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Full text of "Pacific merchant marine"

How the Foreign Ship Trust Grafts on the 
Western Producer 



The Use of Oil As a Protection at *>ea 
Notes Of Pacific Coast Ports 



Editorial 



Report of the Special Board of Engineers 
on the Panama Canal 




Existing Conditions During Construction of 
The Suez Canal (Continued) 



Price 10 CenU ^NQl-v^ P \6^MA^i^ $4.00 per Year 




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U. S. CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS. 

COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS under the Rules of the U. S. Civil 

Service Commission, for the Positions named, will soon 

be held throughout the United States. 



EXAMINATIONS TO BE HELD IN THE SPRING OF 1909 



Agricultural inspector, Philippine Service. ' 

Aid, Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Apprentice plate cleaner, tranferrer, and engraver. 

Assistant, Philippine Service. 

Assistant examiner. Patent Office. 

Bookkeeper (men only), Philippine Service. 

Civil engineer. Departmental Service. 

Civil engineer, Philippine Service. 

Civil engineer and draftsman. 

Civil engineer and superintendent of construction. 

Civil engineer student. 

*Clerk (male and female). Departmental Service. 

Computer : 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Nautical Almanac Office. 

Naval Observatory. 

Supervising Architect's Office. 
Draftsman : 

Apprentice, Ordnance Department. 

Architectural. 

Copyist, topographic. 

Engineer. 

Heating and ventilating. 

Junior architectural. 

Mechanical, Isthmian Canal Service. 

Topographic, Departmental Service. 

Topographic, Isthmian Canal Service. 
Electrotyper-stereotyper. 
Engineer, Indian Service. 
Parmer, Indian Service. 
Farmer with knowledge of irrigation. 



Fish culturist. 

Forest assistant. Forest Service. 

Forest assistant, Philippine Service. 

Kindergarten teacher, Indian Service. 

Local and assistant inspector of boilers. 

Local and assistant inspector of hulls. 

Matron, Indian Service. 

Observer, Weather Bureau. 

Pharmacist, Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service. 

Physician, Indian Service. 

Physician, Philippine Service. 

Postal clerk. Isthmian Canal Service. 

Press feeder, cylinder and platen. 

Pressman. 

Railway mail clerk. 

Scientific assistant. 

Stenographer, Departmental Service. 

Stenographer and typewriter, Departmental, Isthmian 

Canal, and Philippine Services. 
Superintendent of construction. 
Surgeon, Departmental Service. 
Surveyor, Philippine Service. 
Teacher, Indian Service. 
Teacher, Philippine Service. 
Trained nurse, Indian Service. 
Trained nurse, Isthmian Canal Service. 
Trained nurse, Pliilippine Service. 
Typewriter, Departmental Service. 
Veterinarian, Philippine Service. 
Veterinary inspector. Department of Agriculture. 



Application forms and information in regard to these examinations may be obtained by addressing the U. S. 
Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C, or the Secretary of the Board of Examiners at the following-named 
places: Post-office, Boston, Mass., Philadelphia, Pa., Atlanta, Ga., Cincinnati, Ohio, Chicago, 111., St. Paul, Minn., 
Denver, Colo., San Francisco, Cal.; Custom-housie, New York, N. Y., New Orleans, La.; Old custom-house, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

*Open only to legal residents of Porto Rico, Alaska, Hawaii, Mississippi, Alabama, New Mexico, Louisiana. 
Texas, Washington, Arkansas, North Dakota, South Dakota, Tennessee, Missouri, Oklahoma, California, Wisconsin, 
and Oregon. 



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Pacifi 



^%77 



Merchant Marine - 



Volume II 



SATURDAY. MARCH 20. 1909 



Number I 



HOW THE FOREIGN SHIP TRUST GRAFTS UPON 

THE WESTERN PRODUCER 

By .J(HIN A. rKNTt>N 

Then- iieviT has bofn in |M>liti<"al history a ylranwr 
example of piiblii' ineii standing in their own light an»l 
striking at the welfare of their constituents than that 
priM«'ntetl by those Hepreseniativea in CongresH from the 
middle West who have voted of late years against the 
RiMtKevelt plan of aiiling and encouraging Ameriei>ii 
Rteamsliip linea to South America and the Orient. 

Mr. Taft haa pointed out that the uphuihiing of nnr 
ii«ean shipping is the one thing in which the Republicin 
party has faileil to keep its pronii.ses to the |>eo|)le. It 
ii. I because a few Repn»sentatives of middle West- 

II ^ have joine«l the soli»l Demoeratie opposition 

■ I defeat the reeomnu'iulatioiis of the Presi<lent and the 
pletlges of tBe (Jovernment. These statcsemen appar- 
'•Btly have asHumetl that the buiUling and maintenance 
of ocean steamships was an in<lustry which bciu-fited only 
the .seuboard states on the Atlantic and I'aeitie. As a 
matter of fact. Ohio. Indiana. Illinois, .Michigan. Wisccm- 
■in, Iowa. Minnesota and Nebraska have more to gain 
through the service of an atlequate American ocean fleet 
than any other section of the nation. 

Why is this so? liecause these mid<lle Western states, 
together with the cotton states of the South, produce 
moat of the commmlities which the I'nited States sends 
over seas to foreign customers. We are depeinlent now 
on our rivals in trade to deliver these American gotnls: 
and our Kuropean and Asiatic rivals are keen to take 
advantage of their opportunity. 

The ureal department store* of Cliicago, Cincinnati. 
8t. Louis. Milwaukee and Omaha do not depend upon 
rival stores acro.ss the street for their delivery service. 
The great newspapers of these cities wouhl not dream 
of permitting their com|)etitors to handle their circula- 
tioB. Kvery man of business knows that, so long as 
human nature is what it is. his rival will never give him as 
giMid a delivery service at as low rates as he provides 
for his own ijoods. 

This is exactly so in our trade with South America and 
the Orient. The merchants and manufacturers of Ku 
rope, who own all the few and poor ships that ply 
bttween our |M>rt8 and Braxil and Argentina, take good 
care to a«'e that it costs more to send a case of American 
machinery or a barrel of flour to Rio Janeiro or Buenoa 
Ayr»'s fnun New York than it costs to send a like com- 
modity fnim (Ireat liritain or the Continent. 

So on the Pacific, where British and Japanese suhsi- 
diwtl competition ia at this very moment driving off the 
last American shifts. When our ships have gone, these 
foreigners will step in and form combinations to squeeze 
our export tra«le for all that it is worth. 

Do you doidit this? It is exactly what has happened 
on the Atlanlic Oi-ean. A few weeks ago the news- 
papers anno\mced a meeting in lA>n<lon of the foreign 
'•ompanica that monopolize the carrj'ing trade between 
• ur ports and South America to arrange a tnist or "com- 
'ine" and increase fn-ight rates. This meetinjtwas pre- 
-ide<l over by the head of the Hamburg-American Co.. 



the greatest Oerman shipping line, which took fast steam- 
ers out of its .New York service in our war with Spain 
and wdd them to the Spanisii Ailmiralty to "bum. sink 
atui destroy" the commerce of riie .Vmerican nation. 

This European ship trust haa ailvanccd rates from 50 
to UN) per c<>nt within a short time on the provisions and 
other pr«Klucts of the Mississippi Valley. Those few mid- 
dle Western Congressmen who vtded against President 
Roiiscvelt and in favor of defeating the ocean mail bill 
last Ma.v unwittingl.v. |>erha|>s, but none the less surely. 
betrayed the interests of their people. 

.\nother European ship trust that dominiitcK tlie t-nrry- 
ing trade between our I'aeitie Coast and Europe has raised 
frei'_'bls on the Pacific more than 40(> per cent and wrung 
its profits oijt of the fMiekets of our Western wheat grow- 
ers. There is another European steamship trust in our 
trade with the Philippine Islamls. The Stars and Stripes 
float over Manila Bay. but an American ship cannot get 
a homeward cargo in Manila harbor, and the last two 
K'eamships in this trade are jtist being withdrawn. 

Pn*sident Roosevelt regards th<' rebuilding of our mer- 
chant navy as second in importance onl.v to the construc- 
tion of the Panama Canal. Judge Taft in his address of 
acceptance declares strongl.v in favor of the immediate 
enactment of the ocean mail bill, which was halted by 
the opposition of thirty odd middle Western nu-n at the last 
st>»sion of Congress. This bill pn)vide8 for swift and 
regidar steamship communication under the American flag 
with the chief countries of South America, with Japan, 
(.'hina. the Philippines and Australasia. It does not pro- 
pose to give one dollar to fa.st passenger ships to Europe, 
and the total expenditures under it are limited expressl.v 
to the present net profits of our ocean mail service, or 
about ♦.3,6nO.0<X) a year. 

This hill, if it is enacted, will break the grip of the 
greedy European ship trusts. It will enable us to de- 
liver our own goods to our own customers. It will In- 
crease the sales of the flour of the Northwest, the pro- 
visions of Nebraska. Kansas and Iowa, the machinery of 
Cleveland. Chicago. Detroit. Cincinnati. St. I.<ouis and 
Kansas City. Eastern labor and capital may build these 
ships, but they will carry chiefly Western cargoes. The 
Western men who fail to stand by President Roosevelt 
and Judge Taft but vote as the foreign ship monopolists 
would have them, aeainst this ocean mail bill, are. as I 
have said. delil>erately. and as I now wiy aifain. bdrayinK 
the interest of their constituents. 



ENGINEERS ON CANAL. 



Full 



Text of the Report of the Special Board of Engineer* 
Submitted to Congress by the President. 

WastiliiKlnn. February H. 190». 

Sir: In accordance with jrour iniitrurtlnnii. we hsvA visited 
the isthmian ranal. in rompany with Hon. William H. Taft, and 
have examined the work In prosTe«a and the plans for tbe 
iitnir tares as far as now devolnpMl. 

We have Klren especial consideration, under the Instructions 
of Mr. Taft, (o tbe foundatinns for the Ostun dam. and the 
faaslbUlty of conatnictinK and inalntalninK thereon a itafe dam 



■•M at "T^mt Maa Fltla," rs Mavkr« S«rr«« 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



for retaining water at eighty-five feet above sea level. 

We have examined the slides in the banks of the canal and 
the surveys, plottings and sections that have been made of 
them. The subsidence in the fills in the toes of the dams and 
in the railway embankments has also been examined, and we 
have considered the effect of the qualities of materials thus 
disclosed upon the construction of the various works and upon 
their ultimate stability. 

We have also considered the evidence that has been accumu- 
lated as to the permeability of the different materials and the 
possible loss of water by percolation through the bed and banks 
of the future Gatun Lake; and the question whether such loss 
of water by seepage would result in materially reducing the 
water supply or in undermining and ultimately crippling the 
structure. 

Gatun Dam. 
The Gatun earth dam is the central point of discussion, and 
. we were instructed by Mr. Taft to give it first consideration in 
■the light of all new evidence. 

we are satisfied, both from the records of the experiments 
that have been made and from our own personal examination 
of the materials, as seen in cuts now open and as disclosed by 
samples from test borings, that there will be no dangerous or 
objectionable seepage through the materials under the base of 
the dam, nor are they so soft as to be liable to be pushed aside 
by the weight of the proposed dam so as to cause dangerous 
settlement. 

We are also satisfied that the materials available and which 
it is proposed to use are suitable and can be rea'dily placed to 
form a tight, stable and permanent dam. 

The type of dam now under construction is one which meets 
with our unanimous approval. It is a combination of rock fill 
and hydraulic fill, in which the exterior faces are to be com- 
posed largely of rock of all sizes obtained from the canal 
excavation, dumped and laid on slopes much flatter than are 
ordinarily found in earth dams, while the interior of the great 
mass will consist of clayey material obtained by hydraulic 
dredging from large deposits at a little distance from the dam 
and carried by water through pipes to the places where it is to 
be used. The material as delivered is a mixture of earth and 
water. The material held in suspension slowly deposits, finally 
forming a solid, water-tight embankment. The pond necessarily 
maintained on the top of the dam during construction tests the 
embankment at all stages of its growth, searches out any weak 
points and leads to the closure of any voids or cracks. 

The most practical question in the construction of the Gatun 
dam is the possible slipping and sliding of the materials under- 
neath and in the body of the dam. The materials, speaking 
broadly, are of a clayey nature, generally impervious to water, 
but sometimes slipping when subjected to heavy unbalanced 
pressure or on high steep slopes when saturated with water. 
In this respect the materials differ radically from the sandy 
and gravelly materials which have been frequently used in the 
construction of other earth dams. 

In order to build a dam of these clayey materials that will 
be stable and permanent, it is necessary that the slopes should 
be fiatter than would be needed to secure the stability of a dam 
of siliceous, sandy or gravelly materials. 

The evidence that has been accumulated as to the degrees 
of slope that are stable with these materials seems to us con- 
clusive. The fact that the materials are slippery does not 
mean that a dam built from them is necessarily less stable than 
a dam built of materials that do not slip so easily. It does 
mean that, in order to secure stability and permanency, the dam 
must be built with a greater thickness at the bottom. 

The dam as proposed is more than a third of a mile in 
horizontal thickness at its base, including the rock fill portions. 
The design upon which the work is now being prosecuted 
abundantly fulfills the required degree of stability and goes far 
beyond the limits of what would be regarded as sufficient and 
safe in any less important structure. 

As a matter of convenience and economy during construction, 
materials have been piled up on slopes much steeper than those 
contemplated in the finished work. Generally, the materials so 
placed have remained in position, but in some cases slips have 
occurred. The occurrence of these slips is of no serious con- 
seauence either in the practical execution of the work or in the 
ultimate stability of the structure. We can readily understand 
how incorrect deductions may have been drawn from these 
occurrences, especially by those not fnlly informed as to the 
character of the materials and the ample dimensions and much 
less steep slopes of the proposed structures in their final form. 
We were requested to consider the proper height for the 
crest of the Gatun dam, and after consideration concluded that 
it could be safely reduced twenty feet from that originally 



proposed, namely, < to an elevation of 115 feet above sea level, 
or thirty feet above the normal level of the water against the 
dam. We are also of the opinion that the sheet piling recently 
projjosed under the base of the dam may be safely omitted. 
The narrow cutoff trench now in progress through the upper 
earth stratum on Gatun Island and elsewhere and designed to 
be refilled with sluiced material should be continued. 

Changes in these respects will facilitate the work of con- 
struction and will reduce somewhat the cost of the proposed 
work. 

A full study of all the data at hand, and of the materials, 
and of the plans that are proposed with the above modifications, 
leaves no doubt in our minds as to the safe, tight and durable 
character of the Gatun dam. 

Changes in Plan of Canal. 

It was suggested to us by Mr. Taft that we give special con- 
sideration to those changes which have been made in the plans 
of the minority of the board of consulting engineers of 1905 
since the adoption of the project. 

Change In Position of Lower Pacific Locks: 
One of the most important of these changes is the moving 
of the lower locks on the Pacific end of the canal from La Boca, 
on the shore of Panama Bay, to Miraflores, about four miles 
inland. 

This change involved abandoning the construction of two 
earth dams at and near La Boca and the substitution of about 
four miles of deep-sea level channel 500 feet wide from La Boca 
to Miraflores in place of a wider channel through the lake that 
would have been created by the dams. 

Before this change was made work had been commenced 
upon the toes of one of the dams. The material had been piled 
up to a considerable height on slopes steeper than were capable 
of being supported by the underlying material. Under these 
conditions settlements occurred with lateral displacement of 
some of the underlying material. Your board, after carefully 
inspecting the ground and the partially completed work, is of 
the opinion that these settlements cause no reason to doubt 
the stability of the proposed dams. We are unanimously of the 
opinion that stable and water-tight dams of substantially the 
proposed dimensions could have been constructed on the pro- 
posed sites without recourse to dredging out the underlying soft 
material. 

The report of the minority of the board of consulting 
engineers of 1905 recognized that an objection might be made 
from a military point of view to placing locks on the shore of a 
bay, exposed to guns of hostile ships. We now understand that 
the controlling reason for the change was a military one. This 
change in the plans will result in an increase in cost of the 
canal by an amount judged from evidence at our disposal to 
be not less than $10,000,000. We are informed, however, that 
this change would greatly lessen the cost of fortification. 

Increased Width of Canal. 

Another change is the increase of the minimum bottom 
width of the canal from 200 feet to 300 feet This applies to a 
length of about 4.7 miles in the Culebra cut We understand 
that this change will increase the cost of the work by about 
$1.3.000,000. The work upon the excavation of the Culebra cut 
under the revised plan has now so far advanced that this 
widening will not delay the comj)letion of the canal. 

The widening will permit ships to pjiss one another in this 
portion of the canal, as they may under the original plan in all 
other portions, and will otherwise facilitate navigation through it. 

If slides occur after the completion of the canal, the wider 
canal is not as likely to be blocked as a narrow one. 

We understand that this change was authorized directly by' 
you on the presentation of its advantages by the chief engineer, 
and we merely call attention to it as one reason for the increased 
cost of the canal. 

Increased Size of Locks. 

Another change is the increase of the dimensions of the locks 
from 95 by 900 feet to 110 by 1,000 feet. The increase in width, 
we understand, has been made in compliance with a request 
from the general board of the Navy Department, in order to 
allow the passage of the largest war vessels contemplated. 

A large increase in cost is involved in these enlarged 
dimensions. 

Changes in Breakwaters. 

An important change is proposed in the location of the break- 
water at the Atlantic end of the canal. The plan provisionally, 
adopted b.f the board of consulting engineers of 1905, and 
adopted for the purpose of estimate by the minority of that. 



Sold at Oceanic Pharmacy. 14S Kant St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MAHINE 



board, waa for a breakwater generally parallel with the channel, 
which Included less than one-third of Llnion Bay; whereas the 
breakwater In the location now proposed will protect the entire 
bay and furnish a (nore commodious harbor not only for ships 
using the canal, but for all other shipping which makes use of 
the port. A considerable increase in cost is Involved In this 
change. 

We had an opportunity to view the present harbor durins 
what Is said to have been the only severe norther of the past 
two years, and have no doobt that a good breakwater Is a desir- 
able adjunct to the canal. We are not prepared to pasa on the 
precise location, form or cost of this. 

A change of less Importance has been made at the Pacific 
end by relocating the dredged channel leading to deep water and 
Increasing Its width from 300 to 500 feet and by constructing 
a breakwater from the shore at La Boca to Naos Island with 
iimterlal excavated from the Culebra cut This breakwater, 
now under construction, serves to prevent currents across the 
ranal cut and tends to prevent deposits In the dredged channel 
and to Increase the safety of navigation. The breakwater may 
also serve to carry a roadway to Naos Island. These changes 
Involve some additional expense. 



Present Condition of Work. 

It has been suggested that we re|>urt upon the condition of 
(be work and the progress being made, and. If found possible 
in the time at our disposal, upon the probable time of completion. 
Organization. 

We have seen the work under way on all parts of the canal. 
We have become acquainted with the engineers In responsible 
liosltlODs and have noted the orguniration and equipment. 

It is our Impression that the work Is well organised and is 
being conducted energetically and well. 

The work Is done by day labor and not by the contract 
system. 

The men are well paid, well housed, well fed and well cared 
for In case of sickness or accident. Houses, furniture, fuel, 
water, drainage and lights are furnished to employees without 
cost. Roads are built, schools supjHirted and Young Men's 
Christian Association buildings provided, which are practically 
club buildings. Parts of the running expenses are also paid. 
The iireniises are cleared and drained and the grass kept cut. 
The climate Is especially adapted to outdoor life, and the ample 
ix>rrhes, entirely enclosed by bronse-wire screens, give the 
greatest facility for this. We are especially pleased with the 
architectural arrangements of the houses. They are admirably 
adapted to the climatic conditions. 




* xiiiri.o \i> OK i-i,*r I \us \T riKU ii, i kixtiiii ti.. 
1 >n this pier PrcalUent Houaovalt and Secretary Koot held their (arswell reception. The pier accommodates six ships. 



Relocation of Panama Rallrosd. 
The allnement of the Panama Railroad has been materially 
"hanged south of Gatun. This change- was made because It was 
<| that the swamp near the Gatuiictllo River would not 
ort the very high railroad embankment required, if made , 
ordinary slopes, and a line crossing at a point higher up 
river was selected, which does not, however, materially 
•ase the length of the railroad. The construction of the 
■oad will cost much more than was estimated by the minority 
i)f consulting engineers, who were unable to pro- 
of the proposed location. The recent change In 
Hoitiiuii iiiiKrils more ample and convenient anchorage Imme- 
diately alMve the locks. 

Other Changes, 

Some further changes or additions which have not yet been 

fiiiiv worked out have been mentioned to us as likely to be 

!" as the work progresses, namely, the dredging out of a 

ill anchorage basin Immediately downstream from the Oatun 

s. another for anchorage and room for turning of long ships 

" l.a Hoca. and possibly another Just below the MIraflores 

s. These can all be delayed until the comple'.lon of the 

I -vork of canal excavation and lock building, and then 

iited by the dredges that have done the main work. The 

k ran thug be done without additional eqnipment and at a 

.,... price per cubic yard. 



Bachelor quarters and hotels furnishing meats at moderate 
prices are also provided by the Oovernnient. 

Hospitals are provided, free medical attendance Is furnished 
to eni|iloyees, and medical attendance at low rates Is supplied 
to families of employees. 

A limited amount of free trans|>ortatlon. namely, one excursion 
trip each month to any station, is furnished on the Panama 
Railroad to employees, and half rates are given In all other 
caseK. and also half rates to families of employees. Free trans- 
portation in some cases, and In all other cases transportation 
at rt-duced rates to and from the Isthmus, is provided to em- 
ployees and their families. 

Six weeks' leave of absence each year, with full pay, is given 
to all monthly employees, and this Includes not only office and 
engineering forces, but also the mechanical forces on the 
monthly basis. 

The medical and sanitary department Is especially to be 
commended for its success In exterminating yellow fever and 
controlling malaria, and for other measures which have made 
the isthmus a thoroughly healthful place In which to live. 

The cost of the sanitary department, which represents the 
cost of keeping the Isthmus healthful, amounts to about 12.000.000 
per vear. This is a large sum. but the work Is well done, and 
any decrease In the efficiency of the sanitary service might 



S*M at -That Maa Plt«a," T3 Mar ket S(re«« 



6 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



readily prove disastrous to the prosecution of the main work. part to the adoption of an eight-hour day for most of the work 

We believe that in no other great construction work has so instead of a ten-hour day. In part to the much greater expendi- 

much been done tor employees in the way of furnishing neces- ture tor housing and care of employees and lor auxiliary works 

slties, comtorts and luxuries of life at the cost of the work as than was anticipated, and in part, In our opinion, to the evident 

has been done in this case, 'ihis is one reason for the high cost purpose to make the estimates ample and to provide liberally 

of the canal. tor contingencies. 

Progress and Time of Completion. When tne work at Panama is completed, in addition to having 

We have exam'ined diagrams and statistics showing the the canal, the United Stales will own the Panama Uailroad and 

amount of work accomplished by years and by months since the steamship line operated in connection therewith. 
the work was taken over by the United States, and showing Type of Canal. 

the amounts of the various classes of work remaining to b^ j^ ^.^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^j ^j^^ j^^l^ ^.^^^j_ ^^ ^^^^ 

done and the estimated rates of progress and times required gjj ^jn ^ ^ overrun the estimate of the minority of 

for completion, it has been impossible tor us to check these ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ consulting engineers of 19u5, and that the excava- 

in detail, but we have compared them with other estimates, ^^^^ .^ ^^^ Culebra cut is being made somewhat more rapidly 

and with the work obviously done, and they seem reasonable ^^^^^^ ^^^ anticipated, we have considered in a very general way 

to us. m the light ot this showmg we see no reason why the ^^^ relative cost and time of construction of a sea level canal, 
canal should not be completed as estimated by the chief ^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ j^^^^^.^ ^.^^^^^ ^^^,^ operated to increase the cost 

engineer, by January 1, 191o; m tact, it seems that a somewhat ^^ ^^^ j^^.j^ p^^^^, ^^^^^ operate with similar effect to increase 

earner completion is probable if all goes well, but in view of ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ ^^^ j^^^, ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ present time there 

possible contingencies it is not prudent at this time to count on ^^^ additional factors of even greater importance to be con- 

an earlier date. r t r \a/ u sidered as affecting the time of completion and cost of 

Cost of Work. ^ gg^ jgygj canal. One of these Is to be found in the 

In examining the expenditures thus far made it must be borne Gamboa dam, proposed to be neany 200 feet in height above 

in mind that large sums have been paid for steamships, dredges, i^g foundations, which would be about sixty feet below the 

steam shovels, locomotives, cars, tracks, shops and all the normal river level. Prior to the construction of this dam a 

equipment that is necessary to prosecute a work of this magni- long and deep diversion channel must be provided of far greater 

tuae, and also that large sums have been spent for dwellings, magnitude than that for the Gatun dam, which has been about 

oiiices, buildings of various kinds, for waterworks, sewers, paving two years in progress and is not yet completed. 
and other equipment, and that these expenditures have been Judging by the time required tor the construction of dams 

made, in large measure, for the whole work, and that correspond- of similar magnitude in the United States, it is probable that 

ing disbursements hereafter will be very much less in proportion ^ere work on the Gamboa dam to be started as soon as pos- 

than they have been to date. sible this one feature of the sea level project of the board of 

Colonel Goethals has presented to us an estimate of the consulting engineers of 1905 could not be completed until after 

quantities of materials and the cost involved in the construction ^jje time required lor the completion of the lock canal. The 

of the canal as now planned, including all disbursements thus construction of this dam at Gamboa for the control of the 

far made and the estimated amounts required for completion. chagres is an essential preliminary to the excavation of the sea 

These cover the greatest width of excavation, the increased size level canal for the thirteen miles from Bohio to Bas Obispo, 
ot locks, the extra canal channel required by moving the Paciflo Furthermore, in addition to the Gamboa dam, the sea level 

locks from La Boca to Miraflores, the improved harbor arrange- project provides for building for the control of tributary streams 

ments at Colon and all other changes which have been adopted three large dams, the sites of which have not been examined, 
or which are now seriously contemplated. The payments to Work is already far advanced on nearly all parts of the lock 

the New Panama Canal Company are included, and also the canal, and a change in the type would result in abandoning 

payments to the republic of Panama and the cost of sanitation work done which represents large expenditure. 
and zone government, for which items the board of consulting Under the plan now being carried out, the River Chagres 

engineers of 1905 stated that it presented no estimates. and each of the other rivers on the isthmus tributary thereto 

The estimates and allowances so made seem ample to us. jg made an ally of the project. The waters of these rivers are 

In some items it would seem that considerable reductions could handled economically and in such a way as to facilitate the 

be made, but, on the other hand, the work is large and novel operation of the canal. With the sea level project these rivers- 

and unforeseen contingencies must be expected, so that it may instead of being allies would be enemies of the canal, and floods 

be that the aggregate estimate as presented is not too large. in them would greatly interfere with the work. 

After deducting $15,000,000, representing the estimated receipts The excavation of the canal would be carried to forty feet 

from the return of money loaned the Panama Railroad, and from or more below sea level and to a much greater depth below the 

the collection of water rates to cover the cost ot municipal bottoms ot the valleys in which the upper streams now flow, 
improvements made in Panama and Colon, and from miscel- it would further be necessary to cut long and large diversion 

laneous sources, this present estimate of the complete cost of channels on each side of the canal for streams entering the 

the lock canal amounts to $360,000,000. Chagres Valley. The cost of such lateral channels to protect 

In making this estimate no reduction has been made for t^g Culebra cut alone from the comparatively small streams 

whatever salvage may be realized from the construction plant formerly entering it, including work done by the French, has' 

at the termination of the work, which plant has cost to date probably been not less than $2,000,000. The channels required 

about $30,000,000. for the lower valley ot the Chagres would be necessarily much 

The cost of the canal as estimated in 1905 is frequently longer, larger and far more expensive, 
stated to be $140,000,000, but this is incorrect, as the minority d i, c ♦■ 1 1 ^ vu ♦ \ 

report expressly excluded sanitation and zone government and "°«='< txcavation unaer water, 

the payment to Panama and the French company had already Much has been said about the economy ot excavating rock 

been made. Adding these amounts, using the present estimates under water by modern appliances as compared with the cost 

ot sanitation and zone government, we have in round numbers of such excavation in the dry with steam shovels after blasting, 

the following: ' We concur in the opinion of those in charge of work at the 

F^timatP nf the ininoritv of the board of consultine isthmus that it is more economical, where the conditions are 

engineers for t"e cosf of cot^rtuon, ex'^sW^^ favorable, to excavate rock in the dry than by any under-water 

sanitation and zone covernment $140 000 000 process now in use. Experience is not yet available to us 

Payment" made to the ripubrof Panama' and to'the^ ' ' which will justify the belief that with the depth of cut and the 

New Panama Canal Comnanv 50 000 000 quality of rock found on the isthmus, the general adoption of 

Sanitltiorand^oife governSas-now-e^ 2?;o5oSo subaqueous methods would prove more expeditious or cheapen 

£i..u ^ c 6 ^^1^^^^^^ j^ .^ probable that more economical subaqueous methods 

™ J , J217 000 000 will be sometime developed, but it would not be wise to base 

' ' a change in plan of important work upon prospective results 

The difference between this cost and the total cost as now jq be obtained by any method not yet thoroughly tried, 
estimated is therefore $143,000,000. Of this amount nearly one- p th w 

half can be accounted for by the changes in the canal and tartnquaKes. 

appurtenant works to which we have already referred, and the It has been suggested that the canal region is liable to 

remainder is to be attributed mainly to the higher unit cost of earthquake shocks and that a sea level canal would be less 

the different items of the work, caused in part by the higher subject to injury by earthquakes than a lock canal, 
prices for plant, supplies and labor which have prevailed in the We have seen, in the city of Panama, the ruins of an old 

United States since the estimate of 1905 was made, and which church, said to have been destroyed by fire, containing a long 

made it necessary to offer very high wages and special induce- and extremely flat arch of great age, which convinces us that 

ments in order to obtain the requisite force in a locality where there has been no earthquake shock on the isthmus during 

the reputation for health was not good in the earlier years, in the one hundred and fifty years, more or less, that this 

Sold at Steacy'B lVe«« Uepot, 3 StiMiurt St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



gtnijcture has been la existence, that would have Injured the 
work proposed. 

Dams and locks are structureH uf grt-at stability and Uttle 
•abject to damage by earthtiuukc >ihu<'ks. The successful re- 
sistance of the dams and ri's«-rvuirt> suiiplytng Sao Francisco 
with water, even when those structures were located near 
the line of fault of the earthquake, gives coatldence In the 
ability of well 'designed masonry structures and earth em- 
bankments to resist earth<iuake shocks. 

We do not regard such shocks as a source of serious dam- 
age to any type of canal at the Isthmus, Ijut If they were so 
their effect upon the dams, locks and regulating works pro- 
posed for the sea level canal would be much the same as 
upon similar structures of the lock canal. The (Jamboa dam 
for contrulling the floods of the Chagres in connection with 
the Kfu level canal provides for a lake having an area of 
tweuty-uiue square miles when full, and If Ibis water were 
suddenly let loose Into the sea level canal It would seriously 
Injure large portions thereof and wreck ships therein. A 
similar result would be reached if the other three dams of 
the sea level canal retaining lakes, having an asgregmte area 
of ten square miles, were to be suddenly destroyed. 

Water Supply. 

We believe that the sutllclency of the water supply for 
lock canal has never been seriously questioned. It Is true 
itiat during the dry season the natural flow of the streams 
would not be sutltclenl to furnish the water required for nu- 
merous lockages. There' would even be times when the natural 
flow would not sulllce to make good the loss by evaporation from 
the surface of the water In Gatun l.,ake. During the rainy season 
there is a great excess of water which can be readily stored in 
Gatun l.,ake with Its area of lt>3 square miles. It is proposed to Nil 
this lake during the rainy season two feet above its normal level 
and to draw It as needed during the dry season. It is computed 
that by dniwlng It live feet below normal level, which draft would 
leave forty feet of water through Culebra cut, the supply In a dry 
year would be sutllclent to serve from thirty to forty lockages 
up and an equal number of lockages down dally. E^ch lock- 
age might consist of a single large vessel, or a fleet of smaller 
vessels capable of l)elng In the lock at one time, as Is common 
at Sault Ste. Marie. For comparison the published record 
shows that an average of only twelve ships per day passed 
through the Suez tZanal In 1907. 

Ultimately, If needed for Increased traffic, additional water 
may be held from wet seasons and made available in dry 
ones. This may be accomplished either by raising further 
the high water level In (Jatun I.Ake or by lowering the low 
water level In the lake, this lowering being accompanied. If 
necessary, by the deepening of the canal, or storage may be 
provided by an entirely Independent reservoir, for which there 
are excellent sites. 

From our examinations in the neighborhood of Gatun dam 
we can flnd no reason to apprehend Important loss of water 
by seepage through the ridges surrounding the lake, while In 
our judgment the bed of the lake will be practically Impervious 
to water. 

The water supply In sight Is so much greater than any 
need that can be reasonably antlcl|>ated that the best method 
of securing more water when the time of need arrives does 
not require to be considered now. 

Conclusions. 
Your board is satisfled that the dams and locks, the lock 
nates, and all other engineering structures involved in the 
lurk canal project are feasible and safe, and that they can 
be depended upon to perform with certainty their respective 
functions. 

We do not flnd any occasion for changing the type of canal 
tbat has been adopted. 

A chniigp to a sea level plan at the present time would 
add srercly lo the cost and time of construction, without com- 
p. ■ • -*, either In capacity of canal or safety of 

n;, ce would be a public misfortune. 

»Se cm mm in tii'' detailed designs that have been adopted, or 
that are under consideration, some matters where other arrange- 
me..!.. >).... ii..,<.. .,ow considered seem worthy of study. As 
lli> ues are of a tentative nature and do not In 

air main questions herein discussed, they are 

ncK taken up in this report. 

Very respectfully. 
FREDERIC P. STEARNS. .lAMES D SCHtTYLER. 

ARTHUR P. DAVIS. I8HAM RA.NDOI.PH. 

HENRY A. AU.BN. JOH.N R. FREE.MAN. 

ALl.EN HAZE.V. 
The PRESIDENT. 



SOUTHERN COAST. 

Redondo. 

llu- I'liaiiiber ol' Couiinerce of Keduiulo Miiiiouuce that 
.'i!.''>i ».000 will he expended ou a new pleasure pier iu the 
near future. 

San Diego. 

Hids have heeii ealh'd ft»r l>y lite San Diojjo Investment 
C-oinpany lor two paaaeuger buata, to be titled with all 
modern eonveniencea, one to have a carrying capacity of 
20 1 and the other 7.'). 

Captain Fred Hilton of the power aloop Hercules re- 
ports that the sloop Star has heen capturetl off the Lower 
(..'alifoniia coast for poaching. Ini|uiry at F^nsenada, 
where the Star is .said to have been taken, failed to re- 
(•ei\e )i eiinfiriiiiilion of the report. 



HAWAIIAN NOTES. 

.V reaolution reeoiiiiiieiKJiiiu' tliat Congreaa siupend, 
to stifh time as the paasage of a siibNidy bill, the existing 
coastwise shipping lawa, in so far aa they pertain to 
Hawaii, was defeated by a comfortable majority. The 
object of this resolution wa« to allow the foreign ships 
to carry freight and passengers between Hawaii and the 
mainland coast ports, it being claimed that so much time 
elap.ses between the sailing of American steamships that 
it works a great hardship on Hawaiian travelers. 

The Japanese fishermen of the islands are attracting 
an unusual amount of attention at the present time be- 
cause of the fact that they arc e(|uipping their fishing 
sampans with the most powerful and effective engines 
on the market. As the local fishing industry does not 
in any way warrant such unusual expenditures the Jap- 
anese had some ulterior purpose and in the course of 
developments it has been discovered that they arc carry- 
inu on an extensive and perfectetl system of smuggling. 

Another alarming feature of the case is the case with 
which these sampans ciin be converted into passenger 
boats. In the event of international troid>le it is esti- 
mated that fifteen thousand men could be landed at 
obscure points aroimd the island with the aid of these 
saini)ans. 



Honolulu. — A report has been circulated from un- 
known sot'irccs that the l'. S. army transport liogan had 
received no injury from her recent stranding, but while 
there has been no official report made as yet, the Marine 
Exchange received a cablegram stating that the Logan 
was badly strained and leaking forward. An investiga- 
tion will be hehl shortly to fix the responsibility for the 
acciilcnf. 



LOCAL NOTES. 

The torpedo boat Farragut eolli<led with the S. S. 
Davis while in San Diego, and upon arrival at Mare Island 
was compelleil to go on the drydock. At the time of the 
aceiilent tin- I)a\ Is was attempting to cross the bow of the 
Farragiii 

The 'li>.M> Ki.-Mii Kaisha Co. will shortly enter into 
active competition for the Atlantic trade, and the com- 
pany is at the pres«'nt lime building four steamers which, 
when running, will make Hambtirg a terminal port. 

