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FORM 3427 5000 1 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

San Francisco Public Library 



■r\' American ma\ well I'c proud nf the S.S. Prt-siiicnr 
veland and the S.S. Pre-idcnr \\'ilvin, the two lar_L'e>t and 
■St American-flaK .•ships hinlt -ince before the war. 
more passenger ships ot an\ t\pe are now heiiv,' built in 
United States. Construction of American -hips has 
indled to seventh phice amonu' the nations of the world, 
igress should recei\e full Mipport in appropriating the 
ds necessar.N to encourage the huildini; and operation of a 
)ng Merchant Marine essential to America's continued 
sperit) and national securit\. 





(_)nce more, the .American Flnj; in iht- Pacihc 
flies above American-built and .American- 
manned passenger ships, the equal in quality, 
lieauty and luxury of any ship aHoat. 

Built in Alameda 

The President Cleveland xsas built .,ii the West 
Coast in the Bethlchem-.Alameda shipyard, in 
San Francisco Bay, where, also, her sister-ship, 
the President Wilson, is now nearing comple- 
tion. These two superb ships inaugurate a new 
era of Pacific-Orient luxury travel. 

Maiden Voyage December 27th 

Sailing from San Francisco Deccinher 27th, the 
S.S. President Cleveland provides new fast 
schedules between San Francisco, Honolulu, 
^"okohama, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila. 




The East 

Bay may 

proudly claim these superb 

ships, completely 

built in the Bethlehem- 



They provide every modern 

luxury fo 







23,500 Tons 


15,359 Tons 





610 feet 

75 feet i Inches 

Speed (rr 


21 knots 

Speed (c 


19 knots 


20,000 H.P. turbo 
electric drive 


arqo spa 

e 4.500 Tons 



17,400 miles 


rom San 

Francisco approximately 

May 1. 


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The Gateway to the Orient By T. Douglas MacMuUcn r^ Lj. ^ 

President Cleveland — America's Most Modern Liner 

Cleveland Crew Sp)ecially Trained 

President Cleveland Inclining Tests By Emmet Jones . 

The President Cleveland Interiors, Home Comfort at Sea 
High Pressure and High Temperature Steam in Naval and Merchant Vessels 

(Part I) 

With the Naval Architects and Marine Engineers 

Heavy Duty Chain Drives for Marine Propulsion By N. C. Bremer . 

Development of Ship Forms (Part II) By William A. Baker 

Proposed European Recovery Program — The Marshall Plan 

With the Port Engineers 

Port Engineer of the Month, Fred Cordes in L. A. . 

Port Engineer of the Month, Ed S. Graff in S. F 

Pacific World Trade .... ...... 

Admiralty Decisions By Harold S. Dohbs 

The Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers' Act .... 

Marine Insurance 

The London Letter ......... 

Coast Commercial Craft 

Tuna Clipper Safety Requirements By David Dickie . 

G. M. Diesels Crack the Crab Fleet 

Steady As You Go! "The Skipper" 

The Earth's Magnetism and Its Effect on the Ship and Compass 

Your Problems Answered By "The Chief" 

"Chalk Talks" on Applied Mathematics 

Running Lights ......••-. 

News Flashes .......••• 

Keep Posted ........••■ 








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Whatever your need, Columbian is the 
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means perfect balance and no kinking. 

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1 S WITH STATISTICS, it often happens that some one item is taken from a speech or re- 
port and glamorized to tiie point of ridiculousness. So it is with a spot presumption of his 
own by a prominent ship operating official, wliich, he went on to say was no longer true. It 
had to do with the Pacific Coast's position as the gateway to the Orient. 

Almost any set of figures can be misleading. For instance statistics would lead us to be- 
lieve that the principal exporting of citrus fruits is not from Southern California, nor Texas, 
nor Florida. It is from Detroit. Some statistical tables credit the last port of call with the en- 
tire cargo of a ship. Some call bunker fuel an export item — even when taken by a Navy 
vessel. In some ports only cargo that moves across a pier is included in export figures; if 
loaded from a barge it is credited to the barge's home port. The boys who break down statis- 
tical figures to prove some point of criticism should give a thought to Longfellow's "all your 
danger is in discord." 

The Gateway to the Orient is the Pacific Coast and its ports. As with a farm or a home, 
there may be hack gateways, but the gates that are tagged with address labels are out in front. 
There can be more discord — more real damage to the Pacific Coast — created in world markets 
by attempts to remove the "Gateways" label from its ports than can be overcome by years of 
good public relations and the establishment of foreign trade zones. 

Comparing one month with another, or o ne year with another, is not fair. Conditions 
may be abnormal, or subnormal, at one time or another and the statistics boys who do not un- 
derstand will be lead astray. And deliberately excluding Army and Navy cargo and also tank- 
er cargo, both of which are major Pacific Coast groupings, in order to prove a point, give those 
who live by statistics a field day. Pacific areas now served by Army and Navy are not temporary. 
They will continue to be served by some one. Japan and China are low for the time being 
but will come back as a strong factor in Pacific Coast cargo movement. When they do, and 
when surplus war goods in the Pacific are absorbed, and when export restrictions are equal- 
ized with shippers who are nearer to Washington, and when Pacific Coast operators have their 
fleets restored, and when intercoastal services bring more export and import traffic to Pacific 
Coast ports, comparisons with prewar will be less odious. 

It is all very well to fight influences that would attract traffic to less logical shores, but 
let us not mislead our people. The Pacific Coast has problems that are common to all fight- 
ing frontiers. We are after the best and the most and have never been known to accept medi- 
ocrity as an ideal. 

JANUARY • 1948 Page 41 



good reason to feel proud of their latest product 
(P2-SE2-R3) the SS President Cleveland. In construc- 
tion, machinery, outfitting, furnishings, and interior deco- 
ration, she is a first-class vessel, built to the highest 
standards, and capable of maintaining the most exacting 
schedules in the long run to the Orient. 

And Bethlehem-Alameda is proud. Say to any employee 
of the Alameda yard, from the office boy to the general 
manager, "This is a good ship," and the answer snaps 
back, "That's the only kind of ship that Bethlehem knows 
how to build! ' 

President Cleveland is the largest passenger vessel ever 
built in a Pacific Coast yard, and the largest built in any 
American yard since the Atnerica in 1939. Her principal 
characteristics are shown in the box herewith. She was 
built to the very high standards set by law and regulation 
for American passenger vessels and conforms with all 
the applicable rules of the following shipping and ship- 
building regulatory bodies: 

1. American Bureau of Shipping. 

2. U. S. Coast Guard: Division of Inspection and 

3. International Load Line Convention. 

4. U. S. Public Health Service for Inspection and 
Certification of Vessel Sanitation. 

5. International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea. 

6. Senate Report No. 184. 

7. U. S. Customs Admeasurement. 

8. Panama Canal Regulations. 

9. Suez Canal Certificate. 

The Trials 
To the several hundred persons converging toward 
this vessel in the early hours of December 10 at the out- 
fitting dock of the yard, she presented a beautiful flood- 
lighted profile against the dark pre-dawn sky. On her 
official trials that day she behaved like a well-trained 
thoroughbred and met all the specified results with a 
good margin to spare. These tests included: a gradual 
work-up from 80 RPM of the propellers to 110 RPM 
in 10 RPM increases at half-hour intervals; crash back 
from 1 10 RPM ahead to 90 RPM astern; crash ahead 

JANUARY • I 948 

from 90 RPM astern to 110 RPM ahead; four-hour 
economy run at 120 RPM 18000 SHP; and one hour 
maximum power run at 124 RPM corresponding to 
20,000 SHP. The results of these tests are recorded in 
Table I. 

The fuel economy figures in Table I need a little ex- 
planation. Under identical conditions of operation, the 
fuel economy for normal power would be slightly better 
than that for maximum power. On these trials when con- 
ducting the four-hour economy test, a number of auxil- 
iaries such as the two big low pressure evaporators are 
required to be in operation, thus considerably increasing 
the auxiliary use of steam. On the maximum power run, 



Left, W 

Miller Laughton. Pacific Coast General Manager, 
1 Steel Company's Shipbuilding Division; right, 
;. Ingersoll, Manager. Bethlehem's Bay Area Yards. 

Page 43 


Rail birds, watching the 

only those auxiliaries necessary to normal ship opera- 
tion are required and the auxiliary steam consumption is 
much lower. In this ship an additional very slight ad- 
vantage is gained for the maximum power test in that 
rhe steam has a slightly higher heat content as it reaches 
the turbine than it has at the normal output from the 

Some Trial Results 

Diameter of turnmg circle — 700 yards approx. 

Head reach — 2940' ahead 

Stern reach — 1000' astern 

Time till dead in water ahead .i min. 30 sec. 

Time till dead in water astern 2 min. 10 sec. 

From full ahead at 128 RPM to 90 RPM astern 
5 min. 19 sec. 

From full astern at 90 RPM to full ahead at 126 
RPM 14 min. 26 sec. 

From full ahead at 128 RPM to RPM 1 min. 17 

From 90 RPM astern to RPM 20 V2 sec. 

Estimated speed on economy run — 22 knots 

Maximum power developed — 20460 SHP 

RPM aver, both shafts— 122.9 

Corresponding fuel SHP hour, all purposes, 
aver, both engine rooms .609 lbs. 

Normal power economy run SHP — 18,230 

RPM aver, both shafts 119.5 

Fuel SHP hour, all purposes, aver, both engine 
rooms — 0.623 lbs. 


When she steamed out through the Golden Gate, 
December 27, on her maiden voyage, she was equipped 
and stocked in most complete fashion to take care of 
the 550 passengers aboard for the round trip scheduled 
to arrive back at San Francisco 8:00 a.m., February 9, 
and timed as follows: 



6 a.m. 




6 a.m. 




6 a.m. 












8 a.m. 



San Francisco 

8 a.m. 




San Francisco 









6 p.m. 












5 p.m. 




8 p.m. 



Master of the Clevela-nd on this trip is that "grand 
old sea dog" Commodore Henry Nelson, formerly skip- 
per of the President Coolidge and one of the most 
colorful and best-loved veterans of Pacific Ocean navi- 
gation. Other officers include: Fred Jennings, chief en- 
gineer; Edward A. Seeley, chief purser; Samuel A. 
Agnew, chief steward; Herman L. Schurtz, chef, former 
chef on SS Leviathan. 

American President Lines visualizes a fleet of four 
identical liners in their oriental service. SS President 
Wilsoft, sister to the SS President Cleveland and now 

Principal Characteristics of 
President Cleveland 

Length OveraU 608' 5%" 

32 Ft. Waterline 593' 2 " 

29 Ft. Waterline 590' " 

Bet. Perpendiculars 573' " 

Beam molded 75' 6 " 

Draft subdivision 30' " 

Draft scantling .. 32' " 

Normal Shaft Horsepower 18,000 

Sustained Sea Speed 19 knots 

Depth Molded Promenade Deck. ...61' 6 " 
Height Upper Deck to Promenade 

Deck 9' " 

A Deck to Upper Deck _ 9' " at side 

B Deck to A Deck 9' " 

" C Deck to B Deck 8' 6 " 

Crew including spares 352 

Passengers (about) 550 

Lightweight of ship including 700 tons 

fixed ballast 12,424 tons 

Deadweight in long tons — 

Stores, passenger, crew and effects, 

and pools 545 

Freshwater 388 

Fuel oil 4,343 

Cargo oil .. 762 

Cargo oil heating water 114 

Refrigerated cargo 500 @ 70 cf/ton 

General cargo 4,431 

Total deadweight 11,083 tons 

Total displacement at 30'-l%" draft.. ..23, 507 tons 

nearing completion at Bethlehem-Alameda Shipyard, 
will be ready sometime this spring. When she is on the 
run, SS General M. C. Meigs and SS General W. H. 
Gordon will be taken out of service and converted to 

Page 44 


luxury class passenger liners similar to the CJcieLind. 

American President Lines is also at present planning 
to build live new specially designed vessels for their 
Round-the- World service — the V-2()00. They hope to 
have these vessels in operation some time in 1949. In 
the words of President Killion of APL, "With revised 
and faster schedules, luxury passenger accommodations, 
and most modern cargo-handling facilities, this lleet now 
in the process of organization, will raise new and higher 
standards m transpacific and round-the-world transpor- 
tation services." 

A passenger liner is a first-class hotel afloat and self- 
contained. All her services must be maintained with a 
very high degree of reliability through her own ma- 
chinery. In addition she must be able to move herself 
on definite schedules from one port to another, almost 
regardless of weather. She is therefore one of the most 
complicated structures devised by the mind of man and 
her functioning is dependent on a great number and 
great variety of mechanisms. These together with the 
furnishings and equipment give work to a great many 
artisans who are scattered all over the nation and who 
in many cases may never have seen a shipyard or even 
have seen salt water. The cost of a vessel is distributed 
over the whole country for labor and materials, to a 
greater degree than is true in any other mdustry. A par- 

Top picture, left to right: 
, Ar1(\ur Poole. Vice Presi- 
dent and Treasurer of APL; 
James L. Bates, Director of 
Technical Division, Maritime 
Commission; George G. 
Sharp, Naval Architect; W. 
Miller Laughton. General 
Manager of Pacific Coast 
Bethlehem Yards; E. Russell 
Lull, Exec. Vice President 
of APL; Henry Frick, Con- 

Bottom picture, left to 
right: Tom Ingersoll, Man- 
ager of Bethlehem's Bay 
Area Yards; Tom Cokely, 
Vice President and Operat- 
ing Manager of APL; Fred 
Doelfeer of W. R. Grace & 
Co.; Captain Perch, Assist- 
ant Operating Manager of 
APL; William Warren, Prin- 
cipal Surveyor of American 
Bureau; Alexander J. Dickie, 
Consulting Editor, Pacific 
Marine Review. 

Wake of the Cleveland du 
ing steering tests. 

JANUARY • 1941 




1. The 

Distiller Flat. Two Bethlehem Iom 

pressure type 


irs (one in each engine room) have a combined 


fy to produce 80,000 gallons a 

day of good 


water. 2. The Cochrane deaera 

ing feedwater 


raises the condensate 240° F. a 

d removes all 


led gases. 3. One of two Genera 

Electric main 


B generating sets, each of whi 

ch supplies a 


9000 shp to one of the propulsion motors. 

4. This 

Worthington centrifugal main cir 

culating pump 


the cooling water through the co 

ndenser tubes. 

5. Fou 

r General Electric steam-turbo a 

uxiliary gener- 


sets provide electric power for 

light, cooking 

and a 

uxiliary machinery. 

Page 46 



k. One of the two General Electric ?000 stip propulsion 
motors. View looking forward from thrust block. 
7. Firing alley in one of the two engine rooms featur- 
ing the boiler fronts of the Combustion Engineering 
boilers with their Todd burners and the Hagan auto- 
matic control board. 8. Then engineers desk, engine 
telegrapn and main turbo generator control board 
in one of the two engine rooms. 9. Part of a General 
Electric main switchboard, dead front type. 

JANUARY • I 948 

Page 47 

IVavigating [puipment and Steering Gear 

Top; Radar mast. Second row: Left— Chart room, radio d!rect!( 
finder at extreme left; Right— Wheel house looking aft. Third 
Left — Steering gear, forward end; Right — Steering gear, after end. 
Bottom row: Left — Loran; center — Gyro room; right — G. E. Electronic 
Navigator (radar). 

Page 48 


rial list of vendors supplying the President Cleveland 
indicates that it comes from 15 states, 5 of which are 
middle western states. 

Hull Design and Construction 

The basic hull design of these vessels was evolved by 
the U. S. Maritime Commission, Technical Division, and 
altered by the Navy. All passenger accommodation and 
crew space arrangement and interior decoration design 
was produced by George G. Sharp, Naval Architect, 
New York. All joiner work, furnishing and interior deco- 
ration were installed and erected by the Aetna Marine 

The hull is of combined riveted and welded steel con- 
struction with a curved stem, a cruiser stern, and with 
three complete decks and a partial deck. These decks are 
designated A, B, C, and D. Above these are: an upper 
deck extending from the stem almost to the stern; a 
promenade deck extending from the stem to frame 168; 
a boat deck covering the midship house; and a navigating 
bridge deck. The midship house above the boat deck is of 

Top; Music and broad- 
cast room. Center 
Left— Watertight d 
way with watertight 
door half-closed; right 
— Automatic telephone 
exchange and steward's 
call board. Bottom 
Left— Fire control 
room showing CO2 
panel and watertight 
doors panel; right — 
Radio room. 

Page 49 

riveted aluminum construction which saves some 75 
tons in weight at a position where weight saving is im- 
portant. This use of aluminum is new in merchant ship 
construction although the Navy has used this metal on 
the superstructures of destroyers and cruisers with very 
satisfactory service results. In this work all rivet holes 
are drilled or punched to a diameter l/16th inch less 
than that of the rivet. After assembly and packing, with 
every third hole bolted, the holes are reamed to a diameter 
l/32d inch larger than the rivet. Up to and including 
3/8" diameter the rivets are driven and set up cold. 
Above 3/8" diameter they are driven hot. 

All decks above A deck have both camber and sheer, 
A deck has sheer but no camber, decks below A have no 
camber and no sheer. As has been usual for some years 
in American passenger liners of this type, the promenade 
deck, in way of the house amidships, projects about 2 
feet outboard from the hull, port and starboard. This 
serves the purpose of helping to keep boats clear of hull 
when lowering and allows the installation of flood lights 
under this overhang to illuminate the sea. It gives, of 
course, a wider promenade which is a decided advantage 
for passenger recreation and loafing space. 

Several of the weather decks in the way of passenger 
accommodations are covered with Oregon pine deckmg 
2%" thick and 4^/^" wide. Margin strakes on these 
decks are of teak 2%" thick and the pine timbers are 
carefully nibbed into the teak at curved sections of the 
ship and around all deck fittings. Deck timbers were 
laid over a coating of Dex-O-Tex, a corrosion-prevention 

composition manufactured by Crossfield Products Corp., 
of Los Angeles, and all seams caulked with two strands of 
cotton and one of oakum payed over with marine glue. 

It is an interesting sidelight on the widespread bene- 
fits of shipbuilding that the grommets used to make a 
watertight seal under the nuts used to hold the wooden 
decks to aluminum or steel decks on these vessels are 
procured from California Blind Craft, Inc. Steel studs 
are welded to the steel decks and aluminum studs to the 
aluminum decks. Highest grade Oregon pine decking is 
drilled and counterbored to receive these studs, and the 
nut with washer and grommet is screwed down onto 
the stud in the counterbore. Nelson automatic welding 
guns were used to fasten studs to decks. All counter 
sinks were carefully stopped with an Oregon pine plug 
set in white lead and carefully chosen to harmonize 
with the grain in the adjacent timber. This work was all 
done by Builders Wood Flooring Company, Inc., of New 
York, who also furnished and installed all the wood 
railing on the vessel. 

Provisions for air conditioning and ventilating are 
very complete. Air conditioning is provided: for all 
cabin and tourist class passenger staterooms; for a num- 
ber of ship's officers staterooms and oflSces; for all mess 
rooms; for tourist and cabin class dining rooms; the 
library, waiting room, writing room, and shops; and for 
tourist, cabin, and officers' lounge rooms. Mechanical 
ventilation is provided for practically all the enclosed 
spaces on the ship. In general the air supply to all un- 
cooled space is required to equal 30 cubic feet per 

Fige 50 


minute for each occupant. In unoccupied spaces the air 
change varies from a complete change every two minutes 
in the battery room to a change every 30 minutes in dry 
cargo spaces, air supply to be for the gross cubic measure 
without benefit of deductions for furniture or other con- 
tents and no space to receive less than 25 cfm. Air condi- 
tioning machinery is supplied by the Carrier Corpora- 
tion and the ventilating and air conditioning systems 


Top row: Left — State 
room air conditioning 
unit; right— Wl 
Canter row: Left— Ship's 
right— Car- 
go reefer room. Bottom 
row: Left — Ship's 
reefer machinery 
center — George Hoef- 
ner, asst. operating en- 
gineer at Bethlehem- 
Alameda, and Hart 
Livingston, asst. ma- 
chinery superintendent, 
also of Bethtehem-Ala- 
meda. at main control 
board for the Carrier 
Air conditioning equip- 


JANUARY • I 941 

Page 51 

are equipped with llg fans. Air conditioning systems are 
served by heaters and cooling coils supplied by McQuay, 

Deck Equipment 

On the boat deck there are installed under aluminum 
gravity type davits 10 lifeboats as follows: 

Four — 36' 6" by 11' 9" by 5' .V, 135 person lifeboat 
hand propelled; 

Two — 36' 6" by ir 9" by 5' 3", 105 person life- 
boats motor propelled, and radio equipped; 

Two — 26' 8" by 8' 3%" by 3' 71/4", 46 person life- 
boats; and 

Two — 26' 8" by 8' 3%" by 3' IVa" , 46 person rescue 
boats oar propelled. 

The total person capacity here is 934, or more than 
enough to take care of the full complement of 890 
passengers and crew. 

Each pair of davits is served by an electric winch of 
capacity for hoisting the fully loaded boat safely at 20 
fpm and for safely lowering at 100 fpm In addition to 
the lifeboats there are sufficient life rafts carried to take 
care of 25 per cent of the total personnel. These rafts 
may be launched over the side or will float free in the 
case of sinking of the vessel. A life preserver for every 
person aboard and 18 life buoys are also carried for 
emergencies. All of the boats, davits and winches were 
supplied by Welin Davit and Boat Corp. All of the boats 
except the after pair are handled and passengers em- 
barked from the Boat Deck. In the case of the after pair 
of boats they are handled from the Boat Deck and pas- 
sengers embarked from the promenade deck. 

The electric drive Lidgerwood windlass is mounted 
forward on the promenade deck and is of the horizontal 
shaft, double wildcat, double gypsy type, the entire as- 
sembly including electric motor being installed above the 
weather deck. This equipment is capable of hoisting two 
stockless cast steel anchors each weighing 15,575 lbs. and 
two 165 fathom lengths of 2%" NACO steel stud link 
chain, each weighing 11,630 lbs. at a rate not less than 
30 fpm. Either gypsy head must have a line pull of 20,000 
lbs. at a speed of 30 fpm. and a no load speed of not less 
than 75 fpm. The motor for this windlass is rated 125 hp 
230 volts, approximately 600 rpm. 

The steering gear is of the Lidgerwood hydro-electric 
double ram four cylinder Rapson slide type, located di- 
rectly over the rudder on "C deck. It is capable of mov- 
ing the rudder from hard over to hard over (70° ) in less 
than 30 seconds when the ship is going ahead at a speed 
corresponding to the maximum designed shaft hp and at 
full load draft and in less than 60 seconds when going 
astern at 40 per cent of the maximum shaft horsepower. 
The rudder may be independently operated by either 
ram. The maximum working pressure ahead or astern 
must never exceed 1500 psi. The hydraulic pumps for 
these gears are in duplicate, each pump having capacity 
to handle the gear. Each pump is driven by a 50 hp 440 
volt A.C., 3 phase 60 cycle motor operating at 1800 rpm. 
These motors may be controlled from four steering sta- 
tions: a pair of trick wheels in the steering gear room; 
a mechanically connected after deck steering wheel sta- 
tion; the standard station in the pilot house; and a sta- 
tion on the pilot house top. At the last two the control 

is by hydraulic telemotor connection for manual steering, 
and by Gyro Pilot system for automatic holding to the 
course. Suitable switch-over arrangements prevent any 
interference between the steering systems. 

Ten single drum and six double drum electric drive 
winches, of double reduction gear type are provided for 
cargo handling at the six hatches. These winches are 
driven by 50 hp d. c, 600 rpm, 230 volt motors, and are 
capable of handling: IV2 tons at 290 fpm; 3 tons at 220 
fpm; and 10 tons at 56 fpm. They were manufactured by 
Lake Shore Engineering Co. with motors and controls by 

Two 24 inch vertical Lidgerwood capstans driven by 
35 hp, 230 volt d. c. motors through gearing are each 
capable of exerting a 20,000 pound pull at 30 fpm on 
warping or other hawsers. Motor and gearing are installed 
on deck below. 

An interesting advance in the design of cargo handling 
machinery is the Lake Shore Engineering Co. side port 
loading-discharging crane for hatch No. 4 which tops on 
"A" deck. Two bridges each carrying one trolley and each 
capable of handling V-h tons safely are installed for ath- 
wartship travel in unison. The travel of the bridges is 
served by a 10 hp motor; the travel of the trolleys by a 
15 hp motor, and the hoist drums are operated by a 50 
hp motor. The bridges at the limit of their travel have 
sufficient outboard projection to give the trolley 1 5 feet 
clearance from ship's side. 

Another interesting item of cargo handling equip- 
ment is a pair of portable cargo oil pumps supplied by 
the Waterous Company. These are of the rotary type 
with herringbone reduction gears driven by Westing- 
house 30 hp, 1800 rpm motors and each pump will dis- 
charge 350 gpm against 100 psi with 440 rpm of the 
pump rotors. These pumps are handled by three electric 
motor drive whip type hoists each with a capacity for 
lifting two tons at 25 fpm. 

Two elevators by Otis are installed, one for passengers 
and one for baggage each capable of lifting 2000 lbs. at 
100 fpm. The passenger cage travels from "B" deck to 
the promenade deck and the baggage elevator from "C" 
deck to the upper deck. 

Navigating Equipment 

The pilot house, navigating bridges and pilot house 
top are equipped with all the most modern devices for 
making navigation simple and safe. 

Gyrocompass system includes one Sperry Mark XIV 
master gyrocompass and eight repeaters mounted and 
located as follows: steering type repeater on gyro pilot 
control stand in wheelhouse; steering type repeater on 
column stand on wheelhouse top; bearing type repeater 
on column stand at after steering station; bearing type 
repeater on column stand, port and starboard on bridge 
wings; bearing type repeater bulkhead mounted in mas- 
ter's office; steering type repeater bulkhead mounted in 
steering room; and repeater mounted in radio direction 
finder. An automatic course recorder of the gyrocompass 
repeater type in the chart room keeps accurate records 
of all courses. 

A Sperry gyro-pilot system provides complete and in- 

Page 52 


dependent electric telemotoring for eitlier manual or 
automatic control of the stroke of the main steering gear 
pumps. The control unit of this system is mounted in the 

A Submarine Signal Co. echo depth sounder provides 
visual and recorded reading of the depth of water under 
keel. This instrument has a range of from three fathoms 
up and its readings are accurate within 2 per cent. 

Two systems of sound powered telephones are used. 
System A keeps the wheel house in communication with: 
the wheelhouse top; the chart room; the forecastle head; 
the crow's nest; the captain's office; the radio room; the 
stern capstan; the steering gear room; and the after 

Passenger Service 

I. Washing section of ship's laun 
dry. 2. Gymnasium. 3. Tailor' 
shop. 4. Dog kennel. 5. Barbe 
shop. 6. Beauty shop. 7. Flowe 

Steering station. System B connects the wheelhouse with: 
the foreward engine room operating station; the after 
motor room; the Chief Engineer's office; the emergency 
generator room; the steering gear room; and the electric 
distribution room. Voice tubes connect the wheelhouse 
with the radio room, the wheelhouse top, the master 
gyro room, and the captain's stateroom. 

Port and starboard propeller shaft revolution indica- 
tors indicate the rpm and direction of rotation of each 
propeller. A waterproof mechanical seven digit counter 
and electrical transmitter are installed on each shaft and 

JANUARY • 194 

waterproof electrical indicators: at each engine control 
stand; on forward bulkhead above windows in the wheel- 
house; and in the chief engineer's office. 

A Navy standard magnetic compass with complete azi- 
muth circle is mounted on top of wheelhouse; a standard 
magnetic steering compass and binnacle in the wheel- 
house; and a standard magnetic steering compass at the 
steering station aft. 

The Electronic Navigator, General Electric 's equipment 
for radar navigation, is installed so that regardless of 
visibility the navigating officer is able to detect visually 
any approaching vessel or other floating object and any 
landfall in ample time to avoid collision or stranding. 

The radio direction finder is the latest model of the 
Radiomarine Corporation of America and is located in 
the chart room. 

A Leslie Tyfon whistle and whistle control with con- 
trol stations in the wheelhouse and on the navigating 
bridge, port and starboard, is arranged for both electric 
and manual operation. 

The ship's radio telegraph and telephone installation 
was supplied by R.M.C.A. and consists of four radio 
telegraph transmitters of various frequencies and four 
receivers of various frequencies covering all the regular 
and emergency requirements of a passenger liner radio 
service. A harbor type radio telephone transmitter re- 
ceiver takes care of ship to shore conversations in or near 
harbors. Each motor lifeboat is equipped with a radio 
telegraph transmitter and with a storage battery of suffi- 
cient capacity to operate this transmitter-receiver con- 
tinuously for at least six hours. 

In connection with the ship's radio there is an auto- 
matic alarm that responds to the ship's radio call letters 
and rings bells in the pilot house, in the radio room, and 
in the radio operator's cabin. 

One broadcast and high frequency receiver is provided 
together with loud speakers in the mess rooms, the din- 
ing rooms, the lounges, the dance floor and in other public 
rooms to provide for entertainment of passengers and 

Safety Systems 

A complete C-O-Two Fire Equipment Co. fire detect- 
ing and extinguishing system provides detection of 
smoke by eye, ear and nose through two cabinets in the 
wheelhouse which indicates the space from which the 
smoke comes and are combined with a carbon dioxide 
fire extinguishing system in the 51 spaces covered. These 
spaces include: cargo holds, cargo 'tween deck spaces, 
trunks to cargo spaces; and special cargo lockers; paint 
and lamp rooms, carpenter shop, engineer's paint locker 
and oil lockers; wiring trunks; provision and other store 
rooms. Separate C-O-Two systems are provided for the 
machinery spaces and for the gyro room, the projector 
booth film locker, the emergency generator room and 
similar spaces. 

In each engine room a hose reel unit is installed hav- 
ing two 50 lb. carbon dioxide cylinders and sufficient 
length of flexible reinforced hose to reach any part of 
the space. 

The special C-O-2 hose reel fire extinguishing equip- 
ment for the propulsion generators and propulsion mo- 
tors was furnished by 'Walter Kidde and Company, Inc. 

A complete water fire extinguishing system is served 
by four horizontal centrifugal pumps, two in each engine 
room. Each of these pumps is driven by a 50 hp motor 
and has a capacity of 400 gpm against 55 psi or 225 gpm 
against 125 psi. This system has an 8-inch pressure gage 
located in the fire control room so that the watchman on 
duty there can see at all times that the necessary pressure 
is maintained. Fire hydrants and hose racks are installed 
so that any point may be reached by two separate hose 

An electrical thermostat and annunciator system covers 
all spaces not protected by the smoke detection system, 
and this system rings an alarm and indicates space and 
zone affected on an annunciator panel in fire control 
room. Fire doors are fitted to stairway enclosures and to 
fire screen bulkheads. These are of the hinged self-clos- 
ing type and can be released by electric control from the 

Coincident with such modern handling facilities as the Si- 
Porter, attention to the care of cargoes enroute is also 
receiving wide attention in that "Cargocaire" has been 
installed, as it is at the present time in more than 150 vessels 
■ing trade routes throughout the world. 

Page 54 


Left: Lidqcrwood 
Anchor Windlass 
looking aft, show- 
ing ship's bell and 
cargo booms in 

Below: Hatch, look- 
ing down through 
the decks. 

fire control room. A system of watchman's clocks moni- 
tors the watchmen and is supervised by the fire control 
room. Thus a man on watch in the fire control room can 
supervise all fire risks and extinguishing systems on the 
vessel and promptly apply the water or the COj to the 
best advantage. 

Watertight doors of the electrically operated horizontal 
sliding type are fitted between the motor rooms and the 
shaft alleys and between the motor rooms in the center- 
line watertight bulkhead. Same type doors provide access 
through the watertight bulkheads on "B" and "C" decks. 
These doors are controllable locally and from a central 
control station. 

Refrigeration Machinery 

There are thirteen refrigerated cargo compartments in 
each vessel with a total volume of 52, .^50 cubic feet. 
Estimated load for the total volume with each compart- 
ment maintained at the most severe conditions is 90.05 
tons of refrigeration. 

The nine ship service compartments have a total 
volume of 17,575 cubic feet. 

In addition to the above there is the refrigeration 
load in connection with the extensive air conditioning 
system. Each of these is a separate system of the direct 
expansion Freon type. 

AU the machinery for these systems is installed in one 

Serving them are the following pumps, supplied by 
the Warren Steam Pump Company, Inc.: 

Three 5" vertical centrifugal refrigerator condenser 

circulating; two 4" vertical centrifugal chilled water cir- 
culating; three 3" vertical centrifugal brine circulating; 
one iVa" vertical centrifugal air conditioning hot water 
circulating; two IV2" vertical centrifugal air condition- 
ing hot or cold water circulating; one 2" vertical centrif- 
ugal warm brine circulating and mixing; and one %" 
horizontal centrifugal ice water circulating. 

For cargo refrigeration there are three Frick Freon- 12 
systems, each compressor being driven by a d.c. 240 volt 
100 hp Westinghouse marine type motor. 

On the air conditioning load there are two Carrier 

JANUARY . 194: 

Page 55 

ind Cooler 

(one to e 

:dch engine room), 

ps are Qui 

mby. Als 

o Wagner Electric 

s. At lowe 

!r right is 

the De Uval Oil 

The Lube Oil Heater 
Bethlehem-made. Pur 
motors, Ruggles Valv 

systems each served by a Carrier multi-stage centrifugal 
compressor. One compressor is driven by a 1 50 hp 3 
phase 60 cycle 440 volt a.c. Westinghouse marine type 
motor, and the other by a reduction geared steam turbine. 
This air conditioning refrigeration takes care of the 
cooling of air for the cargo hold air conditioning system 
in addition to the extensive air conditioning load for the 
passenger and crew accommodations. 

Propulsion Machinery 

The P-2 design is for turbo-electric drive and its most 
distinctive feature is the complete separation of its two 
power plant units and of its two motor units. Each power 
unit comprises two Combustion Engineering Company 
boilers generating steam at 600 psi and 840° F for a 
General Electric turbo generating set that has an output 
of 6890 K.W. at .3500 volts, 3 "phase 60 cycle at 3600 
rpm and supplies this current to a synchronous propulsion 
motor normally rated 9000 shp at 120 rpm and with a 
maximum capacity for 10,000 shp at 124 rpm — 3610 
volts. Each generator is normally at full power direct 
connected to one of the motors giving a normal shaft 
horsepower of 18,000 on the twin screw propellers or a 
maximum rating of 20,000 shp. 

In each engine room there are two General Electric 
five unit turbo-generating sets. Each set consists of a 
steam turbine rated 600 K.W. at 10,033 rpm connected, 
through an enclosed reduction gear, to a 500 K.W. 450 
volt 3 phase 60 cycle 1 200 rpm a.c. generator, a 200 K. 
W. 3 wire 240/120 volt 1200 rpm d.c. generator, and a 
booster exciter 750 amp. at 100 volts 1200 rpm. The a.c. 
generators supply power for general auxiliary ship's serv- 
ice. The d.c. generators supply excitation current for the 
propulsion generators and the propulsion motors. 

The boilers in each engine room are served by Hagan 
Automatic Combustion Control equipment that main- 
tains a constant steam pressure and the correct fuel and 
air ratio for complete combustion of fuel. Todd Hex- 
Press oil burners take care of correct atomizing of the 
fuel. Copes thermostats mounted at the front of the boiler 
drum operate the feed water regulating valves. Reliance 

water gages are used to indicate the water level. In each 
boiler uptake there is installed a Wager smoke indicator. 
In each boiler 10 Diamond Soot Blowers are fitted — three 
in the superheater section, two in the small boiler tube 
bank, and five in the economizer. Three Crosby safety 
valves protect each boiler, two in the drum and one at 
the superheater outlet. All the miscellaneous valves used 
in these boilers are Edward with EV alloy seats. Furnish- 
ed with the boilers for cleaning the interiors of tubes 
are Wilson pneumatic turbine drive tube cleaners. 

Specifications call for a maximum consumption in each 
boiler of 3002 lbs. per hour of 18,500 B.T.U. oil. That 
would be 12,028 lbs. per hour for all four boilers which 
figures at close to 0.66 lbs of oil per brake horsepower 
hour for propulsion or something like 0.635 lbs. per shp 
hour for all purposes. This indicates a very high boiler 
efficiency and also the importance of the steam generator 
in low fuel consumption per unit of power. The sides 
and rear of the furnace space are lined with 2" water- 
wall tubes. On the uptake side there are three rows of 
these 2" tubes, back of which are the superheater ele- 
ments which are held in position by two sets of alloy 
support castings clamped at each side to two pairs of 
21/4 inch support tubes. Back of the superheater is a 
bank of 1 V4 inch boiler tubes. Two baffles and a partition 
plate direct the flow of the hot gases up through the 
superheater elements down through the bank of IV4" 
boiler tubes, and up through the economizer. The feed 
water enters the economizer at the top and emerges at 
the bottom on its way to the boiler steam drum. An 
economizer is thus a last stage feed water heater utilizing 
the heat left in the combustion gases from the boiler 

A forced draft blower is provided for each boiler. This 
blower takes its suction air from the machinery space and 
delivers it to the furnace front of the boiler through an 
air preheater which is heated by 75 lbs. steam bled from 
the main turbines. This pre-heater raises the combustion 
air from 100° F to 280° F. 

Two fuel oil service pumps each capable of serving 
both boilers are provided in each engine room. These 
pumps take suction from the fuel oil settling tanks and 
deliver it to the burner headers on the boiler fronts 

Page 56 



Below-Inboard Profile 
Reverse-Deck Plans 



through the fuel oil heaters. Three of these heaters are 
provided in each engine room. Any two are capable of 
heating 6500 lbs. of Bunker C fuel oil per hour from 
100° F to 230' F when supplied with steam from the 
contaminated evaporator at 50 psi gage. The water drains 
from all oil heaters are pumped to the contaminated evap- 
orator where they are heated to wet steam at 100 psi by 
desuperheated steam at 250 psi. As will be noted m the 
trial results herewith, the steam generating plant exceed- 
ed specified performance. 

Steam from the boilers comes through a short pipe 
lead to the main turbine in each engine room at 590 psi 
815° F total temperature for normal operation at 9000 
shp and at 585 psi 845 ' F total temperature for max- 
imum output at 10,000 shp. The turbines are of the 
General Electric impulse reaction type. Each turbine 
is mounted over and exhausts directly into its condenser 
which is of capacity to maintain a vacuum of 28.75 inches 
hg when its unit of the propulsion machinery is develop- 
ing 9000 shp ahead with normal extraction from the tur- 
bine. Condensate and feed water system is of the closed 
type and follows the U. S. Navy-Maritime Commission 
flow type that has become practically standard on marine 
turbine drives. There are two condensate pumps to each 
condenser. The suctions of these pumps connect to the 
hot well under the condenser. This discharge is through 
the intercondenser of the main air ejector, the drain 
cooler, the gland cooler, the after condenser and the first 
stage heater to the deaerating heater. From the deaerat- 
ing heater one of the two main feed pumps takes the feed 
water and discharges it through the economizer to the 
steam drum of the boilers. Each auxiliary condenser is 
served by a similar condensate and feed system discharg- 
ing to the deaerating feed heater. Arrangement of piping 
and tankage in each engine room provides for feeding of 
boiler compound into the feed pump discharge. 

Each main generator is equipped with a totally enclosed 
ventilating system having fans integral with the genera- 
tor rotor. The air coolers are mounted below the generator 
frame. Cooling water is forced through the tubes of 


Nelson at the control box of his automatic 

nket. The 

re is a supply of these General Electric blankets 

available to passengers. 

Mike R.uri. rjj.jl Ar^hite..). Emmel Jones. Chief Hull Drafts, 
man, Befhlehem-Alameda; Fred Doelker, W. R. Grace. 

these coolers by a motor driven puinp and the capacity 
is such that at maximum power requirement the ventilat- 
ing air must be kept at 40°C when the circulating water 
enters at 85 °F. The same type of ventilating system with 
the same requirements is used on the propulsion motors 
with the exception that the fan is external and operated 
by a separate motor. 

A main control panel in each engine room adjusts the 
circuits between each main generator and its correspond- 
ing propulsion motor. These panels are of the dead front 
type. Combined with transfer panels in the motor rooms 
these panels make possible any workable combination of 
generators and motors. 

The J. O. Martin Company furnished some 52 King 
gages on several panels in convenient locations in the en- 
gine room which permit accurate centralized reading of 
the quantity of liquid in the fresh water, lube oil, diesel 
oil, fuel oil and gravity tanks. The gages not only elim- 
inate the daily necessity of taking soundings at each in- 
dividual tank but the system is so designed that accurate 
remote readings can be had on tanks which cannot other- 
wise be measured with a tape, rod, or float device because 
of inaccessability of the sounding tubes. The gages are 
located near the pumps or valves which fill the tanks so 
that for taking bunkers, and for trimming the tanks when 
loading or at sea one man can accomplish this work 
from a centralized King Gage panel. 

With the exception of the main feed pumps and a few 
stand-by pumps practically every auxiliary machine on 
these ships is motor drive. All of the auxiliary power cir- 
cuits and lighting, cooking, and heating circuits are dis- 
tributed from the switchboards in the main engine rooms 
through a panel board system. The panel boards, the mo- 
tor controls and practically all of the motors in these 
systems are supplied by Westinghouse. 

An interesting installation in each engine room is the 
low pressure distilling plant built at Bethlehem's Fore 
River plant. Each of these plants will produce fresh water 
for boiler feed and for domestic purposes at the rate of 
40,000 gal. per 24 hours. 

Clean oil for turbine lubrication is insured by De 
Laval centrifugal oil purifiers of the latest type installed 
in each engine room. 

JANUARY • 1941 

Page 57 

Top to bottom: Section of main 

galley serving cabin class; section 

of tourist class galley; third class 


Page 58 



The most importiint function on a passenger liner, 
aside from safety and reliability of the hull and the pro- 
pulsion machinery, is the preparation of food for the 
passengers and the service of that food in the dining 
rooms. Excellence of sleeping comfort, luxuriousness of 
furnishing, eye satisfaction from elaborate decor, enter- 
tainment through the ear or the eye, all quickly lose their 
charm unless the passenger is fed regularly with appetiz- 
ing and satisfying meals served promptly and courteous- 
ly on well-set tables in a well-ventilated room. Therefore, 
in many respects, the galley and its auxiliary compart- 
ments, are the most important part of a passenger vessel. 

The President Cleielami has four galleys and numerous 
pantries fitted with the most modern electrical ec]uipment 
for preparing and for cooking food. These are the Cabin 
class galley, the Tourist class galley, the Third class gal- 
ley, and the crew's g.illey. All of these galleys are on "B" 
deck adjacent to the dining rooms they serve. 

Cabin class and Tourist class galleys are in one com- 
partment of the hull located aft of the Cabin class dining 
room, and forward of the Tourist class dining room. 
Reference to the general arrangement plan of "B " deck 
will indicate that the space occupied by these two galleys 
is larger than either of the dining rooms they serve. Note 
also that on "C " deck immediately below the Cabin class 
dining room and the galley space are located the dry and 
the refrigerated stores that serve these spaces. 

In the space occupied by the main galley are arranged 
not only the two galleys, but all their auxiliary pantries, 
and the arrangement is so planned that all service move- 
ments are streamlined. No waiter coming out of either 
dining room crosses the path of a waiter going in. Path 
of the outward-bound waiter brings him into contact with 
the equipment that takes care of soiled tableware, cutlery 
and napery. Path of waiter in-bound is planned to bring 
him in contact with the service pantries where he fills his 

The heart of the kitchen is always the range. Cleve- 

land's main galley is fitted with electric ranges by Hot- 
point, Inc. Also by Hotpoint are the electric "back 
shelves" and the "back shelf" broilers; the electric roast- 
ing ovens; the electric baking ovens; and the electric 
deep-fry kettles. 

The bakery in this galley is equipped to take care of 
the bread, cake, pie and pastry needs of the entire ship. 
This bakery is fitted with a dough mixer built by the 
Triumph Mfg. Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio, that is served by 
a Century Wat-a-Mat liquid regulator furnished by the 
Fred D. Pfenning Co. of Columbus, Ohio. Special bread 
racks for the finished product were furnished by Union 
Steel Products Co., Albion, Michigan. 

All cooking in all galleys is done on electric ranges 
or broilers, with the exception of certain vegetables and 
soup stock which are cooked by steam. All galleys have 
complete electric-mechanical dishwashing and drying 
equipment furnished by the Colt's Patent Fire Arms 
Mfg. Co. 

Special pantry spaces provided in the main galley to 
take care of Cabin class and Tourist class include: coffee 
service; vegetable preparation and cooking; butchering; 
pot washing and storage; silver cleaning and storage; 
dish and glass cleaning and storage; crockery storage; and 
baking and bread storage. The waiters' pantry and a serv- 
ice bar are located outside the Cabin class dining room. 
For further food and beverage service outside of dining 
rooms there are 10 pantries as follows: 5 for crew use; 
1 diet pantry; 2 for engine and deck officers, 1 for the 
captain, and y for passenger service. 

Presiding over this electrified main galley will be a 
supervising chef, a sous-chef, a soup and fish cook, a roast 
cook, a round cook, a grill cook, a vegetable cook, several 
assistance cooks, a coffee man, a cold meat pantry man 
and 14 scullions. 

Fifty-four waiters will be required to serve all the 
Clei'eland's three classes of passengers as well as officers 
and crew. 

Blickman, Inc., of Weehawken, N. J., furnished much 

Below: Vegetable preparation room. Top, cen. j^^^SSi ^^i>-^ 

ten Bakery, sliowing bread oven. « . ^"^^ 

" i 

Below: Hotpoint ranges. Bottom, center: 
Crew's galley. 


Page 59 

of the special pantry and galley equipment. 


Serving the personal needs of passengers and crew are 
a number of shops and personal service rooms, including 
a photographic supply and service shop, a Cabin class 
dress shop, a Tourist class novelty shop, several barber 
shops, a beauty shop, a gymnasium, a massage room, a 
completely equipped steam-heated dog kennel, and the 
crew's slop chest. 


A complete four-ward, eight-room hospital is located 
on "B' deck. This will be under the supervision of 
American President Lines Chief Surgeon, Dr. Rodney A. 
Yoell. It is mechanically ventilated and air conditioned, 
and has sound insulated partitions. There is a six-bed 
crew's ward, a two-bed isolation ward, a two-bed men's 
ward, a two-bed women's ward; a fully-equipped operat- 
ing-room, a dispensary, a diet kitchen, and an attendant's 
room. Each of the wards has a bathroom adjoining. Two 
registered nurses will take care of the patients under 
supervision of the doctor. Included in the equipment are 
an X-Ray machine of the latest type by General Electric 
Company, and an obstetrical bed. 

When the Cleveland has a capacity passenger load and 
a full crew complement, she will have one hospital bed 
ready for every 73 persons aboard. One hospital bed for 
every 200 persons is considered by public health author- 

ities to be adequate for the needs of the average com- 

In addition to the hospital, the ship's surgeon will have 
offices on "A" deck, including a consulting-room with 
adequate facilities for examination, and a pleasantly 
furnished waiting-room. Forward on "A" deck is a dis- 
pensary for serving minor medical needs of the crew. 

Medicines carried aboard would just about stock the 
pharmaceutical shelves of a modern drugstore. They in- 
clude practically everything from aspirin to penicillin 
and an ample supply of blood plasma. 

A special nurse will give full-time attention to super- 
vision of the children's playroom. 

Unique among steamship lines is the American Presi- 
dent Lines' medical department in that it holds that 
highly coveted award — the American College of Sur- 
geons' Certificate of Approval. 

President Clefeliind is the most modern, the most 
luxurious, and the safest passenger vessel now operating 
on regular schedule across the Pacific. She has a sturdy 
steel hull of ample strength to take care of itself in any 
weather. Her propulsion power plant has plenty of re- 
serve power to maintain schedules. Her safety equipment 
for all emergencies is more than sufficient to meet all 
requirements. Her ventilation, air conditioning, and com- 
missary are planned to maintain the best health condi- 
tions of passengers and crew. She is the most perfectly 
rat-proofed vessel afloat. Her scheduled route is one of 
the most exotically romantic in the world. The only thing 
left to say is, "Buy a ticket!" 


One hundred cooks, stewards, waiters and bellboys as- 
signed to the American President Lines' new President 
Cleveland began their "refresher" course November 17 at 
the U. S. Maritime School at Alameda, California. The 
intensive four-weeks schooling period preceded the de- 
livery of the 23,000-ton liner from Bethlehem- Alameda 
shipyard, which took place December 15. 

According to T. J. Cokely, vice president in charge 
of operations, the training is designed not merely to re- 
store prewar levels of service neglected during the war 
years, but to create new standards of luxury service in 

keeping with the postwar strides in travel comfort which 
the President Cleveland represents. 

All 100 enrollees, whose wages were paid by American 
President Lines, performed their "schoolwork" under 
conditions that simulated those on board the big liner. 
Chefs and cooks prepared meals stressing an international 
cuisine that duplicate the menus offered during the voy- 
age. An exact replica of a stateroom was built at the 
school to facilitate standard practices in making the new 
convertible types of sofa beds. Waiters received a 
thorough course that includes the serving of wines and 

students enrolled in the Cook- 
ing. Baking and Butchering 
School turn to preparing the 
courses on the special menu tor 
the day. Individualized in- 
struction designed to give a 
well-rounded training in food 
preparation on board ship is 
the keynote of the course at 
the Maritime Service Training 
station, Alameda, California. 

Ship's cooks learn pointers on 
meatcutting during course of 
training in the Cooking, Baking 
and Butchering School. 

Page 60 



are and 





n for 

Port St 


at Alan 



.ey H 

arris, S 





.ard of CIcve 


n mock- 



St steward and Ro 

Special dishes, and had actual practice in waiting on all 
types of guests acting as passengers, including children. 
Bellboys were specially coached on points of courtesy 
and tact. 

Participating in the course as instructors were Alan 
Agnew, veteran APL chief steward who will serve in that 

capacity on the new ship, and Herman L. Schurtz, the 
vessel's chef de cuisine. Schurtz, former chef on the 
Leviathim. was once characterized by the late Sir Thomas 
Lipton as "the greatest chef in the world" and has held 
notable culinary posts in London and Paris and at the 

The APL refresher course was held in cooperation with 
the Maritime Commission and the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards Union. Although many of those attending are 
prewar personnel of the Line, others include qualified 
men with hotel experience, and men whose ability has 
been proved on interim ships of the Company's fleet in 
operation since the end of the war. 

The course, given for the first time on the West Coast, 
is one of several maritime training courses which the U. 
S. Maritime School, under the direction of Captain Mal- 
colm E. Crossman, offers seagoing personnel. The APL 
program was under the direction of Lt. Cmdr. Constantin 

Port Stewards Society visits the school. Lett to right: Paul Baker. 
Pacific Transport Lines; Eugene Blank. Pope t Talbot; Con Crimlnlus, 
APL P. F. Cannon. Matson; Al Agnew, Chief Steward on Cleveland; 
Tim Mullin APL Al Bissell, Weyerhaeuser; Jack T. McCartney. Labor 
Relations Consultant PASA; Frank Inglean U. S. Lines; Paul Bab- 
cock, Pacific Transport Lines. 

nmm clevelmd mmm m\% 


Bethlehem -A lameda 

Chief Hull Draftsman, 

The President Cleveland was inclined on November 
28, 1947 in compliance with Coast Guard Regulations 
and the Maritime Commission's Specifications for the 
purpose of determming the center of gravity and the 
metacentric height of the vessel in the light condition, 
and from this the available metacentric height and sta- 
bility in the various conditions of loading. The experi- 
ment was conducted by personnel from the Bethlehem- 
Alameda Shipyard, Inc. and Bethlehem Steel Company's 
San Francisco Yard under the direction of the Coast 

A ship is said to be stable if it returns to its original 
position after being heeled over by the wind or by 

wave action; if it moves farther from its original posi- 
tion it is said to be unstable. The Metiicentric height is 
a measure of stability and is defined as the vertical height 
from the center of gravity of the vessel to the meta- 
center. The center of gravity depends on how the ship 
is loaded while the metacenter depends on the shape of 
the ship and is virtually constant for any one draft, for 
small angles of heel. A ship with a small metacenter 
height will roll slowly and easily and will probably be 
very comfortable, but may not provide for enough re- 
serve to keep the ship stable if it is damaged. A large 
metacentric height causes the ship to roll quickly and 
while it makes the ship safer if damaged it can make 



Page 61 

the ship uncomfortable and can cause damage from ex- 
cessive roUing. The ship's personnel has the problem of 
loading the ship so that she will be safe enough to satisfy 
the Coast Guard, which requires that the ship be stable 
enough to withstand damage, but still be comfortable 
enough to keep the passengers happy. 

These rolling characteristics provide a quick and easy 
means for the ship's personnel to determine the meta- 
centric height of the ship in service. It is customary to 
furnish the operator with a table listing period of roll 
against metacentric height. The table is derived from 
the formula: 

Period of roll (sees.) equals beam of vessel, times a 

constant divided by the square root of G. M. 
The constant is determined at the time of inclining by 
rolling the ship and measuring the period. Since the 
G.M. is calculated from the inclining the constant is 
easily found. 

The metacentric height, or "GM ", is found by divid- 
ing the inclining weight, times the distance moved, by 
the displacement of the ship times the tangent of the 
angle of heel. After finding the metacentric height this 
figure is subtracted from the known position of the 
metacenter as read off the curves of form, giving the 
center of gravity of the vessel in the inclined condition. 
From this the center of gravity in various loaded condi- 
tions can be predicted. In practice the angle of heel is 
measured by noting the swing of a pendulum, which 
hangs vertically, as the ship heels from the movement 
of the weights. The displacement is measured as closely 
as possible from the draft marks and is corrected for 
the hog or sag of the ship when waterborne, the "built- 
in" hog or sag of the keel, the specific gravity and the 
temperature of the water, and the fore and aft trim of 
the vessel. This displacement, when corrected for liquids 
aboard, weight of material to complete the ship, and 
weight of tools, dunnage and miscellaneous material not 

a part of the ship, is used for the light ship weight in the 
Certificate of Deadweight. 

If tanks on the vessel are partially full, heeling the 
ship causes the liquids to flow to the low side, shifting 
the center of gravity of the liquid and of the ship and 
causing the condition called "free surface" for which 
the results of inclining must be corrected. The correc- 
tion is not easily made unless the exact boundaries of the 
surface of the liquid can be determined so every effort 
is made to eliminate free surface by keeping the tanks 
either full or empty. 

Since the results of an inclining experiment would be 
inconclusive if the ship as inclined had zero or negative 
GM the President Cleveland was given an extra margin 

Cleveland on drydock at 
Bethlehem Steel's San Fran- 
cisco yard, prior to inclin- 
ing. Weights are visible 
on the forward deck. 

Page 62 


Cortldndt W. Quinby and Donald Reardon of 
the U.SC.G., Emmet Jonej. and William Baker, 
Asst. to Naval Architect, at Bethlehem's Ala- 
meda Yard, checking results. 

Period o( 


cked with aid of gu 

of Stability by filling double bottom tanks No. 2, 3 and 
4 with water. Free surface was eliminated from these 
tanks by carrying the water level up into the vent pipes 
and sounding tubes. Fuel oil settlers and potable water 
tanks were partially full but since the tanks were small 
and rectangular the free surface effect could easily be 
calculated. All other tanks were drained while the ship 
was on drydock and were then visually inspected to see 
that they were dry. All bilge wells were dried. The ship 
was in steaming condition, with water in the boilers 
and condensers, but no machinery was operating. The 
ship was virtually complete at the time of inclining, 
lacking only stewards stores and chairs in some areas. 
All tool boxes, staging, dunnage and yard equipment 
had been removed so that the ship was, as nearly as 
possible, in the 'Light Condition. " 

The experiment was conducted in San Francisco be- 
tween the wing walls of Bethlehem Steel Company's 
No. 1 Floating Drydock at 7:00 a.m. in order to take 
advantage of quiet water and to cut down wind dis- 
turbance. Pads were welded to the stem and stern at the 
height of the center of rotation for the purpose of 
mooring the ship during the experiment. The inclining 
weights consisted of concrete blocks mounted on flat 
cars, a total of 41 tons, and running on a track across 
No. t) hatch. Wire rope falls, with leads to cargo winches, 
were rigged for moving the weights. 

Three pendulums were used, following USMC prac- 
tice, with lengths ranging from 22 V2 feet to 21^2 feet. 
The "plumb bobs" consisted of %" steel plates, 4"x7", 
slotted and welded together to form an "X" cross sec- 
tion, in order to give the maximum damping effect. 
These plumb bobs were hung on steel wire and ar- 
ranged so that they hung in a bucket of oil to damp the 
swing. Small buckets were used and shifted with each 
movement of the weights in preference to troughs, since 
the surging back and forth of oil in a trough is enough 
to swing the pendulum. Wooden battens were laid on 
horses so that the deflections of the wires could be 
marked in pencil and measured off. By marking battens 
a permanent record was made for future reference. 

Telephones were installed connecting each pendulum 
station with the control station, which was located along- 
side hatch No. 3, near the weights. 

After marking the locations of the pendulums on the 
battens with the ship upright, deflections were read with 
the weights moved to 27 feet, 20 feet and 10 feet off 
centerline to port, then the same sequence was repeated 
on starboard. The maximum angle of heel produced was 
about 3^4 degrees. 

Pendulum deflections were then converted to tangents 
of the angle of heel and were plotted against the off 
center movement of the weights. Any doubtful readings 
were rechecked before moving the weights to the next 
position, so that it was possible to know at all times 
whether the information was consistent. During the 
experiment all persons not concerned with the security 
of the vessel or with the test were sent ashore, and all 
those remaining on board were warned not to move 

The movement of the weights was sufficiently quick 
so that a slight rolling motion was imparted to the 
ship, enough to time the period of roll. A gunner's 

Weights in the extreme starboard outboard position. 

JANUARY • 1941 

Page 63 




d fo 

r th 


St tim 

e a 



orked 112 A 





Tl's U 





s ar 

d cc 











George Kra 

i, cc 










asst. outfitt 

ng su 










r Gib 

son, coordir 









r; G 







; H 

Graves coordinator A. Benton T. A. Minot, head outfitting super- 
visor; C. H. Kretschman. acting general superintendent; R. Mahan. 
asst. to manager (inspection); J. F. Schmidt, Jr.. asst, outfitting and 
machining superintendent; also present, but not shown in the above 
picture was R. O. Eidell. coordinator. 

quadrant with a sensitive bubble was used to determine 
the start and finish of the roll. The gunner's quadrant 
was also used to give a quick measure of the angle of 

The entire procedure was completed by 10:00 a.m. 
and the ship was then moved out of the drydock and 
was returned to the Bethlehem-Alameda Shipyard to be 
fueled and provisioned for her sea trials and delivery. 

$500,000 went for ratproofing on the Cleveland 


George Buchanan 
and Andy Faisal, of 
Aetna Marine. 

Showing Schlage 
locks on bulkhead 
doors. These ma- 
rine fittings are 
throughout the ship 

Ship to sho 
Radiomarine te 

Page 64 


T. C. Ingersoll {center. 
dent CIcveldnd compl. 
behalf of the Maritim( 
ground). The Commis 
sented by T. J. Cohely 

kground) r 

i-Alameda Shipyard. Inc., signs Presi 
t the Yard. Accepting fhe vessel or 
onstruction representative (left, fore 
to American President Lines, repre 
ans (third from left). Also otficiatini; 
f the ceremony were Ray Strickland, chief of control, Bethlehem-Alameda (second from left) 
sst. to Mr. Strickland (fourth from leff); George Jackson, assf. superintending engineer, APL 
;ommodore Henry Nelson, master of the new vessel; Donald Day, American Bureau of Shipping 

lager of Bethleh 
^ certificate in brief ceremony 
Dmmission is Paul Ivl Mulvany 
then turned the Cleveland ov 
:e-president in charge of operd 

Taken in side-port loading room: Left to right: K. W. Nasi, U. S. 
Public Health Service; W. A. Williamson, Lt. Cmdr. U.S.C.G.; W. R. 
Gill, Lt., U.S.C.G.; David Neilson. Head Hull Inspector. U.S.M.C; 
H. R. Carlson. U.S.P.H.S.; James Scott. Asst. Ivlaritimc Director, 
Pacific Coast; J. H. Conlon. Lt. Cmdr.. U.S.C.G. These people 
represented the three official bodies for whom the sea trials are run. 

U.S.M.C. Inventory Crew, left to right: E. R. Worst, L. H. Helmke, 
R. E. Saelens. This is one of the toughest iobs. involving receiving, 
checking, boiing. stowing, delivery, inventory of all movable and 
removal parts and spare parts with official Washington allowance 
lists. The spare parts inventory alone amounts to half a million dollars. 

the Electro 



ment will aid in guid- 
ing the big ship through 
channel or sea. through 
fog or storm or night. 

on. Master of th 
eland, and Georg 
>n. president o 

the 23.000-ton pas 
ship. raise fhe 
house flag as the 
dent Cleveland 
livered from fhe 
time Commission 
APL. The flag-rais 
ceremonies took pi 
aboard the liner a 
44 from which 
eland later 



for the Oi 
capacity p 

of 550 persons on its 
maiden voyage- Others 
in the group, leff to 
right, are: Lloyd Flem- 
ing. Maritime Commis- 
sion representative on 
the West Coast; T. J. 
Cokely. APL vice pre: 
Russell Luti. executive < 

f Pi 



Page 65 



Interior Design 

and Decoration 

Public rooms and staterooms on 
these new President liners are deco- 
rated in American moderne style 
very deftly accentuated by occasion- 
al introduction of Chinese motifs, 
thus saluting both America and the 

Orient. Responsible for the design 
is the Interior Decoration Division 
of George Sharp, N;ival Architect, 
New York. E.xecution of the design 
and of all joiner work, ventilation 
ducts and much other light construc- 
tion, was contracted by Aetna Ma- 
rine Corporation. 

First impression on entering the 

Top picture: Veranda de lu«e suite; 
bedroom is to the left. 

Bottom: Cabin Class Stateroom. 

Enclosed Promenade Deck. 

Page 66 


JANUARY • I 94i 

Page 67 


promenade deck is spaciousness. 
Most of the promenade in way of 
the superstructure erection is en- 
closed with Kearfott Clear Vu wm- 
dows. Much of the inboard bulk- 
heads separating this promenade 
space from the public rooms, is in 
large fixed glass windows and this 
combination produces the illusion 
of great wide-open spaces. The 
promenade itself is wide so that with 

six-footers stretched out on steamer 
chairs against the inboard bulkhead, 
there is still a wide promenade free 
to pedestrians. Twelve times around 
this deck equals a mile, says the sign. 
Ships figure in nautical miles so 
there must be approximately 250 
feet of this promenade, on port and 
starboard sides. 

The deck of the promenade is 
covered with dark green Koroseal 

( Vinyl plastic ) molded into a dia- 
mond-shaped pattern with semi- 
abrasive surface and with small gut- 
ters outlining the pattern. On labora- 
tory tests, this comparatively new 
material proves to have: many times 
the wearing qualities of rubber or 
linoleum; a much harder surface 
than any other comparable deck 
covering; a great degree of fire re- 
sistance; and possibilities in color 

schemes that are only Hmited by the 
imagination of the designer. The 
same material is used on the Cleve- 
land in many forms such as simu- 
lated leather and patent leather up- 
holstery materials, and shower cur- 
tains. It is a product of the B. F. 
Goodrich Company and was sup- 
plied to the Cleveland by Sloane- 
Blabon Corp. of New York. 

All public deck spaces not car- 

peted are covered with moulded 
Koroseal or Koroseal tile. This ap- 
plication of vinyl plastic deck cov- 
erings is said to be the most exten- 
sive on any ship afloat. 

Interiors of the public rooms on 
this deck produce the same illusion 
of great wide open space that pre- 
vails on the promenade and for the 
same reason plus the lavish use of 
plate glass doors between the rooms. 

The arrangement and comparative 
size of the public rooms and the 
swimming pool are shown on the 
plans herewith. 

Main lounge, a large room with 
abundant fenestration, is decorated 
and furnished in restrained good 
taste. Focal point is the large fire- 
place with mirror above, central on 
the aft bulkhead. Into a niche in the 
mirror is set a specially-designed 

Top picture: Tourist lo 

Right: Tourist class stateri 

Chinese style clock and flanking the 
fireplace on each side are green lac- 
quered cabinets trimmed with gold- 
en bronze and supporting porcelain 
figurine lamps in modern Chinese 
motif. A beautiful pair of daven- 
ports with end tables form an ingle 
nook. Occasional chairs and tables 
in excellent taste and design for 
luxurious comfort are supplied in 
adequate quantity. Notably and 
thankfully missed is that great 
confusion of large overstuffed atroc- 
ities that usually fills the main 
lounges on the passenger liner. Ar- 
not & Company, engineers and de- 
signers of distinctive furniture have 
produced sleeping accommodations 
and public room equipment that 
combine passenger luxury with 
space-saving efficiency. 

Forward foyer and stair hall 
features a large mural on the after 
bulkhead of the well. This mural 
depicts the hills on each side of the 
entrance to San Francisco Bay, the 
Golden Gate Bridge and the outer 
portion of the bay. 

The Smoking Room, a somewhat 
larger room than the main lounge, 
is panelled beautifully in mahogany. 
The predominant note in decor and 
furniture is a restrained moderne 
American, and the Chinese motif is 
touched only in a modern Chinese 
chest with jade handles, and in the 
decorative treatment on the base of 
table lamps. On the port and star- 
board sides of this room are built-in 
seats upholstered in Koroseal and 
arranged in sections to accommodate 
small groups. As in all the public 
spaces the lighting is indirect and is 
concealed in a ceiling soffit so skill- 
fully harmonized as to be scarcely 
noticeable when the lights are off. 
This soffit directs soft illumination 
onto bulkheads and ceiling, giving 
dim daylight illusion. 

Next in order aft is the main en- 
trance hall and stairwell with its 
flower and gift shop starboard, and 
service bar port, and the same in- 
teresting brass stair rail design al- 
ready described. Central in decor 
motif here are the elevator doors 
done in Chinese style gold on black 

Short passages port and starboard 
contacting service rooms lead to the 
cocktail lounge where we pass im- 
mediately into modern China. Along 
the after bulkhead upholstered 

booths are topped by a wall curving 
forward and upward to the ceiling. 
Between this wall and the top of the 
upholstered booth seat is a depressed 
recess which reflects indirect light- 
ing on the wall. The wall itself is 
painted a deep Chinese red and is 
decorated with Chinese line designs 
in gold wire. The color scheme, even 
the forms of chairs, tables, bar stools 
and their pedestals, and the bar it- 
self, are all reminiscent of Chinese 
art and architecture. 

All upholstered furniture in the 
ship and all built-in upholstered 
seats are stufifed with interlaced curl- 
ed hair supplied by the curled hair 
division of Armour and Company, 
Chicago. This product is curled hair 
knitted into burlap or cloth sheet- 
ing, and made up into rolls or cut 
to special patterns to suit the job. 
Finishing hardware in brass, bronze 
and white metal was furnished by 
P and F Corbin of New Britain, 
Connecticut. This includes concealed 
holders to operate all fire doors, 
heavy duty overhead checks on all 
self-closing doors, cast bronze olive 
knuckle self-lubricating butts for all 
doors, door stops and holders, push 
plates, lavatory bolts, strikes, coat 
and hat hooks, bumpers and handles. 
Door locks, the heart of shipboard 
hardware, are Schlage Lock Com- 
pany's rust-proof marine product. 

The Marine Veranda follows the 
suggestion of its name and creates 
the feeling of outdoors and a night 
club at the same time. Heavy white 
classical moldings outline doors and 
contrast with the dark walls. Win- 
dows on three sides of the room are 
richly draped in eggshell mohair 
with a banana leaf design. The 
orchestra backing — painted the 
same as the wall — is combed to 
show its silver lining. To carry out 
further the veranda effect, chairs are 
made of open-work cast aluminum 
painted white. Pierre Bourdelle, an 
artist well-known for his work 
in carved linoleum, produced 
panels for the face of the movie 
projection booth and for wall space 
above the windows. Vinyl tile is 
used as deck covering in the Veran- 
da. An off-white feature strip cir- 
cles the midnight blue dance floor, 
repeating the curved design of light- 
ing ingrown into the ceiling above 
the tables. 

Illustrations herewith give a much 

better idea of the public rooms than 
could be conveyed by a multitude 
of words, attempting a detailed des- 
cription. Just outside the after win- 
dows of the marine veranda on the 
open portion of the promenade deck 
is the cabin class built-in swimming 
pool, finished in ceramic tile and 
equipped with a wide beach space. 

Sleeping Accommodations 

With very few exceptions, cabin 
class staterooms are located at the 
ship's side. They vary in size and 
passenger capacity, but the average 
room with its generously propor- 
tioned private bath and extensive 
wardrobe and trunk space is equip- 
ped for three people. Through care- 
ful design and arrangement of furni- 
ture, the atmosphere of an intimate 
sitting room or lounge is created, 
suiting the room to daytime living. 
Beneath one or two softly draped 
airports, unified as one large window 
by a Venetian blind, sits a sofa bed. 
It is upholstered in an original pin- 
stripe mohair and has the dimen- 
sions and appearance of a regular 
sofa. The existence of wall-flush 
upper and lower berths opposite is 
barely indicated by their outlines 
on the wall. At night passengers 
push buttons and births glide from 
their vertical, stowed position and 
with further digital pressure on 
another disk, the back of the sofa 
bed slips casually down to rest on 
the seat. Thus, quickly and easily, 
the room is transformed into a bed- 
room — beds made up and ready for 
use. Here again Arnot & Co's. en- 
gineering skill has made itself ap- 
parent, and the Arnot Guest-operat- 
ed Sleeper has revolutionized ship- 
board living, making every room a 

The staterooms, their furniture 
and other facilities, are planned to 
please the passenger whether his de- 
sire of the hour be to sleep thor- 
oughly on a luxurious mattress of 
foam neoprene- rubber, or to enter- 
tain from a comfortable lounge 
chair upholstered in the same resi- 
lient material. If he likes to read late 
into the night, without disturbing 

Top: Writing room. 
Bottom: tv^ain lounge, with fireplac 

Page 70 


JANUARY • 1941 

Page 71 

others, he may flick off the end table 
lamp, turn on a light in the serrated 
glass cylinder which forms the 
lamp's base and direct light to his 
book only. 

To serve the feminine traveling 
world, a vanity unit is concealed in 
the graceful modern dresser. Miss 
America, or her sister, simply pulls 
out the top drawer of the dresser, 
raises and tilts back a mirror-faced 
lid revealing a spacious compart- 
ment made to care for small bottles, 
jars and such necessities. Thus, re- 
posed in a neat vanity chair, sur- 
rounded with equipment and ade- 
quate lighting she goes painlessly to 
work. When she finishes, another 
job can be accomplished with the 
top down. The smooth surface of 
the open drawer's cover heartily sug- 
gests that the stationery in the next 

Left: Children's Playroorr 

elow: The Marine Veranda 

compartment is destined to be used 
for a letter home. Thus the dresser 
becomes a desk! 

Each ship offers two de luxe suites 
of three rooms each, specially en- 
dowed to please the most demand- 
ing critic. The layout comprises a 
real bedroom, a sitting room and a 
"veranda" lounge with large ob- 
servation windows. Instead of creat- 
ing a contrast, as in other staterooms, 
by setting bleached oak furniture 
and light shades of upholstery 
against darker, shadow-soft walls, 
the designer has done these suites in 
the more conventional, reverse color 
scheme, maintaining at the same 
time the simplicity and grace found 
in modern lines of furniture 
throughout the ship. With rich ma- 
hogany used for woodwork of dress- 
ers, tables and chairs, he has mixed 

a warm blue carpet, light pastel 
blue walls, textured drapery and 
upholstery fabrics in tones of beige, 
rose and dark blue, all of which 
blend with or complement each 
other. To match the woodwork, cig- 
arette-and alcohol-proof Formica 
used for dresser and table tops is 
made of "realwood" mahogany. 

In each stateroom — for comfort's 
sake — a Carrier "Weathermaster " 
unit and fan counteract the heat or 
cold with air conditioning and cir- 
culation. Control is either automatic 
by Minneapolis-Honeywell thermo- 
static regulators, or manual through 
manipulation in the room. All cabin 
class rooms have private phones for 
intraship communication, and from 
public booths all ship-to-shore busi- 
ness may be taken care of. 

American President Lines is mak- 
ing available to its passengers an- 
other innovation in sleeping com- 
fort, the G-E Automatic blanket, on 
request. All the passenger needs to 
do is to select the warmth desired, 
set the control, then let the blanket 
automatically maintain the same 
even warmth though temperatures 
vary greatly on wintertime high seas 
of the Pacific. 

Facilities in the tourist bathrooms 
include a space-saving combination 
unit with toilet, Monel-metal wash 
basin, a medicine cabinet and light. 

* ^■jfT^I^^ J^^H^ 

m. & 




Left to right: Julian 
W. O. Schrader, fn 
Lundegaard and Non 

nst. Assistant Manager. Bethlehe 
U.S.M.C., Washington, D.C.; ( 
1 A. ProHltl. Aetna Marine. 

Suspended on the wall are a stream- 
lined thermo-carafe and a handy 
satin-finished steel Kleenex cabinet. 

Dining Room 

Dining "cabin class" cannot help 
but be an appetizing treat in decor 
as well as in food. Imagine a sump- 
tuous Hawaiian foliage mural by a 
prominent artist, Andre Durenceau, 
blended into a soft grey-blue and 
beige color scheme; modern red 
gum buffets trimmed on top with 
edge-lighted Harriton carved glass 
panels; add comfort in gold leather 
chairs at regular tables or ci)ngenial 
chatter at diagonally patterned ban- 
quettes beneath a long range of 
lighted windows. Try Tourist Class 

— more carved glass — more mirrors, 
some bleached oak fluted columns — 
red chairs contrasting with French 
gray walls, all done with the light 
hand of restraint for long durability. 
Background for all this interior 
decoration, its support and its 
strength is the joiner construction 
designed, manufactured and erected 
by the Aetna Marine Corporation. 
Double flush steel divisional panels 
inclosing a mat of fibre glass insula- 
tion, are cleverly formed on the 
edges to make a strong interlocking 
joint, which acts as a stiflFener. Panel 
bulkheads of this type eliminate the 
use of posts or fasteners other than 
retaining members top and bottom. 
Even the marine veneer ceilings are 

Vee-jointed. Doors and frames are 
fashioned to blend naturally into 
this construction and form a smooth 
panelled wall that makes a wonder- 
ful base for decorative treatment. 
These panels are fireproof and ex- 
tremely resistant to the conduction 
of temperature, easily passing the 
tests imposed by Senate Resolution 
184. For the structure above the 
boat deck, the same type of paneling 
is made in aluminum alloy. 

Aetna Marine Corporation de- 
serves great praise for the excellent 
workmanship and the high finish 
achieved in the Cleveland's interiors, 
and for the masterful fashion in 
which the various decorative motifs 
were applied. 


There are hundreds of thousands of 
square feet of Johns-Manville Mari- 
nite asbestos panels on the ship. 
They appear in ceilings and walls 
where their purpose, aside from 
beauty of finish, is fire protection 
and acoustical advantage. 
I. Stateroom. 2. Passageway, look- 
ing aft into third class dining room 
(portside). 3. Dining room. 4. Cock- 
tail lounge. 5. Lounge, i. Lounge. 

Dex-O-Tex Magnabond Crossfield 
Products Corp.'s Dex-O-Tex prod- 
ucts are used as bonding agents 
under deck planking, swimming 
pool tiling, and elsewhere. They 
are also to be found on topside 
od decks where they are almost 
wear-proof and slide-proof. 

Page 74 


HiCH nmm m hich tehpehature 

mm 1^ urn m mmm vessels 

Pari 1 

Note: This article is in two parts. Part II, dealing 
with Merchant Vessels, will appear in the February 
Pacific Marine Review. 

All front line combat ships and most auxiliary ships 
in the Navy at the present time are driven by turbines 
powered by steam generated in watertube boilers. Oil 
is the fuel used to generate the steam. The problem that 
confronts designers in this respect is to extract every 
possible iota of energy from the oil, and to transform 
this energy into the maximum possible driving force at 
the propeller, using boilers and propulsion machinery 
that are as light-weight and compact as possible, and 
that are of rugged, absolutely reliable construction. 

There has thus been a constant search on the part of 
marine engineers for boilers that could reliably produce 
increasing amounts of steam while burning the mini- 
mum practical amount of fuel. Similarly, engines have 
been under constant review to develop designs that 
could transform the energy in the steam into driving 
force at the propeller with an absolute minimum of 
losses. At the same time, in order to obtain utmost speed 
and cruising radius, and in order to be able to install 
the greatest possible amount of armor and armament, 
there has been a steady demand for reduction in the 
weight and in the space occupied by boilers and en- 

Engineers have known for a great many years that, 
other things being equal, power plants using steam at 
higher pressures and temperatures can transform fuel 
into driving power more efficiently than can plants using 
steam at lower pressures and temperatures. For example, 
at a steam pressure of .lOO psi and at a temperature of 
500° F, approximately 40 /r more fuel would be re- 
quired per shaft horsepower than would be required 
when using steam at 600 psi and 850° F, and 60% 
more than for steam at 1200 psi and 900° F (Fig. 3). 

However, the use of higher steam pressures and tem- 
peratures involved extensive complications, particularly 
with regard to strength of materials and design and con- 
struction techniques Natural likes and dislikes of men 
who had worked for years with lower pressures and 
temperatures also had to be overcome. The change to 

higher pressures and temperatures was thus a very grad- 
ual development (Fig. 1). The eflorts to increase effi- 
ciently and decrease weight were first limited to those 
improvements made possible by changes in types and 
designs of engines and boilers and in the types of fuels. 
When the benefits derived from these changes began 
to approach their limitations, and as materials and tech- 
niques were improved, the change to higher pressures 
and temperatures was accelerated. The curves of Fig. 1 
show this quite graphically with respect to watertube 
boilers. From 1895 to 1925 pressures and temperatures 
increased very slowly, but boiler weights decreased and 

iislsis Hill! sss = s SoSsss 

;:,:::: :::: S: :::;- 

'--- ^;- 

!:;^;;: ::c :::: :::::: 
' \ 

Pounds 0* Oil P«r ShoH Hors«pow«r 

\ J^' 

8 / 

3 / 

^s r 

i g I 

Fig. 1: Watertube 
boilers in naval 
service: full power 
operation. (Graph 
is from a paper 
"Development of 
tvlarine Watertube 
Boilers" by J. H. 
King and R. S. Coi, 
presented before 
the Society of Na- 
val Architects and 
Marine Engineers. 
Fig. 3: Curve show- 
ing general trend 
of pounds of oil re- 
quired for all pur- 
poses to develop 
a shaft horsepower 
when using steam 
at various pressures 
and corresponding- 
ly appropriate tem- 

JANUARY • 1941 

Page 75 

efficiencies increased remarkably because of changes in 
types and design and because of the use of oil instead 
of coal. After 1925 temperatures started to shoot upwards, 
and pressures followed along in the 1930's. This called 
for new advances in boiler design because, as can be 
seen from the curves, boiler weights per pound of equiva- 
lent evaporation* remained almost constant despite 
heavier materials required for higher pressures and tem- 
peratures, and despite the fact that economizers were 
added to obtain still higher efficiencies. 

Prior to 1900 all but a few of the vessels in the Navy 
were equipped with reciprocating engines and coal-burn- 
ing Scotch boilers. Basically, Scotch boilers consist of one 
or more cylindrical furnaces surrounded by water. This 
water envelope is traversed by numerous tubes through 
which pass the gases from the furnace. The heat picked 
up by the water from these tubes and from the furnaces 
transforms it into steam. Because of the necessity of using 
relatively heavy shell plates with suitably stayed flat 
heads, Scotch boilers are heavy and inflexible, and are 
seldom built for operating pressures in excess of 250 psi. 
Scotch boilers, with water, weigh in the neighborhood 
of 70 pounds per square foot of boiler heating surface. 
Because of their inflexible construction and relatively 
poor circulating characteristics, it is not usual to "force" 
boilers of this type. At normal loads, approximately 10 
to 15 pounds of boiler are required for each pound of 
equivalent evaporation per hour. Trials in the early 1890's 
on various Naval warships fitted with Scotch boilers 
showed coal consumption of 2.4 to 3.1 5 lbs. per indicated 

Because of the limitations of Scotch boilers, active steps 
were taken at the turn of the century to explore the pos- 
sibilities of watertube boilers. Watertube boilers consist, 
essentially, of a furnace in which the fuel is burned, and 
a series of inclined tubes across which the gases pass, 
transforming the water inside the tubes into steam. The 
steam is collected in a drum before being sent to the 
superheater or prime mover. Because the water in this 
design of boiler is contained inside the tubes breaking 
it down into small segments, which improves heat trans- 
fer, and because circulation is more rapid, steam can be 
generated far more quickly than in a Scotch boiler. 

The change from Scotch to watertube boilers was not 
effected without considerably controversy, and the dis- 
cussions both in America and abroad were lengthy, in- 
volved, and heated. But the demands for lighter and more 
efficient boilers were insistent, and after much experimen- 

'Note 1. "Equivalent Evaporation" is a term used to provide a com- 
mon basis for compatison of boilers operating under different pressures, 
temperatures, and feedwater conditions. For example, a boiler generating 
one pound of satiirated steam per square foot ar 250 psi from feedwater 
at 300° F, is doing much less work, other things being equal, than a 
boiler generating one pound of saturated steam per square foot at 450 
psi from feedwater at 200° F, To place these "actual evaporations" on a 
comparable basis, the amount of heat required to change one pound of 
water at 212° F to dry steam at 212°F, both under atmospheric pressure, 
is used as the common denominator. This amount of heat is 970,3 BTU, 
Thus, for the first example above, the actual BTU's required would be 
932-1 per pound. Dividing by 970.3, we have ,96 pounds of equivalent 
evaporation. Fof the second example, the actual BTU's required would be 
1036.6 per pound. Dividing by 970.3. we have lO"? pounds of equivalent 
evaporation. The comparison between ,96 and 1.0"' is thus a true measure 
of the relative work being done by each boiler per square foot. 

' 'Note 2, "Indicated" horsepower is the power of an engine as calculated 
from curves drawn on indicator cards attached to the engine when it is 
in operation, "Shaft" horsepower is customarily taken as being about 
90% of indicated horsepower. This distinction is important when making 
comparisons with turbine installations, where the power is always measured 
directly on the shaft and is thus termed "shaft" horsepower. 


ck & 


Wilcon "alert" type 
marine boiler, 189? 
— patented. 

ration, watertube boilers became standard equipment for 
the Navy. The first Babcock & Wilcox boilers in the 
Navy were of the Sectional-Header type and were install- 
ed in the Marietta, Annapolis, and Chicago in 1896. The 
reliability of these boilers was an important factor which 
influenced the decision to adopt watertube boilers as a 
standard in the U. S. Navy. During the Spanish American 
War, the Oregon, equipped with Scotch boilers, and the 
Marietta, equipped with B & W boilers, took part in the 
great dash from the Pacific around South America to the 
East Coast. Commenting on their performance. Rear Ad- 
miral George W. Melville, who more than any other man 
was responsible for the adoption of the watertube boiler 
in the U. S. Navy, stated: 

"The Marietta's trip around South America at the be- 
ginning of the war with Spain was quite as successful as 
that of the Oregon. . . . No repairs were required to 
either set of boilers after the completion of the trip." 

In 1897 William D. Hoxie, then vice president of 
the Babcock & Wilcox Company, patented the boiler 
that later became widely known and widely used through- 
out the navies and merchant marines of the world. Simi- 
lar to the design used in the Marietta, it incorporated, 
among other advancements, the new feature of firing the 
boiler under the downtake headers, which greatly im- 
proved combustion and simplified operation. Although 
apparently simple, this invention was hailed as revolution- 
izing marine watertube boiler practice ( Fig. 4 ) . 

Interesting installations of B & W boilers of this design 
were in the battleships Michigan and South Carolina. 
boilers for which were ordered in 1907. These were the 
first vessels in the Navy to be originally built with super- 
heaters applied to the boilers. The working pressure was 
295 psi and the superheaters were designed to give a 
total steam temperature of approximately 520" F. It was 
estimated that the use of superheated steam resulted in 
an overall saving of approximately 9' '< in coal consump- 
tion from that which would have been expected with 
saturated steam. The coal consumed was 1.46 lbs. per 
indicated horsepower — a substantial reduction from the 
average consumption for Scotch boilers in the preceding 
decade. Improvements in engine design deserve, of course, 
equal credit with the boilers for effecting this saving in 

Boilers of this design weighed approximately 26 lbs. 
per square foot of boiler heating surface, including water. 
Superheaters added slightly more than 2 lbs. per square 
foot, making a total weight of about 28 lbs. per square 

Page 76 


foot of boiler surface — or less than half the weight of a 
typical Scotch boiler. Also, it required approximately 5 
pounds of boiler per pound of equivalent evaporation, 
as compared to 10 to 15 pounds per pound of equivalent 
evaporation for a Scotch boiler. 

Watertube boilers played an important role in the 
development of destroyers during the decade 1900-1910 
when the use of destroyers grew in importance in all the 
navies of the world. One naval authority has stated; 
The most striking trends in design of destroyers were 
toward greater displacement, higher speed, heavier guns, 
and greater seaworthiness, habitability, and endurance. 
The success of this type of ship depended to a great de- 
gree upon the adequ.icy of its power plant. The results 
achieved would have been impossible without the use of 
water-tube boilers." One of the types of water-tube boilers 
that found wide acceptance in the Navy was the White- 
Forster design as built by the B&W Co. The first boilers 
of this design used in the Navy were ordered for the 
destroyers Aiayrant and Witrrh!gto>/ in 1909. The wet 
weight was approximately 12 pounds per square foot of 
boiler surface. This exceedingly light weight contributed 
materially to successful destroyer design. Because of space 
limitations, and limited design techniques superheaters 
were not used with this type of boiler. 

In general, these were the two designs that continued 
in use throughout World War I — B&W Sectional-Head- 
er boilers, usually with topside superheaters, for larger 
combat ships, and B&W-built White-Forster boilers for 
destroyers. Despite the general adoption of turbines, there 
was a relatively slow increase in working pressures and 

The development of turbines to replace reciprocating 
engines was parallel to the change from Scotch to water- 
tube boilers, and was equally important. The use of tur- 
bines came about for primarily the same reasons as the 
adoption of watertube boilers: Saving in space and 
weight, increased economy, lower first cost, reduced cost 
of maintenance, etc. Turbines also made it possible to 
use smaller shafts and propellers, and they reduced vibra- 
tion considerably. However, these advantages were not 
always immediately forthcoming, and a similar contro- 
versy raged over turbines versus reciprocating engines 
as took place over water tube boilers versus Scotch boilers. 
A different problem which had to be overcame in the 
use of turbines was that of efficiently transferring power 
to the propeller. This called for the development, among 
other things, of efficient reduction gearing. Also perform- 
ance of reciprocating engines continued to advance, and 
turbine performance had to keep abreast of it, at the 
same time that the "kinks" in turbine design and applica- 
tion were being ironed out. 

One characteristic that delayed the adoption of tur- 
bines for larger vessels such as battleships was their rela- 
tive inefficiency at low cruising speeds. This was of par- 
ticular importance to the Navy, whose ships had to cover 
areas of the Atlantic and Pacific, with refueling bases 
few and far between. Fuel economy at low cruising speeds 
was thus of paramount importance, and many of the 
large battleships built just prior to World War I were 
equipped with reciprocating engines. However, turbine 
designers succeeded in overcoming these diificulties, pri- 
marily by the use of separate cruising turbines and effec- 

tive reduction gears. Comparative tests were run on three 
battleships — the Oklahoma with reciprocating engines 
and the Nevada and Pennsylvania with turbines of dif- 
ferent makes. The successful performance of the turbines 
in these latter two ships marked the passing of the re- 
ciprocating engine in combat ship propulsion. 

Along with the adoption of watertube boilers and tur- 
bines came the use of oil rather than coal as the original 
source of power. The discovery of large oil reserves in 
the United States at the turn of the century led the Navy 
to study comparative advantages of oil and coal. Fuel 
oil was definitely adopted for destroyers in 1908, and the 
previously mentioned Mayran/ and Warrington were 
built with oil-burning equipment. In 1912 oil was select- 
ed as the fuel for the battleships Oklahoma and Nevada, 
and subsequently became standard for all steam-propel- 
led Naval vessels. The major advantages of oil over coal, 
which led to its general use were: 

1. Increased efficiency, steadier performance of 
boilers, better regulation of steam supply, and 
faster starting up. 

2. Decreased maintenance of boiler and hull. Great- 
er cleanliness. 

3. Decrease in fuel weight for a given cruising 
radius and decrease of bunkering space. Liquid 
fuel could also be stored in spaces previously 

4. Fewer men required for operation, less manual 
labor involved. 

5. Ease and simplicity of refueling. 

The cumulative results of all these advances in design 
and in the type of fuel was demonstrated by the per- 
formance of the large battleships laid down during, and 
completed shortly after World War I. As an average, the 
fuel rate for these battleships was slightly less than one 
pound of oil per shaft horsepower, as contrasted with the 
previously mentioned fuel rates of 2.4 to 3.15 pounds of 
coal per indicated horsepower* for the naval vessels of 
the 1890's equipped with Scotch boilers and reciprocating 
engines. This significant reduction in fuel consumption 
was a major factor in permitting the construction of 
bigger, heavier armed warships, which could travel at 
greater speeds over longer distances than could earlier 

The period following World War I saw the signing of 
the Washington Naval Limitations Treaty, which placed 
severe restrictions on naval construction. The number 
and total tonnage of capital ships for each country was 
definitely specified. New capital ship construction was 
limited to replacements, with each ship not exceeding 
35,000 tons maximum displacement, except for aircraft 
carriers which were limited to 27,000 tons each. A 
capital ship was defined as any ship of war, not an air- 
craft carrier, whose displacement exceeded 10,000 tons, 
or which carried a gun with a caliber exceeding 8 inches. 
Lighter ships were not limited in number. 

Commander H. E. Rossell, (Cl.C.) U. S. N. (Ret.) has 
aptly summarized the effect of this treaty on design 
practice: The limit of 10,000 tons set by the Washing- 
ton Treaty on the size of warships other than capital 
ships and aircraft carriers had a profound influence on 

JANUARY • 1941 

Page 77 

warship design practice. Designers were faced with the 
problem of getting the "most ship" on a given displace- 
ment. Obviously the solution lay in achieving the great- 
est economy of weight without loss of military effective- 
ness. All means to this end were explored and many 
found expression in the designs of cruisers which ap- 
peared within a few years after the treaty became effec- 

"The innovations were progressive in nature; that is, 
one step led to another and still another. In time many of 
the changes introduced first on cruisers were extended to 
other types of warships. On the whole the result was to 
improve greatly the quality of warships, both small and 
large. . . . Among the immediate consequences of the 
Washington Treaty on the design of naval machinery was 
the general recognition of geared turbines together with 
small-tube oil-fired boilers as the most suitable type of 
propulsive machinery for all surface warships except 
motorboats and other very small vessels. . . _. Other con- 
sequences of the treaty were the introduction of light 
weight alloys . . . the gradual substitution of weldments 
for castings or riveted structures . . . and the use of great- 
er care in the design of machinery and fittings with a 
view to reducing weight. 

"The use of high steam pressure and high superheat 
in conformity with practice in power plants ashore in 
the early 1920's offered to naval designers the possibility 
of making substantial reductions in the weight of the 
propulsive plant. . . . Today (1943) a boiler pressure of 
600 pounds per square inch and superheat up to 850 
degrees F are not uncommon on naval ships. The use of 
high pressure and temperature brought many problems, 
the most serious of which had to do with the behavior of 
metals at high temperatures, and deaeration of feedwater, 
the prevention of contamination of feedwater, the 
strength of high-pressure piping, the fire hazard, and the 
insulation of exposed surfaces at high temperatures. 

"During the period under discussion there has been 
a strong trend toward great size of boilers with the re- 
sult that a modern warship carries far fewer boilers than 
a ship of the same power built twenty-five years ago. 
The performance of naval boilers has been improved 
substantially during the last twenty years through better 
design of practically every feature. At the same time 
there has been a reduction in weight per unit of heat de- 
livered. This end has been reached partly by increased 
efficiency of boilers and partly by greater consumption of 
fuel per unit area of heating surface." 

The paper "Development of Marine Watertube Boil- 
ers" by J. H. King and R. S. Cox gives graphic and de- 
tailed proof of the general statements made by Com- 
mander Rossell with respect to the effect of the Wash- 
ington Treaty on boiler design. 

The first of the so-called treaty cruisers, laid down in 
the United States in accordance with the terms of the 
Washington Treaty were those of the Salt Lake City class 
of 9100 tons displacement which were completed in 
1929. These ships required the lightest possible boilers 
and machinery consistent with ruggedness and reliability 
in order to provide for armament and other features 
within the treaty limits. The boilers of the preceding 
Trenton class, completed in 1924, had been considered 
light and efficient and they occupied relatively small 

Fig. 5: Babcock & 
Wilcox sectional ex- 
press boiler. 

Fig. 6: Babcock & 
Wilcox divided fur- 
nace superheater- 
control boiler. 

Space. The Trenton boilers with water at steaming level 
and temperature weighed 11.84 pounds per square foot 
of heating surface. There were 12 boilers in each ship, 
with a total heating surface of 98,040 square feet, and the 
steam generated per ship at full power was 810,000 
pounds per hour at 265 psi. The Salt Lake City had eight 
Babcock & Wilcox Express Type boilers with a total heat- 
ing surface of 95,040 square feet and designed to gener- 
ate at full power a total of 1,400,000 pounds of saturated 
steam at 300 psi. The wet weight was 10.37 pounds per 
square foot of heating surface, and the space occupied 
was considerably less than that of the boilers in the 
Trenton class. These boilers at a higher pressure, generat- 
ed more steam with less weight and spare than those in 
the Trenton, and thereby contributed materially to the 
success of these treaty cruisers. These Salt Lake City boil- 
ers weighed less than .66 pounds for each pound of steam 
generated on the basis of equivalent evaporation which 
may be compared to the 10 to 15 pounds per pound of 
steam required by the old Scotch boilers, or the 5 pounds 
per pound of steam required by earlier designs of water- 
tube boilers. 

The trend to higher pressures and temperatures 
brought about several important developments in the 
early 1930's, many of which were first introduced with 
the B&W boilers installed in the treaty cruisers of the 
New Orleans class. Because of the limitations imposed 
by the materials and techniques prevailing at that time, 
boiler efficiency dropped off with increases in pressure. 
To overcome this difficulty, a new design of boiler was 
sought. This investigation culminated in the B&W Sec- 
tional-Express boilers (Fig. 5 ). This design incorporated 
some of the features of the usual sectional-header boiler, 
but differed from this design in that cylindrical headers 

Page 78 


Fig. 7. 




single - 


iaVe controlied- 




Fig. e. 

Babcock i 


three - pass 


al - header 


were used with small diameter curved tubes between 
the headers. The cylindrical headers were arranged so as 
to provide a decreasing gas area through the boiler, re- 
sulting in a uniformly high rate of heat transfer. Boilers 
of this design met the requirements of high steam pres- 
sures and temperatures and gave a high boiler efficiency. 

The Sectional-Express boilers installed in the Scout 
Cruisers of the New Orleans class were designed for a 
working pressure of .^00 psi and a total temperature of 
570^ F. On official full power tests they developed an effi- 
ciency of 82.12 per cent under the firing rate then cus- 
tomary in naval practice — namely, 1.1 pounds of oil per 
square foot of heating surface. This boiler was relatively 
light weight and at that time was considered a great im- 
provement for naval use. 

The boilers in the New Orleans class cruisers embodied 
one additional advance of great significance: fusion weld- 
ed drums. All previous boilers had used riveted drums 
which were heavy, subject to leaks and cracking, and 
imposed severe limits on thickness. The Babcock & Wil- 
cox Company therefore conducted an extensive series of 
investigations and experiments with fusion welding 
which resulted in a highly successful process giving light- 
weight, trouble-free drums, and thus opened the way to 
higher steam pressures without prohibitive increases in 

This initial installation of welded drums in the Navy 
was followed by their adoption for all naval boilers, and 
gradually for all of the United States merchant marine. 

Great impetus was given to naval construction in the 
United States with the start of the naval building pro- 
gram in 1933. The destroyer leaders of the Porter class 
were among the first of this program. They were fitted 
with Babcock & Wilcox Express-Type Boilers designed 
for a working pressure of 425 psi and a total steam 
temperature of 650° F. 

The use of higher temperatures in naval practice 
presented a problem in connection with the effect of 
high steam temperature on backing turbines and on 
main turbines and auxiliaries for maneuvering. Further- 
more, with the usual convection type of superheater, 
the steam temperature increases with increase in the 
boiler firing rate. It was felt that, if some means could 
be provided to maintain a constant temperature at all 
ahead speeds of the ship and at the same time provide 
saturated or low-temperature steam for the backing tur- 

bines when going astern, increased economy could be 
obtained without detrimental effects on the machinery. 
The first solution was the B&W separately fired super- 
heater. With this method of temperature control, steam 
is generated in Express-Type boilers and all steam to be 
superheated is passed to the separately fired superheaters, 
where the temperature of the steam is controlled by the 
firing rate. Some saturated steam is generated in the 
separately fired superheaters, since generating tubes were 
placed between the furnace and the superheaters in order 
that the convection-type superheaters could be fully 
screened from the radiant heat of the furnace. B&W 
boilers of this design were installed in the cruisers 
Saiannah, Boise, Phoetiix and Nashville, and the air- 
craft carriers Yorktotvn and Enterprise and several years 
later in the first Hornet. The first economizers in the 
Navy were also installed in these vessels. These boilers 
were designed for a drum working pressure of 450 psi 
and the separately fired superheaters were designed for a 
total temperature of 650°F. 

A new era in boiler design opened with the develop- 
ment of the B&W boilers for the destroyers of the Somers 
class in 1934. Designed for a working pressure of 600 
psi and a total steam temperature of 850°F, the boilers 
installed in these ships were significant in that they in- 
corporated an integral superheater control which, in a 
single unit and with much lighter weight, provided the 
features of superheater control previously obtained with 
separately fired superheaters. These boilers were the Bab- 
cock & Wilcox Divided-Furnace Superheater-Control de- 
sign fitted with convection-type superheaters (Fig. 6). 

This boiler was a modification of the three-drum ex- 
press-type boiler. The furnace was divided by means of 
a stud-tube division wall which provided two furnaces, 
one of which is referred to as a "superheater furnace" and 
the other as a "saturated furnace." Superheaters of the 
convection type were placed in one bank and were 
.screened from the radiant heat of the furnace by several 
rows of boiler generating tubes. The other bank consist- 
ed entirely of generating tubes. With this design, saturat- 
ed or superheated steam could be obtained as required. 
When saturated steam without superheating was needed, 
the saturated furnace was fired. When superheated steam 
was needed, the saturated steam was passed to the super- 
heater and the degree of superheating imparted was con- 
fPlease turn to page 130) 

JANUARY • 1 948 

Page 79 



THE 55TH ANNUAL MEETING of the Society of 
Naval Architects and Marine Engineers at New York, 
November 13th and I4th, brought out nine technical 
papers by some of the big marine experts. 

Most outstanding feature in the make-up of the pro- 
gram is the dearth of marine engineering material. Only 
one paper in the nine deals with propulsion. The nearest 
approach to engineering among the other eight papers is 
No. 4, which deals with Electronics on Shipboard. All 
of the others are concerned with hull construction and 

We present herewith a short abstract of each paper: 

l\lo. 1 - The Resistance of Rarges and Flotillas 

By L. A. Baier, Chairman of the Department of Naval 
Architecture and Marine Engineering, and Director of 
the Naval Tank at the University of Michigan. 

For over 36 years the Naval Tank at Michigan Uni- 
versity has been testing barge forms, both singly and in 
flotillas, and producing new designs of barge hulls and 
attachments thereto. From time to time, reports of this 
work have appeared as papers at A.S.N. A. and M.E. 
meetings. These experiments began in 1911 under the 
famous Dr. H. C. Sadler. Dr. Baler's papers brings them 
up to date and arrives at these conclusions: 

"For single barges, influence of rake variations on 
resistance is reflected as a whole by the change in the 
block or longitudinal coefficient, although minor factors 
such as bilge and rake edge radii and shape of rake 
profile must be considered. As speeds are increased, the 
single barge is lengthened, the ends turned in, large 
bilge radii are used and modeled rakes at each end are of 

"In direct contrast, for flotilla purposes the barge unit 
should be designed for the maximum integration possible. 
All edge radii should be small to reduce wetted surface 
and avoid wedging apart of the units by drift wood. 
Where complete integration is impracticable, the in- 
terior ends should have shorter rakes. A recent develop- 
ment in the oil trade is the use of integrated barges in 
pairs with the after rake snubbed off and the forward 
rakes lengthened. Four of these units, arranged either 

two wide and two long or one wide and four long, pro- 
vide terminal and trip flexibility accompanied by effi- 
cient propulsion. The best size for these units is about 
240 feet by 50 feet, making a flotilla either 960 feet by 
50 feet or 480 feet by 100 feet for lockage. When prop- 
erly designed, the resistance of the wide flotilla is only 
slightly greater than that of the tandem arrangement. 
For general freight and multiple units the 175-foot by 
26-foot or 195-foot by 35-foot barge with snubbed after 
rakes gives a convenient lock combination and ap- 
proaches the efficiency of the full integrated flotilla. 

"It is interesting to note that due to improvements in 
flotilla units, controlled fleet arrangements, installation 
of the Kort nozzle and use of supercharged Diesel power 
plants the cost per horsepower today of modern towboats 
for a given tonnage is lower than in the past." 

lo. 2 -Various Coverning Rodies and the Effect 
of their Regulations on Shipping 

Three authors combined to produce this survey: Wil- 
liam B. Jupp, Mgr. Marine Construction and Repair 
Division, Socony Vacuum Oil Co.; George I. Sullivan, 
Supt. of Drafting, Quincy Yard, Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany; Wolcott E. Spofford, Technical Consultant, U. S. 
Maritime Commission. 

They confine their treatment to U. S. National Gov- 
erning Bodies. Any survey of world shipping will in- 
dicate that for the past 900 years "there has been a very 
definite relationship between governmental law and regu- 
lations, and the success or failure of any specific merchant 
marine." Successful marine powers have had laws whose 
obvious intent was, and is, to foster all phases of the 
Maritime industry. In recent years, the apparent effect of 
U. S. Maritime law has been to "protect everything but 
the economics of the industry." 

So complicated is the governmental regulation of 
American shipping that it now takes: 12 different cer- 
tificates for the documentation of a new ship on delivery; 
9 separate papers to clear an American port; and from 
5 to 10 other papers relating to cargo. The set-up is in- 
efficient, uneconomical, and demoralizing to the in- 
dustry. We have 23 standing committees of Congress 

Page 80 


making conflicting laws that form the basis of our mari- 
time policy, and 67 bureaus and agencies that make and 
execute the regulations applying the laws made by the 
23 committees. 

It is recommended that a Merchant Marine Advisory 
Committee should be formed of selected delegates from 
each of the Associations representing the maritime in- 
dustry and that this committee act in an advisory capacity 
to all the government regulatory bodies. This M.M.A.C. 
would function similarly to the Tanker Industry Com- 
mittee which has been quite successful in this type of 
work for over 15 years. 

l\lo. 3-The Multiple -Skeg Stern of Ships 

By Captain Harold E. Saunders, U. S. N. Director of 
David W. Taylor Model Basin at Carderock. 

Another of those monumental technical papers by 
Captain Saunders, wherein he traces the historical de- 
velopment of the twin or multiple skeg stern in Europe 
and in the United States; recites the reasons for interest 
in skeg sterns; analyzes the technical benefits derived 
from skegs; gives examples and analyses of tests on 
identical design models with and without skegs; gives 
an analysis of detail hull design in connection with twin 
skegs; and formulates design rules covering hull shape 
and stern arrangement, tunnel shape, skeg shape, skeg 
ending, propeller, rudder, shafting, bearings, foundations, 
and skeg structural details. We reproduce herewith two 
tables, one showing comparison between skegless and 
twin skeg designs for a very large tanker, the other, a 
similar comparison for the passenger liners Manhattan 
and WaihifigtoH. 

distances are in feet and inches Lengths fot co- 
lengths between perpendiculars. All tons are 22-10 

All lengths i 
efficient purposes 
TMB Model Nut 

I hers 

Type of stetn 

Length between perpend it 

Length overall 

Length on waterline 






Block coefficii 
Midship sectii 
Longitudinal CB forward < 
Wetted surface, sq. ft, 
L/B ratio 
B/H ratio 

Displacement-length ratio 
Speed range, knots 
Designed speed, knots 
Speed-length ratio at desi 
EMP at designed speed 
SHP at designed speed 
EHP/SHP ratio 
Length of model, ft. 
Scale ratio 

TMB propeller model ni 
Propeller diameter 

number of blades 
mean width ratio 
blade thickness fractioi 
projected area ratio 
type of blade section 

TMB Model 

TMB Model 



Normal form 

Twin skegs 





















1 17.1 18 


-) 67 

4 67 

.) 69 




8 to 18 

8 to 1 8 



































All lengih% and distances are in 
efficient purposes are IciiKth "n the wai 
Prototype Ships 

TMB Model Numbers 
Type of stern 

Length between perpendiculars, ft. an 

Length overall 

Length on waterline 

Beam, molded, maximum 

Beam, molded, at 29-ft. WL 

Draft, molded, designed 

Draft, for model tests 

Displacement at 29-0 ft- draft, tons 

Block coefficient 

Longitudinal coefficient 

Midship section coefficient 

Longitudinal CB forward of amidship 

Wetted surface, sq. ft. 

