torpedo Boat Destroyer D o w n e s 
(DD375) for U.S. Navy, 344 ft. long; 
beam 35'; loaded draft, lO'lO"; treaty 
standard displacement, 1500 tons; No. 
4 boilers; 35 knots speed; estimated 
delivery. May, 1936. Laying down lines 
under way in mold loft. 



(Continued from Page 92) 

made about the first of April. The 
length between perpendiculars of 
this boat is 165 feet, the beam 39 
feet 7 inches, and the loaded draft 

six feet. 

BETHLEHEM COMPLETING 
YOUNG BROS. BARGE 
The barge built at the Bethlehem 
Shipbuilding Corporation yards, San 
Francisco, for Young Brothers. Ltd.. 
of Honolulu, was launched on Febru- 
ary 21. This craft, to be known as 
YB 10, is 175 feet long, with a beam 
of 45 feet and a depth of 11 feet. It 



will be towed to Honolulu immedi- 
ately by the Young Brothers tug. 
Mamo. 



THREE SAILING SHIPS 
TO BECOME BARGES 

Neider and Marcus, Seattle ship 
breakers, who recently purchased 
three wooden sailing ships which 
have long lain in Lake Union, are 
planning to convert them into barges, 
according to announcement. The 
three vessels are the barkentine 
Monitor, and the schooners, Thistle 
and Fort Laramie. 



95 



I 



Trade Literature and Notes 



The Motor Ship Reference Book 
for 1935 (Temple Press Ltd., 5s. net) 
is the eleventh annual edition of this 
manual. The progress of the motor 
ship since the first publication may 
be gauged by the fact that of the 
vessels now under construction, at 
least two-thirds are oil - e n g i n e d 
craft. This 1935 edition has been 
fully revised, and considerable addi- 
tions have been made. Included in 
it are particulars of every motor ship 
of over 2,000 tons gross, and these 
details are complete to January 1, 
1935. 

During the past year much techni- 
cal progress has been made, which 
has involved new matter and many 
modifications in this handbook. It 
now includes descriptions and illus- 
trations of every type of large ma- 
rine Diesel engine constructed. A 
summary of progress and develop- 
ment during 1934 is included. 



Diesel Eng'ines Vertical 4-cycle. — 

Our readers who are interested in 
diesel engines will find considerable 
material of value in a 16-page book- 
let, designed as Bulletin S-500-B6D, 
recently issued by Worthington 
Pump and Machinery Corporation, 
Harrison, New Jersey. 

Aside from specific information on 
the merits of Worthington engines, 
ranging in size from 25 to 1000 
horsepower and from one to eight 
cylinders, this bulletin contains 
much data of general interest on the 
subjects of diesel construction and 
the application of this type of prime 
mover to a wide range of services and 
industries. One feature worthy of 
special mention is a sectional view 
of a typical engine, showing clearly 
the various essential details and fea- 
tures, supported by explanatory 
notes. 

Photographic illustrations include 
principal parts and numerous instal- 
lations with direct, gear, rope, flat- 
belt and V-belt drives to generators, 
pumps, compressors and other equip- 
ment. 



Resume of Navigation Methods. 

Navigators in general will be inter- 
ested in a chart recently published 
and distributed by the U. S. Hydro 
graphic Office as a Supplement to 
the North Atlantic Pilot Chart, 1934. 
The chart shows a tabulation of 29 



different methods of navigation 
from 1763 to the present time, listing 
author, publisher, title and date for 
each method, showing the formulae 
used, the general description of the 
method with an example common to 
each method, an analysis of the steps 
in the solution, the rules for the 
method and notes on the advantages 
and disadvantages of each method. 
The tabulations are entitled "Resume 
of Navigation Methods" by Soule and 
Collins, copyrighted by the U. S. 
Naval Institute and reprinted by per- 
mission of the copyright owners. 



New Flow Meter. An interesting 
new development in flow meters, 
known as the Isometer, has been 
taken over by the Elgin Softener Cor- 
poration, Elgin, Illinois. This instru- 
ment which uses a variable orifice 
principle of operation for the meas- 
urement of steam, water, oil, and 
other liquids and gases, was develop- 
ed by the Isometer Corporation of 
Milwaukee. This organization will 
now be operated as a division of the 
Elgin Softener Corporation. 

Executive offices and manufactur- 
ing facilities of the new division will 
be located at Elgin, Illinois. The Iso- 
meter division of the Elgin Softener 
Corporation will manufacture and 
sell the meters and the executive 
personnel of the Isometer Corpora- 
tion will be identified with the Elgin 
Softener Corporation. 



Coast Guard Compass Order. The 

Marine Department of the Sperry 
Gyroscope Company announces that 
notification of award of contract for 
Mk.XII Gyro-Compasses for the seven 
300 ft.-class Coast Guard cutters now 
under construction at the Philadel- 
phia, New York and Charleston Navy 
Yards has been received. Each of 
these equipments will comprise — Mk. 
XII Master Compass with one Steer- 
ing Repeater, three Bearing Repeat- 
ers, one Steering Repeater for aft 
and one Radio Direction Finder Re- 
peater. 

These are the first equipments 
which Sperry has sold to other than 
the Navy that are equipped with 
thermionic follow-up and A-C. Re- 
peaters. 



Corporation of America for the first 
quarter of the year 1935 was declared 
Februai-y 15 by the Board of Direc- 
tors, Mr. David Sarnoff, President of 
the Corporation, announced. 

The dividend is one and three- 
quarters per cent for the quarter, 
amounting to 87^2 cents a share. It 
is payable on April 1, 1935, to holders 
of record of the stock at the close 
of business on the first day of March. 
1935. It applies to all outstanding 
shares of "A" Preferred stock, in- 
cluding shares of "A" Preferred rep- 
resented by outstanding unexchang- 
ed certificates of original Preferred 
stock — ten of these unexchanged 
shares being equal to one share of 
"A" Preferred. A dividend, payable 
February 19, covering all the previ- 
ous arrears on the "A" Preferred 
stock to December 31, 1934, was de- 
clared by the Board of Directors on 
January 18. 



The regular quarterly dividend on 
the "A" Preferred stock of the Radio 



Regional Headquarters on the < 
West Coast. Worthington Pump and i 
Machinery Corporation has recently : 
established a Pacific Coast regional 
headquarters at Los Angeles, which I 
will center jurisdiction and develop- 
ment of the corporation's business in 
the western terrain now included in 
the coverage of the Worthington dis- 
trict offices in Seattle, San Fran- 
cisco, Los Angeles and El Paso. 

This headquarters, under the direc- 
tion of an executive officer of the 
corporation, will supplement the ef- 
forts of the present district offices 
and unite with them for the dispatch 
of business and service to the grow- 
ing volume of Worthington business 
in the West. Mr. C. E. Wilson, vice- 
president, is in charge of this Pacific 
Coast division, and accordingly has 
moved his office from New York to 
new headquarters at 510 West 6th 
Street, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Wilson has for many years 
been well known in the pump and 
power equipment field, having in his 
earlier experience filled many im- 
portant offices in the various depart- 
ments of the former Geo. F. Blake 
Manufacturing Company and its suc- 
cessors, which subsequently became 
a part of Worthington. He has long 
been in close touch with the West 
Coast activities of Worthington, and 
his new headquarters in Los Angeles 
will now provide an even closer exec- 
utive contact, to the mutual advan- 
tage of Worthington and its cus- ; 
tomers. 



96 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Pacific Marine Personals 



= NAMES ARE NEWS" 



BY BERNARD De ROCHIE 



Flag presentation ceremonies were 
held at 11 A.M. Tuesday, February 
28th, aboard the S.S. Chas. R. Mc- 
Cormick at Pier 38, San Francisco, at 

Ehich time this vessel was formally 
ntered in the United States Naval 
eserve. The following officers of 
the S. S. Chas. R. McCormick are 
members of the Naval Reserve: 
Captain 0. C. Orsland 
Chief Engineer E. Olliotti 
First Asst. Engineer C. E. 

McClintock 
Second Mate John Rynbergen 
Third Mate Arthur Johansson 
This vessel operates in the McCor- 
mick Intercoastal Service. 

The United States Navy conducted 
;he inaugural ceremony represented 
)y Senior Naval Reserve Officer, 
Captain Nathan Post, Head of the 
I2th Naval Reserve; and Lieutenant 
bmmander P. H. Talbot, of the 12th 
aval District. 



i An increase in trade will be the 
latural result of the present in- 
rease in travel, according to Joseph 
'. Grace, chairman of the board of 
R. Grace & Co., who sailed recent- 
y on the Santa Rosa. 



Hu.'^h Mackenzie, passenger traffic 
anager of the Dollar Steamship 
ines, who returned to his desk re- 
ently after a month's business sur- 

f'"ey of the East reports ever>body 
very optimistic and cheerful" over 
i-he prospects for the transportation 
business in the United States, and 
particularly on the Pacific Coast and 
pcean. The most encouraging fact he 
noted, Mr. Mackenzie said, was the 
{reat increase in advanced bookings 
'not in the Dollar Line offices alone, 
Jut rather this condition is common 
;o all travel agencies and other org- 
inizations concerned with the pro- 
notion of transportation. This means 
;hat people with money are regain- 
ing confidence and are once again 
ible to plan for the future." 



MARCH, 1 935 



• Marine History is Made by a 
Pair of Jacks 

It is not very often that one of our 
fellow marine chroniclers has a 
launching held for his arrival. But 
such was the case on Saturday after- 
noon, February 23, when the big 
pineapple barge YBIO was ready for 
her baptism. 

This all-steel sea-going craft gaily 
flying the Hawaiian territorial flag, 
the National ensign, the Union Jack 
and the Young Brothers' house col- 
ors, was all set and ready at the ap- 
pointed hour of 3:30 for her maiden- 
ly and graceful introduction to salt 
water at Bethlehem's Union plant. 

For some reason. Jack Densham, 
known to thousands of readers as the 
Marine Editor of the San Francisco 
Chronicle forgot his "chit" (to use 
his own term) which invited his 
presence at the gala ceremony. As 
we passed Jack on the way in 
through the gate, it was pretty near 
bottle-breaking time. 

"Why aren't you going in. Jack?" 
we asked him. 

"I forgot my chit," he answered. 

"O.K., we'll see Al Gunn and ask 
him about it," we promised. 

We found Al on the launching 
stand, and he immediately dispatch- 
ed one of the boys to the gate, pron- 
to. Then Jack Young heard about it. 

"Jack Densham is one of my best 
friends," said the Honolulu tug-boat 
e.xpert. "We'll just hold the launch- 
ing 'till he gets here!" 

And right at this moment was ma- 
rine history made, for this is un- 
doubtedly one of the rare occasions 
when a launching has been held for 
one of our cloth. 

J. S. H. 



F. Clare Thompson, Dollar Line 
general agent in Yokohama, accom- 
panied by Mrs. Thompson and two 
infant daughters arrived in San 
Francisco recently for a four months 
holiday. The Thompsons are origin- 
ally from Seattle, and this is their 
first trip home in four years. 



Daulton Mann, executive vice-pres. 
of the Grace Line reports through 
Fred Doelker, Pacific manager, that 
A. N. Floyd has been appointed vice- 
president of the Grace Line with 
headquarters at Cristobal, C. Z. For 
the past fifteen years, Mr. Floyd has 
been manager of the Nosa Line, a 
subsidiary of the Grace Steamship 
Company. Floyd will be in charge of 
the operations of the new Grace Line 
feeder service comprising the motor- 
ships Santa Monica and Santa Cata- 
lina, operating between Cristobal 
and Callao, Peru, and the steamers 
Corinto and Sekstant in service be- « 
tween Cristobal and Champerico, 
Guatemala. 



Captain Fred Nystrom of the Ruth 
Alexander is enjoying a month's va- 
cation. Captain Frank Landstrom is 

skippering the Ruth in Captain Ny- 
strom's absence. 



The promotion of W. Clark Mc- 
Pherson to the position of district 
passenger representative of the 
Grace Line was announced recently 
by Roy V. Crowder, Grace Line pas- 
senger traffic manager. For the past 
eighteen months Clark has been pur- 
ser aboard the express liner, Santa 
Rosa. His new duties will call for his 
travelling throughout the principal 
cities and towns in California and 
Nevada. Joseph Scheuch, veteran 
trans-Pacific and intercoastal purser 
who was formerly on the liner Santa 
Lucia, will succeed McPherson on 
the Santa Rosa. 



E. W. Petersen, temporarily re- 
placing G. R. Munro, sailed aboard 
the Matson liner, Lurline, recently 
as chief officer. Captain F. A. John- 
son, former master of the coastwise 
liner Yale became executive offi- 
cer of the Lurline. Former Chief Of- 
ficer B. V. White of the Yale has 
been promoted to master of that ves- 
sel, filling the position vacated by 
Captain Johnson's promotion. 



Official News of the 

PROPELLER CLUB o/California 




HEADQUARTERS 

20 Market Street, Room 249 

San Francisco 

President 
Charles H. RoBtRTSON 

Secretary-Treasurer 
Stanley E. Allfn 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 
Francis M. Edwards. Chairman E. H. Harms 



Philip Coxon 
James A. Cronin 
L. M. Edelman 
Joseph J. Geary 
John T. Greany 



H. T. Haviside 
C. M. Le Count 
W. Edgar Martin 
Fletcher Monson 
Edwin H, Walter 



The following is a resume of Club 
Activities: 

• Luncheons: 

February 5, 1935: On this occasion 
we were addressed by Lieutenant 
Commander Herbert V. Wiley, Cap- 
tain of the U.S.S. Macon ; also by 
Lieutenant Miller who has charge of 
the aeroplanes on the big airship — it 
was a real privilege to hear these 
gentlemen. They narrated interesting 
experiences they had had in the air 
and their comments impressed upon 
all the tremendous asset the lighter- 
than-air craft are for scouting pur- 
poses and for the protection of our 
extensive coast lines. It was also a 
pleasure to have with us on this oc- 
casion, Rear Admiral Thomas J. 
Senn, Lieut. Commander R. H. 
Henkle, Capt. L. B. Porterfield, Capt. 
F. L. Kimball, Capt. Nathan Post, 
Lieut. Commander Wm. C. Tooze, 
Lieut. Harry Sartoris and Lieut. 
Commander F. B. Connell. Mr. Ed- 



win Walter of our Board of Gover- 
nors acted as Chaiunan of the day. 

February 19, 1935: Through the 
courtesy of the Columbia Steel Co., 
we had the pleasure of viewing a 
moving picture depicting the exten- 
sive work being performed at Bould- 
er Dam — it showed the work com- 
pleted up to quite recently — the pro- 
gram was a source of enjoyment to 
all those present. Mr. Bennett, direc- 
tor of sales for Columbia Steel ad- 
dressed the members and his com- 
ments on the great project were both 
timely and interesting. 

Mr. H. H. Brann acted as chairman 
of the day. 

March 5, 1935: This day was set 
aside for the Old Timers — Many of 
the pioneers who played an import- 
ant part in the development of the 
American Merchant Marine on this 
Coast were present — it was a great 
day. Dr. Arthur A. O'Neill, one of the 
outstanding figures in shipping on 
the Pacific Coast, was chairman of 



the day. 

The following Golf Committee has 
been appointed and are making plans i 
for our Spring Tournament, details i 
of which will be forthcoming at an 
early date: 

Brace Carter, Chairman 

Syd Livingston 

Byron Haviside 

C. M. LeCount 

• New Members: 

A. M. Christianer 

James McKinlay 

Arnold M. Skudre 

Russell A. Mackey 

W. I. Sharpe 

Jos. B. McKeon 

May 22, 1935, has been designated 
by the Congress of the United States, 
as National Maritime Day — The 
Board of Governors and Entertain- 
ment Committee are making plans 
for a proper observance on our part. 
STANLEY E. ALLEN 
Sec'ty Treas. 




"Old J 



was observed by The Propeller Club on March 5. Maritime figures, skippers and engineers of 
picturesque past in San Francisco's waterfront history were honored. 



10 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



George G. Neil, the Dollar Line's 
)opuIar general passenger agent at 
,os Angeles, who made a flying trip 
o San Francisco during the month 
o report on conditions at his office, 
xuded optimism. He said that travel 
)usiness in his territory is better 
han at any time for several years 
'ind that the "battle for space on 
Oollar Line ships is beginning to as- 
kume proportions of the good old 
Jays prior to the late depression." 



i Captain Robert E. Carey, for many 
rears in command of a Dollar liner, 
Bied February 3, aboard his ship, the 
President Cleveland, en route to San 
l^'rancisco from New York. The ves- 
kel bearing the remains of its late 
!ommander arrived in port with 
i'lags at half mast. The cortege was 
inet by the local post of the United 
States Naval Reserve corps who, af- 
ter the funeral at St. Mary's Cathe- 
ilral on Van Ness Avenue, escorted 
[he body to the Presidio cemetery. 



Captain Jeremiah J. Cadogan has 

taken over the command of the Dol- 
ar liner President Cleveland, left 
Vacant by the death of Captain Rob- 
ert E. Carey during the month. Cap- 
(;ain Cadogan is an old timer with 
the Dollar people, having joined the 
Organization in 1923 when the com- 
pany started their around-the-world 
service. In addition to the President 
Polk, which was his last command 
before the President Cleveland, Cap- 
tain Cadogan has also skippered the 
President Hayes and the President 
Pierce. 



I Charles L. Wheeler has been re- 
elected chairman of the Pacific 
[Coastwise Conference. 



i Clay Hutchinson, pioneer Califor- 
jnia shipping executive, and — until 
(his resignation — southwest manager 
iin Los Angeles for the Grace Lines 
for many years, has announced that 
jhe will open California headquarters 
|in Los Angeles for the Canadian 
iTourist Bureau. With him in this 
'venture is K. C. Jones, veteran coast 
> passenger executive. Later the two 
iplan to open similar offices in San 
Francisco and San Diego, all three 
|bureaus to handle bookings for off- 
'Shore passenger lines. 



Pacific Coast petroleum circles 
were shocked early last month at the 
sudden death of Clarence P. Dodge, 
assistant sales manager of The 
Texas Company of California Mr. 
Dodge was taken ill with pneumonia 
on February 4th, with his unexpected 
death occurring five days later at 
his home in Los Angeles. 

A week previous to his passing. 
Dodge had just completed a record 
of twenty years service with The 
Texas Company. Early in his career 
with the firm. Dodge was superin- 




dent of the Marine Department at 
Houston, Texas; he was later made 
sales superintendent for the Florida 
Division with headquarters at Jack- 
sonville, Fla. 

When The Texas Company acquir- 
ed The California Petroleum Com- 
pany some seven years ago, Dodge 
was appointed assistant sales man- 
ager for the company's activities in 
the eight western states of Califor- 
nia, Arizona, Nevada, Washington, 
Oregon, Montana, Idaho and Utah. 
Dodge held this position up to the 
time of his death. 

His father, for whom he was nam- 
ed, was active in the early history 
of The Texas Company, as have also 
been two of his three brothers. One 
brother, H. W. Dodge, is vice-presi- 
dent in charge of sales for The Texas 
Company nationally, with head- 
quarters in New York City. Another 
brother, Harris T. Dodge, is now 
with the company, stationed at Tul- 
sa, Oklahoma. 



Dodge was 41 years old at the time 
of his death, having been born at 
Cameron, Texas, in 1893. He was a 
graduate of the University of Texas, 
and in addition to taking an active 
part in alumni activities of that in- 
stitution on the Pacific Coast, Dodge 
was also an active member of the 
Brentwood Country Club, where he 
served at various times as director 
and secretary of the club. Dodge 
was a veteran of the World War, 
having served as an ensign in the 
Navy during that period. 

Burial took place at Houston. 
Texas, to which city his widow, 
Madge Dodge, and his two children 
have returned. 



Roger D. Pinneo, whose life work 
has been identified with the develop- 
ment of shipping in this region, died 
February 4, at his home in Los An- 
geles. He had not been well for some 
months, having resigned last fall 
from his position as manager of the 
Merchant's Exchange of Seattle, and 
northwest manager of the Quaker 
Line, the California Eastern Steam- 
ship Company, and the States Steam- 
ship Company, due to ill health. He 
died a few days before his sixty-sec- 
ond birthday. 

Mr. Pinneo was associated with 
Pacific northwest maritime affairs 
for over a quarter of a century, and 
is credited with having been instru- 
mental in the construction of the Ex- 
change Building in Seattle, as well 
as having played a major part in the 
constant upbuilding of the shipping 
industry in that city. For many years 
he was connected with the Pacific 
Coast Steamship Company, and its 
successor, the Pacific Steamship 
Company. He was also associated 
with the port of Astoria as manager, 
and later aided the forming of the 
organization of the Port of Victoria, 
British Columbia. 



L. E. Archer, general passenger 
traffic manager on the coast for the 
International Mercantile Marine 
Company spent some time in New 
York during February attending a 
meeting of department heads and 
managers of this great organization, 
with the executives of the company. 



Ben Hauschild, general passenger 
manager of the two German lines, is 
back in San Francisco after a trip to 
the Northwest, where he visited all 
the company's offices and gathered 
information. 



MARCH, 1 935 



11 



Promotion of Armand de Pinchon 

from the position of freight traffic 
manager for the French Line, to 
head of that line's Pacific Coast op- 
erating department was made recent- 
ly in a joint announcement issued by 
Gilbert Macqueron, Pacific Coast 
general manager for the French 
Line, and Harrj- S. Scott, president 
of the General Steamship Corpora- 
tion, Ltd. 

In his new capacity. Mi-, de Pin- 
chon will assist Mr. Macqueron, 
whose jurisdiction extends from 
British Columbia to the Panama 
Canal, by handling questions rela- 
tive to operation, stowage, ships' 
personnel, claims, etc., in coopera- 
tion with the French Line's freight 
agents on the coast — the General 
Steamship Corporation, Ltd. Mr. Pin- 
chon took up his new duties on 
March 1. 

A future hopeful for the Dollar 
Line personnel arrived in San Fran- 
cisco on Washington's Birthday at 
the Children's Hospital. The young 
fellow, Cleve Boardman Baker, 
weighing slightly over seven pounds, 
is the son of Mr. and Mrs. Harry L. 
Baker. Mr. Baker Sr., is a popular 
young passenger agent in the office 
of the Dollar Steamship Company. 



When the Grace liner, Nosa Chief, 
made her first voyage in the Califor- 
nia Panama Service last month. Cap- 
tain Thomas Williams was in com- 
mand. Heading the propulsion de- 
partment was William Kelly, former- 
ly chief engineer of the Santa Cece- 
lia. The Nosa Chief is to operate as 
a companion carrier to the motor 
liners, Santa Monica and Santa Cata- 
lina. 



Captain Albln W. Opheim, who re- 
lieved Captain Henry Bach of the 

Grace Line's Santa Monica, in the 
Panama Canal recently, will bring 
his ship into San Francisco Bay on 
May 31 from Cristobal. According to 
announcement by Fred L. Doelker, 
Pacific Coast manager, the perman- 
ent command of the Santa Monica 
will be put into the hands of Cap- 
tain William Caclutt, formerly mas- 
ter of the cabin liner, Santa Teresa, 
which has been assigned to the New 
York-South America service. Captain 
Bach, who left the Santa Monica in 
Panama expects to go into business 
there. 



Walter W. Lense, who recently re- 
signed his position as freight traffic 
manager with the local office of the 
North German Lloyd has taken 
charge of the Los Angeles office of 
Dodwell & Co., Ltd., according to a 
recent announcement. Percy New- 
combe, who formerly held this posi- 
tion with Dodwell & Company has 
resigned to take charge of the 
southern California affairs of the 
Barber Steamship Company, who arf 
opening their own offices in Los An- 
geles. Dodwell & Company are agents 
for the Blue Funnel Line and Fruit 
Express Lines, and have been agents 
for the Barber Line in Los Angeles. 



Capt. Louis J. Hall was in San 

Francisco recently on his way to 
Port Allen, Island of Kauai, T.H., to 
act as superintendent for the firm of 
Alexander & Baldwin, Ltd. Captain 
Hall was commander of the old Mat- 
son liners Wilhelmina and Jaui, and 
later was executive officer of the 
Malolo, before going to Seattle some 
years past to act as assistant man- 
ager for Alexander and Baldwin, 
Ltd., Matson Line agents in Seattle 
and Portland. 



Captain Gus Illig of the McCorm- 
ick Steamship Company's coastwise 
steamer Point San Pedro was recent- 
ly presented with a placque and cer- 
tificate by the Stockton Junior 
Chamber of Commerce, testifying 
that his ship was the five hundredth 
to call at that port since its opening 
in 1933. 



Captain Girvin B. Waite, long time 
master of the Malolo has been named 
Port Captain at Seattle for the Alex- 
ander and Baldwin interests of the 
Matson Company. 



Captain Andrew G. Townsend has 

been transferred from the Matson- 
Oceanic liner Monterey to the com- 
mand of the Malolo. 



Chris Jorde, chief engineer on the 
Hamlin F. McCormick has again 
been forced to enter the Marine hos- 
pital in San Francisco to undergo an 
operation. This is Chief Jorde's third 
visit to the marine hospital. Our last 
information from Chris reports that 
he will be back on the job in the not 
too distant future. David Graham is 
replacing Jorde during his illness. 



ager for the Matson Navigation Com- 
pany, had many cheering words for 
Pacific Coast transportation inter- 
ests, when he returned recently from 
one of his periodic tours of the com- 
pany's offices on the East coast. He 
said: 

"The gain in travel on our own 
lines reflects the widespread im- 
provement in business generally, but 
appears to indicate also a greater in- 
terest in visiting Pacific points than 
in several years. 

"The gain in intercoastal travel is 
bringing a new surge of visitors to 
California and the consequent in- 
crease in the number of visitors to 
Hawaii and other points in the Paci- 
fic is being reported by all lines." 



Starting out without a single ship 
fifteen years ago when it regained its 
independence, Poland today has built 
up a mercantile marine comprised of 
55 vessels with an aggregate tonnage 
of 64,358 tons. During the year 1935. 
it is planned to further increase the 
Polish fleet by 33,000 tons. 

Of the forty regular lines sailing 
from Gdynia, Poland's made-to-order 
port on the Baltic, eight are carrying 
the Polish flag on their ships' masts. 
The phenomenal growth of Gdynia 
since it began to be converted from a 
fishing village ten years ago into 
Europe's most modern seaport has 
been the springboard for the emer- 
gence of Poland as a maritime power. 
Although it is the world's youngest 
port, Gydnia is already leading in 
transfer tonnage on the Baltic and is 
the fourth busiest port in Europe. 
The effect upon Polish commerce is 
shown by the fact that sea-borne ex- 
ports and imports rose from 15 per 
cent of the total trade in 1920 to 67 
per cent last year. 



J. E. Ryan, general passenger man- 



A keener interest in learning to do 
their jobs a better way netted em- 
ployees of the General Electric Com- 
pany a total of $29,218 during 1934. 
The annual suggestion report of the 
company reveals that 11,438 sugges- 
tions were made by employees during 
the past year and that 3,736 of these 
wei-e adopted. 

Nearly $475,000 has been given to 
various employees for accepted sug- 
gestions under the award system in 
effect at all works of the company 
since 1926. The largest single award 
ever made was $1200, while the aver- 
age recompense for adopted ideas is 
about $10. 



12 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



PACIFIC 

nnflRinE 



R€VI€W 



tf AN FRANCISO* 
PUBLIC LIBRAB'*' 




Save Your 
Merchant Marine! 




^m 


"... The Pettensill Bill, 


^^m 


or similar lesislation, if enacted into law will 


1^1 


make a lily pond out of the Panama Canal 


^H 


as Far as our American ships are concerned. 


^^ 


The Pettengill BUI 


^^^ 


or Siniitar Legislation 


^^^^ 


must not pass • • • 


^^^^^^ 


Se(<' Loading Editorial '|\ 


^^^^^1^^ 


. Pag« »« \ 


</ Organ ^H 




AMERICAN 






v\bHIP ASSOCIATION 




T 


PAWNERS ASSOCIATION 




'i 


HE PACIFIC COAST 




i 



Tnlibs mope at Sea 




•■Manio," one of >, _^ 
the best bnouin of 'ZS^ •-'™ 
Young Brothers -% 

million dollar tug " -^ " 
and barge fleet. 



A proven 

combination 

. FiiiiiiM»-s<'eiiij[$ men 

• Sfsiiiii«*li slii|»N 

. D«'|»«'ndaibl«' o«|ui|iiiieiit 

Such a combination is a pretty hard one to beat — 
as is proven in the case of Young Brothers, Ltd., 
of Honolulu, T. H. For far and wide over the 
Pacific, the million dollar tug and barge fleet of 
Young Brothers is noted for its service and de- 
pendability. 

In the equipment of such a fleet, it is only natural 
that Young Brothers should use the best. For it is 



upon the ability of the equipment to perform undei 
the hardest conditions that depends the safety oi 
the job. 

That is the reason that Tubbs SUPERCORE 
Marine Rope is the choice of the entire Younj 
Brothers fleet. For it is a true Marine Rope — watei 
repellent, rot resistant, easy to handle — one tha' 
gives the most dependable and economical servici 
mider the most exacting conditions of the sea. 



Talili^ C^ordasle C^ompanl 

200 BUSH STREET • SAN FKANCJSCO II 

Mills in San Francisco iH 



PACIFIC 
mARIDE 

Review 



APRIL, 1935 

VOL. XXXII NO. 4 



CONTENTS 



Editorial Comment: 

Old Timers on the Pacific Coast 97 

Tcrroriring Subsidies 97 

America's Maritime Future Threatened 98 

The Pcttcngill Bill. It Enacted, Would Make a "Lily Pond" out of the 
Panama Canal, as far as Our Domestic and Intercoastal Ships are Concerned. 

Thirty Years With the Pacific Coast Merchant Marine 100 

A Sketch of Conditions in the Shipping Business on the Pacific Coast, 
Compiled Irom Volumes I and II of Pacific Marine Review. 

1850 — Pacific Mail: Grace Line — 1935 105 

Pioneer Clipper Ships and Sidewhcel Steamers Develop into Most Modern 
of Passenger Liners. 

San Francisco Bar Pilots 106 

Efficient Guardians of Shipping. 

"Direct Steamship Service to San Francisco and Honolulu" 108 

1882 — The Matson Line — 1935 109 

A Small Brig and her Captain Grow into a Mighty Fleet and a Great 

Organisation. 

1860 — Goodall & Nelson: Pacific Steamship Lines. Ltd. — 1935 110 

1893 — Captain Robert Dollar: Dollar Steamship Lines, Inc. — 1935 Ill 

Forty Years of Pacific Coast Tankers 112 

A Pioneer Pacific Shipping Agency Organization 113 

Young Brothers' Mamo Logs Another Record Tow 114 

Marine Engineering Notes from Pacific Marine Review, 1905 119 

Freights, Charters, Sales 120 

Pacific International Trade Notes 121 

Possibilities in Commercial Lighter than Air Ships — Part II 122 

An Analysis of the Practicability of Dirigibles for trans-Pacific .Serial Navi- 
gation, by S. H. Phillips. 

Marine Insurance: 

Discipline and Subsistence — Some Regulations Prevalent in British Shipping 

8^ Years Ago 124 

A Marine Insurance Problem from P.M.R., Seattle, May, 1905 l.!!!^^^!!!Z! 125 

New Radio Increases Safety i26 

American Shipbuilding 12g 

Now and Back in 1905. 
Miscellaneous: 

Progress of Construction. 129: Personals, adv. \1. Propeller Club. adv. 14. 



Entered as second class matter June 10, 1913, at the post office. San Francisco, under the Act of March 3. 1879. Published on the 25th of each 
month preceding the publication date. Advertising and editorial forms close on the 15th. Subscription price, a year: Domestic, $i:50 for "gn 
In New York Cuv' cnnf. 7p"'f L 'd u N"«h*^'^t R^P"=*«^"tative, 1110 Puget Sound Bank Bldg., Tacoma, Washington. 

in iNew York City copies of Pacific Marine Review can be purchased at the news stands of I. Goldberg, 42 Broadway; Jacob Fuchs 17 Battery 
h'lace: Philip Mandara, Greenwich Street and Battery Place at 25c per copy. 

James S. Hincs Bernard N. De Rochie Alexander J. Dickie M. J. Suitor 

Publ'sher Advertising-Business Manac*' Editor Asst. Editor 



12 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



April, 1935 



SIMPLEST DIESELS 




Engine Room M. S. Chippewa 

PISTONS VISIBLE AT ALL TIMES THROUGH ILLUMINATED PORTS 

Two Cycle-Single Acting-Trunk Piston 



M.S. Chippewa has completed over 1000 consecutive 
days of operation — over 220,000 miles. 



Reliability: 

Maneuverabilitv ^^^^ ^^^"'^^ ^"^ "'°''"'' ''^'^"'''^^ ^° ''^^^''"^ ^"^'"^ 



than to answer engine room telegraph — instant 
response. 



Low rirSt V-/OSt« Recent prices on complete Diesel vessels as low 



as steam. 



SIZES UP TO 10,000 B.H.P. PER ENGINE 



BUSCH-SULZER 

BUSCH-SULZER BROS.— DIESEL ENGINE CO. 



ST. LOUIS. MO. 



Rialto BIdg.. San Francisco 



Two Rector St., New York 



PACIFIC mPRinE REVIEW 



VOLUME XXXII 



APRIL, 1935 



NUMBER 4 





"j 


I 





Editorial Comment » » » 



The flying bridge 
of a Matson liner ai 
sunset on San Fran- 
cisco Bay. 



Old Timers on the 
Pacific Coast 

This number of Pacific Marine Review is intend- 
ed to show some of the developments in Pacific 
Coast shipping during the past thirty years. Natur- 
ally in treating such a subject we can hit only a few 
of the high "spots," and since there will always be 
great differences of opinion as to what constitutes a 
high spot, we expect a great deal of criticism. 

In fact, if any reader thinks he has better "spots" 
— high, low, or middhng — let him send them in. We 
would hke to look them over. 

Almost exclusively we have tried to use the old 
volumes of Pacific Marine Review as our authority. 
We have been surprised at the fact that the same 
problems were worrying the editor then that get in 
the hair of the present editor. Was it Tennyson who 
said, "I looked behind to find my past, and lo it had 
gone before!"? 

So it is characteristic of shipping, as well as of in- 
dustry ashore, that while mechanisms increase 
mightily, and speed and fuel economy speedily reach 
near perfection, the fundamental problems of human 
relationships and overall economies not only remain 



unsolved, but grow in magnitude and difficulty. 

Yet, as we consider carefully our personal contact 
with this Pacific Coast to which we came without 
baggage or personal property of any kind some 59 
years ago, we know that in every way there has 
been a tremendous change for the better. 



May. 1905 

TERRORIZING SUBSIDIES 

Pacific Marine Review, May. 1905: We are not 
terrorized at the prospect of an expenditure of 
S150.000.000 on the Panama Canal, to be used at 
will by all the ocean vessels of any nations of the 
world to facilitate their earning millions of dol- 
lar? for carrying their own as well as our goods to 
the uttermost parts of the earth. We were not ter- 
rorized at paying Spain S20.000.000 — for what? A 
salve to her wounded feelings! Or at freeing Cuba 
at an expense of hundreds of millions of dollars. 
Neither are we "terrorized" at the size of our pen- 
sion roll — $152,000,000 per annum. We are rich 
enough to ignore these items — and we can become 
richer still when we put the .shipyards, and their 
154 allied industries which contribute toward 
building ships, to work, and with the vessels built 
retain in our pockets over S200.000.000 annually 
which we now pay to foreigners for transportation 
of our own goods, and distribute this wealth to 
American wage-earners and seamen, the highest 
paid in the world. 

To accomplish that result, should we be terror- 
ized at the prospect of an expense to the treasury 
of possibly 10 or even 15 millions per annum? We 
may remember that an expenditure in the form of 
subsidies is the key to unlock the strong boxes of 
the capitalists and cause their wealth to filter 
through the shipyards into every channel of in- 
dustry; is the key to open the door to employment 
to thousands of youth who long for a seafaring 
life with a future before it, and is the key to lock 
the door through which millions annually are 
drained out of this country to foreign shipowners. 

Call it bounty, subsidy, subvention, or any other 
name that may be less terrorizing, but pay it. and 
get an ocean marine that will float Old Glorj- into 
every seaport of the world. 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



97 



. . . oAmericas 

Maritime Future Threatened 

The Pettengill Bill or Similar Legislation if Enacted into Law will Make a ''Lily Pond" 
Out of the Panama Canal as far as Our American Ships are Concerned 



H.R. 3263, the so-called Pettengill bill, is a very 
simple document, which — if enacted — would repeal 
the long and short haul clause of Section 4 of the 
Interstate Commerce Act. This measure would, in a 
single stroke, nullify the effects of an evolutionary 
process of legislation through which Congress, by 
successive enactments, has sought to curb unreason- 
able competitive practices through which railroads 
are trying to eHminate all rival transportation by 
water. 

It is an old story in American transportation, this 
fight between economical water transport and un- 
restrained rail competition. Prior to 1887, the highly 
subsidized railroads proceeded on the principle that 
all transportation should be by rail. Even where great 
losses were inevitable, the railroads would quote 
ruinous rates to stifle actual or to forestall threatened 
water competition. 

When the Interstate Commerce Act became law 
in 1887, "reasonably compensatory rates" were 
theoretically imposed; but practically the language 
"a reasonably compensatory" rate was frequently in- 
terpreted to mean one covering Tout of pocket 
costs." 

This condition continued until 1910, when the In- 
terstate Commerce Act was amended to deny the 
railroads the right to charge more for a short haul 
than for a long haul, except that in special cases the 
I.C.C. might grant the right temporarily. In 1912, 
the opening of the Panama canal being imminent. 
Congress passed the so-called Panama Canal act, 
prohibiting any railroad from owning or operating or 
having any interest in any ships transiting the Pan- 
ama canal with which the railroad does or might 
compete. 

The national position in this matter was again 
strengthened by the Transportation Act of 1920 in 
which Congress declared the national transportation 
policy "to promote, encourage, and develop water 
transportation, service, and facilities in connection 
with the commerce of the United States and to foster 
and preserve in full vigor both rail and water trans- 
portation!" 

At the same session, Congress further amended 
the fourth section, Interstate CJommerce Act, by pro- 



viding that even should the Commission find in a 
special case that a higher charge might be made for 
a shorter haul than for a longer haul, nevertheless it 
should not be permitted unless the charge for the 
longer haul was reasonably compensatory for the 
service performed. 

Since this requirement was added to the 4th Sec- 
tion in 1920, the railroads have repeatedly tried to 
convince the Commission that "reasonably compen- 
satory" is equivalent to "out-of-pocket cost." Par- 
tially defeated in this, their last resort is to the ship- 
ping public and to Congress. Their plea, in efffect, 
is for restoration of the freedom enjoyed by them 
prior to 1910, or failing in that, of the position they 
occupied prior to 1920, when the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission could and did repeatedly grant 
authority to establish less than reasonably compen- 
satory rates that had the effect of seriously retarding 
the growth or of entirely eliminating water compe- 
tition. 

The effect of the Pettengill bill would be to de- 
stroy intercoastal water competition entirely. This 
would be evidenced first by steamer service curtail- 
ment, then by cumulative restriction of liner services 
and industrial carriers. The following brief survey 
shows very graphically just what is involved. 

If we omit all ships under 2000 gross tons we have 
a total of 1997 ships totalling 11, 3 3 5, 000 gross tons. 
These are split as follows. 

Great Lakes 438 ships total 2,330,000 gr. tons 

Tankers 348 ships total 2,406,000 gr. tons 

Government 

Laid Up 228 ships total 1,360,000 gr. tons 

Coastwise 497 ships total 2,175,000 gr. tons 

Foreign Trade 488 ships total 3,084,000 gr. tons 

This entire program is seriously jeopardized by the 
Passage of the Pettengill Bill. 

We have 4883 miles of coastline on which there 
are 50 seaports, 20 of these being of primary im- 
portance. The value of shipping terminals at these 
seaports has been set by competent authorities at 
over one billion dollars; while the Federal, State and 
Municipal authorities have spent over 600 million 
dollars on seacoast, harbor and channel improve- 



98 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



ments. 

All of these ports and investments are jeopardised 
by this proposed legislation. 

There are employed on American ships more than 
165,000 American officers and seamen. Fully that 
many are directly engaged in shore activities of 
American shipping. 

The American shipyards represent an investment 
of 100 milhon dollars and employ 26,^00 men di- 
rectly and fully that many indirectly. This highly 
essential and technical force will force a heavy cur- 
tailment to the detriment of the country and of posi- 
tive danger in times of stress. 

In 1929 our coastwise, intercoastal and Phihppine 
Island seaborne commerce amounted to 251,174,333 
short tons and was valued at $12,561,033,821. If 
cheap water transportation is eliminated under the 
American flag due to unmerciful and unscrupulous 
railroad rate cutting on port to port business, is it 
reasonable to anticipate the volume set out above^ 

If intercoastal carriers are eliminated what effect 
will it have on the Panama Canal? Keep it we must. 
Our national safety depends upon this canal being 
operative during war times. Without the heavy 
volume of intercoastal ships the Canal would operate 
at a loss. If rates are too high, ships will use the Suez 
or go around the Horn. We have ample knowledge 
of this situation now. 

Millions of dollars are spent yearly for wages, sup- 
plies, repairs and the like. Is this revenue and its con- 
comitant labor to be sacrificed? 

Bay and river craft will be seriously affected. 
They are now extensively utilized. With rail ship- 
ments only, the need for river and small bay craft 
will greatly disappear. 

We may confidently also predict a burdensome 
rate for interior points. If the long haul rates are 
lowered, if the rail lines need more revenue, the non- 
competitive intermediate points must pay. History 
will repeat itself. 

The railroads are in dire trouble, but what will 
they get in exchange for the destruction of all this 
maritime investment? 

In the purely domestic carryings, excluding coast- 
wise and intercoastal, the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission estimated the railroads carried 73.9 per cent 
of the ton miles of the 1932 commerce. 

During 1928-1929, the carloading reports showed 
about one million carloads, or about 30 millions of 
tons of cargo, per week, a total of 1,500 million tons 
per year. The tonnage moving via Panama-Inter- 
coastal during the same period was approximately 
eight million tons, exclusive of bulk oils in tankers. 
Intercoastal cargo is, therefore, about one-half of 
one per cent. 

A great part of this intercoastal cargo is bulk in 
nature — lumber, grain, sulphur, steel, and other com- 
modities best handled by ships. 

The total tonnage in a competitive class with rail- 



roads during 1928-1929 period totals about 5 million 
tons both east and west bound. 

Due to the depression the 1932 competitive cargo 
amounted to a total of about 3 million tons. 

To get this the railroads are willing, nay anxious, 
to sacrifice national safety by destroying water trans- 
portation which in the past has been almost the only 
source from which transports have been available. 

The gross revenue of the railroads in so-called 
normal times is about 6 biUion dollars. In 1932, about 
3 billions. The gross revenue of the steamer lines 
intercoastally in 1932 was about 40 million dollars. 
So the additional revenue to the railroad would be 
only slightly more than 1 per cent with the ships 
entirely eHminated. 

In the purely intercoastal or coastwise trade, no 
subsidy has been paid American ships. They pay the 
same Panama Canal dues that any foreign ship of 
hke nature is charged. 

Railroads have been subsidized by counties, states 
and the nation with presents of valuable sites and 
rights-of-way, and by enormous tracts of public land. 

At the present time the United States Govern- 
ment is granting railroads hundreds of milHons ot 
dollars to pay interest charges, debts, taxes, improve' 
ments and wages. Four hundred and fifty miUions to 
sixty railroads is the present figure, according to Mr. 
Ickes. 

The Pettengill bill or similar legislation must not 
pass unless we wish to scuttle the American Mer- 
chant Marine. 




Are wc going to allow our steamers to be driven off the sea and 
tied to the docks as our tall ships were? 



>iPRIL, 1935 



99 



. . . Thirty Years With 

Pacific Coast Merchant Marine 



A Sketch of Conditions in the Shipping Business on the Pacific Coast 

Compiled from Volumes i and 2 of Pacific Marine Review, the 

Pacific's Oldest Marine Magazine 



With this number, Pacific Marine 
Review enters its thirty-second year 
of uninterrupted publication as 
a vehicle for the exchange of 
thought, the recording of experience, 
and the compiling of statistics con- 
cerning Pacific coast shipping. The 
combined contents of the 31 bound 
volumes of Pacific Marine Review 
cover the developments of shipping 
during the twentieth centuiy, and are 
full of achievements in marine engin- 
eering, naval architecture, shipping 
organization, marine insurance, ship 
operation and shipbuilding. It is 
thirty years since we issued our first 
anniversary number, and we think it 
fitting to now review those early 
days. 

In our first anniversary number 
there appear a number of articles 
and comments quite interesting in 
retrospect. We there record our satis- 
faction with ourselves and our ef- 
forts as follows: 

"While the present number is in 
no sense a special number, as we are 



SAILING SHIPS IN 
PORT, 1905 

Xovember, lOOo 
The sail tonnage situation at 
San Francisco has undergone a 
change lor the better (hiring the 
past few weeks, brought about by 
the demand I'or vessels to load 
gi'aln at I'ortland and Tacoma lor 
Eui-oije, and the probability of 
many ships laying up here or leav- 
ing in ballast "seeking" grain or 
<<)al fi-eights in Austi-alia has 
gi-eatly lessened. In fact, sevei'al 
vessels which have been in this 
|K)rt for lengthy i)eriods have been 
chai'tered and have left or ai-e 
pi'eparing to leave for northern 
I)orts to fill their charters. To<lay 
thei'e ai-e but eight ships suitable 
for grain loading in this port dis- 
engaged, and among this number, 
thi-ee have been hei'e for two years 
or more, and othei's are recent ar- 
rivals, still dischai'ging or waiting 
to dischai'ge inward cargoes. Total 
ilisengaged tonnage in port only 
16,724 net registered tons, as 
against 8>*,41fi net registered tons 
same time last year. 



opposed to the publication of special 
numbers, preferring to maintain a 
uniform high standard, we pause to 
remark that with the close of last 
month we celebrated the anniversary 
of Pacific Marine Review. 

"The hearty and extensive en- 1 
dorsements that this magazine has 
received from press, shipowners, 
shipbuilders, masters and engineers, ■ 
as well as from those responsible for 
legislation governing shipping inter- 
ests, encourages us to believe that . 
the Pacific Marine Review has sup- ■ 
plied a long felt want and has been ; 
intelligently, energetically, and fair- 
ly conducted in the interests it as- 
sumes to represent." 

At that time Jim Hill's S.S. Dako- 
ta was on her way out to the coast 
and her sister ship, S.S. Minnesota, 
was on her second round voyage be- 
tween Puget Sound and the Orient. 
These were the largest cargo capa- 
city vessels ever built. Union Iron 
Works, San Francisco, had delivered 
35,574 tons displacement, almost en- 




A PIONEER TRADING SHIP 

Here is shown an interesting illustration of 
the pioneer steamer of the Pacific Northwest, 
the Beaver, some of whose bones are still 
pointed out at low water near the entrance to 
Burrard Inlet. The Beaver had many an in- 
teresting adventure in early trading expedi- 
tions for the Hudson Bay Company. She was 
built in 1835 and operated in and around 
Puget Sound until 1888. When this sturdy 
paddle-wheel tub is compared with the pala- 
tial Pacific coastwise steamers of today, and 
it is realized that only 47 years have elapsed 
since she was considered a proper boat for 
carrying passengers between Puget Sound 
ports, one gets a very vivid conception of 
the rapidity with which Pacific Coast marine 
standards have progressed during the 
20th century. 



100 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



irely naval construction, which gave 
hat plant second place among Amer 
can shipbuilders for 1904, being ex- 
;eeded only by Newport News Ship- 
building and Dry Dock Company 
vith 43,000 tons. 

The American-Hawaiian Steam- 
ihip Company had succesfully burn- 
•d oil on their intercoastal steamers. 

Low freights had made a lean year 
or shipowners. 



.sHirnxG 

December, lf)0."> 
The Dakota, coiiiinan<lei' Kiiiil 
Franke, reached Seattle on Nov- 
ember U!), promptly to ischediile, 
after a passage of 12 days, .1 hours, 
40 mimites from Yokohama. She 
reached i)ort in excellent condi- 
tion, rei|uiring jnactically nothing 
beyond the usual riinnins repairs. 
Despite the fact that the recent 
war has for some time jiast dis- 
organized the stevedoring facili- 
ties at Japanese ports, withilraw- 
iiiK from ser\ice the moi'e i-eliable 
and skillful class of labor, as well 
as the larger lighters for govern- 
ment service, this steamer obtain- 
ed unusually prompt dispatch at 
all ports of call, arriving in every 
port ahead of time. 



Messrs. Hind. ISolph & Co. 
corporated in the State of W 
inglon, a branch of the 
known firm of Hind, Kolph & 
San Krancisco, shipowners 
ship brokers, are now e.stabli: 
in their new offices at 5'2~> 
man ISuilding, Seattle, with 
Honald Holph in charge. 
James Kolph, .Ir., came up t 
San Kranciscii to open the of 
"»nd while in the city made sev 
welcome visits to this office. 



, in- 
ash- 
well 
Co., 
and 
'ihed 
Col- 
■Mr. 
.■Mr. 
rom 
fice, 
eral 




Los Angeles harbor was practically non-existent 30 years ago. As shown here it was then 
mainly a lumber receiving port and its chief entries were lumber schooners. Today it is 
among the great ports of America and is visited by all the vessels serving the Pacific 
coast. The development of this port symbolizes the story of Pacific coast shipping in 
the 20th century. 



The Russo-Japanese war was just 
drawing to a close. This conflict, 
while it had "to some extent stimu- 
lated trans-Pacific trade and ship- 
ping," had also deranged the normal 
course of trade and paralyzed many 
normal demands. 

In conclusion we thanked "our 
readers and advertisers for their 
generous support during the past 
year." 

The heavy duty marine gasoline 
engine was then quite generally in 
use on Pacific Coast work and plea- 
sure boats, but no diesel marine en- 
gine, and no main propulsion turbine 
had yet been installed on the Pacific 
although the latter was much in the 
minds of steamship owners who fol- 
lowed its introduction on the Atlan- 
tic Coast and in Europe with great 



interest. 

The period then of our publication 
history embraces practically all the 
developments of the use of oil fuel 
under marine boilers; the shift from 
cylindrical to water-tube boilers; the 
introduction and development of the 
marine steam turbine; the introduc- 
tion and development of the marine 
diesel engine; the building and open- 
ing of the Panama Canal and all the 
shipping development consequent 
thereto; the great wartime achieve- 
ments of Pacific Coast shipbuilding 
yards in producing merchant and 
naval tonnage for the United States 
government; and the transformation 
of Pacific coast ports to take care of 
these developments in shipping. 

Thirty years ago the Pacific Coast 
was largely raw frontier. Today, this 




S.ni I 
1 Ure 



h.is .ilu.iNs been a favorite haven loi i.ill s.iilin>; ^luj.s miu.- ili. lI.in s ,.l I'' uluii ilu- bay was full of them. 
the Alaska Packers Fleet at Encinal Terminals, Alameda. Today there is only one of this fleet left, the Star of Finland. 



PRIL, 1935 



101 




At the extreme left in this picture is a horse named "Wolf." He was the "com- 
mmaist" of the stable. He ran away one day, and breaking loose from harness and 
dray, jumped into the bay between two boats at Fisherman's Wharf. The fishermen 
got him out and his owners paid them ^5.00 for their trouble. Wolf, however, hav- 
ing once tasted wild freedom, was not much good thereafter for draying purposes. 
The concensus of opinion seems to have been that this communist should have been 
left in the bav. 




Sailing ships loading lumber at a Puget Sound mill about 1890. 




1 he Pacific Mail liner, Colini.^, one of the early screw propeller ships on the 
San Francisco-Australia run. 



OATS, BARLEY AXD CARROTS 

For the strip across the top of 
these two pages we are indebted 
to the courtesy of Mr. Adams of 
the Pacific S.S. Lines, Ltd., and of 
Mr. .Joe SlanKini of tlie .Joe Man- 
f;ini Draying Company, Inc. It 
siiows the teams of the draying 
firm, drawn up before the Pacific 
Coast Steamship Company's docli, 
Xo. 1 Ilroadway, San Francisco, as 
of .July ;?. 1918. The gentlemen 
standing are, from left to right, 
Mr. .Joe iMangini, Mr. A. (». Witt 
(deceasetl), .Mr. H. P. Arata, and 
Mr. G. M. Carroll. Four of the 
drivers shown are still in the em- 
ploy of this firm. They are now 
driving motor trucks which began 
to come in strong on San Francis- 
co waterfront about 1915. 

Xotice the wonderful condition 
of the horses. San Francisco cli- 
mate is good for horses, altliougli 
cobblestones are a little hard on 
their bones. A good team of draft 
animals in those days was worth 
.'(i.'iOO.OO cash, and the average 
service of a well kept team was 
twelve years. Feed bags with bar- 
ley and/or oats were carried on 
the drays, and a \vise driver al- 
ways had a few fresh carrots along 
to cut ui> and drt)]) into the feed 
bag. 

During the long California fruit 
season, these teams transferred 
fruit shipments from the river 
boats to Pacific Coast Steamship 
Company's dock, advancing river 
freight, and collecting in cash for 
freight or drayage. These collec- 
tions in gold and silver were used 
to meet the weekly payroll. 

Hours in the siunmer rush were 
from 2 a.m. to (i p.m. Sometimes 
the horses put in a mild protest. 
While a driver was inside signing 
his bills al the <liKk one afternoon 
his team walked off the dock and 
home to the stable at (ireen and 
Sansome streets where the Siui.set 
Press is now located. 



102 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Left and right above are picturesque 
examples of the scow schooner which 
in the old times moved much of the 
built freight around San Francisco Bay. 
At left: An old trans-Pacific side 
wheel steamer. 



^PRIL, 1935 



103 




Here we have the 
famous old Union 
Ironworks in 1901. 
At that time this 
plant was well up 
at the top of Am- 
erican yards in vol- 
ume of work turned 
out. 

Below: An interest- 
ing view of the 
hydraulic lift dock 
at the Union plant 
with the cruiser 
Tacoma up. This 
dock was destroyed 
by the earthquake 
in 1906. 



region boasts a higher standard of 
housing, education, sanitation, rec- 
reation for its people generally than 
does any other portion of the earth. 

Thirty years ago there was but one 
major port on the Pacific Coast. To- 
day there are at least si.x such ports, 
and the business transported by wa 
ter has increased in at least that pro- 
portion. 

We note with interest that early in 
1906 the city of Seattle had rebuilt 
the steam fireboat "Snoqualmie" and 
had installed new Taylor watertube 
boilers, using oil fuel with Lassoe- 
Loveking oil burners. A 4.6 kilowatt 
De Laval turbo-generator supplied 
electricity for the searchlight and 50 
incandescent bulbs. 

At that time Lewis Nixon had a 
design for a steel standardized fire- 
boat, powered with a 6-cylinder 
Standard gasoline engine, connected 
through clutche.". to the propeller 
shaft at its after end, and to a pres- 
sure pump foi-ward. These boats, 51 
feet long and drawing five feet of 
water, had a capacity of 2000 gallons 
per minute against 150 pound pres- 
.sure. The water was delivered to a 
circular deck erection surmounted 
by a single monitor nozzle, rotatable 
through 360 degrees. Eight standard 
hose connections around the tower 
enabled hoses to be carried in any 
direction. Nixon intended to build 
this boat on a quantity producti(jn 



basis with guaranteed speed and ca- 
pacity. It was to be sold at $30,000. 