Forty vessels are preparing to depart fi>r the salmon 
ftslieries of the north in the course of the next two weeks. 
Tlin-e thousand men will be required this season, and 
while in former seasons it was usually a hard problem to 
seetire enouirh hands, this season there is no scarcity of 
m-n 



SnM at Prrrr Xcws Btaad, Saa Fraarlaea 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



THE USE OF OIL AT SEA 

(U. S. Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C.) 

Brief Rules for the Use of Oil to Protect Vessels in Stormy Waters 



From the prize essay submitted to the Hamburg Nautical Union by Captain R. Karlowa of the Hamburg- American Steamship Company 
n the illustrative figures, the flowing lines represent the spreading oil and the arrows denote the direction of the wind and sea 



Fig.l. 



Fig. 2. 





Scudding before a gale, Fig. i, 
distribute oil from tlie bow by 
means of oil bags or through waste 
pipes. It will thus spread aft and 
give protection both from quarter- 
ing and following seas. 

If only distributed astern, Fig. 2, 
there will be no protection from 
the quartering sea. 



Steaming into a heavy head sea, 
Fig. 9, use oil through forward 
closet pipes. Oil bags would be 
tossed hack on deck. 

Lying-to,totackorwear,Fig. 10, 
use oil from weather bow. 

Cracking on, with high wind 
abeam and heavy sea, Fig 11, use 
oil from waste pipes, weather bow. 




Fig.n. 




Fig. 3. 



Fig.4. 




Running before a gale, yawing 
badly, and threatening to broach- 
to, Figs. 3 and 4, oil should be dis- 
tributed from the bow and from 
both sides, abaft the beam. 

In Fig. 3, for instance, where it 
is only distributed at the bow, the 
weather quarter is left unprotected 
when the ship yaws. 

In Fig. 4, however, with oil bags 
abaft the beam as well as forward, 
the quarter is protected. 



A vessel hove-to for a pilot. Fig. 
13, should distribute oil from the 
weather side and lee quarter. The 
pilot boat runs up to vnndward I 
and lowers a boat, which pulls | 
down to leeward and around the 
vessel's stern. The pilot boat runs 
dovn to leeward, gets out oil bugs 
to windward and on her lee quar- 
ter, and the boat pulls back around 
her stern, protected by the oil. 
The vessels drift to leeward and 
leave an oil-slick to windward, 
between the two. 



Fig.l2. 




Pilot Boat 
Znd.Pog. 



Fig.5. 



Fif.6. 



Fig. 13. 




Lying-to, Fig. 5, a vessel can be 
brought closer to the wind by using 
one or two oil bags forward, to wind- 
ward. With a high-beam sea, use oil 
bags along the weather side at inter- 
vals of 40 or 50 feet. 

In a heavy cross sea. Fig. 6, as in 
the center of a hurricane, or after the 
center has passed, oil bags should be 
hung out at regular intervals along 
both sides. 



Towing another vessel in a heavy 
sea, oil is of the greatest service, and 
may prevent the hawser from break- 
ing. Distribute oil from the towing 
vessel forward and on both sides, Fig. 
13. If only used aft, the tow alone 
gets the benefit. 



Fig.l4. 



Fi|.7. 



Kg. 8. 




Drifting in the trough of a heavy 
sea. Figs. 7 and 8, use oil from waste 
pipes forward and bags on weather 
side, as in Fig. 8. 

These answer the purpose very 
much better than one bag at weather 
bow and one at lee quarter, although 
this has been tried with some success, 
see Fig. 7. 



At anchor in an open roadstead, use 
oil in bags from jib-boom, or haul 
them out ahead of the vessel by means 
of an endless rope rove through a tail- 
block secured to the anchor chain. 
Fig. 14. 



Sold at Oceanic PharmacT, 148 Baat St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



9 



In addition to the foregoing there are other cases where 
oil may be used to advantat;e, such as lowering and hoist- 
ing boats, riding to a sea anchor, crossing rollers or snrf 
on a bar. and from life-boats and stranded vesuels. 

Thick and heavy oils are the best. Mineral oils are 
not so effi'ctive as animal or vegetable oils. Raw petrol- 
eum has given favorable results, but not so good when 
it is refined. Certain oils, like cocoanut oil and some 
kinds of fish oil, congeal in cold weather, and therefore 
are useless, but may be mixed with mitieral oils to 
advantage! 

The simplest method of distributing oil is by means 
of canvas bags about one foot long, filled with oakum 
and oil, pierced with holes by means of a coarse sail 
needle, and held by a lanyard. The waste pipes forward 
are also very useful for this purpose. 

The Ilydrographie Office will be glad to publish .short 
accounts of the use of oil to prevent heavy seas from 
breaking on boanl. The reports should always describe 
the state and direction of the seas, spec*! of the ship, 
kind of oil, method and place of applying the qame, 
amount used, and whftt effect it had. 



NORTHERN NOTES. 



Portland. 

Work on the jetty at the mouth of the Columbia will 
start in April, and all possible haste will be made to 
bring the work to a termination, although it is hardly pos- 
sible that the jetty will be completed this summer. 

The California and Oregon Coast S. S. Co. have had 
plans drawn up for a new boat, to operate between 
I'ortlatid and Coos Hay. Hids will soon be called for and 
the comi)any expect to have the boat running within live 
months. 

The S. S. Vulcan, while towing a raft of logs up the 
river from the lower Columbia, broke a crank pin. com- 
pletely crippling the port side machinery. Immediately 
following the breaking of the crank pin the cylinuer 
heads of the engine blew out. The engine is a complete 
wreck and a new one will be installed. 

The Olsen & Mahoney people, owners of the barken- 
tine Wrestler, have decided to dispose of the wind- 
jammer upon her arrival at her destination in Peru. 
Olsen & Mahoney are disposing of all their wind-jammers, 
superseding them with steam schooners, in pursuance of 
a policy adopted by the several companies operating on 
this coast. 

The Port of Portland Commission has called for bids 
on a steel hull river towboat. The bids will be opened 
at the meeting on Thursday, April 8. The dimensions of 
the boat are 2H feet long, 45 feet wide and 8 1-6 feet 
deep. 

The steamer J. Cochran has been purchased by San 
Francisco cai)italists, to operate on Ptiget Sound. The 
steamer is a stern wheeler and was built ten years ago 
at a cost of ♦105.000. 

The pilot schooner Joseph Pulitzer will be sold by the 
Columbia River Bar Pilot .\s.sociation to the Port of Port- 
land Commission for $12,000. 

Congress at the last session appropriated $8.1.5,000 
for river and harbor improvements on the Willamette and 
Columbia rivers, between Portland and the sea. 

The S. S. Senator will be taken off the Portland-San 
Francisco run in the near future to prepare for service 
between Puget Sound and Alaska during the summer. 

S*I4 at Pcrrr News 9«a 



A steamer which is to take the run of the Senator 
was recently purchased in the East, but it is doubtful 
whether it will arrive in time to assiiine its duties n|»in 
the Senator's leave. 

A reviseil set of regulations have been received by the 
U. S. FJngineers from the office of the Assistant Secretary 
of War. limiting the speetl of steam vessels, whether 
propelled by screw or wliei-I. t'> eiu'lit miles an hmir wliile 
within the harbor limits 

Portland. — The council at a recent meeting appro- 
priated $2.r)(K) for a new patrol and harbormaster's launch. 
The plans and specifications have been prepared and bids 
will be called for next week. The hull and engine will 
be estimated separately. The boat is expected to attain 
a speed of 14 miles an hour. 

Seattla. 

A resolution was passed by the Seattle Chamber of 
Commerce strongly recommending a steamship line to 
ply between the Pacific and Atlantic coast and to be 
subsidized by the Government or else encourage<I by a 
mail contract. 

A unique salvage contest has been decided in the 
local courts which will be of vast importance to maritime 
interests. The schooner W. A. Ilolden is held liable for 
salvage to the amount of $3,102 and her cargo to the 
amount of $1,748. 

The W. A. Ilolden was at the time in danger of 
stranding on the rocks at Waddah Island and had already 
displayed distress signals when the steam schooner 
Charles. Nelson, belonging to the Charles Nelson Co., came 
to the' rescue and towed the Ilolden out of danger. 

.Judge Ilanford states that, notwithstanding the fact 
that the master of the Ilolden stipulated that he would 
pay only for towing, the Nelson is entitled to salvage. 



PERSONAL. 



Captain Thomas Stream of the schooner tJeorge W. 
Watson is being held to answer for a charge to do great 
bodily injury. William Miller raised a disturbance on 
the Third-Street wharf Friday, when he and the captain 
had a row. which resulted in sending Miller to the Mari- 
time Hospital, ('aptain Stream is out on $250 cash bail. 

Captain C. P. Kinney, master of the British ship Sena- 
tor, has resigned to accept a position as Assistant Marine 
Superintendent for the Grand Trunk Pacific R. R. Co. 
He will be stationed in Victoria for the present to super- 
intend the building of two river steamers for the company. 

Captain Beers, a well known Seattle shipping man, has 
purchased the stern- wheel river steamer H. J. Corcoran, 
now laid up at Antioch, Cal. 

II. M. Tait of Montreal has been appointed agent for 
the Canadian Pacific R. R. Co., with head<iuarters in 
Seattle. 

Captain S. H. Scammon. of the S. S. Dalles City, has 
l)een arrested for exceeding the Rpeetf limit within the 
Portland harbor. 

Chas. Basset, a well known marine engineer of Seattle, 
was comi)elled to undergo a serious operation recently at 
the Providence Hospital. He was not expected to live 
for several hours before the operation, but he is now 
recovering rapidly. 

J. Gaston, chief engineer of the S. S. Lansing, is in the 
hospital, recovering from an attack of la grippe. 

■< •■■ Ttum t lmaa 



10 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



COURT NOTES. 

The suit filed against William J. Wood by the Franklin 
Machine Company to recover $1,200 for work performed 
and material supplied to the launch Fighting Bob was 
decided against the defendant. According to the de- 
cision the Franklin Machine Companj^ is entitled to work 
performed on the engines, less the value of the machinery 
in its uncompleted condition. 

Portland — The Port of Portland Commission have filed 
suit against the owners of the steamer Bailey Gatzert for 
$25,000 damages. About two years ago the Gatzert ran 
into and sank the dredge Portland. 

Victoria — In the case of Dunsmuir vs. C. P. R., Judge 
Martin of the admiralty court rendered a decision award- 
ing the tug Pilot, owned by the plaintiff, $2,200 for 
having saved the steamer Otter when she was in danger of 
stranding at Ladj'smith last summer. 

Seattle — The decision of the Seattle court, in the suit 
filed against the P. C. S. S. Co. by John T. Nelson, was 
confirmed by the State Supreme Court. Nelson, while 
engaged in loading the steamer Ramona, received injuries 
by the falling of a plate of iron, which compelled him to 
have three toes amputated. The court awarded the 
plaintiff $1,825 and costs. 



NOTE UPON THE CONTINGENT OF LABORERS ON 
THE WORKS OF THE SUEZ CANAL COMPANY. 

Cairo, April 14, 1863. 

The fertility of the soil depends in Egypt on a single 
fact, the existence of the Nile, whose annual floods 'come 
to refresh and ferLilize the soil. Deprived of irrigation. 
Egypt would be nothing but a desert. It exists only by 
the force of the phenomenon of periodic floods, whose 
return is, happily, as regular as the revolution ui the 
planets. 

But the river does not if self extend its bounties be- 
yond its shores. Hence the necessity of recourse to aili 
ficial means to manage and direct the waters in such man- 
ner as to spread them over Ihe most distant parts of the 
territory ; hence the need of a vast system of canalization 
and of embankments and dykes, the upholding of which 
may not be neglected a single day, without exposing part 
of the country to barrenness and ruin. 

But it may be assulned as certain that these tracts of 
land requiring general and continuous attention, as well 
as great executive means and considerable outlay, would 
never be reclaimed if they were abandoned to the careless- 
ness of individuals whose resources are, besides, too limited 
to suffice for the attainment of the end. 

It pertains to the local administration to provide for 
this, and it cannot provide for it unless by temporary 
drafts by young laborers, who thus discharge their per- 
sonal obligations to the country. 

Placed on the confines of Africa and Asia, washed on 
one side by the Red Sea, on the other by the Mediterran- 
ean, Egypt is the s"hortest and most direct route between 
the western and eastern world — the central point of the 
vast relations which at this day connect Europe and" 
America with Oriental Africa, the Indies, China, Oceanica. 

The Egyptian Government, struck with the benefits 
which would spread over its own territory, could it any 
longer delay to open to the advantage of all nations the 
great channel of communication which secures its moral 
existence just as the upholding of its inland canalization 



assures its material existence? Could it avoid supplying 
the contingents of woriimen necessary to the completion 
of these indispensable works of public usefulness? 

Its right had not been disputed by England, and it Irad 
been very severely tested at the solicitation and to the 
satisfaction of British agents on the work of the railroad 
from Alexandria to Suez, where, on the section from Cairo 
to Suez, especially, it may be said the rails are laid on 
thousands of Egyptian skeletons. 

But the Egyptian Government understood that the im- 
memorial right of drafting laborers for works of public 
benefit must be enforced on humane conditions ; and 
that in' place of being a gratuitous duty — that is, a toll 
which is still levied in many European countries — it should 
be a source" of gain to its people. 

The Suez Canal Company has had the honor, by paying 
their laborers, by watching over their health and welfare, 
of inaugurating the new system of the abolition of com- 
])elled labor, which his Highness Ismail Pacha declared he 
would extend thenceforward to all other works in Egypt. 
In fact, there will be no more compelled labor, from the 
day when labor is everywhere justly recompensed, as 
it now is on th^ isthmus. 

The convention made on this head with the Egyptian 
Government is dated July 20, 1856, and is thus expressed : 

We, Mahommed Said, Viceroy of Egypt, desiring to 
assure the completion of the works of the Suez canal, 
to provide for the good treatment of the Egyptian laborers 
who will be employed there, and, at the same time, to 
watch over the interests of the farmers, owners, and con- 
tractors of the country, have established, in concert with 
Mr. Ferdinand de Lesseps, as president, founder of the 
(Universal Company of the Suez Canal, the following regu- 
lations: 

Article I. — The laborers who shall be employed on the 
company's worlv^ shall be supplied by the Egyptian Gov- 
ernment on the a])plication of the engineers-in-chief, ac- 
cording to their need. 

Article II. — The i)ay granted to the workmen shall be 
fixed, according to the average price paid on the works of 
private persons, at the sum of three piasters a day, not 
including the rations, which shall be furnished by the 
company to the value of one piaster. In cases where it is 
sure that the laborers who ask it are able to provide for 
themselves, the ration shall be given to them -in money. 
The duty of supplying poiable water, in abundance, for all 
the wants of the laborers, shall be at the charge of the 
company. 

Article III. — The nunil)er of laborers employed by the 
(;ompan}' must earn at the rate of four piasters a day — 120 
piasters — say twenty -fraircs for thirty days' labor. 

At this time, and in the ordinary condition of the 
ground, the contingents of laborers are paid at the rate 
of forty centimes the meter cubic. When they receive 
forty centimes, they do in twenty to twenty-five days, at 
most, a stint of sixty cubic meters, which gives them 120 
piasters, or twenty francs. 

On difficult ground the cubic meter is paid' for at 
seventy centimes, but then the stint is reduced. In this 
case the laborer does not earn less than twenty francs. It 
sometimes happens that they earn thirty, and even forty. 

As to good treatment, of which they are the objects, it 
has become publicly notorious. The number of sick is 
insignificant, and the mortality is less among the con- 
tingents of the isthmus than in the most salubrious villages 
in Egypt. 

FERD. DE LESSEPS. 



Sold Ht Steacy'a Nenii Deput. 3 Steuart St. 



PACinC MERCHANT MARINE 



U 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



O/Trce 95 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 
r E l! K P H O N K DOUGLAS 4325 



THOS. C. BUTTERWORTH 
A. B. BUTTHRWORTH 
M. DAVIS 



Bdinr 
Adnflitial DcpwtmcM 



Publinhtd by the Pacific MerchatU Marim Publishing Co. 
in San Francisco, Calijomia, every Saturday morning in the 
interest and development of the Pacific Merchant Marine. 

WILL BE SENT TO ANY ADDRESS In ikt UNITED STATES 
$4.(X) a \ear $2.00 Six Months 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 

AJdrcai All Communicmlioni (o (he Pacific Merchant Marine 

The cluHint; days of the present seiuiiou uf C'ongreaa 
has witneHsed the defeat of the ship subsidy bill, and the 
last hope of rehabilitating Amcrii-an c-omniercc on the 
Pacific by subsidies remain but a nicmory. I'acific Coast 
ports have contributed their just proportion of revenue 
lo the I'nited Slates '1 reasury. have answered every 
appeal to sufTcring humanity with proverbial hospitality; 
have furnished their full quota of every demand made 
upon their resources without affecting their unlimited 
supply; have yet in their possession the key of the (gate- 
way lo the commerce of the world. Admitting our inabil- 
ity to compete with more favored parts of the t'nited 
States in the mattt-r of raw materials and therefore 
manufacturing industries, much n>maiiis in itossession 
of Pacific Coast States upon which these very raw 
materials and manufacturing centers must depend for 
their future success. To surpass the prosperity of many 
of the Kastern States is a eonnneiidable ambiticm. backed 
by the items on a balance sheet of Pacific ("oast resources 
eomparcil to Atlantic Coast resources; the Pacific Coast 
should not concede a penny. Two-thirds of 9(),(J0O.0O0 
inhabitants and the resources which maintain them can 
never be made to balance with :K).(MK).(NN) inhabitanta and 
unlimitctl resources whereby to maintain 2<Hl.tK)0,()0<). 

The Moses who shall kuuU- us from the wilderness may 
try many trails before meeting with success; may travel 
the by-roads of excessive friMght charges, unjust discrim- 
ination by Congress, earth<piakea. industrial strife and 
the thousand and one other paths by which he hopes to 
succeed, when, weary and foot-.sore. he sinks beside the 
mutilated figure of Pacific Coast cimunerce. but with a 
sufficient hope left for a final effort, and enters upon the 
open path of truth which soon briniis him to the broad, 
well paved road, nja<ie brilliant by a sunshine which only 
a California sun can prmiuce, whence he has traveled with 
rj«newe«l hope and vigor, and passed to right and left the 
dazzling mines of gold and silver and quicksilver, the 
forests of giant trees an<i timber, the wheat fields and 
orange groves, the pnine and olive orchards, the oil wells 
and mountain streams of untold power, the gra(>e vines 
and wineries, the fisheries and canneries: when he has 
reached the engraved tablet of imperishable stone upon 
which is written the following statistics, the products of 
one Pacific Coast State for the vear 1908: 



Wheat (centals) 8,500,000 

liarley (bushels) l'O.ikHi.iioO 

Corn (bushels) l,h')O,iH»0 

Oats (bushels 4,;Ut<l,iKK) 

lieet sugar (pounds) 1 1 "0 

Butter (pounds) i K) 

Cheese (pounds) 1U,UUU,UU0 

Condensed milk (cases "f 4j< eHns).. J7riiwin 

lieans ( pounds) ... 8.'),0i 

Hops (pounds) 14,7«»<r,nui> 

Wool (pounds) 14.5(Xt,lKK} 

Honey (pounds) 5,250,000 

Oranges (car loads) 27.5(10 

Lemons (ear loads) ."».(HMi 

Fresh fruita (car loads) 27,UUO 

Dried fruiU (pounds) IIO.OOO.OOW 

Almonds and walnuts (pounds) 22,0(X).(K)0 

Canned fruits (cases) 5.(XtU.000 

Wines aii<l brandy (gallons) 47.0(Mt,(KX) 

(Quicksilver (cask's, 75 lbs.) (flasks).. 17,000 

From lluH partial list he desires to see and learn more, 
and proceeds on his way to finally reach the (iolden Gate, 
through which he views the eastern shore of the great 
Pacific Ocean; there he sees a clamoring multitude, com- 
posed of nearly one-half the population of the earth, 
bound by the chains of exclusion from participation in 
the bounties which we enjoy, but ever n'ady and capable 
of learning and imitating. Here, occasionally, his vision is 
obstructed by a ship of the I'nited States, while more 
often his sight is entirely dimmed by the ships of other 
nations. Too true, alas, he realizes his journey is not 
ended, but which way to turn he knows not. 



There are in the mainland of the Inited .Slate» _->j 
streams navigated for an aggregate of 26,115 miles, and 
as much more navigable by improvement. There are also 
forty-five canals, with a milea^re of 2. 189.05, besides nu- 
merous abandoned canals. On lake and sound routes there 
is large traf!ie, but the navigation of rivers and canals 
is too small for definite reeonl. The cost of water carriage 
averaging about one-fourth that of rail carriage, and our 
railway freightage, during 1906, reached 217,00(».0(H»,(KK) 
ton-miles at an average rate of 0.77 cent, the shipping of 
one-fifth of our freight by water would have saved over 
$250,(XKI,0(X) to our producers and consumers. 



Oovemor Oillett of California has expressed himself 
very forcibly, and from personal observalion. reganling 
the repeal of the cclebrattHi crimp law in the State. 

S«'ctions ♦»44 and 645 of the Penal ('ode of California 
are as follows: "Everj- person who entices seamen to de- 
sert from any vessel lying in the waters of this State, and 
of which they have shipped for a term or 'voyage, unex- 
pired at the time of such enticement, is guilty of a mis- 
demeanor. 

"Every person who harliors or secretes any seaman, 
knowing him to be ship{)ed. and with a view to persuade 
or eimble him to desert, is guilty of a misdemeanor." 

These ari' the laws in qu(>stion and were adopted in 
Febniary, 1872. when existing conditions warranted ex- 
treme measures of legislation as a protection to seamen on 
the Pacific Coast. Change<l conditions, however, aroused 
the interest of various organizations, and the repeal of 
this law was brought to the attention of the Legislature at 
Sacramento, and at one time was advocated by the Ship 
Owners' Association of the Pacific Cvsst. The present 
Legislature was appealed to. and much time consumed in 
considering the matter. Labor representatives on the one 



9*M ■« rmrrr l««wa StaBd, S«a Pr«a 



12 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



side advocating the repeal of the law and the Ship Owners' 
Association on the other repudiating their former opinions, 
the bill was finally passed, but Governor Gillett, in his 
veto, evidently has given the subject due consideration, 
and finally vetoed the repeal of the law. 

The law was brought into existence at a time when 
the seafaring man was entirely at the mercy of an organ- 
ized group of boarding-house masters, supply houses and 
liquor stores that sought control of the sailors on the city 
fronts, and invariably owned poor Jack, body and soul. 
To arrive at such results many flagrant breaches of the law 
were resorted to, without recourse by the unfortunate 
victim. 

Governor Gillett evidently leaned toward the side of 
conservative unionism in vetoing the bill, when he stated 
in part: "I know that the law has been a great preven- 
tive of murder and other crimes ; I do not consider this a 
labor union matter, because the law as it stands at the 
present time does not hamper any good lawabiding mem- 
ber of a union in furthering his ideas, but it does curb the 
murderous tendencies of those individuals who bring dis- 
grace upon labor. " 



SHIPBUILDING NOTES. 



Union Iron Works. 

Minor repairs to engines of S. S. Ashtabula. 
The tug Sea Queen is having stern bearing relined. 
Renewing zincs and painting of the revenue cutter 
Golden Gate. 

Risdon Iron Works. 

S. S. Seminole having machinery and deck repairs 
made. 

Moore & Scott. 

Secured the contract for repairs and alterations on 
the S. S. San Mateo. The firm will build and install eight 
winches for cargo handling and complete extensive re- 
pairs. The work will require a large force of men for 
the next sixty days. 

United Engineering Works. 
Repairs to engine and hull of Thomas, amounting to 
$2,887. 

The bark George Curtis overhauled. 
Whaler Karluk being fitted out for cruise north. 
S. S. San Jose is being cleaned and painted. 
General repairs to light ship No. 70. 

G. W. Kneass. 

Forty-eight-foot pleasure launch for Santa Cruz. The 
launch will be equipped with a 45-h. p. Union gas engine. 

W. A. Boole & Son. 

Ship Sintram is on the drydock for cleaning and 
painting. She is also having a number of new yards made. 



U. S. revenue cutter McCuUoeh is having, her decks 
recaulked and minor engine and boiler repairs. 

A. L. Howard relieved W. J. Brady as chief steward of 
the S. S. G. W. Elder. 

The place of Second Officer W. Weidlich of the S. S. 
Buckman was taken by Third Officer R. C. Brennan. ' R. C. 
Barber went as third officer. 

George Clemens, third officer of the S. S. G. W. Elder, 
was taken to the hospital in Los Angeles while the vessel 
was there on her last voyage. His position was filled by 
Randall Rogers, formerly second officer of the S. S. Roan- 
oke. 

Alex. Stouden resigned his position as second officer 
of the S. S. Coronado. 

William Brown relieved A. T. Nelson as second officer 
of the S. S. Daisy Mitchell. 

Charles Johnson, formerly first officer of the S. S. Costa 
Rica, has been appointed to a similar position on the S. S. 
Argo, which runs between Portland and Tillamook. 

Second Assistant Engineer William Mooney left the 
S. S. San Jose, his position being taken by Ray Jones, 
formerly third assistant. R. J. Brady was appointed third 
assistant. 

J. Brannan has left the S. S. Acapuleo as third assist- 
ant engineer, to go as first assistant engineer of the S. S. 
Aztec, now carrying coffee from the South American 
Republics to Panama. 

First Assistant Engineer S. L. Preddy, of the S. S. 
Aztec, arrived on the S. S. Acapuleo from the southern 
coast. 



OBITUARY. 



Captain Payne E. Cleaves, a retired master mariner, 
and a native of North Yarmouth, Maine, died at Lyle, Ore- 
gon, aged 77. 

Captain G. A. Edwards died at his home in Los Angeles 
from the effects of a stroke of apoplexy, caused by falling 
on the deck of the S. S. Santa Rosa, of which he was chief 
steward. The exposure as master of vessels in his younger 
days caused him so much trouble from rheumatism that he 
was compelled to take the position of chief steward. 



P. M. BAMBINO 

Elxclusive Tailor 

Uniforms a Specialty 



219-220 Buckeley Bldg. 

95 Market Street 



San Francisco, Cal. 



COLUMBIA RIVER PILOTAGE AND TOWAGE RATES 



BAR PILOTAQE 

For piloting an inward or outward bound vessel to or from Astoria 
over the bar, or fronm within the bar to the open sea, all vessels shall 
pay $5 per foot draft, and 2 cents per ton for each and every ton 
registered measurement. 

The pilot who first speaks a vessel, or duly offers his servicers 
thereto as pilot, on or without the bar pilot grounds, is entitled to 
pilot such vessel over the .same; but the master may decline to 
accept, and may navigate his vessel over .said pilot grounds with- 
out a pilot; but, nevertheless, he shall, if inward bound, pay full 
pilotage, and if outward bound, one-half of above rates. 



RIVER PILOTAQE 

For piloting a vessel upon the river pilot ground between Astoria 
and Portland, whether ascending or descending, all vessels shall 
pay $2 per foot draft and 2 cents per ton for each and every ton 
registered measurement; and the Board is authorized to prescribe 
a proportionate compensation for pilot service between other points 
on said ground, or from one part of a dock to another part of the 
.same dock, the charge therefor shall be a sum not exceeding $7.50; 
and the pilot shall, on being thereunto requested by the master of 
the vessel, be required to do such work, and for such compensation. 
Provided, however, it shall be optional with the master or person in 



Sold at Steacy'n News Depot. 3 Steuurt St. 



PACIFIC MKRCHANT MARINE 



13 



charKe cif such vesoel whether he acceptv or deinaiidii the M-rvir«.-> 
o( auy KUch pilot; Mtd it the master or other itemoii in charge of 
any vcaael decUnc* to aceept the NTviceTi of a pilot mi the river pilot 
ground aforeaftid, the vewei shall not be liable for pilotaKe. 

Columbia Kiver Towafe Tariff From lh« Pacific Ocean or A*loria 
to Portland and Kelurn for VeueU Other Than Lumber Carriers. 

$.'i«MI.INI 

OtN) (Kl 
liAtl Uli 
700 tMl 
750 00 
. 800. UO 

850. UO 

.$15.UU eaeh way 

Vcsm-Ih towed from the m-u to Astoria and return only, will lie 
eharKe<i 70 [ht cent of thi- rate charKe<l to I'ortluntl and r«?turn. 

Ve.HjwU in bullicst towe*! from the .s<>a to .\xt«ria und n-lurii, when 
entering the river as a port of call and de|mrlini; without cargo, 
will be charged J5 per cent of the rate to Portland and return. 

SCHEDULE OF RATES FOR TOWAQE OF LIMBER SCHOONERS 
WHEN PLYING BETWEEN PACIFIC COAST PORTS. 

From the Pacific Ocean — 
To Portland, Ore., or Vancouver, Wash,, and return to Pacific 

Ocean, 50 cents per l.tXM) feet. 
To .V.storia and return to Pacific (K-ean, 25 cents |M'r 1,000 feet. 



Vesael.'' 


5INJ to 


700 


tonN 


net 


ri •«!-'. 1 


Over 


7{H) to 


1000 


tons 


net 


rei;. 1-: 


Over 


1000 tu 


1200 


tonM 


net 


reniM. r 


Over 


l.'OO to 


1500 


tons 


net 


rei{i>t<r 


Over 


I'ltH) to 


I8(X) 


tonx 


net 


riKlM.r 


Over 


1800 to 


2000 


tons 


net 


reKi>t'r 


Over 


•.'0».0 to 


2500 


tons 


net 


regi.-ti-r 


Over 


J.'JOt) to 


3000 


tona 


net 


register 


Haw.ter churKC. . 











NOTE. — The above rate* apply only to veweU arriving light or 
in ballast. No charge ts then made for hawaer. If vtwsel loadM at 
two |>ointM outside of Portland luirbt>r, an additional charge of 10 
cents |sr I.Otxi ff«>t is made. 

Whi-! irrive with cargo, the rate fwr 1.000 f«<et to both 

|>ort.>i ii,. JMive IK increas<-<l by .;5 cents, and a hawwr cliarge 

of $15 t'urli uuy is al-Mi made. Charges will Im- c<impul<-<l on the 
actual number of feet of lumber earrie<l from Portland. Ore., or 
Vancouver, Wasli., subjeet to minimum obaj:|{e based on 3(H*.(HNt 
feet of luniber. Tlie rates named from Padfic Ocean and return to 

Pacific Ocear! -v-iv • i- for lumber mills inainUining their 

own river !• ■ i-n .Astoria ami Portland, Ore., or 

VancouviT, U ,iiidK-d by their own Ktcanieni, Astoria 

to Portland. Ore., or Vancouver, Wash., and return only. Tin- low- 
txMt company reserves the rigjtt to decliiu- to tow veaaeU through 
drawbridges at Portland when deemed unsafe, account unfavorable 
weather or water conditions. 

INSTRUCTIONS AND RATES COVERING HARBOR MOVES AND 
LiaHTERAQE. 

Moves: \'esMcls will be moved within the harbor llmita uf Astoria 
or Portland at a charge of S20 for each steamer naed for each i> 

Lighterage: The channel of the Columbia and Willamette I: 
having Un-n deepened to admit vuasds drawing 26 feet, in the < .t i.i 
of its becoming ne<-essury from any cauae to Uchter veaaels bound 
outward from Portland, carrving cargoea of gnun and its products 
foreign, such lighterage will be handled free of charge by the tow- 
boat com|Miny. 

Any necessary lighterage of inbound vesaeU dcstiniHl to Portland 
will be handled at a chaive not excee<{ing $1.(X) per tun, weight or 
nioaaurenieiit at opUon of tow-boat. 



GRAYS H.\RBOR TOWAGE RATES 

Towage rates at Grays Harbor are tixiHi on a basis of 40 cents pctr thousand feet of lumber carried outward. 

Moving vessels within the harbor limits is done by .•'mall .steamers, without regard to a fixed tariff. IVu.-il clmi;' - f"i thi- .•<er\'ice 
run from $2.50 to $10.00, according to distano-. 



PUGET SOUND PILOTAGE 



Pilotage is not compulsory. If pilot is employjnl by vessel bound in, rate subject to agreement, 
in tow, tug-boat masters all being Government licen.sed pilots. 



Tugs have full charge of veMela 



PUGET SOUND TOWAGE RATES-SINGLE DECK VESSELS 



TOSB 



UOlo 


»o 


at u> 


no 


»l lo 


no 


461 b> 


saa . 


m (.> 


iaa 


m In 


«o 


«0I to 


MO 


tti i« 


700 


■m to 


7» 


ni to 


NW . 


Wl to 


IflOO 


Ml to 


1300 


im to 


\!M .... 




DOCKING' < ■■" 'n 250 tons, $5.00; 251 to 350, $7,50; 361 to 450, $10.00; 451 to 550, $12.50; 551 to 650, $15.00; 951 to 750, $17.50; 751 to 

850 - I to 10011, $.'5.(K). 

Towage ' FriL-xT River p<iinls above Steveaton gubject to special rales. "Towage from 8hilahole Bay to Inner Harbor, Ballard; 

and Inner Harbor. Hnllard. to .'^hil.-liolc Bay, subject to siM-cial rates. 
HAWSKR CHAKGE — Ves.sels .'UNI tons and un<)er, $5.(N) each way Hawser Charge vcMela over 500 tons, $10.00 each way. 
Rate from Vancouver to 8ound ports above Port Townsend. on vissels of 1000 tons and over, same aa sea rate to Sound port. Vessels 

towing from .sea to Tai^mm or .'Seattle and calling at Port Townx'nd or Port Angeles for orders will be given a direct rate. Captains to 

•^'ire agent of t otice of when lug is refiuin-d. 

Whistle Signals. — 1 re and aft sails. 2 Whistles, set <«|uare sails. 1 Long and 2 Short Whi.stlcs, haul in port braces. 1 Long 

■■•■'' ' <>"•-' ^' ,„. Ill starboard braces. 4 Whistles, take in furl aails. 2 Short and 1 Long Whistle, get anchor ready. 3 

Towi I Wliistle, port helm. 2 Whist lea. atarboard helm. 1 l>ong and 2 Short Whistles, fog signals. 

Display signals when poning Tatooefa if you wish In be reported. Flash a light when you let go hawser at night. 

••M ■« ~Tfca« Was Pitta." TS Marhrt ^trrrt 



14 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



PUGET SOUND TOWAGE RATES— VESSELS OF 500 TONS OR OVER 





TO OR FROM CAPE FLATTERY AND THE 
FOLLOWING PLACES 


TO OR FROM PORT TOWNSEND-AND 
THE FOLLOWING PLACES 


TO OR FROM PORT ANGELES, ROYAL 
ROADS AND FOLLOWING PLACES. 


TONNAGE 

VESSELS FROM 


e 
< 

1 
■9 

1 


i 
% 


1 


1 


III 


o 
a > 

a 8 S 


K 

O 




-a 

i 


it 

i 

C3 


1 

"1 

M 

bo 

f 


n 

s 
>. 

Hi 

«-c5'| 

E g 


Is 

sl 

111 






,s 

Sl 

0. 


li 
"1 

P 

ll 


1 

If 

a 

1 c > 

e2 


d 

pa 

1 


851 to 1000 tons 


$125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 


»175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 


$200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 
400 


$225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 
400 
425 


$250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 
400 
425 
450 


$275 
300 
325 
350 
375 
400 
425 
450 
475 


$300 
325 
350 
375 
400 
425 
450 
475 
500 


$ 30 

35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 
65 
70 


$50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
115 
130 
150. 


$60 
70 
75 
100 
125 
150 
175 
200 
235 


$100 
110 
125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 


$110 

125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 


$175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 


$75 
100 
125 
ISO 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 


$105 
125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 


$135 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 


$150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
276 
300 
325 
350 


$175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 


$200 


1001 to 1200 tons 


225 


1201 to 1500 tons 


250 


ISOl to 1800 tons 


275 


1801 to 2000 tons 


300 


20O1 to 2600 tons 


325 


KOI to 27fi0 tons 


350 


2751 to 3000 tons 


375 


3001 to 3500 tons 


400 







. Hawser charge, $10.00 each way. 

Towage to or from Fraser River points above Steveston subject to special rates. 

Rate from Vancouver to Sound ports above Port Townsend, same as sea rate to Sound port. 

Docking vessels, $25. Vessels towing from sea to Tacoma or Seattle and calling at Port Townsend or Port Angeles for orders will be given 
a direct rate. Captains to wire agent of tugs 48 hours' notice of when tug is required. 

Whistle Signals. — 1 Whistle, set fore and aft sails. 2 Whistles, set square sails. 1 Long and 1 Short Whistle, haul in port braces. 1 Long 
and 2 Short Whistles, haul in starboard braces. 4 Whistles, take in and furl sails. 2 Siiort and 1 Long Whistle, get anchor ready. 

3 Whistles, let go hawser. 

Towing in Foggy Weather. — 1 Whistle, port helm. 2 Whistles, star-board helm. 1 Long and 2 Short Whistles; fog signals. 