L/B ratio 

B/H ratio, based on 29-0 ft. draft 

Displacement-length ratio 

Designed speed, knots 

Speed-length ratio at designed speed 

EHP at designed speed 

Sl^P at designed speed 

EHP/SHP ratio 

Thrust deduction factor 

Length of model, ft. 

Scale ratio 

TMB Propeller model numbers 

Propeller, diameter 


pitch-diameter ratio 

number of blades 

mean width ratio 

blade thickness fraction 

projected area ratio 

type of blade section 



feet and inches. 

Lengths for co- 

erline. All tons a 

re 2240 pounds. 





TMB Model 

TMB Model 



Normal forn 

. Twin skegs 

with bal- 

with twin 

anced rud- 


der and 


dead wood 

tut away 

m. 666-0 




































16.5 30 




























Ogival, with 

Ogival. with 

lifted lead- 

lifted lead- 

ing edge at 

ing edge at 

^u. 4 - [lectronics on Shipboard 

By H. Franklin Harvey, Jr. and Frederick P. Colman, 
respectively Electrical Engineer and Assistant Electrical 
Engineer, Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock 

Approaching the subject from the viewpoint of the 
shipowner and the shipbuilder, this paper briefly de- 
scribes all present applications of electronics on ship- 
board, and discusses probable future applications. It 
defines electronics as dealing with "the conduction of 
electricity through a vacuum or a gas." 

Earliest application was radio telegraphy in 1896. This 
was followed by: radio telephones; radio direction find- 
ers; radar; loran; shoran; life boat announcing systems; 
music and entertainment systems; fire detective alarms; 
temperature recorders; electric megaphone; electric eye 
door control; fluorescent lighting. 

Principal future use visualized by the authors is in 
rectification of alternating current for such uses as: bat- 
tery charging; energizing holding magnets for self-clos- 
ing fire-doors; motors for operating watertight doors; 
direct current cargo winch motors. The authors believe 
such power rectification would show a decided space — 
and weight-saving over motor-generators. 

Other possible applications are voltage regulators for 
electric generators, leveling devices for elevators, electro- 
therapy in ships' hospitals, sterilization of air in food 
storage or hospital spaces, electro-static precipitation of 

JANUARY • 1941 

Page 81 

dust or smoke, and inter-office communication. 

It is suggested that electronics may furnish the key to 
direct utilization of atomic energy in ship propulsion. 

^0. 5 - Some Factors in the Use of Plastic 
Ship-Bottom Paints hy the Navy 

By Daniel P. Graham, Chemist, Research and Standards 
Branch, Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 

Several commercial brands of plastic paint have been 
investigated by the Navy during the past 50 years. Out- 
standing in the early tests were the Moravian paints 
manufactured by Veneziani of Trieste. A green anti- 
fouling paint furnished by this firm passed Navy tests 
so satisfactorily that in 1902 several battleships and 
cruisers were coated with it. These applications proved 
very satisfactory, but because of pressure against use of 
foreign paints and difficulties in procurement, their use 
was discontinued. 

In 1909, the Navy started making paints on its own 
formula, and purchase of commercial brands was stopped 
except in emergencies. In 1921, an investigation of the 
fouling of ships bottoms led to an appraisal of all toxic 
substances, and the Chemical Warfare Service was called 
into consultation. Under the guidance of Chemical War- 
fare Service, the Navy began the manufacture of hot 
application plastic paints. In 1924 and 1927, five destroy- 
ers were coated with these plastic compositions, but all 
were failures due to lack of adherence. The paint dropped 
off in large sheets or blistered very badly. 

Mare Island Navy Yard was asked to carry on further 
investigations, and in 19.^1 reported that "all Chemical 
Warfare Service paints were quite eflfective against foul- 
ing and furnished good protective films." In 1932, the 
Navy bought sufficient Moravian paint to coat twice the 
bottoms of one destroyer and two cruisers, and after ex- 
haustive tests, the experts agreed that Moravian was 
more effective than Navy Standard against fouling. The 
Navy then started out to find a formula that would be 
equal to or better than Moravian. 

Mare Island Yard, Norfolk yard, and Edgewood 
Arsenal all developed and manufactured paints. These 
paints were used in comparison with each other and with 
Moravian in large-scale tests on destroyers. Eighteen 
months of these tests demonstrated a decided advantage 
for the Mare Island hot plastic paint, and the Navy's 
anti-fouling paint development program emphasized this 
paint. However, the need for a paint with less exacting 
application requirements led to the development of 
plastic paints for cold application. 

Navy standard designations are: 15 H.P. for hot 
plastic; 105 and 143 for cold plastic anti-fouling used on 
surface vessels; 145 for cold plastic for submarines; 146 
for cold plastic boot topping. 

It is necessary to prepare a clean metal surface for the 
application of these paints and the Navy has standardized 
on a process of wet sandblastmg to remove everything 
down to the clean steel, followed by a wash of 2% 

solution of phosphoric acid to prevent immediate sur- 
face corrosion. This method gives a better surface much 
more economically than hand chipping, power scaling, 
or power wire brushing. 

For application of hot plastic, the Navy has developed 
a system of melting kettles, electrically heated pressure 
kettles, electrically heated pressure hose, and electrically 
heated spray guns. A film approximately 1/32" thick is 
sprayed on corresponding to approximately 2 pounds of 
paint per square yard. 

Cold plastic when agitated is liquid enough for spray 
application at ordinary atmospheric temperatures. The 
best spray temperature for this paint is 70° F. After dry- 
ing, its film melting point is 200° F. 

This paper, after an exhaustive statistical analysis con- 
cludes that: ( 1 ) Fouling with these paints is negligible 
(only 10% of the vessels were fouled more than 5%). 
Fouling was reported as often on intact anti-fouling 
film as on spots where A. F. film was missing, which in- 
dicates that activity of vessel has much effect on fouling; 
(2) 15 H.P. has better adhesive qualities on hand- 
brushed steel surfaces than the cold plastic paints, but on 
sandblasted surfaces, the adhesive qualities are equal; 
( 3 ) anti-corrosive properties of the Navy standard paints 
are equal. 

Aside from cost of application, the one disadvantage 
of plastic paints mentioned in the paper is the greater 
initial skin resistance, as compared with the thinner, 
smoother commercial A. F. paints. This disadvantage 
may be greatly increased if the plastic paint is applied 
without strict compliance with the standard technique 
worked out in the Navy. 

h. 6 - n/lechanical Reduction Gears 

By J. A. Davies and H. W. Semar, respectively Man- 
ager, Marine Turbine Engineering, and Superintendent, 
Quality Control Steam Division, Westinghouse Electric 

During World War II, the manufacturers of mechani- 
cal gears for ship propulsion machinery worked around 
the clock to supply the demand. 

Reduction gears between turbine and propeller shaft 
were first introduced about 40 years ago. Their purpose is 
to allow the turbine rotor to run faster, thereby provid- 
ing a more economical use of steam, and to allow the 
propeller shaft to run slower, thereby providing a more 
efficient propeller. Single reduction was used at first, but 
double reduction gearing was quickly developed. 

Much research has led to: development of better ma- 
chinery for cutting and finishing gear teeth; the use of 
harder and stronger steels in the forgings; the convic- 
tion that higher stresses can be safely used in gear teeth 
and in bearings. 

The involute form of tooth is at the moment the most 
generally used tooth contour. The simple characteristics 
of its engagement and the relative ease with which it 
can be produced indicate that it is likely to be used for 
marine gearing for many years to come. 

One of the principal problems still encountered with 

Page 82 


this rype of gearing is what is known as "pitting". Little 
circular pieces of steel break loose from the surfaces of 
the engaging teeth and leave behind small crater-like 
depressions. While pitting has not been known to in- 
terfere with the continued use of the gear, it is a prob- 
lem to which much attention is being paid. Recent tests 
seem to prove that the amount of pitting is directly pro- 
portional to the relative roughness of the tooth surface. 
In other words, by providing a smoother finish to the 
flanks of the teeth, pitting can be reduced almost to the 
vanishing point. This lends support to the theory that 
pitting ocurs as a result of heavily concentrated loads 
on the prominences which are present on the flanks of 
gear teeth when a finishing operation, such as "shaving" 
or "lapping" has not been provided after the gears have 
been formed in a regular tooth cutting machine. 

The paper gives a detailed description of the method 
adopted to determine the contact stresses which are en- 
countered in gearing of this type. 

this control, changes of water speed will lead to deviations 
from constant pressure, which are rapidly corrected. 

^0. 7 - Propeller Tunnel ^otes 

By Prof. Frank M. Lewis, Massachusetts Institute of 

This paper discusses technical details involved in the 
cavitation testing of propellers in the M.I.T. propeller 
testing tunnel, and presents the cavitating test results 
for a series of wide blade propellers suitable for various 
types of high speed vessels. 

An entire cavitation test usually is made at a single 
number of revolutions per minute, 1200 being a common 
figure for a 12-inch propeller. The propeller is held to this 
fixed number of revolutions per minute by a tuning fork 
control acting on the field of the generator which sup- 
plies the propeller motor. 

The revolutions per minute can be determined at any 
time by a counter-clock arrangement, and the deviation 
from constancy is of the order of I/IOOO or less. A syn- 
chronism indicator shows the operator whether the fork 
and motor are in or out of step. 

The pressure in the tunnel is held constant automati- 
cally by a water leg. A 3-inch pipe leads 35 feet down- 
ward from the test section of the tunnel. At its bottom 
a pipe is connected which can be swivefled in a vertical 
plane. The top of this swivelled pipe is open to the at- 
mosphere. A smaU stream of water is fed to the system 
continually and spills out the open end of the swivelled 
pipe. The two high points of the tunnel where air tends 
to collect are connected to a vacuum pump through float 
valves which will pass air but not water. The tunnel thus 
operates completely filled with water and the pressure 
at the propeller axis is equal to atmospheric pressure 
minus the pressure of a column of water of a height 
equal to the distance from the open end of the swivel 
pipe to the propeller axis. The pressure is lowered by 
lowering the swivel pipe, and raised by raising it. While 
the range of pressures thus obtainable is limited, it cov- 
ers the usual requirements for cavitation testing. With 

h. 1! - Aluminum Alloys in Ship Construction 

By M. Cj. Forrest, Asst. Naval Architect, Gibbs & Cox, 

Experience during the past 12 years indicates that cor- 
rosion resistance, physical properties, and fabrication of 
aluminum alloys as used extensively in secondary ship 
structures have now demonstrated the feasibility of de- 
signing and building ships made wholly of these metals. 

It is now considered that suitable aluminum alloys 
offer greater resistance than steel to marine corrosion. It 
saves great weight for equivalent strength. Total saving 
in weight of complete ship will approximate 38' v. 

For some time to come, aluminum ships will be all 
riveted. The deflection of an aluminum hull will be twice 
that of a steel hull under sea and cargo load stress. Tests 
are needed to determine what effect this will have on 
watertightness of riveted joints. Experience with riveted 
aluminum tank cars over eight years of service indicate 
minimum leakage under severe rail conditions. Pre- 
liminary tests indicate that aluminum has less notch-sen- 
sitivity than steel. 

In a normal cargo vessel of medium size, the vertical 
center of gravity of the aluminum ship will be 6 inches 
lower than that of the steel ship in light ship condition. 

All aluminum structural material when received in the 
stockyard, should be thoroughly cleaned, treated with a 
water solution of phosphoric acid and grease solvents, 
then given a coat of zinc chromate primer. During fabri- 
cation, all faying surfaces should be coated with zinc 
chromate primer. The use of lead pigment primers on 
aluminum causes corrosion after immersion in salt water. 
Anti-fouling paints may be applied only over zinc chro- 
mate primer. Connections of aluminum to steels, to 
nickel alloys, or to copper alloys should be avoided, or 
the faying surfaces of these dissimilar metals be electro- 
plated with cadmium. The new Argon-gas tungsten-arc 
welding process shows great promise of making satis- 
factory strength joints in aluminum. Tests under way 
seem to indicate that this method may produce satis- 
factory ship joints. 

Aluminum in machinery must be limited to applica- 
tions not subject to temperatures above 400° F. In pipe 
valves and fittings, temperatures not over 200° F. and 
pressures not above 50 p. s. i. 

Present conditions in the aluminum industry justify 
entire vessels of this metal up to about 450 feet in length. 

h. - Design of Modern Ships 

By George C. Sharp, Naval Architect. 

The purpose of this paper is to try to dissipate some 
of the "inertia of tradition" which causes so much 
trouble to designers of modern ships, and to provoke 


Page 83 






Fig. I. Application of Air-Light Arrangements. 


discussion with that end in view. ( Probably no one per- 
son in these United States is more qualified by experience 
and by temperament to accomplish these purposes — Ed. ) 

Passenger accommodation arrangement is the first fac- 
tor discussed. We are always striving to get outside rooms 
by, in effect, bringing some part of the room to the out- 
side skin of the ship. Why not try, in effect, bringing 
the outside skin to the room? Proposed arrangements to 
effect this are shown in Fig. 1. The author calls these 
Air-Light arrangements. They involve large windows in 
the ship's side and either a stepped vestibule to the cen- 
tral passage or a wide court running right across the 
ship. Rooms opening from each side of these light-air 
ways are fitted with windows so that each room has a 
view of the sea. Table I gives an idea of the value of this 
arrangement as applied to a European passenger vessel 
built in the 19.t0s. 

In machinery arrangement, the paper makes a strong 
plea to take advantage of the increasing compactness and 
decreasing weight of modern power plants by giving seri- 
ous consideration to single screw installations for vessels 
of large power. Small cross-section up-takes are advocated, 
with entire separation from the stack or stacks which can 
then be proportioned for the best streamline effect, or 

can be eliminated. The external up-take for modern 
forced draft boilers need be little larger than a king post, 
and can be made to serve as such. 

Air conditioning presents serious problems. The com- 
pactness of passenger accommodation spaces makes the 
installation of air conditioning ducts a very "complex 
business". Insulation temperature control and drainage 
are very important. On a medium passenger liner at sea, 
the system may remove 10-15 tons of water per day by 
dehumidification of the air. Consideration should be 
given to these matters in the design stage of the hull and 
the air conditioning experts consulted. 

The author ( Chairman of a Safety of Life at Sea sub- 
committee, assigned to develop proposals on fire pre- 
vention for a new International Convention) visualizes 
considerable modification of the rules, particularly in the 
matter of heat transmission through bulkheads. He feels 
that a "review of existing requirements would indicate 
the possibility of considerable simplification of the rules. " 

He concludes: "In the final analysis, I feel that if we 
give the necessary attention to arranging our accommo- 
dations to provide a maximum of air and light to aU 
rooms; if we provide them with conditioned air, where 
I Please turn to page 132i 

Page 84 



wiiE mnmm mwa 

Cliief Kngineer, Morse Cliiiiii Caiiipaiiy 
Siihsidinry nf Borrf-WaniRr Cnrporntinn 

During the war, because of the short- 
age of helical-gear and electric drives for 
smaller diesel-powered ships, transmission 
chain, which had had a long record of suc- 
cessful application in industry, was adopted 
for marine service. In 1942, after the Navy 
Department Bureau of Ships had conduct- 
ed a series of tests on chain drive, it was 
fitted on 65-ft. and 1 10-ft- harbor tugs, and 
the Army Transportation Corps FP cargo 
vessels. This paper points out the advan- 
tages as well as the limitations of chain 
transmission applied to ship propulsion and 
mentions factors which contribute to effi- 
ciency, long life, quietness and low main- 
tenance costs. 


TRANSMISSION chain has been successfully used on 
diesel-powered equipment for many years. The lati- 
tude in design permitted by its accommodation to vary- 
ing centers and its ability to carry heavy loads under 
adverse conditions of protection, lubrication and align- 
ment, has made it a popular drive medium on many 
types of mobile or portable equipment where saving 
in space or weight is important. 

When totally enclosed and properly lubricated, the 
chain drive is a long-lived piece of equipment. His- 
tories of from 10 to 25 years of service can be exhibited 
for high-capacity drives in various industrial plants 
throughout the world. 

While but a few marine-propeller drives of more 
than 100-hp capacity had been built up in 1942, the 
performances of several drives on small dual-engine 
commercial vessels encouraged the Navy's Bureau of 
Ships to make a thorough study of the possibilities of 
the chain drive as a substitute for electric and helical- 

Prc-pared for presentation b 
Power Division, Milwaui<ee, 

gear drives which, at the time, were on the critical list 
as regards availability. 

The study resulted in a decision to equip its YT 
65-ft. tugs and a number of the YT 1 lO-ft. harbor tugs 
with dual engines and to compound the power of these 
by chain drives to drive large slow-turning propellers. 

The success of the drives in these boats and in the 
Army Transportation Corps' small FP cargo vessels has 
created considerable interest in this new marine trans- 

Function of Chain Drives 

The primary function of chain drives in diesel-pro- 
pelled vessels should be considered as that of compound- 
ing or transferring power from two or more engines to 
a single propeller shaft. 

While chain drives are efficient speed reducers they 
will not commonly be adapted to the function of speed 
and torque change in a single-engine single-screw ves- 
sel, as in this case the gear drive would be indicated 
because of its inherent compactness. 

As a matter of fact, the design possibilities of multiple- 
engine plants, especially when high-speed engines are 
to be used, are often enhanced by combining reduction 
gears with chain drives in the power train. 

When used with medium-speed engines the speed 
reduction accomplished by the chain transmission in 
itself is usually sufficient to allow the use of large pro- 
pellers. Reversal of the propeller can be through the 
use of separate reverse gears on each engine or in the 
output train, with specially designed reversing chain 
drives, or by the use of direct-reversing engines. 

The suggested arrangements shown in Figs. 1 to 6 
are but a few of the many combinations which are pos- 
sible and which open new opportunities to the marine- 
power-plant designer wishing to utilize the advantages 
of multiple engines. 

Characteristics of Chain Drives 

Pnicer-Cupacity Ranges. It will be noted that many 
of the suggested power trains incorporate a combination 
reverse reduction gear between the engines and the 
chain drives. Preference is thus implied for drives de- 
signed for the lower revolutions-per-minute brackets 
which incorporate the heavy-duty series of manufacturers' 

JANUARY • I 948 

Page 85 

Fig. \-i. Typical 


Standard steel-finished roller chain. This series covers 
% to 2V2 in. pitch chains usually made up to quadruple 
width as standard and 5 to 8 strands wide as special. 

Reference to the capacity chart. Table 1, will show 
that capacity up to nearly 2000 hp per engine may be 
handled by a single transmission provided that input 
speed is sufficiently low. 

Multiple-strand chains for marine drives should be 
constructed with the center plates shaved or bored to 
allow a heavy press fit on the pins. 

While this type of roller-chain design requires special 
tools for assembly or disconnection, it provides a "pre- 
loaded" condition of the chain side bars which is most 
conducive to maximum load-carrying capaciry. 

In a theoretical sense the maximum power-carrying 
capacity of a chain drive is determined by the point at 
which excessive sprocket width causes dangerous bend- 
ing deflections to occur in the shaft or sprocket because 
of chain pull. In this discussion, however, the conserva- 
tive upper limit of horsepower capacity will be con- 
sidered as that of rwo 6-strand chains sharing a common 
load on the same sprocket. 

Speed Ranges. It must be emphasized that chain 
drives, unlike gears, have sharply defined upper limits of 
rotative speed for any given pitch. This limit is usually 
established by the ability of the chain roller to withstand 
the impact forces created by the chordal action of the 

chain as it engages the sprocket. Here again, the speed 
ratings given with this paper are conservative and 
assume all elements of the chain will have unlimited 
endurance capacity under continuous service conditions 
at full load. 

While the linear speed of the chain is not a critical 
factor, good practice seems to dictate a range of from 
2000 fpm to .t500 fpm, the smaller pitches of chain 
being better adapted to the higher speed. 

Chordal Ac/ion. Figure 7 shows the effect of the 
sprocket polygon causing chordal rise and fall of the 
chain. It will be noted that small numbers of teeth in 
the sprockets create decided variations in the velocity 
of the chain. The practical effect of this is to create undue 
noise and to set up stresses in the chain which reduce 
materially its endurance capacity. As the number of 
teeth in the sprocket increase, this velocity change drops 
off markedly and the quietness, smoothness, and load- 
carrying ability of the drive increases. 

The minimum desirable number of teeth for the 
small sprocket of marine chain drives, regardless of 
pitch, is in the range between 26 and 35. 

The smallest sprocket in the marine drives illustrated 
in this paper contain 30 teeth. The result of the use of 
this relatively generous number of teeth probably con- 
tributes more than any other single factor to the success 
of the drives. The quietness of the transmissions at all 

Page 86 


speeds is one of their outstanding characteristics. 

Ratio Limitations. Ratios as high as 10 to 1 are often 
used in industrial drives. In these cases, however, either 
speeds or loads are surticiently low to allow the use of 
very small sprockets. 

The outside limit of reduction for marine drives 
should probably be about 5 to 1. Even this ratio, assum- 
ing that suitable pinion teeth are incorporated, would 
necessitate a large driven sproci<et which is seldom 
possible because of limited hull clearance. 

When very slow-turning propellers are to be used 
with high-speed engine, a good practice would be to 
choose a chain drive of about 3 to 1 ratio, using reduc- 
tion gears or combination reduction-reverse gears be- 
tween the chain-drive input shafts and the engine. 
Heavier, more rugged chains are used with this arrange- 
ment and a better balance of power train design is 

Factor of Safety. The load tables given in this paper 
are based upon a minimum working-load to chain- 
strength ratio of about 1 to .30. As this high factor is 
necessary only because of rapidly recurring dynamic 
loadings created by chordal action, it is obvious that the 
chain has an enormous capacity for resisting momentary 
shocks and overloads. The well-designed marine chain 
transmission can withstand the effects of "rough going" 
as well as any other unit of the propeller drive. 

Elastic Properties of Chain. The elastic "stretch" of 
a roller chain due to application of the working load 
amounts to about 0.0006 in. per in. of its length. From 
this it is apparent that the natural period of the chain 
is quite high and little need be feared from torsional 
resonance with either the propeller shaft or the engines. 

This relative lack of "rubber" in the chains makes it 
necessary that where two or more chains are used to share 
a common load, the chains must be carefully matched 
for pitch to insure proper distribution of chain pull. 

It is also obvious that housing deflections of a nature 
which would create excessive parallel misalignment of 
the shafts must be avoided. 

In this respect, however, the chain drive is con- 
siderably less sensitive than a reduction gear, and chain- 
drive housings may be of substantially lighter construc- 
tion than gear cases. Installation problems are also simpli- 
fied especially if self-aligning bearings are used. 

Pitch Elongation — Chain and Sprocket Life. It is 
quite customary to set up the usual chain drive in such 
























350- 1350 











650- 1050 























































Table based on encihe sprocket having 30 teet, 
Table I. Main chain-dri 

Ratios up to 4:t. 

a manner that the "slack" caused by joint wear can be 
taken up. 

This is sometimes accomplished by the use of adjust- 
able idler sprockets, or more often by increasing the 
center distance between the sprockets with sliding motor 
bases or brackets. 

However, the usual chain drive is not entirely pro- 
tected from the effects of dust and moisture and seldom 
is supplied with a copious bath of oil. 

Moreover, it has long been established that a roller 
chain installed and operated under good transmission 
conditions develops nearly all of its "stretch" or pitch 
elongation during the first few hundred hours of opera- 
tion, and, once it has been "run-in," can be operated 
for thousands of hours without further elongation of 
any appreciable degree. 

Repeated tests have proved conclusively that this 
tendency to stretch at the start due to the constriction 
at the ends of the holes in the chain bushings caused 
by the heavy press fit of the side bars which does not 
allow full utilization of the total bearing area of the 
chain joint. 

Development of grinding and honing processes 
adapted to the larger sizes of chains has made it possible 
to assure full seating of the full length of the chain 
bushing bore at the very start. In addition, this also 
allows correction of inaccuracies of side-bar hole spacing 
and bushing-bore parallelism which would cause uneven 

For this reason the Navy drives were designed with- 
out any provision for pitch-wear take-up. 

The chains were installed with an initial tension of 
about 25 per cent of the working load on both strands. 
Under this condition the chain drive has practically no 
backlash and no appreciable looseness developed after 
prolonged periods of operation. Moreover, the drives 
set up with this minimum amount of slack were quiet 
and smooth in operation from the very start. No "break- 
in" period is required for marine chain drives and full 
sustained loads may be applied immediately. 

It will be noted that separate chains are used from 
each engine to the main sprocket. With this system 
maximum wrap is obtained without idlers, and the drive 
retains the desirable feature of ability to operate with 
one engine in case of accident to one of the chains. 

Sprockets in marine chain transmissions have almost 
unlimited life. Steel of machinable hardness or high- 
strength cast iron is often used. As there is no rubbing 
action on the sprocket teeth, and as the driving forces 
are distributed over a relatively large number of teeth, 
very little sprocket wear occurs. 

Efficiency. Chain drives for marine service are slightly 
more than 99 per cent efficient at full load. This high 
efficiency is due to the low velocities of the journal 
elements in the chain joint and the fact that with large 
numbers of teeth, impact losses are very low. In indus- 
trial drives the losses do not fall off in direct proportion 
to the load so that efficiency at say ¥4 load at full speed 
is but about 97.5 per cent. The latter condition of course 
cannot occur in fixed-blade propeller drives. 

Chain-drive losses fall off rapidly at reduced speed, 
however; thus it may be stated that the marine chain 

JANUARY • 1941 



Fig. 8. Typical heavy-duty chain dr 

Fig. 10. Typical chain transmission with built-in reduction ge 
and adjustable centers. 


drive is very nearly 99 per cent efficient over the entire 
speed range. 

Lubrication. Chain drives are not critical as regards 
oil viscosity. Any medium oil which is fluid enough at 
all operating temperatures to reach the joint or "heart" 
of the chain is suitable. The type of oil used for the 
engine lube system seems to be ideal for the marine 
chain drive, and the use of engine lubricating oil in 
the chain housing has been the standard practice in nearly 
all installations. 

The oil, however, should never be taken from the 
engine lube system. A separate sump, strainer, and pump 
should be provided for the chain transmission, prefer- 
ably driven by a gear or chain from one of the pinion- 
sprocket shafts. Spray pipes should be placed to dis- 
tribute the oil to all portions of the chain. 

Cooling of oil is not always necessary. When chain 
speed is less than 2500 fpm, oil temperatures seldom 
exceed 130 F. 

Types of Housings. The drives illustrated were con- 
structed at a time when horizontal-boring-mill facilities 
in the country were critically needed for work on helical 
gear reducers and other large machinery. For this reason 
the transmissions were designed to utilize standard pillow 
blocks with self-aligning roller bearings. The bases were 
weldments of 1-in. plate well ribbed to assure stability. 
The sheet-steel tops were functional only as enclosures. 

This arrangement worked out very well and can be 
recommended as lending itself to economical manufac- 
ture especially where the drives must be custom-built 
singly or in small lots. 

Standardized units may be constructed along the lines 
shown in Figs. 8 to 10, inclusive. 

Thrust bearings of either the roller or slipper type 
may be incorporated into the transmission. The axial 
movement of the propeller shaft resulting with the use 
of the Kingsbury-type bearing is easily accommodated 
with the chain drive because of the generous clearances 
between the sprocket faces and the chain side bars. 

Rei'erse Gears. On the Transportation Corps FP ves- 
sels a reversible chain drive has been used. In this trans- 
mission an arrangement of pneumatic clutches allows 
the propeller shaft to be engaged either with the main 
forward chains or with a pair of reverse chains which, 
through the use of idlers and a follower sprocket, causes 
reverse rotation of one clutch element. In these transmis- 
sions the forward drives were on fixed centers and re- 
duction was provided in both forward and reverse speed. 

In these ships four engines were used with two 
separate chain-driving twin propellers. 

In the largest series of the Navy tugs direct-reversible 
engines were used. Speed reduction by the chain drive 
was 3 to 1. 

Gear-type disconnect clutches allowed operation with 
either or both engines. Also, on some of these tugs this 
arrangement made possible the transfer of the power 
of the starboard engine from the propeller to a high- 
pressure fire pump. 

The smaller boats used unidirectional engines with 
combination reverse and 2 to 1 reduction gears between 
the engines and the chain drive. The control of the 
reverse gears was by mechanical linkage to a common 
pneumatic cylinder which in turn was operated by re- 


mote control trom the pilot house. 

The simulcaneous control of two reverse gears has 
been accomplished on other vessels with hydraulic, elec- 
trical, and mechanical linkage in each case with excel- 
lent operating characteristics. 

EcjiialiZiition of^iiie Output. Inasmuch as the en- 
gines are locked in rotational step, it is easy to expect 
that there might be some trouble in keeping the engines 
in good power balance, especially on craft like tugs 
where frequent starting, stopping, and speed change are 
necessary. However, most of the troubles which had been 
anticipated did not materialize. 

Pilot house adjustment of speed has been successful 
with both pneumatic- and hydraulic-throttle-control sy.s 
terns. Once the usual preliminary adjustments have been 
made, the two engines remain in gotid torque relation- 
ship over the entire speed range. Occasionally the ex- 
haust temperatures are checked and slight adjustments 
of the governors may be made by the operator. 

At no condition of operation has there been noticed 
a tendency of one engine to "fight" or oppose the other. 
During trial runs purposeful unbalancing of the engines 
seems to result in nothing other than a dropping off 
in speed of the system. 

Hydraulic Couplings. Chain drives undoubtedly re- 
spond to the smoothing-out action of hydraulic or 
magnetic couplings fully as much as would a gear drive 
under the same conditions. 

As pointed out previously, the chain is not to any 
degree elastic nor does it possess damping ability; con- 
sequently, abnormal engine cyclic variations or vibra- 
tions must be met either by increasing the size of the 
chain or by introducing an absorbing device between 
the engine and the drive. 

The hydraulic couplings on the larger of the Navy 
tugs functioned chiefly to permit of easy starting and 
to allow better synchronization of engine output. Their 
contribution to the success of the chain drive is not too 
well established as engine-output characteristics were 

The hydraulic couplings used on these tugs were of 
the traction type, with the outer and heavier elements 
supported by the chain-drive bearings. 

Scoop-type hydraulic couplings or excited magnetic 
couplings may be used, making it possible easily to dis- 
engage one of the engines for light operating conditions 
or in an emergency. 

Whether or not a reaction-type coupling is used, it 
is advisable to incorporate a flexible coupling between 
the engine and the load. 

A coupling which allows of easy disconnection is 
recommended when other means are not available to 
disengage one of the engines. 

Advantages of Chain Drives 

The advantages of the single large slow-turning pro- 
peller are best utilized on workboats such as tugs, where 

I Please turn to page 132) 

JANUARY. 1948 

Dual engine 3 to I propeller drive with disconnect clulclies and 
emergency fire pump drive. 

Heavy duty chain drive for dual engine vesselt— 2 to I ratio. 

Page 89 


By WILLIAM A. BAKER, Assistant to Naval Architect, 

Bethlehem Steel Company's San Francisco Yard. 

Part II 

Foundations for Modern Practice 

Among the more important searchers for the "form of 
least resistance" and one who helped lay part of the 
foundation for our present knowledge of ship resistance 
was John Scott Russell. He was greatly interested in the 
subject of waves formed by ships and started experiments 
in 1833; in all, the tests numbered nearly 20,000 includ- 
ing both tests of models in tanks and full sized vessels 
in canals. The first mention of his so-called "wave-line" 
theory came in 1834 in a paper on the "Mechanism of 
Waves" before the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. 

He found through his experiments that ship resistance 
was the sum of three things — wave making, midship area 
and surface friction. While appreciating the effect of 
surface friction he fell back on the accepted practice of 
using the midsection area as a measure of resistance. In 
addition, he believed that the waterlines of a ship should 
be shaped according to his theory for minimum wave 
making — those in the fore body should be a curve of 
versed sines while those in the after body had a trochoidal 
form. The details of this theory were fully given in a 
paper read before the Institution of Naval Architects in 
1861 and in his monumental "The Modern System of 
Naval Architecture" published in 1864. 

Russell's wave-line theory was followed by a number 
of designers, one outstanding example being Brunei's 
Great Eastern in which the entrance was 330 feet, and 
the run 220 feet. The dimensions of that ship built in 
1859 are: 

Length between perpendiculars 680'0" 

Breadth of hull. _ 82'6" 

Depth to Upper Deck 58'2" 

Load draft 30'0" 

Displacement at 30 ft. draft 27,000 tons 

Horsepower of screw engines 1600 

Horsepower of paddle engines 1000 

Horsepower, total 2600 

Speed 15 knots 

Contrasting Russell's theory basmg the hull form on 
waterlines and a buttock. Lord Robert Montague in 1853 
published a method of design and practical drafting 
based on what he termed "dividing lines", a form of di- 
agonals. Later, a Norwegian naval architect and ship- 
builder, Colin Archer, concluded that Russell's wave-lines 
did not represent the actual path of water around a ship's 
hull — that the path was nearer that of Montague's "di- 
viding lines" — and proposed in a paper in 1887 that the 
sectional area curve to the load waterline follow the pro- 
portions of Russell's curves. 

Among the curiosa of the period are two papers, one in 
1854 and the other in 1887, concerning the relation be- 
tween the forms of fish and ships. Plaster casts of various 
fish were made and areas measured at transverse sections 
from which a sectional area curve was plotted. 

Ail modern work on ship resistance is based on the 
experiments begun by William Froude and continued af- 
ter his death in 1879 by his son, R. E. Froude. William 
Froude's many friends in the naval and shipbuilding 
fields interested him in some of the theoretical problems 
offered by naval architecture. His early work, beginning 
about 1856, was on the rolling of ships; later he turned 
to resistance experiments. Some of the first resistance 
experiments were performed on a river using small self- 
propelled models for which he constructed clockwork 
mechanisms. Later he tried further tests using a tank in 
which the models were towed by the accepted method 
of a falling weight; these tests proved unsatisfactory. 

The most important of William Froude's early resis- 
tance experiments were made in the autumn of 1867 with 
three different sized models towed by a launch in the 
mouth of the River Dart in Devonshire. The following is 
abstracted from a report of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science in 1869: 

"In verification and illustration of the foregoing views, 
I tried in the autumn 1867, a large number of resistance 
experiments on a pair of models of contrasted forms, 6 ft. 
long, by towing them simultaneously from the ends of 
a pair of 10 ft. scale-beams connected with self-recording 


Page 90 


dynamometric apparatus, and mounted on booms pro- 
jecting sideways from the nose of a steam-launch . . . 
One was of the wave-hne type, the other, having the 
same length, form of midship-section, and displacement 
had large rounding ends. I also tried similar experiments 
with a pair of very nearly similar models of twice the 
dimensions and eight times the displacement. I had also 
previously obtained a series of experimental results of 
the same kind, but with less successful apparatus, from 
a similar pair of models, 3 ft. long. These data enabled 
me to compile for each model a diagram of resistance in 
terms of velocity." 

The general agreement of the results were sufficient to 
justify what he termed the Law of Comparison which is 
the foundation of all model test data; it is stated in 
Froude's words as follows: 

If the ship be D times the dimension' ( as it is term- 
ed ) of the model, and if at the speeds V,, Vj, V; . . . the 
measured resistance of the model are R,, R-j, R;, . . . then 
for speeds \/B V,, \/D V,, VD V, of the ship, the 
resistance will be D R,, D'R_., D'R; ... To the speeds 
of model and ship thus related it is convenient to apply 
the term corresponding speeds'." 

In 1852 M. Reech published "Cours de Mecanique" 
for use of the students of L'Ecole d'Application due 
Genie Maritime which contained a law of comparison for 
the resistance of floating bodies based on Newton's 
theorem on "Similarity of Motions ". He also mentioned 
that the law of comparison could be applied to the com- 
parison of mcxdels and ships, but held only when frictional 
resistance followed the same general law as the other 
forces. In addition, he surmised that the frictional resis- 
tance probably varied as the square of the speed. As far 
as is known, Reech did no experimental work to substan- 
tiate his complete statement of the law of comparison. 
William Froude worked out his statement of the law on 
the basis of the streamline theory of resistance without 
any knowledge of M. Reech's theory. 

The British Association report concluded: — "It is true 
that the circumstances under which my experiments were 
tried did not admit of such exactness as to render them 
absolutely conclusive as the sole basis of the theory of 
comparative resistance in terms of dimension. Nor do I 
by any means pretend to be certain that there is no 
element of resistance other than I have taken account of 
in my theoretical justification of it. But if any such do 
exist, they can be detected and the laws of their opera- 
tion discovered with far greater facility and completeness 
by small scale than by full-size experiments is emphatical- 

ly disproved, it is useless to spend vast sums of money 
upon full-size trials, which, after all, may be misdirected, 
unless the ground is thoroughly cleared beforehand by an 
exhaustive investigation on small scale." 

In 1868, at the instance of Mr. E. J. Reed, 'William 
Froude forwarded to the Admiralty, at first proposals, and 
later detailed estimates for the construction and operation 
of a model testing tank. In 1870 the Admiralty finally 
allowed '..2000 tor the project with the stipulation that 
construction and testing were to be completed in two 
years; rolling experiments as well as those pertaining to 
resistance were to be undertaken. The tank was con- 
structed in a field next to the garden of Froude's house 
and is referred to as the Torquay Tank; its length was 
195 feet exclusive of starting and stopping positions, 
surface breadth 36 feet and maximum depth at center 
10 feet. The towing power was a two-cylinder stationary 
steam engine. Froude served as tank designer, superin- 
tendent and mechanic making much of the appararus 
himself — he even constructed a machine for ruling cross- 
section paper as none of sufficient accuracy could be pur- 
chased. This machine was still in operation in 1941. 

From his experiments with various sized models, 
Froude had noted that at corresponding speeds, similar 
forms had shown geometrically identical wave configura- 
tions. Curves of total resistance plotted against speed for 
the same models also showed similar shapes and could 
be brought into general alignment by the Law of Com- 
parison but they could not be superposed. Froude be- 
lieved that this failure to superpose was due to the fact 
that skin friction did not follow the Law of Comparison 
while wave-making resistance did. The first projects of 
the Torquay Tank were experiments to demonstrate that 
if the frictional resistance of surfaces having the same 
lengths and wetted surfaces as a series of similar ship 
forms and moving at the same speeds were deducted 
from the total resistances, the remaining resistances fol- 
lowed the Law of Comparison. 

In August and September, 1871, Froude carried out 
the now famous experiments on the H. M. S. "Grey- 
hound", a ship having a length of 172 feet 6 inches, 
breadth, 33 feet 2 inches and a drafr of 13 feet 9 inches, 
was towed by H.M.S. "Active " from the end of a 45 foot 
boom rigged out from the latter's side so as to tow the 
"Greyhound " in undisturbed water. The purposes of the 

^^ ^ y^ 


^^ ^^ 









y^ \ 



JANUARY • 1941 

Page 91 

experiments were to: 

1. Determine the total resistance of a full-sized ship at 
various speeds, unencumbered by the extra resist- 
ance caused by the action of the propeller and by 
the friction of the various parts of the ship's engines. 

2. Determine the loss of power in the propeller and 

3. Test the scale of comparison between ships and 

In order to obtain the data to compute the loss in the 
propeller and machinery, the "Greyhound" and a sister 
ship, H.M.S. "Murine" were run at two speeds over 
measured mile courses. 

During the same period, the classic surface friction 
experiments were being performed. These consisted of 
towing a series of planks of varying lengths about 3/16 
inch thick and 1 9 inches deep to determine the values of 
f and n in the following equation for a number of differ- 
ent surfaces: 

Frictional Resistance=f S V" 
where "V is in knots. The surfaces tested were varnish, 
paraffin, tinfoil, calico, fine sand, medium sand and 
coarse sand. As a whole the experiments showed: 

'1. That n is less than 2 provided the surface is not 
too rough. 

2. that for a given type of surface f decreases as 
length increases. 

3. that at a given length the degree of surface rough- 
ness has a very important bearing on the magni- 
tude of f. " 

The values determined by the experiments, slightly 
modified by R. E. Froude at a later date and smoothed 
out through years of use, were adopted for use by the 
International Congress of Model Basin Superintendents 
in 1935. 

Based on extrapolated values from the above experi- 
ments Froude was able to bring the model and full-sized 
tests of the Greyhound into reasonable agreement. But 
in notes made at the time he states: 

"There has always seemed reason to surmise that a 
sensible augmentation of the Greyhound's resistance 
might have arisen from the comparative shoalness of the 
water in which the trials were made, the depth averaging 
about nine fathoms, or about four times the draughts of 
the ship. ... It has proved that the surmise is correct, 
and had thus not only incidentally shown that the excess 


















































































of the ships resistance as compared with that calculated 
for the ship from the resistance of the model is very 
sensibly less than prima facie it had appeared to be, but 
also that the resistance of all large ships, tried for in- 
stance on the Stokes Bay measured mile, is, at full speed, 
more than 10 per cent in excess of its true value."" 

By placing a false bottom in the tank to simulate the 
actual trial course of the Greyhound it was shown that at 
1 1 V4 knots the increase in resistance was 41/2 per cent. 
"It will be seen by a reference to the Greyhound Report 
that the application of such a correction to the curve of 
resistance calculated for the ship from the experiments 
with the model would considerably improve its agreement 
with the actual curve of resistance of the ship." 

The above discussion on the effect of shallow water 
on resistance was reported to the Admiralty after the 
publication of the paper on the Greyhound experiments 
presented to the Institution of Naval Architects in 1874 
and seems not to have been published until 1941. 

The general success of the experiments gave confidence 
in Froude's methods and the Torquay Tank remained in 
use for fourteen years — until the lease on the land ran 
out. In 1887 the present Admiralty Establishment was 
opened at Haslar. In spite of Froude's success, the advan- 
tages of model testing took hold slowly so that by 1900 
there were only five tanks in the world. At present there 
are more than fifty major tanks in the world and probably 
countless small ones. 

Apart from the many experiments on hull forms, struts, 
propellers, etc. performed by the Froudes, father and son, 
one great contribution was the so-called "constant"' sys- 
tem — a system of non-dimensional coefficients for noting 
the features of a ship — and allied with this their method 
■of comparing sectional area curves, waterlines and mid- 
ship sections. 

R. E. Froude's paper before the Institution of Naval 
Architects in 1888 stated: ". . . it will doubtless be 
readily understood that the results obtained in the past 
with all miscellaneous models, form a storehouse of in- 
formation valuable for the future; and further, that in 
order to serve this purpose the information must be so 
presented that the performances, and also the proportions 
(and, as far as may be, the principal characteristics of 
shape), of the several forms, may be directly comparable; 
so that it may be determined at sight ( 1 ) what selection 
of forms previously tried are qualified by their general 
proportions and shape to be brought into comparison 
with any new design, (2) how the individuals so quali- 
fied compare with each other in performance. 

"The method which has been adopted with this object 
at the Admiralty Works is simple in principle, and may 
be simply described as follows: ( 1 ) The proportions, and 
to some extent the lines, of the hull, are characterized 
by numerical values and diagrams, representing not abso- 
lute measurements of hull, but measurements stated in 
terms of a unit dimension proportional to the cube root 
of the displacement. ( 2 ) The performance is character- 
ized by two so-called 'constants', designated K and C, of 
which the former denotes speed in terms of a unit speed 
proportional to the sixth root of the displacement, while 
the latter denotes the corresponding resistance ( or horse- 
powers ( in the form of the reciprocal of what is known 
{Please turn to page 1S8) 

Page 92 


Editor's Noth: The Marshall Flan looms so large in the tutiire of American ship- 
ping that the following analysis and summary of the statement of the U. S. Chamber of 
Commerce will be of interest to the entire industry. The summary was prepared by Stanley 
T. Olafson, Manager of World Trade Department of Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce. 




I — Situation and our Interest 

The urgency of the world situation is such that imme- 
diate decisive and constructive action to aid Europe must 
be taken by the Congress of the United States. The en- 
lightened self-interest of the United States calls for a 
stable world composed of self-supporting and self-gov- 
erning people. 
II — Aim of Aid — Cooperation, not Charity 

Aid to be extended must be aimed at the restoration 
in each of the sixteen recipient countries of an economy 
of sufficient health, in a favorable political climate, that 
will be self-energizing, through the initiative, hard work, 
and self-reliance of the people themselves. 

Aid to be extended is based on the existence of a 
reasonably founded hope that all Europe needs is help 
from us to help itself back to self-support. 
Ill — Responsibility 

The restoration of production in Europe by EURO- 
PEANS is a iirst esential to the successful outcome of any 
aid extended — under the system of private initiative. 
IV— The Goal 

When Europe's standard of living is raised to a satis- 
factorily self-supporting basis, then we can ultimately be 
relieved of the burden of extending aid. 

V — Recommendations — To Accomplish 
Purposes and Objectives 

That our aid should be difided into two classes: 

The first type of aid, not included in the European 
Recovery Program, is for immediate relief, by supplying 
foodstuffs, fuel, fertilizers, fibers, and medicines, for 
the destitute and suffering peoples of Western Europe 
during the interim t>efore the long term European Re- 
covery Program is inaugurated. It also includes aid for 
the purpose of increasing the production of foodstuffs 
and fuel. 

Aid to be extended in this classification should be in 
the nature of sales payable in local currencies for such 
use of the United States may decide. 

Local currency proceeds should be administered by the 
Board of Trustees to be set up in each recipient country. 

Final use decisions to be controlled by United States 
Domestic Corporation and should be made available for: 

a. The purchase of needed materials for stockpiling 
by the Government of the United States. 

b. Use within the country and its dependencies for 
self-energizing and productive enterprises. 

c. Aid in the stabilization of local currencies. 

d. Other uses as may be decided upon by agreement 
with country receiving the aid and the United 
States Domestic Corporation. 

The second type of aid is exclusively for the economic 
improvement and recovery of participating European 
countries by increasing their production for domestic 
consumption and for export, thereby increasing their 
standard of living. 

Aid to be extended under this classification is the 
European Recovery Program and is exclusively: 

a. For specific purposes. 

b. For attainment of specific results within definite 
time limits. 

c. For non-political purposes of a direct or indirect 

d. For purchase of specific materials. 

VI — Classifications of Loans 
By the Export -Import Bank for raw materials, to put 
into operation existent productive facilities. 

Loans for raw materials for above-described purpose 
could be granted through the instrumentality of the 
present Export-Import Bank authority, expanded as may 
be necessary. Such dollar loans shall be for realistically 
adjudged, economically productive purposes and in the 
opinion of the Export-Import Bank be self-liquidating 
in dollars. 

By the World Bank for capital goods equipment, to 
reconstruct, maintain, repair, and operate productive fa- 
cilities capable of economic contribution to the well- 
being of the country concerned. These are to be self- 
liquidating dollar loans. 

I Please turn to page 136) 

JANUARY • 1948 

Page 93 

Port Engineer of the Month 



--With The 


At its January meeting, held January 7, the So- 
ciety of Port Engineers at Los Angeles Harbor 
voted Pacific Marine Review full rights to attend 
business meetings and full photo and news cover- 
age opportunities. Members of Pacific Marine Re- 
view staff are already members of other Port Engi- 
neer Societies on the Pacific Coast, and will regu- 
larly report all meetings, and continue to publish 
the technical proceedings. This latter feature has 
been commended in open meeting, and the mem- 
bers have widely praised it. 

Fred H. Cordes, vice president and marine superin- 
tendent of Deconhil Shipping Company, and marine 
superintendent and assistant operating manager for Hill- 
cone Steamship Company, was born in New York City 
in 1896 and came to San Francisco in 1915 where he 
secured employment at the old Union Iron Works, now 
Bethlehem Steel Corporation Ship Building Division, 
working in the shop, engineering drafting room and 
estimating department. 

In 1919 he left the Union Iron Works to enter the 
Marine Department of the Standard Oil Company of 
California, remaining with this company until the latter 
part of 1927. While with Standard Oil of California, he 
worked in the Richmond Long Wharf machine shop and 
also as a draftsman and assistant inspector on new ship 
construction and repair work. He later quit shoreside 
work and went to sea as an oiler on Standard's vessels, 
staying with it until he received his unlimited Chief 
Engineer's license for steam and diesel ocean-going 

The latter part of 1927 he resigned from the Standard 
Oil Company of California and, together with his brother, 
John, started the firm of Cordes Bros., Marine Surveyors 
and Manufacturer's Representative. 

He opened the Southern California office of Cordes 
Bros, at Wilmington the latter part of 1930 and was 
made special representative for Hillcone Steamship Com- 
pany February 1931. As HiUcone's various enterprises 

expanded, he devoted more and more time to their in- 
terests until he became marine superintendent and assist- 
ant operating manager, and in 1943 when Deconhil Ship- 
ping Company was formed, he was made vice president 
and marine superintendent. 

Besides the above activities, he still represents the 
Sandusky Foundry and Machine Company of Sandusky, 
Ohio, and the Butterworth System, Incorporated, 
Bayonne, New Jersey for the Southern California area. 

During World War 11, Deconhil Shipping Company 
operated approximately sixty vessels as general agents 
and sub-agents for the War Shipping Administration, 
and the upkeep, maintenance and repairs of this large 
fleet were under Cordes' direction, besides being in 
charge of all company operations in the Southern Cali- 
fornia area. 

He feels especially fortunate to have worked under 
such men as Al Gunn, Gene Essner, Charlie Olson, Lee 
Gogan and Frank McCormick while at the old Union 
Iron Works, and J. C Rolfs, Charlie Robertson, Jim 
Cronin, Bob Bennison, William Muir, Herb Hoy and 
many other kind and helpful friends too numerous to 
mention, who were always ready to lend a helping hand 
when needed. 

Page 94 


Port [ngineers - 


Phil Thearle, Army 

Transport . . . President 

Charles Wright, Deconhil . . Vice President 

James Reimers . . 

. . . Secretary-Treasurer 



Frank Smith .... 

American Mail 

Vincent Foell . . . 

U. S. Lines 

William Billings . . 

Pope & Talbot 



BBWWBi<*^- <r^'^ 


1 ' 






U:w " 





Ed Graff, Port Engineer of San Fr. 

Port Engineer of The Month 



Born and raised in San Francisco, Ed S. Graff, the 
smaller of the Graff boys was graduated from San Jose 
High and joined Panama Mail Line, then owned by 
Grace, as a junior engineer on the Venezuela in 1929. 
In 1938, he advanced to Chief, and served on the Condor. 
Capac. Pacifico and Flying Cloud. He brought the latter 
out from New York in 19.39 — one of the first steam C-2's. 

Ed came ashore in 1941 to the position he now holds 
as Port Engineer under Marine Superintendent Ed 
Center, to which gentleman he attributes much of his 
engineering knowledge. That he is recognized as a 
leader m his profession is evidenced by his election to 
the Board of Governors of the Society of Port Engineers 
at San Francisco. 

Ed has a son, John, aged 12, and a hobby of model- 
making in his shop which includes a complete machine 



Page 95 



President of the World Trade Center, Incorporated 
since 1944, Leland W. Cutler was recently sworn in as 
a member of the San Francisco World Trade Center 
Authorit}' by Superior Judge Albert C. Wollenberg. The 
ceremony took place in the Judge's Chambers at the 
Hall of Justice, Kearny and Washington Streets. 

Present at the ceremony were Thomas A. Maloney, 
Assemblyman who led the San Francisco delegation in 
the battle for the establishment of the World Trade Cen- 
ter Authority, and Alexander von Hafften, Manager of 
the Legislative Department of the San Francisco Cham- 
ber of Commerce. Acting for the Chamber which spon- 
sored the World Trade Center in 1944, von Hafften 
worked closely with Cutler and the San Francisco dele- 
gation during the recent sessions of the legislature. 

Cutler was appointed to the authority by Governor 
Earl Warren early in December. 

Judge Wollenberg, as an Assemblyman in the state 
legislature, took an active part in the fight to secure pas- 
sage of the bill. 


PACIFIC FAR EAST LINE, INC., announces appoint- 
ment of T. Y. Tang to the post of adviser on Chinese 
affairs. Mr. Tang previously had served as Chinese agent 
but the new post was created to meet rapidly growing 
economic developments in China which will require 
considerable traveling and consultation. 

At the same time the Company named Frank W. Chinn 
as Chinese general agent in San Francisco. Mr. Chinn 
will open separate offices in Chinatown as soon as suit- 
able space can be found, but meantime will work out of 
Company headquarter offices at 141 Battery Street. The 
new Chinese agent is well-known in foreign trade cir- 
cles, having been connected with a number of leading 
San Francisco export houses for more than 18 years. He 
joined Pacific Far East Line several months ago. 

Page 96 

Leland W. Cutler 


Governor Earl Warren has appointed eight public 
members of the San Francisco World Trade Center 
Authority. Named by Governor Warren were: Leland 
W. Cutler, Vice President of the Fidelity & Deposit Com- 
pany; Floyd M. Billingsley, Business Agent of the San 
Francisco Motion Picture Operators; J. A. Folger, Whole- 
sale Tea and Coffee Dealer, all of San Francisco; Paul L. 
Davies, San Jose, President of the Food Machinery Corp.; 
L. K. Marshall, Lodi, President of the Wine Growers 
Guild; Prof. E. T. Grether, Dean of Business Adminis- 
tration, University of California, Berkeley; Charles 
Howard, Oakland, Howard Terminal Co., operator; and 
George Pollock, Sacramento contractor. Public Works 
Director, Chas. H. Purcell; Finance Director, James S. 
Dean, and the President of the San Francisco State Board 
of Harbor Commissioners are the remaining members of 
the 1 1 member Authority. 




1 have a painting of a ship which I prize very highly. 
It is a small three-masted full rig ship named the M/neg/w, 
my fathers last ship. I think that it was about 1100 tons 
burden. In my office 1 have a lovely picture of this ship, 
thanks to Mr. Killion. 

Shortly after the first World War we had in this coun- 
try, to say nothing of other countries, men who said that 
we were not a maritime nation and that we could neither 
build nor operate ships. And judging by the ridiculous 
statements attributed to some of our people in Congress 
and their actions, there are still some in this country. 
Perhaps if they were to go through this magnificent ship, 
they would be like the bUnd man who was led to an 
elephant, and felt its trunk and ivory tusks and then said, 
"There's no such animal". It seems to me that there are 
too many Americans who are still ignorantly isolationists. 
And when I think of isolationists, I wonder if some of 
them really think that they can be just a little bit isola- 
tionistic. It's like others of a misguided group who think 
they can be a little pink. 

1 have no time for these borderline cases. If anyone 
wants a better illustration of the horrible results of isola- 
tionism than China, I do not know where he will find it. 
Without being critical of a condition for which present- 
day Chinese are not responsible, let me remind you that 
in old China a great wall was built around the country 
so that it would be isolated from the rest of the world. 
And inside the Great Wall, smaller walls and moats were 
built to isolate cities from one another. And, inside those 
walls were the compound walls behind which families 
isolated themselves from other families similarly walled 
in. Many of us who have lived in China have actually 
lived within compound walls. Now then, while there was 

communication between families, there was practically 
none between cities. And furthermore, China wanted no 
communication with nations living beyond the walls. But 
history tells us how nations on the outside mounted walls 
and took over. The dynasties of China were really hardly 
more than outside conquerors going over the walls. Every- 
thing that history has taught us about isolationism proves 
that the isolationist is vulnerable and has always been 
licked. Thank God that those responsible for this splendid 
vessel have over-ruled such short-sightedness, but what 
about the future? 

And to those like ourselves here, what are we going to 
do about it. What are we doing to force our Government 
to accept a very progressive merchant marine policy? 
And, while I'm asking questions, what are we doing to 
guarantee that this vessel and all other vessels of our 
flag be assured of our unwavering support? God grant 
that we not enter another war. But two wars — across the 
seas — certainly should tell us that we simply have no 
alternative but to be sure, very sure, that this and all 
other American ships support themselves. Immediately 
this gives rise to that other subject of operations — sub- 
sidies. I do not like subsidies; first because that means a 
taxpayer contribution and we have enough taxes to pay as 
it is. Second, subsidies also mean more government con- 
trol and 1 don't like to see Washington pencil-pushers 
push us around. But when you get right down to it, you 
cannot expect the man who pays the bills to simply let 
the other fellow run the show. We went through the sub- 
sidies fakery for a number of years. 

One time when President Harding sent for me, he 
asked me to remain in Washington to assist him in put- 
(Please turn to page 136) 

iHe\ico Further ^justs Import Duties 

Mexico has raised import duty rates on all items of 
Schedule 1 of the U. S. -Mexican Trade Agreement to the 
level of 1942 ad valorem equivalents by decree published 
December 15 effective 5 days therafter. Goods actually 
enroute to Mexico on December 15 will be admitted at 
old rates. Action was taken provisionally pending revision 
of Schedule 1 to be undertaken immediately at the close 
of the Havana ITO Conference. The usual public an- 
nouncement of opportunity for hearings is to be made at 
the appropriate time. The United States has consented to 
this provisional action in recognition of Mexican trade 
in balance and also the need for more reasonable protec- 
tion. Mexican duty rates on the items affected have been 
at a specific rate per unit of quantity, which with increas- 
ing prices has resulted in declining revenue and protec- 

A schedule of the new rates is available at the Depart- 
ment of Commerce Field Offices. 

World Trade Week 

With "World Trade Makes Good Neighbors" as 
the theme, the 14th annual nationwide observance 
of World Trade Week will take place May 16-22. 




Page 97 

Left to r 

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Pacific Far East 


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Mrs. R 


M. Bill 


Roy M 



Ltd.; Mr 

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La Mo 


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D. LaMo 


East Line 



s. Harr 



Harry S. 


East Line 


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Philip T 






John. Ar 


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mm mm mde association of southern mmm 

The Sixth Annual Banquet of the Junior Foreign 
Trade Association of Southern California was held on 
December 5 in Los Angeles, and had a very fine turnout. 
The banquet was a success in every sense of the word. 
Dr. Bernard F. Haley presented an exceptional address, 
while Ruth Anne Fleming, as Miss Junior Foreign 
Trade, brightened the head table with her presence and 
highlighted the occasion with her singing. 

The program opened with a salute to the flag, and the 
assembly was led in song by Miss Fleming, followed by 
the introduction of speaker's table. There were four de- 
lightful songs by Miss Fleming and a history of the Jun- 
ior Foreign Trade Association. Paul Pauley, toastmaster, 
introduced the speaker. Dr. Bernard F. Haley, head of 
the Department of Economics of Stanford University, and 
Special Consultant to the U. S. Department of State in 
Washington. Dr. Haley was much in attendance at the 
Geneva Trade Conference last October, and is now attend- 
ing the Havana Conference. 

Brae Loveless, of Pacific Far East Lines, and president 
of the association, presided at the banquet. The program 
committee consisted of: George Gmelch, Transmarine 

Navigation Co., who was chairman; Paul E. Pauley, U. S. 
Department of Commerce, toastmaster; Doug Friman, 
Lloyd Shipping Company; James Loudon, Jr., Loudon & 
Company; Walter Rabenston, Sudden & Christenson; 
Robert Ryan, General Steamship; Robert Ruth, J. B. 
Ruth & Company; Max Linder, Transmarine Navigation 
Co.; and George Rowley, Fireman's Fund Insurance Com- 

Highlights of Dr. Haley's talk, entitled "International 
Negotiations as to Trade Barriers" are given herewith: 
"The present effort of the United States with respect to 
international trade policy is directed to the achievement 
of two principal aims: ( 1 ) the restoration of the conduct 
of international trade, as far as possible, to private traders; 
and ( 2 ) the reduction of the multitude of barriers to 
international trade that have developed in the period be- 
tween the wars and since World War II. One of the in- 
struments which the United States has consistently used 
to obtain a reduction of trade barriers has been the Trade 
Agreements program, based on legislation iirst enacted in 
1934. — Consequently, the United States early took the 
lead in urging upon other countries: ( 1 ) the necessity 

lit ^Dl^: 

At the Speaker's Table, left to right: Florence Wright; Paul E. Pauley, Department of Commerce; Mrs. Brae Lovele 
Fleming; Dr. Bernard F. Haley, Speaker; Brae Loveless, Pacific Far East Line, Inc.; Mr. Measday, U. S. Dcpt. of Com 

Page 98 


for a broad, united effort for the reduction of restrictions 
on trade and the elimination of discriminatory practices 
in trade; and (2) the disirability of establishing an In- 
ternational Trade Organization. Negotiations for both of 
these have been in process between the United States and 
sixteen other nations for two years. These negotiations 
have recently culminated in the announcement of a multi- 
lateral agreement signed by twenty-three countries at 
Geneva on October 30, 19-17, for the mutual rc*duction of 
trade barriers and trade controls of all kinds. 

". . . The multilateral agreement . . . covers tariffs. 
preferences, quotas, internal controls, customs regulations, 
state trading and subsidies. It is undoubtedly the most 
comprehensive international instrument ever negotiated 
with respect to trade barriers, quantitative restrictions, 
and discriminatory practices affecting international trade. 

". . . The Agreement also comprehends general rules 
with respect to commercial practice in the conduct of 
trade, looking toward the elimination of trade discrimina- 
tions, quantitative restrictions on trade, and the unfair 
use of subsidies in the promotion of exports. 

"These same matters are covered in a similar way in 
the proposed Charter for the International Trade Or- 
ganization which is under consideration by a much larger 
number of nations at the current International Conference 
on Trade and Employment at Havana. In addition, the 
Charter requires the participating nations to collaborate 
for the elimination of cartel practices that are restrictive 
of trade between countries. 

"It must be stressed that this whole program is essen- 
tially a long-range program for the restoration of world 
trade. It cannot be expected to have very much effect in 
alleviating the seriousness of the immediate economic 
crisis in Europe. The process of breaking down the bar- 
riers to trade is likely to be somewhat slower than it 
otherwise would be, because of the fact that many coun- 
tries need dollars so desperately that they must retain 
quantitative restrictions on their imports from this coun- 
try in order to maintain economic stability." 



ight: M 

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Stiipping Co.; 



U. S 


Export Managers [led Officers for 194}! 

At the .mnual meeting of the Export Managers' Asso- 
ciation of San Francisco, the following officers were 
elected to serve during 1948: 

President: Victor A. Indig, Export Manager, Ameri- 
can Rubber Mfg. Co.; Vice President: A. E. Ojeda, For- 
eign Trade Consultant, Standard Oil Co. of California; 
Secretary: William D. Jorres, L. H. Butcher Co.; Treas- 
urer: Roy Norton, Export Department, Shell Oil Co. 

1300 ^ir Cargo Shipments with Latin America 

A new all-time record for air express shipments to and 
from Latin America through the busy Miami, Florida, 
gateway was set by Pan American Airways during No- 
vember. A total of 1,267,6.31 pounds of cargo — making 
up an average of more than 1,300 separate shipments a 
d.ay — were flown in and out of the city aboard PAA 

The unprecedented tonnage was almost double the 
volume handled by PAA's Miami express office in No- 
vember 1946, and was considerably more than the total 
for the entire year a decade ago. 

Table, left to right: 
, S. Dept. of Comme 

; Mrs. Measday; Mrs. Slanle 
elcli; George Gmelcll, Transm 

c : Rutti Anne Fleming, Mi; 
fson; Stanley T. Olafson, L^ 
ligation. Banquet Committee 

JANUARY • 1948 

Page 99 


Election of W. J. Gilstrap, assistant vice president and 
manager of the Foreign Department, Wells Fargo Bank 
& Union Trust Company, as 1948 president of the World 
Trade Association of the San Francisco Chamber of 
Commerce, was announced recently by the Chamber. 

The following officers were elected: First vice presi- 
dent, G. A. Gumbrecht, resident partner, Henry W. 
Peabody & Company of California; Second vice presi- 
dent, Ralph V. Dewey, export manager, Marsman Com- 
pany of California; Third vice president, Victor B. 
Smith, export manager, Sperry Flour Company; Treas- 
urer, W. L. Guthrie, assistant vice president. Bank of 
America, N. T. & S. A.; and secretary-manager, Alvin 
C. Eichholz, manager, World Trade Department, San 
Francisco Chamber of Commerce. 

Newly-elected directors are: Victor L. Arenth, John 
E. Fields, W. L. Guthrie, Frank Howland, John J. Jacobs, 
T. R. Jamieson. W. I. Nelson, Victor B. Smith and 
Robert Taylor. 

Re-elected directors are: Frank Cook, Ralph Dewey, 
Harry C. Dunlap, A. Gemperle, W. J. Gilstrap, G. A. 
Gumbrecht, R. H. Kahman, E. Russell Lutz, H. A. Mag- 
nuson, L. I. McKim, James C. Morrison, Daniel Polak, J. 
H. Rogers, Harry R. Sims and Richard S. Turner. 

Ex-officio members are: Past President Fred B. Gal- 
breath and John J. Judge. 



The following shippmg concerns are now licensed 
by SCAP to establish agencies in Japan: 

American: Pacific Far East Lines, Inc.; American 
President Lines; U. S. Lines Co. 

British: Butterfield & Swire (Japan) Ltd.; MacKin- 
non Mackenzie & Co. (China) Ltd.; Comes & Co., Ltd.; 
Jardine Matheson & Co., Ltd.; Dodwell & Co., Ltd. 

Philippine: C. F. Sharp & Co., Inc.; Everett Steamship 

These companies are authorized to conclude contracts 
for carriage of freight, mail, and pasengers by water to 
and from Japanese ports and to maintain in Japan facili- 
ties for furnishing services and supplies necessary to these 
shipping operations. They may act as agents for other 


Customs Districts Exports General Imports 

( Millions Dollars ) ( Millions Dollars) 

1946 1947 

San Diego 3..t 2.6 

Los Angeles 17.8 3.4 

San Francisco 32.9 3.6 

Oregon 9.2 .6 

Washington ...20.6 9.5 

Total Pacific Coast 83.8 19.7 










Left to right: Bob Hudson. Pacific Transport Lines: Joe Del Valle, 

Del Valle-Kaliman Co.; Howard Tobin, Pacific Far East Line; John 

J. Mulvehill. Jr.. APL; Frank Novitzky. APL. 

Left to right: Norman Iv^undy. Connell Bros.; Nick Andrews, APL; 

Jack Weese, Blue Funnel Line; Archer l^azer. APL, at recent Jr. 

World Wide Trade meeting. 

Pa'3e 100 


ymiralty Decisions 

By HAROLD S. DDBBS «/ S^» Francisco Bar 

The Longshoremen 8 and 
Harhor Worker's kt 

\J statute for the benefit of employees engaged in and 
around maritime endeavors, who, although concerned 
with such matters, were and are not within the definition 
of a seaman. The act is entitled "The Longshoremen's 
and Harbor Workers' Act. " It includes the worker who 
goes aboard a vessel and is hurt while aboard, whether 
he be employed by the stevedore or a ship repair com- 
pany, or any other so-called land agency. 

The most important exception is that created for the 
seaman, who may bring suit against his employer under 
the Jones Act in either the state or federal courts. Of 
course, the seaman is required to prove negligence. How- 
ever, he can recover maintenance and cure provided he 
has not been guilty of misconduct. The only reason that 
the seaman was not included within the Longshoremen's 
Act was because of the pressure of lobbying groups who 
were and are of the opinion that a seaman is better off 
suing for damages under the Jones Act and being given 
the right thereby to recover large sums in d,amages in- 
stead of relying upon the rights of a compensation sta- 
tute, which necessarily provided a much more limited 
opportunity to collect damages for injuries. Under the 
Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers' Act, and most 
compensation statutes, the worker is given a right not 
enjoyed under the Jones Act or any other common law 
action for damages; namely, the right to collect compen- 
sation without being required to prove negligence on 
the part of the employer. If you have had any experience 
with proof of liability in negligence cases, you will 
readily appreciate the significance of the right given to 
workers under the Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers' 
Act as well as other compensation statutes. An employer 
is required by federal law as well as state law. to carry 
compensation insurance where his employees are neces- 
sarily required to subject themselves to employment 
hazards either aboard ship or on land. The penalties for 
failure to carry such insurance differ from state to state. 
However, in general, they permit the employee to sue the 
employer in the state courts for damages without limita- 
tion in amount wherein the employer is not permitted 
to prove contributory negligence or assumption of risk 
on the part of the employee. 

The federal act gives almost the same rights to the 
employee. The point is interestingly handled in the 
recent case of Willia??/ Thorneal v. Cape Pond Ice Com- 
pany <5- Another, decided by the Supreme Judicial Court 
of Massachusetts, in which the plaintiff, a fisherman by 
trade, but not at that time so employed, was hired by 

the master of a fishing vessel owned by the defendant, 
Linquata, to "ice up" the ves,sel with crushed ice to be 
supplied by the defendant, Clape Pond Ice Company, at 
its wharf. On that same day, the plaintiff, while upon the 
vessel which was in navigable waters at the wharf, and 
while using an iron chute owned by the defendant. Cape 
Pond Ice Company, to convey the ice into the hold of 
the vessel, was injured, he contended, by a defect in 
the chute. Plaintiff obtained judgment on each of four 
counts. The court discu.ssed the questions of fact at 
great length with reference to the manner in which the 
icing was handled and the condition of the chute and 
appurtenances. The jury were told by the plaintiff that 
he was a "lumper " and not a member of the crew. Ap- 
parently, the jury found that the Cape Pond Ice Com- 
pany, owner of the chute, and the defendant, Linquata, 
knew or ought to have known of the ice condition which 
was apparently defective, and the plaintiff, on the other 
hand, knew nothing of its condition and did not receive 
any warning from either of the defendants. If the in- 
jury had occurred on land, under general principles of 
law, each defendant could have been found liable for 
negligently furnishing a defective appliance for plain- 
tiff's use. However, as the court pointed out, this was a 
maritime case since the cause of action arose on navigable 
water. Therefore, the plaintiff's rights are governed by 
the applicable maritime law and not by state law. Where 
the maritime law, however, has failed to develop peculiar 
rules of its own for the definition of the defendant's 
duty or the determination of its character, as was the 
case here, the maritime law has been accustomed to look 
to the common law, actually if not expressly, for anal- 
ogies. Under the first count, there is jurisdiction to en- 
tertain the action in the state court because the remedy 
sought is merely the recovery of damages and the ordinary 
civil procedure in the state courts is competent to give 
that remedy. Cape Pond Ice Company's motion for di- 
rected verdict under count No. 1 was denied. 

Linquata argued that a verdict should be directed in 
his favor under count No. 2 because plaintiff's rights 
were now superseded by the provisions of the Long- 
shoremen's and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act. The 
court agreed that the plaintiff, although for some pur- 
poses considered to be a seaman, was not actually a 
member of the crew of the vessel and therefore came 
within the benefits of the aforementioned act. But, as 
explained previously, the Longshoremen's and Harbor 
Workers' Act provides, under Section 905 that the ex- 
clusive character of the remedy by compensation under 
the Act, is subject to the exception "that if an employer 
fails to secure payment of cohipensation as required by 
this chapter, an injured employee . . . may elect to claim 
compensation under this chapter, or to maintain an 
action at law or in admiralty for damages". ... In such 
actions, the defendant may not plead as a matter of de- 

( Please turn to page 128) 

J.ANUARY • 1941 

Page 101 

Uarine Insurance 

The London Letter 

By Dur United Kingdom Correspondent 

The Priam Case 

The long chain of marine or war loss litigation has 
been added to — and greatly complicated — by the House 
of Lords judgment in the Priam case. This vessel sailed 
from Liverpool for Alexandria in December, 1942. Be- 
cause the Mediterranean was virtually closed to us at that 
time, she took the Cape route. She was admittedly on a 
warlike adventure, and carried, among other cargo, a 
heavy bridge-layer tank weighing 21 tons, and two crates 
of aeroplanes, the tank, at any rate, being stowed on the 
forecastle head. 

She encountered exceptionally heavy weather, in which 
her forward deck cargo broke adrift, damaging the hatch 
of No. 2 hold which was flooded and the cargo in it 
damaged. The vessel was insured against war risks, and 
the owners, the Ocean Steamship Co., Ltd., claimed on 
the Liverpool and London War Risks Insurance Associa- 
tion, Ltd., on the grounds that the stowage of the deck 
and other cargo, and all the vessel's manoeuvres through- 
out the voyage were warlike operations, and that the 
damage to the vessel was a consequence of warlike opera- 

In the court of first instance the damage was held to 
attach to the war risk insurance policy, with the exception 
of some damage to a gun mounting. In the Court of Ap- 
peal this judgment was confirmed, although in that court 
the gun mounting seems to have disappeared from the 

Now, in the House of Lords, judgment has been given, 
the effect of which is that the decision of the Court of 
Appeal has been varied by holding the shipowners liable 
in respect of all the ship damage other than that of No. 2 
hatch and hold. 

London Insurance Market 
^equate For Postwar 

Addressing the Insurance Institute of London on the 
subject of "Looking Around the Marine Market ", Mr. R. 
J. M. Merrett, an underwriting member of Lloyd's, said 
that the marine market must never be complacent, but 
there were some reasons for satisfaction. "Our capacity 
for absorbing huge values is greater today than ever, " he 
said, "and is much larger than before 1939. Despite every 
diflSculty we satisfied our international customers during 

the war, and today they turn to us for those things which 
they rightly expect — complete integrity and fair and im- 
partial dealing, resourcefulness to deal with new prop- 
ositions, and a bias towards generosity when the Claims 
Department takes over." The marine market, Mr. Mer- 
rett said, which included both Lloyd's and the Companies, 
was an international market offering its experience to the 
whole world. It must be as free as possible for many 
reasons, and in this changing world it must adjust itself 
to such new conditions as obtained in the new order 
which was emerging. Though there were admitted differ- 
ences in organization between Lloyd's and the Companies, 
it should be recognized that there was room for both and 
sufficient for all. He advocated a continuance of the 
greatest degree of cooperation possible on the under- 
writing level for the common good while admitting those 

One fundamental requisite, which the present time 
seemed to demand especially, was as ^reat stability in the 
matter of rating as possible. Unjustifiable reductions in 
premiums; heavy and unwarranted reductions because 
the market was weak, did no good in the end, for the 
day of reckoning came when the pendulum swung vio- 
lently the other way, and increases had to be asked for as 
the underwriting community sought recompense for its 
losses. In some quarters it was regarded as an axiom that 
profitable years must be followed by years of depression 
and loss, but he challenged that view. Certainly, the wide- 
spread interests of the market ensured that almost any 
disaster anywhere in the world would find its repercus- 
sions in the London marine market, but, in his view, 
nature should be allowed to take its course without active 

Two important instruments making for market sta- 
bility, Mr. Merrett continued, were the Joint Hull Un- 
derstanding and the Combined Marine Surcharge Agree- 
ment. The machinery of the Understanding ran, on the 
whole, very smoothly and fairly, and the case for it was 
unanswerable. Without it, the market would lose money; 
with it, such a thing was much less likely to happen. On 
the other hand, it would be quite unethical if the British 
shipowner were to remain subject to it while foreign 
shipowners were given an advantage of better conditions. 

There had been suggestions for a complete abolition 
of the additional premiums represented in the C.M.S. 
scale and that complete freedom in cargo rating should 
take its place. Therein, Mr. Merrett said, would lie heavy 
losses for the market in the national and international 
field if that advice was followed. Were it possible for 
the present basic rates, many of which had been steadily 
reduced during the last few years, to be amalgamated 
with the current CMS. ratings, a reasonable way out 
could be found. 

Mr. Merrett concluded as follows: "The figure of 
i'20,000,000 a year is generally taken as the average net 

t Please turn to page 131) 

Page 102 







IM a rule was made to circumvent such a happening in 
the future. Some of the rules had to be changed several 
times but in the main the original set of rules promulgat- 
ed by G. Bruce Newby, William Lambie and the writer 
held up remarkably well. On occasion a delegation of 
brokers and owners have importuned the underwriters 
to relax one or the other of the rules to countenance 
carelessness on the part of the fishermen but sooner or 
later the same disaster happened again and as one fisher- 
men expressed it — the whole industry has to be penalized 
for the negligence of one fisherman. Bear in mind that in 
the case of the tuna vessels the insurance covers not only 
the fortuitous perils of the sea but inexperience and 
lack of knowledge upon the part of the fishermen of the 
salient facts pertaining to the fishing industry. 

In the following discussion of rules, the numbers refer 
to the latest arrangement of the Safety Requirement 

No. 1 Hatches 
Hatches on the bait wells to have a perma- 
nent coaming at least 18" above the deck or 
higher, if the surveyor considers it necessary, 
and fitted with covers. ( Covers may be insulat- 
ed is desired. ) 
Originally the hatches were raised to 24" as required 
by the American Bureau of Shipping and in some cases 
to }2". The fishermen complained that the high coam- 
ings caused additional work for a group of men already 
exhausted from the effort of hoisting all the fish obtain- 
able from a school of fish before it left for parts unknown. 

As stability was the governing factor and the pocketing 
of air in the bait wells was causing concern, an effort 
was made to circumvent the trouble by raising the height 
of the hatches to reduce the free surface area when a bub- 
ble of air released itself from the well and lowered the 
height of the water in the well to the point where it ran 
out of the hatch. 

During the early period of brine-well fishing the 
fishermen were pumping a well on one side of the ves- 
sel to clean it. This caused an excessive list and if the 
hatch was too low the air in the upper corner of the well 
released itself and added an additional moment, tending 
to overturn the vessel. The remedy was to issue an In- 
struction to the Master not to empty a well on one side 
without emptying a well on the other side and as long as 
the fishermen observed the Instruction it was not neces- 
sary to have the hatch coaming on the bait well higher 
than 18". 

No. 2 Hatches 
Hatches on the brine wells where flush to 
have metal covers. ( May be insulated if desired 
by the owner. ) 

These wells are filled and the water is kept circulating 
to cool the fish. Once the fish are cooled down to M de- 
grees the water is pumped overboard or into another well 
and the fish are cooled dry down to zero. The fish are 
dropped into the water in the well as they are caught 
and the excess water spills overboard as the fish dis- 
place the water, thereby eliminating free surface. The 
trouble here was that it was necessary to carry fuel in 
some of these wells for the voyage outbound and the 
fishermen were not careful to empty a well on the other 

JANUARY • 194 

Page 103 

side when a well on one side was emptied for cleaning. 

No. 3 Hatches 
Alleyway hatches to have a coaming at least 
24" above the deck and fitted with a water- 
tight cover. 
There is considerable coming and going through this 
hatch and if the water gets below, it floods the alleyway, 
and as the door to the engine room is usually open the 
engine room will be flooded too. The only remedy to 
avoid flooding is to raise the height of the hatch coaming. 

No. 4 Hatches 
All other openings in the deck to be fitted 
with watertight metal covers. 
In some cases, to save expense, some of the boats were 
fitted with a 2" coaming and a wood cover dropped in 
with the inevitable result that water went below into 
spaces needed for flotation. 

No. 5 Scuppers 
Scuppers to be cut through the bulwark be- 
tween every frame where possible, from a point 
forward of the galley to a point not less than 
14 feet from the stern. Length of scuppers to 
be 75' ( of the distance between frames and 
of the following heights. 

Boats 65 feet long over all 2" high 

Boats 65 to 100 feet long over all IVt." high 

Boats 100 to 125 feet long over all 3" high 

Boats over 125 feet long over all '^Vt." high 

Conflicting stories about the fishing were received 
from the fishermen. The technical men wanted the boats 
fitted with freeing ports having openings ]2"xl2" that 
would open and close easily. The fishermen objected and 
as a lesser of two evils accepted the scuppers. The ves- 
sels fish with the deck very close to the water so the 
iPlease turn to page 132) 


The crab boat Six Brothen. recently completed at the 
Genoa Boat Building Company, San Francisco, is 32 
feet long by 9 foot beam, and draws 3' 6". This par- 
ticular boat is quite typical of the San Francisco crab 
fleet and there are hundreds of others of about the same 
dimension, but this one has many new features that are 
not present on the older boats. 

The boat has been powered with a Model 2071, 55 H. 
P. General Motors Series "71" Diesel, with which the 
propeller is driven through a 3 to 1 reduction gear. The 
boat is now using a 27" diameter by a 26" pitch propel- 
ler, and with this combination the engine provides more 
power that can be used in the boat. This permits the 
maximum boat speed of 8V2 knots at very conservative 

engine loads. 

During the past year there has been a great deal of 
interest in this new General Motors Diesel, as the fish- 
ermen are discovering that they can replace their old 
heavy-duty gas engine with a modern high-speed diesel. 
In making this change, they not only save weight and 
space but they also improve their boat speed materially. 
In the same sense, the new engine is much cleaner and 
has far less vibration than experienced with the old 

It is thought that a trend toward General Motors 
Diesels has been started in the San Francisco Crab Fleet, 
and that many more installations will follow these initial 
key installations. 

General Motors Powered 
Crab Boat "Six Brothers" 

Page 104 



louRSE TO nDunniEmEnT 
h'^ "The Skipper" 

Questions Welcomed. Just Address "The Skipper," Pacific 
Marine Review, 500 Sansome St., San Francisco, California 


IN A PREVIOUS ARTICLE, the parts and construc- 
tion of the compass and binnacle were discussed. Let 
us, in this issue, make a study of the earth's magnetism 
as it affects our ship and compass, thus preparing for our 
discussion of practical compensation in a future article. 
We will first review a few of the terms used in this 
article, so that we all will interpret these terms to mean 
the same thing. 

1 . A magnet is a body or substance having the prop- 
erty of attraction and repulsion of other magnetic 
materials and polarity. 

2. Magnetic Lines of Force are imaginary lines passing 
from one pole of a magnet to the other. 

r Magnetic Field is the area through which magnetic 
lines of force are assumed to pass. 

i. Line of Demarcation is an imaginary plane, per- 
pendicular to the lines of force, midway between 
the poles. 

5. The Poles of a magnet are points which have the 
greatest attracting or repelling power. (For con- 
venience we may assume that all magnetic lines of 
force enter and leave these points.) 

6. The Names of the Poles. That end of a magnet 
which seeks North is said to be the North or Red 
end. The South or Blue end is the end which seeks 

In this, navigators can easily get an argument from 
physicists or electricians. They contend that the North 
Magnetic Pole is in the .southern hemisphere. Why argue? 
Neither can win. So let us, as navigators, consider the 
poles named by colors and refer to the north-seeking end 

of a magnet as the Red end. 

The Basic Laws of Magnetism 

( 1 ) Every magnet will have at least two poles of op- 
posite polarity, 

(2) Like poles repel one another and unlike poles 
attract one another. 

( 3 ) The magnetic force exerted between two poles 
varies inversely as the square of the distance. 

The Magnetism of the Earth 

Too much is not known about the earth's magnetism; 
however, we do know that it has the characteristics of 
any other magnet. The Magnetic Poles of the earth are 
located in latitude 71° north and longitude 96° west 
(approximately) in the northern hemisphere, and lati- 
tude 73° south and longitude 1'56° east in the southern 
hemisphere. The polarity of these poles ( keeping in 
mind the basic law of magnetism that likes repel and un- 
likes attract, and that the north-seeking end of a magnet 
is said to be the red end) is blue in the northern hemis- 
phere and red in the southern. 

The earth's total magnetic force has two components, 
namely: ( 1 ) Horizontal Lines of Force which flow in a 
horizontal plane over the earth's surface from the red to 
the blue pole. These are the lines of force which give 
the magnetic compass its directive determining power. 
Though these lines are not straight, they do not cross 
one another and are considered as magnetic meridians. 
The angle at which these horizontal lines of force inter- 
sect the true meridians of the earth's surface is known as 
Variation, or Magnetic Declination. The intensity of 

JANUARY • I 948 

Page 105 


^«etch No. ^• 

Sketches I to 3, illustrating points covered in the tc«t 

ATO/^S fii LICihfEti 

these lines of force is greatest at the magnetic equator 
and zero at the poles. Realizing this fact, we can easily 
see how, when at the magnetic equator, our compass has 
a greater tendency to align its north-south axis with the 
magnetic meridians, and thus is affected to a lesser ex- 
tent by the subpermanent magnetism of the vessel itself. 
( 2 ) Vertical Lines of Force flow at an angle to a hori- 
zontal plane at any point which is equal to the angle 
subtended at the center of the earth between the magnetic 
equator and that point. This angle is referred to as Dip 
or Magnetic Inclination. The intensity of these lines of 
force is greatest at the poles and zero at the equator. 

For convenience and to picture more easily in our mind 
their effects on the vessel, we will study these two com- 
ponents as if they were distinct separate lines of force 
or powers, which is not, in reality, the truth. They are 
both a part of the same magnetic lines of force which 
affect materials in different ways. In our study, let us 
keep in mind the fact that lines of force travel in parallel 
lines and that each piece or mass of magnetic material 
is a potential magnet. All that is required in order to con- 
vert a mass of magnetic material into a magnet is to sub- 
ject the mass to some sort of violence while it lies in a 
magnetic field, thus causing the millions of minute atoms 
or molecules which have both Red and Blue ends to 
align themselves in one direction, as indicated in Figure 

This violence allows the atoms to change their direc- 
tion and the blue magnetism of the magnetic field at- 
tracts the red ends of the atoms so that they all align 
themselves within the metal. This is what occurs to the 
steel of our ship while being built, thus causing the en- 
tire ship to become a magnet. 

Magnetism in the Vessel 

We have two types of magnetism in the vessel, sub- 
permanent and transient. These names are not necessarily 
given because of peculiar characteristics of the magnet- 
ism, but rather of the metal. Sub-permanent rnagnetisni 
is magnetism which is found present in hard iron — hard 
iron being a term which is applied to iron or steel hav- 
ing the ability to retain magnetism. Transient magnetism 
is magnetism which is found present in soft iron — soft 

iron being a term which is applied to iron which has the 
ability to become instantly magnetized when placed in a 
magnetic field, and to lose this magnetism when removed 
from the magnetic field. In soft iron, the atems have the 
ability to change their direction instantly as the direction 
of the iron is changed in relation to the magnetic lines 
of force. We shall deal with these two types separately 
as they affect the vessel. 

Sub-permanent Magnetism of the Vessel is that mag- 
netism which is built into the vessel and remains with it 
through the life of the vessel. It is found only in hard 
iron. Each plate, angle, beam, stanchion, etc., is either a 
potential magnet or a magnet before it is assembled; then 
as the vessel is assembled these parts become a part of a 
single magnet, just as, when we take two small magnets 
and place them together, they become one magnet. When 
the vessel is completed, it becomes on huge magnet. The 
permanency of this magnetism is dependent on the 
amount of violence to which the materials were sub- 
jected while the vessel was being constructed. The great- 
er the violence, the more permanent the magnetism. Sub- 
permanent magnetism will be present in both horizontal 
and vertical hard iron. 

Horizontal Hard Iron is affected only by the horizontal 
component of the earth's total force. The intensity of the 
magnetism in the horizontal hard iron of the vessel is 
dependent on the magnetic latitude of the place of build- 
ing of the vessel and the amount of violence suffered by 
the material in construction. 

The Polarity, Line of Demarcation and Distribution 
of the red and blue magnetism in the horizontal hard iron 
are dependent on the angle the vessel's keel made with 
the magnetic meridians while being built. 

Vertical Hard Iron is affected only by the vertical 
component of the earth's total force. The intensity of the 
magnetism in vertical hard iron, as in horizontal hard 
iron, is dependent on the magnetic latitude of the place 
of building and the amount of violence suffered by the 
materials in the construction of the vessel. However, it 
differs in this respect. The intensity of the magnetism in 
horizontal hard iron is greater if the vessel is built near 

(Please turn to page 130) 

Page 106 


U<m\ (h4rUim& Gn&wVUcL 

by "The Chief" 

"The Chief's" department welcomes questions — Just write "The Chief," Pacific Marine Review. 


5iMMt root ^>t lit -^f 

e*tr*.<'i sdii^fc root 


4 I =%+!(,+<, 

Blackboard figures I to ( 

ed in the tert. 


IT MAY SEEM A LITTLE too much like a high school 
mathematics class to discuss the procedure for extract- 
ing the square root for marine engineers, but much ex- 
perience has shown that the process is not used very 
much in the everyday duties of standing a watch or taking 
the daily fuel tank soundings, and is difficult to remember. 
But there comes a day for every one of us when we wish 
we could do it. Incidentally, we can estimate it pretty 
closely for the first two or three figures by guessing the 
square root and then multiplying the guessed root by 
itself to see how close to the number we come. If too 
high, lower the guess a little and multiply again. If too 
low, raise it and multiply. But do not try this in the ex- 
aminations, as the inspectors want to see that you know 

the correct procedure, must see the work, and will not 
accept guesses. As a matter of fact, long division and 
extracting square root are really systems of educated 
guessing and somewhat alike. The systems permit us to 
guess only a little at a time and prove the correctness of 
the guess before we proceed any further. Notice that the 
steps are a guess as to a divisor and a multiplication to see 
if it is enough or too much. 

First, a few general statements about squares and roots. 
Sec Fig. 1. Note that we can indicate the square of a 
number by drawing a line over it and adding a figure 2 at 
the end of the line. A ^ shows a cube and any number 
shows a POWER to which the base number is to be 
raised or multiplied by itself. If letters are used, as in al- 

JANUARY • 1948 

Page 107 

gebra, the line may be used or omitted. The number de- 
noting the power is written a size smaller and at the up- 
per right hand corner on the base number or letter. 

Fig. 1 also shows the geometry of the square indicat- 
ing whence the process got its name. If the number rep- 
resents a linear dimension or measurement then the 
square of the number is necessarily an area. Conversely, 
the square rcxjt of an area is the dimension of a side of a 
square of the same area. But the square root of a number 
which has no meaning as an area has no meaning either, 
and is just a number — nothing more. 

Fig. 2 of the Blackboard Sketches is shown to indicate 
the geometry of the square of the sum of two numbers 
such as 4 or 2 or a total of 6. Note that the square of the 
sum is the square of the first plus twice the product of 
the first by the second plus the square of the second. 

Fig. 3 shows that while the square root of 36 is 6, the 
square root of 360 is not 60, but 18.9737 . . . and we 
must go to 3600 before the square root is 60. The rule, 
then, is that to move the decimal point one place in a 
number moves it two places in the square and in the 
same direction. This explains why we handle the number, 
whose square root we want, in sections of two places in 
each direction from the decimal point. 

Fig. 4 is an attempt to show geometrically the several 
steps in the step-by-step guessing process of extracting 
the square root. Using the simple number 529, we sec- 
tionalize it to 5' 29! We handle the 5 first, which really 
is 500. (Note that any number is really a sum; for in- 
stance, 7845 is actually 7000, plus 800, plus 40, plus 5.) 
We guess at the largest root it contains, 3 squared is too 
much; 2 squared is about right — a little small, but the 
largest root we can use. This 2, then, is 20 because 20 
squared is 400. It is represented by the large area in the 

There remains 529 minus 400, or 129 which must still 
be factored. This 129 represents the area of the two rect- 
angles and the area of the small square. Of these three 
areas, we know only the one dimension — that of the long 
side of the rectangle, or 20 in this case. We can guess 
at the other dimension by taking half of the 129 and 
dividing it by 20 — but this is the same as dividing the 
whole 129 by 2 times 20 or 40. This accounts for the 
rule of doubling the root so far obtained before dividing. 
So we divide the 40 into the 129 and, of course, get 3. 
Note also in the figure that these three areas if laid end 
to end would make one long rectangle whose long side is 
43, and whose short side is 3. We know that the total 
area of the group is 1 29, so we add the 3 in the root to 
the 40 to give 43 as a divisor. It goes evenly with no re- 
mainder, and the original number was a perfect square. 
This we prove by multiplying the 3 times the 43 to give 
us the 129. There is a more nearly perfect proof of this 
process but it involves more than we need to take up 

Fig. 5 is a demonstration of the process with a larger 
number which is not a perfect square and also has a deci- 
mal. The letters located at the several places refer to the 
following paragraphs, step by step. 

A — Write the number, plenty of space below, large 
decimal point, check mark over the decimal, check mark 
over every other space from the decimal and draw a line 
over the entire number. 

Page 108 

B. — Write the square root of the left hand pair or 
single as the case may be. This must be guessed. Write 
the square of this guess below also at B. Draw a line and 
subtract, giving us in this case, 1. 

C. — Draw a slanting line here and bring down the 
next pair of numbers, 41 here. 

D. — Multiply the answer or root above the line, what- 
ever it may be, by 2 and write it here. 

E. — Cover the last figure here with the finger, leaving, 
in this case, only the numbers 14 visible. 

F. — Divide the figure 2 at D into this 14 and write 
the answer above the next pair as at F in the answer, and 
write it beside the 2 also at F. This is only a trial or guess 
and in this case the figure 7 was too much, so also is 6, 
and we fall back to 5, proving by multiplication, the 5 by 
the 25. 

G — Here the proof is multiplied out and the subtrac- 
tion shows 16 remainder. 

H. — Draw the line again. 

J. — Bring down the next pair, 65 in this case. 

K. — Again double the answer — in this case the num- 
bers at B and F, or 15, giving 30. 

M. — Cover the 5 in the 1665 and divide the 30 into 
the 166 now visible. Write up the answer 5 as shown. 
Also write the 5 at K. Multiply the 5 at M by the 305 at 
K, writing the answer at N. 

N. — Subtract, getting 140 remainder. 

P. — Bring down the pext pair, also draw the slanting 

Continue through as before with the numbers getting 
larger with each step. There is still a remainder and we 
might continue on indefinitely, always getting a remain- 
der, but our answer becoming more and more accurate. 
Having as many numbers at the right of the decimal as 
was in the original number should be accurate enough. 
The student should go over this many times with other 
numbers proving the correctness of the root by squaring 
it. The root given in Fig. 5 is 155.45, and squaring this 
we have a number 24164.7025. This is less than the 
square we started with, and subtracting we find a differ- 
ence of .6575. This is the error in our calculations. 

In the final analysis there is a graphical solution for 
every mathematical problem. By this is meant that with- 
out recourse to figures, multiplication and division, it is 
possible to get an answer by drawing the problem out 
on a board or otherwise constructing it. For example, by 
trigonometry we know that the diagonal of a square is 
1.41 times a side. But we could have found this out by 
constructing a square and measuring the side and di- 
agonal. We could avoid division by drawing the side 
one unit of length long and then measuring the diagonal 
as 1.41 units. Of course, to find the number of feet of 
lumber in a house we may have to build it and then 
measure the lumber. But we would have avoided mathe- 
matics. So mathematics can be as much help to us as we 
will make use of it. 

An interesting illustration of the construction solution 
is to find the square root of a number by using a straight 
edge and compass only. Fig. 6 shows this and gives a 
rough proof. The length of the line BS is the square root 
of the length of the line AB. Draw AB of a length to be a 
measure of the number whose root is wanted. Extend the 

(Please turn to page 130) 


^cumi^ ^ca^t^ 




Manager of 

Marine Sales 


Bethlehenn Steel 

Bay Area Yards 

(See Page 110) 

JANUARY • I 941 

Page 109 

Harvard P. Stewart 
Appointed by Bethlehem 

Announcement has just been 
made of the appointment of Har- 
vard Paul Stewart as Manager of 
Marine Sales for Bethlehem's Bay 
Area Yards. Stewart succeeds John 
T. Greany who died recently follow- 
ing a short illness. The announce- 
ment was made by W. M. Laughton, 
District General Manager of Beth- 
lehem's Shipbuilding Division, 'West 
Coast Yards. 

Stewart is a native of Alameda 
and a graduate of the University of 
California, Class of 1934, where he 
received a BS Degree with honors in 
engineering. He took post-graduate 
work in ship model testing at the 
same university and assisted in the 
establishment of U. C.'s first ship 
model test basin. In 1934 he started 
work at Bethlehem's San Francisco 
Yard as mold loftsman. In 1935 he 
was transferred to the Estimating 
Department, and a year later to the 
Sales Department. 

He is a member of the Society of 
Naval Architects and Marine En- 
gineers and a member of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Northern 
California section of the Society, of 
which he is also a former secretary- 
treasurer. He is a member of the Na- 
tional Engineering Honor Society, 
Tau Beti Pi and an associate mem- 
ber of the National Physical Honor 
Society, Sigma Zi. 

Currently, Stewart is House Com- 
mittee Chairman of the San Fran- 
cisco Propeller Club. He is a mem- 
ber of the San Francisco Junior 
Chamber of Commerce and is rep- 
resentative of the Junior Chamber 
on the Bay Area Maritime Commit- 
tee. His hobbies include skiing, 
mountaineering and photography. 

King's Point Alumni 

All graduates of the U. S. Mer- 
chant Marine Academy at King's 
Point, N. Y., now living in the San 
Francisco Bay Area are requested 
to register at the newly opened of- 
fices of the Academy's Alumni as- 
sociation. The Bay Area chapter 
now maintains offices at room 1101, 
De Young Bldg., 690 Market St., 

Page I 10 

W. A. Harrington 


San Francisco. Warren Boone is 
president of the group. 

Over 300 graduates of the Acade- 
my are now members of the local 
chapter, although three times that 
number are believed to be living in 
the bay region. California is second 
only to New York in the number of 
graduates from the national Mer- 
chant Marine Academy. 

W. A. Harrington Heads 
San Pedro Yard 

W. A. Harrington has been 
named Manager of the San Pedro, 
California, yard of Bethlehem Steel 
Company, as announced by W. M. 
Laugliton, General Manager of Beth- 
lehem's "West Coast Yards. San 
Pedro Yard is on Terminal Island 
in Los Angeles. Harrington succeeds 
E. C. Rechtin who has been trans- 
ferred to an executive position with 
the company in the East. 

Harrington is well known in ship- 
building and ship repair circles on 
the West Coast, where he has lived 
since 1916. On moving to the West 
Coast, he became a loftsman and an 
Inspector of ships for the U. S. Ship- 
ping Board. He came to the San 
Pedro Yard in 1923 as chief estima- 
tor, was later made general yard 
foreman and sales manager, becom- 
ing assistant manager in 1944. 


Russell R. Sweeny Becomes Manager 
of Bethlehem -Alameda Repair Yard 

ell R. Swe 
r of Belhli 

Scintilla Magneto 
Division Appoints 
Ceorge M. Anger 

Announcement has just been 
made of the appointment of George 
M. Anger as Western States Repre- 
sentative for Scintilla Magneto Di- 
vision of Bendix Aviation Corpora- 
tion, Sidney, New York. The com- 
pany is planning to establish an 
office in San Francisco, where Anger 
will maintain his headquarters. 

Ray Perin Heads 
Materials Handling 

Ray Perin, of the Ira G. Perin Co., 
west coast representative for Elwell- 
Parker Trucks for 35 years, has been 
elected president of the 14-year old 
Materials Handling Association of 
Northern California. 

Perin is a graduate of Stanford 
University, class of 1930. He served 
with the Goodyear Rubber Com- 
pany at the British plant during the 
war, and upon his return joined the 
Ira Perin Company. He is a mem- 
ber of the American Society of Me- 
chanical Engineers. 

JANUARY • I 948 

Georqe M Ange 

H. M. Cahill Appointed 

According to a recent announce- 
ment by R. W. Bayerlein, Vice pres- 
ident of the Heavy Machinery Di- 
vision, Nordberg Manufacturing 
Co., H. M. Cahill has been appoint- 
ed as Sales Manager, Small Engine 

Cahill has had extensive sales en- 
gineering experience in the smaller 
four-cycle Diesel engine field. Be- 
fore coming to Nordberg, he was 
Assistant to the Sales Manager of 
National Supply Co., of Springfield, 

Russell R. Sweeny, formerly as- 
sistant to the general superintendent 
at Bethlehem's San Francisco Yard, 
has been appointed manager of the 
company's Alameda Repair Yard, 
according to a recent announcement 
by W. M. Laughton. 

Sweeny is a native of Antiixh, 
California, and came to work for 
Bethlehem in 1916 as a shipfitter 
apprentice at what was then the 
Union Iron "Works. In 1931 he be- 
came Hull Department Foreman at 
the Alameda Repair Yard, and in 
1939 was appointed assistant to the 
general superintendent at that yard. 
He returned to the San Francisco 
Yard in 1940 where he was placed 
in charge of conversion work on the 
Presichnf Lincoln. He was made 
assistant to the general superintend- 
ent in 194Z 

Ohio. He has also been associated 
with the Buda Company, Harvey, 

Cahill will have charge of sales of 
Nordberg four-cycle 41/2", 9" and 
13" boreDiesel engines. L. L. Peter- 
son, Sales Manager, Large Engine 
Dept., is responsible for sales of the 
1 6" bore size four-cycle engine and 
the larger Nordberg 2 -cycle Diesel 
engines. Foreign sales of all Nord- 
berg products is directed by B. T. 
Eagerton, Export Sales Manager. 

Page I I I 

LlNITrn STAtFis 


Vice Admiral William W. Smith, USN (Ret.), Chairman, Maritime 
Commission, accepting bronie plaque presented to the Merchant 
Marine Academy by the Society of Naval Architects and Marine 
Engineers honoring the distinguished wartime achievements of the 
late Vice Admiral Howard L. Vickery. Left to right: Vice Admiral 
Edward L. Cochrane, USN (Ret.), president. Society of Naval 
Architects and Marine Engineers; Admiral Smith; Lt. Comdr. Hugh 
B. Vickery, USN, son of Admiral Vickery, Rear Admiral Telfair 
Knight, Chief of Training Division, Maritime Commisson. 

Vice Admiral Edward L. Cochrane, USN (Ret.). 
President, Society of Naval Architects and Ma- 
rine Engineers, making introductory address 
during ceremonies attending presentation of 
bronze plaque honoring the distinguished war- 
time achievements of the late Vice Admiral 
Howard L. Vickery, USN (Ret.), creator of the 
famous "Bridge of Merchant Ships" which 
assured victory in the recent world conflict. 
Left to right in the above picture are: Vice 
Admiral William W. Smith, USN (Ret), Chair- 
man, Maritime Commission, Mrs. Howard L. 
Vickery, Mrs. Barbara Vickery Bowie, Admiral 
Cochrane, Mrs. Edward L. Cochrane, Rear Ad- 
miral Telfair Knight, USMS, Chief, Training 
Division, Maritime Commission, Lt. Comdr. R. 
E. Salman and members of the Society of Naval 
Architects and Marine Engineers. 

Grounds and buildings of the U. S. Merchant 
Marine Academy on the shore of Long Island 
Sound at Kings Point, N. Y. View looks east. 
Hague Basin and Mallory Pier in foreground. 
Academic Buildings left side of campus (pro- 
gressively from west to east). Department of 
Nautical Science, Dept. of Engineering and 
Department of Ship Management. Center. 
Wiley Hall (former Walter P. Chrysler resi- 
dence); Regimental Barracks (right of Wiley 
Hall, reading counter-clockwise). Palmer, Mur- 
phy, Delano, Cleveland, Rogers, Jones and 
Barry Halls. Center background, O'Hara Hall 
and Furuseth Barracks. Left center background. 
Tomb Memorial Drill Field and Roosevelt 
Athletic Field. 

Additional photo on page 118, 

Page I 12 



ips heini; huilt u Bethlehem-Sparrows Point Shipyard. 


Main Particulars oj the Reefer 

S. S. Yaque 

ength, betueeu perpendiculars. ^65 ft 

earn, molded 56// 

^epth, molded 36 // 

rajt, loaded 2€ ft 

eadweight 5,000 tons 

trgo capacity 195,000 cu ft 

assenger capacity 12 

?a speed 16 knots 

lachinery geared turbine 

corporating advanced design fea- 
ires resulting from Bethlehem's long 
xperience as a builder of ships of all 
^pes, the S.S. Yaque is the first of a 

fleet of nine combination cargo-pas- 
senger, fully-refrigerated sister ships 
which the Bethlehem-Sparrows Point 
Shipyard will deliver to the United 
Fruit Company during 1947. 

A model of postwar shipbuilding 
craftsmanship, this trim vessel has 
been designed and constructed to 
meet the special requirements of the 
operator's trade. 

It is an example of the excellent 
results obtainable through close col- 
laboration between the owner and the 
builder. In all details, it's Bethlehem- 
Built for the job. 



Quincy, Mass. 

Staten Island. N. Y. 