Very notable in the older volumes 
of Pacific Marine review is the edi- 
torial flair for safety at sea. Many 
articles appear on such subjects as 
"Stability," "Sea Worthiness," "Bet- 
ter Cocks, Pipes and Sea Connec- 
tions," "Bigger and Better Bilge 
Pumps," "Lifeboats and Davit Im- 
provement," "Safe Free Board," and 
"Administrative Responsibility for 
Safety." The editor and publisher of 
that time does not hesitate to set his 



lance and run a tilt even against his 
own advertisers on questions of pos- 
sible lack of quality or structural 
weaknesses in vital points. Possibly 
the most interesting of such articles, 
in view of the recent Morro Castle 
and other tragic marine fires, is the 
article on the construction of a fire- 
proof excursion steamer based on a 
paper read by William Gatewood be- 
fore the 14th Annual Meeting of the 
Society of Naval Architects and Ma- 
rine Engineers, held on November 22 

(Page 119 Please) 




104 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



. . . 1850 

Pacific Mail— Grace Line 

1935 . . . 

Pioneer Clipper Ships and Sidewheel Steamers Develop 
into Most Modern of Passenger Liners 



For more than seventy years, be- 
ginning with 1850, the steamers of 
'he Pacific Mail Line served San 
Francisco and the Pacific Coast, 
puring much of that period, the 
prace Line sailing ships also served 
fhis region. These interests merged, 
and for a time were known as the 
panama-Mail Line, operating a ser- 
J/ice between San Francisco and New 
li'ork, touching at several Central 
American ports. 
( 

Today, this service is known as the 

brace Line Intercoastal Service, and 



Iperates three of the finest American 
lag vessels afloat. These three lin 
rs, the Santa Rosa, Santa Paula, and 
;Santa Elena, together with the S.S. 
California, S.S. Pennsylvania, and 
S.S. Virginia of the Panama Pacific 
(Line offer weekly a fast service for 
ii'argo and passengers, leaving San 
iFrancisco eastbound every Saturday. 

' The Santa liners are unique in 
Vnany respects, and are among the 
rnost popular ships afloat from the 
passenger comfort standpoint. 



At the right is the American Clipper 
M. P. Grace, one of the sailing ships 
which served this Pacific Coast in the 
seventies. Below is the Pacific Mail 
steamer, Oregon, as she was dressed 
up after bringing the news in 1850 that 
California had been admitted to the 
Union as a full-fledged state. 




.4. 




0^: ,.;. W^*^' 






If ■wrPPiiWii PwwfM^^llUT «"""" Zig 




■ m ot lour fine passenger and cargo I 



lu- p.m. nil. 1 M.iil ,S,rM., ,,l (In Grace Lines. 



APRIL, 1935 



105 



San Francisco Bar Pilots 

Efficient Guardians of Shipping at the 
Golden Gate for Eighty Years 



No old timers' number of a marine 
magazine published in San Francis- 
co would be complete without an ac- 
count of the San Francisco Bar Pil- 
ots. This institution can well boast 
the longest unbroken history of any 
purely Pacific Coast maritime org- 
anization. For eighty-five years it 
has maintained a pilotage service at 
the entrance to the bay of San Fran- 
cisco, which, for efficienecy and per- 
sistency, has few equals and no 
superiors in pilotage history. 

What eighty-five years means in 
the marine history of the Pacific 
Coast is best realized when we con- 
sider that the first United States 
lighthouse in California was erected 
on Alcatraz Island in 1854. The San 
Francisco Bar Pilots, then, reach 
back into that dim period of the pi- 
oneer history of California, in fact, 
as an institution, they are almost 
'49ers. 

From the first inception of state 
pilotage over the San Francisco bar, 
and through the Golden Gate to safe 
haven in San Francisco Bay, the 



ships and the pilots have been and 
are more or less regulated under 
rules for compulsory pilotage. 

Certain classes of vessels, when 
spoken by the pilot boat, are under 
obligation to pay pilotage at regu- 
lated rates whether or not they actu- 
ally accept and use the services of a 
pilot. The San Francisco Bar Pilots, 
on the other hand, are under obliga- 
tion by law to maintain on the bar a 
constant 24-hour watch, by a suffi- 
cient number of pilots so that no 
ship requesting a pilotage ser- 
vice shall be unduly delayed in get- 
ting a pilot. For eighty-five years 
the pilots have maintained that 
watch on the bar in fair weather or 
foul, and their record for safe and 
efficient handling of all types of ves- 
sels in all kinds of weather is truly 
remarkable. 

The San Francisco Bar Pilots are 
twenty in number, all master mari- 
ners of long sea experience. For 
many years back it has been the cus- 
tom, now grown into a fixed habit, to 
appoint to this position only Pacific 




Pilot boat Grade S. and Swedish training ship Admiral Rydberg off 
San Francisco Bar. 




Deck view Gracie S. 



Coast sea captains of proved ability. 
Under the supervision of the State 
Pilot Commission, they are subject t 
to constant inspection and inquiry as ■' 
to their personal efficiency and the 
fitness of their equipment. 

Three pilot boats are maintained, 
the California, the Gracie S. and the 
Adventuress. The first two named 
are active, the third is an extra. 

Gracie S. is herself one of San 
Francisco's well loved old timers. 
She was built to the order of the San 
Francisco Bar Pilots at the Union 
Iron Works, San Francisco, in 1893. 
Especially designed for her work she 
has given practically continuous ser- 
vice. She was equipped with a Bol- 
inder heavy oil engine in 1917. Her 
timbers are as sound today as when 
they were built into her hull. She 
measures 91 tons gross, 52 tons net, 
and is 83 feet long by 24.7 feet beam 
and 10.2 feet depth. 

Adventuress, too, is a Californian 
by birth, having been built in San 
Francisco in 1913. She measures 78 
tons gross, 48 tons net, and is 85.5 
feet long, 21.4 feet beam, and 98 feet 
depth. 

California is a later and larger ad- 
dition to the fleet of pilot schooners. 
She has a waterline length of 103 
feet, a beam of 25 feet, 2 inches, and 
a draft of 14 feet, 11 inches. She was 
formerly an auxiliary schooner 
yacht, and was purchased and 
brought out from the Atlantic coast 
by the pilots in 1931. Her Atlas Im- 
perial 140 horsepower engine was 
taken out and a 275 horsepower At- 



106 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW I 



as Imperial installed, her stern be- 
ng altered and strengthened to take 
■are of the larger propeller and shaft 
md additional stress. 

On the active boats there are ac- 
jommodations for nine or ten pilots, 
:»nd for a crew of seven. All the 
aoats are two-masted schooner rig, 
ind each has an auxiliary diesel en- 
gine. 

The crew consists of four sailors, a 
joat keeper, one engineer and a cook. 
'Naturally these men have to be care- 
fully picked and they receive sub- 
stantially higher than union scale of 
vages and are sure of employment 
io long as they can qualify. The ac- 
tive boats alternate, 5 days on sta- 
tion and 5 days off. 

During the period on station, the 
L'rew is on constant call any time 
during the 24 hours. During the off 
period they work at painting, clean- 
ing, and other maintenance and have 
their time off. 

! The working rule for pilots is that 
^t sunset on any day of the year 
jthere shall be on the pilot boat at 
station enough pilots to take care of 
all ships known to be due before 
jnoon of the next day and two extras. 
Jn these days of wireless, there is 
Jittle difficulty in knowing quite ac- 
!curately what the demand will be 
(from day to day. In order that they 
■might keep accurately informed of 
conditions at the bar, and might in- 
form the boat on station of any sud- 
|den business in the offing, the pilots 
Ihave installed a wireless telephone 
^system of their own for direct com- 
piunication between the boat on the 
fcar and the office at Pier 7. 
1 This wireless is a great coTiveni- 
lence since it enables the pilots on 
ptation to have complete and accur- 
ate data from hour to hour of condi- 
'tions on the waterfront and of all 
movements of ships off the Pacific 
.Coast. Captain H. W. Lewis, secre- 
tary of the San Francisco Bar Pilots 
keeps constant tab on ship move- 
JTients and supplies the pilots on sta- 
tion with this information. No other 
pilot service in the world is so equip- 
jjed. This wireless system represents 
Sin investment by the Pilots of more 
than $10,000.00 

I The active members of the Bar Pi- 
lots at the present writing are: Capt. 
p. P. Bartlett, Capt. John T. Diggs, 
Capt. A. A. Dunning, Capt. E. G. 
reeman, Capt. J. D. Guthrie, Capt. 
3. B. Knight, Capt. L. L.Lane, Capt. 
fohn McClements, Capt. Wm. A. Ma- 




Pilot boat California, largest of the three auxiliary schooners maintained by the 
San Francisco Bar Pilots. 



gee, Capt. A. A. Sawyer, Capt. C. F. 
Parker, Capt. Chas. Peterson, Capt. 
F. J. Pierce. Capt. Alex Swanson, 
Capt. Arthur Self, Capt. M. F. Tar- 
pey, Capt. Andrew Thompson, Capt. 
A. G. Thomson, Capt. M. Thwing and 
Capt. M. Tyson. 

There are few better boatmen than 
the crews of the pilot boats Gracie S. 
and California. They just have to be 
good. Day or night, calm or storm, 
bright sunshine or dense fog, they 
must be ready at any time to slide a 
small boat off the deck of their 
schooner and row a pilot over to an 
ocean-going steamer where they 
must maneuver the boat under the 
Jacob's ladder, and hold her there 
while the pilot climbs aboard. Then 
away, back to the schooner, and get 
their boat safely back on deck again. 
They have not had a casualty hap- 
pen to a pilot in their charge since 
1917. 

Nearly every day one of the off 
duty boats makes a trip out with ex- 
tra pilots for the boat on station 
which is right around the lightship. 
Here the pilot schooner tacks back 
and forth under sail awaiting her 
next service. Suddenly out of the 
mist come four long blasts of a 
steamer's whistle, and the big hull of 
a trans-Pacific liner looms up. Pilot 
boat's engine is brought into play 
and she works around under the lee 
of the steamer. Over goes the small 
boat, and into it a pilot and two or 



three men. The boat is rowed over to 
the liner, and the pilot clambers up 
the ladder to take charge. 

Once on the bridge, the pilot is 
fully responsible for all movements 
of the vessel. He relieves the master 
and other navigating officers. Many 
steamship owners feel that it is not 
fair to ask a ship's captain at the 
end of a long sea trip to be respon- 
sible for navigation into the port and 
docking at the pier, and certainly to 
most deep sea navigators the pilot is 
a welcome release. He is on intimate 
speaking terms with the whimsical 
moods of the bar. He knows thor- 
oughly the treacherous currents in 
the Gate. He has long and close ac- 
quaintance with the voices and 
echoes of the fog. To him, every rock 
and shoal, every channel marker and 
light, every land mark and water 
movement are old friends with 
whom, night and day, he has for- 
gathered for years. Who but he can 
gauge to a nicety the effect of tidal 
flow in docking a big ship at the va- 
rious points on the many ports in 
San Francisco's great harbor. 

So he takes charge on the bridge, 
and once more a great ship, home 
from the sea, is brought safely to 
her desired haven, and our hats are 
off in tribute to the cool heads and 
nerves of steel which have charac- 
terized the San Francisco Bar Pilots 
since its inception eighty-five years 
ago. 



APRIL. 1935 



107 



DIRECT STEAMER SERVICE TO 
SAN FRANCISCO and HONOLULU 

The full powered high-class steamers now being con- 
structed in American yards specially for this service 
are intended to be dispatched as follows: 

S.S. AMERICAN 8.500 Tons Aug. 1 

S.S. HA\^'AIIAN 8,500 Tons Oct. 1 

S.S. CALIFORNIAN 8,500 Tons Nov.— 

S.S. OREGONIAN 8.500 Tons Jan. — 

Freight received after June 1 5 at Company's New 
Covered Pier, 42d St., South Brooklyn. For rates 
of freight and further particulars apply to 

FLINT, DEARBORN 8c CO. 

11 Broadway General Agents 



The shipbuilding orders which 
made possible the announcement 
which heads this article constitute 
one of the outstanding events in the 
American merchant marine history, 
and one of the most forward looking 
and courageous actions ever taken 
by a ship operating firm. In 1899, 
Dearborn and Company amalgamat- 
ed with Flint and Company, becom- 
ing Flint. Dearborn, and Company; 
and formed the American-Hawaiian 
Steamship Company, to build and 
operate a line of steamers between 
New York, San Francisco, and Hono- 
lulu, via the Straits of Magellan. 

Both of these founder firms had 
roots running back into the Califor- 
nia line of clipper ships founded in 
1855. They knew the route intimately 
from long experience, and they knew 
their ships and the necessity of keep- 



The announcement which 
forms the heading of this 
article appeared in New 
York papers in 1899 and 
initiated the steam inter- 
coastal service which dis- 
placed the fine American 
sailing ships of the type 
shown in this painting by 
Chas. R. Patterson. 



ing all their floating property in 
first class condition, and well found 
in every way. 

It is noteworthy in this connection 
that in 1903 their steamer, Nebras- 
kan, became the first American car- 
go steamer to burn fuel oil, and in 
that same year the Texan went right 
through 14,086 miles from Tacoma to 
Philadelphia, world's long distance 
continuous steaming record up to 
that date. On the same voyage she 
came back from New York to San 
Francisco, 13,129 miles without stop. 




Today the American-Hawaiian 
Steamship Company operates a fleet 
of fine steamers in the intercoastal 
trade, giving San Francisco, Los An- 
geles, and New York twelve sailings 
a month, and keeping a staggered 
schedule at other Pacific coast and , 
Atlantic coast ports to meet the car- 
go requirements. This firm also op- 
erates a line of ten fine cargo ves- 
sels on a trans-Pacific route between 
San Francisco-Los Angeles, and i 
Japan, China, French Indo China, i, 
Siam and the Philippines. 



■1 


V 


a 

t 
/) 

/ 


i'l 




ri 




h 


ii\ 




rj 


ft' \^ 


,/M 








-^Ha^H^H 


yH 


hI 






} - »- ;v r^l^^B^B 


H 


B 


' ^^m 



1st American- 
Hawaiian 
steamer 
loading at 
New York. 



108 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



. . 1882 

The Matson Line 

1935 . . . 

i Small Brig and Her Captain Grow into a 
Mighty Fleet and a Great Organization 



There are seven white stars in the 
lag of the Matson Navigation Com- 
any. Arranged in a circle on a field 
f red. and surrounding a white cir- 
ular disc containing a block letter 
I. these stars represent the seven 
hips which composed the fleet at the 
ime of incorporation in 1901. Prior 
J that time. Captain William Matson 
ad been operating a fleet of sailing 
hips in the San Francisco-Honolulu 
un, and in Hawaiian inter-island 
rading. As with many Pacific Coast 
"teamship lines, the roots of the Mat- 
■on Navigation Company were in 
'ailing ships. 

I Starting with the schooner. Emma 
'iaudina in 1882, Captain Matson 
lad built up a fleet of barkentines 
nd ships, and in 1901 had purchased 
iiis first steamship, the Enterprise. 

f'he seven vessels represented by the 
even stars were: sailing ships — An- 
lie Johnson. Santiago. Roderick Dhu. 
[alls of Clyde, and Marion Chilcott; 
Iteamer Enterprise; and towboat 
.'harlie Councilman (used for towing 
t Hilo). 

The original flag was designed 
nd made bv Mrs. William Matson on 




The brig. Lurline. first vessel built for Captain William Matson. 



a voyage betweeen Honolulu and Hilo 
in 1901 on the ship Falls of Clyde. 

It was not until 1908 that Matson 
Navigation Company acquired an- 
other steamer, Lurline, named after 
the first sailing vessel built to Cap- 
tain Matson's order. In that year, the 
young and growing corporation took 
over in a merger the Planters Line 
of sailing vessels, thereby acquiring 
a fleet of large carriers including A. 
P. Rithet, Andrew Welch, St. Cather- 
ine. George Curtis, Gerard C. Toby. 
Tillie Starbuck. Hawaiian Isles, Fort 
George and W. H. Marston. In 1909 
and 1910. barkentines S. G. Wilder 
and Imgaard were acquired. 

Steamers now began to come more 
largely into the picture with the Wil- 
helmina in 1909 and the Matsonia 
and Manoa in 1913. It is, however, a 
very interesting fact for the histor- 
ian of sailing ships that the princi- 
pal cargo carrier on the San Fran- 
cisco-Honolulu run at the opening of 
the year 1914 owned only four steam- 
ers and was operating a large fleet of 



sailing vessels. These ships were 
gradually sold or lost through marine 
casualty, and by 1920 the Matson 
Navigation Company was completely 
out of sailing ship operation. 

An interesting retrospect in con- 
nection with present developments is 
afforded by the fact that when the 
Planters Line brought the R. P. Rith- 
et, 2000 tons sugar capacity, into the 
Hawaiian trade, about 1900, the su- 
gar growers declared, "She is far too 
big. These islands will never be able 
to give her a full cargo." 

Matson Navigation Company now 
operates a fleet of 27 steamers in the 
Pacific Coast-Hawaiian and Pacific 
Coast-Australian trades. This fleet 
aggregates approximately 200.000 
gross tons. Its latest additions. Malo- 
lo, and Lurline. in the San Francisco- 
Honolulu run, and Mariposa and 
Monterey in the San Francisco-Syd- 
ney run, are well up among the most 
modern, most beautiful, most safe, 
and most efficient passenger liners 
on the Pacific Ocean. 




The palatial speedy Matson liner, Lurline. latest addition to the Matson fleet 



\ PRI L, 1935 



109 



i86o— Goodall dC 

Nelson— Pacific 
Steamship Lines, Ltd. 

-1935 

It is a very far cry from the simple 
business of barging fresh drinking 
water from springs in Marin County 
to sailing ships off San Francisco 
waterfront, started by Goodall & 
Nelson in 1860, to the coastwise org- 
anization of Pacific Steamship Lines, 
Ltd., which serves the harbors of the 
western side of the United States 
from San Diego, California, to Nome, 
Alaska. However, away back in 1860, 
the two partners made enough money 
in five years to purchase a small 
100-ton steamer and go into the 
coastwise cargo carrying trade be- 
tween San Francisco and Monterey. 

By 1871 they had accumulated 
enough cash and credit to build two 
and to buy three steamers. In 1872 
they were joined by Senator George 
C. Perkins, and became Goodall, Nel- 
son & Perkins Company, which in 
1876 was changed to Pacific Coast 
Steamship Company on the retire- 
ment of Captain Nelson. 

In 1916 the Pacific Alaska Naviga- 
tion Company merged with the Paci- 
fic Coast Steamship Company and 
the combined organization chose the 
name Pacific Steamship Company. 
Two years back, after a reorganiza- 
tion, the firm name was changed to 
Pacific Steamship Lines, Ltd. 



This illustration, reproduced from a painting 
by W. A. Coulter, through the courtesy of 
A. B. Cahill, president of Sudden & Christen- 
son, shows the Steamship Salinas, first coast- 
wise venture of Goodall and Nelson and the 
genesis of the Pacific Steamship Company's 
fine fleet of modern passenger, combination, 
and cargo vessels. Contrast this with the crack 
coastwise passenger liner H. F. Alexander 
(shown below) the fastest vessel in American 
coastwise service. 




After a reorganization in 1933 the Pacific Steamship Company became the Pacific 

Steamship Lines Inc. This firm recently moved into spacious offices on the ground 

floor of the Dollar Building, San Francisco. 





II ■■■111 ■iiiii.ii ^" ■ ' ■■-"■"■' ..."...1.™ <\ --ih^^.i ^.VJ*-J-^ 






110 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



893 • • • Robert Dollar- 
Dollar Steamship 



Lines^ Inc 1935 " 



A Steam Schooner Plus One Man's Courage and 
Vision Becomes a Mighty Fleet 




Dollar steamers circle the earth. Here is the palatial turbo- 
electric liner President Hoo\'er in a tropica! setting;. 




Here are two contrasts in picture 
form that portray very graphic- 
ally the forty years of progress 
that have made the Dollar 
Steamship Lines Inc. Left: The 
steam schooner, Newsboy, first 
Dollar ship. Above; S.S. Presi- 
dent Johnson. Below; S.S. 
President Coolidge which with 
her sister S.S. President Hoover, 
heads the modem Dollar fleet. 




Ill 1893 Robert Dollar, a prosper- 
ous Michigan lumberman, who had 
come to California for his health, and 
had entered the Western lumber busi- 
ness to keep him busy, was rather 
peeved at the rates charged for mov- 
ing his lumber from the mills to San 
Francisco. So he bought a small 
steam lumber schooner and began 
carrying his own lumber. A little 
later he envisioned a market in China 
for Pacific coast lumber, and bought 
a larger vessel and began to carry 
his own lumber across the Pacific. 

The story of what followed has be- 
come a household tale wherever ships 
are known. Robert Dollar, before he 
died in 1932 at the age of eighty- 
eight, became the recognized "dean 
of American shipping," and the best 
known shipping owner and manager 
in the world. 

The Newsboy had grown into a 
fleet of 26 fine cargo and passenger 
vessels, aggregating in round num- 
bers 315,000 tons gross, operated in 
intercoastal, trans - Pacific, and 
'round the world services by an effic- 
ient world-wide organization, under 
the able leadership of R. Stanley 



1 ^^^H 




*■' "^^-" 


Dollar and J. B 
Robert Dollar. 


[arold ] 


Jollar, sons of 


vm 








sv 




PRIL, 


1935 








111 



Forty Years of Pacific 

Coast Tankers 



In the good old days many a case of 

kerosene went to China in sailing ships 

of this type. 



FIRST TANKERS 
UNION OIL 



Xoveinber, 1005 
The Union Oil Company of Cali- 
fornia, with offices at Los Ange- 
les, San Francisco and Seattle, an- 
nounce the iricor|M)ration of a sub- 
sidiary company, the Union Steam- 
ship Company, under the laws of 
the state of Xew Jersey, with a 
capital of $5,<HMt,0()0, which com- 
pany has purchased the four tank 
steamers, Lansin;;, Washtenaw, 
Roma, and the Argyll, previously 
owned by the Michisan .Steamship 
Company of Xew York and San 
Francisco, the Ai-gyll having pre- 
viously been under charter to the 
Union Oil Company. The purchase 
price is rejKjrted to be over $1,- 
(M>O,0OO, and the ptirchasers ex- 
pect to get deli\ery on oi' about 
the first of .January, 1906, when 
the charters under which the 
steamers are now held on the east 
coast expii'e, and when the vessels 
can be immediately dispatched to 
the Pacific. 

The Lansing, 4.560 tons gross, 
built in Newcastle, England, in 
1800, and since granted an Ameri- 
can register, has a net capacity of 
44,0(W barrels, and will be the 
largest tank steamer plying on 
this coast. 

The Washtenaw carries 27, .500 
barrels net, the lioma, 27,.500 bar- 
rels, and the Argyll 26,800 giving 
a total for the four steamers of 
12.5,800 barrels. 







-^^j, 




^ 




' - .^:, 


-.,.<L4 


'^M^iKr 


■H 



PIONEER STANDARD 
TANKERS 



May, 1»(»5 
The oil tank steamer Ascunsion, 
owned by the Standard Oil Com- 
pany, and i)Iying between livd- 
mond, California, and Portland 
and Seattle, visited this i)<)rt last 
month. Chief Kngineer Charles 
(■riindell, who is the earliest user 
of oil fuel on this coast, having 
successfully employed it since 
1887, and who was for five years 
chief engineer on the tank steam- 
er, (ieorge Loomis, infoi-ms us 
that his records show an e\ai)ora- 
tion slightly exceeding 15 iH>unds 
of water from 1 pound of oil at 
212 degrees. He reports an aver- 
age consumption for six voyages 
of 1.14 pounds of oil per I.H.P. 
per hour, one ti'ip working out at 
1.00 pounds. The Ascunsion is fit- 
ted with quadruple expansion en- 
gines, with cylinders 15-23-32-o4x 
42 inch stroke, and has two Bab- 
cock & Wilcox 4-inch tube boilers, 
with a total heating surface of 4,- 
;{66 square feet, carrying 250 
pounds of steam. The Ascunsion 
has a carrjing capacity of 23,000 
bari-els of oil and burns 116 bar- 
rels per day, steaming 0J4 knots 
loaded, and 12^ knots light. 





Above: Tanker Georgt 
Loomis 1896. She rar 
9 knots in good wea 
thcr, carried 6500 bar 
rels oil. 

At left: Latest Pacifii 
Coast tanker M.S. Cal 
ifornia Standard, 1929 
Speed 1 1 knots, car 
ries 130,000 barrels ol 
gasoline. 



112 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



K Pioneer Pacific 



Shipping Agency Organization 



Seventy-three years ago, Mr. Hen- 
B. Williams decided to start a 
lipping agency in San Francisco 
i|at would strive to give good service 
I shippers and ship owners alike, 

id that would represent only the 
1st ships and the most progressive 
■ i-ners. 
Isingle-handed, he built up a good 

fsiness, an efficient organization 
presenting the lines of clipper 
^ips which then connected San 
fancisco with the Orient, Austral- 
;jia, Hawaii, the Atlantic coast, and 
rope. He was agent also for the old 
cific Mail S.S. Co. 

i Early in the seventies, Williams 
kame associated with Henry P. 
lanchard, and the firm of Williams, 
ianchard was formed. This firm 
■ps dissolved in 1880 and Williams 
.ined with W. H. Dimond and A. 
"neesbrough to incorpoate as Wil- 

ims, Dimond & Company, a firm 
nich is still very much in the Paci- 

: Coast shipping agency business, 
! d "going strong." 

From 1862 to 1899, Williams. Di- 
ond & Company and its predeces- 
rs represented the California line 
sailing clippers on the Pacific 
last. This line was engaged in cargo 
ansport and trading between New 
)rk and San Francisco and Hawaii. 

During the period from 1873 to 
90, Williams, Dimond & Company 
vre agents at San Francisco for the 
icific Mail Steamship Company, 
en operating from San Francisco to 
e Orient. Honolulu. Australia. 
jew Zealand. Mexico, Central Am- 
[•ica, Puget Sound and New York 
'a the Panama Railroad over the 
jthmus. 

jin 1899 Williams, Dimond & Com- 

^ny were instrumental in forming 

|e American -Hawaiian Steamship 

'pmpany. and acted as general Paci- 

jc coast agents for that company 

til 1923, when they voluntarily 

ve up their agency in order that 

le way might be clear for Ameri- 

n-Hawaiian to establish its own 

ad office in San Francisco. 

JThe present personnel of Williams, 



\K\V ( I \ \I!I>KH l,\l \( HKI) 
March. 15)0.5 

The (ariiiaiiiii. new Cuiiarilfr 
launched at (l.vcle Bank, Febru- 
ary 21, is Ci7<> fe«"t in lensth. "il 
I'eet (i inches broad. .">•- feet in 
depth to sliell.M- deck, 8(» feet in 
depth to boat deck. :52 feet in 
loaded drauuhl, and about Ul.l.'jO 
ton;-, irross. .She has a disphK-enienl 
of 29,8<K» tons and 12,0»M» tons 
deadweight carr.xing ca|mcit.v. .Slie 
win carry .{(M) first-class passen- 
gers. ;?.■><» se<(iiid-clivss, 10<)(> third- 
class and 1(M»(» ste«?rage, while her 
crew will be .l.Kl. The ("arniania 
will have triple screws, driven by 
three separate I'arsons turbines. 
The center shaft will be driven b> 
the hish pressure tiu'bine, and 
each of the si<le shafts by a low 
jjressure turbine with the astern 
turbine at tlie after end inside the 
low pressure casing. The boiler 
pressure in the Cariuania will be 
19.'> iHninds instead of the 21(t 
IMiiinds in the Caronia. and the 
turbines will take steam at an in- 
itial i>ressure of lo."; |>ounds 
against 20(> |Miunds in the machin- 
ery of the t'aronia. The keel of 
the ('arniania was lai<l May 14, 
1004, so that only !)i 2 months 
have been re(|uired to bring her 
to her launching stage. 



Dimond & Company includes: H. W. 
Poett, president; E. L. McCormick, 
vice president; R. A. McLarsen, 
treasurer; Oscar J. Beyfuss, chart- 
ering department; and H. H. Pierson, 
traffic manager. 

They are joint operators of and 
agents for the Quaker Line of inter- 
coastal steamers giving weekly serv- 
ice between Albany, New York, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Norfolk, 
and Pacific coast ports; and the Cali- 
fornia Eastern Line of intercoastal 
steamers giving service every third 
week between Pacific coast ports 
and the New Y'ork-Jacksonville, Flor- 
ida range of Atlantic coast ports. 



FAIHl'L.W 

June, 1906: Imitation is the 
sincerest foitn of flattery, btit the 
persistency and fre<)uency with 
which the South China Morning 
I'ost, publishcHi at Hong Kong, ex- 
tracts and publishes items and 
articles fitMu the I'acific Marine 
Heview, published in Seattle, 
without gi\ing the slightest cred- 
it or intimation of their source, 
demands condemnation, fliinese 
pirates and Chinese .junks have 
from time immemorial infested 
the Chinese coast. Need we say 
more? 




A SOUTH B.-\V STERN Vi HEFLFR 

Remember the old ANHso excursion boats with stage connection to Santa Clara. San Jos 

Alum Rock Park, Mt. Hamilton or Congress Springs. 



PRIL, 1935 



113 




Young Brothers' Mamo 
Logs Another Record Tow 





5. 




1*J^Jr 






"Nine days — seventeen hours!" — comes the of' 
ficial timing of the voyage of the Young Brothers 
seagoing tug, Mamo, on her fourth and latest Coast 
to Hawaii crossing. 

As chronicled in our last issue, the Mamo left the 
Golden Gate at 9:30 a.m. on Tuesday, March 5. The 
sturdy tug was in tow of the new all-steel barge, 
Y.B. 10, recently delivered by Bethlehem's Union 
plant. 

Our view across the top of these pages shows the 
Mamo and barge as our photographer caught them 
passing the first pier of the San Francisco'Oakland 
Bay Bridge. 

Readers will recall the maiden towing trip of the 
Mamo in May, 1931, when the tug traversed the 
San Francisco to Honolulu course in ten days, 1") 
hours, towing a tandem of barges. Noteworthy en- 
gine performance has been largely responsible for 
the Mamo's successful career. She is powered with 
two 750 h.p. 5-cylinder, Fairbanks-Morse diesel 
engines, the ninth and largest of the Young Brothers' 
fleet equipped with F-M power plants. 

The launching of the latest pineapple barge for 
Young Brothers was reviewed in the pages of our 
last issue, the March edition. These barges, of all- 
steel construction, are of unique design, and it is in- 
teresting to learn that in the hauhng of as many as 
forty thousand cases in a load, a loss of a single case 
overboard is a rarety, despite heavy weather and 
long mileage. 

1. A. Young, first vice president and general man- 
ager, gives full credit to the skill of his crews — men 
who have made these towing- jobs their Hfe work. 
But, be it recorded. Jack Young is, himself, a real tug- 
boat man, with many distinctive towing methods 
which he has personally devised. A San Diego lad, 
he went out to the Islands, right at the turn of the 
century, starting in a very modest way a career 
which might well be the envy of any red-blooded 
man. 

The first vessel of the Young Brothers' fleet was 



the tug, Helen, which for years was handl 
amount of towing work around the Ho 
bor. With the development of traffic, Yc: 
ers added to their fleet year after year, 
service such tugs as the Mikimiki, Mahi 
Mikiala, and Makaala. 

The transportation of pineapple from ii 
of Molokai and Maui to shipping points a I 
has been the big responsibility of Young Bj 
several years. Barges, such as the new Y.I i 
miUions of cases annually, pressing into l 
ocean-going tugs of the fleet for the long i 
the weather side of the main island. 

Young Brothers have also developed otll 
es of small craft and commercial work-boj 
including freighting and dredge tenders, c I 
immigration, fireboat and launch traffic. 

The personnel of these vessels is pictui 
ticularly to the main-lander. Captain Bof 
the Mamo, for instance, is a direct des 
Kamehameha. 

The native Hawaiians are characteristic 
handlers of small craft and are fearless n; 
the inter-island sea lanes. One is impresse 
regard of crew members for the "big bos? 
bond of fellowship between Jack Young a 
who man his ships. 

Aboard the Mamo, on this crossing, 
Young, Jr., who handled the instrumer 
gation officer. That his bearings were 
denced by the splendid time which was 
which goes down in the records as a 
done. 

The Mamo's power plant is a notewort 
of the performing dependability of Fairb; 
diesels. Her owners have put this 
through manoeuvres which have exacted 
in stamina since her delivery by Bethlelw 
Plant in San Francisco four years ago. 
if any other sea-going tug has covered g; 
age or experienced more constant and mo: 



114 



PACIFIC MARINE R 




The Mamo on her trial 
runs logged 11.4 knots. 



ichedules. Yet, after these four years of 

rvice, the most careful engine inspection 

perceptible wear. The two propeller 

e Mamo are each directly driven hy a 5- 

O'shaft h.p. model 37, pump scavenging 

Our engineering readers will be inter- 

It: auxiliary units. Each engine is equipped 

tin units, as follows: Air compressor, water 

ipump, bilge pump, fuel transfer pump, 

*lper oil transfer pump and lubricating oil 

j of this model 37 engine are: Oil-cooled 
h pressure fuel injection, single stage 
, and the use of wiper rings at the lower 



ends of the cylinder liners to prevent carbon tainted 
piston lubricating oil from entering the crank case. 

In connection with this latter feature, this wiper 
oil from the cylinder is transferred by a special built- 
in pump to a separate tank, from which it is drawn 
at intervals for purification by a Sharpies 5 A centri- 
fuge operating in conjunction with a 6-kilowatt elec- 
tric oil heater. 

Lubricating oil sufficient for long periods of opera- 
tion is carried in the engine crank case from which 
it is force-pumped through an oil cooler and then 
back through the main bearing header, through the 
drilled crank shaft and up to the piston pins through 
drilled connecting rods; and so returns to the crank 




The YB 10, .all-steel barge 
built by Bethlehem Ship- 
building Corp. Ltd. in 
San Francisco. 



"Movie" Strips, courtesy 

H. D. Nichols, Tubbs 

Cordage Co. 





»d* 









115 



One of the Mamo's 5-cylinder 750-brake 

horsepower. Fairbanks-Morse Diesels. The 

twin-screw tug has achieved remarkable 

record in engine performance. 




case after passing through individual thermometer 
wells. 

The control board of each engine is equipped 
with an exhaust temperature indicator and an elec 
trie tachometer. A Kingsbury thrust bearing is built 
into the frame of each engine. The propellers are 92 
inches diameter pitch, soHd 4 ' bladed bron2;e 
wheels of Coolidge design. For after cooling and 
emergency use, a rotary lubricating oil pump and a 
centrifugal circulating water pump, each driven by 
a 71/2'horsepower motor, are installed. These pumps 
are interconnected to serve both engines. 

Power for electrical engine room and deck auxib 
iaries is provided by two 4?'horsepower, 3'cylinder, 
diesel engines, each directly connected to a 30'kilo' 
watt, 125'volt, compound-wound Fairbanks'Morse 
direct'current generator and clutch'connected to a 2' 
stage, 50-cubic feet capacity Fairbanks-Morse air 
compressor. 

In April 1931, the Mamo had her trial runs over 
the navy measured mile in San Francisco Bay and 
logged an average speed of 11/4 knots at 270 revo- 
lutions per minute. The engine room allows ample 
space for all of the machinery, which is so installed 
as to give maximum accessibility for attention and 
repairs. One is impressed with the easy air passage 
for good ventilation. In every respect, the Mamo 
can well be classed as a tidy engine job, as convinc- 
ingly evidenced by her efficient service and remark- 
able record. 
• Navigation Equipment. 

Cf^ry mechanical engine room telegraphs, are in- 
stalled with transmitters both in the pilot house and 
on the after end of the deck house. Two Snerry 18- 
inch incandescent searchlights are installed, one on 
top of pilot house with manual control inside the 
pilot house and one at the after end of the top of 
the deck house. This latter is of the spot type and 
is used for picking up tows. These searchlights are 
each of 1,000,000 beam candle power, and are the 



same as installed on the Dollar, Matson, and Panama 
Mail liners, and on practically all new construction 
in American shipyards. 

The steering gear, supplied by Allan Cunning- 
ham, is arranged for hand steering from the pilot 
house or for electric telemotor control of the electric 
steering engine. The change to hand steering is ef- 
fected simply by removing a pin in the pilot house 
gear. The rudder is of the balanced type, and a tiller 
indicator is arranged over the rudder stock on the 
deck aft, so that the exact position of the rudder is 
indicated constantly. 

A Cunningham air whistle No. 2, specially design- 
ed with long horn to give a low, penetrating note re- 
sembling that of the best steam whistles, is mounted 
on the stack with control in the pilot house. 

The combination electric capstan-windlass is of a 
design made especially for Young Brothers by Cun- 
ningham of Seattle. It is operated through a vertical 
shaft by a 20-horsepower General-Electric motor lo- 
cated in the forepeak below the deck. This design 
of windlass has proved itself a very satisfactory ma- 
chine on several Young Brothers tugs. 

The Mamo has so many spectacular tows to her 
credit that a word about her towing gear is in 
order. The tug's rope hawsers are Tubbs Super- 
core, served by an Allan Cunningham electric tow 
machine housed in a recess at the after end of the 
deck house. The drum has a capacity for 1600 feet 
of steel wire hawser. 

In addition to the wire, the Mamo carries Tubbs 
Manila cordage as follows: 

12? fathoms 12-inch Supercore tow line. 

125 fathoms 9-inch Supercore tow line. 

Several coils 6-inch Supercore hawser. 

Running gear and small rope of Super Extra 
Manila. 

Young Brothers, Ltd., have proved to their satis- 
faction that the extra wear obtained by using Super 
core hawsers makes this equipment an economy. 



116 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Pacific Coast Shipping_3o Years Ago 



(Continued from Page 104) 



ind 23, 1906. This article describes 
n great detail the construction and 
'quipment of the Potomac river 
iteamer, Jamestown. In this boat, all 
?lectric wiring was in steel conduit, 
ise of wood in construction was eli- 
minated wherever possible, and 
\-here wood was used it was covered 
vith non-inflammable material. All 
)edsteads were of brass or enamelled 
ron. All clothes lockers were of 
sheet steel. The deck houses were 
)uilt of sheet steel. Air cell asbestos 
was fitted under the main deck at 
•he bottom flange of the beams, in 
fvay of the boilers. In short, her con- 
Itruction carried out in 1906 many of 
he requirements that are just now 
peing written into our codes. 
' In 1906 the annual report of the 
Jteamboat Inspection Service, under 
iemedial Legislation Recommended 
ivers that "If we are to continue the 
practice of burning oil on passenger 
jteamers — and circumstances justify 
■hat conclusion — I would recommend 
'hat its use be restricted to oil that 
yill not flash at less than 140 de- 

i'rees F, and that the larger surface 
f any oil containing tank be in di- 
ect contact with the sea." 
; The Union, Hercules, and Stand- 
>rd Gasoline Engine Companies re- 
ported more business than they could 
iiandle. 

I In our issue of May, 1906, it was 
jecorded that San Francisco's earth- 
iuake and the great fire did not 
■reatly damage shipping or allied in- 



\E\\> ITK.MS, .M.AY Umr, 

3oi\f^ D. Dickie of Alameda is at 
' work on another of the Key Koute 
, stpanier.s, «hi<li when completed 
1 will probably be a little faster 
) than the same company's San 
Francisco vessels. 



The .Standard Oil Company have 
i gone into the busine.ss of general 

carriei-s, the tankers now carrying; 
' oil between this |)ort and the Kast, 
I will on their retnrn voyages load 
. China cargo, at the usual iH>rts of 
. call for San Francisco. The well 
; known shipping firm of Swayne 

and Hoyt have, we understand, 
I been ap|>ointe<l agents. 



lPRIL, 1935 




LAST RESTING PLACE 

This is the last glimpse old timers on the 
North Pacific Coast will have of the old 
"Charmer," 48-year-old coastal steamer re- 
cently sold by the Canadian Pacific to the 
Capital Iron Si Metals Co., Victoria, B.C. 
Her buyers have towed her to the Upper 
harbor in Victoria and work already has 
started on stripping her of all metal and 
machinery after which her hull will be 
burned. Built in 1887 as the "Premier," by 
the Union Iron Works. San Francisco, she 
came to the Canadian Pacific when that com- 
pany took over the Canadian Pacific Navi- 
gation Co. in 1901. The "Premier" was in 
collision, October 8, 1902, with the collier 
"Willamette," four died and a score were 
injured. Cut to the water's edge, the Prem- 
ier was beached at Bush Point, near Port 
Townsend. Wash., and Capt. John Irving, 
commodore of the Canadian Pacific fleet, had 
her raised and towed to Victoria where she 
was changed lo British registry, much to the 
chagrin of attorneys who were waiting for 
her appearance above water to start proceed- 
ings against her. From then on, as the 
"Charmer" she plied in north Coast waters 
between Victoria and Vancouver, Vancouver 
and Nanaimo and other runs until retired 
a few years ago. 



GENERAL 

September, 1 »<».■> 
We learn that several of the 
towboat companies outside the 
l*iiget Sound Tug Boat Company, 
including the Chesley Tow Boat 
Company of Seattle, the Seattle 
Tug Company, the .American Tug 
Boat Company, and other small 
tugboat companies of Bellingham 
and Everett, have given ca.sh op- 
tions uiK)n their properties, with a 
view to consolidation. We are dis- 
IK)sed to think such a consolida- 
tion is both advisable and justifi- 
ed. 



terests. The Union Iron Works suf- 
fered considerable quake damage 
through the collapse of the old hy- 
draulic lift dock with the steamer 
Columbia up and the falling of the 
shear legs across the steamer City of 
Puebla. One of the new vessels for 
the American-Hawaiian Steamship 
Company, then in frame on the 
stocks was also somewhat damaged. 

About six weeks after the fire, 
when it began to appear that there 
might be a boom in shipping, the 
Seamen's Union demanded a raise, 
which demand resulted in a strike 
and lock out, tying up the entire wat- 
erfront. This strike dragged along 
for many months, with considerable 
direct action on the part of the strik- 
ers. However, our "San Francisco 
Correspondent" reported in August 
that "vessels are moving along free- 
ly and keeping fairly good time." 

The Cunarders, Luisitania and 
Mauretania, and the White Star lin- 
er, Adriatic, were well under way in 
Great Britain, and the Canadian 
Australian Royal Mail Line had just 
placed in service the new 17-knot 
turbiner, Maheno, on the Sydney- 
Victoria run. This vessel had triple 
screws, with a high pressure turbine 
on the central shaft and a low pres- 
sure turbine on each of the outside 
screws, all direct connected and run- 
ning about 365 revolutions a minute 
at full speed. 

She had Scotch type cylindrical 
marine coal burning boilers, Howden 
system forced draft, working pres- 
sure 150 pounds. Her hull was 400 
feet by 50 feet by 33 feet, 6 inches, 
and was equipped to accommodate 
240 first class, 120 second class and 
60 third class passengers, and 2500 
tons deadweight of cargo. On her 
maiden voyage from Sydney to Vic- 

117 




Down to a period just before the great war many sailing ships of this type were 
operating in the Hawaiian and Australian trade and to Europe around the Horn. 



toria, she logged a total of 7431 nau- 
tical miles in 20 days, 6 hours, 6 min- 
utes, and burned 2367 tons of coal or 
'for propelling engines) only 113.8 
tons of coal every 24 hours. She was 
the finest ship on the Australian run 
at that time. Built by Denny Broth- 
ers, Dumbarton, Scotland, she had 
cost 160,000 pounds or $800,000 and 
her operating cost was said to be 
$30,000 a month. 

Great dreams of future port expan- 
sion for Seattle were brought a little 
nearer fruition with favorable ac- 
tion by the Washington State Legis- 
latui-e on a bill authorizing the con- 
struction of a shiplock and canal be- 
tween Lake Union and Lake Wash- 
ington. 

In 1906 there began to appear as 
advertisers in Pacific Marine Review 
a number of "old timers," many of 
whom are still very much alive. 
Among those early advertisers were 
such well known firms as Lidger- 
wood Manufacturing Company, 
steam and electric driven ships 
winches; The Babcock and Wilcox 
Company, Charles C. Moore, Pacific 
Coast agent; Union Gas Engine Com- 
pany, now the Union Diesel Engine 
Company; Hind, Rolph and Com- 
pany, shipowners; A. B. Sands & Son 
Company, marine plumbing; G. W. 
and James Dickie, naval architects 
and marine engineers; F. Tregoning, 
boat builder; The Ashton Valve Com- 
pany; Fireman's Fund Insurance 
Company; Johnson and Higgins, av- 
erage adjusters and insurance brok- 
ers; Barneson-Hibberd Company, 
shipping insurance and commission 
merchants; Pacific Mail S. S. Com- 
pany; Pacific Coast S. S. Company; 



Union Oil Company; Baldt Stockless 
Anchor; Alaska S. S. Company; A. J. 
Morse and Company, diving apparat- 
us; Almy Water Tube Boiler Com- 
pany; and Submarine Signal Com- 
pany. 

History Repeats Itself. — Compare 
with conditions today the following 
statement from Pacific Marine Re- 
view 1905: — "The past year has been 
another twelve months added to the 
lean years which cargo carriers have 
had to endure since the close of the 
South African War. We are still suf- 
fering from the disruption to lines of 
ocean traffic caused by that war. It 



December, lOO.'i 
.^IM'RECIATKD ( O.MPLI.MEXTS 

The I'acit'ic -Marine Keview, pub- 
lished at Seattle, Washington, a 
publication of sterling merit, 
which handles I'acilic Coast mat- 
ters in a most masterly manner, 
and deals with national shipping 
interests witli a liberal spirit and 
understanding. It has naturally a 
large West ('<>a.st circulation, and 
at the .same time the Kast is not 
behind in its appreciation of its 
\aliie. It covers a large foreign 
field in its circulation, and is con- 
sidered authoritative in its writ- 
ings and is not only Interesting, 
but highly instructive. — .American 
Shipbuilder, Xew York. 



Ship Owners' Association 
of the Pacific (^oast 
San Francisco, Xov. 3.5, 190.5 
Kditor, Pacific Marine Review : 

Permit me to expi'ess my appre- 
ciation of the copy of the jtajwr 
.just received. It is full of meat, 
and I think contains more infor- 
mation of value and interest to 
shipowners, on this coast especial- 
ly, than any one of the Eastern 
papers. 

Very truly yours, 

R. S. Clarke, Secy. 



will require many years to reestab- 
lish shipping on normal lines, and 
the present Russo-Japanese war will 
probably greatly retard normal re- 
covery." 




Deck scene on the first Pacific tanker, S.S. George Loomis, built at the Union Iron 
Works, San Francisco, in 1896 for the Pacific Coast Oil Company. Her dimensions 
were 186 feet, 2 inches, length; 27 feet, 3 inches, beam; 17 feet, 3 inches, depth. 
She was 691 gross tons and 401.9 net tons with a displacement of 1,457 tons on i 
draft of 14 feet, 9 inches. She had a triple expansion engine and one Scotch 
boiler, which drove her at a speed of 9 knots. She carried 6500 barrels of oil. 



118 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Marine Engineering Notes 

From Pacific Marine Review, 1905 



October. 1905 
I The Hercules Gas Engine Com- 

any has acquired a large acreage in 
akland, and although it lost heavily 
y fire on August 13, being only 
lartly covered by insurance, Mr. 
.'heo Poindexter, manager, remark- 
n: "The fire only forced us to do 
ihat we ought to have done long ago, 
iz.: moved into larger and better 
quipped works, even if we have lost 
lost of our moulds and patterns, 
^ogress in the gas engine has been 
p rapid and involved so many 
hanges that those won't be missed. 
:s you know, just before the fire, we 
'ere working on designs for a 400 
wrsepower 4-cylinder marine en- 
ine. Yes! The Hercules Gas Engine 
, known from San Francisco to Mex- 
;o on the South, to the Arctic Ocean 
h the North, from San Francisco to 
fe China Seas and the Indian Ocean 
rid down to the Southern Cross." 



October. 1905 
Messrs. Scott & Moore — R. S. 
[oore, formerly superintendent of 
le Risdon Iron Works, and a nephew 
' Henry Scott, late vice-president of 
le Union Iron Works, have estab- 
shed a fairly well equipped ma- 
line and smith shop, and have been 
ell employed with general repair 
ork ever since thev started. 



November. 1905 
nion Gas Engine Company 

The increasing demand for 
L^nion" engines has forced the 
nion Gas Engine Company of San 
rancisco. to enlarge its facilities. It 
as purchased nine acres with a 
ontage of 350 feet on the Oakland 
e-tuary having a depth of 12 feet of 
ater at low tide. 

The three largest gasoline vessels 
Heat are equipped with "Union" 
igines, manufactured by the Union 
las Engine Company of San Fran- 
sco, California. They are the lum- 
?r schooners, Sotoyome and Argus. 
id the passenger boat, Anvil. These 

PRIL, 1935 




Union 4-c\Iinder Y-type gasoline engine with auxiliary engine for starting 
and for lights as installed in the yacht Lucero 1893. 



vessels made their moden voyages a 
short time ago. 

The schooner, or rather barge, So- 
toyome, owned by the Albion Lum- 
ber Company of San Francisco, is 
equipped with twin screw 3-cylinder 
Union engines, 300 horsepower, fit- 
ted to run on crude oil or untreated 
distillate, and a 6 horsepower Union 
electric light engine. Her length is 
170 feet, beam 36 feet 11 inches, ton- 
nage 503, carrying capacity 750,000 
feet of lumber. She plies between Al- 
bion and San Francisco as a lumber 
carrier. 

The launch. Union, is the fastest 
launch of her size on the Coast, hav- 
ing demonstrated her right to this 
title by racing the best boats of her 
class, and larger power boats in San 
Francisco Bay as well as by an offi- 
cial trial over the government 
course. The average speed obtained 
was 19.83 mles an hour and under 
unfavorable conditions, there being 
choppy sea with more or less wind to 
contend with. In smooth water she 
should have no trouble in reaching a 
speed of 20' j miles an hour. 



are installing engines in the steam 
schooner Lakme. which vessel has 
been used for some time as a barge. 
They have also under way machinery 
for four steam schooners now being 
built up the coast, and are doing con- 
siderable work to the steel steam 
schooner Redondo. 



• Shipping 

October. 1906 
Such influence as the Pacific Ma- 
rine Review possesses (and we have 
been honored by a request from sev- 
eral influential Eastern congressmen 
to suggest to them a policy for their 
guidance during next session of Con- 
gress, in connection with shipping 
and kindred issues affecting the Pa- 
cific Coast) will be added to the 
movement by Mr. T. B. Wilcox of the 
Portland Flouring Mills and his as- 
sociates to secure a substantial ap- 
propriation from Congress for deep- 
ening the channel over the Columbia 
River bar. 



November, 1905 
• Shipbuilding 

The United Engineering Company 






119 



Freights, Charters, Sales 



We have the following fixtures to 
report : 

Grain: British steamer, San 

Lorenzo to North Pacific, heavy 
grain, 16/-, 9 d extra each additional 
port up to three, Santa Fe and/or Di- 
amante, loading 13 extra, April; 
British steamer Loch Ranza, British 
Columbia to Europe, April/May, Can- 
adian Transport Co.; American 
steamer Eastern Glade, North Atlan- 
tic to North Pacific, March, McCor- 
mick S.S. Co.; British steamers Ben- 
mohr and Benavon, British Columbia 
to London, March, Anglo Canadian 
Shipping Co.; American steamer 
Plow City, Portland to Gulf ports and 
North Atlantic prompt. Pacific Con- 
tinental Grain Co. 

Lumber: British motorship King 
Arthur, British Columbia to Austra- 
lia, lump sum $20,500 f.i.o., March/ 
April, Heatley & Co.; British steamer 
Comeric. British Columbia to Shang- 
hai, lump sum, £4,500 f.i.o., March/ 
April. 

Tankers: Norwegian tank motor- 
ship Kim, California to U.K./Cont., 
cleana, 15/3, April; Norwegian tank 
motorship O. A. Knudsen, California 
to Wellington, dirty, 12/6, March; 
Norwegian tank motorship Vilja, Cal- 
ifornia to Japan, two trips 11/- first, 
10/6 second, dirty, March. 

Time Charter: British steamer 
Forthbridge, delivery North Pacific, 
redelivery Orient, March/April, Unit- 
ed Ocean Transport Co.; Greek 
steamer Dionyssios Stathatos, two or 
three months, delivery Japan, rede- 
livery China or Japan via North Pa- 
cific, April, Yamashita Shipping Co.; 
Norwegian motorship Eidsvold, 12 
months, delivery North of Hatteras, 
redelivery North Pacific, March/Ap- 
ril, 4/-; Greek steamer Mount Cyn- 
thos, 6 months, North Pacific to Ori- 
ent, March 2/-; Greek steamer Kate, 
3 to 5 months, North Pacific to Ori- 
ent, 2/-, Yamashita Shipping Co.; 
Greek steamer Margaritis, 6 to 8 
months, delivery Orient, redelivery 
Orient via North Pacific 1/11, Febru- 
aiy/March; Norwegian motorship 
Hoegh Merchant, 12 to 16 months, 
delivery Shanghai, March, Kawasaki 
Kisen Kaisha; Norwegian motorship 
Beljeanne, continuation of present 
charter, delivery and redelivery Jap- 
an, April, Yamashita Shipping Co.; 



Greek steamer George M. Embiricos, 
two to four months, delivery and re- 
delivery Japan, March, United Ocean 
Transport Co.; British steamer Llan- 
arth, two to four months, delivery 
and redelivery Japan, March, United 
Ocean Transport Co. 

Miscellaneous: American steamer 
Northhaven, materials and supplies, 
San Francisco, Hawaii, Midway Is- 
lands, Wake, Guam and Manila, 
about 6 months, Pan-American Air- 
ways Corp.; British steamer Corin- 
thic, Odessa to Tacoma, gold ore, 
March. 

Shipping Sale: American schooner 
Lottie Bennett, F. D. Harris to Thos. 
D. Aitken of San Francisco, terms 
private; American tank steamer Ole- 



um, Union Oil Co. to Japanese inter- 
ests, to be scrapped, terms private; 
American steamer Suedco, Portland 
and California S.S. Co. to Malhiasen 
Alkali Works, Inc. of New York; 
American steamers Sudurco, Suboat- 
co and Suwarinco, Portland and Cali- 
fornia S.S. Co. to Union Shipbuilding 
Co. of Baltimore, to be scrapped; 
American motorship Culburra, Paci- 
fic Motorship Co. to Santa Cruz Oil 
Co., terms private; American steam- 
er Salmon King, Beatrice Rotermund 
to Alaskan-Californian Exploration 
Co., terms private; American steam- 
er Daisy, U. S. Marshal to Los Ange- 
les & Long Beach Despatch Line, 
$1,200.; American Sh Moshulu, The 
Charles Nelson Co. to Finnish inter- 
ests. 

PAGE BROTHERS 
Brokers 



A Real Old Timer 



PATENT AND COMMON-LAID 

CORDJiGE. 

Manufactured by Water-Powcr. 
npHK Plymouth Cordage Company hereby 
-*■ pivc notice, that they have on hand One 
Hundred Toni, CUan St. Peltrsburg llr>nj>, of 
superior quality, which they are ready to 
manufacture into Cordage of any size or de- 
scription to suit purchasers. Their machine- 
ry znd water privtlege is equal to any in the 
Country — and their Cordage shall in every 
respect be equal to theiradvantages. All or- 
ders for CorJa^re, in any quantities shall re- 
ceive immediate attention, at the Ropewaiks, 
from BOVRXE SPOOXER. 

Plymouth, March 12, 1825. tflG 

N. B. A number of good Spinners would 
t'md employment as above. 



One hundred tons of clean St. Pet- i 
ersburg hemp of superior quality 
would take a lot of spinning to con- 
vert it into patent and common laid 
cordage. 

Today we go to Manila for our 
rope, and St. Petersburg has become 
Leningrad, but the Plymouth tradi- 
tion of "quality first" lives on as po- 
tent today as it has been throughout 
the 110 years since it was first pro- 
claimed in this advertisement. 