Display signals when passing Cape Flattery if you wish to be reported. Fla.sh a light when you let go hawser at night. 



HONOLULU PILOTAGE AND TOWAGE RATES 



Pilotage is not compulsory, but if foreign vessels and vessels under 
American register do not employ a pilot they pay one-half of the 
pilotage. American vessels under a coasting license are entirely 
free from this charge if they do not employ a pilot. 

The pilot fees are based on the following section of the Hawaiian 
Civil Code: 

Section 1, Chapter 32, Laws of 1884. The compensation of the 
pilots at the port of Honolulu sliall be as follows: For all mail 
steamers of one thousand tons register and upwards, fifty dollars 
in and same out; for all transient steamers of one thousand tons 
and upwards, seventy-five dollars in and same out; for all vessels 
of war, two dollars per foot on draught of water in and out; for all 
sailing ves.sels under two hundred tons register, one dollar and a 
half per foot in and out; all other vessels and steamers, five cents 
per ton in and same out; for anchoring vessels outside, twenty dol- 
lars; if brought into harbor this charge shall be reduced to ten dollars; 
for any detention on board a vessel for more than twenty-four hours 
the compensation shall be seven dollars per day. 



Towboat service to sailing vessels is based on the following scale: 

From sea into the harbor, or to sea — 

Vessels under 200 tons $30.00 

Vessels between 200 and 300 tons 35.00 

Vessels between 300 and 500 tons 40 . 00 

Vessels between 500 and 800 tons 45.00 

Vessels between 800 and 1000 tons 50.00 

Ves.sels between 1000 and 1200 tons 60.00 

Vessels between 1200 and 1400 tons 75.00 

Over and above 1,400 tons, five cents per ton registered tonnage 
in addition, towing outside pilot limits as per agreement. 

Moves in the harbor — 

Up to 1000 tons $10 . 00 

1000 to 1400 tons 15.00 

1400 to 2000 tons 20 . 00 

2000 to 3000 tons 25.00 



SAN FRANCISCO PILOTAGE AND TOWAGE RATES 



PILOTAGE 

All ves.sels under 500 tons, $3.00 per foot draught; all vessels 
over 500 tons, $3.00 per foot draught, and 3 cents per ton for each 
and every ton registered measurement; and every vessel spoken, 
inward or outward bound, except as hereinafter provided, shall pay 
the said rates. In all cases where inward bound vessels are not 
spoken until in.side of the bar, the rates of pilotage herein provided 
shall be reduced 50 per cent. Vessels engaged in the iishing trades 
shall be exempt from all pilotage except where a pilot is actually 
employed, as shall all vessels sailing under an enrollment, and licensed 
and engaged in the coasting trade between the port of San Fran- 
cisco and any other port of the United States. All foreign vessels 
and all vessels from a foreign port, or bound thereto, and all vessels 



sailing under a register between the port of San Francisco and any 
other port of the United States shall be liable for pilotage, as above 
provided. 

TOWAGE 

The cost of towage from sea to anchorage varies with distance 
and conditions of weather, and ranges from $100 to $250. 

For moving a vessel of 2,000 tons net register in the harbor the 
charges are approximately: 

Docking, City Front $ 30.00 

Stream to Port Costa, or Port Costa to Stream 130.00 

Stream to Sea 110.00 

Fore-and-aft rigged vessels pay, according to size, from $7.50 to 
$15 for docking, and from $20 to $50 for towing to sea. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



IS 



NOTICE TO NAVIGATORS, MARINE ENGINEERS, 

MARINERS AND SEAMEN 

This page will be reserved exclusively for all official notices and information of importance 



HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 



DEPfH AT MEAN LOW WATER. ENTRANCE TO HARBORS 



riEB DIKECTORT, ■. T. 
>MIKTH or UAaKKT mxcT 



F Place 


Feet 


Date 


Remarlu 


(irayx Harbor 


-21 


Feb. 1 


Channel changed lUiKhtly to the 
south duriiiK tht- iiiimth. 


Willaiut Buy 


■SI 


Mar. 4 


N<>. 8 Buuv iiiiii-'inf;. 


('iiliiiiibiu ItivcT 


\i^ 


Fob. IG 




Nfhaleiii Uiver 








I'ill.-.lM.M.k KmV 


9 


Mar. J 


Chaiint-I shifting about Si niilo 
til Biiuthwurd iri now \% nii.e 
houth (if the whistling bury. 


N iii|(iiiia liay 


15 


Fib. 2 




Siu.slaw KivtT 






OctolxT, November. Deeeinber, 
January from 13tol.'> fen-t.but 
uftrr .xtorni and high water in 
river has fille<l up No wiund- 
iiiRs lately. 


l'in|u|im IliviT 


»W 


Mar. 1 


South spit makiiiL' elim- to inner 
bar buoy. I.' on 8tar- 
bonril IuiikI ' iii. 


( 


18 


Mar. 1 


Channel remuin.s about the same. 


' livrr 


8 


Mar. .' 


Channel ha.-< n<it yhiftwl. 


lt"KUi- Kiver. 






No opiMirtunity for soundingM 
hitely; U-fiire ri.-* there wan 
7 feet on the bar. 


Kluiimth River 


8 


F.-b. 1 




Hllinlxililt Bmv 


19 


Mar. 1 


North ehannel very narrow and 
crooked, not changing, at 
present . 


S»o Pt-dro Buy 


20 


Feb. iO 


No change in channel. 


San Dk^n Bay 


2« 


Feb. 25 


No change in ehannel. 



TIDE TABI.K TO WKKK ENDING K.\TIRD.\V. APKII. 7. 
(kilrlrn C'lste I^ntrmnce lo San Frkndaco Bay. 
MARCH 



Moon 



lull 
A 
E 



■'Ird. qiiar. 



r 

New 
V. 



Dmrol 1 


W 


Mo. 


?Si 




Wr<l. 




Tlmr. 




Krt. 




^ 




Man. 




'^ 


10 


Ttiur. 


11 


Kri 


1 .' 



Tlnie uid Heldit of HIcb and Low Water 



T. 



II. 



H. 



T. 



H. 



T. 



H. 



I(t. 



"Vi* 



Sun. 
Hon. 


M 


TucL 


lA 


Wwi. 


17 


r 


18 
!• 
M 


Sua. 


SI 


Moo. 


S3 


Tu«& 


S3 


Wed. 


. »* 


Thur. 


S6 


Krt. 


SO 


B^t* 


ST 


tka^. 


28 


SS: 


S» 

30 


Wed. 


31 



2:04 
3:03 
3:S0 
4:30 
0:04 
0:28 
0:S0 
1:14 
1:30 
1:47 
.' Ill 
.' 1 1 

4:i8 
0:02 
1:18 
2:20 
3:1A 
4:00 
4:5.S 
5:45 
0:25 
1:04 
1:42 
2:24 
3:14 
4:08 
S:20 
1:00 
2:10 



3.3 
3.3 
3 3 

3 1 
2.0 
S.I 
A.l 
5.0 
5.0 
5 
4.« 

4 9 

.s o 

5 
SI 
3 3 
3 2 



5.7 
5.6 



I Thur. 
Kri. 
A Sat. 

E I Sun. 



1 I 



» 

5.2 
5.1 
3 4 
3 2 
APR 
2:5N 2 
3:40 2.H 
4:14 2 1 
4:4a 1.7 



«:Aa 

7:55 

8:48 

»:.36 

10:20 

5:08 

5:45 

«:20 

A:.S8 

7:40 

8:22 

0:04 

10:02 

11:03 

12:12 

5:48 

7:04 

8:12 

0:15 

10:08 

11.02 

11:58 

n::i5 

7:20 

8:15 

0:18 

10:24 

11:.32 

12:42 

8:34 

7:40 

I L 

8:35 

0:25 

10:14 

10:55 



14:15—0.1 
15:00—0.3 
15:48—0.3 
10:25—0.3 
10:57—0.2 
11:00 54 



11:45 
12:24 
13:00 
13:42 
14:42 
15 52 
1725 
10:00 
20:08 
13:15 



5 2 
4.0 
4.7 
4 4 

4.2 
3.8 
3 8 
3 
4.2 
0.0 



14 10— 3 
15:04—0.5 
15:50—0.5 
10:35—0.4 
17:20 0.0 



18:08 
12:50 
14:00 
15:10 
10:35 
18:02 
10:17 
20:18 
13:40 
14:28 



0.5 
5 5 
5 1 
4.7 
4 4 
4.3 
4 3 
4 
0.1 
0.2 



5 1 
5 1 
5 I 
5.0 



15:08 3 

15:45 0.4 

16:20 7 

10:58 0.0. 



21:30 
23:20 
33:00 
23:34 

17:30 
18:00 
18::<0 
10:08 
10:38 
20:14 
20:.->5 
21:4.i 
22:.'» 

20is7 
21:35 
22:10 
22:43 
23:10 
23:.'i2 

io'sb 

10:35 
20:20 
21:10 
22:15 
23:32 

31:05 
21:44 

22:14 
22:40 
23:05 
33:30 



4.6 

4.5 
4.0 
4.0 

1 
0.5 
0.8 
13 
1.7 
2 1 

2 5 

3 
3 2 

i i 

4.7 
5 1 
5.4 
5 
5.7 



5.3 
5.3 
5.3 
».3 



Time iiMNl I'ltriHr siamUni i-oth MprMtaii W. 

•h— mUlr • ■ :■:'• -hmn 12 — Korrnoon. (trrater »h«D 12— «ft«r- 

noon. hlch> r ion lime. 

H — Sew Mi> :.. E M ... L'4U«lor. H. •.— f«rtlii'M N. or 8. of Equator: 

*• f- — Moon iu apoim of pericee. 



nan .Ml. 


1. 


" 


:) 


- 


' 


- 


y 


- - 


«. 


- - 


l.'i 


* 


1,'. 


PUUI NO. 


2. 




4. 









8. 




IU. 












M. 




Hi. 



.CUj 


PIK8 KO. 17. 


.Jackna 




• 10. 

• 31. 


PMHIe 




- SS. 


Hniailwav 1 




• 3*. 


Ur..j.|ttu\ 2 




• 37. 


\ Jli.JO 




■ 51. 


Um:n 






oirrH or haubt 


■TBSST 


MMoo-l 


ran HO. 30. 


MiMlao.3 




- 34. 


lloward-1 




- 38. 


Huward-3 




* 32. 


lluwanl-3 




- 34. 


tolMND.! 




■ 38. 


l''aliioat-2 




" 40 


. Ilarrlaou 




■ 42 






* 44 



I'liion-l 

riilnil-2 

tlll~ rt 

.-.nvvK h I 

»-»-n« hi. L' 

1.1111,1. .11.1 

IV. ^.l; 



1 II 111. .1.1 
Itraiiiiaii 



IAN FKAMCIICO CCSTOM HOUSE HOUKI 

Open <lally. rxcrpt Saturday from (a.m. until S n. m. ; Kalunlay from t a. m. 
> 11 m. Duiii-s iiiii>t In- (will tirliirr 3 |>. m.: Saturday* lirlore 13 ni. 



Surrey. . 
Entry. . 

aearaooti. . . 

Uffldal CertUk-ate and Oath. . 



EntorInc : 

*.< iHi , titlirtal Crrtinrat** and Oath 80.30 

'J :*i ! 

Claarlaxi: 
t2 50 I l'o>t Entry, If anv. 
. 0.20 I 



•2 00 



NOTICE TO MARINERS. 
Santa Barbara — California. 



(Ust of Mghls. Ituoyii and Uayniarka, Pacific Coast, 1908, 

imce 17.) 
Notice is hereby given that Santa Itarbara whUtllng buoy, 
PS., heretofore reiiorted not sounding, was replaced by a per- 
fect buoy March 12. 

Trinidad Head— California. 
(U8t of Lights and Kog Signals. Pacific Coast, 1908, page 2<. 

No. TO, and Ust of Lights, Buoys and Daymarks, Pacific 

Coast. 1908, page 40.) 

.Notice Is also given that the 4.000-pound bell at this station 
was again placed In operation on .March 14, the necessary 
repairs having N'on completed. 

San Francisco Bay^^alifomla. 

(IJat of Ugfats, Buoys and I)ayniark8. Pacific Coast, 1908, 

page 2».l 

Notice Is hereby given that E^t Brother Shoal Buoy O, a 
flrst-clasB nun. found dragged out of ixisiUon, was replaced 
March 11, 1909. 

By order of the Light House Board. 

R. F. LOPEZ. Commander, U. S. N. 
Inat>ector Twelfth Ught House District, 81.3 Mutual Savings 
Bank Building. 704 .Market Street. San Francisco. 



In the Navigation School now meeting at the Mlssioa High 
School Hulldtng. the flrst claaa in flnlshing the subject of dMd 
reckoning and will shortly take up chart work. 

The second class Is commencing the study of middle lati- 
tnde sailing. An effort is being made to secure quarters (or 
the navigation class In the Perry Building, where it is hoped 
there will be a larger attendance. 

The light house board. Washington, D. C, will o[>en bids 
on Airll 7 for the construction, delivery and equipment of 
the first class single screw lightflhlp .No. 94. Specifications 
with blank proposals and other information can be had by 
applying to the lighthouse board. Washington. D. C. 



a^d ■( Orraaip I'liarMTy. I4H ICaat 8t. 



16 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



BUOYS MARK NEW CHANNEL. 

To mark the newly-dredged channel of the Columbia River 
Che following buoys have been established by the lighthouse 
department : 

Henricl Crossing buoy, 1, second-class spar, in 24 feet of 
cater. Fales' Landing light 132 degrees true (S. B. % E. mag.). 
Henrici Landing range front light, 302 degrees 30 minutes 
true (N. W. by W. % W. mag.). Warrior Rock lighthouse 
339 degrees 30 minutes true (N. by W. 1-3-16 W. mag.). 

Henrici Crossing buoy, 2, second-class spar, in 23 feet of 
water. Fales' Landing light 130 degrees 30 minutes true (S. 
E. % E. mag.) Henrici Landing range front light 309 degrees 
30 minutes true (N. W. % W. mag.). Warrior Rock light- 
house 338 degrees true (N. by W. 15-16 W. mag.). 

Henrici Crossing buoy, 3, second-class spar, in 22 feet of 
water. Fales' Landing light 133 degrees 30 minutes true (S. 
E. % E. mag.). Henrici Landing range front light 304 degrees 
true (N. W. by W. mag.). Warrior Rock lighthouse 334 degrees 30 
minutes true (N. N. W. % W. mag.). 

Oregon — Willamette River — The beacons of the following 
lights have been replaced and the lights relighted: 

Swan Island lower light, February 26; Swan Island upper 
light, February 25.. 



Matson Navigation Company 



268 Market Street 



Phone Douglas 3030 



Direct Line Passenger and Freight Steamers and Sailing Vessels to 

Honolulu, Hilo, Kahului, Mahukona, Eleele 

From 

Seattle and San Francisco 

For Freight and Passenger Kates apply to 

Alexander & Baldwin, Seattle Castle U Cooke, Honolulu 

Matson Navigation Company, San Francisco 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 



SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING. 

i UNION IRON WORKS, 320 Market Street. 



OIL BURNERS. 

S. & p.. 102 Steuart St. Phone Kearny 620. 



BOAT BUILDERS. 



GEO. W. KNEASS. 18th and Illinois Sts., S. F. 



SHIP PLUMBERS. 



ANDERSON BAILEY, 216 Steuart St., S. F. 



WIPING RAGS. 



THE RAYCHESTER CO., 1448 Folsom St., S. F. 

WANTED — To charter, a boat of the river type, equipped for 
Sunday excursions, to carry about 400 passengers. Address 
manager Pacific Merchant Marine. 

WANTED — A thirty-foot seagoing gasoline flush-deck launch, 
equipped with an eight or ten horsepower engine of approved 
make. Inquire office of Pacific Merchant Marine. 

FOR SALE — Thirty town lots at Alvlso; established head of 
navigation on San Francisco Bay. Inquire office of Pacific 
Merchant Marine. 



LIFE-SAVING STATIONS ON THE PACIFIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES 



Name. 



State. 



Locality. 



Waadah Island •. Washington. 

Gray's Harbor " 

Willapa Harbor " 

Ilwaco Beach " 

Cape Disappointment " 

Point Adams Oregon 

Tillamook Bay " 

Yaquina Bay " 

Umpqua River " 

Coos Bay " 

Coquille River. 



.Just south of Grays Harbor light 

.Near lighthouse boat landing 

.Thirteen miles north of Cape Disappointment.. 
.Bakers Bay, one-half mile northeast of light. . . . 
.Three-fourths miles southeast of Fort Stevens. 



.About one mile south of harbor entrance. 

.Near entrance of river, north side 

. Coos Bay, north side 

. In town of Bandon 



Humboldt Bay California Near the old abandoned lighthouse tower. 

Arena Cove " 

Point Reyes " 

Point Bonita " 

Fort Point " 

Golden Gate " 



Southside " 

Nome Alaska . 



.Four miles south of Point Arena light 

. Three and one-half miles north of light 

. Near Point Bonita light 

.Three-fourths mile east of light on Fort Winfield Scott 

.On beach in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, three- 
fourths mile south of Point Lobos 

.Three and three-eighths miles south of Golden Gate 
Life-Saving Station 

. At Nome 



Lat 


-No 


pth. 


Lon 


g., West. 


Deg. 


Min. 


Sec. 


Deg. 


Min. 


Sec. 


48 


22 


40 


124 


35 


30 


46 


53 


15 


124 


07 


15 


46 


43 


00 


124 


03 


00 


46 


27 


50 


124 


03 


25 


46 


16 


40 


124 


03 


00 


46 


12 


00 


123 


57 


00 


45 


33 


30 


123 


57 


00 


44 


35 


30 


124 


03 


54 


43 


42 


00 


124 


10 


30 


43 


22 


50 


124 


18 


00 


43 


07 


00 


124 


25 


00 


40 


46 


00 


124 


13 


00 


38 


54 


50 


123 


42 


30 


38 


02 


20 


122 


59 


30 


37 


48 


10 


122 


27 


50 


37 


46 


10 


122 


30 


30 


37 


43 


18 


122 


30 


18 


64 


30 


00 


165 


23 


00 



DISTRESS SIGNALS 



In the daytime — 

A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 

The International Code signal of distress indicated by 



1. 
2. 

N. C. 

3. The distant signal, consisting of a square flag, having 
either above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball. 

4. Rockets or shells as prescribed below for use at night. 

5. A continuous sounding with a steam whistle or any fog- 
signal apparatus. 

All officers and employees of the Llfe-Saving Service will hereafter recognize any of these signals when seen or heard as 
signals of distress and immediately proceed to render all possible assistance. 



At night— 

1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 

2. Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil 
barrel, etc.). 

3. Rockets or shells bursting in the air with a loud report 
and throwing stars of any color or description, fired one at a 
time at short intervals. 

4. A continuous sounding with a steam whistle or any fog- 
signal apparatus. 



.Sold nt Steacy'a Newii Depot. S Steuart St. 






^»m^^^^ 










m 



m 




:rs^^ 



ITH full knowledge of the 
magnitude of our duty, 
namely: that of the develop- 
ment of The American 
Merchant Marine in the 
Pacific, we propose to publish such 
news as will place before the public a 
clear and exact statement of every branch 
of the Marine Industry as will be brought 
to our notice. With this object in view 
we have established communication with 
every port on the Pacific Ocean. Our 
correspondence files contain the names 
of writers of Maritime affairs, who have 
contributed to the Marine History of 
Modern Times. With our present issue. 
No. 1, Vol. II, we hope to take our posi- 
tion among those who are sincere in 
their efforts for the rehabilitation of the 
American Merchant Marine. 






K- 



f 
k 



Pacmfic 



# ^ 



I 



^ \ 




^' 






SATURDAY, MARCH 27, 1909 



VOL, II 




NO.!2 



CONTENTS 



The New Life Saving Steamer Snohomish 
Wreck of the R. D. Inman 



The Panama Canal, by Lieut. Col. G. W. Goethals 



Coast Port Notes 



The New Sound S. S. H. B. Kenned 



^ 



il 



! I 



THE CLARA BARTON SANITARY 
WIPING RAG 




The Clara 
Barton Brand 
of Wiping Rags 
is guaranteed 
to be tliorougli- 
ly sterilized and 

disinfected 



THE RAYCHESTER CO., INC. 

1448-1460 FOLSOM STREET SAN FRANCISCO 



Be sure to have 

CHALLENGE METAL 



For 

High Speed 




For 
Heavy Pressure 



in your important bearings. 
Ask about it. 

SAN FRANCISCO 



SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO. 



SANITARY 
WIPING RAGS 

Washed and Disinfected 

Exclusive Packers of 
Soft Cotton Wiping Rags 

SANITARY MANUFACTURING GO. 

2208 FOLSOM STREET 
Phone Market 1195 San Francisco 




COLOR WORK A SPECIALTY 



The Buckley Cafe 



DETJEN-MENGKL CO.. Incorporiled 



M I.. OHTJKN. M>a.(er 



German Bakery <-onfcctioncry 

df-j . . Jill kindi of Cakes to 

K esta u ran t o,der at short Notke 



Buckley Building, 97 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
S. E. Comer Spear St. One block from Kerry Phone Dougbu 2713 




GEO. W. KNEASS 

Orrica ud Work. 

18th and Illinois Street! 

Pho»« Markal S*b Frasciaco, 

•43 CM. 



BOAT B U I L P r R 

Baal Malarial aad SO Boali of all 

Daacriplioa* For Sala 
l-tai; i>ulr«. HalU wid Truck*, liouo 
Mover* uid Box Uollrr* Mnutantl7a 
on hand. Wood Tumlnc 



Steamship Men Take Notice 



The National Laundry It Hattreis Rcnova- 
tory Company will (Iv* better results both 
In quality and price than can be had else- 
where. Special ratei and service guaranteed. 

O. e. TAIRrirLD. Manager 

Plant. SM« 18th Street Phone Market •! 



Hard-Wood Lumber Co. 

LUMBER SHIPPING 

Wholesale and ReUii 
807 Fife Building San Francisco 



P. M. BAMBINO 

Excliuive Tailor 
t'Nirocina %nt:tM.T* 



219-120 Becketer SUt. 

9$ MarkM Slr«ci 



Su Fraaeiaca. Cal. 




ALKINS QUALITY" 

The best facilities backed by 
experts in each department 
are what made "Calkins Quali- 
ty" the standard in the realm 
of printed publicitye We print 
the Pacific Merchant Marine. 



PRINTING 

ENGRAVING 

BOOK-BINDING 



CALKINS 

PUBLISHING HOUSE 

Calkins Building, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 3140 



U. S. CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS. 

COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS under the Rules of the U. S. Civil 

Service Commission, for the Positions named, will soon 

be held throughout the United States. 



EXAMINATIONS TO BE HELD IN THE SPRING OF 1909 



Agricultural inspector, Philippine Service. 

Aid, Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Apprentice plate cleaner, tranferrer, and engraver. 

Assistant, Philippine Service. 

Assistant examiner, Patent Office. 

Bookkeeper (men only), Philippine Service. 

Civil engineer. Departmental Service. 

Civil engineer, Philippine Service. 

Civil engineer and draftsman. 

Civil engineer and superintendent of construction. 

Civil engineer student. 

*Clerk (male and female), Departmental Service. 

Computer : 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Nautical Almanac Office. 

Naval Observatory. 

Supervising Architect's Office. 
Draftsman : 

Apprentice, Ordnance Department. 

Architectural. 

Copyist, topographic. 

Engineer. 

Heating and ventilating. 

Junior architectural. 

Mechanical, Isthmian Canal Service. 

Topographic, Departmental Service. 

Topographic, Isthmian Canal Service. 
Electrotyper-stereotyper. 
Engineer, Indian Service. 
Farmer, Indian Service. 
Farmer with knowledge of irrigation. 



Fish culturist. 

Forest assistant. Forest Service. 

Forest assistant, Philippine Service. 

Kindergarten teacher, Indian Service. 

Local and assistant inspector of boilers. 

Local and assistant inspector of hulls. 

Matron, Indian Service. 

Observer, Weather Bureau. 

Pharmacist, Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service. 

Physician, Indian Service. 

Physician, Philippine Service. 

Postal clerk, Isthmian Canal Service. 

Press feeder, cylinder and platen. 

Pressman. 

Railway mail clerk. 

Scientific assistant. 

Stenographer, Departmental Service. 

Stenographer and typewriter, Departmental, Isthmian 

Canal, and Philippine Services. 
Superintendent of construction. 
Surgeon, Departmental Service. 
Surveyor, Philippine Service. 
Teacher, Indian Service. 
Teacher, Philippine Service. 
Trained nurse, Indian Service. 
Trained nurse. Isthmian Canal Service. 
Trained nurse, Philippine Service. 
Typewriter, Departmental Service. 
Veterinarian, Philippine Service. 
Veterinary inspector, Department of Agriculture. 



Application forms and information in regard to these examinations may be obtained by addressing the U. S. 
Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C, or the Secretary of the Board of Examiners at the following-named 
places: Post-office, Boston, Mass., Philadelphia, Pa., Atlanta, Ga., Cincinnati, Ohio, Chicago, 111., St. Paul, Minn., 
Denver, Colo., San Francisco, Cal.; Custom-house, New York, N. Y., New Orleans, La.; Old custom-house, St. 
Louis, Mo. , 

*Open only to legal residents of Porto Rico, Alaska, Hawaii, Mississippi, Alabama, New Mexico, Louisiana* 
Texas, Washington, Arkansas, North Dakota, South Dakota, Tennessee, Missouri, Oklahoma, California, Wisconsin, 
and Oregon. 



Telephone Douglas 1398 Geo. Anderson 

BAILEY 



Alex P. Bailey 

ANDERSON & 

[RegisKrcd] 

Sanitary and Ship Plumbing 

Sheet Metal Work 



216 Steuart St., bet. Howard and Folsom 



San Francisco 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Volume II 



SATURDAY. MARCH 27. 1909 



Number 2 



THE ISTHMIAN CANAL. 

By LIEUT. COL. GEO. W. OOETHALS, U. S. Army, 
laimiaii and Chief Eugiiieer, Ixtlimiau Canal ConimiMinn. 



A ranal oonneetiug the Atlantic and Pacific uceanii has w- 
eiipicii public attention fur upward of four ccnturicM, during 
which iH-rioii various ruutcK have been pro^Kwctl, each having 
certain sipccial or |>eculiar ailvantaifcs. It was not until the 
nineteenth century, however, that any detinite action was taken 
looking toward its accomplishment. 

In 187(3 an organization was (lerfected in France for mak- 
ing; sur>'ey8 and collectin); data on which to bas«> the con- 
struction of a canal across the Isthmus of I'unanm, and in 
1878 a concession for prosecuting the work waa secured from 
the Colombian Otivernment. 

lu May, 1879, an international cong:ress was convencti under 
the auspices of ("erdinand de I>-sseps, to consider the )|uestion 
of the l)est location and plan of the canal. Hiis congress, 
after a two weeks' session, decided in favor of the Panama 
route and of a sea-lev.'l canal without locks. De Leasepa's 
•uccess with the Suez Canal made him a strong advocate of the 
aea-level ty{>c, and his opinion had cimsideruble influence in 
the Hnal ilecision. 

Immediately following this action the Panama Canal Com- 
pany was organized under the general laws of France, with 
Ferdinand de lA'sse|>s as its president. The concession granted 
in 1878 by Colombia was purcha.sed by the company, an.l the 
«t4>ck was successfully floated in December, 1880. The two 
years following were devolp<I largely to surveys, examinations, 
and preliminary work. In the first plan adopted the canal wns 
to be 2}>..") feet «leep, with a ruling bottom width of 72 feet, 
leaving Colon, the canal passed through low ground to the valley 
of the Chagres River at (Jatun, a distance of about (i miles; 
theuce through this valley, for 21 miles, to ObisiH>. where. Icov- 
ing the river, it crossed the continental divide at Culebra by 
means of a tunnel, and reached the Pacific through the valley 
of the Kio (irande. The difference in the tides of the two 
•K-eans, !) inches in either direction from the mean in the At- 
lantic and from !) to 11 feet from the same datum in the 
Pacific, was to be overcome and the final currents reduced by 
a projwr sloping of the bottom of the Pacific |M)rti(m <if the 
canal. No provisions were made for the control of the Chagres 
River. 

In the early eighties after a study of the flow due to the 
tidal differences a tidal hick near the Pacific was provided. 
Various schemes were also proposed for the control of the 
Chagres, the most prominent being the construction of a dam 
at (iomb.m. The dam as projMwied afterwards proved to be 
impracticable, an<l this problem remained, for the time being, 
unsolved. The tunnel through the divide was also abandoned 
iu favor of an open cut. _ 

Work was prosecuted on the sea-level canal until 1887. when 
• change to the link type was made, in order to secure the use 
of the canal for navigation as soon as possible. It was ogTe«'d 
at that time that the change in plan did not contemplate aban- 

iiment of the sea-level canal, which was ultimately to be 

• cured, but merely its jxistixtnement for the time being. In 

this new plan the summit level was place<l alxive the AixkI line 

of the Chagres River, to be supplied with water from that 

ream by piimiw. Work was pushed forward until 1889, when 

10 companv went into bankruptcy; and on February 4 of that 

Near a li<iuidator was appointed to lake chanre i>f its affairs. 

Work was suspen<led on Mav 1'). 18a«». The New Panama Canal 

.mpanv was organized in October, 1894. when work was again 



mumed, on the plau recommended by a eommiiwion of eu- 
giiie«n. 

This plan contemplated a sea-level canal from Liraon Ray 
to iiohio, where a dam across the valley created a hike extend- 
ing to Has Ubis|K>, the difference in level being overcome by 
two locks; the summit level cxtendctl from Has Ubispo to 
Parais«i, reached by two more Iwks, and was supplied with 
water by a feeder from an artificial reservoir created by a dam 
at Alhajuela, in the upper Chagres \'alley. F'our locks were 
located on the Pacific side, the two middle ones at Pedro Miguel 
combined in a fliglit. 

A second or alternative plan was pro|>o8ed at the same time, 
by which the summit level was to Ih' a lake formed by the Bohio 
dam, fe<l dirt>ctly by the Chagres. Work was continued on this 
plan until the rights an<l pri>|>erty of the new company were 
purchased by the United States. 

The Unite<l States, not unmiinlful of the advantages of an 
isthmian canal, had from time to time made investigations and 
surveys of the various routes. With a view to g«ivernment 
ownersliip and contn>l Congress directed an invesligntion of 
the Nicaragtian Canal for which a concessi«m had been granted 
to a private com|>any. The resulting re|s)rt brought alHiut such 
a discussion of the advantages <if the Panama route to the 
Nicaraguan route, that by an act of Congress, approved March 
.1. 188J), a commission was appointed to "make full and complete 
investigation of the Isthmus of Panama, with a view to the 
construction of a canal * * * to connect the Atlantic and 
Pacific oceans • • • and particularly to investigate the 
two mutes known resiH-ctively as the Nicaragua route and the 
Panama route, with a view to determining the most practicable 
and feasible route for such canal, together with the approximate 
and probable cost of constructing a canal at each of the two 
or more of sjiid routes." 

The commission re|M>rted on November 10, lilOl. iu favor of 
Panama, and recommended the lock ty|K' of canal. The plan 
consisted of a sea-level section fn>m C<don to Kidiio, where a 
dam across the Chagres Volley crealeil a summit level 82 to 5)0 
feet above the sea, reached by two locks, llie lake or summit 
level extendeil from Bohio to Petiro Miguel, where two locks 
ctinnected it with a |MHd 28 feet ab<ive mean tide, extending to 
Miraflores, the location of the final Im-k. The ruling Ixittom 
width of the canal prism was fixed at l.')0 feet, increase<l at the 
curves and in the submerged channels. In Panama Hay the 
width was fixed at 2(K) feet, and in the artificial channel in 
Limon Hay .WIJ feet was adopter!, with turning places 8«0 feet 
wide. The minimum depth was Xt feet, and the hicks were 
to have usable lengths of 740 feet and widths of 84 feet. The 
commission assessed the value of the riglits, franchises, con- 
cessiims, lands, unfinished work, plans, and other projierty. In- 
cluding the railroad of the New Panama Canal Company, at 
$40,000,000. 

By act of Congress, approved June 28, 1902. the President 
of the Unite.! States was authorized to aci|uire, at a c«>st not 
excceiling .14«,(HH).(MMt, the pni|HTty rights of the New Panama 
Canal Company on the Isthmus of Panama, and also to secure 
from the Republic of Colombia periK-tual control of a strip of 
land not less than fi miles wide, exteniling from the Caribbean 
Sea to the Pacific Ocean, and "the right • • • to excavate, 
construct, and to |Mri»etually maintain. o|)crate. and pnitect 
thereon a canal of such depth and ca|»acity as will affoni con- 
venient pasaafce of sbipa of the greatest tonnage and draft now 
in use." 

In event the provisions for the purchas<-, and for securing 
the necessary concession from Cidombia could not be carried 
out. the President was authorized to secure the riglits necessary 
for the constniction of the Nicaraguan Canal. 



••M at Tlirt Mu Pl««," Tl Havlut Mrwt 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



The law also provided, after the foregoing arrangements 
had been perfected, that "the President shall then, through the 
Isthmian Canal Commission * • * cause to be excavated, 
constructed, and completed a canal from the Caribbean Sea 
to the Pacific Ocean. Such canal shall be of sufficient capacity 
and depth as shall afford convenient passage for vessels of the 
largest tonnage and greatest draft now in use, and such as 
may be reasonably anticipated." 

To enable the President to carry out these provisions cer- 
tain sums were appropriated and a bond issue, not to exceed 
one hundred and thirty millions of dollars, was authorized. By 
this act Congress, in accepting the estimates accompanying the 
report of the commission of 1901, adopted the type proposed 
by the board, or a lock canal. 

Pursuant to the legislation, negotiations were entered into 
with Colombia and with the New Panama Canal Company, with 
the end that a treaty was made with the Republic of Panama 
granting to the United Slates control of a 10-mile strip, con- 
stituting the Canal Zone, with the right to construct, maintain, 
and operate a canal. This treaty was ratified by the Republic 
of Panama on December 2, 1903, and by the United States on 
February 23, 1904. 

The formal transfer of the property of the New Panama 
Canal Company on the Isthmus was made on May 4, 1904, after 
which the United States began the organization of a force for 
the construction of the lock type of canal, in the meantime 
continuing the excavation by utilizing the French material and 
equipment and such labor as was procurable on the Isthmus. 

The question of a sea-level canal was again agitated, and 
secured such recognition that the President convened an inter- 
national board of engineers, consisting of 13 members, to assem- 
ble at Washington on the 1st day of September, 1905, for the 
purpose of considering the various plans for the construction 
of the canal that would be submitted to it. 

The plans submitted may be briefly summarized as — • 

(1) That of the commission of 1901, which has already 
been explained. 

(2) A lock canal with terminal lakes proposed by Mr. Lin- 
don W. Bates, and for which three projects were proposed. The 
one which he appeared to favor contemplated a summit level of 
62 feet above the sea, created by a dam at Bohio, and an in- 
termediate level of 331/2 feet above mean tide, effected by a 
dam at Mindi. Tliis plan provided four locks — at Mindi. Bohio, 
Pedro Miguel, and Sosa. A variant of the plan contemplated 
a dam at Gatun instead of at Bohio, showing that, at least for 
a 30-foot head, the Gatun location was not considered by him 
as unfavorable or offering any difficulties respecting the foun- 
dations. His other plans were modifications of this, the sum- 
mit levels being 27 or 62 feet, but in each instance the lock 
type was advocated. 

(3) The plan proposed by Mr. Bunau-Varilla, carried out 
the ideas of the first French company, namely, the construc- 
tion of a lock canal with a summit level 130 feet above mean 
tide, to be ultimately converted into a sea-level canal, or v/hat 
he calls the Straits of Panama. The locks were to be con- 
structed so that as the levels were deepened by dredging they 
could be eliminated, navigation continuing during the enlar!?e- 
ment and transformation. The material removed by the 
dredges was to be deposited in the lake formed of the upper 
Chagres River by a dam at Gamboa, and any suitable loca- 
tions in the various pools between the locks. In commenting 
on this plan the Board of Consulting Engineers concluded 
that— 

"After a full and careful consideration of all the features 
of Mr. Bunau-Varilla 's plan, the board is of the opinion that 
it should not be adopted for the Panama Canal for the follow- 
ing reasons : 

"1. The construction of the large locks required under 
the present law and necessary for the accommodation of the 
traffic seeking the canal after its completion makes it quite 
impossible to complete the preliminary lock canal even nearly 
within the period stated. 

"2. The excessive cost of transformation added to the loss 
of costly locks and other appurtenant structures required by 
the preliminary lock canal. 



"3. If the lock canal is likely to be retained for many 
years, it should be made for the most efficient service, and not 
be encumbered with modifications in lock construction which 
would prove inconvenient in use." 

(4) A plan proposed by Maj. Cassius E. Gillette, a lock 
canal with a summit level 100 feet above mean tide by the 
construction of dam across the Chagres Valley at Gatun. 