Sparrows Point. Md. 

San Francisio, Calif. 

Alameda. Calif. 

Terminal Island. San Pedro. Calif. 



Atlantic Yard 

Simpson Yard 

Brooklvn 27th Street Yard 

Brooklyn 56th Street Yard 

Hoboken Yard 

Staten Island Yard 



San Francisco Yard 
Alaiiied.T Yard 





JANUARY • 1948 

Page 113 

n E UJ S F I R S H E S 


American President Lines' president, George Killion, announces plans under 
consideration for converting the P-2 type liners General W. H. Gordon and 
General M. C. Meigs to the luxury status of the President Cleveland and Presi- .... 
dent Wilson . The latter, sister ship of the Cleveland, will be completed during 
the spring. 

Up H: i^ i[: ^ 

THE V-2000 

Bids on the proposed five V-2000' s for American President Lines are still 
under consideration by both APL and Maritime Commission. These are to be cargo- 
passenger vessels and are somewhat between the C-3 and P-2. Indications are that 
they will cost in the neighborhood of $50,000,000. Newport News was low bidder. 


Organization of Coastwise Bulk Carriers, Inc., to operate tankers in the 
domestic trades was announced December 23 by William T. Sexton, Sr. , president. 
A contract for operation of the tankers will be negotiated with Coastwise Line, 
he said. 

Coastwise Line currently maintains a Pacific coastwise service as well as 
a world-wide tramping operation. In addition, it does extensive general agency 
work. Tankers acquired by Coastwise Bulk Carriers, Inc., will be operated in 
coastwise, intercoastal and Gulf services. 

:{c :{; :1c :]e ^ 


Merger of the Skinner & Eddy Corp. with the Alaska Steamship Company "to 
simplify the overall corporate structure of the Alaska Steamship Company and to 
broaden and further strengthen its financial position," was announced this week 
by G. W. Skinner, president. The corporation has owned Alaska Steamship Company 
since 1944. Plans include acquisition of new freight and passenger ships suit- 
able for needs of the territory. Skinner said. 


The San Francisco Yard of Bethlehem Steel Company, Shipbuilding Division, 
has just been awarded contracts totaling approximately $7,000,000 for the 
modernization-conversion of two C-3 type Army troop transports, the F rederick 
Funston and James O'Hara, and the "saf ety-at-sea" conversion of the Army Hospi- 
tal Ship Comfort , a C-1 type vessel. 

Type of work to be preformed on the Funston and O'Hara is very similar to 
that which Bethlehem's San Francisco Yard is now doing on two other Army trans- 
ports, the Shanks and Ainsworth, in that they are being converted from 100% 
troopship to combination troop and passenger. 

:f: :{( :fc :jc :^ 


Brigadier General N. H. McKay, Port Commander at the San Francisco Port 
of Embarkation, announces that contracts have been awarded by the Chief of 
Transportation for conversions on nine additional passenger vessels of Trans- 

portation Corps registry with home port here. They will enter the shipbuilding 
yards at various times before March 1 for work expected in most instances to 
require 90 working days. 

The vessels and the yards: Hospital Ship Comfort and transports O'Hara and 
Funs ton, Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp. , San Francisco ; Generals Collins and 
Freeman, Todd Yards, San Pedro; Generals Hodges and Hase, Todd Yards, Seattle; 
Kenerals Patrick and Morton, Pacific Ship Repair, San Francisco. 

A third phase of the Transportation Corps ship modernization program is 
Hearing completion. Four P-2 transports assigned to San Francisco are in the 
Newport News Shipbuilding Corporation yards on the Atlantic Coast being given 
final conversion to fit them for permanent peacetime passenger service for the 
Army. They are the USAT's Admirals Eberle, Hughes, Capps and Benson. First of 
them is expected to be completed by mid-February. 


Morris Sayre , president of Corn Products Refining Company of New York, 
will be the new president of the National Association of Manufacturers. Retiring 
president Bunting asserts that most conservative estimates for rehabilitation 
of worn out machines and inefficient factories is $6,000,000,000 a year over the 
next five years. 


A $7,500,000 construction program to expand and modernize its Bakersfield 
refinery was announced today by Standard of California. New units planned in 
the program will include the latest in crude distillation and cracking 
facilities, an office building and laboratory, and modern auxiliary equipment. 
Capacity of the plant will be increased to a crude run of 20,000 barrels daily, 
practically double the present capacity. 


During the month of November, 15 new factories were established in Los 
Angeles county with a total investment of |593,000, and creating 257 new jobs 
for factory workers. Thirty-eight existing plants were expanded, calling for an 
additional investment of |6, 411, 000, and creating 694 new industrial jobs. 

Total investment in the 53 new and expanded units was |7, 004, 000, creat- 
ing a total of 951 new jobs. 

For the year to date, 200 new factories were established with a total 
investment of $68,261,000, and creating 7,321 new jobs; 382 existing plants were 
expanded, calling for an additional investment of $51,560,500 and creating 
12,650 new industrial jobs. 


Purchase of 11 tankers from the Maritime Commission was confirmed in a 
recent announcement by Standard Oil Company (New Jersey). Assignment of the ships 
to the Esso fleet will be material help to the company in its efforts to meet 
the unprecedented demand for petroleum products. 

All vessels are the Maritime Commission T2 type, with turbo-electric 
propulsion. Four of the ships, Esso Allentown, Esso Asheville, Esso Everett and 
Esso Worcester , were built at the Kaiser Shipbuilding Company's yard, Portland, 
Oregon, four Esso Binghamton, Esso Bridgeport, Esso Burlington and Esso Wheel- 
ing, at the Alabama Dry Dock & Shipbuilding Company's plant. Mobile, Alabama, 
and three, Esso Greenboro, Esso Linden and Esso Shreveport, by the Sun Ship- 
building & Dry Dock Company, Chester, Pennsylvania. 



J. Lester Perry, president of the Columbia Steel Company, A U. S. Steel 
subsidiary, confirmed a statement of War Assets Administration announcing the 

JANUARY • 1948 Page 115 

proposed purchase of a surplus property located in Los Angeles, adjoining the 
town of Torrance. 

Columbia Steel Company has offered to buy a surplus property owned by the 
War Assets Administration located at Los Angeles. This property, consisting of 
land, improvements and buildings, originally was a part of an aluminum reduction 
plant built during the war. 

The property acquired will be utilized to house the new cold reduction 
sheet mill which Columbia Steel Company recently announced it would build in the 
Los Angeles area. The new mill will further process hot rolled steel coils pro- 
duced at other existing plants into the sheet steel so greatly needed in the 
Western states. 


The Board of Directors of American President Lines has approved the 
purchase of four 17-knot Victory-type cargo ships from the total of 21 Victories 
which the Company is now chartering from the Maritime Commission. The Board's 
favorable action to buy the vessels indicates the Company's faith in the growth 
of commerce between the United States and countries in the Far East where in- 
dustrial and economic development is taking place. 


Ships calling at Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor averaged nearly 10 a day 
during 1947, a sharp increase over 1946, according to a survey by the Marine 
Exchange of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce. 

The 1947 total of 3,995 vessels using the metropolitan area's harbor 
facilities was a 36 per cent increase over the 2,930 recorded during 1946. Total 
tonnage was up 38 per cent, from 10,916,093 to 15,063,983. Only Russia sent 
fewer ships to Los Angeles-Long Beach docks last year than in 1946, the Marine 
Exchange report revealed. 


San Francisco-Bay Area industrial expansions during 1947 continued to 
hold nation-wide attention with new industries and expansions amounting to 600 
projects with investments of 100 million dollars. Nearly 2,000 industrial 
projects have been announced for Northern California since V. J. Day with total 
outlays of 325 million dollars. 

During the year the Ford Motor Company and the General Motors Corporation 
offered to purchase more than 100 million dollars worth of car parts a year from 
California manufacturers, and a number of plants in the Bay Area have already 
signed contracts. Of 200 of the largest industrial projects, 46 expected to in- 
vest 1 million dollars or more on their individual projects; whereas 34 expected 
to expend between 500 thousand and 1 million dollars ; and 90 others planned 
programs ranging from 100 to 500 thousand dollars. More than one-quarter of the 
major projects are related to the food industry. 

Plant expansions and equipment costing |70,000,000, authorized by the U. 
S. Steel Corporation in the Western states since the end of the war, were re- 
cently announced to supply an increased demand for steel by the widespread and 
diversified expansion of industries in the West. Geneva Steel Co., Utah, has a 
program for production of 85,000 to 95,000 tons of steel ingots per month; 
approximately 50,000 tons of steel plate are made from these ingots, 11,000 
tons for structural shapes and 6,000 tons for steel billets monthly. There are 
5,600 persons employed at the Geneva Works. Included in this giant steel pro- 
gram is a new $25,000,000 cold roll reduction mill at Pittsburg to make sheet 
steel and tin plate. About 800 men will be required to run the new mill at 
Pittsburg in addition to the 3,000 already employed there by Columbia Steel Co. 



S. L. (ROY) KUYKENDALL. General Manager and Partner 

12th and Grand Avenues 




24 Hour Service 


OFFICE PHONE: Terminal 2-7567 

NIGHT PHONES: Terminal 2-8140 

Terminal 3-1585 



140 h.p. at 3200 r. p. m. furnished for direct 
drive or with reduction gears in following ra- 
tios: - 2.03 to 1 - 3. 1 7 to 1 - 4.48 to 1 




Model R-6602 

6 cylinder, 4 cycle 165 h.p. at 2200 r.p.m., salt 
water cooling, equipped with reduction gear 

• • • WRITE - WIRE - PHONE • • • 




I 948 

Page 117 


The San Francisco Propeller Club was given an earnest 
talk on the operation of the California Maritime Acad- 
emy at its November meeting, by Commodore Russell 
M. Ihrig, new superintendent. 

Commodore Ihrig's shore duties during his 29 years 
of active Naval service have been almost entirely along 
lines which gave him special background experience for 
his duty as superintendent. Well known in the Bay 
Area, he was associate professor of Naval Science and 
Tactics at the University of California during 1934-36, 
and had charge of the R.O.T.C. unit on its two annual 
battleship cruises to Hawaii. 





U. S, Marilimc Commissioner Richard Parkhurst 

addressing the graduating class at the U. S. 

Merchant Marine Academy. Kings Point. N. Y.. 

when 258 officers from forty states of the nation, 

and Alaska. Hawaii and the Canal Zone were 

graduated with their commissions as Ensigns in 

the Naval Reserve and their licenses as deck and 

engineering officers of the Merchant Marine. L. to 

r.: Capt. H. A. Andrews; Chaplain Harpole; Col. 

Jerome B. Crowley, Sec-Treas. American Bureau 

of Shipping; Capt. H. V. Nerney, Executive Officer; 

Rear Admiral E. H. Smith. USCG, Commander, 

Third Coast Guard Dist.; Rear Admiral Telfair 

Knight, Chief, Training Div., U. S. Maritime Com-i 

mission; Rear Admiral Richard R. McNuUy, Supt. | 

of Academy; Commissioner Parkhurst; Lt. Comdr. 

R. H. O'Connell; Capt. Wm. McGuire. Officer-in- 

Charge, Marine Inspection. Port of New York; 

Vice Admiral Herbert E. Leary. USN (Ret.); Capf. 

w R. Mack, USN. Chief of Staff, Third Naval District; 

Baker, Pres., Board of Underwriters of New York; Henry 

orn, Past Pres., Board of Underwriters of New York; 

Leonard Frisco, USNR, Naval Reserve Officer, Third 

District; and Oliver D. Colvin, Pres.. Cargocaire En- 

ering Co. 

Left to right: George Swett. W. C. (Bill) Markey, and Henry 
Wickert. at the November Propeller Club Meeting. 

Captain R. C. Owye 
Lloyd Fleming, Ci 

, Hugh Gallaghe 
rl MacDowell. C 

Ihrig, Lewis Lapham, Capta 
Ig was speaker of the day. 

Page 118 


Ray Sanders 
ilppointed General 
Manager of Pacific 
Chemical Company 

Ray Sanders, closely identified 
with the industrial chemical field for 
the past twenty-five years, has been 
appointed general manager of the 
Pacific Chemical Company, Los An- 
geles, a division of the American- 
Marietta Company, according to a 
recent announcement. 

The appointment of Mr. Sanders 
coincides with the company's an- 
nounced plans to expand its activi- 
ties. A pioneer in the field on the 
! Pacific Coast, Pacific Chemical not 
only produces a large line of indus- 
trial chemical compounds and proc- 
esses but such popular consumer 
brands as Hypro Bleach and Pronto 
Bowl and Drain Cleaner. 

In addition to its main offices and 
two plants in Los Angeles, the Pa- 
cific Chemical Company has offices 
in principal West Coast cities and 
a third plant in Waco, Texas. 

Atlas Paint 
Widens Distribution 

Upon completing an extensive 
tour of the East, E. W. Whittemore, 
Sales Manager and General Partner 
of the Atlas Paint and Varnish Com- 
pany of Los Angeles, announced the 
establishment of five new distribu- 
te irs for Atlas Marine Paints. North- 
ern distribution will be handled by 
the Maxwelton Company of Mystic, 
Connecticut. Powers Outboard Mo- 

Alfred P. Wheeler Elected 
President of Northern 
California Industrial 
Editors Association 

Alfred P. Wheeler, Editor, "Mat- 
sonewo." Matson Navigation Com- 
pany, has been elected president of 
the Northern California Industrial 
Editors Association. Wheeler suc- 
ceeds Norman S. Jones of the Friden 
Calculating Machine Company who 
served as president during 1947. 

Others elected included Lloyd 
Harris Paraftine Companies, vice 
president; Jean Wagner, Cutter 
Laboratories, secretary. Martin Dep- 
per. Federal Reserve Bank and Em- 
mett Fitzpatrick, Southern Pacific 
Company, were elected to the execu- 
tive committee. 

The organization is composed of 
editors of house publications of the 
leading industries of Northern Cali- 

E. W. Whittemore 

tor Sales of Richmond, Virginia, 
will cover the Virginia and Wash- 
ington, D. C, territory. Mount 
Pleasant Boat Building Company, 
Mount Pleasant, S. C, has been as- 
signed to South Carolina. Bruns- 
wick Marine Construction Company 
of Brunswick, Ga., will represent 
Atlas in Georgia and North Florida, 
and the Phillips Hardware Com- 
pany of Miami, Florida, will han- 
dle the line in southern Florida. 

The success of Atlas Marine 
Paints on the Pacific Coast leads 
Atlas to believe that their introduc- 
tion to the Eastern Seaboard may be 
likewise successful. One of the lead- 
ers in the Atlas Marine Line is their 
Gold Label Copper Compound for 
wooden boat bottoms. 







Helicoid Gage Division of Ameri- 
can Chain & Cable Co., Inc. 

Helicoid Pressure and Vacuum 

Trimount Instrument Company 

Manometers. Flow Meters. Draft 
Gages. Electronic Level Controls. 
Tank Level Gages. 

Paxton Mitchell Company 

Metallic Packing. Pump and Cyl- 
inder Liners. 

Paxton Diesel Engineering 

Bearing Watchdogs. Valve Spring 
Depressors, other Diesel Spe- 

W. C. Dillon & Co., Inc. 

Strain Gages and Dial Thermom- 


A complete stock of Marine, In- 
dustrial and Dial types. 

Instrument Repairing 

All types of instruments repaired, 
calibrated, rebuilt and serviced. 
All work guaranteed. 


I 948 

Page 119 




H E ATE D^^^l 
TO 2250° ^^^1 

Brlckseal provides a crackproof, 
vitrified armor /or furnace lin- 
ings. The small firebricks shown 
in the furnace were bonded and 
painted with Brickseal and heated 
to 2250°. Directly from the fur- 
nace they were plunged into cold 
water as shown below — a test for 
any material subject to expansion 
and contraction. 

Brickseal is semi-plaslic when 
hot, yet hard and tough when 
cold. Brickseal is made in grades 
suitable to heats ranging from 
1400° to more than 3000°. It will 
make any furnace last longer by 
giving new life to your refrac- 
tories. Write or call local dealer 
for a demonstration. 




PUnts at 

5800 S. Hoover Street 

Los Angeles 44, Calif. 

158 - 14th St.. Hoboken. N. J. 


New Equipment and 
Literature for Yard, 
Ship and Dock 

Drum and Barrel Tilt 

PANY, 16031 Fullerton Avenue, 
Detroit 27, Michigan, has just an- 
nounced a new drum and barrel tilt. 
Designed to simplify materials han- 
dling and eliminate hand dumping, 
this new drum and barrel tilt is a 
proven timesaver for any modern 
industrial plant. Excellent for con- 
trolled dumping of chemicals, liq- 
uids, plastics, molding powder, 

scrap, glass, etc. Unit illustrated is 
1000-lb. capacity for standard 55 
gallon drum or barrel. Special sizes 
or capacities can be built to suit 
individual requirements. Equipped 
with two safety style locking devices 
that hold barrel securely without 
slippage. Barrel can be turned 360 
degrees. Turning mechanism incor- 
porates the worm drive principle 
and is available in hand chain mod- 
els. Entire assembly is constructed 
of heavy structural steel, completely 
welded throughout. Weight is ap- 
proximately 125 lbs. 

Kew Clamp Provides Safe 
Easy Way to Handle 
Awbard-Shaped Article 

peth, N. Y., are the manufacture 
of a new clamp, known as the Me 
rill-Volz Positive Grip Clam 
which provides a simple, rapid ar 
safe method of raising or lifting im 
place such items as large tank 
flanged heads, and similar articL 
which are usually difficult to g 
securely attached. The clamp wi 
lift anything that has sufficient fl 
surface for its jaws to grip, and 
is said that once the grip is estal 
lished, no amount of pulling ( 
weight, even if the surface is oil( 
or greased, will cause the jaws : 
lose their grip. The clamp is mac 
in y2-ton, 1-ton, 3-ton and 6-tc 

\m Slide-Rule Selecto 
Provides Fingertip 
Information on Inco ^ 
Kickel Alloys 

No more wading through a who 
library of metal information evei 
time you need a fact or two aboi 
a particular alloy. The new "Im 
Nickel Alloys Selector" kit can pn 
vide all the important facts abcx 
any metal you are likely to be usin 
in a matter of seconds. The bookli 
in the kit, "Properties of Son 
Metals and Alloys," tabulates repor 
from twenty-two metal producers c 


The details of new equipment or the new literature announced in this department will 
be furnished without obligation on your part. For quick service, please use this coupon. 


500 Sansome Street 
Send me descriptive data of the followi 

San Francisco 
ew equipment or literature as reviewed 

(Identify by name of manufacturer and catalog) 


Page 120 


the composition, mechanical prop- 
erties and pliysical constants of 1 04 
of their alloys. 

With this Selector, you simply 
push the slide and turn the dial. Any 
fact needed on this important fami- 
lly of "white" metals can instantly 
'be read at a glance. The Selector 
■also includes a listing of available 
'forms and an index to ASTM, Fed- 
leral and Navy specifications for each 

The Selector and booklet come in 
;a handy filing case that will fit any 
desk file. You can obtain these by 
dropping a note to your nearest 
branch of the International Nickel 

Steam Jet Ejectors 

i TURING COMPANY has just is- 
isued a new catalog, No. 1462, en- 
titled "Steam Jet Ejectors." It con- 
jtains 36 pages and includes 30 sec- 
tional drawings — also flow dia- 
, grams, engineering data, installa- 
tion guide, formulae, curves and 
tables. It covers the theory and 
operating characteristics of steam jet 
ejectors for all classes of vacuum 
service, including single, two, three, 
four and five stage types. Non-con- 
densing and condensing types, with 
barometric inter- and after-con- 
densers for vacuum requirements in 
chemical plants, food plants, sugar 
refineries, oil refineries, power 
plants, etc., are fully covered. The 
; catalog also contains information re- 
garding steam jet vacuum refriger- 
ation for water cooling requirements 
of air conditioning and process ap- 

Radiomarine Introduces 
New 30-watt 
Radiotelephone at 
Motor Boat Show 

A new cuiiipact 30 -watt radio- 
telephone, known as the ET-8037 
and engineered specifically for re- 
quirements of pleasure craft and 
work boat owners, was viewed for 
the first time at the National Motor 
Boat Show in New York. It com- 
bines a 4-tube 30-watt transmitter, 
an 8-iube receiver plus a rectifier 
tube, a built-in loudspeaker, a push- 
to-talk modern handset and a com- 
pact power unit, in a cabinet 13"^ 

JANUARY • I 948 

wide, 20" high and XAYz" deep. It 
operates from a boat's power supply 
of either 12, 32, 115 volts D.C. or 
1 1 5 volts A.C. and has six crystal 
controlled channels. 

The manufacturer claims small 
power consumption, adequate off- 
shore range, quick-heating mini- 
ature tubes, smaller crystals, im- 
proved noise limiter, filtered power 
supply, permanently pretuned cir- 
cuits, antenna trimming control and 
integral power unit. 

The ET-8037 is easy to install, 
operate and service. Maintenance 
and service are simplified by the de- 
sign of the cabinet. 

Radiomarine also displayed Mod- 
el ET-8028-A, a 10-watt, 4-channel 
2-way radiotelephone with small re- 
mote control unit, standard tele- 
phone handset and built-in loud- 
speaker; Model ET-8012D, 75-watt, 
lO-channel, for offshore duty aboard 
craft equipped with either 32 or 
1 10 vclt electrical systems. 

The LOng RAnge Navigation in- 
strument — Loran receiver, model 
LR-8801 — was also exhibited. It is 
being used successfully on larger 
ocean-going pleasure craft, fishing 
vessels and merchant ships. 

Raytheon Radar Popular 

Since the end of the war, Ray- 
theon, through its marine affiliate, 
Submarine Signal Co., has sold over 
300 Mariners Pathfinder radar 
equipments. The volume amounts 
to more than 2% million doUars. 
Installations have been made on 
ocean passenger and cargo ships, 
oil tankers, colliers, ferries, whalers, 
tuna clippers, pleasure craft, ships 
in the Great Lakes and Inland Wa- 
terways, and vessels in such special 
services as geophysical survey, har- 
bor patrol, cable laying, as well as 
foreign navies and maritime agen- 
cies of the world. 

Swett Company will 
Manufacture Heater 

The uidustrial dcpartnicnr of 
George E. Swett Company, San 
Francisco, has entered into a million- 
dollar contract with Production En- 
gineering Company of Berkeley for 
the manufacture of the Watrola 
Heat Generator. Grinnell Company 
will be the distributor. 

This device was developed under 
the supervision of Jim Swett and has 
aroused much favorable commcni 
from those who have seen it. 




JANUARY 15-30 

Please send your gift 
to the Chairman of 

your local 





There is but one genuine 

Self-Lubricating Rope made and 
placed on the market by FITLER, 
patented by FITLER and easily 
identified as a FITLER product 
by the Self - Lubricating 
"Green Yarn Center^^ 

Insist on ■■LUBRICORE"— Be- 
ware of imitations — Don't 
accept substitutes. Ask for 
'■LUBRICORE^^. the Self-Lubri- 
cating Green Yarn Center Pure 
Manila Rope made by FITLER. 

The [dwin H. Fitter Co. 



Albert R. McMullen 

John T. Greany 

John T. Greany, 59, Manager of 
Marine Sales at Bethlehem Steel 
Company, Shipbuilding Division, 
San Francisco Yard, passed away 
December 11, following a short ill- 
ness. Mr. Greany had been with the 
company for more than 40 years, 
and was a well-known figure in Bay 
Area marine affairs. Before coming 
to Bethlehem Steel, he was associ- 
.ited with the original Cramp Ship- 
yard :n Philadelphia, of which city 
he was a native. He was a resident 
of Ross, Marin County. 

Mr. Greany is survived by his 
widow, Mrs. Marie Greany; a son, 
John T. Greany, Jr.; a daughter, 
Mrs. Elliott Bordfeld; a brother, 

i\lbert R. McMullen 

Albert R. McMullen, retired ofii- 
cial of the Federal Shipbuilding and 
Dry Dock Company, died suddenly 
at his home in Maplewood, New 
Jersey, on November 24. 

Mr. McMullen was born in Can- 
ada, and began his career as an ap- 
prentice in a small machine shop in 
Nova Scotia. When he came to this 
country, he was employed by the 
Worthington Pump & Machinery 
Corp. and the Terry Steam Turbine 
Co. for short periods and came to 
Federal Shipbuilding at Kearny, 
New Jersey, in 1919. 

At Kearny, Mr. McMullen had 
charge of construction and installa- 
tion of many new types of marine 
propulsion. Under his direction 
hundreds of exacting tests were 
made on a great variety of propel- 
ling plants and associated ship ma- 
chinery. He gained recognition from 
outstanding ship designers for his 

He was a member of the Society 
of Naval Architects and Marine En- 
gineers, and the Marine Square Club 
of New York City. 

William Greany of Detroit; and 
two sisters, Mrs. Elizabeth Larkin 
and Mrs. Nellie Roney, both of 

At the time of his death, he was 
a member of the following clubs: 
The Olympic Club, Propeller Club, 
Commercial Club, Mariners Club, 
and the Meadow Club in Marin 
County. He was also Treasurer of 
the San Francisco Marine Exchange. 

Page 122 


l!obert G. l\llen 
\nnounces [\pansion 
to the West Coast 

; Announcement has jusr been 
nade by Robert G. Allen, President 
jf the Robert G. Allen Co., 502 
Third Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
marine and industrial chemical 
manufacturer, of the expansion of 
[lis company and production of his 
products on the West Coast under 
the name of the Robert G. Allen 
Pacific Co., Inc., located at 8460 So. 
San Pedro Ave., Los Angeles. 

The officers of the newly-formed 
company include men who are well- 
known to the industry as chemical 
consultants with engineering back- 

I Ralph V. Scott is president; Wil- 
liam Rudy, 1st vice president; John 
Cordes, 2nd vice president; Joe Cos- 
tello, director and Joe Bachand, sec- 
retary and treasurer. 

Scott will be in charge of sales 
and advertising, and will assist his 
distributors in each port on the 
Pacific Coast. The J. M. Costello 
Supply Company, Wilmington, Cal- 
ifornia; Cordes Bros., San Francisco; 
and the John H. Marvin Company 
in Portland and Seattle will augment 
their sales and service facilities. 
William Rudy is in charge of the 
industrial chemical department, and 
Joe Biichand is the head chemist. 

While Allenite and Allencote 
continue to be shipped from the 
Robert G. Allen plant in Brooklyn, 
all other products of the firm, in- 
cluding Scaletex, Mulsivex, Dualene, 
and Vaptex are being produced at 
the newly -constructed plant in 
southet-n California. This firm holds 
the exclusive sales and export rights 
for the eleven Western States, west- 
ern Canada, Alaska, the Far East and 

„n..K j^e^^ Q uick A ip 

emblem of protection 

Whatever your fire hazard, QUICK-AID FIRE GUARDS con- 
veniently placed throughout your ships are your assurance 
of safety from the menace of fire. 

There are two types of QUICK-AID FIRE GUARDS 
particularly recommended for marine installations: 
carbon dioxide and foam. Each is engineered to do 
the job of fighting fire quickly, safely, and eco- 
nomically. Foam type snuffs out fire with 22 
gallons of tough foam. Carbon dioxide quickly 
extinguishes electrical, chemical, oil, gasoline, 
flammable liquid and paint fires; equally effective 
in all temperatures. 

Your nearby GENERAL dealer can help you select the 
right QUICK-AID FIRE GUARDS for your needs. Write 
today for his name and your FREE copy of our new 
file folder. 

FREE This handy file refer- 
ence folder tells all you need 
to know about fire extinguishers. 
Write now for your copy. ^ 


General Offices and Factory 

The Ce'iera( Oelr. 

1501 E. Washmqto 

Ivd,, Los Angele 


JANUARY • 1948 

Page 123 

^ywecLcLauafterd at the ^Jwarbor I 



"On Deck and Below" 

I cci ic t^nt i Pr«l»ure Ragulatinq Valves 
LtiLIt OU. j "Tyfon" Whistles 


CO.— Air, Fire. Water and Steam 






KOMUL Anti-Corrosive Coating 

PAXTON MITCHELL Metallic Packing 
ENSIGN Products 

J. M. CosTELLO Supply Co. 


221 No. Avalon Blvd., Wilmington. Calif. Phone Terminal 47291 


steamer Service to Cafalina 


TUGBOAT OFFICE: Berth 82, San Pedro, California 
TELEPHONE NUMBERS: Terminal 2-4292; Terminal 2-4293; Long Beach 636-563 

WHISTLE CALL FOR TUGS: 1 long — 3 short 

GENEIIAL OFFICE: Catalina Terminal, P. O. Box 847, Wilmington, Calif. 

Phones: Terminal 4-5241; Nevada 615-45; Long Beach 7-3802 

Member — >1nierican Waterways Operators 

Shipyard Bought by Lung Beach 
Marine Bepair Company 

A new name has come into being 
in Long Beach with the purchase of 
the former Hodgson-Greene-Halde- 
man Shipyard by three partners. 
The name is LONG BEACH MA- 
is a California corporation; the three 
partners are David F. Maxwell, who 
is president; George A. Robinson, 
vice president; and Frank L. Mansuy, 

H-G-H built ten tuna clippers, and 
Long Beach Marine will carry on the 
same work, plus any small craft up 
to 150 feet. The new yard plans 
also to do dockside repair and voy- 
age repair. Long Beach Marine Re- 
pair Company has purchased all re- 
maining buildings, including ware- 
houses and marine railways, and will 
be able to handle drydock work up 
to capacity of 160 feet, or up to 
1,000 tons weight. Since Long Beach 
Marine has taken over, they have 
completed repairs on 8 ships, as well 
as 62 other marine jobs. 

Maxwell hails from Washington 
where he gained his vast experience 
in welding and welding equipment. 
His early career was spent learning 
construction joiner work and wood- 
working. He was for three years a 
letterman at Loyola College in foot- 
ball. He first worked for the Lake 


Left to right: FranK 
L, Mansuy. secre- 
tary-treasurer; Da- 
vid F. Maxwell, 
president; George 
A. Robinson, vice 

Seen in the back- 
ground is the Flying 
Kate, which has just 
recently completed 
12,000 miles in the 
Arctic, and which 
was used for loca- 
tion as the killer 
boat in the new pic- 



Page 124 


In 1948 

The Port of Long Beach will present for 
your information, the continuing progress 
in the construction of port facilities that 
go to keep this — 

Americans Most Modern Port 

Union Drydock Company in Seattle, 
then went into business in Long 
Beach, in a machine shop with his 
father. He worked there for five 
years before going with Hodgson- 
Greene-Haldeman in 1942 as shop 
foreman. His next job with H-G-H 
was mechanical superintendent, af- 
ter which he went from superin- 
tendent of repairs to general super- 
intendent of all new construction 
and repairs. During the entire war. 
he worked on Army, Navy and W. 
S. A. vessels. 

The vice president of the new 
firm, George A. Robinson, comes 
from an old shipping family. His 
father is now an official of the Cali- 
fornia Ship Service Company. Rob- 
inson is a mighty well-known figure 
about Los Angeles-Long Beach Har- 
bor, and was September Port Engi- 
neer of the Month in Pacific Marine 

Frank L. Mansuy, as secretary- 
treasurer, will handle the office detail 
as he has a background of experi- 
ence as general manager under H- 
G-H, and was for three years comp- 
troller for Calship. Before joining 
Calship, he spent ten years in public 
practice in Washington, D. C, as a 

The Long Beach Marine Repair 
Company should have some mighty 
successful years ahead, since not only 
is the yard located for easy accessi- 
bility to Long Beach Harbor, but it 
has behind it the excellent back- 
ground and experience of its three 
young and energetic new owners. 

Donald V. Briqqs 
right; William P. 

y. 2i. Lines 
Announces Changes 

Donald V. Briggs, formerly dis- 
trict passenger manager at San 
Francisco, has been appointed Pa- 
cific Coast passenger manager at 
San Francisco. 

William P. Burns, who had been 
assigned to the Washington office, 
has been appointed assistant to 

JANUARY • 1948 

Page 125 


Ship Chandlery 


Prompt Service — Experienced person- 
nel, offers choice of right equipment 
for every need on all Deck, Engine i 
Steward Supplies. 

Distributors for 
Pabco Marine Paint 


Complete Ship Chandlery Service 
1705 N.W. 14th, PORTLAND 9. ORE. 

Company (California) 


George A. Horton Jr. 

At the meeting of the Board of 
Directors following the annual meet- 
ing of the stockholders of Interna- 
tional Paint Company (California) 
Inc., George A. Horton, Jr., was 
elected vice president. 

Horton joined the company in 
New York in October, 1945, upon 
completion of four years of Navy 
duty and spent some time studying 
in the laboratory at the New Jersey 
plant, learning the know-how of 
paint manufacturing before coming 
to the San Francisco factory in 
March, 1946. Here again he spent 
some time in the factory, working 
with the chemists. A little over a 
year ago he joined forces with the 
late Fred Shingle, as his assistant, in 
drydock work and the soliciting of 
marine business. He has been a 
director and general sales manager 
for some time, and retains these 
duties in his new position. 

Wm. F. Horn is Sperry 
Western Manager 

William F. Horn has been ap- 
pointed manager of the Pacific Cen- 
tral District of the Sperry Gyroscope 
Company, announces George S. 
Starke, vice president and general 
sales manager. He succeeds J. F. Mc- 
Conkey who has left the company. 

Horn is a native of Islip, Long 
Island, New York. In 19.iO he joined 
Sperry as a service engineer. He 
became a marine sales engineer in 
1938, and in 1941 moved to San 
Francisco where he advanced to as- 
sistant district manager in 1944. 
Before joining Sperry, Horn attend- 
ed Pratt Institute in Brooklyn and 
served four years in the Navy. 

The district ofifice is located at 525 
8th Street, San Francisco. From this 
point Sperry serves northern Cali- 
fornia, northern Nevada, Utah, 
Wyoming, Colorado and Hawaii. 
Horn's residence is at 1559 43rd 
Avenue, San Francisco. 

George A. Horton, Jr 

John MacKichol 
pointed by Pacific- 
Marine Supply Company 

The Pacific Marine Supply Co., 
Seattle, pioneer west coast and 
Alaska marine supply firm, an- 
nounces that John I. MacNichol has 
rejoined the company as manager of 
their engine department. 

Prior to his naval service during 
the war, MacNichol had been with 
the Pacific Marine Supply Co. in the 
engine department and the fire- 
fighting division. His past two years 
as marine engine salesman (diesel 
and gas), covering the coast and 
Puget Sound area from Blaine to 
Grays Harbor, have given him a 
wide acquaintance among boatbuild- 
ers, fishermen, canners and others 
connected with the marine trade in 
this area. 

In addition to Universal 100*^; 
Marine Motors, which Pacific Ma- 
rine Supply has handled in the 
Northwest and Alaska for over 25 
years, the engine department dis- 
tributes such well-known marine 
lines as Bendix Marine Depth 
Sounders, Goodrich Cutless Rubber 
Bearings, Champion Spark Plugs 
and a representative line of equally 
familiar marine accessories required 
by both commercial and pleasure 
boat owners and operators. 

Moran Joins Interocean 

A. A. (Andy) Moran, who has 
been prominent in Pacific Coast 
Shipping for many years, has been 
appointed Vice President of Inter- 
ocean Steamship Corporation as of 
January 1, 1948. His headquarters 
will be at San Francisco. 

Moran has had a colorful and ac- 
tive career, his most extensive experi- 
ence being in the Oriental and other 
offshore trades, where between 1918 
and 1927 he was Freight Traffic 
Manager for the Dollar Lines. As 
such he was instrumental in promot- 
ing a round-the-world service based 
on fixed sailing dates from each port 
of call which at that time was a 
unique feature and contributed 
much to the success of that pioneer 
venture which later developed into 
what is now the American President 

From 1942, all through the war, 
Moran was Manager of the Port of 
Redwood City, located at the most 
southerly part of San Francisco Bay 
where he developed a modern ma- 
rine terminal which was selected by 
the Navy as a center for shipment 
of vast quantities of packaged petro- 
leum products required in the Pa- 
cific Island operations. His love for 
actual steamship operations has lur- 
ed him back to California Street, 
the hub of Pacific Coast shipping, 
and by coincidence he will be lo- 
cated in the same building where 
he previously spent so many years. 

Moran will participate in the In- 
terocean management and activities 
for the liner services represented by 
this Corporation, including coor- 
dination of the newdy announced ex- 
tension of the Salen-Skaugen Line to 
operate betweec the Atlantic Coast 
and the Orient via the Panama Can- 
al in addition to their present Pa- 

cific Coast-Orient Line now main- 
tained with five new, modern motor- 
ships. Other services agented by In- 
terocean are the Interocean Line, in- 
augurated in 1930 to France, Bel- 
gium and Holland; the Knutsen Line 
to United Kingdom and to West 
Coast of South America; and the 
Intercoastal Services of Weyerhaeu- 
ser Steamship Co. — Pacific Coast Di- 
rect Line, Inc. Andy's many friends 
will welcome his return to a terri- 
tory where he is so much at home. 

Marine Exchange Elects 
Officers for 1948 

In the recent election of members 
to serve for a two-year term on the 
executive committee of the San 
Francisco Marine Exchange begin- 
ning January 1, 1948, the following 
were chosen: 

William E. Cathcart, Vice Presi- 
dent-General Mgr., Marine Electric 

Thomas J. Cokeley, Vice Presi- 
dent-Operations, American Presi- 
dent Lines. 

J. Harding Jensen, General 
Terminals Manager, Matson Navi- 
gation Company. 

A. E. Kihn, Assistant Manager, 
Marine Dept., Standard Oil Com- 
pany of California. 

Joseph A. Moore, Jr., President, 
Moore Dry Dock Company. 

Roy C. Ward, Vice President, 
Cosgrove & Company. 

Holdover members of the execu- 
tive committee who will continue 
to serve throughout 1948 are: 

John E. Gushing, President, Mat- 
son Navigation Company. 

John Parker, President and Man- 
ager, American Marine Paint Com- 

H. H. Pierson, Traffic Manager, 
States S. S. Company. 

K. C. Tripp, Pacific Coast Man- 
ager, Moore-McCormack Lines, Inc. 

R. V. Winquist, Vice President in 
charge TraiSc, General S. S. Corp., 

The members of the executive 
committee have selected the follow- 
ing ofScers: 

President, A. E. Kihn; 1st Vice 
President, J. A. Moore, Jr.; 2nd 
Vice President, K. C. Tripp; 3rd 
Vice President, R. V. Winquist; 
Treasurer, J. Harding Jensen. 


70 Jobs In 




for the 



Half a 




• • 




Every Type of 




Lnnq Beach Marine 

Repair Cumpany 

1409 W. Seventh St. • Long Beach 13, California | 

felephone: Long Beach 6-6433 

Bahcock & Wilcox to WeReallyHaven'tRoomforThese 

Build High Pressure Test 

Vessel for Navy 

A high pressure test vessel wiU be 
built by The Babcock & Wilcox 
Company for the Navy's Underwater 
Sound Reference Laboratory, Or- 
lando, Florida. The unit is similar 
to the one now being completed by 
the company for the Naval Ord- 
nance Laboratory at White Oak, 
Maryland, but is designed specifical- 
ly for Sonar measurements. 

The vessel, which has an inside 
diameter of 100 inches and an over- 
all straight length of 25 feet, 8 
inches, will have a 1,000-pound 
working pressure. It will be fabri- 
cated of 4-inch steel having an ulti- 
mate tensile strength of 70,000 
pounds per square inch. The vessel 
will weigh approximately 77 tons. 

Designed with two quick-opening 
nozzles for the introduction of test 
equipment, the unit will be used to 
test operation of instruments and 
fittings under actual conditions of 
pressure and temperature. 

An Optimist on Pessimists 

If it wasn't for the optimist the 

pessimist would never know how 

happy he isn't. 

Taxi Driver (to wealthy fare): 
"Your son tips me more generously 
than you do, sir." 

Fare: "That's quite possible. He 
has a wealthy father — I haven't." 

Some of us could well take a tip 
from an acrobat. He turns a flop 
into a success. 

Sometimes there are several ways 
to do a specific job — and yours is 
only one of them. 



Sharp received from his friend 
MacGreen a letter which bore no 
stamp, and he had to pay postage 
due. The letter concluded: "You will 
be delighted to hear that I am enjoy- 
ing the best of health, old chap. 
Yours, MacGreen. " 

Sharp wrapped a large stone and 
without paying postage, sent it to 
MacGreen with the following reply: 
"This great weight rolled off my 
mind when I heard the good news." 

Page 127 

Admiralty Decisions 

[Continued from page 1(11 ) 
fense either tlie negligence of a fellow servant, the as- 
sumption of risk, or contributory negligence. The court 
correctly concluded that the employer's failure to secure 
payment of compensation gives the employee an elec- 
tion to pursue any rights that he deems proper, including 
the right to bring under the Jones Act an action which 
by the very words of that act is described as "an action 
for damages at law." Recent decisions of the Supreme 
Court of the United States indicate that the exclusive 
character of the remedies under the Compensation Act 
could not have been intended to weaken the clause sav- 
ing the former rights of the employees in instances in 
which the employer has failed to secure payment of com- 
pensation as required by the act. 

It might be interesting to know that defendant's mo- 
tions for directed verdicts under count No. 3 for main- 
tenance, care and cure were granted upon the ground 
that plaintiff was not entitled to the same benefits that 
a seaman might enjoy who requires maintenance, care 
and cure in foreign ports and cities other than his own 
home, while one such as the plaintiff in this case, would 
not suffer any of those difficulties and therefore would 
not and should not receive maintenance, care and cure. 
Justice Cardoza, when he was sitting on the New York 
Court of Appeals in the year 1928, indicated that it 
would be highly improper to provide a stevedore with 
maintenance, cure and wages in addition to his damages, 
because of the nature of his employment. 

Man Overboard 

In a case entitled Cappy, decided by the United States 
Circuit Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit, in which Gene 
C. Hutchinson, owner of the Cappy, petitioned for exon- 
eration from or limitation of liability, and in which the 
executrix of the estate of the man who fell overboard 
joined as a damage claimant, the question of the rights 
and liabilities of an owner of a pleasure yacht are re- 
viewed, and the rights of the parties appropriately 

On a September afternoon in the year 1943, Mr. 
Hutchinson, the owner of the pleasure cabin cruiser 
Cappy. invited Messrs. Dickie, Barry and Smith to accom- 
pany him on a pleasure cruise on Lake Erie. During the 
the cruise, Dickie was drowned. Hutchinson sought by 
a petition for limitation, which is, by way of explanation, 
a right afforded under the admiralty law which permits 
a shipowner, provided he can prove his vessel seaworthy 
prior to the accident or damage, to turn over his ship 
through the mechanics of court proceedings, to the 
claimants, and thereby be released from any personal 
liability regardless of the size or total of the claims. The 
court denied the Hutchinson claim for limitation of 
liability and found that Dickie lost his life by drowning 
through the fault and negligence of Hutchinson, and 
therefore concluded that the executrix was entitled to 
the sum of thirty thousand dollars and costs. The facts, 
briefly stated, are as follows: 

Hutchinson, whom I will refer to hereafter as Peti- 
tioner, met the decedent at a restaurant in downtown 
Cleveland and invited him and two other men to accom- 
pany him on a cruise. They had a number of drinks be- 
fore they reached the boat. However, they finally left 
the Lakeside Yacht Club and proceeded out of the harbor 
entrance into the open lake. The boat rolled considerably 
due to a northeast wind and a running sea. Decedent 

was sitting in the cockpit in the stern of the boat and 
about a half mile out. Petitioner decided to head for a 
particular lagoon area, at which time it was noticed that 
decedent had disappeared over the Cappy's side. The 
petitioner was a rather young man. However, he was 
burdened by a steel brace on his body which restricted 
his movements. Prior to the time decedent went over- 
board, the petitioner had removed the brace and was 
operating the controls of the Cappy without its support. 
The other man on the boat was an elderly person who 
was hard of hearing and could not swim. The petition 
to limit liability was denied on the ground that the 
cruiser Cappy was unseaworthy in that /'/ was not fully 
manned on the particular voyage because of the in- 
adequacy of petitioner and the other gentleman along to 
function as a competent crew. 

The Circuit Court reviewed the evidence in respect 
to the efforts of the petitioner to rescue the decedent 
after it was discovered that he was overboard and in the 
water, even though the lower court had found by express 
findings that the efforts which were made were inade- 
quate and therefore negligent. The Circuit Court was 
impressed with the argimient that there was no evidence 
that the decedent was caused to disappear from the 
cruiser by any act of negligence by the person who was 
steering the cruiser at the time, or by any defect of the 
construction of the cruiser. The Circuit Court, in re- 
viewing the evidence, found that petitioner, as soon as 
he learned that decedent was overboard, immediately 
reversed the motors, looked back and within a matter of 
a few minutes, he saw a person's head on the surface of 
the water. He backed the Cappy full speed astern and 
two life rings were thrown into the water for decedent's 
use. The rings fell within a few feet of the decedent who, 
if he saw them, paid no attention to either. As the 
cruiser approached decedent, he disappeared under the 
water. The Circuit Court rightly concluded that it was 
not negligent for petitioner to act in the manner in 
which he did. As one of the witnesses said, when one is 
dealing with a tragedy, an emergency, the cry "Man 
Overboard" and the excitement incident thereto, any 
action taken is intended to be effective, where as here 
there was complete absence of opportunity for mature 
consideration. It becomes more apparent as the Circuit 
Court reviews the evidence, that petitioner did every- 
thing that any reasonable person would have done under 
similar and like conditions, and there was no showing 
that anything he did or left undone, caused his efforts at 
rescue to fail. It is quite possible, as many of the expert 
witnesses for the damage claimant contended, that there 
were many more effective ways of proceeding to rescue 
a drowning man. However, such methods and procedures 
are not necessarily in one's mind when confronted with a 
situation such as that described here. Even though each 
of the men aboard had quite a few drinks before they 
left the dock landing, there was no evidence that drinking 
interfered in any way with the maniptilation and oper- 
ation of the boat. The same is true of the facts that peti- 
tioner had removed his body brace, which reduced his 
support to some extent, but did not restrict his acts to 
rescue decedent. 

The Circuit Court found that the decree in favor of 
the damage claimant had no substantial support in the 
evidence and rested upon mere speculation and con- 
jecture. The court recognized the correctness of the rule 
that due weight should be accorded to the findings and 
judgment of the lower court, but pointed out that where 
they appeared to be in error, the Circuit Court could 
not be bound by them. 

Page 128 














20 KW 120V DC 30 HP GM 2 cyl. 1200 RPM. 

100 KVv' 3/60/450AC 150 HP GM 3 cyl. 1200 RPM. 

200 KW 3/60/450AC 450 HP GM 8 cyl. 1200 RPM. 

1200 KVv' 525V DC 1700 HP GM 16 cyl. 750 RPM. 


225 HP GM 2100 RPM 6 cyl. 

1800 HP Fairbanks-Morse 800 RPM 10 cyl. O.P. 

1700 HP GM 16 cyl. 750 RPM. 


00 Gross Tons, L.S.T.; 900 Gross Tons, L.S.M.; 400 Gross Tons, L.C.I 


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SEATTLE • ►.(.iritlme 

I 1922 bast Gage Ave.. Phone Kimball 6214 
Dor Supply Co., 821 Folsom St.. Phone EXbrook 2-4500 
acific Supply Co., 1917 First Ave., Phone ELiot 146! 
225 No. Avalon Blvd., Phone TErminal 4-3251 

GALVESTON and HOUSTON. TEXAS • Galveston Ship Supply Co. 

MOBILE, ALABAMA • Seaboard Supply Co. 

NEW ORLEANS. LOUISIANA • Gulf Engineering Co., Inc. 

JANUARY • 1948 

Page 1^9 

Development of Square Root 

iCnnlinuL'd frciri/ pa^e 108) 

line to C, making BC equal to unity in the scale you are 
using. With a compass, construct a semicircle on AC. 
Erect a perpendicular at B, giving BS equal to the desired 
root. The proof is based on the proposition that any tri- 
angle constructed within a semicircle, having a diameter 
as a side and the other sides meeting in the circumference, 
is a right triangle. If so, then the perpendicular BS forms 
two right triangles which are similar. And the sides of 
similar triangles have equal ratios. The remainder of the 
proof is shown in the figure. This would not be a very 
accurate method, particularly for very large numbers. 

Our next article will deal with an analysis of the 
horsepower of the engine formula and its variations. 

The Earth's Magnetism and its Effect 
on the Ship and Compass 

(Contniiieil jrom page IO61 

the magnetic equator, while the intensity in vertical 
hard iron is greater if the vessel is built near the poles. 

The Polarity, Line of Demarcation and Distribution 
of red and blue magnetism in the vertical hard iron of 
the vessel is also dependent on the magnetic latitude of 
the vessel while under construction. The poles of sub- 
permanent magnetism of the vessel are assumed to be in 
about the central point of either extremity of the vessel 
and in line with the magnetic meridians which pass 
through the vessel. The Line of Demarcation of sub- 
permanent magnetism is at right angles to these meridians 
and midway between the poles. Figure No. .i will illus- 
trate the distribution of red and blue magnetism in the 
horizontal and vertical hard iron of a vessel built on a 
N. E. magnetic heading in a magnetic latitude of about 
60° north (near San Diego). 

The intensity of sub-permanent magnetism diminishes 
quite rapidly at first after launching, then diminishes 
very slowly until the vessel is settled down ( sometimes 
taking as long as two years ) and then remains steady un- 
less the polarity is changed by some unusual occurrence, 
such as being struck by lightning, having a severe fire, 
etc. Sub-permanent magnetism is the chief contributor 
to, but not the only cause of, semi-circular deviation. 
Semi-circular deviation which is due to sub-permanent 
magnetism is compensated for by means of fore and aft 
and athwartship permanent magnets. 

Coefficients B and C are coefficients of semi-circular 
deviation due to sub-permanent magnetism. 

Coefficient B is the name given to the disturbing force 
in the fore and aft line of the vessel. It has its maximum 
effect on east or west magnetic headings. 

Coefficient C is the name given to the disturbing force 
of the athwartship component and has its maximum 
effect while the vessel is on north or south magnetic 

Transient magnetism and practical compensation will 
be discussed in a future issue. 

High Pressure and High Temperature Steam 
in l\laval and Merchant Vessels 

(ContinueJ fri/m page 19) 

trolled by the rate of firing of the superheater furnace. 

The pressure and temperature conditions for the Som- 
en class destroyers, 600 psi and 850° F, were later adopt- 
ed for all steam powered combat ships in our Navy. 

Boilers of this general design, but of different size, 
were installed in 10 destroyers of the Benham class, in 
all 12 of the Sims class, as well as in the first classes of 
our modern battleships — North Carolina, Wasljini^ion, 
South Dakota, and Massachusetts. All of these ships had 
excellent service records during the war. 

The Cleaves type of destroyer, designed in 1938 in- 
corporated still another advance of superheat-control in- 
tegral with the boiler. These boilers are the Bah)COck & 
Wilcox Single-Uptake, Controlled Superheat Design 
(Fig.7). They are similar to the type installed on the 
Somers. but in the Cleaves class the furnace is divided 
by means of a stud-tube partition wall which extends 
only for a portion of the height of the furnace. The super- 
heater is installed between the superheater and saturated 
furnaces and is suitably screened from the radiant heat of 
the superheater furnace. The gases of combustion from 
the superheater furnace pass across the superheater and 
through an opening in the top portion of the division 
wall tubes into the saturated furnace. The gases then 
pass through the boiler generating bank to the economi- 
zer, and finally to the uptake. The saturated steam is 
passed through the superheater where it is superheated 
to any degree desired by controlling the firing in the 
superheater furnace. By comparing Figures 6 and 7 it will 
be noted that this later design has only one gas outlet — a 
feature which was extremely desirable in view of the in- 
creasingly congested space conditions in all classes of 

Practically all subsequent combat ships were equipped 
with the same general design of boiler as installed in the 
Cleaves. They are installed in the destroyers of the out- 
standing Fletcher class; in such famous battleships as the 
loiva and Missouri and their sisters; in cruisers of all 
types, including the giants of the Alaska class; in the re- 
nowned aircraft carriers of the Essex class and in the 
super-carriers Midway, Coral Sea, and Franklin D. Roose- 
velt — largest warships in the world. The boilers in the 
Midway class give some idea of the meaning of advances 
since the early days of steam power in the Navy. They are 
capable of generating enough power for a city with 1,- 
000,000 population, and to feed them with fuel, the bunk- 
ers carry enough oil to heat .t,000 average sized homes for 
one year. 

Data on performance of modern naval boilers has not 
been released by the Navy Department. However, it can 
be safely assumed that they represent remarkable ad- 
vances over those in previous eras, and over those in 
other navies of the world. The high level of design and 
construction that went into all the machinery of these 
warships is typified by the record of the aircraft carrier 
Essex, which covered 250,000 miles of ocean, averaging 
240 miles a day between the time of commissioning and 
the end of the war ( including the very few days she 
spent in port ) . This is more mileage than would nor- 
mally be expected in the entire life time of a capital 
fighting ship. Yet during that entire period her ma- 
chinery required only routine maintenance. 

What the future holds in the way of higher pressures 
and temperatures and new designs of boilers is, of course, 
a closely guarded secret. Published reports have been 
made on one experimental installation on the U.S.S. 
Dahlgren. using a B&W forced-circulation design of 
boiler generating steam at 1300 psi and 925°F. Other 
experimental installations will undoubtedly be made. 
The Navy, having achieved brilliant successes in World 
War II as a result of foresight and long-range planning, 
will not rest upon its oars. 

(Part II, Merchant Ships, wil appear in February). 

Page 130 




Representatives for 





L. K. SIversen, Owner 

'"aZl" BERKELEY. CALIF, cl^nit. 




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on Todd Oil Burners 
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81-16 45th Avenue, Elmhurst, Queens, N. Y. 


London Insurance Market Adequate 
for Postwar 

(Continued from page 102) 
credit from insurance to the balance of payments. How 
much of it comes from marine insurance one can only 
hazard a guess, but perhaps we might in a peak year claim 
half. Be that as it may, what I found was very interesting 
and significant. I have compared the last three prewar 
years 1936-1938 with the figures today as they deal with 
invisible exports as a whole. The total for those prewar 
years from such sources as overseas investments, ship- 
ping, banking, and insurance gives an average of some 
£352,000,000 a year. Assuming that our £20,000,000 
contribution from insurance is correct, that means that 
we then contributed rather less than 6 per cent of the 

"For this year, however, the total of our invisible ex- 
ports is expected to be only £75,000,000. Again on the 
assumption that the insurance contribution should be 
around £20,000,000, it means that our share has gone up 
to rather more than 26 per cent. How necessary it is, 
therefore, that we should ensure by every means in our 
power that that proportion is maintained." 

Broker's Place in the Industry 

The broker's usefulness to the insurance industry has 
been divided by Sir Philip d'Ambrumenil, chairman of 
Lloyd's into four main parts: ( 1 ) the developing of in- 
surance; ( 2 ) the stimulation of competition; ( 3 ) the 
value of his expert knowledge; and (4) he was not tied 
to a group or groups of insurers. Sir Philip was speaking 
at a meeting of the Insurance Institute of London, his 


subject being: "Is the insurance broker a necessary part 
of the insurance industry?" It was not reasonable, he said, 
to expect that every prospective insured could know the 
best market for a particular insurance, nor was it reason- 
able to think that, unless he were well versed in insurance, 
he could easily present his case. The broker, with his ex- 
pert knowledge, supplied that need. Furthermore, there 
would be claims on a certain number of policies, some in- 
volving dispute; the expert knowledge of the broker and 
his ability to argue the case reasonably often led to a set- 
tlement which might otherwise have involved litigation 
and bad feeling. The fact that the broker was not tied 
to a group or groups of insurers was of great advantage, 
because the freer he was to choose the insurers, the better 
it was for the insured. 

BOOK mm 

LIVES OF THE LINERS, by Frank O. Braynard, As- 
sistant Director of the Bureau of Information of the 
American Merchant Marine Institute; published by Cor- 
nell Maritime Press. Price S3. 75; 224 pages; 6" x 9W- 

"Vastly interesting, highly entertaining is this account 
of the lives of the world's great (Kean vessels. The bi- 
ographies of practically all of the large passenger steam- 
ers of the last two decades are covered, as well as a great 
many of the smaller ones. The book is divided into four 
parts: Superliners, which covers the old Mauretania, 
Leviathan, Normandie, Queens Mary and Elizabeth, Conte 
de Savoia, and others; Express Liners, the new Maure- 
tania, Statendam, Roma, and others; Mail Liners of the 
World, the ships which make up the largest group of pas- 
senger vessels in operation; smaller ships — mercy ships, 
cruise ships, skimming saucers. "Well worth the reading! 

Page 131 

Heavy Duty Chain Drives for 
Marine Propulsion Service 

iCoiilinueil Iruni page 89) 

towing ability and hydraulic efficiency mean dollars and 
cents to the owner. 

While there are undoubtedly many arguments for 
the large slow-speed type of diesel engine for vessels 
of this kind, a good deal of interest is being shown by 
designers of commercial craft in the lighter medium- 
speed diesels, and especially in the compounding of two 
or more of these engines for single-screw operation. 

There are several reasons for this interest, as follows: 

1. Capital outlay is less per unit of power. 

2. A smaller engine room allows more space for cargo 
or crew's quarters. 

3. Engine overhaul is possible without laying up the 

4. Lighter engines allow of lighter hull construction. 

5. For light running, one engine may be used at a 
time with enhanced economy. 

All of these advantages of course may be inherent in 
a gear-driven multiple-engined vessel. 

It will often be found, however, that gear drives of 
suitable ratio, unless constructed with expensive, ineffi- 
cient idlers, will require that the engines be placed so 
near together that proper provision for operation and 
maintenance cannot be made. 

Chain drives, on the other hand, operate best with 
the sprocket centers spaced at a distance roughly equiva- 
lent to 1 or 2 diam. of the largest sprocket. 

This relatively wide spacing of centers allows engine 
spacing in the ship which will provide the best access- 
ibility, balance, and arrangement of accessory equip- 

Chain drives also, because of their less-exacting re- 
quirements for accuracy of center distance and housing 
structural rigidity, lend themselves better than gear 
drives to economical "tailor-made" design and construc- 
tion. By this it is not to be construed that a marine drive 
can be successful if built to "backyard" or "cob-house" 
construction standards. 

Of equal importance to accurate chains and sprockets 
is a base or housing of good design, adequate shafting 
and bearings, and fitting and assembly workmanship 
consistent with the requirements of heavy-dury equip- 

One of the earliest installations of a marine chain 
drive was in the conversion of an old 70-ft. steam tug 
to diesel power. Fig. 11. Removal of the boiler and 
engine left ample room for installation of a pair of 
l65-hp 800-rpm engines with built-in 2-to-l reduc- 
tion gears. A 2-tol -ratio chain drive, using two 1%-in. 
pitch, 3-strand chains, compound the engines to the pro- 
peller shaft which swung the original 76 in. wheel at 
200 rpm. 

This little vessel after conversion easily outpulled a 
larger tug in the same fleet which was powered by a 
single 400-hp German-made engine but which swung 
a smaller propeller at higher speed. Operating costs over 
a 2-year period showed a substantial saving over steam 
and with fuel economy comparable to other diesel tugs 
in the fleet. 

Another interesting application for chain drives is in 
connection with adjustable-pitch propellers. Here the 
fluid supply to the servomotor and the control rod, which 
limits the propeller-blade movement, are carried through 
the hollow shaft of the chain transmission. 

Reversal from full speed forward to full speed astern 
in as little as 5 seconds, as well as propeller-pitch adjust- 
ment for all operating conditions are possible with this 


Future development of the marine chain drive will 
probably depend to a considerable extent upon the 
economical status of the multiple-engine power plant as 
compared to the more conventional single-engine lay- 
out for small and medium vessels. 

During the three years that most of the chain-driven 
boats have been in operation accurate operating data 
have undoubtedly been accumulated, and although con- 
ditions make this unavailable at the present time, it is 
believed that the results will show many cost-saving 
advantages for both dual engines and chain drives. 

Availability of the drives and standardization of units 
will come rapidly once the requirements of power, speed 
range, and center distances are more clearly established. 

With the Naval Architects and 
Marine Engineers 

(Continued from page 84) 

the service requires, so as to assure passenger comfort 
in all climates; if we build them in such a way as to elimi- 
nate the possibility of large-scale fires; if we furnish and 
decorate them in quiet, simple good taste; and if we 
house them in a seaworthy structure which is designed 
specifically to convey the impression of smart, clean, up- 
to-dateness; then we shall have made available to the 
public a traveling experience that no other medium of 
transportation can duplicate. And I doubt very much 
that the passenger agents of our various lines shall suf- 
fer for lack of something to do." 

Original Re- 
Arrangement arrangement 
Num- '^f of Num- % of 
bet total ber total 

Total outside rooms 58 84 70 82 

Total air-light rooms 16 18 

Total inside rooms 11 16 

Total rooms 69 100 86 100 

Total 3 pass. rms. ( 2 floor beds. 1 sofa bed) 8 32 

Total 3 pass. rms. (2 fl(X>r beds. 1 upper) 52 28 

Total 2 pass. rms. (2 fl(X)r beds).. 6 6 

Total 2 pass. rms. ( 1 floor bed. I upper) 3 20 

Total floor beds (inc. sofa beds) 143 184 

Total uppers 55 48 

Total passengers 198 232 

Total bathtubs 30 48 

Total showers only 28 58 

Total lavatories 58 86 

Total water closets 58 86 

Tuna Clipper Safety Requirements 

(Continued from page 104 1 

effort required to heave the fish over the rail is reduced 
to a minimum. Inevitably a wave comes over the top of 
the rail and floods the deck. The water has to pass down 
through the fish on deck — through the grating and out 
the scuppers if there are no large freeing ports to get 
rid of it. As a substitute it was decided: 

If the owners elect not to install freeing 
ports, scuppers must be provided with an area 
of at least 25' r greater that the combined re- 
quired scupper and freeing port area. 
This produced the best arrangement of all, which is 
practically a continuous opening all fore and aft through 
the bulwark, about 7" high fitted with closing flappers. 
If water came on deck it had a chance to get overboard 




-^sN^o^t SIGNAL^} 

niVmTt SlGHAl-S "'»''*, Jem Woa<-l«- 

^c<,^1bin■"9 * "" 
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AERIAL PRODUCTS, INC., merrick. 1. 1.. new york 



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cally ehminates. I' f f '".^^es- and le- 
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tctories, keeps bo^e,s on the 1.^ __^ ^^^ 

=;'-:rb£."^^na^ Bullet. .54, 

JANUARY • 1948 

1469 Spriv.a «-, 
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at the 

Thomas A. Short Company 

245 Fremont Street 
San Francisco 

SUtter 1-7622 


Long Beacli,Calil,'5^^632-81 

Page 133 

and when a sea washed against the outside of the bul- 
wark the flapper closed and kept the deck dry. 

The reason for omitting all openings aft of a point 
14 feet from the stern is that the wave formation on 
most of the boats is such that the water comes aboard 
through the scuppers and openings instead of running 
off the deck as intended. 

No. 6 Freeing Ports 
The standard freeing ports are 12" x 12" 
but may be made any equivalent area. The 
following freeing ports are required; 

Boats 125 feet long over all and larger — 
Six freeing ports on each side. 

Boats 100 to 125 feet long over all — Five 
freeing ports on each side. 

Boats under 100 feet long over all — Four 
freeing ports on each side, not less than 8"x9". 
Some vessels are fitted with a tonnage door between 
the forward end of the bait boxes and the ship's side. 
Where this is done; 

Where a vessel is fitted with a space on the 
Main Deck enclosed by watertight doors abreast 
the Bait Boxes and freeing ports are made so 
they will open with not more than 4" of water 
on deck at the deepest place, the freeing ports 
can be used as scuppers in the enclosed space. 
What the fishermen complain about is that the blood 
and gurry run off the deck and contaminate the water 
where they are fishing. This causes the fish to leave and 
spoils the fishing. The crown of beam of the fishing 
boats is usually 6" to 10" and if the blood and gurry are 
allowed to accumulate to a maximum depth of 4" it will 
run to the lowest part of the sheer away from the fishing 

Within the last 18 months the fishermen have accept- 
ed the idea that the freeing ports are better than the 
scuppers and several of the boats have had the scuppers 
closed and freeing ports cut in the bulwark instead. To 
get adequate area of freeing ports it was found better to 
adopt 1 V4 square feet instead of 1 square foot as a basis, 
as the available space along the bulwark was taken up 
with other features relating to the fishmg operation. 
Closing the scuppers and substituting freeing ports; 

Boats 125 feet long over all and larger — ■ 
14 freeing ports 1 square foot each or 1 1 free- 
ing ports 1 Vi square feet each. 

Boats 100 to 125 feet long over all — Eleven 
freeing ports 1 square foot each or Nine freeing 
ports 1 V4 square feet each. 

Boats under 100 feet long over all — Ten 
freeing ports not less than 8" x 9" or Five free- 
ing ports 12" X 12". 
It is necessary to have one or two drainage holes to get 
rid of water spilled on deck but these serve only for the 
purpose of drainage. 

Doors To The Engine Room 
In addition to the facilities for ridding the deck of 
water the subject that has been discussed most often and 
at great length is the entrance to the engine room. Many 
proposals have been made to improve the door situation 
but to no avail and apparently the solution is as far away 
as ever. 

The real troubles are lack of ventilation and laziness. 
Insufficient ventilation serves as an excuse for leaving the 
doors open and there seems to be no way to get the crew 
to pass through the door and close it after them. 

Springs were tried but they were too cheap and were 
a failure. There are two good door-closers on the market 
now which were in short supply previously. One has an 
arm about 3 feet long that is actuated by a vertical coil 
spring, generally used on refrigerator doors. It is excel- 
lent for the purpose, well made and rugged; it also has 
the advantage of being independent of the hinges of the 
door itself. The other was developed during World War 
II and substitutes a Hydro-Hinge in place of the ordi- 
nary common hinge on the door. The Hydro-Hinge has 
a heavy spring in a cartridge that closes the door. 

The losses due to the doors being open, permitting 
water to go below have been out of all reason. Not long 
ago a delegation waited on the underwriters to get them 
to accept the risk of the doors being open and the ink 
was hardly dry on the bulletin when one of the tuna boats 
ran on a sand bank in broad daylight, leaned over on 
her bilge and flooded the engine room through the open 
door. Not a thing was physically damaged but the salt 
water ruined all motors and electric work. 

The wing athwartship doors are now required to be 
watertight, which means that they must be steel on both 
wood and steel vessels. However, there is quite an ad- 
vantage in making the wing atwartship door of steel even 
on the wood vessels because it is mounted on a large 
steel plate that is bolted to a heavy angle at the edges 
and the whole plate is removed when it is desired to send 
one of the pieces of machinery to the shop for repairs. 

No. 7 Door in After End of House 
Where a door leading to the engine hatch 
is in the after end of the house adjacent to 
where fish cargo is worked, the sill to be at 
least 24" above the deck. 
This arrangement used to be quite common but is 
seldom used now. The galley and mess room is in the 
after end of the house and some of the boats had the en- 
trance to the engine room just inside the galley door. 
The fish on deck would get through the door and down 
into the engine room and there was also constant danger 
of the men falling into the hatch. 

No. 8 Door at Raised Deck 
Where a vessel has a raised portion at the 
forward end of the main deck, the door in the 
side of the house to be at least 8" forward of 
the after end of the raised deck. The door to be 
in halves and the sill to be at least 8" high. 
At one time it was customary for the door to the en- 
gine room to be placed in the side of the house on the 
main deck just aft of the forecastle which was raised 
18" to 24" above the main deck. The bulwark was at 
the height of the forecastle or possibly 8" above it. 

Especially when the boat is going out light and is down 
by the head a little — a sea breaking aboard runs forward, 
hits against the break of the forecastle and jumps through 
the door down into the engine room. The loss of a new 
boat together with the lives of the owners helped to have 
this changed. 

No. 9 Door in the Side of the House 
Where a vessel has a continuous flush deck 
fore and aft, the door in the side of the house 
leading to the engine hatch to have a sill at 
least 12" high. 
The trouble here was that the sill of the door was so 
much lower than the bulwark that water rushing along 
the deck invaded the door to the engine room. 

To be cominiteJ hi February PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW 

Page 134 






While Hodgers 








Dole Cold Plate 


Cooling Coils 



utter 1-5494 



^klp K^ltandierS 
^nla rCiaaerS 
^ait niaherd 


eJjerrick dSaraei 
^alvaae Kyperationi 

snn FRflncisco. 5 





Signaling, Communicating and Lighting Equipnnent 



ges: Liquid Level, Ships Draft, Pressure, Boiler Water Level 


Lighting Fiitures and Special Equipment for Shipboard Ust 


GArfield 1-8102 


115-117 Steuart Street 



Complete Welding Facilifies 

220 East B Street. WriMINGTON. CALIFORNIA 


Phones: TErminal 4-5219. TErminal 4-S2tO 

Proposed European Recovery Program 
The Marshall Plan 

li.diituiueJ from page 93) 


By private agencies to the greatest possible extent. 

VII — Section I of Loan Control and 


By a non-partisan Domestic Corporation to be estab- 
lished by Congress to control and administer the Euro- 
pean Recovery Program. 

The President ot this Domestic Corporation, and the 
majority of the Directors, to be outstanding leaders of 
United States industry. 

The members of the Board of Directors to be nominat- 
ed by the President of the United States and confirmed 
by the Senate. 

The Board of Directors to be accountable to the Con- 
gress of the United States. 

Country-by-country local Board of Trustees to be es- 
tablished with majority control vested in representatives 
appointed by and responsible to the United States Do- 
mestic Corporation. Minority members to be appointed 
by the respective recipient countries. 

This Board of Trustees should recommend and, if sub- 
sequently approved, administer, through delegation, dollar 
loans for raw materials and capital goods as may be ex- 
tended either through the Export-Import Bank or World 

VIII — Section II of Loan Control and 
The United States is willing to extend material and 
financial help to the countries of Western Europe, pro- 
viding the United States is permitted, and the, govern- 
ments of recipient countries facilitate, the making of pre- 
accord understandings in respect to the administration 
and control of any grants or loans to the end that any 
aid extended is used for the purpose intended, in the 
manner intended, and with the benefit anticipated. 

The United States of America should insist that pre- 
accord agreements stipulate the right of United States 
nationals to handle the administration and control of 
loans, on a sound business basis — without being charged 
with economic or political imperialism. 
The United States must assume the role of a prudent 
lender and the recipients that of honest borrowers, so 
that failure properly to use, efficiently to administer aid 
granted or to attain benefits anticipated will, and must 
be, considered as cause for mandatory temporary or final 
suspension of that part of the program. 

IX — Section III of Loan Control and 
The effect of any and all aid requested should be eval- 
uated and reviewed, before grant or commitment on our 
part, for its impact, upon our own economy, under the 
criterion that it is of supreme importance to maintain 
the economy of the United States strong, virile, and ex- 

panding if we are to fulfill our destiny in a disrupted and 
weakened world economy. 

Aid for economic improvement should be, insofar as 
possible, direct from industry to industry rather than 
from government to government. 

European business should welcome and American busi- 
ness under private contract should extend to the fullest 
practicable degree manufacturing and management tech- 
nique and know-how in order that European productiv- 
ity can create new wealth. 


Realistic fiscal and monetary policies, essential to a 
sound currency and to recovery of production and trade, 
are obviously necessary if the aid program is to be effec- 
tive. European countries must permit their currencies to 
seek their true value as expressed in terms of goods and 


The United States of America is not interested in im- 
posing its political or Social system on any country or 
region in the world. Conversely, it is determined that no 
other nation shall impose its system or idealogy on ours. 

Consequently, whatever the political idealogy of the 
recipient nations, or their manifestation in practice, so 
long as the essential human freedoms, as set forth in our 
Bill of Rights, are preserved, the United States of Amer- 
ica should carry out its commitments under any aid pro- 
gram agreed upon. 

To achieve the maximum success and consistency with 
American foreign policy, there should be the closest col- 
laboration between the new U. S. corporation, the De- 
partment of State, the Export-Import Bank, other in- 
terested U. S. Government departments and agencies, as 
well as international organizations in which the United 
States has official participation, such as the World Bank 
and the Monetary Fund. 

X^Recommendations Concerning Restoration 
of Economic Life of Western Germany 

That it is in our and European self-interest to restore 
the economic life of Western Germany without permit- 
ting re-establishment of a war potential. 

Economic affairs shoyld be placed under a Civilian 
Economic Board for;the Restoration of German Prod- 

The Board should cot^sist of experienced United States 
citizens in the realm of 'finance, manufacturing, agricul- 
ture, labor, trade and commerce. 

That rehabilitation loar^?, self-liquidating in dollars, 
be made aavilable in sufficient amounts to do the job so 
evidently necessary for the peace and well-being of 
Europe and the world. 

That further dismantling of German productive and 
manufacturing facilities be held in suspense pending 
execution of above recommendations. 

Address at Banquet Aboard 
President Cbeland 

(Continued from page 97) 
ting over his Subsidy Bill which was then before Con- 
gress. Naturally, he being my boss, I said that I would do 
as he directed but that my heart could not be in my work 
because I was opposed to subsidies. He replied in a rather 
interesting manner by saying that he, too, had always 
been and still was, opposed to ship subsidies, but, he 

(Please turn to page 140) 

Page 136 




is the one bearing metal you can rely on for all nnarine 
machinery! Excellent running-in qualities, with high duc- 
tility. Tin-base, fine grained, dense structured. Preferred 
by marine engineers these many years! 






You ask whii I like 


"When I bough! my Vilcing pumps, I knew they were 
engineered for my job. They were no off-the-shelf item 
that was supposed to do a little of everything and none 
too well. 

"They were built for my work and to handle my par- 
ticular problem. There was no guessing or compromising. 
"My pumps today are several years old. They have 
needed little repairing. The newer Vikings are. even 
better than mine although harder to get than when I 
bought them. They cost a little more but they are still 

an honestly good buy. 

"Vikings are simple, rugged and well built. 

They always have been and I think they always 
be. That's why I'm going to get more 

Vikings when I need more pumps. 

"Your first step Is to ask for free folder 47SU. 

If you have a pumping problem, tell them 

about It." 

Pump Company 

Cedar Falls, Iowa 


12 Long Beach Ave., Los Angeles II il Beale Street. San Francisco 






These C-2 fast freight vessels, three equipped with re- 
frigerator space, and limited passenger accommodations, 
together with modern chartered tonnage, will supply 
frequent service between — 


Mexico Central America Panama Colombia 

Ecuador Pern Bolivia Chile 


White Building 2 Pine Street 523 W. Sixth 

SEneca4300 SUtter 1-3800 Michigan 7811 


991 Hastings St., W. Board of Trade Bldg. 

PAcific 7271 ATwater 8508 

to condensation of nioisliire. 
sistance to chemicals reroin 
decks under niagnesi I e. Sinn 
marine men want it for li;iril- 

Technically, KOMI I, is an 
tar-pitch, retaining all the 
pitch in an easil>-iisc<l form 

An illustrated folder and a 
for the asking. The panel y< 
will and you can din "t ll>e 
adhesion iind toughness. 

KOMUIi IS a well-proved 
coaling for marine service. 
Application to tianip sur- 
faces first reeonjmended it 
for use in spaces siihjeet 
Its <'(>ntinu<»iis film and re- 
fii«-iidc<l it for use on steel 
ihcily of application has made 
lo-fiet-at spaces, 
irreversible emulsion of coal- 
protective characteristics of 

sample on a steel panel • . . 

iiu can twist or hcnd as you 

Coating to prove KO.Ml L's 



S23S4l«hllb(«ii.. rHIUOElPKIMJ.r*. 

J, H. CORDES, 200 Dovii SIreil, Son Froncitco 11, Calif. 

J. M. COSTEILO SUPPIY CO. 221 North Avolsn tlvd., Wllmlnglan, Calif. 

TOURTEILOTTE t 8RADIEY. 401 Willi* BIda.. SaaHl* I. Woih. 

I AN U ARY • I 948 

Page 137 

Development of Ship Forms 

iConlinueJ from 

as the 'Admiralty displacement 

The constants used, given in 

page 92 1 
ordinary units of mea 

surement, are: 

1. The "speed constant" K^ 

X 0.5834 

2. The "resistance constant" 

C V 

E. H. P. 

2938= X 427.1 


X 0.3057 

■L= X 1.0552 

3. The "length constant" M= 

4. The "length-speed constant 


5.The "skin constant" S^ 

— X 0.09346 

Where V=speed in knots 

R=resistance in tons in salt water 

D^displacement in tons in salt water 

I^=length in feet between perpendiculars 

S=wetted skin area in square feet. 

The Froudes also investigated the character of the 
waves created by a ship passing through the water and 
concluded that the bow did not produce a solitary wave 
of translation in accordance with Scott Russell's theory. 
They found that the ship created two classifications of 
waves — those produced by the advance of the bow and 
those caused by the streamline motions of the stern. 
Each of these may be subdivided into a diverging series 

which trail aft and a transverse series whose crests are 
at right angles to direction of motion. 

A series of models having varying length of parallel 
middlebody but the same length and forms of entrances 
and runs were tested and it was found that up to a 
certain speed ( that appropriate to the length of run as 
determined by Russell's theory) the wave-making resist- 
ance was nearly constant for all models. Above that 
speed the wave-making resistance varied considerably as 
the total lengths of the models changed. The Froudes 
concluded that for any given ship "The height of the 
waves made, and the amount of the resistance caused 
will be at the maximum or minimum according as the 
crests of the bow-wave series coincide with the crests or 
troughs of the natural stern-wave series ... In either 
of these two cases the crest of the resultant wave coin- 
cides with the crest of the larger of the two components, 
while, if the crests of one series fall on the slopes of the 
other, the resultant crest position will be a compromise 
between the crest position of the components, though 
nearer to the larger of the two." 

Wave-making resistance is affected by a number of 
considerations. The height of the bow-wave depends on 
the speed of a ship and the form of the entrance while 
the height at the stern of the transverse series of waves 
caused by the bow depends on the length of the ship. 
In like manner the form of the stern and the speed 
affect the stern series of waves and the point of coin- 

Regarding the general shape of the ends of a ship R. 
E. Froude noted the following: "It is a reasonable in- 
ference . . . that the wave-making features of a ship will 
operate more effectively to make short waves if their 
displacement is disposed broadwise rather than deep- 
wise; and more effectively to make long waves if it be 
disposed deepwise rather than broadwise. Now, the 
diverging waves being necessarily much shorter than the 
transverse waves, we see that flaring-out the end sections 
of a ship, or increasing the ratio of breadth to depth, 
will caeteris paribus tend to increase the resistance due 
to diverging waves and diminish that due to transverse 
waves: while giving U-sections or increasing ration of 
depth to breadth will have the opposite effect. Again it 
is worth noticing that the experiments have shown that, 
as a rule, moderately U-shaped sections are good for the 
forebody, and comparatively 'V-shaped sections for the 
after-body. This would seem to show that in the wave- 
making tendency of the after-body the diverging wave 
element is less formidable than in that of the fore-body, 
and this inference corresponds with the fact that the 
stern diverging-wave series is visibly less marked than 
that of the bow." 

Since the model towing tanks used by the Froudes at 
Torquay and Haslar were supported by the British Ad- 
miralty it was only natural that the majority of the 
models tested were of fine-lined vessels suitable for naval 
service. The same can be said of the early tanks in other 
countries so that conclusions drawn from such tests could 
not be applied directly to the slow merchant ships of the 
period. The first and only private establishment for many 
years was that built by Denny of EXimbarton in 1881. 
The majority of naval architects still used the Admiralty 
coefficient or some combination of the works of Russell 
and Rankine for determining the form and resistance of 
their new ships. In addition, there were many proposed 
formulae for determining the resistance based on the 
dimensions of a ship with a suitable coefficient. 

The authors of some of these approximate formulae 
ignored the work of the Froudes showing the difference 
between the frictional and residuary resistance and at- 

Page 138 




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tempted to obtain the total resistance by a complicated 
relationship of dimensions and areas with a variable co- 
efficient. Other formulae for residual resistance only fail- 
ed to follow the law of comparison, hence calculated re- 
sults versus test results showed agreement at one speed 
only. Such formulae usually were applicable to a particu- 
lar type of vessel with which the originators happened to 
be working. A formulae for residuary resistance given by 
D. W. Taylor about 1895 for speeds wher e V- i s less than 
1.2 is: L 

„ J ,u 12.5 b D V* 
Residuary resistance in Ibs.^ r-j- 


b=block coefficient 

D=displacement in tons 

V^speed in knots 

L=length on water-line in feet 

In combination with a frictional resistance calculated 
by the Froude method this formula gave good results. 

In practical shipbuilding the last half of the nineteenth 
century saw the gradual change from paddlewheels to 
screw propulsion for ocean service, the reduction of sail 
power on steam vessels, and the general acceptance of 
first iron and then steel as building materials. Improved 
engineering knowledge led to larger ships and more 
powerful machinery. The particulars of some of the 
famous Atlantic liners of the period follow: 




City of Paris 











White Star 


























I. H. P. 













Kaiser Wilhelm 
Der Grosse 








N. Ger. Lloyd 















38.2' (Hold) 

35.8' (Hold) 





L H. P. 








Part III of Mr. Baker's article, entitled "Modern Prac- 
tice" will appear in the February issue of Pacific Marine 

ress at Banquet Aboard 
President Cleveland 

I Continued from page 136) 
added, when I learned that one of the biggest maritime 
nations in the world was so intently interested in defeat- 
ing the Bill by sending to the steps of our Capitol some 
trained lobbyists, I decided that to insure an American 
Merchant Marine at any cost was something I simply 
had to pursure. Well, as you know, the Subsidy Bill of 
that period was killed and on other occasions other at- 
tempts were made, but always in a veiled manner. When 
Mr. Roosevelt became President, he decided to call it by 
its right name and the Subsidy Bill was enacted into law. 
But I stiU do not like subsidies. I wonder, if all of us here, 
and all others (who are shippers or consignees) would 
think of these things and support our ships come hell or 
high water, whether we tvould require subsidies. 

On the ship operators' side, I would like to mention 
their responsibilities by briefly reminding them that they 
are the servants, not the masters, of the trade. By this, 
I mean that ships are of no value to shippers who have 

nothing to ship, and one way to have nothing to ship is 
to have no customers. Yesterday we had customers and 
today we have some, though not enough. But we cannot 
keep our present customers and get new ones if the 
costs of getting our products to them is too high for their 
pocketbooks. It is well and good to say, provided we 
are isolationists, that our home economy comes first, but 
that is like a school boy thinking that when he's learned 
the multiplication table, and the "goes into's" that he 
knows all about mathematics. Unless we create and main- 
tain foreign markets, we are sunk at home, and one way 
to help develop this line of economics is to have sure, 
efficient and cheap transportation. From time to time, I 
resent carriers agreeing on this increase and that, without 
consulting or at least taking into account the person who 
pays these increases. They are always in the freight rate or 
the handling charges, and one of these days these 
charges will be too high and the goods will simply not 
move. Under such conditions, should we pay subsidies 
to the ships for NOT carrying goods that they could have 
carried IF the rates were within reason.-' 

Incidentally, I wonder why we haven't kept in step 
with labor results. I do not mean that we should revert 
to slave conditions or to low wages, but I do refer to the 
intelligent use of our brains, skills and the employment 
of labor-saving equipment. Sailors use the latest devel- 
opments aboard ship to make their work easier and more 
efficient — why not the workers on the docks.-' I am one 
of those who believe that eliminating or refusing labor- 
saving devices is criminal and just as degrading as low 
wages and long hours. 

Some years ago I wrote a Bill that created the Manila 
Harbor Board, and the other day I got messing around 
some of the old records. Here is something that may in- 
terest some of you who have forgotten. After makint; 
numerous changes in the handling of ships and cargoes 
in Manila, we received this letter: 

"The S.S. President McKinley of the Admiral Oriental 
Line arrived at the port of Manila at 6:00 a.m. January 
24, 1924 and was berthed at the pier at 7:30 a.m. 4300 
tons of import cargo were discharged and 2900 tons of 
export cargo were laden in 29 actual working hours, or 
an average of 248 tons per hour. The vessel sailed for 
port at 5:00 p.m. January 25 (the next day), or 35 hours 
after her arrival." 

Do you wonder why I bring up the ppint of compar- 
ing the improvement in ships and "change," let's call it, 
in cargo handling — and think of the costs — and the pos- 
sible elimination of our ships from the seas unless we 
get a change in the attitude from this member of the 
team? Perhaps with our new national attitude toward a 
certain foreign country we might expect some improve- 
ments along this irne. I am confident that ONLY tvitb 
the American attitude in our labor ranks, will we be able 
to bring this member of the team into a full working 
partnership, and very greatly to his advantage. 

So, I say to you, the responsibility of the carriers is 
something that goes beyond their business. The American 
ship operator, the American producer, whether farm or 
factory, the American consumer and the American's cus- 
tomer abroad, form the team, and they must work to- 
gether. But they cannot, without the proper coach and 
captain. Since I was one of those who helped write the 
Bill that created the present Maritime Commission, I 
may be pardoned if I presume to say that that legislation 
is now obsolete and I recommend bringing it up to date. 
I wonder if the members of the team I have just men- 
tioned should not get together and sincerely offer some 
of their experience and talents for such a change in the 
present laws. 

Page 140 



me Rtvitui 

I Lnbiicants I 






A new marine towing record — 
6,350 nniles — was established 
recently by Socony Vacuum Oil 

Company, Inc., in towing its war damaged tanker Mobilube from Subic Bay in the Philip- 
pine Islands to San Francisco Bay. 

When a Jap torpedo found its mark in January, 1943, the Mobilube's hull was dam- 
aged and her engine room put out of commission. For the remainder of the war she 
served the Navy as a mobile oil tank, being towed behind active units of the United 
States Fleet. 

The saga of this record tow began on May 26, 1947, when a Standard Vacuum Oil Com- 
pany tanker, the Yorba Linda, steamed out of Subic Bay with the Mobilube in tow 
behind two hundred fathoms of Tubbs Extra Superior Manila Rope. According to Cap- 
tain A. L. Clark, the Mobilube's original skipper, the strain on the 12" Extra Superior 
was so great at times that the line calipered only 9%" circ. Extra Superior Manila once 

again proved its complete dependability and brought the 
tanker home safely 45 days after leaving Subic Bay. 

This same proven dependability can be yours too, when 
you specify Tubbs Extra Superior Manila Marine Rope. 
Tubbs SUPERCORE, not then available, can now also be 
obtained for heavy duty jobs like this. 
















Editor , 

i. DeROCHIE, Jr. 



PoeHlc Coait 
Advertistng Mgr. 
Lot Angeloi Office 


Lot Angelet 


Adverilting Mgr, 
San Froncfsco 

tittcripiion rates: 

ki year, $2.00; two yean, 
I.I; three years, $5.00; for- 
ig $1.00 additional per year; 
!> copies, 25c. 

What Is a Ship? EdiU)rial By T. Douglas MacMullcn 

Swedish Motorship Seattle for Pacific Service ... 

Tanker Transportation By M. G. Gamble 

Development of Ship Forms (Part III) By William A. Baker 

The Good Neighbor Fleet Sails Again .. . • ■ ■ 

Pollution of Navigable Waters By Howaid G. Walters 

Stability and Trim E.xperimcntal Tank By John H. La Dage 

With the Port Engineers 

Port Engineer of the Month, George W. Curran in L. A. 
Port Engineer of the Month. George Jackson in S. F. 

Water Treatment in the Marine Field By Dr RC. Ulmer 

Pacific World Trade 

Foreign Trade Zone in San Francisco By Robert H. Wylie 

How U. S. Exports Have Been Financed 

U. S. Commercial Co. Quits 

New Import Regulations for Netherlands Indies 

Travel to Japan 

Marine Insurance 

The London Letter 

Admiralty Decisions By Harold S. Dobbs .... 

Pier Watchmen's Benefits 

Tuna Clipper Safety Requirements (Cont.) By David W Dieki 

Coast Commercial Craft ...•••■ 
Tuna Clipper Santa Elena 

Kort Nozzles On New Tow Boats 

Your Problems Answered By "The Chief 

The Horse Power 

Steady As You Go! "The Skipper" ... 

The Earth's Magnetism and Its Effect on the Ship and Compass 


Running Lights 

On the Ways . 

Largest Strapping Job 

Todd Makes Three Conversions On One Freighter 

News Flashes ■ ■ 

Solutions to Liberty Ship Faults ... 














LOS ANGELES OFFICE 816 West 5th Street. Zone 13. Telephone Michigan 3I2« 


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Whatever your need, Columbian is the 
preferred line. Columbian's correct lay 
means perfect balance and no kinking. 

You can always tell genuine Columbian 
Pure Manila Rope by the red, white, and 
blue surface markers running through one 
strand in 3/j" sizes and larger. Insist on the 
red, white, and blue proof of top rope 
quality . . . Columbian Pure Manila Rope. 


400-90 Genesee St., Auburn, "The Cordage City", N. Y. 

Page 28 


T IS i\ SHIP? 

AT THE EDGE OF A WYOMING PRAIRIE there once appeared a sign that read, "Choose 
your rut with care, for you will be in it ior the next 500 miles." And that was a long way 
in those days. 

There are many ruts in maritime industry thinkmg, and there are many who will not 
climb out. Each of us seems to pick his own rut and seldom even thinks of other branches of 
the industry. For instance, — the diminishing ship construction, which to many people seems 
to indicate the end of the world. Just what is a ship? Or ship construction? 

We do not go along with the idea that ship construction is finished, nor with the idea 
that ship construction is all that there is to the industry. If some of the governmental S-curves 
and stop signs and road blocks could be eliminated, there would be a lot more ships. Herbert 
Hoover stated recently that there have been 162 boards and commissions to investigate the 
iVIerchant Marine, all of whom came up with the conclusion that there must be a strong Mer- 
chant Marine. The whole industry is in that rut. Let's climb out, as the oil people are doing 
in the tremendous new tanker program that broke almost over night. And as the Navy is 
doing in its plans for giant carriers and undersea tankers. And just as certain steamship com- 
panies are doing as the need for ships generates the spirit and finance needed for independent 
action. The chartering days may soon be over. 

A ship is an important symbol of a mighty industry and of national defense, but to some 
it is merely a subsidy rut. They do not realize that our war-built ships were obsolete the day 
they were built. Nor that the subsidies required for the ships that will make possible an Amer- 
ican world trade of 1 5 billion dollars a year are about 14 of 1 % of the trade these ships help 
create. The federal subsidy for paved roads is four times as much and for potatoes twice as 
much. Subsidies for ship construction are a cheap way for keeping the country strong. Amer- 
ica can afford them. 

But we cannot afford to give our ships away or to lend them to other countries to man 
and sail. Beyond the mere transportation which they provide, there is the matter of employ- 
ment for our crews, control of cargo routing, and the handling of ship repairs and services. A 
shipyard worker keeps six and a half other Americans at work in other industries in 46 states. 
Let's not transfer our ship assets to others. This rut of international thinking would lead to 
poverty and defeat. The easy, beaten path of giving all to avoid dispute is not the American way. 
Beaten paths are for beaten men. 

FEBRUARY»I948 Page 29 



Longitudinal cross-section of the Seattle 

Su/^edc^ "THoton^^lfr 

^0% 'poetic Seno^ice 

With cargo handling looming as one of the most im- 
portant elements in ship operation, the industry as a 
whole has taken a special interest in the performance of 
the new Johnson Line motorship Seattle which visited 
West Coast ports during January on her maiden voyage 

from Sweden. She is the first of a series of five fast 
cargo liners of an almost entirely new type ordered by 
the company. These vessels, each of 9100 tons d.w., are 
intended for the Europe-North Pacific service. 

The Seattle, delivered in November 1947, is being 

Promenade and Boat Deck Plants of the Seattle 


FEBRUARY • 1941 

Page 31 

followed by two more sisterships during 1948, while the 
remaining two of the series will be delivered as soon 
as the capacity of the shipyard permits. 

The new ships have a contracted speed of I9j,'2 knots, 
fully loaded. They will thus be the fastest cargo carriers 

in the services between America and Europe. Indeed, at 
the time when the Seattle was delivered, no faster cargo 
ships were known to be in commission anywhere on the 
high seas. 

A number of new constructional features have been 
incorporated in these ships in order to gain the greatest 
possible advantage of their high speed. The holds and 
cargo handling gear have been specially designed with 
a view to quick loading and discharging, thereby shorten- 
ing the time spent in port — a feature that may prove 
to be of as great importance as the high speed. 

One such innovation is the substitution of specially 
designed electric deck cranes for the customary winches 
and derricks, each ship carrying 14 such cranes. More- 
over, the number of hatches has been increased to enable 
a larger number of gangs to work simultaneously, and 
the efficiency in working the ship is further improved 
through the arrangement of the deck fittings and rigging. 
In order to aflord the cranes more unobstructed space 
the usual after mast is eliminated, while the foremast 
has no other function than to support the lantern, aerial, 
Tyfon siren, etc. 

There are six refrigerated holds with a total volume 
of about 95,000 cu. ft. One third of this space may be 
refrigerated for carrying deepfrozen products ( — 20 
Centigrades which is — 4F. ). 

The hull is all-welded, signifying inter alia that the 
frames are welded to the plating, as well as all beams to 
the deck. The double bottom is also welded all around 
and is provided with extra docking keels, which enable 
the ship to be docked with a couple of thousand tons 
of cargo on board. Reinforcement for running in ice 
stretches as far aft as to the forward engine room bulk- 
head. The definitive shaping of the hull was preceded by 
exhaustive model trials in order to produce the most 
suitable design. The propellers were also tested in models, 
and were only selected after a number of different types 
had been tried out in combination with the hull models. 

The ventilation of the holds is effected by motor- 
driven fans in deckhouses on the fore and after decks. 
Only a small number of fixed ventilators of the ordinary 
type are installed. All holds are provided with devices 
for extinguishing fire in the cargo. The ships are equipped 
with all modern aids to navigation, including r.idar and 

Stainless steel has been largely used in galleys, pan- 
tries, refrigerated provision rooms, stores and wash- 
rooms. Like most John,son Liners these new ships are 

Page 32 


equipped with comfortable accommodation for a limited 
number of passengers. 

Owing to these novel arrangements the Seattle type 
differs in appearance quite considerably from other mod- 
ern ships, the large number of cranes, the single mast. 

Top to bottom: One of the 14 electrical 
hoist cranes on the Seattle. Looking aft 
from the bow of the ship. Looking forward 
from a point near the stern of the ship. 

and the streamlined hull and superstructure giving it 
a very special silhouette. 

The Seattle series has been planned by the technical 
department of the Johnson Line and is built by the 
Swedish shipbuilders Kocktwn Mekaniska Verkstad. 

The Johnson Line has been operating services to the 
North Pacific for over .SO years. Regular sailings were 
started in 1914 — the same year as the Panama Canal was 
opened, whereas the first voyage on this line was made 
round the Horn before the canal was completed. 

In 1912, the same year as that in which the first Diesel- 
driven sea-going vessel in the world was completed, the 
Johnson Line took delivery — the second shipping com- 
pany in the world to do so — of a Diesel-engined cargo 
liner. In 1922 the Company was the first to possess a 
fleet consisting entirely of Diesel ships, and at the end 
of 1947 the Johnson Line had .t2 motor vessels aggre- 
gating 250,000 tons in traffic, while 8 or 48.000 tons 
were on order. 

The ships are propelled by two Kockum-M.A.N. 
Diesel engines of double-acting type: cylinder diameter 
720 mm and stroke 1,200 mm. Together the two engines 
develop 14,000 shaft HP at 110 rev. per min., giving 
the vessels a contracted speed of 19,'/2 knots. 

In the Seattle class of ships the ordinary winches and 
derricks are replaced by no less than 14 electric cranes 
of a new design. The arrangement of the cranes, more- 
over, gives them an exceptional reach — 41 feet — making 
it possible to handle goods from and to the ship even on 
the second railway track from the pierside. The lifting 
capacity of the cranes varies from 2 to 5 ''ons, and up to 
10 tons in some hatches by operating two cranes in pairs. 
Two of them can be used for lifting engine parts directly 
out of the engineroom through the skylight, and by 
means of special devices they can also handle the life- 

The operating controls of the cranes are extremely 
simple and are provided with effective safety devices to 
prevent casualties from faulty manipulation. 

While ships of this class and size usually have only 
five hatches, the Seattle has seven. This enables more 
gangs to be at work simultaneously, and, moreover, 
affords greater possibilities for stowing the cargo in such 
a way as to make it easily accessible for discharging. The 
elimination to the greatest possible extent of stanchions 
further contributes to rapid loading and unloading. The 
interior trimmings of the holds are largely vertical, and 
all holds, including the refrigerated chambers, are lighted 

FEBRUARY • 1941 

Page 33 

Axel Ax:son Johnson 
president and owner of the Johnson Line 

by permanent fixtures, thereby avoiding the trouble of ^ 
rigging up portable lighting. 

All the shifting beams for the ordinary holds move 
on roller bearings in the same plane as the hatch, enabling 
the cargo to be got at without lifting any beams. 

The Seattle — view of crew's quarter; 

Fred Doelker 
West Coast manager of the Johnson Line 

Paqe 34 


By M. G. GAMBLE, Manager Marine DEpartment 
Standard Oil Company of New Jersey 

One of the foremost questions within the industry 
today on the subject of tankers is; "Are there enough 
tankers?" If there are, "why are we experiencing such 
a transportation shortage?" The correct answer to the 
first question, I believe, is that there are ample tankers 
in the world today. As of October 1, 1947 there were 
96 U. S. government-owned T-2 type vessels in tie-up, 
over and above nearly 200 in operation. In regard to the 
second question, the prolonged shipyard strike kept a 
substantial number of tankers out of service from July 
to November. Several months have been required in most 
cases to process the purchase by private industry of T-2's 
from the U. S. Maritime Commission. Also, both military 
and commercial requirements have proved to be far in 
excess of previously estimated needs. All these factors, I 
think, explain why, in spite of there being enough 
tankers over the longet term, we are at present handi- 
capped by an artificial shortage of water transportation. 

Progress is now being made in returning all modern 
tankers formerly in tie-up to active operation, and steps 
are being taken to sell all Maritime Commission tankers 
promptly to private interests. However, it is difficult to 
foresee when all of these steps will be effective in remedy- 
ing the situation, because of the extent of the accumu- 
lated shortage. As vessels taken out of tie-up for sale or 
operation require repairs, the shipyard situation will 
largely govern the speed with which the shortage can be 
alleviated and finally overcome. 

From a long-range standpoint, it is felt that building in 
Europe — which apparently is being greatly retarded by 
material and labor shortages — will not, in itself, provide 
all tonnage needed to keep pace with world requirements, 
and construction in U. S. yards will, therefore, be neces- 

For national-defense purposes tankers should be fast, 
modern, and efficient in order to minimize the risk from 
enemy action and to insure prompt delivery of cargo. 
No less is this true for economical commercial opera- 
tion. It is fortunate, therefore, that the government has 
promoted sales to legitimate buyers for foreign registry, 
as this will provide an opportunity in the future for 
modernization of the U. S.-flag tanker fleet. 

War Construction 

The war resulted in the loss of about 40 per cent of 
the prewar worldwide tanker fleet. However, it also 
had the effect of hastening the general utilization of 
larger and faster ships. For example, the average prewar 

M. G. Gambia 

American-flag tanker hud a deadweight tonnage of about 
11,500 tons and a speed of about 10 knots, whereas 
today the average American tanker lias a deadweight 
of about 15,000 tons and a speed of 14 knots. In general, 
we might safely say that the size and speed of a tanker, 
within certain limits, are all-important in reducing 
operating costs. This is particularly true with today's 
high and rising costs. 

Our government constructed during the war about 
9,000,000 tons of T-2 type tankers. These vessels have 
a deadweight of about 16,600 tons, a speed of 15 knots, 
and a capacity of 138,000 bbl. of gasoline. In most 
trades oil can be transported in them about 25 per cent 
cheaper than in a prewar 13,000-ton 12-knot tanker, 
and for about 30 to 40' per cent less than on the old 
11,000-ton vessels. Looking at this question in another 


Page 35 

argo capacity; bu!H by Sun In 1940; Sun-Doxford On 

way, it is estimated that out-of-pocket operating costs 
have about doubled since 1939. However, the increased 
size and speed of the modern fleet, with consequent m- 
creased haulage capacity, has fortunately reduced the cost 
per ton-mile, so that the effective rise on that basis has 
only been about 65 per cent. 

New Tanker Types 
Inasmuch as it is obvious from the foregoing that 
large, fast tankers are an answer to the high cost which 
owners — and, I might say, particularly American owners 
— are experiencing today, the question naturally arises 
as to how far one should go in this matter of size and 
speed. Since difficulties have been experienced in accom- 

modating T-2 tankers in many ports, some may question 
the advisability of going to still larger ships. However, 
various waterway improvement projects already carried 
out or in progress by the U. S. Army Engineers, coupled 
with terminal improvements by private companies, have 
greatly improved this situation. Recent studies made on 
this subject by our technical staff have led to the design 
of a 26,000-ton l6-knot vessel with a length of 628 ft. 
and a draft on summer freeboard of 31 ¥2 ft. This is felt 
to be the most practical answer to the foregoing question. 
The draft, which is only slightly more than a foot above 
that of a T-2, will permit this large vessel to enter the 
majority of ports which can accommodate T-2's with 

16.408 dwt. Turbo electri 

apacity; built by Sun 



Page 36 



THIS IS THE NEW GIANT TANKER referred to in Mr. Gamble's article. It 
will appri)xiniate 27,000 deadweight tons, carry some 228,000 barrels, and save about 
20',: in transportation costs over the T'2. Sun Shipbuildino; and Drydock Co. and 
Newport News already have contracts for this type from Standard of New Jersey, 

Socony, and Gulf Oil. 

full cargo. The cargo tank capacity, after making tlic 
usual allowance for expansion, is about 228,000 bbl. It 
is estimated that transportation costs on such a vessel 
would be about 20 per cent less than on a T-2. Natu- 
rally, the use of this size of tanker will involve some 
sacrifice in flexibility, both as regards the grades that 
may be carried and the terminals at which they can 
be accommodated. In the early stages, these vessels 
would probably be used principally with fuel oil and 
crude oil; but, with the present upward trends in the 
volume of petroleum products consumed, it is a safe 
assumption that, as time goes on, they will be used to 
an increasing extent for the transportation of products. 
Also, as vessels of this size increase in use, they will 
be taken into account in the design of future terminal 
facilities, and in the improvements in existing ones both 
here and abroad. 

Operating Costs 

Just as high operating costs highlight the need for 
large fast tankers, so do these high costs (many of which 
go on in port the same as at sea) accentuate the need 
for quick turnaround. The average cost of a T-2 at the 
dock is about S 1,800 per day, which gives some idea of 
the importance of keeping port time to a minimum. 
Given the proper shore facilities, a modern tanker is 
capable of loading or discharging at a rate of at least 
10,000 bbl. per hour. It is in the common interest of all 
concerned, therefore, including suppliers and consignees, 
to provide loading and discharging facilities with the 
maximum capacity justified by the volume handled. In 
normal times, when rates follow closely the marker situa- 
tion, the charterer with a reputation for quick turn- 
arounds will be favored over others. Another factor which 
may react to the charterers' benefit is the covering of their 
requirements well in advance and for as long a period 
as practicable. Over the long run, rates reflect the owner's 
costs; and it is, therefore, in the interest of all concerned 
to keep these costs to a minimum. 

Beginnings of Inland-Waterway Transport 

Let us now turn from the subject of ocean tankers 
and discuss briefly inland-water operations in the United 
States. Here there are more than 26,000 miles of navi- 
gable waters. Of this total, 9,200 miles, or about 35 per 
cenr, have a depth of 9 ft. or more; and 14,300 miles, or 
about 54 per cent, are 6 ft. or more in depth. The re- 
mainder have depths less than 6 ft. 

Inland-waterway transportation began at the time oil 
was discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859. Oil was then 
moved on rafts, which were steered by poles and floated 


with the current from the upper reaches of the Allegheny 
River to the Pittsburgh area. Since this early beginning, 
transportation has evolved until in recent years large 
single barges, or groups of them in flotilla are towed or 
pushed in our inland rivers. On other waterways, where 
deeper drafts are possible and other considerations favor- 
able, small self-propelled tank vessels are used. However, 
by far the greater volume is still transported in non- 
propelled equipment. 

Non-propelled Equipment 

One might ask why greater utilization is not made of 
self-propelled equipment. The answer, as far as our own 
operations are concerned, is that, in the majority of river 
operations, the greatest economy lies in the use of non- 
propelled equipment handled by powerful pusher-type 
towboats, and in certain other operations barges towed 
by conventional tugboats give better results. The latest 
type of river towboats has a horsepower of 2,000, and 
pushes twelve 9,000-bbl. barges, making a total capacity 
for one tow of 108,000 bbl. 