The accompanying cut furnished 
to us through the courtesy of the Ply- 
mouth Cordage Company, shows the 
first advertisement published by that 
firm, and possibly the first rope ad 
published in America. Two interest- 
ing features are noted: 

First, this copy of 110 years ago 
features quality in Russian Hemp 
rope as manufactured by the Ply- 
mouth firm. Quality has been their 
stand for 110 years, as it is still their 
advertising slogan. 

Second, it is very interesting from 
the standpoint of economics that in 
New England in 1825 we should be 
asked in an advertisement to take no- 
tice that "a number of good spin- 
ners would find work as above," if 
orders came to the rope works. Con- 
ditions of unemployment then and 
there must have been relatively the 
same as they are now everywhere. 



Trade Note 

Assistant to Lukens Steel Presi- 
dent. — W. A. Hauck has been ap- 
pointed assistant to the president of 
Lukens Steel Company, Coatesville, ' 
Pa. He is a graduate of Lafayette 
College with the degree of mining 
engineer and was formerly assistant 
comptroller of Bethlehem Steel Cor- 
poration. Subsequently, he was con- 
nected with George W. Goethals, 
Inc., in company management and 
engineering work, and was also asso- 
ciated for several years with a New 
York stock exchange firm in under- 
writing and reorganization work. 
Prior to joining Lukens, he was with 
the American Iron and Steel Insti- 
tute, engaged in work in connection 
with the Code of the Iron and Steel 
Industry. 



120 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW, 



Pacific International Trade Notes 

Culled from Recent Reports of U. S. Department of Commerce 



I Austrailian Automotive Market 
mproved. Australia has just closed 
he most satisfactory automotive 
^ear since 1930 from the point of 
'iew of sales volume. Apart from 
jales volume, conditions in the mar- 
Let have been more satisfactory to 
he distributor than for any period 
ince 1926, according to a report to 
Ihe Department of Commerce from 
C. C. Squire, American Trade Com- 
nissioner. Sydney. Registration of 
iiotor cars in Australia has in- 
Ireased from 13,976 in 1932 to 18,302 
h 1933 and to 26,212 in 1934. 
I It is rather difficult to make any 
iccurate estimates of the probable 
lolume of sales of motor cars in Aus- 
ralia during 1935, the report states, 
ome companies have estimated that 
Ijiles will be in excess of 30,000, 
thers have expressed the belief that 
he trade will do well to reach the 
ume level recorded in 1934, while 
jme persons in the trade are antici- 
fiting a slight reaction towards the 
Irid of the current year. 
I Australia was formerly a first- 
iinking foreign market for American 
lutomotive products and any im- 
fovement in the trade will redound 
j) the benefit of American manu- 
kcturers. 



Record Gold Production In Chile. 

ecord gold production was reported 
j Chile during 1934 when the indus- 
|y's output totalled 7,420 kilograms, 
i increase of approximately 62 per 
fnt compared with 1933 and more 
1an six times the production record- 
'I in 1932, according to a report from 
pnsul General Edward A. Dow, 
■jntiago, made public by the Depart- 
ent of Commerce. The gold wash- 
kg industry which accounted for 
^proximately 26 per cent of the 
pilean output during the year has 
•ion intensified during the past year 
|id a half in an endeavor to take 
•/vantage of the depreciation of the 
so and to provide employment for 
i|iskilled labor. 

Production of all silver in Chile in 
34 totalled 32,7.51 kilograms com- 
red with 7,892 kilograms in 1933, 
was stated. 



PRIL. 1935 



American Lumber in Japan. Pros- 
pects for the sale of American lum- 
ber to Japan appear brighter at the 
present time than ever before, ac- 
cording to a report to the Commerce 
Department from Assistant Trade 
Commissioner Donald W. Smith, To- 
kyo. 

This optimistic outlook has result- 
ed from the recent action of the Sag- 
halien Prefectural Office in restrict- 
ing the exports of Northern lumber 
to insure a supply of timber for the 
Japanese pulp industry. 

Since completion of reconstruction 
work necessitated as a result of the 
earthquake in 1923, Japanese im- 
ports of foreign lumber have stead- 
ily declined. The improvement in 
business activity, the increase in in- 
dustrial production and the export 
boom during the last two years have 
markedly stimulated the demand for 
lumber and this demand is expected 
to increase. 

Total consumption of lumber in 
Japan during the three-year period 
1930-32 averaged 5,619,502,000 board 
feet, while domestic production in 
the same period averaged 3,420,739,- 
000 board feet. Imports of foreign 
lumber averaged 935,043,000 board 
feet while imports from other parts 
of the Japanese Empire averaged 1,- 
229,113,000 board feet. Although of- 
ficial figures for 1933 are not avail- 
able, it is believed that the Japanese 
demand last year was greater than in 
the preceding year. 



ric tons at the end of 1934 from 140,- 
000 tons at the close of 1933. 



Chile's Coal Production Increas- 
ing. Development of numerous do- 
mestic industries in Chile in recent 
years has resulted in a marked in- 
crease in coal production in that 
country, according to a report from 
the American consulate-general, San- 
tiago, made public by the Commerce 
Department. The local iron and steel 
industry, it is pointed out, especially 
has drawn upon the domestic coal 
production for large supplies. 

Net coal production in Chile dur- 
ing the past year amounted to 1,674,- 
854 metric tons compared with 1,- 
375,309 tons in 1933. Sales were well 
maintained during the period and 
stocks increased only to 157,000 met- 



Chilean Railways Buying New 
Equipment. The general economic 
improvement which has occurred in 
Chile has made it possible for the 
State Railways of that country to re- 
sume importing rolling stock, accord- 
ing to a report from Vice Consul C. 
L. McLain, Santiago. 

Ten locomotives with their ten- 
ders for the northern section of the 
State-owned railways, which have a 
gauge of 39.37 inches, and 15 first- 
class passenger cars for the central 
lines, which have a gauge of 42 
inches, were recently received from 
the United States, the report shows. 
Twenty-five additional passenger 
and freight locomotives have been 
ordered from German builders. 

Chile has approximately 5,000 
miles of railway in operation, with 
about 200 miles of feeder lines now 
being constructed. While the United 
States has shared in the Chilean 
market for locomotive, freight and 
passenger cars, and other equipment 
to an extent greater than that of any 
other country, the locomotives now 
in operation on all lines represent 
nine manufacturing countries. 



Colombia Imports Autos. Novem- 
ber automotive imports into Colom- 
bia through the country's three prin- 
cipal ports of entry were well sus- 
tained considering the period of the 
year and the anticipated announce- 
ment by manufacturers of 1935 mod- 
els, according to a report to the Com- 
merce Department from Commercial 
Attache C. C. Brooks, Bogota. 

The automotive trade during the 
month was featured by heavy arriv- 
als of trucks and chassis which for 
the first time in 1934 exceeded pas- 
senger car arrivals. 

Receipts of passenger cars in Nov- 
ember amounted to 92 units compar- 
ed with 110 units in October while 
imports of trucks and chassis 
amounted to 131 and 104 units, I'e- 
spectively. All the motor vehicles im- 
ported into Colombia in November, 
were American models. 



121 



. . . . 'Possibilities in 

Commercial Lighter Than Air Ships 

An Analysis of the Practicability of Dirigibles for Trans-Pacific 
Aerial Navigation —Part II 

^y S. H. Phillips, Aeronautical Engineer 



Most improbable of all aeronauti- 
cal predictions are those which tell 
of the giant airplane of the future. 
They are based on a very simple arg- 
ument: because the size of airplanes 
has increased from the earliest type, 
just capable of lifting one man, to 
huge passenger carriers of the pres- 
ent day, which transport twenty to 
thirty people; therefore, in another 
decade we shall see planes carrying 
many times that number, and, in the 
passing of the ages, monster air 
transports capable of carrying as 
many passengers as an Atlantic lin- 
er. This argument, however, cannot 
be allowed to pass. The man who 
uses it believes, with a feeling of 
pride and satisfaction, that he is 
right in the van of progress. He 
would be shocked to learn that its 
foundations were destroyed nearly 
300 years ago. In a memoir printed 
in 1638, Galileo proved conclusively 
that neither can man build a house 
nor can nature construct an animal 



beyond a certain size, while retain- 
ing the same proportions and em- 
ploying the same kind of materials 
which sufficed in the case of the 
smaller structure. 

Let us assume the power of crea- 
tion, and decide to construct a swal- 
low, four times its normal size. Its 
weight, going up as its volume, would 
be cubed or multiplied by sixty-four; 
but its wing area would be squared, 
or only increased by 16. The wings 
then, would be loaded four times as 
heavily as before; and since the effi- 
ciency of the wings is for all practi- 
cal purposes independent of their 
scale, they cannot develop the re- 
quired lifting power except by mov- 
ing faster through the air, in this 
case, twice as fast. For the mainten- 
ance of level flight, a bird must fly 
at a speed proportional to the square 
root of its linear dimensions. On 
creatures which aspire to fly, in- 
creasing the size brings to bear an 
ever increasing handicap. Life in the 



air is a gay adventure for the mos- 
quito, but has proved too arduous 
for the ostrich. 

New materials, new principles of 
design, and above all new types of 
engines, have temporarily relieved 
the pressure of the laws under dis- 
cussion. All that we are concerned 
with, however, is to imply that wei 
have postponed the inevitable, and 
that in air craft construction we are 
definitely limited to size. Increase in 
size and capacity for airplanes, 
therefore, is governed entirely by' 
our capacity to invent ever increas- 
ing improvements in materials, pow- 
er plants, and designs. 

Outside the pages of popular mag- 
azines, these principles are generally 
recognized. However, even the ex- 
pert who objects to building giant 
dirigibles, seems at times to take hisi 
stand on the above dimensional law. 
Now, in lighter-than-air ships, grav- 
ity is counterbalanced by the lifting 
force of thegaswith which the airshii 



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122 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



is filled. Under these circumstances, 
there is no physical barrier to the 
indefinite growth in magnitude of 
the dirigible. We find here the rea- 
son why the airship has already left 
the airplane so far behind in the 
scale of size. Relying for its lift upon 
its buoyancy, the airship experiences 
a relatively insignificant dimension- 
al handicap in the loads which it has 
to sustain, whether these arise from 
jthe loads which it carries, or from 
the air forces which it encounters. 
By doubling every dimension, we ob- 
tain an airship which will carry eight 
times as much load, and can be built 
with higher strength and with ever 
nncreasing efficiencv. 
i 
!• Early History 

Down to the outbreak of the war, 
he airship as a means of transport 
ad made more advance than the air- 
iplane. Between 1910 and 1914 five 
Cerman airships had carried 42,000 
passengers in 2000 flights without 
-nishap to any passenger. By the end 
of the war, the relative position of 
lirplane and dirigible was reversed, 
he technical progress of the plane 
as distinctly in advance of the air- 
ship. The important part played in 
.he war by airplanes as military in- 
struments, and the constant increase 
I'n the number of purposes to which 
hey were applied produced a service 
[in which the heavier than air craft 
aecame more and more of value. Ra- 
jid development on the technical 
ind engineering side kept step with 
I numerous and highly skilled per- 
onnel engaged in flying, while dir- 
gibles fell into the background. 
I The experience of German Zeppel- 
ins seemed to show that the large 
rigid airship could not successfully 
|»perate in the face of organized air- 
;ilane attack, and anti-aircraft de- 
ence, though airships of the Zeppe- 
lin type carried out during the war 
tiany noteworthy operations includ- 
ing a continuous flight by the Ger- 
Inan L-57 in 1917 to East Africa and 
oack, covering a distance of 4200 
iiiles in 96 hours. 

1 Among the outstanding perform- 
ances of dirigibles in recent years 
,'an be cited the following. In June, 
i919, the British airship R34, on re- 
turning from a reconnaissance flight 
fver the North Sea, encountered a 
ale of such severity that, flying 
Nrough the air full speed ahead and 
ith her after engine entirely out of 
ction she was actually going astern 

^PRIL, 1935 



over the sea for eight hours. Never- 
theless she returned to her base suc- 
cessfully after 57 hours of continu- 
ous flight. In the following month 
she flew to this country from Eng-' 
land, and return, covering a total 
distance of 6400 miles in 183 hours. 
The noted German airship Boden- 
see, up to the latter half of 1919, had 
made 103 flights covering 32,000 
miles, had carried 2450 passengers 
without the slightest mishap. The 
Los Angeles, flew in October, 1924, 
from Freidrichshafen to Lakehurst 
in 80 hours. The Italian semi-rigid 
Norge, in the summer of 1926, flew 
with Amundsen over the North Pole. 
The British airship R33 moored to 
the mast at Pulham, England, tore 
loose in a gale which reached 45 
miles per hour, and was carried out 
over the North Sea. Although she 
had a severely damaged bow, and 
two of her forward gas cells were 
partially deflated, she withstood the 
storm for thirty hours, and returned 
safely to her base. 

Earlier in point of time, the U.S. 
Shenandoah suffered a similar acci- 
dent. She, too, safely reached her 
station. 

Still another incident, none the 
less remarkable, was the exploit of 
the British R36, which successfully 
reached her home base with top fin, 
rudder and elevator completely 
wrecked. The following narrative is 
not without interest. On April 5, 
1922, R36 left the mooring mast for 
a trip around England. She had 
aboard, in addition to the regular of- 
ficers and crew, representatives 
from the National Physical labora- 
tory, and a few government offi- 
cials. The late Major Scott, who per- 
ished on the RlOl was in command. 

As the ship was over Bath, making 
about 55 miles per hour at 3100 feet 
in bumpy atmosphere, suddenly the 
ship started to nose down, and con- 
tinued to nose down until she reach- 
ed 35 degrees down by the bow. Im- 
mediately all engines were stopped, 
and the forward emergency water 
ballast released. The ship had reach- 
ed an altitude of 1200 feet, but re- 
sponded readily and rose to 4000. Ex- 
amination aft showed that the top 
and stabilizing surfaces had collaps- 
ed, rendering useless the top rudder 
and starboard elevator. Fortunately 
no gasoline tanks or ballast bags had 
carried away when the ship reached 
the extremely serious angle of 35 de- 
grees. The upper rudder and star- 



board elevator controls were discon- 
nected and the wreckage lashed to 
the ship. Four hours later the ship 
arrived over her airport. The night 
was black, the wind gusty, there was 
a low cloud-like fog, and passing rain 
squalls. Scott had the ship in perfect 
equilibrium and trim, but due to the 
lag in his right instruments he 
brought the ship too low, and actu- 
ally rubbed the nose along the 
ground. No damage resulted, how- 
ever, and although the landing offi- 
cer had but 170 men, mostly civili- 
ans, the ship was got into the han- 
gar. The handling of the ship both 
in the air and on the ground was a 
fine bit of work. 

These incidents go to show that a 
well built ship with a good comman- 
der and crew can withstand the most 
severe conditions without having to 
make a forced landing. 

Among other noteworthy flights 
undertaken by airships can be men- 
tioned the RlOO's flight from Eng- 
land to Canada and return. The Graf 
Zeppelin's performances are, of 
course, outstanding and need not be 
repeated as they are fresh in the pub- 
lic mind. These examples of achieve- 
ment and punishment that known 
airships have successfully under- 
gone makes it a difficult matter to 
explain the tragic disasters of the 
more recent types. We have a better 
knowledge of the stresses to which 
airship hulls are subjected, superior 
materials and power plants, not to 
mention meteorological services, 
than ever before. There seems to be 
a possibility that we lack co-ordina- 
tion, and we seem to have failed to 
thoroughly appreciate the experi- 
ence gained in the past or have used 
that data therefrom without ade- 
quate study. The rigid airships built 
to date (with the exception of the 
British RICO and RlOl) have all been 
based largely on the Zeppelin type of 
construction, and though later de- 
signs were evolved no complete ex- 
amination of aerodynamical prob- 
lems was adequately made in connec- 
tion with airship construction and 
behavior until a much later date. 
Certainly, if we had still proceeded 
to develop by empirical methods the 
explanation might be found in that 
reasoning, but we have advanced 
largely on scientific lines. The de- 
sign of large dirigibles is apparently 
therefore not yet an exact science, 
and remains still somewhat of an art. 
(P.iKe 1.^2 Please) 

123 




Marine Insurance 



Discipline and Subsistence 






Some Regulations Prevalent in British Shipping Eighty-Five Years Ago 



REGULATIONS FOR MAINTAIN- 
ING DISCIPLINE SANCTIONED 
BY THE BOARD OF TRADE IN 
PURSUANCE OF 13 & 14 Vict., c 93, 

ss 46, 79, 86. 

These regulations are distinct 
from, and in addition to those con- 
tained in the Act, and are Sanction- 
ed, but not universally required by 
Law. All or any of them may be 
adopted by Agreement between a 
Master and his Crew, and thereupon 
the Offenses specified in such of 
those as are so adopted will be legal- 
ly punishable by the appropriate 
Fines or Punishments. The numbers 
of such of them as are so adopted 
should be inserted in the space left 
for that purpose in the Agreement by 
erasing such of them as are not 
adopted. 

For the purpose of legally enforc- 
ing any of the following penalties, a 
statement of the Offense must imme- 
diately after its Commission be en- 
tered in the Official Log Book by the 
direction of the Master, and must at 
the same time be attested to be true 
by the signature of the Mate, or if 
there is no Mate, by the Carpenter, 
Boatswain, or one of the oldest Mem- 
bers of the Crew. If the punishment 
is a Fine, this entry must upon dis- 
charge of the Crew be shown to the 
Shipping Master before whom the 
Crew is discharged, or in the case of 
a Home Trade Ship to some Ship- 
ping Master at or near the place, and 
if he is satisfied that it has been 
properly and truly made, and attest- 
ed, the Fine must be deducted from 
the Offender's Wages and paid over 
to the Shipping Master. 

If in consequence of subsequent 
good behavior the Master thinks fit 




SANCTIANFJ' BY TUF, ROAIiD OP 

■Il:Ahl\ NnV. IbW. 



11,,,' 


'iir 


'ir 


'Ik 


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■'•■" 


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ClK. 






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lA 








' 


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u 


3 


' I 


M 




ii 






1 


i. 












1 




i,i 



















'y-i0ft^° 



jPUND.VY 

iMO>'l).\Y 

JTUKSDAY 

'wr.l.'NE.SDAV. 

■I IR'KSD.VY... 

I 

I'RID.W 

•<.\TL'i;i).\Y... 

I ' SUBSTITUTES. 

j ] oz, of CofTee, oi- Cocoa, or Chocolate, may bo substitnU'd tor ] uz. oi 
Tea. ]\lol,i^ :-; i'.ii- Sugar, the quantity fo be ono-lialf more. 1 lb. of 
Potatoes (yr \ iius. V lb. Flour or Eice, J- pint <if Puns, or \ pint of Barley, 
may be suLisrituted for eaoh other, A\'lieii Frcsli Meat i- i— m ,i. the pro- 
portion to be 2 lbs. per man per d^y, in lieu ul' Salt M. ai. L-I.iur, Riee. 
iind Peas, Beet" and Pork, isjay be sulislitnteil racii tin- ih;. otiier. 

* Hero auy stipulation for oUangcs or substiiiitioii ol' one article fur another may be 

inserted. 

K.l!.— The I3oartl of Trade do not interfere as to the quantities of provisi.ms to he 

sepjilicd. 



This illustration is a facsimile of the scale of provisions sanctioned by the Board 

of Trade as it appears on the articles of Ship Senator clearing from London for 

San Francisco in 1854. The original was kindly loaned us by J. H. Thies, auditor, 

San Francisco Bridge Co. 



to remit or reduce any Fine upon any 
member of his Crew which has been 
entered in the Log, and signifies the 
same to the Shipping Master, the 
Fine shall be remitted or reduced ac- 
cordingly. If wages are contracted 



for by the Voyage or by share, the 
amount of the Fines shall be ascer- 
tained in the manner in which the 
amount of Forfeiture is ascertained 
in similar cases under 7 & 8 Vict., 
cll2, s 8. 



124 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Dependable 
Insurance 
Since 1863 






9Zne • Automobile • Marine ■ Casualty • 'Jideliti/ ■ Sureti/ 



HREMAN'S RJND GROUD 

I 'yireman's'yuncl Insurance Company — OccidentaJ Insurance Company I 
I Nome ZJire & Marine Insurance Company I 

ML'Jireman's'yund Indemnity Company —Occidental Indemnity Company I 



New^brk • Chicago • SAN FRANCISCO • Boston • Atlanta 



Strength 

Permanence 

Stability 



Following is a list of the offenses 
^med and their severally specified 
jnes or punishments: 
, 1. Not being on Board at the time 
:^ed by Agreement — two day's pay. 
1 2. Not returning on Board at the 
ilpiration of leave — one day's pay. 

3. Insolence or contemptuous Lin- 
kage or behavior towards the Mas- 
Ir or any Mate — one day's pay. 

4. Striking or assaulting any per- 
i»n on Board or belonging to the 
.lip — two day's pay. 

i5. Quarreling or provoking to 
larrel — one day's pay. 
6. Swearing or using improper 
nguage — one day's pay. 
' 7. Bringing or having on Board 
biritous liquors — three days' pay. 
!8. Carrying a sheath knife — one 
ly's pay. 

9. Drunkenness, first offense — 
iQ day's half allowance of Provi- 
ons; second offense — two day's 
ly. 

10. Neglect on the part of the Of- 
cer in Charge of the Watch to place 

' e Lookout properly — two day's pay. 

11. Sleeping or gross negligence 
hile on the Lookout — two day's pay. 

12. Not extinguishing lights at the 
mes ordered — one day's pay. 

1 13. Smoking below — one day's pay. 
14. Neglecting to bring up, open 
[it, or air bedding when ordered — 
alf a day's pay. 

1 15. (For the Cook.) Not having 
py meal of the Crew ready at the 
bpointed time — one day's pay. 

16. Not attending Divine Service 
1 Sunday unless prevented by sick- 
;ss or duty of Ship — one day's pay. 

17. Interrupting Divine Service by 
decorous conduct — one day's pay. 

18. Not being cleaned, shaved and 

PRI L, 1935 



washed on Sundays — one day's pay. 

19. Washing clothes on a Sunday 
— one day's pay. 

20. Secreting contraband goods on 
board with Intent to Smuggle — one 
month's pay. 

21. Destroying or defacing Copy of 
the Agreement which is made Acces- 
sible to Crew — one day's pay. 



22. If any Officer is guilty of any 
Act or Default which is made Sub- 
ject to a Fine, he shall be liable to a 
Fine of twice the number of day's 
pay which would be exacted for a 
like Offense or Default from a Sea- 
man, and such Fine shall be paid 
and applied in the same manner as 
other Fines. 



A Marine Insurance Problem From 

Pacific Marine Review, Seattle, May 1905 

May. 1905 also for the war risks on others that 

• Steamships Bound to Vladivostock ^ave been stopped or diverted. 
Seized by Japanese Steamers, cargo, etc. : 

As the Japanese will probably be January pounds 

unable to capture any more steamers Roseley, coals 60,000 

bound for Vladivostock owing to the Wilhelmina, general 80.000 

fact that the balance of the steamers Lethington, coals 60,000 

insured have been either detained or Oakley, coals 60,000 

diverted, it may be interesting to Bawtry, general 58,000 

show what they have gained in the M.S. Dollar, general 96,000 

way of prizes, with a corresponding Burma, coals 42,500 

loss to English underwriters. The Wyefield, general 97,000 

steamers and cargoes captured arc February 

worth, to the Japanese, fully the va- Siam, coals 42,380 

lues for which they were insured. "Paros, general 80,250 

They can dispose of the coals and Apollo, coals 51,000 

foodstuffs without difficulty, and in Scotsman, general 52,000 

view of the development of their Sylviana, coals 55,000 

trade after the war, the steamers Powderham, coals 45,000 

were captured, valued at 1,277,725 ''Severus, coals 42,500 

pounds. Of these, three steamers, va- *Romulus, coals 42,500 

lued at 165,200 pounds, were insured March- 
in Germany, leaving 1,112,475 pounds Easby Abbey, coals 42.132 

loss to English underwriters. Vegga, coals 52,000 

Against this must be set the premi- Aphrodite, coals 59,000 

urn for these risks, which alone Tacoma, general 68,000 

amounted to about 280,000 pounds, Harbarton, coals 55,163 

as well as the premiums on vessels Total 1,277,725 

which arrived at Vladivostock, and "Insurance not effected in London. 



125 



^unmnmmmmmmnNmmmmmuuunnnnnnmmummmmuHimummmuunmummuim^ 

I MARINE INSURANCE DEPARTMENT \ 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & Co., Limited f 

% 

AGENTS FOR % 

% 

% American and Foreisn • Union of Canton • British and Foreign g 

I North China • Yang-Tsze • Pennsylvania g 

I I 

^ San Francisco Los Angeles Seattle Tacoma Portland Vancouver, B.C. g; 

^nHnHHHmimmHmmnHnHnnHmnummmunmnmmnmmmimmnmimmnmunnHmuuA \ 



Johnson & Higgins 



67 Wall Street 



New York 



Johnson & Higgins 



CALIFORN 



311 CALIFORNIA STREET 
SAN FRANCISCO 



Average Adjusters 

and 

Insurance Brokers 



MARINE - FIRE 
AUTOMOBILE 



LIABILITY 
AVIATION 



SURETY 
LIFE 



SWITZERLAND 

General Insurance Co., Ltd. 

THAMES & MERSEY 

Marine Insurance Co., Ltd. 

LIVERPOOL & 
LONDON & GLOBE 

Insurance Co., Ltd. 

(Marine Department) 

HARTFORD 

Fire Insurance Co., Ltd. 

( Marine Department) 



c 



CANTON 

Insurance Office, Ltd. 



Louis Rosenthal Co., Ltd. 

General Agent 
302 California Street 



So far as actual underwritiiiK 
losses are concerned, to the above 
totals must be added the amounts 
paid by underwriters to cancel risks, 
which are estimated to amount to 
about 500,000 pounds. The only defi- 
nite guide furnished as to total 
losses is the statement by the chair- 
man of the Indemnity Company that 
their known losses amount to 19,000 
pounds and may reach 40,000 pounds. 
This company was the leader for war 



risks and has written them consist- 
ently from the first, so that they 
must have had a large reserve of 
premiums to draw upon, for losses 
will be proportionately greater. Still 



the amounts are spread over so manj 
underwriters and companies that al 
though no single underwriter will bt 
hit severely, the 1904 general under 
writing account will suffer. 



New Radio Increases Safety 



fl 



A new aircraft radio transmitter 
particularly designed for transport 
service, and which eliminates the 
usual high voltage commutators, 



bushings, and external conductor.' 
with resulting safety and decrease* 
weight, is announced by WestinR 
house Electric & Manufacturiiu 



126 



PACIFIC MARINE REVlEVi 




Dinpany, Chicopee Falls, Mass. The 

pe CL radio transmitter uses a new 
nd different power supply system 
articularly suited for aircraft re- 
iirements. 

The input power is conducted from 
le generator to the various control 
nits and the transmiter unit through 
iw voltage conductors. This is ac- 
pmplished by a rectifier system and 
ansformer which obtains its power 

om a 110 volt 800 cycle A.C. gener- 
;or driven by the airplane engine. 

A constant speed clutch built into 
u generator maintains the output 
jltage and frequency substantially 
instant at drive speeds varying 
•om 2400 revolutions per minute up 
) 7500 revolutions per minute. The 
enerator is also provided with a 
4.6 volt direct current armature 
lat provides battery charging cur- 
ent up to 30 amperes. This same 
enerator can be used as a dynamo- 
)r for emergency operation of the 
ransmitter by throwing a single 
witch located in one of the control 
nits. An over running clutch which 

built into the machine automati- 
ally releases the mech;inical con- 
ection of the armature from the en- 
ine whenever this armature is driv- 
n from the battery. 

When used as a dynamotor, this 
nachine is capable of operating the 
aciio transmitter at full power solel.v 
lom the 12 volt battery of the air- 
ilane. An alternating current volt- 
leter and a tapped auto transformer 
ith adjusting switch allows the in- 



Geo. E. Billings 

CO. 

PadBc Coaac General Agtnu 

Richard J. Lutich, Marine Manager 

Standard Marine Insurance Co. 

National Union Fire Ins. Co. 

Mercantile Insurance Co. 

of America 

312 CAUFORNIA STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO . - CALIFORNIA 

Tekphoiu GArSald }64« 

Sonia OffirM: Calmaa BIdf. 

TakpbsDa SEnta 1478 



put voltage of the transmitter to be 
maintained at normal values for bat- 
tery voltages between 9 and 14 volts. 
The filaments are alternating cur- 
rent operated so the adjustment of 
the auto transformer regulates the 
plate and filament voltages simul- 
taneously. 

The transmitter may be remotely 
controlled in operation. The electri- 
cal control unit is a small box con- 
taining a start-stop switch, phone- 
CW-tone switch and jacks for a 
microphone and telegraph key. The 
frequency control unit operates the 
mechanical frequency changer in the 
transmitter through a flexible cable, 
providing for the selection of any 
four operating frequencies in the 
band of 3000 to 6000 Kcs. The emer- 
gency control unit contains the 
ti-ansfer switch for changing to dy- 
namotor operation for emergency 
transmissions. 

The controls have been divided be- 
tween these three control units in 
groups based upon the frequency 
with which they must be manipulat- 
ed and allowance for this factor will 
dictate the best mounting position 
for each of the units. 

Stable operating frequencies are 
provided by utilizing four quartz 
crystal controlled oscillator. Con- 
stant temperature of the four crys- 
tals is maintained by a thermostati- 
cally controlled compartment, using 
two thermoregulators and heaters. 
The crystal compartment is a separ- 
ate assembly which plugs into the 
transmitter, and weighs less than 
one pound. 

All outgoing transmitter electrical 
circuits with the exception of the an- 
tenna circuits are connected through 
a plug and jack system to the corre- 
sponding circuits on the transmitter 
mounting. The transmitter mounting 
is an aluminum casting to be per- 
manently installed in the plane as a 
terminal for this unit. The transmit- 
ter is quickly and conveniently de- 
tachable from its mounting by the 
use of a lever action disengaging de- 
vice. 

The use of Class B modulator gives 
high operating efficiency on phone 



since the modulator plate power is 
reduced to almost zero except when 
actual modulation is taking place. 

The keying of the transmitter is 
provided through the use of a multi 
circuit relay which also transfers 
the antenna from transmitter to re- 
ceiver thus allowing break-in opera- 
tion. 

• Significant Data 

Power Output— 50 Watts. 

Kind of Radiation— Telephone, CW 

and Tone Modulated Telegraph. 
Frequency Range— 3000 to 6000 KC. 
Frequency Control— Crystal Control- 
led Master Oscillator. 
Modulation Capability — 100 percent. 
Tube Complement as Follows: 

Master Oscillator — One Type 59 

Vacuum Tube. 
Doubler Amplifier — One Type 210 

Vacum Tube. 
Int. Amplifier— One Type 210 Vac- 
uum Tube. 
Power Amplifier — Two Type 210 

Vacuum Tubes. 
Speech Amplifier — One Type 59 

Vacuum Tube. 
Modulator— Two Type 210 Vacu- 
um Tubes. 
Rectifier— Two Type UX-866 Rec- 
tifier Vacuum Tubes. 

• In Pilot or Operator's Cockpit 

S"« Weight 

Control Box — >■• X i'/g" x 3" ] p5 |l, 

Ftcqu.-ncy Sekctor-41/2" x .I'/g" x I'/l'' 0.86 '■■ 

Emergency Switch— 8" x 9" x 5 % " 99 

Microphone, Cord and Plug— 2%" d'ia. x 1%'' 

long 1 15 •• 

Telegraph Key, Cord and PIub — 

5'/." X 2" X P/4" 0.71 ■• 

IN CABIN OR FUSELAGE 
Transmitter Unit-lS'/:" x HI//' x 105/4"....42.0 •' 

Transmmer Mtg.— 18" x 14%" x 51/2" 4.125 " 

Frequency Control, Drive Enw 1 7 

On Main Engine: Gcncrator-Dynamotor — 

6" dia. X 14%" long J9.0 

MISCELLANEOUS 
Electrical Connecting Cablea Wt. per h. 

Battery Cable 0.406 lb. 

Generator Cable 0.69 " 

Transmitter Cable 0.1 ?6 " 

Control Box Cable 0.H6 " 

Mechanical Control Cable and Casing 0.161 " 



MARINE DEPARTMENT 
Aetna Insurance Co. 



Queen Insurance 


Co. 


Maritime Insurance Co., 


Ltd. 


Fidelity Phenix Fire Ins 


Co. 


Commercial Hull Dept. 

Automobile Ins. 


Co. 



.»#.! TilKWSJt LIVi\«iSTO.\ 

Marine Underwriters 
200 BUSH ST. SAN FRANCISCO 

Offices at 

Colman BIdg 1 1 1 West 7th St. 

Seattle Los Angeles 



^PRIL, 1935 



127 




American Shipbuilding 



Edited by, M. J. Suitor 



Now and Back in 1905 



NEW LIGHT TENDER 
FOR COLUMBIA RIVER 

On March 16 the Commercial Iron 
Works, Portland. Oregon, launched 
into the Willamette a steel hull, light 
and buoy tender for the United States 
Lighthouse Service. This vessel was 
christened Rhododendron, and when 
launched she was practically com- 
plete, being scheduled for delivery 
about April 1. 

She was designed, and her con- 
struction supervised by Mr. John F. 
Dock, naval architect for the Light- 
house Service. 

The hull is built with a full tunnel 
stern designed to accommodate twin 
42-inch Coolidge propellers. Each of 
these wheels is driven by a direct 
connected, 120 horsepower. Atlas Im- 
perial diesel engine. Cutless rubber 
bearings furnished by the Goodrich 
Rubber Company are used in stern 
tubes and struts to insure good lubri- 
cation and alignment of the propeller 
shafts. The main engines may be op- 
erated either from the platform in 
the engine room or from the pilot 
house. 

The deck house and pilot house are 
arranged with comfortable accommo- 
dations for a crew of seven. An Ingle 
diesel oil burning range, fitted with 
a Valjean burner serves the galley. 
Perishable food stores are preserved, 
and a supply of ice assured by the in- 
stallation of a Kelvin refrigerator of 
ample capacity. Heating of crew's 
quarters is by a steam system fur- 
nished by the American Radiator 
Company, the boiler of this system 
being also operated by a Valjean 
burner. 

On the main deck forward and not 
installed at the time of launching, 
there will be a derrick with a 25-foot 
boom and a capacity of one and one- 
half tons for handling buoys. This 
derrick will be served by a 3-drum 
winch located below the main deck. 

To take care of lights and auxiliaiy 



# Analysis of the Year's 
Construction 

April, 1905 

During the past fiscal year, 1184 
vessels of 378,542 gross tons have 
been built, and documented in the 
United States, compared with 1311 
vessels of 436,152 gross tons for the 
previous year, compared with nearly 
one and one-half million tons of 
British shipping. 

Few of the American shipyards 
can this year record an increase on 
last year's output; but the two larg- 
est producers, the Newport News 
Company and the Union Iron Works 
at San Francisco, can. 

The former launched 27,360 tons 
during 1903 and this year records 
ten launches aggregating 43,000 tons. 
Of this total, 41,400 tons are the dis- 
placement of two first class battle- 
ships, a cruiser and two submar- 
ines; and the remaining 1600 tons 
include two ferryboats for New York. 

The Union Iron Works more than 
doubled their tonnage, having raised 
it from 13,168 to 37,574 tons. Here, 
too, the greater part of the tonnage 
was warship displacement, only 374 
tons being for merchant service. 

The New York Shipbuilding Com- 
pany of Camden, N.J., has built and 
engined eleven craft of 8,075 tons, 
all built of steel and chiefly for gov- 
ernment service. Five lightships, 
three car floats, and three steam- 
ships make up the firm's output. The 
machinei'y of these vessels will indi- 
cate 6800 horsepower. The Eastern 
Shipbuilding Company, New London, 
launched the Dakota of 21000 tons 
and two car floats of 1046 tons each. 

Messrs. William Cramp and Sons' 
output was 5775 tons, made up of 
3250 tons displacement in the Turk- 



ish cruiser, Midjidia, three car trans- 
fers and the steamer Mohican, of 
5773 tons. 

The Baltimore Shipbuilding and 
Drydock Company launched six: 
steamers varying in size from IIC 
tons to 900 tons, which, together,, 
make 2533 tons, and also built all the 
machinery for these vessels. 

The Detroit Company only launch- 
ed one vessel during 1904; she was 
the Utica of 3533 tons and 1700 in- 
dicated horsepower. 

The Fore River Shipbuilding Com-p 
pany built a number of special crafti 
such as submarine boats and oil 
barges which make 1440 tons. 

The only event of importance dur- 
ing the past year at the Moran Bros.. 
Shipyards, Seattle has been the 
launching of the battleship, Nebras- 
ka, which entered the water on Oc- 
tober 7, 1904. With the refusal of 
Congress to restore the 4 per cent 
Pacific Coast differential, we fear 
the struggle for existence will be a 
bitter one. 



May, 190.5 
Repairs and renewals to the P. C. 
S. S. Santa Rosa are rapidly ap-' 
proaching completion, and with her 
complete overhaul she will be, when 
she leaves Moran's yard, virtually a 
new ship. She will be ready for ser- 
vice about May 15. 

The handsome steamer Spokane, of 
the Pacific Coast Steamship Com- 
pany is scheduled to make six round 
voyages to Alaska this season com- 
mencing June 8. The Spokane was 
built especially for the summer ex- 
cursion service among the inlets, 
narrows, and passages, and among a 
thousand pine-clad islands. It means 

(Continued on Page 131) 



power, a 10 kilowatt Ensburg gener- 
ator is installed, driven by a Hill 
diesel engine. 

A Sperry searchlight, mounted on 
top of pilot house will be indispen- 



sable in river navigation at night, 
and in spotting buoys. An Allan-Cun- 
ningham windlass takes care of the 
anchor. We will carry trial data in 

next month's issue. 



128 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Progress of Construction 

The following Report Covers the Shipbuilding Work in Progress at the Leading 
Shipyards of the United States as of March i, ig^^ 



Pacific Coast 



BETHLEHEM SHIPBUILDING 
CORPOKATION, LTD. 

(Union Plant) 
San Francisco 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
(S: S.S. President Wilson, M.S. South 

rica, S.S. Maui, S.S. Antigua, S.S. 
ikfron. S.S. Yale, S.S. Santa Paula, S. 
.-'president Taft, S.S. Capac, S.S. Pres- 
jl-nt (iart'ield, S.S. I'aulsboro, U.S.S. 
<ilahouia, S.S. Emma Alexander, M.S. 
.Werika. S.S. Talamanca, M.S. Charlie 
^jatson, S.S. Huguenot, Tug Tatoosh, 
S. President Hoover, S.S. Chlriqui, S. 
^|President Cleveland, S.S. Xosa Prince, 
.»(<. Malolo, S.S. .Santa Rosa, M.S. Sin- 
i'mi. S.S. H. M. Storey, S.S. Virginia, 
(•i>. District of Columbia, Barge Utility, 
'fg Manio, S.S. President Polk, S.S. 
liybank, .S.S. J. C. Fitzsimnions. 



i FELLOWS AND STEWART, INC. 
I Wilmington, Calif. 

(new CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
ijl, auxiliary sloop, Universal, build- 
i^ for Joe Fellows, Sr., LBP 25', beam 

'3", loaded draft 4'; speed loaded 9 

p.h.; gasoline engines, 2 i.li.p. each; 

in screw; keel laid November, 1934; 

npleted January 1935; delivered. 
•Hull No. 829, runabout. Petrel, build- 
iK tor H. Johnson; LBP 25'3", beam 
ifi", loaded draft 2'; gasoline engine, 
j|0 i.h.p., speed loaded 25 m.p.h. ; keel 
I'd, .September, 1934; delivery date not 

!Hu11 No. 635, ship's launch, Bounty, 
t|ilding for Metro Goldwyn Mayer Co.; 
I8P 23', beam 7'6", row and sail-boat; 
lei laid December, 1934; launched. 



Rhododendron, new light tender 
for the Columbia river, is 
launched into the Willamette 
at the yard of the Commercial 
Iron Works, Portland, Oregon, 
Her hull characteristics are: 
length over-all, Sl'S^i"; beam 
molded, 19'; depth molded, 5' 
11"; draft loaded, 3' 8'; dis- 
placement 100 tons; fuel oil 
capacity, 9 tons; and speed 
1 1 knots. 



January, 1935; delivery date not set. 

Hull No. «36, taxi boat, Paiute, 
building for P.S. Webb; LBP 40', beam 
10', loaded draft 3', speed loaded 21 
m.p.h., gasoline engine, 400 i.h.p.; keel 
laid January 1935; launched February 
19 35; delivery date not set. 



Pacific Barge C-1, Sch. George E. Bill- 
ings, (Jlass Bottom Boat Princess. 



GENERAL ENGINEERING AND 
DRYDOCK CO. 

Foot of Vitth Avenue 
Oakland, Calif. 
DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: .M.V. Kvichak, S.S. Makiia, S.S. 
Corinto, S.S. Tulsagas, Tug Arabs, S.S. 
El SegiHido, Lightship No. 83, Pilot 
Boat Adventuress, S.S. Cottoneva. 



THE MOORE DRYDOCK CO. 
Oakland. Calif. 
DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: D. (i. Scofield, Delta Queen, Sho- 
shone, Piru, Tug Hercules, Brunswick, 
Lottie Beiuiett, Esther Johnson, lowan. 
Western Pacific Barge No. 3, Creole 
and Nabesna. 



HONOLULU IRON WORKS 
Honolulu. T. H. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: .M.S. Ethan Allen, S.S. Maui. S.S. 
IVIana, S.S. Mauna Ala. 



PRINCE RUPERT DRYDOCK 
AND SHIPYARD 

Prince Rupert, B.C. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: 1 fishing boat, docked, cleaned, 
painted, misc. hull and engine repairs; 
21 ships repair jobs not requiring dock- 
ing; 29 commercial jobs. 



LAIiE UNION DRYDOCK & MACHINE 
WORKS 

Seattle, Wash. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
1 <),■>, .Sternwheel steamboat Skagit 
Chief; building for Skagit River Navi- 
gation Company; L.B.P. 165', beam 39' 
7", loaded draft 6'; keel laid Dec. 18, 
1934, launched I<"eb. 16, 1935, estimated 
delivery April, 19 35. 



THE LOS ANGELES SHIPBUILDING 
& DRY DOCK CORP. 

Los Angeles Harbor 
San I'edro, Calif. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT MISCELLANE- 
OUS: Whaler California, S.S. Lubrico, 
Yacht Haida, S.S. Point Loma, Sunset 



THE PUGET SOUND NAVY YARD 

Bremerton, Washington 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: U.S.S. Wor- 
den (Destroyer No. 352), LBP, 334'; 
beam 34'2i^"; loaded draft, lO'lO"; 
geared turbine engines; Yarrow type 
water-tube boilers; keel laid Dec. 29, 
1932; launched October 27, 1934; com- 
pleted and delivered March 1, 1935. 

U.S.S. Cushing (Destroyer No. 376); 
LBP, 334'; beam, 35'%"; loaded draft, 
lO'lO"; geared turbine engines; express 
type boilers; keel laid August 15, 1934. 

U.S.S. Perkins (Destroyer No. 377); 
LBP 334'; beam, 35'>^"; loaded draft, 
lO'lO"; geared turbine engines; express 
type boilers; building under provisions 
of National Industrial Recovery Act; 
keel laid November 15, 1934. 

Two 1500-ton destroyers for U. S. 
Navy; contract received August 22, 
1934. 




PRIL, 1935 



129 



Care and Preservation (out of Com- 
mission ) : Aroostook, Jason, Kearsarge, 
Patoka, Pawtucket, Prometheus, Pyro. 

DRYDOCK. PAINT. MISCELLANE- 
OUS: California. West Virginia, Omaha, 
Portland, Astoria, Swallow, >Iahoi)ac, 
Tatnuck. Challenge, Wando. 



hull tor Ohio River Company, 10' x 40' 
X 6'6" delivered. Repairs to 10 coal 
barges for Carnegie Steel Company; de- 
livered. 



This makes a total of 13 hulls under 
contract, with a total gross tonnage of 
4610. 



r>TTED ST.\TES N.WT YARD 

Mare Island, CaUf. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Smith, U.S. 
torpedo boat destroyer (DD378); stan- 
dard displacement, 1500 tons; keel laid 
October 2 7, 19 34; estimated completion 
date. Feb., 1936. 

Preston, U. S. torpedo boat destroyer 
(DD-379); standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid. October 27, 1934; esti- 
mated completion date, May, 1936. 

DD391, Destroyer for U.S. Navy; 
standard displacement 1500 tons; esti- 
mated delivery November, 1936. 

SS181, Pompano, Submarine, estimat- 
ed delivery. May, 1937. 



l^'ESTERX BO.\T BUILDING CO. 

Tacoma. Wash. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Sea Gull 
(purse seiner) — Reducing length from 
56' to 50' (between perpendiculars) 
thereby allowing owner to fish for sal- 
mon in Alaska; completed and deliver- 
ed. 

Clipper (Halibut Schooner) — Com- 
plete remodelling from schooner type 
to purse seine type thereby allowing 
this boat to be used as a halibut boat, 
for sardine fishing and as a cannery ten- 
der.' This boat is 82' long with a 180 
horsepower Washington engine and is 
the first remodelling job of this kind. 
It may result in other work of this type; 
completed and delivered. 

Hull Xo. 109, Sunset, fishing boat, L. 
B.P. 75', beam 19', 180 h.p. Atlas en- 
gine; keel laid March 5; estimated de- 
livery May 1, 1935. 

Hull Xo. 110, fishing boat, propor- 
tions same as above, hull laid Feb. 15, 
1935; no further dates set. 

Complete rebuilding after fire of Pu- 
get Sound freight boat Skookiim Chief; 
125' length, 30' beam; twin screw 
diesel. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
Ol'S: fishing boat Hally, fishing boat 
Helen I.., fi.shing boat Francis. 



WINSLOW MARI.VE RAILWAY AXD 
SHIPBUILDIXO COMPAXY 

Seattle, Wash. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Tug build- 
ing for Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co.; 
72' X 18'; 275 I.H.P. diesel engine; 
keel laid Dec. 14, 1934; estimated com- 
pletion date, April 10, 1935. 

Three barge.s for same owner — self- 
dumping rock barges; 101' x 34'; keels 
laid Dec. 12, 1934. 



Atlantic, Lakes, Rivers 

A-MKRICVN BRIDGE COMPANY 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: One derrick 



BATH IRON WORKS 
Bath, Maine 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
159, Drayton (DD 366), torpedo boat 
destroyer. U.S. Navy; keel laid, March 
20, 1934; launching, no date set; esti- 
mated delivery November, 19 35. 

Hull No. 160, Lamson (DD 367), tor- 
pedo boat destroyer, for U.S. Navy; 
keel laid. March 20, 1934; launching, 
no dates set; estimated delivery, Janu- 
ary, 1936. 



BETHLEHEM SHIPBUILDING 

CORPORATION 

Fore River Plant, 

Quincy, Mass. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Heavy Crtiis- 
er CA.39, Quincy, 10,000 ton's. Keel 
laid Nov. 15, 1933; Estimated delivery 
January, 1936. 

Heavy Cruiser CA44, Vincennes, 10,- 
000 tons. Estimated delivery January, 
1937. Keel laid January 2, 1934. 

Four Torpedo Boat Destroyers; DD- 
360, Phelps, keel laid January 2, 19 34; 
estimated delivery, December, 19 35. 

DD361, Clark, keel laid January 2, 
1934; estimated delivery February, 
1936. 

DD362, Moffett, keel laid, January 2, 
1934; estimated delivery April 1936. 

DD36S, Batch, keel laid. May 16. 
1934; estimated delivery, June, 1936. 

DD-380, 1.500 Ton Destroyer. Esti- 
mated delivery, January 1937. 

DD-382, 1500 Ton Destroyer. Esti- 
mated delivery, April 1937. 

CHARLESTON DRYDOCK CO. 

Charleston, S.C. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: One 5,000- 
barrel all-welded steel tanker for 
Messrs. Thurber & Powers of Boston. 

PAINT, DRYDOCK, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: Dredge Cherokee, Tug Waban, 
Tug Mars. 



THE DRAVO CONTRACnNG CO. 

Engineering Works Dept., 

Pittsburgh, Pa., and Wilmington, Del. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
997, one diesel sternwheel towboat of 
91 gross tons. 

Hull No. 1202; Lighthouse Tender 
Jasmine, for U. S. Lighthouse Service; 
187 gross tons. 

Hull No. 1203, Steam Sternwheel 
800 H.P. towboat for Pittsburgh Coal 
Company. 

Hulls Nos. 1204 and 1205, Steel Ser- 
vice Boat,s, 42'xl6'x3'6", for U.S. Engin- 
eers' Office, Huntington, W. Va., 40 
tons. 

Hulls Xos. 1206, 1207; (2) steel Coal 
Barges 120'x34'xl4'3" for Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company; gross tons 1060. 

Hulls Nos. 1208, 1209 and 1210; (3) 
type "R" riveted steel coal barges 175'x 
26'.\]1' for stock; gross tons 1416. 

Hulls Xos. 1211, 1212 and 121.S; (3) 
type "W" welded steel coal barges, 
175'x26'xll' for stock; gross tons 1416. 



ELECTRIC BOAT CO. 
Groton, Conn. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 19, 
fleet submarine, Shark, (SS174) : L.B.p! 
298'; beam,, 25'; standard displace- 
ment, 1315 tons; keel laid, October 24, 
1933; estimated launching. May, 1935. 

Hull No. 20, Tarpon (SS175) : L.B.P. 
298'; beam, 25'; standard displacement, 
1315 tons; keel laid, Dec. 22, 1933; 
estimated launching, July, 19 35; pos- 
sible delivery, November, 1935. 

Hull No. 23, Perch, S.S. 176, building 
for U.S. Navy; keel laid, February 25, 
1935; estimated launching, June 23,' 
1936. ■ 

Hull No. 2 4, Pickerel, S.S. 177 keel ' 
laid March 25, 19 35; estimated launch- 
ing, September 23, 19 36. 

Hull No. 25, Pinna, S.S. 178, est!-' 
mated keel laying, June 6, 1935; esti- , 
mated launching, December 22, 1936. 



THE FEDERAL SHIPBUILDING 

AXD DRYDOCK CO.MP.\XY 

Kearny, X. J. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Two destroy- 
ers, DD368 Flu.sser and DD;i69 Reid for 

the U. S. Navy, estimated completion • 
dates — Flusser, Nov., 1935; Reid,/ 
February, 1936. ' 



THE MARIETTA MANUFACTURINGS 
COMPANY , 

Point Pleasant, W. Va. 

One twin screw diesel driven tow- 
boat for U. S. Engineer's office, Vicks- 
burg. Miss.; length molded 176'; 
breadth, 38'; depth 8'6"; two 650 H.P. 
diesel engines; two 75 and one 15 K.W. 
diesel driven generating sets; contract i. 
price $314,750.00, delivery at Vicks-, 
burg. Miss., in six months, keel laid. 
Oct. 10, 1934; launched Feb. 5, 1935; 
completed, late March, 1935. ' 

Seven 175'x26'xll' Steel Coal Barges 
of 1000 tons capacity each for West 
Kentucky Coal Co., of Paducah. Ky. De- 
livery, March 1935. 

Contract received March, 1935. for 
steel hull for harbor tug for Hatfield- 
Campbell's Creek Coal Company, Cin- 
cinnati, O.; length 84', beam 18', depth i 
4'9"; completion within 30 days. ] 



MIDLAND BARGE COMPANY 

(Subsidiary of Treadwell Construction 

Company. ) 

Midland and Erie, Pa., 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: siv barges,, 
100'x26'x6'6". for Treadwell Construc- 
tion Company. ; 

One 2.5-ton derrick boat for U.S. En-j 
gineers, Buffalo, N.Y, ' 

One barge, 100'x24'x7', for Parsons' 
and Rader. 

One dredge, 110'x34'x8' for Minne- 
apolis Dredging Company. 

One barge, 4R'x20'x5'6" for Minneap- 
olis Dredging Company. 



130 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



NASHVILLE BRIDGE CO., 
XashriUe, Tenn. 

NEW CONSTRICTION: Hulls Xos. 

7, 298, 299, three barges for stock; 
I0'x26'x6'6"; launched October 2, 12 
sd 33 respectively. 

Holl No. 301 and HuU Xo. 302; 2 
Ijrges for stock, 100'x26'x6 %'; estl- 
[ited launching January 5, and 10, 
]35, respectively. 



I • 

WPORT NEWS SHIPBUILDING & 
DRYDOCK CO. 
90 Broad Street, New York 
!nEW CONSTRUCTION: H 359 air- 
clft carrier CVS, Yorkto«-n, for U. S. 
fjvy; keel laid May 21, 1934; estimat- 
f delivery, October 3, 1936. 
|h360 aircraft carrier, C\'6, Enter- 
|lse, for U.S. Navy.; keel laid July 16, 
134; estimated delivery February 3, 

lb?. 

H361, light cruiser for U.S. Navy; 
cmpletion time 34 months after date 
c formal award. Date of contract Aug. 
i, 1934. 



THE X'EW YORK SHIPBCILDING 
I CO.>IPANY 

' Camden, N. J. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Contract for 
fir destroyers: Hull Xo. 408, Porter 
(DS56); HuU Xo. 409, Selfridge (DD- 
87); Hull Xo. 410, McDongal (DD- 
aS); Hull Xo. 411, Winslow (DD- 
S9); of 1850 tons each; keels laid. 
Ic. 1933. 

*rwo light cruisers; Hull Xo. 412, 
Svannah (CL42), Hull No. 413, Nash- 
\l (CL43), of 10,000 tons each for the 
llS. Navy Department; estimated de- 
liery dates are as follows: DD356, 
Ilrter, Dec, 1935; DD3o7, Selfridge, 
Ijb.. 1936; DD358, McDongal, Apr., 

36; DD359, Winslow, June, 1936; 
<i42. Savannah. Aug., 1936; CL43. 
J'whville, Dec. 19 36. 

Oil tanker, No. 414, and oil tanker 

'k. 415, for Standard-Vacuum Trans- 

irtation Company, 15,000 tons D.W. 

•^ > • keels laid March 26, 1934; deliv- 

loh, 1935 and May, 1935, respec- 

iC.L. 46) One light cruiser, Hull No. 
4B, for U.S. Navy; weight 10.000 tons; 
eimated delivery, August 1937. 



UNITED DRYDOCKS, Inc. 
Staten Island, N.Y. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: DD364, de- 
S'oyer Mahan, estimated delivery, Oct. 
135; L.B.P. 334'0"; beam 35'0"; mean 
«^ft, lO'lO"; keel laid June 12. 1934; 
t.imated delivery Oct. 30, 1935. 

DD36,5, destroyer Cujiuuings, esti- 
uted delivery. Dec. 1935, for U. S. 
■Ivy: L.B.P. 334'0"; beam 35'0"; mean 
<aft lO'lO"; keel laid June 26, 1934; 
•timated delivery. Dec. 30. 1935. 

[DD 384. Destroyer for U.S. Navy; es- 
Inated delivery. June 9, 1936. 

|DD ,"«,'>. Destroyer for U.S. Navy; es- 
•pated delivery. August 9, 1936. 

UNITED STATES X.WY YARD 

Boston, Mass. 
(NEW CONSTRUCTION: Destroyer 



DDS70. Case, L.B.P. 334'; beam 35'; 
keel laid, Sept. 19, 1934; estimated de- 
livery. July 1936. 

Destroyer DD371, Conyngham, L.B.P. 
334'; beam 35'; keel laid Sept. 19, 
1934; estimated delivery, Oct. 1936. 

Destroyer DD354, Monaghan, L.B.P. 
334'; beam 34'2'; keel laid November 
21, 1933; launched Jan. 9, 1935; esti- 
mated delivery. May, 1935. 

Destroyer DD351, Macdonough, keel 
laid May 15, 1933, L.B. P. 334'; beam 
34'2"; launched Aug. 22. 1934; esti- 
mated delivery, April, 1935; for the 
U.S. Navy. 