No sea-level plan was submitted for consideration, so that 
the board outlined a general plan of its own, and for purposes 
of comparison adopted as the lock type a 60-foot summit level 
canal. Two levels were used, the summit level was carried 
by an earth dam at Bohio, and the intex'mediate level by an 
earth dam at Gatun, each dam sustaining a head of 30 feet. 
It is to be noted that no difficulties were anticipated in the 
construction of these dams, and there was no dread or fear 
of the foundations. 

As the result of its deliberations, the board submitted a 
majority report and a minority report signed by five of its 
members, the former advocating a sea-level canal and the 
latter a lock canal, with the summit level 85 feet above mean 
tide. 

The Isthmian Canal Commission, with one dissenting voice, 
recommended to the President the adoption of the lock type 
recommended by the minority, which was also strongly advo- 
cated by the then ■ chief engineer, Mr. John F. Stevens. The 
President, in the message to Congress, dated February 19, 1906, 
stated: 

"The law now on our statute books seems to contemplate 
a lock canal. In my judgment a lock canal, as herein recom- 
mended, is advisable. If the Congress directs that a sea-level 
canal be constructed, its direction will, of course, be carried 
out; otherwise the canal will be built on substantially the plan 
for a lock canal outlined in the accompanying papers, such 
changes being made, of course, as may be found actually neces- 
sary, including possibly the change recommended by the Sec- 
retary of War as to the site of the dam on the Pacific side." 

On June 29, 1906, CongTess provided that a lock type of 
canal be constructed across the Isthmus of Panama, of the 
general type proposed by the minority of the Board of Con- 
sulting Engineers, and work has continued along these lines. 
As originally proposed, the plan consisted of a practically 
straight channel 500 feet wide, 41 feet deep from deep water in 
the Caribbean to Gatun, where an ascent to the 85-foot level 
was made by three locks in flight. The level is maintained by 
a dam approximately 7,700 feet long, one-half mile wide at the 
base, 100 feet wide at the top, constructed to 135 feet above 
mean tide. The lake formed by this dam, 171 square miles in 
extent, carried navigation to Pedro Miguel, where a lock of 
30 feet lift carried the vessel down to a lake 55 feet above 
mean tide, extending to Sosa Hill, where two locks overcame 
the difference of level between the lake surface and the Pacific. 
Nineteen and eight-hundredths miles of the distance from 
Gatun to Sosa Hill had a channel 1,000 feet at the bottom, a 
minimum channel for 4 1-2 miles through Culebra of 200 feet 
at the bottom. The balance of the distance varied in width 
to 800 feet, the larger portion of the entire canal being not 
less than 500 feet. The depth of water was fixed at 45 feet. 
The lake assured a perfect control of the Chagres River. 

Certain changes have been made in the original project, 
the most important being the withdrawal of the locks from 
Sosa to Miraflores, which was recommended and adopted in 
December, 1907. This resulted in a change in the direction 
of the channel in Panama Bay. A breakwater is being con- 
structed from Sosa to Naos Island which, by cutting off the 
silt-bearing cross current, which has always been troublesome, 
protects the channel against silting. 

A second change is the widening of the 4 1-2 miles of 
Culebra cut to a width of 300 feet at the bottom. This was 
done by executive order and was not made on the recom- 
mendation of the commission. 

A third change is the location of the breakwaters in Colon 
Harbor. The necessity for these breakwaters was made ap- 
parent in the latter part of January, when a storm of some 
magnitude seriously interfered with shipping. As originally 
proposed for both the sea level and lock types, the break- 



Sold at Oceanic Pharmacy. 148 Bast St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



wateni were parallel to the axiii of the channel excavated in 
Ijimon Bay. If so eonstriieted, sufiicient area would not be 
given to dissipate the waves enterinj; head on into the chan- 
nel, and they would not afford much, if any, protection to 
shipping. These breakwaters are to be built out from Man- 
zanillo Island and Toro Point, so as to give a sheltered 
anchorage, and also an opportunity for such expansion to the 
waves as tn break them up. 

A fourth change is in the dimensions of the locks. As 

proposed by . the minority they were 900 feet by 1*5 feet, 

-able lengths and widths. Iliese dimensions were subse- 

ii'ntly changed by the commission at the instigation of the 

.'sident to 100 feet wide and 1,000 feet long. The width 

.IS again increased to 110 feet on the re<'omniendation of 

;iie (ieneral Board of the Navy, so as to accommodate any 

possible increase in beam of future battlcshi|>s. 

The Uatun dam is to consist of two piles of rock 1,200 feet 
apart and carried up to (iO feet above mean tide. The space 
between them and up to the re<|uired height is to be filled by 
selected material de|>08ited in place by the hydraulic process. 
During the construction of the north side of the south rock 
pile a slip occurred in November last at the crossing of the 
French Canal. This was the fifth slip that occurred at this 
{)oint. the rock settling to .some extent, but generally slipping 
sidowise until the angle of repose was reached. In this con- 
nection it is to be noted that the silt deposits in the chan- 
nel had not been removed. This slip would probably have 
passed unnoticed, as did the former ones, but for the fact 
that at the time a flood in the Chagres Kiver had attained 
such pro|Mirtion8 as to cover a portion of the Panama Kail- 
road tracks just south of Uatun. A newspajjer corresjwndent, 
going from Colon to Panama, saw his ofjportunity for a sen- 
siitional Ktorj', and attributed the Hood to the dropping of the 
(iatun dam into the subterranean lake under the dam and 
lo<'ks, which another faker had previously discovered, and 
the news of the destruction of the Gatun dam was cabled to 
the States. 

The slip did not affect the south slope or side of the rock 
pile. It was entirely local and did not in any way interfere 
with the work. It would not have occurred had stejis been 
taken during construction to give the proper slo|)e to the 
rock pile, but economy of time and money did not warrant 
such precaution. As stated by one of the engineering publi- 
cations, "We can state from actual |»ersonal examination 
that this incident has absolutely no engineering .significance." 

As a result, however, the public is told that dire disaster 
will follow the undertaking unless the present plans are aban- 
doned and the Straits of Panama constructed, that is a sea-level 
canal across the Isthmus 500 to tiOO feet wide. To accomplish 
this, however, a lock canal must be built first, and subsequently 
lilcned and deepened until the ideal is reached. There is no 
ta available for such a canal. With mountains instead of 
lulls to be removed estimates are, of course, imp<issible ; so that 
the most optimistic figures, suitable alone to the ideal, are 
offered as a bait. In any event it is also claimed that Bohio 
should have been selected for the site of the dam in lieu of 
(iatun. 

As between (Jatun and Bohio, at both places the distance 
from the natural surfhce to the rock is so great that any attempt 
to found the dam on the last-named material will be attended 
by enormous cx|>ense. At Bohio the gtirge in its lower strata is 
tilled with water-bearing gravel and to make the dam safe the 
underflow Ihnmgh these strata would have to be cut off by some 
means extending down 16.") feet. No such strata exists at Uatun, 
so, for this rea.son alone, leaving out of consideration the ad- 
vantages in the control of the Chagres River and to navigation 
by reason of the greater extent of lake. Uatun offers the better 
site. 

Both the majority and minority of the Board of Consulting 
Kngineers considered Gatun a suitable location for a dam; the 
former adopted it for the typical lock canal used for comparison 
with the sea-level canal, the latter for the aVfoot summit-level 
canal. The majority, however, feared the existence of an under- 
ground flow in case" of the higher dam. but investigations have 
failed to disclose any. The great mass of underiying material 



is not sandy and gravelly deposits as was supposed, but a mix- 
ture of these materials so firmly cemented together with clay 
as to make the strata in which they occur imfiervious to water. 

I venture the statement, without fear of contradiction, that 
the site of no public or private work of any kind has received 
such a thonmgli and exhaustive examination and investigation M 
the foundation of the dam and locks at Gatun. There is no 
longer a doubt concerning any of the underlying strata; neither 
the impermeability, nor the ability of the foundations to bear 
the loads that will be brought upon them, can be questioned if 
the data be carefully and impartially examined. The investiga- 
tions fail to disclose any water-bearing strata or the existence 
of that underground stream with a discharge e<|ual to the 
Chagres Kiver itself, which was recently asserted as a fact on 
the floor of the Senate. 

In this connection the statement is also made that the change 
in the location of the locks at the Pacific end was due to our 
demonstrated inability to construct the dams, and that as the 
foundation at Gatun is of the same material, it necessarily fol- 
low-ed that the Gatun dam is also im|KH>sible of accomplishment. 

The majority of the Board of Consulting Engineers in its 
report states that — 

"The dam at Im Boca, between San Juan Point and the Sosa 
Hill, unless carried down to bed rock at that location, would be 
placed u|M)n a far worse foundation than that pro|>osed at Gatun 
or Mindi. The I>a Bt)ca site is one covered by an oo7.e of mud 
or silt, with some sandy material overlying the rock. • • • 
Unless some feature e<|uivalent to that of a heavy masonry core 
characterized the design of the dam at this ))oint, or unless a 
re.sorl be made to dredging down to bed rock or near to it, and 
refilling with suitable material, or an earth dam at this location 
be made very massive, it would be in grave <langer of being 
pushed btxlily out of place by the pressure due to the head of 
water in the reservoir." 

We found the material in the foundations of these dams not 
only worse than at Gatun, ut in nowise comparable. In the 
former a covering of ooze and silt, in the latter firm ground 
with a few soft or marshy spots. 

I know that the Im Boca dams could be built to safely with- 
stand the heads of water in the resulting lake by adopting either 
the nietho<l of dredging out the ooze or by giving massive dimen- 
sions to the 8uperimi>osed structure. The engineering committee 
and the majority of the commission preferre*! the former method. 
In cither case the cost would exceed the original estimates, and 
in addition it is a military blunder to push the locks to and 
beyond the proper line of defense, especially when the canal is a 
military necessity to this country. That the dams could be built 
is evidenced by the fact that the west toe of the Sosa-Corozal 
dam was carried across the valley on the ooze as an embankment 
for a railroad to be utilized in transporting stone for the Pacific 
locks. The charge, therefore, that the dams could not be con- 
structed is not true, and the analogy at Gatun does not follow. 
Nor is there any truth in the statement that the military 
necessity was an afterthought as has been insinuated. 

I visited the Isthmus in 1!)0.') with a committee of the Board 
of National Coast Defenses, with which I was associated at that 
time, for a study of the defenses of the canal. When the loca- 
tion of the locks at the Pacific end was fixed, I was directed to 
call the Secretary of War's attention to the military necessity 
of withdrawing the locks to the interior. This I did, with the 
result that in forwarding the rejwrt of the Board of Consulting 
Kngineers to the President he calls attention to the fact aa 
follows: 

"The great objection to the locks at Sosa Hill is the possi- 
bility of their destruction by the fire from an enemy's ship. 
If, 88 has been suggested to me by officers of this department 
entitled to speak with authority on military subjects, these locka 
may be located against and behind S<»sa Hill in such a way as to 
use the hill as a protection against such fire, then economy would 
lead to the retention of this lake. • * * If. however, Sosa Hill 
will not afford a site with such protection, then it seems to me 
wiser to place the locks at Miraflores." 

In forwarding the re|H>rt to Congress, the President calls 
attention to the change recommended by the Secretary of War in 
the location of the locks on the Pacific side. The so-called after- 



S«M at *Tfc«« MSB Plt«»." 72 Market »tTr*i 



6 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



thought appears, therefore, as a conclusion reached long before 
I had any connection with the work. 

Discredit is also thrown on the Gatun dam because there has 
. been a desire to reduce the height from 135 to 10a feet. The 
original height was arbitrarily fixed to secure an excess of 
weight, so as to fully compress the underlying material supposed 
to be largely silt deposited by the river. Subsequent investiga- 
tions show that the supposed compressibility does not exist; that 
a marine, not a river deposit is encountered. The greater the 
height of the dam the greater the dilHculty of constructing the 
upper portion, and the greater the cost, both in time and money. 
From present available data, if the lake should take the total 
discharge of the Chagres River, the water surface would not ex- 
ceed 90 feet ; the top of the locks, 92 feet above sea level, would 
permit escape of the water long before it could reach the crest 
of the dam. Why then go to the expense of extra height of the 
dam, and what is to be gained thereby? Assuming the crest of 
the dam as 100 feet wide, uniform slopes from the rock piles 
would give a height of 105 feet, and this height was suggested. 
Because as an additional reason it was mentioned that the press- 
ure over the base would be more uniformly distributed by a 
dam with the cross section proposed, the opponents of the pres- 
ent project, without ascertaining the facts, point to the change 
as a desire to secure a uniform base pressure, and use it as an 
argument against the stability of the foundation. 

Much also has been made of the fact that in the testimony 
before one of the congressional committees mention was made 
of securing the stability of the superstructure by balancing the 
dam on the underlying material. Naturally the testimony is read 
and discussed in such a way as to leave the impression that the 
entire dam is to be so constructed. The ground to be covered 
by the dam is crossed by three water courses, the Chagres River, 
the French Canal and the West Diversion, and between these 
streams the ground is undulating, Spillway Hill reaching a 
height of 110 feet above sea level. It is not remarkable or unprec- 
edented that there should be depressions which undrained be- 
come soft with the excessive rainfall. Except for these the 
ground is fii'm. It is in the crossing of these soft spots that slips 
have occurred and are liable to occur, and to which the balancing 
method referred. They are relatively small in extent and when 
drained or filled cause no trouble, as experience at the La Boca 
embankment clearly proves. 

As previously stated, the Gatun dam satisfactorily solves the 
problem of the control of the Chagres, and there should be no 
doubt in the mind of anyone who impartially examines the data 
that the solution is not only feasible, but absolutely safe. As 
there has never been any question raised as to the safety and 
stability of the dams at Pedro Miguel and Miraflores, with the 
Gatun dam accepted, other things being equal, the relative merits 
of the lock versus sea-level canal must rest upon the ease and 
safety of navigation otfered by the two types. 

In the sea-level type offered in lieu of the lock type already 
described, the Chagres River is controlled by a masonry dam 
across the valley at Gamboa 4,500 feet long, 750 feet of which is 
subject to a pressure due to a head of 170 feet during the ex- 
treme flood stages of the rivei'. Proper sluice gates are proposed 
for discharging the river into the canal. The difference in tides 
is overcome by means of a lock on the Pacific side in the vicinity 
of Sosa Hill. While provisions are made for damming or divert- 
ing some of the streams that would otherwise enter the canal 
prism, not less tiian 22 flow directly into the canal, with no pro- 
vision to control the currents or check the deposits of material 
carried by them during flood stages. 

The prism of the canal is to have a bottom width of 150 feet 
through the earth sections, or for nearly one-half its length, and 
a 200-foot bottom width through the rock sections. Nineteen 
miles of the length are made of curves so that the proposed sea- 
level canal is not a wide, straight, and open channel, connecting 
the two oceans, but a narrow tortuous ditch, with varying cur- 
rents of unknown strength, impeded by a lock, and threatened by 
a dam resisting a pressure due to a head twice as great as that 
at Gatun. 

To be sure, the partisans of the sea-level type are now propos- 
ing to eliminate both the Gamboa Dam and the tidal lock by 
making the channel so wide as to reduce the currents that result 



from the discharge of the Chagres and the difference in tides, 
but fail to explain how they purpose to control or divert the 
Chagres, the bed of which will be 50 feet above the water surface 
of the canal at the juncture. As data is not available for pre- 
paring accurate estimates for even such a sea-level type as was 
originally offered, neither they nor any one else can offer any 
flgures as to time and cost of construction of such a canal as they 
now advocate. 

In any comparison, thei-efore, we must confine our attention 
to the lock type as now building, and a sea-level canal as offered 
by the board of engineers, and not by the idealist. 

So far as the two prisms are concerned, for ease and safety 
of navigation the lock type is better because of the greater 
widths of channels, fewer and easier curves, and freedom from 
objectionable and ti-oublesome currents, both from the Chagres 
and its tributaries. This must be admitted by all, but the expon- 
ents of the sea-level type concentrate their attention on the ob- 
structions and dangers that the locks constitute in the lock type, 
and also on the dangers that will result from the failure of the 
Gatun dam, forgetting that at least equally great disaster must 
follow the failure of the Gamboa dam. The lock in the sea-level 
canal is not mentioned, probably because the danger is not so 
great, since there is but one. 

Experience shows that the risks to ships in narrow wate^'ways 
are material and important. In such a channel as the original 
Suez Canal the delays and losses to commerce were great, and 
the danger to ships considerable; although the benefit of the 
widening is striking, this is true even now. 

It is well known that the narrow channels connecting the 
Great Lakes have been obstructed repeatedly by vessels aground 
or wrecked in such a manner as to block traffic. Even in the en- 
trances to our seaports there is a frequency of accidents, which 
illustrate the difficulties encountered in navigating narrow and 
tortuous channels. 

Accidents in locks have been relatively few, and none of a 
serious nature have occurred at the St. Marys Falls Canal dur- 
ing fifty-four years of its use. The risks to ships in such a nar- 
row waterway, as proposed for the sea-level canal at Panama, 
far outweigh all hazards in the proposed lock canal, provided 
the latter is built so as to minimize the chance of accident at the 
locks. This is met by providing every possible safety device, by 
building the locks in duplicate and by the installation of a system 
by which the vessels will be controlled by powerful electric 
machinery on the lock walls, thus avoiding mistakes on the pait 
of the vessels' crew or engine-room staff, which once led to an 
accident at the Manchester Ship Canal. 

Again, it is objected that the size of the locks limits the canal 
to vessels which can use them. This is true. The present lock 
designs provide intermediate gates dividing the locks into lengths 
of 600 and 400 feet. About 98 per cent of all the ships, includ- 
ing the largest battleships now building, can be passed tlu'ough 
the 600-foot lengths, and the total lock length will accommodate 
the largest commercial vessels now building, which, 1 believe, 
are 1,000 feet long and 88-foot beam. 

It is true that ships may increase in size so as to make the 
present locks obsolete, but the largest ships now afloat can not 
navigate the present Suez Canal, nor the proposed sea-level canal 
at Panama. It must also be remembered that the commerce of 
the world is carried by the medium-sized v.essels, the length of 
only one of the many ships using the Suez Canal being greater 
than 600 feet. 

The General Board of the Navy is on record that 110 foot 
width will be ample for the future needs of the Navy, and naval 
construction of the future will be limited not alone by the locks 
of the Panama Canal, but also by the available dry docks. Ships 
that can not use locks 1,000 feet by 110 feet can not use a 150- 
foot sea-levelcanal, nor can this be so easily and economically 
increased and maintained as is made to appear by its advocates. 

Increasing the width of Culebra cut, as recently ordered, from 
200 to 300 feet is advanced as an argument to show that the 
locks are too narrow. Ships do not navigate the locks in the 
sense that they do the canal prism, and the wider the channel 
the easier will be navigation. On account of slides that devel- 
oped in Culebra cut considerably more additional work was made 
necessary in the upper reaches of the divide than was contem- 



Sold at Steacy'a News Depot, 3 Steuurt St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



plated, and the advantages of the increaiied width to navigfatiun 
were so great, compared with the relative amount of material 
to be removed in order to secure it, that the President ordered it. 
Hy this aetion the width of the I<m-Ics is in nowise ealled into 
i|uestion. 

Hie water supply for lockages wan so exhaustively treated by 
the minority of the boanl that it has not been calkMl into ques- 
tion by anyone wiio has carefully o«>nsidered the re|H)rt and data 
submitted therewith. Recently, however, the theiiry has been 
advanced that the water of the lake may seep through the ad- 
jacent hills or through the bottom, and is significantly referred 
to as a nxHitcd question. This |M>ssibility is emphasized by the 
seamy (piulity of the rwk when exjMMsed. The French plans, 
with l^iliio I<ake. were the result of careful and protracted study 
and investigation, and nothing of the kind was anticipated. The 
commission of lilOl was not in doubt of the resisting |M)wer of 
tiie hill covering such a flow. The re|s>rt of the geologist on the 
general formation of the ctuntry does not lea<l to any such dread 
or fear. The reservoirs, constructed in the hills of the same 
ireological formation as the entire lake area, are not affected by 
any such leakage or seepage. At Hlack Swamp, an extensive 
area between Bohio and (jaluii, the water stands above the level 
of the Chagres — which is within half a mile — and also above sea 
le,vel the level of the water remains unelianged, clearly indicating 
no such leakage. 

Toward the close of the last dry season certain measurements 
of the Chagres at Kohio indicated a less discharge there than at 
(tamlwut: this was subsecpiently exploded by other observations 
which showed that the first ones were in error. Notwithstanding 
this, and in spite of the many evidences of the tightness of the 
earth covering, the possibility of a flow thnmgh the hills was 
advancetl and was sei7.ed u|>on as another argument against the 
ItH'k type. 

The Board of Consulting Engineers estimated the cost of the 
look ty|)e of canal at !fi;W,"05,'2(H), and of the sea-level canal at 
$24 7,021, (WO, excluding the C4)st of sanitation, civil government, 
the purchase price, and interest on the investment. Tliese 
sums were for construction pur|)oses only. 

I ventured a guess that the construction of the lock ty|)e of 
canal woulil approach .f.iOO.OOO.OOO, and without stopping to 
consider that the same causes which led to an increa.se in cost 
over the original estimates for the lock caiuil nuist affect etpially 
the sea-level tyi>e, the advocates of the latter argued that the 
excess of the new estimates was an adtlitional reason why the 
lock ty|>e should be abandoned in favor of the sea-level caiml. 

The estimated cost by the present commission for completing 
the adopted project, excluding the items let out by the Board of 
Consulting Kngineers, is placed at .'i!2!>7,7(i().0<)0. If to this be 
addetl the estimated cost of sanitation and civil government until 
the completion of the work, and the .1!.")0,000,000 purchase price, 
the total cost to the United States of the lock ty|»e of canal will 
amount to .$37.1,201,000. In the pre|)aration of these estimates 
there are no unknown factors. 

The estimate<l cost of the sea-level canal for construction 
alone sums up to if477,()01,000, and if to this be aided the cost of 
sanitation and civil government up tt> the time of the comidelion 
of the canal, which will be at least six years later than the lock 
canal, and the jMircliase i)rice, the total cost to the I'nited States 
will aggregate $.'>(J.{,000.()00. In this case, however, parts of the 
estimate are more or less conjectural — such as the cost of divert- 
ing the Chagres to permit the building of the (Jaml)oa dam and 
the cost of constructing the dam itself. Much has been said •)f 
the disadvantage of the seamy nx-k in connection with s<ime 
exiieriments made at Spillway Hill test pit and of the so-calle«l 
"indurated clay," yet these same disa<lvantages apply to the 
foundation at (Jamboa and the same class of material must be 
dealt with. The cost of constructing and maintaining a channel 
through the swamps of the lower Chagres is an unknown factor, 
and no schemes have been developed for controlling the vari<>us 
streams that are encountered an«l that must Ik- reckoned with 
along the route of the canal. So that the sea-level estimates 
iiave not the accuracy of those for the lock type. 

(To be continued. I 



NORTHERN COAST. 

Seattle — McKeiizie Bros, of Vaia-oiiver have reehart- 
ered the Norwegian steamer Transit. The Transit will 
run between British Columbia and Alaska. 

I'ortlajjd — Captain A. L. Belts, who was in charge of 
the steamer Olsen and Mahoiiey when that vessel collided 
with the Buniside-slreet bridge, was completely exoner- 
ated by V. S. Inspectors Edwards and Fuller. The gist of 
the tcstinn>ny was that cn>ss currents were the direct 
cause of the acei«lent. Captain Betts stated that there 
would be a terrible nuirine disaster if some steps were 
not taken to protect the bridnres. It would be a very 
easy and inexpensive matter to protect the bridges with 
dolphins, according to the captain. 

Seattb' — The Marine Hospital Service issued orders 
that the fumigation of all vessels arriving in Puget Sound 
should be stopped. This practice was instigated about a 
year ago on account of the bubonic ])lague scare of 
San Francisco. Ijoeal steamship men are pleased with 
the order to rescind the precautionary measure. And 
although it may have been imperative at the time there 
has been no danger for a long period. 

Victoria — The Canadian Pacific H. H. Co. is to have 
a new' steel twin screw of greater dimensions than the 
company's steamer Charmer. Plans and specifications 
are now being drawn up and bids will be called for 
shortly. 

Eureka — The new slip constructed by the county is 
now completed ami is a great improvement over the old 
one. as it provides a separate landing for row boats and 
launches. 

Seattle — Gov. Hay has signed the bill appropriating 
$2r>(),000 to construct the Lake Washington Canal. Work 
will commence on the project in June and the canal will 
be of the lock type, .')() feet wide and 17 feet deep, making 
it a sufficient size to allow the pa.ssage of all Puget Sound 
steamers from the Sound into lakes Union and Wash- 
ington. 

Portland — The Port of Portland Commission have de- 
cided to convert the pilot schooner Joseph Pulitzer into 
a motor boat by installing engines powerful enough to go 
against the tide and currents when the wind is unfavor- 
able. The unreliable service rendered. I»y tbe schooner in 
the past has been cause for just complaint from sea cap- 
tains. 

An immense water apoiit narrowly escaped striking the 
oil tanker V. S. Porter while off the southern Oregon 
coast. This is the first water spout reported in three years, 
the last one almost collided with the steam schooner Andy 
Mahoney. 

Victoria — The marine department purchased the steam 
trawler Newington from K. J. Fader for .1i42.fH)0. The 
vessel will be use<l as a lighthouse tender. 

The schooner I^izzie S. Sorenson of Seattle is in the 
bay for repairs. A 150 horsepower gasoline engine will 
be installed, and upon completion of the repairs the 
schooner will proceed to Seattle to outfit for the whaling 
season. 

The Ship Owners Association of the Pacific Coast 
have petitioned the Lighthouse Boanl of Washington for 
a higher onler light at Point Arguello. The prt-sent 
fourth onler light penetrates the thick, stormy weather 
prevalent in that section but a very short distance from 
shore. 

The eighteen mutinous Chinese, who composed the 
crew of the Ilendrik Ibsen, were deported on the Nippon 
Maru. thus ending the complications that it was feared 
would arise in the case. 



Sol4 at Ferrr Kews Slaad, Saa FraarUro 



8 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



LOSS OF THE R. D. INMAN. 

An unfortunate error brought total destruction to 
the steamer R. D. Inman on Saturday night last, shortly 
after leaving this port, en route to Portland. 

The story is best told in the words of Captain 
Chester J. Lancaster, and by recalling to mind the un- 
usual weather conditions of Saturday night at about 
the time the steamer w^s wrecked. 

"Leaving the harbor at 6 o'clock," said Captain 
Lancaster, "we proceeded towards the heads, being in 
ballast; apprehension was felt from weather condi- 
tions prevailing at the time if in cargo ; reaching the 
north channel fairly under way, and while on the bridge 
with Second Officer Ivar Ulvestad, I observed what I 
supposed to be a burning vessel on our eastward bow, 
and immediately ordered our course to be altered to 
render assistance to the distressed. Shortly after chang- 
ing our course we were startled by the dreadful news, 
breakers ahead, from the look-out at the bow, and almost 
momentarily the vessel crunched on the reef, this be- 
fore the engines could be stopped. Not until the masts 
and smoke-stack listed to starboard did I know that 
our vessel was helpless. The crew had no difficulty in 
reaching the beach, only 500 feet distant." 




The R. D. Inman was built in Marshfield, Oregon, in 
1907, at a cost of $120,000, had a gross of 763.12 and 
427.80 net tonnage, 186^^ feet long, 39 feet breadth and 
depth of 14 feet, with cargo capacity of 1,000,000 feet 
of lumber. 

P. S. Loop, managing owner of the R. D. Inman, 
stated that the vessel would be a total loss, was insured 
for $100,000, and would be adandoned, and that by the 
process of wrecking $10,000 could be saved by the re- 
moval of the machinery. 

Much sympathy has been expressed for Captain Lan- 
caster, being a young man and capable seaman, having 
held several positions of trust on this coast, is well and 
favorably known, this being his first serious accident, 
and presumably while on a mission of mercy. Captain 
Turner remarked that there is a strong current, with a 
set inshore, where the steamer left her course. The 
pilots claim that Captain Lancaster is not the first to 
have been misled by beach fires in this vicinity, and 
who have been prompted by the same charitable motives 
which brought disaster to Captain Lancaster. 



CHANGES AMONG SHIP'S OFFICERS. 

W. Mooney went out on the S. S. Washtenaw as 
second assistant engineer. 

A. Moncaster, formerly first assistant engineer of the 
S. S. Mongolia, has been appointed chief engineer of the 
S. S. Siberia, relieving J. Morris. 

B. Townsend relieved J. Hansen, G. L. Harris re- 
lieved C. R. True and 0. M. Pettingill relieved J. Mc- 
Carthy; these were the changes among the junior engi- 
neers on the S. S. Siberia. 

E. Mooney, first assistant engineer of the S. S. Rose 
City laid ofi' for one trip on account of sickness in the 
family. His place was taken by Second Assistant En- 
gineer C. Stevens. Third Assistant Engineer E. Lahti 
went out second assistant and L. Kenny was appointed 
third assistant. 

Second Officer Barneson is off Ihe S. S. Rose City. His 
position was taken by Third Officer Parker. Fitzsim- 
mons was appointed third officer. 

Captain R. J. Dunham, formerly of the S. S. Roanoke, 
has been appointed master of the Portland-Tillamook 
steamer Argo. He succeeds Captain E. Anderson, re- 
signed. 

C. Barr has left the S. S. Siberia as fourth officer. 
His place was taken by C. Clarkson, formerly fifth officer. 
F. Leach was appointed in his place. 

The officers of the S. S. Umatilla are Captain Thos. 
Riley, First Officer T. Matheson, Second Officer W. Harri- 
son, Third Officer A. Mondini, Fourth Officer G. Harris, 
Chief Engineer P. Shepard, G. Osborn, first assistant; 
A. Johnson, second assistant; H. Towle, third assistant. 

Captain Hall has relieved Captain Gielow, temporarily, 
on the S. S. City of Topeka. 

B. Jackson relieved J. Scoby as first officer of the 
S. S. City of Pueblo. 

J. Turner relieved H. Haward as second assistant en- 
gineer of the S. S. Col. E. L. Drake. 

J. McEwing has left the S. S. Olsen and Mahony as 
second assistant engineer, his place being taken by Ray 
Gunzell, formerly second assistant engineer of the S. S. 
Buckman. 

H. Eraser went out on the S. S. Buckman as second 
assistant engineer. 

Billie Jackson went as first mate, relieving J. Scoby 
on the City of Pueblo. 

Fourth Officer J. Hftiger has left the S. S. City of 
Pueblo. 



HONOLULU NOTES. 



The investigating board have recommended the sus- 
pension of Pilot Milton N. Sanders, who was in charge of 
the U. S. transport Logan at the time of the stranding. 

Hawaii — The navy department has completed the re- 
vision of the plans and specifications for the new dry 
dock to be constructed at the Pearl Harbor naval sta- 
tion. Hawaii, to meet the requirements of Congress. The 
original plans and specifications proposed a dock 1,200 
feet in length, but Congress refused to appropriate suf- 
ficient funds for a dock of this size, as a result the length 
was shortened to 620 feet. The only other change on 
the revised, plans is the elimination of the inner dock. 
At the present size the docks will hold the largest battle- 
ship in the course of construction or even contemplated. 
Bids on the revised plans will be open May 22. 



Sold «t Oceanic PImrmaey, 148 Kast St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



NOTES. 
The Kitano-Maru, a new Japanese liner built for the 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha Co., was recently launched at the 
MitKa Uishi Hhipyards of Nai^asaki. The Kitano-Maru is a 
double screw steel steamer of 8.U00 tonu gross, with three 
decks. She is 465 feet lonff, 56 feet wide and 34V1; feet 
deep, fitted with triple expansion surface eoudensing en- 
gines, capable of developing 7,300 horsepower. 

The Psaka Shosen Kaisha Co. is having three sister 
ships built at the Kawasaki Dockyard, Kobe. The first of 
the three has just been launched. Tacoma Maru is the 
name given the new ship. The steamers are to be 6,000 
tons gross with a displacement of 11,500. 

The German steamer Ella of the Jebseu line was seized 
at La Union, Salvador, by the Government of the republic. 
An armed giiard was placed on board and the steamer's 
papers seized and taken ashore to be subjected to a rigid 
examination. It was thought that the steamer, or those 
on board, were spies of Nicaragua, with which republic 
Salvador is at war. 

Captain Chas. F. Pond, U. S. inspector of the light- 
house district comprising Oregon, Washington and Alaska. 
has commenced the survey of the Yukon River and is 
collecting data prior to compiling a report regarding the 
feasibility of establishing fifty-eight day marks along that 
river in American territory to cover a stretch of 1,500 
miles. A result of the survey and a report will be sent 
to the lighthouse board. 

The volume of the traffic on this river, during the 
months it is navigable, surpas.ses the average conception, 
and although many less- important rivers nearer home have 
attracted and been given more attention the traffic on the 
Yukon warrants the expenditures proposed for safety 
a|>pliances. 

The new lumber wharf to be built by the state at the 
foot of Sixteenth street, is to afford accommodations to 
all lumber firms operating from San Francisco on an 
e<iual basis. The drydocks will be removed shortly. Six 
steamers can be accommodated at the same time when 
the proposed lumber wharf is completed. 

The Salvadorean gunboat President, recently engaged 
in combat with the Xicaraguan gunboat Momotombo, was 
formerly the old tug President of San Francisco. The 
Salvadorean government bought it and, mounting a few 
guns on it, created a navy. Their navy at the present 
time consists of the Presidente, a cruiser, and a fully 
e<iuipped rowboat, modem in every respect. 

After carefully investigating the cause of the explo- 
sion on the steamer Weitchpie, U. S. Inspectors John K. 
Bulger and O. F. Bolles decided that Fireman Elmer 
Dennis, who lost his life in the accident, was responsible. 
The explosion was caused by low water in the boiler. 

The schooner Marconi, owned by the Simpson Lum- 
ber Co., laden with 1,000,(X)0 feet of lumber, was wrecked 
on the South Spit near Coos Bay bar and is a total loss. 
No insurance was carried on either the schooner or the 
cargo and the approximate loss is $60,000. 

The New York Shipbuilding Co. of Camden, N. J., is 
building two revenue cutters of the highest type, to be 
detailed on the Pacific coast when completed. The cutters 
are the Tahoma and Yamacraw. and they will be stationed 
in the vicinity of Puget Sound for the relief of distressed 
vessels. 




THE SNOHOMISH IN A CLASS INDIVIDUAL. 

The Snoliitinisli, which arrived in this port on Satur- 
day, en route from Norfolk to Neah Bay. has the distinc- 
tion of being the first vessel built by the Government 
exclusively for life-saving at sea; e<iuipped with every 
modern convenience and practical device that ingenuity 
could devise, the Snohomish will enter the service equal 
to every possible emergency and whim of the elements. 

Immediately following the wreck of the steamship 
Valencia on the coast of Vancouver Island, three years 
ago. when 136 lives were lost owing mainly to lack of 
equipment of rescuers, who were unable to reiuler as- 
sistance. Congress appropriated :|i200.(HK) for the con- 
struction of a life-saving vessel, to be stationed at Neah 
Bay. 

She was built by the Pusey and Jones Company, at 
Wilmington. Del., is 152 feet long. 29 feet breadth, and 
draws 15 feet 6 inches, with coal bunkers fully laden; 
has a 1200 h.p. engine of the triple expansion type, driving 
a single screw, insuring a speed of 14 knots. The main 
feature, however, of the Snohomish is the new breeches 
buoy. The buoy is provided with automatic reel, which 
travels on a powerful nistless cable 1600 feet long. By 
this means passengers of a distressed vessel may be 
landed on the deck of the Snohomish regardless of the 
condition of the sea. 

The metho<l of c(mnecting a distressed vessel with 
the life-saver required new and special apparatus, which, 
from a number of tests, has pntven highly efficient and 
satisfactory. This apparatus consists of a line-throwing 
gun which will carry a whip line 1600 feet from the 



S*M at Ferry News StaB^ Baa Fraaeiac* 



10 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Snohomish, and to which is attached the life saving 
cable, and by which means the cable is brought to the 
distressed vessel. 

Other appliances include fire-fighting devices, power- 
ful suction pumps, self-baling and righting life boats 
and rafts, search lights, wireless telegraph, water distil, 
and built in detail for the service required, and also foi 
the rough weather peculiar at Cape Flattery. 

The Snohomish made the trip from Norfolk in com- 
mand of Captain Francis A. Levis, making an average 
speed of about ten knots for the trip, or ninety-eight days. 
Captain Levis left this port with the Snohomish on Thurs- 
day and will place the vessel in commission at Neah Bay 
in the shadow of Cape Flattery. 

Almost coincident within the hour of the arrival of 
the Snohomish in this harbor. Captain Levis was called 
upon to give a finishing touch of his 15. 000-mile voyage 
and to test the life-saving qualities of his vessel, to which 
he readily responded, putting to sea immediately for 
the scene of the wreck of the R. D. Inman, but upon ar- 
rival found the Inman beyond aid and the crew safely 
ashore. 