With a tow of this kind, one or more barges are re- 
leased as terminals are reached on the route, and the 
towboat with the remaining barges continues on the 
voyage, thereby avoiding the laying up of the power 
plant while barges are being discharged, as would be 
the case with a self-propelled barge. When a sharp 
bend, coupled with a narrow channel and perhaps a 
swift current, makes the going hazardous, the majority 
of the barges may be moored while the towboat takes 
one at a time over the difficult crossing. Also, addi- 
tional barges of suitable type and draft may be rented 
for use with the tow as occasion requires. In our 
western-rivers operations, the usual permissible draft 
is in the neighborhood of 9 ft. to 10 ft., which, coupled 
with other local conditions, is not satisfactory for eco- 
nomical self-propelled barge operations. 

On the Gulf Intracoastal Canal and, to some extent, 
along the inland waterways of the Atlantic seaboard, 
barges towed by small tugboats of the type seen around 
New York Harbor are commonly used. Tugs and barges 
have, in the majority of cases, also been found to be 
the most economical units for bunkering large vessels. 
This is because of the length of time consumed along- 
side the ship being bunkered and the consequent saving 
of the power plant's time. This saving is especially im- 
portant today with the prevailing high wages. 

Again referring to our own company's operations, in 
the Clhesapeake Bay, the Erie Canal, the New York State 
Barge Canal, and the Great Lakes, as well as for short 

Page 37 









'»,,. j. 

k '■ ^. 



















Aerial photograph of the Standard of California j 
tanker J. L. Hanna heading upstream on the sunny i) 

coastwise trips on the north Atlantic seaboard, conditions 
are favorable for the use of self-propelled equipment. 
Stich of our equipment now in use consists of 6 self- 
propelled diesel barges ranging in capjicity from about 
600 bbl. to 1 3,700 bbl. Our people are now taking steps 
to acquire larger units with capacities of more than 
18,()0() bbl. for use in the New York State Barge Canal 
and on the Clreat Lakes. 

Barge transportation costs vary with the volume in- 
volved in each shipment, the distance covered, the effi- 
ciency of the unit used, and the extent of delays at termi- 
n.ds and in transit. Where conditions are favorable for 
the use of self-propelled equipment, the larger and 
faster the vessel up to limits governed by local conditions, 
the lower will be the transportation costs. 

In any new inland-waterway operation wliere a choice 
must be made as to the type of equipment to be used, 
the right decision can only be reached after a careful 
study of all the factors involved. Among these are: 

1 . The physical characteristics of the waterway, i.e., 

whether open but "easy" water, open with strong 
current, locks present; or whether there are shal- 
low crossings with swift currents, sharp bends, etc. 

2. Kind of terminal facilities available at loading and 

discharging ports. 
V Volumes to be handled annu.dly. 

4. Size of deliveries. 

5. Generally accepted local competitive transportation 


6. Labor and other costs. 

7. Special regulations governing the use of waterways. 
Taking all of these factors into account, an economic 

study is made to determine the most advantageous and 
economical type and size of equipment for the intended 

Among the advances made in recent years in barging 
equipment are the following; 

1. Improvement in the lines of non-propelled barges; 

For many years short stubby rakes at the bow and 
stern were used. The latest design in these barges 
employs the so-called "Dravo hull," which has 
been developed after exhaustive model basin tests. 
With this design, the rakes at both ends are longer, 
but the stern is designed in such a way as to 
facilitate the clearance of water and the elimination 
of dr.-ig. 

2. Tile stern-wheel towboat, so long in use on the 

Mississippi River and tributaries, and very aptly 
described in a recent issue of The La??ip under the 
title "Big Mama," is being replaced gradually by 
a more powerful pusher-type towboat with finer 
lines and conventional twin screws. Two of the 
new type are now being built for our company. 

3. As time goes on, no doubt there will be a more ex- 

tensive use of twin-screw self-propelled barges of 
from 15,000-bbl. to 20,000-bbl. capacity, with 
speeds up to 12 knots and drafts of more than 12 ft. 

Water-Transport Advantages 

In conclusion, I should like to stress the advantage 
of water transportation from the standpoint of flexi- 
bility wherever conditions are favorable to its use. Both 
ocean tankers and inland-waterway equipment can be 
readily moved from one area of operation to another to 
suit changed conditions. As petroleum becomes more 
extensively used throughout the world, the need for its 
tran.sportation by water gains increasing importance, and 
today the best estimates of normal postwar shipping 
show tankers comprising almost half of the total U. S. 
merchant fleet. 


By WILLIAM A. BAKER, Assistant to Naval Architect, 

BethlEliem Steel Company's San Francisco Yard. 

Part III 

Modern Practice 

Russell and Rankine with their respective theories on 
the resistance of ships directed the attention of naval 
architects to the importance of wave-making and fric- 
tional resistance; it fell to William Froude and his son 
to combine the two in their proper relation. It is beyond 
the scope of this paper to give detailed accounts of the 
multitude of experimenters who followed. There have 
been additional frictional experiments, series tests to de- 
termine the effect of methodical changes of form, tests 
of ships in waves as well as those for wave-making, etc. 

For the average ship designer the works of David W. 
Taylor of this country and G. S. Baker of England are the 
most useful; for some forms those of Mclintee, Semple, 
Robertson and Ackcrson may also be consulted. 

At the present time there are three general methods 
for determining the power required to propel a new ship 
at the desired speed: By the oid Admiralty coefficient, by 
independent estimate or by model tank test. In practice 
the Admiralty coefficient is normally used for rough 
estimates in the preliminary stages of a design, while, 
unless the ship is to be of unusual form for which no 
data exists, the model test is used as a check on some 


Page 39 

form of independent estimate. The independent estimate 
can be calculated from model results of similar ships, by 
Taylor's "Standard Series", from Ayre's curves or from 
C curves published by Baker and others. 

The methodical series tests performed by D. W. Tay- 
lor form the basis of the well-known "Standard Series" 
which are presented as contours of residuary resistance 
per ton for constant values of V/\/L plotted on grids of 
DISPL. / / L \ ^ ^"'^ prismatic coefficient. There are 


two sets of charts showing the contours for beam-draft 
ratios of 3.75 and 2.25 respectively; values for ship be- 
tween these ratios are interpolated. 

The following describes the basic model: — "In 1902 a 
model numbered 164, constructed to the lines of the 
British armored cruiser Leviathan of the Drake class 
(1900), was tested in the U. S. Experimental Model 
Basin at Washington. The design embodied a bulbous 

ram bow with a twin-screw cruiser stern, on a ship of 
the following characteristics: — 

Length on load waterline 521 '0" 

Length between perpendiculars 500'0" 

Beam 71'1" 

Draft, zero trim 26'0" 

Displacement, Salt water 14100 tons 

Block coef .0.513 

Midsection coef 0.923 

Prismatic coef. ... 0.555 

Waterplane coef ...0.660 

"For years later at Washington the sectional area 
curve, waterline plane, and bow and stern profiles of this 
model, together with a mathematically derived body 
plan, were chosen for Model 632. This model was used 
as the parent form to develop thirty-eight ( 38 ) models, 
designated Series 18, for an investigation of the effect of 
changes in longitudinal coefficient or resistance . . ." 
One point which some fail to note in estimating the 

Salient features known to be necessary to ensure good performance for various types of ships: 

Type of ship 

Pris. Coef. 


Slow speed cargo 



Medium speed 



Cargo liners 





High speed liners 
and fast coastal 
passenger vessels 
0.65 and 

Length of parallel 


up to 25%. de- 
pending on beam 

up to up to 

25% 20% 

10% 0%. 
with hollow L.W.L. 
fwd. 0% with 
straight L.W.L. 




0.8 1.00 




L must be long 

enough to avoid 




L.C.B. as '~', L from 
amidships. Single 
screw ships. 
Shape of 
area curve 

2%— 1.0% 
fwd. fwd. 

straight ends 

2%— 1.0% 
fwd. fwd. 

straight ends — 
medium hollow 

1V2% to 1/2% 


straight ends — 
hollow curve fwd. 

1.0' c fwd. to . 
1.0% aft. 

fine entrance 

'/<% aft to 
1% aft. 

fine ended curve of 
areas. Bulbous bow 
useful above 

Shape of 

Bow — slightly 
convex through- 
out — fairly straight 
slope >20°C 

Bow convex — 
Bow convex 
to straight 

Bow lines either 
straight and long 
entrance or hollow 
and jhort 

Bow lines hollow 
— bow lines 

Fine L.W.L. 
fwd. hollow 

]/2 Ent. Angle 
on L.W.L. 

Midship sec. 

35° 32° 

30° 27° 

24° 16° 
straight or 
12° hollow 

18° 12° hollow 
or up 16° straight 


Down to 6" with 


Cruiser stern: Reduces resistance up to 6' , for slow speed cargo ships. 
From "The Fundamentals of Ship Form" F. H. Todd. 

Page 40 

I Please turn to page 90] 


Following up the lengthy technical article on Moore- 
McCormack's "Good Neighbor Fleet" in the June 1947 
Pacific Marine Review, the story of the completion and 
sailing of the Argentina on January 15 heralds the re- 
sumption of service on the route which she left a few 
days after Pearl Harbor when she was drafted by the 
Army and started on the career of a troop carrier. Serv- 
ing in this capacity until August 31, 1946, she steamed 
335,906 miles and carried approximately 200,000 pas- 

Today, fully reconverted and overhauled at the Brook- 
lyn 56th Street yard of Bethlehem Steel (Company she 
is in every respect better than her former self. A number 
of improvements have been added to satisfy the latest 
demands for safety and to insure every convenience and 
comfort according to present standards of travel. 

The Argentina is the second largest liner in the Amer- 
ican merchant marine to resume postwar service. She 
is one of three sister ships owned by the U. S. Maritime 
Commission and operated by Moore-McCormack, tiie 
other two being the Brazil and the Uruguay. Altiiough 
she was the last of the trio to be laid up for reconversion, 
she is the first to be completed. She entered the Brooklyn 
56th Street Yard in November 1946 and work was 
started shortly after her arrival. However, due to the 
strike of the shipyard workers during the summer and 
early fall of last year work was suspended for about 

five months, making the actual working time about 
eight months. This is the largest peacetime reconversion 
job ever handled in New York harbor. 

The contract for the conversion in general called for 
restoring the vessel to its prewar condition. This in- 
cluded removal of standee berths, messing facilities, and 
all defense features — gun foundations, armor, magazines, 
degaussing equipment, and many others added to the 
vessel by the Army. All public spaces were completely 
stripped and modern furniture and furnishings, murals 
and other decorations installed. The staterooms as well 
as officers' and crew's accommodations were likewise re- 
decorated and equipped with new furnishings. 

In addition the vessel was fire-proofed in accordance 
with the U. S. Coast Guard requirements, a procedure 
which meant the installation of incombustible ceilings, 
linings, fire screen bulkheads, new steel stairways, ade- 
quate escapes, an extensive sprinkler system, and many 
other features. 

The Argentina is a twin-screw vessel with turbo-elec- 
tric drive of 18,000 horsepower, 613 ft. long with 80 ft. 
beam and a loaded draft of 34 ft. Her prewar speed was 
rated at I8V2 knots although she actually exceeded that 
figure. The registered gross tonnage is 20,500, the dis- 
placement 33,000 tons. General cargo space is 450,000 
cu. ft. bale capacity, in 6 holds, with additional 95,000 cu. 
ft. refrigerated space in 3 holds. After her conversion she 

lent Moore-McCor 
mack Lines, Inc. 



Page 4! 

I *9 ■ 

S' . 


■ Kirr I i [ I iXi wwt ftxi-r r 

,0 "m " ^:'~': triii^iiiirr^'^ ^ ":i 

Outboard profile. For inboard profile, see folded inserf. 

now accommodates 359 passengers in First Class and 
160 in Tourist, with a crew of 380 officers and men. 

Soon after her arrival in the yard the Argentina was 
placed in drydock for survey. The underwater bottom 
was sand-blasted in four days, an exceptionally fast per- 
formance on a vessel of this size. Due to the extensive 
bottom work that turned up, she remained in drydock 
until January 20. A number of bottom plates were re- 
newed, and several thousand rivets were renewed and or 
welded as required. 

The boilers and propulsion machinery and all pumps 
and auxiliaries were opened, inspected, and the neces- 
sary repairs performed. All cargo and service refrigera- 
tion spaces were completely gutted and renewed, using 
mineral wool insulation. Thousands of feet of electric 
wire and cable were torn out and the lighting system 
renewed in its entirety, modern indirect lighting being 
used wherever suitable. AH interior communication sys- 
tems were removed and renewed, and all electric motors 
on the ship were completely overhauled, cleaned and 
tested. The existing radio and radar were completely over- 
hauled also. 

After a hydrostatic test, it was found necessary to re- 
place the hot and cold salt-water system throughout the 
vessel. Existing lead soil lines were also removed and 
new welded steel soil lines installed. Sanitary fixrures, 
such as tubs, wash basins, and water closets were taken 
out and replaced with modern fixtures. 

A new steel deck was installed in way of the galley 
on the C deck, and the ship's service refrigeration boxes 
on the D deck, as it was found, upon removing the cov- 
ering in these areas, that the original steel decking was 
almost completely wasted. About 1,000 additional tons 
of block ballast was placed in No. 3 hold. 

Included in the inspection of the vessel was the 
drilling of all steel decks, bulkheads and shell plating, 
to gauge their thickness. Another large item was the sur- 
vey of the wood decking throughout the ship, a large 
part of which it was found necessary to replace. Oregon 
pine, 3x4 in., with edge grain on the exposed surface, 
was used, and all decking was repayed and caulked pre- 
paratory to sanding to a smooth finish. Deck covering 
was also removed in all foyers and in many of the public 
spaces and replaced with magnesite terrazo. 

All drinking-water tanks were cleaned, scraped to bare 
metal and recoated. Doors of every description — weather 
doors, screen doors, and joiner doors were reconditioned 
or renewed, as found neces.sary. All windows were re- 

placed with new modern types and existing airports re- 
conditioned and equipped with scoops and insect screens 
throughout. Cargo-port doors and other openings sealed 
off by the Army to meet blackout requirements were re- 
stored to their original condition. 

In the redecoration and lefurnishing of the ship, 
major emphasis has been placed on simplicity in all 
decorative treatment. Pleasing and attractive effects have 
been attained by various color combinations and by 
suitable design and placement of furniture, plants and 
flowers. Murals and sculpture play a secondary part and 
do not dominate the scenes. Donald Deskey Associates, 
of New York, designed and selected the interior decora- 

Several features of the Argentina will attract the 
attention of the traveling public. The main lounge, on 
the promenade deck, is large and formal. It has been 
named the Tango Room, as a tribute to the dance which 
all the world associates with Argentina. A multi-purpose 
room, the lounge lends itself Hexibly to a number of 
uses, from comfortable lounging to dancing and other 
types of entertainment. A stage has been erected at one 
end. Behind the stage is a movie projection booth and 
film storage. Facing the stage is a large mural, a seascape 
by Loren Maclver entitled "Voyage." Large French win- 
dows open into the promenade deck on both sides. The 
old wood flooring has been removed and replaced with 
magnesite underlayment for a carpet, except at the 
center where a vinyl tile dance floor has been laid over 
the underlayment and where the carpet can be removed 
during dancing. White, warm grey, bluish grey and 
brown are the predominating colors in walls, rugs, furni- 
ture, and hangings. 

Continuous ribs run across the ceiling athwartship, 
recalling the character of the ship's framing. In the 
center of the ceiling a transverse frame with longitudinal 
baffles forms an egg-crate effect below the skylight. 
Through this device natural daylight enters, while at 
night artificial light is admitted, to give a diffused, glare- 
free, highly pleasing effect. 

The lounge and all other public spaces are equipped 
with an entertainment sound system for broaticasting 
radio programs and recorded music. 

Immediately forward of the lounge is the library, 
named for a former chief officer of the Argentina, 
Captain Henry Olin Billings, who died a hero's death 
when his ship was sunk oft the coast of Africa in 1942. 
A bronze plaque has been placed in this room to indi- 
cate that Captain Billings has been chosen as a repre- 

FEBRUARY • 1948 

Page 43 

Diagram showing arrangement of main galley, as well as various bakeshops and pantries. 

sentative of the many young Americans carried by this 
vessel who never returned from the war. The plaque has 
the following inscription: 

"To the men and women of the Armed Forces of the 
United States who went in this ship to meet the enemy 
in World War II and gave their lives that the ideals of 
their country might survive, this library is reverently 

The library offers a quiet, secluded atmosphere, with 
the main decorative motifs in grey, brown, and natural 

The smoking room with adjoining writing room, aft 
of the lounge, is an H-shaped room, with a centrally 
located bar. Pole trellises with growing plants are placed 
on each side of the banquette seats and tables facing the 
bar, to supplement the intimate quality of the room with 
one of freshness. A mural of Eric Mose on the wall above 
the seats and extending into the dome depicts the eco- 
nomic pattern of South America. 

Light grey terrazzo is used for deck coverings, with the 
predominating color in walls and furnishings a warm 
grey and natural oak. 

Located aft on the promenade deck is the veranda 
cafe, known as the Mar Del Plata Club, and named for 
the famous watering resort near Buenos Aires, one of 
the most beautiful places of its kind in South America. 
French windows face the promenade on both sides, 
while large glass doors open onto the swimming pool. 

Banquette seats and tables are arranged along the port 
and starboard walls, and small tables and comfortable 
chairs elsewhere around the room. A large mirror behind 
the bar reflects the deck activities and augments the 
apparent size of this relatively small, but highly attrac- 
tive cafe. Gay colors are used throughout, creating an 
atmosphere of light cheerfulness. Trellis screens with 
climbing plants add much to the charm of the room. 

The large outdoor swimming pool, immediately aft of 
the veranda cafe, has been completely refinished with 
an attractive lining of blue tile and with underwater 
lighting and overhead flood lights for night swimming. 

Both the First Class and the Tourist dining rooms are 
on the C deck, separated by galley and pantries and by a 
large, roomy emergency escape within easy access of 
the entire area, providing an escape up to the promenade 

The two dining rooms extend the full width of the 
ship, and both have a central dome with special lighting 
arrangement. In First Class this is an egg-crate construc- 
tion similar to that in the main lounge, in Tourist Class an 
indirect lighting effect. Flush-mounted ceiling lights are 
used on the outboard sides. Oak tables on metal pedestals 
are used in both dining rooms, and are arranged for 
from two to fourteen persons in First Class, and from 
two to eight in Tourist. The two dining rooms will seat 
300 and 166 persons, respectively. 

Both dining rooms are air-conditioned, and, like all 

Page 44 





lAriPir. MARINE REVtf 

other public spaces on the ship, they liave been htteJ with 
sound-prix)f ceilings. 

Decorations in the First Class dining room include a 
stainless steel statue, "En Route," by Jose de Riviera. 
Attractive flower boxes under the windows add a cheer- 
ful note. 

Practically all of the equipment in galley and pantries 
is new — electric ranges and ovens, steam tables, coffee 
urns, refrigerators and all-metal dressers and sinks with 
stainless steel tops. New non-skid tile decking has been 
laid throughout the entire area. Individual dining rooms 
for officers and concessionaires are also located in this 

Mess rooms and galley (or the crew are forward on the 
B deck. Special service pantries are provided on all decks 
where public spaces are located. 

The Tourist lounge and smoking room are aft on B 
deck. Decorations in the smoking room include a paint- 
ing "Sea Image", by Theodose Stanos. A swimming pool 
for this class is arranged in upper section of No. fi hatch 

First Class staterooms are on the A and B deck and are 
arranged for occupancy by two, three, or four persons per 
room. Except in a few cases where two adjoining rooms 
share bathroom and toilet facilities all have private bath, 
shower or tub, the latter predominating. All staterooms 
in both classes, and also those of the crew, are outside 
rooms, and each room is equipped with an oscillating 
wall fan. The rooms are designed to provide maximum 
comfort and convenience. Spaciousness is attained by the 
use of low beds, widely separated to effect as little inter- 
ference as possible where strangers share rooms. All beds 
have inner-spring mattresses. In a number of rooms an 
extra bed of the Pullman type has been added. The type of 
furniture used, and its arrangement, are aimed at creat- 
ing a sitting room lounge effect. Color schemes have been 
selected that suggest coolness and comfort in the tropical 
atmosphere of the Southern runs. 

Two de luxe suites are arranged on the A deck. These 
consist of bedroom, bath, a sitting room opening upon 
the main lobby, and an outside veranda. In addition to 
these suites, a few of the regular staterooms may be com- 
bined into bedrooom-living room suites if desired. 

The tourist staterooms, all on the C deck, are arranged 
for occupancy by two to four passengers. They have 
beds of the built-in type, equipped with innerspring 
mattresses. Some of these rooms also have an extra Pull- 
man bed. 

No staterooms in this class have private bath, but all 
have running hot and cold water. Bath and toilet facilities 
are conveniently spaced throughout the area. 

The officers' quarters are on the boat deck, the crew's 
accommodations on B, C, and D decks, some fore and 
some aft. Three recreation rooms and lounges and four 
mess rooms have been provided for the crew. All officers' 
quarters were completely refinished, and some of the 
furniture was renewed. 

From one to six men are berthed in each room in the 
crew's quarters, in two high standee berths with inner- 
spring mattresses. These quarters were also completely 
renovated and equipped with new furniture. 

Many changes were also made in the ship's hospital. 

on C deck. This area has a male ward with eight beds, a 
female ward with five beds and an isolation ward with 
one bed, in addition to a medical office, dispensary, phar- 
macy, diet kitchen, bathroom and toilet facilities. 

A gift shop is located on the A deck, a beauty parlor 
on B deck, and barber shops on B and C decks. 

All of the ship's rooms and the running and standing 
rigging were renewed, all blocks tested and reconditioned 
or renewed. 

A large area on the boat deck is set aside for deck 
games. This space also has a gymnasium and a large 
children's playroom. 

The ship's 15 existing lifeboats, including one motor 
driven with radio receiver and transmitter, were all re- 
conditioned, and three new lifeboats with davits and 
winches were installed. One existing motor driven life- 
boat was discarded. These boats accommodate approxi- 
mately 950 persons. They are all handled by mechanical 
davits and are raised by electric motor-driven winches. 

A 14 hr. sea trial was carried out on Dec. 30, over a 
course between Ambrose Lightship and Barnegat Bay. 
After testing the compasses and the radio direction finder 
the vessel was put through an 8-hr. endurance run during 
which she averaged I8'2 knots at 5900 kw. on each main 
motor, and a 2-hr. overload run which gave an average of 
1 9 knots and 6700 kw. The steering gear was tested hard- 
over to hard-over during these runs. 

Between the two runs a crash-stop was made from full 
ahead to full astern at which the propeller came to rest 
after 66 seconds and then started to revolve in the oppo- 
site direction. The crash stop was then repeated, but in the 
ahead direction. Readings and recordings were also made 
on all equipment not previously tested, and the various 
instruments were checked and adjusted. 

Arthur G. Leonard, Chief of Trial Bureau, Inspection 
and Performance Division, U. S. Maritime Commission, 
made the following statement at the completion of the 
trial: "The Argent/ihi's performance was surprisingly 
good. The ship was subjected to the same type of exacting 
tests usually applied to new vessels, and she met every 
phase very satisfactorily." 

Captain Thomas M. Simmons, master of the Ars^ent/ihi 
and her skipper since 19.38, including her war duty, said: 
"I am perfectly satisfied with the performance of the 
Argentinu. She is safer and better than ever, and met all 
of her tests in excellent fashion." 

The following tribute was paid by Arthur Hiltebrant. 
general manager of Bethlehem's New York district ship- 
yards: "The Argentina has fully measured up to our ex- 
pectations. Her performance w'as smooth throughout and 
she achieved a speed of 18'2 knots on her endurance run 
and a speed of 19 knots on her overload run. Even on the 
crash stop vibration was negligible. Delivery of the ship 
to her operators, the Moore-McCormack Lines, on sched- 
ule in the face of the many problems created by the 
record snow storm in New York City, is a tribute to the 
men of the 56th Street Yard who worked round the clock 
and through the week-end to complete the vessel before 
the close of 1947." 

After the completion of the trial trip, the Argenlina 
resumed her old run to the East Coast of South America, 
on January 15. Her itinerary includes Rio de Janeiro, 
{Please turn to page 94) 

FEBRUARY • 1941 

Page 45 

POLLUTION OF m\um \ihnn 

By HOWARD G. WALTERS, Civil Engineer 

Harbor and Shoreline Section 
Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army 

Prevention of pollution of the navigable waters of the 
United States, especially in Southern California, is a 
serious problem, requiring the continuous effort and close 
cooperation of Federal and State authorities in keeping 
the public informed concerning the laws and needs rela- 
tive thereto, and in enforcing said laws. 

Pollution of the waterways, including all streams, lakes, 
rivers, their tributaries, and the ocean, is a direct or an 
indirect result of population. As a country develops, its 
population and business growth is closely paralleled by 
the growth of those factors which tend to increase pollu- 
tion of inland and coastal waters. Industrial waste matter, 
refuse, and sewage; mining waste and drainage water; 
disposal of garbage and many other such waste matter, 
entailed by a high standard development of both popula- 
tion and resources, cause corresponding increase in pollu- 
tion problems. The increase of pollution of the waters 
has been gradual and largely unnoticed for many years. 
As is usually the case, until the needs of the population 
become urgent and a public demands its abatement, little 
is done. Public demands generally result in the enactment 
of needed pollution laws, or their revision, and insistence 
in their enforcement. Of the various laws that have been 
enacted by cities, counties, states, and the Federal Govern- 
ment, this article considers only existing Federal laws 
concerning pollution of navigable waters, the enforce- 
ment of which are within the jurisdiction of the Corps 
of Engineers, Department of the Army. 

Congress, in 1938, passed a bill commonly referred to 
as an "Anti Pollution Bill." This measure was not an 
enactment prohibiting pollution, but rather an act to 
provide for extensive and costly study of pollution prob- 
lems and for grants and loans to local agencies for the 
construction and installation of improvements designed 
to prevent pollution. The President vetoed this bill be- 
cause he disapproved the manner of granting Federal 
money to local agencies for pollution abatement projects. 
He did, however, approve the principle of pollution 
abatement and requested that Congress further consider 
this subject. 

Pollution of navigable waters of the United States has, 
under existing laws, been unlawful since the passage of 
the Act of March 3, 1899. Section 13 of this Act makes 
it unlawful to place in, or to permit to be placed in, the 
navigable waters of the United States any refuse matter 
of any description, except that flowing from streets and 
sewers and passing therefrom in liquid state, whereby 
navigation shall, or may be impeded or obstructed. 
Further, the limitations extended to the placing or de- 
posit of any refuse on the bank of any navigable water 
or tributary thereto from whence it can float or be wash- 

ed into the navigable waters by tides, floods, or storms. 

In 1924, Congress passed what is known as "The Oil 
Pollution Act." This Act makes it unlawful for any per- 
son to discharge, or permit to be discharged, oil by any 
methods, means, or manner into or upon the coastal 
navigable waters of the United States from any vessel 
using oil as fuel for generation of propulsion power, or 
any vessel carrying oil thereon in excess of that necessary 
for its lubrication requirements. It is to be noticed in this 
connection that the law concerns only oil pollution from 

I might define Navigable Waters of the United States, 
since the laws under discussion are applicable only to 
such waters. 

The Federal Court decision states that: "Coastal waters, 
rivers, and lakes are navigable in law which are navigable 
in fact, and they are navigable in fact when they are used 
or can be used in their ordinary condition as highways for 
commerce upon which trade and travel are, or may be 
conducted in the customary modes of trade and travel on 
waters, and when they are connected with, or extend to 
waters of another state or foreign country." 

In connection with pollution of coastal waters, the 
question arises as to the extent of Federal jurisdiction. 
It is the present practice of the Corps of Engineers, 
Department of the Army, to include within its jurisdic- 
tion the coastal waters of the United States to such dis- 
tance seaward as may be necessar)' to give full effect to 
the laws for the protection and preservation of the navi- 
gable waters of the United States. This distance is not 
controUed by any special limitations of three or twelve 
miles which may have been set up for other purposes. 
This practice is an assertion of the right of Congress to 
prohibit the doing of anything which tends to destroy the 
navigable capacity of any of the waters of the United 
States. This extended jurisdiction is applicable only to 
American vessels. The jurisdiction of the United States 
over foreign vessels, in cases of pollution occurring sea- 
ward of the three-mile limit, has not as yet been settled by 
treaty, as required by international law. 

It might seem that the navigable waters, particularly 
the ocean, are so extensive that pollution would be in- 
consequential. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Oil and 
refuse discharged at sea are carried by winds and surface 
currents for many miles and may eventually float into 
harbors and wash ashore on the beaches. Experience in- 
dicates that in order to prevent pollution of the beaches, 
oil must be discharged not less than fifty miles offshore, 
and garbage should be dumped not less than eighteen 
miles offshore. 

Oil and refuse discharged into harbors have little 

Page 46 


chance to be carried out to sea, and, if not cleaned up 
promptly, they spread and wash onto the liarbor shores, 
cling to boats and piling, or in the case of refuse sink to 
the harbor bottom. 

In southern California particularly, where the beaches 
are used for recreation by a very large number of people 
throughout the year, the presence of refuse, garbage, oil, 
and sewage washed onto the shores, presents a very se- 
rious problem, since such wastes are highly objectionable. 
Oil has been known to so pollute a beach that for days at 
a time bathers have found it unpracticable to use it. No 
one likes to picnic on a beach or swim where there is oil 
or garbage such as grapefruit and canteloupe rinds, 
empty crates, or old onions, and other refuse, or near 
a sewer outfall. Oil is most objectionable to bathers, as it 
sticks to the skin and bathing suits and is usually very 
difficult to remove. The condition of sewage discharged 
into the water may be somewhat improved by screening, 
but it has been reported that screening removes only 5 
per cent of the solids, leaving 95 per cent to be deposited 
on the ocean floor, or washed ashore in a more or less 
objectionable form. Beaches that are frequently or regu- 
larly polluted, particularly those near sewer outfalls, are 
in general shunned by the public. 

Within harbor areas, pollution creates an unsanitary 
and unsightly condition, and sometimes a serious fire 
hazard. Floating oil discolors paint on ships' hulls and 
necessitates their frequent cleaning or repainting. Gases 
released by decaying refuse have a deleterious effect on 
paint and hulls of vessels and other metal objects, and is 
offensive to the public. 

Floating oil at times so fouls the plumage of sea birds 
as to prevent their flying, and thereby causes their death. 
It also has an adverse effect on fish life, apparently caus- 
ing an oxygen deficiency, which in turn causes migration 
from areas frequently polluted. Thus, there is ample rea- 
son for the enactment and strict enforcement of pollution 

The Corps of Engineers is assisted in the enforcement 
of the Federal pollution laws by the United States Col- 
lector of Customs and other revenue officers, such as the 
United States Coast Guard. Prosecution is handled by 
the United States District Attorneys. In the Los Angeles 
District, the Coast Guard cooperates fully, and patrols 
are alert to detect and apprehend violators of the pollu- 
tion laws. The Coast Guard reports all cases to the Dis- 
trict Engineer, and the cases to be prosecuted are in turn 
forwarded to the United States District Attorney for 
appropriate action. 

The State laws concerning pollution are more inclusive 
- than the Federal laws. The enforcement Division of the 
State Fish and Game Commission is very active in detect- 
ing and arresting violators. That agency cooperates fully 
with the Corps of Engineers and the United States Coast 
Guard. These agencies notify each other when cases occur, 
and members of the two agencies serve as witnesses for 
either or both State and Federal cases, where at least two 
witnesses are required. 

Obviously, there are two types of pollution — deliberate 
and accidental. The dumping of garbage and other refuse, 
the disposal of sewage, and the discharge of oily bilge or 
ballast water into the navigable waters are generally 
deliberate. The spilling of oil while loading or unloading 

FEBRUARY • 1948 

Southern California beach, temporarily ruined for recreational 

use by oil which was discharged in violation of Federal and 

state Pollution laws. 

Overflow of ships' fuel oil tanks causes serious fire hazards in 

the harbor areas. 

Trash and oil on harbor waters constitute a serious fire haiard 

as well as creating unsightly and unsanitary conditions in 

slips, around floats, and under piers. 

vessels and the breakage of oil pipe lines so that oil is 
carried onto the navigable waters, etc., are usually acci- 
dental. The deliberate type of pollution can be readily 
avoided. The accidental type is more difficult to prevent, 
but the use of adequate equipment, its careful inspection, 
and the institution of proper procedure and training can 

Page 47 

greatly reduce the number of accidents. 

Although designated by law as the "enforcement" 
agency, the Corps of Engineers takes the attitude that it 
is better to prevent pollution than to apprehend and 
successfully prosecute violators. Although strict about 
enforcement, since the law is mandatory, the Corps at- 
tempts to secure cooperation in the installation and opera- 
tion of proper equipment and the promulgation and en- 
forcement of rules and regulations to reduce pollution. 
Semi-monthly inspections of the navigable waters of Los 
Angeles and Long Beach Harbors are being made. 

In many cases, the Corps of Engineers, frequently in 
cooperation with the State Fish and Game Commission, 
holds conferences or consults with individuals, concerns, 
or agencies whose operations involve pollution hazards, 
concerning proper methods and equipment to prevent 
pollution. The Corps of Engineers, of course, is not em- 
powered to require installation of equipment or prescribe 
operating regulations, but it is eager to assist in consider- 
ing such matters if the persons or agencies involved so 
desire, which is frequently the case. 

One of the latest cases of cooperation on a large scale 
is in connection with the fish-canning industry, at Los 
Angeles and Long Beach Harbors, wherein bilge and 
waste water from the fishing boats and fish refuse from 
the canneries was therefore discharged directly into 
the harbor waters, creating a most undesirable condition. 
Since the matter of pollution and its prevention has been 
called to their attention by both the State and Federal 
Government, equipment is being installed to alleviate 
the pollution problem. The importance of keeping fish oil 
and solids from the sewers has been emphasized, and 
screens and centrifuges are being installed for their re- 
moval for that purpose. The Port of Hueneme was closed 
to fishermen until a fish refuse disposal plant was placed 
in operation. 

The cooperation of the major oil companies in prevent- 
ing pollution has been most satisfactory. Practically all of 
the oil-loading docks now have special equipment for 
the prevention of pollution, and some have special booms 
for use in surrounding oil spills. In some cases, the pro- 
cedure in loading oil has been modified so as to reduce 
the liability of pollution, and most companies now care- 
fully plug all vessel scuppers, while in port, in order to 
prevent oil spilled on deck from flowing overboard. Most 
oil companies now require their ships' masters to dump 
bilge and ballast waters at least fifty miles offshore. 
Crews of vessels and shore facilities are provided with 
equipment for, and have been instructed in methods of 
localizing and removing oil spills so that, although pollu- 
tions may occur, they will not spread and become a gen- 
eral nuisance and hazard over large areas. 

To prevent refuse and garbage pollution, some ships 
have installed locked receptacles wherein all such mate- 
rials are placed while the vessel is in port, and which can 
be unlocked to permit disposal of the material only by 
responsible employees, who are instructed that refuse 
shall not be dumped until the vessel is at least eighteen 
miles offshore. 

Studies of industrial waste pollution have been made 

by various Federal and State agencies and by some indus- 
tries through their national association. As a result of 
these studies, a number of industries have made plant 
changes for re-circulation and reuse of waters formerly 
wasted, or for recovery processes which salvage waste 
products of some value. 

The most serious water pollution by industrial wastes 
results from the manufacture and finishing of various 
textile products, pulp and paper, coke and gas, leather, 
sugar, certain chemical products, operations in which 
distillation is a process, the canning of food, the prepara- 
tion of milk and milk products, slaughtering, and the 
preparation of meat products. Still other substances of a 
polluting character are acid waters from refineries, brines 
from oil-field operations, waste water from the refining 
of petroleum products, and wastes from the manufac- 
ture of rubber using reclaimed material. 

The factors which have militated in the past against 
the prevention of water pollution by industrial wastes 

a. Lack of coordinated effort and of proper organiza- 
tion to obtain cooperation between industry and muni- 

b. Failure of municpalities to participate in a com- 
prehensive program for the prevention of water pollu- 

c. Lack of uniformity in the prevention of water pollu- 
tion by industrial wastes, resulting in unfair competition 
when strict regulation in one State gives an advantage to 
industry in another State. 

d. Lack of effort on the part of industry to study 
methods within the plant for the reuse of waste water or 
the salvage of by-products of possible value. 

e. The cost of changes in methods of plant operation 
for the reuse of waste water or the salvage of by-products 
of possible value. 

The Corps of Engineers, in order to inform all persons 
concerning Federal pollution laws and to call to their 
attention the need for preventing pollution, has issued 
notices to all steamship companies, vessel owners and 
operators, shipping concerns, oil companies, terminal and 
dock operators, and other agencies whose activities may 
involve pollution hazards. All such parties have been re- 
quested to post and bring these matters to the notice and 
attention of all employees. 

The District Office has also published and distributed 
an illustrated booklet on the subject of pollution and its 
prevention. This booklet describes the harmful effects of 
pollution, the causes, and means of prevention, and quotes 
the pollution laws. And it is intended that by illustrating 
the various facts, the steamship companies, shipping 
agencies and others would have a convenient means of 
calling the attention of all employees to the pollution 
problem, and that cooperation in this matter would 
thereby be considerably advanced. 

Since 19.i6, the Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles En- 
gineer District, has investigated 240 oil pollution viola- 
tions in the Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor area. Most 
of these cases consisted of oil spills from vessels loading 
(Please turn to page 96) 

Page 48 


Stability and Trim 
Experimental Tank 


Stability, the stepchild of nautical science, is at last 
achieving prominence commensurate with its importance. 
Recently completed at the United States Merchant Marine 
Academy at Kings Point, N. Y., the Stability and Trim 
Experimental Tank is being used to highlight in a vivid 
and accurate manner the theories of ship's stability and 
trim. The Tank and its use are unique smce prospective 
merchant marine officers have never before been given 
an opportunity to observe visually the results of loading 
and flooding a merchant vessel and to study methods of 
correction for poorly loaded and flooded conditions. 

The trim of a vessel, since it is immediately apparent 
til the observer and is of everyday concern in the opera- 
tion of a vessel, is customarily given more attention by 
the ship's officer than the stability of his vessel. Poor 
stability, either excessive tenderness or stiffness, is not 
noticed while loading unless the vessel is loaded so poorly 
that a list develops. At sea, the behavior of a vessel is 
often attributed to the fact that she is a "poor roller" or 
to the fact that severe rolling just cannot be helped. This 
unavvareness of stability has led many officers to the 
belief that a study of stability is not entirely necessary 
and merits only a few hours of time in order to be able 
to answer questions given by the Merchant Marine In- 
spectors on Chief Mate's and Master's license examina- 
tions. Fortunately, however, in the past few years a 
growing concern by the Maritime Commission and cer- 
tam steamship companies in seeing that their officers 
acquire a thorough knowledge of stability principles has 
manifested itself. Their concern is not primarily due to 
the fact that vessels are occasionally lost due to a lack 
of knowledge of stability by the operating officers ( as 
impt)rtant as this fact may be) but principally to the 
f.icr that overly stiff vessels roll sharply in heavy seas 
Ic.idmg to topside damage while overly tender vessels 
are apt to take aboard an unnecessary amount of water 
when rolling in heavy seas, once again leading to damage. 

The reasons underlying the establishment of a Stability 
and Trim Experimental Tank by the Department of 
Nautical Science at Kings Point are to demonstrate 
vividly how poor distribution of weight, both vertically 
and longitudinally, lead to the unfortunate sea conditions 
of a vessel referred to above; and more important, what 
can be done to alleviate these conditions. A laboratory 
term has been set aside in the course in Naval Architec- 
ture for both deck and engine Cadet-Midshipmen where 
the experiments described below can be demonstrated. 

John H. La Dage 

iSeaior Instructor in Naval Architecture at the United States Merchant 
Marine Academy. Lt. La Dage is co-author of the textboolc ' Slahilily and 
Trim for the Ship's Officer" by La Dage and Van Gemert, and an Associate 
Member of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. 

Cadet-Midshipmen participate actively in these experi- 

Description of Facilities 

Facilities may be divided roughly into three groups: 
The tank, the model, and auxiliary gear. 

The tank is some 2.5 feet in length, 7 feet in breadth, 
and 3 feet deep; and is constructed of steel plating with 
appropriate stiffening. Piping consists of a filling line 
and drain line, and necessary valves. A water meter is 
provided on an offshoot from the filling line and is used 
to obtain the volume and weight of water when the 
model is fiooded for certain damage calculations. 

The model, which is of merchant form, was given to 
the Academy by the U. S. Navy Bureau of Ships and 
was used in the David W. Taylor naval towing tank at 
Carderock, Md. for damage stability studies during World 
War II. Tank, equipment, and procedures were designed 
and devised by Academy personnel. The model glories 
in the name of 'T. V. Al/'jr Calculation," a name which 
at once defines her purpose and misdefines her use. The 
humorous touch, however, has proved very popular with 
the Cadet-Midshipmen and can be used to advantage to 
make the study of theory more inviting. Miss Calculation 
cannot be considered as a dainty lady, however, since 
she has a rather large and bulky form as her principal 
dimensions and characteristics reveal: 

T. V. Miss Calculation — Principal Diniensions 
and Characteristics 

Length overall lO'llVs" 

Length between perpendiculars 20'00" 

Beam 2'10" 

Depth I'10y4" 

Sheer forward 5%" 

Sheer aft 2%" 

Camber Zero 

Draft, loaded L'02" 

Draft, light 5.7" 

Displacement, loaded (F.W. ) 2825 lbs. 

Displacement, light ( F.W. ) 1035 lbs. 

Miss Calculation is subdivided into five compartments. 
Nos. 1 and 5 are fitted with supports for accommodating 
1 3 one-hundred-pound lead weights. These weights can 
be moved up vertically by the use of wooden blocks. 
Nos. 2, 3, and 4 compartments are available for flooding. 
There is a double bottom tank under each of these com- 

FEBRUARY • 1948 

Page 49 

View of the stability and trim experimental tank at Kings Point. 
The model is secured by lifting it out of the tank and adjusting 
slings fore and aft. Visible are: Dynamometer scale, pulleys, 
drum, inclining sectors, chain hoist, angle indicator (on bulk- 
head), brass compensating weights in inclining lines, water 
meter, inclining experiment tracks and cars, and topside 
ballast weights. 

partments; No. 2 has a deep tank, and No. 3 has two 
wing tanks. Each tank has one or more flooding ports 
closed by rubber plugs. When these plugs are removed, 
flooding conditions involving free communication with 
the sea can be easily simulated. The tanks can also be 
flooded from above by use of a hose which is attached 
to the water meter. No. 4 compartment can be fitted with 
permeability blocks. These blocks serve to illustrate the 
eflfect of water-excluding objects within a vessel on the 
damaged stability. 

In addition to the hundred-pound weights, supports 
are provided above decks accommodating twenty-five, 
ten, and five-pound weights. The supports are so con- 
structed that the weights can be shifted both vertically 
and longitudinally, thus adding flexibility to the methods 
of shifting the center of gravity of the model. 

Miss Calculation is equipped with a complete set of 

plans including; (a) Curves of Form (Displacement, 
Tons per inch immersion, Metacenter above base. Coef- 
ficients of fineness, etc. ; { b ; The Lines Plan ( c ) Cross 
Curves of Stability and (d) General Arrangement Plans. 
Thus, the Cadet-Midshipmen are working under condi- 
tions which almost exactly simulate conditions as found 
aboard ship. Using the above plans and discovering that 
their predictions based on the use of the plans and cal- 
culations are borne out in the condition of the model 
gives the Cadet-Midshipmen confidence m their knowl- 

Statical stability curves can be drawn up by inclining 
the model and ascertaining the value of her righting arms 
and moments at various angles of inclination. The meth- 
ods used in inclining Miss Calculation and measuring 
the force required and the angle of inclination are inter- 
esting. Sectors with circular arcs are bolted to a collar 
which fits around the midship section. Lines are led from 
these sectors through pulleys to a drum. When the handles 
on the drum are turned, a dynamometer scale registers 
the force of the couple which is inclining the modeL 
The force on the scale can be easily converted into the 
righting arm or righting moment of the model. The 

Kings Point Cadet-Midshipmen i 

flooding a compartment of the 

Lt. S. N. Steiner 

the list caused by 


■n load a hundred-pound lead ballast 
npartment on the model, Miss Calcula 

angle of inclination is indicated on a linear scale which 
slides past a cross-hair as the model inclines and slacks 
off a line attached to the inclining sector and led through 
pulleys to the sliding scale. Thus, the stability of a vessel 
at various angles of inclination and for difi^erent condi- 
tions of loading is quickly and easily demonstrated. 

Gear is provided for a realistic inclining experiment. 
On shipboard, this method of locating the center of 
gravity of the vessel is accomplished by winching a car 
loaded with heavy weights across tracks which have 
been built up transversely across the deck; observing the 
small angle of list induced by means of a pendulum; and 
using this data along with the displacement of the vessel 
to calculate the center of gravity. This method is followed 
out almost exactly with Aliss Calculation. Small cars with 
lead weights run across tracks built up on a wooden base, 
and a pendulum located on the bow where it can be easily 
observed serves to find the tangent of the angle of in- 

Incidentally the center of gravity of the model is some- 

Page 50 


— ■■^ 


to a 



angle of 





Ttie m 


in this 



ig PC 

wer or 


B angle 

of d 

eck edg 

e immcr. 

In the background, 

what lower in Aliss Cidcuhttivii in relation to her depth 
than would be the case with a merchant vessel of similar 
form. This is due to the lack of superstructure on the 
model. However, the model can be made unstable very 
easily by loading a few hundred pounds of weight on the 
topside supports. 

One of the most vivid demonstrations is the effect of 
free surface of water on the model's stability. Once a 
Cadet-Midshipman has seen the model, which prior to 
the flooding of just one compartment was floating up- 
right with considerable stability, caused to list heavily 
due to such flooding, he will never forget the danger of 
free surface of liquids aboard his vessel. In the typical 
demonstration reproduced in this article it can be seen 
that a positive GM of 1.29 inches is converted to a nega- 
tive GM of 0.22 inch by flooding just one hold. The con- 
j sequent list is entirely due to the free surface effect since 
\ the weight of liquid is loaded at the center of gravity 
j and the change in the position of the metacenter is not 

Corrective measures for list rank high in the demon- 
strations performed on Miss Calculation since the cor- 
rection of list due to negative initial stability is one of 
the most commonly misunderstood concepts of both 
students and ship's officers. A list due to negative GM 
cannot be corrected by pumping water or shifting weight 
from the listed side to the high side; not only that, but 
if an attempt to do so is made, it is entirely possible to 
cause the capsizing of the vessel. There is only one prac- 
tical method of correcting list due to negative GM: — 
Get the center of gravity down. Once again, the actual 
observance of a ship-forined model capsizing when the 
wrong method of correction is used is sufficient to implant 
a mental picture which he will never forget in the mind 
of a young cadet. 

A partial list of experiments and demonstrations which 
are performed includes: 

1. Displacement experiment, showing that a vessel 
displaces a weight of water equal to its own weight. 

2. The three equilibriums, showing the three condi- 
tions of initial stability; Stable, Neutral, and Un- 
stable Equilibriums. 

?. List due to (a) unsymetrical loading (b) negative 
initial stability and (c) combination of unsymetri- 
cal loading and negative initial stability. 

■1. The Inclining Experiment, showing the method 
used to obtain the position of tiie center of gravity 
of a vessel. 

5. Construction of statical stability curves for a vessel 
at various drafts and with various positions of the 
center oi gravity; correction of the curves for verti- 
cal and transverse shifts in the position of the center 
of gravity. 

6. Effect of form (beam, freeboard, coefficients, etc.) 
on stability. 

7. Free surface, showing the effect of free surface of 
liquids on stability at small and large angles of in- 

8. Flooding with free communication with the sea; 
without free communication; effect of intact buoy- 
ancy; effect of surface and volume permeability. 

9. Trim demonstrations, including: 

(a) Calculation of drafts after longitudinal shifts 

of weight. 
( b ) Loading and discharging. 

(c) Effect of the position of the tipping center 
(center of flotation) on trimming moments. 

(d) Effect of out-of-trim conditions on displace- 
ment readings, 

(e) Loading so as to change draft at one end only. 

( f ) Effect of trim on transverse stability. 

In addition to the above routine experiments, the 
Cadet-Midshipmen are encouraged to conduct their own 
experiments on any phase of ship's stability or trim which 
appeals to them. This practice proves particularly interest- 
ing and valuable to the Cadet-Midshipmen. 

Typical Demonstration 

The following demonstration is reproduced here in 
order to show how the demonstrations are conducted and 

Demonstration II — Free Surface 
Displacement Condition 2{c) 

Displacement: ISOO lbs. KG: 14.4 inches 

Correction to Righting Arms 
10°— 0.42 50°— 1.85 
20°— 0.83 60°— 2.10 
30°— 1.20 70°— 2.27 
40°— 1.56 

Assumed KG: 12.00 
Actual KG: 14.42 
GG' 2.42 

(Please turn to page 88) 

FEBRUARY • 1941 

Page 5! 

--With The 

Port Engineer of the Month 




George W. Curran was born in San Francisco and 
went to school in San Francisco and Richmond. He 
served his apprenticeship in the Berkeley shops of Byron- 
Jackson, and spent the years from 18 to 22 on all types 
of machine tools and erecting. 

At 22 George went to sea with the Pacific Mail (later 
became Dollar Line) and sailed on the first of the 
President Liners, President Pierce (passenger and 
freight) as oiler and water tender. His second ship was 
the freighter West Holbrook. then back to the President 
Pierce as refrigeration engineer and licensed junior en- 
gineer. His chief on the Pierce was Jack Penberthy, now 
with the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation 
in Honolulu. 

At 24 he moved on to the Grace Lines' West Kasson 
under the well-known chief engineer, E. T. Senter, now 
marine superintendent of that line. Later when the 
freighter IFej/ Kasson changed its name to the Cuzco, 
George sailed as 3rd assistant and finally 2nd assistant 
where he remained for one year. Then with Union Oil 
on the tanker Los Angeles for 1 }/^ years as 3rd assistant, 
2nd assistant and then 1st, his chief being Louis Eakins, 
now with the Maritime Commission in San Francisco. 
For the next five years with Grace again on the tanker 
Nora as 1st assistant and chief. After the Nora was sold, 
he had the freighter Coya for two years and Charcas for 
another two years. 

The next phase was spent on the eastern coast where 
he joined the crew of the new C-2 (one of the first C-2s) 
Red Jacket, which later became the Santa Monica, for 

In October 1941 George returned to the West Coast 
and joined Bethlehem Shipyard as marine machinist 
supervisor on new construction, where his job was on the 
installation of machinery in destroyers, and he transferred 

to repair in 1942. He remained at Bethlehem until Sep- 
tember 1944 at which time he went with American 
Pacific. Here he became marine superintendent and had 
as his superior Paul V. Gaudin, Superintending Engineer. 
His next promotion made him Assistant Superintendent 
Engineer, which job he holds today. 

George Curran is mighty popular down Los Angeles- 
Long Beach Harbor way and is very well liked and re- 
spected by all marine men. He is a very active member of 
the Society of Port Engineers and I can't think of a sin- 
gle meeting that he has missed. 



president o( Socit 
tv of Port Eng 

He succeeds L( 
nard E. Land, 
who h. 

ed by hi: 

pany to San Fr 

Page 52 


Port Engineers - 


The Society of Port Engineers of Puget Sound elected 
Herb Moore, Matson Navigation Company, as its presi- 
dent for 1948. Sidney R. Smith, American Bureau of 
Shipping, was named vice-president, and Alex Stewart 
was unopposed as secretary-treasurer. 

Mickey Felton, Alaska S.S.; J. W. Elkins, Board of 
Marine Underwriters; and Howard Lovejoy, Puget Sound 
Freight Lines; were elected to the board of governors. 
Merle Johnston, Olympic S.S., was named a member of 
the board to fill Moore's unexpired term. 

Al Mades, Pacific Marine Review, disguised himself 
as Santa Claus for the Christmas portion of the evening 
and distributed the presents. A feature of the program 
was movies taken at the port engineers' picnic a few 
months ago. These films, taken by Quent Herwig, Marine 
Service, were shown by Howard Lovejoy. 

Louis Dial, ATC, spoke briefly regarding his inspec- 
tion of the wreck of the Clarksdale 'Victory. 


New Assistant SupHrintendiiig Eiigineer 
of A P L at San Francisco 

George Jackson 

Port [ngineer of The Month 




'With a seagoing career of 27 years chalked up in his 
"personal logbook, " George Jackson, who today is super- 
intending engineer for American President Lines, came 
ashore in 1942 to become assistant to the man he has 
now succeeded. 

Born in 1890 in San Francisco, George Jackson's first 
trip to sea was in 1915 for the old Pacific Mail Line. 
Later with the Dollar Line, and then for American 
President Lines, Jackson continued to serve as a marine 
engineer until May, 1942. 

At that time he left the sea, but did not leave ships, 
when APL picked him for the post of Assistant Superin- 
tending Engineer with headquarters in San Francisco. 
In this job, Jackson served under the veteran and colorful 
John Jacobsen. Upon Jacobsen's retirement at the end 
of 1947 George Jackson was promoted to the top APL 
engineering post — Superintending Engineer. His oflSce 
is at Pier 44. 

Jackson's first job at sea was as oiler on the famous 
old Pacific liner, Korea. Sometime later he shipped on 
the Manchuria, which afterward was renamed President 
Johnson. His first berth as chief engineer was on the 
President Lincoln in 1921. He also has been chief on 
the President Pierce, President Jackson, President Taft 
( old ) , President Hayes ( new ) , and President Polk 
( new ) . 

FEBRUARY • 1948 

Page 53 

Frank Cavanaugh 

mm cm^^ucH SPONSORS 
[J.-LB. [lEcm im^i; 





g of th 

e L 

OS Angeles-Long Beach So 





neers. spon 

sored by the Frank Cava 


h Ma 


ne W 

arks, inc 

luded the election of officers 







e: President— Leonard Lan 




n Pre 

ident Li 


since resigned); Vice-presi 







ligation Co. (since elected 







-Bert Hale, Marine Solvents 


ce Corp 




easurer-G. "Alex" Robin 




ch M 

arine Re 


Co.; Directors— Glen Gul 

.in'and G 


ge Ct 

rran. A 

can Pacific S.S. Co.; M. H 


V, Ric 


Id Oil Corp.; 


Dobler (Board Chairman) 




• : C. 

V. Pete 


The Texas Co.; and Fred 


. Deco 


Shipping Co. 

Shown in the above photo are left to right: Frank Cava- 
naugh. Cavanaugh Machine Works; R. Risher. Asst. Mgr., 
Construction & Repair on Navy Tanker Conversion, Stand- 
ard Oil of New Jersey; Bill Anderson, Keystone Shipping; 
Andy Ells, San Francisco, Pacific Coast Division, Maritime 
Commission; Dan Dobler, Texas Oil Co. Joe Hare Mari- 


art Sn 


anaugh Machine Works; Bert Hale 





g the invitation to the I 
ind report the meetings 
technical coverage of the r 
provitjed than has heretofo 

ts Co 

life Mar 
thout lir 

Stewart Small 

Annual Banouet of Society of Port Engineers of Puge 
Sound held in Seattle January 14. Left, front to back 
L. D. Beardsley, Todd Shipyards Seattle Division; Mrs 
A. E. Farr; Robert G. Zener, Gen. Mgr., Todd Paclfi 
Seattle Division; Mrs. L. D. Beardsley; Lynton Jordan 
Pacific Tankers, Inc. Right front to back: Philii 
Spaulding, Todd Shipyards Seattle Division; Mrs 
Robert G. Zener; A. E. Farr, Todd Shipyards; Mrs 
Philip Spaulding; Al Copp, Northwest Ship Repair 
Right, background: Gil Ackerman, Operations Mgr. 
American Mail Line. 

Page 54 


Water Treatment in the Marine Field 

lly nil. II. L- ULMlili 

TRcliiiical lliructur, Puwer CliHinicals llivisioii 

L F. Ilrew S- Compaiiy, Iiiu. 

Dr. R. C. Ulmer has had wide and varied experience in the 
tifld of chemistry, especially that concerned with power 
pl.ints. Following the receipt of his AB degree at Ohio State 
University, he was employed by the Columbus & Southern 
Ohio Electric Co. in 1930. A Fellowship at Ohio State Uni- 
versity was followed by the receipt of his PhD. degree after 
which he was employed by the Detroit Edison Co. In the 
Chemical Division of the Research Department of this com- 
pany he had experience with the diverse problems involved 
in the operation of power plants. In 1915 the author joined 
E. F. Drew & Co., Inc., as Technical Director of the Indus- 
trial Department. He is at present in charge of all water 
treating problems and research and development of water 
treating products for that company. 

Dr. Ulmer is the author of many technical papers and 
holds membership in the following technical and engineer- 
ing societies: The National American Chemical Society and 
The Chemists Club of New York. American Society for 
Testing Materials, American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
and the National Association of Power Engineers. 

Great advances have been made in recent years in 
water conditioning and it is no longer necessary to toler- 
ate just fair conditions in marine boilers. Scale and cor- 
rosion-free boilers and steam of very high quality are 
rightly to be expected from good water treatment. In 
er to accomplish these objectives, a proper water treat- 
ment must be selected, but just as important if not more 
so, the treatment must be controlled and used properly. 

'Delivered before the Sa, 

Boiler Design 

Although it is realized that boiler design has much to 
do with water treatment problems, this subject is not 
dealt with in this article since an article itself might be 
written about this problem. Boiler design may have a 
tremendous effect on carryover, bad circulation of water 
and steam, etc. The latter difficulties may lead to overheat- 
ing and tube failures. Fortunately if a treatment will work 
for one type of boiler it will work for another type in 
general or at least treatment can be modified slightly so 
that it will apply. The same is true of operating pressure 
and operating characteristics. That is, only a slight modi- 
fication of a basic treatment usually is required to meet 
the situation. 

Objectives of Water Treatment in Marine 


The problems in the marine field are essentially the 
same as those in the industrial field with the exception 
that they are aggravated somewhat by salt water con- 
tamination. The chief problems encountered are: 

1. Scale and Sludge. 

2. Corrosion and caustic embrittlement. 

3. Foaming and priming or carryover. 


Corrosion difficulties in the boiler can usually be 
iFU-tise turn to page 98) 

Left to right: R. C. Ulmer, 
technical director; Norman 
McLeod, service engineer; 
Jack Churchill. Pacific 
Coast manager; J. J. Lewis, 
service engineer; all of E. 
F. Drew & Co. 

FEBRUARY • 1941 

Page 55 


RcK- U. S. Pat. Off. 

FOREIGN Tlil\D[ im 

By ROBERT H. WYLIE, Port Manager 

Editor's Note: For years San Francisco export-import 
interests have been endeavoring to get governmental 
approval for a so-called foreign trade zone; that is, an 
area to which commodities may be imported and sorted, 
processed, mixed or stored and then re-exported without 
the payment of customs duty until such time as they 
may be brought "into the country" by delivery beyond 

The sketch shows the layout of Pier 45 with the 
boundary of the initial Foreign-Trade Zone area in- 
dicated both from the standpoint of the technical or legal 

the boundaries of the zone. New York and New Orleans 
have such zones, and San Francisco is now awaiting 
final approval by the Foreign Trade Zone Board to 
plans already approved in a preliminary way. This final 
approval is expected at any moment. General Wylie has 
had an important part in bringing this project to fruition. 

boundaries and of the fence which is the physical bar- 
rier. Obviously the free zone area including water is 
appreciably larger than the land area which is enclosed 

San Francisco Pier 45— Site of 
proposed Foreign Trade Zone. 

Page 56 


but it also comes under the designation of Foreign-Trade 
Zone territory so that the boundary is the legal line on 
water or land which separates the Zone from U. S. 
Customs territory. This fact must be thoroughly under- 
stood to appreciate the difference between a Foreign- 
Trade Zone and any form of bonded warehouse or storage 
facility. For security reasons (proximity of the inner 
portion of Berth B, Pier 45 to Fishermen's Wharf area) 
no attempt will be made to use this berth for ships 
bringing carg(5 to the zone. It was first contemplated that 
the doors leading on to the apron would be .sealed but 
it was later determined desirable to place the fence on 

operation of the Zone. It will be noted that this area will 
permit loading of cars on the low level tracks to the 
east of the shed or on the high level tracks to the west. 
Trucks may be loaded either inside the shed or outside 
on either side. The fence around the area will be patrolled 
by Customs' Guards to prevent unlawful passage of 
goods from the Zone to U. S. Customs territory. It should 
be pointed out that the presence of these guards and of 
this fence will not prevent the use of the pier for busi- 
ness other than foreign trade zone activities although 
it is hoped that the zone will be so active that outside 
business, other than Foreign Trade Zone, need not be 

Pier 45. The Zone layout is the 
shaded area. Compare this 
sketch with the photo on page 
Si and note that the ship in the 
photo would stand along the 
top of this sketch and within 
the Zone. 

PIER "45 
FORtiGM Trade Zone 

Son Francisco, Co\iforr,i9 

ithe outer edge of the apron thus permitting the use of 
this additional space for storage or processing of com- 
modities that do not require protection from the weather. 
This will materially increase the operating space avail- 
able although it must be noted that one of the two rail- 
.road tracks on the apron must be kept free in order to 
Ipermit switching cars to berth D. 

! Shed D, and the apron alongside the shed, will be the 
{ship berth for the zone. This will accommodate one large 
ivessel as there is sufficient space to accommodate the 
largest cargcj ships in operation, or two vessels of the 
Coaster type. Several of the doors in the southeast por- 
'tion of Shed D will be open and available for direct 
Sloading to cars on a low level track. The doors in the 
;northeast area of Shed D will be sealed since it is not 
'practicable to put a fence between these doors and the 
structure of the car float slip. Should volume of business 
warrant the inclusion of additional space on Pier 45 into 
the zone, one proposal contemplates the removal of this 
slip which will not only give considerable additional 
space but will make possible the opening of all the doors 
on that side of the shed. 

Shed B will be used primarily for storage and manipu- 
lation of goods in the zone. In this shed there will be the 
offices of the Zone, U. S. Customs and of other tenants 
Isuch as packers, cleaners, sorters, bottlers and other 
'businesses that may have work in connection with the 

encouraged. The area of some four acres, judged by some 
standards, does not appear large but it is adequate to care 
for a very considerable volume of goods and when there 
is an indication that its capacity will be exceeded the Zone 
may be expanded — first by taking in the remaining sheds 
A and C, then filling in the space where the car float 
slip is now located and then expanding into the area on 
the landward side of the pier until we would have some 
20 acres of useful area. 

It will require some considerable time to get the activi- 
ties under way to the extent that we may determine what 
the trade will actually be, but it is imperative that all 
of those interested in the success of the Zone and of the 
port and world trade in general, realize that a foreign 
trade zone is a little known institution. It is essential 
that an active promotional and educational campaign be 
carried on in order to develop business for the Zone 
not only in order that it might be used but because of 
the stimulating effect it must have on commerce. 

In New York and in New Orleans where the zones are 
in operation, a number of uses have been developed but 
undoubtedly there are scores of operations that would 
prove profitable or advantageous in such an establishment. 
It will require energy and imagination to explore the 
possibilities and develop new business. It is unlikely that 
the Zone will take any business away from any existing 
agencies. Therefore, it is a challenge to the ingenuity of 
the pro-zone enthusiast to go out and get new business. 

FEBRUARY • 1948 

Page 57 





U.S. lOUS. CKEDirS. 









7.4 ^^^^^^B 


|n .,Ai^.o 

6.7 6.7 

6.6 ^^^^^Bl^^^ 








, -1/, '' 










THE ABOVE chart prepared by Dun & Bradstreet 
gives a comprehensive picture of our balance of trade. 

Prior to 1942 the goods exported from the United 
States were largely paid for by imports. In many of these 
pre-war years all exports were balanced by a corre- 
sponding volume of imports; in some years exports were 
partly financed through loans and credits. Since 1942 
over 50 per cent of all exports have been sent out as 
gifts or have been financed through loans and credits. 
Since the end of the war these gifts and credits exports 
have declined largely as a result of the virtual termina- 
tion of lend-lease. With the sharp curtailment of lend- 
lease the volume of total exports declined but continued 
to be well above the level that existed from 1919 to 

The 1947 estimate of exports is based upon U. S. 
Department of Commerce data covering the first ten 
months of 1947. In each of these ten months the ex- 
ports of merchandise have been well above the corre- 
sponding 1946 levels. While the total volume of goods 
sent abroad in 1947 is greater than in 1946, the volume 
financed through loans, credits, and gifts has been 

The huge volume of exports during and after the 
war, while representing about 8 per cent of total United 
States production, constituted an enormous outlay in 
terms of goods and services. Part of these exports were 
paid for by imports of commodities and part were 
financed by the liquidation of foreign holdings including 
gold. Despite these payments, there was a considerable 

portion of all exports that were not covered bv anv imme- 
diate return. 

Shipments of gifts on which no future return was 
anticipated represented more than half of the exports 
that were not paid for by imports or by liquidation of 
foreign holdings during and after the war. The remain- 
ing exports that were not sent as gifts and were not 
covered by any immediate returns were financed through 

In addition to numerous gifts from individuals and 
institutions, there were Government donations to 
UNRRA, shipments of civilian supplies to occupied 
countries, and lend-lease shipments. While lend-lease 
was originally planned to be conducted on a loan basis, 
the Government has since listed it as a unilateral trans- 
fer which is the same as a gift. 

Most of the credit has been extended for exports since 
1941 has been obtained from Government sources, for- 
eign bond issues placed on the domestic markets gen- 
erally have not attracted any large amounts of private 
capital. Loans from the United States Government, the 
International Bank, the Monetary Fund, and the Export- 
Import Bank have enabled many countries to purchase 
commodities from the United States. The International 
Bank took over the function of the Export-Import Bank 
to provide long-term reconstruction and development 
loans in May 1947. The Monetary Fund made dollars 
available to foreign countries for the first time last 

Page 58 


mm mm tk^dek!; 
m^ numm 

When Maitland Pennington began his campaign for 
(irtianized sales effort for the promotion of Pacific Coast 
pdfts, many of those who heard him were diverted by- 
Ins reference to particular instances of export and im- 
port percentages. So the Junior World Trade Assn. of 
San Francisco listened with keen interest to the explana- 
iioii of such cases when he addressed its January meet- 

Out of this and other meetings with shipping groups, 
it is hoped that a program of aggressive advertising of 
Western ports will come, and that the advantages of such 
ports will more than offset the fear of labor troubles 
which other ports are using in their own sales efforts. 
The Junior traders are following all developments with 
the usual alertness. 


The U. S. Commercial Company, a subsidiary of the 
Reconstruction Finance Corporation, is rapidly going out 
of business and expects to close down about March 1. 

The Company's work in Japan and Germany — han- 
dling the exports of these countries — terminated on 
December 31st. The only exceptions are silk and textile 
contracts that require more time to complete. A S.C.A.P. 
Foreign Trade Office has been opened by the Army to 
aid shippers interested in Japan. 

The San Francisco Office of USCC has terminated its 
purchasing, warehousing and shipping of merchandise to 
the Ex Japanese Mandated Islands of the Pacific. The 
Company has been supplying over one hundred trade 
stores in the Marianas, Carolines and Marshall Islands 
with just about every commodity one would expect to 
find in the old fashioned country store. These trade stores 
are run by the Natives themselves and goods are paid for 
in U. S. dollars which the Natives have accumulated by 
working for the Navy Military Government, gathering, 
sacking and selling copra and seashells and producing 
Native handicraft. USCC bought these commodities from 
the Natives, then shipped them to San Francisco where 
they were sold to the local trade. Any surplus from sales 
was returned to the Islands. 

The Island Trading Company of Micronesia has been 
formed in Guam by the Navy to take over the work of 
USCC. Their local representative is F. H. Tillotson, Vice 
President, with offices in the Naval Supply Center in 

FEBRUARY • 1948 

s'I'i t ■ 

Top— Arthur F. Burns, Joseph Harper, Barney Jager, Robert D. 
Hudson, Maitland Pennington. Center— Mortimer Gussett, V/m. 
J. Griialva, Stewart M. Wellhouse, Jannes R. Leiand, Alan Logan. 
Bottom— Dennis M. Ryan, Stanley W. Mobbs, Wayne Hamilton, 
Joseph B. Carroll, Wm. W. Olheiser. 

Oakland. Frank Howland, Chief of USCC's San Francisco 
Office, and Harry Gunther, Assistant Chief, are returning 
to private business. 

Export Exam: • 

Examining Prof.: "Give the amount of coal exported 
in any one year." 

Student: "1942 — None!" 


Page 59 

New Import Regulations Announced 
For Netherlands Indies 

Because infringments of the Netherlands Indies For- 
eign Exchange regulations have increased extensively in 
the past months, a new ruling has been imposed, effec- 
tive February 1, 1948, requiring importers to obtain a 
certificate issued by the Department of Economic Affairs 
showing that the importation of such goods is in con- 
formity with the foreign exchange regulations of 1940. 

Smuggled goods and smuggled money into the Indies 
have resulted in the importation of steadily increasing 
quantities of inferior goods and "complete rubbish" sold 
in the country at "fancy prices", the announcement de- 
clared. The new measure aims at a more effective super- 
vision of the present foreign exchange regulations. 

To obtain the certificates importers are requested to 
supply all details relative to proposed imports to the 
Bureau for the Supply of Goods, Department of Econom- 
ic Affairs, No. 8, Molenvliet West, Batavia, Java, issuers 
of the certificates. 

The following extenuations of the regulations have 
been provided so that importers' difficulties may be ob- 
viated as much as possible; 

During February and March, exchange permits issued 
before February 1, 1948, may be substituted for the 
certificate. But after March 31 the certificate must be 
produced at the Custom House even though the permit 
was issued prior to February 1. 

In cases where permits are issued after February 1, the 
certificates will be granted with the permits. 

Regulations for certificates described above do not 
apply to parcel post packages, travellers' luggage, com- 
mercial samples, etc. A separate regulation for these will 
be announced later. 

1948 Officers of Foreign Trade 
Ussociation of Southern California 

At the annual meeting followed by a directors 
meeting of the Foreign Trade Association of South- 
ern California the following officers and directors 
were elected for the year 1948: 

Chairman of the Board, F. H. Beeman, A. T. & 
S. F. Railroad; President, S. J. Hindle, American 
President Lines; 1st 'Vice President, Philip Stein; 
Customs Attorney; 2nd Vice President, Roland C. 
Stevens, Transmarine Navigation Co.; Secretary, 
Manuel Avila, Attorney; Treasurer, A. M. Gaines, 
Farmers & Merchants National Bank. 

Directors: R. D. Blanchard, Norman Dunnavant, 
Michael Harris, Norman Hewson, Stanley Lindo, 
T. R. Mojonier, H. W. Peterson, Alden T. Ross, 
T. R. Stetson. 

Executive Secretary, George Spillenaar, and As- 
sistant Secretary, Dorothy P. Jackson. 



Edition, by Frank Henius, Foreign Trade Counselor; pub- 
lished by Prentice-Hall, Inc. Price SIO.OO (special dam- 
aged copy price) ; over 1,000 pages; 6" x 9". 

An invaluable reference book on foreign trade, this 
volume contains concise explanations of foreign trade 
terms, usages, practices, abbreviations, techniques and 
procedures. The material is arranged in alphabetical or- 
der and covers all aspects of foreign trade including buy- 
ing, selling, importing, exporting, packing, shipping, 
banking, invoicing, customs, and insurance. Also included 
are a compilation of 3,000 abbreviations in English, 
French, Spanish, and German, and 300 Foreign Trade 

foreign Trade Zone for los Angeles? IRMII TO m\i BV businessmen 

The Board of Directors of the Los Angeles Chamber 
of Commerce adopted the following recommendation: 

"That the Board of Directors of the Los Angeles 
Chamber of Commerce favor the establishment and 
operation of a Foreign Trade Zone by the Los Angeles 
Board of Harbor Commissioners using the existing 
facilities recommended by the Leeds-Fitzgerald survey." 


Relaxed regulations governing travel to Japan by 
businessmen make it possible to enter Japan for more 
extended periods than heretofore. All firms ( except 
service firms ) which wish to send representatives to 
Japan should make application to Department of Com- 
merce Field Offices. Procedures for making such appli- 
cation remain the same as those already in effect for 
businessmen going to Japan to buy or sell goods. Pur- 
poses of travel may now include purchase or sale of 
commodities, investigation of investment possibilities, 
or seeking restitution of property held in Japan before 
the war. For the present the same application forms 
should continue to be used; firms wishing to seek resti- 
tution of property should indicate, in connection with 
their statement of purpose, the nature, location, and ex- 
tent of such property. New application forms are being 
prepared and will be distributed in the near future. 
Service firms will continue to make application to the 
Department of State. 




Uarine Insurance 

The London Letter 

By Our United Kingdom CorrespDndent 

The Insurance Horizon 

E. B. Ferguson, general manager of the Phoenix As- 
surance Company, Ltd., London, recently made a tour 
of the United States and the British Empire, and reviews 
the insurance position as follows in a report to the In- 
surance Institute of London: 

One cloud rises from the political philosophy widely 
entertained today, that insurance is a service to the com- 
munity, one which, having been brought by free enter- 
prise to its present state of efficiency, can now well be 
made the subject of State monopoly. I do not imply that 
the principles upon which insurance has been developed 
t(i its present-day immense influence and prestige, are 
identified with any special political or economic theory. 
Such principles as the contributions of the many meet- 
ing tlie losses of the few can, from the sociological 
viewpoint, effectively be carried into operation by the 
State itself. War Risks, insurance and national insurance 
. schemes making basic provision for unemployment, sick- 
ness, and old age, are cases in point. 

But we are entitled to claim that where insurance 
service, in relation to economic activity or to personal 
and individual needs, is provided by free enterprise it 
makes a notable contribution to all that we, in the Eng- 
lish-speaking world, regard as the privileges enjoyed by 
free men in a free society. It is, perhaps, excusable for 
the layman to indulge in rather shallow thinking on this 
point. We are engaged in a profit-making enterprise, and 
io many who are on the outside, the making of profits 
seems an easy matter. He does not see the multitude of 
transactions and the judgment exercised in each of them 
that goes to make up the final result. He is in no real posi- 
tion to assess the unresting efforts that are made in the 
field of risk improvement, nor the unceasing control exer- 
cised over expenses. Often it is the manner in which his 
claim is satisfied that provides the measure by which 
he judges the suitability of his particular insurer, and 
possibly by which he may praise or condemn the business 
as a whole. 

We know full well how much more there is in it than 
this. Insurance is an essential individual service. That 
service extends word-wide to give its protection and aid 
at every point. 

The idea that it can be laid on from a central source, 
like gas or electricity or the telephone, and that payment 
of the required charge will produce a standard cover 
varying not at all between one individual and another, or 
one commercial or .industrial enterprise and another. 

ignores this element of personal care, and calls for our 
unceasing vigilance and refutation at every opportunity 
t)pen to us. 

Mr. Ferguson further stated that the great justification 
of the British insurance system was that it was sensitive 
to the new challenges it had to face, and that it had, 
within itself, the power of adaptation and progress in 
a changing world. In the United States the insurance in- 
dustry would develop out of the present strains greater 
financial strength and increased underwriting skill. 

Government Ownership 

While the insurance industry in the United Kingdom 
has received from leaders of the Socialist Government an 
assurance that there is no intention on the part of the 
part of the present Government to nationalize insurance, 
no politician can bind his successor. It is clear, therefore, 
that one cannot prophesy whether insurance will be 
allowed to develop on its present lines, or will be poli- 
tically revolutionized. This was the theme of Major- 
General Sir Claude F. Liardet, presiding at the annual 
meeting of the Corporation of Insurance Brokers, held in 

Would their sons and grandsons buy their insurance 
and the insurance of their firms at a post office. Sir Claude 
Liardet asked. That, he maintained, was no idle fantasy, 
as there were numerous fantatics who thought that that 
could be achieved with advantage. Insurance brokers 
must give the fanatics no grounds for demonstrating that 
they could improve the efficiency of a service which had 
been operating under private control for many cen- 

British insurance represented security — and that was 
why such an enormous volume of foreign insurance was 
effected in the home market. But there was more than 
that — the cost must be commensurate with the cover, or, 
more simply, the policy must be good value for the 
premium. That was not solely the concern of insurers. 
The brokers formed an integral part of the distributive 
system, and provided an essential link between producers 
and consumers. 

Today, the insurance broker saw a tendency towards 
nationalized industries running their own insurance risks 
or sidetracking the broker when renewing their insur- 
ances. The broker had shown his worth in the past. He 
must consolidate his position, know his job, provide 
service, and he must be a man of substance. The principal 
aim of the Corporation was well known, namely, to secure 
the efficiency of the broker and all that was implied 

"There are many influences at work which sooner or 
later are bound to have an effect one way or another on 
this great business," Sir Claude continued. "The search- 
(Please turn to page 89) 

FEBRUARY • 1948 

Page 61 

ymiralty Decisions 

By HARDLD S. DDBB5 «/ ^-^^ Francisco Bar 

Pier Watchmen Claim Entitled to the Benefits 
»f Fair Lahor Standards hd 

DURING THE LAST FEW YEARS, various groups 
of employees in varied fields of endeavor, have in- 
stituted actions against their employers, both past and 
present, alleging failure to comply with the Fair Labor 
Standards Act. Of course, their purpose in bringing 
such suits is merely to obtain overtime compensation at 
the rates prescribed by the Fair Labor Standards Act. 
In most cases, the suits covered claims for a period of as 
much as four years in the past. It is easy to understand 
the consternation of the average employer when faced 
with such a suit, without having had any prior notice 
of the possibility of such claims. In some of these cases, 
the judgments in favor of the employee on behalf of a 
representative group, would or could, bring bankruptcy 
to the employer named because of his inability to foresee 
the possibility of such a claim. 

In New York very recently, two employees of a pier 
construction company, instituted actions on their own 
behalf and also in a representative capacity, for all other 
employees similarly employed, to recover alleged over- 
time compensation, liquidated damages and counsel fees 
under the Fair Labor Standards Act. The action is en- 
titled Philip Tinyes, et al r. J. Rich Steers. Inc., et al. 
Under the penalty provisions of the Fair Labor Standards 
Act, the employer is liable for the overtime compensa- 
tion plus an equal amount as liquidated damages, in addi- 
tion to counsel fees, when it is subsequently found that 
he has violated the Act. The lower court adjudged that 
plaintiffs' duties fell within the provisions of the Fair 
Labor Standards Act and the matter was referred to a 
referee in order to determine the total sum due the 
various employees. The case was appealed and it is from 
that appeal that I make this report. 

At the times in question, various plaintiffs were em- 
ployed by defendant as "steam and "land" watchmen in 
connection with the construction of two shipbuilding 
dry docks, piers and other related work in and about the 
New York Naval Shipyard at Brooklyn, pursuant to a 
government "cost-plus" contract. It was admitted that 
plaintiffs were not engaged in the production of goods. 
Their activities were confined principally to the pro- 
tection of their employers' undertaking. The "steam" 
watchmen were required, among other things, to place 
warning lamps and signals on various work boats used 
in the project; to watch tie-in lines of boats and to adjust 
them with the flow and ebb of the tide; and to siphon 
out dangerous amounts of water which accumulated in 
such boats. Included among the duties of the "land " 
watchmen were such tasks as placing warning lamps 
and signals at various cross streets where the building 
operation was conducted and on docks, piers, boats and 

railroad tracks; to control and direct traffic at the cross- 
roads upon the approach of railroad trains within the 
shipyard proper and at both ends of a suspension bridge 
when it was elevated to permit boats to pass through; 
to place lamps and signals upon extension piers; and to 
guard and adjust mooring lines of concrete barges and 
divers' scows. 

The burden was upon the plaintiffs to establish that 
they were engaged "in commerce ' within the meaning 
of the Act. Warren-Bnuishair Drilling Co. is. Hall, .t17 
U. S. 88. The term "commerce ", as used therein, is defined 
to mean "trade, commerce, transportation, transmission, 
or communication among the several states or from any 
state to any place outside thereof. " 29 U.S.C.A. sec. 203 
(b). The test to be applied "is not whether the em- 
ployee's activities affect or indirectly relate to interstate 
commerce but whether they are actually in or so closely 
related to the movement of the commerce as to be a 
part of it. * * * It is not important whether the em- 
ployer * * * is engaged in interstate commerce. It is the 
work of the employee which is decisive.' McLeod vs. 
Threlkeld, 319 U. S. 491. Activities which may "remotely 
affect interstate commerce" are not included within the 
scope of the phrase "in commerce. " Stoike is. First Na- 
tiottal Bank of City of New York. 290 N. Y. 195. 202. 

The court concluded that the plaintffs who are the em- 
ployees in this case, failed to sustain their burden of 
proof. While their activities may have indirectly affected 
commerce in the sense that they tended to lessen the 
likelihood of interference with river traffic which might 
possibly result if work boats were to capsize or break 
free of their moorings, or if they failed to display proper 
anchor lights between sunset and sunrise, such activities 
did not bring the "steam " watchmen into the stream of j 
interstate traffic. The evidence failed to show that they j 
were closely or intimately related to such traffic as to 
be a part of it. The incidental and purely negative effect 
upon river traffic which might have followed their im- 
proper discharge of duties, was not at all related to 
interstate commerce. The activities of the employees in 
this case were purely local in character and therefore 
did not come within the provisions of the Fair Labor 
Standards Act. 

The court also found that the same rules and views 
would be applicable to the "land " watchmen because the 
streets and bridge over which they controlled traffic were 
part of the work project, and when the work was com- 
pleted, they became an integral part of the Navy Yard. 
Their work did not require them to engage in the re- 
pair or maintenance of an instrumentality of interstate 

The lower court's order was reversed and the watch- 
men's complaints were dismissed. 

Page 62 


Sovereign Immunity — The Martin Behrman Case 

I'ndcT the laws of rhc railed St.itts and iitlicr oiun- 
tries as well a sovereign government recognized by the 
United States, is entitled to immunity from suit upon 
(he request of the ambassador or suitably recognized 
(.onsul officer. The rule is an outgrowth of the theoretical 
Mixereign and unimpeachable right of a government as 
Mich, to make laws and set up rules of conduct for its 
subjects without giving up any liberties of its own unless 
It deems it necessary or advisable to do so. I might say 
that it is a rare thing nowadays to have a plea of sovereign 
immunity entered in cases pending before the courts of 
this country and others, because in most cases where a 
plea of sovereign immunity would be recognized, the 
government involved considers that from a political and 
business viewpoint, it is better to recognize a just debt 
or recognize a just difference of opinion with reference 
to a claim or debt, and not brush it off by a plea of 
sovereign immunity. 

During the month of November 1947, the plea of 
sovereign immunity was introduced in a case pending in 
the United States District Court of New York entitled 
lihrandtsen Company. Inc., as Chartered Owner and 
(operator of the American Steamship Martin Behrman, 
jud as Bailee of Her Cargo, etc. vs. Netherlands East 
Indies Government, et al. After the surrender of Japan 
111 August 1945, and the withdrawal of the Japanese 
from the Dutch East Indies, an armed movement seeking 
independence for a "Republic of Indonesia" began, and 
was opposed by force by the Government of the Nether- 
lands. Early in 1947, libellant Isbrantsen Company, Inc. 

chartered the American Martin Behrman. owned by the 
United States Maritime Commission on bareboat charter 
and sailed her with a cargo to Cheribon, a port in Java 
under control of the "Republic of Indonesia." The cargo 
having been discharged, the vessel loaded an outward 
cargo and sought to depart, but was intercepted by a 
Netherlands warship and conducted to a port under the 
control of the Government of the Netherlands Ease 
Indies, where the cargo was removed from the vessel. 
The operator of the vessel thereafter filed a libel in the 
Federal Court of New York, claiming damage for inter- 
ference of the voyage and the improper removal of the 
cargo in the sum of over three million dollars. A claim 
of immunity was thereupon presented to the court by 
the Attorney General acting upon the request of the 
Acting Secretary of State. 

The request of the Netherlands East Indies was con- 
tained in a communication to the Acting Secretary of 
State, in which the Netherlands Ambassador stated that 
the Netherlands and the Netherlands East Indies are 
parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which is a 
sovereign state and has in no way given its consent to 
be sued in the manner before the court in any court of 
law or admiralty in the United States of America either 
in respect to the Kingdom or any of its constituent parts. 

The court felt bound to recognize the suggestion of 
immunity in accordance with the cases of Compania 
F.spanola vs. Nevemar, 30.^ U. S. 68, and Mexico vs. 
Hoffman. .324 U. S. 30. Respondent's motion for im- 
munity was therefore granted and the motion of the 
libellant for a default decree was denied. 



Editor's Note. — Mr. Dickie has prepared an outline 
of rule interpretations and the reasons for rule changes 
which he has encountered in his work with insurance 
underwriters. The first part of his article, dealing with 
Safety Requirement Rules 1 to 9, was published in the 
January Pacific Marine Review. 

No. 10 Wing Athwartship Doors 

The wing athwartship doors to the upper 
engine room on the main deck to be water- 
tight on both wood and steel boats. The sill of 
the door to be 18" above the deck. 

The house on the main deck in which the galley is 
located does not extend to the ship's side. The ship's side 
extends up to the boat deck enclosing a space along side 
of and aft of the galley. The after end of the enclosed 
space between the ship's side and the bait boxes is open. 
On some boats an effort has been made to close the after 
openings with tonnage doors. 

The forward end between the house and the ship's 
side has been closed with what has been designated a 
wing athwartship bulkhead, usually bolted in place so 
machinery can be removed. The doors on each side 
through the wing athwartship bulkheads have been desig- 
nated wing athwartship doors. 

There is not space at the moment to mention all the 
various ways the sea gets in, runs along the alleyway 
and over the sills of the wing athwartship doors. Origi- 
nally the sills were made 6" high — raised to 10" — to 
12" and finally to 18" above the deck in an effort to 
correct the trouble. It is impractical to make the sill any 
higher. The doors were made in halves (Dutch Doors) 
but the fishermen persisted in leaving even the lower 
half open. 

The proper way to make these doors is of steel in one 
piece with a large port hole — fit the door with three 
Hydro-Hinges and require that the door be devoid of 
iCoiiliiiiied on Page 100) 


Page 63 



LUCY mu 

Under full load conditions, the Ill-foot welded iteel tuna clipper, 

Lucy Elena, undergoes her first trial runs in San Diego Bay. The new 

vessel, built by National Iron Works, is the largest welded steel tuna 

clipper ever built in San Diego. 

The largest steel tuna clipper ever built in San Diego, 
the 111-foot Lucy Elena has just completed her trial runs 
and was delivered to her owners on January 21 by the 
National Iron Works, builders of the craft. The new 
vessel- was put through her tests by Machado Medino, 
port captain at National Iron Works' San Diego plant 
and a veteran fishing fleet skipper. 

The Lucy Elena was clocked at 98 knots in her speed 
tests and this speed was made while the ship was operat- 
ing under full load conditions. 

The Lucy Elena will fish for the People's Packing Com- 
pany and was built for John Balestreri, WiUiam H. 
Schmidt, Walter A. Seewald, Julius Cairns, Linwood 
Champion, George Bullock, Mark W. Crain, Caesar F. 
Pastore, Francis E. Pastore and A. T. Procopio. Balestreri 
will be in command of the new ship. 

The Lucy Elena is on the raised-deck tuna fishing type, 
constructed of electric arc welded steel, with a raked 
beam and a modified tuna vessel stern. The vessel is sub- 
divided with six transverse oil and watertight bulkheads 
and a transom bulkhead, extending to the main deck, a 
cofferdam for chain stowage, a forward fuel oil deep 
tank, a machinery space, and ten brine wells arranged in 
two rows of five each. 
Propeller ; 

Doran Company 72" x 56", designed especially for 
the Lucy Elena by William Lambie. 

Shell plating is 5 16" steel plate in the engine room 
and wherever floors are oil tight. Other floors are Vi" 
plate. A 5 16" center vertical keel is provided. 

In general the vessel is constructed in conformance 
with the rules laid down by the American Bureau of 

Page 64 


KORT Miim M w\i m um 

I RIAL runs of two newly designed HUM) H.P. tow- 
l boats, the ll'w. Phi and the Freedom, have demon- 
strated they have 30 per cent more "push power" than 
some other craft in the same type of service, and although 
the hulls are smaller the additional "push power" is ob- 
tained through the use of lightweight, high-speed geared 
Diesel engines, improved Kort nozzle efficiency and rela- 
tively greater draft than riverboars operated under similar 

Both vessels now are in service with Dravo Corpora- 
tion's Keystone Division, towing sand, gravel and coal 
in the Pittsburgh area. The Freedom was launched June 
19, and the \Vm. Pitt, July 17. 

Tests with the firm's dynamometer barge showed both 
craft have "push power " of 34,000 pounds against the 
dock and 25,000 pounds at a towing speed of five miles 
per hour. Maximum towing efficiency, the designers ex- 
plained, is dependent upon "push power" rather than the 
amount of shaft horsepower that can be developed. 

Effective thrust of the vessels is increased because the 
new hull design eliminates the necessity of stern tunnels 
which provides additional Kort nozzle area. The shape 
of the hull allows increased and freer flow of water to 
the Kort nozzles, especially in shallow water. Kort nozzles 
surround each propeller and control the direction and 
velocity of water passing to, through and away from it. 

Each vessel is 116 ft. long with a 27 ft. beam and 10 
ft. moulded depth. Draft, with % fuel and supplies, is 
7 ft. 

Power for each towboat is supplied by two General 

Kor« nollles surround the propellers. New hull shape eliminates 
necessity of stern tunnels providing increased Kort noiile area. 

Motors supercharged, 6-cylinder, 2-cycle Diesel engines 
that are controlled from the pilothouse. Both engines 
run continuously in the same direction and drive high- 
tensile, manganese bronze, four-bladed propellers de- 
signed to absorb 500 H. P. each at 700 R.P.M. 

The Vl'm. Pitt, and a sistership, the Freedom, recently demonstrat- 
ed 30 per cent more "push power" than other vessels in this 
service. The new 1000 horsepower boats were designed and built 
by Dravo's Engineering Works Division. Improved hull design 
and other innovations aro responsible for the increased "push 
power" that results in maximum towing efficiency. 


U(nt\ f^^UfUitm Gn&wt^itcL 

by "The Chief" 

"The Chief's" department welcomes qpestions — lust write "The Chief," Pacific Marine Review. 


^.S X lOO'-SSOfTLt^ fCi S£; 

syox-to^ iyx>o FT lie i remit 

W _y!20c/ horSe-C^in do wji':' 
Thiy^ iMi have the danda^A 

f.i>o»t 10 Mm ««ut« « *E 




Blackboard figures I to 4 


There are two things that the juniors and even perhaps 
the unhcensed men aboard the ship know about the 
horsepower. One, that it is 33,000 foot pounds per 
minute and, two, that the power of an engine is PLAN/ 
33,000. We propose to show how these are arrived at 

Fig. 1 shows a one horsepower gasoline engine at 
about 4000 rpm, an electric motor at one horsepower 
1800 rpm, and a horse, all drawn to about the same 
scale. This contrast should cause some questions and 
perhaps doubts. It is clear only when we realize that 
the horsepower is a compound unit (made up of several 
factors) and is a rate of transfer or a time rate unit. 
It is a rate of conversion of energy, i.e., foot pounds per 

minute, just like speed is a time rate of covering distance. 
Also shown is the conversion to seconds by dividing 
by 60. The interesting thing about this sketch is the 
poor horse. He has been dragging this load all day as 
indicated by the setting sun. He is covered with perspira- 
tion and tears are running from his eyes. It has been all 
he could do. Although the holdback load is only 100 
pounds it has tired him out. He could easily pull 6 or 8 
times this drag for a short haul but 100 pounds is all he 
could pull as an all day haul. This illustrates accurately 
the origin of the unit of power. In the days of James 
Watt who did so much toward the development of the 
steam engine, the horse was the emblem of strength and 
power, and why not rate an engine in terins of what a 

Page 66 


horse could do? So they tried out an average horse as 
shown in the sketch and arrived at the engineering con- 
clusion that he could drag a load which required 100 
pounds to pull all day and at a speed of 5.5 feet per 
second. This gave the now standard figure of 550 foot 
pounds per second. 

Note that the foot pound is a unit of energy or work 
done, being that of overcoming a force of one pound 
through a distance of one foot. The horse overcame 100 
pounds through 5.5 feet every second of time. Do not 
confuse the pound foot with the foot pound. See Fig. 
2. Torque or twist of anything is measured in pound 
feet. The twisting effect that an engine applies to a 
shaft and also the counter-twist presented by the load 
are both measured in Torque of which the unit is the 
pound foot. 

As indicated in the figure a shaft or drum winding up 
a rope will pull up the rope at a rate of speed determined 
by the rpm of the shaft. A weight or load on the rope will 
apply a resistance to being pulled up and thus the speed 
of the rope and the weight in pounds will give the horse- 
power of the system and also the relation between torque 
times rpm and speed times weight. This relation is 
developed in Fig. 2. 

The "land-mark" or figure to be remembered is the 
3 which is the torque for one horsepower at 1750 rpm. 
This is indicated in Fig. 3 where also is given a list of 
several values of the torque and corresponding rpm, all 
representing one horsepower. From this we may know 
that the tail shaft of our ship turning at 100 rpm and 
delivering 6000 HP has on it a torque of 52 J/^ times 
6000 or 315,000 pound-feet of torque which is 315,000 
pounds applied at one foot from the center. If the "bull" 
gear of the gear reducer is 10 feet in diameter or 5 
foot radius we have 315,000/5 equals 63,000 pounds of 
force applied to the gear teeth of this gear. 

Thus we have two formulas for HP. One for a force 
moving along a line and the other for a torque which is 
also turning. Note that the force or torque is not power 
without the motion or rotation. A force of a thousand 
pounds screwed up in a vise is not power. In fact, if it 
were not for the friction in the worm of the vise and a 
little yield or spring effect in the vise frame it would 
not require any energy or work to set it up to 1000 
pounds although it would require a force. Force is not 
power or work, and speed is not power or work but the 
product of the two is. This is the dual nature of power. 

Applying this to engines we note at once that an 
engine capable of delivering a certain torque can have 
any horsepower rating we may care to give it from one 
or less to many thousands, all depending on the speed we 
care to run it. When this fact fully impresses our mind 
we at once wonder why we do not have engines with 
more power and less weight. This is exactly the question 
that caused DeLaval, Parsons and Curtis at the turn of 
the century to try for more speed using their steam 
turbines. In fact they had a form of engine then that 
could run at such a tremendous speed of 500 rpm that 
no one had a load capable of being driven at that speed. 
Large capacity high speed gears were unknown then. 
Therefore it is speed limitations that limit horsepower. 
There are several of these limits. One is the load, but 

modern gears permit almost any engine speed to be 
geared down to any load. For instance, turbines in 
regular use are running at over 10,000 rpm. Gas turbines 
may run up to 20,000 rpm. But the more serious limit 
is that of the weight of reciprocating parts of the steam 
and diesel engine. And if this limit is partly overcome 
by light weight metals and balance, then we have the 
more serious limit of the speed of the sliding action of 
the piston and rings on the cylinder walls. There seems 
to be no suitable solution of this limit usually referred 
to as piston speed. Even if we could take care of the 
lubrication we would find that the valves would have to 
be too large and would be mechanically difficult. Note 
that increased piston speed means increased steam flow 
because of increased HP. This means larger steam lines 
as well as valves. Of course if we sacrifice economy and 
efiiciency we can increase piston speeds for more HP. 

Fig. 1 shows relation between revolutions per minute 
( rpm ) and piston speed. If L is the length of the stroke 
in feet and N is the number of strokes per minute the 
AVERAGE piston speed is LN but the peak is about 
3/2 LN. While as shown the typical speeds are 20 feet 
per second, some special engines with special valves have 
run at much more than this. The piston speed of diesel 
engines is also limited because of lubrication and tem- 
perature so that 20 feet per second is high. 

Here then is the basic reason why reciprocating en- 
gines will always be limited in capacity or, what amounts 
to the same thing, to weight per HP. Even the reciprocat- 
ing gasoline engine for aircraft at as high as 2000 rpm 
will not exceed a piston speed of 20 to 25 feet per second. 

The weight of reciprocating parts is also a limit. First 
it is impossible to balance out the reciprocating forces in 
all directions. To exactly balance the piston, rod and 
connecting link with all its parts such as crank bearing, 
slipper, and so on in the direction of the piston stroke 
we leave large uncompensated forces in a direction at 
right angles to the shaft and stroke due to the balance 
weights we added. We therefore compromise on balance 
weight. The drivers of a large modern steam locomotive 
may easily leave the rails at each revolution due to the 
weight of the balance weights on the wheel, at some 
high speed. At usual speeds these forces pound the rails, 
sometimes breaking them, and shake the ground notice- 

Our next article will discuss the HP formula and the 
solution of a typical problem. 

Maritime Commission Moves in 8. F. 

Effective Monday, February 16, 1948, the Pacific Coast Di.s- 
trict Offices of the United States Maritime Commission, presently 
located at 220 Bush Street and 65 Sutter Street, in San Francisco. 
will be quartered on the eighth floor at 180 New Montgomery 
Street, San Francisco. 

All correspondence customarily addressed to 220 Bush Street 
and 65 Sutter Street should, on and after February 16, 1948, 
be addressed to the Commission at: 180 New Montgomery 
Street, San Francisco 5, California. 

The telephone number at the new location will be chanwd 
to GArlield 1-0125. 


Page 67 

if Off ^^/ 


h^ "The Skipper" 

Questions Welcomed. Just Address "The Skipper," Pacific 
Marine Review, 500 Sansome St., San Francisco, California 


/ Continued) 

Due to limited space it was impossible in the last 
issue to complete our discussion of the effect of the 
Earth's Magnetism on the ship and compass; so, let 
us continue by taking up: 

Transient Magnetism 

The term transient magnetism does not relate to a 
particular type of the earth's magnetism which is chang- 
ing its direction of flow constantly but rather is a 
peculiar type of magnetism which is found in soft iron 
only. This brings up the question — what is soft iron? 
Soft iron, as we think of it in our study of magnetism, 
is iron or steel which has the ability to become magne- 
tized instantly when placed in a magnetic field and to 
instantly lose this magnetism when removed from the 
magnetic field thus allowing the line of demarcation and 
the distribution of red and blue magnetism to change 
as the direction of the mass changes in relation to the 
lines of force. 

Semi Circular Deviation Due to 
Transient Magnetism 

The remaining part of semicircular deviation which 
was not discussed in the last issue is due to the Transient 
Magnetism in the vertical soft iron of the vessel. This 
is caused by the unequal distribution of vertical soft 
iron forward and aft of the compass. Usually we have 
a greater mass of vertical iron aft of the compass and at 
a height which is nearer the height of the compass such 
as stacks, bulkheads of the superstructure, etc. This being 
true and remembering that vertical iron is affected only 
by the vertical component of the earth's total force we 
can picture mentally how the line of demarcation and 
distribution of red and blue magnetism would be de- 
pendent on the magnetic latitude of the vessel at that 
particular instant. If we picture in our minds a vessel 
in North Magnetic Latitudes, for example, near San Fran- 
Page 68 

Cisco, the plane of the line of demarcation between the 
red and blue magnetism of the vertical soft iron would 
pass through the vessel at an angle of about 28° from 
horizontal thus being at right angles to the vertical lines 
of force of the earth's magnetism. The distribution of 
red and blue magnetism would be red in the lower por- 
tion of the vessel and blue in the upper portion, as the 
following sketch shows. 


C-^oss ?' 


From these sketches we can easily see that the vertical 
iron which is nearest the compass and because of its 
nearness has the greatest effect on the compass is aft of 
the compass and has blue magnetism wlien in North 
Magnetic latitudes. The reverse is, of course, true on 
vessels in South Magnetic latitudes. Since the vertical 
soft iron is usually evenly distributed on either side of 
the center line of the vessel, the poles of the red and 
blue transient magnetism of the vertical soft iron is 
usually assumed to be on the centerline of the vessel. 
By the following sketches it will be quite easy to see how 
a blue magnetic pole aft of the compass would cause semi- 
circular deviation. 




s repr 


t Ma 


c Mer 



Black dot 

alt of 
in vert 






e pole 


White e 


of con 


s ne 




red end 









.f magn 

To compensate for this semi-circular deviation which 
is caused by a greater amount of soft iron aft of the 
compass than forward of it, we simply place a smaller 
mass of soft iron in a vertical position forward of the 
compass and nearer to it. This mass is called the Flinders 
Bar. It is isolated from contact with any other magnetic 
material by means of a brass case and when induced 
with magnetism it also has a line of demarcation and 
a distribution of red and blue magnetism with the blue 
magnetism in the upper end and nearest to the compass 
card, thus counteracting the effect of the blue magnetism 
aft of the compass. The reason this smaller mass is able 
to counteract for the larger mass aft is, as we mentioned 

previously, the magnetic force varies inversely with the 
square of the distance and since the smaller mass is 
much nearer the card than the larger mass, the magnetic 
force exerted on the card is the same. 

To finish our discussion of the causes of semi-circular 
deviation let us sum them up briefly. 

1. First and chief cause is the horizontal component 
of the sub-permanent magnetism of the ship. — Com- 
pensated for: By the small permanent compensating 

2. Second: It is caused by the vertical component 
of the sub-permanent magnetism of the ship. — Com- 
pensated for: By the sm.iU permanent compensating 

3. Third and last cause is the transient magnetism 
in the vertical soft iron of the vessel. — Compensated 
for: By the Flinders Bar. 

Now to take up the cause ol^ Quadrantal Deviation. 

Horizontal Soft Iron and 
Quadrantal Deviation 

Transient magnetism affects horizontal soft iron just 
as it does vertical soft iron and the line of demarcation 
and the resultant distribution of magnetism changes as 
the heading of the vessel changes. In our consideration 
of this transient magnetism which is induced in the 
horizontal soft iron, however, we have to consider the 
fore and aft and athwartship components separately. That 
is to consider the horizontal soft iron which is forward 
and aft of the compass as having two poles and that 
which is athwartships of the compass as having two 
poles. With this consideration we can see that the fore 
and aft component would cause a westerly deviation on 
a North East heading in North Latitude. We can also 
see how the athwartship component would cause easterly 
deviation on a North East heading in North Latitudes. 
Due to the shape of our vessel we have more horizontal 
soft iron forward and aft of the compass than athwart- 
ships and it would seem that the fore and aft component 
would cause the greatest amount of deviation so that 
we would have a remainder of westerly deviation on a 
North East heading. This is not true though, because the 
poles of the fore and aft component are farther away 
from the compass and magnetic force varies inversely 
with the square of the distance. So, we have our greatest 
force in the athwartship component and as a result have 
only to consider this force in our compensation for 
Quadrantal deviation. Knowing this, we see that this 
athwartship pole of red m.ignetism on the port side of 
the vessel in North Latitude would repel the north end 
of the compass card to the Eastward. As the ship swings 
around to East, the athwartship poles come in line with 
the magnetic meridians and the North, South axis of the 
compass card thus causing no deviation. Then as she 
swings to the South East, the athwartship pole of red 
magnetism is to be Eastward of the compass needle, thus 
repelling it to the westward causing westerly deviation. 
Swinging the ship to a south heading, we see the athwart- 
ship poles at right angles to the north south axis of 
the card; thus one pole cancels out the effect of the 
other and no deviation is caused, and so on around 

FEBRUARY • 1941 

Page 69 

the compass card as is shown in the following sketch. 







yadrantal d( 
rlzonlal soft 
Dashed line 

s repre 




e t 

o the 




P c 




Black ends 

of com 


s n 








Black poles 

of ho 




ron r 



blue mag 



Arrows rep 

esent n 



c line 



with in order to make good the desired course. However, 
it will cause the compass card to have an undesirable 
characteristic of swinging constantly from one side to 
the other as the vessel rolls and surely should be cor- 
rected for. This error is always greatest on North or 
South headings. 