DD389 and DD:i90, two light destroy- 
ers; estimated deliverv: 389, Nov. 1, 
1936; 390, Feb. 1, 1937. 

UNITED STATES NAATf YARD 

Charleston, S.C. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: U.S.S. 
Charleston, gunboat (PG51) for U. S. 
Navy, building period assigned by Navy 
Department, Nov. 1, 1933, to Feb. 1, 
19 36; keel laid October 2 7. 193 4; esti- 
mated completion date, March, 1936. ^ 



One Coast Guard Cutter (2000 tons). 
No dates set. 



UNITED ST.\TES NAVY Y.ARD 
New York, N. Y. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: DD350. Hull, 
destroyer; L.B.P. 334'; beam, 34'2"; 
standard displacement, 1500 tons; 
geared turbine engines; express type 
boilers; keel laid March, 1933; launch- 
ed Aug. 11, 19 34; estimated delivery 
July, 1935. 

DD 353, Dale, destroyer, dimensions 
same as above; keel laid. February 10, 
1934; estimated delivery, Feb. 1, 19 35. 

CL 40, Brooklyn, light cruiser. L.B. 
P. 600'; beam 61'8"; standard displace- 
ment. 10,000; geared turbine engines; 
express type boilers; estimated keel 
laying, March 1, 19 35; estimated deliv- 
ery, March 2 4, 19 3 6. 

PG. 50, Erie, gunboat; L.B.P., 308'; 
beam, 41"; standard displacement, 
2000 tons; geared turbine engines; ex- 
press type boilers. Building for U.S. 
Navy, keel laid Dec. 17, 1934; estimat- 
ed delivery, March 1, 1936. 



Shipbuilding in 1905 

(Continued from Page 128) 



a summer outing on summer seas, 
with new things to be seen every- 
where, and as the course of these ex- 
cursions extends through the island- 
bound inside passage, seasickness is 
practically unknown. The ship's ap- 
pointments include ladies' maid, a 
stringed orchestra, barber shop, pho- 
tographer's dark room, and a commo- 
dious observation room on the hurri- 
cane deck, inclosed in plate glass and 
provided with reclining chairs, card 
tables, etc., that the tourist may 
view the wonderful Alaska scenery 
in ease and comfort. Indications 
point to heavy travel as there will be 
a considerable flow of Eastern travel 
to the Portland fair. 



Arizonan was built by the Union 
Iron Works of San Francisco. 



July, 1905 
• Will Build New Steamers 

The American-Hawaiian Steamship 
Company will shortly call for bids 
for the construction of two steamers 
of a type similar to the Texan. Alas- 
kan, and Arizonan. vessels of 11,000 
tons capacity. They may be built in 
Pacific Coast yards. They are to be 
ready for delivery in about eighteen 
months. The company's fleet now 
numbers nine ve.ssels of an aggre- 
gate cargo capacity of 75,000 tons, 
several being oil burners. 

The Texan will be built by the New 
York Shipbuilding Company, Cam- 
den, X. J., and cost $600,000. The 



October, 1905 
The Union Iron Works, San Fran- 
cisco, are laying the keels for two 
new steel steamers. 12.000 tons, for 
the American Hawaiian Steamship 
Company, and which will cost $700.- 
000 each. Except for these two new 
steamers, the Union Iron Works have 
no important construction in pros- 
pect, the two armoured cruisers, Cal- 
ifornia and South Dakota, and the 
protected cruiser. Milwaukee, being 
practically completed, a representa- 
tive of Pacific Marine Review who 
recently visited this yard having in- 
formed that 3000 men. approximately 
half force are now being employed. 



The H. D. Bendixsen Shipbuilding 
Company, Eureka. California, are 
making good progress with the two 
steam schooners building at their 
yards: Yard No. 133, not named, for 
the Hammond Mills Company. 800 
gross, length 195 feet, beam 38 feet, 
depth 16, is 30 per cent completed, 
the vessel being ceiled and deck 
frames in place. The Yosemite, 
length 205, gross 850 tons, beam 39. 
depth 17 is no per cent completed 
and in frame. The Standard Oil Com- 
pany is building a small steel barge 
at Richmond, California. 



PRIL, 1935 



131 



Commercial Lighter Than Air Ships 



(Continued trom Page 125) 



We have undoubtedly been wrong 
in taking too great strides. The logi- 
cal move is to retrace our steps and 
find if we can where we were wrong. 
It is indeed significant that one 
gains the impression, after digesting 
the reasons and causes of airship 
disasters, that each and every one 
could easily and safely have been 
avoided had those in authority exer- 
cised a little more foresight and cau- 
tion. It cannot be too strongly em- 
phasized that an airship for commer- 
cial purposes should carry an ample 
margin of quickly releasable dispos- 
able weight to ensure the safety of 
the ship and passengers. That a 
heavy ship is a dangerous one has 
been proved in many instances and 
one should never put more than a 
certain proportion of the total lift 
into one gas cell. Otherwise there 
would be considerable risk of losing 
the ship in case any one cell were 
damaged without sufficient dispos- 
able ballast to compensate for that 
loss. 

• Conclusions 

In the foregoing, I have not at- 
tempted to quote statistics. At this 
stage of uncertainty as to the future 
of airships, no useful purpose would 
be served. The dirigible industry is a 
frail and sickly child, and may die 
prematurely. It is, therefore, doubt- 
ful if the quotation of costs of oper- 
ation, building and maintenance 
would bring the child back to imme- 
diate health. 



The commercial airship has not 
been developed at all in this country 
and only to a limited extent in Ger- 
many. There is no doubt that in time 
the commercial will differ materially 
from the military airship. However, 
for the next four or five years, if we 
are permitted to proceed, the two 
types will diverge from their com- 
mon point of origin to such a very 
limited extent that either type will 
be readily and rapidly convertible 
from one to the other. The author is 
decidedly pro-airship, and believes 
heartily that there is a definite place 
for lighter-than-air craft in high 
speed transportation, particularly 
over the Pacific Ocean. 

On the other hand, we expect 
shortly to see an experimental ser- 
vice started to cross the Pacific, 
largely with flying boats of the "clip- 
per" type. A new idea, however, is 
being fostered by the Imperial Air- 
ways of Great Britain, for an air 
service across the Atlantic, and is 
known as Composite Aircraft. This 
will consist of a flying boat which 
will carry a small high-speed plane. 
The function of the flying boat is to 
carry the small, heavily loaded plane 
to a desired height and then release 
it for its journey across the ocean. 
The flying boat then returns to its 
base. It appears that this function 
could be performed better by an air 
ship than by a flying boat, as the 
dirigible would be able to carry and 
release a multitude of such small 
craft. 



Book Reviews and Trade Literature 



Ports of Northern New England. 

The Board of Engineers for Rivers 
and Harbors, War Department, an- 
nounces the publication of a report 
which covers the ports of Lynn, Sa- 
lem, Beverly, Gloucester, and New- 
burj'port, Mass., and Portsmouth, N. 
H. 

Port Series No. 24 contains infor- 
mation with regard to port and har- 
bor conditions; port customs and 
regulations; services and charges; 
fuel and supplies; and the facilities 
available for service to commerce 
and shipping, including piers, 
wharves, storage warehouses, grain 



elevators, bulk freight storage, dry 
docks, marine railways, marine re- 
pair plants, floating equipment and 
wrecking and salvage facilities. Rail- 
road and steamship lines are discus- 
sed and their charges and practices 
in connection with terminal service. 
Commodity and class rates covering 
the movement of traffic between the 
several ports and between the ports 
and interior producing and consum- 
ing points are also shown. The for- 
eign and domestic commerce of the 
ports is discussed and detailed tables 
are presented showing the total traf- 
fic handled during the ten-year pe- 
liod 192.3-19.32, inclusive. 



The Marine Coating Supreme. A 

very neat and convenient booklet of 
the loose leaf, spiral binding type, 
published by the Stanley Chemical 
Company, and describing their "Spa- 
rox," a marine coating material es- 
pecially adapted for natural wood 
finishing. 

Sparox claims that it will produce 
a clear flim of protective coating, 
which will not change under the ac- 
tion of salt water, or boiling water, 
and which is so hard that no ordi- 
nary usage will produce a scratch on 
the smooth surface. The name is 
coined from Spar and Rocks, and sig- 
nifies a spar coating of rocklike 
hardness. 

Sparox is distributed in central 
California by the Roland E. McCune 
Company, manufacturer's agents, 
San Francisco. 



Perko Catalogue No. 70. A 175- 
page book describing the various 
lines of the Perkins Marine Lamp 
and Hardware Corporation of Brook- • 
lyn, New York, manufacturers of 
running lights, searchlights, bin- 
nacles, steering wheels, stoves, gear 
pumps, air whistles, toilets, lava- 
tories, yacht blacks, brass and gal- 
vanized hardware, and sheet metal 
specialties of every description for 
all types of boats from canoes to 
ocean liners. The Perko line is dis- 
tributed in central California by the 
Roland E. McCune Company of San 
Francisco. 



Improved Centrifugal Fire Pumps. 

An improved line of Underwriter- 
approved, Centrifugal Fire Pumps is 
announced by Worthington Pump 
and Machinery Corporation, Harri- 
son, New Jersey. These pumps are 
their group LG, single-stage, volute 
type. Built particularly for fire pro- 
tection service, their makers state 
that in every detail they are built for 
the utmost reliability in prompt 
starting and operation. 

These pumps incorporate the most 
modern features of centrifugal pump 
design, and are equipped with all fit- 
tings and accessories called for in 
every Underwriter specification. 
Each pump is fully inspected and ap- 
proved for fire pump service by the 
National Board of Fire Underwriters 
and the Factory Mutual Fire Insur- 
ance Companies. 

Bulletin W-320-B1, showing details 
of the pumps and dimetision tables, 
will be furnished by the manufactur- 
er on request. 



132 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



American Shipbuilding 

Progress of Construction 

Reports received after regular forms had been set up 



L.B.P. 289'0"; beam 24'-ll-l/16"; load- 
ed draft 13'-9"; dlesel electric engines. 



SPEDDEN SHIPBULLDING CO. 

Baltimore, Md. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 274 
(Diesel), Electric, wrought iron hull, 
Boarding Cutter, for the U. S. Public 
Health Service, Staten Island, N. Y. ; 
keel laid March 15, 19 34; launched, 
August 8, 1934; delivered Nov. 23, 
1934; L.B.P. lOO'S"; beam, 23'; loaded 
draft, 10' speed loaded, 12 knots; two 
360 B.H.P. Fairbanks Morse engines, 
completed and delivered. 



SUX SHIPBUILDING AND DRY 
DOCK CO. 
Chester, Pa. 
: I DRYDOCK, PAINT. MISCELLANE- 
tlOUS: S.S. Shenandoah, structural re- 
' newals throughout vessel; U.S. Dredges: 
1 .\labama, .Mantua, Wni. T. Rossell, Dela- 
ware, New Orleans, Gillespie, general 
annual overhauling. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: CL41, Phila- 
delphia, L.B.P. eOO'O"; beam 61', 7%"; 
molded depth at side to main deck 
amidships 4 2'0%"; draft corresponding 
to normal displacement 21', 8%"; stan- 
dard displacement 10,000 tons; date of 
completion as reported by building yard, 
January, 19 37. 

DD355, Ajiwin, L.B.P., 334'0" beam 
34'.2%"; depth molded at side to main 
deck amidships, 19', 7-7/8"; draft corre- 
sponding to normal displacement 10', 
2-13/16"; standard displacement 1500 
tons; keel laid September 23, 1933; 
launched July 10, 1934; estimated de- 
livery April 15, 1935. 

DD372, C-assin. L.B.P., 334', 0"; beam, 
35', 0-1/8"; depth molded at side to 
main deck amidships 19', 7-7/8"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement, 
lOMO"; standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid, October 1, 1934; esti- 
iriated completion date, March 15, 1936. 

DD373, Shaw, L.B.P. 334', 0"; beam, 
o5', 0-1/8"; depth molded at side to 
main deck amidships. 19'7-7/8"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement, 
10', 10"; standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid October 1, 1934; esti- 
mated completion, June 15. 1936. 

Coa.st Guard Cutter No. 6,5, George 
W. Campbell; L.B.P. 308'. beam 41', 
depth molded at side to main deck 
amidships 23'6", draft corresponding to 
normal displacement 12'6", standard 
displacement 2000; estimated date of 
keel laying April, 1935; estimated date 
of completion, July, 1936. 

Coa.st (luard Cutter No. 66, Samuel 
D.Ingham; L.B.P. 308', beam 41'. depth 
molded at side to main deck amidships 
23'6", draft corresponding to normal 
displacement 12'6", standard displace- 
ment 2000; estimated date of keel lay- 



APRIL, 1935 



ing April, 1935; estimated date of com- 
pletion, September, 1936. 

Coa.st Guard Cutter No. 67, William 
J. Diwne; L.B.P. 308', beam 41', depth 
molded at side to main deck amidships 
23'6", draft corresponding to normal 
displacement 12'6", standard displace- 
ment 2000; estimated date of keel lay- 
ing April, 1935; estimated date of com- 
pletion, November, 1936. 

Coast Guard Cnxtter No. 68, Roger B. 
Taney; L.B.P. 308', beam 41', depth 
molded at side to main deck amidships 
23'6", draft corresponding to normal 
displacement 12'6", standard displace- 
ment 2000; estimated keel laying April, 
1935; estimated completion, January 
1937. 

CA45 Wichita, L.B.P. 600, beam 61' 
9 %", depth molded at side to main deck 
amidships 42'0 3/8", draft correspond- 
ing to normal displacement 21'10"; 
standard displacement 10,000; estimat- 
ed completion January 1, 1938. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 

Portsmouth, N. H. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: SS 172, 
Porpoise; keel laid, October 27, 1933; 

estimated delivery, Feb. 1936. SS 173, 
Pike, keel laid, Dec. 20, 1933 estimated 
delivery. May, 19 36. SS 179 Plunger, 
estimated delivery, Feb., 1937; SS 180 
Pollack, estimated delivery. May, 19 37; 



April, IBO.l 

The enfr,v into the trans-Pacific 
Oriental trade of the Great North- 
ern Company's steamers, Minne- 
.sota and Dakota (210O0 tons 
gross), which have a greater car- 
go capacity than any other steam- 
ers afloat, has been another event 
of the year. It is unlikely, how- 
ever, at least undei' present dis- 
couraging circumstances which 
govern .-Xnierican shipping, that 
any more ves.sels of this type will 
be Iniilt ; in fact. Mr. James .T. 
Hill, iiresident of the Great North- 
ern Railroad, frankly stated be- 
fore the .Merchant Marine Com- 
niission: 

"I had an ex|>erience in the 
building of two very large ships, 
and I am (piito sure I do not want 
any more. They are the two larg- 
est freight-carrying shi|>s in the 
world. We e\i>ected to finish them 
in two years and it has taken 
nearly four, strikes and other dif- 
ficiiHies following one another. I 
would rather undertake to build a 
thousand miles of railroad than 
two ships." 



UNITED STATES NA\Tr YARD 

Portsmouth, Va. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Torpedo 
Boat Destroyer Tucker (DD374) for 

U.S. Navy, 341 ft. long; beam 35'; 
loaded draft, lO'lO"; treaty stand- 
ard displacement, 1500 tons; No. 4 
boilers; 35 knots speed; estimated de- 
livery, February, 1936. 

Torpedo Boat Destroyer D o w n e s 
(DD375) for U.S. Navy, 344 ft. long; 
beam 35'; loaded draft, lO'lO"; treaty 
standard displacement, 1500 tons; No. 
4 boilers; 35 knots speed; estimated 
delivery. May, 1936. Laying down lines 
under way in mold loft. 



United States Civil 

Service Examinations 

The United States Civil Service 
Commission has announced open 
competitive examinations as follows: 

# Boiler and Hull Inspectors 

Applications for the positions of 
local and assistant inspectors of boil- 
ers, and local and assistant inspect- 
ors of hulls. Bureau of Navigation 
and Steamboat Inspection, must be 
on file with the U. S. Civil Service 
Commission, Washington, D.C., not 
later than April 15, 1935. 

The entrance salaries for local in- 
spectors are $3,200 a year, and for 
assistant inspectors, $2,900 a year. 
These salaries are subject to a de- 
duction of 3^2 per cent toward a re- 
tirement annuity. 

Applicants must have had speci- 
fied experience. 

Full information may be obtained 
from the Secretary of the United 
States Civil Service Board of Exami- 
ners at the post office or custom- 
house in any city which has a post 
office of the first or the second class, 
or from the United States Civil Ser- 
vice Commission, Washington, D.C. 



Motor Shipbuilding Orders 

The orders for motor ships placed 
with British and Continental yards 
since the beginning of the year, ac- 
cording to The Motor Ship, total ap- 
proximately 230,000 tons gross, 
whilst steamers account for 50,000 
tons gross, making a total of 280,000 
tons gross. 

The orders are considerably great- 
er in volume than during the first 
two months of 1934 (although more 
of the ships are to be built abroad 
than in this country) and about half 
of the tonnage is represented by 
tankers. 



IS 



.... spring Golf Tournament at 

Menlo Country Club — Redwood City, California 

On Woods ide Highway 

Thursday, April 11, 1935 

Invite Your Friends — Make up a Foursome and be Present at this Popular Event. 
$4.00 IS THE PRICE FOR GREEN FEES AND DINNE'R 

There will be a "flight" to meet your needs and prizes for the Winners. A competent and kind (?) 
hearted committee will fix your handicap so you cannot lose! (Much?) 
TEE OFF AFTER 12:00 NOON - - - DINNER 6:30 P. M. 



Official News of the 

PROPELLER CLUB ©/California 




HEADQUARTERS 

320 Market Street, Room 249 

San Francisco 

President 
Charles H. Robertson 

Secretary-Treasurer 
Stanley E. Allen 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 
Francis M. Edwards, Chairman 
Philip Coxon 
James A. Cronin 
L. M. Edelman 
Joseph J. Geary 
John T. Greany 
E. H. Harms 
H. T. Haviside 
C. M. Le Count 
W. Edgar Martin 
Fletcher Monson 
Edwin H. Walter 

Secretary-Treasurer Stanley E. Al- 
len reports the following new mem- 
bers: 

Captain Bert V. White, S.S. Yale. 

Samuel Bermingham, San Francis- 
co Fire Department. 

• March 5 

Old Timers' Day. The chairman of 
the day was Dr. Arthur A. O'Neill, 
former surgeon of the S.S. Rio de 
Janeiro whose heart of gold has not 
only endeared him to seafaring men 
but ail who come in contact with 
him. 



Dr. O'Niell, presented honored 
guests with colorful Introductions. 
Abe Marks introduced as the Offi- 
cial Recorder of the Port, gave a 
most interesting talk, narrating ex- 
periences with old time ship masters 
of the "grain fleet" days. Captain 
Jim Shanley likewise carried us back 
to San Francisco's yesterday, giving 
some of his favorite yarns about pi- 
oneer sea-going men. 

Captain Charles W. Saundei-s told 
of the early days when the Matson 
Line was developing its service, and 
presented a ten-minute talk of ab- 
sorbing interest. Jack Young of Hon- 
olulu introduced as an "old timer" 
responded with the announcement of 
his plan to launch a Propeller Club 
in the Islands, patterning it after 
our own organization. 

Jack is always a welcome visitor at 
our meetings when he journeys up 
this way every year or so. He sup- 
plied names and dates "quick as a 
flash" when Captain Saunders called 
on him during his reminiscent talk. 

Harry Haviside personally intro- 
duced Captain H. C. Townsend, who 
told of his many voyages around the 
Cape back in the '70's. 

Over a score of "old timers" 
among whom were: Captain George 
W. McKinnon, former commodore of 
the old Pacific Mail; Tom Carroll; 
Captain J. H. Trask, one time com- 
mander of such packets as the Ven- 
tura, Sierra, and Sonoma; Joseph Do- 
Ian, the Club's first president and 



former local inspector of hulls and 
boilers; Captain H. C. Townsend; 
Charles Grundel and Jim Castle, 
former chiefs of the engine rooms; 
Tony Allen, who was purser on the 
old Pacific Mail boat Peru, and fath- 
er of Stanley Allen; and Jim Searle, 
who came around the Horn in 1855. 

By way of atmospheric prologue, 
Bern de Rochie, chairman of the Pro- 
gram Committee, displayed stereop- 
tican views of early San Francisco. 

Dr. 0' Niell adjourned the meeting 
by leading the entire assembly in 
"Auld Lang Syne." Truly it was a 
memorable day — inspired by a mag- 
nificent thought — the Propeller 
Club's tribute to the OLD TIMERS! 

• March 19 

This program, announced as En- 
tertainment Day, brought out a tidy 
attendance, who were invited to 
join the Round Table of Good Fel- 
lowship. 

The one hour show measured up 
to the advance billing in variety, 
pep, and mighty good talent. Magici- 
an Steve Shepard walked away with 
highest personal honors. His act kept 
us on the alert for twenty minutes 
during which time he produced play- 
ing cards, sausages, and eggs at 
will from nowhere and everywhere. 
And if anyone knows where that 
canary bird disappeared to, please 
let us all in on the secret. 

Entertainment Day was a great 
idea — and a great success! 



14 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Pacific Marine Personals 



"NAMES ARE NEWS" 



BY BERNARD De ROCHIE 



Harold W. Hauser, secretao'-treas- 
urer of the Pacific Insurance Agen- 
cy, Inc., for several years, resigned 
his post on March 15. Mr. Hauser 
served as assistant to J. R. F. Ser- 
vaes, who recently made a business 
trip east and secured a successor to 
Mr. Hauser in Ivan A. Kemsley, a 
former member of the marine depart- 
ment of Fireman's Fund Atlantic 
division. 

Mr. Kemsley brings to his new as- 
sociation, splendid experience, deve- 
loped in many years of specializing 
on hull underwriting and general 
cargo insurance. He has been with 
Fireman's Fund since 1929. Prior to 
that year he had extensive under- 
writing experience in London. 



Roy C. Ward, president of George 

E. Billings Company, sailed on the 

Lurline on her March 9 departure for 

the Islands. Mr. Ward will spend sev- 

I eral weeks in and around Honolulu, 

I combining a vacation jaunt with 

I business for the firm. 



I L. E. McCune, formerly with the 
! Anchor Packing Company, is now 
' affiliated with the Engineering Ser- 
I vice and Supply Co., Inc., San Fran- 
' Cisco, where he is in charge of that 
' company's complete line of mechani- 
cal rubber goods and mechanical 
1 packing. Mr. McCune's experience in 
this branch of the business covers 
many years, he having been associat- 
ed with the B. F. Goodrich Company 
as mechanical manager of their Los 
Angeles branch previous to his con- 
nection with the Anchor people. 



Captain Lindley Davis, manager 
Puget Sound Tug and Barge Com- 
pany, announced in Seattle recently 
i the return of the former navy tug, 
i Lively, to the North Pacific service 
^ of the company. The ves.sel will be 
i re-christened the Active, the name 
under which she was launched as a 
commercial tug. Conversion of the 
1 craft from steam to diesel will give 
her an ocean cruising radius of 10,- 
!000 miles. The work is now nearing 
I completion. 



30 Years Ago! 
Pacific Marine 
Personals in 1905 



August, 1905 
.Mr. H. V. Schwerin, vice-presi- 
dent and uenei'al manager of the 
Pacific Mail Steainslilp Company, 
made a flying trip to Seattle on 
the 17tli of last month to meet 
Mrs. R. I*. Schwerin, who was re- 
turning from an excursion to Al- 
aska on the Pacific Coast (^om- 
I)an.v's steamer. .Six)kane. While in 
the city, .Mr. Schwerin availed 
himself of the opixtrtunity to in- 
spect the S.S. Dakota. 



Mr. James Rolph, Jr., of the 
firm of Hind, Rolph & Co., San 
Francisco, was a welcome visitor 
to our office last month. 



Membei-s of the Shipowner's 
Association of San Francisco are 
awaiting «ith interest the out- 
come of the installation of auxili- 
ary gasoline engines iii several 
schooners for the Pacific Ship- 
ping ComiMiny. If these prove a 
success, other members will fol- 
low the lead of their enterprising 
colleague, Mr. W. G. Tibbetts. 



September, 190.5 
Messrs. liarneson Hibbard Com- 
pany, successors to ISarneson l{oss 
Company, of .San Francisco, ad- 
vise us that they have removed to 
the .Macondray Building, 116 Cal- 
ifornia St. 



September, 1905 
The S.S. Dakota, Commander 
Kmil Francke, will sail September 
24», with a go<Hl passenger list and 
full cargo, leaving on draft of 37 
feet, i> inches, or within a foot, 7 
Inches, of her deep load line ilraft. 
Her cargo consists chiefly of loco- 
motives, heavy machinery, domes- 
tics, flour and general merchan- 
dise. 



Roger D. Lapham, president of the 
American-Hawaiian Steamship Com- 
pany, recently announced the elec- 
tion of Thomas G. Plant and Walter 
S. McPherson to the position of vice 
president of the company, at the last 
meeting of the board of directors. 

"Tom" Plant, who has been operat- 
ing manager, with offices in San 
Francisco, since 1923, will continue 
in that position. Mr. McPherson, 
traffic manager of the company, will 
remain at the New York headquar- 
ters. 



A visitor to San Francisco ship- 
ping circles during the month was 
Albert Schafer, vice president of 
Schafer Brothers Steamship Lines. 



Frank A. Hill, vice president of 
the Twin Harbor Stevedoring Com- 
pany, Hoquiam, Washington, was a 
San Francisco and Los Angeles visi- 
tor recentlv. 



Aubrey D. Cagwin, for the past 
fifteen years assistant traffic man- 
ager for Norton, Lilly & Co. in San 
Francisco, recently joined the Paci- 
fic Coast European Conference here, 
in association with George J. Yater, 
also formerly of Norton Lilly & Co. 



Frank C. Tracey, for many years 
surveyor for the Port of San Fran- 
cisco, passed away recently after a 
brief illness. 



The North Eraser. B.C., harbor 
commissioners, have joined the Paci- 
fic Coast Association of Port Au- 
thorities as a corporate member. 



Smith M. Wilson has been re-elect- 
ed port commissioner of the south 
end of the Seattle Port District. The 
high margin by which he won over 
his nearest competitor is said by 
Seattle port authorities to indicate 
that the port district voters have put 
the seal of approval on his efforts 
toward putting the public port pro- 
perties on a self-sustaining basis. 



APRIL, 1935 



15 



16 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



April, 1935 



^^^MI^fliETS^^ 



coK 




MeCormiek l^teamship Company 

461 Market St., San Francisco Phone: DOuglas 2561 



1^ ANDAGENTSIH 



SWAYNE &) HOYT, Ltd. 

Shipo-wners and Agents 

GULF PACIFIC LINE . . 

Service between Tacoma, Seattle, Portland, Oakland, San Francisco, Los 
Angeles and Houston, Corpus Christi, Beaumont, Lake Charles, Tampa, 
Mobile and New Orleans. 

GULF PACIFIC MAIL LINE, LTD. 

U. S. Mail Steamers Direct to Puerto Colombia, Kingston, Tampico, Canal 
Zone, Colombia, Dutch West Indies, Venezuela, Cuba, Vera Cruz. 

SWAYNE & HOYT, LTD. 



215 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 



TRAVEL BY 
FREIGHT LINER 



-LUCKENBACH- 



PASSENGERS 
. . AND .. 
FREIGHT 



EASTBOUND SERVICE 
5-DAY SAILINGS 

MANHATTAN — BROOKLYN 

Fortnightly Service To and From Gulf of 

Mexico Ports: 

NEW ORLEANS - MOBILE - HOUSTON 



PHILADELPHIA 



WESTBOUND SERVICE 
WEEKLY SAILINGS 

BOSTON 



Coastwise Services Between Pacific Coast Ports: 

LOS ANGELES - SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND 

PORTLAND - SEATTLE - TACOMA 



LUCKEIVBACH LINES 

310 Sansome Street, San Francisco 
Head Office: 120 Wall Stteet, New York 

THE LARGEST AND FASTEST FREIGHTERS IN THE INTERCOASTAL TRADE 




SUPERIOR! 

LEADING steamship companies 
now recognize the superiority of 
TA-PAT-CO Life Preservers. Fill- 
ing, Private Estates kapok — six 
times more buoyant than cork. Puts 
on hke a vest — reversible both sides 
alike. Turns wearer on back if un- 
conscious. Approved by U.S. Steam- 
boat Inspection. Sold by represen- 
tative ship chandlers. Prices on re- 
quest. 

THE AMERICAN PAD AND 
TEXTILE CO. 

122 Read St.. Greenfield, Ohio. 



P^KELVIN 
WHITE 

«.*^ 112 STAt€ S¥. <3 




W. H. Hoskier, facific coast man- 
ager of the International Mercan- 
tile Marine Company, recently an- 
liounced the receipt of a message 

from Basil Harris, New York, vice- 
)resident of the United States Lines, 
announcing that the keel of a third 
jliner of the Manhattan and Wash- 
ington type will be laid in the near 
future. The new vessel will replace 
(he Leviathan, retired from service. 
1 Commenting on this direct infor- 
nation of early expansion of the 
United States Lines fleet, Hoskier 
;aid: 

"This comes as good news to the 
ravelling public, who have learned 
appreciate the service offered by 
he magnificent new ships of the 
Jnited States Lines. The Manhattan 
nd Washington have had phenomen- 
il success from their first voyages, 
nd have made records placing them 
n the top bracket of passenger car- 
■yings across the Atlantic by ships 
)f all nations. Latest available fig- 
ires show that in 42 sailings by the 
Manhattan and 40 by the Washing- 
.111. the two carried a total of 52,696 
la.ssengers. 

"The new ship, in design and 
quipment, will be fully as fine as 
ler team mates. Think what the 
I'Uilding of a vessel like this means, 
irom a national point of view. This 
f'ill be an American ship, built in an 
\merican shipyard, by American 
.orkmen, of American materials, and 
p to American luxury standards, 
!han which there are none better, 
Ind to be manned by Americans. 
I'wenty-five hundred men will be di- 
Jectly employed for two years in 
uilding her, and other thousands 
ill be employed in producing the 
materials used in her construction." 



Sailing for Honolulu aboard the 
urline was Roy Ward, president of 
le George E. Billings Company, 
larine underwriters. 



Jim La Boube, assistant traffic 
lanager of the Furness Line, is in 
atalina, where he is enjoying a two 
eeks vacation. 



J. Harold Dollar, vice president of 
*ie Dollar Steamship Lines, sailed 
I'cently aboard the President Coo- 
dge for the Orient in connection 
ith his membership in the trade 
jission of the National Foreign 
rade Council. 



3o Years Ago! 
Pacific Marine 
Personals in 1905 



May 
.Mr. <'. (iardiner Johnson, 
l/l<>,v<r,s ascnt at \'ancoiiver, visit- 
<'.! .Sealtl.' on the l»th of la.st 
month, taking the opi)ortiinity to 
vi.sit the .Minnesota at .Smith's 
Cove, with which he e\presse<l 
himself as mucii pleased, congrat- 
iilating Captain Kinder on hi.s 
('ominan<l and his good hoineward 
passage. 

.Mr. Samuel Sutton has been ai)- 
pointed chief engineer of the 
Ohio. 

.Mr. C. \V. Wiley, marine sui)ei-- 
intendent of the Boston .Steamship 
Company, i'eturne<l on ,^pril 2:{, 
from a brief visit to the company's 
head office in Boston. Despite a 
long residence in the Ea.st, an<l 
the plea.sure of renewing old ac- 
i|uaintances, the genial chief 
seeme<l as pleased to return to 
our midst as we were to welcome 
him. 



.August, !»(»«: Mr. John A. .Mc- 
(iregor, assistant trea,sin'er and 
.secretary of the Bethlehem Steel 
CoriMiration, .New York, has re- 
cently returned to Xew York from 
a short visit to the Pacific Coast, 
and the annual audit of the Union 
Iron Works Company. 

Mr. Wilfred I'age, Jr., until 
lately with .Messrs. Johnson & 
Higgins, Seattle, has been appoint- 
ed to take cliarge of the insurance 
department of .Me.ssrs. H. M. New- 
hall & Company, 114 Battery St., 
San Krancisco. 

Sept., H>(t(>: .Messrs. <i. W. & 
J. Dickie, naval architects, and 
marine an<l consulting engineers, 
ad\ise that they are now located 
at :{4-;{« Stewart St., San PYan- 
cis<>o. 

.Messrs. Hind, Kolph & Co. have 
entere<l their new offices at 2<)4- 
aiO California .St., San Francisco. 
April 
Mr. Ira .\. Campbell, proctor in 
admiralty, has removed his of- 
fi<es from lil«-l>17 Bailey Build- 
ing to 2;{'2-2.{4 Colman Building. 



The firm of .\. J. .Morse & Son, 
Boston nuiiiufa<'turers of fire <le- 
partment supplies, submarine ar- 
mor and diving apparatus, has 
bwn incorr><>rated, and the busi- 
ness has been remove<l to 221 
High Street from 140 Congress 
Street, where il was carried on for 
.so nuiny years. 



• Captain Bob Purdy Passes. 

Details of the Mamo's remark- 
able towing record have been ting- 
ed with the sad news of the death 
of her valiant skipper. Captain Bob 
Purdy, who was rushed to a hos- 
pital upon arrival in Honolulu. 
Blood transfusions were given so 
that his leg might be amputated. 
He lingered in a serious condition 
while his good friends anxiously 
awaited further reports. On Wed- 
nesday morning, March 27, cable 
advices bring us the tragic news 
of his passing. 

The story of Captain Bob's de- 
votion to his command and the call 
of duty is a story of courage and 
fortitude. For the 2100 miles and 
more of the Mamo's voyage, he 
steadfastly refused to return to 
port or to allow his shipmates to 
signal passing liners to render 
medical aid or speedier transit to 
shore. The Chichibu Maru passed 
close to the tug on her second day 
out. Captain Purdy had only to 
give his consent and his transfer- 
ence could have been arranged. 
Several days later, the Lurline ov- 
ertook the tug, and again opportu- 
nity was presented for Captain 
Bob to leave his command. 

Tales of real devotion to the sea 
and its ships are far too infre- 
quent, and there is true inspira- 
tion in the story of this pictur- 
esque descendant of Kamehameha, 
the first "great king" of Hawaii. 
Captain Purdy had been in the 
employ of Young Brothers for .32 
years. Throughout tug-boat circles 
he was regarded as one of the 
ocean's most skillful navigators. 



Captain Walter 
Martin McFarland 

After a career which practically 
paralleled the development of mod 
ern naval engineering in the United 
States, Walter Martin McFarland 
died, aged 76,at his home in Washing 
ton, D.C., on March 4, after a brief 
illness. 

Born in Washington, August 5, 
1859, he was educated in the district 
public schools, the Columbian Uni- 
versity Preparatory School, and the 
Naval Academy at Annapolis, gradu- 
ating from the latter in 1878 as sec- 
ond in his class. 

(Continued on Paye 18) 



PRIL, 1935 



17 



Captain Walter 
Martin McFarland 



(Continued tr 



Payc 16) 



For twenty years he served in the 
navy, resigning in 1899 as chief en- 
gineer with the rank of captain. This 
twenty vears covered sea service in 




Captain Walter Martin McFarland. 

various parts of the world, inspection 
of machinery for naval vessels under 
construction, activities at the Bureau 
of Steam Engineering as assistant to 
Admiral George W. Melville, engin- 
eer in chief; as assistant professor 
of mechanical engineering at Cornell 
for two years, detailed to this work 
by the navy; as lecturer in engineer- 
ing at the Naval War College, Colum- 
bia University, and Johns Hopkins 
University, and as representative of 
the Navy Department at the Interna- 
tional Engineering Congress in Chi- 
cago, 1893, and at the International 
Congress of Naval Architects and 
Marine Engineers at London, 1897. 
For four years he was editor of the 
Journal of the Society of Naval En- 
gineers. 

After leaving the navy. Captain 
McFarland accepted a vice-presiden- 
cy with Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Company. During 
eleven years he supervised many 
large contracts and coordinated the 
publicity work of fhis company. 

In 1910 he resigned from Westing- 



30 Years Ago ! 
Pacific Marine 
Personals in 1905 



June 

!Mr. Frank Waterhoiise has re- 
turned from Chicago, where he at- 
tended a railway and steamboat 
conference, at which Mr. J. D. 
Karrell, president of the Great 
Xortliern Steamship Company and 
Ml'. Alfred Winsor, president of 
the Koston Steamship Company, 
as well as the presidents of the 
(ireat Xorthern Pacific and Chi- 
cago, Burlington and Quincy rail- 
roads were present. 



We rejoice to liear that Captain 
.John O'Brien, master of the Oljin- 
pia, who was swejit into the ves- 
sel's hold by a slingload of limi- 
ber on May 20, sustaining serious 
injui'ies, is now safely on the road 
to reco\ery at the Providence Hos- 
pital. 

Captain O'Brien is one of the 
most popular and experienced 
master mariners on the Pacific 
Coast. 



Seirtember, 190.5 
Hear A(hniral Washington Lee 
Capps, chief naval constructor in 
charge of the dejiartment of con- 
struction and repairs, U.SN.., up- 
on his recent tour of inspection of 
the government work at Moran 
Brothers shipyards, expressed 
himself well satisfied with both 
the workmanship and progress be- 
ing made on the battleship, Neb- 
raska. 



UECKNT REMOVALS 

.■Messrs. Kilboiirne & Clark Com- 
pany have remove<l their office to 
ll;i Marion Street. Messrs. Kil- 
boiirne & Clark carry a large stock 
of motors for high-speed yachts, 
launches, and "working boats." 



house and became manager of the 
marine department of the Babcock 
ind Wilcox Company, holding this 
position until his retirement from ac- 
tive business in 1931. Here he found 
ample opportunity to exercise his 
great knowledge and ability in mat- 
ters pertaining to the development of 
steam plants in marine propulsion. 
Captain McFarland was past presi- 



dent and honorary member of the So- 
ciety of Naval Architects and Ma- 
rine Engineers; past vice-president 
of the American Society of Mechani- 
cal Engineers; a member of council, 
American Society of Naval Engin- 
eers; and president emeritus of Webb 
Institute of Naval Architecture. 

His most recent public work was 
as chairman of the committee (1929) 
to coordinate marine boiler rules. 
This was a work of far-reaching im- 
portance, as its final result was to 
serve as a basis for the revision of 
the rules of the Steamboat Inspec- 
tion Service, and the rules of the 
American Bureau of Shipping. 

Captain McFarland lived a full 
rounded life. His intense energy in 
the application of his powers to the I 
profession and practice of mechani- 
cal and marine engineering was tem- 
pered by his sense of duty as a pub- 
lic spirited citizen. Few men in his > 
generation can show an equal record 
in professional and public service. 



Captain Lester C. Hansen, for many i 
years a member of the Matson Steam- 
ship Company's personnel is leaving! 
his post with that company to enter 
the employ of Young Brothers. Ltd.. 
Honolulu, T.H. In the service of Mat- 
son, Captain Hansen was chief offi- 
cer of the Maui, when that vessel was 
in passenger service, and command?'' 
of the freighter Maunawili. 

Captain Hansen is known alonK 
the San Francisco waterfront as 
"Daybreak Hansen," due to his bring- 
ing his command into the bay at day- 
break during all the years that he 
has "skippered" into this port. He 
will move his family to Honolulu. 



According to report around Mat- 
.ron Steamship Line offices. Captain 
L. J. Doepfner will replace Captain 
Lester C. Hansen as commander of 
the freighter Maunawili. Until re- 
cently Captain Doepfner has beemj 
skipper of the freighter Maliko. 

Captain Frank A. Johnson, one- ' 
time commander of the liner Yale, is 
the new executive officer of the Mat- 
son liner, Mariposa. He has recently 
acted in like capacity on the Malolo. 
1893— Robert Dollar, etc. 



James Scanlon, of the George E 
Billings marine insurance agency, 
recently returned to San Francis^ 
from southern California. 



18 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIE^M 



April, 1935 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



19 



Serving 




dke PACIFIC COAST ^uk CLOCKLIKE REGULARITY 




Great Combination 
Freight and Passen- 
ger liners and mod- 
em freight carriers. 



AMSHIP LINES 

AGENTS IN ALL PACIFIC COAST CITIES 



S.S. LURLINE . S.S.MARIPOSA . S.S.MONTEREY . S.S. MALOLO 




One Way Fares 
FIRST CLASS, /com $110 
CABIN CLASS, from $75 



A two-weeks' round trip to Hawaii 

ncans five glorious Island days 

plus ten sea-days, going and 

returning, spent in the superb 

.omfort of NEW Matson-Oceanic 

Liners. A vacation trip just right 

for those whose time and purses 

jrc limited. 

MATSON SOUTH PACIFIC 

CRUISES 

Personally Escorted 

Four Special Summer Cruises. For 

ailings from May 28 to August 

MATSON LINE 



21. First Class, from S59^— All- 
inclusive-Cost. Personally Escort- 
ed adventure cruises to intriguing 
NEW ZEALAND .ind AUSTRA- 
LIA, via romantic island ports — 
HAWAII. SAMOA .inJ FIJI. 
More than 17,000 mile.s — 11 shore 
excursions — 46 days. 
SHIPPERS 

I'se the NEW "Mariposa" and "Mon- 
terey". 15 Jays to New ZealamI . . . 
3 more to .Vustratia. UepCTldahle ex- 
press speed . . . modern refiigera- 
ti.in facilities. 



• OCEANIC LINE 
iAX FR.IXCISCO. J15 Market St.. DOuglas Slii—LOS ANGELES, 71i 
v. 711, St., yAndihe 2A2\— SEATTLE, 814 2nd Ave., MAin 3677— 
PORTLAXD, 127 S.IV. Pine St., AT:caler 4386. 



GRACE LI^E 

Passenser . Freisht . Mail E. 



xpress 




Regular Sailings between New York 

and Pacific Coast — directly serving 

MEXICO - GUATEMALA 

EL SALVADOR - PANAMA 

COLOMBIA - CUBA 

WEST COAST 
SOUTH AMERICA SERVICE 

COLOMBIA - EQUADOR - PERU - CHILI 

(Via Central American Ports and 

Panama when inducements offer — 

cargo accepted for Bolivia) 

M.S. Nosa Chief carries Combustibles 

GRACE LINE 

GEN ERAL OFFICES 
2 Pine Street, San Francuco SUtter 3Hl>0 

Los Angeles, 525 W. Sixth Street, TRlnity 9461. Seattle, Liddcll 

ac Clark, Inc., Board of Trade BIdg. Portland, Hammond Lumber 

Co., Musey Dock. Vancouver, B.C., C. Gardner Johnson, Ltd., 

9<>1 Hastings Street, West. 




fa noma facific Qne 

INTERNATIONAL MERCANTILE MARINE CO. 

Fastest ImiteiE'ccDastail S@ii^vSc@ 

DIRECT CONNECTIONS FOR EUROPE 

S ailin gs every other Saturday from San Francisco. Every other Monday from Los Angeles. Direct fast Freight. Pa^enger and Refrigerator Ser^ce between 
NEW YORK and SAN DIEGO, LOS ANGELES, SAN FR.\NaSCO, O.XKLAND, ALAMEDA. Through bills of lading issued to and from Portland, 
Seattle, Tacoma and Vancouver, and rapid transshipment to and from the Orient, Hawaii and Australia. Through bills of lading iasued*4ind direct con- 
nections made at New York with International Mercantile Marine Company Lines. 



SAN FRANCISCO— 6«7 Market St. DOuglas 8680. 
LOS ANGELES— 715 West 7lh Street. TRinity 8261. 
PORTLAND— McCormick Terminal. ATwater 9161. 



OAKLAND — Grove St. Terminal. GLencourl 4817 

SAN DIEGO— Broadway Pier. MAin 8I4I 
SEATTLE— 216 Vance BIdg. ELUot 4650 



Many of our good friends, loyal 
readers of Pacific Marine Review, 
are taking active interest in the 
splendid program of the Sea Scouts, 
San Francisco Area Council — an ac- 
tivity of the Boy Scouts of America. 

Heading the executive board is 
John A. McGregor, who has been 
identified with shipbuilding and 
transportation on the coast for many 
years and who needs no introduction 
to our readers. Norman B. Livermore 
is vice-president. On the executive 
board are Warren H. McBryde and 
other well-known maritime men. 
Through the courtesy of Herman D. 
Nichols, vice-president of Tubbs 
Cordage Company, we invite the at- 
tention of our readers to the follow- 
ing announcement: 

A Scouting Merit Badge Exposi- 
tion will be held at the Exposition 
Auditorium on April 4, 5, and 6, 
1935. 

The Sea Scout exhibit will be sit- 
uated in the very center of the Audi- 
torium floor. This exhibit will be 
built up in the form of a ship of 20 
ft. beam and 40 ft. long. A crew will 
be aboard this ship during the entire 
exposition, which opens on the eve- 
ning of Thursday, April 4th, and will 
run afternoon and evening until Sat- 
urday evening at 11:00 P.M. In addi- 
tion to the center exhibit which will 
have demonstrations on all phases of 
Sea Scouting, three other Sea Scout 
units will also have individual booths 
and will demonstrate different sub- 
jects. Ship 144 will demonstrate Boat 
Building, Ship 124 will demonstrate 
Model Boat Building, and Ship 248 
will handle the subject of Seaman- 
ship. 

In the large center "ship" booth, 
the following subjects will be demon- 
strated by the ships listed: 

"Marine Engineering" — Ship 140 
(overhauling a small marine engine). 

"Marlinspike Seamanship" — Ships 
120 and 145. (Knot tying and splic 
. ing.) 

"Model Boats"— Ship 139. (Includ- 
ing a scale model of the "Bounty," of 
"Mutiny on the Bounty" fame.) 

"Weather"— Ship 62. (All home- 
made weather instruments — barome- 
ter, etc.) 

"Galley"— Ship 128. (Cooking dem- 
onstration in the "ship's" galley.) 

"Radio" — Ship 113 — (Demonstrat- 
ing our 5 meter Radio Phone trans- 
mitters.) 



"Sail Making"— Ship 142. (Met- 
hods of sewing canvas.) 

"Buoyage system, Bell Time, An- 
chor cable markings, Lead line and 
Chip Log"— Ship 133. 

"Chart Making" and "Signalling" 
— Ship 220. (Semaphore signalling.) 

A crew of about 22 men and three 
officers will be aboard "ship" during 
the entire Exposition to demonstrate 
and explain parts of our work. Con- 
tinuous motion pictures will be 
shown during the exposition, dealing 
with the different out-of-doors parts 
of our work. 



We are indebted to Stanley E. Al- 
len, secretary of the Propeller Club 
of California, for copy of the inspir- 
ing "tribute to men of the sea" de- 
livered by Father Thos. F. Burke of 
of the Paulist Fathers at the March 5 
meeting of the club. We reproduce it 
herewith so that all our maritime 
readers in the ports of the world will 
receive this spirited message: 

Mr. Chairman and Members of the 
Propeller Club: 

I esteem it an honor and a privi- 
lege to be a guest on this occa- 
sion. If I am a land-lubber, I am 
also a sea-lover. From my young- 
est days, through childhood, youth 
and manhood the stories that have 
most fascinated me have been the 
stories of the sea. That fascina- 
tion, it seems to me, was due prin- 
cipally to the display of one great 
quality, the courage of the men 
who went down to the sea in 
ships. 

The sea has always been a chal- 
lenge to man. It has been a chal- 
lenge to the courage of man. And 
yet it has been a challenge that 
has always been met. 

Man looked out over the great 
expanses of water that bordered 
his land and he has dared to build 
and launch the ship that would 
bear him out over the deep. 

Perhaps he was an adventui-er 
simply in search of new experi- 
ences. 

Perhaps he was a merchant who 
craved added gain. 

Perhaps he was a patriot who 
desired to give his country a new 
empire. 

Perhaps he was a missionary 
who longed to enroll more souls 
in the kingdom of God. 



They and all who were their 
companions, men of the sea were 
men who dared. All, under the in- 
spiration of some mighty love, 
have dared with a great courage. 

To sail out upon the calm bosom 
of the deep; to know its gentleness 
and its thought-provoking moods 
of peace; to see its glory beneath 
the shining sun, or its beauty un- 
der the white moon, this is re- 
freshment for the soul. 

But to battle with the terrific 
rage of the sea when storm follows 
storm in growing intensity of 
force, when the insistent giant 
demands sacrifices for its deep 
tombs or its rocky altars, this is 
to be possessed of a great and un- 
conquerable courage. 

This is the gift that the men of 
the sea bestow upon all of us as 
we sail over the sea that is called 
life. Always there is need of cour- 
age. Perhaps today, more than at 
any other time, there is need of 
the spirit of courage. If we heed 
the lesson of the men of the sea, 
we shall learn to be courageous. 

Courage is a quality of soul that 
meets the forces of discourage- 
ment with the determination of 
battle; that bids despair begone 
with the mighty word of hope; 
that conquers weakness with 
strength of purpose; and that 
burns apparent defeat into tri- 
umph. All men should be grateful 
for the example of courage which 
has been given to us by the men 
who have gone down to the sea in 
ships. 

—Thomas F. Burke, C.S.P. 



• Alfred S. Tubbs 

It is with profound sorrow that we 
record the death of Alfred Stewart 
Tubbs, president of Tubbs Cordage 
Company, on March 25. 

Mr. Tubbs was born in 1856, the 
same year that Tubbs Cordage Com- 
pany was founded. While in his sev- 
enty-ninth year, he continued his 
vigorous interest in life — a constant 
inspiration to the present leaders of 
the great organization to which he 
dedicated his life's work. 

His passing takes from us another 
grand old gentleman of California's 
pioneer days. 



20 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



PACIFIC 

mnRinE 
review 



^ 



'AY 
"35 




Do 

Not Destroy 

Do not destroy in whole or In part a Sixty Million dollar a year dis- 
bursement — spent on the Pacific Coast by the Steannship Lines in the 
jntercoastal and Coastwise trades — for labor, supplies, repairs, ship's 
stores, replacements, fuel, tolls, wharfage, rentals, etc. 

The Pettengill Bill or similar legislation if enacted into law will destroy 
this great and growing Marine Industry together with its enormous 
purchasing power; upon which depends so much of the commer- 
cial life of the Pacific Coast. 



Soe Editorial 
Pag«» i;i5 



Alt Organ 

=C AMERICAN 
^iHIP ASSOCIATION 

::VNERS ASSOCIATION 
IE PACIFIC COAST 




Tnbbs R^ope at 9ea 



I 




SECURITY 

at SEA 



When it's a coil of Tubbs SUPERCORE 
Marine Rope conning over the side, there's a 
real sense of security. For this sturdy, de- 
pendable rope is built to stand up under the 
most exacting conditions of the sea. 

But not alone does SUPERCORE offer de- 
pendable security. Its improved and pat- 
ented method of construction reduces wear 
and friction and insures longer life and ease 



of handling. The special treatment given t 
every fibre makes SUPERCORE unusuall 
repellent to water and resistant to rot. 

No wonder, then, that SUPERCORE is f 
vored on the seven seas by operators, ca| 
tains and crew. They recognize, not only i 
outstanding qualities of leadership, but thi 
in terms of service, it is the most economic 
Marine rope. 



Hi 



ordasle C^ompail 

^1 1 



200 BUSH STREET • SAN FRANCISCO 

Mills in San Francisco 



■)% t07%- nri«i,^ 7n 107^ • 



>flCIFIC 
TlflRin€ 

review 



ll AY , 19 3 5 

'OL. XXXII NO. 5 



C O^N T E N T S 

Editorial Comment: 

Direct Subsidy Legislation 133 

Another Legislative Backbreaki'ng Straw 133 

Save the Sardines 134 

Do Not Destroy — or Cripple the Purchasing Power of the Pacific Coast Merchant 

Marine 135 

Subsidy or Contract — Let's Get Busy 140 

Army Engineer's Towboat, Coiner 144 

One of the Largest and Most Powerful Towboats Ever Placed in Service on 
Our Inland Waterways. 

Beachcomber's Loot 146 

Improved Rubber Dock Fender 148 

Metallic Stem Tube Packing 148 

Safe Floors For Ships' Galleys 149 

New World's Record for Low Diesel Fuel Consumption 150 

As Shown in the Official Tests of a 5 50 B.H.P. Single- Acting 2-Cycle, Suher 
Marine Diesel Engine — By G. Eichelberg, Dr. Eng. 

Tillamook Repairs Completed 153 

Increasing Visibility Range in Fog 153 

Communications in the Merchant Marine 154 

By Capt. S. C. Hooper. 

Marine Insurance: 

Jurisdictional Conflicts in Maritime Injuries Occurring Between Ship and Dock 155 

American Shipbuilding: 

The Launching of the Tanker, Magnolia 160 

Progress of Construction _ igi 

Trade notes Ig4 

Miscellaneous: 

Personals, adv. 9; Propeller Club Notes, adv. 10. 



tered as second class matter June 10, 1913, at the post office, San Francisco, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Published on the 25th of each 
nth preceding the publication date. Advertising and editorial forms close on the 15th. Subscription price, a year: Domestic, $1.50; foreign, 

$3; single copies, 25c. Chas. F. A. Mann, Northwest Representative, 1110 Puget Sound Bank Bldg., Tacoma, Washington. 
New York City copies of Pacffic Marine Review can be purchased at the news stands of I. Goldberg, 42 Broadway; Jacob Fuchs, 17 Battery 
Place; Philip Mandara, Greenwich Street and Battery Place at 25c per copy. 



James S. Hines 

Publisher 



Bernard N. De Rochie 

Advertising- Business Manager 



Alexander J. Dickie 

Editor 



M. J. Suitor 

Asst. Editor 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



May 



A 



THE y Vcw BODENLOS 



ADJUSTABLE PLUG PISTON 

Offers These Five Superiorities 




Adjusting is accomplished by loosrningth<fulti>nvr, removing a small plug and inserting a tool in the 

pinion. This engages a rack, as shown in the cutaway. The pinion is turned until the '"feeler'^ used 

indicates proper clearance. The follower bolts are then screwed down tight, the tool is replaced by the 

plug and the piston is solid once more. 



THE plug piston is well known to engineers 
as the simplest, most reliable type of 
piston. It is safe because it cannot steam set 
. . . cannot harm cylinder walls. 

But the ordinary plug piston becomes worn 
after a short time in use and develops steam 
leaks. This means lost power . . . and waste. 
The new Bodenlos ADJUSTABLE Plug 
Piston can be adjusted at any time, without 
removal from the cylinder, to a small fraction 
of 1/1000 of an inch. It can readily be made 
smaller or larger, as desired, and can be adjusted 



in a few minutes at any point in piston travel. 

The new Bodenlos ADJUSTABLE Plug 
Piston is a true circle at all diameters and 
adjustments. It is made of finest cast iron 
and will wear indefinitely. It will soon de- 
velop a mirror-like polish and it can always 
be kept tight against the cylinder walls, with 
the correct tolerance. 

This revolutionary new plug piston is 
especially adapted for super heat and high 
steam pressure. 

Write us for further information. 



The AMERICAN SHIP BUILDING CO. 



L. E. CAVERLY COMPANY. Sales Agents 

315 Avalon Blvd. 
WILMINGTON, CALIFORNIA 



PPCIFIC mflRinE REVIEW 



VOLUME XXXII 



MAY, 1935 



NUMBER 5 



Editorial 
Comment »« »« 



Direct Subsidy 
Legislation 



Pursuant to the suggestions in President Roose- 
velt's message on the merchant marine, identical di- 
rect subsidy bills were introduced into both houses 
of Congress on April 15. Senator Royal S. Cope- 
land of New York, chairman of the Senate Commit- 
tee on Commerce, and Representative Otis Bland of 
Virginia, chairman of the House Committee on Mer- 
chant Marine and Fisheries, were sponsors of these 
biUs. 