SHIPBUILDING NOTES. 

Contracts will soon be let by the California & Oregon 
S. S. Co. of Portland, Oregon, for a new boat, sister ship 
to the Alliance, to operate between Portland and Coos 
Bay points. 

Major Wood of the Quartermaster's Department at 
Seattle, Wash., has received authority from Washington 
to prepare plans for a steamer to be built by the U. S. 
government, to run between Seattle and Forts Worden, 
Casey and Flagler. She will be about 400 feet long, 
capacity of 150 tons freight, and 150 passengers, to cost 
about $48,000. Bids will be called for as soon as plans 
and specifications are complete. 

The keel of the new 450 ft. liner for the Matson Navi- 
gation Co. was laid March 15 at the yard of the Newport 
News Shipbuilding Co. 

Union Iron Works. 

The S. S. James M. Donohue has left the yard after 
undergoing extensive repairs. 

The Governor Markham is on the dry dock, having 
the temporary wheel replaced by the permanent one. 

The dry docks at the foot of Sixteenth street have 
been moved to a position between the wharves at the 
shipyard. The new location of the docks will place the 
Union Iron Works in a position to complete work in the 
least possible time, as this is the only concern in San 
Francisco having a dry dock connected with the shops. 

N. 0. S. S. Argyll is at the yard for a general over- 
hauling, including engine and boiler repairs. 

The S. S. Lansing is undergoing miscellaneous engine, 
boiler and hull repairs. 

Moore & Scott. 

The rumor is confirmed at the office of the Moore & 
Seott Iron Works that this firm has taken over the ship- 
building plant of W. A. Boole & Sons, Oakland, and that 
the possession of the plant, consisting of about nineteen 
acres of land, in addition to a first class shipbuilding 
equipment, will be acquired about the end of the month. 
It is proposed to build a ways capable of lifting a vessel 
of 5,000 tons. The firm intends to go in for the larger 
repair work coming up on the bay, in competition with 
the other large shipbuilding concerns. The price paia for 
the ways is said to be $300,000, and the firm will spend an 
additional $200,000 in further installations of tools and 
equipment. 



The installation of the winches and hoisting gear for 
the San Mateo is being rushed to an early completion. 
Owing to the early date at which the vessel is required it 
has been necessary to run a night shift on the work. The 
eight winches being built for the steamer will be com- 
pleted within the contract time of five weeks. The San 
Mateo is now laying up in Oakland Creek, but it is ex- 
pected that the vessel will be brought to the new yard 
recently acquired by that company in the estuary. The 
winches are there being installed and it is po.ssible that 
while there the vessel may be placed on the dock for 
overhauling and painting preparatory to her entering 
in the northern trade under her new charterers. 

The state fire tug Governor Markham has been turned 
over to the Moore & Scott Iron Works for a thorough 
overhauling. The tug has been placed on the Sixteenth 
street dry dock, where a new propeller is being installed 
and the tail shaft refitted. 

This firm has also a large force of men on the State 
Dredger No. 3, which is receiving an annual overhauling. 



One of the local launch companies of San Francisco 
bay is having a launch built at the yard of Stone & Van 
Bergen. The dimensions of the boat are 53 feet in 
length and 13 feet beam, will draw 6 feet of water and will 
be equipped with a 100-h. p. local standard gasoline en- 
gine. The vessel will be used for towing purposes and a 
large space on the for'd deck can be used for deck cargo. 
There will be a cabin at the after end of the vessel, where 
the handling gear will be installed, and also accommoda- 
tions for two men. 



The Yamashito Marine Engineering Co. bought the 
British steamer Adato, which went ashore at Ashima, 
for $3,000. The Adato was a steel steamer of 3347 tons, 
330 feet in length, 45 feet beam and 16 feet depth. 



SOUTHERN COAST. 

Santa Barbara — Captain Gilbert, skipper of the 
schooner Baltic, recently found a stick of dynamite in 
the hold of the vessel. The crew of the boat recently 
struck for higher wages, and more help, but it is not 
thought that they would use such dastardly means to 
gain their end. 

San Pedro — The San Pedro and Wilmington pilot bill, 
drafted by Assemblyman Leeds, passed the Senate and is 
now in the hands of the Governor. The shippers pro- 
tested against the one-half pilot dues proposed to be 
charged deep water vessels entering the harbor of San 
Pedro whose masters declined the pilot's assistance. A 
compromise was reached by exempting from taxation 
coast-wise trade along the Pacific seaboard, from Victoria 
to Mexico inclusive. 

San Pedro — The Jebsen-Ostrander S. S. Co., now oper- 
ating two .steamers, the Ella and Erna, between British 
Columbia. Mexico, and Central American ports, intend 
to put six steamers on that run and inaugurate a fourteen- 
day schedule. The four new steamers to be put on the run 
are on their way to the coast from Germany. 

South Bend — The steamer Shoshone, while outward 
bound for San Francisco, was swept by a heavy sea, 
which washed deckload. mainmast and cargo booms over- 
board. A member of the crew was swept overboard and 
drowned. The vessel was forced to put back to South 
Bend for repairs. 



Sold at SteacyV Kewu Depot. 3 Steuart St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



11 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Oj??« 95 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 
TELEPHONE DOUGLAS 4325 



THOS. C. BUTTERWOKTH 
A. B. BUTTF.RWORTH 
M. DAVIS 



Hditor 

Gvttcral MwiM**' 

Advcr1i»in4 Dcp«rtA«*< 



Publinhed by the Pacific MeirhaiU Marine Publinhing Co. 
in San Francisco, Calijomia, ei-vry Saturday morning in the 
inlereM and development of the Pacific Merchant Marine. 

WILL BE SENT TO ANY ADDRESS in Ihe UNITED STATES 

$4.00 a Year $2.00 Six Months 

ADVERTISING RA1ES ON APPLICATION 
Addreit All Communication* to the Pacific Merchant Marine 



The earliest development of the merchant marine in 
the modern sense of the word was in the Mediterranean, 
which existed 1,(MK) years before Christ, when the island 
of Hhodi'H posses-sed a Hourishin^' eoninierce and merchant 
marine governed by a code of laws which in part is the 
foundation of all modern maritime laws, and from which 
dates the beginning; of a study of this subject. And safe 
to say there i« not another subject in the historj' of the 
civilized nations of the world which has consnmtHl more 
real time and energy than that of their commerce. This 
applies eipiatly to the citizen and statt'sinan. Variotis 
nations have honored their military officers in recogni- 
tion of their achievements in warfare. Lacking material 
of this kind, ret'ourse was made to earnest thinkers in 
l)ohalf of the nation's resources. This latter class in- 
variably consisted of men versed in political economy 
and (pialitied to discuss this subject in a masterly way. 
and usually to the advantage of those they repre- 
sented. Few records of impeachment are known of those 
who have failed to give at least reasonable returns for 
the services required of them, if unfortunate enough 
to have been overlooked by a now appreciative com- 
munity. The knowledge of having leame<l the truth and 
a <letermination to be true to it remained and invariably 
proved the fouiulation stone upon which the iiMlividual 
became identified with the nation's history and pros- 
perity. 

"International trade." said John Stuart Mill, "in be- 
coming the principal guarantee of the jwace ctf the worM. 
is the great permatient security for the iniinterrupted 
progress of the ideas, the institutions and the character 
of the human race." Obliterate this statement from the 
writings of the earnest truth seeker and sincer*' thinker, 
and the popularity of P^ngland's greatest philosopher 
would be incomplete. 

Picture Theodore Roosevelt as never having occupied 
the presidential chair of the I'nited States, but add to 
his biugrai)hy his efforts in behalf of rehabilitating the 
American merchant marine; accept e%-ery statement 
made, criticize his actions and advice on this subject as 
severely as many have done in other of his official acts; 
analyze, twist, turn, inspect, do what you will with his 
efforts in this direction — then find sufficient reason by 



which to raise Mr. Roosevelt to the highest pinnacle occu- 
pied by American statesmen. 

^lany other American statesmen will pass into his- 
tory for their efforts in behalf of the American merchant 
nuirine. but as a whole much remains to the discredit of 
Congress for the past fifty years which has |>ermitted 
$2(K).(K)0.000 per year to be taken ont of the pockets of 
American workmen to be paid t4i aliens; and this in face 
of the fact that, according to the V. S. constitution, Con- 
gress is given the power to regulate commerce with for- 
eign nati«uis. and among the several states, otherwise in- 
terprete«l to ve«t in Congress exclusive power to regu- 
late shipping u|M>u the navigable waters of the I'nited 
States and as to tlie American vessels upon the high 
seas; that the same Congress has allowed the carriage of 
over-seas trade to dwinille to the extent that American 
vessels arc now carrying less than Id per cent of the 
exports of the I'nited States; that the total tonnage of 
American steamships engaged in foreign trade is ex- 
ceeded in several instances by foreign private ownershij). 

This argument may be combated by the fact that we 
are the n>ost prosperous and happy nation of the earth, 
but the statement does not establish our increase to 
prosperity and happiness at a ratio with the decline of 
our commerce. 

If the argument mentioned has merit, let us apply 
it in the same sense but from another source. If the 
workingman earned $'.i ]>er day fifty years ago, and the 
capitalist made $9. the capitalist owne<l 7.') per cent of 
the wealth of the country. Hut if the workman earned 
$6 per day this year and the capitalist earns $24. the 
capitalist owns 80 per cent of the wealth of the coiuitry; 
and while we may be prosperous and happy we occupy 
a false |)osition compared to fifty years ago. or in other 
words we are 5 per cent less prospen>us and happy. 



COURT NOTES. 

John (Javin has begun a libel suit against the Pacific 
States Trading Company for ♦lO.lKKt <|amages for injuries 
receiveil while a member of the crew of the John F. 
Miller. The ves,sel and ten of the cn;w were lost at 
Hear Harbor, Alaska. Uavin lost three fingers and his 
feel were frozen. 

The following marine decision by the V. S. Circuit 
(k)urt of Appeals is of interest to 8hipiM>rs: The time 
when a vt^ssel was ready to load or discharge, and con- 
se(|uenll.v when the lay days commence*! under a charter 
party, is a i|uestion of fact, and the finding of the trial 
court thereon, based on the conflicting evidence, will not 
be disturbed by an Appellate Court, unless clearly errone- 
ous. 

The H. I). I^ndixsen Shipbuilding Company of Plureka 
lost a suit for ^lO.fXH) instituted against it by Alexander 
McCarren. McCarn-n. while engaged in shifting lumber 
in the defendant 's .vard. received injuries to his leg which 
necessitated amputation. 



The escape of an Afghan from the S. S. Siberia has 
brought to the attention of the immigration authorities 
the large number of detaine<l aliens that have managed 
to esca|K> in the last few months. That the escapes 
received outside aid the authoriti<«* have no doubt, and 
suspicion in this particular case rests on N'. Miurea. a 
Japanese, and Wan Shau. a Chinese, members of the 
steward's department on the .Siberia. Both men were 
before the commissioners and subjected to a rigid exam- 
ination, but as the evidence against them was not com- 
plete their hearing was continued. 



S*M at Ferrjr Newa •«■■<, •>■ rraadaa* 



12 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 




SCHOONER YACHT MARIAN. 

The latest addition to the already extensive yachting 
fleet of San Francisco Bay was launched Saturday, March 
20, from the shipyards of Stone & Van Bergen at Harbor 
View. The yacht was built for A. L. Meyer, a capitalist 
of San Francisco and member of the Golden Gate Yacht 
Club. 



1 \> 1 "^i 

1 •' '~ :i : 


I 


i 


t ^* 




.' ^,r 




^^ 1 


s. 




/ N 




, 


> 


\ ■ If"' 

/4\ 


i 


' 


'■■■■ ^^ 


Z UL^iiia^ 


3S 




""^TT^'^i- 


< |i "T' IMI ■ l»W 1 l.i;^J.t— 




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1 


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^^^^i^p^aii 


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p-.-. — -' 


-.-— ^ 


3H 


i^i'l^i? 


1 


^H ^'fllP^ ■ •-- . '-L^ZZ 


■ 



The vessel is 70 feet 6 inches long, 13 feet 6 inches 
beam, draws 9 feet 6 inches of water and 14 feet 6 inches 
with the centerboard down. Sawed cedar frames, 2-inch 
planking and 3-inch ceiling. The cabin is finished in 
mahogany and poplar. Three staterooms, a large galley, 
refrigerator box, two toilets and a complete Presto Lite 
plant for lighting purposes are among the extensive cabin 
equipments. 

Deck arrangements of the vessel are complete in every 
detail and no expense has been spared by Mr. Meyer to 
make his vessel not only the finest looking vessel of her 
class on the bay, but the most commodious. 

The vessel was christened the Marian by Miss Ethel 
Stone, and immediately following the launching a trip 
was taken on the bay to test the vessel's qualities. The 
vessel proved satisfactory in every particular. 



C. F. Morel is having a 17-foot by 5 feet 6-inch pleasure 
boat built, to be equipped with a 3-h. p. eastern Buffalo 
engine. 

J. F. Hanify's handsome yacht Martha is having a new 
set of cedar spar stepped. 

The fast yacht Presto, flagship of the Corinthian Yacht 
Club, is on the ways at the yard, to be placed in readiness 
for the coming season. New decks will be put on the 
vessel before she is again placed in commission. 

The sloop Freda has been purchased by Joe Tracy, the 
veteran Corinthian yachtsman, and is on Klarmans' ways 
in Tiburon, undergoing an extensive overhauling. 

Commodore Berry's sloop Nixie, and Captain Chas. 
Miller's Yankee are back at their berths of the Corinthian 
Club, after having been in winter quarters up river since 
the end of last season. 

Mysterious Pete Swanson is building a 60-foot pleas- 
ure launch for Honolulu parties. There has been some 
speculation as to who the prospective owners are, but 
Pete is keeping their identity a dark secret. 

It has been reported that Andrew Thorne has his yawl 
Seven Bells up for sale, and intends to give up the yacht- 
ing game. 

Preparations are being made for the coming Corin- 
thian opening, the latter part of April, and as this will 
probably be the last opening held at the old clubhouse, 
which is to be torn down preparatory to the erection of 
a new $20,000 building, a particularly large attendance 
is expected. 



STUART B. DUNBAR 



211 Buckley Bldg. 

Market & Spear Sts. 

San Fnmcisco 



NAVAL ARCHITECT 



Phone Kourny 4731 
Yacht* & Work Boats of All Class** D«sign«d & Construction Superintended 



Matson Navigation Company 

268 Market Street Phone Douglas 3030 

Direct Line Passenger and Freight Steamers and Sailing Vessels to 

Honolulu, Hilo, Kahului, Mahukona, Eleele 

From 

Seattle and San Francisco 

For Freight and Passenger Bates apply to 

Alexander & Baldwin, Seattle Castle & Cooke, Honolulu 

Matson Navigation Company, San Francisco 



COLUMBIA RIVER PILOTAGE AND TOWAGE RATES 



BAR PILOTAQE 

For piloting an inward or outward bound vessel to or from Astoria 
over the bar, or from within the bar to the open sea, all vessels shall 
pay $5 per foot draft, and 2 cents per ton for each and every ton 
registered measurement. 

The pilot who first speaks a vessel, or duly offers his services 
thereto as pilot, on or without the bar pilot grounds, is entitled to 
pilot such vessel over the same; but the master may decline to 
accept, and may navigate his vessel over said pilot grounds with- 
out a pilot; but, nevertheless, he shall, if inward bound, pay full 
pilotage, and if outward bound, one-half of above rates. 



RIVER PILOTAQE 

For piloting a vessel upon the river pilot ground between Astoria 
and Portland, whether ascending or descending, all vessels shall 
pay $2 per foot draft and 2 cents per ton for each and every ton 
registered measurement; and the Board is authorized to prescribe 
a proportionate compensation for pilot service between other points 
on said ground, or from one part of a dock to another part of the 
same dock, the charge therefor shall be a sum not exceeding $7.50; 
and the pilot shall, on being thereunto requested by the master of 
the vessel, be required to do such work, and for such compensation. 
Provided, however, it shall be optional with the master or person in 



Sold at Steacy'a News Depot. 3 Stenart St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



13 



charge of such vessel whether he accepts or demands the aervicea 
of any such pilot; and if the master or other per!«f)n in charge of 
any vesv-ifl declines to accept the services of a pilot on the river pilot 
ground aforesaid, the vessel shall not be liable for pilotage. 

Columbia Kiver Towage Tariff From the Pacific Ocean or Astoria 
to Portland and Return for Vessels Other Than Lumber Carriers. 

Vessels 500 to 700 tons net n-gLster $.'>UO.0O 

Over 700 to 1000 tons net register 550.00 

Over lOtX) to 1200 tons net register . UOO.OO 

Over 1200 to 1500 tons net register 650.00 

Over 1500 to 1800 tons net register 700.00 

Over 1800 to 2000 tons net register 750.00 

Over 2000 to 2500 tons net n^ister 800 .00 

Over 2500 to 3000 tona net register 850.00 

Hawser charge $15.00 each way 

Veaaels towed from the sea to Astoria and return only, will be 
charged 70 per cent of the rate charged to Portland and return. 

V'e.<.sels in ballast towed from the .sea to .\storia and return, when 
entering the river as a port of call and departing without cargo, 
will be charged 25 per cent of the rate to Portland and return. 

SCHEDULE OF RATES FOR TOWAOE OF LUMBER SCHOONERS 
WHEN PLY! NO BETWEEN PACIFIC COAST PORTS. 

From the Pacific Ocean — 

To Portland, Ore., or Vancouver, Wash., and return to Pacific 

Ocean, 50 cents per 1,000 feet. 
To Astoria and return to Pacific Ocean, 25 cents per 1,000 feet. 



NOTE. — The above rates apply only to veaaeU arriving light or 
in ballast. No charge is then made for hawser. If veaael loads at 
two |><>ints outside of I'ortland harliur, an additional charge of 10 
cents per 1,000 feet is made. 

When vcMela arrive witii cargo, the rate per 1.000 fe«<t to Uith 
ports indicated above is increased by 25 cents, and a hawser charge 
of $15 each way is also made. Cliarges will be computed on the 
actual number of feot of lumber carried from Portlaud, Ore., or 
Vancouver, Wash., subject to minimum charge baaed on 300,000 
feet of lumber. The raK-s named from Pat-itic Ocean and return to 
Pacific (Jceiiu, apply on vessels for lumlx-r mills maintaining their 
own river towage service iM'twei-n .\Ktoria and Portland, Ore., or 
Vancouver, Waah., ami when handled by their own steamers, .\storia 
to Portland, Ore., or N'ancouver, Wasli., and return only. The tow- 
boat company reserves the right to decline to tow vt^-ls through 
drawbridges at Portland when deemed unaafe, account unfavorable 
weather or water c<inditions. 

INSTRUCTIONS AND RATES COVERING HARBOR MOVES AND 
LIQHTERAOE. 

Moves: Vessels will be moved within the harbor limits of Astoria 
or Portland at a charge of $20 for each steamer used for eat'li move. 

Lighterage: Tlie channel of the Columbia and Wilhtmetu* Uivcrs 
having been deepeni-d to admit vessels drawing 25 feet, in the event 
of its l>ecoming necessary from any cause to lighter vess<'ls bound 
outward from Portland, carrving cargoes of grain and its products 
foreign, such lighterage will be handled free of charge by Uie tow- 
boat com|>any. 

Any necessary lighterage of inl>ound vessels destined to Portland 
will bo handled at a charge not exceeding $1.00 per ton, weight or 
measurement at option of tow-boat. 



GRAYS HARBOR TOWAGE RATES 

Towage rates at Grays Harbor are fixed on a basis of 40 cents per thousand feet of lumber carried outward. 

Moving vessels within the harbor limits is done by small steamers, without regard to a fixed tariff. Usual charges for this service 
rim from $2.50 to $10.00, according to distance. 



PUGET SOUND PILOTAGE 

Pilotage is not compulsory. If pilot is employed by vessel bound in, rate subject to agreement. Tugs have full charge of vessels 
in tow, tug-boat masters all being Government licensed pilots. 

PUGET SOUND TOWAGE RATES-SINGLE DECK VESSELS 



TONS 



ISO to 

}Sl to 

351 to 

451 to 

501 to 

551 to 

aoi to 

«51 to 

701 to 

751 to 

851 to 1000 

1001 to 120O 

1301 to 1500 



210 
ISO 
450 

sot 

550 

too 
ato. 

700 

750 
850 



BETWEEN CAPE FLATTERY AMD 



} 



t « 
45 
SO 
SS 

s» 

58 

ao 
ss 
as 

100 
125 
ISO 
175 



IBS 

75 



ts 

100 
105 

no 

115 

lao 

175 

m 

225 



I 75 

90 
102 
M( 
IIS 
122 
128 
134 
140 
l« 



$85 

105 
120 
128 

lis 

143 
ISO 

158 

las 

215 
225 
210 

275 



110 
128 
137 
145 
155 

la 

171 
180 
223 



Its 

lis 

135 
145 
155 

las 

175 
185 
IS5 
230 
2S0 
275 
300 



BETWEEN FOBT TOWN8END AND 



IS 
17 
10 

m 
n 

23 
34 
2S 

28 
30 
3t 
40 



I 



m 

30 

31 
38 
40 
43 
45 
48 
SO 
55 

ao 

70. 



128 

35 

43 
47 
50 
55 

ao 
at 

86 

73 
80 
«0 

m 



BETWEEN FOBT ANQELEB AND 



• 2* 

30 
35 

38 
40 
43 
45 

48 
SO 

ao 

75 
HO 
125 



45 

52 
S7 

ao 

85 

as 

72 
75 
88 
MS 
I2S 
145 



i 



IIS 
135 
IW 
175 



• S3 

as 

78 
83 

80 
•7 
MS 

no 

IIS 
128 

la 

183 
188 



ISO 

70 
8S 

80 
MO 
M8 

IIS 

123 

lao 

140 
ISO 
175 
200 



145 

ao 

70 

75 



88 
MO 
lis 
135 
ISO 
175 



n 

MX 

It' 



• as 

80 
85 
M3 
IM 
118 
125 
133 
148 
155 
175 
200 
225 



• •• 

IM 

m 

133 
140 
148 
155 
l<3 

m 
us 



DOCKING— 150 to 250 ton.s. $5.00; 251 to 350, $7.50; 351 to 450, $10.00; 451 to 550, $12.50; 551 to 650, $15.00; 651 to 750, $17.50; 751 to 

850, $20.00; 851 to 1000. S.>.'>.(X). 
Towage to or from Fraser River points above Stev<'ston subject to special rates. *Towage from 8hilshole Bay to Inner Harbor, Ballard; 

ami Inner Harbor. Ballard, to Shil.shole Bay. .subject to .special rates. 
HA\V.s;i;u CHARGE — Vessels 500 tons and under. $5.00 each way; Haw.ner Charge vessels over 500 tons, $10.00 each way. 
Rate from Vancouver to Sound ports alwve Port Townsend, on vessels of KKK) tons and over, same as sea rate to Hound jK>rt. Vessels 

towing from sea to Tacoma or Seattle and calling at Port Townsend or Port Angeles for orders will be given a direct rate. Captains to 

win' agent of tugs 48 hours' notice of when tug is n-quircd. 
Whi.stle Signals. — 1 Whistle, set fore and aft sails. 2 Whuttles, set square sails. I Long and 2 Short Whistles, haul in port braces. I Long 

and 2 Short Whistles, haul in starboard braces. 4 Whistles, take in furl nails. 2 Short and I I>ong Whistle, get anchor ready. 3 

Whistles, let go haw.ser. 
Towing in Foggy Weather. — 1 Whistle, port helm. 2 Whistles, starboard helm. 1 Long and 2 .Short Whistles, fog signals. 
Display signals when passing Tatoosh if you wish to be reported. Flash a light when you let go hawser at night. 



Sold ■( •Tkat Maa Pltls," 72 Market Street 



14 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



PUGET SOUND TOWAGE RATES— VESSELS OF 500 TONS OR OVER 





TONNAGE 
VESSELS FROM 


TO OR FROM CAPE FLATTERY AND THE 
FOLLOWING PLACES 


TO OR FROM PORT TOWNSEND AND 
THE FOLLOWING PLACES 


TO OR FROM PORT ANGELES, ROYAL 
ROADS AND FOLLOWING PLACES. 




1 

1 

1 

PS 

•3 


s 

a 


1 
1^ 


it 

3 
S 

OS 

o 


lis 

IP 

I'll 

w 


Jl 


g 
1- 




i 


1 
s 

1 


.1 

H 


^1 

93 C 

Sis 
Ss6 


If 

a oj 

>5 g 




1 


3 

Is 

fl 

1-1 

o 


h 

£•3 


1"" 

SI 

ID O 

Jll 


d 
pa 

g 
s 
S 


S51 


to 

to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 


1000 tons 


$125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 


$175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 


1200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 
400 


$225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 
400 
425 


$250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 
400 
425 
450 


$275 
300 
325 
350 
375 
400 
425 
450 
475 


$300 

325 
350 
375 
400 
425 
450 
475 
500 


$30 
35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 
65 
70 


$50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
115 
130 
150 


$60 
70 
75 
100 
125 
150 
175 
200 
235 


$100 

no 

125 
160 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 


$110 

125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 

soo 


$175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 


$75 
100 
125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 


$105 
125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 


$135 
150 

175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 


$150 

175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 


$175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 


$200 


1001 


1200 tons 


225 


I'm 




250 


1501 


1800 tons 


275 


isni 


2000 tons 


300 


2001 


2500 tons 


325 


^51 


2750 tons 


350 


3000 tons 


375 


»)0I 


3500 tons 


400 









Hawser charge, $10.00 each way. 

Towage to or from Fraser River points above Steveston subject to special rates. 

Rate from Vancouver to Sound ports above Port Townsend, same as sea rate to Sound port. 

Docking vessels, $25. Vessels towing from sea to Tacoma or Seattle and calling at Port Townsend or Port Angeles for orders will be given 
a direct rate. Captains to wire agent of tugs 48 hours' notice of when tug is required. 

Whistle Signals. — 1 Whistle, set fore and aft sails. 2 Whistles, set square sails. 1 Long and 1 Short Whistle, haul in port braces. 1 Long 
and 2 Short Whistles, haul in starboard braces. 4 Whistles, take in and furl sails. 2 Short and 1 Long Whistle, get anchor ready. 

3 Whistles, let go hawser. 

Towing in Foggy Weather. — 1 Whistle, port helm. 2 Whistles, star-board helm. 1 Long and 2 Short Whistles, fog signals. 

Display signals when passing Capo Flattery if you wish to be reported. Flash a light when you let go hawser at night. 



HONOLULU PILOTAGE AND TOWAGE RATES 



Pilotage is not compulsory, but if foreign vessels and vessels under 
American register do not employ a pilot they pay one-half of the 
pilotage. American vessels under a coasting license are entirely 
free from this charge if they do not employ a pilot. 

The pilot fees are based on the following section of the Hawaiian 
Civil Code : 

Section 1, Chapter 32, Laws of 1884. The compensation of the 
pilots at the port of Honolulu shall be as follows: For all mail 
steamers of one thousand tons register and upwards, fifty dollars 
in and same out; for all transient steamers of one thousand tons- 
and upwards, seventy-five dollars in and same out; for all vessels 
of war, two dollars per foot on draught of water in and out; for all 
sailing vessels under two hundred tons register, one dollar and a 
half per foot in and out; all other vessels and steamers, five cents 
per ton in and same out; for anchoring vessels outside, twenty dol- 
lars; if brought into harbor this charge shall be reduced to ten dollars; 
for any detention on board a vessel for more than twenty-four hours 
the compensation shall be seven dollars per day. 



Towboat service to sailing vessels is based on the following scale: 

From sea into the harbor, or to sea — 

Vessels under 200 tons $30.00 

Vessels between 200 and 300 tons 35 . 00 

Ves.sels between 300 and 500 tons 40 . 00 

Vessels between 500 and 800 tons 45 . 00 

Vessels between 800 and 1000 tons 50.00 

Vessels between 1000 and 1200 tons 60.00 

Vessels between 1200 and 1400 tons 75.00 

Over and above 1,400 tons, five cents per ton registered tonnage 
in addition, towing outside pilot limits as per agreement. 

Moves in the harbor — • 

Up to 1000 tons $10.00 

1000 to 1400 tons 15.00 

1400 to 2000 tons 20.00 

2000 to 3000 tons 25 . 00 



SAN FRANCISCO PILOTAGE AND TOWAGE RATES 



PILOTAQE 

All vessels under 500 tons, $3.00 per foot draught; all vessels 
over 500 tons, $3.00 per foot draught, and 3 cents per ton for each 
and every ton registered mea.surement; and every vessel spoken, 
inward or outward bound, except as hereinafter provided, shall pay 
the said rates. In all cases where inward bound vessels are not 
spoken until inside of the bar, the rates of pilotage herein provided 
shall be reduced 50 per cent. Vessels engaged in the fishing trades 
shall be exempt from all pilotage except where a pilot is actually 
employed, as shall all ves.sels sailing under an enrollment, and licensed 
and engaged in the coasting trade between the port of San Fran- 
cisco and any other port of the United States. All foreign vessels 
and all vessels from a foreign port, or bound thereto, and all vessels 



sailing under a register between the port of San Francisco and any 
other port of the United States shall be liable for pilotage, as above 
provided. 

TOWAGE 

The cost of towage from sea to anchorage varies with distance 
and conditions of weather, and rangt^s from $100 to $250. 

For moving a vessel of 2,000 tons net register in the harbor the 
charges are approximately: 

Docking, City Front $ 30.00 

Stream to Port Costa, or Port Costa to Stream 130.00 

Stream to Sea 110.00 

Fore-and-aft rigged vessels pay, according to size, from $7.50 to 
$15 for docking, and from $20 to $50 for towing to sea. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



15 



NOTICE TO NAVIGATORS, MARINE ENGINEERS, 

MARINERS AND SEAMEN 

Thu page will be reserved exclusively for all official notices and information of importance 



HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 



i 



DEPTH AT MEAN LOW WATER. ENTRANCE TO HARBORS 



rizB oiaEOTOBT. s. r. 

Mowm or MAUBT snunT 



Place 


Feet 


Date 


Remarks 


Grayi) Harbor 


20 


Mar. 18 


Channel changed itlightly to the 
south during the month. 


Willapo Bay 


27 


Mar. 4 


Channel slowly working south- 
ward. 


Columbia River 


24 


Feb. 16 




Nohttlcin River 








TUIamook Bay 


13 


Mar. 2 


Channel xhifting about H mite 
to southward in now i-{ mile 














south of the whistling buoy. 


Yaquina Bay 


15 


Feb. 2 




Siiulaw River 


3« 


Mar. 16 


Channel gone to north end «( 
jetty and beacon on high bank 
mark.« channel now. 


Umpqua River 


»>i 


Mar. 1 


South spit making close to inner 
bar buoy. U-ave same on star- 
board hand crowiing in. 


Coos Bay 


18 


Mar. 1 


('bannel remains about the same. 


Coquille River 


8 


Mar. 2 


Channel ha.s not t-hifted. 


Rogue River. 






No opportunity for soundings 
lately; before rise there was 
7 fei't on the bar. 


Klamath River 


6 


Mar. 10 


Entrance at present immediately 

opixifite mouth of river. 
North channel very narrow and 


Humbi)ldt Bay 


10 


Mar. ! 








crooked, not changing, at 








present. About 13 feet at Itiw 








water in south channel. 


Sim Pedro Bay 


20 


Feb. 20 


No change in channel. 


.Bay 


26 


Feb. 25 


No change in channel. 



TIDE TABLE TO WEEK ENDINQ SATURDAY. APRIL 7. 
Ooldrn Gate Entrance to Sui Francisco Bay. 
MARCH 



■ Mom 


Dwrof 


Time and Beigbt of High and Low Watv 


w 


Mo. 


T. 


H. 


T. 


H. 


T. H. 


T. 


H. 


N 


Mon. 


1 


0:52 


3 3 


«:S« 


5.5 


14:15—0.1 


31:36 


4.6 




Tues. 


2 


2:04 


3.3 


7:55 


5.5 


15:06—0.3 


22:20 


4.5 




Wed. 


3 


3:03 


3 3 


8:48 


5.5 


15:48—0. S 


23:00 


4.9 




Tbur. 


4 


3:S0 


3 1 


9:36 


5.6 


16:2&— 0.3 


23:34 


4.9 




Fri. 


5 


4:30 


2 


10:20 


5.5 


16:57— « 2 


. -. . 




Full 


Sat. 


6 


0:04 


5.1 


5:08 


2.6 


11:00 5 4 


17:30 


6.1 


A 


Sun. 


7 


0:28 


A 1 


5:45 


2.2 


11:45 5.2 


18:00 


OS 


E 


Mon. 


8 


0:M 


5.0 


0:20 


2 


12:24 4.9 


18:39 


0.8 




Tues. 


9 


1:14 


5.0 


0:58 


1 H 


13:00 4.7 


19:08 


I..1 




Wed. 


10 


1:30 


SO 


7:40 


16 


13:42 4 4 


19:38 


1.7 




Thur. 


11 


1:47 


4.9 


8:22 


1.3 


14:42 4.2 


20:14 


2.1 




Fri. 


12 


2:10 


4.9 


9:04 


1.1 


15:52 3.8 


20:55 


2.5 




Sat. 


13 


2:44 


5.0 


10:02 


9 


17:25 3.8 


21:45 


3.0 


Snt. quar. 


Sun. 


14 


3:25 


5 


11:03 


0.7 


19:00 3.9 


■i2:M 


3.2 




Mon. 


IS 


4:28 


5.1 


12:12 


0.3 


20:08 4.2 


. -. . 




8 


Tues. 


16 


0:02 


3.3 


5:48 


5.2 


13:15 0.0 


20:57 


4.5 




Wed. 


17 


1:18 


3.2 


7:04 


A 5 


14:10—0.3 


21:35 


4.7 




Thur. 


18 


2:20 


2 9 


8:12 


5.7 


15.04— 5 


22:10 


5.1 




Frt 


19 


3:15 


2.4 


9:15 


5.9 


15:50—0.5 


22:43 


5.4 


p 


Sat. 


20 


4:06 


1.8 


10:08 


6 


16:.3A— 0.4 


23:16 


6.6 


New 


Sun. 


21 


4:55 


13 


11:02 


6 


17:20 0.0 


23:52 


6./ 


E 


Mon. 


22 


5:45 


0.8 


11:58 


5 8 


18:08 5 


. .-. . 


. . . 


r 




23 


0:25 


5 7 


n.l.'i 


(16 


12:56 5.5 


18:50 


1.0 




Wed. 


24 


1:04 


5.7 


7:20 


0.3 


14:00 5.1 


19:35 


1.8 






25 


1:42 


5.7 


8:l.'i 


2 


15:10 4.7 


20:20 


2.2 




Fri. 


26 


2:24 


5.6 


9:16 


2 


16:35 4.4 


21:10 


2.8 




Sat. 


27 


3:14 


A 5 


10:24 


0.2 


18:02 4 3 


22:15 


3.2 


IM. ouar. 


Sua. 


28 


4:08 


5 2 


11:32 


0.2 


19:17 4 3 


23:.32 


3.5 


Man. 


29 


5:20 


A 1 


12:42 


0.2 


20:18 4 6 


. -. . 






.Tues. 


30 


1:00 


3.4 


6:34 


5.0 


13:40 0.1 


21.06 


4.8 




Wed. 


31 


2:10 


3 2 


7:40 


5.0 


14:28 2 


21:44 


5 








APRIL 












'Riur. 


I 


2:58 


2.9 


8:35 


5.1 


15:08 0.2 


22:14 


5.2 




Fri. 


2 


3:40 


2.6 


9:25 


5.1 


15:45 0.4 


22:40 


5.3 


A 


Sat. 


3 


4:14 


2.1 


10:14 


5 1 


16.20 7 


23:05 


6.3 


B 


Sua. 


4 


4:4« 


17 


10:55 


5.0 


16:58 0.9 


23:26 


5.3 



Time used. Pacific Standard, 120th Meridian W. ....,» .n^ 
} sa— midnlKht. lib— noon, less than 12— Jorenooo. greater than 12— after- 
' nooa. tal^dieT nuinl>ers^l2 — anemoon time. _ , , „ _ . ..^ .,„ 

■— itewlloon. £— Moon on the Equator. 1». S.— farthest JJ. or S. of Equator 

A. V. — Moon in apogee or perigee. 



riBBMO. 


1 


aay 


ptsa HO. 17. 




l'nion-1 


« « 


3... 


. Waahlngtoo 
.Jacksoa 




• 19. 




l'iiioii-2 


*• • 


5. . . 




• 21. 




F^llx-rt 




7. . . . 


^ I'aclfic 




• 23. 




Crr^liwlrll-I 




9 


Brolilway 1 




• 25. 




(in-riiwiili.:; 




11 


Broadway 2 

Valirjo 




• 27. 




Ix>nil>anl 




13 




- SI. 


, 


Pi.wrtJ 




15 


Green 














aoirni or MASurr 


arasBT 






Pica MO. 


2. . . 