Heeling error is caused by three forces. First by the 
sub-permanent magnetism of the vessel in that it changes 
the position of the poles of the sub-permanent magnet- 
ism of the ship in relation to the center line of the ship 
thus causing a change in the deviation caused by these 
poles. Second cause is the Transient magnetism in the 
vertical soft iron of the vessel. This magnetism causes 
no deviation on a NortH or South heading as before 
stated when the vessel is on an even keel; however, if 
we list the vessel to starboard on a North heading in 
North Latitude we can see that the pole of blue magnet- 
ism would shift to port thus deflecting the compass 
needle and causing deviation. Third cause is Transient 
magnetism in soft iron which is horizontal when the 
vessel is on an even keel but takes on vertical character- 
istics when heeled. Again on a North heading in North 
Latitude we see that if we list the vessel to starboard and 
this horizontal soft iron becomes induced with magnetism 
from the vertical component of the earth's total force 
she will have a blue pole on the port side thus causing 
deviation when heeled, as is illustrated in the following 

/"//fs r Cau%E 

Compensation for this Quadrantal deviation in hori- 
zontal soft iron is accomplished by means of quadrantal 
spheres. These spheres are mounted athwartships of the 
compass card and are not connected with any magnetic 
material so that they too become induced with magnetism 
from the horizontal lines of force of the earth's magnet- 
ism thus becoming independent magnets. The line of 
demarcation passes through the center of these spheres 
in an East 'West direction with half of the sphere having 
red magnetism and half having blue magnetism. Always 
that half which is nearest the North has the red magnet- 
ism. Since the athwartship component of the magnetism 
in the horizontal soft iron of the ship is induced by the 
same lines of force that afifect the Quadrantal spheres, 
the north half of the athwartships horizontal soft iron 
will also have red magnetism which causes deviation. 
But, since we have the Quandrantal spheres mounted 
athwartships, the side which has blue magnetism would 
be nearest the compass to compensate for the deviation 
caused by the red magnetism of the horizontal soft iron 
of the ship — the reverse being true with the same com- 
pensating effect on the opposite side of the ship. 

Heeling Error causes us little difficulty with present 
day steam vessels because when a vessel rolls or heels to 
one side causing deviation to the East, she usually rolls 
almost as far to the opposite side thus causing westerly 
deviation or counteracting for the Easterly deviation. 
This was, of course, not true in the days of sailing ves- 
sels when a ship might be heeled over to the same side 
for days thus causing a deviation that had to be reckoned 

T Sfco/vo Cao5,£ 


Th 1^0 C 1US£ 

^^'' J 

In the next and final article on the Magnetic Compass, 
we will discuss the Practical Compensation. 

Page 70 


^umtma ^ca^^tA 






(See Page 72) 


Page 71 





(Details on Paqc 73) 

Among the newly elected 
or continuing officers of the 
Pacific American Steamship 
Assn. are Albert W. Gatov, 
president, whose photo ap- 
pears on page 71, John E. 
Gushing of Matson Naviga- 
tion Co., George A. Pope, 
Jr. of Pope i Talbot, Hen- 
rietta T. Smith, secretary, 
and David N. Lillevand of 
Grace Lines. (Above and 

Also, be 


', left 


right: Ma 


nd S. 


nington of Pa 

cific Tr 


port Lines 

,, A, 

, R. Lin 


of Ameri< 


Mail L 


E. Russell 

Lutz of Ar 


ican Pre 


ent L 


and W. 





} Line. 

'ACiFic mmm mmmv 
mimm mm 

AlbtTt W. Gatov, tor the past two years executive di- 
ector of the Pacific American Steamship Association, 
,vas elected president of the group at its annual meeting 
n San Francisco recently. He succeeds E. Russell Lutz, 
■xecutive Vice President of American President Lines. 
A R. Lintner, President of the American Mail Line, 
s re-elected as PASSA Vice President for the Seattle- 
Pugct Sound Area. Hillman Lueddemann. Pope and Tal- 
■)()t Vice President and Portland Chamber of Commerce 
'^resident, was re-elected as Vice President of the steam- 
,hip group for the Columbia River Area. Matson Navi- 
gation Company's Vice President Ralph J. Chandler was 
Icacd again as Vice President in the Los Angeles-Long 
Ik.iih Area. 
i New Vice Presidents in San Francisco elected at the 
meeting are D. N. Lillevand, Grace Line Vice President 

and Maitland S. Pennington, Vice President of the Pa- 
cific Transport Lines. Henrietta T. Smith, San Francisco, 
was re-elected Secretary-Treasurer. 

John E. Cushing, S. P. Fleming, A. R. Lintner, E. Rus- 
sell Lutz, T. G. Plant, George A. Pope, Jr., and W. T. 
Sexton were elected to the Advisory Board. 

Gatov has been in shipping for over twenty years, 
starting with the Pacific Steamship Company in Los An- 
geles in 1927. He was an Army Major in World War II, 
serving at Fort Mason in San Francisco and overseas in 
the Persian Gulf Command. Before going with PASSA, 
he served for a time with the War Shipping Administra- 
tion in San Francisco. 

The Pacific American Steamship Association comprises 
the sixteen major American flag steamship companies 
operating on the Pacific Coast. 

;. F. mmm ciue 

to right, top Spedk3r nt th 
-president and presiding for 
helping to row the boat. . 
eral Robert Wylie and reti 

day, Maitland Pennington; new 
le day, Ed Harms; lame duck 
• Geary. Lower: Port manager 
dent Miller Laughton. 


Pictures taken at the head table during the January meeting of 
the San Francisco Propeller Club during which Maitland Penning- 
ton spoke eloquently in favor of cooperation in Immediate solving 
of all problems affecting the movement of cargo through Pacific 
Coast ports. His efforts have aroused the industry to action. 

mm RECORD m mwym 

An indication of the remarkable safety record at- 
tained by Bethlehem-Alameda Shipyard, Inc., in build- 
ing the President Cleveland is seen in the fact that 
during the month of June, 1947, no disabling acci- 
dents were experienced and the months of October 
and November ran consecutively with the same result. 

Although shipbuilding is classed as one of the more 
hazardous occupations in industry, and thousands of 
man hours exposure were worked in building the 
Cleveland. Bethlehem-Alameda's frequency rate for 
the year ending November 30, 1947, was only 5.14. 
This means that there were only 5.14 disabling in- 
juries per million hours worked. 



Tmet J. McCormack, Vice-pres. & Treas., Moore- 
s. N. Y., and Eugene F. Moran, Pres., Moran 
Y., before they sailed for Buenos Aires aboard 
k Lines' Argentina on her first postwar voyage 
the East Coast of South America. The liner sailed 
North River, at 5 

January 15. 1948. 


Page 73 

George W. Codrington. general m< 
General Motors Corporation; and J 
Review, at the Press Luncheon held Ja 

sveland Die 
>s, publishe 
Hotel Biltn 


The New York Motor Boat Show, 
January 9 to 17, drew a tremendous 
attendance, and its success was a 
great tribute to George W. Codring- 
ton of the Cleveland Diesel Engine 
Division of General Motors. He has 
been president of the Show for the 
last two years. 

The picture herewith suggests the 
country-wide nature of the motoi 
boat industry. George Codrington is 
from Florida while his office is in 
Cleveland. Jim Hines is from Geor- 
gia while his office is in San Fran- 
cisco. They meet at this greatest evi- 
dence of interest in boating in tiie 
New York Show. 


The Marine Distributors of Series 71 GM Diesel en- 
gines from the United States and Canada attended a two- 
day sales conference in the Biltmore Hotel, New York 
City, on January 8 and 9. This annual meeting sponsored 
by Detroit Diesel Engine Division of General Motors 
and conducted by W. C. Gould, Detroit Diesel, marine 
salesmanager, preceded the opening of the National 
Motorboat Show in which Detroit Diesel had a large 
exhibit of marine engines. 

Among the distributors attending this meeting were 
executives from W. H. Moreton Corporation, Boston, 
Mass., Diesel Marine & Equipment, New York, N. Y., 
Johnson & Towers, Philadelphia, Pa., and Baltimore, Md., 

Paxton Company, Norfolk, Va., Morgans Inc., Savannah, 
Ga., Florida Diesel Sales, Jacksonville, Fla., Kennedy 
Marine Engine Company, Biloxi, Miss., George Engine 
Company, New Orleans, La., Stewart & Stevenson, Hous- 
ton, Tex., Crofton Diesel Engine Company, San Pedro, 
Calif., West Coast Engine Company, Oakland, Calif., 
Gunderson Bros. Engineering Company, Portland, Ore., 
Industrial Marine & Equipment Company, Rochester, N. 
Y., Western Machinery Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

There were many present from Detroit Diesel Engine 
Division including W. T. Crowe, General Manager and 
V. C. Genn, General Salesmanager. 

Page 74 


Forster Shipbuilding 
Company Begins 

"From Rowboats to Battleships" 
is the slogan of the Forster Ship- 
building Company which has just 
been incorporated out of the facili- 
ties and properties of the Garbutt 
and Walsh Shipyard, Terminal Is- 
land, Calif. 

The new company is comprised 
of Thomas B. Forster, president, 
James J. Buntin, secretary-treasurer, 
David Walsh, yard superintendent, 
and E. A. (Bill) Wilson, outside 
superintendent. All have had several 
years experience in the marine field, 
Forster 3.^ years, Buntin 31 years, 
Walsh 25 years, and Wilson 35 
years. Forster and Buntin were as- 
sociated with Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany's Shipyard Division in San 
Pedro, Forster as head of the yard 
there. Walsh has been with Garbutt 
and Walsh for approximately twen- 
ty years. With their well-rounded 
experience the company members 
are able to handle all types of diesel 
engine and hull repairs. 

The shipyard, located at the foot 
of Ferry Street in Terminal Island, 
includes a well equipped machine 
shop, electrical shop, blacksmith 
shop, welding shop, store rooms and 
a boat building shop. It has twelve 
operating marine ways with lifting 
capacity of 200 tons and repair 
wharves with 25 ton lift derrick. 

During World War II the Gar- 
butt and Walsh Shipyard construct- 
ed plane personnel craft and barges 
for the war effort. They have just 
completed a 45-foot sailing sloop. 

In addition to present yard opera- 
tion, the new management intends 
to carry on waterfront repairs, which 
will be taken over by Wilson, who 
is well known in marine repair 

Wheeler Manufacturing 
Company Moves 

Announcement has been made by 
Thomas S. Ryan of the C. H.Wheel- 
er Manufacturing Company of Phil- 
adelphia that their San Francisco 
office has moved from the Rialto 
Building, 1 16 New Montgomery St., 
to Suite 304-5 on 16 California St. 

.eft to right; James J. Buntin, E, A. (Bil 
Vilson Ttiomas B. Forster. and Davi 
Walsh, all of Forster Shipbuilding Co. 

Gage Lund 
[lected to Board 
of Standard Oil 
of California 

Election of Gage Lund to the 
board of directors of the Standard 
Oil Company of California was an- 
nounced following a recent meeting 
of the board. 

Widely known in the oil industry, 
Lund has been chairman of the 
board of The California Company 
and the Standard Oil Company of 
Texas, both wholly-owned subsid- 
iaries of Standard of California. 

A native of Iowa, Lund studied 
at Montana State College and Stan- 
ford University, graduating from 
Stanford in 1924. He joined Stand- 
ard the following year and worked as 
a geologist and drilling foreman in 
the Rockies and Texas for the next 
eleven years until he became division 
superintendent of The California 
Company's Gulf Coast division, with 
offices in Houston. 

In 1938 he was made assistant 
manager of all operations of The 
California Company and Standard 
of Texas, and three years later was 
elected president of The California 
Company. He is a member of the 
Society of Automotive Engineers, 
the American Association of Petro- 
leum Geologists, and the American 
Petroleum Institute. 

FEBRUARY • 1941 

Page 75 


rpHAT THE action of Republic 
-*- Supply Company in opening a 
new branch in Wilmington, Califor- 
nia, has served a useful purpose in 

the marine, petroleum and industrial 
fields in the Los Angeles-Long Beach 
area is indicated by the growing 
activity in and about the warehouse. 

Now readily available to the marme 
trade is a well selected stock of such 
lines as Lunkenheimer valves, 
Stockmen valves and fittings, Tube 
Turns welded fittings, Watson-Still- 
man forged fittings, Great Western 
cordage, Raybestos-Manhattan Rub- 
ber hose and belting, Plomb, Stand- 
ard, Starrett, and Black and Decker 
tools, Broderick and Bascom wire 
rope and slings, Boston and Lock- 
port blocks, and a large assortment 
of miscellaneous supplies. 

Merrill Advances At 
National Lead 

Lloyd W. Merrill has been ap- 
pointed Assistant Sales Manager for 
the Central Division of the Pacific 
Coast Branch of the National Lead 
Company effective January 1, 1948 
according to an announcement made 
by James L. Caruth, Pacific Coast 
Manager for the company. 

Merrill started with the company 
in 1940 as a sales representative in 
San Francisco and was transferred 
in 1942 to the San Joaquin Valley 
territory. He returns from that terri- 
tory to take up his duties in San 
Francisco. He served for two and 
one-half years in the Navy during 
World War II. 

Quiz Questions 

Where is it possible to go from 
coast to coast — from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific— for only $2.40? 

Yep, you're right. Panama! 

On the Panama Railroad ,which is 
owned by your own United States of 
America, you make this transconti- 
nental trip for the small sum of only 
two dollars and forty cents. The line 
itself is only 47 miles in length, but 
it extends from the City of Panama 
to Colon. Of course, it takes a slight 
additional sum to get from wherever 
you happen to be to Panama City! 

At that, when the line was opened 
in 1855, it cost quite a bit more to 
travel on it than it does now. Yes 
indeedy! To discourage travel, so 
they said, they charged 50 cents a 
mile and 5 cents a pound for bag- 

Page 76 


He Laval Changes 
ind Promotions 

Major executive promotions and 
Dfganizational changes affecting 
iiales, production and engineering 
divisions have been announced by 
'[he De Laval Steam Turbine Com- 
i)any, Trenton, New Jersey. 
i Under the reorganization a five 
member executive committee has, 
[seen created consisting of H. L. 
37atson, president, serving as chair- 
nan; George C. Stoddard, chairman 
)f the board; Henry W. Johnson, 
rice president; C. Richard Waller, 
rice president, and George W. 
Jmith, Jr., assistant to the president. 

In executive promotions, J. P. 
Stewart has been appointed manager 
jf the newly combined commercial 
ind marine sales divisions succeed- 
ing H. V. Petersen, who has re- 
ared after thirty-four years' service. 
a. G. Bauer, manager of the marine 
livision, has been appointed execu- 
:ive engineer of the company. J. W. 
Eiertzler, manager of worm gear 

I ales since 1924, has retired and is 
ucceeded by W. A. Reynolds, who 
lecomes manager of the combined 
MO rotary pump and worm gear 
divisions. C. A. Jurgensen has been 
.ippointed acting works manager. 
Appointment of W. A. Neumann, 
Jr., as factory controller, assistant 
treasurer and assistant secretary was 

," announced previously. 

1 1 Earlier this year Messrs. Waller, 
Bauer and Reynolds were com- 
mended by the Bureau of Ships, 
Navy Department, for outstanding 
jontributions to the successful prose- 
cution of the recent war. 

Mr. Stewart came with De Laval 
m 1946 to handle the sales of its 
iinrrifugal compressors after seven- 
th ii years capital goods experience 
Willi the Elliott Company, Jeanette, 
Pennsylvania and Borg-Warner Cor- 
pcir.ition, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 
where he held engineering, produc- 
tuin, sales and executive positions. 

Mr. Bauer joined the De Laval 
organization in 1937 after extensive 
m.irine engineering and shipbuild- 
nii; experience in Europe and in this 
Lduntry. He has concentrated on 
in.irine activities and for the past 
iwd years has been manager of the 



marine division. 

Mr. Reynolds became associated 
with De Laval in 1932 when he was 
made manager of the IMO pump 
division, which he still retains as 
part of his new position. Previously 
he was assistant to the vice presi- 
dent and general manager of the 
Hendey Machine Coinpany, Torr- 
ington, Connecticut, and sales en- 
gineer for the Dravo Corporation, 

For the past sixteen years Mr. 
Jurgen.sen has served in all phases 
of the company's production opera- 
tions, and until his new appointment 
he was manager of manufacturing 
methods and standards. During his 

many years with De Laval, Mr. Jur- 
gensen has introduced and developed 
many advanced metal cutting and 
manufacturing processes particularly 
adaptable to turbine, gear and pump 

Pedley-knowles Takes 
on U S Rubber Line 

Eric Pedley, president of Pedley, 
Knowles & Company, San Francisco 
ship chandlers, announces that his 
company has been appointed distri- 
butor for the complete line of 
mechanical rubber goods manufac- 
tured by the United States Rubber 
Company. This includes U. S. hose, 
packing and belting, expansion 
joints, electrical wire and cable, 
mountings, flooring mats and mat- 

"The addition of the U. S. me- 
chanical rubber merchandise en- 
larges our line of marine merchan- 
dise carried in stock," says Pedley, 
"which includes Pittsburgh Plate 
Glass Company Marine Finishes, 
Bethlehem Wire Rope, Whitlock 
Cordage, Boston and Lockport 
Blocks, Condenser Service & Engi- 
neering Company's products, as well 
as other deck, engine room and 
steward supplies." 

Pedley-Knowles' office and ware- 
house are at 1 34 Sacramento St., 
San Francisco. 

Page 77 

M. J. Buckley Appointed 
Senior Vice President 
of API 

Appointment of M. J. Buckley as 
senior vice president in charge of 
planning and development for 
American President Lines, Ltd. has 
just been announced by George Kil- 
lion, president of the company. 

Buckley has devoted his business 
career to the Maritime Industry and 
development of the American Mer- 
chant Marine. For fifteen years he 
was associated with the Pacific Mail 
Steamship Company, and in 1917 
was appointed president of Ocean 
Steamship Agencies, Inc. In 1921 he 
became assistant manager and man- 
ager of operations for the United 
States Shipping Board, Washington, 
D. C. He was associated with the 
Dollar Steamship Lines for sixteen 
years as freight traffic manager and 
later as vice president in charge of 
freight traffic. In 1938 he was ap- 
pointed vice president in charge of 
freight traffic for American Presi- 
dent Lines and also served as a mem- 
ber of the board of directors and a 
member of the executive committee 
of the company. 

During the course of his career 
Buckley has traveled extensively to 
the Far Eastern markets served by 
his Company, and has been in de- 
mand as a public speaker and spokes- 
man for the industry in this country 
and abroad. He served as industry 
adviser to the State Department at 
the meeting of the United Maritime 

Consultative Council in Amsterdam 
in June 1946 in connection with the 
over-all problems of all the maritime 

Buckley has contributed many 
widely-read articles on shipping and 
foreign commerce to newspapers 
and technical publications and has 
taken an active part as panel leader 
and speaker in the annual meetings 
of the American Merchant Marine 
Conference, the Propeller Club of 
the United States, the National For- 
eign Trade Council, and various Pa- 
cific Coast domestic and foreign 
commerce groups. He has been ac- 
tive in the formation and develop- 
ment of traffic conferences, pools 
and related organizations in various 
parts of the world, and is generally 
recognized as one of the best inform- 
ed shipping experts in domestic and 
foreign trade. 

G. Stewart Brown Ap- 
pointed By Standard Oil 
of California 

Appointment of G. Stewart 
Brown, former State Department 
official, as manager of the public 
relations department of the Stand- 
ard Oil Company of California, was 
recently announced by the company 
at San Francisco. 

Brown was a LInited Press corre- 
spondent in Europe for ten years, 
serving in London, Paris, Geneva, 
Rome and Vienna. In 19.39 he was 
appointed director of public infor- 

Danlel D. Strohmcier ^ 

Strohmeier Heads ] 
Bethlehem Shiphuilding 

Daniel D. Strohmeier has beer 
appointed to succeed the late W. H 
Collins as vice president in charge 
of Bethlehem Steel's shipbuilding 

Assistant to the vice presideni 
since 1942, Mr. Strohmeier's entire 
business career has been with the 
shipbuilding division of Bethlehem 

He was on the executive staff oi 
the shipbuilding division during 
Bethlehem's wartime building prO' 
gram and a representative of the 
shipbuilding industry on the Gov- 
ernment's wartime Shipbuilding 
Labor Stabilization Committee. He 
also served as a representative of the 
industry on the Shipbuilding Com 
mission of the War Labor Boa;'d. 

mation for the American Red Cross 
in Washington, later serving as vice 
chairman in charge of national pub- 
lic relations and fund raising foi 
the Red Cross. The War Depart- 
ment appointed him director of pub- 
lic relations of the Allied Commis- 
sion in Italy in 1945, and he headed 
the United States Information Serv- 
ice in Italy when the Commission 

Prior to his appointment with 
Standard, he was deputy director o( 
the Office of Information and Edu- 
cational Exchange in Washington, 
He is a graduate of the University 
of Arizona. 

Page 78 


Nrw riinslniil iiiii — |{i:i:iiii il il inn i iii| — lliiiiiiirs 

vmm %\imm job u the coast 

The largest "crack arrestor" or 
"strapping" job on the Pacific Coast 
has just been completed at Bethle- 
hem s San Francisco Yard. This job, 
which was accomplished in the rec- 
ord time of 18 working days, was 
performed on the T-2 tanker Elk 
Basin, recently purchased from the 
U. S. Maritime Commission by Gen- 
eral Petroleum Company. It far ex- 
ceeded requirements set up for this 
type of vessel by the U. S. Coast 
Guard and the American Bureau of 
Shipping in that 8 straps were in- 

stalled instead of 4. This was be- 
cause it was General Petroleum 
Company's wish to give further than 
the required protection to the ship 
and her crew. 

The eight straps were installed as 
follows: one on each side of the 
keel on the bottom and Deck of the 
ship, and two on each side, one just 
below the sheer strake and one just 
above the bilge strake. Cuts in the 
shell and deck plating, over which 
these straps were riveted, were made 
with an oxyacetlyene burning ma- 

chine specially designed by engin- 
eers at the yard. This machine will 
make precision flame cuts in a verti- 
cal or horizontal position which are 
free from any irregularities. 

The two bottom straps were in- 
stalled just outboard of the longi- 
tudinal bulkhead with two rows of 
rivets on each side of the cut. The 
two lower side straps were installed 
just above the turn of the bilge and 
just below the sheer strake with 

(Continued on Page 80 1 

FEBRUARY • 1941 

Page 79 

three rows of rivets on each side of 
the cut. The two bottom straps con- 
sisted of %" plate; the lower side 
shell straps 1" plate and the upper 
side shell straps of iVi" and 1" 
plate; the two deck straps 1" plate. 
In addition to installing eight 
straps on the Elk Basin, Bethlehem's 
San Francisco Yard also carried out 
the latest recommendations of the 
American Bureau of Shipping as to 
stiffening on the center line trans- 
verse bulkheads. This additional 
work, which was accomplished in 
conjunction with the strapping, re- 
quired considerable planning and co- 
ordination. This was so that after 
bottom straps and the lower side 
shell straps were installed, a flood 
test of the wing tanks above the side 
straps could be conducted to insure 
tightness of the straps and to eli- 

Top: Uppe 
Center: R 


■ivets wer 
for the 


Basin strapping [ob, 
all of these produced 
in the Bolt and Nut 
Departnnent of Bethle- 
hem Pacific Coast Steel 
Corporation's South 
San Francisco Plant. 

shell strap. 


(Continued on Page 85) 

Top: Specially designed burning machine making lower side shell cut. 

Below: Oxy-Acetylene burning machine, designed at Bethlehem 

Steel Company's San Francisco yard, shown making a bottom cut 

on the Elk Basin. 



. i / 

Page 80 


n E 111 S F L e S H E s 


Date for the opening of bids for the reconversion and modernization of 
the SS MONTEREY has been postponed from January 30 to February 27 at the request 
of the interested shipyards. Bids are being taken on partial completion and full 
completion. It is understood that the Mariposa will go to the yard that gets 
the Monterey. 


The 17,226 gross ton passenger liner SS MATSONIA will be withdrawn from 
Service and offered for sale when she completes her voyage from Honolulu to San 
Francisco on April 20. 

:^ ;{; :(c :): :]e 


The 390-foot liner George Washington, a familiar name to thousands of 
American coastwise travelers before World War II, has been sold to the Alaska 
Transportation Company for passenger service between Seattle and Alaska. 

The vessel was purchased for $180,000 from the Maritime Commission but an 
additional $350,000 in refitting costs will be necessary to put her into shape. 
Bids for the work were invited from yards on both coasts. 

ii; ilp ^ :i: ^ 


Postwar calls at San Francisco by United Fruit Company's banana ships will 
be re-established about February 26. Six of the company's newest fully refriger- 
ated vessels — Junior, San Jose, Limon, Parasmina, Fra Berlanger and Camayagua — 
will serve San Francisco with an anticipated weekly discharge of 35,000 stems. 


Contracts totaling approximtely $50,000,000 for the construction of thir- 
teen new "super tankers" were awarded recently by three major oil companies as 
part of a program of replacing obsolete tonnage. 

Eleven of the tankers are to be built by the Sun Shipbuilding and Dry 
Dock Company, Chester, Pa. , and two are to be built by the Newport News Ship- 
building and Dry Dock Company, Newport News. Va. 

Of the tankers to be built at the Sun yard, two are for the Standard Oil 
Company of New Jersey, New York; two for the Gulf Oil Corporation, New York, and 
seven for Tankers Company, Inc., to be chartered to Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, 

FEBRUARY • 1948 Page 81 

Inc. , New York. The tankers to be built at the Newport News yard are for the 
Standard Oil Company of New Jersey. 


The SS LURLINE, Matson Navigation Company's famous passenger liner of 
prewar days now being converted from a troop transport to her former status, 
will go on drydock February 29 at Bethlehem Steel Company, Shipbuilding Divi- 
sion, San Francisco Yard. Here the underwater body of her hull will be sand- 
blasted and painted, her rudder will be removed for repairs, both tailshafts 
will be drawn for examination and two spare propellers will be installed. In 
addition, sea valves will be overhauled and renewed, and double bottom tanks, 
cofferdams, deep tanks, etc., will be tested. 

The ship will be on drydock approximately two weeks, following which she 
will be returned to Pier 36 where her outfitting will be completed. She is 
scheduled to resume her regular passenger service to Los Angeles and Honolulu 
April 15. 
















U.S. Army Trans. Corps 

Pillsbury & Martignoni 

U.S. Army Trans. Corps 

Kerr S.S. C. 

Pillsbury k Martignoni 

Matson Nav. Co. 

A. P. Lines 

U.S. Army Trans. Corps 

Matson Nav. Co. 

U.S. Army Trans. Corps 

U.S. Lines 

A. P. Lines 

A. P. Lines 

Pac. Coast Aggregates 


Conv. & Eng. Rep. 


Main Eng. Repairs 


Rep. & Alteration 

Routine D. D. 


Rep. & Alteration 

D.D. & Repairs 

Survey & Repairs 

Routine D. D. 

Misc. Repairs 

Survey & Repairs 


There is 31,000 feet of Bethlehem Steel elevator cable in the New I. 
Magnin Company building in San Francisco. Elevators are Westinghouse. 


In the face of its decision to withdraw from westbound intercoastal 
operations for the duration of the walking boss strike in San Francisco, Luck- 
enbach Line went ahead with a program to purchase 16 C-type ships for domestic 

James Sinclair, president and general manager of the line, said in New 
York that the firm's new fleet plan envisaged the acquisition of 11 C-3 and 
five C-2 freighters from the Maritime Commission. It was estimated that this 
fleet will cost the line a minimum of $24 million. The line expects the first 
deliveries in the C-3 group to be made as early as October. 

Despite persistent rumors that Luckenbach was planning to use the ships 
in offshore trade, Mr. Sinclair insisted that the entire fleet would be used 
in the domestic trades as long as the volume of cargo was sufficient to keep 
them full. 

i\: ^ ^. ^ ^ 


During the month of December, 15 new factories were established in Los 
Angeles County with a total investment of SI. 591.000, and creating 490 new jobs 
for factory workers. Thirty-five existing plants were expanded, calling for 
an additional investment of $3,399,000 and creating 885 new industrial jobs. 

Page 82 


Total investment in the 50 new and expanded units was $4,990,000, creating 
i total of 1,375 new jobs. 

For the year to date, 215 new factories were established with a total 
investment of 169,852,000, and creating 7,811 new jobs; 417 existing plants 
irere expanded, calling for an additional investment of $54,959,500, and creat- 
ing 13,535 new industrial jobs. 

Total investment for the year to date in the 632 new and expanded units 

(iias $124,811,500, creating a total of 21,346 new jobs. 
I ***** 


President W. R. Herod of the International General Electric Company Inc. 
las announced that a contract has been signed in Buenos Aires between General 
Electric S.A. , Argentina, and the Argentine State Railways, under which General 
Electric will supply Argentina with 95 diesel-electric locomotives within the 
lext three years. 

Covering 60 single-unit and 35 double-unit engines, plus spares, the 
contract will approximate $18,000,000, Mr. Herod said. Deliveries are scheduled 
-.0 begin early in 1949 and will continue for a 15-month period. 


San Francisco Port of Embarkation sent 6,520,762 measurement tons of cargo 
Dverseas to Pacific bases in 1947. 

Fully 90 per cent of the total cargo was carried in commercial bottoms 
operated by private shipping firms. Of the more than two and one-half million 
tons lifted in the San Francisco Bay Area every ton handled at Army piers was 
Loaded by private stevedoring firms operating under Army contracts and that 
noving over commercial piers was handled by the shipping firms themselves. 


Ij Award of contract for the $2,697,970 worth of pier construction which will 

•create thirteen additional berths at Long Beach Harbor was made recently. Two 
pier building jobs involved in the contracts are the extension of Pier B and 
creation of a new Pier C midwise in the Outer Harbor, running southward from El 
Embarcadero. The 500-foot wide Pier B will be extended southward for 1200 feet 
and Pier C will measure 600 by 2476 feet. The project will create more than 
40 acres of new land in the Long Beach Harbor Area. It is expected that the 

, construction on the new 1150-by-200-f oot transit shed on Victory Pier, which 

l|iiras awarded several weeks ago, will start promptly. 



The general contract for the construction of the new two million dollar 
G-E motor plant in San Jose has been awarded to Parker, Steffens & Pearce, San 
Francisco, according to an announcement by John Hood, Manager of the General 
Electric Company's Oakland works which includes San Jose manufacturing. The 
plant will be completed and operating by Fall. 

tv ***** 


The Netherlands merchant fleet, half of which was lost during the war, 
is nearing prewar levels, according to a report reaching here from Holland. 
The nation's present total shipping tonnage is approximately 2,450,000 tons 
compared to 2,875,000 in 1939. 

Shipping of approximately some 300,000 tons is currently being built, 
while the purchase of more American vessels is being negotiated. It is the aim 
to achieve the country's 1930 total of 3,000,000 tons. 

FEBRUARY • 1948 Page 83 


mmm damage 

Above picture shows damage 

suffered by the 4.883-ton diesel 

freighter Brimanqer in a recen 

collision off Baranquilla, South 

America, with the Grace Line ves 

el. Santa Monica. The Brimanger. 

built in Newcastle, England, in 

1929 and owned by the Westfal- 

Larsen Co., is shown at Bethleh 

em Steel Company, Shipbuilding 

Division. San Francisco Yard, wh 

ere damage to her shell plating. 

after quarters and internal fra 

me members is being repaired. 

General Steamship Compan 

are agents for the vessel. 

U. S. Army Transport. David C. Shanks, gets new streamlmed stack. 
This ship is now undergoing a modernization-conversion at Bethle- 
hem Steel Company's San Francisco Yard. The stack, 28 ft. high. 
25 ft. long and IS ft. wide, is made of '/■>" aluminum plate rein- 
forced with steel and aluminum bracings. It was completely fabri- 

cated and erected by Bethlehem. 

The U. S. Army Transport, Fred C. Ainsworth. also ur.c'e'going a 

conversion at Bethlehem's San Francisco Yard, will get a .imilar 

stack in the near future. 


The Muhlenberg Victory, -which made the news last 
year as a specially-constructed cattle carrier taking beef 

The bottom of the Muhlenberg Victory presents a honeycomb 

effect on the drydock at the Todd Brooklyn shipyard after nearly 

alt of her plates have been burned away. 

on the hoof to Europe for the starving millions, entered 
the Todd Brooklyn shipyard during December for -what 
is considered to be the largest bottom job ever performed 
by Todd on a freighter. She ran aground last October 
off San Juan, Porto Rico, and the resultant damage re- 
quires the renewal of 80 plates, the repair of 30 more, 
and the replacement of more than 50^ < of the "floors" 
in the double-bottom. 

The Muhlenberg Victory is a familiar tenant at the 
Todd yard, which twice previously converted her for new 
service. In June, 1946 Todd converted the cargo-carrier 
to a troopship; then about a year later, changed her once 
again, this time to a bovine boat, complete with "first 
class" accommodations for 860 beefy passengers. About 
a year ago, she was converted once more back to her 
original status as a cargo carrier and chartered from the 
Maritime Commission by the Porto Rico Line. 

After the repair job, which also includes opening up 
her turbines for inspection and overhaul where necessary, 
she will be returned to the Maritime Commission. 

Page 84 


Pope & Talbot Lines Intercoastal Service 


Modern Cargo Ships Every 15 Days— Each Way 

Ability to meet to<lay"s sales and tlistriliiilioii jnol)leins in serviiif; old 

markets and opening new ones, is materially enhanced with Pope & 

Talhot Lines' dej)cndable, frequent and coinplele Intercoastal Service. 

Regular schedules, latest equii>nu'nt for loading and unloading, ample 

terminals with rail facilities, modern handling methods, personnel with 

a comi)lete knowledge of the shipping jol) to he done . . . these are factors 

that merit your consideration of Pope & Talliot Lines when you ship 


Write, litre or phone nearest office for sailing schedules and 
information that trill assist yoti in your shipping problems. 



FXKcmvi: OKn<;i> 


^^^ nuMisco i 


(itiil Tt'rtiiinnls 







SAN JUAN, P.R. 18 

Foreign Agency - Offices 


Strapping Job 

iLoiitinued /row Page 80 1 

minate the problem of flooding the 
centerline tank. 

Another impottant feature of the 
work on the Elk Basin was the in- 
stallation of a three-cargo pipe seg- 
regation system, enabling the vessel 
to carry three types of oil cargo at 
any one time without the danger of 
one contaminating the other. 

On completion of the above work, 
all wing cargo tanks, port and star- 
board were filled and headed to 8' 
above the main deck to insure tight- 
ness between the tanks and to check 
the stoppers in way of the newly in- 
stalled straps. In connection with 
this work it was also necessary to 
remove and relocate a total of 16 
wheel stands and operating rods 
and install new ones for operating 
the new 3-cargo pipe segregation 

In addition to strapping the Elk 
Basin, installing a 3-cargo pipe seg- 
regation system and performing var- 


ious structural modifications, Beth- 
lehem also performed normal voyage 
repairs on the vessel, removed the 
complete mechano flight deck, the 
gun foundations fore and aft, the 
magazine in the fore peak and after 
peak tanks and restored these tanks 
to the required additional stiflfening 
of their original design. 

All strapping and structural modi- 
fications were performed under U.S. 
Coast Guard and American Bureau 
of Shipping inspection. 

Painting Guide 

The Sales Training Department 
of Devoe & Raynolds Co., Inc., has 
just released a book entitled "Devoe 
Painting Guide." 

The book was written to insure 
the proper use of paint and related 
materials. The method of painting 
each major type of surface — walls, 
furniture, woodwork, floors, etc. — 
is given on a single double page 
spread which also gives spreading 
rates, drying time, surface prepara- 

tion and a short description of the 
products recommended. 

Its unusual cover is the index, 
which simplifies locating any desired 
information. No reading through 
unnecessary materials to find what 
is needed immediately. 

Copies may be obtained by send- 
ing 50 cents to Sales Training Dept., 
Devoe & Raynolds Co., Inc.. 787 
First Ave., New York 17, N. Y. 


Pane 85 



There is but one genuine 

Self-Lubricating Rope made and 
placed on the market by FITLER, 
patented by FITLER and easily 
identified as a FITLER product 
by the Self - Lubricating 
"Green Yarn Center" 


Beware of imitations — 

Ask for "LUBRICORE," the 
Self - Lubricating Green Yarn 
Center Pure Manila Rope made 

The Edwin H. Filler Co. 




Sperry Introduces Mag- 
netic Compass Pilot at 
Motor Boat Show 

Reliablt means for automatic, un- 
attended steering for yachtsmen, 
fishermen and work boat operators 
was the central feature of the Sperry 
Gyroscope exhibit at the thirty- 
eighth annual National Motor Boat 
Show. It is called the Magnetic Com- 
pass Pilot. 

Prior to its public debut at the 
show, a few models were installed 
for operational testing on fishing 
boats and yachts. "It tends the helm, 
while we tend the nets," is the 
thumbnail description given the 
Sperry pilot by a dragger skipper 
operating off Long Island. In other 
words, for fishermen and commer- 
cial operators, such automatic con- 
trol relieves the helmsman for other 
duties when an extra "hand" is most 

The Magnetic Cumpass Pilot is 

the first of its kind in that it success- 
fully combines a standard magnetic 
compass with reliable control mecha- 
nisms. The equipment is simple and 
easy to operate, and Sperry officials 
forecast its use by craft as small as 
25-30 feet. Using either 32 or 110 
volt DC, the pilot requires very lit- 
tle power. 

A controller, with a knob and 
course indicator, is attached to the 
top of a standard magnetic compass. 
An operator turns this knob to "dial 
his course", and the boat will turn 
to course and hold it automatically 
until a new course is set in. This is 
done by a pickoff which senses the 
compass reading and applies con- 
trol through an electronic amplifier 
to the steering engine. 

A component of the equipment is 
a remote controller. It is a small, 
hand-held device with a flexible 
cable which permits rudder changes 
to be made from any point on deck 
away from the helm. 










m) is 


erved by 




r. ab 


his yacht 


steamer Service to Cafallna 


TUGBOAT OFFICE: Berth 82, San Pedro, California 
TELEPHONE NUMBERS: Terminal 2-4292; Terminal 2-4293; Long Beach 636-563 
~~ WHISTLE CALL FOR TUGS: 1 long — 3 short 

GENERAL OFFICE: Catalina Terminal, P. O. Box 847, Wilmington, Calif. 

Phones: Terminal 4-5241; Nevada 615-45; Long Beach 7-3802 

Member — American Waterways Operators 

Portable Cleaner Stand 
Saves Time 

The Tivit Portable Parts Cleaner 
Stand manufactured by Kelite Prod- 
ucts, Inc., Los Angeles, is a sturdy 
welded steel unit, which can be 
wheeled right up to the job. It holds 
a standard five-gallon can of Kelite 
Formula 555 — a new fire-safe, 
quick-acting cleaner — and a five- 
gallon rinse can. 

The mechanic merely drops the 
grimy parts into the basket as they 
are removed from the job. After a 
short soak the basket is lifted out 
and dunked in the rinse can. Parts 
come out clean and bright — easy to 
repair and reassemble. 

Lamont Given 
Honor Award 

I'lir Ins wartime services in the 
liclJ of shipbuilding, R. J. Lamonr. 
\Kc president of Todd Shipyard 
( (irporation, recently received a 
Presidential Certificate of Merit. 

Lamont, wartime head of the 
Indd-Pacific Shipyards, was pre- 
sented formally with the award by 
F<car Admiral George H. Fort, 1 3th 
Naval District commandant, at the 
Seattle Naval Station. 

The citation, signed by President 
I ruman, praised the Seattle execu- 
ti\e for "outstanding fidelity and 
meritorious conduct in aid of the 
war eflort against the common 
enemies of the United States and its 
allies in World War II." 

The Harbor Island yard at Seattle 
winch Lamont headed produced a 
fleet of destroyers, several of which 
m.ide sea history in battles against 
Axis navies. 

Westinghouse Booklet 
Describes Point to Point 


I he new point-to-point radio 
Liiiiimunication equipment is des- 
cribed in a new booklet of the West- 
ii\i;liouse Electric Corporation. Typi- 
cal .ipplications for this equipment 
are; ship-to-shore; between airports; 
and industrial communication sys- 
tems such as mining, lumbering 
.md construction. 

Ihis 8-page booklet shows the 
.ul.iptability of the Westinghouse 
type MV equipment to cover all 
radio communication demands by 
offering all these types of service 
from one transmitter: on-off tel- 
egraphy, frequency shift keying, fac- 
simile, MCW and radio-telephony. 

The center spread chart illustrates 
the inherent "building-block" de- 
sign, by which only those units 
needed to perform .specific tasks 
need be incorporated in any final 

■ Copies of the booklet (8-3945) 
i may be obtained from the Westing- 
I house Electric Corporation, P. O. 
■ Box 868, Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 


I' J. Lamont shown 
■ ith Rear Admiral 
George H. Fort. 13th 
Naval District Com- 
mandant. Seattle Naval 












Page 87 

Stability and Trim Eiiperimental Tank 

iCviiliiiueil from Page 51 1 

evaluated. The Cadet-Midshipman at this point in the 
course is well acquainted with stability principles. The 
reader of this article who is not similarly equipped may 
find the demonstration somewhat difficult to follow. 

Demonstration 11 — Free Surface 

1. To show the effect of slack tanks on a vessel's sta- 

2. To show how the effect of free surface on metacen- 
tric height and the stability curve can be calculated 
and used to advantage in correcting or preventing 
a poor stability condition. 

Facilities and Equipment 

1. Tank and model (Inclining gear attached). 

2. Meter and hose. 

3. Ballast weights and adjusting blocks. 

4. Graph paper. 

General Description of Demonstration 

Select any given condition of displacement and GM. 
Flood one or more tanks so that in each case the tank is 
slack. Calculate the GM and draw up a statical stability 
curve for the condition. The free surface correction table 
may be used to make corrections to initial stability. In 
drawing up the statical stability curve it must be remem- 
bered that the reduction in righting arms due to the 
virtual rise of the center of gravity is only valid for ini- 
tial stability, that is, for about 10 degrees of inclination. 
The free surface correction may increase very slightly for 
moderate angles of inclination, then decrease rapidly as 
"pocketing" occurs. The extent of these changes will vary 
with the length-breadth ratio of the tank and the depth 
of water within the tank. If the virtual GG' is used to 
calculate the correction to righting arms for all angles of 
inclination the curve will show less stability than the 
vessel actually possesses at large angles of inclination. 
There is no known method of rapidly computing the 
actual reduction to righting arms at larger angles of in- 
clination due to "pocketed" free surface. 


14.20 in. 


12.91 in. 

GM: ( - 

-) 1.29 in. 

1.51 in. 


1.51 in. 

In the demonstration pocketing should be ignored in 
drawing the calculated curve; inclining the model and 
measuring actual righting arms will produce the proper 
curve. The Cadet-Midshipman will then be able to make 
up his own mind on any possible approximation for in- 
creasing righting arms at large angles over that cal- 

Demonstration 11 — Free Surface 

Data Sheet 

Displacement Condition 2 (c) 

Wcisht Vertical 

in lbs. VCG Moments 

Model, light 1035 10.8 11178 

100 lb, weights 400 1 1.0 4400 

Top weights 135 35.0 4725 

No 3 Hold, flooded 200 13.0 2600 

(Compensating ( Free Su 

Other I Blocks! 30 I 1.0 3 30 

TOTALS 1800 23233 ( Corrected » GM: f — I .22 in. 

STEP 1 : Calculate GM, corrected for free surface as 

STEP 2: Draw a statical stability curve for this con- 
dition. ( See Graph ) 

STEP 3: Incline the model. Compare actual stability 
characteristics with stability characteristics 
as shown in calculated curve. 

STEP 4: Conclusions. 

OFF 100 LB. WTS. 




The Department of Nautical Science at Kines Point 
hopes that future merchant marine officers will learn 
from the model. Miss Calculntion. an expert and confident 
knowledge of stability which will prevent them from 
miscalculating when it counts; when they have to make 
decisions which may mean the saving or loss of their 
ship and their shipmates. 

BOOK umn 

McAdams; published by Stephen Daye Press. Price S3. 75; 
224 pages; 6V4" x 9V2". 

The Priscilla, which made her first voyage on June 25, 
1894, was the acknowledged queen of the Fall River 
Line. She was beloved by millions of Americans who 
knew her during the forty-three years she sailed Long 
Island Sound. 

Priscilla of Fall River contains many amusing episodes 
and exciting tales of danger and heroism. It adheres 
strictly to fact, although it is written in conversational 
style and moves like a novel. The author is a recognized 
authority on this era of American life. He is the grandson 
of a Rhode Island builder of sailing vessels, growing up 
in the tradition of Sound shipping, and his life and ex- 
perience have been closely interwoven with the history 
of which he writes. The Priscilla had a long life, and her 
story makes good reading. 

Charles, Naval Architect, with foreword by Maj. Gen. 
Edmond H. Leavey, Chief of Transportation, U. S. Army. 
Sponsored by The Army Transportation Association. 
Price $3.25; 374 pages; 6" x 9"; 360 illustrations. 

Here in one volume is packed authentic and detailed 
information about the vessels, large and small, that were 
utilized in the biggest ocean troop movement in history. 
The naval architects and engineers who designed these 
ships, the shipbuilders and yard workers who constructed, 
converted or repaired them, and the miUions of troops 
who rode them into battle zones, will find this book a 
treasured lore. Libraries, ship owners and operators, ma- 
rine insurance and salvage companies, custom house 
brokers, stevedoring companies, newspaper offices and 
all others interested in ships will find Troopships of 
World War II indispensable as a reference work 

Page 88 


mBmm wmmm 

{Cunti'iueiJ jrom Pjge 61) 
light turns to premiums, on commissions, on conditions, 
on the agency system, on the whole industry itself. And 
being flexible the industry moulds itself to meet new cir- 
cumstances. The moulding is not always easy and many 
interests are frequently involved, but friction is avoided 
by co-operation between representative bodies, and I, for 
one, look forward to the time when all those bodies in the 
industry will be knit even closer togerher than they are 
at present, so that insurance can be developed on the best 
possible lines to an unassailable position." 


"Lloyds: By An Observer," is the title of a timely 
article in "Lloyd's Diary for 1948," printed and issued 
by the Corporation of Lloyd's, London, England. After 
pomting out that the history of Lloyd's goes back for 
over two and a half centuries to the year 1687-8 — at that 
time it was a coffee house in the City of London fre- 
quented by shipowners, seafaring men and merchants 
who had a common interest in shipping and marine in- 
surance — the article proceeds: 

In spite of the growing complexity of business and 
:he increasing supervision of the Committee, in spite of 
the many changes necessitated by two world wars, in 
spite of restrictive foreign legislation, the spirit of free 
underwriting and the exercise of individual judgment 

"From 1940 to 1945 w-ar cur the connection between 
I loyd's and many of its friends in Europe, but the old 
ties, one by one, are being restored; former policy- 
holders are turning to Lloyd's again; and as men revert to 
the normal routine of commerce, as the economic prob- 
lems that "War bequeaths to Peace are solved, as ex- 
changes thaw and the chains are removed from interna- 
tional trade, Lloyd's Underwriters are rendering again 
rheir traditional service to the World." 


Being converted to a cargo carrier, the former LSM il gets a 
face-lifting" treatment at Bethlehem Steel Company's Staten 
Island Yard. Weighing 56,000 pounds and extending 40 feet in 
length. 20 feet in height and 26 feet in width at its widest, the 
new peacetime bow being swung into place here was prefabri- 
cated at the yard and replaces the craft's former landing-ramp 
bow. The vessel also will be fitted with an after pilot house, stack 
cargo booms and hatches for the Portuguese coastwise trade. 

OS&Y Rising S*em 
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L» Aaiil'i • Senile • Poilind • Silt like Cll) • Dentei • El Pi» • Men Toik • Hirtttrl • lasllntM. I.C. 

Page 89 

Ship Forms 

iCoiiliiiued from pugc -4() I 

resistance of a new ship by Taylor's Standard Series or 
any other, for that matter, is that the horsepower curve 
so derived is not that of the new ship — it is merely that 
for a Standard Series form having the same hull charac- 
teristics as the new ship. Since Taylor's parent form was 
that of a fine-lined naval vessel, his curves were for many 
years useful only for estimating the resistance of high 
speed passenger vessels. The slow cargo vessels were tar 
out of range. 'With today's cargo vessels approaching the 
speeds of yesterday's passenger ships, the model tank 
curves are falling nearer the results of a Standard Series 
calculation. Some beamy shallow draft vessels will have 
less resistance than that indicated by Taylor's curves. 

In 1927 A. L. Ayre presented a method of approxi- 
mating the effective horsepower of a new ship which was 
based on the results of some model tests as well as general 
practice. Additional model tests showed the need for re- 
visions which were published in 1933. By this method 

where Cj is a coefficient whose basic value is taken from a 
set of curves by entering with 'V/\/L and L/D'''^ The 
value obtained is then corrected for variations in beam- 
draft ratio, block coefficient and position of the longi- 
tudinal center of buoyancy. The standard beam-draft ratio 
is 2.0, the standard block coefficient is 1.08 — 'V/2\/L 
while the ideal position of longitudinal center of buoy- 


BLOCK COEF • .SW PRI5 00£F • .iB3 MIPiECT CO£r - . 987 

ancy is as follows in terms of percentage of ship's length 
forward or aft of the midship station: — 

V/VL 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 

Single Screw, o/o 2F 1.9F 1.6F 1.2F 0.2F I.IA 
Twin Screw, o/o IF 0.9F 0.7F 0.2F 0.8A 2.1A 

These positions for the longitudinal center of buoy- 
ancy are based on McEntee's experiments of 1918; recent 
experiments seem to point to a slight movement aft of 
the values noted. 

In Great Britain, it is common practice to give the re- 
sults of model tests in Froude's notation, i.e. by (C) 
curves plotted on 'V/\/L or (P) which equals 
'V/1.34\/PL where P is the prismatic coefficient. The 
value of ( P) is an indication of the wave-making resist- 
ance of a particular form. The (C; curves are usually 
for a ship 400 feet long — Froude's original base was 300 



















feet. The correction factors for other lengths are: — 

Length Deduct 

450 .007 

500 .013 

600 .024 

700 .033 

800 .041 

900 .048 

1000 .054 

In choosing a (C) value for estimating the resistance 
of a new ship, all characteristics and a section area curve 
of the parent model should be available for comparison. 
For a given prismatic coefficient the (C) value increases 
rapidly above a certain V/\/L value — this point is de- 
termined by inspection from the curves and its value used 
in determining E.H.P. With present knowledge of hull 
forms it is possible to obtain for ordinary slow cargo 
vessels a ( C ) as low as 0.60. 

"While it is impossible to condense the entire procedure 
of ship design into a few paragraphs it will not be amiss 
to note a few important points relative to resistance. A 
ship owner desiring to build an addition to his fleet must 
study the requirements of his particular trade and furn- 
ish at least the following information to the naval archi- 
tect: — 

1. Type of cargo and required deadweight or cubic 

2. Size restriction, i.e.. maximum length, breadth or 
draft. . 

3. Trial or sea speed. 

4. Length of trip or maximum distance between bunk- 
ering ports. 

I Please turn to page 92) 

Page 90 



Type TMSF Towinq Winch 


"Experience and Know How" were the answers 
when we inquired into the phenomenal rise in 
popularity of Markey Towing Machines in the 
Bay Area. "We find it more economical to 
use wire rope, especially for harbor work. We 
save plenty in material, manpower, and over- 
all operation." 

There's a tip in that for you. Be wise — 
investigate the Markey Towing Machines . . . 
Cut operating costs . . . Enjoy the benefits of 
great flexibility and absolute dependability. 

Write for descriptive literature, without obligation, giv- 
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EBRUARY • I 948 

Paae 9! 

Ship Forms 

{Cuntiniieil from page 90) 

5. Type of machinery preferred. 

6. Number of passengers, if any. 

Unfortunately, or perhaps fortunately for the naval 
architect, there is no simple formula which can be run 
through on a slide rule to give the dimensions of a ship 
from the above requirements. Speed is the primary re- 
quirement for but few classes of vessels; therefore, in 
normal merchant practice the hull dimensions cannot be 
chosen solely on the basis of low resistance. From the 
viewpoint of resistance, length is advantageous but add- 
ed length increases the cost of building and increases the 
hull scantlings. Increased draft aids in reducing resistance 
but unfortunately this dimension is the most liable to 
be restricted. Adding to the beam without fining the 
hull form usually added to the resistance. 

Passenger ships have been and probably will continue 
to be tailored for some particular run. Cargo ships, on 
the other hand, have been built for general service with a 
trend toward increased speeds. Fifteen years ago 10 knots 
was the common speed; today it is 15-16 knots and 20 
knot cargo ships are proposed. 

In the past it was normal practice to select a suitable 
block coefficient for the operating V/\/L from one of 
the following: — 

(Block coef.) =/,=0.39\/L,/V or V =sea speed. 
=1.08— ^ /y V = trial speed. 

Modern practice is to choose a prismatic coefficient 
and let the block coefficient come as it will. A suitable 
prismatic coefficient may be chosen from 



Prismatic coef.^ Midsec. coef. 2 ( Midsec. coef. ) \/L 

= 1.02- 

= 1.15—0.6 

10 D ^e 

V L 

An unduly fine prismatic will increase length of a 
given displacement with the attendant disadvantages 
previously noted. 

When choosing a prismatic coefficient the value of ( P ) 
should be investigated as an indication of wave-making. 
When (P)=\/Vl,\/4/5,\/4/9,\/4/13,etc.the form 
will have high wave-making resistance; low wave-mak- 
is indicated by (P)=V4/3, \/4/7, VVH, V4/15 
etc. Should a poor value of (P) be unavoidable, the criti- 
cal values may be shifted a little up or down on the speed 
scale by the use of straight or hollow entrance lines re- 
spectively. A particularly bad combination of a wave 
crest at the bow with a hollow at the end of the entrance 
is indicated by V = 1.09 VLength of entrance. Under 
no circumstances should this occur in conjunction with 
a poor (P) value. The spreading of the entrance and 
run shoulders will help to reduce critical wave combi- 

Once the dimensions and coefficients of form of a new- 
ship have been settled the following are the important 
(Please turn to page 94) 




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158 - 14th STREET. HOBOKEN, N. J. 

Page 92 


New "Package" 
Steam Cenerator 
by Foster Wheeler 

l-oster Wheeler Corporation, New 
^iirk, announces its entry into the 
held of package steam generators 
up to and including 27,000 lb. per 
hour range. These Foster Wheeler 
units are assembled at the factory, 
uicluding refractory and insulation, 
.uid are ready to generate steam 
wlien delivered and installed. 

Designs immediately available 
provide for both oil and gas-firing, 
and a coal-fired unit will be ready 
sliortly. Two series, low pressure 
I up to 250 lb.), and high pressure 
I up to 850 lb.), are being produced 
at present. 

Basic engineering design provides 
f( ir installation of superheaters 
cuher as original equipment or for 
later addition. This means that 
plant operators are being offered 
complete steam generators, factory- 
built, which embody the same fea- 
tures found in central station units. 

C'ombustion controls provide full 
111 semi-automatic operation, as de- 
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"package". Operation of the units 
from a central control panel is sim- 
ple — only a minimum of attention 
is necessary. 

1 A bulletin contain 

ing full infor- 

( mation is available on request. 







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1 948 

kwi Catalog 
of Tube Cleaners 

Thomas C. Wilson, Inc., has in- 
troduced a new catalog of tube clean- 
ers covering the complete Wilson 
line of tube cleaners for use in re- 
fineries, power plants, marine boiler 
rooms, locomotives, and chemical 
process plants. The catalog, contain- 
ing 48 pages, is printed in three 
colors, and is replete with excellent 
illustrations and conveniently ar- 
ranged tables. 

Virtually every type of cutter-head 
is described in detail, as well as 
brushes and air, steam, and water 

driven motors. Electrically-driven 
tube cleaning equipment and all ac- 
cessories are also described and il- 
lustrated. One section of the book 
is devoted to special equipment and 
shows a variety of "custom-made" 
cleaners which are typical of the 
solutions which Wilson technicians 
have developed to meet difficult and 
tuiusual tube cleaning problems. 

All listings are organized for easy 
reference, and include application 
data as well as technical information, 
operating hints, and other pertinent 
data. Copies of Wilson's Tube 
Cleaner Catalog No. 76 may be ob- 
tained by writing to Thomas C. Wil- 
son, Inc., 21-11 44th Ave., Long Is- 
land City 1, N. V. 



All cargo tanks on the U. S. NAVAL TANKER MISSION PURISIMA 

were converted from black oil to white gas by Sopac's machine cleaning 
methods. Pyrate Tank Cleaning Machines were used In this operation. 

Specialists in 


Also Specialists in 




soPHc SHIP mmmEi co. 



Phone SUtter 1-5890 



Ship Forms 

{Continued from page 92) 

items that affect resistance; 

1. The shape of the sectional area curve. 

2. The shape of the load waterline, particularly at the 
fore end. 

3. The shape of the sections at the ends. 

4. The type of stern. 

F. H. Todd notes the following features governing ship 
performance : 

affect the speed when the ship is pitching in heavy 
weather. This was demonstrated by the M. V. Silverpine 
which was designed for 10 knots and made 11.85 in 
ballast on trials. The owners required a large poop space 
which gave full lines above the water at the stern. In 
heavy weather her speed fell to an average of 6 knots. 

Thus, in brief, are some of the important steps in the 
development of hull forms and the continuing studies of 
ship resistance. In spite of the vast storehouse of modern 
knowledge of hull forms and their resistance, it is still 


Below 0.5 



Best type 
of bow 


of L.C.B. 

convex with 
fairly large 

forward of 

hollow and becoming straight with 

small en- increases in 

trance V/L 

aft of mid- changing midships at 

ships to high speed 

Above 1.0 
straight with 
medium angle 
of entrance 


At the stern, bow wave-making is automatically guar- 
anteed if the lines are carefully drawn to eliminate eddies. 
The length of run may be determined from 

L = 4.08 \ Midsection Area 

which is to be measured from the stern frame and not 
the after perpendicular on single screw ships. While 
Froude's general observation that V-sections are helpful 
in reducing wave-making at the stern is still true, studies 
of lines of flow to the propeller disk indicate that for 
good propeller action a more U-shaped section — some- 
times known as the club-footed section — is to be pre- 
ferred. A rounded waterline aft is suitable for slow speed 
vessels but for high speed it should be nearly straight 
and drawn out as far as possible; a deep cruiser stern 
is helpful in accomplishing this. After waterlines should 
not exceed a slope of 20° from the centerline as far aft 
and as high as possible but must fair into the stern frame 
without an abrupt change of shape. 

If U-sections are used at the bow, care must be taken 
to avoid flat spots on the bottom which may be liable to 
damage from pounding. The bow profile on fast vessels 
should have a decided slope forward with a good cut 
away to meet the requirements of a fine-ended sectional 
area curve without creating sections that are structurally 

While the form of the immersed body of a ship is 
usually the naval architect's main concern, the above 
water shape must not be overlooked. Vertical stems with 
sharp flares high up tend to slow down a ship when pitch- 
ing into head seas; the flare should start from as near 
the load waterline as possible and be gradual. Raking 
the bow profile forward in conjunction with a rounded 
stem in place of the old style bar will enable the above- 
water lines to be drawn in nearly parallel to the load 

In shaping a cruiser stern above the water, care must 
be taken that it is not too U-shaped in section. The added 
frictional and eddy resistance of such a stern will seriously 

possible to design a poor ship — naval architecture re- 
mains an art as well as a science. 

Typical (C) Curve Data Calculated from Published 
Curves: — (C) on Basis of 400 Foot Ship 

Pris. Coef. 
Block Coef. 
Midsect. Coef. 
Des. Speed 



1961 1 






V_ (C) 
9 .765 

10 .833 

11 .833 

12 .924 

13 1.004 

14 1.315 

15 1.695 



yi (C) 
9 .737 

10 .737 

11 .714 

12 .697 

13 .705 

14 .702 

15 .706 

16 .707 

17 .729 

18 .788 

Pass. & cargo 



y_ (C) 

10 .745 

11 .727 

12 .717 

13 .707 

14 .704 

15 .707 

16 .714 

17 .732 

18 .712 

19 .862 

Good Neighbor Fleet 




JV (C) 

15 .757 

16 .753 

17 .750 

18 .755 

19 .763 

20 .770 

21 .778 

22 .784 

23 .805 

24 .860 

(Continued from page 45) 

Santos, Montevido, and Buenos Aires. On her northbound 
voyage she will touch the same ports in the reverse order, 
and will also call at Port-of-Spain, Trinidad. Later, when 
the two sister ships, the Brazil and the Urt/gna) return to 
service, the fleet will make fortnightly sailings calling at 
the ports listed. 

Page 94 
















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100 KW 3/60/450AC 150 HP GM 3 cyl. 1200 RPM. 
200 KW 3/60/450AC 450 HP GM 8 cyl. 1200 RPM. 
1200 KW 525V DC 1700 HP GM 16 cyl. 750 RPM. 


225 HP GM 2100 RPM 6 cyl. 
1800 HP Fairbanks-Morse 800 RPM 10 cyl. O.P. 
1700 HP GM 16 cyl. 750 RPM. 
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Cable: NACOR 

FBRUARY • 1948 


ATLAS knows 
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LOS ANGELES • 1922 Eji! boge Avo., Phone Kimball 6214 

SAN FRANCISCO • Habor Supply Co.. 821 Folsom St.. Phone EXbrook 2-'(500 

SEATTLE • lA.-r.time Pacific Supply Co., 1917 First Ave., Phone ELiot Mil 

WILMINGTON • ??'< No. Avalon Blvd., Phone TErminal 4-3251 

GALVESTON and HOUSTON, TEXAS • Galveston jhip Supply Co. 

MOBILE, ALABAMA • Seaboard Supply Co. 

NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA • n„!f f„^,r,^r-nnr, Cn In- 


Page 95 



All types of diesel and hull repairs 




TErminal 2-4527 • Ferry Street 

P. O. Box 66, Terminal Island Station 


Los Angeles Harbor 

Garbutt & Walsh 


(Continued from Page 4S) 

in the harbor. The following table shows various types of 
vessels and facilities involved in the violations: 


(2 g 




6 S 





1 2 


1 1 

1-22 .1 

1- I 

Approximately 27 of the preceding cases have been 
successfully prosecuted by the United States and 213 by 
the State of California. Generally, where the State has 
successfully prosecuted a case. Federal prosecution has 
not been recommended. A number of cases have not 
been prosecuted by the United States because the spill 
was not due to negligence, or was minor, and a clean-up 
crew was promptly ordered to remove the oil. In such 
cases, a warning or reprimand by letter has been deemed 

Over a period of 10 years ( 1936-1946), approximate- 
ly 33 complaints concerning the violation of the refuse 
and debris laws were investigated by this office and de- 
veloped into cases. Some of these violations consisted of 
disposal of garbage into the navigable waters, dumping 
of trash and industrial waste into streams emptying into 
navigable waters, dumping of raw sewage into navigable 
waters, pollution of beaches, etc. Of these 33 cases, 11 
were referred to the State and were successfully prosecut- 
ed. This office recommended four cases for prosecution by 
the Federal Government and one conviction was obtained. 
Prosecution was not recommended on the remaining 18 
cases, but letters of warning or reprimand were sent to 
the violators. 

Two of a trio of Army transports now at Todd Brooklyn yard for , 
modification and repair. The 622.foot General W. P. Richardson I 
(left) is in for a general overhaul before being turned back to 
the Maritime Commission. The General C. H, Muir is in for a 
complete modification in the Army's "Safety-at-Sea" program 
to meet the latest Coast Guard regulations. The General C. C. 
Ballou. a C-4 type, like the Muir is berthed out of sight behind 
the Richardson, and is getting a similar going-over before they 
both return to the New York-Bremerhaven troop-ferrying service. 

m\ MEM] JOB 

Three large Army transports entered the Todd Brook- 
lyn shipyard withm the past month for modification and 
overhaul, the second phase of a general program of re- 
pairs and rehabilitation of Army vessels undertaken with- 
in recent months. The latest arrivals are the 496-foot 
C-4 types General Ballon, and General C. H. Muir. which 
entered the yard on December 5 and 10 respectively, and 
the 622-foot General W. P. Richardson, which was 
berthed December 15. 

The General C. C. Ballou and General C. H. Muir will 
both undergo the same modifications as were completed 
recently by Todd on the General Callan and Getieral 
Harry Taylor. This is part of the Army Transportation 
Department's "Safety-at-Sea" program to bring its active 
transports within the very latest Coast Guard regulations. 
The improvements include changes to insure water- 
tight integrity, a complete new lifeboat set-up for the full 
capacity of 1650 persons, extensive fire-retarding instal- 
lations in the form of Marinite bulkheads and magnesite 
decking throughout, overhaul of the fire alarm system 
and replacement of fire extinguishing chemicals. 

The General W. P. Richardson, which was built for 
the Navy in 1944, and turned over to the Army in 1946, 
is being generally overhauled to be restored to her origi- 
nal condition prior to being turned back to the Maritime 

The work on the two C-4's is expected to take at least 
two months each, while the Richardson will probably re- 
quire less than a month's lay-up for repairs. 

Page 96 


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Water Treatment 

iConliiu/eil jrom page 55) 
traced to one or a combination of the following: 

1. Low pH of the boiler water. 

2. Dissolved oxygen entering the boiler with the feed- 

3. Sea water entering the boiler with the feedwater. 
Low pH causes general attack or corrosion of the 

metal surface. Carbon dioxide or sea water will cause low 
pH. The remedy for this situation is to add sufficient al- 
kali with the treatment to raise the pH to the desired 
value, namely 10.5 or greater. Caustic soda is to be pre- 
ferred for this purpose since soda ash breaks down to 
give off carbon dioxide in the boiler, which carbon dio- 
xide will make the steam corrosive. 

Dissolved oxygen is the usual cause of pitting of metal. 
Low pH aggravates or increases the pitting. ( Figs. 2, 3, 
and A.) 

In general two procedures are followed for eliminat- 
ing corrosion from dissolved oxygen: 

1. The source of the dissolved oxygen is found and 

2. Chemical treatment is applied to the boiler water. 

With respect to 1., in finding the source of the dis- 
solved oxygen, it is often necessary to make dissolved 
oxygen tests. That is, samples of representative waters are 
tested for oxygen and in this manner the source located. 
Pumps and traps are the usual sources and of course occa- 
sionally an unknown leak is found, oftentimes in a con- 
nection normally thought to be closed. Proper operation 
of the deaerator, of course, also is required in order to 
hold the dissolved oxygen as low as possible. In an effort 
to eliminate all corrosion from oxygen, especially at high 
pressures, an oxygen scavenger such as sodium sulfite is 

Sea water also may cause serious corrosion, due chiefly 
to magnesium chloride present. This material may react 
with water by a process called hydrolysis to form free 
acid (HCl ) which of course is very corrosive. Fortunate- 
ly maintaining the proper alkalinity, that is a pH above 
10.5 counteracts this effect and will eliminate this type 
of corrosion. 

Caustic embrittlement is a special form of corrosion 
that takes place when a leak permits a very high con- 
centration of the boiler water to take place. At this high 
concentration the caustic soda or sodium hydroxide pres- 
ent in the concentrated boiler water attacks steel under 
certain conditions and causes it to become brittle. The 
problem of caustic embrittlement has been combatted 
in two ways. 

1. By improved design of equipment, for example 

elimination of seams and rivets by using welded 

2. By chemical treatment with inhibitors. Materials 

known to be effective in preventing embrittlement 

are nitrates, tannin and possibly phosphate. 
Another problem of the corrosion type is the corrosion 
of steam and condensate piping. Such corrosion is usual- 
ly due to low pH water, although disolved {)xygen may 
accelerate this type of corrosion. The source of the carbon 
dioxide is leakage of air and the breakdown of bicarbon- 
ates and soda ash used as a water treatment in the boiler. 
Because of the latter, soda ash should not be used as a 
water treatment for marine use. The method of combat- 
ting this type of corrosion is to raise the pH of the steam 
and condensate to a value between 7.0 and 8.5 at which 
pH steam is not corrosive. Volatile alkalies are available 
for this purpose. 

Scale and Sludge 

Scale and sludge problems usually can be traced to 
dissolved solids which enter the boiler due to sea water 
leakage into the feedwater, or to the use of make-up con- 
taining scale forming salts. Cement washed tanks are 
often a source of scale forming salts. With respect to 
distilled make-up, great care should be exercised to elim- 
inate carryover from evaporators which of course will 
contaminate the distillate. In general, scale is formed by 
the calcium and magnesium compounds which enter the 
system in the above manner. Figure 5 shows a bad case 
of scaled tube. 

The only sure way to prevent scale and sludge diffi- 
culties is to remove these materials from solution either 
in the feedwater or in the boiler water and to condition 
the precipitates so formed so that they will not adhere 
to metal. The actual removal from solution is done by 
the addition of chemicals either soda ash or sodium phos- 
phate. By so doing, a sludge is formed which eliminates 
the danger of true scale but there is still danger of sludge 
baking on to metal. Because of this danger of baked-on 
scale, a coagulant is often used to "condition" the sludge 
so that it will not adhere. Organic coagulants have proven 
highly successful in this respect. The action of the coagu- 
lant is twofold. 

1. It coagulates the particles or gathers them together 
giving them sufficient weight so that they drop 
rapidly to the lower parts of the boiler where they 
can be blown out. 

2. It acts as a protective colloid, that is, it coats the 
particles with a layer of organic material which 
makes them non-adherent to each other as well as 
to metal. 

In the case of scotch marine boilers, it is common to 
operate with low or near zero hardness either with or 

Pining in piece of boile 
feed trough. 

Page 98 



• San Francisco: 53 Stephenson St. 


Yukon 60600 
Yukon 62614 

Wilmington: 140 N. Marine Avenue 
Phones: Nevada 61076 
Terminal 4-4650 


Peacock Bros., Ltd. 
t'ancouver, B.C. 

Plione: Marine 3623 


• Portland: Harris Supply Company 

240 S.W. First Avenue 
Phones: Atwater4119 

• Seattle: Atlas Packing & Rubber Company 

63-65 Columbia Street 
Phone: Elliott 4697 




Boiler Feed Pumps 
Bulkhead Stuffing Tubes 
Cargo Pumps 
Condenser Tubes 
Circulating Pumps 



Condensate Pumps 

CO; Compressors 

Deck Line Valves (Steam) 

Deck Line \alves (Cargo) 

Electric Cable Stuffing Boxes 

• Condenser Tube Protectors 

• Condenser Tube Plugs (Fiber) 

• Freon Compressor Seals 

• Gaskets and Casket Sheet (All types) 

• Gasket Sealing Compounds 

Electric Cable Terminal Tubes Gauge Glasses 

Expansion Joints (Steam) Pistons 

Expansion Joints (Diesel) Rudder Posts 

Fuel Oil Pumps Steam Rods 

Fuel Injection Valves Steam Valves 

• Packing Hooks (Flexible) 

• Packing Lubricants 

• Pipe Joint Compounds 

• Piston Ring Water End (Bakelite) 

• Pump Valve Discs (Bakelite) 


Steam Valve Rods 
Stern Tubes 
Steering Engines 
Turbine Throttles 


Vancouver San Francisco Houston Savannah Philadelphia 

Seattle Los Angeles New Orleans Norfolk New York 

Portland Galveston Mobile Baltimore Boston 


This ingenious whirligig, technically known as a completely 
portable turning lathe, is one of the many precision machines 
in the shops of GEDDCO. It was designed by 
C. W. "Slim" Tydeman, superintendent of pre- 
cision tool department, to turn down crankpins 
without removing shaft, with resulting savings in 
time and money that ship operators have been 
quick to appreciate. 

an Francisco — machine shops, pier facilities for general repair, 
.lameda — machinery, hull and Industrial repairs — one-half mile on 
stuary with two marine railways; floating drydocl, 10,500 ton capacity. 

Complete 100-Page Book in Color, Showing 
Facilities, Upon Request. 


I GArfield 1-6168 


t Continued from Page 98) 
without the use of phospliate. In many cases good results 
are obtained without the phosphate, though with some 
types of water the phosphate is necessary to eliminate 
scale. In all cases better results are obtained if a coagulant 
is used along with the chemical treatment. At high pres- 
sures phosphate is almost always necessary to insure 
satisfactory results. In fact, excess phosphate should be 
maintained in the boiler water at all times. If this is done 
there is little danger of true scale even if silica is present. 
Since phosphate sludges are troublesome from the stand- 
point of adhering to metal as baked-on deposits and also 
may cause carryover, good coagulants should be used to 
supplement the regular chemical treatment. 

Oil and grease are often a problem in marine water 
treatment. In combatting these difficulties their source 
should be eliminated if possible. Small amounts of oil and 
grease can be eliminated in the boiler through the use 
of proper coagulants, for example, organic colloids. 

Evaporators have been designed to operate indefinitely 
in some cases with physical cleaning only but in most 
cases some scale forms and the efficiency is impaired. 

Chemical treatment has been found to be very effective 
in eliminating deposits from evaporators, both evaporat- 
ing fresh water and salt water. 

Foaming and Priming or Carryover 

Priming which is the "spewing or belching" over of 
boiler water with the steam, is usually due to design and 
operational characteristics. These factors, therefore, are 
to be investigated in eliminating priming. Foaming, on 
the other hand is a function of the condition of the boiler 
water. Foaming is caused by the combined effects of dis- 
solved solids and suspended matter in the boiler water. 
These materials cause steam bubbles as they rise through 
the boiler water to become stabilized and they collect as 
foam on the surface of the water. 

Since foaming is caused by the joint effect of dis- 
solved and suspended solids, reduction of either will de- 
crease foaming. Slowdown is the only manner in which 
the dissolved solids can be decreased but the suspended 
solids can be decreased in another way, namely through 
the use of a coagulant. The coagulant causes the suspend- 

ed material to settle out into portions of the boiler from 
where it can be blown out. Through this reduction of 
suspended matter, foaming is decreased or eliminated. 
Bottom flash blows are required to eliminate suspended 
matter in this manner. 

Control of Treatment and Instruction of 

The use of water treatment without proper control 
and instruction may be compared to the operation of a 
steam plant without adequate meters, thermometers and 
gages. For this reason great emphasis must be placed on 
these aspects of water treatment. 

For proper control of the treatment, a test kit is neces- 
sary. This kit makes possible the ready determination of 
the chief constituents in boiler water. As a ready means 
for interpreting the results of these analyses, charts have 
been found very helpful. These charts have coliHiins, for 
example, for hardness, alkalinity, etc. After making the 
analysis the hardness value, for example, is referred to 
the chart and directly opposite, the corrective measure to 
be applied is listed. This takes the guess work out of 
water treatment and makes possible very exact control. 
Charts are available for various types of boilers at low 
and high pressures. 


Much progress has been made in recent years in water 
treatment. Methods are now available for completely 
eliminating corrosion, scale and carryover. Through prop- 
er use of these methods and the maintaining of ptoper 
control, good results are obtained, provided personnel are 
instructed properly in the use of the method. Through a 
combination of these factors excellent boiler operation 
is insured. 


(Continued from Page 63 ' 
any method of holding it open. The Hydro-Hinges will 
at least close the door when someone goes in or out. In 
case of emergency the dooi can be dogged shut but for 
ordinary ingress and egress the Hydro-Hinges will hold 
it shut. 

No. 11 Engine Room Bulkhead 
Bulkhead at the after end of the engine room 
to be watertight in all vessels with the piping 
made tight at the bulkhead and a stuffingbox 
or suitable collar fitted at the shaft. If a door is 
fitted to the bulkhead at the after end of the 
engine room leading to the shaft alley in wood 
and steel boats, it must be watertight. 
The intent here is to have a bulkhead that is pump 
tight — that is if a small amount of water gets into the 
vessel it will be confined until it can be disposed of. Also 
the intent is that the bulkhead will be sufficiently tight 
to be of value for salvage purposes. 

No. 12 Engine Hatch Grating 
A low coaming 6" high to be built around 
the engine hatch grating and the companion- 
way opening to the engine room ladder within 
the forecastle. 
The purpose is to have some small measure of pro- 
tection against water that enters the doors and which 
would otherwise flow down the hatch. If the water is 
confined on the main deck until the doors can be closed 

Page 100 



it may save the ship. On many occasions water has come 
through the door, poured over the edge of the hatch 
opening and ruined the electric work and motors so the 
ship was lost. 

The proper way to build the engine hatch is to sur- 
round it with a solid bulkhead extending from the main 
deck up to the boat deck. A door with an 8" sill above 
the deck would give access to the lower engine room 
and the companionway hatch would be dispensed with. 
Here again adequate ventilation must be provided. 

No. 13 Binboards 

Binboards to be fitted athwartships and fore 
and aft on deck so fish can be stowed and pre- 
vented from sliding. 

In one case that presented itself, all of the calculations 
showed that the vessel should not have had trouble. 
However, it developed that the binboards were missing 
and when the vessel took a slight lurch the fish flowed 
to the low side. She still did not overturn but she did 
take a list sufficient to submerge the bottom of the wing 
athwartship door on the low side. The water went be- 
low and put all the motors out of commission. 

No. 14 Bilge Pumps 

At least two pumps to be connected to the 
bilge. The sizes given are for two pumps but 
two or more pumps of equivalent capacity will 
be satisfactory. 

Boats under 70 feet long over all — Two 2" 
pumps or equivalent capacity. 

Boats 70 to 100 feet over all — one 2" and 
one 3" pump or equivalent capacity. 

Boats 100 to 125 feet over all — Two 3" 
pumps or equivalent capacity. 

Boats 125 feet long over all and over — 
One 2" and two 3" pumps or equivalent 

The bilge pumps have been a problem all through the 
fishing fleet. Only recently a vessel met with a fortuitous 
accident and after a lengthy sojourn in the shipyard 
undergoing repairs she was provisioned for sea and was at 
the oil dock taking aboard the final fuel, gasoline, lubri- 
cating oil and water. When the crew appeared in the 
morning she sat down on the bottom of the bay like a 
(Continued on Page 102) 

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from Ihe No 1A with 720 tytlej and Vh mile range lo Ihe No. 6B willi 105 tydes and 8 mile range 






Page 101 


(Comhir/eJ jrum Page 101 1 
tired hen. The priming arrangements had not been prop- 
erly worked out and had simk the vessel. 

To get the capacity in a small space centrifugal pumps 
are required and centrifugal pumps have to be primed 
or they will not start. Lately there has been a %" con- 
nection installed from the sea valve to the bilge pump 
to prime it. This is a dangerous practice and has been a 
source of considerable expense to the underwriters. A 
check valve is placed in the bilge suction to prevent sea 
water from flowing from the sea into the bilge and the 
bilge pump prime line has a continuous flow to restart 
the intermittent suction of the pump. 

Where a centrifugal pump with a horizontal shaft is 
used for the bilge service, there is difficulty in getting it 
started. To overcome the starting problem the pump is 
left running all the time. Where a centrifugal pump is 
left running continuously with a small amount of water 
in it the pump heats up to the point where the water will 
boil. To overcome the heating problem the connection 
from the sea to the pump was installed — all of which is 
wrong in principle. 

Several flooding losses have occurred because of the 
failure of the check valves to work and they are totally 
unreliable due to chips and other dirt in the bilge. The 
writer fitted a bronze foot valve with a swing check 
valve ahead of it in several boats but even the double 
valve arrangement failed on occasion. 

Lambie, Newby and the writer discussed the problem 
at considerable length in 1937. The question of the size 
of the boat — the space available — and the cost enter into 
the picture. 

The original intention was to restrict the duty of the 
bilge pumps solely to that of pumping the bilge but 
where the owners are required to install two pumps they 
feel that either one or both should be used for more than 
one purpose and it is this multiple use that has caused 
all the trouble. 

Where a pump is used for fire and bilge there must be 
a connection to the bilge and also a connection to the sea 
and if both shut-off valves are defective, as usually hap- 
pens in time, there is bound to be a leak of sea water into 
the bilge. 

The remedy for this installation is to fit what is known 
as a brass three-way cock close to the suction of the 
pump. The cock is turned either open to the bilge suc- 
tion or open to the sea suction but cannot be turned 
open to both at the same time. It is easily taken care of 
as the stop valves on the sea and bilge suction can be 
closed and the three-way cock dismantled. 

What should be done is to fit a 2" vertical spindle 
pump down in a sump in the shaft alley connected to a 
motor above so when the motor is started the pump will 
automatically prime itself as it will be under water in the 
sump. There are many devices on the market that will 
start the pump when a predetermined amount of water 
accumulates in the sump so the pump will not have to 
operate all the time. The usual overboard discharge is 
led from the discharge side of the pump. 

A pipe connection is taken from the discharge line of 
the submerged sump pump to the suction of the second 
pump as two pumps are required in all cases and an ad- 
ditional or third bilge pump is required on the larger 

boats. By this means we have a fool-proof arrangement 
as No. 1 pump is permanently submerged, self priming, 
self starting, and should be bronze. No. 2 pump is primed 
by No. 1 pump — all of the water used by both pumps 
comes from the inside of the boat — and there is no con- 
nection to the sea. 

If the owner wants one of the pumps to have a sea 
connection so the pump can be used for fire purposes, 
the three-way valve prevents the sea suction connection 
from being used for priming purposes when it is de- 
sired to pump the bilge with No. 2 pump. Care must be 
taken not to put the priming connection from No. 1 
pump so it enters between the three-way valve and pump 
No. 2 or the water will run from the sea through the 
three-way valve back through No. 1 pump into the ship 
when the connections are open. In this way there is no 
harm done if the check valves are out of order, as they 
usually are. 

Pacific Pumping Company specializes in building and 
installing vertical spindle non-clog, self-priming pumps 
suitable for this service and the pumps will run contin- 
uously or intermittantly wet or dry. The only change 
from the use of a standard pump is that the lubrication 
must be oil instead of grease. 

Any pump that is connected to the bilge or to the 
bilge and sea combined should be a vertical spindle pump. 
As a matter of fact some of the early boats that had the 
pumping arrangements engineered were fitted with verti- 
cal spindle pumps for all uses except the 5" brine trans- 
fer pump which is now omitted on some of the recent 

No. 15 Fuel Oil Pumps 
A transfer pump to move fuel oil from any 
one tank to any other tank to be connected to 
a suitable manifold on each side of the pump. 
The pump preferably should be about 2" and 
must be a non-return flow type so fuel cannot 
flow through the pump from the high side to 
the low side when the vessel has a list. 
It is common practice to carry fuel in any of the wells 
or tanks where an excess amount of fuel is required to 
take the vessel to a distant fishing ground. Especially is 
this true when the vessel is making the first voyage 
where the requirements are not known to the master. 

On several occasions the vessels have had trouble 
where there has been a cross connection between a well 
on one side and a corresponding well on the other side. 
Usually there is a tee in the center of the cross connection 
with a pipe from the tee to the pump. When the cross 
connection is left open under the supposition that the 
pump will draw equally from each of the port and star- 
board tanks, the fuel is free to run to the low side. 

After the vessel has acquired a list there is no way 
to balance the tanks by pumping fuel from the low side 
to the high side. The rule provides that a pipe from each 
well shall be led to the manifold at the pump so fuel can 
be pumped from one side tank through the manifold to 
the other side tank. 

No. 16 Bait Well and Brine Pumps 

A transfer pump to be connected between 

the bait wells in the hold and between the 

brine tanks in the brine boats to enable the 

brine to be transferred from tank to tank. 

I Please turn to Page lO^i 

Page 102 


ttieHtedl Xeadet^kifi 

Quality material, superior workmanship and over 30 years 
experience are the components of every Chief Sandusky 
Centrifugal Casting. 

Ship owners and operators realize the added value of 
years of experience and specify "Sandusky" on their new 
construction and repair contracts. 

Sandusky has a complete nonferrous centrifugal foundry 
and machine shop for producing propeller shaft sleeves, 
stern tube bushings, rudder stock sleeves and pump liners 
from 3" to 46" in diameter and In lengths up to 347". 

Specify Chief Sandusky Centrifugal Castings on 
your next application. 

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• Removes Combustion Deposit and Slag 

• "GAMLENIZEt" Boiler Metal Surfaces* 

Gamlenite is the unique dty powder 
that is blown into the iurnace without 
shutting it down It immediately im- 
proves boiler eihciency by reducing 
combustion deposits and hard slag, 
enemies to effective heat transfer, to a 
fluffy powder which is normally car 
ried up the stack by the draft. In 
addition, it "GamlemzeB" the metal 
surfaces, protecting against corrosion, 
and helping to minimize re-accumu- 
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Gamlenite is safe, non -explosive, 
can be used in all types of boilers It 
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Page 103 


I Continued from Page 102) 

The practice on this system has changed several times. 
Originally there was a pumping system that moved the 
brine from any selected tank to the manifold on the 
pump, usually in the engine room and thence back to 
any other tank. Then a tank was introduced to mix salt 
with the sea water and cool it for make-up brine and the 
piping was changed to service the brine strengthening 

Later the individual circulating pumps were connected 
. to a common salt water header and the salt was added to 
each well simplifying the piping. Some of the brme that 
has been used to cool a well of fish is pumped from the 
header to a fresh well to help with the cooling process. 

No. 17 Fresh Water Transfer 
There must be no free connection between 
fresh water tanks. Where tanks are cross con- 
nected a check valve must be installed in the 
cross connection to prevent flow from one 
tank into another. 
The trouble arose in this case from having a cross con- 
nection between the water tanks with a tee in the center 
from which a pipe was led to the pump. Everyone aboard 
was busy with catching and stowing fish and with the 
fishermen over the side in the racks the vessel took a 
list from the water running to the low side. There was 
no way to get it back to restore the proper balance of the 

No. 18 Propeller Shafts 
Propeller shafts to be carefully calculated 
as to size, of forged steel, monel or bronze in- 
stead of cold rolled steel. 
The tuna vessels change shape quite a little due to the 
loading at sea and later discharging upon arival. This 
was carefully worked out in the June 1940 issue of the 
Pacific Marine Review. There were so many broken 
propeller shafts that for a while many of the boats were 
fitted with Monel propeller shafts as the Monel seemed 
to be capable of running out of line safely. 

No. 19 Sea Chests 
Cast iron and threaded nipple sea chests 
serving the pumps will not be acceptable. 
Either a bronze sleeve through the hull or a 
lead sleeve with a bronze connection on the 
inside to be fitted on the wood boats, and on 
the steel boats the sea chest to be built as part 
of the hull. 
This was only an attempt to bring the boats up to 
good standard practice. The derelictions arose out of a 
lack of knowledge on the part of the builder. 

No. 20 Ventilation 
A 2000 cubic feet per minute inlet and 2500 
cubic feet per minute exhaust blower to be fit- 
ted to ventilate the engine room. Where the en- 
gine is fitted with a supercharger the exhaust 
blower may be omitted. Foregoing recom- 
mendation not mandatory if surveyor decides 
sufficient ventilation obtainable by alternative 
The ventilation requirement arose out of the demand 
by the men that the wing athwartship doors be left open 

for ventilation thereby endangering the satety oi the 
vessel. Also the engineers complained that foul air in 
the engine room caused them to fall asleep. The owners 
objected at first to spending the money but there is sel- 
dom any question now about the suitability of proper 

No. 21 Fish Racks 
The fish racks to rest down solid on top of 
the guard. The bulwarks to be cut off at the 
proper height to be comfortable for the fisher- 
men from the fore end of the bait boxes to the 
This rule arose out of a near disaster to one of the 
steel boats. There never was any restriction of the kind 
placed on the large wood vessels but one of the steel 
vessels had an excessively high bulwark. To enable the 
men to toss the fish over the rail, the fish racks had been 
mounted about 10" to 12" above the guard. To get the 
fishermen down close to the water as possible for fishing 
purposes they had so filled the tanks that the deck was 
10" under water. 

Needless to say with that much water on deck aft 
there was considerable loss of buoyancy and stability due 
to free surface. As the fishermen were thoroughly fright- 
ened at the way the vessel acted there was no opposition 
to making the correction and the rule is to serve as a 
warning that there is a potential disaster present. 

No. 22 Fire Extinguishers 
The size, type, loading and inspection of the 
fire extinguishers to be reported. 
This rule came about on account of a small fire. When 
the crew attempted to use the fire extinguishers it was 
found that they had not been recharged for several years. 
Their presence had been reported but nobody had 
thought to test them to see if they were still active. 

No. 23 Bait Boxes 
The bait boxes must be so constructed that 
each bait box can be emptied in not more than 
5 minutes in any condition of trim. 
This rule arose out of the loss of one of the steel ves- 
sels. When the sister ship was being investigated it was 
found the time required to empty each bait box was in 
the neighborhood of 14 to 16 minutes. As the crew of the 
lost ship reported that she sank in 6 minutes and that 
they could not release the water in the bait boxes it was 
found necessary to change the overflow arrangement to 
empty the bait boxes in a reasonable time. 

No. 24 Instructions to Master 
The Instructions to Master prepared by the 
Naval Architect must be posted in the Pilot 
House, and Galley. 
The naval architect who makes the stability inclina- 
tions is able to see which tank it is proper to fill to trim 
the vessel and which ones must be left empty at the 
start so as not to overload her. This information is in- 
corporated is a sheet of Instructions to Master so any 
skipper can come aboard and know where potential 
danger lies. 

Page 104 




Thomas A. Short Company 

245 Fremont Street 
San Francisco 

SUtter 1-7622 



Frcif;lil and PaBRdiger Service Ix-lwceii the East 
Coast of United States and the countries of 

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Freight and Passenger Service between the West 
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when worn. Flowrites wear 

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The technical experts of the 
American Bureau of Shipping have 
been making elaborate tests of liber- 
ty ship structure in order to elimi- 
nate certain mechanical failures 
which have bothered the industry 
during and since the war. Some of 
these failures have been very serious 

In several recent issues of the 

Pacific Marine Review there have 
been articles on the cracking of 
decks and sides of welded vessels 
and It would appear that the causes 
and solution of this trouble have 
been discovered. 

It also appears that there have 
been many rudder and propeller 
shaft failures. In his annual report 
to the membership of the American 

Bureau of Shipping, President J. 
Lewis Luckenbach describes the mis- 
haps and the action taken by the 
Bureau to prevent their repetition. 
The rate of incidence of serious fail- 
ures in these vessels has been re- 
duced from 4.1 'c to less than 0.5% 
of ships in service through rein- 
forcing or replacing the rudders and 
the determination of a safe propel- 
ler speed for the protection of the 
propeller shaft. 

A first result of the reports of 
failures of the rudders was the im- 
mediate halting of the manufacture 
of spare or replacement rudders un- 
til new units could be developed, 
and the Bureau also instructed sur- 
veyors, owners and operators in the 
examination, repair and reinforce- 
ment of the old type rudder still in 
service. Out of approximately 1700 
vessels operating and in class with 
the Bureau, about 500 have had 
either the improved design rudder 
installed or the original rudders 
reinforced, and there have been no 
subsequent reports of failures in 
such instances. Shipyards are still 
replacing or reinforcing rudders at 
the rate of 20 to 35 per week. The 
illustrations on pages 106 and 108 
show methods of reinforcement sug- 
gested by the Bureau. 

Proper Shaft Failures 

The solving of the problem of 
liberty ship propeller shaft failures 
has progressed to the point where 
specific recommendations or correc- 
tions are about to be announced. 

Liberty ships were in operation 
from the first delivery in 1941 to the 
end of 1945 before the percentage 
of propeller shaft failures began to 
exceed the averages for other types 
of ships. 

The failures fell into two distinct 
categories. One type was due to cor- 

Page 106 







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sutler 1-S694 


Marshall. USN. Retired, Hon< 

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recent Propeller Club meeting at Los Angeles. Left to right: Rear Admiral Albert Ware 
ary Member of the Propeller Club; Harry Summers, principal surveyor at Los Angeles-Long 
. vice president, Matson Navigation Company; William B. Warren, principal surveyor on 
ireau of Shipping; and J. Lewis Luckenbach, president, American Bureau of Shipping. 

rosion fatigue and was indicated by 
a circumferential groove around the 
shaft at the end of the liner. This 
type was caused by a defective seal 
at the propeller and the records for 

1947 indicate that failures from this 
cause have been practically elimi- 
nated. The other type of failure took 
the form of a line hair line crack 
starting from the forward end of the 

Page 108 

keyway on the driving side. A tor- 
sional vibration analysis of the pro- 
pulsion system was made by the 
Staff and the General Electric Com- 
pany was retained by the Bureau to 
carry out torsiograph tests aboard 
the Liberty ship Ira Nelson Morris, 
and they verified the staff's findings. 
The tests showed that there is a third 
order critical speed in the normal 
operating range of about 4500 
pounds per square inch. This vibra- 
tory stress is sufinciently high to 
cause the type of failure noted, but 
only after the shafting has been run 
at or near the peak for a consider- 
able length of time. 

The tests indicate that the peak 
occurs at about 78 RPM when the 
vessels are completely light and at 
about 74 RPM when they are fully 

The third order critical speed 
should be at least 10% to 15% 
above the maximum operating 
speed, depending mainly on the 
type of governing employed to con- 
trol the speed regulation. This 
would indicate that the engines 
should be operated between 63 and 
66 RPM when loaded and between 
GG and 70 RPM when completely 

Pending a complete analysis, the 
Bureau recommends that the engine 
speed on these vessels should not be 
allowed to exceed 66 RPM and that 
means for governing should be pro- 
vided so that this speed will not be 



MARCH 1948 

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MARCH, 1948 





. N. DeROCHIE. Jr. 



Pacific Cooif 
Advertlting Mgr. 
Los Angtiet Offic* 


Lot Angeles 


Advertising Mgr. 
Son Froncltco 

16 West 5th Street, Zone 13 
Telephone — Michigan 3129 


Telephone— GArfleld 1-4760 

jubscriptiofi rates: 

tie year, $2.00; two years, 
.50; three years, $5.00; for- 
gn, $1.00 additional per year; 
gle copies, 25c. 

Noah • Editoruil By T. Doiu^ M.icMullcn . 

Pacific Far East Line . ■ • • ■ 

Bethlehem Reconditions 108-Ton Crankshaft By Peter MacDonald 

New Ship Structure Materials By David Maelntyre . 

Port of Seattle By Wallace V. Maekay .... 

Tramp Shipping .....■••• 

Early San Francisco Shipping By Alexander J. Dickie 

U. S. Naval School, General Line, Monterey .... 

Modern Oil Tanker Design By Frank L. Pavlik 

Pacific World Trade 

Ob.servations on Shanghai, Hongkong and Manila By Elliott M 

Netherlands-Indies Import Trade 

Documents on Private Trade Shipments to Japan 

World Trade Exposition 

Foreign Trade Zone for San Francisco Approved 

The Howlands (and Frank) 
Marine Insurance ......•• 

The London Letter 
Coast Guard Graduating Officers ....... 

Admiralty Decisions By Harold S. Dobhs . . . . • 

Ship Collision 
With the Port Engineers ....■• 

Port Engineers of the Month: Vincent E. Foell, William Billings 

Membership Roster, Society of Port Engineers, San Francisco 

Your Problems Answered By "The Chief" .... 

Ratings and Limitations of Reciprocating Engines 
Steady As You Go! "The Skipper" 

The Magnetic Compass 

Coast Commercial Craft ......••■ 

Specifications for the Boat "Lucy Elena" 

On the Ways ...••••••■ 

Bethlehem Converts LSM 

The Magnolia 

Todd Readies 52 Tankers to Combat Oil Shortage 

One New Tanker Equal to Four 

Running Lights .....■■■■ 

Letter to the Editor ...•■■■• 
Keep Posted ....... ... 










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Page 36 





yet to come." It mi^ht not be amiss to apply some gratiude of this type to the 
shipping industry and to the armed services. The "favors yet to come" may be 
just around the corner! The journey of the Freedom Train but emphasizes a 
seeming unwillingness to anticipate a crisis. Perhaps existence is too smug, and 
we forget that tomorrow's tyrants come from those who today are too poor or too 
rich or too fat. This applies to nations as well as to individuals. Tyranny can be 
short-lived, but the destruction it brings may be thus wrought the sooner. 
Noise and commotion in the world may be a sign of calculated trouble ahead. 
To those who protect our heritage of freedom we suggest the need for "grati- 
tude." For shipping, a sound plan is to determine every possible requirement 
and build it — not wait for emergency. Lay up the ships if necessary, but h//ild 

After 4800 years Noah is still newsworthy. He was no procrastinator. It 
wasn't raining when he built his ship. He knew that the time to prepare for 
rain is when the sun is shining brightest. And he got full cooperation from 
those who were to be protected. Those who would build ships today get some- 
thing less than full cooperation. 

The American people and the government and the shipping industry should 
unite in defensive plans, and shipping people should make their collective voice 
heard for preparation. They should not scatter their shot, but work together, 
for they seem to find it harder to work and live together than for their sons to 
die together! 

MARCH • 1948 Page 37 


PACIFIC FAR EAST LINE, INC., put its hrst ship 
on berth in July 1946. Today, less than two years later, 
it is one of the largest operators of commercial tonnage 
on the Pacific Coast, maintaining nine sailings monthly 
on six separate regular services between California ports 
and the Orient. It operates in all 35 large freighters, in- 
cluding nine fully refrigerated vessels, and seven C2 
full scantling t}pe dry cargo freighters, five of which it 
has purchased from the Government as the nucleus of its 
future fleet. 

Pacific Far East Line services are: 

1. A sailing every second Friday from California ports 
to Manila, Iloilo, Cebu, and other Philippine out- 
ports as inducements offer; 

2. A sailing every second Friday from California ports 

to the major ports of Japan, China, North China, 
Korea, and French Indo-China. The above two serv- 
ices alternate to provide a sailing every Friday from 

3. A monthly service between California ports, Taku 
Bar, Inchon (Jinsen), Korea; 

4. A monthly dry-cargo service to Guam, sailing the 
15th of each month; 

5. A refrigerator service every 10 to 11 days between 
California ports, Manila, Hong Kong and Okinawa. 

6. A refrigerator service every 9 to 10 days between 
California ports and Japan. 

The Line is also agent for the North Pacific Steamship 
Company, Ltd., a Canadian organization which main- 
tains a monthly easterly round-the-w'orld service from 
Canada, terminating at Los Angeles. 

In addition, the Line is a sub-contractor for the move- 
ment of pipe line to the Middle East in connection with 
the Arabian American Oil Company's development there. 

To maintain these extensive operations. Pacific Far 
East Line uses seven C2 full scantling type dry cargo 
freighters, thirteen Victorys, nine fully refrigerated ves- 
sels and six Libertys. 

Although postwar conditions have necessitated the use 
of other types of tonnage, the C2 steamer will be the 
Line's standard cargo carrier. The C2 was considered as 
the most efficient hull, carrying more space through water 
for the least operating cost. Her selection was the result 
of consultation between the combined heads of traffic, 
operating, stevedoring departments, the marine superin- 
tendent, and port captain. The five company-owned 

MARCH • I 948 

Thomas E. Cuffe, 

vessels include the Piicific Rear. Indian Bear, California 
Bear, China Bear and the Philippine Bear. Of the dif- 
ferent types of C2's the Line chose the C2-SAJ-1, known 
as the full scantling type. This is the standard C2 vessel 
with certain internal structural strengthening, giving it 
more deadweight lifting capacity. The ship represents a 
combination of .speed, capacity, and economical operat- 
ing cost. It should be able to hold its own against in- 
creasingly tougher foreign competition. The vessel is 
propelled by General Electric 6600 shaft horsepower tur- 
bines with reduction gears. Boilers are of diflPerent makes. 
The Pacific Bear has a Combustion Engineering Corp. 
boiler. Foster-Wheeler boilers are used in the Indian Bear 

Page 39 

and Cultfnniia Bear, and Babcock & Wilcox boilers in 
the China Bear and Philippine Bear. 

All have a capacity of about 10,610 deadweight tons 
with an approximate speed of 16 knots. They have gyro 
compasses and are equipped, or in process of being 
equipped, with radar, loran and radio phones. They were 
built by the North Carolina Shipbuilding Company, of 
Wilmington, North Carolina. 

The five company-owned vessels cost close to $10 
million. The other two C2's in operation are under 
private time charter. 

The nine fully refrigerated vessels, which are under 
U. S. Maritime Commission bareboat fleet charter, are of 
two types. Six are steamer and three are diesel. 

The steamer reefers have General Electric turbines 
with reduction gears. Three of the six have Foster 
Wheeler boilers and three have Babcock boilers. Built 
by Moore Dry Dock Company of San Francisco and 
Oakland, they have 320,000 cubic feet of reefer capacity 
or 6960 to 757.T deadweight tons. They have a speed of 
16 knots approximately. 

The three diesel reefers were built by the Sun Ship- 

building Corp. of Chester, Pa. They have Sun-Doxford, 
5-cylinder diesel engines with Foster- Wheeler auxiliary 
boilers. Their speed is approximately I6V2 knots. They 
have 320,000 cubic feet of reefer capacity, or 8595 dead- 
weight tons. 

The thirteen Victorys in use are of two types: Eight 
are AP3's of 8500 horsepower, producing a speed of 17 
knots approximately. Five are AP2's of 6500 horsepower 
and approximate speed of 1 5 knots. Both types of ton- 
nage have a cargo capacity of between 10,680 and 10,825 
deadweight tons. All are turbine driven with high pres- 
sure boilers. These ships are under U. S. Maritime Com- 
mission bareboat fleet charter. 

The five Libertys also are under U. S. Maritime Com- 
mission bareboat fleet charter. They are the regular EC2 
types with reciprocating engines mostly built by Joshua 
Hendy Company. 

The Line has under private time charter a special 
Liberty type. This is the Z-EC2-SC5, which was con- 

Page 40 


verted during the war to facilitate tiie movement of 
tanks and planes. The usual five hatches have been re- 
duced to four and made larger. Also there is unusually 
high head room in the holds. The vessel described is 
the Lorenzo G. McCarthy. 

The executives who are responsible for the record 
development of Pacific Far East Line are nationally 
known in the steamship industry. 

Top man in the organization is President Thomas li. 
Caiffe, one of the small group of planners who organized 
the company. CufTe resigned as vice president of Amer- 
ican President Lines, in charge of U. S. A. Eastern Terri- 
tory, to start Pacific Far East Line. He has been in trans- 
pacific shipping during all his business career, starting 
as a shipping clerk 30 years ago. 

Vice President and General Manager is John R. Wag- 
ner, whose entire career has likewise been spent in 
Pacific shipping. 

E. V. Nevin, Secretary-Treasurer, formerly held a 
similar post with American Export Lines of New York. 

T. S. Lowry is Vice President in Charge of Operations. 
Lowry. who recently resigned as Chief of the Water 
Division, Army Transportation Corps, Washington, had 
a brilliant war career as port commander in Hull, Naples, 
and Marseille, and later in the Philippines with the Sixth 
Army. He started his steamship career with the old U. S. 
Shipping Board, later going with Isbrandtsen-Moeller 
Steamship Company. 

A. L. Papworth, vice president in charge of sales, is a 
nationally known sales executive, resigning last year as 
national sales manager of Moore, Ltd., to become associ- 
ated with Pacific Far East Line. 

L. G. Dunn, recently appointed Freight Traffic Man- 
ager, is an authority on traffic problems and rates, and 
thoroughly experienced in cargo handling and freighter 
operations. He has been in shipping since 19.^1. 

Other executives of note are: Hubert Brown, Assistant 
to President; R. J. Pries, Assistant to Freight Traffic 
Manager; V. J. Bahorich, Superintending Engineer; W. 
T. Lion, Port Captain; H. A. Steiner, Port Engineer; J. J. 
Presser, Purchasing Agent; T. D. Hardcastle, Port Purser; 
W. C. Juergens, Claims Agent; F. L. Dwinnell. Industrial 

Relations Counsel. 

The Line's special Chinese Department is headed by 
two well known Chinese shipping men. These are T. Y. 
Tang, who is advisor on Chinese affairs, and Frank W. 
Chinn, Chinese General Agent in San Francisco. 

Another factor in Pacific Far East Line's success is the 
financial and business caliber of the company's board of 
directors. These are S. D. Bechtel, president of W. S. 
Bechtel Company; Alden G. Roach, president of Con- 
solidated Steel Corporation, Los Angeles; Joseph Di 
Giorgio, president of the Di Giorgio Fruit Corp.; Rich- 
ard Wagner and Howard J. Klossner, president and vice 
president respectively of The Chicago Corporation, lead- 
ing Middlewest investment house; John A. McCone, 
president of Joshua Hendy Iron Works of Los Angeles. 
T. E. Cuffe, president, is also a director. 

Executive headquarters of the Line is at 141 Battery 
Street, San Francisco, with the Freight and Passenger 
departments at 315 California Street. The latter are 
located on the ground floor for the convenience of ship- 
pers. Although primarily a freight service line, many of 
the company vessels have modern, comfortable passenger 
accommodations for from 10 to 12 persons. Passenger 
accommodations are usually booked many months ahead 
mostly by business men with interests in the Orient. 

Outside of its executive headquarters, Pacific Far 
East Line has branch offices in Los Angeles, Chicago, 
New York and Washington. It has agents at Seattle, 
Portland, Detroit and Cleveland. Overseas it has offices 
at Manila, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Yokohama; and 
agents in the following: Balboa, Canal Zone; Bahrein, 
Persian Gulf; Bangkok, Siam; Calcutta India; Cebu, P. I.; 
Chinwangtoa, China; Colombo, Ceylon; Cristobal, Canal 
Zone; Davao, P. I.; Guam, M. L; Honolulu, T. H.; 
Hulutao, China; Iloilo, P. L; Keeking, Taiwan; Kobe, 
Japan; Panama, R. P.; Saigon, Fr. Indo-China; Takao, 
Taiwan; Taku Bar, China; Tientsin, China; Tsingtao, 
China; Vancouver, B. C. 