This proposed legislation carries out the recom- 
mendations of the President and his interdepart- 
mental committee. It contemplates direct subsidy in 
three forms: 

(1) Ship construction subsidy, under which the 
federal government would absorb the difference be- 
t\\'een construction costs in American yards and in 
foreign yards: 

(2) Ship operation subsidy under which the fed- 
eral government would pay to the American ship- 
owner the difference between American operating 
cost and foreign operating cost: and 

(3) Trade promotional subsidy under which the 
federal government would help the American ship- 
owner develop new trade routes where deemed 
advisable. 

A United States Maritime Authority would be 
set up, composed of five members, not more than 
one of whom can come from the same state, not 

•I A Y . 19 3 5 



more than three from the samie political party, and 
none of whom can be an employee or a stockholder 
of a common carrier. Chosen by the President with 
the approval of the Senate, they would serve stag- 
gered terms up to seven years, and each would re- 
ceive $12,000 a year salary. 

This authority would determine subsidies to be 
paid, would study all maritime problems, would pass 
on applications for aid in building ships, would re- 
view existing mail contracts and readjust them if 
possible, or recommend cancellation or modification 
to the President, would select the lines and vessels 
for carrying mail on routes certified to them by the 
Postmaster General, whereupon that official would 
negotiate 20-year mail contracts with these lines un- 
der present law, would contract with operators for 
the establishment of new trade routes under the trade 
promotion subsidy, and would set up with the In- 
terstate Commerce Commission a Joint Transporta- 
tion Board with two representatives of each body sit- 
ting under the Secretary of Commerce as chairman 
and referee. This board would make recommenda- 
tions to both bodies in matters affecting the inter- 
relationship of rail and water transportation. 

The ship construction subsidy contemplated 
would be a direct payment to the shipbuilder of the 
difference in building costs as determined by the 
Authority. Provision is made also for loans to the 
shipouTier to help in building new ships. We assume 
since no other provision is made for funds, that the 
Authority will take over the Shipping Board Con- 
struction Loan Fund. 

Along with this Authority it is proposed to create 
a special maritime assistant to the Secretary of Com- 
merce. All maritime affairs not delegated to the 
Maritime Authority would be under the control of 
this Secretary. 



Another Legislative 
Backbreaking Straw 

In their wild scramble for revenue, our state 
and federal law-making bodies are imposing many 
cancerous excrescences on the already over-burdened 
tax structure, which is slowly but surely squeezing 



133 



the life out of business. Many of these alleged rev- 
enue producing laws are so simple and so innocuous 
that in their inception, like their physiological pro- 
totype, they start with simply a very mild local irri- 
tation which is ignored by the victim until some 
fine day an examination by a specialist reveals the 
deadly cancer that has strangled the functioning of 
some vital organ. 

H.R. 5268 is an excellent example of this type of 
revenue grabbing. This measure, introduced by Con- 
gressman Lloyd of Washington, is complete in three 
short paragraphs — 120 words — as follows: 

"That section 617 of the Revenue Act of 1932, 
entitled 'An Act to provide revenue, equalize taxa- 
tion, and for other purposes,' approved June 6, 1932, 
as amended and supplemented, is amended by adding 
at the end thereof the following new provision: 

" 'Effective as of the day following the date of 
the enactment of this Act, there is hereby imposed 
on fuel oil sold by the importer thereof or by a pro- 
ducer of fuel oil a tax of one-half cent per gallon; 

" 'And effective as of the day following the date 
of the enactment of this Act, there is imposed on 
Diesel oil sold by the importer thereof or by a pro- 
ducer of Diesel oil, a tax of one-half cent per gal- 
lon.' " 

Today, American Atlantic coast spot bunker 
price for fuel oil is $1.1? per barrel. There are 42 
gallons to a barrel, therefore a y2-cent-per-gallon tax 
would add 21 cents to the price, making it $1.36 a 
barrel. Western European ports are selling bunker 
oils at less than $1.20 a barrel, and are not at all de- 
pendent on the United States of America for their 
supply. The result of imposing this tax would in- 
evitably be the loss of bunkering business to the oil 
producers and distributors of the U.S.A. 

Intercoastal steamers could arrange for bunkers at 
Mexican or other foreign ports. In fact, it might 
easily be demonstrated that the passage of this 
measure would ultimately result in a loss of total net 
revenue to the federal government; the loss of a large 
and lucrative bunkering business; the loss of a num- 
ber of jobs to American citi2,ens; a loss of consider- 
able tanker tonnage to the American flag; and a very 
heavy handicap to our already over-burdened do- 
mestic transportation systems, including rail, water, 
bus and truck — all this encompassed in one-hundred 
and twenty very simple and innocent-seeming words. 



Save the 
Sardines 

The California sardine industry, one of the largest 
in the state, both in payroll and in revenue, is threat- 
ened with extinction. Floating reduction plants man- 
ufacturing fish meals, fish oils, and fish fertili2;ers, 
are operating outside the three-mile limit with no 
regard to the rules of the game and paying no state 



license or tax. 

These plants run at full tonnage capacity, buying 
the fish from flocks of small boats, and so great has 
been the profit, that a large number of floating re- 
duction plants are now either under construction or 
planned. 

If allowed to run unregulated, these plants will 
soon destroy utterly the California sardine industry 
by sweeping the ocean clean of this splendid fish 
food. 

The California State Department of Natural Re- 
sources, Division of Fish and Game, is now trying at 
Sacramento to push through proper legislation to 
bring these plants under state control. The selfish in- 
terests concerned are, of course, lobbying to prevent 
the passage of this legislation. Every right-minded 
citi2;en should back up this effort to save the sardines 
and preserve the legitimate sardine canning and re- 
duction industry as one of California's great com- 
mercial assets. 



Bar Pilots 

Whenever one gets into a reminiscent mood, one 
is very apt to be rather careless on such prosaic mat- 
ters as facts, figures, punctuation, and spelling. Since 
last month's issue of Pacific Marine Review was al- 
most eighty per cent reminiscence, it is but natural 
that we should now have to make some corrections. 

First, as to the hst of active San Francisco Bar 
Pilots — when one is reminiscing about that splendid 
body of men, and the list before one contains the 
name Freeman, it is only natural to assume such a 
list to be correct, as the name Freeman appeared on 
lists of San Francisco Bar Pilots almost continuously 
for 53 years — Captain Eugene Freeman having serv- 
ed for 35 years, and Captain E. G. Freeman for 18 
years. However, Captain E. F. Freeman resigned in 
1933, and Captain A. T. Hunter was appointed to 
fill the vacancy. Captain Hunter's name should have 
appeared, therefore, in our list of active pilots. 

Second, the pilot boat with the number 1 5 on her 
sail is not the Gracie S. as listed in our caption, but 
the Adventuress. We 
apologize to our friends 
— the San Francisco Bar 
Pilots — for these errors, 
and thank Captain H. 
W. Lewis, office mana- 
ger of that organization, 
for calling them to our 
attention. 



Capt. A. T. Hunter. 




1.^4 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Do Not Destroy or 

Cripple the Spending Power 
of Pacific Coast Shipping 



It is Estimated that Intercoastal and 
Coastwise Shipping, Directly and In- 
directly, Spend Sixty Million Dollars 
a Year in Pacific Coast Ports 



House Bill 3263, introduced by Represen- 
tative Pettengill, and popularly known as the Petten- 
gill Bill, seeks to repeal the long and short haul clause 
of section four of the Interstate Commerce Act. This 
long and short haul clause, as at present worded and 
enforced, prohibits the railroads of the United States 
i from charging more for a short haul than for a long 
' haul except in special cases after investigation by, 
and with the consent of, the Interstate Commerce 
; Commission. 

I It is highly significant that all American interstate 
! steamship lines are completely agreed as to the final 
I effect of this legislation if, and when, passed. This 
unanimity is due to the long experience of coastwise 
and intercoastal shipowners with unrestrained rail 
competition. Most of them have been in the business 
long enough to have known battles of former years. 
Never again, if they can possibly prevent it, will the 
• coastwise and intercoastal shipping of America be 
; thrown into the arena in a catch as catch can battle 
I for life with the railroads. They know that the in- 
' evitable effect would be to destroy water competi- 
tion entirely. This effect would be brought about 
in two stages — first, drastic steamer sen.'ice curtail- 
ment; second, cumulative destruction of liner and 
i freighter services. 

' A brief sketch of the history of rail competition is 

.illuminating. Remember that prior to 1869, when 

' the first trans-continental rail route was completed, 

the Pacific coast was served by steamer route via 

Isthmus of Panama (the old Pacific Mail route) and 

by sailing ships round the Horn. The railroad was 

'coming to a Pacific coast market already sen.'ed by 

I shipping. 

] A Y, 1935 



IF PETTENGILL BILL OR 
SIMILAR LEGISLATION PASSES 

Then inescapably we will have these results: 

Lacking the protection afforded by either the 
Panama Canal Act or the present Fourth Sec- 
tion, the water carriers would again be driven 
out by their more powerful rail competitors. 

Based on past e.xperience. relatively very 
high rates would be maintained at intermediate 
points during the elimination process, to pro- 
vide revenues, without which the railroads 
would find it extremely difficult to conduct a 
fight to the finish. 

Acute public dissatisfaction would first mani- 
fest itself at points in the interior, but it would 
not be confined there. 

Investments in harbor terminal facilities 
would be seriously impaired and ta.xpayers' bur- 
dens would increase. Investments in ship repair 
yards, local bay and river craft and drayage 
companies would be undermined. 

Ship and shore payrolls and ships' purchases 
would shrink and all classes of merchants would 
be affected. 

Shipping company bankruptcies would be 
far-reaching in their effect in a shipping and 
cosmopolitan center like San Francisco, and 
other Pacific Coast ports. 

With the intercoastal and coastwise water 
carriers driven out rates along the coast and be- 
tween all intercoastal ports would be advanced 
to levels far above the present level of water 
rates. 

If we are to profit by experience, we must 
rise up quickly and defeat this latest attempt to 
turn the hands of the clock back. 



When the early transcontinental lines were com- 
pleted contracts were forced upon shippers and con- 
signees by the payment of large rebates by rail. Dis- 



135 



RESOLUTION AGAINST THE REPEAL 
OR MODIFICATION OF FOURTH SEC- 
TION. INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT. 



By 
The Associated Interstate Water Carriers. 



WHEREAS, the original Fourth Section 
Legislation was first enacted due to an insistent 
demand by an aroused public because of rail- 
road discrimination as between communities, 
individuals, commodities and competing water 
carriers. 

WHEREAS, early rail competition prac- 
tically eliminated competing carriers by charg- 
ing less for long than for short hauls. 

WHEREAS, intermediate non-competitive 
points suffered greatly by very high rates. 

WHEREAS, each succeeding amendment, 
again by insistent public agitation, was designed 
to strengthen the long and short haul clause of 
Section Four of the Interstate Commerce Act. 

WHEREAS, Congress mandated by the 
1920 Transportation Act that it was the inten- 
tion of Congress to "foster and preserve in full 
vigor both rail and water transportation." 

WHEREAS, the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission has shown a tendency of continual pro- 
gressive leniency in enforcing the "reasonably 
compensatory" feature of the clause. 

WHEREAS, any modification of the present 
Act undoubtedly will adversely affect our busi- 
ness, community and shipping by water. 

BE IT RESOLVED, that we earnestly pro- 
test against and oppose any such legislation as 
proposed under: 

The Pettengill Bill— H.R. 3263. 
The Rayburn Bill— H.R. 5362. 
The Dirksen Bill— H.R. 3610. 



crimination was practised against any shipper who 
used water shipment. 

In 1871, two years after the completion of the 
Transcontinental Rail Route, the Union Pacific and 
Central Pacific bought up the space of the Pacific 
Mail Line ships, so as to minimi2;e Panama Rail Route 
competition. Ten years later the Transcontinental 
Association took over this arrangement and con' 
ducted it until 1893, or a total of twentythree years. 

In 1883, the Southern Pacific entered the field and 
dominated shipments between Pacific and Atlantic 
coasts via the Gulf. The rates were as low as 25c per 
hundred pounds to eliminate potential water compc 
tition via Panama Route. Between 1885-1891 this 
line handled 75 to 90 per cent of traffic between 



Atlantic and Pacific seaboards. The balance moved 
by rail. 

In 1885 the Santa Fe began operation. They and 
the Union Pacific started "Market competition" by 
quoting the same low rates between Chicago and the 
Pacific Coast that the Southern Pacific quoted be 
tween New York and the Pacific Coast. This was 
water terminal competition with only railroads in- 
volved. To recuperate losses made on long hauls the 
short haul non-competitive points were forced to pay 
unjustly high rates. 

Public wrath and agitation forced Congress to 
enact the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887. Section 
two of this act is the EngHsh "equality clause." For 
the same services all persons are to have the same 
rate. Section three provided that no undue or un-; 
reasonable preference or advantages were to be given . 
any person, locality, or particular description of traf- 1 
fie. Section four was designed to eliminate discrimi- 
natory and unjust rail charges for a short as against 
a long haul over the same line in the same direction 
and from the same point of origin. Provision was. 
made for relief where there existed competition by 
water. Unfortunately in forbidding charging greater 
compensation for the shorter haul the words "under 
substantially similar circumstances and conditions" 
were used. The railroads held that circumstance*? and" 
conditions were always dissimilar, the Supreme 
Court upheld the roads and the clause was nullified. ■ 

Further agitation and public demand to adjust an 
intolerable situation forced Congress again to act.: 
Theodore Roosevelt had determined upon an Amer- 
ican Canal at Panama. An American Interstate car- 
riage by water was foreseen. So in 1910 the fatali 
words "under substantially similar circumstances 
and conditions" were repealed and Congress man-i 
dated that railroads might not charge more for short 



COORDINATION THE CURE 

"Because of . . . radical change in conditions, 
it seemed to the Coordinator that the time was 
ripe for a comprehensive survey of railroad op- 
eration, equipment, service and rate policies. 

"Summarizing the situation briefly, it has 
been or will be shown: 

That it is physically possible to reduce the 
costs of railroad operation very materially, if the 
railroads will coordinate various of their activi- 
ties and cooperate with each other more effec- 
tively." 

"A defect in the present permanent scheme 
of Federal regulation . . . relates to the waste . . • 
which exists in railroad operation, equipment, 
service rates, owing to the large number of sep- 
arate companies competitive with each other, 
and their failure to cooperate effectively." 

(Joseph B. Eastman.) 



1.36 



PACIFIC MARINE REVII 



O. C. CASTLE, Director of Car Pooling under 
the Federal Coordinator: 

States that in 1920, for every 100 loaded car 
miles there were 47.3 empty car miles. By 1933 
this had grown to 65 empty car miles to each 
100 loaded car miles. By car pooling it is esti- 
mated that railroads can eliminate two billion 
empty car miles per year, involving a yearly sav- 
ing of 100 million dollars. 

He states further that on the present rolling 
Stock of two million freight cars valued at three 
billion dollars the initial equipment cost is from 
25 per cent to 30 per cent higher than it should 
be; that a saving of one billion dollars could 
have been made by car pool ordering, instead 
of the present spasmodic individual line ordering 
of such equipment. 



han long hauls, except in special cases, after investi' 
[ation, and with the consent of the Commission. 

In August 1912, Congress passed the Panama 
C^nal Act. This act provided that no railroad may 
►wn, operate, or have any interest in any ship in in- 
crstate trades through the Panama Canal with 
ivhich the railroad does or may compete. 

This showed a determination of Congress that 
\merican privately owned and operated ships, free 
Tom railroad domination, were to be encouraged in 
he sea trades between American ports through the 
Panama Canal. Five hundred million dollars were 
t.xpended upon the Panama Canal. It was intended 
lOr use of American ships. The ships under the 
American flag in the Intercoastal trade pay the same 
iinount per ton in Panama Canal dues that is charged 
diy foreign ship transiting the Canal. 
; This act, undeniably of sound public policy, was 
igorously fought by the railroads because it effec- 
ively prevented railroad control from killing water 
bmpetition. 

The World War, with its demand for ships, pre- 
ented an immediate and extensive use of American 
^ips in intercoastal trade. 

Either through competition between railroads, or 
nrough an anticipation of potential water competi- 
ion the railroads continued low long haul and high 
port haul rates. Inland and inter-mountain terri' 
pries forced the Interstate Commerce Commission 
o take cognizance of the fact there was no water 
jompetition and rate changes were made. But this 
pmarkable statement emanated from the Commis- 

V. 

"When the water competition again be- 
comes sufficiently controlling in the judg- 
ment of the carriers to necessitate the re- 
duction of rates to, the Coast cities to a 
lower level than can reasonably be applied 

ikv, 1935 



at intermediate points, the carriers may 
bring the matter to our attention for such 
rehef as circumstances may justify." 

In view of the above, which was predicated upon 
the Commission's attitude that when Congress speci- 
fically prohibited the railroads from owning ships 
through the Canal they should have an offset by low 
water-competitive rates. Congress determined to set 
the Commission right and therefore in the 1920 
Transportation Act stated broadly: 

"It is hereby declared to be the policy of 
Congress to promote, encourage, and de- 
velop water transportation, ser\^ice and fa- 
cilities in connection with the commerce 
of the United States, and to foster and pre- 
serve in full vigor both rail and water 
transportation." 

Congress further emphasized this point by leaving 
the fourth section intact and adding that even when 
the Commission exercised its authority to allow a less 
charge for a longer distance to meet actual water 
competition, it must not authorize any charge "that 
is not reasonably compensatory for the service per- 
formed." 

In 1921 the railroads filed an application for 
fourth section relief. This was denied in 1922, ex- 
cept for a few unimportant eastbound commodities. 
In 1924 a similar application for relief was made. 
This was denied in 1926. In 1930 the Southern Pa- 
cific alone filed an application for relief. This was 
denied in March, 1932. This was re-argued and a re- 
hearing denied. 

In all these cases the Commission has found that 
the rates proposed have not been reasonably compen- 
satory. The railroads have repeatedly tried to have 
the Commission accept the theory that "reasonably 
compensatory" was equivalent to just "out of pocket 
cost." 

Failing this the latest move is to appeal to Con- 
gress to remove the policy stated above and repeal 
the Panama Canal Act prohibiting railroad owner- 
ship control, or interest in ships in interstate trade 
through the Panama Canal. 



DO WE WANT A RATE WAR? 

"We are convinced that passage of any of 
these three measures (Pettengill Bill HR 3263, 
Dirksen Bill HR 3610, Rayburn Bill HR 5362) 
would make it possible for the western trans- 
continental railroads to return to the discrimina- 
tory freight rate structure that e.xisted prior to 
March 15, 1918, in order to try to carry on a 
rate war against the intercoastal steamship 
lines." 

(Intermediate Rate Association.) 



137 



THE COORDINATOR KNOWS 
"... If the railroads were permitted to make 
competitive rates without restraint and regard- 
less of the level maintained at intermediate non- 
competitive points, they probably could drive 
the water lines out of business again." 

(Joseph B. Eastman.) 



And now at last come the Pettengill Bill, the Ray 
bum Bill, the Dirksen Bill, and similar legislation, 
all threatening to nullify or to repeal the fourth sec- 
tion long and short haul clause. 

One of the closest observers of American railways 
and of their history is Transportation Coordinator 
Joseph B. Eastman, a former member of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. As a Commissioner, he 
made this statement (I.C.C. Report, Vol. 194, Page 
44): 
"The railroads in their early years, encountered 
stiff competition from many steamer lines ply- 
ing upon these waters and they proceeded to 
meet this competition ruthlessly. Eventually 
they swept the waters clean of the competing 
craft except on ocean and on the gulf. . . . 
"This was done by cutting rates where the com- 
petition existed to whatever extent was neces- 
sary to paralyze it and at the same time, main- 
tain rates at a very high level elsewhere. The 
steamboats did not have this reservoir of non- 
competitive traffic to help them out and hence 
perished in the unequal struggle. . . . 
"The theory upon which the railroad drove out 




water competition by these low rates was a 
simple, but as I see it, a dangerous theory. . . . 
They went out frankly to cut the throats of 
their water competitors and they made the rates 
whatever was necessary for this purpose. 

"The return of competition has so alarmed the 
railroads that they are clearly ready to go back 
to the old policy of rate cutting and have made 
several moves in that direction in which that, 
under consideration, is one. If they continue in 
this policy unchecked, I have little doubt that 
they will cripple their water competitors as they 
were crippled in days gone by." 
The United States Supreme Court gave an adverse 
ruling against the Interstate Commerce Commission 
on the long and short haul clause in 1897. This is 
what Mr. Eastman says about it: 

"As an immediate consequence of the Supreme 
Court's decision, numerous new schedules were filed 
with the Commission, especially for western terri- 
tory, advancing the rates to intermediate points." 

"Very low rates were maintained by the railroads 
at water-competitive points, and relatively very high 
rates at intermediate points which did not enjoy this 
competition. The competitive rates were often at a 
level which would have driven the railroads into 
bankruptcy, if it had been necessary to establish 
similar rates on all their traffic." 

"After the changes in Section 4 and because of 
the disappearance of the water hnes, the Commission 
gradually compelled a revision of the rates. However, 
if the railroads were permitted to make competitive 
rates, without restraint and regardless of the level 
maintained at intermediate, non-competitive points, 
they probably could drive the water lines out of busi- 
ness again." 



REVISE THE STRUCTURE 
"If a railroad cannot earn enough to support 
its capital structure, the remedy is not to raise 
rates. It is to revise the structure." 

(U.S. Chamber of Commerce.) 



Are we to use these great locks for lilly ponds? 



In a recent speech before the Pacific Traffic As- 
sociation at San Francisco, Joseph J. Geary, after a 
masterly review of the history of the "long and short 
haul" clause, closed his remarks with a very effective 
consideration of the railroad position as follows: 

"Perhaps it would be advisable to consider some 
of the contentions advanced by the rail lines in sup- 
port of the proposal to so drastically amend the 
Fourth Section of the Interstate Commerce Act. 

"Particularly, they strenuously insist that any 
rates published by them will be subject to the provi- 
sions of Sections One, and Three, of the Act. 

"Superficially, this is true. 



138 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEV 



MODIFICATION IS REPEAL 

"The railroads propose to amend Section 4, of 
the Interstate Commerce Act, by restoring it to 
practically the form which it had when first en- 
acted in 1887. 

"It will be clear from what has been said that 
the restoration to Section 4 of the words 'under 
substantially similar circumstances and condi- 
tions' as now proposed, would make the section 
as 'inefficacious' .... as it was prior to the 
Mann-Elkins Act. 

(Joseph B. Eastman.) 

"Past experience has proven that a modifica- 
tion is, in effect, outright repeal." 

(Utah Citizens Rate Association.) 



"Actually, it is fallacious. 

"If a complaint is filed under Section One that the 
rates are 'unjust' or 'unreasonable' and likewise, if 
a complaint is filed under Section Three, stating that 
the rates are such that an 'undue or unreasonable 
preference' is granted, or that 'undue discrimina' 
tion' results, then — if the proposed law is enacted 
— the party complaining must justify the allegations 
made by him. In brief, the complainant has the bur- 
den of the proof of sustaining his complaint. The 
result of this situation would be, therefore, that a 
shipper, seeking to attack these rates, would be re- 
quired to show that they were 'unreasonable or un- 
just or discriminatory.' If the shipper failed in this 
respect, the complaint could be dismissed, owing to 
the shipper's inability to establish his position. 

"In the present Fourth Section hearings, the rail- 
road lines are required to assume the burden of justi- 
fying their rates. By contending that Sections One 
and Three are adequate, they seek to pass on to ship- 
pers, or other complaining parties, a burden which 
is almost impossible for them to sustain. 

"Again, it is contended by the rail hne's represen- 
tatives that the proposed amendments to the Fourth 
Section will permit increase in traffic and result in 
gainful employment to more railroad men. There is 
; no quarrel with the advisability of putting men to 
i work, but where is any gain to be accomplished if 
, you put an additional brakeman on a railroad train, 
when, by the same action, you deprive a sailor em- 
', ployment on a ship? To what purpose can it be ad- 
i visable to put an engineer in the cab of a railroad 
' locomotive and by the same token deprive a master 
I of a steamer of his job? The significance of this is 
! all the more apparent when it is remembered that the 
competitive traffic, pursuant to which the Transcon- 
tinental Lines seek to accomplish this, is less than one 
per cent of the total volume of merchandise carried. 
"Is it not an anomalous situation when the Trans- 
continental Railroad Lines appear before the In- 

lAY, 1935 



terstate Ck^mmerce Commission, seeking with one 
hand the right for a general increase in their rates 
and with the other hand seeking the privilege in a 
Fourth Section case to reduce their rates so as to take 
traffic from a steamer line competitor? Furthermore, 
does not this reach the height of the ridiculousness 
when you find the rail Hnes, with both hands, seek- 
ing loans from the Reconstruction Finance Corpora- 
tion so that they may be able to pay some of their 
outstanding indebtedness? 

"Someone high in the official circles of the rail 
lines has, in substance, stated: 'When we get 
through you can use the Panama Canal for a Lily 
Pond.' It may suit the selfish purpose of the rail 
lines, but it is not in accord with the policy of this 
country, nor is it to the best interests of the general 
shipping public, that the steamer line competitors 
are, in the language of Mr. Eastman, 'to have their 
throats cut by the railroad lines.' 

"It is in this competition that the very safety of 
the shipping public Ues. It is in this competition that 
you find the leavening process which promotes and 
encourages service furnished by these two transpor- 
tation mediums and which has so materially acted 
beneficially to shippers. Destroy that competition 
and you create a monopoly. Create a monopoly and 
the ultimate bill for that gesture will be paid by the 
shippers. The general shipping public needs the 
steamer line competition. It is the equalizing force 
which prevents shippers being made the victims of 
rates which might otherwise ruin industries. The 
proposed legislation is vicious in the extreme and 
shippers should not be deluded by an preconceived 
ideas that they are going to get lower rates perman- 
ently." 



A GOOD SUGGESTION 

"So far as water transportation is concerned, 
you know what happened in the past, when the 
railroads had a free hand and swept the inland 
waterways practically free of competing craft. 
In an open fight, without let or hindrance, the 
advantage lies with the form of transportation 
which has the largest reserves of traffic upon 
which other transportation agencies cannot en- 
croach. And with all the competition by which 
they are beset, the railroads still have the edge 
in that respect. In that connection. I suggest 
that you who have the interest of water trans- 
portation at heart may well keep an eye on the 
attempts which are being made to wipe out the 
Fourth Section of the Interstate Commerce Act. 
I venture this suggestion lest there be a repeti- 
tion of our early experience with destructive 
competition." 

(Joseph B. Eastman.) 



139 



Subsidy or Contract, 
Let's Get Busy 



r 



'N HIS long awaited 
_nierchant marine 
message, as reproduced in the March 
issue of Pacific Marine Review, 
President Roosevelt maintains that 
"the lending of money for shipbuild- 
ing has in practice been a failure. 
Few ships have been built and many 
difficulties have arisen over repay- 
ment of the loans. Similar difficul- 
ties have attended the granting of 
ocean mail contracts. The Govern- 
ment today is paying annually about 
$30,000,000 for the canning of mails 
which would cost, under normal, 
ocean rates, only $3,000,000. The dif- 
ference. $27,000,000, is a subsidy, 
and nothing but a subsidy. But given 
under this disguised form it is an 
unsatisfactory and not an honest 
way of providing the aid that Gov- 
ernment ought to give shipping. 

"I propose that we end this subter- 
fuge. If the Congress decides that it 
will maintain a reasonably adequate 
American merchant marine, I believe 
that it can well afford honestly to 
call a subsidy by its right name. 

"Approached in this way, a sub- 
sidy amounts to a comparatively 
simple thing. It must be based upon 
providing for American shipping 
Government aid to make up the dif- 
ferential between American and for- 
eign shipping costs. It should cover 
first the difference in the cost of 
building ships; second, the diffei-- 
ence in the cost of operating ships, 
and, finally, it should take into con- 
sideration the liberal subsidies that 
many foreign governments provide 
for their shipping. Only by meeting 
this threefold differential can we ex- 
pect to maintain a reasonable place 
in ocean commerce for ships flying 
the American Flag, and at the same 
time maintain American standards. 

"In setting up adequate provisions 
for subsidies for American shipping 
the Congress should provide for the 
termination of existing ocean mail 
contracts as rapidly as possible, and 
it should terminate the practice of 
lending Government money for ship 
building. 

"It should provide annual appro- 
riations for subsidies sufficiently 
large to cover the differentials that 
I have described." 

However much one may differ 



from the President's conclusions on 
shipbuilding loans, and ocean mail 
contracts, no one who desires to 
maintain an adequate American mer- 
chant marine can quai-rel with his 
proposed subsidy program. 

Any method of government aid 
that for American flag ships will 
cover: 

(1) An equalization of shipbuild- 
ing cost; 

(2) An equalization of operating 
cost; and 

(.3) An equalization of subsidy as 
compared with his foreign competi- 
tors on any particular trade route, 
would certainly be welcomed with 
open arms by the American ship- 
owner. 

In order to keep pace with the 
commercial need for new and effici- 
ent steam and motor tonnage, and at 
the same time to build up an ade- 
quate auxiliary fleet, suitable to 
serve the needs of the army and navy 
in time of emergency, it will be nec- 
essary to build in American ship- 
yards not less than 250,000 gross tons 
per year for the next five years, and 
annually thereafter at least 150,000 
tons per year. The 250,000 gross tons 
for five years is based on tanker re- 
quirements as indicated by the navy 
department plus the 150,000 tons per 
year now needed for replacements in 
ovei-seas general trade tonnage. 

The coastwise and intercoastal 
tonnage needs as much or more re- 
placement tonnage. Under any ade- 
quate system of rate regulation as- 
suring stable and sufficient rates, 
the coastwise and intercoastal car- 
riers should and will take care of 
their own replacements without gov- 
ernment aid. 

(Page 137 please, top of 1st column) 



November, 1!)05 
The new Ciinard turbine steam- 
er Carmania, of 20,000 tons, a 
si.ster ship to tiie Caronia, is an- 
nounced to sail from Ijiveri><)ol 
for New York on .Saturday, Dec- 
ember 2. She is the larRest turbine 
steamer yet built, but tliis distinc- 
tion will only rest with her until 
the two leviathan turbine steam- 
ers are completed which are at 
present beint; built on the Clyde 
and the Tjiie lor the .same com- 
pany. 



September, 1905 
Pacific Coast Differential 

Mr. Frank W. Hibbs, assistant gen- 
eral manager of the Moran Brothers 
Company, shipbuilders, Seattle, read 
a very instructive and able paper on 
this subject before the trans-Missis- 
sippi Congress, which convened at 
Portland last month, and which 
unanimously adopted a resolution 
urging upon Congress the restora- 
tion of a 4 per cent differential in 
naval construction in favor of Paci- 
fic Coast shipyards to enable them to 
compete upon an equal basis with 
Eastern shipbuilders and in regard 
to whom they are now most unfavor- 
ably situated by reason of the great > 
distance over which steel and other • 
material of construction has to be 
transported to the Pacific Coast. 

Mr. Hibbs' paper, with a copy of 
which he has kindly furnished us, 
contains much data, and deals with 
this subject from several new and 
striking aspects. We shall publish his i 
paper in extenso next month, and i 
meanwhile we publish the conclu- 1 
sions reached by its gifted author 
and as presented to the convention, :' 
as follows : 

"First: There are two shipyards on 
the Pacific Coast that have been 
established and equipped at great 
expense for handling the largest 
and highest-class of naval work; ' 
"Second: The existence of these- 
yards is a definite practical ad-i 
vantage to the government from a 
military point of view; and to the 
people of the Western States, from 
a business point of view; 
"Third: In the present condition of 
the merchant marine, their exist- 
ence depends to a great extent 
upon the possibility of securing 
additional government work; 
"Fourth: Wthout the assistance of 
the '4-per cent differential', so 
called and described herein, there 
is no possibility of their securing 
such work in competition with 
Eastern yards ; 
"Fifth : It has been demonstrated re- 
peatedly by the bids submitted for 
naval work in the last two years, 
that they would have secured such 
contracts if the above named pro- 
visions had been made by Con- 
gress ; ; 
"Sixth: The '4-percent differential 
in favor of Pacific Coast ports ir 
the building of naval vessels i 
therefore a necessity." 



140 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW' 



Let's Get Busy 

(Continued from Page 136) 
In this connection, it should be 
ident to any thinking citizen that 
ther from local, state, or national 
ivernment viewpoint, the payroll 
cident to a shipbuilding program 
a very desirable asset in civic 
onomy. Any government action 
iat would make capital for ship- 
bilding available at low rates of in- 
irest and with adequate security, 
juld be very beneficial to any local 
immunity, and to the state and na- 
)n. 

To have the plants of Bethlehem 
aipbuilding at San Francisco, 
joore Dry Dock Company at Oak- 
ind, and General Engineering Com- 
ny at Oakland and Alameda busy 
er an extended period at even fifty 
r cent of their capacity in build- 
|g new ships would mean far more 
I those communities, and to the 
iate and the nation, in stable pros- 
?rity, than will the proposed 
'orld's Fair in 1938, or even the 
•mpletion of the bridges which that 
.■fair will celebrate. 
Yet the cost of making such a pay- 
ill possible might be much less to 
Je community than the cost of the 
;"oposed exposition. 
I The same reasoning applies to Los 
Tigeles, Portland, or any other city 
^th actual shipbuilding plants 
i'ailable. There would seem to be 
any good reasons for extending 
ty or state credit to make posible 
wer interest rates for enterprises 
isuring large local payroll, particu- 
rly in these times when that credit 
j threatened by its extension to cov- 
f huge bond issues for relief work 
ade mandatory by lack of payroll. 




Four-masted barque Parma 

(From a water color by Capt. E. Francke) 



Japan's Merchant 

Shipbuilding 

Industry 

The past year was a very favor- 
able period for Japanese merchant 
shipbuilding, according to a recent 
report to the Commerce Department 
from its Tokyo office. 

Merchant ships under construction 
at the close of November amounted 
to 146,379 tons, as compared with 
145,668 tons at the end of November, 
1933. Vessels of over 100 tons dead- 



weight completed during the first 
ten months of 1934 numbered 121 
with a tonnage of 102,598, against 
52 vessels of 49,997 tons in the cor- 
responding period of 1933. 

The shipyard capacity in Japan is 
about 600,000 tons of merchant ma- 
rine per annum, which is substantial- 
ly more than actual construction, a 
situation which makes it difficult 
for the shipbuilding industry to 
show a substantial profit. However, 
the year under review, with its aug- 
mented demand for ships under the 
Government's subsidy, was much 
more favorable for shipyards than 
the preceding year, as indicated by 
increased profits and dividends 
paid. Contrary to the seemingly com- 
mon view held abroad that ship- 
building in Japan is cheap, the re- 
port points out that construction 
costs are relatively high. This is one 
reason why Japanese shipyards are 
forced to depend entirely on domes- 
tic demand, and so far have been un- 
able to compete in world markets for 
foreign orders. 

Merchant marine construction un- 
der the Ship Improvement Law was 
practically completed by the end of 
1934. for a total of 94 vessels aggre- 
gating 399,124 tons had been scrap- 
ped and 31 new vessels totalling 199,- 
000 tons had been either wholly com- 
pleted or were nearing completion. 
Of the new ships, 17 had actually 
been completed and placed in service 
and 14 were under construction. 

Japan by scrapping such a large 
tonnage and building 31 new ships 
has in a very effective manner got- 
ten rid of antiquated vessels and 
at the same time provided herself 
with a fast, efficient and up-to-date 
merchant marine. 





Empress of Britain. ^^60 feel long, 42,348 gross tons. 

60.000 shaft horse power. 24 knots sea speed, largest 

and finest of the Canadian Pacific fleet, is calling at 

San Francisco May 2. 




141 



Editorial Correspondence 



Corrosion Resisting Steel in U.S. Navy 



Sir: 

The article regarding corrosion re- 
sisting steel, appearing on page 78 of 
your March issue, gives the impres- 
sion of reflecting Navy experience 
and opinion exactly, and does not in- 
clude the reservation stated in "Met- 
al Progress," from which your article 
is reprinted, that "this article is not 
to be construed as official or reflect- 
ing the views of the Navy Depart- 
ment." As a matter of fact, neither 
your article nor the longer version in 
"Metal Progress." exactly reflects 
the conclusions reached by this Bu- 
reau as regards some details. To 
avoid permitting to remain the im- 
pression that the Bureau stands 
sponsor for all of the opinions cited, 
the following clarifying comments 
are offered. 

In paragraph 6 of the article, the 
impression is conveyed that "stag- 
nant sea or harbor water" induces 
rapid pitting and that "commercial 
18-8 is totally resistant to sea salt 
and sea water when moving vigor- 
ously and aerated." The Navy can- 
not judge to what extent stagnation 
has contributed to its failures. 
Flushing mains are taken off from 
the fire mains and flow is continu- 
ous in some portions of the flushing 
system. Therefore, there is always 
some flow in the fire mains. The fail- 
ure of corrosion resisting steel pip- 
ing was not confined to any particu- 
lar part of the salt water piping sys- 
tems, but appears to be general 
throughout the system, so that there 
is no reason for assuming that stag- 
nant sea or harbor waters are solely 
responsible. In this connection, at- 



tention is invited to the last part of 
paragraph 4 of this letter. 

Referring to paragraph 8: The pit- 
ting observed in the first gasoline 
stowage tanks that failed is not due 
to intergranular corrosion alone, but 
also to electrolytic cell corrosion. 
Subsequent tanks were not entirely 
free from intergranular corrosion, 
nor from the electrolytic cell corro- 
sion found in the first tanks. Furth- 
ermore, the carbon in no tanks now 
in service, or in tanks which have 
failed in service, went below .06 per 
cent, and considerable doubt exists 
as to their being "unusually clear of 
solid non-metallic inclusions." It is 
true that the locations of all pits 
"could not be correlated with welds, 
bends, or positions of the plate." The 
pits, however, showed a distinct pref- 
erence for welds and, when they oc- 
curred there, are considered to have 
been due to the existence of porosi- 
ties, causing oxygen concentration 
cells, or to inclusions in the weld 
metal. Numerous electrolytic corro- 
sion cells were in various stages of 
development away from the welds, 
some just forming and others of suf- 
ficient depth to form oxygen concen- 
tration cells. Whether the original 
galvanic corrosion in any one spot 
was due to inclusions, or to deposits 
producing oxygen concentration 
cells, is very difficult to determine. 
The former cause is suspected in 
most cases. 

It is noted in paragraph ten that 
the article states that intergranular 
corrosion has not been a factor in 
the early failures. Intergranular 
corrosion has been responsible in 



part, but failure from this cause can 
probably be avoided in the future 
by greater care in the selection 
of materials and by proper heat 
treatment, or by omitting heat treat- 
ment. Furthermore, the decision was 
made to abandon 18-8 until material 
can be produced which is not sus- 
ceptible to the conditions which 
brought about its recent failure in 
service, and not, as stated in the i 
article "until more accurate infor- ■ 
mation is available." Here again the I 
article infers that stagnant sea wa- 
ter causes pitting, whereas freely 
circulating and well aerated sea wa- 
ter does not. The accuracy of this 
statement has nowhere been mani- 
fested by the Bureau's examination 
of the material that failed. Further- 
more, it has been proved possible to 
induce electrolytic contact corrosion 
by simply attaching a particle of 
glass, rubber, sea shell or common 
dirt to a specimen of 18-8 and im- 
mersing it in a rapidly circulating 
and aerated electrolyte (salt water). 
In paragraph 14 the article lists a 
number of proposed trial installa- 
tions of various materials. All of 
those materials were at one time in- 
dicated as possible installations, but 
preliminary laboratory tests have 
since eliminated the two corrosion 
resisting steel alloys and monel met- 
al. The copper nickel allow (70-30) 
and rubber lined steel pipe have 
been retained in the proposed ser- 
vice tests. 

Respectfully yours, 
E. S. LAND, 
Chief of Bureau of 
Construction and Repair 
Rear Admiral, CC, USN. 








II 



142 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 




Propellers! 



3S 



<3iOLF 



Bill Eigle, John Stein. Charles 
Dilke, and George Lacey. 

To your right — Tom Crowley 
and Ed. Martin. 




CLAIIK 



(Above) 

Byron "Tote" Haviside. 
Harry T. Haviside. 
Roger D. Lapham. 
Lewis Lapham. 



% %. v-*^:si 



I -:rt 




%4 







9 1^ 




Capt. Kirk "Pat" Donovan. Frank 
De Pue, I. M. Quigley and 
C. M. "Dad" Le Count. 

John Parker, Lloyd Swayne, 
George Barry and Joe Geary. 



Photos: A. T. Milli 



Tom Forsler. John Greany, Char- 
ley Houghton and Vernon 
Showell. 

Stanley Sherwood. Ed Harms, 
Kent Dyson. 



The lone driver: Russell Haviside. 



Some of the contenders in the Spring Golf Tournament of the Propeller Club of California; at Menio Country 

Oub, April II. 



Army Engineers' Towboat, Coiner 

One of the Largest and Most Powerful Towboats Ever Placed 
in Service on Our Inland Waterways 



Embodying the latest marine en- 
gineering advances and typifying in 
every detail the most modern refine- 
ments in competent ship designing as 
applied to river towboats, the Coiner, 
recently completed for the U. S. En- 
gineers by The Marietta Manufactur- 
ing Company, of Point Pleasant, W. 
Va., was given her official trial run 
in the Ohio River, off the plant of 
the builders, on March 25th. 

With her trim, clean-cut appear- 
ance, and absence of smoke, this 
twin-screw, Diesel-powered vessel, 
made a striking appearance on her 
trial run, and met every test perfect- 
ly- 
Incorporated in the design of the 
Coiner are a number of novel fea- 
tures. Construction details follow: 

Length, molded 176 ft. 

Length overall 177 ft. 3% inches 

Breadth hull, molded 38 ft. 

Breadth overall 38 ft. gu inches 

Depth, molded 8 ft. 6 inches 

Draft 5 ft. 2 inches 

The hull is built of genuine wrought 
iron plate under the Rules of the 
American Bureau of Shipping. Lon- 
gitudinal bulkheads are provided the 
full length of hull 11 feet 6 inches 
from center line on port and star- 
board sides, and are oil-tight in way 
of oil bunkers, and water-tight from 
the aft to forward compartment. A 
number of water-tight transverse 
bulkheads are provided for the safe- 
ty of the vessel. A notable feature is 
the arrangement of main deck in en- 
gine room. The center bulkhead is 
carried the full depth of the hull 
clear through the engine room. The 
main deck also is extended the whole 
length of engine room, and openings 
are cut only to allow the main en- 
gines to protrude with margins to al- 
low for dismantling of the engines, 
and for removal of auxiliary machin- 
ery installed below deck. Removable 
subway gratings are fitted close to 
the engines. Access to lower engine 
room is aft of engines, with emer- 
gency exits at forward end of each 




U. S. Army Engineers' Winton diesel driven river tow boat, Coir 



engine. 

The main deck house is built of 
steel. The upper deck house and pilot 
house are of wood. 

The deck is covered throughout 
with Johns Manville asbestos roof- 
ing. 

An individual Venturi type tunnel 
is provided for each propeller with 
removable cover plates to facilitate 
propeller repairs without docking of 
the vessel. 

All compartments are fitted with 
individual ventilators concealed in 
the main deck house bulkheads. 
These ventilators are entirely of new 
design and prevent sweating. 

The galley is of modern design, 
and is equipped with two 4-foot 
Webb single oven, Diesel oil burning 
ranges, with panel tops. The mechan- 
ical oil burners are manufactured by 
the Ray Burner Corporation. 

A complete modern laundry, with 
all electric operated washing ma- 
chine, extractor, and ironing board 
with electric iron, is installed. 

Quarters for sixteen of the deck 
and galley crew are provided on the 
main deck aft, with toilets and show- 
ers adjoining. These quarters have 
excellent ventilation and light. Indi- 
vidual metal lockers are installed for 
each man. 

Quarters for the engine room crew, 
ai'e on the main deck just forward of 
the engine room. Oilers' and wipers' 
quarters, with showers and toilets 



between, are separated from the en- 
gineers' by a transverse passage- 
way. The chief engineer's room is 
fitted with individual shower and 
toilet. The remaining engineers' 
rooms are arranged with shower and 
toilet between each pair of rooms. 

A spacious lounge with modernis- 
tic furniture is located forward on 
the boat deck. A stairway leads di- 
rect to the pilot house from this 
lounge, for the convenience of the 
officers in inclement weather. Aft of 
this lounge starboard is the captain's 
room, and port the visiting officer's 
room, each of which is provided with 
private shower and toilet. Aft of 
these quarters and the stairway pas- 
sage-way, starboard is the radio op- 
erator's quarters and radio room, 
and port are two staterooms fitted 
for four pilots. Then port there is a 
stateroom for the mates, and star- 
board a toilet and shower room with 
three lavatories. The watchmen's 
stateroom is located aft of the 
mates' quarters. The laundrer's 
quarters and laundry, with spacious 
linen lockers and private bath, com- 
plete the quarters on this deck. A 
large screened deck space 24 feet by 
22 feet forms an extension to the 
rear of the cabin for use by the of- 
ficers. 

The pilot house is located on the 
hurricane deck immediately over the 
lounge, and is equipped with modern 
rudder controls, luminous helm indi- 



144 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



cators, ship telegraphs, engine speed 
indicators, signal and searchlight 
controls, speaking tubes to engine 
room and captain's quarters. 

A flying bridge of steel construc- 
tion is fitted port and starboard to 
the pilot house. 

Two 19-inch motorized search- 
lights are located on the forward 
corner of the hurricane deck port 
and starboard, and are controlled 
electrically for any position from the 
pilothouse. 

# Machinery 

The Marietta Manufacturing Com- 
pany selected Diesel engines manu- 
factured by the Winton Engine Cor- 
poration, Cleveland, Ohio as being 
the most suitable ones for this boat. 
The main engines are rated 650 
brake horsepower at 250 revolutions 
per minute directly reversible. On 
the test block these engines develop- 
ed 826 brake horsepower at 250 revo- 
lutions per minute, and could have 
done even better than that had the 
water breaks been able to absorb 
more horsepower. On similar engines 
the U. S. Engineers purchased for 
the sea-going Hopper Taylor the en- 
gines developed on the official test 
968 brake horsepower at 275 revolu- 
tions per minute. Extreme care was 
taken to calculate beforehand the 
torsional vibration. This is a custom- 
ary precaution with the U. S. Engin- 
eers on all of their installations. The 
result, therefore, is that the engines 
can be operated in their entire speed 
range with a complete absence of vi- 
bration. Each engine swings a 7-foot 
propeller of special design to give the 
boat the best possible towing quality. 
The thrust bearings were manufac- 
tured by the Kingsbury Company. In- 
stead of placing the thrust block 
next to the engine, the thrust is some 
17 feet away from the engine, so that 
only torque and no thrust is trans- 
mitted through the line shaft. The 
stern tubes and struts are provided 
with Goodrich rubber bearings. 
There are two Diesel generating sets, 
each having a capacity of 75 kilo- 
watts, operating at 750 revolutions 
per minute. To avoid vibration 6-cyl 
inder units were selected. For week- 
end service there is a 15 kilowatt 
Diesel generating set operating at 
600 revolutions per minute. All three 
generating sets were manufactured 
by the Winton Engine- Corporation. 
Each of above engines has attached 



lubricating oil pumps. The generat- 
ing set engines have also attached 
circulating water pump. 

By means of a specially designed 
control stand, mounted on the main 
deck between the main engines, one 
operator can easily operate both en- 
gines, reversing or regulating the 
speed of either engine independently 
or both simultaneously. In back of 
operating stand are all necessary 
gauges mounted in plain view of the 
operator. On each side of operating 
stand are the engine room tele- 
graphs. The Brown Pyrometer is 
mounted close by on the left of opei'- 
ating stand, within reach of the op- 
erator. This pyrometer serves both 
main engines. The Winton Engine 
Corporation is to be complimented 
for their spirit of cooperating in de- 
veloping this operating stand to the 
wishes of the Department. 

All diesel engines on this vessel 
are provided with vortex spark ar- 
restors, manufactured by the Engin- 
eering Specialties Company. Three 
of these units are installed in the 
port stack, and the other two, as well 
as the house boiler flue are mounted 
in the starboard stack. 

There are two automatically oper- 
ated centrifuges aboard, manufac- 
tured by the Sharpies Specialty Com- 
pany, both of the same capacity, rat- 
ed at 300 gallons per hour. One is to 
serve the lubricating oil system; the 
other is for the fuel oil system. There 
are two lubricating oil sump tanks. 
One will be in service, while the 
other can be used when desired to 
purify the oil in the system. The cen- 
trifuge wil be discharged to the emp- 
ty sump until half of the oil has 
been purified. The operator will then 
change his control valves so that the 
engines take oil from the purified oil 



sump and also discharge to this 
sump. The centrifuge, however, will 
still be supplied from the former 
sump until all the oil has been puri- 
fied. 

There is a 1200-gallon centrifuged 
fuel oil tank from which the 100-gal- 
lon service tank receives its purified 
fuel by means of attached service 
pumps on each engine. The service 
tank is full at all times, and over- 
flows any surplus fuel back to the 
1200-gallon tank. The attached pump 
on centrifuge takes it suction direct 
from one or both fuel oil bunkers 
built in the sides of the hull on port 
and starboard sides of after engine 
room. There is sufficient fuel bunker 
capacity to operate the vessel for 
three weeks without refueling. 

There is no attached air compres- 
sor on the engines, but instead there 
are two si.xty cubic foot compressors, 
manufactured by the Ingersoll-Rand 
Co. These compressors are automati- 
cally operated from push buttons 
mounted direct on each side of oper- 
ating stand on main deck. Sixteen 
starting air tanks provide ample air 
storage for maneuvering the engine. 
Two air mains each connected to 
eight air tanks lead to a common 
starting air line for the two propel- 
ling engines. Control valve exten- 
sions reach through the main deck 
to each side of the control stand. 
Normally, only one bank of air tanks 
is necessary to maneuver the vessel. 
Should it become necessary, however, 
the operator would close the active 
line where the presure had fallen, 
and open the fully charged bank. He 
can also operate the air compressors 
without leaving his operating stand. 

The low pressui'e air system re- 
ceiving its air through a reducing 

(Page 148 please) 




Working platform of the dredge Coiner is on main deck. Note heads of engines 
protruding through deck and neat control stand. 



MAY, 1935 



145 



. . . . The 

Beachcomber's Loot 

Flotsam and Jetsam, Seashells and Driftwood, 

Beche de Mer and Ambergris, Gathered 

Where Found and Here Put 

into Circulation 



Some Ships of Gold. In the heydey 
of American clipper ships it was nat- 
ural, since many of them were built 
especially for the voyage from the 
Atlantic coast 'round the Horn to 
the Golden Gate of the Golden State, 
that a goodly number should have 
been christened "golden." As a 
group, these clippers with the golden 
names seem to have been prone to 
unusual mishaps. 

Thus, the ship Golden Fleece (the 
first), on her second voyage, cleared 
from San Francisco for Manila on 
April 2, 1854, and while proceeding 
to sea next day was caught in an ed- 
dy and drifting onto Fort ?oint rocks 




Four masted bark Pamir. This water color 

sketch by Captain E. Francke, former editor 

Pacific Marine Review, has caught the lively 

grace and balance of the tall ships of sail. 



became a total loss. 

The clipper Golden Eagle was 
caught by the Confederate raider. 
S.S. Alabama, and burned at sea on 
Februai-y 21, 1863. 

In 1871 Golden Fleece (the sec- 
ond) sailed from Boston on July 1, 
with 1902 tons of ice for Bombay 
packed in sawdust and shavings. On 
July 4 at 3 a.m., the packing around 
the ice was found to be on fire, and 
"believe it or not" all efforts to ex- 
tinguish that fire were in vain. She 
put into Halifax. The hatches were 
uncaulked and opened. Streams 
of water from a steam engine were 
forced into the hold but all to no 
avail. She was then scuttled in twen- 
ty feet of water, and after a while 
the fire was apparently out. As soon 
as she was pumped diy the fire 
broke out again and she had to be 
pumped full of water once more. 
When the fire was actually out, after 
ten days of work, she was put back 
to Boston for a thorough overhaul. 
What became of the ice is not re- 
vealed by our source for this story. 

Several "golden" clippers were burn- 
ed at sea. Thus, the Golden Light, 
whose bow "cut-water as it rose, 
sprang outward and terminated in a 
torch staff grasped by a golden hand 
from which blazed a golden light," 
even she, with all her gold, was 
struck by lightning on her first voy- 
age. The crew could not control the 
resulting fire and had to abandon 
the ship in five boats. Three of the 
boats were picked up by a British 
ship. One landed at Antigua ten days 
after the fire, the other with eight 
men never being heard of again. 

The Golden Rocket was burned by 
the Confederate privateer, Sumter, 






■Jii<w'i$i 




-fe 



Two of our beachcomber staff, exploring th 
coast of French Indo-China. 

on July 13, 1861. 

The Golden Gate was burned to th( 
water's edge at Pernambuco, May 2( 
1856, the second officer being sua 
pected of setting the fire. 

Other famous "golden" clipper, 
were Golden State, Golden Rule 
Golden West, Golden Racer, Golde; 
City and Golden Horn. 



Tail Tale of the Shark. In 1897, th 
American ship, Watschnett, boum 
from Sydney to San Francisco witl 
coal near the Gilbert Islands in calr 
weather caught a huge shark. Say 
the narrator of this tale: "We land& 
him on deck and curiously he did nor 
play up as they usually do, but re' 
mained quiet. We rammed a capstai* 
bar into his jaw, cut his tail off, anJ 
proceeded to cut up his body. Ou 
came, one after another, little shark 
about fifteen inches long and stil 




146 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEV 



ive. The mate ordered me to kill 
em with a belaying pin. which I 
d. I counted 58. but when we turn- 
the shark around five more came 
t. making 63 in all." A German 
iman was telling the ston.- — hence 
» masculine pronoun. 



Harmony on the Seas. Chugging 
bund the northern coasts of Can- 
a in the service of the Hudson Bay 
mpany is an auxiliary barque of 
} tons gross register, named Har- 
iny. She is 150 feet. 8 inches long; 
feet. 4 inches beam; and 15 feet, 
nches deep. Built of teak and oak 

the Tay Shipbuilding Company, 
ndee, Scotland, in 1876, and chris- 
■led Lorna Doone. she has had 59 
4rs of rather romantic histor>-. In 
95 her engines and boilers — a com- 
und steam engine and two Scotch 
rine boilers were installed. 
rhis vessel was built for the India 
L trade, and later became a Dundee 
aler with a rather remarkable ap- 
jde for easy handling among ice 
.es. Then she was purchased by 
^ Moravian Church and Mission 
ency to use in servicing their mis- 
ns to the Eskimos along the bleak 
brador coast. There, for many 
irs, she was a familiar and wel- 
pe sight in the summer months as 
worked into the deep indenta- 

s of that wild coast, bringing 
k^rs and letters from home to fill 
t minds of the lonely missionaries, 
fl stores and supplies for their 
^ily comforts, and for their work. 
|W she is still nosing around the 
ptic, carrying stores and picking 
I furs for the Hudson Bay Com- 

y- 




From the painting "In 
Their Last Harbour. " 
by C. R. Panerson. 
Showing the four 
American barks, B. P. 
Cheney, Pactolies. St. 
Katherine, and Hecia 
in the tuJes at .\ntioch. 
California. 



¥ 




111 


" ~ "V 


jHl , 


^'^te 




fe 


mL 


"~~ ^gjJE 




x^ 


|X-g"T V •^IP'"' >V^ '" 


H^i 



For fifty-nine years this gallant 
barque has carried on her prow a 
very presentable figure of a young 
woman, reminiscent of Blackmore's 
famous heroine. That "Doone lass" 
has brought Harmony to all of the 
seven seas and nearly all the ports 
thereon, and she is still working. 