Mlsiioa-l 


piaa KO. ao. 




St<ii»rl 






4<. . 


MiMton-3 




- 24.. 




SiK-«r 
Main 






6... 


Howard-1 




- 28. 








8 


lloward-2 




• n. 




IJraJr 






10... 


lloward-3 




' S4. 




Prrniulll 






12. . . 


Fotaom-l 




- 38. 




Braanan 






14. . . 


FiotaMa.2 




■ 40 


) 




- " 


16. . . 


..Uairtaoa 




• 42 


. P.M. 80.00^ 












• 44 





lAH FBAIfCUOO CUSTOM ROUSE BOUBS 

Open dailT. excriM Saturday from 9 a. m. until S n. n>.; Saturday from • a. 
lo IS m. Dulie* must tie paid b<-riir>' I p. ui. : Salurdayi before IS in. 



Surrey. . 
Entry. . 



Entering: 

83 uo I Dfltdal OrrtlBcales and Oath 

2 50 I 

Clinngi: 

aearances t2.50 I Post Entry, if any. 

Uffictal Certificate and Oatb.... 0.20 I 



•0 20 
S3. 00 




H. B. KENNEDY. 

At the sfx-iMl trial of the new sI«'hiii«t H. H. Kenninly. 
built by the Willamette Iron ami Steel Works for the 
Seaftle-Hrenierton route, a «|m'»h1 of 2fl'V4 miles an hour 
under a Hteam preKsnre of 15<) ponndK was attaintnl. 
As the Hteamer is capable of dev<>lo[iin(; a pressure of 
250 {miinds. a spewi of 22 miles is ex|>eeted to be made. 

The trial was for the purpose of turning over the 
en>;ineH. It provwl satisfactory in every n^peet, there 
bein^; no vibration to sp<*ak of. every hearing; and journal 
working cool. The boat will be given its official trial 
u|H>n her arrival at .S«-attle. and it is exiM»e1ed that she 
will show even greater speed than on the former tr>'out. 

April first is the date for delivery as 8|>ecified in the 
contract, anil as only 20 miles an hour was the specitletl 
spe«tl. the Portland concern is clear in every way. 

The Portland concern securetl the contract for 
♦180.000. 



Sola at 0«-5««l«- Phmrmmrr. 14" BmI 



St. 



16 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



NOTICE TO MARINERS. 
The order of the light at Carmanah, Vancouver Island, has 
been changed pending repairs and alterations to the lighthouse. 
tower. The present light will be discontinued and a quick- 
flashing third order light showing one flash every three seconds 
will be temporarilv installed. 


CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 


SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING. 


UNION IRON WORKS, 320 Market Street. 


Captain Holmes of the steamer Rosecrans reports by wire- 
less to the Branch Hydrographic Office that on March 22, 
1909, in Lat. N. 33 deg. 48 sec, Long. W. 123 deg. sec. he 




OIL BURNERS. 


sighted a spar standing upright about 12 feet out of water 
painted red. 

Captain Smith of the steamer Daisy reports to the Branch 


S. & p., 102 Steuart St. Phone Kearny 629. 




Hydrographic Office that at 4 a. m., March 20, he saw a black 
can buoy in a position three iniles southeast of the Columbia 


BOAT BUILDERS. 


River lightship, supposed to be from north spit of Columbia 
River bar, as that one could not be seen. 

J. C. BURNETT, 
Lieutenant U. S. N., in charge. 


GEO. W. KNEASS. 18th and Illinois Sts., S. F. 




SHIP PLUMBERS. 


• 

MARINE INTELLIGENCE. 

Application for civil service examinations will be received 
at this office during the next thirty days for filling the position 
of laborer at Trinidad Head light station, California, with pay 
at the rate of $480 per annum, and find yourself. 

Applicants must be citizens of the United States, and over 
eighteen years of age. 

Application blanks and full information can be obtained 
by applying to this office or to the keeper of Trinidad Head 


ANDERSON BAILEY, 216 Steuart St., S. F. 


WIPING RAGS. 


THE RAYCHESTER CO., 1448 Folsom St., S. F. 


Sanitary Manufacturing Co., 2208 Folsom, S. P. 


WANTED — To charter, a boat of the river type, equipped for 
Sunday excursions, to carry about 400 passengers. Address 
manager Pacific Merchant Marine. 


light station, Trinidad, California. 

R. F. LOPEZ, 

Commander, U. S. N., 
Chairman Local Civil Service Board for the Light- 


WANTED — A thirty-foot seagoing gasoline flush-deck launch, 
equipped with an eight or ten horsepower engine of approved 
make. Inquire office of Pacific Merchant Marine. 


House Service (Inspector's Department), 813 
Mutual Savings Bank Bldg, 704 Market St., San 
Francisco. 


FOR SALE — Thirty town lots at Alviso; established head of 
navigation on San Francisco Bay. Inquire office of Pacific 
Merchant Marine. 



LIFE-SAVING STATIONS ON THE PACIFIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES 



Name. 



State. 



Locality. 



Waadah Island Washington 

Gray's Harbor " Just south of Grays Harbor light 

Wlllapa Harbor " Near lighthouse boat landing 

Ilwaco Beach " Thirteen miles north of Cape Disappointment. . 

Cape Disappointment " Bakers Bay, one-half mile northeast of light 

Point Adams Oregon Three-fourths miles southeast of Fort Stevens. 

Tillamook Bay " 

Yaquina Bay " About one mile south of harbor entrance 

U mpqua River " Near entrance of river, north side 

Coos Bay " Coos Bay, north side 

Coquille River " In town of Bandon 

Humboldt Bay California Near the old abandoned lighthouse tower. 

Arena Cove " 

Point Reyes 

Point Bonlta 

Port Point " 

Golden Gate " 



Southslde 

Nome Alaska. 



.Pour miles south of Point Arena light 

. Three and one-Tialf miles north of light 

. Near Point Bonita light 

. Three-fourths mile east of light on Fort Winflield Scott 

•.On beach in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, three- 
fourths mile south of Point Lobos 

.Three and three-eighths miles south of Golden Gate 
Life-Saving Station 

. At Nome 



Lat 


., North. 


Long., West. 


Deg. 


Mln. 


Sec. 


Deg. 


Min. 


Sec. 


48 


22 


40 


124 


35 


30 


46 


53 


15 


124 


07 


15 


46 


43 


00 


124 


03 


00 


46 


27 


50 


124 


03 


25 


46 


16 


40 


124 


03 


00 


46 


12 


00 


123 


57 


00 


45 


33 


30 


123 


57 


00 


44 


35 


30 


124 


03 


54 


43 


42 


00 


124 


10 


30 


43 


22 


50 


124 


18 


00 


43 


07 


00 


124 


25 


00 


40 


46 


00 


124 


13 


00 


38 


54 


50 


123 


42 


30 


38 


02 


20 


122 


59 


30 


37 


48 


10 


122 


27 


50 


37 


46 


10 


122 


30 


30 


37 


43 


18 


122 


30 


18 


64 


30 


00 


165 


23 


00 



DISTRESS SIGNALS 



In the daytime — 

A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 

The International Code signal of distress Indicated by 



1. 

2. 
N. C. 

3. The distant signal, consisting of a square flag, having 
either above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball. 

4. Rockets or shells as prescribed below for use at night. 

5. A continuous sounding with a steam whistle or any fog- 
signal apparatus. 



At night — 

1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 

2. Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil 
barrel, etc.). 

3. Rockets or shells bursting in the air with a loud report 
and throwing stars of any color or description, fired one at a 
time at short Intervals. 

4. A continuous sounding with a steam whistle or any fog- 
signal apparatus. 



All officers and employees of the Lite-Saving Service will hereafter recognize any of these signals when seen or heard as 
signals of distress and Immediately proceed to render all possible assistance. 



Sold at Steacy's Nen-B Depot. 3 Steuart St. 




L 



€ 



■jft^ 






V 



% 






if 




trsLi- 



W 



ITH full knowledge of the 
magnitude of our duty, 
namely: that of the develop- 
ment of The American 
Merchant Marine in the 
Pacific, we propose to publish such 
news as will place before the public a 
clear and exact statement of every branch 
of the Marine Industry as will be brought 
to our notice. With this object in view 
we have established communication with 
every port on the Pacific Ocean. Our 
correspondence files contain the names 
of writers of Maritime affairs, who have 
contributed to the Marine History of 
Modern Times. With our present issue, 
No. 2, Vol. II, we hope to take our posi- 
tion among those who are sincere in 
their efforts for the rehabilitation of the 
American Merchant Marine. 



1 




1 




\, 


■ 


# 


i 


% 


! 


% 


'k 


^ 




1; 


4 



fi* 



I 



m 





The Panama Canal, by Lieut. Col. G. W. Goethals 
The Merchant Marine League of the United States 




Coast Port Notes 



Pleasure Craft 



Of Interest to Navigators and Marine Engineers 



f, 



THE CLARA BARTON SANITARY 
WIPING RAG 




The Clara 
Barton Brand 
of Wiping Rags 
is guaranteed 
to be thorough- 
ly s'eriKzed and 

disinfected 



THE RAYGHESTER CO., INC. 

1448-1460 FOLSOM STREET SAN FRANCISCO 



Be sure to have 

CHALLENGE METAL 






For 
High Speed 






For 
Heavy Pressure 



in your important bearings. 
Ask about it. 



SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO. 



SAN FRANCISCO 



SANITARY 
WIPING RAGS 

Washed and Disinfected 

Exclusive Packers of 
Soft Cotton Wiping Rags 

SANITARY MANUFACTURING GO. 

2208 FOLSOM STREET 
Phone Market 1195 San Franciico 




COLOR WORK A SPECIALTY 



The Buckley Cafe 



DETJENMENGEL CO.. liwarporucd 



H. L. OETJEN. Muuf 



German Bakery 
and Restaurant 



Confectionery 

ylll ^inJs of Cakes to 
order at Short Notice 



Buckley Building, 97 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
8. E. Comer Sp«ar St. One block from Kerry Phone Uou^lat 27M 




GEO. W. KNEASS 

Offic* »d Work. 

I8th and lllinoi* StraaU 

PhoM M>Hm« Sm Fruwbc*. 

»43 Cat 



B OAT B U I L P CR 

Bm( MatMtel «a4 BO BmU W all 

Dt n il»lli M Par SaU 
Hm IMIta. Ball! and Trurk.. Muum- 
Moran and Box KoUjn coMUuiUy 
wood Tumtnt 



Steamship Men Take Notice 



Tb« National Laundry it Mattreii Renova- 
tory Cotnpany will cIt* better reiult* both 
tn quality and price than can b* had elie- 
wbere. Special ratei and tarviea guaranteed. 

O. C. TAIRriCLD. MansKcr 

Plant, 1M4 18th Street Phone Markat (1 



Hart-Wood Lumber Co. 

LUMBER SHIPPING 

Wholesale and ReUil 
807 Fife Building San Franc iico 



P. M. BAMBINO 

Eadwive Tailor 
Umvoait* a iratuirr 



2I9.2M aackkr BUf. 

<H MU%M MfMI 



ClL 




ALKINS QUALITY" 

The best facilities backed by 
experts in each department 
are what made "Calkins Quali- 
ty" the standard in the realm 
of printed publicity. We print 
the Pacific Merchant Marine. 



PRINTING 

ENGRAVING 

BOOK-BINDING 



CALKINS 

PUBLISHING HOUSE 

Calkins Buildine, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 3140 



U. S. CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS. 

COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS under the Rules of the U. S. Civil 

Service Commission, for the Positions named, will soon 

be held throughout the United States. 



EXAMINATIONS TO BE HELD IN THE SPRING OF 1909 



Agricultural inspector, Philippine Service. 

Aid, Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Apprentice plate cleaner, tranferrer, and engraver. 

Assistant, Philippine Service. 

Assistant examiner, Patent Office. 

Bookkeeper (men only), Philippine Service. 

Civil engineer. Departmental Service. 

Civil engineer, Philippine Service. - 

Civil engineer and draftsman. 

Civil engineer and superintendent of construction. 

Civil engineer student. 

* Clerk (male and female), Departmental Service. 

Computer : 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Nautical Almanac Office. 

Naval Observatory. 

Supervising Architect's Office. 
Draftsman : 

Apprentice, Ordnance Department. 

Architectural. 

Copyist, topographic. 

Engineer. 

Heating and ventilating. 

Junior architectural. . 

Mechanical, Isthmian Canal Service. 

Topographic, Departmental Service. 

Topographic, Isthmian -Canal Service. 
Eleetrotyper-stereotyper. 
, Engineer, Indian Service. 
Farmer, Indian Service. 
Parmer with knowledge of irrigation. 



Pish culturist. 

Porest assistant. Forest Service. 

Forest assistant, Philippine Service. 

Kindergarten teacher, Indian Service. 

Local and assistant inspector of boilers. 

Local and assistant inspector of hulls. 

Matron, Indian Service. 

Observer, Weather Bureau. 

Pharmacist, Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service. 

Physician, Indian Service. 

Physician, Philippine Service. 

Postal clerk. Isthmian Canal Service. 

Press feeder, cylinder and platen. 

Pressman. 

Railway mail clerk. 

Scientific assistant. 

Stenographer, Departmental Service. 

Stenographer and typewriter, Departmental, Isthmian 

Canal, and Philippine Services. 
Superintendent of construction. 
Surgeon, Departmental Service. 
Surveyor, Philippine Service. 
Teacher, Indian Service. 
Teacher, Philippine Service. 
Trained nurse, Indian Service. 
Trained nurse, Isthmian Canal Service. 
Trained nurse, Philippine Service. 
Typewriter, Departmental Service. 
Veterinarian, Philippine Service. 
Veterinary inspector. Department of Agriculture. 



Application forms and information in regard to these examinations may be obtained by addressing the U. S. 
Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C, or the Secretary of the Board of Examiners at the following-named; 
places: Post-office, Boston, Mass., Philadelphia, Pa., Atlanta, Ga., Cincinnati, Ohio, Chicago, 111., St. Paul, Minn.,; 
Denver, Colo., San Francisco, Cal. ; Custom-houae, New York, N. Y., New Orleans, La.; Old custom-house, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

*Open only to legal residents of Porto Rico, Alaska, Hawaii, Mississippi, Alabama, New Mexico, Louisiana, 
Texas, Washington, Arkansas, North Dakota, South Dakota, Tennessee, Missouri, Oklahoma, California, Wisconsin, 
and Oregon. 



REKWICK Z DICXIE 



DAVID W DICKIE 



D. W. & R. Z. DICKIE 

Engineers and Naval Arcbilech 

Room 824. Smnta Maiina Bldg. 

Phone Kwrny 2907 1 1 2 M.rtet Si. 



JJ PLANS and SPECIFICATIONS 
TJ] for all kinds of ensineenDS work of 
steel, wood or concrete: oil-burninR 
plants, wharves, bunkers; launches, 
propellers, steam and gas-engined 
tuas, and steel and wood vessels of 
all kinds. 



Telephone Douglas 1398 Geo. Anderson 

BAILEY 



Alex P. Bailey 

ANDERSON & 

[Registeredl 

Sanitary and Ship Plumbing 

Sheet Metal Work 



216 Steuart St., bet. Howard and Folsom 



San Francisco 



Pacific Merchant M 



anne 



Volume II 



SATURDAY. APRIL 3. 1909 



Numbers 



THE ISTHMIAN CANAL. 



liy LIEUT. COL. GEO. W. GOPITHALS. U. S. Army. 
ChHiriiiHii and Chief Engr.. iKthinian Canal ('ununitwion. 



'Ilii- mujurity uf the Board of CunsultiiiK KiiKineerH extiinaled 
lliHt from ten to thirteen years wouUI be re<|iiire(l for the roni- 
pletioii of the sea-level eanal. The Isthmian Canal Commission 
and the then Chief Kn^ineer fixed the time from eighteen to 
twenty years. It will lake at least si.x years to complete the 
dam at (!aml)oa, anil until the control of the Chatrres Kiver is 
assnretl, little if any excavation can be carried lower than 40 to 
50 feet above sea level, so that in the absence of anythiii); more 
definite the time neede<l to construct the (iamboa dam is assumed 
as the additional |»eriod needed for completing the sea-level type. 

Much criticism has resulted because of the excess of the 
present estimates over those originally proposed, arising larffely 
from a failure to analyze the two estimates, or to appreriate 
fully the actual conditions. 

The estimates prepared and aecompanyintf the re|K>rt of the 
consultint; eiifrineers were based on data less complete than are 
available at present. Tlie unit costs in the reimrt of l!MMi are 
identical with those in the report of 1!)01, aiul since liMHi there 
has been an increase in the waife scale and in the cost of ma- 
terial. On the isthmus waf;es exceed those in the Cnitetl Stales 
from 40 to 80 i)er eent for the same class of labor. The orifdnal 
estimates were base<l on a ten-hour day, but Ctuij^ress imposeil 
the ei);ht-hour day. Subsequent surveys and the various ehanffes 
already noted have increased the quantity of work by .'»0 |K'r 
cent, whereas the unit costs have increased oidy 20 per cent — 
not such a bail showing. In addition, municipal improvements in 
Panama and Colon, advances to the Panama Railroad and 
moneys received and deiM>sited to the credit of miscellaneous 
receipts ajorrejrate .1'1.'),000,000, which amount will eventually 
and has in part already been returned to the Treasury. Finally, 
no such system of housing: and caring for employees was ever 
contemplated as has been intrixluced and installed, materially 
increasing the overhead chanres and ailministration. 

.Much stress has been laid upon the fact that recent improve- 
ments in machinery have so modiHed conditions that the exca- 
vation mn l)e done more economically by special devices in con- 
junction with dreilpn); than is possible with the methods now 
adopte.l. The machines referred to are for shattering riM-k under 
w:iier, and thoui:h it is claimed that such devices have jriven 
satisfactory results in connection with the Manchester Ship 
Canal, it is known that similar api>liances have failed in certain 
localities in the Cnited States where they were tried. The 
variations in the character of the rock on the Isthmus from soft 
argillaceous sandstone to hard trap are such as to make the use 
of such devices very problematical. Kx|>erieiice jjciicrally has 
shown that more money can be wasted on sub-aqueous rock exca- 
vation than in the removal of such material in the dry. Experi- 
ments are now bein^ made on the Isthmus with one of these 
rock-crushinp devices, but thus far the results are not prom- 
ising. 

Much has been written recently concerning the probable effect 
of earthquakes. Tlie last earthquake of any importance occurred 
in the seventeenth century, and existinjf ruins in Panama .lemon- 
strate clearly that no shock of any violence could have occurred 
durinjr the eishteenth and nineteenth centuries. Shimld an earth- 
quake visit the Isthmus the chances are that the effect upon the 
Oatun dam would be less disastrous than upon the rramboa dam. 
The solid concrete construction of the locks, strengthened by re- 
enforcements, will be as proof afrainst any earth shocks as any 
structure which man builds anywhere, and the sea-level canal has 
as much to fear as the lock canal. 



The vulnermbilily of the lurk canal in lime uf war is another 
artniment advanced in favor of the sea-level type, but has little 
weight, as the sea-level tyjie is e<|ually vulnerable fnmi attacka 
by land or air in its (Saniboa dam as are tidal locks and llie 
various devices for eontrollint; the streams ah>nir the route. 

The idea of the sea-Ievet canal ap|M*alK to the |M>pular mind, 
which pictures an i)|hmi ditch offering free and unobstructed 
navi^tation from wa to wa, but no such substitute is offereil for 
the present Im-k canal. As iM-tween the sea-level canal and the 
h)ck canal, the latter can be constructed in less time, at less cost, 
will (five easier and safer navi);ation, and in addition secure 
such a control of the Chairres Kiver as lo make a friend and aid 
of wliat remains an enemy and menace in the s«-a-level ty(>e. 

In this connection attention is inviteil to the statement made 
by Mr. Taft, when Secretary of War. in his letter Iransmiltint; 
the re|Kirts of the Hoard of Consulting Kn^dneers: 

"We may well concede that if we could have a sea-level canal 
with a prism of .'iOO to 400 fe«'t wide, with the curves that must 
now exist reduce,!, it would Im- preferable to the plan of the 
minority, but the lime and cost uf constructing such a canal are 
ill effect prohibitive. 

We are justly prouil of the orvani/.alion for the pros<*cution 
of the work. Tlie force originally onranir.ed by .Mr. .lohn F. 
Stevens for the attack u|Min the continental divide has l>een 
modified and enlarged as the necessities of the situation re- 
<|uireil, until at the present time it approaches the perfection of 
a hu^ machine, and all are workint; loirether to a common end. 
The manner in which the work is l>ein^ done and the spirit of 
enthusiasm that is manifeMte<l by all fo|;cibly alrikes everyone 
who visits the works. 

The main object of our bcintr there is the ennatnirtion of the 
canal; everythiuK: else is subordinate to it. and the work of every 
department is directcl to the accomplishment of that object. 

In addition to the department of construction and eninneer- 
int;. there are the departments of sauitalion and civil adminis- 
tralion. the quartermaster's and subsistence deimrtments, the 
purchasinj; department onianixed in the Cniteil States, the \vg»l 
department, and the departments of examination of accounts and 
disbursements. Suboriiinate<l to, but acting in conjunction with, 
the commission is the Panama Kiiilroad. 

TiM) much credit can not Iw jriven to the department of sani- 
tation, which, in conjunction with the division of municipal 
enuineeriiijf, has wrou);ht such a change in the conditions as they 
existed in 1!>04 as to make the construction of the canal (Mm- 
sible. This department is sulMlivided into the health department, 
which has charge of the hospitals, sufiervision of health matters 
in Panama and Cidon, and of the qunrantinc, and into the sani- 
tary insjiection department, which looks after the destruction of 
the moH<)uito by various methiMis, by (rrass and bnish cutlinK. the 
draining of various swampy areas, and the oiling of unavoidable 
pools of slaKiiaiit streams. 

According to the stalistim of the health department, basi-d on 
the death rate, the Canal Zone is one of the healthiest communi- 
ties in the world, but in this connection it must be remembered 
that our population consists of men and women in the prime of 
life, with few if any of the age«l. and that a number of the sick 
are retunied to the rnite<l States before death overtakes thern. 

To the sanitary department are also assigned 11 challlain* 
employed by the commission to attend the sick, as well as to |iH>k 
after the spiritual welfare of the employees. At most of the 
^-illages there is a combined church and lodge house so con- 
structed that the lower floor is used for divine ser\ic<«, while the 
upper part provides places for meetings of the various lodges. 
The assiirnment of time to minister* and to lo<lge« is made by 
the quartermaster's department. 

The department of civil administration exercises supervision 
over the courts, which consist of three circuit and five district 



B*M Bt Tkat Maa Pitta,** 7* Markr* BtrMt 



,« f. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



judges ; the three former, sitting in bank, constitute the supreme 
court. The district courts take cognizance of all eases where 
the fine does not exceed $100 or imprisonment does not exceed 
thirty days. Jury trials are restricted to crimes involving the 
death penalty or life imprisonment — in short, summary justice 
rules, and so long as the zone is nothing more nor less than a 
construction camp this form of law or justice will continue to be 
most satisfactory. 

The department of civil administration has charge also of 
the police force, the post-offices, collection of customs and taxes, 
the issue of licenses, and the public-school system. The schools 
are improved to such an extent that the children of the em- 
ployees have very nearly the same advantages as in the United 
States up to and including the high-school courses. 

The quartermaster's department has charge of the recruiting 
of labor, the care, repair, and maintenance of quarters, the col- 
lection and disposal of garbage and refuse, the issue of furni- 
ture, and the delivery of distilled water and commissary supplies 
to the houses of employees, and is to have charge of the construc- 
tion of all new buildings. Operating in conjunction with the 



received from sales could be reapplied, whei'eas if operated by 
the commission the money would have reverted to the Treasury, 
necessitating reappropriation before the proceeds of sale could be 
utilized. They are, however, under the management of the sub- 
sistence ofhcer of the commission, who has charge of the various 
hotels, kitcheits, and messes of the commission. 

There are 16 hotels from Cristobal to Panama, which serve 
meals to the American, or gold, employees at 30 cents per meal. 
There are 24 messes where meals to European laborers are 
served, the cost per day to such laborers being 40 cents; and 
there are 24 kitchens, or messes, for meals supplied to the silver 
laborers, or West Indians, the cost to the laborer being 30 cents 
per day for three meals. Subsistence is furnished without profit 
to the commission, though every effort is made to have the in- 
stitutions self-supporting. The commissaries and manufacturing 
plants are operated at a profit so as to reimburse the Panama 
Railroad Company for its outlay in six years from January 1, 
1909, at 4 per cent interest. 

Tlie subsistence department also has charge of the Hotel 
Tivoli, which is a large hotel located at Ancon, for the entertain- 




IN BAS OBiafO CUT 
The Americans have widened this point aljout seventy-five feet and lowered it about tliirty-five. 



purchasing department in the States, the quartermaster's depart- 
ment secures all supplies needed for construction and other pur- 
poses and makes purchases of materials on the Isthmus when 
required. 

The common-labor force of the commission and the Panama 
Railroad aggregates in the neighborhood of 25,000 men, and 
consists of about 6,000 Spaniards, with a few Italians, the re- 
mainder being from the West Indies. The Spaniard is the best 
laborer, as he possesses more strength and endurance. Under 
some conditions this is not true, the foreigner strenuously ob- 
jecting to doing work that requires him to stand in water. 

All the skilled labor, the clerical force, and the higher officials 
are Americans and are recruited through the Washington office. 

This department also has charge of all the property records, 
receives semi-annual returns of property from all those to whom 
property has been issued, and cheeks the returns and inventories 
of the storehouses, made at certain times, with the records com- 
piled from original invoices. 

The subsistence department has charge of the commissaries 
and the manufacturing plants which consist of an ice and cold- 
storage establishment, a bread, pie, and cake bakery, a coffee- 
roasting outfit, and a laundry. These belong to the Panama Rail- 
road Company, as, at the time they were established, money 



ment of the commission 's employees at a comparatively low 
rate, and of transient guests at rates usually charged at first- 
class hotels. 

■ All moneys are handled by the disbursing officer, who pays 
accounts that have been previously passed upon by the examiner 
of accounts. This last-named official makes the administrative 
examination required by law prior to the final audit of the ac- 
counts by the Auditor for the War Department. The pay rolls 
are prepared from time books kept by foremen, timekeepers, or 
field clerks, subsequently, checked by the examiner of accounts, 
who maintains a force of time inspectors. Tiie time inspectors 
visit each gang, generally daily, at unknown times to the fore- 
man, timekeeper, or field elei'k, and check the time books with the 
gangs of workmen ; the inspectors report to the examiner of 
accounts the results of their inspection not only in connection 
with timekeeping, but all violations of the regulations of the 
commission that may come under their observation. 

PajTnents of pay rolls are made in cash, beginning on the 
12th of each month and consuming four days for the entire force 
on the Isthmus. All American employees and European laborers 
are paid in gold; all on the so-called "silver roll" are paid in 
Panamanian silver. 



Sold at Oceanic Pharmacy. 148 Eaat St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



The department uf construction and en(;ineerin); is under the 
direct charge of the (^hief KuHrineer. He is assisted hy mts As- 
sistant Cliief Kn^ineer, who considers and re|H>rts u|>un alt 
eii^iieerint; i|uestions siihinitted tor Knal action. The Assistant 
Chief Enfn"t'«'r lias charge of tlie desi);ns of the liK-ks, dams, 
and s|>illways, and su|)ervision of these particular parts of the 
Work. There is attached to the Chief Knf^iiieer an assistant to 
the chief engineer, who looks after mechanical fon-es on the 
Isthmus, and has sn|>ervision over the nnichine shoiMi, the cost- 
keepini; branch of the work, the ap|Mirtionment of appropria- 
tions, and the preparation of the estimates. There is also an as- 
sistant engineer, who has charge of all general surveys, meteonn 
logical observations, and river hydraulics. 

The zone is divided territorially into three divisions, each in 
charge of a division engineer, the tiixt extending from .leep 
water in the Caribbean south to include the (iainn locks and 
dams, known as the "Atlantic division.'' The second, or "Cen- 
tral Division," extends from (lalun to I'edro Miguel, and in- 
rluiles the excavation through the continental divi<le. The thini, 
or "Pacific Division,'' extends from I'edro Miguel, including the 
hn-ks and dams of that locality, to deep water in the Pacific. 

Tlie general plans emanate from the oHice of the Chief 
Engineer and the details are left to division engineers, subject 
to the approval of the Chief Engineer. The whole idea of the 
organization in the Department of Construction and Engineer- 
ing, and in fact of all the work, is to place and tix res|M)nsibility, 
leaving to each subordinate the carrying out of the particular 
part of the work intrusted to his charge. 

Each division engineer has charge not only of the work in- 
vidved in the construction of the canal, but all municipal en- 
gineering, including water supply, building and maintaining 
roads, and the establishment and maintenance of sewer systems. 
With the force under his charge the division engineer executes 
such sanitary draining as may be prescribed by the chief sani- 
tary officer, so that all construction work, excepting the con- 
struction of buildings, concerning, the Im-ation of which the 
division engineer is consulted, however, is directly in the hands 
of the division engineer. 

Attached to the office of the chairman is a general Y. M. C. A. 
secretary, who has su|)ervision of the commission's clubhouses, 
which are oj>eraled and maintained under the auspices of the 
Y. M. C. A. Four of these are now constructed and in o[)era- 
tion, and four more are to be built from funds recently made 
available by Congress. They have done much towiud securing 
a greater permanency to the force, in giving healthful amuse- 
ment, and to a better contentment on the part of the employees. 

I have endeavored to show that a chainiel of sufficient width, 
in which the waters of the many streams. es|)ecially the Chafes, 
will not be a menace, is one most desired for an Isthmian canal. 
The sea-level canal projMised by a majority of the Board of 
Consulting Engineers is not of sufficient width, nor is the pro- 
posed solution for the impt-unding and diversion of the Chagres 
and other streams ba.sed up<ni sufficient investigations to insure 
its success. The "ideal" sea-levpl canal, the .Straits of Panama, 
recently propose*!, is not based upon any investigations of the 
work to be done and can not, in view of the approximate esti- 
mate of the cost of our own sea-level canal, whicli is about one- 
third the size of the "ideal" plan, Ik' given .serious considera- 
tion. Every criticism against the stability of our locks or 
dams can be attributed to either an argument in favor of one's 
own plans or to absolute ignorance of the exhaustive ilata con- 
cerning their safety now in existence. The several other plans 
of lock-type canal have nothing in their favor that the plan now 
adopted .k»es not |>ossess to a greater degree. 

I have endeavon-d al.so to show that the organization on the 
Isthmus is compact and conifdete in every way, iK-rforming its 
duties of construction, sanitation, and government with ch>cklike 
precision. I can not do better than qnote the message recently 
sent to the Congress, "that hereafter attack on this type — the 
lock type— is in reality merely attack u|Hin the policy of building 
any canal at all," for the adoption of a sea-level canal anywhert 
approaching the ease of navigation of the h>ck type will result 
in the ultimate abandonment of the canal; and I assure you that 
several vears hence, no later than .January 1, 101.'), even the mn«t 
ardent sea-level advcwates will, in making the voyage throUj;)l 

B«M at ••Tkat Mas PItla.' 



the caiial, admit that the ability to navigato a battle ship at « 
high rate of 8|>eed through the lake and wide channel from 
(iatun to Pedro Miguel far outweighs the small inconveuienoM 
of the safe lockages up to and down from the summit level. 
March Iti, 1909. 



AMERICAN SHIPPING. 
By ALEXANDKK K. SMITH. 

For the past (juarter of a century the problem of 
reviving Aniericaii shipping in the foreign trade haii been 
cMtntinuHlly hefon- the people. Its non-solution is a re- 
pruaeh to AniericHii KtateKniauHhip. During thut time 
four distinctly different methcMls have been proposed, 
one of which has for the past sixteen years been in 
restrieteil operation. Limited as it is to a certain type 
of a certain class — a mere fraction of our general ahipping 
— it has served to arrest the decline. 
Provisions and Accomplishments of the Frye Bill of 1890. 

From 188(> to iHill, a ]>r(>paganda was carried on in 
behalf of a dual syatem of aubsidies and bounties, as 
embraced in the Frye bill of that time. It was proposed 
to pay to the swift *20-knot steamship in the trans- 
atlantic trade, of 8.0(K) gross tons or over, $6.00 per mile 
for every mile sailed on the outward voyage, $3.00 to 
16-knot steamshi|>8 of 5,U0() tons, and lesser sums to 
smaller and slower steamships, carrying the mails on 
regular lines. To cargo vessels, sail and steam, it was 
proposed to pay 3 cents per ton per hundred miles sailed 
on a foreign voyage, a rate that France was then paying 
to her ships. Had that bill passed as it was drawn by 
Senator BVye, a large proportion of our entire foreign 
commerce would today be carried under the American 
flag. Instead of 900,000 tons of shipping in our foreign 
trade, as now. we might have 4.000.000 tons, we would 
rank second to Great Britain as a maritime power, and 
be a close and gaining second at that. It passed the 
Senate in 1890 as originally drawn. In March, 1891, 
the House struck out all provision for cargo vessels, the 
mail subsidy was cut down one-thinl, and in that emas- 
cidated form it was enacted, since which time it has re- 
mained undisturbed and unobjecte<l to upon our national 
statutes. Nevertheless, our steam tonnage in the foreign 
trade, which had not increased at all during the preceding 
twenty-four years has, during the past fifteen years, 
trebled. Our still unprotected sailing tonnage is not 
one-half what it then waa. Weak and feeble as was the 
subsidy provision for mail lines, five such lines have 
been sustained under it, and are now operating in our 
foreign trade. 
The One Accomplishment of the Fifty-Second Congress. 

Profuse |>n)mises were made that efforts woubl at once 
be vigorously pushed to secure a<le(piate protection for 
our cargo carriers. All that was done in the suceee<ling 
Congress was the enactment of the Cockran bill for the 
admission to American registry of the British steamships 
City of New York an<l City of Paris. owne<l by the Ameri- 
can International Navigation Company, on <'ondition that 
ecpial tonnage to that so admitted should be built by their 
owners in the Tnited .Statw. This led to the construction 
of the St. I.;ouis and the St. Paul, which make up the 
line of fi>ur American transatlantic steamships — the only 
American swift liners in that trade. 

A Meager and Pitiful Share. 

Sixty per cent of our entire foreign commerce is 
with EurojM", of which less than five per cent is carried 
in American vessels. This would be but a fraction of 

TS Mar krt Stm« 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



one per eeut, but for that carried by the few American 
steamships owned by the one American company engaged 
in that vast trade. 
Abortive Democratic Efifort to Pass a "Free Ship" Bill. 

In the fifty-third Congress, March 4, 1893, to ilareh 4, 
1895, both branches of that body were under Democratic 
control, with a Democratic executive. Representative 
Fithian, of Illinois, was the chairman of the Committee 
on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, which committee 
promptly reported out a bill favoring the free admission 
to American registry of foreign-built vessels owned by 
American citizens. This bill hung upon the House calen- 
dar, with the President, the Secretary of the Treasury, 
and the Commissioner of Navigation frequently asking 
Speaker Crisp, of Georgia, to consent to a day for its con- 
sideration. Such consent being unobtainable, the Con- 
gress ended with the bill unacted upon. In the Senate 
Commerce Committee it was found impossible to secure 
a favorable report on a similar bill. Thus no action was 
taken during the only period in the last forty-six years 
that the control of the legislative and executive branches 
of the government was vested in the Democrats. 
Incongruity of Free Ship Advocacy. 

A free ship bill is essentially a free trade bill, limited 
in its application, of course, to foreign-built ships. 
Manifestly, such a measure is contrary to the protective 
policy that has been in full force in the United States for 
the past forty-six years, and diametrically opposed to the 
principles of the Republican party. It is strongly advo- 
cated by the free trade element in the United States, and 
is offered to this country, by leading British newspapers 
and statesmen, as the only method by which aA American 
merchant marine can be built up in the foreign trade. It 
involves the purchase of foreign built ships and their 
registry as American vessels for our foreign carrying, 
and on the ground, conceded, that such ships may be built 
more cheaply abroad than in the United States. A vast 
number of different articles may be purchased abroad 
more cheaply than they can be made in the United States, 
but it is contrary to the national policy to permit such 
goods, if they compete with American-made prodiicts. 
to enter free of any duty. Indeed, an average duty of 45 
per cent is collected on foreign articles coming into the 
United States that compete with home-made products. 
This is a protective as well as a revenue-producing duty. 
Obviously, a policy that is regarded as just to all of 
our land industries that are subject to foreign compe- 
tition, should be extended, in some form, to our shipping 
upon the seas, also subject to foreign competition in the 
carrying of American imports and exports. To suggest 
that our shipping in the foreign trade may prosper under 
free trade conditions, with all of our land industries 
highly protected against foreign competition, enjoying a 
marvelous growth and unbounded prosperity, is to argue 
against the protective policy in the face of a success so 
phenomenal and long-continued as to make such free 
trade advocacy appear ridiculous. To assert that it is 
only through free ships that we may build up an American 
merchant marine, is to disregard the period of over 
seventy years, preceding our civil war, when, without 
free ships, with American registry continuously denied to 
foreign-built American-owned ships, an average of 80 
per cent of our entire foreign commerce was* carried in 
American vessels. If free ships are es.sential now, why 
were they not essential throughout that period ? 