It is also represented in the major ports of Japan and 
has agency presentation in the principal ports of the 

The Line has won the reputation in the shipping in- 

Left, w. T. Li< 
Port Captaii 

Right, H. A. Steii 
Port Engineer 

MARCH • 194: 

Page 41 

dustry of bringing a modern point of view to steamship 
transport. While ofiicials hold fast to precedures whose 
efficiency has been developed and proved by experience, 
they welcome all new ideas that may improve cargo 
handling methods, packaging, stowage, freight solicita- 
tion, documentation and personnel relations on shore and 
ship. There are few steamship lines with higher staff 

Among modern methods adopted is creation of a spe- 
cial Sales Department. The Line felt that traffic officials 
should devote all their attention to procuring space, while 
a specialist should take over the task of solicitation. This 
will assure the shipper of well-rounded service and at 
the same time coordinate field activities with all parts 
of the business, resulting in better, more friendly service. 
The traffic men, meanwhile, can give more time to im- 
proving the mechanics of traffic operations. Some im- 
provements already have been put into effect. The freight 
document section has been expressly placed on the 
ground floor, readily available to the public so that docu- 
ments can be cleared without loss of time. 

The Line also has adopted snap-out bills of lading and 
export declaration forms. Among loading improvements 
adopted is the establishment of a tail-gate delivery at 
dockside in San Francisco so that trucks can load and 
unload directly from the receiving platform. 

The Line also has given considerable attention to in- 
dustrial relations — shipside and shoreside. A special de- 
partment had been set up to this end under an experi- 
enced director, Frank L. Dwinnell. 

Of ancedotal interest is the fact that a Pacific Far 
East Line vessel last year moved the first civilian ship- 
ment from Japan to California, following the opening 
of that country to free trade August 1947. 

Below, ofFicers of Pacific Far East Line. Top, left to right 
John Wagner, Vice President and General Manager; T. S, 
Lowry, Vice President; A. L. Papworth, Vice President 
Bottonn, left to right: Edward V. Nevin, Secretary-Treasurer 
L. G. Dunn, Freight Traffic Manager; Hubert Brown, As 
sistant to President. 

Page 42 


Bethlehem Reconditions a lOH-Ton 



Foreman, Machine Shop, Bethlehem Steel Company 

Shiphuildinq llivisinn, San Francisco Yard 


Vengine which had been stripped to tlie bed plates . . . 

Reconditioning a 108-ton crankshaft whose stub end 
and pins had shown signs of loosening . . . 

This job, which was successfully completed recently 
by the San Francisco Yard of Bethlehem Steel Company, 
Shipbuilding Division, is said to be the first of its type 
ever to be performed in a West Coast shipyard. The ves- 
sel involved was the Navy Supply Ship KA8, now known 
as the MV Algorab, which was recently purchased by 
foreign interest, and which was operated by the Navy in 
the Pacific during rlie war. 

When she came to Bethelems San Francisco Yard in 
September, 1947, her Sun Doxford diesel engine had 
been stripped to the bedplates and the parts stored in the 
vessel's cargo holds. These were taken out of the ship and 
removed to one of the yards warehouses where they were 
inspected and their identification checked before being 
reassembled. Before this was done the cylinders and 
guides were relined, as well as the thrust and line shafts. 
The engine bed was checked and the holding down bolts 
inspected and renewed where ncessary. 

Peter MacDonald 

Upon inspection, stub ends and pins on the four sec- 
tion crankshaft showed signs of loosening. It was decided, 
therefore, to remove the entire shaft from the ship. This 

At left is the Algorab on dry- 
dock and right, cylinder hous- 
ing being removed from the 
Algorab by sheerlegs crane. 





194 8 

Page 43 

was taken out, section by section, and dismantled in the 
machine shop by pressing the stub end and pins from the 

Pins and stub ends were then built up by means of 
welding. This was done with a mechanical welding 
machine and then remachined to fit the webs which had 
previously been rebored in the yard's machine shop. 
Webs were then heated to a temperature between 600 

I Please turn to page 4(>) 

Pressing out crank pin with hydraulic ram. Web is being heated 
pressure is applied to pin. 

2. George Vogensen. machinist, finishing boring crank web for crank pin 
on k" horizontal boring rrill. 

3. Welding stub end of crank shaft section where it fits into crank web. 
Stub end is clamped in lathe chuck and revolves while stub end is 
welded with mechanical welding machine. B. A, Brookman is operat- 
ing welding machine. 

4. Welding crank pin using same method as stub end. Henry Smith and 
McKinley Doda are operating welding machine. 

5. Gus Molin. machinist, 
machining crank pin to 
si7e. after welding, for 
shrink fit into web. 

6. Alec Weber, machinist, 
inspects stub end which 

down to designated di- 
ameter for shrink fit into 

Page 44 


I Arthur Tambcrq, E. Par- 
tels and Don Sheridan 
conduct first shrinking 
operation. Pin is being 
shrunk into web section 
which has been expand- 
ed by heating. 

2. Heating 

torches prior t 
in stub end 

MARCH • 1941 

Page 45 

iContinued from page 44) 
and 700° F. before the pins and stub ends were shrunk 
in place. All shrinking was done in a vertical position 
to eliminate any distortion. 

Following the shrinking operation each crank section 

West Coast Waterfront Payrolls 

But Foreign 

West Coast waterfront payrolls jumped to over $57 
million dollars in 1947, a 17 million dollar increase over 
1946. The situation in seafaring employment on the 
Coast was different, with a lO^^r reduction occurring dur- 
ing 1947. 

This information and other factors in West Coast 
Maritime employment were contained in a joint report 
released by the Waterfront Employers Association of the 
Pacific Coast and the Pacific American Shipowners Asso- 

The 40% increase in longshore payrolls compared 
closely with the 50' < total cargo increase in 1947 for 
all West Coast ports, recently reported by the industry. 
The difference is accounted for by the preponderance of 
lumber and wheat cargoes contained in the 1947 increase, 
which require a minimum of longshore work. 

Individual port longshore payroll totals in 1947 were: 
1946 1947 

San Francisco $18,146,321 $27,550,000 

Los Angeles 8,411,368 13,623,000 

Portland . 5,673,542 7,952,288 

Seattle 8,451,879 7,944,282 

$40,683,110 $57,069,570 

was checked in the lathe for trueness. Main journals 
were remachined and cranks were lined up and new 
coupling bolts fitted. 

The reconditioned crankshaft was then reinstalled in 
the Algorab section by section. 

at New High- 
Lines Are Getting the Cargoes 

Of the $27.5 million in San Francisco, $23.3 million 
was earned by a total of 5,712 "regular registered" long- 
shoremen. Average annual earnings for these Bay Area 
longshoremen was $4,084. Average earnings of U. S. 
factory workers was $2,566. Those for U. S. Civil Service 
workers were $2,856. 

On the seafaring side, average monthly employment 
for the American lines on the coast stood at 18,668 for 
the quarter ending December, 1947. High for the year 
was 20,119 at the end of March. Total seafaring payrolls 
were not available. 

West Coast shipping had less interruption of service in 
1947 due to labor disturbances. The 1946 strike lasted 
73 days, whereas there was no coast-wide tie-up of any 
duration in 1947. The 1947 foreman strike affected only 
a few lines in the California ports. 

The Waterfront Employers Association central pay 
system, only one of its kind in the world, according to 
Kenneth F. Saysette, WEA treasurer, achieved coastwide 
application in 1947. Seattle installed the system in that 
year. Longshoremen are rotated from employer to em- 
ployer by the union and have as many as four employers 
per pay period. The pay system balks all earnings and 
deductions into one check for each man. 

Page 46 


^ew Ship Structure Materials 


Head Marine Section, Development Division 

Aluminum Company of America 

I knew — / knew what was coming. 
When we bid on the "Byfleet's 
keel — 
They piddled and piffled with iron. 
I'd given my orders for steel! 
— Kipling 

The naval architect and shipbuild- 
er today must consider an increasing 
array of new materials and refine- 
ments of old, tried and proven ones 
in the pursuit of their craft. In some 
form or other, a multitude of com- 
mercial materials enter into the con- 
struction of hull, machinery, equip- 
ment or outfit of ships in great or 
small degree. These conditions re- 
quire the close attention of those 

concerned with the design, building 
and operation of ships to new or 
improved materials, particularly for 
hull construction. 

The ship has been called, and in 
some degree is, the artistic master- 
piece of man. Great poets have 
eulogized the ship in more than 
materialistic terms. Popularly, as 
well as under ancient and Admiral- 
ty law, the ship has been invested 
with a personality. In its structure, 
as a residence, as a carrier of goods, 
as a machine in the service of man, 
it has developed in complexity with 
increasing complexity in the life of 
progressing man. Today, after util- 
izing wood, iron, steel and concrete 

for hulls; canvas, steam and oil for 
propulsion, designers, builders and 
operators of ships, in a move to 
keep pace with progress, must con- 
sider particularly and fully the qual- 
ities of light metals for structures 
and equipment, gas turbines and 
the atom for propulsion, and similar 
materials and technological ad- 
vances to invest their vessels with a 
more efficient and modern personal- 

Since time immemorial, boats and 
ships have been built of organic 
materials. About 1840, for example, 
practically all seagoing vessels were 
of wood construction. Thousands of 
years of development had brought 

el is equipped 
boat winches, 

oyed in the building of Ale 
ninum alloy structures abov. 
bridge and promenade er 
and scores of mis-cellaneous 

ipany'i new Ako,. CAVALIER, pL.ced in 
eluding houses, bridge and smokestack 
iner bulkheads, doors, interior decorations, 
en fabricated from aluminum. 

irly in 
. Life 

MARCH • 1948 

Page 47 

In the alLal 
resistance to 

nd fittings are fabricated fron 
esearch. Ttie 10,000 ton carrier i! 

422 ft. long, eitre 

ested for 
•.am 40 ft. 

about a high degree of perfection 
in the use of wood in shipbuilding. 
The pages of history from the Phoe- 
nicians to the era of the Yankee 
clippers tell of the voyagings of 
many fine wooden craft. Few such 
ships, however, exceeded 200 feet 
in length, though a few vessels at- 
tained a length of about 300 feet. 
To build enduring strength into 
larger structures was impossible. 
Even moderate size was in many 
cases impracticable because of natu- 
ral limitations in timbers available, 
in size of pieces, non-uniformity of 
grade and seasoning, susceptibility 
to marine attack and inevitable dis- 
tortion which resulted from strain- 
ing and slippage while at sea. Many 
old wooden ships became hogback- 
ed and their keels were frequently 
several feet out of line. Often these 
distortions occurred at launching. 

Iron began to be utilized in ships 
as a substitute for wood hulls about 
1820, following its early use in 1787 
by the Carron Iron Works in the 
building of canal barges. Indeed, 
for many years it was employed in 
the hulls of floating craft only in 
this tentative, or developmental, 
manner. Many of those versed in 
wood construction scoffed at the 
idea of iron seagoing vessels. In 
time they were convinced of the 
practicality and strength of iron, 
from such accidents as stoppages 
during the launching of iron barges 
and by several groundings across 
rocks of some of the original iron- 
built Newcastle coal boats. Such ex- 
periences not only demonstrated the 
high strength of the material, but 
actually showed that scantlings then 
used were excessive, leading to a 

more accurate analysis of the struc- 
tural requirements for seagoing ves- 

The 180 ton "Sirius," built in 
1837, was the first iron seagoing 
vessel classed by Lloyd's. With this 
new material, and differences of 
opinion as to its use and the variety 
of early building practices, experi- 
ence had to be accumulated to in- 
dicate with some precision the best 
methods of construction, together 
with sound structural requirements 
for safe and economical design. Ex- 
perience was also needed to gauge 
iron's ability to withstand corrision 
under sea service conditions. Com- 
pared with the rotting of wood and 
attacks by marine borers, iron show- 
ed little deterioration. It thinned 
away some from corrosion, but al- 
lowances had already been made for 
this; it could be seen and corrected, 
and ways were devised for prevent- 
ing or reducing it. 

These were the natural results of 
the experimental nature of the mate- 
rial, but in due time Lloyd's and 
other classification societies adopted 
standard rules for the building and 
classification of iron vessels. Later, 
as additional and increasing experi- 
ence was obtained, these societies re- 
vised them, as they have continued 
to do with the advent of new and 
improved materials. 

For merchant ships, Lloyd's Reg- 
ister of Shipping is unique since it 
accurately records periods of de- 
velopment of new and modern ship 
structure materials, including parti- 
culars such as age, scantlings and ex- 
cellence of construction, for the nec- 
essary purposes of classification. 
J-loyd's earliest publications, preced- 

ing the introduction of iron, were 
devoted exclusively to wooden ves- 
sels. Their symbols of classification 
virtually developed with wooden 
vessels, and the symbol "A-1 " be- 
came a recognized proverb of per- 
fection as we know and use it today. 
Because of the numerous kinds of 
timber of varying degrees of dura- 
bility employed in shipbuilding, 
Lloyd's found it necessary, given 
good workmanship, to prefix the 
symbol of perfection with a numeral 
to identify the structural timber 

Deterioration of wooden ships is 
inevitable with age; timbers rot, iron 
bolts rust, wood treenails loosen and 
the structure ultimately becomes 
less seaworthy. "Vessels built of teak, 
most durable of ship timbers, were 
expected to remain sound for six- 
teen years and received the classifi- 
cation 16A1. Fir was presumed to 
last for eight years and vessels so 
built were classed 8AI. At the end 
of these periods, the high classifica- 
tion expired, but could be reinstated 
in part with a lower classification 
if the structure was sound or was 
made so. In the case of iron, and 
later of steel vessels, the numerals 
100 were prefixed to the symbol 
"Al" to identify those vessels built 
to Lloyd's highest standards of 
strength and workmanship. 

Was this a prediction made by 
early underwriters and shipowners 
that an iron vessel would last 100 
years? If so, their early thinking was 
apparently justified, for a few still 
survive, and records show they are 
still in active service. Compare this 
to the few historic wooden warships 
in preservation at their safe moor- 

Page 48 


Coincident witli the development 
of the iron hull was the develop- 
ment of the steam enijine for mari- 
riine purposes. Many paddle driven 
wooden vessels were equipped with 
steam engines, among them the 
historic and commercially successful 
"Clermont." The science of metal- 
lurgy developed with them, and was 
.applied to the improvement of iuiUs 
as well as machinery. Iron, however, 
like wood, had its limitations. In 
time, naval architects and builders, 
dogged by fierce and sometimes vi- 
nous competition for cargoes and 
freight experimented with and, 
finally, adopted its alloy — steel. 

By 1855, when the behemoth iron 
hulled "Great Eastern" was built, 
the use of iron for seagoing vessels 
had become relatively common. In 
that year, Lloyd's issued its first rules 
for the construction of iron vessels. 
Puddlers of those days produced 
iron of excellent quality, but when 
experience conclusively proved the 
greater strength of iron vessels as 
compared with wood, a tendency 
developed to build cheaply. The re- 
sult was inferior iron and the qual- 
ity of many such ships deteriorated 
with the material. Indeed, this mal- 
practice became so common that 
iron plates of inferior quality came 
to be known as "boat plates." Poli- 
tical agitation, in the wake of scien- 
tific and technological advances for- 
tunately checked the trend, and the 
establishment of rigid test require- 

Almost every bit of metal in ttie super- 
structure of the President Cleveland 
(top picture) is aluminum. Included 
are the smoke stacks, life boats, davits 



Picture at right shows one of the salons 
aboard the Alcoa "Cavalier." v»hich 
features aluminum picture frames, fur- 
nishings, lamps, and lamp shades, 
doors, lighting fixtures and flashing. 
Greatly increasing amounts of alumi- 
num have been utilijed by ship deco- 
rators since the war for doors, prome- 
nade windows, airports, and interior 
decorative trim. 

ments and other controls speeded 
improvements in manufacture and 
in building. 

Ordinary puddled steel was first 
used for ship hulls for high speed 
paddle steamers about 1859. This 
steel, while it had a tensile strength 
of approximately 90,000 pounds per 
square inch, was brittle, unreliable 
and expensive, costing about 10 
cents (10c) a pound. Its use was 
confined almost exclusively to high 
speed steamers, the requirements of 

lighter hulls making strength in the 
structural material most important. 
The American Bureau of Shipping 
was incorporated in New York State 
in 1862 for the classification and 
survey of ships and readily assumed 
its place in vessel development. Bes- 
.semer steel was introduced about 
1863, but because of imperfect pro- 
duction processes, its characteristics 
were not much better than puddle 
steel. The latter confined its use to 
iPlc-uH I III II in page 100) 

MARCH • 1948 

Page 49 

'Pont (^ 


INCREASED aggressiveness of competition for tonnage results in common benefits to all classes of west coast 

and for modernization and expansion of facilities of shipping. 

Pacific Coast ports, as exemplified in the records of 19i7, This obst'r\ation was made recently by the Port of 

Officers of the Port of Seattle. Top: J. A. 
Earley, President, and E. H. Savage, Vice- 

Below, left to right: A. B. Terry, Commis- 
sioner; Col. W. D. Lamport, General 
Manager, and George T. Treadwell, Chief 

MARCH • 1948 

Page 51 


Seattle Commission at their January reorganization meet- 
ing incident to an intensified operational and promo- 
tional program for 1948-49 with emphasis on Alaskan 
and Oriental trade by sea and by air. U. S. Government 
statistics were cited to show that Seattle's ratio of sub- 
stantial increases in import and export tonnage and 
valuations in 1947 over 1946 "compared very favorably 
with increases recorded for other major Pacific Coast 

Stressing the economic importance of world trade to 
the healthy growth of industry, payrolls and agriculture 
of the State of Washington, the Port Commission called 
public attention to "the hurdles of legal restrictions and 
Hmitations under state law which for many years have 
handicapped and impeded promotion of world trade not 
only for Seattle but for every other port district in the 
State of Washington." 

Only since the spring of 1947, when the Washington 
legislature amended the laws governing municipal port 
corporations, was the Port of Seattle permitted to budget 
funds for national advertising either through direct ex- 
penditures or through cooperative promotion with other 
groups, such as the Chamber of Commerce. 

Now that this archaic shackle has been legally removed, 
the Port of Seattle was enabled to launch an effective but 
relatively smaU national advertising campaign in 1947. 
But Seattle and other ports of the State of Washington 
are still at a great competitive disadvantage in compari- 
son with ports of such states as California, Louisiana, 
Texas and New York. 

Ports of the State of Washington receive no support in 
any form from the State and must rely entirely on their 
own resources for developments or promotion even when 
such enterprises are obviously for the common benefit of 
all the taxpayers and interests of the State. Ports of other 
states, the Commission pointed out, are supported at least 
in part by state tax funds, directly or indirectly. There- 
fore, contend the Seattle shipping factors, it is "high 
time to correct this condition that places our ports under 
such an obvious competitive disadvantage, so that the 
costs of necessary promotion for the common good may 
be shared in a more equitable and businesslike way, it 
being already conceded and demonstrated that the ports 

are logical spearheads for such promotional activities for 
world trade and industrial expansion." 

John A. Earley, senior member of the Port of Seattle 
Commission and representative from the North district, 
was elected president of the board succeeding E. H. 

Savage, West Seattle civic leader and representative on 
the Commission from the South district, was elected vice 
president. He has served as president for the past two 

A. B. Terry, newest member on the Commission, who 
last year was elected to succeed Commissioner Horace P. 
Chapman who resigned after 14 years continuous service 
as representative from the central (city) district, was 
chosen secretary. 

Col. Warren D. Lamport remains as general manager 
and George T. Treadwell as chief engineer for the Port 
of Seattle. 

The commission issued a statement commending 
Savage for "outstanding services to the Port of Seattle, 
especially during the past year featuring an aggressive 
national and foreign trade promotion program; saving 
the taxpayers a huge sum of interest money by retire- 
ment of $2,500,000 in bonds on the super-modern Pier 
42 twin-terminal; great progress in financing and com- 
pletion of the super-modern Seattle-Tacoma Airport; and 
great advances in speeding and improving .shipping serv- 
ices for the Alaska trade." 

Signalizing a year of "the most constructive and 
aggressive activity in Seattle's history in improving and 
economizing services and in promotion of Seattle's world 
port destiny against heavily increased competition and 
still unsettled conditions affecting Oriental trade," Earley 
said the port "will speed use of every practical means 
leading to establishment of a foreign trade zone here or 
elsewhere on Puget Sound with the help of State funds 
to expand industry and commerce for this State." 

Earley, who has served on the Port Commission for 
the past 14 years, said that "while the Seattle import and 
export trade record for 1947, on the basis of U. S. Gov- 
ernment published statistics, proves that we have more 
than held our own against competition and the adverse 
conditions that were the aftermath of war in the Pacific, 
the 1948 phase of our promotion and development pro- 
gram will doubtless result in an increasingly better 
record this year." 


SHIPS AND SAILING ALBUMS, I to 4, published 
by Kalmbach Publishing Company. Price Si. 50 each; 
21 pages each; 10" x 14". 

Titles of the albums are as follows: Book 1, /Mississippi 
Stern Wheelers, compiled by Captain Frederick Way, Jr.; 
Book 2, Great Lakes Saili)?f( Ships, compiled by Henry N. 
Barkhausen; Book 3, Ottr Naty's Fiphlin^ Ships, com- 
piled by Lieut. Comdr. William C. Moore, USNR, and 
Lieut. Comdr. John H. Kemble, USNR- and Book 4, 
New England Fishing Schooners, compiled by Joseph C. 

This series of ships and sailing albums is identical in 
format to the popular series of railroad books produced 
by Kalmbach Publishing Company. The text is concise 
and factual and top-ranking photographs give an 
astonishing portrayal of the fascinating ships and scenes. 
Each album contains approximately 50 illustrations. 
With the exception of one picture, the illustrations in 
0»r Navy's Fighting Ships are Official U. S. Navy photo- 
graphs. The books are bound so as to allow extraction of 
any page if framing of pictures is desired. 

The last of this series of albums. No. 5, Early Great 
Lakes Passenger Steamships, will be published shortly. 

Page 52 


Summary of Report 
on Tramp Shipping 


The Committee on Tramp Shipping of the Maritime 
( ommission recently notified the Shipowners' Associa- 
tion of the Pacific Coast that a fresh study of tramp ship- 
ping under U. S. Hag operation was being undertaken by 
the Commission, and requested various factual data. 

The Policy Committee of the Association consisting 
of W. R. Chamberlin, Jr. (Chairman) of W. R. Chani- 
berlin & Co., G. A. Dondon of Pope & Talbot, David 
Gregory of Olympic Line, and R. S. Kimberk of Coast- 
wise Line, has prepared a comprehensive report for the 
Commission, and it is very well summarized in the fol- 
lowing closing pages by Ralph W. Myers, President of 
the Association. 

The Shipowners' Association of the Pacific Coast con- 
sists of the following: 

Burns Steamship Co. 

W. R. Chamberlin & Co. 

Coastwise Line 

James Griffiths & Sons 

Olympic Steamship Co. 

Pope & Talbot, Inc. 

J. Ramselius & Co. 

Schaefer Bros. Steamship Line. 

In summary: Tramp Shipping is the irregular and/or 
non-scheduled movement of dry cargoes of low value 
commodities between ports on a voyage charter or a 
time charter basis, principally in full shipload lots of one 
commodity on or under deck. It is by nature a seasonal 
business. It is worldwide in scope, and to be successful, 
cannot be restricted to ports or areas. Due to the large 
volume of such cargoes and the seasonal movement, there 
always has been and always will be a large world tramp 
fleet to move these cargoes, because it is economically 
unsound to maintain a sufficient number of vessels on 
the regular berth services to move these cargoes. 

There is a definite need for an economical medium of 
transportation, which is afforded by tramp ships because 
of ( 1 ) their low capital costs, ( 2 ) their low overhead, 
and ( 3 ) their ability to carry full cargo lots of one com- 
modity. The liner services prove inadequate for carry- 
ing tramp type cargoes for five important reasons: ( 1 ) 
They cannot supply adequate tonnage space to take care 
of full cargo shipments of one commodity. Hence, they 

MARCH • 1948 

alph W. Myers, 
resident of Ship- 

would prove wholly inadequate in trying to handle the 
tremendous seasonal flow of traffic that ordinarily goes 
to tramp vessels. ( 2 ) They are restricted by their Con- 
ference obligations from carrying commodities at an 
economical rate. ( .3 ) They would be unable to main- 
tain their schedules if they were restricted to shifting, 
loading and discharging provisions in voyage contracts, 
which are ordinarily customary to the several trades. (4) 
They would be restricted in maintaining their schedules 
because of their inability to assemble all tramp type 
cargoes at one point, as they are able to do with their 
liner cargoes. ( 5 ) In many instances, they do not serve 
ports regularly or seasonally served by tramp ships, be- 
cause of lack of port facilities, shallow draft, and other 

Major tramp routes are worldwide in scope and cargoes 
flowing over these routes are dependent upon seasonal 
influences and market demands. 

American tramp ships should be permitted to organ- 
ize themselves into or to join tramp conferences for rate 




stabilization purposes. In order to accomplish this, the 
Shipping Act of 1916, as amended, should be revised to 
allow tramp ships the benefit of conference protection. 

The largest tramp fleet before the War was Great 
Britain's, and from performance figures, it was very 
profitable. It provided Great Britain with a tremendous 
reserve of ships to be called upon in time of war, which 
purpose can be accomplished by this Nation with a 
sizeable tramp fleet. 

Thirty-two per cent of all inbound and outbound com- 
merce of the United States before the War was composed 
of bulk commodities that would lend themselves to 
tramping service. Of this, American flag ships carried 
less than Vz of 1%. 

United States companies engaged in tramp shipping 
today which have the largest tramp fleets are the berth 
operators. These operators do own their own liner vessels, 
which are engaged in their essential trade routes. United 
States flag companies engaged in tramp shipping who do 
not have subsidized services or rights to trade over essen- 
tial routes, for the most part, do not own their own 
tonnage, nor in many instances, can they afford to buy 
tonnage for use in tramping trades under the American 
flag unless they receive assurances of a future for the 
operation of their ships in the form of Government sub- 
sidies. Lacking Government subsidies, the minority of 
companies who own tramp tonnage are faced with (a) 
transferring the registry of their ships to a foreign flag, 
(b) selling their ships to foreign interests, or (c) de- 
faulting on their payments. 

Many of the companies engaged in tramp trades, who 
have previously chartered their vessels from the Mari- 
time Commission, have now turned these vessels back 
to the Maritime Commission and are using foreign ton- 
nage on a time charter basis to maintain themselves in 
the world shipping picture. In our minds, this is an in- 
dication of a trend which will grow, and it is a turning 
back to the way of doing business by these companies as 
they did before the War. This necessarily reacts to the 
detriment of the Merchant Marine of this Nation. 

The type of vessel used in worldwide tramp trades 
prior to the War, was a double-decked vessel, between 
7000 and 9000 tons deadweight, approximately 400,000- 
500,000 cu. ft. of bale space. It was of shallow draft and 
its speed was between 7 and 10 knots. 

The cost of maintaining and operating American flag 
tramp vessels is obviously much higher than the cost of 
maintaining and operating foreign flag vessels. 

United States shipping companies cannot be expected 
to operate tramp vessels after the European Rehabilita- 
tion Plan is accomplished (1951) without Government 
aid. Given an equal chance with their foreign counter- 
parts, many companies will operate vessels in tramp 
trades. Government assistance should be on a vessel basis 
and should include the full difference in costs of wages, 
overtime, bonuses, subsistence, maintenance and repair, 
expendable and consumable stores, insurance, construc- 
tion or purchase price. It is our opinion that very few 
changes will be required in the basic laws of the United 

States affecting shipping, and for the most part, it may 
be adequately handled by amending the Shipping Act of 
1916, as amended, and the present Merchant Marine 
Act of 1936, as amended. 

We believe that considerably less than 1% of the 
expenditure of $10,000,000,000 for additional defense 
purposes would be sufficient to subsidize and to insure 
an adequate American Merchant Marine. Financial risks 
which confront United States steamship companies in 
tramping under U. S. flag are for the most part the same 
risks which confront United States steamship companies 
in the liner services. 

American labor will definitely participate in and bene- 
fit by the operation of American vessels tramp shipping, 
because it provides employment and training opportunity 
for seagoing, shoreside, management, ship-repair yard 
and ship-building yard personnel. 

The tramp of the Merchant Marine would be of in- 
estimable value to the United States, both commercially 
and militarily, for it would make available to shippers 
engaged in foreign trades more American flag tonnage 
adequate to suit their needs, provide a transportation 
medium for raw materials and bulk cargoes, and under 
abnormal conditions, it would enable the Merchant 
Marine to fully meet the requirements of United States 
exporters and manufacturers and importers of raw ma- 
terials, and to fulfill its mission of becoming an adequate 
military auxiliary. 

We do not believe that this Nation should make the 
mistake again of having an inadequate Merchant Marine, 
and that the Merchant Marine of the United States should 
be commensurate with the responsibilities of this Nation 
in international politics. The size and condition of a 
Merchant Marine lends prestige to the nation whose flag 
that Merchant Marine flies. 

Large carriers proved to be essential in the last war, 
and they will be essential in the next. Availability of 
ships was proved to be more important than the speed 
or the type of the ship. We believe that we should have 
a Merchant Marine adequate so that we can establish a 
bridge of ships to whichever area needs supplies in time 
of national emergency. 

Therefore, we recommend that this Government do 
everything possible to foster the development of a tramp 
fleet, so as to more fully protect this Nation in time of 
war or national emergency, to insure adequate shipping 
facilities in normal and abnormal times. It should adopt 
a policy of leniency and encouragement to tramp ship- 
ping companies. 

At this writing, the Maritime Commission and the 
Shipping Industry are well aware of the fact that Foreign 
Operators, who have purchased Liberty vessels, are offer- 
ing to charter these vessels for from one to three years 
to Americans at time form charter rates which are less 
than the cost of operating a Liberty vessel under the 
American flag, and the Foreign Operators are also at 
times offering to carry cargoes at rates and on charter 
conditions that are less than the rates needed fey the 
American Operators for profitable operation. 

Finally, we recommend that subsidies be granted all 
vessels engaged in foreign-trade. 

Page 54 



a^lcf S^M. ^^OKCc^^x^ S^tx^li^^U^ 

By A. J. ni<:kie 

IN THIS BEGINNING of a three-year celebration of 
the centennial of the State of California, it seems 
fitting that the oldest shipping magazine on the Pacific 
Coast should revive interest in the shipping and ship- 
building history of the port inside the Golden Gate. 
The beginnings of both these industries run back into 
Spanish and Mexican California, and in the case of ship- 
building particularly, into the days of Russian occupa- 
tiun as far south as Fort Ross. Much research has been 
iii.ide into the activities of these periods and there is no 
claim to originality in this series of articles. Like the 
great French essayist Montaigne we "have gathered a 
few flowers from other men's gardens; only the string that 
ties them together is our own." 

Prior to the year 1846 San Francisco was a very quiet 
little Pueblo, an adjunct to the mission "De Los Dolores 
de Nuestro Padre San Francisco de Asis," commonly 
known as Mission Dolores. The town itself was known as 
the Presidio of San Francisco and was in fact merely the 
tort and the residence of the garrison established for 
the protection of the Mission which had been founded in 

In 183-1 the Pueblo ( Mission and Presidio ), which had 
a population of 500 Indians and perhaps 150 Mexican 
priests and soldiers, owned 5,000 horned cattle, 1600 
ill irses and mules, 4,000 sheep, goats and hogs, and 
1M)() bushels of grain. The Mission pasture lands evi- 
dently extended down the peninsula. The Mission 
Dolores, in partnership with the Mission at Santa Clara, some time previous to this date bought two schooners 
from the Russians at Fort Ross and had used these craft 
for inter-bay transportation of supplies and of hides and 
j tallow. After two or three years use these vessels got to 

Another drawing showing San Francisco Harbor and tal<en about 
six months after the one in the adjoining column. The island in the 
distance is the Verba Buena Island of today and the lagoon in the 
foreground is the site of the city's financial and shipping district of 
today. The lower left corner of the lagoon is approximately the 
location of the office of the Pacific Marine Review. 

be rather a burden on the minds and muscles of the 
padres and their Indian help so they abandoned them 
and went back to primitive oxcart transportation. 

William Richardson, an English sailor, mate of the 
British whaler Orion, had left that vessel and settled at 
Sausalito some years earlier and he now moved to San 
Francisco and made a proposition to the Missions that 
he would put these schooners in ship shape and operate 
them on the bay carrying the Mission cargoes and any 
other business he could pick up. The padres accepted 
this offer and, as their share in the deal, turned over the 
ownership of the schooners to Richardson. He thus be- 
came the first shipping man to live in San Francisco and 
the owner of San Francisco's first shipping business. 

He had no competition, no regulation, and made his 
own rates. Deep sea vessels came into the harbor in 
those days to pick up cargoes of hides and tallow or to 
stock up on fresh water. For cargo they anchored approxi- 
mately at the location that is now the foot of Jackson 
Street in the lee of a rocky point that stretched bayward 
from Telegraph Hill. This point had a sandy beach 
along its southerly side from which landing and loading 
was comparatively easy except when southeasters were 
blowing. For water, the ships anchored off Sausalito 
where there was abundant fresh water from large springs. 

Richardson fixed his rates at YIVt. cents per hide and 
S 1 .00 per bag of tallow from any point on the bay or the 
lower rivers to San Francisco or to ships anchored off 
San Francisco. In the season 1835-1836 exports amounted 
to 20,000 hides and 1,000 tons of tallow. As this was 
probably all handled by Richardson's schooners, his gross 

Page 55 

[m m FRAiisco 

income from freights would be approximately 523,000 
thar season. 

Shipping and the Pueblo of San Francisco continued 
in this sleepy existence until 1846 when on July 9 it 
was suddenly roused out of its lethargy by the United 
States frigate Portiniouth under command of Captain 
Montgomery who came ashore with a corps of Marines 
and raised the Stars and Stripes over the sleepy plaza 
( now Portsmouth Square ) declaring San Francisco an 
American city — a city of perhaps thirty nondescript 
buildings scattered along four streets, which were named 
by the Americans, Montgomery (along the waterfront), 
Kearny, ( parallel to Montgomery one block west ) , and 
the two intersecting streets Clay and Washington. 

Nineteen days after this flag raising the good ship 
Brooklyn sailed through the Gate with 2.38 passengers, 
mostly Mormons, under the leadership of San Brannan. 
This ship had put out from New York bound for Port- 
land, Oregon, and for some reason stopped in at San 
Francisco, and San Brannan and his passengers elected 
to remain, becoming the first group of American civilians 
to settle at this port. By January 1847 the American 
population was about 300 and by March 1848 it had 
grown to 800. At this period San Francisco was by no 
means the best known or the largest port on what is 
now the Pacific Coast of the United States. On every 
count it was bettered by such now comparatively less 
important ports as San Diego, San Pedro, and Monterey, 
in California, Astoria and Portland in Oregon, and Sitka, 
Alaska (then Russian). The California trade of hides 
and taUow was very poor pickings for the shrewd trader- 
ship masters of those days when compared with the fur 
trade of Oregon or Alaska. Astoria and Portland had 
become the centers of the fur trade, dating back into the 
days of the Hudson Bay Company regime in that section. 
This comparative unimportance of the Golden Gate with 
its great harbor is well illustrated by the action of Con- 
gress bn March 3, 1847. For some time the legislators 
had been considering the establishment of a mail route 
by steamer from the Atlantic Coast to the Pacific Coast. 
On the date alluded to above an act was passed for this 

purpose. The route chosen was via the Isthmus of 
Panama and a fairly liberal subsidy was offered. This act 
resulted in the founding of the famous Pacific Mail 
Steamship Company. However, the significant feature 
of the act as first passed was the omission of San Fran- 
cisco; the city was not even mentioned. In the middle of 
the following year San Francisco was added to the act 
as a port of call on the way to Portland. However, none 
of the steamers built under this act ever got to Portland 
because when the first vessel was ready to steam around 
to the Pacific the gold rush had already started and she 
and her following sisters were so profitably engaged in 
carrying goods and passengers from Panama to San 
Francisco that Portland was forgotten. 

In March 1847 the entire floating equipment on San 
Francisco Bay comprised: three transports (just arrived 
with Colonel Stevenson's regiment ) ; the ship Vandalia; 
a coastal schooner; a small steam launch; the ship Brook- 
lyn; and two rowing boats. By June 1848 the rumors of 
rich gold deposits up state had been confirmed and 
suddenly almost overnight the city was depopulated. 
However, as the unsuccessful miners drifted back and 
the v/ould-be miners from outside began pouring in, 
there were 2,000 persons in the city by January 1, 1849. 

Official returns for the year ending March 31, 1848 
shows arrivals of 85 vessels, including: 58 small coast- 
wise ships; sixteen whalers; seven small craft from 
Sandwich Islands; and four U. S. Naval ships. 

By January 1, 1850 the population was over 20,000 
and 697 vessels had arrived in seven and a half months. 
On practically all of these vessels the crews and some- 
times the officers ran off to the mines. Many of the ships 
were so-called "company ships," that is, ships owned 
and operated by companies formed and financed for the 
purpose of mining. Some of the deserted ships were 
bought at very low prices, hauled up on the mud flats 
and used as buildings. These ships came from every 
quarter of the globe, and San Francisco suddenly was a 
world port with a cosmopolitan complexion that she has 
retained ever since. San Francisco ( still a Pueblo gov- 
erned by an Alcalde ) had become a commercial port 
with practically the same commercial standing as Phila- 
delphia. She was a world port before she became a 
chartered city and before California became a State. 

Page 56 

World at Cunningham's Dock, San Francisco, 1850 


U. S. m\[ SCHOOL 


I Plans for the School 

The Naval School, General Line, at Monterey (Del 
VIonte) was authorized in September, 1947 by the Sec- 
xrjiv of the Navy to implement the famed Holloway 
'I. Ill for the post-graduate education of Naval officers. 
There was an immediate need for a school to give tem- 

Del Monte Hotel in center. Na^ 

porary and reserve officers who have transferred to the 
Regular Navy a broad general education on Naval sub- 
jects in order that they might have the broad service 
background of the Naval Academy graduate. The Naval 
School, General Line, at Newport, Rhode Island, con- 
vened in July, 1946 for this purpose. As its facilities were 

fARCH • 1948 

Page 57 

anding Officei 
rank T. Watkil 

education in certain civilian universities and institutions 
of higher learning, while the remainder will be assigned 
shore billets in the Naval Shore Establishment until again 
eligible for sea duty. 

The property now under contract by the Navy com- 
prises a total of 241 acres, the largest section comprising 
the grounds of the famous Del Monte Hotel of past years. 
The main hotel building is being employed for admin- 
istrative ofJSces, bachelor officers' quarters and interim 
housing for Naval officers with their families. The main 
building also provides mess halls, and recreational areas. 
There are nineteen other buildings including a laundry, 
garages, a power house, swimming pool, and classrooms. 
Upon purchase of the property the land to be acquired 
by the Navy will total 606 acres, of which 309.8 acres 
will be available for Naval housing on the west side of 
the Del Monte Golf Course. 

The designed capacity for the Naval School, General 
Line, at present is 500 officers. After purchase of the 
property and resulting development, a student body num- 
bering 2,600 student officers will gradually be built up as 
post-graduate school facilities and laboratories become 

limited in respect of the number of former reserve and 
temporary officers requiring this course, the war-time 
Naval Training School at Del Monte, California, near 
Monterey was selected as a site for a second General Line 

At present, the property occupied by the Naval School, 
General Line, Monterey, California is under contract from 
Del Monte Properties Co. However, the Government 
has an option to buy this property and certain additional 
adjacent properties. The purchase of same is awaiting 
congressional appropriation. The option expires on July 
1. 1948. 

Until purchase of the property is made, only the sub- 
jects required for General Line post-graduate training 
will be presented. Subject to purchase of the property 
by the Government, and in accordance with the Hollo- 
way Plan, the Naval School, General Line, Monterey will 
eventually become in effect a Naval Post-Graduate Uni- 
versity where all Naval post-graduate work will be ac- 
complished. This means that the post-graduate school at 
Annapolis, Maryland, the School of Naval Intelligence 
and the Naval School of Foreign Languages at Anacostia, 
Virginia will be discontinued and all their post-graduate 
functions will be transferred to Monterey. The Naval 
School, General Line, Newport, Rhode Island will con- 
tinue to operate until all reserve and temporary officers 
who transferred to the regular line of the Navy have 
completed their course. By that time, all Naval officers, 
upon completion of their first tour of sea duty after 
becoming a commissioned officer, would be required to 
take the General Line course requiring one year. Certain 
numbers of the graduates of this course will be permitted 
to take further post-graduate work at the post-graduate 
school in various technical subjects such as Marine Engi- 
neering, Aeronautical Engineering, Ordnance Engineer- 
ing and other allied Naval specialties. Other graduates of 
the General Line School may complete their technical 


The General Line School will be provided with ample 
laboratories and classrooms to teach the following sub- 

, Strategy and Tactics 

Combat Information Center 


Anti-Submarine Warfare 


The Foundation of National Power 

Naval History 

Naval Intelligence 

Administration and Leadership 



Ordnance and Gunnery 

Seamanship and Navigation 


Steam and Marine Engineering 

Damage Control for Ships 

Radiological Safety 

Electrical Engineering 


The above subjects will require four terms of eleven 
weeks each, including a total of 1,135 hours. The students 
will be divided into sections of 25 officers each. Duration 
of the average recitation period will be 50 minutes and 
the laboratory periods will occupy two hours. 

The Naval School, General Line will have the benefit 
of the latest in training equipment. To assist the instruc- 
tors there will be such training aids as sound moving 
pictures and lantern slides, numerous synthetic training 
devices which were one of the training wonders of the 
last World War, scale models of ships, machinery lay- 
outs, ordnance equipment, and aircraft. Assigned to the 
School for drills and instruction under actual operating 

Page 58 


conditions will be a destroyer, a destroyer escort, a sub- 
marine, and various types of aircraft. The Naval Auxiliary 
Air Station at Monterey was commissioned to maintain 
the flight proficiency of student and staff aviators. 

Heads of Departments 

Heads of Departments were selected on the basis of 
their previous experience. Departmental instructors are 
all well qualified to teach their assigned subjects by reason 
of duties previously assigned in the Fleet. The subjects of 
Electrical Engineering, Physics, and Mathematics will be 
taught by able civilian instructors who have had experi- 
ence in teaching at engineering schools at various promi- 
nent civilian universities. Department Heads are as fol- 
lows: ^ 
Commanding Officer, Captain Frank T. Watkins, USN 
Executive Ofiicer, Captain C. McClusky, USN 
Operational Command Department, Captain R. J. 

Archer, USN 
Administrative Command Department. Captain A. C. 

Perkins, USN 
Ordnance and Gunnery Department, Commander W. 

L. Harmon, USN 
Seamanship and Navigation Department, Captain A. 

R. St. Angelo, USN 
Engineering and Damage Control Department, Cap- 
tain F. P. Luongo, Jr., USN. 

Top to bottom: Former registration desk of Hotel Del Monte 
being used as Officer of the Deck's Office. 

Lobby of Del Monte Hotel. 

Roman Plunge at Del Monte. 

MARCH • I 948 

Hollander Invents 
Kew Type Diesel Engine 

A new type ship's diesel engine, half the size and less 
than half the weight of the type now in general use, has 
been completed early this month by Werkspoor, one of 
Holland's largest makers of ship's engines and railway 
equipment. The new engine is also more easily accessible 
and more economical than the prevailing type, and can 
moreover utilize the heaviest type of fuel oil. 

The diesel engine is the invention of G. J. Lugt, a 
marine engineer with forty years of practice, who started 
to work on his plans in 1943, in the midst of the German 
occupation of 'The Netherlands. Left undisturbed in his 
drafting room by the Nazis, who little suspected on what 
sort of work he was engaged, he completed his plans — on 
paper — toward the end of the war. Immediately upon 
Holland's liberation, "W'erkspoor initiated large-scale 
research work on Lugt's invention, and the first experi- 
mental engine is now ready. 

The engine is a 1,200 H.P. two-cylinder affair equip- 
ped with the most modern technical improvements. It 
can also be made with three, four or more cylinders, as 
each cylinder is an independent unit. 

A six-cylinder diesel engine of this type has a capacity 
of 3,600 H.P. the same as an eight-cylinder four-stroke 
engine now being made by "Werkspoor. It is far less 
noisy and weighs only MO tons, against 315 tons for the 
older type. 

Page 59 

Uodern Oil Tanker Design 

Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Chester. Pa. 

Introduction — 

The unprecedented demand for petroleum products 
during World War II created a problem in logistics that 
was solved by the mass production of modern tankers for 
the transportation of these products. In the last days of 
the war the American oil industry was producing at an 
average rate of 4,600,000 barrels per day, and of all the 
supplies that were required by our Armed Forces in- 
cluding food, clothing, arms, armament, ammunition, 
shelter, medical supplies, etc., petroleum products repre- 
sented more than sixty per cent by weight. Practically 
all of these oils were transported by tankers which con- 
stituted floating pipe lines to every fighting front. In 
wars of the past, one of the big problems was to supply 
food to the armed forces. During this war, the volume 
of petroleum products moved to the front was almost 
sixteen times that of the food. 

In 1945 the American oil industry produced at the 
rate of 1,828,500,000 barrels annually; the world produc- 
tion for the same period was 2,737,000,000 barrels. The 
postwar era has produced an even greater demand for 
petroleum, and it is estimated that by 1951 the annual 
production of the American oil industry will have been 
increased to 2,026,000,000 barrels; and the world pro- 
duction will be about 3,583,000,000 barrels. On the na- 
tional basis this represents an eleven per cent increase 
over the production of 1945. The bull: of this oil will 
have to be moved by tanker, so that the need is apparent 
for the maintenance and building of a large and modern 
tanker fleet as a peacetime necessity, and as an important 
branch of our national defense set-up. 

The recent national emergency found us lacking in 
many of the components required in tanker construction 
and substitutes had to be found, more often than not at 
greatly increased cost. By instituting a planned replace- 
ment program for our present fleet, enlarging it as we 
go, the costly lessons of the past will not have to be re- 
peated. In 1939 the deadweight tonnage of the U. S. 
tanker fleet was 4,559,000 tons representing 23.9 per 
cent of the world fleet. By 1945, and principally as a re- 
sult of the U. S. Maritime Commission program, this had 
increased to 59.8 per cent. From 1945 to 1947, U. S. 
deadweight tonnage has decreased to 59.2 per cent. The 
necessary construction in bulk quantity, as it were, of 
the T-2 class tanker has given the U. S. tanker fleet a pre- 
ponderence of one class of vessel resulting in an un- 

(This outstanding paper was presented by Mr. 
meeting of the Society of Naval .\rchitect5 and Ma 



balanced distribution as regards size, type and speed. 
Only 22 per cent of the U. S. tanker fleet is under 16,000 
tons deadweight, whereas 88.3 per cent of the world 
tanker fleet is below that figure. More modern tankers in 
other categories are required particularly those for shal- 
lower drafts. At present the U. S. A. has the largest tank- 
er tonnage in the world, but this will be shortly chal- 
lenged by the construction proceeding abroad where 
shipyards are contracted to capacity through 1950 for the 
construction of all types of merchant vessels. The follow- 
ing figures may be of interest to illustrate this: 69 vessels 
totaling 950,215 deadweight tons are building in the 
United Kingdom while Sweden has 29 ships on order 
totaling 409,995 deadweight tons. 

The trade requirements of a tanker must be carefully 
analyzed before proceeding with a design; a stereotyped 
arrangement will not meet specific conditions in the 
highly competitive field of tanker operations. Often the 
principal dimensions themselves are limited by terminal 
facilities, etc. A vessel that is to transport cargoes of a 
single grade requires a simpler tank and piping arrange- 
ment that a vessel carrying mixed cargoes. The cubic of 
vessels built to carry gasoline and other light gravity oils 
must be adequate for the available deadweight. The fol- 
lowing material will be limited to the ocean tanker in 
merchant service. 

Deadweight and Speed 

Prime factors in the design of a tanker from the Own- 
er's point of view are the deadweight and the speed of 
the vessel. The total deadweight is the difference between 
the displacement and the weight of the ship alone. In- 
cluded in the total deadweight are cargo, fuel, feed water, 
potable water, stores, crew and effects. The cargo dead- 
weight is the revenue producing factor which carries the 
whole business enterprise, so that weight saving in all 
other elements is a requisite from the standpoint of finan- 
cial success. Cargo deadweight should be used as the 
basis for making comparisons between tankers with dif- 
ferent types of hull construction and/or propulsion ma- 

Within this decade, technological developments cou- 
pled with improved materials and methods of construc- 
tion have resulted in substantial reductions in ship 
weights which, for a given displacement, have resulted in 
increased deadweight. Examples of this are the employ- 
ment of welded construction in hull and machinery, and 
the trend to high pressure and temperatures in steam 
propulsion machinery installations. 


In the United States emphasis appears to have been 
placed on deadweight; for a given speed the models are 
relatively fuller, and the average deadweight of American 
tankers is higher than that of tankers built elsewhere. 
The ratio of deadweight to displacement for present tank- 
er practice is listed in Table 1. 

Table I 


Deadweight Displ. Ratio 





1 5,000 






The above is predicated upon the use of welded con- 
struction for the hull. Where Owners require a greater 
elaboration in any or all of the ship weight elements, a 
corresponding reduction in deadweight will result. Some 
owners have discovered that the addition of extra material 
in certain spots reduces maintenance bills, and are will- 
ing to sacrifice some deadweight to effect this end. 

The trend of tanker speeds has been upward and is 
evidenced by the figures for the world tank ship fleet 
presented in Table II 

Table II 
Year Speed 

1900 9.0.^ Knots 

1910 9.38 " 

1920 10.01 " 

19.30 10.29 " 

1940 11.18 " 

1945 12.85 

1947 October 1st) 13.10 • 

An analysis of speeds show that in the U. S. tanker 
fleet only 22 per cent of the vessels are slower than 14 
knots while for the balance of the world fleet 84 per 
cent are slower than 14 knots. Again the large number of 
T-2 tankers disproportionately affects the average in this 
respect. Generally speaking, the trend in Great Britain 
has been to build three classes of tankers, viz: those of 
8,000 tons deadweight and 1 1 knots speed, 9,000 tons 
deadweight and 12 knots speed, and 12,000 tons dead- 
weight and 12y2 knots speed. 

Principal Characteristics 

For economical propulsion there is a close relationship 

between the length of a vessel and the fullness of form. 

For the vessels imder discussion, at a speed-length ratio 

of 0.65, this relationship may be expressed by a variation 

of the Alexander formula where Block Coef.=1.075 — 

V/2\/L, V being the service speed. The amidship section 

is generally quite full, with coefficients varying from 

0.980 to 0.995, and the percentage of p.irallel middle 

: body ranging from 24 to 28 per cent. Some owners pre- 

!' fer to have their vessels designed with the bottom hav- 

I ing a small rise of floor, claiming that it assists drainage. 

! On the other hand, the lines of the vessel with the flat 

bottom can be made finer at the ends, thereby tending to 

decrease resistance to propulsion. 

The location of the center of buoyancy is the result of 
a compromise between the requirements for minimum 
resistance and suitable trim, and the latter factor most 
seriously influences the final decision. At speeds corres- 

MARCH • 1948 

ponding to V\/L==0.65, the center is usually located 
from one to two per cent forward of the amidship half 
length of the vessel, and small variations either way have 
little efTcct upon resistance. 

The ratio of the length of entrance to run varies be- 
tween limits of 0.75 to 0.90 with the latter value in more 
common use. 

In general, tankers built in rhc U. S. A. have propor- 
tionately a greater beam and de]ith than those built else- 
where. The beam may be expressed as a function of the 
length, varying approximately between limits of 
(.IL ' 18) and (.IL ^ 20). The depth may be ex- 
pressed in a similar manner, varying between (.07L+3) 
for vessels with normal sheer and (.()7L t 4) for vessels 
with no sheer. 

1 able III gives the principal characteristics of some 
recent tankers on a peacetime basis. 

Table III 

(1) (2) I ^) (4) (5) 

Brit. Type 

Length BP 521 50i -tSO ?09 160 

Breadth 70 68' V 65 48' 2" 59 

Depth 40 ^9' V ^7 21' 9" 34 

Draft 30' 4i/>" 30' 2" 29' 19' 4" 21' .\W 

Block Coef 0.777" 0.740 0.732 0.735 0.757 

Displacement... 24670 21880 17790 6200 16793 

Deadweight .... 19200 16600 13110 4240 12355 

Dwt/Displ 0.78 0.76 0,74 0.685 0.736 

Capacity. Bbls.. 154760 141160 111160 31300 — 

Service Speed.. 13 15!/'. I4l, 1 1 1/> 12 

S. H. P 5000 7500 5000 1400 3600 

Machinerv Turbo- Turbo. Turbo- Geared Direct 

Elect. Elect Elect Diesel Diesel 

In vessels (1) through (4) welded construction was 

In the design of any vessel it is essential to prepare a 
reasonably correct estimate of weights and centers of 
gravity for the determination of deadweight and trim. 
This is particularly true for the tanker where the weights 
of propelling machinery and expendable items such as 
fuel, water, etc. are quite removed from the general cen- 
ter of gravity of the vessel and the long levers produce 
considerable trimming effects. 

Tankers transiting the Panama Canal should have their 
loaded trim conditions for arrival at the Canal investi- 
gated, so that without undue ballasting or shifting of fuel 
the vessel may comply with regulations. For this condi- 
tion the vessel will be required to have a trim of not less 
than 6 inches nor more than 36 inches by the stern, and 
be on an even keel as regards list. 

Design procedures in difi^erent shipyards vary some- 
what so that the following is suggested as one of many 
ways of arriving at the required answer. 

1. An estimate should be made of weights and centers 
from accumulated data for similar vessels. 

2. Revise the above estimate when basic design plans 
■ire completed and the various weight groups such as 
hull steel, propelling machinery, outfit, etc. can be ana- 
lyzed on the basis of accumulated data and approximate 

3. Make detailed calculations from working plans as 
the work proceeds in the drawing room. 

It can be accepted as almost axiomatic, that as con- 
struction proceeds, the weights have a tendency to in- 

Apart from the design stage, is the final determination 
of the light weight and longitudinal center of gravity. 

Page 61 

etc. as the vessel is being completed in the wet basin. 
Conditions are seldom ideal for reading drafts and taking 
all other data necessary to arrive at accurate results. May 
we strongly urge that enough time be taken to obtain 
reliable data, that the vessel be as nearly complete as 
possible and that a minimum of fuel, water, etc. be placed 
aboard. An inclining experiment should be performed 
on at least one vessel of each class in order to determine 
the vertical center of gravity for purposes of stability. 
The data thus obtained is invaluable to the Owner for 
determining operating conditions, and as a basis for 
computations if any alterations are made, and to the 
Builder for reference data. 

The metacentric height for tankers of normal propor- 
tions is more than adequate under all normal conditions 
of operation and the following values are given to in- 
dicate their possible range: 

Light Ship 12' to 20' 

Loaded Ship 5' to 8' 

Although most tankers have excellent subdivision and 
can generally comply with the requirements of the two 
compartment standard, a routine flooding calculation 
should be made, particularly in way of the ends of the 
vessel. This will show whether the vessel can survive a 
collision damage, for example, in way of rhe machinery 

The determination of maximum permissible drafts 
under the Load Line Act calls for little comment." It has 
been resolved into a simple straight-forward calculation 
by the regulating of the International Load Line Con- 
vention, London, 1930 and much credit is due that body 
for formulating such a comprehensive, yet readily appli- 
cable set of rules. 

In many tankers the freeboard deck is designed with 
no sheer in order to simplify construction. The heights 
of the poop and forecastle are usually increased toward 
the perpendiculars to improve seaworthiness and ap- 
pearance. Where these heights exceed the standard 
height for erections as required by the Load Line Rules, 
and the erections are fitted with proper closing appli- 
ances, credit may be claimed in the load line determina- 
tion for a theoretical sheer line as indicated in Fig. 1. 

In a vessel with no sheer it is necessary to increase the 
moulded depth in order to obtain the same drafts as 
would be assigned to a vessel with normal sheer, the in- 
crease amounting to approximately 18" in a 500 foot 
ship. Of the three dimensions, length, beam and depth, 
the latter is the cheapest to increase; and the depth in- 
crease is not entirely a penalty as a maximum of cargo 

cubic is gained thereby and the steel is utilized to a bet- 
ter advantage in the hull girder in the region of maxi- 
mum bending moments. 

The camber employed is usually a broken pitch equiva- 
lent to a parabolic camber to rule requirement, and is 
used to simplify structural fabrication and assembly. 

The marine fraternity has long felt the need for a 
revision of the tonnage admeasurement rules in some 
such fashion as has been applied to the load line regula- 
tions. The tonnage rules are archaic, and in verbiage and 
illustration hark back to the days of the wooden vessels. 
In the light of present shipbuilding practice, they are 
ambiguous, misleading and subject to individual inter- 
pretation in many respects. 

Be that as it may, it still behooves the designer to be 
thoroughly conversant with the present U. S. and Panama 
Tonnage rules, including exemptions and deductions, so 
that minimum gross and net tonnages will be assigned to 
a vessel. 

The U. S. gross tonnage is used for assessing dry dock- 
ing fees, port charges, insurance premiums, etc. The V. 
S. net tonnage is used for tax determinations in foreign 
trade. The Panama Canal net tonnage is used for assess- 
ing the tolls when a tanker is making the transit of the 

The net tonnage is determined by subtracting the fol- 
lowing tonnage items from the gross: machinery space, 
steering gear, anchor gear, crews quarters, chart and 
radio rooms, bosun's stores, etc. Under the U. S. Rules, 
if the tonnage of the machinery space is in excess of 13 
per cent of the gross, the official deduction is 32 per cent; 
otherwise only one and three quarter times the actual 
tonnage of the space is allowed. (Danube Rule). The 
Panama Rules are basically similar to the U. S. Rules but 
vary in that they only permit use of the Danube Rule for 
machinery space deduction, and are more stringent in 
respect to other exemptions and deductions. Therefore, 
the Panama tonnages are always considerably higher than 
the U. S. tonnages. 

In regard to the determination of cargo capacities, 
there has been little improvement in the time tried 
method of gauging tanks with steel tape and sounding 
weight and referring the ullages so obtained to a set of 
calibration tables. It is not always practicable to locate 
ullage covers over the center of area of a tank so that 
effects of list and trim may be minimized. There is al- 
ways the fire hazard associated with opening ullage 
covers and permitting explosive vapors to emanate there- 
from. Owners require that capacities be correct to within 
0.5 per cent, and with variable hydrostatic heads, it is 
difficult to find direct reading pressure gauge devices. 
Manometers, etc. that can consistently meet this condi- 
tion. There are .satisfactory commercial gauging devices 
that eliminate the fire hazard. They employ a float at- 
tached to a steel tape that reels in an enclosed housing 
located on deck, and ullages may be read through a win- 
dow in the housing; the ullages so obtained are referred 
to the calibration tables. It requires no great stretch of 
imagination to conceive of an electronic ullage recorder; 
possibly a tape could be developed where the cost would 
not prohibit its commercial application. 

The calibration tables are computed using final mold 
(Please tuhn to page 83) 

Page 62 





Reg. U. >. Kil, oir. 

Observations on Shanghai, Hongkong and Manila 


VicE-PrHKiriRiit. Tlin Hh 


111; i)f California, N. A. 


A WEEK IN SHANGHAI convinces mc- that the old 
order of affairs is definitely out. In place of the former 
well regulated International Settlements, there is control 
exercised by an extremely nationalistic Chinese Govern- 
ment that is jealous of its new position. Actually Shang- 
hai is no more representative of China than New York 
is of the U.S.A., but as the largest city of the country with 
a population undoubtedly over five miOion, and the 
country's great export and import point, it is the city 
which most concerns us. 

Today Shanghai is full of refugees from all of North 
China, farmers and villagers driven in by the civil war. 
It was frequently suggested that I fly to Pekin to take 
a look at "Old China " but this would have to be over 
Communist lines. The war today is probably draining 
75% of the Government's income and a very poorly 
paid army and civil service is turning to "squeeze " to 
get by. In the old days it was "honest squeeze" corres- 
ponding to our system of brokerages, tips, etc., but now 
it is "dishonest squeeze" in a big way. This you hear on 
all sides. When you attempt to evaluate the situation you 
should bear in mind that the country has been fighting 
continuously since 19-i2. 

China of course has lost Manchuria as an economic 
unit and this has been a severe blow; otherwise the war 
for the last two years has been deadlocked. Transporta- 
tion has broken down and it is difficult to move goods 
from the interior to seaports. To get by, the government 
has turned to the printing press and bills in larger and 
larger denominations are in circulation. I couldn't help 
but think that China is using plenty of foreign exchange 
just to pay these printing bills, because Shanghai is 
full of nice new currency. It was startling at first to be 
sold a four page newspaper "for only S5,000," but you 
soon get used to it. One of the bright eyed little news- 
boys picked me for a stranger and told me they sold for 
$10,000. My room rent at the Cathay Hotel was $640,000 
a day, and a few days after arrival I received a notice 
saying that the management was very sorry but because 
of circumstances beyond their control the daily rental 

MARCH • 1948 

Elliott McAllister 

was to be increased to $800,000. 

The official rate of exchange is fixed each day by a 
committee. This rate is applicable to all licensed export 
and import transactions, but otherwise is disregarded. 
The authorities are trying to hold the rate down in order 
to hold down living costs, but the spread between the 
official and black market rates makes this difficult. The 
many "brokers " seem to set this rate more or less firm 
for a given day and word gets around very quickly as to 
what it is. A visitor can cash travelers checks at black 
market rates without difficulty almost anywhere except 
at a bank, and as a result the banks never see them. 
Where the system is bad is that the foreign exchange 
spent by a visitor never helps the Chinese economy — 
his money never gets into banking channels. 

China's shortage of U. S. dollars is acute. All banks 
must report to the (Central Bank of China at noon each 
day all purchases and sales and these must balance within 
$2,000; otherwise the bank has to cover by purchasing 

Page 63 

or selling. These reports are cumbersome and must be 
filled in in great detail. The foreign banks, some of 
which have been in Shanghai for almost a hundred years, 
now find themselves at a great disadvantage and are 
pretty much discouraged as to prospects. Those banks 
do not have the fixed C.N.C. deposits enjoyed by the 
Chinese banks and their own current deposits move 
fast; — one leading bank told me they frequently lost 
30%-40'^f of their C.N.C. deposits one day and re- 
gained them the next. The result is that these banks are 
not in a position to extend many large loan lines and 
this business is going to the Chinese banks — who then 
get the benefit of negotiating the export Letters of 

Interest rates run from 9' < a month to 25' i a month, 
and dollars can be sold a month forward to the Central 
Bank, and when this is done the Central Bank advances 
C.N.C. at an interest rate of 6' , per annum. However, 
most exporters ( whatever there are of them ) prefer to 
forego the saving in interest and think they can do better 
by holding the dollars until the last minute. And with 
the continuous depreciation of the C.N.C, they have 
been right. 

Along this line, several foreign banks told me of the 
troubles and risks incurred when they found themselves 
unable to deliver dollar bills sold forward to the Central 
Bank. These instances have come about through the in- 
ability of the exporter to make the shipment, but the 
Central Bank will take months to settle. Last summer 
Nanking fired a lot of top people and their successors 
are unwilling to assume a responsibility which might 
possibly get them in trouble. Applications for a can- 
cellation of a contract must be supported by detailed 
reports explaining why the shipment cannot be made, 
and with the exchange rate going steadily higher, a 
number of substantial losses have been incurred. 

To give an idea of the general chaotic condition now 
prevailing in Shanghai, the Economic News Bureau re- 
ports that the face value of dishonored checks returned 

by the Bankers Clearing House during the five days, 
October 27-31, totalled over $174,000,000,000 (174 
billion C.N.C). I was told that many of the smaller 
Chinese banks unable to meet checks themselves would 
refuse payment in spite of the fact that the drawer had 
sufficient funds on deposit. The next day they were 
"so sorry." The great bulk of dishonored checks, however, 
were drawings against uncollected funds. 

The Chinese banking system is headed by the Central 
Bank of China, the agent of the National Treasury in 
I Please turn to page 1 1 1) I 


1 believe that many prominent and well-to-do Chinese 
are perfectly satisfied with the arrangements. Hongkong, 
with a population of over a million, today impresses vou 
as a busy, and well run city, although many scars left 
by the war still remain. In particular, the heights in 
back of the city are dotted with large homes, not yet 
repaired, which were looted by the Chinese during and 
after the Japanese occupation. And when 1 say looted, I 
mean that not only were the furnishings taken, but glass, 
plumbing and fixtures are gone, including floors, window 
sills and roofs, Only the shells still stand. 

A very considerable business now goes through Hong- 
kong, — goods smuggled in and out of China proper. 
While the British know that this smuggling is going on, 
they wink at the business and feel that their first con- 
sideration is to keep Hongkong on the map as a large 
shipping center. Without this shipping, Hongkong would 
be dead. 

Hongkong is of course a member of the Sterling block 
and it is difficult to get a permit for U. S. dollars unless 
you are importing a product considered important for 
the Colony's welfare. When such a permit is granted, an 
importer obtains U. S. dollars at the official rate of 
approximately 4 Hongkong to 1 U. S. dollar. The au- 


Page 64 


thorities, however, have hit upon an ingenious scheme to 
turn black market exchange into useful channels. Instead 
of wasting their time and energies trying to suppress 
that market, they tell approved importers to go right 
ahead and purchase U. S. dollars whenever they can 
find them as long as they will use those dollars to buy 
merchandise to be imported into the Colony. They use 
the phrase "unotlicial exchange" or "free exchange" and 
while the large banks do not deal in such exchange, the 
many small Chinese banks do. Right across from the 
Hongkong Hotel are two shops with big signs "Exchange 
Brokers," and these rates are also published in the news- 
papers. The rate has been running around 5.25 to SI. 00 
U. S., which means that goods so imported will cost a 
little more than 20' r higher than goods imported offi- 
cially. The result, however, is that shops are full of 
nerchandise and you can buy anything. California oranges 
and other products are plentiful, although merchandise 
from Australia and Canada has been underselling ours 
and is much in evidence. 

I Goods in Hongkong are subject to price controls and 
price tags must be prominently displayed on everything. 
Australian butter retails for the equivalent of 55c a lb. 
U. S., and eggs are about 50c U. S. a dozen. I was told 
that warehouses are full of merchandise of all sorts. 

To get back to the unofficial exchange again, I asked 
one of the importers to show me some of the U. S. dol- 
lars just purchased by his firm. I was shown a stack of 
checks, drafts, travelers checks and money orders, much 
of which had changed hands many times, mostly small 
personal remittances up to a few hundred dollars U. S. 
There was a check drawn by the Havana Branch of the 
Bank of China on their New York correspondent, finally 
cashed in Hongkong. The Chinese bank, in selling the 
batch, guarantees all prior endorsement; the checks are 
deposited in the importers regular bank which T. T's. 
the funds to be paid out in the U. S. Sometimes the im- 

porter here merely mails the checks to his own con- 
nection in the States. 

On the export side, a fairly recent ruling permits an 
exporter of tung oil to retain 75' < of the U. S. dollars 
resulting from such exports. 1 he remaining 25'( must 
be turned over to the dollar pool. This will of course 
greatly encourage the flow of tung oil through Hongkong. 
This rule applies to tung oil only. 

In contrast to the austerity program, the 
Hongkong authorities believe in a return to normal 
prewar conditions and as an example, horse racing has 
been re-established. A group of leading business men 
has imported 250 Australian ponies which were allo- 
cated by lot and they are having a very successful meet. 
All the leading clubs and firms have boxes, with elaborate 
lunch parties during the racing. 

There is a fair amount of new building going on and 
it seems to me that in another five years Hongkong will 
really be a beautiful city again. The setting is there and 
they have management and direction. The Chinese have 
again announced plans to build Whampoa into a large 
deep water port as a rival to Hongkong, but the British 
say they have heard that sort of talk for thirty years. 
Even if that should come about, Hongkong still has the 
banks, shipping and insurance firms. It's a nice place to 
visit if the weather is good. 


MANILA was one of the most heavily damaged 
cities of the war and it will take many years to rebuild 
it. On all sides stand the skeletons of apartment houses, 
government buildings and offices and you realize that 
it is a job in itself to clear away the debris. You then 
talk to someone who has just returned to Manila after 
a year's absence and you learn of the improvements that 



MARCH • 194 

have been made and you realize that Manila is very slowly 
but surely rebuilding. 

I stayed at the Army and Navy Club across from the 
Manila Hotel. It is still pretty rough there, no hot water, 
practically no furniture in the rooms and only one tele- 
phone downstairs for the use of the members. A friend 
very kindly placed at my disposal a car and chauffeur 
and I soon found out that this arrangement is indispens- 
able. Whether you stay at the Manila Hotel or at the 
Army and Navy Club you have to drive about a mile to 
get to the financial district and this means getting 
across the river. The bridge is single lane each way and 
long lines of cars, six abreast, wait more or less patiently 
for their turn to get across. There are just a few modern 
office buildings in downtown Manila, but most firms and 
banks are housed in old structures. Generally, if the 
single elevator is running, you have to get in line and 
wait your turn to get up. And it is always much quicker 
to walk down. 

And yet these downtown buildings one after the 
other are being repaired and a lot of business is done 
in small out-of-the-way offices. In particular the Port 
Area on the Manila Hotel side of the river is growing 
with modern buildings under construction. Those streets 
and sidewalks are twice as wide as in downtown Manila 

Manila itself, as in the case of most large cities of the 
world, is overflowing with people. In spite of the fact that 
there is far less housing available, it is estimated that 
there must be between 1,500,000 and 2,000,000 people 
in Manila today against a prewar population of 600,000 
to 700,000 people. As you drive through the outskirts 
of the city, you see a great many families living under the 
most wretched conditions without sanitary facilities of 
any kind whatsoever. There is always the danger that 
an epidemic could break out. 

There are armed guards everywhere. A half dozen are 
stationed at the Army-Navy Club and the homes I 
visited all had walls or fences around them with a 
watchman on duty 24 hours a day. The general spirit of 
lawlessness born during the war has not died. You don't 
travel far from Manila by car as the Huks have posses- 
sion of large sections of Luzon Island. These Huks can 
be defined as groups of guerillas, poor farmers and 
malcontents in general and there are constant skirmishes 
between the National Guard and these people with con- 

siderable bloodshed. It is much safer to Hy between 
important towns. 

President Roxas is well regarded and is considered a 
staunch friend of the United States. However, he ap- 
parently has been either unwilling or unable to surround 
himself with competent assistants and advisers and his 
government, while doing well enough, lacks force and 
direction. I heard a number of men say that they felt 
the next few years would be good enough, but they 
weren't too confident of the long pull. In any young 
government a group with strong nationalistic tendencies 
could come to the top and they could easily jeopardize 
the position of foreigners. As an example, during my 
stay, the Supreme Court handed down a decision bar- 
ring aliens from acquiring residential lands. This opinion 
was based on a provision in the Philippine Constitution 
which limits the utilization of agricultural lands to Fili- 
pinos, but the court construed the provision as including 
residential lands. Americans, who enjoy temporary equal 
rights with Filipinos under special treaty, are not now 
affected, but as things stand, no Britisher, Hollander or 
other foreigner can purchase his own home. It is just a 
straw in a wind that could blow harder. 

The Philippines need money. This means not only 
the government but the banks also need deposits. Bank 
deposits are rising, but the demand for loans is even 
greater and many worthwhile requests for credit lines 
must be refused for this reason. There is little long term 
money to be had and it is therefore difficult to finance 
the construction of a new building or the purchase of 
a home. 

As of September 30, 1947, bank deposits were reported 
to me to be as follows: 

Philippine National Bank Pesos 146,000,000 Filipino 
National City Bank of N. Y. 1 40,000,000 U.S.A. 

China Banking Corporation 38,000,000 Chinese 

Bank of Philippine Islands 28,000,000 (Spanish 

Hongkong & Shanghai Bank. Corp. 26,000,000 British 
Philippine Bank of Communication 22,000,000 Chinese 
Philippine Trust Co. 22,000,000 U.S.A. 

Chartered Bank of I. A. & C. 20,000,000 British 

Peoples Bank & Trust Co. 1 0.000,000 U.S.A. 

Bank of America N. T. & S. A. 1 0,000,000 U.S.A. 

Philippine Bank of Commerce 9.000,000 Filipino 

Nederlandish Indische Handelsbank 8,000,000 Dutch 
Turning to government finances, I was told that the 
(Please turn to page 110) 

Page 66 


Netherlands Indies Import Trade 

The Netherlands Indies Government Import and Hx- 
port Organization (NIGIEO) was reportedly dissolved 
on October 1, 19-47. Two agencies charged with control 
of import trade have replaced NIGIEO. The first, the Im- 
port Allocation and Planning Organization, which acts 
as a purely advisory body, submits to the Department of 
Economic Affairs estimates of the amount of a certain 
item to be imported and the allocation of this amount 
among importers. Upon approval of these estimates by 
the Department of Economic Affairs, the necessary ex- 
change will be made available by the Foreign Exchange 
Bureau. The second, the General Import Organization 
(AIO), finances the purchase of such important items 
as textiles, foodstuffs, bulk goods, sundries (as haber- 
dashery), fertilizers, and chemicals. In practice this means 
that the prorated allocations for these categories of goods 
are purchased by the particular import houses and 
charged to the account of AIO. Once the goods are in 
the Indies, they are transferred to the importers for dis- 
position through normal retail channels. This assures im- 
portation of essential goods in sufficient quantities, a re- 
sponsibility which Netherlands Indies firms, weakened 
by losses occasioned by war and the political situation, 
cannot afford to undertake without assistance from the 
Government. An American manufacturer desiring to sell 
his product in the Indies should contact established firms 
in that country, or their branch offices which most large 
prewar houses maintain in New York. He will then be 
informed whether any allocation for the purchase of his 
product is available and in what amounts. 

HOT nmm 

Seven thousand tons of potatoes destined for Italy in the Army'! 
Civilian Relief Program are Drotected from freezing vrhile beinq 
loaded by continuous hot air being pumped into the holds b) 
Thag — a machine developed by Todd Shipyards Corporation. Th< 
spuds arrived at the pier in pre-heated trains and trucks and wcr< 
in danger of freezing while being put aboard the ELKO VICTORY 
a States Marine Corporation freighter. A steady temperature 
averaging 37° was maintained in all five holds of the ship while 
the outside temperature ranged from 0° to 18°. Potatoes 
28.9°, and rot very quickly after thawing. 




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MARCH • 1948 

Documents on Private Trade 
Shipments to Japan 

All freight and air express shipments to Japan require, 
in addition to customary prewar documentation, evi- 
dence of SCAP authorization. The evidence for usual 
commercial shipments made to Boeki Cho must be in the 
form of a contract validated by SCAP. On other ship- 
ments, such as imports by licensees, private individuals, 
and occupation personnel, evidence of clearence by SCAP 
is necessary. Four complete sets of all shipping docu- 
ments are currently required. It is not necessary that 
goods be marked with country of origin. No documen- 
tation is required by SCAP on mail to Japan. At present 
mail shipments to Japan are limited to 18 ounce pack- 
ages of samples and gift packages (relief parcels) not 
exceeding 22 pounds. 

World Trade Exposition 

In previous years, San Francisco s participation in Na- 
tional World Trade Week has been largely a financial 
district affair. This year, however, the World Trade As- 
sociation has plans to make this -event a city-wide cele- 
bration. A World Trade Exposition, in which foreign 
governments can display their wares and tell visitors 
about their tourist attractions, will be held in the Grand 
Nave on the second floor of San Francisco's famed Ferry 
Building. Added interest is given to this location for the 

Page 67 

THE HOWLAiS (and Frank) 

With the U. S. Commercial Com- 
pany winding up its affairs, Frank 
Howland, Chief of their San Fran- 
cisco office, has accepted the posi- 
tion of manager of the International 
Forwarding Department of the 
Oceanic Trading Company. 

Sam and John Gazzano have 
made the Oceanic Trading Company 
an unusual unit in the world trade 
picture on the Pacific Coast. The 
scope of their lines and the activities 
in which they engage give them spe- 
cial opportunities for diversification 
of effort. Among these activities is 
the forwarding of relief packages to 
former war areas. 

Born in San Francisco in 1904, 
Frank comes from a long line of 
seamen, beginning with John How- 
land who arrived in Plymouth in 
1620 on the Mayflower, followed by 
his brothers on the Fortune ( 1621 ) 
and the Arrn ( 162.^ ) . Most of their 
sons followed the sea until the Civil 
War, many of them becoming mas- 
ters on whaling and clipper ships, 

travelling around the Horn to San 
Francisco and thence to the Pacific 
Islands and the Orient, returning to 
New Bedford with rich cargos for 
their trading companies. 

In 1770 Isaac Howland founded a 
trading firm in New Bedford, Mas- 
sachusetts, and his son, Isaac, Jr., 
built the firm into one of the largest 
and most prosperous firms ever to 
engage in the whaling industry. 

Frank's grandfather, Benjamin 
Franklin Howland, first went to sea 
on a clipper ship of which his father 
was master, and later rose to be mas- 
ter of a clipper ship of his own. He 
retired from the sea at the age of 23 
and settled in California, later be- 
coming partner in a large hydraulic 
mine in Central California. 

Frank's father, Henry Frank 

left to right: John Sanano, Frank 
Howland, and Sam Gazzano. 

Howland, who was also born in San 
Francisco, served for fifty years in 
the shipping business. He was pur- 
ser on the old S/S China and the SjS 
Hongkong Maru of the old China 
Mail and Toyo Kisen Kaisha Lines, 
freight clerk with the old Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company, and office 
manager of Williams, Dimond & 
Company. Finally he became asso- 
ciated with the American Hawaiian 
Steamship Cc.npany where he 
served for thirty years and became 
secretary to American Hawaiian 
President Roger Lapham. 

In his new position Frank is 
maintaining the strong seagoing 
tradition in his family. His back- 
ground includes 21 years with Mat- 
toon & Company, custom house 
brokers and forwarding • agents, 
three years as transportation and 
warehouse officer for the Pacific 
Coast for the Lend Lease Adminis- 
tration, and two years with the 
United States Commercial Com- 

Page 70 


Uarine Insurance 

The London Letter 

By Dur United Kingdom Cnrrespondent 

siiriince industry that must rely, to a very great extent, 
upon its own resources, and cannot, therefore, do busi- 
ness except at rates which virtually guarantee a profit. 

Premium Rates Reduced too Soon 

IN CONSIDERING the prospects of hull business in 
rhe year 1948, it should be mentioned that it has now 
|->cLome apparent that the concessions of the immediate 
pc )stwar period were made prematurely. They were made 
m the belief that, with a return to normal navigational 
conditions and the resumption of private enterprise in 
shipowning, there would be a decline in settlements. 
Tins has not proved to have been the case. The antici- 
p.ited falling-ofi in the number of casualties has failed 
t(i materialize; instead, casualties have increased very 
materially in number, as the monthly returns of the 
Liverpool Underwriters' Association have proved beyond 

Another important factor in this connection is that, 
\i. hcreas underwriters quite justifiably anticipated that 
the cost of repairs would decline from the wartime peak, 
there has been, if anything, an increase in rhe cost of re- 
[i.iirs. Great credit is due to underwriters for making 
reductions in premiums immediately after hostilities 
tc.ised. Now, however, it is becoming clear that, in im- 
plementing their pledge to make those reductions, they 
erred on the side of generosity. 

The tundun Meeting 

International Competition 
In Insurance is Desirable 

Demands by some nations to seek to favour their na- 
tional insurance industry by freezing out foreign com- 
petition goes on. This is in spite of warnings from many 
quarters that only ill can result from this narrowing ten- 
dency. By closing their marine insurance frontiers, these 
nations prejudice their own overseas trade and invite 
possible catastrophe in their own insurance industries. 
The theory behind the actions of these nationalistic 
legislators is that in recent years marine underwriters 
have made large profits. They believe that, if they can 
prevent premiums from being exported to other coun- 
tries, their own insurance industry must benefit. They do 
not perceive that, if they create a national monopoly of 
marine insurance, their own merchants and shippers will 
be at the mercy of their own underwriters, and that, 
while they keep their national premiums in the country, 
the money paid in premiums circulates in a very narraw 
circle. They cannot see that, without competition from 
abroad, their export trade can be victimised by an in- 

In the 64th annual meeting of the Institute of London 
Underwriters, Mr. Harold H. Mummery said that a mat- 
ter which was giving a great deal of concern at the pres- 
ent time was the vast sums which underwriters in this 
country were being called upon to pay for claims due 
to theft and pilferage, and claims which could be con- 
tributed to indifferent and even bad packing. He sug- 
gested that the marine insurance market should reintro- 
duce the Institution's "Shipping 'Value Theft, Pilferage 
and Non-Delivery" clause. By so doing, rightly or wrong- 
ly, he was left with the impression that "we should place 
upon the consignee a greater sense of responsibility to see 
that his goods are conveyed to their final destination with 
reasonable despatch, as provided for in the Institute 
Cargo Wartime Extension' clause. " 

Mr. Mummery reported with special pleasure that 
the American Institute of Marine LInderwriters had de- 
cided to become a member of the International Union 
of Marine Insurance. 

The Liverpool Meeting— Radar 
For Port Control 

The Committee of the Liverpool Underwriters' Asso- 
ciation in their report for the year 1947, just issued (this 
is the Association's I46th annual report), have compiled 
a document of several thousand words, reviewing the 
principal events of the past year. The Committee note 
with interest that the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board 
expect in 1948 to be the first Port Authority in the 
world to utilise Radar on a full scale basis for port con- 
trol, "as a result of which a considerable acceleration in 
the turn round of ships will no doubt be achieved, quite 
apart from additional safety of navigation in the Mersey 
Channel during bad visibility." 

Ship Losses Since the War 

According to the Association's records, 45 steam or 
motor vessels, of 500 gross tons and upwards, totalling 
17.1,484 gross tons, became casualties as a result of con- 
( Please turn to page 1 06) 

MARCH • 1941 

Page 71 



Included in this picture are those who, on February 12, were given the 
oath of office as regular commissioned officers of the U. S. Coast Guard by 
Rear Admiral W. K. Scammel in the Appraisers' Building, San Francisco. 

Some of the group were Reserve Officers and former members of the 
Department of Commerce before the Coast Guard assiuned charge of the 
Inspection Bureau. Others were regular Coast Guard officers with tempo- 
rary appointments, who received permanent commissions. 

The Bureau of Inspection is headed up by Capt. J. P. Tibbetts and H. V. 
Barbieri, who work directly under Chief of Staff Capt. Charles W. Dean, 
who in the absence of Admiral Scammel is Commander of the Coast Guard 

And for a top notch information officer you contact Chief Yeoman 
R. G. Degnan. 

Those pictured are the following; 

Comdr. Frederick A. MacGurn, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Carl H. Carlsen, USCG 
Lt. Comdr. Charles V. Carson, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Felix S. DeSoboU, USCG; Lt, 
Comdr. Jesse E. Eastman, USCG; Lt. Comdr. George C. Ferenz, USCG; Lt. Comdr 
Barney Frankel, USCG; Lt. Comdr. David S. Garvis, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Otto V 
Knierim, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Samuel J. Miller, USCG; Lt. Comdr. George J. Monte 
verdi, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Peter Olson, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Charles C. Plummet 
USCG; Lt. Comdr. Cortlandt W. Quinby, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Frederick A. Reicker 
USCG; Lt. Comdr. Frank N. Sampson, USCG; Lt. Comdr. George W. Stedman, Jr. 
USCG; Lt. Comdr. Herbert J. Stevens, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Jesse O. Thompson 
USCG; Lt. Comdr. Andrew M. Thomsen, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Bertram J. Tuckey 
USCG; Lt. Comdr. Arthur M. Vrooman, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Lucius E. Wadman 
USCG; Lt. Comdr. Leonard C. Walen. USCG; Lt. Comdr. Stuart H. Waring, USCG 
Lt. Comdr. William A. Williamson, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Arthur S. Whitehead 
USCG; Lt. Norman A. Dreher, USCG; Lt. (jg) William M. Benkert, USCG; Lt 
Bainbridge B. Leland, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Samuel G. Guill, USCG; Lt. Comdr. Lance 
J. Kirstine, USCG; Lr Charles E. Norton, USCG; Lt. ( jg) Ricardo A. Ratti, USCG. 

Page 72 


Admiralty Decisions 

By HARDLU S. DDBBS «/ ^^" Franasco Bar 


I [very once in a while I come across an intcr- 
J c-sring case of collision at sea that I feel would be of 
particular interest to my readers, although under ordinary 
circumstances I rarely devote very much copy to the 
subject of collision. 

A most interesting case that was decided a number of 
\cars ago was that of Northern Navigation Company vs. 
Wii/nesota-Atlantic Transit Company. The case was heard 
on appeal by each circuit of the United States Circuit 
( ourt of Appeals. The case is particularly important from 
the standpoint of the rules with respect to overtaking a 
vessel at sea. 

On a bright summer afternoon in August the Steamer King, 
.1 s.ih water type, blunt bowed freighter, 251 ft. long, 43.3 ft. 
Iie.ini, and with a draft of 16.5 ft. forward and 17.5 ft. aft, 
lucked out of Slip 3 on the north shore of the harbor at 
Duluth ship canal about 3,000 ft. to the east. At about the 
s.ime time the steamer Noronic, a fine lined passenger boat. 385 
ft. long, with a draft of 9 ft. forward and 18 ft. aft, backed out 
of Slip No. 1, about 600 feet east of Slip No. 3. and started 
for the same ship canal. This ship canal was 300 feet wide, 
22.9 feet deep and about 1400 feet long connecting the Duluth 
Harbor with Lake Superior. There were cement retaining 
walls on each side of the canal. At the west end of the canal 
the cement retaining walls continued as piers but curved to 
the north and south to form an approach to the canal, and the 
wiilth of the entrance at the extreme west end of the piers was 
some 500 feet. On the west end of the cement retaining walls 
and just before the walls continued as piers, or curved for the 
entrance, is an aerial bridge. At the time the boats arrived at this 
aerial bridge the stem of the Noronic was ahead of the stem of 
the King, the latter lapping the porr quarter of the Noronic some 
"5 to 100 feet. After the two boats had just passed the aerial 
bridge their sterns were abreast and the suction from the Noronic 
pulled the stern of the King toward the stern of the Noronic 
and caused the King to veer into the cement wall on its left 
or port side inflicting considerable damage. The foregoing 
facts are the only facts in the record upon which there is no 
dispute. As to which steamer was in the lead after they had 
straightened out for the canal and as to the relative positions 
ot the two vessels between that time and their arrival at the 
icrial bridge in the canal there is an irreconcilable conflict in 
hi evidence, or an entire lack of evidence. 

Both vessels backed out of their respective slips and in 
in.ineuvering backed to port and each laid their respective 
lourses for the ship canal. From the evidence they were in 
Licneral traveling at about the same speed. The story as told 
by the witnesses for the Noronic is substantially as follows: 
that as the Noronic was backing out of its slip the King was 
c)b!,erved backing out of its slip some 600 feet further west; that 
.IS the Noronic straightened out and laid its course for the canal 
entrance the King was finishing a like maneuver and was 
.istern and to the starboard of the Noronic. later crossing the 
stern to port and at all times until enteting the canal proper 
was astern of the Noronic: that at about the time they entered 
the pierheads of the canal the King endeavored to pass the 
Noronic resulting in the positions of the two vessels as above 
recited and the subsequent damage to the King. 

The story on behalf of the King in substance is that the King 
had backed out of its slip and was proceeding towards the canal 

going forward when the Noronic gave notice by a whistle that 
it was about to back out of its slip; the King then gave one 
short whistle indicating that it would pass to starboard of the 
Noronic and for the Noronic to remain in its berth; this signal 
was not answered by the Noronic which at once proceeded to 
back out into the harbor whereupon the King was required to 
stop its engines and wait while the Noronic backed across its 
bow and that as soon as the stem of the Noronic cleared, the 
King proceeded, passing the Noronic on the later's port side 
while it was maneuvering to straighten out for the canal, and the 
King was in front of the Noronic at all times thereafter until 
just as it was reaching the pierheads of the canal the Noronic, 
coming up fast from behind, endeavored to pass it, resulting 
in the position of the vessels and the subsequent damage to the 
King as above narrated. 

The Minnesota Atlantic Transit Coinpany was the charterer 
of the King and as libellant brought this action against the 
Noronic owned by the Northern Navigation Company. The 
trial court found that the ilamagc caused to the libellant's 
steamer King was occasioned solely by the negligence of the 
respondent's steamer Noronic and without any fault on the 
part of the said King and rendered judgment in favor of the 
libellant for the entire damage sustained by the King. 

As both vessels were outward bound and each started on its 
course at about the same time the stage was all set fot a con- 
troversy to arise as to which one was entitled to go through the 
canal first. Evidence on behalf of the King was directed prin- 
cipally to the question of which one had the lead after the two 
vessels straightened out and fixed their courses for the canal, 
while the evidence for the Noronic was principally directed to 
the question of which vessel arrived first at the canal piers. 

The trial court on this important question determined that 
after the two ships had rounded to and were on defined courses, 
the King was the overtaken and the Noronic the overtaking 
vessel. There is no claim that the Noronic gave any signal to the 
King that it intended to pass the King and under this situation 
It is clear that the Noronic at no time had the right to pass the 
King without its permission, which, it is conceded, was never 
asked for or given. 

The following rules govern the navigation of vessels in har- 
bors and inland waters generally: 

"When steam vessels are running in the same direction, and 
the vessel which is astern shall desire to pass on the right or 
starboard hand of the vessel ahead, she shall give one short blast 
of the steam whistle,* • •" Rule Vlll, 33 Mason's U. S. C, 203. 
"Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules every 
vessel, overtaking any other, shall keep out of the way of the 
overtaken vessel. 

"Every vessel coming up with another vessel from any direc- 
tion more than two points abaft her beam, * * * shall be deemed 
to be an overtaking vessel; and no sub.sequent alteration of the 
bearing between the two vessels shall make the overtaking 
vessel a crossing vessel within the meaning of these rules, or 
relieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel 
until she is finally past and clear. • • »" 33 Mason's U.S.C, 209. 
"Where, by any of these rules, one of the two vessels is to 
keep out of the way, the other shall keep her course and speed." 
33 Mason's U.S.C, 206. 

"Every steam vessel which is directed by these rules to keep 
out of the way of another vessel shall, on approaching her, if 
necessary, slacken her speed or stop or reverse. " 33 Mason's 
U.S.C, 208. 

"In all channels less than five hundred feet in width, no steam 

vessel shall pass another coming in the same direction unless 

the steam vessel ahead be disabled or signify her willingness that 

the steam vessel astern shall pass, when, the steam vessel astern 

(Please Itiru to page I Oft i 

MARCH • 1948 



Vincent E. Foell 

Port Engineer of the Month 

--With The 

On pages 76 and 77 of this issue appears a roster 
of members and officers of the Society of Port Engi- 
neers, San Francisco, for which many requests have 
been received. 

The Society is considering certain revisions in its 
constitution, and upon approval, they will be pub- 
lished in this section of the Pacific Marine Review. 

Change of Presidents 
M Los Angeles Society 


Vincent E. Fnell 

Df United States Lines 

Now Port Engineer for United States Lines, Vincent 
Foell has had an extensive career in marine engineering 
and marine transportation. Born in Syracuse, N. Y. in 
1919, Vincent graduated from the Engineering Depart- 
ment of the New York State Merchant Marine Academy. 
He held various engineering positions on United States 
Lines Company steam and diesel vessels, and was Assist- 
ant Port Engineer for United States Lines and the Pacific 
Far East Line prior to his present position with United 
States Lines. 

In World War II he was awarded the Merchant Ma- 
rine Citation for action against the enemy and the 
Merchant Marine Bar for service in the Pacific area. 
Vincent is a member of the Board of Governors of the 
San Francisco Society of Port Engineers and a member 
of the United States Naval Reserve. 

Left, Joe Wo 

Matson Navigation Company, newly cle 

president of the Los Angeles Society of Port Engineers, shaking 

hands with Len Landers, American President Lines, outgoing 


Page 74 


Port Engineers - 

A roster of members of the Los Angeles Society 
of Port Engineers is at hand and will be published 
in the April issue of Pacific Marine Revietv. 

k{ Annual Meeting 
of Los Angeles Society 

At the speaker's table (top picture), left to right: M. D. Jayred, 
Republic Supply Company of Calif.; Edwin H. Price (Speaker), 
Manning, Maxwell « Moore. Inc.; Len Landers, American President 
Lines; Burt Hale (Secretary). Marine Solvents Corp.; Dick Park, 
Republic Supply Company of Calif. 

Below, left to right: Burt Hale, Dick Park, Dan Dobler (Chairman 

of Board) Texas Company; Joe Hare, U.S.M.C; Harry Summers. 

American Bureau of Shipping. 

I MARCH • 1948 

Port Engineer of The Month 


William Billings 

of Pope S- Talbot Lines 

Like the proverbial mail-carrier who takes a walk on 
his days off, William H. Billings, smiling, carefree 
Assistant Port Engineer of Pope & Talbot IJnes, likes 
to spend his spare time around the water. "Bill" Billings, 
who is ever alert in supervising engine repairs on the 
company's ships at San Francisco, is always good for a 
"bass story" to ease the tension when things are in a 

With a long record of achievement behind him, Bill 
is happy that he can be with his family in his home at 
Oakland. His two fine, growing sons often accompany 
him on his trips to the fishing grounds. 

Billings came up the hard way. After serving a stern 
apprenticeship with General Electric Company he took 
off to sea to all the corners of the globe. In 19.i6 he was 
with Matson Navigation Company and after seven years 
he left them to be with Polarius Steamship Clompany in 
New York City where he was Superintending Engineer 
for about 18 months. He then joined Pope & Talbot 
Lines in 1945 as "chief" on the Sea Blenny and the same 
year was made Assistant Port Engineer for the same 
company in San Francisco. 

And among the Governors of the Society of Port En- 
gineers at San Francisco we find William H. Billings. 

Page 75 




James R. Anderson (A) U. S. A. T Building 201, Fort Mason, Calif. 

Joseph J. Anderson (A) Luckenback Steamship Co 100 Bush St., San Francisco, 4 

Henry Andrews Westinghouse Electric Corp 1 Montgomery St.. San Francisco, 4 

Charles R. Angell, Jr 1332 El Camino Real, Burlingame 

Milo M. Atkinson 110 Market St., San Francisco 

Ray E. Baker (A), Port Engineer Richmond-San Rafael Ferry Co P. O. Box 1126, Richmond, Calif. 

W. H. Billings (A), Asst. Port Engineer Pope & Talbot, Inc 320 California St., San Francisco, 4 

George Barr General Electric Co 235 Montgomery St., San Francisco, 4 

W. C. Blake. Vice President Triple A. Machine Shop Pier 62, San Francisco 

Colin Branford (A), Port Engineer Shepard Steamship Corp New Orleans 

R. E. Burness Standard Oil of Calif 7th & Irwin Sts., San Francisco 

E. P. Butler Gamlen Marine Service 150 Vermont St., San Francisco 

Ira B. Chapman (A), Asst. Port Engineer American President Lines, Ltd Pier 42, San Francisco. 7 

John Clerico (A), Supt. Engineer Pope & Talbot. Inc 320 California St., San Francisco, 4 

John R. Cook Brown-Bevis Equipment Co 4900 Santa Fe Ave., Los Angeles, 11 

Fred D. Deckard (A), Port Engineer Sabme Oil Co 

Louis A. Deppman (A), Port Engineer Sudden & Christenson, Inc 310 Sansome St., San Francisco, 4 

Donald W. Deeds, Engineer U. S. A. T. S. . Fort Mason, Calif. 

Wm. De Wijn, Port Engineer... Java-China-Japan Line 149 California St., San Francisco, 4 

Douglas E. Dickie, Serv. Engineer Foster-Wheeler Corp 206 Sansome St., San Francisco, 4 

Andrew C. Disher (A), Ch. Tech. Insp U. S. A. T. S Building 201, Fort Mason, Calif. 

Franklin H. Drew Westinghouse Electric Corp ...1 Montgomery St., San Francisco, 4 

George W. Duncan U. S. A. T. S Dock No. 1, Fort Mason, Calif. 

A. J. Ederer (A), Port Engineer Pacific Transport Lines 240 California St., San Francisco. 11 

J. E. Edwards U. S. A. T Fort Mason, Calif. 

Rodney M. Elder ( A ), Asst. Port Engineer. Pacific Tankers, Inc 233 Sansome St., San Francisco, 4 

B. R. Emery (A) W. R. Chamberlin 465 California St., San Francisco, 4 

John Faville ...Pier 1. Marine Repair Shop Foot of Laguna St., Fort Mason, Calif. 

Tom Finn United Amer. Metal Corp 785 Bryant St.. San Francisco, 7 

Vincent E. Foell (A), Port Engineer United States Lines 222 Sansome St., San Francisco, 4 

Frank Fox, V. P. and Ch. Engineer General Engineering & DD Co 1100 Sansome St., San Francisco, 11 

James H. Frickie, Marine Surv. Hart-Wood Lumber Co 1 Drumm St., San Francisco, 11 

Marshall T. J. Garlinger ( A ), Asst. to Supt...U. S. A. T ...Fort Mason, Calif. 

Joseph F. Gisler 444 Board of Trade Building... San Francisco. 11 

William Gough (A) ...Parry Navigation Co., Inc 100 Pine St., San Francisco, 11 

E. J. Graff (A), Port Engineer Grace Line 2 Pine St., San Francisco, 11 

George H. Harlan (A). Asst. to Supt. Engr...U. S. A. T Fort Mason, Calif. 

John A. Harris U. S. A. T Dock No. 1, Fort Mason, Calif. 

Sam Hawkins ..' The Log 40 First St., San Francisco 

Q. D. Higgins ( A> 2690 - 38th Ave. San Francisco, 16 

H. T. Hill 735 - 46th St., Oakland 9, Calif. 

W. B. Hill C. C. Moore & Co 450 Mission St., San Francisco, 5 

William C Hodges (A) lU. S. A. T Building 201, Fort Mason, Calif. 

George Hoxie, Asst. Port Engineer American President Lines 311 California St., San Francisco 

W. J. Jenders, Chief Engineer U. S. A. T. "Admiral Sims" ...Building 201. Rm. 1 10, Fort Mason 

M. A. Johnson ( A ), Port Engineer Olympic Steamship Co Pier 57, Seattle, Wash. 

Lynton Jordan (A), Asst. Port Engineer Pacific Tankers, Inc 233 Sansome St., San Francisco, 4 

J. G. Kelly (A), Port Engineer W. R. Chamberlin Co 465 California St.. San Francisco, 4 


I.ce Kincaid U. S. A. T. Service 330 Baltimore St., Larkspur, Calif. 

Thomas Klitgaard, Marine Inspector U. S. A. T. Water Division Building 201, Rm. 220, Fort Mason 

Alex W. Kyle (A), Asst. Port Engineer American President Lines, Ltd Pier 42, San Francisco, 7 

John W. Laine (A), Asst. Port Engineer American Hawaiian S. S. Co Pier 28, San Francisco 

H. C. Lauer, Inspector U. S. A. T Building 201, Fort Mason, Calif. 

Joseph J. Lewis E. F. Drew & Co., Inc 440 Golden Gate Ave., San Francisco, 2 

George H. Lienhard, Serv. & Sales Engr Nordberg Manufacturing Co 674 Harrison St., San Francisco 

T. Douglas MacMullen, Editor Pacific Marine Review... 500 Sansome St., San Francisco, 1 1 

H. Martin (A), Port Engineer Moore-McCormack Lines 140 California St., San Francisco, 11 

( hcster E. McKay ( A ), Supt. Engineer Overseas Tankship Corp 551 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Gccirge Miller Pacific Tankers, Inc 233 Sansome St., San Francisco, 4 

Leigh Miller U. S. A. T Fort Mason, Calif. 

Harry 1. Morrison U. S. A. T Building 310, Fort Mason, Calif. 

Jesse F. Neel General Petroleum Corp 417 Montgomery St., San Francisco, 4 

Winslow Nott Thomas A. Short Co 245 Fremont St., San Francisco, 5 

James Persons Paine (A) American President Lines Pier 44, San Francisco 

R. N. Parkin, Supt. Engineer .Westinghouuse Electric Corp. 410 Bush St., San Francisco, 8 

[ohn A. Philip U. S. A. T Building 201, Fort Mason, Calif. 

Alfred Pittman Hagan Corporation 149 California St., San Francisco, 11 

Ralph S. Randall (A), Asst. Port Engineer.. ..Sudden & Christenson, Inc 310 Sansome St., San Francisco, 4 

Larry Rapp C. C. Moore & Co 450 Mission St., San Francisco, 5 

W'libert H. Reich (A) Grace Lines Pier 37, San Francisco 

l.imcs A. Riemers (A) 112 Market St., San Francisco 

W. A. Riley, Sales Engineer Republic Electric Co 33 Drumm St., San Francisco, 1 1 

Perry D. Roach ( A), Asst. Port Engineer 1940 Washington St., San Francisco, 9 

Arthur R. Robertson Westinghouse Electric Co 410 Bush St., San Francisco, 4 

Alfred T. Rogers 112 Market St., Rm. 308, San Francisco 

W. L. Russon U. S. A. T... Fort Mason, Calif. 

Ray H. Sample ( A ) Matson Navigation Co., Pier 32 Embarcadero, San Francisco, 5 

Sylvester W. Simon (A) Pacific Far East Line 141 Battery St., San Francisco, 11 

W. E. Sizemore (A) U. S. A. T Building 201, Fort Mason, Calif. 

Frank W. Smith (A), Port Engineer American Mail Line 369 Pine St., San Francisco, 4 

William Starck (A), Asst. to Supt. Engr U. S. A. T Fort Mason, Calif. 

1- A. Stasek (A) Pacific Far East Line, Inc Pier 45-A, Embarcadero, San Francisco 

H. A. Steiner (A), Port Engineer Pacific Far East Line, Inc 141 Battery St., San Francisco, 11 

Bob Streitf (A), Asst. Port Engineer. Pacific Tankers, Inc. 233 Sansome St., San Francisco, 4 

I P. H. Thearle (A), Supt. Marine Engr Army Transportation Corps S. F. P. E., Fort Mason, Calif. 

I Harry Thompson ( A ), Port Engineer Shepard Steamship Corp. 369 Pine St., San Francisco, 4 

i B. R. White Bird Archer Co. of Calif 19 Fremont St., San Francisco, 5 

I George Voyer (A; Asst. Port Engineer Coastwise Lines 222 Sansome St., San Francisco, 4 

I Bill Williams U. S. A. T Fort Mason, Calif. 

IE. H. Williams (A), Port Engineer United Fruit Company 1001 Fourth St., San Francisco, 7 

; A. E. Wion Grace Line 2 Pine St., San Francisco, 11 

';M. C. Wright (A) Deconhill Shipping 311 California St., San Francisco, 4 

I Harold J. Wrigley International Paint Co., Inc 901 Minnesota St., San Francisco, 7 

: J. Zuboff ( A ) U. S. A. T Building 201, Fort Mason, Calif. 


President — P. H. Thearle \'ice-President — M. CI Wright Secretary-Treasurer — J. A. Riemers 


J. F. Gisler, Chairman Bob Streiff Harry Thompson V. E. Foell 

H. J. Wrigley R. H. Sample F. W. Smith I. B. Chapman 

Marshall T. J. Garlinger E. J. Graff W. H. Billings C. E. McKay 
J. W. Laine" 

MARCH • 1948 Page 77 

y<ru/L (hmdimA dnmn/iuL 

by "The Chief" 

"The Chief's" department welcomes questions — Just write "The Chief," Pacific Marine Review. 


- ener-fi -hvrisnr. 

Enerjy per unit of tin>e =■ 

rate, of f^i«r)5*r o^^cnerjf OL 

\Cijrvc for I HP 

01 10 100 /boo 

. ^"x'Rp^r 

'"^' 35000 

= HP of one end of- one. 
Pi motn if^tve f'^nan. 

ifOi^ indicator diagram 

L-fed Unefhr) of styol< 
A-aircA of p< if on. □" 
-diamdtr ihchti »jMrtf 

N = mmbQr o\- potunr 

-In- ^''"^^""^ 

^„ J o-f I V'?t 

( ;,..,.( tiT4)(r(;» 

• I So * "■imuir-i 

Blackboard figures I to 4 mentioned in the text. 