A Venerable Tramp. The Esthoni- 
ans. the Swedes, the Finns, and the 
Latts seem to have a penchant for 
owning and operating old tonnage in 
the Baltic-British firewood and tim- 
ber trades. 

An interesting example of this is 
the iron steamer N'emrac. now under 
Esthonian colors with Kasmu as her 
home port. Built as a four-masted 
barque in 1877 by Barclay. Curie & 
Co., Ltd., of Glasgow, she was chris- 
tened County of Inverness, under 
which name she was very well known 
in the India trade. Later she changed 
hands several times, becoming the 
Edna and then the Carmen. Under 
the latter name, she was a nitrate 
carrier under the French flag. In 
1920 she was bought by British in- 
terests and converted into a steamer. 
Her name. Carmen, was then twisted 
into Nemrac. About ten years ago 
she was sold to her present owners 
who consider her a good investment. 



looner. Star of Oregon, launched on Co- 
|bia River. 1841. First .Ajnerican ship built 
I in Pacific Northwest. 



More Sharks. A British seaman 
tells of steaming through an im- 
mense school of sharks in the Tas- 
man Sea. while crossing from Syd- 
ney to Wellington in the steamer Uli- 
maroa. Watching this sight from the 
forecastle head he says that for the 
space of an hour he counted an aver- 
age of five a minute from either 
bow. Most of these sharks were from 
15 to 25 feet long, and the steamer 



running twelve knots was two hours 
clearing the school. The sharks took 
not the slightest interest in the ship. 



The Pacific. There is one knows not 
what sweet mystery about this sea, 
whose gently awful stirrings seem to 
speak of some hidden soul beneath; 
like those fabled undulations of the 
Ephesian sod over the buried evan- 
gelist. St. John. And meet it is, that 
over these sea-pastures, wide-rolling 
watery prairies and Potter's Fields 
of all four continents, the waves 
should rise and fall, and ebb and 
flow unceasingly; for here, millions 
of mixed shades and shadows, drown- 
ed dreams, sonambulisms, reveries; 
all that we call lives and souls, lie 
dreaming, dreaming, still; tossed 
like slumberers in their beds; the 
ever-rolling waves but made so by 
their restlessness. 

To any meditative Magian rover, 
this serene Pacific once beheld must 
ever after be the sea of his adoption. 
It rolls the midmost waters of the 
world, the Indian Ocean and the At- 
lantic being but its arms. The same 
waves wash the moles of the new- 
built California towns, but yesterday 
planted by the recentest race of men, 
and lave the faded but still gorgeous 
skirts of Asiatic lands, older than 
Abraham; while all between float 
milky-ways of coral isles, and low- 
lying endless unknown archipelagoes 
and impenetrable Japans, Thus, this 
mysterious, divine Pacific zones the 
world's whole bulk about; makes all 
coasts one bay it to; seems the tide- 
beating heart of the earth. Lifted by 
those eternal swells, you needs must 
own the seductive god, bowing your 
head to Pan. 

Herman Melville, 1850. 



AY. 193 5 



147 



Improved Rubber Dock Fender 

By G. W. Selby 

President, Selby, Battersby & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 



For years, ship owners and cap- 
tains have dreamed of a practical 
rubber fender for boats docking 
against concrete and other solid 
dockages — the elimination of the hit 
and miss substitutes such as old tires 
and fire hose. 

A new fender has been perfected 
consisting of a hollow rubber tube 7 
inches outside diameter by 3 inches 
inside diameter, made in 10-foot 
lengths. 

These 10-foot sections were strung 
up on a 7/8-inch steel cable in pairs. 
A triangular steel plate is inserted 
between each pair and the cable at- 
tached to the two lower corners. The 
top of the triangular plate is sus- 
pended by cable to the dock rings. 

Naturally each installation must 
be altered to suit the condition. 

To protect the ends of each tube 
from cutting from the cable, an 18- 
inch piece of high grade hose is in- 



serted — one half goes into one tube 
and the rest into the second tube. 
This is also subject to some altera- 
tion due to any local conditions. 

Its installation is extremely 
simple. 

The hollow rubber tube rotates on 
the cable under the roll of the vessel 
as it unloads or loads. Further the 
whole system is semi-rigid allowing 
the rubber to give and readjust itself 
under the impacts of docking a ship. 

It is said that the fender exerts a 
force of IV2 tons per foot of length 
before the hollow section closes. A 
pressure of fifty tons per foot of 
length would be taken up by this 
fender without damage. 

These fenders are in use on large 
docks both on the Lakes and on the 
Sea Board. If interested in further 
facts, write the editor of this maga- 
zine. 



Metallic Stern Tube Packings 



The United States Rotary Packing 
for propeller shafts was developed 
by the United States Metallic Pack- 
ing Company, Limited, of England, 
and is sold in this country by The 
United States Metallic Packing 
Company of Philadelphia, Pa. United 
States Stern Tube packings have 
been in use on English vessels since 
their introduction fifteen years ago. 

The unit consists of an outside 
metallic packing that fits under the 
rope guard next to the propeller. An 
inside metallic packing is installed 
against the face of the present inside 
stuffing box. A gravity oil tank 
keeps the tube between the packings 
filled with oil and maintains a con- 
stant head pressure of oil in the 
tube. 

The complete outer packing is 
made of a metal that resists the cor- 
rosive action of sea water. All ex- 
posed parts of the inner packing are 
made of the same metal. 

With this installation there is no 
wear on the shaft, as the packing is 
clamped to the shaft and revolves 
with it. The rotating packing mem- 
bers bear against the stationary 



packing members. No stationary 
parts of the packing touch the shaft. 

The principal feature is that brass 
liners may be dispensed with; which 
eliminates the necessity for replace- 
ments. 

Lignum vitae, white metal, bronze, 
or cast iron bearings may be used 
provided proper attention is given to 
the oil supply to insure efficiently 
lubricated bearings. 

The packing will keep tight even 
if fitted on a shaft that is 3/16 inch 
below center. 

Corrosion of the shaft between 
packings is prevented. 

The Survey of the Board of Trade 
of England is extended to three 
years on vessels fitted with this 
packing. 

Unitt;d States Rotary Packings 
may be fitted to the outside only, in 
conjunction with the ordinary soft 
packing inside. However, it is pre- 
ferable to use metallic packing both 
inside and outside, as soft packing, 
in order to keep oil and water tight, 
creates friction, which is objection- 
able because of the power loss and 
resulting shaft wear and grooving. 



United States metallic packings 
need be examined only at survey 
times, as the shaft is then required 
be drawn and the packing should not 
require renewal at that time, but the 
springs should be examined and re- 
placed if necessary. 

Wear on the shaft and lignum 
vitae bushings when United States 
metallic packing is installed is re- 
duced because of the lubrication 
supplied. The lignum vitae probably 
would be found to be in quite good 
condition after three years with oil, 
lubrication. With efficient oil lubri- 
cation the shaft should run indefi- 
nitely without skimming. 



Towboat Coiner 

(Continued from Page 145) 

valve from the active air bank, fur-i 
nishes air: to blow out the sea- 
chests; to air tools in the engine 
room; to air motors for turning the, 
main engines when not in operation;' 
and to the "Typhoon" sound signal. ( 

In connection with the 15 kilowatt 
Diesel generating set, there is in- 
stalled a 56-cell Iron Clad Exide bat 
tery to furnish light when no engines 
are operated and the vesesl is tied tt 
the dock. 

Four Rynn stone filters are instal 
led complete with chlorinator, so that 
the vessel can make its own fresl 
water from river water in case 
necessity. 

A Crane boiler installed in the en 
gine room provides for heating thi 
vessel. All radiators used are the lat 
est copper fin type. These radiator;, 
require very little space, and only : 
fraction of weight compai-ed witl 
the old type cast iron radiators. 

A Baker refrigerating and ice mak 
ing plant is provided to manufactur 
125 pounds of ice in 24 hours, an" 
cool the vegetable and meat rooms 
This plant is entirely automatic, con 
trolled by thermostats. 

The electro-hydraulic steerin 
gear was furnished by the America 
Engineering Company. There ar 
two sets of forward rudders and tw 
after sets. The rudders are of th 
balanced type carried in ball bearin 
races. 

The vessel is equipped with a con 
plete radio outfit for sending and n 
ceiving. 



148 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Safe Floors for Ships' Galleys 



In all ship interiors it is 
ssential that the surface 
n which crew and pas- 
engers walk shall be non- 
lip under all service con- 
itions. This includes 
amp or wet conditions, 
illness and any angle of 
eel due to rolling or 
itching. 

These requirements are 
let fully by Norton Alun- 
um tile and Norton Alun- 
um stair and ladder 
•eads. 

Our illustrations show a 
?cent installation of Nor- 
m Alundum tile in the 
alley of the United States 
rmy engineers dredge, 
an Pablo. 

This material can now 
? secured in a wide range 
f attractive color combin- 
tions and in a number of 
iitable shapes and sizes. 
, is particularly adapted 
pr use in lavatories, 
flowers, bathrooms, swim- 
ming pools and on stairs 
pcause of its remarkable 
pnding affinity for Port- 
end cement. When prop- 
rly laid and allowed ade- 
[late time for setting, the bond is 
ractically as strong as the cement 

the tile. 

NortonAlundum tile is not affected 

salt water, by greases or by any of 
e acids except hydro-fluoric. It is 
aranteed for a period of ten years 
ainst replacement made necessary 

wear resulting from foot traffic. 

is guaranteed for the life of the 
e to retain its non-slip properties 
kept free from an accumulation of 
rt or other foreign substance. It is 
aranteed against defects in mater- 

or workmanship. 

This tile is one of the products of 
s Norton Company of Worcester, 
issachusetts, an organization of 
ig experience and with a world- 
de manufacturing and distributing 

iptem. This corporation, established 
I 1885 to manufacture • grinding 

*eels, has always zealously guard- 




Norton Alundum tile floor in galley of 
dredge San Pablo. 

ed its reputation for quality pro- 
ducts. It now operates electric fur- 
nace plants at Niagara Falls for the 
manufacture of abrasives. There are 
branch Norton factories in Canada, 



England, France and Germany; and 
branch offices in New York, Chicago, 
Detroit, Pittsburgh. Philadelphia, 
Cleveland and Hartford. 

The firm maintains extensive re- 
search laboratories with the most 
modern equipment and a large staff 
of trained experts constantly at work 
on the development of new abrasive 
applications and on the improvement 
and testing of Norton abrasive pro- 
ducts. 

One of the most recent develop- 
ments of research in these labora- 
tories is the Alundum rubber bonded 
safety tread. This consists of Alun- 
dum aggregate molded into a base of 
hard tough rubber. Because of its 
ease of application, its permanently 
non-slip surface, and its exceptional 
durability under severe service con- 
ditions this product is very excellent 
for maintenance work aboard ship. 

On many of the ships and on much 
of the floating equipment of the 
United States navy, the United States 
coast guard and the United States 
army engineers, Norton Alundum 
tiles and rubber bonded safety treads 
are providing safe footing for offi- 
cers and crews. 

In the galleys, lavatories, showers, 
pantries, bathrooms, and swimming 
pools on many merchant ships Nor- 
ton Alundum tiles are providing per- 
manent nonslip conditions in sea ser- 
vice for the safety of passengers and 
ship's personnel. 




U. S. Army Engmeers Dredge San Pablo. 



I AY, 1935 



149 



New World's Record for 

Low Diesel Fuel Consumption 

As Shown in the Official Tests of a ^^oo B.H.P. Single Acting Two 
Cycle Sulzer Marine Diesel Engine 

^y G. Eichelberg, Dr. Eng. 

'Prof. Meek Eng. Federal Technical University, Zurich 



Sulzer Brothers, Winter- 
thur, in the further devel- 
opment of their single-act- 
ing two-cycle marine die- 
sel engines, have succeed- 
ed in obtaining remark- 
able simplifications and 
improvements, as is proved 
by the economical fuel 
consumption of 0.3307 
pounds B.H.P. -hour, cer- 
tainly the lowest figure 
hitherto reached in diesel 
engineering. This result, 
which was at first surpris- 
ing, has been obtained on 
the one hand through per- 
fect and quick combustion, 
giving a small indicated 
fuel consumption, and on 
the other hand through 
improved mechanical ef- 
ficiency. 

The design, whilst retain- 
ing on the whole the ap- 
proved construction of Sul- 
zer two-cycle engines for 
marine purposes, incorpor- 
ates a number of novelties 
which have been developed 
and tested out separately 
during the last few years. 
Incorporating all these ex- 
periences in one suitable 
design has resulted in the 
great success of this en- 
gine. 

The engine tested is one of a set of 
four, two of which have been in- 
stalled in each of the two 12,000-ton 
vessels "Durham" and "Dorset" built 
for the New Zealand Steamship Co. 
These vessels were ordered from 
Messrs. Workman Clark Ltd., Belfast, 
who themselves built two of the en- 
gines, whilst the other two were built 




Much of the credit for low fuel consumption in this 
engine goes to the simple but very effective fuel injec- 
tion system shown in detail by this drawing. 



in the Sulzer works at Winterthur. 

Following are the main data: 

Number of cylinders 8 

Bore 720 mm. — 28.35 inches 

Stroke 1250 mm. — 49.21 inches 

Normal output 5500 B.H.P. 

Normal speed 126 r.p.m. 

• Design Features 

Two of the reasons for the good 



efficiency of this long-stroke marii, 
diesel engine are: the ratio of stro.' 
to bore (1.74) and a more suitat: 
mean piston speed (17.17 feet a sel 
ond). By these means a number 
losses occurring during the workit 
cycle are diminished, some of whi( 
affect the indicated fuel consum 
tion and others the mechanical t 
ficiency. Among the first are til 
losses in the cooling-water, whir 
are reduced in this case to less thr 
20 per cent of the heat introduci 
and are consequently about 1/10 le 
than the usual figures. Also t' 
losses due to leakage past the pisti 
rings are less with the higher pist 
speed, other conditions being equ;- 
This improvement was made use 
indirectly to reduce piston frictii 
by decreasing the sliding surfaces! 
the rings and their initial tension.! 
special joint on the two upper pist 
rings theoretically prevents a 
blow-through of the gases and allo'| 
the four following rings to be pf, 
ticularly narrow. , 

Drawings herewith show the ess«i 
tial features of the well-known c(] 
struction of Sulzer marine diesel i 
gines. The frame, which is typical 
this class of engine, is bolted i 
gether from separate columns, i\ 
forms with the bedplate a ri) 
block. The bedplate is prolonf 
down at the sides so that it may i 
attached directly to the double b; 
torn of the ship. The cylinders •' 
bolted separately on the frame s» | 
are no longer connected to each otf^ | 
since the deformations of the fra' ( 
in service, as has been confirmed 
special measurements, are v 
slight. 

At the lower ends of the cylimi' 
a lantern is fitted to keep the u 



150 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIE 



inder oil separate from the oil in 

■ runninjr Kear. The upper ends of 

■ working cylinders are very care- 
ly protected against high tempera- 
es by leading the cooling-water 
ind in annular grooves and by in- 
ting a protecting ring of special 
tal in the combustion zone. In the 
M design of cylinder cover, the 
'II is supported by circular ribs. 
ich compel the flow of the cooling- 
ter to be more brisk, and transmit 

gas pressure to the supporting 
per cover. 

rhe small end of the connecting 
I is fitted with a continuous lower 
iring shell, thus making full use 
the absence of any reversal of 
ssure in the two-cycle engine. The 
sshead is of the usual approved 
ign with four slippers. 

Efficient Scavenging 

Scavenging of the working cylin- 
•s is the well-known Sulzer type 
transverse scavenging with a 
ible row of ports, the upper row 
ng fitted with automatic non-re- 
•n valves and serving as super- 
irging ports. The success obtained 
re by careful attention to the de- 
li and construction of every part, 
shown by the fact that, with scav- 
fing and charging pressures less 
In 2 m W.G., the mean effective 
issure is normally 4.8 gc/cm- 
i.17 pounds per square in.), and 
I engine was found capable of tak- 
: 35 per cent overload with perfect 
nbustion and with the exhaust 
|rcely noticeable. 

'he scavenging air is supplied by 
'I double-acting reciprocating com- 
'^sors arranged in tandem and 
7en direct from the crankshaft, 
■th a bore of 1660 mm. (65.35 
hes) and a stroke of 750 mm. 
:'.52 inches) they have a volume 
♦ times the total volume of the 
<|king cylinders. The volumetric 
Iciency. as shown by the scaveng- 
iipump diagrams, reduced this fig- 
I to 1.35. Because of the large di- 
I'lsions. the piston rings of the 
il'enging pump could be replaced 
>|a copper band with only slight 
i>, thus reducing the ring friction. 
It'h more important, however, is 
•■result obtained by good design of 
lithe cross-sections of flow. Ac- 
>fing to the diagrams, the suction 
ffsures amount on an average at 

load only to about 180 mm W.G. 

indicated output of the scaveng- 




Cross section through cylinder and frame 
of the Sulzer 5500 B.H.P. two-cycle single- 
acting marine diesel engine. 

ing pump corresponds, as a function 
of the working cylinder, to a mean 
diagram pressure of hardly 0.3 atm. 
at full load. 

The fuel injection system makes 
use in a peculiar way of the lag in 
injection which takes place because 
of the finite velocity of propagation 
of the pressure waves in the fuel 
piping. For good combustion, fuel 
injection must begin before the dead 
center and continue far beyond the 
dead center; consequently a pump 
cam which directly causes injection 
in this manner does not rise and fall 
symmetrically to the dead center and 
can therefore not be used for both 
directions of rotation of the engine; 
other reversing gear must be adopt- 
ed. But, by using a particularly long 
fuel pipe between the fuel pump and 
the fuel nozzles, it has been found 
possible to obtain a momentary ac- 
cumulation of the injection energy 
in the pressure wave passing along 
the pipe, and this allows the pump 
cams to operate somewhat earlier. 
With a pipe 10 m long, and with a 
pressure wave with a velocity of 
1400 m/sec. (corresponding to the 



velocity of sound), a lag of injection 
of 5.4" crank angle was obtained at 
126 r.p.m. This lag may be carried so 
far that the pump cams can finish 
the delivery at the dead center and so 
be constructed symmetrically round 
the dead center. The suction stroke 
will then be as quick as the delivery 
stroke, so that a vacuum is inevit- 
ably caused in the pump, but this is 
of no significance in the present 
state of workshop technique with 
ground-in plungers. All fuel injec- 
tion members are actuated symmetri- 
cally to the dead center, so that noth- 
ing has to be reversed on the fuel 
side and only the starting-air deter- 
mines the change of direction of ro- 
tation. The simplicity which this 
means for attendance can be seen 
from the short time taken for re- 
versing, i.e. 4-6 seconds. Naturally 
every precaution is taken to ensure, 
for e.xample. the fuel delivery being 
blocked as long as the engine is not 
turning in the direction indicated by 
the engine room telegraph. 

• Official Tests 

Official trials took place on 24th- 
26th July 1934 and began with a 12 
hours' run at full load. The engine 
was then run at partial load, fol- 
lowed by a four hours' run at 12 per 
cent overload and shorter periods at 
25 and 35 per cent overload. During 
all these tests the exhaust was al- 
ways invisible. The programme was 
completed by quick reversing man- 
oeuvres and a run at very low speed 
(about 16 r.p.m.). 

All measuring devices for deter- 
mining the output and fuel consump- 
tion were, of course, carefully in- 
spected and controlled. Quantity of 
fuel can be measured very accurately 
for consumptions up to and over 800 
kg/hour. The weights on the brake, 
and also the brake lever, were also 
carefully checked and calibrated. 
The uncoupled hydraulic brake was 
balanced immediately before the con- 
tinuous run, and it was found that 
the action of the brake was particu- 
larly sensitive. The control of the 
number of revolutions and of the 
equilibrium of the brake in service 
do not require any special remarks. 
In order to obtain further confirma- 
tion of the output as measured by 
the brake, in view of the surprisingly 
favourable results, several control 
measurements were taken of the 
heating of the water passed through 



1^ Y, 1935 



151 



the brake. While the engine was 
stopped for 1-1 ^j minutes, the water 
from the hydraulic brake was run 
into a calibrated tank, and the tem- 
perature of the water at the inlet and 
outlet to the brake was read. The 
result of this control, in which small 
errors could not be avoided, con- 
firms to a large extent the direct 
measurement taken on the brake. The 
losses of heat at the brake to the at- 
mosphere are estimated to be neglig- 
ible in comparison with the large 
output of the engine. 

• Fuel Economy 

The lower calorific value of the 
fuel used amounted to 10,138 kcal/kg. 
according to the report of the Fed- 
eral Laboratory for the Testing of 
Materials. Calculated for a fuel of a 
calorific value of 10,000 kcal/kg., the 
figures for fuel consumption would 
work out about 2 gr/B.H.P.-hour 
higher. It should also be remarked 
that the lubricating-oil pump and the 
cooling-water circulating pumps 
were not driven from the engine it- 
self, but separately by electric mo- 
tors. Since the power required for 
them together at full load amounted 
to 36.5 H.P., the fuel consumption 
would be increased for this by not 
more than 1 gr/B.H.P.-hour. In any 
case the curve of the fuel consump- 
tion as measured, which scarcely ex- 
ceeds 150 gr./B.H.P.-hour between 
half load and overload, represents a 
result never previously obtained with 
a diesel engine. The good indicated 
consumption of less than 130 gr/ 
I.H.P.-hour (.286 pounds) is the re- 
sult of particularly good scavenging, 
perfect atomization and good distri- 
bution of the fuel in the cylinder. 
Also the compression, which is set 
at 35 atm., and the combustion pres- 
sure, which is forced to 60 atm. in 
proper appreciation of the advantage 
to be derived from this, contribute 
to a large extent to the excellency of 
the results; while the high mechan- 
ical efficiency allows the engine to 
be heavily overloaded without the 
mean indicated pressure having to be 
unduly increased. 

By means of cooling-water meas- 
urements which were carried out in 
the usual manner, the reduction in 
loss of heat to the walls was con- 
firmed. At full load the loss to the 
walls does not exceed 19 per cent of 
the heat introduced. 

The loss of heat in the exhaust 
gases, calculated from the measured 
exhaust temperatures, indicates that 



kcal/hi 
410'' 











#^' 








u 










t/h 




'^/f 










..nr^^r" 1 






Z^ir.9 


='»^°- 1 \, 


40 


^ 






"! l^ 




y/ 














^e^»^- 1 1 




' 


^^ 


^i.-^" 


1 ' ' 




^^- 


1*'"- 




' 1 ! 










1 1 [ 










1 1 ■ 










! ! 1 




Temperatures and heat of exhaust gases 





^^c- 1 


1 -^ 




^>^ 




■J-y \ 




N. 


h 


tK>^ ; 








r__\^ 




^"--..^ 


^ 


TsK^ , 




^,' 






^ 


c;^ ^ 


Y^ valves,,4^^^ 




,,^''^~ 






^ 


...— — -^ 


[cyl.ja<*.et ; 






\\ 1 i 



Scaven gin g pressure diagrams V4lQad(1atm-3Q">m) 

a. Scavenging-pLimp diagrams 

b. Pressure in scavenging receiver 

c. Pressure between non-peturn valves 

& upper scavenging ports. 



Remainder 

-^fiZ-Z/afor friction 



Dislribution oF heab in coolinq-warer 











^ 


^ 


f. fuel cons. gn/B> 






^^ 


i:5ii— -f 






1 


1 1 




d Fuel c 


>ns. gr/1 




\ j 




1 J 




1 ' 














1 1 










1 \ 



Fuel oil consumption 
(light Puel oil lower cal. value - 10.138 kcal/kg) 



" 








j 


1 : i 


Heat in exhaust 


gas » 1 1 












- 


■— - 


















M 


eat in cooling-water % \ \\ 










1 T ,, 


' 


^ 






' 1 




irake o 


utput 


,-. 1 1 




















] 1 


'' 


4 V 

Hea 


bald 


nee 


. IIJI Oil 



I.H.R I 



SUMMARY OF RESULTS 



Load 



M 



4/4 



112% 125% 135% 



Speed — r.p.m 80.8 

Brake output— B.H.P 1400 

Indicat. output — B.H.P 

M.E.P.— kg/cm-' 1.92 

M.I. P.— kg/cm- 

Mech. effic. — mech. % 

Max. diagr. pres. kg/cm- 40.0 

Fuel cons. gr./I.H.P.-h 

Fuel cons. gr./B.H.P.-h 165.4 

Thermal efficiency referred to 

brake output 37.7 



102.0 


116.1 


126.6 


131.6 


135.9 


139 


2810 


4195 


5510 


6170 


6880 


7420 


3400 


4950 


6440 


7100 


7940 





3.05 


4.00 


4.82 


5.20 


5.61 


5,9 


3.69 


4.72 


5.64 


5.98 


5.48 


— 


82.') 


84.7 


85.5 


86.8 


86.2 


. — 


50.1 


56.3 


60.8 


61.9 


64.3 


— 


125.0 


126.8 


129.3 


131.0 


133.6 





151.1 


149.3 


151.4 


150.6 


154.2 


— - 



the heat loss in that direction at no 
time exceeded 38.7 per cent. The heat 
balance diagram shows that at full 



load over 41 per cent of the heal 
troduced in the fuel is converted in 
effective output. 



152 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIE 



Tillamook Repairs Completed 



Emergency repairs of damage to 
lamook Rock Light Station, Ore- 
n, caused by the severe storm of 
tober 21 to 24, 1934, were com- 
ted January 30, 1935, after recur- 
g interruptions due to almost con- 
uous stormy weather. 
Repairs included the erection of a 
N derrick replacing that destroyed 
tober 21 ; installation of a new 
iting plant including boiler, the 
one having been damaged beyond 
lair when the quarters were flood- 
by seas ; also erection of heavy 
ven wire screening protecting the 
itern glass panels; renewal of 
ter supply lines and storm shut- 
s for doors and windows; and 
nor repairs to station structures, 
lading railing and tank founda- 
ns. 

Continuously faced by the extreme 
lards of effecting landings direct- 
onto the Rock, the lighthouse ten- 
• Rose, which was assigned to this 
rk, succeeded in landing workmen 
i the materials for most urgent 
lairs on November 10 and 11, and 
lin on November 16. The last of 
materials and equipment for re- 
rs was landed January 14, 1935. 
ring the last ten days of Novem- 
' the Rock was again swept by a 
'ere storm and heavy seas, and 
'ing this period three men. includ- 
> the foreman of the working party 
\ two keepers, succumbed to ex- 
lure and fell ill with influenza. 
!atment was prescribed via radio 
.|rhe United States Public Health 
Vice, but by the end of the month 
ise men were in urgent need of 
pitalization. Following an unsuc- 
sful attempt Thanksgiving Day, 
litender Rose finally succeeded on 
member 1, in rigging breeches 
jy lines between the Rock and the 
Ser, and notwithstanding the 
sjvy seas, removed the sick men 
1 landed others to take their 
Ifes. 

ris accomplishment has been re- 
i^ed as notable among rescues at 
!i and for its success Capt. J. H. 
?,sen. master of the Rose, and first 
fjcer E. C. Davis, who handled 
'tender's boat in removing the sick 
from the breeches buoy and 
sferring them to the tender, were 
lAly commended bv the Secretarv 



of Commerce, who praised the skill 
and excellent judgment displayed by 
these officers. Six coast guardsmen, 
who volunteered from Point Adams 
Coast Guard Station to assist in 
handling the breeches buoy rig 
aboard the tender, were also com- 
mended. 

The handling of men and mater- 
ials, and execution of the work, have 
been greatly facilitated by the use of 
radio-telegraph installed at the sta- 
tion, replacing the former telephone 
connected with the mainland by sub- 
marine cable, which was broken in 
the October storm. The permanent 
installation of radio-telephone com- 
munication at Tillamook Rock is un- 
der way. 

The completion of the new derrick 



January 30 relieves the critical situa- 
tion at this station, as this equipment 
is essential for the transfer of men 
and supplies in comparative safety. 
This installation and other repairs 
have been accomplished under dis- 
couraging difficulties, due to recur- 
ring storms and heavy seas washing 
over the rock at frequent intervals, 
and are a credit to the skill and re- 
sourcefulness of foreman Harry 
Ratty. From data secured during the 
progress of this work, plans are be- 
ing completed for improvements to 
this station designed to afford great- 
er protection against damage suffer- 
ed in the past from heavy seas and 
water-borne rock fragments. The 
working party was removed from the 



Rock Februarv 1st. 



[Light House Bulletin.] 



Increasing Visibility-Range 

for Fog Piercing Lights 



Burning incandescent lamps over- 
voltage in special reflectors or lenses 
would increase the candlepower of 
fi.xed marine signal lamps a thou- 
sandfold and increase visibility in a 
given direction in fogs by as much 
as three times, in the opinion of Gjon 
Mili, engineer of the Westinghouse 
Lamp Company. 

Mr. Mili disclosed this possibility 
in a technical paper presented be- 
fore a joint meeting of the American 
Physical and Optical Society of Am- 
erica in the auditorium of the Phy- 
sics Building at Columbia Univer- 
sity. Following is a short abstract of 
this paper. 

"For years research engineers 
have unsuccessfully sought a new 
source of color for light that would 
penetrate fog at a distance safe for 
aerial and marine navigation," says 
Mr. Mili. 

Only recently, however, have en- 
gineers thought to increase the 
brightness of marine signal lamps 
by operating the lamps over-voltage 
and utilizing reflectors and lenses to 
intensify the candlepower of light 
beams. 

The Bureau of Lighthouses, De- 



partment of Commerce, has been 
carrying on experiments of such a 
nature. Special marine signal lamps 
are installed along the shores of riv- 
ers and the coast line of harbors 
to be used only during fogs and may 
become standard practice in the fu- 
ture to afford safe navigation. They 
also have equipped marine signals 
so that the lamps burn over-voltage 
during fogs. 

In a daytime fog of medium den- 
sity, or one in which an object may 
be seen at approximately 400 feet, 
marine signals with a 50 candle- 
power lamp have a visibility range 
of about 800 feet. 

In a properly designed reflector or 
lens the same lamp burned overvolt- 
age could produce as high as 500,000 
candlepower. It would be visible 
thi'ee times farther than the 50 can- 
dlepower source." 

The overvoltage operation of an 
incandescent lamp was explained as 
the application of more volts than 
necessary to produce ample light 
over the usual average life of 1000 
hours, such as operating a 115 volt 
lamp at 140 volts. Overvoltage burn- 
ing causes the filament to shine 



UY, 1935 



153. 



brighter and hence produce more 
light ; but lamps have a shorter life. 
The reduction in lamp life through 
overvoltage operation of signal lamps 
during a fog could be offset by burn- 
ing them under voltage during clear 
weather. 

• Visibility Doubled At Night 

The candlepower of small marine 
signal lamps used today varies be- 
tween 50 and 1000. Upwards of a mil- 
lion candlepower could be produced 
by overvoltage operation, using ef- 
ficiently designed reflectors which 
send the light in a directional beam. 

The figures discussed by Mr. Mill 
are based on daytime fogs. At night 



the contrast of darkness would dou- 
ble the range of visibility. 

With a possible visibility of about 
one mile at night in medium fog, 
fewer liners and river craft would 
have to stand by because of night- 
time fogs. 

The method of stepping up the 
voltage of marine signal lamps need 
not be confined to the fixed signals, 
such as those on coastlines and on 
the banks of rivers and canals, op- 
erated from utility power lines. Light 
buoys carry marine signals that op- 
erate from batteries. To operate them 
at over-voltage some means might be 
worked out to equip them with de- 
vices to step up voltage in extremely 
thick weather. 



Communications in the Merchant Marine 

^y Captain S. C. Hooper 

Director of Naval Communications, U.S. Navy 



Since the publication of my recent 
article, relating to communications 
in the merchant marine, comments 
have been received which lead me to 
believe that clarification and further 
discussion of some points therein are 
desirable. 

The article previously published 
was written in the hope that it might 
arouse interest in a situation which 
it is believed all will agree is in need 
of improvement. What specific meas- 
ures for improvement are practicable 
is a matter for discussion. For ex- 
ample, the question as to whether 
the radio officer or a deck officer 
should be designated as communica- 
tion officer is debatable. That ques- 
tion, however, is secondary in im- 
portance to the proposition that a 
communication officer is desirable, 
and that he should have not only a 
working knowledge of the possibili- 
ties and limitations of radio and 
other communication means, but 
should also have sufficient knowl- 
edge of the problems of deck and 
navigating officers to enable him 
properly to utilize and to relate the 
comparatively new radio agencies 
with respect to the navigation and 
safety of the ship. 

It is unfortunate that some por- 
tions of my previous article have 
been interpreted as reflecting upon 
the efficiency of radio operators of 
the merchant marine. No such reflec- 
tion was intended. My own experi- 



ence is that radio personnel are well 
trained and doing their job admir- 
ably. It was desired to point out that 
the efficient use and coordination of 
radio, visual, above-water and under- 
water sound communication facili- 
ties should not be considered a re- 
sponsibility of radio operators alone, 
but also of masters and deck officers. 
Radio aids to navigation are today 
as important to the navigating offi- 
cer as are the lights and sound sig- 
nals along the coast. They have the 
distinct advantage of being useful 
when the ship is outside the danger 
zone of shoal water. Masters and 




deck officers know from long experi- 1 
ence the accuracy to be expectedi 
from old established navigational 
aids, such as the sextant or thei 
sounding machine, and the judgmenti 
necessary in giving weight to vari! 
ous observations. Yet many such of-l 
ficers do not have sufficient com-| 
munication knowledge to determine' 
the reliance to be placed upon bear- 
ings from shore radio direction find- 
ers or those taken by the ship, or 
concerning new type sounding de- 
vices. Many of them do not have in- 
formation as to whence and when 
they might get weather, ice or hydro- 
graphic information in various lo 
calities. Some do not realize the ca- 
pacity and limitations of their radit 
equipment, a vital point in time of 
emergency. 

Increased communication knowl 
edge on the part of masters and decl 
officers would be not only to thei) 
advantage, but to that of radio op 
erators as well. Masters would theri 
be in position to appreciate and t( 
support operators' requests for mon 
modern and efficient equipment am; 
an adequate complement of radit 
personnel. They would not expect : 
two-man complement to guard nu 
merous channels, such as news, traf 
fie and distress frequencies, simul 
taneously, as though there were . 
radio complement of eight. The^ 
would insure that the radio roor 
was equipped with up-to-date edi 
tions of all the documents requirec 
They would, in short, be in bette. 
position to present problems of th, 
radio operators before the manager 
and directors of the companies. 

The present position of merchai 
marine radio operators is to some ej 
tent analogous to that of navy opem 
tors at the time I first became U. 1' 
Fleet Radio Officer, in 1912. I the 
found that operators had to sper 
their own money for parts of equi; 
ment, because their needs were n' 
properly appreciated by the rankii 
officers. It was only by interestii 
the officers themselves in this cor' 
paratively new field that conditio) 
were remedied. Captains of ships d 
manded proper equipment and suffi 
ieiit personnel to use and mainta' 
it. A good promotion scheme for n 
erators also resulted. 

If the American Merchant Mari 
will profit by the experience of t 
Navy, deck officers as well as r;i' 
operators will be benefited, :r 
thereby, also the traveling public 



154 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIE 




Marine Insurance 



Jurisdictional Conflicts 



In Maritime Injuries Occurring Between Ship and Dock 
"By Warren H. Pillsbury 



is now well settled that the Fed- 
maritime jurisdiction in mat- 
of tort depends upon locality, 
the tort or injury must occur 
1 navigable waters of the United 
es, (the Plymouth. 3 Wall. 20). 
■re the tort or injuiy occurs upon 
. the State law applies exclusive- 
State Industrial Commission vs. 
denholt Corp.. 259 U.S. 263; To- 
I vs. Sudden & Christenson. 5 
. 2, 462. The same rule is applied 
vorkmen's compensation cases, 
bugh the basis of jurisdiction is 
ja tort, as such, but a personal 
ry without regard to the fault of 
fer party. 

his article is directed to a rela- 
)y small but puzzling class of 
is in which the action is based 
p a tort or personal injur.v oc- 
ing between land and water. Ty- 
'. problems involving locus of in- 
I for jurisdictional purposes are 
re a ship worker is injured upon 
gangplank while going on or off 
poat, or while jumping from boat 
♦ck, or falls, is thrown, or jumps 
t boat to dock, or where an in- 
nentality on the boat causes 
ige to a person on the land. Shall 
ort or personal injur.v be taken 
ccurring at the spot where the 
iding instrument lies, or where 
ict of negligence takes place, or 
|e the person begins his fall, or 
fe his fall terminates, or where 
i^najor damage is sustained? 
I|e original decision, to which all 
cases upon this subject refer. 
>e Plymouth. 3 Wall, 20, decided 
65. In that case a vessel caught 
"because of the negligence of its 
er and crew. The fire spread 
e adjoining wharf, causing the 



loss of the dock with its buildings 
and their contents. The owners of 
the wharf libelled the offending ves- 
sel and its owners. In an opinion 
written by Justice Nelson, the Court 
dismissed the libel, holding that the 
tort did not occur upon the water 
and hence was not within the Ad- 
miralty jurisdiction. The fact that 
the acts of negligence which caused 
the fire (origin of the tort) occurred 
upon navigable waters, was held 
without significance. Negligence 
alone did not constitute the cause 
of action being damnum absque in- 
juria. The damage sustained by libel- 
lants was necessar.v to complete the 
cause of action, and this occurred 
upon land. 

The following is quoted from the 
opinion: 

"The origin of the wrong was on the 
water, but the substance and consummation 
of the injury on land. 

"This class of cases may well be referred 
to as illustrating the true meaning of the 
rule of locality in cases of marine torts, 
namely, that the wrong and injur\- com- 
plained of must have been committed wholly 
upon the high seas or navigable waters, or. 
at least, the substance and consummation of 
the same must have taken place upon these 
waters to be within the Admiralty jurisdic- 
tion. In other words, the cause of damage, 
in technical language, whatever else attended 
it, must have been there complete. 

"We can give, therefore, no particular 
weight or influence to the considerations that 
the injury in the present case originated — on 
board a vessel — and. as we have seen, the 
single fact that it originated there, but. the 
whole damage done upon land, the cause of 
action not being complete on navigable 
waters, affords no ground for the exercise of 
the .Admiralty jurisdiction. 

"The answer is, as already given: the whole 
or at least, the substantial cause of action, 
arising out of the wrong, must be complete 
within the locality upon which the jurisdic- 
tion depends — on the high seas or navigable 
waters." 



While the holding of the Court was 
in accordance with sound legal reas- 
oning, it is difficult to conceive of 
more unfortunate language than that 
used by the Court to e.xplain its de- 
cision. The phrases "substance and 
consummation" — "cause of dam- 
age " — "substantial cause of ac- 
tion" — are not self-defining. Elimin- 
ating, as the Court has done, the lo- 
cus of the negligent act or origin of 
the tort, we still have the question 
whether the entire damage or a sub- 
stantial portion of it must occur on 
navigable waters, or is a nominal 
damage sufficient to make out a 
technical cause of action all that is 
required? 

Later decisions of the Court have 
reaffirmed the proposition that 
where a ship or an instrumentality 
upon it causes damage on land. Ad- 
miralty has no jurisdiction. Ex parte 
Phoenix Insurance Company, 118 U.S. 
610 (fire communicated from ship to 
shore structures), Johnson vs. C. & 
P. Elevator Company, 119 U.S. 238 
( ship's boom driven into grain ele- 
vator — substance and consummation 
of tort on land). But where a ship 
collides with a beacon, an aid to navi- 
gation, the case is within Admiralty 
jurisdiction, as the beacon is treated 
as being in navigable waters and not 
a land structure. The Blackheath, 
195 U.S. 361 (completed beacon). The 
Raithmoor, 241 U.S. 166 (unfinished 
beacon). If the beacon had been at 
fault and caused damage to the ship, 
Admiralt.v would have had jurisdic- 
tion. The Blackheath, supra; P. W. 
& B. Ry. Co. vs. P. & H. D. G. Tow- 
boat Co. 23 How. 209; Atlee vs. Pac- 
ket Co. 21 Wall 389; Panama R. Co. 
vs. Napier Shipping Co.; 166 U.S. 



Y, 1935 



155 



280. The Rock Island Bridge, 6 Wall 

213. 

©Constructions on Decisions 

Construction accorded The Ply- 
mouth in later cases may now be con- 
sidered. In the Raithmoor, supra, it 
is stated that The Plymouth estab- 
lishes the proposition that, where 
the damage is wholly done and the 
injury consummated upon land, the 
Admiralty has no jurisdiction. 

In The Aurora, 178 Fed. 587, the 
locus of the terminus of an acciden- 
tal fall, rather than of its inception, 
was taken as the test of maritime 
jurisdiction. In Lermonds case (Me.) 
119 Atl. 864, it was assumed that to 
be within maritime jurisdiction, the 
injury must end as well as begin 
on navigable waters. In Gordon vs. 
Drake (Mich.) 159 N.W. 340, it was 
held that both injury and damage 
must be sustained on navigable wat- 
ers to confer Admiralty jurisdiction. 
In Fireman's Fund vs. City of 
Monterey, 6 Fed. 2d, 893, and the 
City of Lincoln, 25 Fed. 875, it was 
held that where goods were thrown 
from a wharf into the water. Admir- 
alty had jurisdiction as the sub- 
stance of the injury occurred in the 
water. 

In the Strabo, 98 Fed. 998, the Cir- 
cuit Court of Appeals for the Circuit 
attempted to construe The Plymouth 
in accordance with more modern 
jurisdictional conceptions. In that 
case a workman was thrown from a 
ladder to the dock while descending 
from the ship, due to the ladder be- 
ing negligently secured to the ship. 
The damage was naturally sus- 
tained at the time of impact upon 
the dock. The Court held, however, 
that a cause of action arose while 
the injured was upon the ladder, a 
part of the ship. It went on to state 
that The Plymouth does not require 
the substantial damage to occur up- 
on the water, but only sufficient in- 
jury to make out a technical cause 
of action. Some nervous shock and 
resulting damage before the libellant 
struck the wharf was implied to 
bring the case within this holding. 
The Court also alluded to the circum- 
stance that a wrongful agency was 
put in motion and took effect on the 
ship and put libellant in a position 
where physical damage was inevit- 
able. 
• Clearing the Obscurity. 

The obscurity of The Plymouth 
was broken by the Supreme Court in 



the case of Martin vs. West, 222 U.S. 
191. In that a vessel negligently col- 
lided with a pier, damaging the lat- 
ter. The case was held not to be 
within maritime jurisdiction, as be- 
fore, but with the new statement that 
jurisdiction depends upon the local- 
ity of the injured thing at the mo- 
ment of injury. The Court said: 

It may be that the damage ensuing from 
the collision was aggravated by the fact that 
the span fell into the stream and was sub- 
jected to the force of the current and sub- 
merged in the water, but, if that be so, it 
furnishes no criterion for determining whe- 
ther the tort was maritime or non-maritime, 
because that question must be resolved ac- 
cording to the locality and character of the 
injured thing— the bridge with its spans and 
supporting piers— at the time of the colli- 
sion. It was then that the casual mfluence ot 
the negligent management of the vessel took 
effect injuriously and gave rise to a cause of 
action, and what followed is important only 
as bearing upon the extent of the injury and 
resulting liability. 

Martin vs. West was followed in 
1928 by T. Smith & Son vs. Taylor, 
276 U.S. 179. Here a stevedore was 
working upon a staging on the 
dock when he was struck and knock- 
ed into the water by a sling suspend- 
ed from a boom of the vessel then 
lying at the pier. The accident re- 
sulted in his death by drowning. The 
extent of his injuries before he 
reached the water is not stated in 
the opinion and was probably insig- 
nificant. The Court held that the 
case was not within the Admiralty 
jurisdiction, but fell instead within 
the provisions of the State Work- 
men's Compensation Act, stating that 
the blow from the sling gave rise to 
the cause of action, and was given 
and took effect while the deceased 
was on the land. The fact that he 
died in navigable waters did not af- 
fect the jurisdiction, as the blow re- 
ceived on the land was the proximate 
cause of the death. 

It is therefore not the place where 
the major or substantial portion of 
the damage is sustained which de- 
termines jurisdiction, but rather the 
place where a technical cause of ac- 
tion is first completed by impact of 
an unlawful force upon the person 
or property injured. The remainder 
and completion of the damage is 
jurisdictlonally without significance. 
The rule appears to be the same as 
that developed in criminal law to the 
effect that the jurisdictional locus of 
a crime is the place where the unlaw- 
ful force first makes contact upon 
the person of the victim and not the 
place where the assailant may be 
standing when he sets the unlawful 



force in motion, nor yet the place of I 
subsequent death of the victim. Rex } 
vs. Coombs, 1 Leach 388; U. S. vs. 
Davis, Fed. Case, 14932. 

An analogous situation is present- 
ed where one is injured on shipboard 
and dies on shore. Here it is now 
recognized that the Admiralty Courts 
have jurisdiction. The City of Van- 
couver, C. C. A. 9, 60 Fed. 2d, 793 
(reversing an earlier line of cases). 

Unfortunately, the Supreme Court 
in Smith & Son vs. Taylor reverted 
to the phrase "substance and con- 
summation of the wrong." There 
ought to be a law against the use of 
this phrase in a judicial opinion. 

• Specific Applications. 

We are now able to pass to specific ,^ 
applications of the principles above- \ 
stated. I 

1. Damage by vessel to land struc- i 
ture. As has been stated above, where 
an act of negligence on board a ves- ■ 
sel results in damage to property 
then on land, the cause of action is 
considered to arise on land, and i 
hence not within the Admiralty jur- • 
isdiction. The Plymouth, 3 Wall 20; ; 
Ex Parte Phoenix Ins. Co., 118 U. S. ' 
610; Johnson vs. C. & P. Elevator 
Co., 119 U. S. 388; Phoenix Construc- 
tion Co. vs. The Poughkeepsie, 212 il 
U. S. 558; Martin vs. West, 222 U. S. 
191. 

2. Damage by land structure to 
vessel. Similarly, where an act of' 
negligence on land causes damage i 
on board a vessel, or on navigable.; 
waters, the cause of action is consid- 
ered to arise upon the water, and is 
within the Admiralty jurisdiction. 
Leonard vs. Decker, 22 Fed. 741 
(boat damaged by bolts projecting 
from pier). Southern Bell Telephone 
Co. vs. Burke, 62 Fed. 2d, 1015. 

3. Damage by ship's instrumental- 
ity to a person on the land. The locus 
of the thing which causes the injury,, 
or the place where the act of negli- 
gence is committed, does not deter- 
mine jurisdiction. The test is the lo- 
cus of the injured person or thing 
at the moment of injury, T. Smith 
& Son vs. Taylor, 276 U. S. 179, Neth- 
erlands American Steam Navigation 
Co. vs. Gallagher, 228 Fed. 171;' 
Swayne & Hoyt vs. Barsch C. C. A ; 
9th, 226 Fed. 581 ; Berry vs. Donovan 
& Sons, 115 Atl. 250; Atlantic Coasli 
Shipping Co. vs. Boyster, 129 Atl; 
668, Scott vs. Dept. of Labor (Wash.)i 
228 Pac. 1013. | 

The facts of the foregoing caseif 



156 



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e substantially identical. In each, a 
^vedore working upon the dock or 

extension of it, was struck by a 
ad of cargo suspended from the 
ip's boom in the course of loading 

discharging the ship. In each the 
ate law was held applicable instead 

the Admiralty rule. 

An interesting point is presented 
two Federal District Court decis- 
ns. The Haxby, 95 Fed. 170 and 
reman's Fund vs. City of Monterey, 
Fed. 2, 893. In the former, a ship 
n into a pier, causing it to col- 
pse and precipitate goods on it in- 
the water where they were lost. In 
e latter case, the City of Monterey 
aintained a wharf in an unsafe 
ndition, as a result of which and 
the negligent mooring of a vessel 
it, the wharf collapsed and pre- 
pitated goods on it into the water, 
the first case the Admiralty law 
is held inapplicable, the impact of 
e wrongful violence upon the goods 
curring while they were on the 
larf, a part of the land. Their sub- 
quent loss in the water was but an 
lavoidable consequence of gravity 
d the original impact. In the sec- 
d case, however, it was held that 
e goods did not sustain physical 
Image until they entered the water, 
I damage being inflicted on them 
lile upon the land. The maritime 
w was applied. 

The two cases cannot be distin- 
lished upon the ground that a ves- 
1 was the defendant in the first 
se and a wharf owner in the sec- 
d. Atlantic Transport Co. vs. Im- 
'ovek, 234 U. S. 52. It is believed 
at the better view is that stated 

the Haxby, supra. While the col- 
pse of the wharf completed the 
use of action by causing the goods 

move to inevitable damage, the 



goods were first placed in jeopardy 
by the impact of an unlawful force 
upon them while they were still on 
land. The situation is analogous to 
that of a person being thrown from a 
ship and sustaining bodily damage 
from impact with the wharf or land. 
So, where a person walks off a dock 
into the water and drowns in navi- 
gable waters, the injury occurs for 
jurisdictional purposes upon the 
land. The Albion, 123 Fed. 189, Union 
Oil Co. vs. Industrial Accident Com- 
mission, 211 Cal. 398. 

4. Damage by a land instrumental- 
ity to a person standing on the ship. 

Where the injured person is on the 
vessel or on navigable waters at the 
momentthe unlawful force first makes 
contact with him. Admiralty has jur- 
isdiction, though the cause of the in- 
jury may be a land instrumentality 
or a negligent act committed upon 
land. Hermann vs. Port Blakely Mill 
Co. 69 Fed. 646 (mate hurt in hold 
of ship by lumber coming down a 
chute from the dock without proper 
warning being given by those on the 
dock). 

5. Jeopardy incurred on ship or 
land, with resulting fall into water 
or on ship. In the earlier decisions 
under this head. The Plymouth was 
interpreted to hold that jurisdiction 
depended upon the place where the 
major part of the damage occurred. 
So, where death resulted from drown- 
ing or from a fall to the deck of a 
ship, jurisdiction was assumed in 
Admiralty, without regard to the 
place of inception of injury. The Au- 
rora, 178 Fed. 587; in subsequent de- 
cisions, however, Lynott vs. Great 
Lakes Transit Co., N.Y., 138 N. E. 
473; this misconception has been 
largely cleared up. In Scott vs. Dept. 
of Labor and Industries (Wash.) 228 



Pac. 1013, a workman was brushed 
off the wharf to the deck of a boat. 
In Atlantic Coast Shipping Co. vs. 
Royster, (Md.) 128 Atl. 668, a work- 
man was precipitated from the dock 
into the water by a cable and drown- 
ed. In each case the State Workmen's 
Compensation Act was applied, the 
place of initial injury being held to 
fix the jurisdiction. In L'Hote vs. 
Crowell, C. C. A. 5th, 54 Fed. 2d, 212, 
the later view was clearly stated — 
and finally in T. Smith & Son vs. 
Taylor, 276 U. S. 179, the Supreme 
Court settled the matter by stating 
that the place where the blow was 
given and received determined the 
forum, the fact that the workman 
was thrown into the water and died 
there being immaterial for jurisdic- 
tional purposes. 

6. Injuries occurring on gang- 
planks extending between ship and 
land. The status of a person injured 
on a gangplank while going on or 
off a vessel, has been the subject of 
conflicting views. Eventually, the 
lower Federal courts came to agree- 
ment upon the rule of thumb that 
where a person is injured on the 
gangplank while boarding the ves- 
sel, that state law applies; and where 
the injury occurs while he is leaving 
the vessel, the maritime law governs. 
One reason assigned for this result 
is that the locus of injury depends 
upon the status of the injui'ed per- 
son, i.e., in boarding a vessel he re- 
tains his status as a land occupant 
until he reaches the vessel, while in 
leaving the ship he retains his status 
as a vessel occupant until he reaches 
the dock or land. The Atna 297 Fed. 
673; The Strabo, 90 Fed. 110. An- 
other reason given is that the gang- 
plank is an extension of the dock 
when a person is boarding a vessel, 
and an extension of the vessel when 



AY, 1935 



157 



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departing from it. The Brand, 29 
Fed. 2nd, 792. The rule has been fol- 
lowed in a number of cases, some- 
times without commenting upon the 
jurisdictional questions. Egan vs. 
Morse D. D. & Repair Co., 212 N.Y.S. 
56; Merchants & Miners Transp. Co. 
vs. Norton, — 32 Fed. 2d, 513; The 
Montrose, 178 Fed. 495, 186 Fed. 156; 
Southern Pacific Co. vs. Jensen, 244 
U. S. 205. 

Inconsistent decision.s which are 
now probably obsolete are Lermonds 
case. (Me.) 119 Atl. 864 (ba.sed upon 



the assumption that to be within Ad- 
miralty jurisdiction the injury must 
end, as well as begin, on navigable 
waters). The H. S. Pickands, 42 Fed. 
239 (holding that the place where the 
negligent act was committed fixes 
jurisdiction) ; March vs. Vulcan Iron 
Works, 132 Atl. 89. 

The type of plank or ladder in- 
volved may be of importance. In the 
Hokkai Maru, 260 Fed. 569, jurisdic- 
tion in Admiralty was assumed over 
an injury sustained while boarding 
a vessel by a Jacob's ladder, prob- 



ably on the theory that this type of 
ladder was permanent ship's equip- 
ment, a fixture as it were. In L'Hote 
vs. Crowell, 54 Fed. 2d, 212, the Cir- 
cuit Court of Appeals sustained the 
application of the Federal Long- 
shoremen's Compensation Act to a 
stevedore being hoisted into the ship 
by the ship's cables used in loading 
and unloading. It is probable that 
Federal jurisdiction will also attach, 
whether the injured person is goinx 
on or off the ship, if he is injured 
upon the ship's companion-way lad- 



158 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



ROY C. WARD GEO. B. DINSMORE WILFRED PAGE 

GEO. E. BILLINGS CO. 

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ler or other gangplank which is per- 
nanently affixed to the vessel and 
I part of it. 

7. Injuries sustained by jumping 
rom ship to land or land to ship. In 
he cases where the plaintiff is hurt 
^•hile voluntarily jumping from ship 
b dock, or dock to ship, further con- 
liderations arise. In this class of 
ases the chain of circumstances 
»hich results in injury is not initiat- 
d by any tortious or causative act 
t the outset, as in the case where a 
legligent act causes a workman to 
all. Instead, the plaintiff has him- 
elf voluntarily undertaken to 
hange his locus from one place to 
nother, and no tort or personal in- 
ury occurs until a mishap develops 
it the end of the movement. 

The decision in cases of injury re- 
eived while jumping from ship to 
and or vice versa, are not in har- 
nony either in reasoning or result, 
^his is due in part to the ambigui- 
ies in the opinion in The Plymouth, 
t is believed, however, that a clear 
nd safe guide can be deduced from 
he decisions cited in the earlier part 
if this article. 

In The Ocracope, 159 Fed. 552, a 
ort action, a passenger slipped and 
ell on the dock while stepping from 
hip to dock. The vessel's negligence 
n not putting out a gangplang con- 
ributed to the fall. The injuries 
ustained were due to the passenger 
ailing in such position that he was 
rushed between ship and dock by 
he rolling of the ship. A libel in Ad- 



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miralty was sustained, without dis- 
cussion of the jurisdictional ques- 
tion. As the locus where the act of 
negligence was committed is not the 
test, but the locus of initial injury, 
it would seem that the action should 
have been brought under the State 
law. 

In Gordon vs. Drake (Mich.) 159 
N. W. 340, a launch became unman- 
ageable in a high wind. The operator 
directed a passenger to jump to the 
pier when the launch was brought 
up against it. He jumped, and either 
fell or was thrown against the pier 
and crushed against it by the boat. 
An action or tort was brought under 
the State law and the State jurisdic- 
tion was later sustained by the Su- 
preme Court of Michigan. The Court 
stated that both the injury and dam- 
age must occur on the water to give 
Admiralty jurisdiction, and as this 
was not the case, the State law gov- 
erned. The reason assigned was bas- 
ed upon a misconception of The Ply- 
mouth, as pointed out above. The re- 
sult was probably wrong, also as 
plaintiff's jeopardy seemingly was 
initiated while he was still on the 
boat, his act of jumping being forced 
by peril and not voluntary, and 
doubtless under such circumstances 
as to endanger his landing safely. 