The Ultra Foreign Character of a Free Ship Act. 
But, it is alleged, "protection has driven our shipping 
from off the seas." This is a half truth, more deceptive 



than an absolute untruth. Protection — that is to say, the 
lack of protection — has, indeed, driven our shipping, 
practically speaking, from our foreign carrying trade. 
Advocates of free ships who are unblinded by prejudice- 
and partisanship will readily admit that the mere admis- 
sion of foreign-built vessels to American registry will 
ultimately fail to build up an American merchant marine 
in the foreign trade. They will, if sincere, admit that we 
must go much farther; that we must permit aliens to 
command and officer our ships, and that we must also 
reduce the food scale now required, by law, on board of 
American vessels, to the level of that in vogue in foreign 
countries. The free ship advocacy, when bared of all 
deception, therefore, involves the purchase of our vessels 
abroad, the employment of aliens to command, officer and 
man them, and a statutory food scale conforming to that 
of other nations, all because of the greater cheapness of 
foreign-built vessels, foreign masters, officers and men, 
and foreign food scales. Again, it is to be noted, that 
each of these several propositions is fundamentally 
contrary to our national policy, of protecting our people 
against the competition of foreigners. Who, constituting 
a body of any considerable proportions in the United 
States, desire an American merchant marine of which 
everything but the ownership shall be foreign? Who, in 
the United States, desires an American merchant marine 
composed of alien ships and alien men, because such a 
marine is cheaper than an American-built, American-of- 
ficered marine would be? If there be such, are they not 
satisfied to know that probably 1,500,000 tons of foreign 
ships, built in foreign countries, commanded, officered 
and manned by foreigners, are now owned by Americans? 
Does not the fact that an American-owned tonnage whose 
efficiency is two and possibly three times greater than that 
under the American flag in the foreign trade satisfy these 
free trade, free ship advocates? Were the American 
owners of this foreign shipping desirous of American 
registry, some excuse might be offered for this free trade, 
free ship advocacy, but not only are these American 
owners of foreign-built ships not asking for American 
registry for that tonnage, but they have, one and all, said 
that they would not, if permitted by our laws, register 
such vessels as American. 

American Registry a Handicap Instead of a Benefit. 

Foreign vessels that are engaged in our foreign trade 
are given every privilege in our ports that our own are 
given, save that of registry. We make no discrimination 
against foreign vessels in our foreign trade. It is im- 
possible to point out, therefore, where the denial of 
American registry works any hardship to any American. 
On the contrary, the large American ownership of foreign 
vessels under foreign flags, proves that the denial of 
American registry to them involves no hardship. Aye, 
more, the fact that the privilege of American registry 
would not be availed of by these owners proves conclu- 
sively that they would regard such registry as a handicap 
rather than a benefit. Why, under such circumstances, 
shoidd the clamor of impractical theorists for free ships 
be given further consideration? 

Injurious Effects of Free Trade — Beneficial Effects of 
Protection. 

Barring the comparatively small proportion of our 
foreign-going shipping that is subsidized under the Act of 
March 3, 1891, our tonnage in the foreign trade is in full 
free trade competition with foreign shipping. It is but 
little more than one-third what it was in 1861. 



Sold at Steacy'a News Depot, 3 Steuart St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



AN APPEAL FOR THE AMERICAN FLAG. 

The executive eoniinittee of the Merchant Marine 
League met February 2(). 1909, at Cleveland, Ohio, anil 
aj;ree(i upon the following a|>|)eal to the [K'ople of the 
Tniteti States and their Senators and RepreKeutatives 
in ('(»ngre8«: 

Ist. The Meriliaiit Marine League \h a non-partiHiin 
organization composed of memhers in every State of the 
I'nion who ardently desire, in the public interest, the up- 
building of our merchant marine and the restoration of 
our flag to the seas. 

2d. Those composing the Merchant Marine licaguc 
arc not engaged either in sliipl>uilding or ship operating. 

.'{(I. The Merchant Marine League has no repres«'n- 
tative in Washington, and has not paid or agree«i to pay 
one dollar for services in carrying on its work. The 
Leagtu' is de[>en<iing for success on the merits of its cause 
and the patriotism of the American people. 

The Merchant Marine League sees a vast trade, 
amounting to hundreds of millions of d<i|lars annually 
in Central and South America. Australia and the Orient 
lost to our people through our lack of trade facilities, 
such as merchant vessels to carry our mails, merchandise 
ami passengers direct to these countries. 

\Vc have a magnificent navy whose return from a 
trip around the world is now being celebrated. Our 
|)ride in its achievement, however, is mingled with ex- 
treme humiliation because of the knowledge that in- 
dispensable auxiliaries for the world-encircling trip of 
this fleet consisted of foreign vessels which would not 
be available in case of war. 

Then'fore, for the benefit of our country — the ad- 
vantage of its farms and factories, its capital and labor, 
and for the prosperity of its ])eople and -the glory of its 
Hag, we urgently recommend the immediate passage of 
the Ocean Mail Hill, whii-h has pa.ssed the Senate unan- 
imously, is so warmly commended by the President and 
the members of his Cabinet and the President-elect of 
the United States and is now pending before the Com- 
mittee on Post Office and Po.st Roads of the IIoii.se of 
Representatives. 



COURT NOTES. 

Portland — The owners of the Krciu-h bark Martha 
Roux have filed an admiralty suit again.st the Oregon 
R. H. & Navigation Co. for $(5120. The tugs Henderson 
and Oklahoma, belonging to the defendant company, 
were towing the French bark across the Willamette river, 
but the current became so strong that the ves.sel began to 
drift, whereupon the tugs loo.seil their tow lines, leaving 
the Kotix at flic iTicrcv of the current. 



The Metropolitan Rinlwood Lumber Company's suit, 
to limit its liability in the collisi<ui of the San Pedro with 
the steamer Columbia was heard in the V. S. District 
Court by Judge l)e Haven, and postponed until April 9th. 

At the time of the collision 2(M) lives were lost, the 
responsibility for which is shared by the San Pedro. 

The suit of Henry With(mi. formerly mate on the Union 
Oil Co. barkentine Fullerton. filed again.st the Union Oil 
Co. for !f;r)0.0(K). was decided in favor of the plaintiff by 
the U. S. Court at Honolulu. Withom receiving $17..')(H) 
and interest. 

At the time of the accident the Fullerton was in tow 
of the steamer Lansing when by a slip of the cable Witt- 
hof received injuries to his arm which necessitated am- 
putation. 



NORTHERN COAST NOTES. 

Portland — In all probability the Port of Portland 
Commission will, instead of building a tug, lease one for 
service at the mouth of the Columbia river. The tug 
Daring, now in Grays Harbor, has been selected aa a 
suitable one for the purpose, and Kngineers Lockwood 
and Champion, representing the Port, are to inspect the 
tug. The Daring can be had for a coiiKidcration of 
i^l,r>(KI a month. 

The steamer Ar^^o wax ciiuip<-||f«l to go on the (lr\ 
dock to have a new propeller titte<l. While leaving 
Tillamook the Argo struck a snag. 

That the bulk of the wheat this season will be shipped 
foreign by train]) steamers is the opinion of exporters. 
The Pacific fleet will consume great <|uantities of coal 
and it is believed that this coal will be brought fnun the 
.'Vtlantic coast by tramp steamers, whose owners will go 
begging for a return cargo. This was the condition of 
affairs last year when numerous tramps followed up the 
warships and it had the cfTcet of providing cheap grain 
tonnage. 

A public hearing will be held in the office of Major 
J. F. Mclndoc. April 20, to discuss the proposed extension 
of the harbor lines from their present terminus near St. 
John to the mouth (»f the Willamette river. The owners 
of waterfront property below St. John arc at a loss to 
know how far out over the river bank they will be 
permitteil to erect a building they desire to construct. 

The original jWans of the new vessel to be built for 
the McCormaek Co. of San Francisco have been revised 
consi«lerably. On the original plans the vessel measured 
205 feet in length, and 41 feet beam. On the revised 
plans the length will be 210 feet and a beam of 41 feet 
() inches. This will increase the carrying capacity by 
1(N).(KK) feet, without adding greatly to the original cost. 
When completetl the vessel will carry 1,250.1XX) feet of 
lumber, and will be ojM'rated between Oregon and Wash- 
ington ports, carrying lumber to California. This vessel 
will be the largest wockIcii vessel built on this coast. 

J. A. Maker, of Ocean Park. Wash., has purchase*! 
the wreck of the French ship Alice, which stranded at 
North Beach a few months ago while en route to Portland 
from Antwerp with a cMrtro i>f cement T!i«' cmmidc'ra- 
tion was ♦201.25. 

All bids submitted for the construction of two tugs 
for service at the mouth of the Columbia have been re- 
jcctcil at a special meeting by the Port of Portland Com- 
mission. 

The British barks Oalena and Peter Iredale have been 
purchased by the local n'prescntativi' of the Pacific Hard- 
ware & Slei'l Co. The hulls will be broken up and the 
material shipped to the Portland Rolling .Mills. The 
barks stranded on Clatsop beach in the fall of 190<i. 

The river steamboat Pomona struck a rock during a 
dense fog and now lies partly submerged a few miles up 
the coast from Portland. It is not thought the veaael 
has sustained serious injury, although it will be a trouble- 
some task to put it in commisKion again. 

The S. S. Modoc will operate on the Pomona's run 
between Portland and Salem, during the time that boat 
is being raised and repaired. The Oregon City Transp<ir- 
tation Co. <»hartenHl the Modoc from the O. R. & N. Co. 

The steamer Carniel struck the bar while entering 
the Columbia river and smashed her stem post. «l<»8troy- 
ing five feet of keel and ojM-ned several seams in the 
hull. The Carmel was placed on the Portland run in 
place of the R. D. Inman. which strandc.! several miles up 
the coast from San Francisco. 



V 



■•14 at Farrr K*wa Btaa4, Baa FraarlaM 



8 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Tacoma — Ten sailing vessels have been chartered to 
carry the lumber export trade this season. The vessels 
are expected to arrive in this harbor to load lumber at the 
various mills in the course of a few weeks. The coast- 
wise shipping will also be much heavier than last month. 

The Alaska Packers' Association have awarded to 
Crawford & Reed a contract for a cannery tender. The 
dimensions are 65 feet long, 13 feet beam and six feet in 
depth. 

The Osaka Shoshen Kaisha, the new Japanese steam- 
ship line operating between the Orient and United States 
ports, have decided to handle their own stevedoring 
work at this terminal. 



Victoria, B. C. — The British steamer Georgia arrived 
in Victoria, B. C, listed 20 degrees to port. During a 
gale and while a heavy cross sea was running, the cargo 
shifted. Considerable damage was done to the cargo. 

The turret steamer Clan Macfarlane, while in the 
vicinity of Cape Flattery, was swept by a heavy sea, 
which carried away four of her life boats, a part of the 
pilot house, and sent to his death a member of the crew. 

The tug Daisy, which stranded at Tumbo Island two 
weeks agg, has slipped from the reef into deep water and 
foundered. There is no possibilitj' of the tug being 
salvaged. 

The executive ,of the Canadian Pacific R. R. has au- 
thorized the construction of a new steamer to replace the 
City of Nanaimo. Tenders will be called for shortly, and 
it is planned to have the new vessel, which will be of 
steel, in commission early next season. 



Vancouver, B. C. — The stevedores in the employ of 
the Vancouver & Victoria Stevedoring Co. have de- 
manded an increa.se of five cents an hour on day work 
and ten cents an hour on night work. 



Seattle — The Alaska S. S. Co. have placed in commis- 
sion two of its disengaged vessels, the Farallone and the 
Santa Ana. Captain C. L. Me(Jregor will take command 
of the Farallone, while Captain Frank W. dinger will 
have charge of the Santa Ana. The P^arallone will run 
on the Southeastern route and the Santa Ana is scheduled 
for the Skagway run. 

The armored cruiser St. Louis is receiving an over- 
hauling, which will cost $100,000, preparatory to the 
cruiser leaving for the turbiUent waters of South 
America to protect American interests during the politi- 
cal disturbances. 

The S. S. Argo is to. run on a new schedule, commenc- 
ing the first week of April. The vessel will make two 
trips between Astoria and Tillamook, calling at Portland 
once a week. This schedule will be in effect during the 
summer months only. Captain R. J. Dunham, a part 
owner of the Argo, will relieve Captain E. Anderson of 
the command of that vessel. 



NORTHERN COAST NOTES. 

Portland. — The new dredge Clatsop, which is to take 
the place of the U. S. Ladd in the Lower Columbia river, 
is expected from the Atlantic Coast in about a month. 
The castings and pipe line have already arrived in this 
city. 

The bar at the mouth of the Columbia has deepened 
a foot since last season, due to the effects of the Gov- 
ernment .jetty recently constructed at that point. Vessels 
have no difficulty in crossing. 



Seattle. — Captain A. J. Sewell of the steamer Fidalgo 
will be compelled to pay a fine of $100 for navigating his 
steamer after his license had expired. The Department 
of Commerce and Labor was appealed to by Captain 
Sewell, but the secretary refused to take up the captain's 
cau.se. 



Eureka— The bark W. B. Flint, a vessel of 746 tons 
net, has been sold to Mr. P. Nelson. The former owner 
of the bark was F. W. Van Sicken. 



Bandon, Oregon — Three different parties are con- 
templating additions to their fieets running out of this 
port. E. T. Kruse, the owner of the Elizabeth, is pro- 
posing a sister ship for the port, and the Alliance Com- 
pany intend to build a boat to touch Coos Bay, Bandon 
and Eureka, with Portland as a terminal. Portland 
parties interested in a commercial aspect are figuring on 
a boat to ply between here and Portland, calling at Coos 
Bay and Tillamook. 

That Congress will appropriate, sufficient funds to 
dredge the river and fix the bar of the Coqiiille river is 
thought to be the significance of the recent act of Con- 
gress in ordering the Coquille river resurveyed from the 
mouth to Myrtle Point. 

Grays Harbor — While attempting to cross out over 
the bar in a sixty-five-mile an hour gale, the steamer 
Willapa was forced to put back into the harbor. While 
turning to put back the steamer presented a broadside 
to the gale, taking on board a tremendous sea, which 
carried away 200,000 feet of lumber and injuring the 
vessel otherwise. 



Astoria — The steam schooner South Bay ran into a sub- 
merged log which fouled the propeller, bending it so 
badly that it was possible to make only 96 revolutions. 
It is possible the vessel was otherwise injured, and she 
will be placed on the drydock at St. John for an exam- 
ination before any linnber is loaded. 



LOCAL NOTES. 

Howard street Wharf No. 2 has been assigned to the 
U. S. Lighthouse Department for the steamers Madrona 
and Sequoia, at a monthly rental of $100, which includes 
shed, dockage and tolls. 

The Western Pacific R. R. Co. has let contract for the 
construction of its western terminal at the Oakland 
mole to G. D. Patterson & Co. of San Francisco, on a 
bid of .$100,000. 

The American ship Fort George, which sailed from 
New York July 26, carrying a general cargo for the 
Hawaiian Islands, has been posted uninsurable at 
Lloyd's. The vessel has been on the overdue list at 
90 per cent the last three months. 

The Fort Georgt' was last spoken August 27, in lati- 
tude 11 north, longitude 5 west. 



PERSONAL. 

Mr. F. Pendleton, a Portland merchant, has been ap- 
pointed State Pilot Commissioner in place of Mr. N. D. 
Wheelwright, resigned. 

Assistant Surgeon J. II. Oakley, chief quarantine 
officer for the district of Puget Sound, will be examined 
April 5, at San Francisco, for promotion to the grade of 
surgeon in the marine hospital. 

Mr. P. S. Teller has been appointed on the Board of 
Harbor Commissioners, in place of H. J. Crocker, re- 
signed. 



Sold at Oceanic Pharmacy, 148 East St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



9 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Oi^ce 95 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO, GAL. 



TELEPHONE DOUGLAS 4325 



THOS. C. BUTTERWORTH 
A. B. BUTTERWORTH 
M. DAVIS 



E<ti(or 
Geoeral MaaM*' 

AJvcrfitint Dcpartrocal 



Publinhed by the Facific Merchant Marine Publishing Co. 
in Sun Francisco, California, every Saturday viorniny in the 
interest and development of the Pacific MerchuiU Marine. 

WILL BE SENT TO ANY ADDRESS in tht UNITED STATES 

$4.00 a Year $2.00 Six Months 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 
Addreti All Commuaications lo the Pacific Merchant Marine 



Tlu' widt'-awake. hiLstliiig policy of sliip owners on the 
(ireat Lakes has demonstrated what can be aeconiplished 
by united eflTorts, realiziiif? the importance of devel(>j)inK 
their coast wise traffic, and surrounding it with protect- 
ive leifislation. by which to preserve American commerce 
for American ships and seamen. Residts have shown 
the progress and deveh)pment of the nutrine industry 
nil the Great Lakes; this in itself constituted an object 
lfs.<ion for Pacific ('oast merchants and shipowners, 
which, if they had profited by, would not have left them 
bewailing the loss oi a merchant nmrine on the Pacific. 

The |)ower vested in Congress by the Constitution of 
the I'nited States grants to that body exclusive |)Ower 
to regulate shipping upon the navigable waters of the 
United States and as to the American vessels upon the 
high seas, this section of the Constitution is brief an<l very 
much to the point. The very intent and purpose of this 
section was to prevent favoritism and unjust discrimina- 
tion between localities and [tersons. Congress, like the 
ijidividuai, i« swayed more or less by public opinion and 
demands; left entirely to their own resources, conclu- 
sions are reached which are not always for the best in- 
terests of the community at large, and are frequently open 
to much adverse criticism by the public and press in 
general. Congress has learned, therefore, to consult the 
public ta.ste in matters of importance and in doing so 
has at least legislated for the best interests of the 
majority of our population. Selfish or minority interests 
were unable, for a tinu*. to cope with these conditions, 
and the professional lobbyist was brought forward, 
quick, active, and alert "to every phase of the interests 
which he represented; knowing his position depended 
on the quality of the results of his efforts, backed by the 
sole ambition and »)ne object on the one side and opposed 
by a geiu»ral ma,s,s of (piestions on the other; success de- 
pended on his ability to present his argument with a 
marked degree of sincerity, a component part of his 
stock in trade; thus the professional lobbyist has joined 
the ranks of the licensed aristocracy of America. 

The lobby system is one of the oldest in history and 
has been severely and ju.stly criticized from its inception, 
which criticism was but the incentive by which the lobby- 



ist advanced and reached the same degree of perfection 
as that attained by other si-iences; but doubly so were 
the incentives of the lobbyist; fully aware of the many 
weak points of his occupation ; well informed up«)n ct>n- 
ditions which would soon demand of him a combat with 
a foeman worthy of his steel, he has struggle<l hard and 
reached his so-calleil present high standard of excellence. 

To oppose the lobby by the principle of diamond cut 
diamond would be likened to a step in the opposite . 
direction; methtMis of merit and truth are the only re- 
course an<l organi/.e«i efforts compose the only defensive 
weapon left in the hantts of the oppressc<l. 

The notorious neglect of I'acific Coast resources at 
the hands of (Ningress may or may not be attributed to 
lobbyism ; other eaus(>s have contributed largely to this 
condition, chiefly among which is our own carelessness 
an<l neglect, until the present time, when, goaded to 
desperation by the red flag of a foreign commerce, we 
are seeking a remedy for the evil. Are we al)out to 
give up in despair? If so every hour thus consumed 
leaves us less able to do anything. Or are we still hop. 
ing against hope that relief will come from those who 
have proved our undoing in the past! These same 
methods were tried by the merchants and shipowners 
on the Great Lakes; results did not follow; with typic-al 
aggressiveness and a thorough commercial training, 
natural con<iitionK and a rightful inheritance prompted 
some of the best known men in public and commercial 
life to the organization of interests and concentration of 
effort* in behalf of their merchant marine. The coaat- 
wise laws and resulting benefits is the outcome of this 
wise and up-to-date policy; completing this minor step 
in their efforts, success led them to procure their full 
nuiasure of rights, and the present organization was 
brought into exi.stence. 

The Merchant Marine League of the I'nited States 
was organized at a public dinner given to Aaron Van- 
derbilt at Cleveland. Ohio, in November, IJMH, from 
^hich time the organization has flourished and estab- 
lished active working branches in many states of the 
I'nion ; but Pacific Coast States have neglected this chance 
of helping themselves; content, as usual, with tomorrow 
in place of today, the Coast States have watched the 
efforts of the League to restore the American flag on the 
high seas; have calmly awaited the result of these efforts 
without offering to assist in a cause which means so 
much for their in<lustrial future. Rivalry in the de- 
velopment of Pacific Coast ports is the will-o-the-wisp 
which influences concerted action; but the time has come 
when this tl«»g-in-the-manger ]M)licy must be cast asi<le, 
and whether one section of the Coast is favored more 
than another is a matter of little cons«'<|uence. If merit 
and jealou.sy form a couple of equal and opposite foreea 
with which we are contending, unity of action should 
at once determine the resultant of the two forces aiwl 
erect a hea<lstone to the memory of present deplorable 
conditions. 

The Merchant Marine I.K?ague of the United States 
has demonstrate<I its sincerity in an ability to cope with 
the subject of over-sea trade. All States in the I'nion 
are eligible to membership therein; none better (|ualified 
to participate in the succ«'hs of, or who will receive 
greater benefit thereby than those bordering the Pacific 
Ocean. In the near future California. Oregon and Wash- 
ington will be called upon to attend the opening of the 
Panama Canal. At the present time the same States 
are divided against thems<;Ive8 for supremacy in both 
oversea and coastwise commerce; in the meantime for- 



Sold at Ferrr Kcwa Maa^ Saa F raaelae* 



10 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



eign nations are reaping the benefit. What, then, are 
the natural conclusions to be determined? Within this 
possibility is the organization of a branch of the Ameri- 
can Merchant Marine League of the United States in 
each of the three States mentioned. A convention to 
be held in San Francisco, at which would be displayed 
our unlimited commercial resources, and if entered into 
with a full knowledge of its importance would contribute 
more to the rehabilitation of the American Merchant 
Marine than all other influences combined. This con- 
vention would bring to this city those who would be 
critical ; those who are unaccjuainted with us would ac- 
cept the situation as it existed in reality, whose opinions 
are formed from experience and who would learn that 
the Pacific Coast offered ample security for the invest- 
ment of capital in marine enterprises. 



quarters at Meiggs' Wharf, where the trim little vessels, 
nets, buildings and general equipment of the fishermen 
are models of neatness. 



The San Francisco branch of the Pacific Association 
of Amateur Oarsmen have petitioned Mayor Taylor for 
representation on the Fourth of July committee, and 
that sufficient funds shall be appropriated by the com- 
mittee to include a rowing regatta as a feature of the 
coming celebration. Many reasons exist for granting the 
petition of the Amateur Oarsmen. 

Invariably Fourth of July celebrations in San Fran- 
cisco have been confined to a limited space and of such 
a character that our citizens had but one choice of en- 
tertainment on that day, and points of vantage for 
viewing the military parade have been so crowded 
and congested that numerous accidents have occurred, 
and the expense to the city for preparing for the parade, 
apart from the decorations required, that it has always 
been a question of "does the means justify the end?" 

The pleasure boats and small commercial craft in and 
around San Francisco bay demonstrates the fact that a 
large number of our people are interested in aquatics, 
and will accept every opportunity of indulging in this 
form of amusement ; yet there are many in our midst 
who have never witnessed a yacht race or rowing re- 
gatta. 

In many parts of the world, very much less adapted 
for aquatic sports, entertainment of this kind draws 
upon almost the entire population of the section repre- 
sented, but in San Francisco, with every advantage, 
where no expense would be required, except the appro- 
priation of sufficient money to purchase appropriate 
prizes, nothing has been done for many years to en- 
courage marine sports. 

If the sentimental side of this question does not 
appeal to his honor the Mayor, a practical view should be 
taken of the subject by all cities and towns bordering on 
San Francisco bay, who should offer every inducement 
to their ambitious citizens whereby to acquire either 
for pleasure or profit such appliances as they desire and 
thus primarily open the way for future participation 
.in a resource of the bay cities which sooner or later will 
prove to be one of their greatest sources of revenue, 
tending to develop the training of youth in boat build- 
ing, navigation, and ultimately engaging in matters 
marine from which to draw efficient and worthy repre- 
sentatives of the United States in either peace or war. 



The Board of Health of San Francisco is urging the 
passage of an ordinance regulating the sale of crabs, 
crawfish and other shell fish. The principal abuse of 
this industry consists in the methods of unscrupulous 
dealers who purchase the fishermen's catch, as will be 
readily seen from a visit to the fishing fleets' head- 



SOUTHERN COAST NOTES. 

Vera Cruz, ]Mex.— A recent earth(iuake has caused 
the waters of the harbor to recede, leaving it so shallow 
that vessels drawing 24 feet touch the bottom. 



Wilmington— The war department have asked the city 
trustees for a survey for two channels to be dredged 
northerly from the turning basin, one channel to run in 
a northeasterly direction, the other northwesterly, both 
to be 200 feet wide, and 20 feet deep at low tide. 



Pacific Grove — A wireless station has been established 
on the- heights back of Monterey. 



Long Beach — Bids are being received by the muni- 
cipal wharfage connuission for the construction of bulk- 
heads and docks for that portion of the proposed city 
wharfage "which lies near the harbor mouth. 



Long Beach.— The Western Pacific R. R. Co. is having 
a tug boat constructed for use in San Francisco bay 
which will be completed in about three months. The 
dimensions are: 120 feet in length, 24 feet wide and 12 
feet in depth. 



Los Angeles. — The steamer St. Vallier, owned by the 
Colorado Navigation Company, capsized a few days ago, 
and was blown up with dynamite to prevent the forma- 
tion of a sand bar around it. 



CHANGES AMONG SHIP'S OFFICERS. 

First Officer R. Rgerup of the S. S. Senator was com- 
pelled to lay off a trip on account of sickness in family, 
and J. B. Rohan will be temporarily installed in his place 

Third Officer Morino of the S. S. Aeapulco was re- 
lieved liy J. 'Hearn. 

Fourth Officer Gilboy of the S. S. City of Pueblo trans- 
ferred to third officer of the President, and R. Dean in- 
stalled in his place. 

Capt. E. B. McMullen, senior mate of the North West- 
ern S. S. Co., of Seattle, will succeed Capt. W. McKay 
as master of the steamer Dora, plying between Valdez 
and Unalaska. 



HAWAII NOTES. 

Major Win.slow, U. S. A. lighthouse engineer, and 
Lieutenant Commander Moses are in the Islands inspect- 
ing the proposed sites of a first-class lighthouse to be con- 
structed at a cost of i(;60,000. The light will be 'erected 
on the island of Kauai and the exact location will be de- 
cided definitely by the inspectors. 

Major Winslow and Lieut. Moses will also inspect the 
buoys at the different stations along the coast line. 

The Naval Militia steamboat Alert had its regular 
cruise around the bay last Sunday. Starting from Sausa- 
lito at noon and proceeding to the vicinity of Red Rock. 
Instructions in signaling and Boat drills were the order 
of the day. Lieut. Commander Pratt from the U. S. S. 
Pensacola and Paymaster McMillan of the Naval Train- 
ing Station were guests of Captain Bauer of the Alert. 

The class in navigation from the Humboldt Evening 
High School were also guests on board for instruction in 
compass and chart work. 



Sold at Steacy's Newa Deput. 3 Steuart St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



U 




The yachts of the Curiuthian Club came out of their 
winter (|uarters Stiiiday, April 4. ami as many of the 
boys have heeii taking advantage of the jfood weather 
and have put in several Saturdays and Sundays serapin^ 
and cleaning up. not a ffw will 1><- n-iidy tu >_''• imiiKMli- 
ately into commission. 

Motorboatin^ i>n San Francisco Hay, nr elsewhere, 
seems to be rapidly coming to the front, and many of the 
old-time yachtsmen are taking up this comparatively 
new pastime. 

The devotees to this si)ort are l)eginnin<; to realize the 
superiority of our locally built engines over the lighter 
and less serviceable machines of Eastern niaiuifacture, 
and it is with pleasure we note that nu)st of the boats 
now building are being eipiippetl with California built 
engines. 

It is rumored that the members of the Pacific Motor 
Boat Club wish to disband and consoli<late with the Cor- 
inthian Yacht Club as a motor boat annex. Whether 
(his will meet with the approval of the doughty sons of 
Aeolus is rather uncertain, but, should this stej) be taken, 
it would add materially to the Corinthian Heet. 

The A<|uatic Improvement AssrK'iation of San Fran- 
cisco has recently been formed with the object of arous- 
ing interest in San Francisco and California in a(|uatie 
sports and to provide for the finindatiou of a water park 
for rowing, yacht and swinuning clubs, with a convenient 
anchorage for yachts and launches, a pier, antl public 
baths. The association has received the indorsement of 
the various clubs about the bay. 

Fred Klarnuin is building three 2.5-foot fishing t.vpe 
cruisers of his own design. These boats are a modifi- 
cation of the ordinary "crab boats" used by the Italian 
fishermen, which type has proved very successfid on 
the bay. 

.Mr. Klarman is also to build a 34-foot auxiliary yawl 
from the j)lans of Stuart B. Diuibar. a local designer, for 
use in Hawaiian waters. 



HOUSEBOATINO. 

With the opening <)f spring, coming of sununer. and 
schiH>l vacations, preparations are being made for al- 
most every branch of outdoor life, sport and recreation. 
Ilouseboating has many advantages and found nuiny 
admirers, and each year the tiumber of patrotis increases, 
as j)ossibly no other summer pastime combines so well 
the attractions of recreation and solution of the sum- 
mer i>roblera. 

In increasing nu;nbers families leave their city homes 
for the coiuitry or shore during the hot months of the 
year. But nu)st of the desirable resorts within com- 
nuinicating distance of Pacific Coast cities are expensive 
and the man of moderate means freipiently is forced to 
.send his family to some place a long distance from town, 
at a point so di.stant that he himself cannot join his 
family except for an occasional holiday or Sunday. 

This, of course, is a hardship for all concerned, but 
the children must be in the countrj'; and the house- 



STUART B. DUNBAR 



->M HvtUry BU(. 
Mirkcl * 8|irar 8u. 



NAVAL ARCHITECT 



I-kwr Knrajr 4731 
Yachto A Work Boata of All ClanM Dmaltmmd ACoBalrnction Supcrintcadrd 



boat solves the problem for those who enjoy life on the 
water. The houseboat can l)e built to fit almost any 
purse and there are few cities which have not. within 
an hour by rail or boat, a suitable place where a hiuise- 
boat may be moored — the business man may go back 
and forth each day. A mo<le of living is thus made 
possible <|iiite the reverse of the routine city life, which 
a<lds materially to the health and happiness of all. 

The great majority of us are •'hewers of wood anil 
drawers of water," and to such houseboat ing makes the 
strongest ap))eal. 

The houseboat has no means of propulsion to move 
it from place to place, the main object being to select a 
favorable location which combines a good base for sup- 
pill's, clean water, sheltered anchorage and convenience 
of access to the city. 

\ small gasoline launch is a useful adjunct to the 
houseboat, .serving for tender. exj)ress and market boat 
and a great convenience for short trips and near by 
excursions. The advantages of the marine gasoline mo- 
tor need not be extolled here; suflice to nay that these 
handy little boats have now been brought to a very 
high point of perfection. In the absence of a motor 
launch a rowboat makes an excellent substitute. If the 
family affords a servant, one should be selected who 
can swim and handle 'a boat, enabling the children to 
acquire both of these useful accomplishments with a 
combination of amusement, recreation and muscular 
development. 



SHIPBUILDING NOTES. 
Union Iron Works. 

Oeneral hull repairs to the S. .S. Kdward Sewell. 

S. S, Kxplorer having new tail shaft made and in- 
stalled. 

Steam si-hooner Rainier on the Hoating dock for minor 
repairs. 

I'. S. S. S. Porter at works for engine, boiler and hull 
repairs. 

S, S. St, Helens on floating dock for minor repairs. 

S, S, President on Hunters Point dry dock for minor 
rei)air8. 

P. C. S. S. Oreen having repairs made to wheel, and 
also being cleaned and painted. 

Risdon Iron Works. 

The various improvements on the A. P. S. S. Admiral 
Sampson are about completed and the vess«'l will be 
ready to sail on April 7 for Puget Sound, inaugurating 
a new schedule which will include San Pedro. Seattle 
and this citv. 



Matson Navigation Company 



268 Market Street 



Phone DougUi 3030 



Direct Line P&u«nc*r and Freight Steameri and lalllng Tetieli to 

Honolulu, Hilo, Kahului, Mahukona, Eleele 

From 

Seattle and San Francisco 

For Freight and Fauenger RaUi apply to 

Alexander Jt Baldwin. Seattle CaatI* k Cooke. Honolulu 

Mation NaTigatlon Companr. Ian Franelico 



•c S at Ferry News ttaad, Saa Fraarlaea 



12 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



LOCAL NOTES. 

The steamer Napa City has been chartered by the 
Petaluma & Santa Rosa Railway Company, to run altern- 
ately with the company's steamer Gold. Handicapped 
by having only one steamer to handle the ever increasing 
shipments, the company was obliged to run another 
steamer. 



The Mexican steamer Curacao was forced to make port 
in total darkness owing to an accident to her dynamo. 
Coal oil lamps were pressed into service while ordinary 
lanterns were used for headlights and signals. 



Owing to the unusual amount of freight collected on 
the last trip of the steamer San Juan, from Ancon to San 
Francisco, .steerage passengers were placed in the ship's 
hospital. As this is in violation of the navigation laws 
the Pacific Mail S. S. Co. is liable to a fine of $200. 



The propeller of the U. S. cruiser Raleigh caught in 
the shaft of the U. S. cruiser Cincinnati and several leaks 
on both ships were sprung. As soon as the extent of 
the damage is ascertained an investigation will be held 
to fix the responsibility for the accident. 



Col. John B. Bellinger is to be relieved of the charge 
of the transport service and Major Chauncey B. Baker 
of the quartermaster's department of the army will arrive 
some time in July to take his place. Major Baker is a 
graduate of the Infantry and Cavalry School of the Army 
in the class of 1889, and is known as a man of ability. 
Colonel Bellinger will be placed in charge of the army 
depot. 



The chief wharfinger's office at the Washington street 
bulkhead has been completed and is ready to be occupied. 
The new building cost $2,489. 



Plans are being laid to establish a day-light steamer 
service between Sacramento and Stockton. Arrange- 
ments have been made by the Lauritzen Transportation 
Co. with the Harborma.ster of Stockton to dock the 
launches Duchess and Empress. The launches are new 
boats, equipped with 150 horse power engines, draw five 
feet of water, are 90 feet long, and carry 150 passengers. 



Captain Commandant Worth G. Ross and Chief En- 
gineer C. A. McAllister of the revenue cutter service are 
expected to arrive on the coast to make an inspection of 
the revenue cutters detailed to this division. 



A fine of $50 was imposed on Capt. N. Zeigenmeyer, of 
the Jebsen & Ostrander steamer Erna, for entering the 
bay without a bill of health from Victoria. The usual 
fine for this offense is $500, but as the ship did not dis- 
charge or take aboard pa.ssengers or freight at Victoria, 
only a small portion of the fine was imposed. 



The Japanese training ships Aso and Soya, en route 
to Puget Sound via San Francisco, are due to arrive in 
this port April 7. 



The bulkhead wharf along section 12 of the new sea- 
wall has been completed by the Pacific Construction 
Co. at a cost of $64,500. Contractor Wakefield has 75 
per cent of the new pier No. 40 completed. 



The steamers Jim Butler, Olsen & Mahoney, and J. 
Marhoffer, and eight chartered vessels under a new 
traffic deal, are to carry freight from San Francisco to 
Portland, there connecting with the North Bank railroad. 



The Healy Tibbitts Construction Co. have been award- 
ed a contract by the State Board of Harbor Commis- 
sioners for the construction of a driveway from the old 
Mail dock to the foot of Fremont. The driveway will 
cost $600. 



Secretary Thorpe submitted a draft of the amendment 
No. 61 of the rules and regulations of the Harbor Com- 
missioners pertaining to dockage rates on ocean vessels 
in the bay. According to the draft vessels of over 200 
tons $4 will be charged for the first 200 tons, and % cent 
for each additional ton, and in vessels of 200 tons, and 
under the charge will be 2 cents a ton. The draft took 
effect April 1st. 



The engineer of the Board of Harbor Commissioners 
submitted a bill charging George E. Billings $396 for 
damage inflicted on the sea wall by the steamer Shua 
Yak. 



The California Navigation and Improvement Co. is 
liable to a fine of $600 for allowing three barges to re- 
main in Mission bay at night without displaying light 
signals. 