Ratings and Limitations of ReciprDcating Engines 

In the February issue we discussed the horsepower and 
its mathematical derivation and furthermore introduced 
the conception of torque or twisting effort. It was brought 
out that energy or work done is measured in foot- 
pounds and that torque is measured in pound-feet. These 
two units are not tlie same, as is developed in Fig. 1. 
The corresponding horsepower conversion factors are 
different. The foot in one case is the distance through 
which a force is moved and in the other case the foot is 
a radius and does not become a distance through which 

a force is moved until multiplied by revolutions per 
minute or second. 

Note that the horsepower capacity of an engine, or 
any machine for that matter, is the product of the torque 
and the speed, and a multiplying constant number to 
adjust the units used. See Fig. 2. Here the curve repre- 
sents one horsepower. All the figures could be multi- 
plied by 100 for a 100 hp curve or by 10,000 for a 
10,000 hp curve. For a given size of engine in hp the 
higher the speed the lower the forces such as torque, 

Page 78 


piston load and so on. But centrifugal force increases 
and acts as a limit to speed. With reciprocating engines 
it is the piston speed and the forces of reversing the 
piston that limit the speed long before the centrifugal 
force limits it. If we can control centrifugal force by 
special designs, close safety factors, high test alloy steels 
arid all, we can speed up the turbine and obtain tremen- 
dous ratings out of a light weight. The gas turbine driv- 
ing the super charger of the modern airplane may be 
rated 500 hp yet be no larger than a straw hat but it 
may run up to perhaps 17,000 revolutions per minute, 
ivhich, using these figures, gives us only 15 pound feet 
nil que, a value which you could easily set up with a 
10 uxh Crescent wrench. The gas turbine in the axial 
.flow turbo-jet aircraft engine may deliver as much as 
'l 5,000 to 30,000 hp to the direct connected air com- 
pressor and yet be only single stage, 3 to 4 feet in 
diameter, and perhaps 11,000 rpm. At the other end of 
the scale at slow speeds we may have very high torques 
which mc-ans large shafts and great weights. Thus as we 
increase speed we reduce the weight per hp or increase 
the hp per pound weight. A good figure to remember is 
the one pound of weight per hp which can just about 
be achieved in the aircraft reciprocating engine. Con- 
trast this to the hundreds of pounds per hp of the slow 
speed reciprocating marine steam engine. But then again 
we may largely lose the light weight features of high 
speed engines if the load cannot take the power at a 
high speed, as reduction ge-ars must be used. Develop- 
ment of precision-cut gears in the last 30 years has per- 
mitted us to use the turbine at a fairly high speed 
aboard ship but we still would like to run the turbines 
at a speed which is more than a reasonable gear reduc- 
tion and propeller speed will permit. Turbine designers 
would like to reduce weights and increase speeds much 
above those values in common use today but the gears 
and gear ratios force them to a compromise with the 
best they could do with the turbine only. 

Fig. 3 shows that the piston speed of the reciprocating 
engine may be taken as the product of the length of the 
stroke in feet and the number of strokes per minute. A 
favorite problem in the Coast Guard examination for 
the higher rates is to calculate the piston speed of an 
engine when the indicated hp is given and the piston 
diameter in inches is given. This puzzles most engineers 
because no mention of speed and rpm is made nor is the 
'length of the stroke indicated. But as shown, knowing 
only the hp of the cylinder as indicated, and the piston 
diameter, the average piston speed can be calculated. 
Note carefully that this is an average speed of the piston 
and that with the crank at the horizontal point the speed 
is much higher. Sometime in the future we will discuss 

the mathematics of the calculation of the maximum 

We have promised to work a problem in the calcula- 
tion of the hp of an engine. Ordinarily we do not give 
examples of the arithmatic of the problems in mathe- 
matics we cover, as we would like to accustom the en- 
gineers to thinking of these things in the symbolic terms 
of algebra. Unless the engineer is puzzled a little by the 
written text and has the courage to dig it out to an un- 
derstanding there is little profit in reading except as an 

Fig. 4 is the solution to the problem in the Coast 
Guard blue book of specimen examinations (page 37) 
for 3rd assistant engineers. The problem is: A steam 
cylinder is 32 inches diameter, the stroke of the piston 
is 4 feet 6 inches, the mean effective pressure is 70 
pounds per square inch, revolutions per minute 72. Find 
the horse power. 

Several comments are necessary. If this were for higher 
ratings quite likely the diameter of the piston rod would 
be given, as the area of the rod must be subtracted from 
that of the piston in calculating the hp of the crank end 
of the engine. The mean effective pressure of the two 
ends would usually be slightly different as the valves 
would be a little off an exactly symmetrical position so 
that the weight of the piston is carried by the steam load. 
Thus for two reasons the hp of the two ends of the 
piston are different, different effective areas and dif- 
ferent pressures. If not so stated it is customary and 
nearly correct to assume the same hp at each end. Thus 
in Fig. 4 we multiply the rpm by 2. 

The first thing to do is calculate the area. Using the 
constant .7854, which we developed in this column some 
time ago, we square the diameter and multiply. In actual 
practice we would take the area as 804.15 but the ex- 
aminers want to see how we handle our arithmatic and 
ask to see the problems carried out to at least four places 
beyond the decimal point. See Fig. 4. Then comes the 
PLAN formula and more multiplications. Multiplica- 
tions may be carried out in any order we choose, and we 
usually multiply all the simple numbers together first. 
The 72, the 2, the 70, and the 4.5 give us 45360.0. We 
divide this by the 33000 as it seems easiest, and then are 
ready for the long multiplication. Thus we end up with 
the answer shown, which in actual practice we would 
call 1105 hp. 

Our next article will discuss the imporance of the gear 
ratio in applying engines to ships, automobiles and loco- 
motives, as this is a logical question after explaining that 
we need only to increase the speed to increase the hp of 
any engine. 

Crew Crush Crowds Customers 

I American ocean liners would 

be forced to have 20% more 
crew members than passengers 
if maritime unions obtain a 40- 

l hour week at sea. Under a four- 
watch system, necessary for a 

MARCH • 1948 

40-hour week, the America's 
crew would expand from 687 to 
997, and in order to secure quar- 
ters for these extra men, the 
passenger capacity would be re- 
duced from 1050 to 792. Under 
such circumstances, the Amer- 
ica would have to compete with 

Britain's Queen Elizabeth, the 
latter having a crew of Only 
1,280 for 2,314 passengers. In 
other words, the Queen, with 
only 283 more men in her crew, 
would be able to attend to the 
wants of 1,522 more passengers 
than the America. 

Page 79 



A 3befU4^iiineHtp)^ ^eok O^Ux/iA. 

b^ "The Skipper" 

Questions Welcomed. Just Address "The Skipper," Pacific 
Marine Review, SOO Sansome St., San Francisco, California 



Practical Compensation 

IN THE THREE preceding issues this column has 
been working toward this final discussion on Practical 
Compass Compensation. We have discussed — First, The 
Parts of the Compass and Binnacle; Second, The Effect 
of the Earth's Magnetism on the Vessel's Hard Iron or 
Semicircular Deviation due to Sub Permanent Magnet- 
ism of the 'Vessel; and Third, The Eflfect of the Earth's 
Magnetism on the Soft Iron of the 'Vessel or Semicircu- 
lar Deviation due to Transient Magnetism in "Vertical 
Soft Iron, Quadrantal Deviation due to Transient Magnet- 
ism in Horizontal Soft Iron and Heeling Error. 

Now, we are ready to put into practice the knowledge 
gained in the previous articles. It is well to break down 
the Practical Compensation into three catagories — 1. 
Preparatory Steps, 2. Preliminary Steps, and 3. Compen- 
sating Steps. After listing each of the steps of the three 
categories, we will take each step separately and ex- 
plain it. 

1. Preparatory Steps 

(a) See that vessel is on an even keel. 

(b) See that all movable masses (booms, etc.) are secured in 
the position they will normally occupy at sea, and that no un- 
usual magnetic masses are left lying about in the vicinity of 
the compass. 

( c ) See that there are no bubbles in the compass. 

(d) Test compass for sensibility and moment of the compass 

(e) See that binnacle is centered on, and aligned with, the 
midship line of the vessel and solidly secured. 

(f; See that the compass is centered and secured in the bin- 
nacle and that there is no slack in the gimbal arrangement. 

(g) See that the lubbers lines are in the fore and aft plane 
of the vessel. 

(h) Test for residual magnetism in the Quadrantal spheres. 

(i) Test for residual magnetism in the flinders bars. 

2. Preliminary Steps 

(a) Place Quadrantal spheres by estimate. 

(b) Place heeling magnet, Red end up in North magnetic 
latimdes and drop to bottom of tube. 

(c) Remove all but apptoximately ten degtees of deviation 
while on an East Magnetic heading by means of the Flinders 

Bar. If less than ten degrees deviation exists when on an Easj 
etly heading do not place the Flinders Bar at this time. 
i. Compensating Steps * 

(a) Head East and remove all deviation. 

(b) Head North and remove all deviation. 

(c) Head Nottheast and remove all deviation. 

(d) Head West and remove half the remaining deviation. 

(e) Head South and remove half the remaining deviation. 

(f ) Head Southeast and remove half the remaining deviation 

(g) Head North, List Ship, and lemove all deviation. 
( h ) Secure deviation. 
(i) Swing ship for residuals. 
( i ) Construct deviation table. 
It will be noted that perhaps in this breakdown of the steps] 

more steps are listed than will be found in the treatment oq 
this subiect by most authotities. The reason for this is simplicity 
and clarity. Authorities often group together steps which ar«| 
listed here sepatately. 


Now let us go ovei the above listed steps individually for 
more complete explanation of each. 

1. Preparatory Steps 

(a) Even Keel. In order for the difl^erent components of tha 
Earth's total foice to have their normal effects on their respective 
components of the vessel's magnetic materials, the vessel must be 
on an even keel while compensating. Otherwise when on an even 
keel the compass would be overcompensated in some phased 
and under compensated in others; so shift oil, water or cargof 
until the Inclinometers or draft markings show that she is on ad 
even keel. 

(b) Movable Masses Secured in Normal Position. The mov^ 
able masses of magnetic material must be in the position the 
will normally occupy under normal operating conditions at seafl 
that is, the booms cradled, topped or suared as is customary! 
for that particular vessel on its own particular run when at seaj 
pontoon hatch covers in place and no magnetic masses near thd 
compass which are not notmally required to be there. 

(c) Check lor Air Bubbles in Compass Bowl. If bubbles are 
present and ate small, distilled water may be used to refill bowl.j 
If bubbles are large a solution of 45"f grain alcohol and 55' 
distilled water should be used and compass should be checkej 
very thoroughly for leaks. 

Procedure lor filling: Place compass on its side with filled 
plug on top, unscrew filler plug and fill using a small funnel] 
which will allow air to pass out the filler plug hole beside thej 
funnel. When only a small bubble remains, use a medicine 
dropper and have the end of the dropper in the liquid inside' 
the compass bo%vl before squeezing the bulb. When all of the 

Page 80 


bubble is out of the bowl, till the filler plug hole level full, 
then dip the filler plug screw in the solution and remove so that 
a drop of the solution will cling by capillary attraction to the 
end of the filler plug screw. Then carefully and slowly place 
the filler plug screw in the filler hole so that the solution on 
the end of the plug marries %vith the solution in the bowl. Then 
screw the plug in and set it up tight. The care indicated in this 
last step is necessary in order to insure against having a small 
bubble remain in the bowl after filling. 

id) The Test for Setuihility and Moment oj the Compass 
Card must be done at a place where there is no mliuence from 
magnetic masses, on the beach somewhere. To lest for influence 
of magnetic masses, set up the compass and about 50 yards 
from it, set up a staff. Take bearing of the staff. If this bearing 
is the exact reciprocal of the first bearing, there is no magnetic 
influence; if the bearing is not reciprocal, then choose another 
location and repeat the above process. 

Test for Sensibility by placing the lubbers line on the 0° 
mark of the compass card. Then gently draw the card 2° to the 
right with a magnet and allow to return and carefully note the 
exact reading (use a magnifying glass) at the lubbers line. Re- 
peat the procedure to the left. If the card does not return to the 
0° mark, there is something wrong with the compass. 

Test for Moment by drawing the card 15' to the ri,t;ht then 
removing magnet and starting a stop watch the instant the 0° 
mark of the card swings past the lubbers line and stopping the 
stop watch the instant the 0° mark swings past in the opposite 
direction. Repeat this procedure, drawing the card 15° to the 
left. Compare the times. They should be the same. The time 
required for a 7^2 inch compass to swing past and return, at 
the temperatures listed below, should be the number of seconds 
listed below the temperatures. 

Fahrenheit Temperature: 100° 90° 80° ^0° 60° 50° 40° .M)° 

Seconds: 13s 14s 15s 16s l"s I8s 20s 22s 

In cases where the 0° on the card fails to pass the lubbers line 
the second time, there is an indication of week magnets, a crack- 
ed jewel in the cap or a worn or blunt pivot point. 

Both the liquid in the bowl and the compass card must be 
at complete rest before the beginning of each observation of 
these tests. 

( e & f ) Binnacle Centered on Midship Line of Vessel and 
Compass Centered in Binnacle. It is well to consider steps e and 
f together to simplify the operation. 

Check the heeling magnet tube for being centered in the 
binnacle by measuring. 

Place compass in binnacle and check for center by raising 
and lowering the heeling magnet with the vessel on a north or 
south heading. If compass card moves, adjust the compass- in 
the binnacle until no movement is noticed by means of the 
adjusting screws in the gimbal arrangement. Then lock the 
compass in position by setting up on the lock nuts of the ad- 
justing screws. Now check to see that binnacle is on center line 
of vessel. This may be done by sighting { with sight vanes 
mounted on compass) on a predetermined centerline point at 
some distance forward and aft of the binnacle. The determining 
of these points may be done by using a tape measure to find 
the center line on deck and then if necessary, a plumb-bob to 
transfer the center point to the mast. 

Check to see that there is no slack in the gimbal arrangement: 
that is, no fore and aft or athwartship movement of the com- 

(g) The Lubbers Line may be checked to see that it is in the 
fore and aft plane of the vessel, while checking to see that the 
binnacle is centered by comparing the alignment of your sight 
vanes with the lubbed line. 

( h ) Test Quadrantal .Spheres 

Mount the spheres and move them as near in to the compass 
card as possible with the ship steady on the same heading, 
alongside the deck if possible. 

One at a time, turn the spheres slowly and note the compass 
reading after the sphere has been turned 90° until each sphere 
makes a complete rotation. 

If the reading of the compass changes over 45 the sphere 
should be reannealed. 

(i) Test Flinders Bar for residual magnetism. 

Have ship's head steady on any heading but North or South, 
preferably East or West alongside dock. Note heading. Remove 
Flinders from holder and reinsert it with the opposite end up. 

If compass heading changes the Bar has residual magnetism. 

To remove residual magnetism, hold the bar at right angles to 
the magnetic lines of force and strike sharply with a piece of 
hardwood, or the Bar may have to be reannealed. 


In order to correct for the most important factor contributing 
to error in the compass (that of semi-circular deviation) it is 
necessary that other factors which would aflect the deviation be 
considered. Since there will be a certain amount of magnetism 
induced into the soft iron correctors by the permanent magnets 
used in compensation, and this induced magnetism will have a 
definite effect on the deviation, it is necessary that these correc- 
tors be in their approximate position before starting the actual 

(a> Place Quadrantal Spheres 

On any intercardinal heading if the deviation is greater than 
12°, in all probability', 9 inch spheres will have to be used. 

The table given below will help in estimating the distance 
from the compass the quadrantal spheres should be placed. 
Deviation on any Distance of Spheres from Compass 

Intercardinal Hdg. 

9 inch spheres 

1 1 inches 

13 inches 

14% inches 

inch spheres 

1 1 inches 

12 inches 
3° 15 inches 

Interpolation for deviations not listed in the table may be 
made for preliminary placing of Quadrantal Spheres. 

( b ) Place Heeling Magnet 

The heeling magnet may now be placed red end up in North 
Magnetic Latitude unless knowledge of some factor which re- 
quires blue end up is available. Lower heeling magnet to the 
bottom of the rube unless it is known that it will be required 
in some other position. 

( c ) Place Flinders Bar if Necessary 

Head East magnetic and check deviation. If no more than 
10° deviation exists it will not be necessary to place Flinders 
Bar at this time. 

If more than 10° deviation exists, remove all but 10° by 
means of the Flinders Bar by placing a sufficient length of bar 
in the holder, the remainder of the holder being filled with the 
wood filler blocks which must be on the bottom. 

The inner case of the Flinders Bar holder is removable so as 
to facilitate the removal and replacement of Flinders Bar or 
filler blocks. 

The Flinders Bar is the means by which part of the semi-cir- 
cular deviation of Coefficient "B" is compensated, this part of 
the force being the induction of magnetism in the vertical soft 
iron of the ship, coefficient "B" being the combined fore and 
aft forces of induced magnetism in vertical soft iron and the 
fore and aft component of the vessel's sub-permanent magnetism 
when on East or 'West headings. 

Semi-circular deviation, which is caused by magnetism, 
which is induced in vertical soft iron and compensated for by 
means of Flinders Bar changes with a change of magnetic 
latitude so that compensation for this force in one latitude is 
not satisfactory. Observation of deviation in at least two mag- 
netic latitudes on the same heading are necessary in order to 
compute for, the proper length of Flinders Bar to use. 


(a) Head East Magnetic and compensate for semi-circular 
deviation, which is due to the fore and aft force of the sub- 
permanent magnetism of the vessel, or in other words, com- 
pensate for the remaining component of coefficient "B". 

Remote all deviation by means of permanent compensating 
magnets placed in the fore and aft trays. 

If compass shows Easterly deviation on Easterly heading, 
place the red end of the compensating magnets forward or vice 

MEMORY AID: East on East Red 4 

Easterly Deviation on East heading Red end forward. It is 
better ( in order to avoid sluggishness of the compass) to place 
the magnets as far away from the compass as practicable. Use 
more magnets and keep them low in the magnet chamber. 

( b i Head North Magnetic and compensate for Coefficient 
"C" or for semi-circular deviation, which is due to the athwart- 
ship forces of the sub-permanent magnetism of the vessel, by 
removing all deviation by the means of permanent compensat- 
( Please turn to page lOS) 

MARCH • 1941 

Page 81 


Length, Overall Ill '-3" 

Molded Beam 25'-0" 

Molded Depth 12'-9" 

Molded Height to Raised Deck 19'-5" 

Total Fish Capacity 195 tons 

Brine Well Under Deck 168 tons 

Brine Well on Deck ... 27 tons 

Fuel Oil Capacity, Total 34,108 gallons 

Cruising Range 12,000 miles 

Fresh Water Capacity 3,860 gallons 

Lubricating Oil Capacity 1,390 gallons 

Page 82 

Specifications for Tuna Boat 

"tycY mw 

Crews' Quarters: 

1 — 8-man crew room. 

1 — 2-man crew room. 

1 — Radio room with accommodations for 1 man. 

1 — Captain's room. 

1 — Engineer's room with accommodations for 2 men. 
Refrigeration Compressors: 

1 — 5V2" X iVz", four-cylinder, 20 H. P. Machine, 

2 — 5 ¥2" X Vz", two-cylinder, 20 H. P. Machines. 

1 — 2%" X 2V4", two-cylinder, 3 H. P. Machine for 
galley service. 

The entire refrigeration system was designed and 
furnished by the Baker Ice Machine Company, Inc., of 
Los Angeles. 
Main Engine: 

Atlas 6-cylinder Imperial Diesel, single acting, direct 
reversible, 4-stroke cycle, 13" x 16", 315 RPM, super- 
charged to provide 550 BHP. The engine is equipped 
with a Kingsbury thrust bearing and is fresh-water cool- 
ed by means of heat exchangers. 
Auxiliary Generating Engines: 

Atlas 6-cylinder Imperial Diesels, 94 K'VA, 220 volt, 
3-phase, AC Electric Machinery Company Generators, 
direct-conected, 4-stroke cycle, 600 RPM, non-reversible, 
112 BHP. 

2 — 10" Campbell vertical bait pumps. 

11 — 2V2" Campbell brine circulating pumps with 2 
H. P. Westinghouse Motors. 
1 — 2" Fairbanks-Morse fire pump 5 H. P. Fairbanks- 
Morse Motor. 

1 — 3" Carver brine transfer pump, with 5 H. P. Mas- 
ter Electric Company Motor. 

1 — 3" Campbell bilge pump with 3 H. P. Westing- 
house Motor. 
Electric Service: 

220-voIt, 3-phase, 60-cycle, AC electric power wher- 
ever required with 110-volt single phase, 60-cycIe, AC 
lighting current throughout the ship. 


Modern Oil Tanker Design 

{Continued from page 62) 

loft offsets, the net barrels per inch curve obtained there- 
from having all deductions made for steel structure, pip- 
irii;, ladders, etc. These deductions amount to slightly 
less than one per cent of the gross volume. The prepara- 
tion of the tables is a laborious and exacting task; the 
calibrations are usually given in 42 gal. barrels for in- 
crements of one inch for the total depth of the tank. 
Some owners require calibrations ar one quarter inch 
iiurcments, little realizing that the effects of list and trim 
L^l^Lount such accuracy, and thereby make the prepara- 
tion of the tables even nn)re of a mathematical exercise. 

Hull Construction 

In general the tanker is characterized by the "three 
island" type of construction ( Poop, Bridge and Fore- 
castle) and machinery located aft. The forecastle and 
the poop enclosure of machinery casings are compulsory 
requirements for tankers by the Load Line Act. The 
relative compactness of modern machinery admits of a 
shorter machinery space, and the cubic thus gained can 
be utilized for cargo tanks. The effect on the center of 
gravity of the cargo is to move it further aft, and as a re- 
sult the displacement may be distributed to a better ad- 
vantage. It must be remembered, however, that it is es- 
sential to obtain the 32 per cent reduction in tonnage 
admeasurement for the machinery space; therefore its 
volume must not be reduced below rule requirements 
in order to effect this end. 

The merchant type of cruiser stern, fitted with some 
form of stream-lined rudder is accepted practice. The 
design of the bow is open to two schools of thought: one 
favoring the normal form and the other the bulbous 
bow. Although the majority of tankers operate at speed- 
length ratios for which Taylor claims little or no benefit 
for the bulb, model tests show some decrease in horse- 
power as compared with normal forms for both the load 
and ballast cases. 

The bulbous bow permits a fining of the entrance at 
the water line and an easing of the forward shoulder; 
the displacement there removed being placed in the bulb 
where it creates less resistance. It is not difficult to so 
shape the bulb as to obviate pounding. The structural 
members of the bow are more accessible for repair in 
the event of a grounding damage. The hull in way of the 
anchor handling should be canted forward as in naval 
practice or breasted out to provide proper clearance for 
the anchors as they pass the bulb. Tankship owners hav- 
ing experience with both types of bows have reported 
that the bulbous bow ship is more sea-kindly, is retarded 
less in heavy weather and manifests less of a tendency 
to pitch and take head or quartering seas over the bow. 

In the construction of ships in the U. S. A. the trend 
has been to employ electric welding to the greatest ex- 
tent possible because of the factors of weight saving, less 
time required for construction, and reduced cost. Abroad 
the tendency has been to adhere to riveted construction 
to a much greater degree. 

In the U. S. A., the welded ship was born in the late 
thirties; thus it is still somewhat of an infant as regards 
development time in the history of shipbuilding, and it 
.still Jias some growing pains. We have gained experience 

during the years with riveted construction by experiment 
and by observation of ships in service and it is only 
logical to expect that we will learn in a similar manner 
about welded vessels. 

The timetable for producing ships during the war was 
made possible by welding. The volume of ship construc- 
tion during this period was unprecedented, and involved 
the employment of a preponderence of inexperienced 
labor, yet the percentage of marine casualties directly at- 
tributable to welded construction is small compared 
with the number of ships built. Many welded vessels with- 
stood the ordeal of enemy action during World War II, 
making port with gaping holes and vital portions of 
their structure torn away. The damages were localized to 
the area of the explosion and were expeditiously repaired 
by welding, to return the ship to active duty. Those ves- 
sels are conclusive evidence of the worth of welded con- 
struction. Under similar conditions, riveted ships would 
have opened seams for quite a distance from the damage, 
resulting in the probable loss of the ship. In cases of 
grounding or collision, the damages sustained by welded 
ships are likewise confined to the local area of the acci- 
dent. The author believes in the future of the all-welded 
ship. Important factors that must be considered in any 
successful welded vessel are: (a) The elimination of 
hard spots and stress raisers" from the design; (b) The 
maintenance of a proper welding sequence during con- 
struction; (c) The thorough inspection of all important 
welds by experienced and conscientious inspectors. 
Structural discontinuities in longitudinal members should 
be faired in to provide a smooth flow of stress. The con- 
nections of brackets to more flexible members should be 
carefully designed to prevent local working at the toe. 
On the construction side, groove preparation, correction 
of excessive root opening, back chipping and methods of 
starting and finishing welds should be closely checked. 
Weld quality should be checked by taking trepanning 
plugs as required, or by gamma ray inspection. 

The present tendency to introduce several riveted 
longitudinal joints into the welded structure at shell and 
deck, stems from the idea that a riveted joint has enough 
slip to take sudden load concentrations created by heavy 
rolling and pitching of the vessel; also that in the event 
of the development of an incipient crack in the mono- 
lithic structure its continuance is stopped at the riveted 
joint. The straps may prove effective, and apparently it 
is on the safe side to employ them. Experimental research 
and experience must point the way for future design de- 
velopment, particularly as regards the evaluation of the 
effects of multi-axial stress and constraint, plastic flow, 
notch sensitive steels, low temperatures etc. 

The sagging condition for the loaded tanker is produc- 
tive of the highest bending moment and mav be approxi- 
mately evaluated by the formuhv 

Bending Moment ( Ft. Tons)=Displacement x Length 
B. P./K, where K varies between the limits of 36 to 40. 

The deck structure is subjected to severe compressive 
stre.sses in this condition and the strakes of plating at the 
centerline. over the longitudinal bulkheads, and the 
stringers should be made continuous and somewhat 
heavier in order to safely carry the loads imposed. 

To determine stress distributions and efficiency of the 
(Please turn to page 108) 

MARCH • 194 

Page 83 

New ConstruLtion — ReLundiliuning — Repairs 

Bethlehem Converts LSD 
For East African Coastal Trade 

The 214-foot, twin-screw motorship Angoche, the 
first LSM converted to a cargo carrier in accordance with 
Lloyd's specifications, sailed February 28 across the At- 
lantic for service under the Portuguese flag in the East 
African Coastal trade. She was converted by Bethlehem 
Steel Company's Staten Island Yard, and will be delivered 
to Companhia Nacional De Navegacao, of Lisbon, Portu- 
gal. The craft was converted according to design plans of 
Angelo Conti, Inc., naval architects. 

The stern of the former LSF 61 retains the rectangular 
characteristic of landing ships but there is little else to 
tie her in with her original classification. 

Her squared-off nose and landing ramp have been 
replaced by a "ship-shape" bow of conventional design. 
A creamy white superstructure, with comfortable quar- 
ters for eight pasengers, looms midships frorri her boom- 
studded continuous deck. Crowning her "new look," is 
a single streamlined black stack. To the landlubber, she 
looks more like a yacht than a freighter. 

Listed at 1,300-deadweight tons, the Angoche is the 
first LSM to be converted to specifications making pos- 
sible her classification under Lloyd's Register of Shipping. 
She passed her classification tests in a six hour run off Am- 

brose, during which she hit a speed in excess of 12 knots. 
She has a molded beam of 34 ft., depth of 18 ft. 5 in., 
draft of 12 ft. 4 in., and is twin-screw propelled. Her 
two diesel engines develop 2400 S.H.P. at 720 RPM. 

The new bow was prefabricated within the yard and 
then fitted onto the old hull while the Angoche was in 
drydock. This section weighed 30 tons and was 35 feet in 
length. A new deck, running the entire length of the 
craft, was built, and three cargo holds were provided, 
with new double tanks installed in the No. 1 hold. 

A spacious midship three-high deck structure was 
built with pilot house, staterooms for 8 passengers and 
eleven officers, dining room, lounge, galley, and refrigera- 
tion storage for passengers and crew. The vessel also 
was ventilated for tropical service. Six booms stepped on 
two masts were installed for handling cargo loading and 
discharging. Her navigation equipment includes a gyro- 
compass, liquid compass, radio, and ship-to-shore tele- 

On delivery to her owners she is expected to join a 
fleet of five "feeder ships" serving coastal ports of the 
Portuguese colony of Mozambique. 

Below is a picture of the completed Angoche after the new for- 
ward section shown at the left had been added. The latter 
picture is fronn the February Pacific Marine Review. The Angoche 
is powered with a Fairbanks Morse Diesel engine. 

Page 84 



Top: The U. S. Co 

ist Guard Cutte 

a Mine Layer 

ameda Repair Y 

The U. S. Coast Guard Cutter 
Magnolia, which was recently con- 
verted from a Navy Mine Layer 
(ACM) to a Buoy Tender at Beth- 
lehem Steel Company's Alameda 
Repair Yard, is typical of the work 
this yard has done for the U. S. 
Coast Guard in this area. 

The Magnolia was originally 
built for the U. S. Army as the 
Colonel John Storey. In 1944 she 
was renamed the Barricade when she 

here in the first stages of 
efhiehem Steel Company's 

was taken over by the Navy for 
duty in China seas. When she 
was recently turned over ro the 
Coast Guard, considerable work had 
to be done on her in converting her 
from a mine layer to a buoy tender. 
All work in connection with this 
conversion job was done at Beth- 
lehem's Alameda Repair Yard. 

The Magnolia has an overall 
length of 190', a beam of 37', and 
weighs 900 gross tons. She is equip- 


ped with two 600 hp engines. 

The Magnolia was drydocked at 
Bethlehem's Alameda Yard and her 
hull and weather decks completely 
sandblasted and painted. All ma- 
chinery in her engine room, such 
as main engines, condensors, gen- 
erators, pumps, air compressors, etc., 
were completely disassembled, 
cleaned, inspected and reassembled 
with new parts added where neces- 

All berths, lockers, inclined lad- 
ders on the first platform between 
frames 59 and 78 were removed 
and this space converted into a 
cargo hold. The space forward of 
bulkliead 78 to the bulkhead at 
frame 87 was converte-1 into a fresh 
water tank and new piping was in- 
stalled and connected to the fresh 
water manifold in the engine room. 

The Magnolias foremast was 
modified by installing a new 19' ex- 
tension. A new 20 ton boom, 47'-6" 
long was fabricated and installed, 
and rigged with new 16" triple 
blocks and %" Bethlehem improved 
plow steel wire rope on the hoisting 
engine drums. 

The present radio generator room 
on the boat deck was removed and 
incorporated in the auxiliary gen- 
erator room, also on the boat deck. 
The space originally occupied by 
the radio generator room was con- 
verted into a wardroom pantry. 

Extensive alterations to power, 
lighting and ventilation were made 
to suit the changes made. 

The SL radar was replaced with 
radar of the SU-1 type and exten- 
sive changes were made in the radio 
room, incorporating all of the latest 
radio equipment supplied by the U. 
S. Coast Guard. 

The Magnolia, now stationed in 
the Bay area, tends buoys on the 
San Francisco bar and for a short 
distance up the Sacramento River. 

MARCH • 1941 






A typical tanker scene at any one of Todd's shipyards. This is the 

Hobolcen Division, which is readying II out of a total of 52 

tankers at all Todd yards, to help combat the oil shortage. 

Todd shipyards on both coasts and in Gulf ports are 
humming with activity in the reconversion and recon- 
ditioning of 52 much-needed oil tankers, mostly T2's, 
as a result of the current government-sponsored drive to 
relieve the national fuel shortage. The Todd yards began 
getting an unusual volume of tanker work as far back 
as October, and they have already readied many such 

vessels now in service. The number presently being re- 
converted have reached an unprecedented peak for this 
type of ship, and all were expected to be ready for service 
by the end of February, in plenty of time to step up the 
delivery of oil for winter use. 

The two Port of New York yards alone were handling 
20 tankers — 1 1 at Hoboken and 9 at Brooklyn. The 
tanker assignments at the other Todd yards are: Seattle 
8, Los Angeles 7, Galveston 10, New Orleans 4, and 
Charleston 3. The group now being rushed to completion 
represent over a half a million tons with an oil-carrying 
capacity of over 7 million barrels. 

The tankers are nearly all being reconverted from war- 
time status, having been released from various reserve 
ship anchorages. Most of them are being "strapped" 
with 18-inch crack arresters in accordance with owners' 
requirements and the recommendations of the American 
Bureau of Shipping. Four of them are also being stress- 
relieved as an added precaution against developing 

When completed, the vessels will be turned over to 
a wide variety of owners and operators, foreign as well 
as American. Six of them are the Navy "Mission" type, 
similar to the "Mission San Luis Obispo," which last 
month delivered a huge oil loan to New York. These 
ships will be operated by private companies under char- 
ter. A number of others are being chartered from the 
U. S. Maritime Commission. Four of the tankers are for 
the French Mission, which recently purchased eleven, and 
there is one each for four other foreign-flag operators. 


It would take at least four prewar type tankers to 
match the performance of one new American oil car- 

Increased speed, greater efficiency and larger size 
make the 21 oil tankers now on order or under con- 
struction, equal to 84 prewar tankers, according to the 
American Merchant Marine Institute. 

One out of every six large ships building in the 
world today is an oil tanker. In the United States, how- 
ever, virtually all new construction is made up of 
ships for the oil transportation industry, the AMMI 
pointed out. 

Of the 21 new tankers presently on order, 16 are 
27,500 ton vessels which will boast speeds of I6V2 
knots, four are 18,000 ton ships with speeds of 14 y2 
knots, and the 18th is a 30,000 ton giant, with a 161/2 

knot speed. The prewar American tanker averaged 
11,600 tons as compared to the average of 25,500 for 
these 21 new vessels. Average speed of the 1939 oil 
tanker was 10 knots. The ships building today average 
16 knots in speed. 

The American tanker fleet is the world's largest, 
being twice the size of its nearest rival, the British. 
Ranking behind the United States in size are the fleets 
of Breat Britain, Norway, Panama, Holland, Sweden, 
France, Italy, Argentina and Russia, to name the top 

Broken down by per cent, the American tonnage 
represents 45.62*^-0 of the world's fleet. Britain's tank- 
er tonnage includes 21.59% of world tankers, while 
Norway, with 10.1 1'"<, is the only other nation above 
10 per cent. 

Page 86 


"^cuutma ^coAt^ 




Vice President 


(See page 88) 

I MARCH • 1948 

Page 87 

In thi 

picture ta 

ken at 






g of th 

c W 


s Org 



can Me 


nt Ma 





the spe 



rt E. 



g with 


t pres 





y W. 


. CI 


se fro 

Ti Maye 

the ta 

ble are 




s. Jo 




n. Mats 



in M. 


W. Lowith, M 




sh, M 



O. S 




e Beck 

with. M 




ine Law, 





s. and 



a Car 

In an ably presented address before the members of the 
Women's Organization for the American Merchant Ma- 
rine, Robert E. Mayer of the Pacific American Steamship 
Association brought the record up to date on shipping 
conditions and problems. That his message Was effective 
in relation to the Marshall Plan is indicated by the action 
of the Senate after receiving protesting letters from our 
leading ladies on the "donate ships to Europe" phase of 
the Plan. 

The meeting was presided over by President Mrs. John 
F. Johnston and was held in the Army-Navy Club of 
San Francisco. 

Moran Elected to Board of 
Marine Exchange 

Andrew A. Moran, new vice president of the Inter- 
ocean Steamship Corporation, Ltd., has been elected to 
membership in the board of directors of the Marine 

Mr. Moran, long prominent in Bay Area maritime 
activities, was one of three original founders of the 
present operational setup of the Exchange, along with 
John C. Rohls, retired marine department manager of 
the Standard Oil Company and Frank O'Connor, present- 
ly a director of the American President Line. He has 
recently been manager of the Port of Redwood City, on 
San Francisco Bay. 

Moran, chairman of the Bay Area Council's Maritime 
Committee, recently presented to the coastwise trans- 
portation meeting held in San Francisco, a plan to de- 
velop the overland cargo movement of the Bay Area and 
the Pacific Coast. Basis of the plan is the formation of a 
trafiic and transportation bureau modeled along the lines 
of the New York Port Authority and a somewhat similar 
and very successful bureau in New Orleans. 

Moran is best remembered for the part he played in 
establishing the round-the-world service of the former 
Dollar Line, the first of its kind in transportation history. 





An inch won't make you very tall. 

You've got to keep on growing; 
One little ad won't do it all. 

You've got to keep them going. 
One step won't take you far. 

You've got to keep on walking; 
One word won't tell folks who you 

You've got to keep on talking 
A constant drop of water 

Wears away the hardest stone; 
For the constant-gnawing Towser 

Masticates the toughest bone; 
The constant-cooing lover 

Carries off the blushing maid; 
And the constant advertiser 

Is the one who gets the trade. 




ji Francisco 
rneller Members 
ri Smart 

li the radio program, "Quiz of 
1 Tines", broadcast over the Mu- 
I icii Lee Network Sunday eve- 
i; 1 ehruary 22, the San Fran- 
z.Aiih beat the Los Angeles club 
. sin. ill margin. The San Fran- 
;, is shown in the photo 
iiinu up the loot. 
S nc I if the questions were posers 
ic industry's best brains. Capt. 
d Harms, operating manager. 
ip & Talbot Lines, knew what 
\ki moth holes. Gene Hoffman, 
iri;er of public relations and ad- 
rtini:, American President Lines, 
e \\ here to find Tara's Halls. 
q Ci.illagher, vice president and 
acint; manager, Matson Lines 
ff who got the axe. Lewis Lap- 
irpresident, American Hawaiian 
.■aiship Company, and president 
-"ropeller Club, knew his 
rcJ Neighbors". 

The fine looking group ( 
Hugh Gallagher. Bill Gv. 

ARCH • 194 

Page 89 

Letter to the Editor 

Naval Architect Submits a 
Good Idea 

Pacific Marine Review 
500 Sansome Street 
San Francisco 11, Calif. 
Attention: The Editor 


In the past year, it has been my 
duty to survey a large number of 
craft which were damaged as a re- 
sult of striking floating debris. In 
spite of the regulations dealing with 
the disposal of waste, a large amount 
of lumber, garbage, and other ma- 
terial finds its way into the waters 
of San Francisco Bay and its trib- 
utaries. If one requires visual proof 
of this situation, a quick glance at 
the Oakland Estuary will be highly 

Operators of vessels are suffi- 
ciently impressed with the value of 
their charges to be very circumspect 
when navigating in a concentration 
of rubbish. In spite of all the care 
that is exercised, it is almost im- 
possible to see many pieces of wood 
and rope which float very close to 
the surface. As a result, damage to 
bottoms and propelling gear are 
reported every day of the week. 
The repairs that are necessary range 
from neglibible costs to expendi- 
tures of many thousands of dollars. 
This situation is becoming increas- 
ingly worse and something should 
be done to rectify it. 

The port of New York has under 
construction a drift collector for 
the purpose of picking up and dis- 
posing of floating matter which is 
a danger to navigation. It is highly 
desirable that the port of San Fran- 
cisco should also have such a vessel. 
I should like to suggest for your 
consideration, because of the pre- 
eminence of your position on the 
West Coast, that you urge the prop- 
er authorities to construct and op- 
erate a drift collector in San Fran- 
cisco Bay. The cost of a vessel of 
this type will be about .$350,000 but 
I am certain that the expenditure 
would soon pay for itself in the sav- 
ing of damage to vessels which use 
our excellent port. 

Very truly yours, 



table in the main dining 
se. left to right arc Arthur Poo 






ildcnt and ti 
an President Lines; James M. Bates of the Maritime Commission; George G. 
Sharp, naval architect responsible for interior arrangements; Miller Laughton, Pacific 
Coast general manager Bethlehem Steel Co., Shipbuilding Division; Russell Luti, 
e«ecutive vice president, American President Lines; Henry Frick. Consultant; and 
standing chatting v<ith George Sharp is Douglas MacMullan, editor of Pacific Marine 

President Cleveland Pictures 

Pictures taken aboard the Presi- 
dent Cleveland during the trials will 
appear here from time to time. 
There were so many important fig- 

ures in the maritime industry con- 
cerned with this vessel that the Pa- 
cific Marine Review continues to 
receive requests for them. 

Miller Laughton, of Bethlehem, and M. Rhine and George Crow of General Electri 
stroll down the beautiful promenade deck, while other guests take it easy. 

Page 90 


Completes Forty Years 
Hfith Bird-Archer 

Vernon S. Showell, general man- 
lucr of the Bird-Archer Company of 
.ilitornia, recently completed forty 
a.irs of service with the company. 
Probably known to as many sea- 
going and shore-side marine engi- 
neers as anyone on the Pacific Coast, 
ic lias been general m.anager of the 
Bird- Archer Company since 1918. 
He has played an important part 
with the company in pioneering 
boiler water treatment and the de- 
velopment of test equipment in the 
merchant marine which has now be- 
come a must in the safe operation 
of the modern marine high pressure 

Showell remembers "hoofing" the 
waterfront when the horse and 
buggy was a luxury. When a steamer 
arrived in port in those days it was 
a question of how many boiler mak- 
ers and how many scalers were re- 
quired. Nowadays it is a question 
whether any are required, and why. 

The Salinometer was then "the 
king." Feed water was tested by 
taste and all boilers were loaded 
with zinc plates. "Mr. Alkalinity" 
was not yet born. Water tube boilers, 
then called "pipe boilers," were in 
their infancy. Coastwise shipping 
was at its height with a hundred 

Left to right: B. R. Wtiite and Vernon S. Showell of Bird Arche 

Steam schooners and probably more 
than thirty passenger ships, includ- 
ing ships to Panama. 

Bird-Archer Company of Califor- 
nia have qualified representatives at 
all Pacific Coast ports, and in con- 
junction with Timmons & Charles of 
Jersey City and the Bird-Archer 
Company, Limited of Canada, they 
maintain service in all American 
and Canadian ports. 

We Really Haven't Room 
For This 

Grandpa: "I miss the old cuspidor 
since it's gone." 

Grandma: "You missed it before 
— that's why it's gone." 

in Everett Pacific Group 


1 „; 



s re 

peated fr 

3m our 

February issue 

in order 



t a bad r 


n its caption. 






given he 



, front 



k: R. LeB 

anc, General Manag- 




: Shipbui 

ding a 

nd Dry Dock 




. J 

P. O'Re 

ar: H. 

1. Chatterton. 






stant. Eve 

ett Pac 

fie; Mrs. J. A. 





. O 

v/en, Port 


r Luckenbach 






W. Rekle 

v; Mrs. 

R. C. Owen; 

Q. A. He 


Right front to back: N. W. Reklev. Estinnator, 
Everett Pacific; Mrs. G. W. Simpson; J. P. O'Rear, 
Estimator, Everett Pacific; Ivlrs. R. LeBlanc; H. P. 
McLaughlin, Asst. Gen'l Superintendent, Everett 
Pacific- Mrs. H. I. Chatterton; Mrs. H. P. Mc- 
Laughlin; Mrs. Q. A. Herwig; J. M. Finlaw, 1st 
Lt ATC. Contract Accountable Property Officer, 

MARCH • 194 

Page 91 


John Dietim, 


To facilitate operations and to 
improve service, George E. Swett & 
Company, Engineers, San Francisco, 
has assigned a number of the prod- 
ucts that they represent to a new 
organization which will be called 
the Swett-Stone Corporation, it is 
announced by George E. Swett. 

While the new corporation will 
be partially controlled by Swett, it 
will operate as a distinct organiza- 
tion under the management of 
Leighton Stone, who has been a 
service engineer with the George E. 
Swett & Co., Engineers, for 20 years. 

The offices will be located on the 
third floor, 256 Mission Street, San 
Francisco. The Swett-Stone Corpora- 
tion will represent the following 
well-known products: Manning, 
Maxwell & Moore Safety Valves and 
Gauges; Fisher Governors and Con- 
trols; Ilg Blowers and Fans; Cun- 
ningham Whistles; Copaltite Joint 
Compound; Paxton-Mitchell Rod 
Packing and Cylinder Liners; and 
Cuno Filters. 

The George E. Swett & Co., Engi- 
neers, will continue to represent 
Warren Pumps; Carrier-Brunswick 
Refrigeration, Air Conditioning; 
Markey-Cunningham Steering 
Gears; Diamond Soot Blowers; 
Smoke Indicators; and Davis Heat 

By thus separating the products 

into specialties and major equip- 
ment, it is possible for the person- 
nel to oflfer more exacting and spe- 
cializing engineering, sales and serv- 

Leighton Stone who will direct 
the work of the Swett-Stone Corpo- 
ration has mostly specialized in the 
products that have been assigned to 
the new corporation. He attended 
Columbia for two years and then 
received his degree from the Uni- 
versity of California in 1928 at 
which time he joined the Swett or- 

Ronald Oldershaw and John 
Dietzman will also be associated 
with Stone as sales engineers. Rob- 
ert Long will be purchasing agent 
for the Swett-Stone Corporation. 

"We have planned this separation 
of products for some time as we 
have found that some of our men 
are more familiar and know more 
about all the problems of a few of 
the products and by permitting 
them to give all of their time and 
thought to them, we can offer faster 
and more thorough service all the 
way from the planning operations 
to the complete installations in 
which these products play their 
part," reports George E. Swett. 

The George E. Swett & Co., En- 
gineers, will continue to be man- 
aged by George E. Swett. 

Geo. Swett Appoints — 

Henry J. Wickert has been ap- 
pointed manager of equipment sales 
of the George E. Swett & Co., Engi- 
neers, San Francisco, it is announced 
by George E. Swett, president and 
general manager. He will have 
charge of the sales of the following 
products: Carrier Refrigeration and 
Air Conditioning Equipment, War- 
ren Steam and Centrifugal Pumps, 
Davis Heat Exchangers and Markee- 
Cunningham Steering Gears and 
Deck Equipment. 

Wickert will absorb the duties of 
Henry Craig who has resigned. John 
Marsh and Henry Buffalo will con- 
tinue as chief engineer and super- 
intendent of construction respec- 

Frank Sloman has been promoted 
to office salesman of the refrigera- 
tion department under the direction 
of Wickert. Henry J. Wickert, an 
ex-naval officer who was chief engi- 
neer of an escort-type destroyer, is 
a graduate of Cornell University and 
has been with the Swett organiza- 
tion for the last two years. 

Page 92 


Harbor Supply 

In anriDuncing the appointments of 
Homer Potter and Captain Konrad 
N\stol to the force of the Harbor Sup- 
ply Company, 821 Folsom Street, San 
i rancisco, A. F. ( Al ) Devoto, Vice 
I'rtsident and General Manager, adds 
that his ship chandlery firm have sufti- 
cient stocks to supply huge quantities 
of deck, engine room and steward sup- 

Mr. Ed Whittemore, Sales Manager 
.ind General Partner for the Atlas Paint 
,s; N'arnish Co. of Los Angeles, recently 
.isMgned Homer to his new post as 
iii.uiager of the San Francisco office. 

Captain Konrad Nystol, in charge 
(it Harbor's Foreign Ship Department, 
was educated in Sweden and speaks 
four languages fluently. In World War 
11 he was decorated with the Royal 
( russ by the King of Sweden for out- 
st.mding services as Captain in the 
Roval Swedish Navy. 

Also on Harbor's staff and very well 
known to the marine fraternity are 
Hobbs Merle, Jim Burke, John Eagen 
and Ben Limberg. 

Manufacturers represented by Har- 
bor Supply include: Great 'Western 
Cordage Company, manila rope; Jones 
& Laughlin Steel Corporation, wire 
rope; Atlas Paint & Varnish Company, 
marine paints; Boston & Lockport 
Co., tackle blocks; Sumco Products 
Ci)., Inc., cleansers and engine room 
chemicals; Walworth Company, valves; 
Columbia Steel Company, wire prod- 
ucts, steel and sheets; Griffin Manufac- 
turmg Company, hinges and butts; 
Pheoll Manufacturing Company, screw 
products; Bright Star Battery Company, 
flashlights and batteries; Band-It Com- 
p.uiy, clamps and tools; Thomas Laugh- 
hn Company, shackles, hooks, etc.; Dia- 
mond Calk and Horseshoe Company, 
w Tenches and pliers; Halstead Products, 
oils; cutting and penetrating; Palmer 
Thermometers; Bell & Gossett, heat ex- 
changers and centrifugal pumps; Ful- 
ton Sylphon Company, temperature 
controls; Pioneer Rubber Company, 
hose and packing; Wilcox-Crittenden 
Company, blocks, shackles; and the 
■^'oung Iron Works, Seattle, Washing- 

In addition to the Folsom Street 
plant. Harbor also maintains ware- 
houses on Clara Street and at 6th and 
Hubbell Streets in San Francisco. 










d Nystol 






Harbor Supply Office Staff. 

Rig'ht: Ho 

Tier Potter. Atlas Paint Compan 


and A. F. (Al) De Voto, Vice 


and General Manager of th 

Harbor Supply Co. 

MARCH • 1948 

Page 93 

R. L Minckler kvn President of 
General Petroleum Corporation 

R. L. Minckler has been elected president of the Gen- 
eral Petroleum Corporation, succeeding on January 1, S. 
J. Dickey, who is retiring. R. A. Sperry, senior vice presi- 
dent and a director of the concern also retired on that 

Minckler was born in Minneapolis and first worked 
for the Great Northern Railway. He served in the Army 
during World War I and subsequently attended the 
University of Washington. Before joining General Petro- 
leum in 1924, he worked for a transpacific steamship 
line and the Southern California Edison Company. 

He was elected a General Petroleum vice president in 
1945 after having served as Director of Petroleum Sup- 
ply of the Petroleum Administration for War. In June 
of 1947 he was one of three western men appointed to 
the government's 15 -man Military Petroleum Advisory 

Dickey has been president of General Petroleum since 
1941. He first joined the company in 1919 and became 
chief engineer in 1920. By 1927 he was a director, and 
by 1930, vice president in charge of manufacture. 

Sparry is one of the pioneers of General Petroleum 
and the oil industry, having started work in the Kern 
River fields in 1901. He joined General Petroleum in 
1912, becoming a director in 1925 and a vice president 
in 1926. 

r^ ^""^^i 

•-m-^' I 

oarties held during the holida 
■ight: Fred Murdock, Pacific C 

season in San Francisco. Left to 
ast Instrument Co.; Ralph DePuy, 
Isthmian S. S. Co.; George A, Horton, Jr.. and Harold Wrigley, 
International Paint Co.; George A. Horton, Sr.; Herb Southworth, 
Herbert Southworth Co.; Jack Frost, Refrigeration Components; 
Mary Ann Esser, Ken Zappettini, Refrigeration Components; Sis 
Esser; Lea Zappettini; Esther Frost; Fred Esser, owner and general 
manager of Refrigeration Components, Inc. 

Frank Cameron Joins 


Frank Cameron, who recently completed a special pr 
motional assignment for American President Lines 
connection with the new luxury liner President Clevelari 
has joined the Frank DiMarco Agency as Account Ei 
exutive. While with APL he served as assistant to Huge? 
F. Hoflfman, Public Relations and Advertising DirecK 

Cameron formerly handled publicity for Grace Line i 
New York, moving to San Francisco in 1946. He w 
associated with the Public Relations Department of Mi 
son Lines prior to accepting the President Clevelai 
assignment. In his new capacity he will specialize 
steamship and travel promotion. 

R. L. (tinkler, far left, and S. J. Dickey 

Page 94 


Converteil by Bethlehem 

The S. i. Ar,u,cn(inu oh he 

Lunitnwn sta i 


Fconversion of the liner Argentina 
f )m a troop transport to a first-class 
fsscnger ship offers coficrete evi- 
cncc of the advantages ship owners 
ad operators enjoy whenever Beth- 
liem does the job. 
j>eecf. Although laid up for recon- 
>rsi()n three to four months later 
tin her "Good Neighbor" sister 
jssenger ships, the Argetitina was 
tt first to be completed and the first 
t resume Moore-McCormack Lines' 
Jewar service to east coast ports of 
Jiuth America. 

Craftsmanship. The enthusiastic 
reaction of marine experts to the 
Argentina's performance on her sea 
trials attested to the high degree of 
skill "worked into" the conversion. 
"Surprisingly good," said the chief 
trial inspector for the U. S. Maritime 
Commission. "Better than ever," com- 
mented the officer who has been 
master of the vessel since 1938. 

This combination of speed plus 
craftsmanship is always available to 
owners and operators of vessels 
converted by Bethlehem. 



Quincy, Mass. 

Staten Island. N Y. 

Sparrows Point, Md. 

Beaumont, Texas 

San Francisco. Calif. 

Alameda, Calif. 

Terminal Island, Calif. 





;HIPBUILDING . . . ship conversions . . . SHIP REPAIRS 



Coble Address: BETHSHIP 

lARCH • I 948 

Simpson Yard 

Brooklyn 27th Street Yar 

Brooklyn 56th Street Yar 

Hoboken Yard 

Staten Island Yard 

Baltimore Yard 

Beaumont Yard, Beaumoi 

San Francisco Yard 

Alameda Yard 

San Pedro Yard 






Page 95 

n E UJ S F L e S H E $! 



Two more super tankers with a capacity of 228,000 barrels each were 

ordered by Standard Oil Company (New Jersey), increasing to six the number of 

such tankers contracted for within the last four weeks- 
Each of the six vessels will have a capacity about 70 per cent greater 

than the T-2 type tankers constructed during the war. The total capacity of all 

the ships will aggregrate 57,456,000 gallons and their construction, M. G. 

Gamble, general manager of the Company's Marine Operations, said, will cost 

about 131,500,000. 

The two additional tankers will be built by the Newport News Shipbuilding 

and Dry Dock Company, Newport News, Va. , with delivery scheduled the latter half 

of 1949. Two of the vessels ordered earlier also are being constructed by the 

Newport News company and the other two by the Sun Ship Building & Dry Dock 

Company, Chester, Pa. One is scheduled for delivery by the end of this year and 

the other three early in 1949. 


The famous coastal liner H. F. Alexander has been sold to the Boston 
Metals Corp. for scrapping. 


Under the Transportation Corps "Outport" system, the San Francisco Port of 
Embarkation is charged with responsibility for supply of Japan, Korea, the 
Philippines, Okinawa, China, Hawaii and the Marianas. All cargo movements to 
those areas, regardless of port of origin, are directed and controlled by the 
Port here. 

The tonnage for 1947 represents shipments made to the overseas bases 
served by the Port from almost a score of American ports, including those in the 
San Francisco Bay Area and Seattle, Portland, Los Angeles, New York, Baltimore, 
New Orleans, Mobile and other Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf points. 


California Ship Repair Corporation, a newly organized Oakland ship repair 
yard, is getting into full operation at the foot of Washington Street on prop- 
erty leased from the Port of Oakland, according to J. F. Smith, president of the 

Located in an area that was formerly the Graham Shipyard, the new firm has 
at the present time $120,000 worth of contracts for landing craft repair. Smith 
reports that work is in progress on a contract with the Ed Newman ship brokerage 
company in San Francisco to wreck nine LSM's for salvage. Plans have also been 
made to sell vessels and all types of parts. 

Another important job for the new yard is the conversion of two LST's soon 
to enter the coastwise service under the flag of a new Oakland shipping com- 
pany, Larrabee, Sutherland & Tarr (The LST Line). 

Smith has been active in the bay area and Pacific Coast shipping business 
for thirty years. He was the founder and president of the Maritime Engineering 


and Ship Repair Company in San Francisco and only recently sold his interest in 
that company. 

General manager of the California Ship Repair Corporation is H. T. Hill, 
onetime port manager for Interocean. 


A new marine supply house in Seattle, known as the Seattle Marine and 
Fishing Supply Company, was recently formed by four Seattle men, Mel Anderson, 
M. A. McQuarrie, Eugene D. Shaw and Harold Olson. The company was formed out of 
the purchase of the Tacoma Marine Supply Company, Tacoma. 


38 vessels entered San Francisco Harbor Feb. 27, a peace time shipping 
record for a 30-hour span. 15 of the vessels berthed in San Francisco, 15 
berthed in Oakland harbor, four went to Richmond, two to Oleum, and two to 
Stockton. Included in the group were six tankers, and three Naval craft. 

Only two of the Naval vessels were actually on Naval service, the other 
being a cargo vessel, while the remainder were all regular cargo vessels on 
scheduled runs. 

:}: :t; :}: :fe :]e 


According to "Long Beach Press-Telegram" of January 13, the United States 
Navy has renamed the U. S. Naval Shipyards to Long Beach Naval Shipyards, Long 
Beach, and the U. S. Naval Station, Terminal Island to Long Beach Naval Station, 
Long Beach. 


J. M. Willis, general manager, Baltimore District, Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany, Shipbuilding Division, confirmed that the Bethlehem-Sparrows Point Ship- 
yard, Inc., has closed contracts for the building of four 18,000 ton tankers. 

Explaining why the tanker orders had been placed in the United States when 
shipbuilding costs abroad generally are lower, Mr. Willis said: 

"The prospect for earlier delivery of these vessels by the Sparrows Point 
shipyard offsets somewhat the higher costs of construction in this country." 



Prompt enactment of legislation for disposal of the Federal Barge Lines of 
the Inland Waterways Corporation was urged by the Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States in a communication sent to the House Committee on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce. 

The Chamber said the barge lines have long since completed the demonstra- 
tion for which they were originally created in 1924, that they are a source of 
■unfair competition to private business and a burden on the taxpayers because of 
if ailing to meet expenses, and that private operators are willing and able to 
[carry on the service. 



Full production has been reached at Kaiser Steel's pipe mill in Fontana. 

The mill, first of its kind west of the Mississippi, has been geared to 
produce up to 125,000 tons of pipe annually in sizes ranging from one-half to 
four inches in diameter. 


The National Products Corp., Pittsburgh, Penn. , recently purchased the 
Joshua Hendy Iron Works, Torrance, Calif. 

The company said it plans to make flexible electrical conduit, tubing and 
fittings, probably beginning in September. 

MARCH • 1948 Page 97 


Construction has begun on a |500,000 plant for the Texas Company to serve 
as the oil concern's main central California distribution headquarters. 

The project, which will include 12 large storage tanks and a one-story 
office building, will be completed in about three months. 

The building will house Texas Company's sales and local administrative 
forces and will cover an area 75 feet by 300 feet. 

:{; ^ :}: :)c :{£ 


An indication of the leading role Bethlehem Steel Company's San Francisco 
yard is playing in the industrial life of San Francisco and the Bay Area is seen 
in employment figures released by T. C. Ingersoll, Manager. He revealed that 
employment at the San Francisco Yard now stands at over 4,000, the largest num- 
ber employed by the yard during the postwar period and the largest employed by 
any privately operated ship repair yard in the Bay Area. 


152 Sansome Street became the official headquarters as of March 1 of 
Coastwise Line and its allied shipping interests. Coastwise Pacific Line and 
Coastwise Bulk Carriers. The telephone remains unchanged, YUkon 6-4114. Re- 
cently remodeled into a modern steamship office building, 152 Sansome was leased 
on a long-term basis to house the three operations. 


Official signing of the charter granting San Francisco its Foreign Trade 
Zone by Secretary of Commerce W. Averell Harriman took place in Washington, 
D. ,C. , March 10. 


United States Steel Supply Company, which maintains headquarters in 
Chicago, has purchased the block-long warehouse and facilities at 1940 Harrison 
Street, San Francisco, from Columbia Steel Company, L. B. Worthington, President 
of the purchasing company, announced. Both U. S. Steel Supply and Columbia 
Steel are subsidiaries of United States Steel Corporation. 


Class I railroads had 1,513 locomotives and 107,364 freight cars on 
order on February 1, this year, the most since September 1, 1923. The number of 
locomotives for which orders had been placed on February 1, 1948, included 96 
steam, three electric and 1,414 Diesel locomotives compared with 53 steam, six 
electric and 580 Diesel one year ago. 

Class I railroads and railroad-owned private-controlled refrigerator car 
companies put 8,240 new freight cars in service in January, 1948, compared with 
2,795 in the same month in 1947. 


Luckenbach Steamship Co. has purchased for its intercoastal service five 
C-2's and 11 C-3's. They will be immediately converted to the requirements and 
seven of the C-3 type will be converted in Pacific Coast yards. Naval Architect 
M. J. Ryan is supervising the work. 

:^ :^ :(: :(e :|; 


With the arrival in San Francisco on Feb. 26 of United Fruits Comayagua 
with 38,000 stems of bananas, the company resumed its weekly service to S. F. 
and Seattle. 



New Equipment and 
Literature for Yard, 
Ship and Dock 


The Aluminum Ladder Co., now 
manufactures a new type berth lad- 
der. The new ladder is constructed 
entirely of lightweight aluminum 
alloy securely riveted with sturdy 
aluminum rivets. It weighs only 9 
lbs. complete with hooks and may 
be moved about quickly and easily 
by one person. 

h\\i Flexible 
Tubing Company 
Starts Operations 

Flexible Tubing Corporation, or- 
ganized late in 1947, has just an- 
nounced its entry into the flexible 
tubing field. Laboratory, design en- 
gineering and manufacturing facili- 
ties will all be centered in Branford, 

President and Treasurer of Flex- 
ible Tubing Corporation is Fred- 
erick K. Daggett, former Sales & 
Engineering Manager of the Spira- 
tube Division of the Warner Broth- 
ers Company, Bridgeport, Conn. 
Secretary is Joseph B. Morse; New 
Haven Attorney and member of the 
firm of Pond, Morgan & Morse. 
Assistant Treasurer, Alexander K. 
Murphy, formerly of the New 
Haven Clock Company. 

Maxim Silencer Company Manufactures CQR Plow l\nchor 

The Maxim Silencer Company of 
85 Homestead Avenue, Hartford, 
Connecticut is now manufacturing 
the CQR Plow Anchor, under li- 
cense from Henry T. Meneely & 
Company, American licensees of the 
Security Patent Anchor Company. 
Ltd. of Scotland. 

The CQR Plow Anchor offers 
many advantages to the boat owner. 
It is claimed to be absolutely non- 
fouling as there is nothing on which 
the anchor chain can foul. Tests 
made by the manufacturer show that 
it has far greater holding power 
and that its plow design minimizes 
the possibility of dragging and in- 
sures quick setting and resetting in 
the average bottom. It is also claim- 
ed that the Plow Anchor will not 
foul up with mud, but cleans itself 
due to the basic plow design. Tests 
have shown that it breaks out easier 
than anchors of other design when 
the cable is up and down. The CQR 
Plow Anchor is always ready to put 
over the side, always made up and 
lighter to handle. Widely used in 
British waters, the Plow Anchor is 
standard equipment in the British 
Navy and Air Force. 



The details o) 

new equipment or the 

new literature 

announced in this departr 

nent v. 


be furnished v 

vifhouf obligation on your part. For q 

jick service, please use this 






500 Sansoma Street 

San Francisco 

Send nne descriptive data of the foil 

owing new equ 

pment or literature as rev 



Page No 

--- - --■• 

•- - - 

(Identify by name 

of manufacturer and catalog) 







Page 99 







Helicoid Gage Division of Ameri 
can Chain & Cable Co., Inc. 

Helicoid Pressure and Vacuum 

Trimount Instrument Company 

Manometers. Flow Meters. Draft 
Gages. Electronic Level Controls. 
Tank Level Gages. 

Paxton Mitchell Company 

Metallic Packing. Pump and Cyl- 
inder Liners. 

Paxton Diesel Engineering 

Bearing Watchdogs. ValveSpring 
Depressors, other Diesel Spe- 

W. C. Dillon & Co., Inc. 

Strain Gages and Dial Thermom- 


A complete stock of Marine, In- 
dustrial and Dial types. 

Instrument Repairing 

All types of instruments repaired, 
calibrated, rebuilt and serviced. 
All work guaranteed. 

^ew Ship Structure Materials 

iConliiiued jrom page 49) 
a few sailing ships and light-draft 
paddle steamers. Mild steel of fair 
quality, using the Bessemer and 
Siemen's processes, was produced 
by 1873 when is was used in the 
construction of French warships. 
The first edition of the Carnegie 
Pocket Companion appeared at that 
time, a milestone in American iron 
and steel production. 

By 1875, as a result of marked 
improvements in the Siemen's proc- 
ess, mild steel of excellent quality 
was made commercially available. 
In that same year, two British war- 
ships were built of this material. 
For merchant vessels, however, steel 
was no threat to iron construction in 
those early days. Though Lloyd's 
sanctioned its use, even permitting 
a reduction in scantlings of 20"^^, 
steel's relatively high price and de- 
lays in delivery deferred its adoption 
until 1878. Eleven steel vessels were 
built and from that day forward, 
steel merchant vessels were built in 
rapidly increasing numbers, to the 
almost complete exclusion of iron 
as a hull material. 

Steel, however, was not adopted 
in place of iron so that vessels built 
of it might be stronger. It was adopt- 
ed so that smaller scantlings made 
possible by its greater strength and 
improved mechanical qualities 
might proportionately increase car- 
rying power, armor and armament. 
This was accomplished by reduced 
structural weight and vastly improv- 
ed commercial and naval efficiency. 
By the early 1890's, steel of consis- 
tently good quality was in common 
use for ship construction. The steam- 
ship was entering the heyday of its 
career and development. Interna- 
tional competition in overseas com- 
merce was leading to the production 
of increasingly large ships, particu- 
larly of great passenger vessels for 
the North Atlantic — North Ameri- 
ca traffic. The modern warship was 
divesting itself of out-dated and 
superfluous top hamper. Universal 
recognition of the importance of 
sea power in international relation- 
ships produced the race for arm- 
aments, ultimately leading to the 
era of the torpedo, the submarine 
and the dreadnaught. 

Introduction of the steam tur- 
bine gave to ship propulsion an ef- 
fectual, space-saving power plant 
aimed to counteract the massive re- 
quirements of the compound recip- 
rocating engine for large-sized ships. 
Specialists became increasingly es- 

sential to the building of faster ships 
and their machinery. Recognition 
of the metallurgist in commercial 
production, preparation and treat- 
ment of metals and alloys, approach- 
ed that of the naval architect in de- 
sign and the shipbuilder in con- 

The cost of mild steel in the early 
days of its adoption for merchant 
ship hulls was roughly twice that of 
iron. To compensate for the use of 
steel, an increase in commercial ef- 
ficiency became mandatory to over- 
come higher first costs. Thus, it de- 
veloped upon the classification so- 
cieties to decide how much scant- 
lings might be reduced to equalize 
for the higher strength and more 
uniform qualities of steel. They con- 
cluded that a reduction of 20 "^'^ in 
thicknesses was safely permissible, 
experience having indicated that the 
strength and stiffness of iron and 
steel structures were then fairly 

This reduction was made condi- 
tional on standardized and systema- 
tic testing of the steel supplied for 
vessels classed by Lloyd's. It is sur- 
prising today that tests at that time 
were considered particularly neces- 
sary for steel and not for iron. The 
answer lies in the fact that the qual- 
ity of mild steel was then better than 
iron, but iron's defects were known 
while steel sometimes exhibited de- 
fects so unfamiliar that much doubt 
existed as to its suitability for ships' 
hulls. For example, iron plates might 
crack during a forming operation re- 
quiring only a small amount of fa- 
miliar shop work. Steel, on the other 
hand, though more ductile, might 
crack spontaneously following the 
same amount of work 

Spot testing of steel was at first 
resorted to, but much inferior mate- 
rial escaped detection by this meth- 
od. Moreover, tests were conducted 
at the shipyard where facilities were 
not always of the best. It was finally 
agreed, and rightly so, that testing 
of the steel be done by the manufac- 
turer, but in the presence of the 
classification societies surveyors. 

High tensile steel came into use 
following the invention of the tor- 
pedo and the mounting of this 
weapon in 1873 on torpedo boats, 
originally carried aboard large war- 
ships. The necessity for lightness in 
torpedo boats became apparent as 
they developed, both for high speed 
and for reduced weight to assist 
hoisting off and on the parent ships. 
This high strength alloy was also 
originally used for light, shallow^ 
(Please turn to page 103) 

Page 100 


Garratt-Callahan Company of California 

Judging from the smiles of this group, the "House of Magic" must be a 
jsasant place in which to live. Whatever the reason, the group spirit re- 
tcted by this picture is pretty good evidence that the recent Garratt- 
(llahan general sales meeting was a success. Held at the Palace Hotel, 
Jn Francisco, from January 5 to 8 and attended by a good proportion of 
IS firm's field staff, the meeting served to implement the expanded sales 
jogram inaugurated by the company last year. 

Garratt-Callahan Company of California are manufacturers of "Magic " 
l)iler Preservative, "Flo-rite" Fuel Oil Conditioner, and other "House of 
lagic" chemical products for power equipment. 

Those attending the meeting were, top row, Jack M. Crowe, Sacramento; 
»;orge G. Bennett, Salt Lake City; Wade V. Goodin, East Bay; Paul T. 
lodgson, Fresno; Thomas W. Wold, Seattle; Frederick B. Dennis, plant 
;perintendent. Bottom row, Emer Huish, San Francisco; Charles I. Gould, 
lis Angeles; Mansfield W. Garratr, Jr., chemist; Frederick P. Teall, sales 
imager; Mansfield W. Garratt, Sr., president; Edward Bus, marine. 


M nmnm m cargo 


V 90-page booklet presenting all 
'■h factors affecting the selection of 
>t m and electrical equipment for 
pisenger and cargo vessels has been 
uounced by Westinghouse Elec- 
tr Corporation. 

he booklet provides a complete 
Ji analytical discussion of the six 
mJern types of ship propulsion 
wh the relative advantages and fu- 
tv- trends of each. Auxiliary power 

Kj A R C H • 19 4 8 

generation and distribution equip- 
ment for shipboard utilization of 
both a-c and d-c systems are similar- 
ly discussed. 

Complete with photographs, 
sketches, tables and curves, the book- 
let provides useful data and informa- 
tion on auxiliary motor and controls, 
radar, maintenance, and marine ac- 
cessories for all compartments 
aboard ship. 















CSE- 5-. 

Hooks spliced 

in. not 


Open sockets, 




Frank Groves 
Opens at Wilmington 

Frank Groves, president of the 
Frank Groves Company, announces 
the opening of offices and warehouse 
at 111 West C street, Wilmington, 
California. The company now has 
complete coast coverage with offices 
and warehouses in San Francisco, 
Portland, Seattle and Los Angeles. 

A complete stock of refractories, 
gaskets, packings, gages and ther- 
mometers, in addition to their regu- 
lar steam specialties, is carried at the 
new Southern California headquar- 

Frank Groves is spending much of 
his time at the Wilmington offices 
assisted by Ken Paxton and Art Kol- 

Illustrated: Type CSE-10 

Equalizing Slings 

Now being offered by The Cald- 
well Company of Rockford, 111., is 
an improved model of their Adjust- 
A-Leg Equalizing Sling; this re- 
places the model previously used. 
Available in capacities ranging from 
%-ton to 12-tons, with a Safety 
Factor of Five, these units are de- 
signed to lift odd-shaped and un- 
balanced loads level or at almost 
any predetermined angle; they are 
also valuable for moving simple 
loads, and are particularly suitable 
for working in confined spaces. 

The Sling consists of an equaliz- 
ing unit equipped with wire rope. 
The equalizing unit is made up of 
a sheave (with a V-shaped groove) 
carried by a spring-mounted axle, 
and a pair of brake shoes. The rope, 
which lays over the sheave in the 
V-shaped groove, has a hook at- 
tached to each end, forming two 

The V-groove feature in the 
sheave of the improved Adjust-A- 
Leg Equalizing Sling eliminates rope 
crowding. As a result, there is less 
rope wear, and freer movement of 
the sheave than in the former de- 

For further information write: 
The Caldwell Company, Dept. 48, 
1830 Camp Avenue, Rockford, 111- 

Page 102 


he Flight of the 
omul kite 

August Schlueter (center) greets Jim Hoeveler (left) and Bill Reilly at Centr, 
Ai'port. Camden, New Jersey, on their return from their recent trip. 

Selby, Battersby & Company of 
hiladelphia have a flying depart- 
ent known as the Marine Mate- 
al Sales Department and managed 
/ August Schlueter assisted by J. 
". Hoeveler, Jr., and W. F. Reilly. 
7ell known in the marine field for 
let thirty-five years as manufac- 
irers and applicators of all types of 
x:k coverings, the company han- 
es Komul, the coal tar pitch emul- 
on formulated as a cold-applied 
iti-corrosive coating. The product 
js been on the market for approxi- 
ately twelve years and is handled 
,' the Marine Material Sales De- 
irtment. "Komul Kite" is the name 
this department's five-place 
eachcraft in which they travel the 
luntry promoting their products, 
id Jim Hoeveler, the pilot, and 
iU Reilly, co-pilot and navigator, 
e known as the "Komul Kids." 

Recently they traveled around the 
.juntry in their "Komul Kite" to 
ipervise the application of Komul 

all the U. S. Maritime Commis- 
on Reserve Fleet sites and to in- 
|)ect work done at the various U. S. 
aval Reserve Fleet sites. They also 
.intacted all Naval Shipyards as well 

private shipyards and steamship 
OTpanies, and were on the trip 
Scut two and a half months. 
' The only delay encountered on 
;ie entire trip was three days due to 
^eather, and no delays from 
echanical trouble. The "Komul 
ite" has proven a very satisfactory 
id economical method of covering 
rge territories. During their flights 
le "Komul Kids" work with the 
'mpany's distributors: Marine Con- 
actors Co., Boston; Ray B. Cralle, 
ampa; Marine Specialty Co., Mo- 
le; Marine Welding, Scaling & 
lies Co., New Orleans; J. M. Cos- 
llo Marine Supply Co., Wilming- 
>n, California; Cordes Brothers, 
(in Francisco; Marine & Industrial 
ipply Co., Portland; Tourtellotte 

Bradley, Seattle. 


emblem of protection 

Whatever your fire hazard, QUICK-AID FIRE GUARDS con 
venlently placed throughout your ships are your assurance 
of safety from the menace of fire. 

There are two types of QUICK-AID FIRE GUARDS 
particularly recommended for marine installations: 
carbon dioxide and foam. Each ts engineered to do 
the job of fighting fire quickly, safely, and eco- 
nomically. Foam type snuffs out fire with 22 
gallons of tough foam. Carbon dioxide quickly 
extinguishes electrical, chemical, oil, gasoline, 
flammable liquid and paint fires; equally effective 
in all temperatures. 

Your nearby GENERAL dealer can help you select the 
right QUICK-AID FIRE GUARDS for your needs. Write 
today for his name and your FREE copy of our new 
file folder. 

FREE This handy file refer- 
ence folder tells all you need 
to know about fire extinguishers. 
Write now for your copy. ▲ 


General Offices and Factory 


the G 

1501 E, W, 

n Blvd , Los Angeles 21 


IJARCH • 1948 

Page 103 


70 Jobs In 
Half a Year 




for the 



• • 




Every Type of 




Lnnq Beach Marine 

Repair Company 

1409 W. Seventh St. • Long Beach 13, California 
Telephone: Long Beach 6-6433 

Of particular interest to West 
Coast shipbuilders is a recent an- 
nouncement regarding change of ad- 

dress by the West Coast Marine 
Division of Martin-Parry Corpora- 
tion, manufacturers of marine bulk- 

Sperry Describes Rudder 
Angle Indicator 

A revised marine catalog section 
describing the Rudder Angle Indi- 
cator has just been issued by Sperry 
Gyroscope Company. Available from 
Sperry on request, the publication 
number is 18-5A. 

The section defines the function 
and specifications of the Rudder 
Angle Indicator System and includes 
outline drawings of equipment com- 

Corporation's IVest 
Coast Maritime Division 
Moves to hwi Office 

heads, doors and furnishings. Their 
new regional office and warehouse 
is now located at 991 Tennessee 
Street, San Francisco 7. From this 
headquarters they serve the West 
Coast Shipyards from San Diego, 
California, to British Columbia. 

The Martin-Parry Corporation is 
engaged in the design and execution 
of marine interior decorations, join- 
er work, bulkheads, linings, ceilings, 
doors, and furniture. 

At Desk: Karl Anderson, 
Branch Manager 

Page 104 


h Ship Structure Materials 

I LoiJtiiiiuJ jior/i l>jgc lUOj 

dift vessels and was later utilized 
iithe strength decks and superstruc- 
tics of some of the world's largest 
pisenger liners, including the "Lu- 
Siinia," built in 1905. Because of 
It higher cost and greater diflicul- 
fc in working as compared with 
id steel, high tensile steel's use 
^ generally limited to special ap- 
ifcations rather than to hulls. Re- 
jtly, however, Cor-Ten steel has 
n used for the welded hulls of 
ing-type pleasure cruisers. 

This article will be continued in the 
il issue where the use of aluminum 
ip construction is developed.) 


[impany Formed 

\ new marme supply house in 
kftle, known as the Seattle Marine 
ir Fishing Supply Company, was 
■c>ntly formed by four Seattle men, 
V) Anderson, M. A. McQuarrie, 
Ei;ene D. Shaw and Harold Olson. 

"he company was formed out of 
li purchase of the Tacoma Marine 
5i'ply Company, Tacoma. Occu- 
TcCy will become effective on April 

I 1 the waterfront level at Pier 59 
firmerly Pier 8). Temporary of- 
ic; .Hid warehouse have already 
X 1 scr up at Pier 59. 

Ik Tacoma Marine Supply Com- 
^\ will continue as a separate 

II iH ss. Officers of the Seattle Ma- 
li .iiui Fishing Supply Company 
ir Mel Anderson, president; Har- 
il Olson, vice president; F. A. Le- 
^1 rd. secretary; and M. A. Mc- 
J rriL-, treasurer and manager. 

Reading from left to right: Harold Olson. Eugene D. Shaw, Mel Ande 
M. A. McQuarrie, of Seattle Marine and Fishing Supply Co. 






If you are in need of auxiliary 
power, the ALBINA UTIL- 
will do the job. Tested to 17.S 
h.p. at 3,240 rev., unit will con- 
tinuously deliver 5 h.p. on each 
pulley at 2,030 rev. Sheaves and 
thrust collars work on a non- 
rotating shaft, eliminating 
wear and freezing up at high 
speeds. 2 V-Belts and take-off 
sheaves independently operat- 
ed. The unit may be controlled 
remotely from any location. 



Write Factory for 
Illustrated Folder 

Northwest Distributor 


45 S.W. First Avenue 

Portiond 4, Oregon 



Page 105 

Right on the Nose 

HiHing dimensions within .0001 of an im 
consistently is possible only with the be 
tools and the most experienced crattsme 
For .0001 of an inch Is to one inch as \\ 
thickness of a sheet of paper is to the heigl 
of an average desk. 

Where the allowance is slight or on any jo 
requiring expert designing or tooling, Gei 
eral Engineering excels. 

Come in and discuss your designing oi 
production problems with our engineers: 


GArfield 1-6168 

Executive Offices 

I too Sansome Street, San Francisco, California] 

Ship Losses 

(Continued from page 71) 
tact with mines in European and other waters in 1947; 
of these vessels, 20, of 46,376 gross tons, are known to 
have been total losses. Amended figures since the cessa- 
tion of hostilities are 147 vessels, of 707,133 gross tons, 
of which 55, of 189,473 gross tons, are total losses. 
British coastal waters have been stated generally to be 
free of mines, and it is thought that there is little 
danger to vessels approaching our ports. Mines being 
cleared from northern European waters, which may have 
broken away and drifted towards this country are, apart 
from exceptional cases, considered to be harmless to 

The committee have received authoritative informa- 
tion to the effect that, theoretically, all British and the 
majority of foreign-made moored mines are designed to 
be safe after breaking away from their moorings, i. e., as 
soon as the tension is off the spring retaining the mooring 
spindle switch. It is possible that, in the case of an old 
mine, marine growth and corrosion by sea water may 
prevent the spring from operating, thus causing the mine 
to remain dangerous. However, mines corrode and leak 
with age, and therefore there is only a remote risk of a 
floating mine being a danger to shipping. 

The sweeping of moored mines in northwest European 
waters has largely been completed. There remain areas 
in the eastern part of the Baltic Sea, the Adriatic and off 
the coasts of Italy and Sardinia, the Aegean Sea and the 
Black Sea, where the clearance of moored minefields 
continues. The magnetic ground minefields off the Bel- 
gian, Dutch, German and Danish coasts and in the 
Baltic, are still dangerous, and it is estimated may remain 

so until possibly 1957. 

"The rising cost of ship repairs, resulting from higher 
wages and more expensive materials, has continued,' 
the Committee's report states, "and there is, indeed, no 
indication that a limit has been reached; this fact, com- 
bined with an accumulation of unrepaired damage, ren- 
ders the situation no less obscure than it was last year." 

ymiralty Decisions 

(Continued from page 73) 
may pass, subject, however, to the other rules applicable to such 
a situation." * • • 33 Mason's U.S.C, 290. 

"In obeying and construing these rules due regard shall be 
had to all dangers of navigation and collision, and to any special 
circumstances which may render a departure from the above 
rules necessary in order to avoid immediate danger." ^^ Mason's 
U.S.C, 212. 

The circuit court, being bound by the facts originally found 
by the trial court, which concluded the King was the overtaken 
vessel, held that the Noronic was entirely at fault for attempting 
to pass the King without its consent. The primary duty of the 
King, being the preferred vessel, was to maintain her course and 
keep her speed. See Delaware, I6I U. S. 459. The trial court 
recited in its memorandum that: 

"We know of the Noronic maneuvering at or near the end of 
the Northern Pacific Dock No. 4 (Slip No. I), with the King 
nearby, and we have the two vessels entering the canal piers; 
but from the various witnesses who ought to have known the 
different positions of the vessels meantime, and have known 
what was going on, we have little information. In view of the 
time of the day, climatic conditions and the fact that there were 
no other vessels nearby to distract attention, this is at least sur- 
prising. * * * Neither crew had a right to navigate their respec- 
tive vessels with any such disregard for the other. The two ves- 
sels were approaching the canal piers at the same time from ' 
slightly varying directions. There may be some doubt as to just ^ 
which one crossed the line of the pierhead first. That is not 

Page 106 




'■'or shippers of: Coal, Coke, 
^.irid. Cement, Potash. Salt Cake, 
Milphur, Cravel.and other 
iiilk commodities. 


One of our modern faiilities for shippers is the Bulk 
Loader (iinnevor uhich will load and trim 250 tons of 
coal per hour. The cohncvcm handles any other hulk com- 
mo(Jit\ not exceeding 150 pounds ])er cuhic foot, or not 
mori' than 1 1 inches in size. 

IJollomduinp h()|)|)er cars drop the material on ati endless 
conve\or lielt which lifts to another belt carrying to the 
hatch, where the auloniati<' trimmer has a reach of 36 to 
49 feet. 

The hop|)er bins accommodate two carloads at a time; 
the wharf handles 50 cars and ap|)roaches provide for 
150 additional cars. An electric vibrator 

piickly shakes cars clean when dumping. 

.necessarily controlling." 

It is pretty well recognized that where a large boat is passing 
a smaller one, such as the boats in this case, :he effect of the 
suction where the smaller boat is in advance, is to first draw 
It to the rear, and, when the sterns are abreast, to draw the stern 
of the smaller boat ro the stern of the larger. The suction of an 
overtaking vessel is a frequent cause of collision, particularly 
if she is larger than the overtaking vessel and the channel is 
narrow. An overtaking vessel takes whatever risks attend her 
attempt to pass from cause arising, except from the fault of the 
vessel ahead. Therefore, the Noronic had the burden of showing 
that the injury of the King was occasioned by no fault on her 
part, but to the contrary, to some fault or neglect of duty on the 
part of the King. Finding as the trial court did that the Noronic 
jwas at one time the burdened vessel, it becomes incumbent upon 
the court to conclude that at or about the time of the entering of 
Jthe pierheads, the Noronic was passing the King, because by 
j implication, the court felt that the Noronic had crept up on the 
• King and was passing her although not completely. The fact 
S remains that it was still the overtaking vessel endeavoring to 
pass the King within the piers, which was prohibited by the 
: harbor pilot rules. The "Starboard Hand Rule" which entitles 
a vessel on the starboard side to the right of way, was not con- 
: trolling because the rule contains a specific proviso to the effect 
'that when one steamer is overtaking another, the rule is not 

By unusual coincidence, photographs were taken of the two 
vessels as they passed under the aerial bridge. In the first one, 
the- King had just reached the aerial bridge and most of the 
\nri>nic had passed under it. In the second photograph, they 
had both just passed the aerial bridge. In this short distance 
the photographs indicated that the King had crept up on the 
Noronic. Both the trial and circuit courts attached little im- 
portance to this point because, as I explained before, the King 
was then within the suction of the Noronic and was being 
1 carried along with it. 

J The Noronic was held to be the passing vessel, which action 

i places it within the charge of negligence in that it negligently 

attempted to pass the King in a narrow and confined channel. 

For violating the rules governing overtaking vessels, the Noronic 

was held fully liable and the King was absolved. 

mi iiiED km 

Karl E. Katz, veteran Alaska transportation executive, 
has been named general passenger agent for the Alaska 
Transportation Company, S. J. Swanson, vice president, 
announced recently. 

Katz, whose headquarters will be at the Seattle office 
of the company, will assume all duties in connection with 
the company's entry into the southeastern Alaska passen- 
ger service field this summer. Atco recently purchased the 
former New York-Bermuda luxury cruise ship George 
Washington, which is now en route to Seattle for com- 
plete reconditioning preparatory to inaugurating the 
line's passenger service. 

■Well known in Alaska and Pacific Northwest transpor- 
tation circles. Katz was the Northern Pacific Railroad 
representative in the territory for 24 years. During the 
war he served with the Army transportation corps as a 
Lieut. -Colonel and previous to his present post was traffic 
manager for P.icific Northern Airlines. 

Born in San Francisco, Katz has been a Seattle resident 
since boyhood. He is president of the Seattle Sourdough 
Club and a member of the Transportation Club, Wash- 
ington Athletic Club; Nile Temple, A. A. O. N. M.S.; 
American Legion Post No. 1, Alaska-Yukon Pioneers and 
Juneau B.P.O.E. 

MARCH • 194 

Page 107 



All types of diesel and hull repairs 




TErminal 2-4527 • Ferry Sfreet 

P. O. Box 66, Terminal Island Station 


Los Angeles Harbor 

Garbutt & Walsh 

The Earth's Magnetism and its Effect 
On the Ship and Compass 

< Continued from page 81) 
ing magnets placed in the athwartship trays. 

If compass shows Easterly deviation on Northerly heading or 
westerly deviation on Southerly heading, place the red or North 
ends of the magnets to starboard or vice versa. 


East on North heading or West on South heading Red end 
to Starboard. 

(c) Head Northeast and compensate for Coefficient "D" or 
for Quadrantal deviation, which is due to induced magnetism 
in the symmetrical horizontal soft iron of the vessel, by removing 
all deviation by means of the Quadrantal Spheres. If compass 
shows Easterly deviation on a Northeast heading in North Mag- 
netic Latitude, move Quadrantal spheres in toward the compass. 
If it shows westerly deviation under the same conditions, it in- 
dicates that the spheres are overcompensating, so move them out, 
or replace them with smaller spheres. 

NOTE: If westerly deviation is shown when on Northeast 
heading when spheres are not in position, it indicates unusual 
construction of the vessel and Quadrantal correctors may have 
to be mounted fore and aft of the binnacle. It is well to mention 
Coefficient "E" or Quadrantal deviation which is due to un- 
symmetrical horizontal soft iron. It is maximum on cardinal 
points but generally of a minor quantity and is usually omitted 
when compensating. 

(d) Head Vi'eit Magnetic and remove half the remaining 
deviation by adjusting the fore and aft magnets. This step halves 
any deviation which may remain (in most cases the remaining 
deviation will be comparatively small ) due to the fore and aft 
forces of the sub-permanent magnetism of the vessel. 

(e) Head South Magnetic and remove half the remaining 
deviation by adjusting the athwartship magnets. 

(f ) Head Southeast Magnetic and remove half the remaining 
deviation by adjusting the Quadrantal Spheres. 

(g) Head North Magnetic (preferably alongside the dock) 
and list the ship. 

In North Magnetic Latitude with the red end of the heeling 
magnet up, if the compass needle moves toward the high side 
of the vessel when it is listed, raise the heeling magnet until 
the compass needle returns to its proper position; or, in other 
words, remove all deviation or vice versa. After removing all 
deviation lower the heeling magnet about two inches to avoid 

(h) Secure Binnacle 

Tighten the nuts on bolts under Quadrantal Spheres. Remove 
cranks from operating mechanism of fore and aft and athwart- 
ship trays. 

Remove cranks from Quadrantal Sphere arms and from reel 
for the chain of the heeling magnet. 

Make a record of the number of, the direction of the red end 
and the position of the heeling, fore and aft and athwartship 
compensating magnets. 

Make a record of the amount of Flinders Bar used and the 
distance of the Quadrantal Spheres from the Compass. Close and 
lock the binnacle door. Your compensation is complete. 

(i) Suing Ship for Residuals 

Swing ship and make observations for deviation on at least 
every cardinal and intercardinal point, but if time and condi- 

tions allow, on every 15°. 

(j) Construct a Deviation Table and include on it the date, 
latitude, and longitude of the place of compensation and the 
deviation on the various headings. 

Modern Oil Tanker Design 

[Continued from page 83) 
hull girder, full scale hogging and sagging tests have 
been conducted on the welded tankers "Shiloh" (U.S. 
M.C. T-2 type ) in the U. S. A. and the "Neverita" 
(12,000 DWT. Tons) in Great Britain. The loading 
imposed were of greater severity than those occasioned 
by considering the ship on a wave of height 1/20 the 
length of the ship, and the stresses produced no resultant 
permanent deformations, fractures, or other structural 
failures. (To be concluded in April.) 

\ Whaler's Mouth 


• slip-way of the Norwegian whaler "Anglo Norse" 
.oMyn shipyard, where she had about 35 tons of barnacles 
aped off her bottom and sides, largest such job in shipyard 
ollection. Barnacles slowed her down from 12 to 5 knots an 
hour, and made steering difficult. 

Page 108 


7a t true i-conomij 

Het uout ^uu-urota be.,, 



Federal iakes care of all your painting 
needs. There are Federal paints for the 
interiors of your ships . . . paints and 
protective compositions for your decks 
and hulls . . . there is a Federal product 
for every use aboard ship . . . from keel 
to truck. 

^e \nsUs you fo consu/t with fhe Federal agent In 

your dhirict when you ore planning 

your next painting /ob. 



A. T. B. Shlels 

108 West Lee Street 


Pillsbury & Martignoni 
Mills BIdg. EXbrook 3302 

States Steamship Co. Robert R. Campbell 

1010 Washington St. '=/° Standard Marine Paint Co 

A. J. Chalmers 1545 West Anaheim Blvd. 

Agents and Stocks in all the Principal Ports 

^abin Paints 
(eck Paints 

Deck House Paints 

Hold Paints 

Red Lead (Mixed) 

Smoke Stack Paints 

Topside Paints 

The Federal Paint 
Company, Inc. 

33 Rector Street, New York. N. Y. 















20 KW 120V DC 30 HP GM 2 cyl. 1200 RPM. 
100 KW 3/60/450AC 150 HP GM 3 cyl. 1200 RPM. 
200 KW 3/60/450AC 450 HP GM 8 cyl. 1200 RPM. 
1200 KW 525V DC 1700 HP GM 16 cyl. 750 RPM. 


225 HP GM 2100 RPM 6 cyl. 

1800 HP Fairbanks-Morse 800 RPM 10 cyl. O.P. 

1700 HP GM 16 cyl. 750 RPM. 

900 HP GM Electromotive 12 cyl. 744 RPM. 


4100 Gross Tons, L.S.T.; 900 Gross Tons, L.S.M.; 400 Gross Tons, L.C.I. 






Attractively Priced Immediate Delivery 





LOS ANGELES: NEvada 6-2571 

Cable: NACOR 

j/lCH • 194 8 

Page 109 


(Continued from page 64) 
Nanking. The Central Bank also administers the export 
and import regulations and all foreign exchange taken by 
the commercial banks must be turned over to it. In 
turn, the Central Bank issues import permits and allo- 
cates foreign exchange in payment. The Central Bank of 
China is followed by four big "Government Banks" — 
The Bank of China, the Bank of Communications, the 
Farmers Bank and the Postal Savings and Remittance 
Bank. These institutions, with many branches scattered 
over the country, hold almost 90% of all C.N.C. deposits. 
Then come the foreign banks and in Shanghai possibly 
150 Chinese banks — some of them are old established 
institutions enjoying good reputations, but the majority 
are just hanging on. 

I met many of the men running these Chinese gov- 
ernmental banks, or their foreign departments, and 
found that they are all youngish men and American col- 
lege graduates. These men understand the basic prob- 
lems thoroughly and wish to do all they can to restore 
China's foreign trade. However, they are up against a 
lot of very nationalistic minded politicians in Nanking 
and they have their troubles. 

Various government monopolies have taken over much 
of the private business, such as the sale of tung oil, tea 
and other export products. 

Living conditions in Shanghai, as far as the foreign 
colony is concerned, are greatly aflected by the shortage 
of dollars. And yet they say that you can buy anything 
if you know where to look for it and are willing to pay 
squeeze. At the Cathay Hotel where I stayed, there was 
no heat at any time — no dollars to buy fuel oil, and coal 
is very short. Hot water only in the early morning. But 
food seems plentiful and cocktail parties are plentiful. 
The people I met were accustomed to taking in two or 
three cocktail parties and a dinner party a night. Liquor 
and cigarettes are on the prohibited list, but there seemed 
to be plenty around. They all live very well with plenty 
of well-trained servants — but no heat in the houses al- 
though the government is expected to relax the rules 
during winter months. Officially, the Nanking govern- 
ment has decreed an "Austerity Program" with an 11 
p.m. curfew, no horse races, etc., etc., but this policy is 
only vaguely working. 

Before leaving for Shanghai, several reassuring friends 
warned me to stay out because of the anti-foreign feeling 
which you might run into on the streets. I had absolutely 
no trouble but you do walk circumspectly. You don't 
get into an argument with a coolie, there are just too 
many of them. In calling on bank and business houses 
along and near the Bund, there is no use using a car 
because the traffic is too dense and I never did get around 
to using a peddicab — a three wheeled bicycle with the 
driver up front. Last year there were very serious riots 
when the police tried to drive the hawkers and peddlers 
off the streets — but the peddlers and hawkers are still 
there. During my stay a theater manager tried to identify 
the tickets going to speculators and was severely beaten 
up for his trouble. So organized rackets are there to stay. 

China is really in a bad spot today and the foreign 
groups are very discouraged. On the other hand, China is 
a very old country and a crisis or two is just a ripple on 
the pond. 


(Coniitiued from page 66) 
Philippine Government had applied to Washington for 
a loan of $200,000,000 repayable in 20 years, but after 
careful study the loan has been approved for only S60,- 
000,000 repayable in five years. It is hoped that a new- 
tax bill will be passed early in '48 which will result in 
increased revenues sufficient to balance the budget and 
repay our loan. On the other hand, the Manila Railroad 
Company has a bond issue now maturing amounting to 
Pesos 30,000,000 which they are unable to redeem. "This 
government operated railway system has been losing 
large sums of money and the government now claims 
they have insufficient funds either to continue to carry 
these losses or to redeem the bonds which are largely in 
the hands of British bondholders. The railroad may be 
shut down. 

Sometime during '48 the new Philippine Central Bank 
is scheduled to open. As the name implies, this bank will 
be patterned after other central banks of the world and 
in particular after our Federal Reserve System. 

On the other hand, the trade picture with respect to 
the Philippines is definitely favorable. Admittedly they 
have been buying more goods from us than they have 
been exporting but there are several favorable factors, 
and the Philippines was the only country which I visited 
where there is not now a shortage of U. S. dollars. And 
their export picture is improving rapidly. Copra exports 
have been increasing and the Philippines have been 
helped by high prices ( S270.00 a ton a week ago ) . Sugar 
exports this coming season will probably exceed 225,000 
long tons and should increase sharply during the follow- 
ing years. I was told that canned pineapple production 
might reach 1,000,000 cases in '48 and double that figure 
the following year. Several gold mines are already in 
production and others will foUow. In addition, the 
Philippines will be exporting hemp, hardwood lumber, 
tobacco, rattan furniture and other products. There is 
considerable excitement in Manila over the possibility 
that oil will be found. 

The Philippines are therefore favorably situated to 
earn a substantial amount of dollars through the export 
of many basic commodities. 

The Philippine economy is basically agricultural but 
some few steps are being taken towards industrialization. 
Not many but a few of our big industries are establish- 
ing plants. 'Westinghouse is establishing the Philippine 
Electrical Manufacturing Company with a capital of 
Pesos 4,000,000. Of this sum Westinghouse is putting 
up Pesos 1,000,000, local capital Pesos 1,500,000, and , 
the balance is being raised through a bond issue. West- 
inghouse is also installing a hydroelectric power plant 
in Mindanao. 

E>uring my stay, I had lunch with Frank Waring, 
Chairman of the Philippine War Damage Commission. 
Up to the present time approximately 650,000 claims 
have been received, totalling Pesos 390,000,000. Of these 
claims 76 per cent are for less than Pesos 1,000 and these 
small claims total Pesos 102,000,000. The Commission 
believes that when the deadline on February 29, 1948, 
is reached that total claims filed will come to 900,000. 
The auditing and checking of these claims entails a great 
deal of work and at the present time approximately 
1 5,000 a month are approved for payment. These are all 
small claims so it can be seen that larger claimants will 
(Please turn to page 116) 

Page 110 


ocEflnic TRflDina/compflnv 









John J. Gazzano 



Former LSM 286 completely converted to passenger- 
cargo vessel. C.G. certified 1947 for 500 passengers. Com- 
plete accommodations, full equipment and large inventory 
of spares. Superstructure contains passenger salon, sun 
deck, tunch bar, purser's office, etc. Freight deck accom- 
modates trailer-trucks, autos, and general cargo. Stern 
ramp and cargo sideport permit ferry type or dock side 
operation. Main engines 2 GM 1800 HP. Hull and machin- 
ery all in excellent condition. Stand-by crew on board for 
maintenance. Ready for immediate use. Write Massa- 
setts Steamship Lines, Pier 9. New Bedford. MassachuseHs. 

For ever y purpose 

Specialists in Marine 
Canvas for a quar- 
ter century. 

Life Boat Covers, 
Canvas Dodgers, 
Deck Gear Covers. 

^^^'NG com^^y ;j 

Call C. "Flags" Bennett, Mission 7-3085 



Complete Welding Fadlifies 

220 East B Street, WILMINGTON. CALIFORNIA Phones: TErminal 4-5219. TErminol 4-5210 

ARCH • 1948 

Page III 

Crane's Wilmington Office 
Headed by Roshong 

In order to make their line of packings and seals more 
accessible to the harbor district, the Crane Packing Com- 
pany, Chicago, has opened a branch office at Wilmington, 
California, under the management of Ray G. Roshong, 
managing engineer. For a number of years they have had 
an office and store in uptown Los Angeles. 

Crane Packing Company manufactures "John Crane" 
metallic and fabric packings and mechanical seals, and is 
firmly established in this field throughout the country. 
Matching the popularity of the line is the popularity and 
engineering ability of its managing representatives, and 
right up top is Ray Roshong. 

Well known for his part in sponsoring the California 
State Professional Engineer Act recently approved by the 
California legislature, Roshong has been active in many 
movements to raise the standards of his profession. The 
California State Professional Engineer Act guarantees 
minimum qualifications for engineering practice within 
the state and places engineers under a state licensing sys- 
tem giving them full professional status. 

Roshong is a member of many professional engineer- 
ing societies, including the national organization of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American 
Society of Metals, the American Society of Naval Engi- 
neers, the American Military Engineers, and the Pro- 
peller Club of the United States. He served as president 
of the Southern California Section, A.S.M.E., for three 
years and is at present serving as chairman of their Re- 
gional Membership Development Committee. He also 
serves as liaison officer in the A.S.M.E. in their relations 
with southern California universities and colleges. 

Packing Company's general offices 

larine Sales Dcpf.; and Nancy Le* 

Mr. Roshong. 

e and manufacturing plant af V/ilmington. Cal., 
uthwest territory. 

Sun Shipbuilding Book 

To better acquaint the public 
with their company, the Sun Ship- 
building and Drydock Company re- 
cently published a book giving a 
pictorial presentation of all their 
operations. Between these pages 
may be gleaned a picture of the 

vastness of their shipbuilding, skip 
repair and engineering operations 
as well as their part in the building 
of oil refinery and chemical equip- 

The book begins with a brief 
resume of the company's history, 
starting thirty years ago, followed 
by descriptions and illustrations of 
their facilities and operations, with 
particular emphasis on some of the 

ships which they have built. The 
book contains descriptions and pic- 
torial illustrations of their passenger 
ships, cargo vessels and tankers, 
steam and Diesel, and their facilities 
for marine repairs with interesting 
pictures of unusual repair jobs. Also 
included are pictures of their var- 
ious departments and shops, and 
their engines, machinery and special 

Page 112 


"i^cu/^ ^<Mfi Sa^ettf ^cd(Ae^ 




Thomas i\. Short Company 

suffer 1-7622 


TERCO PRODUCTS CO. — Wesf Coasf Represenfaf/ves 
941 Howard Street, San Francisco 3, Calif. 

m^ ill 

I jDgUMs . low PfUMi 




Offices: San Francisco • Los Angeles • New York 


Speafy QUAKER 



Nonporous . . . withstands highest steam pressures. Will not 
melt, harden or carbonize . . . resists ammonia, atr, oils, 
gases and acids. EBONITE will retain its life and flexibility 
after ordinary sheet packings have broken down. Quaker is 
the sole manufacturer of EBONITE. 


168 Second St. ^^^^ 2036 Santa Fe Ave. 
San Francisco p^^|n Los Angeles 
EXbreek 3880 l^^^l Kimball 2201 

Factory: Quaker Rubber Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa. 




Prompt Service — Experienced per- 
sonnel, offers choice of right 
equipment for every need on all 
Deck, Engine & Steward Supplies. 

Distributors for 
Pabco Marine Paint 


Complete Ship Chandlery Service 
1705 N.W. 14th, PORTLAND 9, ORE. 



Resident Buyers 



N. Marine Ave. (P. O. Box 5 32) 
Wilmington. California 
Phones: NEvada 6-1921 
inal 4-4505; 4506; 5080; 6993 

Your PERSONAL Wes! Coast Buying Agent \ 


services cost you nothing u 
we produce- 


nodel I8-T-350 


Steomer Service to CaiaWna 


TUGBOAT OFFICE: Berth 82, San Pedro, California 
TELEPHONE NUMBERS: Terminal 2-4292; Terminal 2-4293; Long Beach 636-563 

WHISTLE CALL FOR TUGS: 1 long — 3 short 

GENERAL OFFICE: Catalina Terminal, P. O. Box 847, Wilmington, Calif. 

Phones: Terminal 4-5241; Nevada 615-45; Long Beach 7-3802 

Member — >tmer/can Waterways Operators 


terA at the ..J^uroor I 




"On Deck and Below" 

LESLIE CO I Preiiure Regulating Valves 
LtSLIt (-U. j "Tyfon" Whittles 


CO.— Air. Fire, Water and Steam 






KOMUL Anti-Corrosive Coating 

PAXTON MITCHELL Metallic Packing 
ENSIGN Products 

J. M. CosTELLO Supply Co. 


221 No. Avalon Blvd., Wilmington, Calif. Phone Terminal 47291 

Carrier Corporation 
Ships kwi Centrifugal 

The first centrifugal compressff 
for liandling propane on shipboartj 
complete with turbine and ahead 
mounted on a compact steel base fo. 
easy installation, has been shippeif 
by Carrier Corporation to Warre.' 
Petroleum Corporation at Beau, 
mont, Texas. 

The 1270 horsepower unit, occu 
pying less than 63 square feet o 
deck space, will be used aboard 
unique tanker that will transpor 
propane in liquid form from Texa 
fields to the New York City area, i 

The vessel is the Natalie Warren' 
owned by Warren Maritime Cot 
potation, a subsidiary of Warre: 
Petroleum, which is being fitted a 
the Pennsylvania Shipyards at Beau 
mont with 68 huge tanks capable o 
carrying 1,300,000 gallons per trif 
This can be converted into 400,000. 
000 cubic feet of gas. 

The Catrier centrifugal compres 
sor, known as an 18 T 350, will b 
used in unloading operations. Whei 
liquid propane is removed from th 
ships tanks the resultant drop ii 
pressure converts about 266,001: 
pounds of each load into gas. Thi' 
Carrier machine will evacuate thi 
gas and deliver it to a condenser fo 
a return to liquid state. Thus noni 
of the cargo remains in the ship' 
tanks after unloading. 