In Trilla vs. Pacific S.S. Co. (Calif. 
Sup. Ct.) 1930 A. M. C. 923, a seaman 
jumped from the steamer to the dock 
on the order of a superior while the 
ship was moving, and was injured. 
Action was brought in tort, and the 
State law applied, the court stating 
that the injury was a land injury. 
• The Law Applicable. 

Up to this point I have indicated 
the law applicable to the injury by 
stating only that the Admiralty law 
applied to an injury occurring upon 
the ship or navigable waters, while 
the State law applied to injuries oc- 
curring upon land. As several differ- 
ent statutes may govern either mari- 
time or land injuries, depending up- 
on varying circumstances, a short 
summary of the law applicable un- 
der varying conditions is in order. A 
fuller discussion will be found in my 
article in the May 1932 Virginia Law 



Review. 

Where the injury occurs upon the 
water, the term "maritime law" in- 
cludes the following: 

(1) Seaman — fatal injuries — govern- 
ed by Sec. 33, Jones Act, Mer- 
chant Marine Act of 1920— U. S. 
Code. 

(2) Seaman — non-fatal injuries — 
governed by Sec. 33 Jones Act, 
U. S. Code, also rule of The Os- 
ceola, 189 U. S. 158. 

(3) Port and Harbor Workers, i.e., 
stevedores, ship repairmen, etc. 
Fatal and non-fatal injuries in 
Territorial waters — governed by 
U. S. Longshoremen's and Har- 
bor Workers' Compensation Act. 

(4) Port and Harbor Workers — 
Fatal injuries on the high seas 
governed by Act of Congress of 
May 15, 1920. 

(5) Port and Harbor workers — non- 
fatal injuries on the high seas 
governed by Sec. 33 Jones Act, 
Rule of The Osceola, 189 U. S. 
158, or the Common Law (Jones 
Act for stevedores). 

(6) Seamen and port and harbor 
workers performing local serv- 
ices not directly connected with 
commerce and navigation by 
water — State Law. 

Where the injury occurs upon the 
land, the applicable State law will 
usually be the Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Act. Where, however, there is 
no State Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Act, or where it does not extend 
to persons in maritime employments, 
or where the injured person is not an 
employee, or is not injured in the 
course of his employment, the State 
Employers Liability Act, State stat- 
utes governing torts generally, or the 
Common Law of the State, as the 
case may be, will apply. 



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159 




American Shipbuilding 



Edited by M. J. Suitor 



LAUNCH OF THE 
TANKER MAGNOLIA 

The largest shipbuilding program 
at present under way in American 
shipyards will be completed about 
June 10 when the tanker. Magnolia, 
is delivered to the Socony Vacuum 
Oil Company by the New York Ship- 
building Company of Camden, N.J. 
This vessel slid into the waters of the 
Delaware River on April 2 at 1 :00 
p.m. after being christened with a 
bottle of New York State champagne 
by Mrs. J. A. Brown, wife of the 
chairman of the executive committee 
of Socony Vacuum. 

The group on the launching plat- 
form included E. R. Brown, chair- 
man of the board of the Magnolia 
Petroleum Corporation of Dallas, 
Texas, a Socony-Vacuum subsidiary 
and Mrs. Brown; R. H. Kinslow, 
Magnolia vice-president and Mrs. 
Kinslow; J. Lewis Luckenbach, pres- 
ident of the American Bureau of 
Shipping and Mrs. Luckenbach; M. 
J. French, Chief Surveyor of British 
Lloyd's Register of Shipping; Mrs. 
Harry Sinclair; J. A. Brown, chair- 
man of the executive committee of 
Socony-Vacuum, and the following 
company executives: G. V. Holton 
and Mrs. Holton and Miss Holton; A. 
F. Corwin and Mrs. Corwin; F. S. 
Fales and H. F. Sheets; Mr. J. J. 
Maguire and Mrs. Maguii'e; A. T. 
Roberts and Mrs. Roberts; W. H. 
Correa and R. S. Durkee. 

The Magnolia is a sister ship to 
Socony Vacuum, launched at the 
same yard three months ago, and re- 
cently delivered to her owners after 
successful trials. 

Both ships have the following 
characteristics: 

Length overall 500 ft. I'/a inches 

L.B.P 484 ft. 

Beam molded 65 ft. 9 inches 

Depth 37 ft. 

Draft loaded 29 ft. 101/4 inches 

Displacement 20,700 tons 

Gross measurement 9200 tons 

Net measurement 5700 tons 




The Socony Vacuum Oil Company's new 
tanker. Magnolia, entering the water of Dela- 
ware River at the yards of the New York 
Shipbuilding Company, Camden. 

Deadweight capacity 15,280 tons 

Cargo capacity 106,462 barrels 

Bunker capacity 1365 tons 

Shaft horsepower 4000 

Single screw turning 75 r.p.m. 

Sea speed I2V2 knots 

They were designed by N. J. Pluy- 
mert, naval architect of the Socony 
Vacuum Oil Company for the past 
twenty-five years. 

Propulsion machinery con.sists of 
one De Laval cross compound double 
reduction geared steam turbine, tak- 
ing steam from two Foster-Wheeler 
marine water tube boilers at 400 
pounds gage pressure and superheat- 
ed to 700 degrees F. 

A third boiler of same type, but 
without superheat supplies steam for 
cargo heating and pumping. Todd 
oil-burning equipment is fitted. 

In addition to the two ocean-going 
tankers, the Socony-Vacuum Oil 



SAN FRANCISCO YARD BUILDS 
LARGE PURSE SEINERS 

Under way in the yard of Anderson 
and Cristofani, at Hunter's Point, is 
the first of three large purse seiners 
to be ready for the next sardine sea- 
son. The three craft are financed by 
a syndicate of San Francisco fisher- 
men, and will be the largest seiners 
yet built in a San Francisco yard. 
The boat now under construction 
will be 85 feet long, 22 feet wide, 
and will draw 9 feet of water. More 
than 90,000 feet of Oregon pine goes 
into its hull construction, but the 
deck house and superstructure are 
to be of Siamese teak. The 48-foot 
mast will be of Oregon pine. 

The second craft will be the same 
size as that now building, the third 
slightly smaller. The two large ves- 
sels will each have a storage ca- 
pacity of 150 tons of sardines, a 5000- 
gallon fuel tank, a 1000-gallon water 
tank, and comfortable quarters for a 
crew of eleven. 

She will take approximately three 
months to build, and will be outfitted 
at the Anderson and Cristofani yard, 
with the exception of the 280-horse- 
power diesel engine, capable of 
churning her along at 10 knots. 



Company also launched, during the 
past nine months, three small tank- 
ers, self-propelled by Diesel engines, 
as part of its $5,000,000 shipbuilding 
program. These small tankers are 
now in service on the rivers. New 
York State Barge Canal and the 
Great Lakes. 

These three boats are each 260 feet 
long, 14 feet in depth, with 40 foot 
beam. 

One of these small tankers, which 
is now in successful operation, is the 
Poughkeepsie-Socony, the largest all- 
welded merchant vessel ever built in 
the United States. This electrically- 1 
welded ship is said to be "revolu- 
tionary" in construction, and in iU 
building nearly a quarter of a mil- 
lion rivets were eliminated. 



160 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Progress of Construction 

The following Report Covers the Shipbuilding Work in Progress at the Leading 
Shipyards of the United States as of April i, ig^^ 



Pacific Coast 



Mana, S.S. Mauna Ala. 



BETHLEHKM SHIPBUILDING 
CORPORATION. LTD. 

(Union Plant) 

San Francisco 
DRYDOCK. PAINT. MISCELL.\NE- 
irS: .S.S. President Lincoln, M.B. Coa- 
inga, S.S. F. H. Hillman, S.S. Rxith A\- 
fvander, S.S. President Pierce, S. S. 
;antii Elena, S. S. Talanianca, M. S. 
MUith Africa. Tug Tatoosh, M.S. H. T. 
harper. S.S. ,1. A. Sloffett, S.S. Penn- 
iiar, S.S. Xosa Chief, S.S. Cliarcas, S.S. 
ilaknra, S.S. Brookings, S.S. District 
.f rolnnibia. S.S. K. R. Kingsbury, S.S. 
Mniiral Wiley, S.S. D. G. Scofield, S.S. 
kilauea, S.S. Eninia Alexander, S.S. 
hiriiiui, S.S. Maliko. S.S. President 
'iKilidjie, .S.S. ]Manukai. S.S. President 
raft. Barge >Ialtlia, S.S. .Admiral Peo- 
(les, S.S. Santa Paula, S.S. .Antigua. S.S. 
Vosa Prince, S.S. Admiral Halstead, 
L'.S.S. Nevada, S.S. President Harri- 
«n. S.S. PVank H. Buck. 



FELLOWS AND .STEWART, INC. 
Wilniinaton. Calif. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
131, auxiliary sloop. Universal, bulld- 
ng for Joe Fellows, Sr., LBP 25', beam 
1'3". loaded draft 4': speed loaded 9 
ii.p.h.; gasoline engines, 20 i.h.p. each; 
win screw; keel laid November. 1934; 
ompleted January 1935; delivered. 

Hull No. fi29. runabout. Petrel, build- 
ng for H. Jobnson; LBP 25'3", beam 
'6", loaded draft 2'; gasoline engine, 
10 i.h.p.. speed loaded 25 m.p.h.; keel 
lid. September, 1934; delivery date not 

Hull No. 635. ship's launch, Bounty, 
uilding for Metro Goldwyn Mayer Co. ; 
.BP 23', beam 7'6", row and sail-boat; 
:eel laid December. 1934; launched, 
anuary, 1935; delivery date not set. 

Hull No. 636. taxi boat, Paiute, 
uilding for P.S. Webb; LBP 40', beam 
C, loaded draft 3', speed loaded 21 
i.p.h., gasoline engine. 400 i.h.p.; keel 
lid January 1935; launched February 
935; delivery date not set. 



GENERAL ENGINTIERING AND 
DRYDOCK CO. 

Foot of Fifth Avenue 
Oakland Calif. 
DRYDOCK. PAINT, Mli^CELLANE- 
'CS: M.V. Kvichak, S.S. Makua, S.S. 
orinto, S.S. Tulsagas, Tug .Arabs, S.S. 
11 Segundo, Light.ship No. 8.3, Pilot 
oat .-Vdventuress, S.S. Cottoneva. 



HONOLULU IRON WORKS 
Honolulu. T. H.. 

DRYDOCK. PAINT. MISCELLANE- 
US: M.S. Ethan .Allen, S.S. Mani, S.S. 



LAKE UNION DRYDOCK & MACHINE 
WORKS 
Seattle, Wash. 
Hull No. 105, Sternwheel steamboat 
Skagit Chief; building for Skagit River 
Navigation Comiiany; L. B. P. 165', 
beam 39' 7". loaded draft 6'; keel laid 
Dec. 18, 1934. launched Feb. 16, 1935, 
delivered .\pril 1, 1935. 



THE LOS ANGELES SHIPBUILDING 
& DRY' DOCK CORP. 

Los -Angeles Harbor 
San I'edro, Calif. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT MISCELL.\NE- 
OrS: M.V. .Australia. 



PRINCE RLTERT DRYDOCK 
AND SHIPYARD 

Prince Rupert, B.C. 
DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: Canadian National S.S. Prince 
George, Doni. (iovt. Snagboat Essington, 
1 .Scow; M.B. Ogdcn; 26 ship repair 
jobs not I'oiinii-ing' docking; 3S commer- 
cial jobs. 



THE MOORE DRYDOCK CO. 
Oakland, CaUf. 

DRYDOCK. P.AINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: D. G. Scofield, Delta Queen, Sho- 
shone, I'iru, Tug Hercules, Brunswick, 
Lottie Bennett, Esther Johnson, lowan, 
Western Pacific Barge No, 3, Creole 
and Nabesna. 



THE PUGET SOUNT> NAVY Y.ARD 
Bremerton, Washington 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: U.S.S. Wor- 
den (Destroyer No. 352), LBP, 334'; 
beam 34'2'2"; loaded draft, lO'lO"; 
geared turbine engines; Yarrow type 
water-tube boilers; keel laid Dec. 29, 
1932; launched October 27, 1934; com- 
pleted and delivered March 1, 1935. 

U.S.S. cashing (Destroyer No. 376); 
LBP, 334'; beam. 35'%"; loaded draft, 
lO'lO"; geared turbine engines; express 
type boilers; keel laid August 15, 1934. 

U.S.S. Perkins (Destroyer No. 377); 
LBP 334'; beam, 35'»4"; loaded draft. 
lO'lO"; geared turbine engines; express 
type boilers; building under provisions 
of National Industrial Recovery Act; 
keel laid November 15, 1934. 

Two 1500-ton destroyers for U. S. 
Navy; contract received August 22, 
1934. 

Care and Preservation (out of Com- 
mission): Aroostook, Jason, Kearsarge, 
Patoka, Pawtucket, Prometheus, Pjto. 

DRYDOCK. TAINT. MISCELLANE- 
01".^: West \iruinia, Col<>ra<lo, Port- 
land, .Astoria, Oghila, Quail, Tanager, 
Kingfisher, .Swalow, .Mahopac, Tatniick, 
Chalenge, Wando. 



UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 

Mare Island, CaUf. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Smith, U.S. 
torpedo boat destroyer (DD378) ; stan- 
dard displacement. 1500 tons; keel laid 
October 27, 1934; estimated completion 
date. Feb., 1936. 

Preston, U. S. torpedo boat destroyer 
(DD-379); standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid. October 27, 1934; esti- 
mated completion date, May, 1936. 

DD;i91, Destroyer for U.S. Navy; 
standard displacement 1500 tons; esti- 
mated delivery November, 1936. 

SS181, Pompano, Submarine, estimat- 
ed delivery. May, 1937. 



WESTERN BOAT BUILDING CO. 
Taconia, Wash, 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Sea Gull 
(purse seiner) — Reducing length from 
56' to 50' (between perpendiculars) 
thereby allowing owner to fish for sal- 
mon in Alaska; completed and deliver- 
ed. 

Clipper (Halibut Schooner) — Com- 
plete remodelling from schooner type 
to purse seine type thereby allowing 
this boat to be used as a halibut boat, 
for sardine fishing and as a cannery ten- 
der. This boat is 82' long with a 180 
horsepower Washington engine and is 
the first remodelling job of this kind. 
It may result in other work of this type; 
completed and delivered. 

Hull No. 109, Sunset, fishing boat, L. 
B.P. 75', beam 19', 180 h.p. Atlas en- 
gine; keel laid March 5; estimated de- 
livery May 1. 19 35. 

Hull No. 110, fishing boat, propor- 
tions same as above, hull laid Feb. 15. 
1935; no further dates set. 

Complete rebuilding after fire of Pu- 
get Sound freight boat Skooknm Chief; 
125' length, 30' beam; twin screw 
diesel. 

DRYDOCK. PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: fishing boat Rally, fishing boat 
Helen L, fishing boat Francis. 



WINSLOW MARINE RAILWAY AND 
SHIPBUILDING COMPANY' 

Seattle, Wash. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Tug build- 
ing for Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co.; 
72' X 18'; 275 I.H.P. diesel engine; 
keel laid Dec. 14, 1934; completed, 
April 10. 1935; delivered. 

Three barges for same owner — self- 
dumping rock barges; 101' x 34'; keels 
laid Dec. 12. 1934; completed and de- 
livered. 



Atlantic, Lakes, Rivers 

AMERICAN BRIDGE COMPANY 
Pittsburgh. Pa. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Repairs to 



* A Y, 1935 



161 



10 coal barges for Carnegie Steel Com- 
pany; five dellvei-ed. 



BATH IROX WORKS 
Bath, Maine 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
159, Drayton (DD 366), torpedo boat 
destroyer. U.S. Navy; keel laid, March 
20, 1934; launching, no date set; esti- 
mated delivery November, 19 35. 

Hull No. 160, Lamson (DD 367). tor- 
pedo boat destroyer, for U.S. Navy; 
keel laid. March 20, 19 34; launching, 
no dates set; estimated delivery, Janu- 
ary, 1936. 



BETHLEHEM SHIPBUILDING 

CORPORATION 

Fore River Plant, 

Quincy, Mass. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Heavy Cruis- 
er CA-39, Quincy, 10,000 tons. Keel 
laid Nov. 15, 1933; Estimated delivery 
January, 1936. 

Heavy Cruiser CA4W, Vincennee, 10,- 
000 tons. Estimated delivery January, 
1937. Keel laid January 2, 19 34. 

Four Torpedo Boat Destroyers; DD- 
860. Phelps, keel laid January 2, 1934; 
eetimated delivery, December, 1935. 

DDS61, Clark, keel laid January 2, 
1934; estimated delivery February, 
1936. 

DD362, Moffett. keel laid, January 2, 
1934; estimated delivery April 1936. 

DD36S, Balch, keel laid. May 16, 
1934; estimated delivery, June, 1936. 

DD-380. 1500 Ton Destroyer. Esti- 
mated delivery, January 1937. 

DD-382. 1500 Ton Destroyer. Esti- 
mated delivery, April 1937. 



CHARLESTON DRYDOCK CO. 

Charleston, S.C. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: One 5,000- 
barrel all-welded steel tanker for 
Messrs. Thurber & Powers of Boston; 
completed and delivered. 

PAINT. DRYDOCK, MISCELLANE- 
.Moran, Tug Cyrene. Dredge, Marine 
Contracting Co. 

THE DRAVO CONTRACTING CO. 

Engineering Works Dept., 

Pittsburgh, Pa., and Wilmington. Del. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
997. one diesel sternwheel towboat of 
91 gross tons. 

Hull No. 1203. Steam Sternwheel 
800 H.P. towboat for Pittsburgh Coal 
Company. 

Hulls Nos. 1206. 1207; (2) steel Coal 
Barges 130'x34'xl4'3" for Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company; gross tons 1060. 

Hulls Nos. 1208, 1209 and 1210; (3) 
type "R" riveted steel coal barges 175'x 
26'xll' for stock; gross tons 1416. 

Hulls Nos. 1211. 1212 and 1213; (3) 
type "W" welded steel coal barges, 
175'x26'xll' for stock; gross tons 1416. 

This makes a total of 10 hulls under 
contract, with a total gross tonnage of 
4383. 



ELECTTRIC BOAT CO. 
Groton, Conn. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 19. 
fleet submarine, Shark, (SSI 74) : L.B.P. 
298'; beam,, 25'; standard displace- 
ment, 1315 tons; keel laid, October 24, 
1933; estimated launching. May. 1935. 



Hull No. 20, Tarpon (SS175) : L.B.P. 
298'; beam, 25'; standard displacement, 
1315 tons; keel laid, Dec. 22, 1933; 
estimated launching, July, 1935; pos- 
sible delivery, November, 1935. 

Hull No. 23, Perch, S.S. 176, building 
for U.S. Navy; keel laid, February 2 5, 
1935; estimated launching, June 23, 
1936. 

Hull No. 24, Pickerel, S.S. 177 keel 
laid March 2 5, 19 35; estimated launch- 
ing. September 23, 1936. 

Hull No. 25, Pinna. S.S. 178, esti- 
mated keel laying, June 6, 1935; esti- 
mated launching, December 22, 1936. 



THE FEDERAL SHIPBUILDING 
AND DRYDOCK COMPANY 

Kearny. N. .1. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Two destroy- 
ers, DD368 Flusser and DD369 Reld for 
the U. S. Navy, estimated completion 
dates — Flusser, Nov., 1935; Reid, 
February, 1936. 



THE MARIETTA MANUFACTURING 

COMPANY 

Point Pleasant. W. Va. 

One twin screw diesel driven tow- 
boat for U. S. Engineer's office, Vicks- 
burg. Miss.; length molded 176'; 
breadth, 38'; depth 8'6"; two 650 H.P. 
diesel engines; two 75 and one 15 K.W. 
diesel driven generating sets; contract 
price $314,750.00, delivery at Vicks- 
burg. Miss., in six months, keel laid 
Oct. 10, 1934; launched Feb. 5, 1935; 
coniplete<l, late .Mai'ch. 1935; delivered 
April 5. 1935. 

Seven 175'x26'xll' Steel Coal Barges 
of 1000 tons capacity each for West 
Kentucky Coal Co., of Paducah, Ky. ; 
completed. .April 1. 1935. 

Contract received March, 1935, for 
steel hull for harbor tug for Hatfield- 
Campbell's Creek Coal Company, Cin- 
cinnati, O.; length 84', beam 18', depth 
4'9"; completion within 30 days. 



MIDLAND BARGE COMPANY 

(Subsidiary of Treadwell Construction 

Company. ) 

Midland and Erie, Pa., 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: six barges, 
100'x26'x6'6", for Treadwell Construc- 
tion Company. 

One 2.5-ton derrick boat for U.S. En- 
gineers, Buffalo, N.Y. 

One barge. 100'x24'x7', for Parsons 
and Rader. 

One dredge. 110'x34'x8' for Minne- 
apolis Dredging Company. 

One barge, 46'x20'x5'6" for Minneap- 
olis Dredging Company. 



.MIDLAND SHIPBUILDING CO. 
Midland. Ontario 

DRYD6CK, PAINT, NEW CON- 
STRUCTION: Removed, straightened 
and replafe<l 9 shell plates Steamer 
Osier. 

Removed, straightened and replaced 
2 shell plates. Steamer Noronic. 

Removed and replaced by new, 6 
shell plates. Steamer Noronic. 



297. 298, 209. three barges for stock; 
100'x26'x6'6"; launched October 2, 12 
and 33 respectively. 

Hull No. 301 and Hull No. 302; 2 

barges for stock, 100'x26'x6 %'; esti- 
mated launching January 5, and 10, 
19 35, respectively. 



NEWPORT NEWS SHIPBUILDING & 

DRYDOCK CO. 

90 Broad Street. New York 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: H 359 air- 
craft carrier CV5, Yorktown, for U. S. 
Navy; keel laid May 21, 1934; estimat- 
ed delivery, October 3, 1936. 

H360 aircraft carrier, OV6, Enter- 
prise, for U.S. Navy.; keel laid July 16, 
19 34; estimated delivery February 3, 
1937. 

H;J61. light cruiser 47, Boise keel 
laid Apr. 1, 1935; estimated delivery, 
August 22, 1937. 



THE NEW YORK SHIPBUILDING J 
COMPANY 

Camden. N. J. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Contract for 
four destroyers: Hull No. 408. Porter i 
(DD356) ; Hull No. 409. Self ridge (DD- 
357); Hull No. 410, McDougal (DD- 
358); Hull No. 411. Winslow (DD- 
359); of 1850 tons each; keels laid. 
Dec. 19 33. 

Two light cruisers; Hull No. 412, 
Savannah (CL42). Hull No. 413. Nash- I 
vill (CL43). of 10,000 tons each for the 
U. S. Navy Department; estimated de- 
livery dates are as follows: DD356, ' 
Porter, Dec, 19 35; DD357, Self ridge, 
Feb., 1936; DD358. McDougal. Apr., 
1936; DD359. Winslow, June, 1936; 
CL42, Savannah, Aug., 1936; CL43. 
Nashville, Dec. 1936. 

Oil tanker. No. 414. and oil tanker < 
No. 415. for Standard-Vacuum Trans- 
portation Company, 15,000 tons D.W. '| 
each; keels laid March 26, 1934; deliv- 
ery March, 1935 and May, 1935, respec- 
tively. 

(C.L. 46) One Ught cruiser, Hull No. 
416, for U.S. Navy; weight 10,000 tons; 
estimated delivery, August 1937. 



SPEDDEN SHIPBUILDING CO. 

Baltimore, Md. 

NEJW CONSTRUCTION: Hull No. 
27.5. Tug, for U. S. Engineers, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; L.B.P. 50'; beam 14'; 
loaded draft 5'6i4"; 120 B.H.P. Kah- 
lenbeg oil engine; delivery in 130 days. 



SUN SHIPBUILDING AND DRY 
DOC^K CO. 
Chester, Pa. 

DRYDOCK, PAINT, MISCELLANE- 
OUS: S..S. Havana (Ward Line); Bot- 
tom repairs account grounding damage. 



NASHVILLE BRIDGE CO., 
Nashville. Tenn. 
NEW CON.STRUCTION: Hulls Nos. 



UNITED DBYDOCKS. Inc. 
Staten Island, N.Y. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: DD364, de- 
stroyer Mahan, estimated delivery, Oct. 
1935; L.B.P. 334'0"; beam 35'0"; mean 
draft, lO'lO"; keel laid June 12, 1934; 
estimated delivery Oct. 30, 1935. 

DDS6.5, destroyer Cununings. esti- 
mated delivery, Dec, 1935, for U. S 
Navy; L.B.P. 334'0"; beam 35'0"; mean 
draft lO'lO"; keel laid June 26, 1934; 



162 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



estimated delivery, Dec. 30, 19 35. 

DD 384, Destroyer for U.S. Navy; es- 
timated delivery. June 9, 1936. 
! DD 385. Destroyer for U.S. Navy; es- 
I timated delivery, August 9, 1936. 

I UXITED STATES NAVY YARD 

I Boston, Mass. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Destroyer 

I DD370, Case, L.B.P. 334'; beam 35'; 
keel laid, Sept. 19. 1934; estimated de- 

1 livery. July 1936. 

I Destroyer DD371, Conyngham, L.B.P. 

I 334'; beam 35'; keel laid Sept. 19. 

11934; estimated delivery, Oct. 1936. 
Destroyer DD3o4. Monaghan, L.B.P. 

1334'; beam 34'2"; keel laid November 

'21, 1933; launched Jan. 9, 1935; esti- 
mated delivery. May, 1935. 

Destroyer DD351, Macdonough. keel 
laid May 15. 1933. L.B. P. 334'; beam 
34'2"; launched Aug. 22. 1934; esti- 
mated delivery. April, 19 35; for the 
U.S. Navy. 

DD389 and DD390. two light destroy- 
ers; estimated deliverv: 389, Nov. 1. 
1936; 390, Feb. 1, 1937. 

UNITED STATES NAVY YARD 

I Charleston. S.C. 

I NEW CONSTRUCTION: U.S.S. 
|C1iarIe«ton, gunboat (PG51) for U. S. 
I Navy, building period assigned by Navy 
Department, Nov. 1, 19 3 3. to Feb. 1, 
|193S; keel laid October 27, 19o4; esti- 
jmated completion date, March, 1936. 
I One Coast Guard Cutter (2000 tons). 
iNo dates set. 



! UNITED STATES NAVY Y.\RD 
I New York, N. Y. 

1 NEW CONSTRUCTION: DD350. HuU. 
'destroyer; L.B.P. 334'; beam. 34'2''; 
'standard displacement. 1500 tons; 
'geared turbine engines; express type 
'boilers; keel laid March. 1933; launch- 
ed Aug. 11. 1934; estimated delivery 
July. 1935. 

'. DD 353, Dale, destroyer, dimensions 
same as above; keel laid, February 10. 
1934; estimated delivery, Feb. 1. 1935. 
I CL 40. Brookl>Ti. light cruiser. L.B. 
JP. 600'; beam 61'8"; standard displace- 
ment. 10,000; geared turbine engines; 
express type boilers; estimated keel 
laying. March 1, 1935; estimated deliv- 
iery. March 24, 1936. 
' PG. 50. Erie, gunboat; L.B.P., 308'; 
■beam, 41"; standard displacement, 
2000 tons; geared turbine engines; ex- 
press type boilers. Building for U.S. 
S.'avy, keel laid Dec. 17, 1934; estimat- 
ed delivery. March 1. 1936. 

UNTTED STATES NA\Tr YARD 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: CL41, Phila- 
lelphia, L.B.P. 6000"; beam 61',7%"; 
molded depth at side to main deck 
imidships 4 2'0*4"; draft corresponding 
'.o normal displacement 21',8V4"; stan- 
lard displacement 10.000 tons; date of 
tompletion as reported by building yard, 
fanuary. 1937. 

DD355. Aylwin, L.B.P.. 334'0" beam 
34',2V4"; depth molded at side to main 
leek amidships, 19', 7-7/8"; draft corre- 
sponding to normal displacement 10'. 
f!-l?/16"; standard displacement 1500 
tons; keel laid September 23. 1933; 
launched July 10. 1934; estimated de- 
:ivery April 15, 1935. 



DD372. Cassin. L.B.P.. 334'.0 "; beam, 
35'. 0-1/8"; depth molded at side to 
main deck amidships 19', 7-7/8"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement. 
10'. 10"; standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid, October 1, 1934; esti- 
mated completion date, March 15, 1936. 

DD37 3, Shaw. L.B.P. 334'. 0"; beam. 
35'. 0-1/8"; depth molded at side to 
main deck amidships. 19'7-7/8"; draft 
corresponding to normal displacement, 
10'. 10"; standard displacement, 1500 
tons; keel laid October 1, 1934; esti- 
mated completion, June 15, 1936. 

Coast (iuard Cutter No. 65, George 
W. Campbell: L.B.P. 308', beam 41', 
depth molded at side to main deck 
amidships 23'6". draft corresponding to 
normal displacement 12'6", standard 
displacement 2000; estimated date of 
keel laying April. 1935; estimated date 
of cotnpletion, July, 1936. 

Coast Guard Cutter No. 66. Samuel 
D. Ingham; L.B.P. 308', beam 41', depth 
molded at side to main deck amidships 
23'6". draft corresponding to normal 
displacement 12'6". standard displace- 
ment 2000; estimated date of keel lay- 
ing April. 1935; estimated date of com- 
pletion. September. 1936. 

Coast Guard Cutter No. 67. William 
J. Duane: L.B.P. 308'. beam 41', depth 
molded at side to main deck amidships 
23'6", draft corresponding to normal 
displacement 12'6". standard displace- 
ment 2000; estimated date of keel lay- 
ing April, 1935; estimated date of com- 
pletion. November. 1936. 

Coast Guard Cutter No. 68. Roger B. 
Taney; L.B.P. 308', beam 41', depth 
molded at side to main deck amidships 
2 3'6", draft corresponding to normal 
displacement 12'6". standard displace- 
ment 2000; estimated keel laying April. 
1935; estimated completion, January 
1937. 

C.\45 Wichita. L.B.P. 600, beam 61' 
9^". depth molded at side to main deck 
amidships 42'0 3 8", draft correspond- 
ing to normal displacement 21'10"; 
standard displacement 10.000; estimat- 
ed completion January 1, 1938. 



UNITED ST.ATES NA\T YARD 

Portsmouth. N. H. 
NEW CONSTRUCTION: SS 172. 
Porpoise; keel laid, October 27. 1933; 

estimated delivery. Feb. 1936. SS 173. 
Pike, keel laid. Dec. 20. 19 33 estimated 
delivery. May, 1936. SS 179 Plunger, 
estimated delivery, Feb., 1937; SS 180 
Pollack, estimated deliverv. Mav. 1937; 
L.B.P. 289'0"; beam 24'-li-l/16"; load- 
ed draft 13'-9"; diesel electric engines. 



UNITED ST.ATES NA\Tr Y.\RD 
Portsmouth, Va. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION: Torpedo 
Boat Destroyer Tucker (DD374) for 
U.S. Navy, 341 ft. long; beam 35'; 
loaded draft. lO'lO"; treaty stand- 
ard displacement, 1500 tons; No. 4 
boilers; 35 knots speed; estimated de- 
livery, February, 1936. 

Torpedo Boat Destroyer D o w u e s 
(DD375) for U.S. Navy. 344 ft. long; 
beam 35'; loaded draft. lO'lO"; treaty 
standard displacement. 1500 tons; No. 
4 boilers; 35 knots speed; estimated 
delivery. May, 1936. Laying down lines 
under way in mold loft. 



NEW AGENT FOR 
AMERICAN SHIPBUILDING CO. 

L. E. Caverly Company, Wilming- 
ton, has recently been appointed 
sales agent on the Pacific Coast for 
the American Shipbuilding Company 
of Cleveland, particularly in distri- 
buting the new Bodenlos Adjustable 
Plug Pi.ston. 

This piston is especially adapted 
to high superheats and high steam 
pressures. It offers the following ad- 
vantages : 

(1) It can be readily adjusted to 
take up wear; 

(2) This adjustment can be made 
while the piston is in the cyl- 
inder; 

(3) Its periphery is a true circle 
at all diameters within the 
limits of adjustment; 

(4) It cannot steam set; and 

(5) It saves steam because it can 
be adjusted to a snug working 
fit eliminating leakage. 

L. E. Caverly has been long and 
favorably known to the maritime 
fraternity on the Pacific Coast, 
through his connections with the old 
Union Iron Works at San Francisco, 
and with the Los Angeles Shipbuild- 
ing and Drj-dock Company. 

Backed by a firm of the solid rep- 
utation enjoyed by the American 
Shipbuilding Company, and introduc- 
ed by L. E. Caverly. the new Boden- 
los Adjustable Piston should receive 
very favorable consideration from 
all users of reciprocating steam en- 
gines on the Pacific Coast. 



Diesel Manufacturer Enlarges 
Factor>-. Evidence of the expanding 
business of the F.A.B. Manufactur- 
ing Company of Oakland, makers of 
the Fabco Tuxham low compression 
diesels. is evidenced by the building 
program which this concern now has 
near completion. To provide greater 
floor space in their main factory for 
the manufacture of diesel engines, 
this company has built a 65-ft. x 100- 
ft. addition at the rear of their pjant 
into which other activities of the 
company will be moved to accommo- 
date the growing diesel engine de- 
partment. 

This company is also building a 
40-ft X 60-ft. display room at the 
front of their premises in which the 
various engines and other products 
of the concern will be set up for pub- 
lic inspection. The two factory addi- 
tions are constructed of face brick 
with long span trusses supporting 
the roof. 



MAY, 1935 



163 



f 



Marine Trade Notes 



New Marine Carburetor Manual. 

A new manual and parts catalogue, 
which answers practically every 
question that may arise about sea- 
going carburetors, has just been pub- 
lished by the Marine Carburetor 
Division of The Bendix Products Cor- 
poration at South Bend, Ind. The 
book was prepared by H. A. Hansen, 
head of the marine carburetor 
division. 

"This new manual is intended to 
be a complete handbook of informa- 
tion upon marine carburetion," says 
Mr. Hansen. "We believe it fulfills 
its purpose. There is no marine in- 
stallation that cannot be satisfac- 
torily handled by the information 
contained therein. It is attractive, 
complete and will be of great assist- 
ance to anybody interested in devel- 
oping proper or better performance 
from any type of marine motor." 

Available on request from Pacific 
Marine Review or from Bendix Pro- 
ducts Corporation, South Bend. 



Canadian Steamship Appointmenti 

Captain E. E. Tedford has been ap- 
pointed acting general manager of 
the Canadian National Steamships 
with headquarters at Montreal, ac- 
cording to an announcement issued 
by S. J. Hungerford, president of the 
Canadian National Railways. 

Captain Tedford was general sup- 
erintendent at the time of his ap- 
pointment and succeeds Andrew H. 
Allan, who has retired. 

The new acting general manager 
earned his ticket in sail and steam, 
beginning his sea career before the 
mast in 1887. In 1920 he joined the 
Canadian Government Merchant 
Marine as marine superintendent 
and when that fleet became the Can- 
adian National Steamships, Captain 
Tedford continued in the service un- 
der the Maple Leaf house flag. 

The Canadian National Steamships 
engage in passenger and freight 
service between Canada and the West 
Indies, calling at Boston; and in 
freight service between Canada and 
Australia and New Zealand, via 
Panama, calling at New York. 



radio telegraph equipment is being 
installed aboard the Columbia River 
Packers Association's floating can- 
nery vessel, S.S. Memnon. 

This vessel, which will be consid- 
ered as having one of the finest radio 
installations ever to sail the Alaskan 
waters, will have a complete high 
frequency and intermediate frequen- 
cy transmitter, enabling the vessel to 
keep in direct communication with 
the owners at Astoria, Oregon, 
through the Mackay Radio Marine 
Station at Portland. 

The use of high frequency com- 
munication equipment is rapidly be- 
ing accepted by steamship operators 
as a modern necessity. 

Far-sighted Mackay radio engin- 
eers saw the necessity for this type 
of equipment and through extensive 
research have developed apparatus 
outstanding in communication over 
distances unheard of a few years ago. 



Tanker Radio Round the World. 

When the giant Texaco Tanker M.S. 
Australia returns to active service, 
she will be equipped with one of the 
latest type Mackay radio transmit- 
ters capable of working from any 
point on the globe direct with San 
Francisco. 

This equipment consists of a com- 
bination high frequency and inter- 
mediate frequency transmitter, cov- 
ering all of the commercial marine 
operating bands from 18 metei-s to 
800 meters. Two receivers are sup- 
plied allowing the operator complete 
coverage of all operating frequencies 
at all times. 

Similar transmitting equipment, 
installed a year ago aboard the Stan- 
dard Oil Company Tanker W. S. 
Rheem, enabled the latter vessel to 
communicate with the Mackay radio 
marine shore stations, directly from 
the Persian Gulf, almost exactly on 
the opposite side of the earth. 



Floatin.<j Cannery Communication. 

One of the latest types of modern 



Battery-Cell Tester. A new Tungar 
battery-cell testei-, listing at $5.95 
and featuring a special switch which 
permits the instrument to be used 
either for the usual high-rate-dis- 
charge tests or for open-circuit tests, 
has been announced by the General 
Electric Company's Merchandise De- 
partment, Bridgeport, Conn. 



The body of the new cell tester i; 
formed by a molded prod-handli 
shaped to fit the hand of the opera 
tor. A large, easily read meter, lo' 
cated at the top of the handle, ha. 
been imbedded in a wide rubbe 
guard which protects it agains 
shocks that might impair its accur 
acy. Besides having the usual voltag' 
scale, it is marked with special sub 
divisions which simplify battery-tes, 
readings. The special switch, whicl, 
makes the instrument a double-pur 
pose tester, is of the thumb-screv 
type and is located between the twi 
cadmium-plated battery prods. 

By means of the switch, reading 
for both high-rate-discharge am 
open-circuit tests may be obtaine 
from the same meter. Thus, the in 
strument may be quickly converter- 
to test the battery when the latter ii 
either in or out of the car, or on th,. 
charging line. I 



Market for Fountain Pens in Mexl 
ico. The market for fountain pens ii^ 
northern Mexico is experiencing i* 
steady rapid expansion as a result ot 
the general growth of business aiK 
modernization of business systems 
according to a report from Consui 
Lee R. Blohm, Chihuahua. The dii' 
fusion of education with an attend, 
ant demand for scholastic equipmen 
is also an important factor in this ir 
creased demand. Style and qualit 
are prerequisites in this market a, 
pens of cheap quality and of dul 
and colorless patterns are practical 
ly unsalable. 

The United States, Germany, an 
Japan, at present, are the thre 
sources of imports of fountain pen 
into Mexico, supplying 90 per cent, i 
per cent and 3 per cent, respectively 

Retailers in the Chihuahua distric 
are of the opinion that sales of An 
erican fountain pens could be grea 
ly enlarged by the establishment c 
manufacturers' agents in Mexico c 
by the establishment of shops equil 
ped to repair pens. There is only on 
manufacturer's agent in the mark( 
at the present time. 



Ralph C. Fraser, manager of tl 
Seattle steamship department of Ba 
four Guthrie has returned to Seatt, 
after a two months tour of the Unii 
ed Kingdom and the Continent. K| 
has been studying the situation i: 
regard to apple shipments. 



164 



PACIFIC MARINE REVlENj 



Pacific Marine Personals 



NAMES ARE NEWS" 



BY BERNARD De ROCHIE 



; Daulton Mann, executive vice-pres- 
Jent of the Grace Line, here from 
'ew York for a conference with Ed- 
'ard T. Ford, president, and Fred L. 
oelker. Pacific coast manager, re- 
pectively. made the following com- 
lents in regard to general maritime 
:>nditions : 

i "This year will be the best in the 
istory of intercoastal and Latin 
tnerican travel between the Atlan- 
k: and Pacific coasts. 



I Captain Lindley Davis, manager 
f the Puget Sound Tug and Barge 
pmpany. enjoyed his annual vaca- 
pn during April in Southern Cali- 
>rnia. Mrs. Davis accompanied him. 



'■ Erick Krag, vice-president and 
*?neral manager of the Interocean 
ine at San Francisco, is on his way 
* Europe aboard the Beranger. He 
Ipects to remain abroad about four 
wnths. 



Hugh Brittan, passenger traffic 
anager for the Pacific Steamship 
Ines, back from his business survey 
'ip through the northwest, antici- 
Ites an unusually heavy volume of 
immer passenger business, he an- 
iunced on his return. 
jBrittan visited Admiral Line of- 
bes in Portland, Tacoma. Seattle 
id Vancouver, and reported that 
each of these offices berthing 
aeets were already well filled with 
lokings throughout the summer and 
Irly fall. 



The Merritt-Chapman & Scott Cor- 
iration elected directors on April 

and officers on April 9. 1935. The 
;ard. reduced from 17 to 9. consists 
ir ensuing year of the following: 
^T. A. Scott, re-elected chairman 
i|d Gwin A. Whitney re-elected 
fesident. Members of the board are : 
'illiam H. Baker, Jr., H. F. Boynton. 

mes A. Burden, Jr.. C. M. Finney, 
liul H. Harwood, Jansen Noyes, T. 
Scott, Harold E. Talbott Jr., and 
*Ain A. Whitney. 



AY, 1935 



THOMAS H. DOOLING HEADS 

EXIDE BRANCH IN SAN 

FRANCISCO 

Thomas H. Dooling assumed the 
managership of Exide's San Fran- 
cisco Branch on February 1st. 

Born in Vallejo, California, he 
first became associated with Exide 
in January, 1903, joining the San 
Francisco branch and reporting to 
George R. Murphy, who is now man- 
ager of the Pacific Coast district. In 
June. 1916. he left for service on the 
Mexican border with Field Company 
"B," California Signal Corps, with 
the rank of sergeant. He returned in 
December. 1916. but left for service 




overseas in June. 1917, with the 8th 
Field Signal Battalion, 4th Division 
(Regulars), serving in France. Eng- 
land and Germany until September, 
1919. He returned to the Company's 
San Francisco branch in 1919 with 
the rank of Major in the Signal Re- 
serve Corps, in which he has con- 
tinued to take an active part. Major 
Dooling's Battalion saw active ser- 
vice on the Marne, St. Mihiel and 
Argonne, and with the army of occu- 
pation in Germany. 

He was transferred to Boston in 
March, 1923, and was appointed man- 
ager of the Boston Branch in De- 



cember, 1925. He is a member of the 
board of governors of the Engineers 
Club of Boston; a member of the 
executive committee, Crosscup-Pish- 
on Post, American Legion, Boston; 
past-president of the Boston Signal 
Post, American Signal Corps Associ- 
ation; also 4th Division Association 
of New England. 

Mr. Dooling's many friends in San 
Francisco marine circles who knew 
him in his former work in the local 
area will be glad to have him back 
on the Coast again. Propeller Club 
Membership Committee — please 
note! 



The following changes in Ameri- 
can-Hawaiian personnel were an- 
nounced during the month of April 
by Roger D. Lapham, president of 
the company. 

Pacific Coast Traffic Manager 
Dearborn Clark to be traffic man- 
ager of the company, with head- 
quarters at San Francisco. 

Assistant Traffic Manager J. A. 
Stumpf to be assistant to the vice- 
president, with headquarters at New 
York City. 

F. W. Ander-son, W. M. Wood and 
W. T. Izzard to be assistant traffic 
managers, with headquarters at New 
York City. 

G. V. Cooley to be assistant traffic 
manager, with headquarters at San 
Francisco. 

A. F. Zipf to be district manager 
at San Francisco. 

G. W. White, now district manager 
at Baltimore, to be district manager 
at Philadelphia, succeeding W. M. 
Wood. 

A. E. Stow, now assistant to the 
operating manager, to be district 
manager at Baltimore, succeeding 
G. W. White. 

Captain F. J. Bennett, now assist- 
ant operating manager, to be Atlan- 
tic Coast operating manager, with 
headquarters at New York City. 

The appointements at Phildelphia 
and Baltimore are to take effect May 
15. All others were effective imme- 
diately. 



ANNOUNCEMENT 

APRIL 30. 

W. F. Meyer, Professor of Astronomy at the University of 
California, is scheduled as our guest speaker. Prof. Meyer ap- 
peared before the club about three years ago and gave an 
exceptionally interesting talk on Navigation and Astronomy. 

Hope to see you aboard! 



Official News of the 

PROPELLER CLUB ^/California 




HEADQUARTERS 

320 Market Street, Room 249 
San Francisco 

President 
Charles H. Roblrtson 

Secretary-Treasurer 
Stanley E. Allen 

BOARD OF GOVERNORS 
Francis M. Edwards. Chairman 
Philip Coxon 
James A. Cronin 
L. M. Edelman 
Joseph J. Geary 
John T. Greany 
E. H. Harms 
H. T. Haviside 
C. M. Le Count 
W. Edgar Martin 
Fletcher Monson 
Edwin H. Walter 



# Luncheon Meetings 

April 2. J. S. McConkey, West 
Coast manager of Sperry Gyroscope 
Company, presented a most interest- 
ing film which clearly explained the 
Roll Control as perfected by his com- 
pany. The Sperry Stabilizer as instal- 
led on scores of ocean-going vessels 
in naval, merchant, and yacht classi- 
fications, was analyzed in a graphic 
way. The 32-minute movie told the 
story completely, and fascinatingly 
— devoting considerable footage to 
the installation on the giant Italian 



liner, Conte di Savoia. Mr. McConkey 
gave highlighted comments and sent 
us all away with a very clear idea of 
this unbelievable mechanism which 
is attracting the attention of the en- 
tire marine world. John Greany was 
chairman of the day, and handled 
the meeting on an efficient time 
schedule basis. 

— PC — 

April 16. We were honored with 
the presence of Captain W. H. 
Rhodes, who recounted many experi- 
ences of his long association with the 
Lighthouse Service out here in Paci- 
fic waters. Captain Rhodes proved 
to be a very able speaker filled with 
enthusiasm over his work and the 
accomplishments of that important 
branch of the Federal navigation 
service. W. Edgar Martin introduced 
the speaker as chairman of the day, 
and told of Capt. Rhodes' splendid 
record both in geodetic work and as 
superintendent of the Eighteenth 
district. Chairman Martin also "her- 
alded" the golf movies which showed 
four-score Propellers in action at 
Menlo. The pictures were a kick — 
and more than one of the divot-dig- 
gers can reasonably expect Holly- 
wood overtures. As Tote Haviside 
says: 

"Who is this fellow, Bobby Jones!" 

— PC — 

# Menlo Echoes 

Well, the boys had a nice day for 



Twenty foursomes teed off! 

Chairman Brace Carter, aided and 
abetted by Byron "Tote" Haviside,. 
Syd Livingston, and C. M. (Dad) Le 
Count, thought of everything for our 
delight and pleasure. 

All the "regulars" were on hand- 
meaning the Old Guard, Harry Havi- 
side, John Greany, George Swett, Ed-' 
die Martin — just to name a few of 
the tried and true. 

Lloyd Swayne had a good game- 
so did George Armes. The ship opera- 
tor won a handsome trophy. The 
shipbuilder won a prize which he can 
save for his next christening— God 
speed the day! 

Edward Harmes landed on the 
trophy list. So did Charles Dilke, 
proving the affinity between golfing 
and ship-chandlering. 

Les Moody came up to receive his 
prize and remained to sing a true 
tenor to Chairman Carter's dubious 
baritone. 

Lou Shain clicked, scoring for deal 
old Williams. 

Father and son teams includet 
Harry T. and Russell Haviside- 
Roger Lapham and Lewis, a fellow 
scribe of "marinews." 

We seem to remember George Lacj 
up on the platform accepting i 
trophy but we can't recollect hin 
speech. '■ 

Oh, yes— Trev Smith won the lov, 
gross. 



10 



PACIFIC MARINE REVlEVI 



Hay 

1005-1006 BALFOUR 
BUILDING 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIE\X' 



C V. LANE 

MARINE AND INDUSTRIAL 
EQUSPMENT 



11 



SAN FRANCISCO, 
CALIFORNIA 



HYDE STEERESG GEARS 

H\T>e Vn-NCHES 

mT)E W7NDL.\SSES 

hH'DE C\PST.\NS 

tm)E NL-VNGANESE BRONZE PROPEL- 
LERS a; CASTINGS 

DEAN BROS. PUMPS 

GENERAL P.AXNT CO. 

L. Be S, PORTLAND CEMENT P.\INT 

A. B. S.\NDS a; SON CO.. 
PLL'MBLNG FIXTLRES 

FOSTER ROTARY PUMPS 

SMOLENSKTi' NOISELESS CHECK VALVES 

BACHARACH INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENT 
COMPANY 



CO-2 EQUIPMENT 

MMHAK ENGINE INDICATORS 

"RESISTO" FIRE -RESISTING PUTTY Sc 

PAIST 
DIEHL .MFG. CO. 

F.VSS, MOTORS, GENERATORS 
SUBM.ARJNT SIGNAL COMPANY 

F.\THO.METER 
COLORED CR.\VONS 
MET.AL WORKERS' CRAYONS 
NATION.\L ANCHORS 
ANCHOR CHAINS 
WELIN QUADRANT ANT) SHEATH 

SCREW DAVTTS 



NLACLACHLAN GR-AVITl' DAVTTS 

METALUC LIFEBO.ATS AND UFER.\fTS 

HOSE AND PACKING 

SHORT AL.\RM SERVICE TANK 

SHORT OIL SEPARATOR 

ECUPSE STE.AM TRAPf 

WILLIAM W. NUGENT H CC, 

on. FILTERS 
TELESCOPE TUBE CLEANER 
U. S. METALLIC P.^CKING 
CONSOL RUST REMOVER 
CONSOL RED .\ND BLACK 
H\SKELITE— PHE.VLJkLOID 
PL-kMETL ORN.^METL P.^iNELS 



P.AJRM.\N PYROMETERS FORDS PATENT TOWING CHUCKS 

B. F. GOODRICH CUTLESS RUBBER BEARINGS 
-TODD SYSTEM" a; "WHITE SYSTEM" OF BURNING FUEL OIL MECHANICALLY 
NECKAR WATER SOFTENERS TODD DRYT)C>CKS. INC., DRYDOCKING ANT) REPAIRS 



Inter-Coastal Paint Corporation 

BALTIMORE. MD. 

Origiaators and sole manufacturers of CONSOL both plain and in colors. A 
conditioning solution for metal surfaces that have become corroded. Not 
only a scale remover but a preservative as well. Gives e.xcellent results when 
applied to boottop belt, hull, holds, bilges, tank tops, chain lockers, ventila- 
tor trunks, decks and so forth. Is non-inflatninable and contains no acids 
or chemicals that are injurious to men or metal. 



Todd Oil Burning Equipment 



for over a quarter of a century, by 
and economy in operation, 1 
heating plant engineers. 

The marine, institutional, industrial and dwelling 
delivering the usual Todd performance of effecting su 
cost, maintenance and operating expenses. Todd Oil 
manufactured by Todd Combustion Equipment, Inc., 
Ship>-ards Corporation. 



■eliability of performance, efficienc>- 
ly met the demands of power and 



HYDE 



Steering Gears, Windlasses, Capstans, Bronze Propellers 
— as installed on America's finest ships. 

HYDE WINDLASS COMPANY, 
Bath, Maine. 



The U. S. Metallic Packing Co. 

PHIL.A.DELPHI.^, P.A. 

has for the past 50 years specialized in the manufacture o{ 
strictly all metallic packings designed individually to suit operat- 
ing conditions of steam, air, liquids, etc. Only the finest of 
materials and workmanship enter their construction to eliminate 
friction and rod wear. 



Marine Motors, Generators 

and Ventilating Equipment 

DIEHL MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Electrical Division of 

THE SINGER MANUFACTURING CO. 

Elizabethport, New Jersey 

S.AN FR.\NCISCO Representative — C. V. LANE. 




The ISHERWOOD^^AHECFORM'' DESIGN 



(Patents Applied For) 

FOR THE ''EFFICIENCY'' SHIP 

Increased Cubic and Deadweight Capacity 



tank Tests at the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, 
have produced results not previously achieved. 

Reduced Consumption, or 

Increased Speed - - - Increased Strength Improved Ballast Conditions 

SEND LENGTH - BREADTH - DRAFT - DISPLACEMENT COEFHCIENT - SPEED - HO.'tSEPOWER- 
ANO DATA WILL BE SUPPLIED FOR YOUR COMP.\RISON FREE OF CHARGE: 

SIR JOSEPH W. ISHERWOOD & CO., Ltd. 



17 Battery Place - New York. N.Y. 



4, Lloyd's Avenue • London. E. C. 3 



Robert Phillips, manager of the 
coffee department of the Grace Line 
has returned to his San Francisco 
headquarters from a trip through 
Central America, inspecting coffee 
plantations. On his way home he 
stopped in Los Angeles to confer 
with Guy Buck and Harrj* Thompson, 
manager and sub-manager, respec- 
tively in that city. 



Heretofore New Zealand has had 
only one representative in this capa- 
city, J. W. Collins, with offices in 
New York and Ottawa, Canada. 



Owen E. Durkin, district manager 
at Los Angeles for the Hammond 
Shipping Company spent part of the 
past month at Gilman Hot Springs 
convalescing from a serious attack 
of arthritis. 



(Jerald E. Morris, former traffic 
manager in Los Angeles for the Ar- 
gonaut Steamship Line, joined the 
staff of the McCormick Steamship 
Company as district freight agent in 
that city, on April 1. 

Mr. Morris has been in the steam- 
ship business in Los Angeles for 
more than ten years. He is a native of 
this state and a graduate of Los An- 
geles high school. He was first em- 
ployed by the Lehman Steamship 
Agency. He became connected with 
Norton, Lilly and Company some 
eight years ago, remaining with that 
company until the Argonaut Line 
opened its own offices in this city, 
when he became a member of that 
staff, rising to the head of the office 
last year and remaining until last 
month, when the office was closed. 



W. A. Nour.se, for the past nine 
years assistant to W. M. Cline, assis- 
tant freight traffic manager of the 
Pacific Steamship Lines, has assum- 
ed the duties of his former chief, 
Mr. Cline having been forced to as- 
sume less arduous duties, due to ill- 
ness. Mr. Cline is now a member of 
the Pacific Steamship personnel as 
special agent, according to the an- 
nouncement of Charles A. Perke.s 
freight traffic manager. 



R. M. Firth, well known New Zea- 
land trade representative, has been 
appointed trade and tourist commis- 
sioner for New Zealand for the west- 
ern part of the United States, with 
offices to be established in Los An- 
geles, according to word recently re- 
ceived in Los Angeles. Mr. Firth 
will be transferred here from Mel- 
bourne, Australia, it was stated. 



Arthur L. O'Connor, manager in 
the United States for the Australian 
National Travel Association, a gov- 
ernmental agency, has removed of- 
fices of the association from San 
Francisco to Los Angeles, where he 
has announced, he will hereafter op- 
erate fi-om the Clark Hotel. The 
move, Mr. O'Connor declared, is in 
recognition of the growing import- 
ance of Los Angeles as a tourist 
travel center. 



Announcement was made recently 
by Thomas F. Plant, vice-president 
of the American-Hawaiian Steam- 
ship Company, of the death in As- 
toria of Captain John S. Greene, for 
the past nineteen years commander 
of the company's steamer, Virginia, 
and veteran master of the fleet. 

Captain Greene, who was born in 
Philadelphia in 1867, went to sea at 
the age of 14 as a cabin boy on the 
old iron sailing ship T. V. Oakes, and 
during the next twelve years saw 
service on the sailing ships St. John, 
Snow & Burgess, Frances and St. 
Katherine. He joined American-Ha- 
waiian, June 11, 1902, as mate on 
the Steamer Nebraskan, and has 
been with the company continuousl.v 
ever since, commanding besides the 
Virginia, the Nebraskan, Nevadan, 
Arborean and Honolulan. 