Page 114 


KOMUL is u u ell-proved 
^ "^i"ii,o"w°i <"<>:iling for marine service. 
/ • Application to dump sur- 

faces first recommended it 
for use in spaces subject 
I eondensalion of moisture, lis <'<inlinnous Mini and re- 
slanc- to flnniicals rcconinKii.led it for use on sleel 
ecks under niafinesile. Siinpll<il\ of application has made 
larine nn-n want it for liard-lo-«<l-at spares. 
'Tecluiieall>, KO.Ml L is an irreversil.le eniulsi.ui of coal- 
ir-pileli. rclaining all ihe prote<'li>e characteristics of 
Itch in an easil>-use.l form. 

An ilhistraled folder and a sample on a steel panel . . . 
ir the asking. The i>aiiel yon can twist or bend as you 
ill and yon can di{; at the coaling to prove KOMl'L's 
Jhesion ami l<iughness. 


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4432 Long Beach Ave., Los Angeles II (I Beale Street, San Frencisco 

ARCH • 1948 

Page 115 


S. L. (ROY) KUYKENDALL, General Manager and Partner 

12th and Grand Avenues 




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Terminal 3-1585 







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Gamlenite is the unique dry powder 
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(Continued from page 110) 

Page 116 

have to wait for a considerable period of time before 
they can hope for payment. Under the PhiHppine Re- 
habilitation Act, Congress authorized the appropriation 
of Pesos 800,000,000 for the payment of damage to 
private property resulting from the war, but the Com- 
mission must each year apply for an actual appropriation 
of monies. Application was made for Pesos 20,000,000 
to be paid in '47, Pesos 140,000,000 in '48, and they ate 
asking for Pesos 190,000,000 for ■49. 

(Note for our friends who might have claims exceed- 
ing Pesos 1,000 — The Act provides that after the pay- 
ment of Pesos 1,000, all claims must be written off by 
2 per cent of the amount approved for payment ) . 

There is one factor which I had not fully realized be- 
fore making this trip, and that is the predominant in- 
fluence of the Chinese in the business world of the 
Philippines. This is resented by the Filipinos. But the 
Chinese do control much of the wealth, the shops,- the 
copra and hemp industries and all together they are vet)' 
much to be reckoned with. 

And so the Philippines are moving along the road to- 
wards recovery, but there is a lot of work to be done 
and there is no use thinking that they can establish in 
the foreseeable future a standard of living comparable to 
our own. But a lot of people are hard at work and the! 
possibilities are great. 

"The value of a Merchant Marine to our countn' 
aside from its essential support to the Armed Services 
does not accrue from the income that is derived from 
operation so much as it does in foreign trade develop- 
ment and the protection of our foreign trade from absorp- 
tion by other nations. It has been repeatedly demon- 
strated in the history of the United States that we car 
build and operate ships to prosper in world trade; thai 
we do so in the future as well as now is essential to oui 
welfare and the peace of the world." — Vice Admirjl Earli 
II". Mills. 


APRIL 1948 

i . .tau in our "rou 





hether a vessel makes her landfall 
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San Francisco 

I 5th Streef, Zone 13 
me— Michigan 3129 

ne— GArfield 1-4760 


APRIL, 1948 

. . . 35 

n'lption rotes: 

ye, $2.00; two years. 

tee yeart, $5.00; for- 
(I ) additional per year; 

c ies, 25c. 

By H. Gamlen 

San Francisco Harbor — By the Grace of God Editorial 

By T. Douijlas M.icMulIcii 

The General Simon B. Buckner 

Our Future American Merchant Marine By Vice Admiral William W. Smith 

Serving the Merchant Marine By George Barr 

Interior Designs for the S.S. Uruguay 

Early San Francisco Shipping (Continued) By Alexander J. Dickie 

It's Time the Reber Plan Agitation was Dropped (An Editorial) 

New Ship Structure Materials (Continued) By David Maclntyrc 

Modern Oil Tanker Design (Continued) By Frank L Pavlik 

With the Port Engineers 

Port Engineers of the Month: Roy Campbell, Ray Sample 
Membership Roster, Society of Port Engineers, Lais Angeles 
How to Get the Most out of your Fuel Oil Dollars 

Coast Commercial Craft 

Flying For Fish 

Edna G. Gets New Heart 

New Moran Tug Puts to Sea 

Pacific World Trade 

Latin America Prospect List 

Globe Service to Indies 

LIndersea Treasure Hunt 

Bulk Copra Handling at Oakland and Long Beach 

Junior World Trade Association Meeting 

Marine Insurance 

The London Letter 

Admiralty Decisions By Harold S. Dobbs 

Withholdint; Seamen's Wages 

On the Ways 

Tanker To Tanker To Carrier 

Steady As You Go! "The Skipper" .... 

The Use of the Rude Star Finder 
Your Problems Answered By "The Chief" 

Gear Ratio for PropuLsion 

Running Lights 

News Flashes 











\^l^/ the finest yacht on the seas— 

At ^^^ 

4 « » II 


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The SOTAVENTO on builders trials— under U.S. Flag 

? His Excellency's Ship, SOTAVENTO, designee! and built for President 
Miguel Aleman of Mexico by Higgins, Inc., Is todays ultlmote in the building 
end fitting of luxury yachts. Higgins chose the best of everything for this croft 
... so Columbian Tape Marked Pure Monilo Rope was used throughout. 

The clean smooth lines give this yacht distinction of appearance to match 
its superlative construction and fitting. Drawing 10 ft. 6 inches, the vessel hos 
168 ft. overall length, with beam of 28 ft. Twin Diesels give 1800 HP on the 
shaft, providing 17-knot speed. Cruising ronge is 4000 miles. The ship Is 
highly electrified, and air conditioned throughout — Including crew's quarters. 
Master's end guests' accommodations contain seven double stot.ooms ond 
six baths. 

That the Higgins Yards put Columbian Rope aboard was only noturol . . . 
it Is standard practice on all Higgins vessels to equip with Columbion — The 
Rope of the Nation. 

400-90 Genesee St., AUBURN, "The Cordage City", N.Y. 

Page 34 


• • • 


SOME LOVE OUR HARBORS for their natural beauty, or as gateways to 
victory, but to ship operators and traders they are the means of producing most 
of their cities' dollars. This may be through a Liirlinc's $250,000 for each 
turnaround or a fisherman's harvest, or a yachtsman's play. Many a harbor is 
its city's reason for being, and a major asset of the nation. Four thousand miles 
of wire is just one item way down on the list of materials that go into the 
building of a ship like the Oiieeii Wiiry, and every one of us has a stake in 
every ship and every cargo. 

But too many people in port cities lose their "port consciousness," and think 
of the harbor as an obstacle. Such, apparently, is the thought back of such 
schemes as the so-called Reber plan for slicing up San Francisco Bay into a 
series of lakes, with all the playroom accouterments of dikes and locks. What 
matter the opinion of Army engineers, or the accessibility of Navy installations 
when a Great Plan can be preached before civic groups! What matter the 
agricultural empire of the delta region, or the shipyards and other industries 
built on the water's edge! 

Take the Navy, for instance. The San Francisco Bay Area has one of the 
world's greatest concentrations of Naval facilities. These include the Supply 
Center at Oakland, the Naval Magazine at Port Chicago, the Naval Station at 
Treasure Island, the Naval Air Stations at Oakland, Alameda and Moi?ett Field, 
the Net Depot at Tiburon, the Naval Shipyards at Mare Island and Hunters 
Point, plus all the facilities of the Marine Corps and Coast Guard and the 
Naval Hospital. These are the kind of establishments which proponents of the 
Reber plan would shut off along with Bethlehem shipyard in San Francisco 
and the miles of piers on the Oakland waterfront. More on the Reber plan 
elsewhere in this issue. 

There are other delusions which attract those who "see double but think 
half " which are important to the maritime industry. One of these is that the 
steamship people can pay a large part of the bill for national defense by 
staking the government to a reserve of ships; and by paying for Panama Canal 
defenses. Another delusion is the proposed St. Lawrence Waterway. 

To change a harbor so as to increase its shipping is good. But San Francisco 
Harbor — by the Grace of God — needs no Reber plan. 

APRIL»I948 Page 35 

'Tfc (!4eHe%^ Scma«t S ^uc&^e/i 

First of The Army's Fully Converted P-2 Transports 

fjl battle Dii Okinawa but a short time ago, but the Army- 
lias already singularly honored him by giving his name to 
one of their finest transports. At the rechristening cere- 
mony recently held in New York, his widow and their 
son, W. C. Buckner, a cadet at West Point, participated. 
This 19,000 ton vessel has just undergone an extensive 
conversion at the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry- 
dock Company's yard in Virginia and is the first of five 
Army-owned vessels to be completely converted by this 
firm. The other four are imdergoing conversion at the 
present time. 

The General Snnon B. B/ickner was built at Alameda 
in 1945 at the Bethlehem Steel Company. The vessel is 
of the U. S. Maritime Commission design No. P2-SE2-R1, 
is 608 feet in length and is propelled by General Electric 
turbo-electric propulsion machinery. Her two engine 
rooms are two separate plants complete with two Com- 
bustion Engineering boilers each, and housing the elec- 
tric generating equipment. The propulsion motors are 
located in the motor rooms aft of the after engine room, 
and each motor may be driven by either or both of the 
two generating plants aboard the ship. Each motor is 
capable of delivering approximately 10,250 shaft horse- 
power and operates on 440 volts of three phase alternat- 
ing current. 


Length over all 608'11" 

Breadth, moulded 75' 6" 

Depth, moulded 52' 6" 

Gross tonnage 19,766 

Type of drive Turbo-Elect. 

Total horsepower 20,500 

Number of screws 2 

Upon completion of the vessel for the Maritime Com- 
mission, the Navy Department was assigned as her 
operator and continued in this capacity for the first few 
months of her career. At this time many features of an 
attack transport were included aboard the .ship, then the 
Admiral E. IF. Eherlc. Her 'tween deck spaces were 
utilized to carry the maximum number of troops and 
she "packed 'em in " just after the war finished, carrying 
home the divisions from the Pacific Area. 

In June, 1948 the ship was turned over by the Navy 
to the Army to become a part of the peacetime transport 

rieet. and she was converted in a mmor way to accoin- 
modate her civilian crew which was placed aboard by 
the Army. Many of the wartime features were removed 
to enable her to meet the Army's requirements for a 
trans-Pacific transport. After a year of this service she 
entered the Newport News Yard to undergo the present 

The standards and policies of the Army Transporta- 
tion Corps, Water Transport Division, for permanent 
Army transports are not only of interest to shipbuilders 
and ship operators but are also of great concern to the 
American public. Although the Army is entitled to the 
privilege of designating its ships as "public vessels " and 
may operate them as such and without any supervision 
from other governmental agencies or private regulatory 
bodies which concern themselves with shipping, such is 
not the policy. Private operators must comply with the 
rules of the United States Coast Guard and the American 
Bureau of Shipping, and it is the policy of the Army to 
protect its passengers in exactly the same manner as 
private operators, and further, where deemed advisable. 

The principal reason for this conversion of the General 
Simon B. Buckner, as with other Army vessels, is to 
modify the ships to meet with Coast Guard regulations 
and to entitle them to full passenger certificates issued by 
that agency. In complying with the Coast Guard rules, 
the Army has also met all the requirements of the Amer- 
ican Bureau of Shipping so as to permit the vessel to 

Wheel house of the General Simon 8. Buckner. 

APRIL • 194 



retiiin her hull .uid inatliincry classificiition. 

In order to meet with Coast Guard regulations, it has 
been necessary to insure fireproof construction through- 

Top: Main dining salon of the General Simon B 
Center: Cabin class lounge. 
Bottom: One of the six-berth cabins. 

out, proper tire zoning, and provision for all necessary 
fire detection and fighting equipment of the latest ap- 
proved type. All life saving equipment has been replaced 
where necessary, and has otherwise been augmented by 
new, modern equipment, and additional davits and life- 
boats have been installed to increase the boatage capacity 
to 2,050 persons. The new davits are of the Welin 
gravity type for all boats, whether nested or single with 
the exception of the quick operating crescent type davits 
for the two aluminum motor lifeboats. All hand-propelled 
and motor lifeboats were manufactured by the Welin 
Boat and Davit Co., and are as fine equipment as may 
be found in this line on any passenger vessel today. 

Considerable re-arrangement and re-assignment of 
space has been undertaken, and the outcome of this plan- 
ning has been to increase the cabin passenger carrying 
capacity of the vessel to 471 persons, or nearly twice her 
former quota. This re-assignment of space has involved 
the use of former troop carrying compartments for cabin 
passengers and crew, and the troop capacity has been 
effectively reduced. Such a result was necessary, however, 
because it was not possible to carry a sufficient number 
of boats on board to accommodate the wartime allotment 
of troops. 

The drab wartime transport of 1941-1945 just got you 
there and back again and that was all. There was little 
consideration for the comfort of the passenger — and his 
safety was insured as much as it was possible to do under 
the conditions, but the conditions were anything but 
favorable. The General Simon B. Buckner has been pur- 
posely fitted to insure comfort and utmost safety for the 
passengers under all conditions. Peacetime passengers are 
of a different class than those who sail on transports in 
time of war. They include military dependents, civilian 
workers, etc., and a large percentage of these persons are 
women and children. Additional precautions have been 
taken for their safety, and furnishings and structure have 
been carefully designed to be pleasing to the eye, func- 
tional, and safe at all times. An extended effort has been 
made to place rounded edges on all furnishings, on all 
corners and all protrusions, so that in case a passenger 
unused to the movement of the ship should be thrown 
off balance, he or she might experience little or no 
injury from structural hazards. These furnishings were 
carefully designed by the Army's Marine Design Section 
in New York with the cooperation of Turk Products. 
These furnishings, wall colors, and soft draperies have 
been carefully blended together in a simplicity of design 
pleasing to tlie eye and rendering the cabins and public 
rooms delightful as well as serviceable. 

Besides the staterooms on passenger decks there are 
several public spaces featured. On the Sun Deck a chil- 
dren's play pen inclosed by a five-foot fence has been 
installed. On the Boat Deck there is a children's play 
room, and a small gymnasium located amidships. On the 
Promenade Deck are the Main Dining Salon and the 
Main Lounge. The Lounge is built in two sections, each 
18 by 60 feet, connected by a Writing Room. Aft of the 
Mam Lounge is the Main Dining Salon which can seat 
194 persons. Aft of the Dining Salon is a separate deck 
house containing a Smoking Room and the Ship's Li- 
brary. On "A" Deck there is a small auditorium for use 
I PI case tun, t<, page 101 1 

Page 38 


Our Future American Merchant Marine 

By Vice-Adiniial WILLIAM W. SMITH. U. 5. N.. (Ret.; 
Chairman, United States Maritime Cummission 

Llnited States, through decLiration by Congress, that 
dus auintry shall have a Merchant Marine adequate for 
Its deep sea commerce in time of peace and for its 
defense in time of war. The LInited States Maritime 
Commission is charged with the responsibility for put- 
ting such a program into execution. 

The policy is sound. It is based upon two important 
considerations: ( 1 ) that the United States has always 
been, and still is, a maritime nation whose economic 
welfare depends to a considerable degree upon the im- 
porting and exporting of goods and services, and ( 2 ) 
that merchant shipping is a distinctive and essential part 
of the military establishment in time of war. The policy 
recognizes that if the United States is to be able to 
mobilize merchant shipping in time of war, it must 
maintain merchant shipping in time of peace. 

This policy was laid down at a time, 12 years ago, 
when it was recognized that the American Merchant 
Marine had declined to the point where it was adequate 
for neither trade nor defense. As soon as Congress had 
acted, the Maritime Commission set about the task of 
rehabilitating our Merchant Marine to bring it up to 
the standards of the policy set forth in the Merchant 
Marine Act of 19,^6. 

Those standards are not precise. The Act does ntit 
state how many vessels shall comprise the American 
Merchant Marine, nor what their total tonnage shall be. 
It does not list the various types of vessels that shall 
constitute the merchant fleet, nor does it state what 
proportion of American flag shipping shall be devoted 
to serving our domestic needs or our foreign tr.tde needs. 
The Act established the Maritime Commission as the 
agency to work out such details under the rules and pro- 
cedures that the legislation provides. The Commission 
has given a great deal of study to our shipping require- 
ments, particularly our postwar requirements, and has 
produced a plan which, if fimds are provided with which 
to put it into operation, will provide this country with a 
Merchant Marine of the size and character which we 
believe will fully meet the requirements of our 
maritime policy. 

To determine the proper size and character of the 
Merchant Marine of a large country like the United 
States, with its varied interests and highly diversified 
commerce, is a difficult and complex job. It can never 
be done to a precise degree. The best that anyone can do 

mith at [he request of Pacific Marine Review 

Admiral Smith 

is to give careful and detailed study to all the factors 
bearing upon the volume of cargo to be carried and the 
amount of competition to be expected, and come up 
with the best possible estimate. This is exactly what the 
Commission has done over a period of many months, 
and we believe that our estimates are as firm as it is 
possible to make them. 

When requested to contribute this article I was asked 
to forecast the development of our future Merchant 
Marine "as I would like to see it." My ideas, of course, 
are one with those of the Commission as a whole. In 
general, I would like to see an American Merchant 
Marine adequate to carry our domestic deep sea com- 
merce and a substantial and reasonable portion — say 50 
per cent — of our foreign water-borne commerce. I 
would like to see this Merchant Marine adequate also 
for our national defense. 

What Is Adequate? 

When I say "adequate," I mean adequate not only as 
to the number of vessels, but also as to the types and 
condition of vessels that make up the fleet. They should 
be of the types that will meet the particular needs of 
diflferent trade routes, both foreign and domestic. This 
holds for dry cargo vessels, tankers, combination pas- 
senger-cargo vessels, and passenger ships. If we provide 
ourselves with such a well balanced fleet for our com- 
mercial needs, it will also serve us best in time of war. 

Since, as I have stated, the United States must assure 
itself of adequate shipping tonnage in time of war by 

APRIL • 194 

Page 39 

FUTURE mmm M^Rii 

maintaining an adequate Merchant Marine in time of 
peace, we must base our calculations largely upon com- 
mercial considerations. Merchant tonnage is different 
from naval tonnage. You build naval vessels for war 
only. You design them to the best of your ability to meet 
the needs of war operation as well as those needs can 
be foreseen. You build merchant vessels, however, pri- 
marily to meet the needs of peacetime operation in com- 
petition with the merchant fleets of other nations, in- 
corporating into their design certain features considered 
necessary to make them most useful in time of war. 

Therefore, apart from national defense features to be 
incorporated in vessel design, the Maritime Commission 
has been guided by the needs of commercial operators 
in making its recommendations as to the size and char- 
acter of the future American Merchant Marine. You 
cannot overtonnage the steamship business. If it is to 
operate as a business, it can stand only the amount of 
tonnage with which it can operate efficiently and at a 
profit. Whatever extra tonnage may be required by the 
needs of war must be provided outside the peacetime 
operating Merchant Marine. That must be accomplished 
in two ways: ( 1 ) by maintaining a reserve fleet of ships 
which, in the opinion of our military experts, is sufficient 
in size and composition effectively to augment the oper- 
ating fleet in time of war; and ( 2 ) by maintaining, under 
normal peacetime conditions in the maritime industry, 
a shipbuilding plant which can be rapidly expanded to 
assume the extra burden of wartime shipbuilding. 

The reserve fleet is an accomplished fact. It was es- 
tablished under authority of the Merchant Ship Sales 
Act of 1946, and upon the expiration of that legislation 
it will be "frozen" at a certain number of vessels of cer- 
tain types as recommended by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 
Maintenance of adequate shipbuilding schedules to keep 
our shipyards in business on a scale adequate to permit 
their expansion to handle a wartime construction load is 
quite another question. It is a question which can be 
answered only by our decision on the whole future of 
the Merchant Marine. 

New Construction 

Ship construction now to provide vessels needed at 
once by the Merchant Marine, and a steady schedule of 
construction in the future to provide replacements and 
keep our fleet modern, are definitely a part of the Mari- 
time Commission's plans. It is a weU known fact that 
our shipbuilding industry is now facing virtual extinc- 
tion, while foreign countries have expanded their ship- 
building facilities enormously since the end of the war. 
This is a serious defect in our national defense program, 
because if our shipyards are allowed to become idle we 
will lose not only the yards but the craftsmen on whom 
we must depend as the nucleus from which to expand in 
time of emergency. If those people are forced to abandon 
their trades and take up other work we cannot expect 
to find them on call the instant we need them. 

Between 19.'^8 and 1947'the number of vessels in our 
Merchant Marine increased about 200 per cent and 
their total tonnage increased about 270 p^r cent. Of the 
4,202 vessels aggregating 44,203,400 tons deadweight 

comprising the fleet as of June 30 last, only 1,139 were 
of the long-range type built just prior to or during the 
war. They represented 27 per cent of the number of 
vessels and 32 per cent of the deadweight tonnage of the 
fleet. Of the total of 4,202 vessels, 2,581 were of emer- 
gency war-built types and 482 were of pre-war types 
and mostly obsolete. 

Despite the tremendous increase in the fleet due to 
wartime construction, less than a third of it, comprising 
the long range types, could be considered in drawing up 
long-range plans for the Merchant Marine. Only a 
relatively small number of emergency type vessels have 
been purchased by American operators, and the pre-war 
vessels, most of which are over 20 years old. will not 
be of service much longer. 

The Merchant Fleet 

The Maritime Commission recommends that the post- 
war American Merchant Marine consist of 1,044 ves- 
sels totaling 11,393,000 deadweight tons. This is con- 
trasted with a fleet of 1,422 vessels aggregating about 
11,800,000 deadweight tons, operated as of June 30, 
1938. It is recommended that 144 new vessels are re- 
quired, while the remainder of 900 could be made up of 
existing vessels built by the Maritime Commission and 

Of the total of 1,044 vessels, it is believed that 491, 
aggregating 5,132,000 deadweight tons, should be in 
foreign trade in order adequately to serve the 31 trade 
routes laid out by the Maritime Commission. This would 
place the remaining 53 vessels, totaling 6,261.000 dead- 
weight tons, in the domestic trades, including coastwise, 
intercoastal and non-contiguous. 

In making its plans the Commission has given special 
attention to the need of passenger ships. In 1939 there 
were 127 passenger-carrying vessels, with passenger ca- 
pacity of 38,357, operating in our foreign and domestic 
trades. Now there are only 34 such vessels, with pas- 
senger capacity of about 7,000, under the American 
flag. None of them is in the domestic trades, and the 
only first-class passenger liner we have in the North 
Atlantic is the SS America. Our passenger-carrying ship 
requirements are estimated at 96 vessels, of which 58 
must be obtained through new construction. The new 
ships would replace those now obsolete or which will 
become obsolete within the next five years. 

The Merchant Marine Act of 1936 was passed, and 
the Maritime Commission set up to administer . it, for 
the purpose of effecting a complete rehabilitation of the 
American Merchant Marine. The Commission set about 
the task of accomplishing that objective by building 50 
ships a year for a period of ten years, to add 500 new 
vessels to a fleet that was fast becoming obsolete. When 
the war came that program was lost in the mad scramble 
of emergency ship construction which produced more 
than 5,000 vessels in five years. 

Today, we are faced not only with the old problem of 
providing ourselves with an adequate, modern fleet, but 
also with the new problem of what to do about the vessels 
we have on our hands as the result of the war construc- 
tion effort. These vessels have created a mental hazard 
(Please turn to page 103) 

Page 40 


Serving The ^erciuint llarine 

George Bar 

Born in Paisley, Scotland, George Barr came to this 
country as a young boy and started working as a ma- 
chinist for General Electric in Schenectady in 1907. 
He has been with the company for 28 years in the San 
Francisco engineering division as turbine supervisor 
and marine superintendent. During the past two years 
he has been consultant for the Federal & Marine sec- 
tion with San Francisco headquarters. 

A year ago Barr received General Electric's highest 
recognition, the Charles A. Coffin Award. Recently 
the U. S. Navy awarded him their "Certificate of 
Commendation" for services while acting as service 
and installation engineer in the West Coast offices of 
General Electric. 

J. STATES derives its strength from all its components 
— the operators of the Merchant fleets and from the 
industries backing them up. The highly competive na- 
ture of the merchant shipping business, not only be- 
tween nations but within the ranks of the fleet operators, 
calls forth the highest degree of operating efficiency in 
order to maintain the standards under which the Amer- 
ican Merchant Marine is operating today. 

One of the prerequisites for a profitable merchant 
ship is that it "keeps sailing" with time out for main- 
tenance and repairs in excess of normal port time kept 
to a minimum. The experienced operator knows that 
this can best be accomplished by an organized prevent- 
ive maintenance schedule by which lay-up and repairs 
can be avoided before breakdowns occur. 

General Electric Company has been a supplier to the 
Marine Industry for many years and, like all other pa- 
triotic groups, has a feeling of pride and responsibility 
toward our Merchant Marine. Over the years the com- 
pany has built up a marine service organization which 
today is nationwide in scope and provides a complete 
plan for maintaining General Electric shipboard ap- 

Warehouse Stock of Marine Renewal Parts 

It is well known that, during the first and second 
world wars, production of ships in the United States 

liiMiiMiil rinctric rnmpnnv 

was made possible by standardizing design but it is not 
commonly known that a frozen design of machinery has 
made it possible to repair ships faster than ever before. 

Before the first world war practically all ships and all 
machinery for them was custom-built and practically all 
of different design; therefore, each ship was obliged to 
carry a heavy load of spare parts or be laid up while 
new parts were being manufactured. 

Since the innovation of standard types, it is possible 
to procure renewal parts from vendors' warehouses. To 
maintain mechanical and electrical parts for a vast num- 
ber of ships is a difficult task but it is being done and 
it is just as easy to procure parts in the West as it is on 
the Atlantic seaboard. As a sample of this service we 
would cite a recent case of a seriously damaged vessel. 
The engine room was flooded to sea level and all Gen- 
eral Electric machinery was submerged. Turbines and 
generators were rusted beyond recognition and all elec- 
trical equipment, under water for months, was practically 
ruined. But this machinery was reconditioned with ma- 
terial from the local warehouse in San Francisco and not 
a single part had to be shipped, from the East. A new 
main turbine rotor was installed and all internal parts 
of the turbine were replaced but the interesting thing is 

George Barr and C. A. Enlow, turbirie leaderman 
Electric's Service Shop, San Francisco. 

APRIL • 194 

Page 41 

SERVING THE mmm ^^Kli 

that the multi-stage rotor and its diaphragms, packings, 
bearings, etc., fitted the original turbine casing as they 
would have fitted in hundreds of other turbines of the 
same class. The small turbines were beyond repair and 
had to be replaced with new units taken "ofif the shelf." 
The point is that they were on hand and if they, or the 
major parts that went into this repair job, had not been 
available the ship would hiive been set aside for an in- 
definite period. 

Another sample of the value in being able to procure 
Standard parts on a moment's notice is the recent pro- 
gram of recommissioning a large group of laid-up tank- 
ers and cargo ships on both the East and West coast. 
Some of them had been laid up on account of heavy 
damage; yet none were delayed through inability to pro- 
cure renewal parts. 

Unit Exchange Plan 

These plans cover immediate exchange of AC auxiliary 
motors, air coolers, turbine rotors, both main and auxil- 
iary for modern ships, and in certain small types, com- 
plete turbines ready to install. The system has been in- 
augurated to eliminate the loss of time while waiting for 
repairs or the cost of purchasing new equipment to avoid 
the loss of time. Worn or damaged units are accepted 
in exchange for reconditioned units, which carry a 90 
day guarantee, and credit allowances are made for the 
returned units. 

This exchange plan is being shown at its best in the 
aforementioned revival of the laid-up tankers but active 
ships are also being served with a minimum of delay. 
Service Shop 

Service shops are maintained for the shoreside re- 
pair of mechanical and electrical apparatus and for the 
repair of electric meters, instruments, relays and elec- 
tronic equipment. Skilled service men are made avail- 
able to check and recalibrate instruments, meters, and to 
adjust relays, etc. on shipboard. To enumerate the func- 
tions of the electrical department of the Service Shop 
would consume all of the space which has been allotted 
to this paper; suffice it to say that the Service Shop must 
be fully equipped to make electrical repairs of any na- 

Setting up, in the 60-inch Niles lathe, to h 
commutators for generator and 

and grind the 

ture and in any capacity. The machine shop must be 
tooled to handle all mechanical repairs including weld- 
ing, metal spraying and other specialized processes; 
however, a separate section must be devoted to turbine 
repairs in all sizes up to 12500 HP. 

One of the most important operations in the Service 
Shop is the dynamic balancing of all types of rotors in 
all speeds up to 10,100 R.P.M. and in all weights from 
24 lbs. to 25,000 lbs. This is being done with every as- 
surance that the rotors will run in perfect balance, and 
the secret of this success is in the preparation of rotors 
for the balancing operation. In other words, the cause 
of unbalance must be determined and corrected before 
attempting to rebalance a rotor. This phase may consume 
two thirds of the overall time. It is, by far, the most 
difficult part of the operation but it enables the ship 
repair people to reinstall a rotor that they can rely upon 
and it is the new approach to an old problem that has 
always been a doubtful operation. 

Marine Service Engineers 

Apart from supplying the necessary materials, the 
I Please turn to page 91 1 

General Electric Marine Service 

Standing, left to right: E. A. (Ed) 
Reber; H. J. (Bob) Brown; A. S. 
(Andy) Jacques; J. (Jack) Donahoo: 
E. J. (Ernie) Cambou; C. R. (Ray) 
Elfers; W. R. (Bill) Hall; J. K. (John- 
ny) Leithold; J. R. (Joe) Breuer, and 
R. E. (Ralph) Seeman. 

Seated, left to right: J. (Jack) Parker. 
L. C. (Lynn) Taylor. C. L. (Whitey) 
Knight, D. L. (Don) Watts, J. P. B. 
(Johnny) Clark, J. M. (Jimmy) An- 
derson, and J. R. (Russ) Schneider. 

Page 42 


Interior Designs for the S. S. Uruguay 

Formerly with the Department of Interior Design, U. S. 
Marifime Commission, William F. Schorn, architect, Marine 
Interior Designer, did the interior designs for the Uruguay. 

THE S. S. URUGUAY, a 20,000 ton vessel was con- 
structed in 1928. Originally named the Ciilifoniiii. 
she saw service under the flag of the Panama- Pacific 
Line. In 1936, she became the Ur/tguay as one of the 
three "Good Neighbor' ships operated between New 
York and the East Coast of South America, by Moor- 
McCormack Lines. Her length overall is 601' 1 V4". 
breadth molded 80' 0" and depth molded to Shelter 
Deck is 52' 0". 

During the war the Uruguay became a troop trans- 
port and distinguished herself in every theater of the 
war. Her missions completed, the United States Maritime 
Commission decided to restore her as a passenger ves- 
sel for operation by Moore-McCormack in her old route. 
The commission awarded contracts, therefore, to Joslyn 
and Ryan to prepare hull and engine specifications; to 
William Francis Schorn to prepare joiner, furniture, 
furnishings, deck covering, lighting and painting spec- 
ifications. Schorn was also retained to design and super- 
vise the interior construction. Federal Shipbuilding and 
Dry Dock Company was the successful bidder and was 
commissioned to reconvert the vessel. 

While her hull and machinery needed considerable 
repair and replacement, the major task of reconversion 
was in the interior accommodations, which naturally had 
suffered much from war use. It was, of course, not pos- 
sible to restore her to her previous pre-war condition, 
because of laws and regulations which did not exist 
when she was originally built. Senate Report No. 184, 
the Safety at Sea requirements of the United States 
Coast Guard, the sanitation and rat proofing require- 
ments of the LInited States Public Health Service, all 

required that in reconversion, the vessel be made differ- 
ent, better and safer tiian she had originally been. A 
considerable amount of structural steel was found by the 
American Bureau and the U. S. Coast Guard to be de- 
fective. This meant that in replacement, much of the in- 
terior joiner work, deck covering, lighting, etc., had 
also to be removed. In view of these circumstances, the 
interior accommodations are quite different from the 
original vessel and are, for the most part, new and 
modern in design concept and execution. The interior 
designs had to be developed in terms of incombustible 
construction, new fire control compartmenration and the 
new requirements for rat proofing. 

Between the time she left the merchant trade for war 
service and her return to Moore- McCormack now, there 
have been many changes in union agreements. For one 
thing, a larger crew will operate the vessel than pre- 
viously. Also crew quarters must be larger and better. 
This increase in the amount of crew space could only 
be achieved by encroaching on passenger spaces. 

The problem, therefore, was to provide adequate 
view and officers quarters and to provide for as many 
passengers as the vessel formerly carried, but in less 
space and within the limitations of all the new govern- 
mental requirements. 

The liberal use of indirect lighting and continuous 
trough lighting, both extravagant of power, was rigidly 
curtailed. In their place, pleasant and efficient light dif- 
fusion was obtained by means of flush ceiling units 
which contain a filter of sheet glass, fibrous glass and 
phenolic resin. This filter diffuses the light, shields the 

model of the vessel moves on a track and is 
noon every day at the proper place on the 


APRIL • I 94i 

Page 43 

light source and absorbs very little of the light rays. 

Existing radiators were retained, but by design made 
a concealed or integral element of the designs. Existing 
ventilation grille locations and controls were also kept 
and made as inconspicuous as possible and in many 
cases due to the design of the ceilings in the public 
spaces, were developed of marine fireproof materials 
to hold down noise levels. In the Uruguay, the interior 
architect planned for the public address and music 
broadcast systems, to employ numerous and small loud- 
speakers, generally concealed behind ceilings, in place 
of the more usual installation of a few, large speakers. 
This method is ideal for keeping an even balanced 
sound level. For example, in the Uruguay dining rooms, 
one hears music clearly in any part of a room and always 
of the same soft volume. 

Special paints were developed for the vessel which 
are salt spray proof, mildew and bacteria proof and have 
a tough wearing surface. The designer also developed 
a special textured paint employing fine asbestos powders 
for fillers. This material was created to achieve several 
purposes; first, to cut down sound "bounce" from the 

hard steel o, bestos walls, and second, to provide a 
flexible wash finish which would be solt in appear- 
ance to serve .-elief and as a foil to all the hard smooth 
metallic surfaces which are inevitable in marine in- 
teriors. Most of the ceilings and many of the bulkheads 
are coated with this material in various stippled and 
striated textures. All paints were formulated for color 
in the designer's office, manufactured and sent to the 
vessel ready for application without the necessity for 
mixing tints in the shipyard. This method proved in- 
valuable to the shipbuilder in touching up, repainting 
due to damage, etc. 

The design of staterooms and their furniture on a 
vessel the size of the Uruguay is a serious factor. In 
spite of the varying sizes and shapes of staterooms, the 
furniture must be standardized to a few simple basic 
units in order to achieve economical factory runs, to 
keep excessive costs down. These units were developed 
to practical module sizes to suit all conditions. All such 
chests and cabinets on the Uruguay are built-in as an 
integral part of the staterooms and are rat proof, vermin 
proof, with plastic tops which are acid and blister 

FIrsf class dining room of Uruguay. 

Page 44 


First class lounge of Uruguay. 

proof. All units are equipped with long-wearing ano- 
dized aluminum sea rails. 'Hardware and sea rails are 
designed so as to make it impossible to employ them 
as bottle openers ( a favorite passenger pastime ) . 

The central feature of the staterooms is the chiflfochest, 
to provide a triple purpose space saving item which 
serves as a writing desk, dressing table and storage chest. 

The beds are dual-purpose units in that they provide 
a sleeping surface at night and a three person sofa during 
the day. Hence all staterooms are sitting rooms by day 
and bedrooms at night. 

Special study was given the chairs in staterooms and 
public spaces, insofar as the center of gravity of the 
units is concerned. They are designed so as not to tip 
even when the vessel is rolling or listing considerably. 

All furniture and furnishings in the passenger spaces 
on the Uruguay were specially designed and created 
for the vessel and were manufactured of materials and 
by methods developed over a period of years and found 
to be practical and durable in a marine way. Advanced 
modern furniture models now finding popularity on 
land were shunned due to the fact that they were 
either considered too weak in engineering for marine 
use, or not sufficiently stable for marine movement. 

The Fiesta Room 

This room functions as a lounge and card room dur- 
ing the day and a night club at night. There is at the 
aft end an orchestra platform and in the center of the 
room, a dance floor, covered during the day by a dusty- 
green sculptured carpet. 

The outstanding architectural feature of this room is 
the treatment of the dome and .the structurally necessary 
stanchions. The tapered stanchions were evolved in order 
to lighten their bulk at the deck and still enclose brack- 
ets at the ceiling. The effect gained by this taper is one 
of height. The dome was architecturally treated with 
mirrors in order to give more depth to the sides and 
to add to the illusion of height. Flanking the stanchions 
are grilles, which serve as ventilation terminals and add 
interest. This dome is flooded with lights and serves to 
illuminate the dance area. 

from the pale yellow of the ceiling to the deep slate 
blue of the banquettes, a well balanced fully ranged color 
scheme has been sought, striving to attain an easy air 
of gayety. 

The windows are handled as a continuous band with 
Venetian blinds in off-white, accented by embroidered 
horizontal striped curtains. The curtains are reminiscent 

APRIL • 1941 

Page 45 

Top: Lounge lobby of the Uruguay, off first ' 
room and promenade deck. 

Center: Cabin class smoking roon 

Bottom: Typical passenger stateroo 

of the Mexican serape, with a rose background, hor- 
izontally striped with yellow, black, green, red and grey. 
At the center of the window wall is a built-in banquette 
of a slate blue nubby textured fabric, embroidered on 
the seat and back with a ribbon-like stripe of rose, grey 
and white. Flanking this banquette are ferneries running 
the entire length of the room. The greenery adds to the 
tropical feeling of this room. 

Lounge Lobby 

The lounge lobby, which serves as an ante-room to 
the Fiesta Room is connected with it by four-fold fully 
glazed doors. It is treated in ccjntrast to the lounge with 
a few "recall" colors from the Fiesta Room. This room 
is long and narrow and in order to improve its propor- 
tions, the inboard bulkhead is fully mirrored. Apparently 
coming out from the mirrors is a semi-circular arrange- 
ment and a semi-circular coffee table, both of which 
are flanked by "half" lamps. The effect is that of a large 
circular arrangement of furniture. In extreme contrast 
to the Fiesta Room, the lounge lobby bulkheads and 
ceilings are treated in varying shades of grey, from a 
deep slate grey ceiling and one bulkhead, to a light grey 
treatment at the doors. 

First Class Smoking Room 

The first class smoking room is "H" shaped, with the 
bar and a row of tables between two long cocktail 
room light areas. The bar which is faced with brown 
tufted leather, is long and commodious; the back bar 
of simple design is fitted with the necessary marine 
fiddle-boards for holding bottle and glasses in place 
when the ship is in motion. Over the back bar is a 
clear mirror wall, in which the skyline mural is reflected 
m excellent perspective for those at the bar. 

In the outer area an approach to streamlining was used 
ui order to tie in the complete "H" shape of the room. 
The brown ceiling continues down the bulkhead in a 
continuous plane. A contrasting plane of grey is placed 
in front of this, almost to the ceiling, with a wrap- 
around effect. On the outboard side, curtain pockets 
cut in a tapered shape, surrounds the small windows in 
order to obtain the effect of greater fenestration. At the 
inboard corners at the four entrances of the room are 
mirrored recesses to obtain greater width in these narrow 
(Please turn to pjge 91 1 

Page 46 



Early Steamers 

By A. J. Dickie 

IN THE FIRST INSTALLMENT of this series we re- 
ferred to an Act of Congress passed on April 12, 
1848, authorizing liberal mail contract for any firm 
that would establish and maintain a regular steamer serv- 
ice between New York and Portland via Isthmus of 
Panama. Pursuant to this act the Pacific Mail Steamship 
Company was formed by New York interests. This com- 
pany almost immediately ordered six steamers from 
Webb, the famous New York shipbuilder. The first three 
of these vessels were to make the run out to the Pacific 
Coast via Magellan Straits and the last three were to 
work on the Atlantic Coast between New York and 
Chagres. The contract called for a monthly service. 
The three vessels to run on the Pacific Coast side of 

this mail route were 5. S. California. S. S. Panama, and 
S. S. Oregon. They were small by modern standards but 
quite large and spacious for the date of their delivery. 
Each was 200 feet long between perpendiculars. Beam 
amidships on deck was 5^ feet for California. 52 feet for 
Panama, and 54 feet for Oregon. The great side paddle- 
wheels with their housings extended outboard of this 
beam. Registered measurement was 1 ,050 tons for 
California. 1,087 tons for Panama. 1,100 tons for Oregon. 
Deptii of hold was 20 feet for California and Oregon, 
and 2 1 feet for Panama. The largest trans-Atlantic steam- 
ers built about that time were Cunarder America, finished 
in 1848 having a length of 251 feet and a registered 
measurement of 1,825 tons, and the Collin's Line 5'. S. 
Atlantic, finished in 1850 with a length of 282 feet and 

Cabin arrangemenf on Pacific mail steamer John L- Stevens. 


" " ' " 

_^- ^ 



' [■] 1 '■:•■"'! 


-] \--l-. 



^irj ultl^^jq-Jfrp;^: 



APRIL • 1941 

Paqe 47 


- ^^4 h 3p a H . :-^- -^- 


r^ )■■■-]■' 


' ' ' ■ : ^- -:■-■--■'•"■■■■•■■■■ ' 

Deck plans of Pacific mail sieamer Japan. It is interesting to note the use being made of the space 

in the sponsons ahead of the side wheels. On the one deck this space is occupied by a cattle pen. 

barber shops and dressing rooms, and on the main deck, by lifeboats. The small print In the upper 

corners of this picture read as follows: 










Deck forwa 












ge Room 

Mall fi 


Coal Bunker 






o Deck 




Dining Saloon 



Ladies Saloon 







After Steerage 








Women's Steerag 








Men's Steerage 






Standees— Main C 

a registered measurement of 2,860 tons. 

Hull materials on the California and her sisters were 
the best live oak, white oak and cedar. The bottom was 
copper sheathed throughout. As originally rigged, these 
vessels were barkentines with three masts, a straight 
stern, and no bowsprit. 

The power plant was built at the famous Novelty 
Works of New York City, then owned by Stillman, Allen 
& Company. If you wanted a large marine steam engine 
today, would you go to a novelty shop.'' One hundred 
years ago such engines were still novelties. Indeed, a 
power plant of the type used in these vessels would 
certainly be a novelty if installed in an ocean-going 
steamer today. 

30 Rooms 



20 Rooms 





9 Rooms 




13 Rooms 




18 Rooms 








Recept. First Class 
Recept. Steerage Aft 
Recept. Steerage Aft 

Boilers were of the flue type, coal burning with 
strong natural draft induced by tall smoke stacks, and 
using salt water. They were equipped with a pipe system 
for blowing out salt deposits and were guaranteed to 
generate steam at 10 pounds pressure above atmosphere. 

Engines were single cylinder 71 inches bore and eight 
feet stroke driving the paddles through an overhead 
(Please turn to page 95) 

f s Time Reber Plan Hgitation Was Dropped 

(An Editorial) 

Rarely does a debater admit being 
lonvinced by his opponent of the error 
)f his cause. This seems to be so also 
)etween nations, political parties, and 
riendly neighbors. So it is not strange 
iiat proponents of great industrial 
ichemes hold fast to their theories. The 
jublic, however, does not always have 
luthoritative sources of information for 
ts guidance. 

The so-called Reber plan for San 
Francisco Bay is one that permits of 
lound engineering analysis, and the pre- 
ponderance of opinion is that the scheme 
is fantastic in the extreme, increasing the 
|Very problem it pretends to solve, and 
presenting new problems and disloca- 
ions of industry and agriculture — at a 
:ost of billions. Happily, city officials in 
East Bay cities are presenting to the pub- 
lic the reports of the Army Engineers 
and those of private engineering con- 
Itants and an enlightened public will 
.mil the effect of the plan on their 

Ihe Reber plan contemplates the 
crunon of dams across San Francisco 
H.r. ti> form fresh water lakes north and 
sd.irh to stop salt water encroachment 
I'll ,i!;ricultural lands, create new urban 
prtjpL-rty and provide added bay-crossing 
t.Lulities. As the drawing shows, it 
\MiuKI create a new shoreline for the east 
shli of the Bay and cut off from free a.c- 
ci^s ro the Bay all of the busy Oakland 
w.itcrtront, and that of Richmond, Ber- 
kcU\ and Alameda. It would cut off the 
<> Estuary with its shipping and 
If', sliipyards, including Moore Drydock, 
I II I led Engineering, General Engineer- 
in l: .ind Drydock, and Bethlehem Steel's 
t«'i Alameda yards, at one of which 
I invned by the Maritime Commission) 
.1 w.irtime fleet of P-2s was built, includ- 
inu the new liners President Cleielaiu! 
and President Wilson. The Coast Guard 
bast IS also on the Estuary, and along 
the Bay front is Naval Supply Base, the 
Army and the cargo piers of the 
San Francisco Port of Embarkation. In 
the north end of the Bay are many in- 
dustrial port towns, the great sugar re- 
finery at Crockett, the Benicia Arsenal, 
and the Mare Island Naval Base. In the 
South Bay Area on the San Francisco 
side are many steamship company piers, 
Bethlehem's great shipyard, and the 
Hunter's Point Naval Base, as well as 
lumber and cement ports and the main 
salt industries of the West. Access to all 
of the above would be through one set of 

locks which it would take at least two 
hours to pass, placing burdens of time 
and expense on all vessels. 

It is with the hazard to the shipping 
industry and to national defense that this 
publication is mainly concerned. We be- 

The Reber Plan's obstructions in San Francisco Bay. 
The joint Army-Navy Board says "No'" 





\ bOO n WIDE 



APRIL • 1948 

Page 49 


lieve that the cities, the entire West and 
the nation should effectively condemn 
the project. 

We have called the scheme fantastic, 
and engineers have so reported. But it is 
upon the Corps of Engineers, U. S. 
Army and the Joint Army-Navy Board, 
that we rely for explicit condemnation of 
the project for its effect on other phases 
of industrial life than shipping. 

Damage to the Golden Gate and 

The adoption or the Reber Plan would 
seriously impair the role of San Fran- 
cisco as one of the major ports of the 
world, since it contemplates the isola- 
tion of all of the facilities existing at 
present in the middle and outer harbors 
of the Port of Oakland with consequent 
economic loss and the necessity for the 
construction of substitute facilities and 
because it would have a definite deleter- 
ious effect upon the San Francisco Bar. 
The objections to the plan voiced at the 
public hearings included the following: 

The Reber Plan, by eliminating 85% 
of the tidal How through the Golden 
Gate, will ruin the ocean entrance by 
allowing it to be closed by beach and 
bar, and will thus convert one of the 
major ocean gateways of the world to 
an experimental status. 

Through the elimination of tidal 
scour, it will greatly increase the future 
maintenance of interior waterways. 

It will place a burden of expense and 
delay on all shipping endeavoring to 
serve terminals, existing or prospective, 
at any point other than within a rela- 
tively small area in north San Francisco 
Bay which would be left on salt water. 

Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart, 
Serial 484, gives a graphical presentation 
of the extremely intricate pattern of the 
tidal currents in San Francisco Bay. It 
can be readily seen that any interruption 
in these tidal currents, which through- 
out the years have established equilibria 
of water depth with the configuration of 
surrounding topography throughout the 
Bay area would result in silting, and 
substantial quantities of money would 
have to be spent annually for the mainte- 
nance of navigable channels, for the 
northerly arm of the bay alone, this 
was calculated in 19.V^ for a proposed 
saltwater barrier at Richmond at $25,000 
per annum during the first 25 years be- 
low the barrier and $175,000 above the 


Traffic studies by the Board indicate 
that none of the terminal areas in San 
Francisco offer a stteet pattern, even 
when improved within practical limits, 
that could absorb, at a maximum, more 
than four additional lanes of cross-bay 
traffic in each direction. So, while the 
proposed super freeway would provide 
some 32 highway lanes, the bottleneck 
of the city streets would prevent use 
of more than a small number of them; 
and while the dam could carry many 
lanes of traffic, it would provide no more 
lanes that could be used, than a bridge 
at the same location. 

In order to bring trains on to the 
mole consideration must be given to the 
ruling grade. The preferred railroad 
grade is 0.5 per cent. However, assum- 
ing a 1 per cent maximum permissible 
.grade with the channel clearances indi- 
cated in the plan as submitted, a tunnel 
a little less than four miles long (ap- 
proximately the width of the Bay at this 
point) would be required in order to 
carry the trains under the navigation 
channel. Such a tube vould start its 
descent in the vicinity of Peralta and ""th 
streets in Oakland and would come to 
grade on the mole about half way across 
the Bay. So the main lines of the rail- 
roads would make use of only half of 
the surface of the mole, and, in order 
to clear the navigation channel, would 
have to cross a major portion of the 
Bay in costly tubes. 

From the above, it is concluded that 
the Reber Plan would offer no greater 
relief to automobile vehicular congestion 
than a high-level bridge at the same lo- 
cation, but that it would provide railroad 
connections into the City of San Fran- 
cisco, although at great expense. 

The transformation of the upper and 
lower arms of the bay into lakes would 
present a very expensive problem from 
the standpoint of sewage and waste dis- 
posal. At present, the communities and 
industries contiguous to the bay area 
secure a great deal of natural purification 
of their wastes by virtue of the large 
quantities of water available for dilution 
by the existing tidal prism. If this tidal 
prism were no longer available, addi- 
tional treatment would be necessary. 

A change-over from a tidal system to a 
stationary lake system for disposal would 
require alteration of the existing regional 
scheme of bringing sewage effluent to a 
few centralized points where tidal fac- 
tors are most favorable for dispersion. It 
can be expected that, as contrasted with 
the few regional sewage-disposal plants 
around the bay, now envisaged, the 
shores of the lakes would be dotted with 
a latge number of exceedingly complex 
sewage-treatment plants, consuming large 
areas of land that would adversely affect 
a large surrounding area. 

Vt^ater Conservation 

The State Department of Public 
Health affirmed that the "construction of 
dams across San Francisco Bay to create 
large inland fresh-water lakes would 
greatly magnify the sewage-disposal prob- 
lems of all the communities around San 
Francisco, extending at least from Anti- 
och on the east to San Jose on the south 
and to San Francisco on the west. The 
effect would reach inland as far as Suisun 
and Fairfield and possibly to Stockton, 
and as far north as Napa." 

None of the claims of water conser- 
vation by the proponents of the Reber 
Plan have been documented by mathe- 
matical analysis of engineering study. 
Sepatate studies by the Board and Ex- 
amination of the reports of the State and 
Federal agencies confirm the fact that 
the Reber Plan would require large 
quantities of fresh water from surface 
storage elsewhere in order to maintain 
the upper and lower arms of San Fran- 

cisco Bay as fresh-water lakes. 

The Board concludes that the Reber 
Plan would misuse fresh water and 
would retard the full future economic 
development of Northern California. 

Land Reclamation and Utilization 

The proponents of the Reber Plan 
claim that the dams and fill would pro- 
vide 20,000 acres of new land, and that, 
by creation of this land, shoal areas now 
present in the bay would be eliminated. 
This latter claim seems to be made with- 
out consideration of the suitability of 
this material as fill. 

In testimony before the Board, the 
State Boatd of Harbor Commissioners 
and the Commissioners of the Port of 
Oakland, indicate that there are pres- 
ently available large areas of land for 
water-front development and that no 
need exists for the lands which would be 
created by the Rebet Plan. Large areas 
of the San Francisco waterfront are still 
undeveloped due to the adequacy of 
existing waterfront facilities or the un- 
attractive financial returns to be obtained 
from developing new facilities. The Port 
of Oakland, in its planning, has pro- 
jected over the years a major develop- 
ment of that Port designed to meet the 
needs for more modern and additional 
port facilities as they arise. It was stated 
that these facilities, coordinated with 
existing facilities and setvices already 
available, could be consttucted at sub 
stantial savings in cost over those con 
templated in the Reber Plan. It was fur 
ther stated by the Port of Oakland au 
thorities that large areas of highly sue 
cessful, modern, efficient, and war-tested 
facilities would be scrapped by the Rebel 

The Reber Plan contemplated a water 
level in the fresh-water lakes of 9.0 feet 
above mean lower low water. During the 
public hearings, a great deal of appre- 
hension over this featute was voiced by 
the representatives of the land owners 
in the Delta of the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin rivers. The Delta region com- 
prises some 500,000 acres of valuable 
and highly productive farm land. The 
maintenance of the water level of the 
Reber Plan would inundate substantial 
portions of this valuable land due to the 
physical impossibility of providing ade- 
quate levee systems on the peat founda- 
tions so prevalent throughout this Delta 
region. Such a water level would not 
only cause inundation and require exten- 
sive levees in the Delta area, but in other 
areas as well. Throughout the Bay area, 
extensive modifications, altetations and 
replacements of all existing sewage and 
drainage systems would be required 
along the shores of both proposed lakes. 
The consulting engineer for Alameda 
County estimated that funds in the 
amount of S240,OOO.0OO would be re- 
quired for flood-control measures in the 
cities of that county alone. The State 
Engineer estimated that, for a water level 
of 3 feet above mean sea level, which is 
2 feet below the level of the Reber Plan, 
5100,000 annually would be required 
for additional seepage pumping in the 
Delta tegion alone. 

The County of Santa Clara, in its pres- 




entation. indicateil its present difficulties 
'with Hoods in the lower regions of the 
(County, and viewed with alarm any in- 
crease in water levels and the consequent 
more devastating effect ot any Hoods on 
chf valuable agricultural and industrial 
l.uuK of that county. The City Engineer 
ol Stockton concurred in the objections 
111 the Delta region to the Rebcr Plan 
III I fiotcd the necessity tor increased 
piiniprng of sewage and storm waters and 
|iciinted out that the large areas of the 
( ir\ of Stockton would be subject to 

In one area of the Bay region alone. 
ii.iinely. Santa Clara County, the in- 
. u.ised expense of waste treatment would 
In very high, and, were industry forced 
In meet this burden, it would either shift 
die bases of its operation or have to pass 
on the increased costs to the consuming 

I'hc Board concludes diat the Reber 
PI. Ill would greatly increase the com- 
plex ity and cost of the sewage and waste- 
disposal problems throughout the areas 
linrdcnng on the proposed lakes. 
The adoption of the Reber Plan 
wiuild have a very widespread effect on 
existing industries and the existing in 
du.strial pattern in the Bay region. 

The southern shores of San Francisco 
Ba\ have been the scene of a major in- 
.ki St rial development based upon the evaporation of salt water. The re- salt and allieit industries repre- 
sent an investment of approximately 
^. Ml, ()()() ,000. These industries would be 
eliminated entirely if the lower arm of 
the Bay were made into a fresh or brack- 
ish water lake. At the public hearings, 
.1 ureat deal of adverse testimony on the 
Rclxr Plan was introduced by the vari- 
ous salt companies through their con- 
sultants. The protest by one salt com- 
pany expressed the opinion that the eli- 
mination of this salt industry would also 
Ijhave a dampening effect on the industrial 
development of the entire west coast. 
\ In addition to the destruction of this 
Jmajor industry, as indicated above, the 
•Reber Plan would have a definitely ad- 
verse effect upon the operations of the 
relineries in the Richmond area. The 

construction of one element of the Reber 
Plan would cut in half the existing re- 
hnery of the Standard Oil Company of 
Cal.fornia and the north dam would re- 
tard the distribution ot its petroleum 
products by denying ready shipping ac- 
cess to the company's existing facilities. 
A similar statement objecting to the 
Reber Plan was entered by the Tide- 
water Associated Oil Company. 

The Federal and State agencies con- 
cerned with the safeguarding of the fish- 
ing industry viewed the far-reaching ef- 
fects of the Reber Plan on the fisheries in 
the ,San Francisco Bay area with alarm 
at the public hearings. They stated that 
the salmon run would be reduced ma- 
terially, if not entirely destroyed. It was 
estimated that the construction of the 
Reber Plan would result in a loss of 
Siri,()()0,000 annually to fisheries alone. 
Economic Veaubilily 

Estimates of the cost of the Reber 
Plan, including the resultant damages, 
vary over a wide range. A rough, inde- 
pendent study of the major factors by the 
Board indicate that the direct cost of 
the plan would be at least S4 15,000,000, 
mcluding damages to contiguous prop- 
erty, amounting to approximately S5(),- 
OOO.OOO. The opinion of the Alameda 
C!ounty Committee was that the cost 
would be as high as SI .500.00(),()0(). 

In addition to the direct cost of the 
project, consideration must be given to 
the indirect costs, some of which are 
tangible and capable of monetary assess- 
ment and others of which are intangible, 
but, nevertheless, of great importance. 

Appendix No. 1^ assesses a cost of 
SI, 000,000,000 to these inherent dam- 
ages. A partial list of the items included 
are as follows: 

(a) Delays to navigation 

( b ) Added cost of dredging San 
Francisco Harbor and entrances. 

(c) Destruction of existing ports and 
port facilities. 

( d ) Loss of valuable water resources, 
(e) Inundation of delta lands and 

other low-lying areas. 
( f ) Increased protection costs for 

non - inundated levee - protecteil 

(gj Increased pumping cost of drain- 
age and sewage systems in low- 
lying areas. 

( h J I ncreased cost 6f proper sewage 
and waste treatment in bay com- 

( i ) Destruction and dislocation of 

Natioiuil Delense 

The Reber Plan sets aside extensive 
areas for military and naval installations. 
However, no indication was given of 
the magnitude in dollar value of the 
military installations which would be 
eliminated or made ineffectual by the 
adoption of the plan. Substantial portions 
of the national wealth have been invested 
in the facilities of the shipyards at Mare 
Island and Hunters Point. These facili- 
ties have proved their adequacy in sup- 
port of the late Pacific War. If the Reber 
Plan were adopted, it would jeopardize 
the mobility of any of the Heet units at 
either of these shipyards. 

In their reply to the Board's inquiry, 
military and naval commanders in this 
area indicated the opposition to the 
Reber Plan and some stated that the ad- 
ditional military facilities proposed as 
one of the advantages of the plan are 
neither necessary nor desirable. 

Damage to the locks or dams by 
enemy action or would render 
impotent ships and shore facilities with- 
in the lake areas. No responsible naval 
commander could afford to sacrifice the 
mobility of his command by basing it 
behind dams and subjecting it to the 
transit of narrow channels and locks in 
the event of a required sortie. 

General Conclusion of the Board nilh 
Respect to the Reber Plan. Overwhelm- 
ing opposition to the plan by State, 
County and City authorities, together 
with commercial and military interests, 
was presented at the public hearings. 
After careful consideration of this and 
all other factors involved, the Board has 
reached the conclusion that the Reher 
Plan would result in (he dislocation of 
industry, is economically injeasihle and 
:s untenable from the standpoint of nati- 
^^ilion and national defense. 

BOOK mm 

Saibel, J. T. Ransom and R. E. Lowrie, published by the 
American Welding Society; 58 pages; Price Sl.OO. 

In publishing this report to the Bureau of Ships of 
the U. S. Navy, the American Welding Society has pro- 
vided means for engineers and designers to intelligently 
approach the problem of fracture. The report simul- 
taneously is a summary of reviews of the literature and 
i direct interviews with outstanding men in the field. As 
I such it represents a compilation of the present knowledge 
i of the laws and the fundamental mechanism of fracture 
! in one booklet for ready reference. 

The booklet is divided into two parts. P.irt 1 uicludes 

APRIL • 1948 

the original survey of the literature and an analysis of 
the theories of fracture and applications of principles, 
while Part II serves as a supplement in that it uses the 
framework established in Part I to clarify new develop- 
ments in the theories of fracture and plastic flow. In 
addition to the extensive bibliography of approximately 
300 references, a recommended research program is 

by John HoUomon, which was published about a year 
,igo by the American Welding Society, make it possible 
to visualize if and how many of the confusing theories 
are related to each other. 

Page 51 

Vew Ship Structure Materials 

(Continued from March issue) 


Head Marine Section, Development Division 

Aluminum Company of America 


The commercial history of alumi- 
num started in 1886 with the dis- 
covery of the electrolytic process for 
separating aluminum from its ores, 
made almost simultaneously by Hall 
in the United States and Heroult in 
France. Two years later, the Pitts- 
burgh Reduction Company, later to 
become Aluminum Company of 
America, was founded to develop 
the Hall process. While aluminum 
is the most plentiful metallic ele- 
ment in the earth's crust, it is never 
found as free metal. The metallurgist 
makes it available from its native 
ores by refinement and electrochemi- 
cal processes. Aluminum thus had to 
await the advancement of science 

and modern technological develop- 
ments to make the metal available 
for use. 

It was not long, during the early 
days of commercial development, 
that aluminum, because of its light- 
ness, was adopted for the building 
of small boats. In 1891. France used 
the metal for yacht construction. 
Two years later, a torpedo boat with 
an aluminum alloy hull was built 
for the French Navy. This 60-foot 
vessel, using a 6% copper alumi- 
num wrought aUoy, was specified 
not to exceed 1 1 tons light dis- 
placement and to have a speed of 
18% knots on a full speed trial of 
two hours with a 3 ton load. Her 
engines were triple expansion with 

Page 52 

a water rube boiler and indicated 
275 to 300 H.P. on trial. Actually, 
her trial speed averaged 20 ¥2 knots 
on a displacement I ton below con- 
tract! Building of this vessel re- 
vealed the alertness of naval author- 
ities to the possibilities of the light 
metal for increased speed, armor and 
armament of warships. Though this 
torpedo boat was a real credit to 
naval architects and builders, the 
choice of alloy indicated that the 
metallurgy of aluminum alloys was 
still in its infancy, many of its char- 
acteristics unknown and some mis- 

Technical research in the early 
days of commercial aluminum was 
virtually unknown. Cut and dry 
methods were generally resorted to 
with aluminum as with other metals. 
Technical control was limited sole- 
ly to the chemical laboratory for 
checking quality. Mechanical test- 
ing was performed by outside prov- 
ing agencies. Aluminum was used 
only where it could be afforded in 
marine applications. 

An outstanding early example 
where the metal's lightness was util- 
ized to improve stability and sail- 
ing qualities, was in the Herreshoff 
designed yacht "Defender," built 
secretly as America's contender for 
the International Cup Races in 
1895. Her alimiinum alloy plates 
and shapes were rolled in a steel 
mill and cast aluminum fittings were 
used above the waterline. Prior to 
this time, only a few aluminum 
boats had been built in the United 
States, principally for Arctic ex- 
5. ploration. Launching of the "De- 

fender" provoked a series of sensa- 
tional stories, describing the failure 
of her aluminum strucmre. Gov- 
ernment authorities condemned the 
metal and her builders and other 
experts were involved in endless 
controversy. 'While actual structural 


failure had not occurred until long 
•ihcr the races were won, salt water 
inJ corrosion had finally overcome 
.1 construction using bronze rivets 
.Hill aluminum plates. Such bad prac- 
racs, coupled with adverse publicit)' 
and relatively high prices of alumi- 
num ( ingot was selling at 55 cents 
pi r pound and sheet at 82 cents and 
up), confined marine uses of the 
iiRial to a bare minimum for a few 
n.iwil and other highly specialized 
.ipplications. Not until thorough 
metallurgical studies had developed 
proper alloys, and tests had proved 
tiiem could the marine engineer ac- 
cept aluminum alloys. 

Following the interest in the 
novelty and enormously increased 
a\ailability of aluminum made com- 
paratively cheaply by the Hall-Her- 
oulr process, aluminum and alumi- 
: num alloys continued to be used for 
the building of boats and yachts and 
for minor installations aboard larger 
of years. Numerous sporadic at- 
tempts were made to design and 
build speed boats and fresh water 
pleasure craft. Vessels such as the 
,\quitania," built in 1914, and the 
aircraft carriers Saratoga and Lex- 
/i/'.;/i)ii, completed just after the 
W'.ishington Disarmament Confer- 
(.ncL-, successfully used aluminum 
tin electrical bus installations. 

Ir was not, however, until 1912 
that the metallurgist really opened 
rhf way to new uses formerly only 
1 1 reamed of. In that year, it was dis- 
uivered that certain wrought alumi- 
num-copper-magnesium alloys were 
susceptible to heat treatment pro- 
ducing mechanical properties equiv- 
alent to mild steel. Original alloy of 
this type was trade-named Dura- 
lumin in Germany and became Al- 
coa 17S in the United States. Con- 
siderable research had to be done to 
establish the proper constituents and 
qualities of this alloy. For example, 
it was found that it did not possess 
{ the requisite high resistance to sea 
t water corrosion, though all alumi- 
I num alloys are generally highly re- 
I sistant. Aluminum Company of 
America, both before and after the 
, establishment of its modern Alumi- 
num Research Laboratories at New 
Kensington, Pa., discovered and de- 
veloped many new alloys having 
specific properties for which uses 
were rapidly developed. In some 
cases, alloys were developed for 

specific uses. One of this type mar- 
keted in 1931, was a non-heat treat- 
able aluminum-magnesium alloy, de- 
signated 52S, with a remarkably 
high resistance to sea water corro- 
sion and good mechanical qualities 
in sheet and plate forms. About the 
same time Alcoa alloy 53S was also 
introduced for commercial pur- 
poses. Of the aluminum-magnesium- 
silicide type, this alloy was heat- 
treatable, almost equal to 525 in 
resistance to sea water corrosion, 
and had higher strength than 525. 
It was produced in sheet, plate and 
both rolled and extruded shapes, 
and was also used for rivets of ex- 
cellent characteristics. 

The Washington Disarmament 
Conference in 1922 imposed restric- 
tions on the displacement of war- 
ships. In effect, it again forced the 
attention of naval authorities to alu- 
minum for aid in gaining the ad- 
vantages of light weight. With the 
introduction of alloys having good 
resistance to sea water corrosion and 
high strength, structural possibilities 
of aluminum became apparent and 
attractive to authorities. Full ad- 
vantage was subsequently taken of 
aluminum in the installations made 
aboard the German pocket battle- 

It is interseting to note that ir 
was again military necessity which 
reintroduced large scale aluminum 
ship construction, 30 years after its 
first marine debut. Lightness of the 
metal aroused the interest of Amer- 
ican naval engineers, since the core 
of the naval limitations of arms was 
the fixed limit of displacement. 
Earliest substitutions made were 
largely for furniture and for this 
purpt)se builders used Alcoa 35, a 
non heat treatable maganese-alumi- 
num alloy of excellent corrosion re- 
sistance but comparatively low 
strength. With aluminum only one- 
third the weight of steel and the 
total weight of furniture aboard a 
batdeship exceeding 100 tons, con- 
siderable tonnage savings were ef- 
fected when aluminum furniture 
was eventually adopted as standard. 
This apparently minor application 
proved the worth of the metal so 
that by 1933, when the new U. S. 
Naval building prograin was begun 
to offset threats of war in Europe 
and the Orient, the Navy and Alcoa 
were fully prepared to develop the 

latest strong aluminum alloys for 
structural applications aboard new 
warships. Catapults for aircraft car- 
ried aboard battleships and heavy 
crusiers, and elevators on aircraft 
carriers soon led to the use of these 
alloys for bridges, deckhouses, masts 
and yards on destroyers and cruisers 
and for the palisades of aircraft car- 

With experience gained in the 
performance of light alloys and the 
intensification of naval building as 
a part of the guarantee against 
threats of war abroad, aluminum 
was designed into later vessels hav- 
ing regard, in addition to gains in 
speed and armament, to the im- 
provement of stability and the ad- 
vantage of the non-magnetic quality 
of aluminum located near compasses. 
By 1940, extensive use of aluminum 
by the Navy for topside structures 
had expanded to almost 100 modern 
warships and certain Alcoa alloys 
had been standardized for the work. 
At this time, an aluminum hulled 
U. S. Navy destroyer had been de- 
signed, and, but for the imminent 
danger of involvement of this coun- 
try In World War II and the al- 
most complete transfer of the alumi- 
num industry to supplying the sud- 
denly expanded building of mili- 
tary aircraft, would probably have 
been built. Actually, the Navy found 
itself at the outbreak of war with 
many up-to-date vessels whose ex- 
cellence was in some measure due 
to their use of aluminum alloys. 
Many of them served with distinc- 
tion. Some saw their finish in glori- 
ous action while others today are 
ending their careers at the ship 
breakers. With naval building cur- 
rently in the pause to reconsider the 
strategy and logistics of naval war- 
fare, of new weapons, and defenses 
against them, in the harnessing of 
new sources of energy for armament 
and propulsion, aluminum alloys 
are being given major considera- 
tion to again prove their worth in 
the Navy of the future. 

In the early I930's when the Navy 
began to utilize strong aluminum 
alloys in warship structures, for- 
ward looking minds in the alumi- 
num and shipping industries were 
contemplating their possibilities for 
merchant vessels. Where naval ves- 
sels could afford to pay higher pre- 
miums for greater efficiency made 

APRIL • 1948 

Page 53 

Ship Structure IHaterials 

possible with these alloys, shipping 
operators had to ponder well the 
magnitude and economics of those 
applications for the several types of 
vessels considered. Lacking experi- 
ence, naval architects and marine 
regulatory bodies were hesitant to 
introduce or approve aluminum al- 
loys, such as Alcoa 52S and 53S, 
without adequate test data to sub- 
stantiate them. 

Unlike other industrial arts, pro- 
gress in shipbuilding has always 
been properly restrained by estab- 
lished practice, but has regrettably 
often been retarded by an undue 
respect for it. This is understand- 
able, since merchant vessels, their 
complements and cargoes are not 
considered expendable, but must be 
safeguarded through conservative 
design, construction and inspection 
to avoid disastrous results in oper- 
ation in the form of costly repairs 
or alterations, loss of life, ship or 
earning power. Those agencies re- 
sponsible for the preservation of 
high standards of strength and safety 
in merchant ships, are unlikely to 
risk their reputations without com- 
plete assurance that new ship struc- 
ture materials will equal standards 
established with long accepted ma- 

On the other hand, failure to 
recognize new materials in the con- 
struction of ocean-going merchant 
ships, could prove as disastrous as 
inadequate manning or lack of naval 
protection. The internationally com- 
petitive character of the business of 
water transportation can easily lead 
to previous adoption of new ma- 
terials and techniques by competi- 
tors, with all the advantages occur- 
ring to them from such enterprise. 

Fortunately leadership exists and 
even before the introduction and 
enactment of the Merchant Marine 
Act of 19.36 to foster American 
foreign shipping, practical experi- 
mental tests were started by Alumi- 
num Company of America to pro- 
vide essential data necessary for de- 
velopment and approval of their 
recommended alloys. Several mer- 
chant ships had aluminum struc- 
tural installations made. A large size 
section of a Coast Guard cutter was 
built, using standard shipyard equip- 
ment and practices, and moored in 
the historic salt waters of Hampton 

Roads in 1935 to prove the high 
corrosion resistance of marine alloys 
52S and 53S. This vessel, the "Alum- 
ette," after 12 years of simulated sea 
service, has completely justified the 
claims of her sponsors. Corrosion of 
the vessel, even on the unpainted 
areas of the underwater hull, is neg- 
ligible and her structural integrity 
is unimpaired. Bare steel, with its 
progressive type of corrosion, would 
long since have been eaten away 
through sponging and flaking and 
the vessel holed and sunk. The self- 
stopping type of corrosion in sea 
water peculiar to aluminum com- 
pletely arrested itself after slight 
pitting within two years. It is an- 
ticipated on conclusion of these 
tests after a life of 20 years that the 
"Alumette" will not exhibit any ap- 
preciable further corrosion. 

About the outbreak of World 
War II, a higher strength wrought 
alloy suitable for marine work was 
developed, perfected and introduced 
by Aluminum Company of Amer- 
ica. Designated 6 IS, it is similar to 
the aluminum- magnesium -silicide 
alloy 535, but also contains Vi^r 
copper. It behaves much like its 
predecessor under corrosive condi- 
tions although 53S is slightly su- 
perior to 61S in salt water or ma- 
rine atmospheres. Alcoa 6 IS, how- 
ever, has much higher strength in 
all forms and tempers than 53S and 
has slightly better workability. With 
a guaranteed minimum yield 
strength of 35,000 pounds per 
square inch in its fully heat treated 
temper, 61S-T6 is stronger than 
mild steel. Because of the volume 
of aluminum alloys required for air- 
craft construction during the war, 
6 IS was not used in marine work 
except for emergency military pur- 
poses. Its war service was so con- 
vincing as to all-round superiority 
for marine purposes, that it was 
quickly adopted for a number of 
post-war merchant ship structural 
installations. Today, it is accepted 
as standard in this country for hulls, 
superstructures and much equip- 

The first major aluminum alloy 
structural mstallation made in a 
merchant ship was carried out in 
Denmark in 1939 using materials 
furnished from Norway. This in- 
stallation, made in the M. V. "Fern- 
plant." utilized about 14 tons of 

aluminum alloys in the superstruc- 
ture, including bridges, replacing 40 
tons of steel. The aluminum-mag- 
nesium alloy used was similar to 
Alcoa 5.2S. "Fernplant" escaped the 
Nazi invasion of Norway and Den- 
mark and saw considerable service 
throughout the world under war- 
time conditions. Her almuinum in- 
stallation has given such satisfaction 
to the owners that they are having 
similar installations made in three 
sister ships building in Italy to 
Norske Veritas Rules and propose 
to use 61S-T6 alloy. 

This is a change from past ship- 
building practice in Europe, where 
non-heat treatable wrought alumi- 
num-magnesium alloys for ship con- 
struction have been used because of 
their high resistance to sea water 
corrosion and good strength. The 
British Admiralty specifies a mag- 
nesium content as high as 7'( for 
such wrought alloys. It is doubtful, 
however, if those alloys with a 5'v 
magnesium content or above have 
a wide range of application in view 
of their susceptibility to stress cor- 
rosion after exposure to compara- 
tively low heat. The Admiralty also 
permits .15*: r copper content in 
aluminum-magnesium alloys, 
though they express a specification 
desirability for none. 

Since World War II, several im- 
portant merchant ship structural in- 
stallations have been made and addi- 
tional ones are currently being plan- 
ned and carried out in the United 
States and Canada. All of these in- 
stallations are of riveted construc- 
tion and utilize 61S-T6 for plating 
and framing with 53S alloy rivets. 
The U. S. vessels are designed ac- 
cording to American Bureau of 
Shipping requirements and the 
Canadian vessels to Lloyd's approval. 

Three combination vessels, "Del 
Norte," "Del Sud," and "Del Mar," 
built in 1945-6 by the Ingalls Ship- 
building Company, Pascagoula, Mis- 
sissippi, for the Mississippi Ship- 
ping Company are equipped with 
streamlined stackhouses. Each in- 
volves the use of 1 1 tons of alumi- 
num alloy in its ".uperstructure. 
These vessels, frequently referred to 
as the "first of the light tops," have 
been in regular service between 
New Orleans and the East Coast of 
South America since early in 1947. 
Their aluminum installations are 
(Please turn to page 981 

Page 54 


Modern Oil Tanker Design 

f Continued from Murch issue) 

Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Chester, Pa. 

Three systems of hull framing are presently employed 
in tanker design, viz: longitudinal, transverse and a com- 
bination system using longitudinals on the bottom shell 
and deck with transverse framing for the wing tank por- 

The longitudinal system is most commonly used m 
this country. Continuity of longitudinal at the oil-tight 
bulkheads is usually maintained by through brackets. 
The span of the longitudinals is limited by practical con- 
MJerations to a maximum of 12' 0" by equidistantly 
sp.iced deep transverse web frames. The webs are trussed 
in the wing tanks, and are two or three in number, de- 
pending upon the length of the tank. At the ends of the 
vessel a gradual transition should be made from longi- 
tudinal to transverse framing, wliere the latter system is 
generally used because of much ship form. An over- 
lapping or scraping of the framing should be incor- 
porated in the structural design. The spacing of trans- 
verse bulkheads has gradually increased, so that cargo 
t.uiks are now about 40' 0" long. This is approved by 
the classificarion societies providing the structure is so 
designed as to withstand the dynamic stresses set up by 
the surging fluids in the tanks. 

The design of transverse and longitudinal bulkheads in 
the cargo space employs either corrugated plates or the 
plate and stiffener type of construction. The corrugated 
construction, some forms of which are patented, results 
in a bulkhead of lighter weight for equivalent strength. 

Because of the corrosion factor the thickness of the 
upper strakes of bulkhead plating should be increased 
above strength requirements, in accordance with classifi- 
cation society recommendations. 

The majority of modern tankers have two longitudinal 
bulkheads in way of the cargo oil space, dividing the 
hull transversely into a center tank portion flanked by 
wing tanks. This arrangement enables a rnore efficient 
distribution to be made of the material entering into the 
hull girder, simplifies piping arrangements, and facili- 
tates loading and ballasting the ship. The longitudinal 
bulkheads are usually spaced a distance apart equal to 
about one half the beam of the ship. 

CofTer-dams located at both ends of the cargo oil space 
are required by the classification societies. "They should 
not be less than .t' 6" long in order to provide practical 
working clearances. 

There are arguments pro and con for the location of 
cargo pumproom amidships or aft. The amidship pump- 
room serves as a coffer-dam, between the forward and 

after sets of tanks and facilitates the transportation of 
two grades of oil in one shipment. The center of gravity 
of the cargo is located further aft with this arrangement; 
tlierefore the center of buoyancy must move aft, result- 
ing in a more favorable distribution of displacement. 
The longitudinal bending moment in the hull is reduced 
in the sagging condition with the pump room amidships. 
The location of the pump room aft eliminates the 
need, at least in part, for the after coffer-dam with the 
consequent gain in cargo cubic and saving in weight of 
one bulkhead. The pump room can be reduced in size 
because the prime movers for the cargo pumps can be 
located in the engine room, the shafts being fitted with 
stuffing boxes in way of the bulkhead. As a result of 
trim, cargo drainage to pumps by gravity may also be 
cited as an advantage, together with shortened lengths 
of steam piping to pumps. 


The hull structure in way of the ends of deck erections, 
including shell, upper deck and fashion plates, requires 
.idditional strengthening because of high localized stresses 
in both hog and sag conditions, and the welding requires 
extra attention. 

Excessive streamlining of deck house structures is un- 
called for. A pleasing appearance combined with appro- 
priateness of purpose can be attained without going to 
extremes. The "Chinese Wall" effect at bridge and poop 
fronts can be eliminated by slightly curving tliem in plan, 
and by logically stepping back the at each level. 
The bridge erection should be arranged to straddle two 
sets of cargo tanks so that cargo hatches will be clear of 
the enclosure. Because of reduced freeboards, the elevat- 
ed fore and aft walkway between erections is a rule re- 

The use of light weight alloys has not been presently 
applied to tanker deck house construction. Although 
there is a saving in weight amounting to about 28 per 
cent, the cost is more than doubled. The weight of house 
structure that might be adaptable to this construction 
would be approximately 120 tons on a 500 ft. Ship. 

The tanker is at sea about 300 days per year; accord- 
ingly the standard for living accommodations should be 
above average in order to reduce the turnover of per- 
sonnel. Typical gross special allowances for licensed per- 
.sonnel are about 90 sq. ft. per man; for crew members 
about 55 sq. ft. Many owners favor individual staterooms 
and bath for officers, and one or two person staterooms 

APRIL • 194 

Page 55 

for crew members. There is an increasing tendency to 
provide recreation rooms for officers and crew. Bulk- 
heads in way of accommodations are of light steel or 
metal clad asbestos board construction; fitted with hol- 
low metal doors. The furniture is usually of metal con- 
struction. The trend in heating and ventilation for ac- 
commodations on tankers is to install warm air systems, 
utilizing the ventilation air for the heating medium, and 
providing about a five minute air change. 

Pump room ventilation is an essential requirement, 
and commonly consists of a liberal natural supply com- 
bined with a mechanical exhaust system. The exhaust 
duct take-ofTs are located about 18 inches above the 
bilges and maintain an average air change of about five 
minutes. Fan motors must be spark-proof and must not 
be located in the pump room or air stream. Fan impellers 
should be made of brass or aluminum. 
Hull Fittings 

The mooring fittings, scuppers, deck fittings, etc. are 
usually weldments or steel castings and should be of sim- 
ple and rugged design. Rail stanchions should have an 

ample cross section to withstand bending due to nommal 
shock and heavy seas, and valve stems projecting above 
the weather deck should be protected by suitable deck 
stands. Where there is any danger of creating a spark in 
the presence of explosive vapors by steel striking on steel, 
one of the parts involved should be made of a brass com- 

Hatch openings in the upper deck should be cut in 
the lighter strakes of plating, and the center tank hatches 
should be staggered with respect to the pairs of wing 
tank hatches so that in the transverse plane a minimum 
of area is removed from the deck section. The hatches 
have circular steel coamings, welded, 3' or 4' diameter, 
30" high; fitted with hinged flat steel covers or dished 
heads made oil tight at the joint by heavy flax or neo- 
prene gaskets retained in a steel channel. The covers are 
made fast by several dogged bolts or by a strongback 
locking bar spanning the diameter, and are fitted with 

VAPOR CONTROL system of an oil tanker is shown in drawing. 
The vapors which rise tronn the partially-filed cargo tanks emerge 
from a vent at masthead where they can be dissipated into the air. 

Page 56 


■' ullage covers with spark screens. The covers are raised 
mechanically by a lever arm, pivoting about the hinge 
pins as a fulcrum and actuated by a screw and nut de- 
vice. Some of the companies have used cast aluminum 
alloy hatch covers that can be handled manually. An idea 
that has been propounded, and has merit, is the fitting of 
.1 second and somewhat smaller hatch in each cargo tank 

I tor the purpose of providing cross ventilation. 

In each tank, coffer-dam, etc. a bleeder plug, prefer- 
ably of stainless steel, should be fitted so that the com- 
partment can be drained when the vessel is in dry dock. 
The use of brass plugs in tankers engaged in the gasoline 
trade is not recoinmended because the threads become 
corrosively worn away. 

The cargo loading and discharging nozzles are usually 
amidships and suitable derricks should be adjacently 
located for handling the oil hose. Two 2 ton booms should 
be stepped on each kingpost so that the hose may be 
suspended in a bridle arrangement over the side. The 
running rigging should consist of manila rope and wood- 
en blocks to eliminate the spark hazard. 

Propulsion Machinery 

The selection of the power plant for a tanker design 
is predicated upon several factors, viz: owners preference, 
reliability and simplicity, cost and ease of repairs and 
maintenance, economy of operation, weight and space 
requirements and capital investment. Each factor must 
be considered and its importance analyzed from the 
standpoint of making the vessel an economical carrier 
for the entire period of its life expectancy. In the last 
analysis the effect of all combined factors in reducing 
the cost of transporting the cargo in cents per barrel 
governs the choice. 

A brief analysis of these factors seems in order. Own- 
er's preference may be based upon a satisfactory expe- 
rience with a certain type of prime mover and that he de- 
sires to maintain similar units in his Heet for transfer 
of parts and personnel. Reliability and simplicity are con- 
sidered as they affect design, materials and construction, 
assurance of maintaining schedules and absence of 
mechanical failures at sea. The tanker, because of its 
short turn-around period, has no time for extensive re- 
pairs and maintenance. Economy of operation presently 
stresses fuel economy as the major factor, but lube oils. 
etc. must be considered. The weight element is reflected 
in a loss or gain of deadweight, and similarly space re- 
quirements affect cubic available for cargo. An expen- 
sive machinery installation may be the cheapest, provid- 
ing that a low fuel economy is realized and that low re- 
pair and maintenance costs are effected. 

Types of tanker power plants presently installed in- 
clude: geared steam turbines, turbo-electric, direct Diesel, 
geared Diesel and Diesel electric. The first three embrace 
the great majority of tanker installations. Gas turbine 
installations, although promising in regard to fuel and 
weight economics are still in the experimental stage of 
development, and nuclear power is the germ of an idea 
for the future. The trend in the U. S. A. has been to 
favor the steam propulsion plant installations, whereas 
in Europe the internal combustion engines have taken the 
lead. In the U. S. A. the majority of shipyards purchase 
rhc propulsion machinery from a sub-contractor and in- 
st.iil it in the vessel. From the angle of installation costs 

there is little to favor either the steam or the Diesel job. 
As regards operation and maintenance there is a relative 
parity between the turbine plant and Diesel plant. 

The cross compound turbine plant, using double re- 
duction gears, has the advantages of light weight cohi- 
bined with flexibility of arrangement and low spacial 
requirements. It has steam in abundance for pumping 
cargo, steaming out tanks etc. The present practice favors 
steam conditions at 450 psi., 750 F. total tempera- 
ture, but the trend is definitely upward. The main steam 
piping installations have usually been of carbon steel 
for the above steam conditions; for steam at temperatures 
of 750" F. to 900° F. carbon-moly pipe has been used; 
.md above this the practice seems to indicate chrome- 
moly pipe as required. In a comparison of weights with a 
Diesel installation, the feed water and greater amount of 
fuel required must be taken into account. 

The turbo-electric installation was brought to the fore 
by the manufacturing exigencies created by World War 
II. It is a reliable power plant, possesses great flexibility 
for maneuvering and can easily meet large steam and 
electric port requirements. The source of power is alter- 
nating current supplied at 2400 volts to the propulsion 
motor, 440 volts to auxiliary motors and 115 volts for 
lighting. As compared with the geared turbine job there 
are slight increases in fuel consumption, plant weight 
and cost. 

The direct Diesel installation lias a higher plant weight 
due to two factors, viz; increased weight of propulsion 
machinery and weight of boilers required for cargo use. 
This is more than oflPset by the weight savings effected 
by greater fuel economy, reduced water requirements and 
the ability to carry a greater cargo deadweight. With 
only normal care the maintenance costs are comparable. 
The present trend toward higher propeller speeds re- 
flects an advantage to the Diesel plant because lighter 
and smaller engines can be used to develop the same 

The present maximum power requirements for modern 
tankers are under 15,000 S. H. P. The power plant is 
usually designed as a single screw installation as this 
arrangement combines advantages of minimum plant 
weight and special requirements together with highest 
propulsive efficiency. Auxiliaries driven by electric mo- 
tors generally use direct current, 2.^0 volts, but there 
are some A. C. installations. The lighting circuits usually 
operate at 1 1 5 volts. 

Table IV has been prepared on a percentage basis for 
comparison of a geared turbine plant (450 psi. — 750° 
F. ) and a direct Diesel plant for a 500 ft. tanker, develop- 
ing 6000 S.H.P. at about 95 R.P.M., cruising radius of 
10,000 nautical miles. The relative fuel economies for all 
purposes have been assumed as follows: 

Geared turbine plant — 0.59 Ibs./SHP hr. 

Direct Diesel plant — 0..^8 Ibs./SHP hr. 


Geared Turbine Direct Diesel 

Hull & Outfit 20.1'; 20.19; 

Propulsion Machinery 3.0'r 4.69' 

Fuel 4.9% 3.2% 

Fresh Water, Stores, Crew 1.4'~<' 0.6% 

Cargo m6'; 71.5% 

{Please turn to pane 75y 

APRIL • 194 

Page 57 

Port Engineer of The Month 




A veteran on the seas, Ray Sample has sailed on the 
freighters Manukai. Makenu, Maunalei, Maliko, Mauna- 
li'ili, Mikiki, Mala, Maui, and Golden Kauri, and on 
the passenger vessels, Mariposa. Monterey. .Matsonia. and 

Born in Brockton, Massachusetts, Ray began his career 
after graduation from the Massachusetts Nautical School 
in 1918. He sailed for six years in a licensed capacity in 
the engine departments of various steamship companies 
on the East Coast and then joined Matson in December, 
1925 as Fourth Assistant Engineer on the Manukai. 

After serving as Chief Engineer during the war ( 1940- 
44), Ray came ashore in March, 1944 as Assistant Port 
Engineer. Upon the retirement of Henry Wolters in 
February, 1946, Ray became Port Engineer for Matson. 

Ray is a member of the Board of Governors of the 
San Francisco Society of Port Engineers. 

Page 58 

--With The 

Above, three tables at March meeting o' Port Enqinee-s 
Society of San Francisco. Center picture shows, left to 
right: Ray Sample, Matson; 1. B. Chapman, American 
President L^nes; President Phil Thearle, USAT: Speaker 
Harry Gamlen; N E. Walterspiel. Windsor Fuel Co.: and 
Ed Graff, Grace Lines. Mr. Gamlen's talk on boiler treat- 
ment is published in part on Page 61. 


Port Engineers- 

On page 60 of this issue appears a roster of 
inembers and officers of the Society of Port Engi- 
neers, Los Angeles. 

A roster of members and officers of the San 
Francisco Society appeared in the March issue of 
the Pacific Marine Rcvieir. 

The type of higiily informative programs being offered 
at meetings of the Port Engineers Societies is suggested 
by the following schedule of the San Francisco Society: 

April — Sooi Blowers 

May — CO, and Radar 

June — Combmtuin Control Boards 

JUI-Y — Steam and Electric Drives 

August — Application of Bottom Faint 
APRIL • 1948 

Roy Campbell 

Port Engineer of the 




The sea has always held a fascination for Roy, who 
has really been around. A native of Australia, he left 
there in 1916. At the youthful age of 15 he went to sea 
on the SS Cripple Creek and West ]appa for Frank 
Waterhouse and Company. The Hawaiian Islands lured 
him in 1920 where he .served his apprenticeship in the 
machine shops of the Catton and Neil Iron Works. 

Off to sea again in 1921, he sailed on the West Nilus 
for Matson. 

On Richfield ships from 1927 to 19.t6, Roy served 
in all capacities up to chief engineer. He was second as- 
sistant on the SS Tamibua ;rhen she went aground at 
Pidgeon Point in 19.^1. 

Roy served as assistant engineer for General Petroleum 
in 19.38 and was with Consolidated Steel in 1941 as 
first marine machinist and later as trial chief engineer. 
As owner's representative, he went on the maiden voy- 
age of Consolidated's first C-1, the /l,c;;r/wo«/e. In 1941 
he went on the third C-l, Alcoa Pennant, to Honolulu, 
arriving at Pearl Harbor December .30 of that year. 

Roy worked under Harry Summers for one year at 
the American Bureau of Shipping and under Paul V. 
Gaudin for three years as assistant superintending en- 
gineer for American Pacific ( formerly Los Angeles 

He is now an engineer wih Cam]-)bcll-Jackson Marine 

Page 59 




Wm. Anderson Keystone Shipping _ 1015 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

John R. Black Amer. Bureau of Shipping 106 East "F" St., Wilmington, Calif. 

S. F. Boomer Lloyds Register of Shipping 2460 Cedar Ave., Long Beach 

R. R. Campbell 222 W. 20th St., Long Beach 

Fred Cordes Deconhil Shipping Co 305 No. Avalon, Wilmington 

Geo. W. Curran Amer. Pacific SS Co 365 W. 7th St., San Pedro 

R. H. Cyrus. Union Oil Drawer 846, Wilmington 

Joe Dennis Craig Shipbuilding Long Beach 

Dave DeRochie . Pacific Marine Review 816 W. 5th St., L. A. 

Dan Dobler Texas Co P. O. Box 755, Wilmington 

H. Dreggors . Amer. Pacific SS Co 365 N. 7th St., San Pedro 

C. T. Duggan Amer. Pacific SS Co 365 N. 7th St., San Pedro 

H. M. Gaither Isthmian SS Co Pier A, Long Beach 

Paul V. Gaudin.. Amer. Pacific SS Co 365 W. 7th St., San Pedro 

Glen Gulvin Amer. Pacific SS Co 365 W. 7th St., San Pedro 

Bert L. Hale ...Marine Solvents Corp 216 -2nd St., Seal Beach 

J. T. Hare . U. S. Maritime Commission Ill W. 7th St., San Pedro 

Ed. L. Harris Uhlin Machine Works 1435 So. Beacon St., San Pedro 

Geo. Hoxie Amer. President Lines Berth 155, Wilmington 

C. L. Jackson Jackson-Campbell 2539 E. 3rd St., Long Beach 

M.H.Kelly Richfield Oil Co 1400 W. 7th St., Long Beach 

Lloyd L Kennedy 2009 Averill St., San Pedro 

Ed Lawlor . Amer. Pacific Lines 365 W. 7th St., San Pedro 

Ed Markey Union Oil Co Drawer 846, Wilmington 

H. W. McEwing. 2174 Magnolia Ave., Long Beach 

Geo. H. McCoy Marine Solvents 2427 Pine Ave., Long Beach 

Harry Miller 1253 Sunside Co., San Pedro 

H. Neergaard Burns Steamship Co Box 247, Wilmington 

C.W.Peterson The Texas Co 24413 Deepwater, Wilmington 

Carl Reed Richfield Oil Co 1400 W. 7th St.. Long Beach 

Tom Rhodes The Log ! 124 W. 24th St., Los Angeles 

Lloyd Richardson ; 305 N. Avalon Wilmington 

G. A. Robinson L B. Marine Repair 1409 W. 7th St., Long Beach 

Wm. Scott Catalina Island SS Co Box 847, Wilmington 

C. T. Solomon 106 E. "F" St., Wilmington 

C. P. Snively Amer. Pacific SS Co 2181 Chestnut Ave., Long Beach 

Harry J. Summers Amer. Bureau of Shipping 1217 So. Leland, San Pedro 

J. L. Wosser Matson Navigation Co _ 5530 Telbury, Long Beach 

Banning P. Young 810 N. Fries Ave., Wilmington 


Joe Wosser, Preudent 
Dan Dobler. Vice President 

Page 60 

Bl'RT Hale. Secretary 

Alex Robinson, Vice Secretary 


How to Cet the Host 
Out of Your Fuel Oil Dollars 

Hy H. liAMLEN 

Nearly twenn' years ago, I stood be- 
fore a similar group of San Francisco 
Port Engineers, and announced two im- 
portant discoveries pertaining to the 
fireside of steam boilers, — namely, that 
boiler metal, with particular reference 
to the radiant heat section, underwent 
a chemical change to become a sulphide 
of iron; and that deposits of combus- 
tion commonly called "soot" were not 
carbon compounds, but instead, compo- 
sitions of silicon, aluminum, iron and 
calcium sulphates, sulphides and oxides. 

Today these truths are even more 
evident, due to increasingly poorer 
grades of fuel, higher rates of combus- 
tion, more square footage of radiant 
tube surface, and closer spacing of 
tubes; and 1 should like to have you 
become acquainted with the analysis of 
an average sample of oil, and follow 

•Paper presented by H. Gamlen, Pres- 
ident and Chief Engineer, Gamlen Chem- 
ical Company, before the Port Engi- 
I neers' Association of San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, March 3, 1948, at the Whitcomb 

Notice; The bulk of material con- 
tained in this paper was taken from 
material covered in prior copyrighted 
articles bearing the following notice: 
All rights reserved — not to be repro- 
duced in whole or part except by writ- 
ten permission of H. Gamlen, Gamlen 
Chemical Company. 

APRIL • 1948 

Harry Gamlin giv- 
ing talk at Port 
Engineers' Society 
of San Francisco, 
March 3. 

its journey through the supply tank, the 
heater, the burner, the chemistry of 
combustion, the formation of combustion 
deposits, theif analysis, and finally con- 
trol by chemical means. 

A few years ago the National Asso- 
ciation of Power Engineers conducted 
a survey and showed that approximately 
half of the heat value of fuel burned 
under boilers was wasted; most of it by 
way of the smoke stack. It is, of course, 
impossible to convert all of the heat 
value of fuel into useful energy, but we 
can go a long way toward obtaining 
higher combustion efHciencies in many 

For instance, an improperly instructed 
fireman may assume that he is doing a 
good job in maintaining smokeless com- 
bustion, but the fact remains that such 
practice may be costing up to 10% of 
the total fuel consumed. 

High percentages of carbon dioxide in 
flue gases can also account for false 
economies, but in my experience, one 
of the chief losses results from ineffi- 
cient or insuflicient combustion caused 
by the high interfacial tension of the 
oil itself, due to small amounts of 

Practically all crude oils produced con- 
tain salt water, either in a free state, 
or in the form of an emulsion. It is 
estimated that of the total of 2,200,000,- 
000 barrels of crude oil, over 400,000,- 
000 barrels recovered yearly is in a 
highly emulsified state. 

The primary methods for breaking 

up emulsions are the addition of chemi- 
cals, by applications of electricity, heat 
and pressure, or a combination of these 

Difficulty with fuel oil actually starts 
at the well, where the crude is produced, 
for as previously mentioned, practically 
all crudes produced contain a certain 
amount of salt water. 

In an emulsion, the internal phase is 
the emulsified element. 

Figure 1 shows a typical example of 
a loose emulsion, which clearly de- 
scribes the internal phase. Note that the 
droplets are of various sizes. Whenever 
the water is free, some of it will sep- 
arate on standing. Of course, the gravity 
of the mass has considerable influence 
on this action. If the emulsion is un- 
stable, and it is well to remember that 
it can be both stable and unstable, much 
of the water can separate out, leaving 
the stable emulsion still 'in suspension 
in the oil. 


However, each time the oil passes 
through small openings, subjected to 
pressure, caused to surge through pump 
chambers, or wire-drawn, so to speak, 
through partially open valves, a condi- 
tion or process is set up which tends to 
break the water droplets into finer par- 
ticles, and create the condition known 
as a "tight" emulsion. It is this condition 
that helps to create the sludge with which 
we are all familiar. 

This sludge and muck accumulate on 
tank bottoms and tank sides. The suc- 
tion line of the fuel pump collects sludge 
and muck. Liver-like substances form in 
the fuel pump. Heavy collections of car- 
bon compounds form in oil pre-heaters; 

Page 61 


strainers become clogged. 

When burning this oil, carbon forms 
on the burner tips. Frequently there is 
excessive sparking, poor atomization, oil 
sprayed on side walls, and in many instal- 
lations, heavy chunks of carbon form in 
the furnace, smoky flames, etc. Of course, 
some of these combustion troubles are 
undoubtedly due to equipment, and 
some to improper handling, or insuffi- 
cient knowledge of proper practice. 

Oil storage tank troubles are due 
primarily to the formation of sludge in 
the bottom of the tank. Sediment due to 
foreign substances, such as sand, is sel- 
dom serious. In cold climates where heat- 
ing coils are installed, excess heating 
carbonizing and water leakage are also 
quite troublesome. 

You will remember that practically all 
fuel oil contains a certain amount of 
water, in either stable ( emulsified, tight ; 
or unstable (loose) form. In addition, 
tank sweating and leaks after the oil has 
been received, plus ballast water, pro- 
vides another direct source of water 

Although it will surprise many, the 
analysis of sludge shows that it is a 
composition of emulsified oil and water, 
with the water content sometimes rang- 
ing up to 75% of the volume. Most 
sludge, as many engineers are aware, 
will not burn, nor is it dissolved by 
mineral spirits, kerosene, alkalis, or caus- 
tic compounds, etc. 

The presence of sludge m a storage 
tank not only occupies valuable space, 
but constantly provides the opportunity 
for loose material to break away, and 
enter the suction line, causing trouble 
at a time when trouble is least desired. 
Sludge and muck in suction lines be- 
tween the tank and fuel pump can cause 
much trouble. It reduces the capacity 
of the pipe, and puts a greater load on 
the pump, increasing the necessary pow- 
er and the cost to pump the required 
amount of oil. Remember, everything 
that moves, everything that turns, con- 
stimting a mechanical movement, costs 
money. Every B.T.U. saved is a B.T.U. 

Oil strainers, of course, are a necessity 
in any oil burning plant. Whether or not 
we can rightfully include this piece of 
equipment into our list of troubles, I 
am not sure, since its purpose is to pre- 
vent trouble by collecting foreign matter 
before the oil enters the burner itself, 
preventing a shutdown of the fire. 

When carbon formations exist on. the 
plate or rube surfaces of the oil preheater, 
the rate of heat transfer is reduced in 
proportion. Carbon formation in oil 
heaters is primarily due to excessive tem- 
perature, but the presence of water in oil 
plays an important part in causing de- 
posits to form in oil preheaters. For 
instance, when conducting a flash test 
on a sample of oil free of water, the sur- 
faces of the oil remains quite still, and 
the test is quickly completed. When con- 
ducting; the same test on oil containing 
a small amount of water, the sample 

foams, making it difficult, if not impos- 
sible, to conduct the test. Pour a small 
amount of water free oil on a heated 
plate; it will either smoke, vaporize or 
burn, depending on the temperature, but 
if it contains water, it will sizzle or spit 
depending on the temperature of the 
test plate. 

The Gamlen Chemical Company start- 
ed work in 1935, and by 19.^9 had 
formed definite conclusions together with 
a practical chart for use by engineers. We 
called it the "Viscosir>' Temperature 
Chart," and, in 1942, we converted it 
mto a direct reading scale in three 
columns as follows: Saybolt Seconds 
Universal Scale, Saybolt Seconds Furol 
Scale, and Fahrenheit or Temperature 

The Saybolt Scales were used because 
most oils used in the United States are 
based on Saybolt standards. In 1942, we 
dressed up the chart in the form of a 
thermometer, as it is now so well known 
among engineers. ( Fig. 2. ) 

In using this chart it is only necessary 
to know the Furol viscosity of the oil 
delivered and, going up the Furol 
column, find the Furol figure. The cor- 
rect atomizing temperature for that oil 
IS found in the Fahrenheit column di- 
rectly to the right of the Furol column. 

The faster the process of combustion, 
the more efficient the combustion. The 
flame should be clean, bright, but soft, 
and so designed as to almost completely 
fill the furnace. Keep in mind that ap- 
proximately 50% of the work done by 
a boiler is done in the radiant heat of 
the flame. Accordingly, a short blasting 


type of flame, caused by excess preheat 
and pressure, is not conducive to effi- 
cient combustion and good radiation. In 
general, the faster the process of com- 
bustion, the more efficient the combus- 
tion. Ordinarily, a flame surrounded by 
incandescent refractory with its support- 
ing and reflected heat, will be more com- 
plete and more efficient than when sur- 
rounded by water walls. The average 
temperature of a furnace surrounded by 
water walls is probably 2200° F. In a 
refractory lined furnace, much higher 
temperatures are obtained. 

The combustion taking place in a 
common candle flame presents an excel- 
lent comparison to an oil flame. The wax 
or tallow is a form of solid hydrocarbon. 
When we light the wick, the solid wax 
is melted and, by capillary attraction, the 
liquid carbon and hydrogen compound 
flows toward the heat of the flame. A 
chemical process is started in which 
oxygen from the atmosphere is rushing 
at high speed to combine with the car- 
bon and hydrogen. (Fig. i.) 

By observation, we note there are 
three distinct cones in the flame, brought 
about by the destructive distillation and 
oxidation, changing the liquid fat into 
gases. The first cone is blue and trans- 
parent, typical of burning pure hydro- 
gen. The second cone, formed almost 
completely around and enclosing the blue 
cone, except at the bottom near the wick, 
is a bright yellow to almost white. Oxy- 
gen rushing in from the bottom and 
sides of the flame, cannot completely en- 
ter the envelope and is not sufficient for 
the complete combustion of the inner 

The bright yellow cone is the carbon 
cone and, while water vapor is being 
formed at the inner cone, carbon dioxide 
is being released at the end of the car- 
bon cone. However, due to the cool air 
surrounding the flame, there is a loss 
of temperature on the surfaces of the 


A. Limit of pumping. 

B. Limit of easy pumping. 

To obtain best atomizing temperature 
of a fuel oil, determine Furol viscosm' 
from delivery slip and select correct tem- 
perature in Fahrenheit column. 
Operate with atomizer valve wide open 
and control b.t.u. release and load with 
oil pressure. 

Adjust air supply just sufficient to obtain 
a smokeless fire, any excess above this 
results in a serious heat loss. 
Average Bunker fuel contains 84-86^ 
Carbon, 10-12% Hydrogen, 0.75-1.5% 
Sulphur, plus Oxygen, Nitrogen, Mois- 
ture and ash. 

To find b.t.u. value, multiply percent of 
carbon content by 146, the percent of 
hydrogen by 620, the percent of sulphur 
by 40. Sum totals b.t.u. content. Ap- 

Each pound of carbon requires 11.6 lbs. 
of air for its combustion. Each pound of 
hydrogen requires .34.5 lbs. of air. A 
small excess is necessary above this exact 

Page 62 



. AME 


-Dirty Tail Fnd5 

Outer Envelop 
Cooled By Sur- 
roudinq Afmos- 


— Produces 








HydroqenCone — 




*"Aif Oiiyqen 

Volatile 1 


oGCCa 1941. 


outer enveli 

Fig. 3 

nj Jue lo this loss ot 
temperature, all of the carbon is not con- 
verted into carbon dioxide. Some of it 
is converted only to carbon monoxide. 
In fact, the dirty tail ends (smoke) at 
the end of the flame indicate that some 
carbon has not combined at all. 

This candle Hanie is surrounded by 
all the oxy,i>cn in the world, but it does 
not it. It only uses that which this 
amount of carbon and hydrogen can 
handle under this specific condition, and 
both elements are starved because of in- 
sufficient temperature. Combustion was 
incomplete and inefficient because the 
excess air surrounding the Hame cooled 
the envelope and slowed dow