During the World War, Captain 
Greene, in command of the Nebi'as- 
kan, brought his ship safely into 
Liverpool after it had been struck by 
a submarine. Later, on the Virginian, 
he engaged in a running gun duel in 
which he drove off a German sub- 
marine. After the Armistice, he 
commanded the Virginian for five 
voyages in the U. S. Army Transport 
Service, bringing home more than 
10,000 American soldiers from 
Fi-ance. 



Captain Peter C. Hansen, an old- 
timer from the days of sail on San 
Francisco Bay, died at his home in 
Centerville, California, early in the 
month. Since about 1890 Captain 
Hansen was skipper of such famous 
craft as the "Wavelet," "George 
Washington," and "Diamond" — well 
known in the bay district. When 
these old-time Bay craft were forced 



out of business about twenty-five or 
thirty years ago by more efficient 
craft, propelled by "gas," Captain 
Hansen went into the lumber bu.si- 
ness up in Centerville and Niles, and 
there he has been ever since, acquir- 
ing for himself a reputation for hon- 
esty and efficiency equal to that 
made previously as master of scows 
on San Francisco Bay, when these 
picturesque craft were familiar 
sights here. 



Book Review 

RAILWAY and HIGHWAY TRANS- 
PORTATION ABROAD by W. 
Rodney Long. 425 pages with nu- 
merous illustrations and maps, pa- 
per covers. Published by U. S. De- 
partment of Commerce, Washing- 
ton, D.C. Price, fifty cents. 
This is the report of a survey made 
by the Transportation Division of 
the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce. Materials for the study 
were obtained from the replies to 
questionnaires sent out to all foreign 
offices of the Bureau, and to state 
department officers in those coun- 
tries where the Bureau has no rep- 
resentatives; and from such unoffi- 
cial sources as transportation, tech- 
nical, and trade publications. 

A trilogy on this general theme is 
in preparation — this volume being 
the first. It is expected that studies 
on "Land Transport Rate Making 
Policies Abroad" and "Taxation of 
Highway Vehicles and Fuel Abroad" 
will approximate the titles of tht 
other two books, and that studie.' 
leading up to publication will be in- 
augurated during the coming year. 



New Life-Saving Device. A Britisl 
firm, C. H. Bailey, Graham & Com 
pany, Ltd., of Cardiff, made up foi 
tests before Board of Trade repre 
sentatives and shipowners, a ne 
composed of tubular cork member,' 
meshed with I'ope. This can be low 
ered down a ship's side, serving as J 
ladder, and lowered into the wate: 
with persons on it. Or the net can b 
thrown overboard from a founderini 
ship and crew or passengers leap on 
to it without injury to person or net 
Or it can be floated down on a to\( 
line from a rescuing to a wreckfr 
vessel and her people hauled to safe 
ty. This Flotanet, after the tests, wa 
presented to one of the life-savini 
stations on the Bristol Channel. 



12 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEV 



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i 



flCIFIC 

pnARinG 
review 



JNE, 19 3 5 

5L. XXXII NO. 6 



CONTENTS 

Editorial Conimcnt: 

Our Foreign Trade 165 

American Silver Policy and Foreign Trade 166 

Spcakinf; of Income Tax 166 

An Advisory Council 167 

California Pacific International Exposition 167 

A National Policy for American Shipping 168 

By R. J. Baker. 

American Shipbuilding Situation 169 

By H. Gcrnsh Smith. 

Merchant Marine Act of 1935: Some Notes on Past and Present American Aids 

to Merchant Shipping, with Specilic Reference to the Copeland Bland Bill 171 

By R. J Alexander. 

National Self Sufficiency or International Efficiency 174 

By Daniel C. Roper. 

A New Era In American World Trade 176 

By Howard N. Middleton. 

American Foreign Trade in 1934 177 

Pacific Coast Foreign Trade for the Month of March and First 3 Months of 

1934 and 1935 179 

Shipbuilders Elect National Officers 180 

Shipowners Move 180 

American Ship, Empress of China 181 

By E. E. Johnson. 

Beachcomber's Loot 182 

E.xhaust Turbine Makes Large Fuel Savings 184 

Two- Year Service Record, S.S. Washington 185 

American Sloop, Yankee, with a Welded Steel Mast 186 

A Compound of Many Virtues 186 

American Air Conditioning on the Normandie 187 

Marine Insurance: 

The B.B. Clause, or Both to Blame 188 

A New Navigation Hazard 188 

An Important Marine Decision 189 

A Golden Jubilee Celebration 189 

Marine Insurance Notes 190 

American Shipbuilding 192 

Progress of Construction 193 

Miscellaneous: 

A New Model Direction Finder, 196: World Distance Record Made by 
Diesel Tanker. 196; Marine Personals, adv. 13; Propeller Club Notes, adv. 14. 



tered as second class matter June 10, 1913, at the post office, San Francisco, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Published on the 25th of each 
nth preceding the publication date. Advertising and editorial forms close on the 15th. Subscription price, a year: Domestic, $1.50; foreign, 

$3; single copies, 25c. Chas. F. A. Mann, Northwest Representative, 1110 Puget Sound Bank BIdg., Tacoma, Washington. 
New York City copies of Pacific Marine Review can be purchased at the news stands of I. Goldberg, 42 Broadway; Jacob Fuchs, 17 Battery 
Place; Philip Mandara, Greenwich Street and Battery Place at 25c per copy. 



James S. Hines 

Publisher 



Bernard N. De Racbv 

Advertising- Bus >,:«» Manager 



Alexander J. Dickie 

Editor 



M. J. Suitor 

Asat. Editor 



June 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



Carrier 



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on the S. S. NORMANDIE 




Completel)' self-contained Carrier Centrifugal Refrigerating Unit installed on the S.S. Normandie, to air- 
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for those travelling on this newest aristo- 
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Carrier Centrifugal Refrigeration and Alr- 
Conditioning equipment has again been in- 
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ments. 

The Carrier equipment on the "Norman- 
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MARINE DIVISION 
850 Frelinghuysen Ave., Newark, N. J., U.S.A. 



George E. Swett & Company — San Francisco Distributors — 58 Main Street 



Pacific Marine Review, Vol. 32, No. 6, Published Monthly at 500 Sansome Street, in San Francisco. Entered as second class matter 
at the post office of San Francisco under the act of March 3, 1879. 



ll 



PRCiFic mpRine review 



I VOLUME XXXII 



JUNE 1935 



NUMBER 6 



Editorial Comment »« »« 




Our Foreign 
Trade 

This is being written in Foreign Trade Week, 
which has followed immediately on the heels of 
China Week. All of this week, in all cities of all 
states in the United States of America, the Chambers 
of Commerce will be giving luncheons and banquets 
and listening to speakers hold forth on foreign trade, 
and many radio program hours will be given up to 
a consideration of the same subject. Then the foreign 
trade consciousness of the great American public 
will go to sleep until the third week in May, 1936. 

Here are some basic fundamental truths concern- 
ing so-called foreign trade which cannot be over 
emphasized and which this generation of traders the 
world over apparently desire to ignore: 

1. Trade is an exchange of commodities; 



2. Money in any form is simply a medium to 
facilitate that exchange. If you sell in foreign trade 
you must buy or sec that some other international 
trader buys; 

3. Trade becomes our so-called foreign trade 
when it has to pay for the privilege of passing politi- 
cal boundaries. 

In the infancy of the United States of America, 
trade between Virginia and Massachusetts was for- 
eign trade. But today, such trade is domestic trade 
and not foreign, because there are no tolls or tariffs 
at the state lines. 

Many great trade experts are looking forward to 
the day when all so-called foreign trade will become 
international trade in the same sense that we in the 
United States have interstate trade. 

A foreign trader in the United States should al- 
ways remember that he is as foreign to his correspon- 
dent trader in any other country as that trader is to 
him. Do you beheve that the principal diet of a 
Chinese customer is bird's nest soup and dried rats? 
Then just remember that m all probability the Chi- 
nese thinks that you live on hot dogs and that your 
maternal ancestor has a constant temperature of 
1700 degrees F. (red hot). Does he smell like stale 
vegetables to you? Then remember that to him you 
smell like raw meat. 

For overseas foreign trade ships are necessary, and 
must be maintained by all nations who are interested 
in fostering such trade. This is the real reason for 
maintaining an American overseas merchant marine. 

Some day when the dream of the poet has mater- 
ialized: 

"And the battle flags are furled. 
In the parliament of man 
The federation of the world," 

we shall see the overseas fleets internationalized and 
operating in the interests of mankind. Until that 
day arrives, each nation engaged in foreign trade 
will have to maintain a merchant fleet in competition 
with the others. 



•ACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



165 



American Silver Policy 
and Foreign Trade 

The Federal government, under the guidance of 
the so-called "brain trust," is trying to stimulate 
trade with silver standard countries by increasing the 
exchange value of the silver in their currency. This 
poHcy illustrates the fact that Congress still holds 
to the theory discarded long ago by all international 
economists that international purchases are paid for 
in currency and that therefore a foreign currency 
of greater nominal worth can be used to buy more 
of our commodities. 

Chester H. Rowell in one of his thoughtful edi' 
torials in a recent San Francisco Chronicle brings 
this antiquated theory under the strong light of rea- 
sonable economics as follows: 

It is still infantile economics to think we can in- 
crease the ability of silver standard countries to buy 
of us by increasing the exchange value of the silver 
in their coins. Intelligent economists knew before- 
hand, what everybody else has now found out by 
practical experience, that it has exactly the reverse 
effect. 

The fact is that silver, as we are importing it, not 
only is not money — it is not even a commodity. 

For that matter, the same thing is partly true 
even of the gold, of which we have drained the 
world, because we would not take payment, directly 
or indirectly, in goods. So long as we refuse to use 
that gold tor its only useful purpose — as actual 
money — and merely pile it up in forbidden vaults, it 
might as well be dissolved in the sea. The only differ- 
ence is that the gold in the sea is locked there by 
nature and we cannot get it out, while the gold in 
the vaults is locked there only by act of Congress 
and could be released by another such act. It is the 
expectation of this act that still makes our gold a 
potential backing for our paper. 

Even this is not true of our Treasury hoarded 
silver. We will not permit it to be used as a 
commodity, and it is, besides, not worth, as a com- 
modity, what we are paying for it. Neither do we 
use it as basic money. That part of the value of a 
silver dollar which exceeds the price of the silver in 
it rests on exactly the same basis as the whole value 
of a paper dollar — the promise of the government to 
redeem it and the confidence of the market that this 
redemption will ultimately be in gold. We do not 
want the silver as a commodity and we will not use 
it as basic money. 

Thus, in the place of goods which we will not ad- 
mit, or of credit which we will not grant, we import 
silver which we will not use. We thereby add noth- 
ing t(j our own wealth and do help disrupt the trade 
of the world and lessen our share in it. We have al- 
ready jecjpardized the gold standard of the world, 
and are now doing the same thing to the silver stan- 



dard. Presumably we will stop before we drain the 
world of what it has left of both metals. If we do 
not we will thereby invite the other nations to 
set up some other standard of world money, thus 
leaving us with the monopoly of the once monetary 
metals, which we will ourselves have deprived of the 
only value that made them worth accumulating. 

It is all a part of the struggle for the impossible 
— to sell without buying, and to be paid in American 
money while closing to our foreign customers the 
only ways in which to get that money. If we will 
not let them sell us goods or services for it, nor lend 
it to them, then the only other way is for them to 
manufacture it themselves. And, since foreign na- 
tions cannot manufacture any American paper 
money which we will accept, the only thing they 
can manufacture it out of is gold or silver. Then, if 
we get all that, our very getting of it makes it worth- 
less. 

Economically, the thing cannot be done. But po- 
litically, it is the only thing Congress dares vote to 
do. 



Speaking of 
Income Tax 

Our good friend Harry Brown, Pres. Interocean 
S.S. Corp., presented us with the following, which 
gave us a good laugh : 

The Department of Internal Revenue is in receipt 
of the following letter: 
Secretary of the Treasury, 
U.S. Treasury Department, 
Washington, D.C. 
Gents: 

The enclosed form, on which I am asked to made 
a record of my income for the last fiscal year, is re 
turned to you with my respects and my deepest ap' 
preciation of this subtle form of flattery. I was par' 
ticularly impressed by its resurrection of old forms 
and figures of Enghsh speech, such as "Compensa- 
tion from outside sources," "Net profit received," 
"Income from rents," "Interest on bank deposits," 
etc. 

The question I got a great laugh out of was, 
"Were you during the taxable year supporting in 
your household one or more persons related to you?" 
Boy, that's a honey. 

Say, Mister Secretary, would you be surprised? 
There are so many perons closely related to me stay- 
ing at my house that I am what you might call sur- 
rounded. Only the other day, three more distant 
cousins of my wife's blew in, making a new high 
for the movement. And one of them brought a 
friend. 

For the last four years my house has been full ot 



166 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



strangers, all claiming to be my cousins or aunts or 
something. I can't identify half of them, and what 
burned me up was when my wife's Uncle Jerry, 
who has been living with us for a year, slapped mc 
on the back the other day and asked, "Haven't I 
seen you some place before?" 

The blank says it will allow me $400 for each 
dependent relative, and I would say the Government 
is overpricing them, as I would trade the entire lot 
for $11 and throw in a pair of bicycle pants and a 
magic lantern. (Two of my wife's aunts you can 
have for the asking.) 

Heigh'ho and alackaday. The blank also asks me 
to "describe your business as provided in Item 2," 
ind I am glad to answer, "Lousy, Mister Secretary, 
ousy." And it asks me to enter on Line 1 of Sched- 
mIc a my total receipts. I wish that you would 
?top joking. Mister Secretary. Fun is fun, but enough 
is enough, and you can carry anything too far. 
j Then you say something about allowance for "ob- 
solescence, depreciation and depletion." That's 
where I come in. As an American business man, I 
im a study in obsolescence. I am depleted, deflated, 
depressed, denatured, denounced, deranged and de- 
jected. Yours in a barrel, 

(Signed) Hows A. Bout. 



An Advisory 

Council 

Daniel C. Roper, Secretary of Commerce of the 
Jnited States, on April 1 7 announced the formation 
:if an advisory council to the Bureau of Navigation 
ind Steamboat Inspection to consist of the following 
members: 

; J. Lewis Luckenbach, President of American Bu- 
reau of Shipping, New York City; H. Gerrish Smith, 
president of National Council of American Ship- 
builders, New York City; R. L. Hague, President 
if Standard Shipping Corp., New York City; John 
McAuliffe, President of Isthmian Steamship Co., 
New York City; H. M. Lee, General lighterage busi- 
less. New York City; Capt. Richard W. England, 
vlanager of Interstate Steamship Co., Cleveland, 
3hio; S. D. McComb, Marine Office of America, 
Vew York City; Capt. Joseph Streckfus, Streckfus 
iteamers. Inc., St. Louis, Mo.; Capt. A. D. Canu- 
ette. President of Canulette Shipbuilding Co., Slid- 
•II. Louisiana; Capt. O. Slack Barrett, Barrett Line, 
Cincinnati, Ohio; H. A. Gilbert, President of Oil 
Transfer Corp., New York City; Capt. William A. 
^aher. Associated Marine Workers, New York 
City; Capt. John F. Milliken, President of Llnited 
'Jcensed Officers, New York City. 
I This is an excellent committee, but hardly a repre- 
entative one . . . eight men from New York, one 
|rom Louisiana, two from Ohio, and one from 
Vlissouri — only four states represented, and only one 
>cean port. 

N E, 19 3 5 



California Pacific 
International Exposition 

The intrepidity of Spanish conquistadores has no- 
where been so evident as in the heroic expedition 
of Juan Cabrillo Rodriguez who first claimed the 
site of San Diego in the name of the Spanish Crown. 

Travelers on modern ocean liners plying between 
San Diego and the Panama Canal go over the same 
route, in a few days time, where once Cabrillo's two 
galleons, the San Salvador and the Victoris, sailed 
for three months and a day on their argosy of ex- 
ploration between Navidad, Mexico, and San Diego. 

The origin of Cabrillo as a pioneering seafarer is 
shrouded in mystery. Originally it was intended 
by Hernando Cortes, conqueror of Mexico, that his 
lieutenant, Alvarado, should command the sea ex- 
pedition to probe the uttermost reaches of the Pa- 
cific. Subsequently, Alvarado was slain in one of the 
final battles between Cortes' soldiers and the Aztecs. 

Cortes then summoned Cabrillo, who was station- 
ed in some South American port, believed to have 
been on the coast of Peru. Cabrillo came to Vera 
Cruz, where anchors and iron work, brought from 
Spain, were loaded on the backs of a vast number 
of Indians. Commanded by Cabrillo and accom- 
panied by a company of soldiers, this human pack 
train of Indians then wended its way overland 
through the heart of Mexico to Navidad on the west 
coast. 

The two ships were built there by the Indians 
under supervision of the Spaniards. It is possible 
that more than these two ships were constructed, but 
only the two sailed into San Diego bay three months 
and a day after they sailed from Navidad on January 
27, 1542. 

Saihng northward, the expedition stopped at every 
cove and inlet in quest of water and food. The ships 
sailed by day and anchored at night. 

The drama of Cabrillo's expedition, which is so 
integrally linked with the history of San Diego and 
California, will be reflected in the $20,000,000 Cali- 
fornia Pacific International Exposition, which opens 
in San Diego on May 29. 

In the magnificent Palace of Travel and Trans- 
portation will be unique model exhibits of many 
types of ships, from the earhest known types of sail- 
ing ships to the most modern vessels. 

In the 100 other great exhibit palaces will be 
thousands of displays and specimens covering every 
phase of human achievement and enterprise. 

Special rates and facilities are being offered by 
various travel agencies to stimulate travel to the 
West this year. An important part in the transporta- 
tion of the millions of visitor's to America's Exposi- 
tion will be played by the leading intercoastal and 
coastal steamship companies. 



167 



A National 



Policy for American Shipping 



^y R. J. Baker, President 

American Steamship Owners Association 



The tragedy of American shipping has been the 
lack of a consistent policy relative to our vessels in 
foreign trade. Coastwise shipping has been pro- 
tected since 1817, when the purely domestic trades 
were closed to alien vessels by President Monroe. 
Our fisheries have been the subject of considerable 
litigation that, more than once, brought us into ac' 
tive disagreement with foreign powers and on at 
least three occasions required special treaties for set- 
tlement. Our foreign-going carriers, meanwhile, were 
abandoned to the ravages of a hit-or-miss policy that 
eventually led to the virtual extinction of American 
shipping in world commerce. 

The history of our Merchant Marine, for that rea- 
son, has been a story of violent fluctuation. Three 
different times we attained world leadership, only to 
slip back to an inferior and sometimes a negligible 
position. No other industry in the history of our 
country, perhaps in the history of the world, can 
match the tempestuous career of American shipping. 

If this were a free-trade nation, American shipping 
would need little or no assistance. As it is, however, 
shipping costs are raised through tariff protection 
extended to other industries. It is manifestly unfair 
to expect shipping to compete as a free-trade indus- 
try and at the same time bear costs of operation dic- 
tated by a protectionist policy. It cannot be done. 
We must either remove the protection from ALL 
industry, or make up for the increased costs of ship- 
ping. There is no alternative if we are to have a mer- 
chant marine. 
• Shipbuilding Fluctuation. 

I have in my office a chart showing tonnage 
launched by American yards from the time of the 
Revolution down to the present. It is a chart of vio- 
lent fluctuation. At times the hne hugs the z,ero 
mark; more than once it zooms upward to a peak un- 
matched by any other power. At no point does the 
hne move along on the plateau indicative of a stable 
business. Ship construction, so far as the United 
States is ccjncerned, has always been a proposition of 
violent extremes. Either we are trying to build a 
merchant marine overnight, or we don't build at all. 
That has been the tragedy of our attitude toward the 
sea. 

Tho.se zigzag lines which represent the course of 
American shipbuilding are in reality a picture of our 
national state of mind. When the lines shoot upward, 



to the very pinnacle of maritime achievement, there 
will be found behind cold figures some emergency of 
trade or conflict making it necessary that we have 
ships, and have them quickly. The emergency would 
pass; we would sink again into the depths of apathy, , 
and in no time at all our shipping would once more 
be reduced to an inferior position. 

Our disastrous experiences during and after the i 
World War should indicate for all time the wisdom 
of a consistent, long-range shipping program in place 
of the haphazard policies in force for the preceding i 
century. The billions of dollars we were required 
to spend in the midst of conflict would have financ > 
ed, many times over, every proposal ever offered for 
the preservation of American shipping. Not once : 
but several times our shipping, which had begun to 
flourish under a policy of government aid, was de- - 
prived of sustenance and allowed to disappear from 
the seas. The Collins Line, which beat everything 
on the Atlantic by a full day and a half, was paid 
from $38?,000 to $858,000 a year. During the 
World War we spent on single ships more than the 
entire amount credited to the Collins Line in a de- 
cade of operation. 

Thus it will be seen that our lack of a permanent 
policy for shipping, instead of saving money, has in 
reality proven to be both costly and dangerous. Time 
after time, we have built up our Merchant Marine ' 
to a point somewhat commensurate with our im- 
portance as a world power. Just as often, we have 
allowed our vessels to be driven from the seas by 
the low-wage and frequently subsidized vessels of 
other powers. It has been an expensive and a perilous 
policy. 

The most expensive way to build ships, as anyone 
in the industry will testify, is to build them under 
pressure of necessity. An orderly replacement pro- 
gram, carried on through the years, can be supported 
for a fraction of the amount required to complete a 
similar program in time of war or other emergency. 
Our World War fleet, secured at such tremendous 
cost, could have been duplicated in time of peace for 
perhaps one-quarter of the amount ultimately ex- 
pended. Ships built in haste, moreover, are apt to; 
be unscientific in design, unbalanced in numbers, un-J 
economic as to type. When the cry is for "ships,' 
ships and more ships," as it was in 1917, we cannot^ 
be too particular about type, speed, or size. j 



168 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIE 



• Preserve Cumulative Benefits. 

Ship operation, like ship construction, can also he 
done more economically if huilt up gradually and 
not forced into being overnight. The English ha\c 
a saying to the effect that "it takes a hundred years 
to make a ship line." American operators, denied 
any reasonable continuity of national policy, have 
never had anything like a hundred years to work at a 
ship line. It takes a tremendous amount of money 
and effort to develop a national shipping establish- 
ment to the point where it is firmly entrenched in 
the international field. All of that money and effort, 
plus corollary investments and experience, are lost 
whenever our shipping is allowed to deteriorate as it 
has in the past. 

In addition to the obvious disadvantages of a hit' 
or-miss shipping policy, there are other, even more 
costly, factors that must be taken into consideration. 
jOne of these concerns the losses of trade and indus- 
try from periodic interruptions to service. Another 
;is bound up with our faciHties for defense, which are 
but partially effective unless backed up with an ade- 
iquate Merchant Marine. American business, labor 
iand agriculture have lost heavily in the past through 
! inability to offer delivery of our products to waiting 
: markets. Every time an American ship service has 
.been built up and abandoned, our producers have 
,been placed at a disadvantage compared to their for- 



eign rivals. Continuous, adequate, economical ser- 
vice, under vessels subject to domestic control, is 
necessary to the development of foreign trade. 

Commercial shipping has long been regarded as 
the Nation's Second Line of Defense. As such, it 
must be viewed as a consistent objective of national 
pohcy if we are to achieve the security our people 
desire. It has been a tragedy of both our Navy and 
our Merchant Marine that they have been built in 
spurts. It is to be hoped that the framers of future 
policies, profiting by the mistakes of the past, will 
attempt to avoid the hazardous fluctuations in sea 
power characteristic of our history to date. 

Today, as a result of the program of the past seven 
years, we have laid the groundwork for a merchant 
fleet well suited to the needs of commerce and de- 
fense. There is every likelihood of the adoption of 
strengthening legislation that will give permanence 
and stability to an industry heretofore characterized 
by vacillation and neglect. We have made a good 
beginning. Will we throw away the hard-bought 
gains of the last 18 years, as we have done in the 
past? Or will we forge ahead into a new era of 
achievement wherein merchant shipping — our oldest 
industry — will resume once more its rightful position 
in the national economy? 

[Abstract <jf Address before the :;rd annvial meeting of 
the Cliamber of Commerce of United States. Washinston. 
April 30th. 1935.] 



American Shipbuilding Situation 

^y H. Gerrish Smith, 

'President, National Council of American Shipbuilders 



Notwithstanding the present very low ebb in 
the building of merchant vessels there are unmistak- 
able signs of improvement in world shipping which 
should better conditions in the shipbuilding and ship 
jrepairing industry of the United States. 

These indications show: 

1 . A Substantial Increase in Foreign Trade dur- 
ing 1934 as Compared with 1933. Returns for 1934 
disclose a combined export and import trade of at 
jeast twenty-five per cent in excess of that for 1933. 

2. A Notable Increase in Traffic Through the 
Panama Canal. There was a sixteen per cent increase 
jof commercial transits in 1934 over 1933; a fourteen 
per cent increase in Panama Canal net tonnage; a 
itwenty-three per cent increase in cargo tonnage; and 

I thirteen per cent increase in tolls collected. 
] 3. A Marked Decrease in Idle Tonnage. The ton- 
inage of idle world ships at the beginning of 193'i' 
jwas twenty-six per cent less than at the beginning oi 
1 1934 and forty-nine per cent less than at the begin- 
ning of 1933. While a part of this reduction has 
been due to scrapping laid up tonnage, a considerable 
part, nevertheless, is due to the reinstatement into 

f|j N E. 19 3 5 



trade of vessels that had been laid up for lack of 
business. 

The improvement in world shipping has brought 
about better conditions in the shipbuilding industry 
in foreign countries but not as yet in the United 
States. Reports as of January 1, 1935 indicate world 
tonnage of merchant vessels under construction at 
that time was about sixty-five per cent in excess of 



PACIFIC COAST SHIPBUILDING 
The commercial shipyards of the Pacific 
Coast have not participated in any of the ship- 
building described in this article by H. Gerrish 
Smith. Efforts are now being made at Washing- 
ton by Congressman Welch and others to have 
the commercial yards of the Pacific Coast put 
on a more even basis in competitive bidding for 
all government work. Some of the well estab- 
lished operating firms are very badly needing 
ship replacements and are only waiting for a 
decision of national policy to place orders. 



169 



what it was at the beginning of 1934. The partici' 
pation by the United States, however, in such con' 
struction is less than two per cent of world total un- 
der construction at that date. The only sizeable sea- 
going merchant vessels recorded at the present time 
as being under construction in the United States are 
two oil tankers for the Standard Vacuum Transpor- 
tation Company, both of which are launched and 
scheduled for early deHvery. 

The only seagoing vessels delivered in 1934 were 
two cargo vessels for the A. H. Bull Steamship Com- 
pany each of 4,800 tons gross. 

• Future Commercial Shipbuilding. 

It is known that many owners have in preparation 
designs of vessels for future building, but contracts 
have been delayed due to two principal causes: 

1 . The uncertainty of the government's shipping 
pohcy created by the Congressional and Post Of i ice 
Department investigations of mail contracts, and 

2. The anticipation of new legislation to carry out 
the recommendations of the Administration contain- 
ed in the President's Message to Congress on March 
4, 1935. 

Amendments of the present Merchant Marine 
Act or new shipping legislation as recommended by 
the President help to remove uncertainties now af- 
fecting the industry and should clear the course for 
long and stable term operation and the assurance of 
new building. 

On the assumption that the present tonnage of 
vessels engaged in foreign trade will be necessary for 
the future continuance and development of this 
trade, there will be required no less than 150,000 
tons of new vessels annually to maintain the present 
position of the United States in the foreign trade, to 
which must be added such vessels as are required 
for replacements in our coastal and intercoastal 
trades. 

A study of the ship repairing industry for the year 
1934, as a whole, discloses very little change as to 
its activity when compared with the year 1933, al- 
though it is gratifying to note that this volume for 
1933 and 1934 is substantially greater than for 1932. 

• Naval Construction. 

While the building of ocean going merchant ves- 
sels during the past two years has been at its lowest 
ebb since the World War, the shipbuilding industry 
has nevertheless been somewhat active due to the 
building of naval vessels and the building of miscel- 
lanecjus government craft in the private shipyards, 
although the vc^lume of unfinished business on hand 
at the beginning of 1935 was about twenty per cent 
less than at the beginning of 1934. 

The following naval vessels were delivered from 
private yards during 1934: 

Ranger, aircraft carrier 

Tuscaloosa, cruiser 

Farragut, destroyer 

Dewey, destroyer 



Cuttlefish, submarine 

Due almost entirely to government work, employ- 
ment on new construction in the private shipyards 
has increased from 9,400 at the beginning of 1934 to 
13,200 at the end of the year. 

These naval contracts have also given a large vol- 
ume of work to allied industries well distributed 
throughout the country. 
• Code Operation. 

The shipbuilding and ship repairing industry is 
still operating under the Code of Fair Competition 
and Trade Practice approved by the President on 
July 26, 1933, and under conditions imposed upon 
it by N.R.A. which are very unsatisfactory to the in- 
dustry. 

Immediately following the adoption of the Code 
contracts were placed for a number of naval vessels ■ 
in private yards on a basis of a thirty-two hour week, 
increased to thirty-six hours a week some eight i 
months later. During all of this period, however, gov- 
ernment navy yards engaged in the construction of ^ 
vessels of similar type have operated forty hours a i 
week, so that the code has imposed upon the private ; 
shipbuilding industry a very unfavorable competitive ' 
position in the employment of labor. 

Contracts for eleven additional naval vessels were 
placed in private yards in August of 1934. Due to 
the low limit of weekly hours of work, employment i 
in the industry on naval contracts at the present time 
is less than it would have been had forty hours a 
week been permissible on both the 1933 and 1934 
naval contracts. 

Under the code ship repairing has been limited to 
forty hours a week with an average of thirty-six ■' 
hours over a six months period. Shiprepairing is es- ' 
sentially emergency work, and the rigid application 
of weekly hours without suitable exemptions for 
emergency conditions has worked to the disadvan- 
tage of the industry and of the ship operator. Re- 
peated efforts to secure modification of weekly hour 
requirements in the Code have so far been un- 
availing. 

The shipbuilding industry is undergoing a very 
important transition at the present time, probably 
the most important within the past seventy-five 
years, that is, the effect of welding upon shipbuild- 
ing methods. In the building of barges up to 250 feet 
in length welding has completely replaced riveting, 
and in seagoing vessels of large size it has largely 
replaced riveting so that the entire process of ship- 
building is being radically, changed, with the elimina- 
tion of tools and equipment that have been con- 
tinuously used in the industry in connection with 
riveted ship construction and by the substitution of 
tools and equipment necessary for the fabrication of 
the parts and the erection of material to meet welded 
construction. The advance in welding has been con- 
tinuous and is now almost complete on naval v;ork 
except for decks and shells amidships. 



170 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIE\ 



Merchant Marine Act of 1935 

Some Notes on Past and Present American Aids to Merchant Shipping with 
Especial Reference to the Copeland-Bland Bill 



^y R. J. Alexander 



The most effective merchant marine acts for the 
upbuilding of American shipping on the high seas 
were the early colonial enactments and the discrimin- 
atory duty acts of our beloved President George 
Washington and his colleagues. 

■^^-Tien the 1815 and later the 1828 reciprocity 
acts became effective, American shipping in foreign 
trade instantly and dangerously threatened the whole 
shipping structure of our own foreign trade in Am- 
erican ships. From carr)'ing over 90 per cent of 
American goods to and from foreign countries in 
American ships, we carried less than 10 per cent of 
our goods in 1914. 

The most constructive American shipping law 
was the 1817 act which resen.-ed American coast- 
wise trade to American-built, owned and operated 
ships. Except for a short period during the World 
War, this law has been consistently adhered to, and 
brought our coastwise shipping from 68,607 gross 
tons in 1789 to 6,852,536 gross tons in 1914. About 
80 per cent of our total fleet was in coastwise or 
Great Lakes trade. 



gency enactments brought us a tremendous fleet of 
ships, forced upon us as an emergency war measure. 
These ships as surely were war products as were the 
guns, ammunition, trucks, tractors, army tanks, etc., 
so assiduously built and rushed to France in these 
emergency ships. Time was essential. Thought was 
given to the future use of those ships, but the prime 
essential was ships, ships, and more ships. Labor, 
skilled in other trades, had to be secured by any and 
all means, and hurriedly educated to the highly spec- 
ialized shipbuilding trade. Shipyards had to be erect- 
ed, housing provided, transportation arranged, and 
so the costly merry-go-round kept pihng up expenses. 
Further, officers and crews had to be provided, so 
schools, training camps, ships and shops had to be 
found. All of these costs were charged against the 
ships. It was a war measure, pure and simple. Our 
people and the shipyards produced magnificently and 
in a few months we had surpassed the world in pro- 
ducing ships. Economical costs in building and op- 
eration could not be, and were not, thought of, 
"Win the war" was the all-absorbing cry. 



The 1916-1917-1918 shipping laws and emer- The war was won, and we had to consider what 




The fine cargo and paisenger tranipadiic liner President Hoover of tlic Dollar Line was built under Merchant .Marine .Act of l'J2S. 



UNE. 19 3 5 



171 



National Self-Sufficiency 

or International Efficiency 

'^y Daniel C. Roper, Secretary of Commerce 



Ordinarily we export about ten percent of all of 
the movable goods produced in the United States. 
The proportion in recent years has risen to as high 
as 15.7 per cent in 1919 and dropped to as little as 
6.5 per cent in 1933. Even though last year was a 
period of relatively low trade volume as compared 
with years prior to 1930, we exported over two bih 
lion dollars worth of goods and imported over one 
and onc'half billion dollars worth. Last year exports 
represented more than seven percent of domestic pro- 
duction. Leading exports, on a value basis, were raw 
cotton, petroleum and related products, machinery, 
automobiles, and tobacco. Major imports were coffee, 
cane sugar, crube rubber, paper and related manu- 
factures, and raw silk. 

Foreign sales are a very important source of busi- 
ness to many American industries. 

Not only have these sales provided wages for great 
numbers of American workmen, profits to owners 
and interest to investors — they have also made pos- 
sible in many instances the distribution of certain 
fixed costs over a larger number of units, thus reduc- 
ing the unit cost of all the goods produced and there- 
by extending the domestic market. 

• Foreign Trade and Recovery. 

Last year, or in the latest year for which statistics 
are available, nine per cent of all lumber and timber 
produced in the United States was exported, eleven 
percent of the automobiles, twenty-three percent of 
the power-driven metal-working machinery, twenty- 
seven percent of the office appliances, thirty-seven 
per cent of the aircraft including engines and parts, 
and thirty-nine percent of the printing and bookbind- 
ing machinery. We also exported thirty-four percent 
of our leaf tobacco, forty-eight percent of our 
prunes, sixty- five percent of the raw cotton, and 
seventy-one percent of the gum rosin. 

Obviously, foreign trade provided an important 
source of income to the industries producing these 
goods. 

It is estimated that our last year's relatively small 
export trade was a source of employment during 
1934 for over two millions of our workers engaged 
directly in producing export products. In addition to 
these two million workers, there was a large addi- 



tional number of people providing food, shelter, 
clothing, and other necessities of life for others en- 
gaged in producing export goods. On the import side 
of the ledger the crude materials and foodstuffs 
which constituted three-fifths of our imports were 
placed in a marketable condition by American work- 
ers, the nineteen percent of semi-manufactures un- 
derwent further fabricating processes before they 
were made ready for the market, and the twenty-one 
percent of finished manufactures, along with the im- 
ports in the other divisions just cited, required a 
large number of executives and workers to carry on 
the procedures of buying, transporting, distributing 
and selling the imports. To complete the picture we 
must include, also, those workers engaged in supply- 
ing the necessities of life for the segment of people 
employed as a result of imports entering our country. 
It is estimated that under normal conditions, not less 
than one-tenth of our entire population is dependent 
directly or indirectly upon foreign trade. 

This picture is sufficient to impress us with the 
vital importance of foreign trade to our immediate 
problem of recovery and also to the long-range prob- 
lem of permanent stability. 

Unfortunately, too many of us today appraise our 
foreign-trade program upon the basis of this nation's 
experience between 1919 and 1929. Wealth destruc- 
tion following the World War created a wide, om- 
nivorous market for replacements and reconstruc- 
tion. Moreover, because of our late entrance into 
the War and our vast productive powers, the United 
States became the dominant source of supply for 
meeting the world's post-war needs. Concurrently, 
the overemphasis placed on exports and the efforts 
to retard imports, coupled with an unwise foreign 
investment policy, pursued to extreme lengths, 
brought about the inevitable. 

The far-reaching consequences of the mistakes 
made during the last decade were climaxed by the 
suicidal tariff legislation of 1930. Although other 
nations were likewise beginning to feel the effects 
of post-war excesses and in some instances would 
have found it necessary to protect domestic interests, 
that tariff law greatly stimulated the erection of high 
restrictive walls of retaliatory tariffs, quotas, embar- 
goes and other obstructive measures against Ameri' 



174 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEV. 



can goods. This additional complicating process, has 
served to develop negative reactions in the American 
mind against a broad and constructive foreign-trade 
policy. 

It is only natural, therefore, that this experience 
of recent foreign-trade misadventures should prompt 
the question as to whether we as a nation, and like- 
wise other nations, should seek national self-suffic- 
iency or international efficiency. 

• Present Problems. 

There are two broad aspects involved in oi.ir pres- 
ent problem of international trade: one relates to 
the spirit and initiative necessary to gain our objec- 
tive; the other relates to the procedures and processes 
required to facilitate foreign trade relations. We have 
a proud heritage of achievement in foreign trade, 
symbolized in the glorious attainments of the Yankee 
clipper ships of the nineteenth century. I believe that 
despite the great extent to which our commerce has 
shrunk since that highly abnormal post-war period, 
our Yankee ingenuity will make it possible to over- 
come the discouraging obstacles of the depression 
years and build our foreign trade to its former height 
upon a foundation as solid and permanent as Bunker 
Hill. 

The great historian. Gibbon, once said: "The wind 
and waves are always on the side of the ablest navi- 
gators." In the same way the currents and cross- 
currents of international trade are on the side of 
those who make the ablest efforts in the field of 
foreign trade. We speak today in terms of restoring 
domestic conditions to the more favorable status of 
the years preceding 1929 and in speaking thus we 
automatically admit the fact that in order to do this 
we must restore our foreign trade to the proportions 
prevailing in those years. It is a matter of fact and 
not opinion that the volume of domestic production 
of the years between 1926 and 1929 was possible 
because of the large foreign trade activity which 
formed the apex of the pyramid. But we must not 



forget that foreign trade is a two-way process, a buy- 
ing as well as a selling of goods, and, therefore, to 
secure the 1926-1929 volume of exports we must 
provide foreign purchasing power by imports or 
loans and investments. I believe it hardly necessary 
for me to point out that the former is much the 
saner and sounder economics than the latter. 

If we are not prepared to accept some imports 
from other countries, we cannot expect to sell vol- 
ume exports to them. We cannot be in an important 
way nationalistic in terms of imports and inter- 
nationalistic in terms of exports. In the past we have 
thought too much in terms of getting goods out of 
the country and not enough of ways of wisely get' 
ting goods into our country. Our national approach 
to foreign trade is indicated by our popularly used 
phrase of "a favorable trade balance." Properly 
defined, this is an excess of goods exported over 
goods imported, and in the long run it may be highly 
unfavorable to our national welfare considered as a 
whole. In all of our studies at Washington, while we 
are seeking to find markets abroad for our products, 
we are sympathetically and I might say selfishly en- 
deavoring to provide markets here for some of the 
products of those nations with which we desire to 
trade. 

• Practical Economics. 

The practical economics of foreign trade prescribe 
the necessity of exchanging as a rule those goods 
which we can produce in excess of domestic con- 
sumption, or more effectively and economically than 
other nations can produce them, for goods which we 
cannot produce at all or for goods which our trade 
neighbors in turn can produce more effectively and 
economically. Thereby we are able to secure needed 
low cost products without undue injury to our pro- 
ducers and manufacturers, thus reserving a larger 
share of the consumer's dollar for the purchase of 
other necessities of life. Foreign trade from this view- 
point makes possible a more effective utilization of all 



I I 




Muiiiialtan and her sister S.S. VC'ashingtuii, trans-Atlantic passenger liners of the U. S. Lines, are among the 
vessels plying between New York and Europe. 



popular of the 



JUNE, 19 3 5 



175 



our resources of men and materials in both the pro- 
duction and consumption of goods. Just as our 
national interest dictates that all of the 48 states 
should look to the South for cotton, the Middle 
West for grain, Florida and California for citrus 
fruits and nuts. New England for tools and impor- 
tant manufactures, and to other sections of the coun- 
try as the chief suppliers of commodities which they, 
by reason of natural resources, climate, or other fac- 
tors, are best suited to produce, so also does our 
national interest dictate that we should look to our 
foreign friends for those commodities that they can 
more advantageously produce. We must, of course, 
at all times guard against the imposition of hardships 
on American producers as a result of too rapid 
changes in the character and volume of imports. 

I am convinced that greater study must be given 
to the specific requirements of foreign countries. We 
must think more in terms of what they need and not 
so much in terms of how we can dispose of our sur- 
pluses. The enlightened domestic merchandiser does 
not manufacture a commodity and then force it 
"down the throat" of his market. Rather, he at- 
tempts to gauge the need for a particular product and 
the quantity the market will absorb and then ar- 
ranges his manufacture accordingly. The more pre- 
cisely adaptable our goods are to the needs of the 
consumer, the safer and sounder is the basis for a 
steady and wise development of our foreign trade. 
Thus, our trade relations with other nations must be 
developed upon a cultural, as well as an economic, 
basis. The most successful of our exporters are those 
who have given long and painstaking study to the 
habits and customs, to the peculiar needs of the peo- 
ples with whom they trade. As a means of promot- 
ing better international relations generally, we must 
cultivate an appreciation of the civilizations of other 
peoples and inculcate a sympathetic understanding of 



their problems and activities among widening circles 
of our people. 

We should not expect too much in a short period 
of time. Barriers which obstruct trade between na- 
tions are more extensive today than ever before in 
modern history and it is only by a process of gradual 
readjustment that corrective treatment can be ap- 
pHed. The present Administration is endeavoring by 
specific activities to bring about this realignment 
through the reciprocal agreement program. 

The United States already has a large equity in 
the economic future of other nations. We have in- 
vested in the four quarters of the earth several bil- 
lions of dollars. Much of this total, which many be- 
lieve to be lost, can be regained over a period ot 
years if our approach to the difficult task is directed 
with wisdom and discrimination. 

We cannot advance progressively along these lines 
if we are entirely nationalistic. Neither can we com- 
pletely reverse the present situation in one or two 
years. Those of our citizens who have actually in- 
vested cash in the obligations of other countries or 
in their expanding industries cannot be protected un- 
less we listen to the voice of reason in foreign trade 
relations. Let us say that a foreign industrial enter- 
prise has purchased an American machine and that 
enterprise has sold in the United States a bond of 
four thousand dollars to pay for the machine. Ameri- 
can workers and American capital have performed 
their labor. An American has loaned the money to 
pay American workers and American capital for the 
production of that machine. It cannot now be ex- 
pected that annual payments should be made on in- 
terest and principal, unless that country is permitted 
to sell us the products of her labor. 



(ExtractiJ froir 
May 20th. inai: 
Week Proi<ram.) 



adcast address in E 
•lation-Wide Foreign 



A New Era in American World Trade 



58y Howard N. Middleton 



John Citizen of the United States of America has 
become accustomed to thinking of his homeland as 
a self-sustaining unit that can go forth independent 
of the welfare of the world. The tendency is toward 
the idea that domestic products can be substituted 
for those few commodities which have, for climatic 
or geographic reasons, never been produced in the 
United States, and that by these substitutions we 
can be independent of the world and have prosperity 
at home regardless of what happens arcjund us. So 
we have in America the same form of economic nat- 



ionalism that we have observed with considerable 
concern developing in foreign countries and we find 
in use the same tools of import quotas, manipulated 
foreign exchanges and high tariffs that are at work 
throughout the world. 

An over-zealous American press has not overlook- 
ed focusing public attention on the apparent danger 
of allowing our markets to be flooded with foreign 
goods, and we have been imbued with the idea that 
our higher standards of life and civilization are the 
result of an American policy of self -protection. By 



176 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



American Foreign Trade in 1934 

On April 30, George N. Peek, special advisor to the President ot the United States on Foreign Trade, 
submitted the following "simple arithmetical statement" of a balance sheet of the Foreign Trade of the 
United States for 1934: 

During 1934: 

1. We sold to the world goods in the amount of $2,133,000,000 

we bought from the world goods in the amount of l,65'i',000,000 

thereby placing the world in debt to us for goods in the amount of .r 478,000,000 

Tourist and Other Cash Offsets. 

2. Our tourists spent abroad and our immigrants, charitable organizations and others sent 

abroad the net amount of 3 'i 2,000,000 

leaving a balance owed to us of 126,000,000 

Exchange of Services. 

3. Services sold to the world and miscellaneous items amounted to $264,000,000 

services bought from the world and miscellaneous items amounted to 274,000,000 

decreasing the balance owed to us by 10,000,000 

leaving a balance owed to us of 116,000,000 

Foreign Investments. 

4. Interest and dividends received from — 

foreign bonds held in United States $217,000,000 

foreign bonds (interest funded) 13,000,000 

direct investments abroad 1 2'), 000,000 

short-term banking funds abroad 2*) ,000,000 

stock transfer taxes, commissions, etc 10,000,000 

a total of 390,000,000 

less interest and dividends paid 125,000,000 

• increased the balance owed to us by 265,000,000 

leaving a balance owed to us by the world for goods, services, interest and dividends of 381,000,000 

Gold, Silver and Currency. 

5. We bought gold (including earmarking) in the net amount of $1,217,000,000 

we bought silver in the net amount of 86,000,000 

we bought paper currency in the net amount of 48,000,000 

a total of 1,351 ,000,000 

thereby placing us in debt to the world in 1934 in the amount of $ 970,000,000 

We paid this debt to the world by the transfer to 

foreigners of capital assets owned by us in the net 

amount of ^970,000,000. 

J U N E. 1 9 3 5 177 



comparison, the American state of mind is no differ 
ent from that of our foreign neighbors, for we have 
watched the same vicious trend of nationalism slowly 
hut definitely encompass the entire world until the 
system has grown into something of a Frankenstein 
that has throttled the national welfare of the nations 
that sought protection in it. 

Foreign Trade Week and National Maritime Day, 
which we are observing, offer a pleasant relief from 
this persistent trend of nationalistic thinking and 
give us reason to pause and view the picture from 
the telescopic rather than the microscopic view- 
point. In the consideration of such problems as per- 
mit it, I prefer taking the telescopic view, because 
while the microscopic arbitrarily singles out portions 
of the object for observation, the telescopic sees 
the whole object and sees it in relation to the objects 
which surround it. There is a definite element of 
truth in the microscopic view but it is often out of 
perspective and loses the real relationship to the 
whole. I do not deny the importance of looking 
within the ring of focused hght, but contend that 
it is equally important to look beyond the ring and 
take the view which is greater than any and inclu- 
sive of all the parts. 

With this thought, let us observe momentarily 
how nationalistic barriers, such as prohibitive tariffs, 
import quotas, etc., are established. An industry 
feels the pressure of foreign as well as of domestic 
competition and sees relief from the foreign com- 
petition through the medium of these national bar- 
riers. A strong industrial lobby is able to persuade 
Washington (against an unorganiz,ed and unheard 
opposition) that the barrier is necessary and thus a 
tariff, embargo or quota is set up and the foreign 
competitor is eliminated. In looking through our 
microscope the treatment seems to have been suc- 
cessful and the industry saved. But let us move the 
observation into the larger sphere of our telescope. 
First, may I say foreign competition is not always 
-^3 serious to our national welfare as some would 
have us believe. Foreign trade frequently means a 
higher standard of living to us rather than lowering 
our standards to a foreign level, because through 
foreign trade we get things which are not otherwise 
available: and because our purchases abroad create 
credits for the sale of our exports which, of course, 
support a tremendous American population. We 
cannot disregard the two-thirds of our raw cotton, 
which was exported in 1934, the one-ninth of our 
automobiles, the one-half of our prunes and one-third 
of our leaf tobacco, the one-fifth of our machines 
and similar percentages of our industrial and agri- 
cultural production. And now if you consider the 
farmers, laborers, railroad men, truckers, clerks, 
bankers, pcjrt workers and many others involved in 
this production we find millions of American citi- 
zens are dependent in part or all upon our imports 
and exports for their livelihood. I have said foreign 



competition is sometimes wholesome. May I ex- 
plain the point by quoting from Congressman Har- 
lan of Ohio in a recent address before Congress, 
when he said, "The ludicrous situation of the United 
States placing tariff walls against American produc- 
tive efficiency ought to be apparent to everyone. 
One example might be interesting. A few years ago 
our electrical industry raised a cry against Japanese 
light bulbs, claiming that our market was being de- 
stroyed by cheap labor; and now the G. E. as a re- 
sult of the stimulating competition have produced 
a 10c incandescent bulb of better quality than the 
Japanese one and have not lowered wages in the 
process." 

So in pohtics we find the constant struggle to in- 
fluence public opinion between industries threaten- 
ed by foreign competition on the one hand and 
groups with export and consumers' interests on the 
other. Again I am going to cite Japan as a source 
of keenest competition that some of our industrial- 
ists, a large part of the American press and many 
of our politicians are constantly bringing to our at- 
tention. Today agitation against Japanese cotton 
goods is intensified by the fact that the American 
cotton industry is now beset with domestic difficul- 
ties, some attributing it to inefficiency within the 
industry, others to increasing costs occasioned by the 
agricultural adjustment administration and national 
policies. At any rate, Japanese competition is being 
severely felt in the Philippines and Latin American 
markets, as well as in our domestic market and some 
of our cotton mills have closed down, attributing 
their action to this competition. It is true that in 
1934 imports of Japanese cotton goods into the 
United States showed an impressive gain over pre- 
vious years. The sudden appearance of Japanese 
goods in growing volume has stirred latent fears and 
brought forth strenuous appeals to the Administra- 
tion for further restrictions. Consequently, this sub- 
ject warrants more than casual passing. In order to 
view American imports of Japanese cotton in their 
proper perspective, we must also appraise our ex- 
ports to Japan. A striking change in recent years 
in Japanese-American trade relations is not so much 
the increase in our imports from Japan as it is a 
much greater increase in our exports to Japan and 
the development of a so-called favorable balance of 
trade with that country. For the first time in many 
years, the United States in 1932 sold more to Jaoan 
than we purchased from her. An unfavorable bal- 
ance of $173,000,000 in 1929 was converted into a 
favorable balance of $91,000,000 by 1934. Reduced 
importations of silk account for much of this, but 
we cannot overlook an increase of 56 per cent since 
1932 in our sales of raw materials and manufactured 
products to Japan. In 1934 Japan was our third 
best customer and bought more than the combined 
total of all South American countries. By almost 
any comparison which is adopted, imports of Japan- 



178 



PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 



ese cotton goods have never been a factor of any 
consequence in trade between Japan and the United 
States. The Institute of Pacific Relations in its sur- 
vey of April 24, this year, shows that despite a large 
increase over previous years, the total American pur- 
chases of Japanese cotton goods in 1934 amounted 
to $3,400,000, or only one-ninth of the total value 
of our cotton goods imports from all foreign coun- 
tries. Imports of Japanese cotton goods of all kinds 
represent less than four-tenths of 1 per cent of our 
domestic output of woven cotton goods alone. 

Secretary Wallace insists that the closing down of 
our mills is merely the periodic cycle of over-produc- 
tion by industry and that the industry was looking 
for an alibi. Tariff Chairman O'Brien, himself from 
Massachusetts where many of the mills are closing, 
points out that the Japanese cloth imports amount 
to less than 1 per cent of American consumption and 
that Japan is one of our best customers. 

So we find ourselves confronted with a question 
of national pohcy. All interests being considered, 
should the United States maintain and expand its 
foreign trade? We must recognize the obvious fact 
that American industry as a whole cannot realize 



the hope of certain textile interests, throttling im- 
ports on the one hand while on the other expanding 
its export markets. In the broader sense, this matter 
of national poHcy is not confined to the United 
States, but presents itself to all nations ahke and 
must sooner or later be met on the basis of its merits. 
Let us glance briefly at the restraints in world trade 
relationships today. Germany has perhaps been most 
persistent in the idea of restrictive economic nation- 
ahsm, an idea probably prompted by the desire for 
self containment in event of war or a national emer- 
gency. France has also led off the European parade 
in reviving quota methods of import control, some- 
times in retaliation rather than emulation. For in- 
stance, on wheat, a favorite European device of re- 
cent years has been the limitation of imports by 
ordering that only a specified percentage of foreign 
wheat may go into the domestic milling of flour. The 
Netherlands, Poland and Turkey, together with 
many South American countries, have been promi- 
nent among the nations which have come to grant 
restrictive quotas on the quantity of particular pro- 
ducts permitted admission from a given country. Mr. 
Mussolini's foreign pohcy likewise seems to contem- 



PACIFIC COAST FOREIGN TRADE FOR THE MONTH OF 
MARCH AND FIRST THREE MONTHS, 1935 AND 1934. 



MONTH OF MARCH 
E.xports 



"ustoms Districts 

an Francisco 

OS Angeles 

ian Diego 



1935 

7,968,883 

9,470,987 

438,486 



I Total Cahfornia 17,878,356 

;Vegon _ 1,361,689 

Washington 5, II 9,660 

Total Pacific Coast 24,359,705 



1934 

$ 8,402,554 
6,923,142 

322,585 

15,648,281 
2,456,516 

5,454,377 

23,559,174 



THREE MONTHS ENDING MARCH 

Exports 
'iustoms Districts 1935 1934 

an Francisco $23,805,528 $23,497,612 

■s Angeles 25,142,210 16,809,974 

m Diego 1,124,122 884,630 



Total California 50,071,860 

fregon 5,240,245 

V'ashington 14,364,362 



41,192,216 

7,815,085 

16,933,363 



Imports 
1935 

$ 6,460,071 

3,234,930 

196,650 

9,891,651 

757,504 
2,528,310 

13,177,465 



Imports 
1935 

519,918,022 

10,116,050 

462,408 

30,496,480 
1,610,536 
6,327,381 



1934 

; 5,372,849 

2,512,109 

118,956 

8,003,914 

658,810 

2,364,774 

11,027,498 



1934 

;13,422,014 

6,604,982 

409,844 



20,436,840 
1,389,855 
6,106,953 



Total Pacific Coast 69,676,467 65,940,664 


38,434,397 


27,933,648 


igures preliminary — subject to revision. 

eleased by: E. Tilden Mattox, District Manager, 

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
311 Customhouse, San Francisco, Calif. 




UNE, 19 3 5 




179 



plate restricting Italy's trade by means of quotas 
and taritfs to an even basis of exchange with those 
countries with which she deals; and this policy, of 
course, is in a sense deflationary and protects her 
investors at home. As compared with this, Japan's 
pohcy seems to have been one of inflation in order 
to stimulate foreign markets. Likewise Britain has 
resorted to the use of depreciated exchange and the 
abandonment of her century-old tradition by bring- 
ing into operation a general tariff on most all goods 
of foreign origin, ranging up to one-third and even 
one-halt of their values. It is well to note that the 
new British duties and most of the restrictions ap- 
ply only to products originating outside the Empire, 
and that the Ottawa Conference of 1932 gave im- 
petus to this program of Empire preference. In 1934 
French foreign trade amounted to 40,833,000,000 
francs; and imports and exports to French foreign 
possessions contributed nearly 29 per cent of this. 
Maurice Desclair, French correspondent to the Nau- 
tical Gazette of New York, has stated, "Were it not 
for the colonial trade the economic situation, wh