The S. S. Kansas City, a first class passenger steamer 
which has been operating on the Atlantic in the service 
of the Ocean S. S. Co., has been purchased by the San 
Francisco & Portland S. S. Co. The vessel will be run 
in conjunction with the steamers George W. Elder and 
Senator. The Kansas City is a vessel of 3,679 gross tons, 
327 feet long, 45 feet beam and 18 feet depth of hold. 
The consideration is said to be $250,000. 



OBITUARY. 



Rev. J. P. Melntyre, chaplain on the battleship Oregon 
during the Spanish-American War, died in Seattle from 
exposure and nervous disorders contracted during the 
war and following the San Francisco earthquake and 
fire. 



COLUMBIA RIVER PILOTAGE AND TOWAGE RATES 



BAR PILOTAQE 

For piloting an inward or outward bound vessel to or from Astoria 
over the bar, or from within the bar to the open sea, all vessels shall 
pay $5 per foot draft, and 2 cents per ton for each and every ton 
registered measurement. 

The pilot who first speaks a ves.sel, or duly offers his services 
thereto as pilot, on or without the bar pilot grounds, is entitled to 
pilot such vessel over the same; but the ma.ster may decline to 
accept, and may navigate his vessel over .said pilot grounds with- 
out a pilot; but, nevertheless, he. shall, if inward bound, pay full 
pilotage, and if outward bound, one-half of above rates. 



RIVER PILOTAQE 

For piloting a vessel upon the river pilot ground between Astoria 
and Portland, whether ascending or descending, all vessels shall 
pay $2 per foot draft and 2 cents per ton for each and every ton 
registered measurement; and the Board is authorized to prescribe 
a proportionate compensation for pilot .service between other points 
on .said ground, or from one part of a dock to another part of the 
same dock, the charge therefor shall be a sum not exceeding $7.50; 
and the pilot shall, on being thereunto requested by the master of 
the vessel, be required to do such work, and for such compensation. 
Provided, however, it shall be optional with the master or person in 



Sold at Steacy'a New* Depot. 3 Steuart St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



13 



charge of such vessel whether he accepts or demands the services 
of any such pilot; and if the master or other person in charge of 
any veis-scl tlfclim-s to accept the services of a pilot on the river pilot 
ground ufori-.said, the ves^-l Nhall not b<- liabk- for pilotage. 

Columbia River Towa(e Tariff From the Pacific Ocean or Astoria 
to Portland and Return for Vessels Other Than Lumber Carriers. 

Venwfls MO to 700 tons net registiT $.'><H) , 00 

Over 71H) to 1000 tons net n-gistcr .S.50 (K( 

Over KHM) to 1200 toiui net n-gi»ter . . tioo.oo 

Over ].H)t) to 1;")<K) tons net register.. ti.'iO 0(1 

Over 1500 to 1800 tons net register 7*Ml 00 

Over 1S»K) to L'(HX) tons net roister 7.'>0 IK) 

Over 21KX) to 2500 tons net register 800.00 

Over 2500 to 3000 tons net register 8M.0U 

Hawser charge $15.00 each way 

Vessels towed from the sea to Astoria and return only, will be 
charged 70 per cent of the rate charged to Portland and return. 

Vessels in uallust towed from the sea to .\storia and return, when 
entering the river as a port of call and departing without cargo, 
will be charged 25 per cent of the rate to Portland and return. 

SCHEDULE OF RATES FOR TOWAGE OF LUMBER SCHOONERS 
WHEN PLYINQ BETWEEN PACIFIC COAST PORTS. 

From the Pacific Ocean— 
To Portland, Ore., or Vancouver, Wa.«ih., and return to Pacific 

Ocean, 50 cents per 1,000 feet. 
To Astoria and return to Pacific Ocean, 25 cents per 1 ,000 feet. 



NOTE. — The above rates apply only to vessels arriving light or 
in ballast. No ebaige is then made for hawser. If ve«seT loads at 
two |H>ints outside of Portland harbor, an additioiuU charge of 10 
cents |MT I, (KM) feet is made. 

When vessels arrive with cargo, the rate per 1,000 feet to both 
ports indicated above is increaM>d by 25 cents, and a hawser charge 
of $15 each way is also made. Charges will be computed on the 
actual number of feet of lumlx-r carried fronj Portland, Ore., or 
Vancouver, Wash., subject to minimum charge based <in .'UKI.OOO 
fe«"t of lumber. The rates named from l*a<Mlic Ocean and r«-lurn to 
Pacific Ocean, apply on vessels for luml>er mills maintaining their 
own river towage service between Astoria and Porthind, On-., or 
Vancouver, WaMh., and when handled by their own steamers, Astoria 
to Portland, Ore., or Vancouver, Wiisli., and n-turn only. The tow- 
lx>at com|)any reserves the right to decline to tow vessels through 
drawbridges at Portland when deemed unsafe, account unfavorable 
weathiT or water conditions. 

INSTRUCTIONS AND RATES COVERING HARBOR MOVES AND 
LIOHTERAQE. 

Moves: Vessels will be move<l within the harbor limits of Astoria 
or Portland at a charge of $20 for e«<'h st<-anier uw<l for each move. 

Lighterage: The channel of the Columbia and Willamette Kivers 
having lM'«-n d<-epened to admit vessels drawing 25 feet, in the event 
of its Ix-coniing neccMsry frmn any cause to lighter vessels Ixmnd 
outward from Portland, carrying cargoe« of grmn and its products 
foreign, such lighteragi^ will ite handled fn-e of charge by the tow- 
boat company. 

Any necessary lighterage of inbound veaseb destined to Porthind 
will be handled at a charge not exceeding tl.OO per ton, weight or 
measurement at option of tow-boat. 



GRAYS HARBOR TOWAGE RATES 

Towage rates at Grays Harbor are fixed on a basis of 40 cents per thousand feet of lumber carried outward. 

Moving vessels within the harbor limits is done by small steamers, without regard to a fixed tariff. Usual charges for this service 
rim from $2.50 to $10.00, according to distance. 



PUGET SOUND PILOTAGE 

Pilotage is not compulsory. If pilot is employed by vessel bound in, rate subject to agreement. Tugs have full charge of vcMsels 
in t«)W, tug-boat masters all being Government licensed pilots. 

PUGET SOUND TOWAGE RATES— SINGLE DECK VESSELS 



TONS 



l»«o 

ai to 

m to 

4SI lo 

SOI to 

S5I to 

ni to 

Ml to 

701 to 

7tl to 

851 to ICOO 

1001 to in) 

l»l to UOO. 



MO 
8S0 

tfO 
fiOO 

isa 
aoo 
eso 

TOO 
790 
860 



BKTWEEN CAPE FliATTKRY AND 



W 
St 

ss 

S8 
80 
61 
<» 

m 

m 

ISO 
ITS 



• « 

TS 
8S 

90 

as 

100 
HIS 
IW 

lis 
in 

ITS 
100 



tTS 

to 

102 

nt 
lis 

122 

l» 

It4 
1« 

IS 



I8S 

MS 
I» 
128 

Its 

141 
ISO 

m 

Its 

ito 

ITS 



no 

128 
137 
I4S 
ISt 

lat 

ITI 
180 
22S 

Its 

Mt 



t<6 

IIS 
Its 
IIS 
ISS 
1«S 
ITS 
Its 
IM 
2tO 
2i0 
95 



BETWEEN PORT TOWNBEND AND 



I 



110 
IS 
20 
It 
IS 
IB 

to 

tt 

ts 
to 
to 

TO 
80 



128 

tt 
« 

4T 

to 

55 

80 

ai 
as 

Tt 

to 
to 
m 




i« 



iti 

40 



55 

80 TO 

«5 75 

70 80 

T5 85 

80 ao 

90 100 

MO , IW 

IM ' lit 

125 , 150 




tTO 



MO 
106 
110 
115 
l» 

ia> 
Its 

ISO 
ITS 



t85 

MO 

115 

IZt 

l» 

l» 

145 

151 

IW 

lOR 

175 : 

MO; 

225 



BETWEEN PORT ANOELBB AMD 



I2S 

to 

tt 

18 
40 
41 
4t 
48 

to 

00 
Tt 

MO 
lit 



tit 

45 

52 
ST 
80 
65 
88 
Tl 
TS 



m 

145 



Ito 



MO 
US 

Its 

110 
ITI 






itt 

85 
T8 
81 

n 
n 
rat 
no 

IIS 
128 
141 

Itt 

188 



in 

70 
81 

90 
100 
108 
111 

m 
i» 

140 
110 
ITI 
200 



• a 

80 
Tt 
Tl 



M 
MO 
III 
111 
Ut 
171 



at 



DCK;KING— 150 to 250 tons, $5.00; 251 to 350, $7.50; 351 to 450, $10.00; 451 to 550, $12.50; 551 to 650. $15.00; 651 to 750, $17.50; 751 to 

850, $20.00; 851 to 1000. $25.00. 
Towage to or from Fraser River point.<i above Steveston subject to special rates. Towage from Shilshole Bay to Inher Harbor, Ballard; 

and Inner Harbor, Ballard, to Shil.shole Bay, .subject to special rates. 
HAWSER CHARGE— Vessels 500 tons and under, $5.00 each way; Hawser Charge vessels over .WO tons, $10.00 each way. 
Rate from Vancouver to Sound ports above Port Townsend. on vessels of 1000 tons and over, same as sea rate to Sound port. Vessels 

towing from sea to Tacoma or Seattle and calling at Port Townsend or Port Angeles for orders will be given a direct rate. CaptiUns to 
• wire agent of tugs 48 hours' notice of when tug is required. 
Whistle Signals. — 1 Whistle, set fore and aft sails. 2 Whistles, set square sails. I Long and 2 Short Whistles, haul in port braces. 1 Long 

and 2 Short Whistles, haul in starboard braces. 4 Whistles, take in furl sails. 2 Short and 1 Long Whistle, get anchor ready. 3 

Whistles, let go haw.ser. 
Towing in Foggy Weather. — 1 Whistle, port helm. 2 Whistles. starboard helm. 1 Long and 2 .Short Whistles, fog signals. 
Display signals when passing Tatooeh if you wish to be reported. Fla-sh a light when you let go hawser at night. 



••M at •That Mas Pltls," T3 Markrt Str««« 



14 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



PUGET SOUND TOWAGE RATES— VESSELS OF 500 TONS OR OVER 





TONNAGE 
VESSELS FROM 


TO OR FROM CAPE FLATTERY AND THE 
FOLLOWING PLACES 


TO OR FROM PORT TOWNSEND AND 
THE FOLLOWING PLACES 


TO OR FROM PORT ANGELES, ROYAL 
ROADS AND FOLLOWING PLACES. 




1 

1 

I 


el 

s 
Il 

.2 E 


J 


s 

3 

B 


15 

w. 
Ill 


1| 

el > 


o 

CO 

K 

o 

1 


-a 


1 


is 
_o 

3 

i 

B 

C3 
C 


I 

il 
IS 


^1 

6 S 
8-S6 


11 

li 

H 

?5 


2 

•a 

a 

1 
s 

■a 

1 


1 

-a 

a 


a 

il 


li 

w 


1. 

It- 

ill 


m" 

o 


m\ 




$125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 


$175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 


$200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 
400 


$225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 
400 
425 


$250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 
400 
425 
450 


$275 
300 
325 
350 
375 
400 
425 
450 
475 


$300 
325 
350 
375 
400 
425 
450 
475 
500 


$30 
35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 
65 
70 


$50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
115 
130 
150 


$60 
70 
75 
100 
125 
150 
175 
200 
235 


$100 

no 

125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 


$110 

125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 


$175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 


$75 
100 
125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
' 275 


$105 
125 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 


$135 
150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 


$150 
175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 


$175 
200 
225 
250 
275 
300 
325 
350 
375 


$200 


1001 


to 1200 tons 


225 


1201 


to 1500 tons . . . 


250 


1501 


to 1800 tons 


275 


1801 


to 2000 tons 


300 


2001 


to 2500 tons 


325 


2751 




350 


to 3000 tons 


375 


1001 


to 3500 tons 


400 









Hawser charge, $10.00 each way. 

Towage to or from Fraser River points above Steveston subject to special rates. 

Rate from Vancouver to Sound ports above Port Townsend, same as sea rate to Sound port. 

Docking vessels, $25. Vessels towing from sea to Tacoma or Seattle and calling at Port Town.send or Port Angeles for orders will be given 
a direct rate. Captains to wire agent of tugs 48 hours' notice of when tug is required. 

Whistle Signals. — 1 Whistle, set fore and aft sails. 2 Whistles, set square sails. 1 Long and 1 Short Whistle, haul in port braces. 1 Long 
and 2 Short Whistles, haul in starboard braces. 4 Whistles, take in and furl sails. 2 Short and 1 Long Whistle, get anchor ready. 

3 Whistles, let go hawser. 

Towing in Foggy Weather. — 1 Whistle, port helm. 2 Whistles, star-board helm. 1 Long and 2 Short Whistles, fog signals. 

Display signals when passing Cape Flattery if you wish to be reported. Flash a light when you let go hawser at night. 



TIDE TABLE TO WEEK ENDING SATURDAY, APRIL 7. 
Golden Gate Entrance to San Francisco Bay. 
MARCH 



HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 



Moon 


Day of 


Time and Height of High and 


jOW Water 




W 


Mo. 


T. 


H. 


T. 


H. 


T. 


H. 


T. 


H. 


N 


Mon. 


1 


0:52 


3.3 


6 •,56 


5.5 


14:15- 


-0.1 


21:36 


4.6 




Tues. 


2 


2:04 


3.3 


7:55 


5.5 


15:06- 


-0.3 


22:20 


4.6 




Wed. 


3 


3:03 


3.3 


8:48 


5.5 


15:48- 


-0.3 


23:00 


4.9 




Thur. 


4 


3:50 


3.1 


9:36 


5.6 


16:25- 


-0.3 


23:34 


4.9 




Fri. 


5 


4:30 


2.9 


10:20 


6.5 


16:57- 


-0.2 


. .-. . 




Full 


Sat. 


6 


0:04 


5.1 


5:08 


2.5 


11:00 


5.4 


17:30 


O.i 


A 


Sun. 


7 


0:28 


5.1 


5:45 


2.2 


11:45 


5.2 


18:00 


O.b 


E 


Mon. 


8 


0:50 


5.0 


6:20 


2.0 


12:24 


4.9 


18:39 


0.8 




Tues. 


9 


1:14 


5.0 


6:58 


l.S 


13:00 


4.7 


19:08 


1.3 




Wed. 


10 


1:30 


SO 


7:40 


1.6 


13:42 


4.4 


19:38 


1.7 




Thur. 


11 


1:47 


4.9 


8:22 


1.3 


14:42 


4.2 


20:14 


2. 1 




Fri. 


12 


2:10 


4.9 


9:04 


1.1 


15:52 


3.8 


20:55 


2.6 




Sat. 


13 


2:44 


5.0 


10:02 


0.9 


17:25 


3.8 


21:45 


3.0 


3rd. quar. 


Sun. 


14 


3:25 


5.0 


11:03 


0.7 


19:00 


3.9 


22:50 


3.2 




Mon. 


15 


4:28 


5.1 


12:12 


(1.3 


20:08 


4.2 


-. . 




S 


Tues: 


16 


0:02 


3.3 


5:48 


6.2 


13:15 


0.0 


20:67 


4.6 




Wed. 


17 


1:18 


3.2 


7:04 


6.5 


14:10- 


-0.3 


21:35 


4.7 




Thur. 


18 


2:20 


2 9 


8:12 


5.7 


15:04- 


-0.5 


22:10 


6.1 




Fri. 


19 


3:15 


2.4 


9:15 


5.9 


15:.50- 


-0.5 


22:43 


6.4 


P 


Sat. 


20 


4:06 


1 8 


10:08 


6.0 


16:35- 


-0.4 


23:16 


6.6 


New 


Sun. 


21 


4:55 


1.3 


11:02 


6.0 


17:20 


0.0 


23:52 


6.V 


E 


Mon. 


22 


5:45 


0.8 


11:.58 


5.8 


18:08 


0.6 


. . -. . 






Tues. 


23 


0:25 


5.7 


6:35 


0.6 


12:66 


5.5 


18:60 


i.o 




Wed. 


24 


1:04 


5.7 


7:20 


(1.3 


14:00 


5.1 


19:35 


1.6 




Thur. 


25 


1:42 


ft 7 


8:15 


0.2 


15:10 


4.7 


20:20 


2.2 




Fri. 


26 


2:24 


5.6 


9:16 


0.2 


16:35 


4.4 


21:10 


2.8 




Sat. 


27 


3:14 


5.5 


10:24 


0.2 


18:02 


4.3 


22:16 


3.2 


1st. quar. 


Sun. 


28 


4:08 


6.2 


11:32 


0.2 


19:17 


4.3 


23:32 


3.6 


N 


Mon. 


29 


5:20 


5.1 


12:42 


0.2 


20:18 


4.6 


. .-. . 






.Tues. 


30 


1:00 


3.4 


6:34 


5.0 


13:40 


0.1 


21:05 


4.8 




Wed. 


31 


2:10 


3.2 


7:40 


5.0 


14:28 


0.2 


21:44 


6.0 



APRIL 





Thur. 


1 


2:58 


2.9 


8:35 


5.1 


15:08 


0.2 


22:14 


5.2 




Fri. 


2 


3:40 


2.6 


9:25 


6.1 


15:46 


0.4 


22:40 


6.3 


A 


Sat. 


.3 


4:14 


2.1 


10:14 


5.1 


16:20 


0.7 


23:05, 


6.3 


-E 


Sun. 


4 


4:46 


1.7 


10:55 


5.0 


16:58 


o.y 


23:26 


5.3 



Time used. Pacific Standard, 120th Meridian W. 

Oh — midnight, Hh — noon, less than 12 — Forenoon, greater than 12 — after- 
noon, higher numbers — 12 — afternoon time. 

N_New Moon, E— Moon on the Equator, N. S.— farthest N. or S. of Equator 
A. P. — Moon in apogee or perigee. 



DEPTH AT MEAN LOW WATER, ENTRANCE TO HARBORS 



Place 


Feet 


Date 


Remarks 


Grays Harbor 


-0 


Mar. 18 


Channel changed slightly to the 
south during the month. 


Willapa Bay 


27 


Mar. 4 


Channel slowly working south- 
ward. 


Columbia River 


24 


Feb. 6 




Nehalem River 








Tillamook Bay 


13 


Mar. 2 


Channel shifting about }4 mile 

. to southward is now j^ mile 

i-.outh of the whistling buoy. 


Yaquina Bay 


15 


Feb. 2 




Siuslaw River 


3K 


Mar. 16 


Channel gone to north end of 
jetty and beacon on high bank 
marks channel now. 


Umpqua River 


9]^ 


Mar. 1 


South spit making close to inner 
bar buoy. Leave same on star- 
board hand crossing in. 


Coos Bay 


18 


Mar. 1 


Channel remains about the same. 


Coquille River 


9 


Mar. 26 


2 buoys gone; channel in middle 
between jetties. 


Rogue River. 






No opportunity for soundings 
lately; before rise there was 
7 feet on the bar. 


Klamath River 


6 


Mar. 10 


Entrance at present immediately 
opposite mouth of river. 


Humboldt Bay 


19 


Mar. 1 


North channel very narrow and 
crooked, not changing, at 
pre. ent. About 13 feet at low 
water in south channel. 


San Pedro Bay 


20 


Feb. 24 


No change in channel. 


San Diego Bay 


26 


Feb. 25 


No change in channel. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



15 



NOTICE TO NAVIGATORS, MARINE ENGINEERS, 

MARINERS AND SEAMEN 

This page will be reserved exclusively for all official notices and information of importance 



NOTICE TO MARINERS. 
Official notice has been given that the outiilde bar bell buoy 
at the entrance tu Humboldt Hay was re|iorted yesterday as 
having capsized. It will be replaced as soon as practicable. 



Commander Ix)i)ez of the Lighthouse Department rejiorts 
thill KiiHt Krother Shoal Muoy O, a flrsl-ciaKs nun, found dragged 
out uf position, was replaced March 11, rJUU. This notice effects 
the Ust of Lights, r^uoys and Daymarks, San Francisco Bay, 
page 2i). 



Agent James Gaudln of the British Columbia Department 
of Marines and Fisheries has issued notice that later instruc- 
tions from Ottawa provide that a temporary fixed white light 
be exhibited at Carmanah Point while the new light is being 
Installed. 



Notice Is hereby given that South Jetty, Outer KnA Buoy, 2, 
a red flrstclass spar, placed about 650 feet W. by N. of the 
submerged end of the South Jetty, entrance to Humboldt Bay, 
Cal.. is rciwrted adrift March 30. It will be replaced as soon 
as practicable. 

By order of the Lighthouse Board. 



Captain Macdonald of the steamer W. S. Porter reports to 
the Branch Hydrographic Office that on March 20, at 4:20 p. m.. 
In l^t. N. 40 degrees 53 minutes, Lon. W. 124 degrees 85 
minutes, a waterspout passed over his vessel. The 8|)out was 
first seen on the |K)rt quarter distant about one mile, traveling 
to the northeastward at a speed of 12 to 15 miles jier hour. 
When It came quite close Captain Macdonald blew the whistle 
and I hat seemed to have some effect, for as soon as it passed 
over the vessel (over the poop) It api)eared to break up. About 
Ave minutes afterward the wind, which had been a fresh gale 
from the southeast, shifted to a moderate breeze from west and 
later hauled to northwest at 6 p. m. 



Notice is hereby given that San Francisco Light-Vessel No. 
70, stationed about 3% miles outside the bar off the entrance 
10 San FYancisco Harbor, 10% miles 234 degrees 50 minutes 
(SW Ti W) from Fort Point Lighthouse, and al)out ,")00 feet 
northward of the range line marked by Fort Point Light and 
Alcatraz Light, was replaced on her station March 26, and 
K<lief Light-Vessel No. 76, temporarily marking the station, 
was then withdrawn. 

.No change has been made in Light-Vessel No. 70 as to the 
characteristics of her lights, fog signals or general appearance. 

Hy order of the Lighthouse Board. 



Office of r. S. Lighthouse Inspector, 12th District, 813 Mutual 
Savings Bank Building. 704 .Market Street, San Francisco, Cal.. 
.March 26. 1909. 

Applications will be received during the next thirty days 
for filling the position of Blacksmiths Helper at Verba Buena 
Lighthouse Depot (Goat Island), with pay at the rate of $60 
per month, and find yourself. Applicants must be citizens of 
(he United States. 

Application blanks and full Information can be obtained by 
applying to this office. 

R. F. LOPEZ, Commander, V. 8. N. 



Captain B. I.,. Blelenberg of the German steamer Hermon(his 
reiKirU (o the Branch Hydrographic Office, San Francisco, Cal., 
that on March 29, 1909, when in Lat. 38 degrees 30 minutes N.. 
I-ong. 123 degrees 15 minutes W.. he passed 6 or 7 large logs 
■r piles from 60 to 70 feet long and 20 to 24 Inches in diameter. 
liOgs hi>d been in water but a short time. 

J. C. Bl'R.NETT, Lieut., U. S. N.. in Charge. 



BLUNTS REEF. CAL. 

(List of Lights and Fog Signals. Pacific Coast. 1908. page 24. 
No. 60. and List of Lighu. Buoys and Daymarks. Pacific Coast. 
Id08. page 36.) 

Notice is hereby given that Blunts Reef Light-Vessel No. 83 
will be replaced by Relief Light-Vessel No. 76 about April 20. 
1909. The change will be temporary. The relief light-vessel 



will show lights and sound signals having the same character- 
istics as those of Light-Vessel No. 83. now on the station, ex- 
cepting that each of the two lights will be shown from the 
(hree lens lanterns encircling the mastheads at a height of 46 
feet above the water and visible 12 miles In clear weather. 

Relief Light-Vessel .\o. 76 is a tlushdeck steam vessel, hag 
two masts, schooner-rigged, no bowsprit, a black smokestack 
and a steam whistle IxMween the masls, but differs from Light- 
Vessel .No. 83 In having all visible parts from (he bow to the 
middle of the foremast, and from the middle of the mainmast 
aft, painted red: all visible parts between the fore and main 
masts, including the middle third of each lantern mast, while. 
The daymarks at the mastheads have Hve vertical stripes, 
three red and two white, and on the springstay, midway be- 
tween the two masts, there is an oval daymark with one white 
and two red vertical stripes. The number "76" Is in white on 
each bow and each quarter, and in black on each side of the 
springstay daymark. The word "Relief" is painted In large 
black letters on the middle of each side. 

By order of the Ughthouse Board. R. F. IX)PBZ. 



1908. 



San Francisco Bay— California. 

(List of Lights, Buoys and Daymarks, Pacific Coast, 

page 29.) 

Notice Is hereby given that East Brother Shoal Buoy O. a 
flrst-class nun. found dragged out of position, was replaced 
March 11. 1909. 

By order of the Light House Board. 

R. F. 1X)PEZ, Commander, V. 8. N. 
Inspector Twelfth Light House District, 813 Mutual Savings 
Bank Building, 704 Market Street, San Francisco. 



In the .Navigation School now meeting at the Mission High 
School Building, the first class Is finishing the subject of dead 
reckoning and will shortly take up chart work. 

The second class is commencing the study of middle lati- 
tude sailing. An effort Is being made to secure quarters for 
the navigation class in the Ferry Building, where It is hoped 
(here will be a larger attendance. . 

The light house board. Washington. D. C, will op«n bids 
on April 7 for the construction, delivery and equipment of 
the first class single screw lightship No. 94. Specifications 
with blank proposals and other Information can be had by 
applying to the lighthouse board. Washington. D. C. 



Santa Barbara — California. 

(List of Lights. Buoys and Daymarks. Pacific Coast. 1908, 

page 17.) 
Notice Is hereby given that Santa Barbara whistling buoy. 
PS., heretofore reported not sounding, was replaced by a per- 
fect buoy March 12. 



Trinidad Head— California. 
(List of Lights and Fog Signals. Pacific Coast, 1908. page 26. 
No. 70, and List of Lights, Buoys and Daymarks. Paclflc 
Coast. 1908. page 40.) 



BUOYS (MARK NEW CHANNEL. 

To mark the newly-dredged channel of the Columbia River 
the following buoys have been established by the lighthouse 
department : 

HenricI Crossing buoy, 1, second-class spar. In 24 feet of 
i-ater. Fales" landing light 132 degrees true (8. E. % E. mag.). 
Henrici landing range front light. 302 degrees 30 minutes 
true (N. W. by W. % W. mag.). Warrior Rock lighthouse 
339 degrees 30 minutes true (N. by W. 1-3-16 W. mag.). 

Henrici Crossing buoy. 2. second-class spar. In 23 feet of 
water. Fales' l>andlng light 1.30 degrees 30 minutes true (8. 
E. % E. mag.) Henrici Ijinding range front light 309 degrees 
.30 minutes true (N. W. 4 W. mag). Warrior Rock light- 
house 338 degrees true (N. by W. 15-16 W. mag.). 



.•ioln mt Oc~MUiie PkaraMivr. I4H Kaat Ml. 



16 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Henrici Crossing buoy, 3, second-class spar. In 22 feet of 
water. Fates" Landing light 133 degrees 30 minutes true (S. 
E. % E. mag.). Henrici Landing range front light 304 degrees 


CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 


true (N. W. by W. mag.). Warrior Rock lighthouse 334 degrees 30 
minutes true (N. N. W. % W. mag.). 


SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING. 


Oregon — Willamette River— The beacons of the following 


UNION IRON WORKS, 320 Market Street. 


lights have been replaced and the lights relighted: 

Swan Island lower light, February 26; Swan Island upper 




light, February 25. 


OIL BURNERS. 


The Lighthouse Department of Washington, D. C, 
has approved the recommendation of Captain Pond re- 


S. & p., 102 Steuart St. Phone Kearny 629. 




lating to the installation of oil vapor system of lighting 
at North Head. New Dungeness, Cape Flattery, Cape 


BOAT BUILDERS. 


Blanco, Yaquina Head, Grays Harbor, Cape Hears, Tilla- 


GEO. W..KNEASS. 18th and lUlnols Sts., S. F. 


mook Rock,- Destruction Island, Umpqiia River, Heeeta 
Head, Tree Point, Scotch Gap, and Cape Sariehef. The 
lights will be installed in the near future. The present 
lights are the old style wiek lamps and the new system of 
lights is expected to make this immediate vicinity the 




SHIP PLUMBERS. 


ANDERSON BAILEY, 216 Steuart St., S. F. 


best lighted district on this coast. 

A sub-depot for the purpose of storing light mooring 
vessels and buoys, will be established at Ediz Hook, Port 
Angeles. This depot is necessary because of the decision 
of the lighthouse board to station a lightship at Sweft- 


WIPING RAGS. 


THE RAYCHESTER CO., 1448 Folsom St., S. F. 


Sanitary Manufacturing Co., 2208 Folsom, S. F. 


sure Bunk. A machine shop, small wharf, mooring dol- 
phins, a storehouse, crane and tramway will be added 
to the main lighthouse depot at Tongue Point. 


WANTED — To charter, a boat of the river type, equipped for 
Sunday excursions, to carry about 400 passengers. Address 
manager Pacific Merchant Marine. 






NOTICE TO MARINERS. 

• In order to avoid any complications with the inter- 


WANTED — A thirty-foot seagoing gasoline flush-deck launch, 
equipped with an eight or ten horsepower engine of approved 
make. Inquire office of Pacific Merchant Marine. 


national distress signal, the call letters of the naval 
wireless telegraph station at Sitka, Alaska, will be 
changed to S Z. 


FOR SALE — Thirty town lots at Alviso; established head of 
navigation on San Francisco Bay. Inquire oflice of Pacific 
Merchant Marine. 



LIFE-SAVING STATIONS ON THE PACIFIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES 



Name. 



State. 



Loc'allty. 



Waadah Island Washington 

Gray's Harbor " Just south of Grays Harbor light 

Willapa Harbor " Near lighthouse boat landing 

Ilwaco Beach " Thirteen miles north of Cape Disappointment. . 

Cape Disappointment " Bakers Bay, one-half mile northeast of light. . . . 

Point Adams Oregon Three-fourths miles southeast of Fort Stevens. 

Tillamook Bay " 

Yaquina Bay " About one mile south of harbor entrance 

Umpqua River " Near entrance of river, north side 

Coos Bay " Coos Bay, north side 

Coquille River " In town of Bandon 

Humboldt B'ay California Near the old abandoned lighthouse tower 

Arena Cove ." " 

Point Reyes " 

Point Bonita " ... 

Fort Point " 

Golden Gate " 



Southslde 

Nome Alaska. 



.Four miles south of Point Arena light 

. Three and one-Tialf miles north of light 

. Near Point Bonita light 

. Three-fourths mile east of light on Fort Winfleld Scott 

. On beach in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, three- 
fourths mile south of Point Lobos 

.Three and three-eighths miles south of Golden Gate 
Life-Saving Station 

. At Nome 



Lat 


,No 


-th. 


Long., West. 


eg. 


Min. 


Sec. 


Deg. 


Min. 


Sec. 


48 


22 


40 


124 


35 


30 


46 


53 


15 


124 


07 


15 


46 


43 


00 


124 


03 


00 


46 


27 


50 


124 


03 


25 


46 


16 


40 


124 


03 


00 


46 


12 


00 


123 


57 


00 


45 


33 


30 


123 


57 


00 


44 


35 


30 


124 


03 


54 


43 


42 


00 


124 


10 


30 


43 


22 


50 


124 


18 


00 


43 


07 


00 


124 


25 


00 


40 


46 


00 


124 


13 


00 


38 


54 


50 


123 


42 


30 


38 


02 


20 


122 


59 


30 


37 


48 


10 


122 


27 


50 


37 


46 


10 


122 


30 


30 


37 


43 


18 


122 


30 


18 


64 


30 


00 


165 


23 


00 



DISTRESS SIGNALS 



In the daytime — 

1. A gun fired at Intervals of about a minute. 

2. The International Code signal of distress indicated by 
N. C. 

3. The distant signal, consisting of a square flag, having 
either above or' below It a ball or anything resembling a ball. 

4. Rockets or shells as prescribed below for use at night. 

5. A continuous sounding with a steam whistle or any fog- 
signal apparatus. 



At night — 

1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 

2. Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil 
barrel, etc.). 

3. Rockets or shells bursting in the air with a loud report 
and throwing stars of any color or description, fired one at a 
time at short intervals. 

4. A continuous sounding with a steam whistle or any fog- 
signal apparatus. 



All officers and employees of the Life-Saving Service will hereafter recognize any of these signals when seen or heard as 
signals of distress and immediately proceed to render all possible assistance. 



Sold at Stoacy's Neno Depot. 3 Steuart St. 




Kor thi* li«-»I 4-<-ycl«' «■; 



ii< ■ ' .i.|. to mill 
\| . :\ rii«l imilr. 

!■. 11"! II r. 



I OniCINO •~>"^-* <-cm<lilloii.i; at a r. 
i^vyv^rviiiva sm,.- «..riii nmr.- i:.x 

Gorham Engineering Co., Alameda, Cal. 




> H r mat-r>.M Trp> IT.VI Ihf. 



CONVENTION OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE 1 I 



^'^ 



i 






AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 
IN SAN FRANCISCO 



Henry Cowell Lime & Cement Co. 

MT. DIABLO CEMENT 
SANTA CRUZ LIME 

ALL KINDS OF BUILDING MATERIAL 

Delivery Department, Union and Front Streets. Office 95 Market Street 

I 

i SAN FRANCISCO Phone Keamy 2095 CALIFORNIA 



ORGANIZATION ON THE PACIFIC COAST IN BEHALF OF 

AMERICAN COMMERCE SIGNIFIES THE EXTENT 

OF OUR INDUSTRIAL FUTURE 



1 t 






vM 




Speech of Hon. J. Sloat Fassett The Merchant Marine 



Progress of the Panama Canal 



American Shipping Continued. 



Alexander R. Smith 



Pleasure Craft and Notes 



Wreck of the Liner Indiana at Tosco Point 



S-- 



•T-T- 



— r 



THE CLARA BARTON SANITARY 
WIPING RAG 



■ '■■'\ 




The Clara 
Barton Brand 
of Wiping Rags 
is guaranteed 
to be thorough- 
ly sterilized and 

disinfected 



THE RAYGHESTER CO., INC. 

1448-1460 FOLSOM STREET SAN FRANCISCO 



■V- 



Be sure to have 



CHALLENGE METAL 



For 
High Speed 






For 
Heavy Pressure 



in your important bearings. 
Ask about it. 



SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO. 



SAN FRANCISCO 






ii 



li^:; 



SANITARY 
WIPING RAGS 

Washed and Disinfected 

Exclusive Packersof 
Soft Cotton Wiping Rags 

SANITARY MANUFACTURING GO. 

2208-2210 FOLSOM STREET 
Phons Market 1195 San FrancUc° 




COLOR WORK A SPECIALTY 



The Buckley Cafe 



DETJEN-MENGBL CO.. Ineorpariicd 



H. L. DETJEN. Manner 



German Bakery <-'onfectioncry 

dl ^ , , ^11 k'ndi of Cakes lo 

K eSta U ran t order at Shon NoUce 



Buckley Building, 97 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
S. E. ComtrS|>«arSt. One block from Ferry Phone Dou);lu 2713 




GEO. W. KNEASS 

OUicm (Bd Work. 

IStb and lllinoi* Street* 

PlM>ae Mvkal Sea FraaciK*. 

943 Cal. 



B OAT B U I LD CR 



Baal Malarial aa4 I 

Oaacriptlaaa Par Sale 
Hac I'oln. BaUi and Tnidu. Houae 
Movrn and Box Kotler* eaartaotly 
on hand. Wood Tuintnc 



Steamship Men Take Notice! 

The National Laundry U Mattreii Renova- 
tory Company will cive tetter reiulti both 
In quality and price than ean be had else- 
where. Special rates and serrlce (uaranteed. 



o. r. TAiRrirLD. 

Plant, SM4 18th Street 



Manaser 

Phone Market SI 



Hart-Wood Lumber Co. 

LUMBER SHIPPING 

WholcMle and Retail 
807 Fife Building San FraiKiKO 



P. M. BAMBINO 

EscliMne Taiior 

t^MirUIUI^ * &M < 1*1 IV 



2I9.Z20 SacUcy aUi. 

95 Mtrkd Umt 




ALKINS QUALITY" 

The best facilities backed by 
experts in each department 
are what made "Calkins Quali- 
ty" the standard in the realm 
of printed publicity. We print 
the Pacific Merchant Marine. 



PRINTING 

ENGRAVING 

BOOK-BINDING 



CALKINS 

PUBLISHING HOUSE 

Calkins Building, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 3140 



\m.. 



Matson Navigation Company 

268 Market Street Phone Douglas 3030 

Direct Line Passenger and Freight Steamers and Sailing Vessels to 

Honolulu, Hilo, Kahului, Mahukona, Eleele 

I'rom 

Seattle and San Francisco 

For Freight and Passenger Kates apply to 

Alexander & Baldwin, Seattle Castle &: Cooke, Honolulu 

Matson Navigation Company, San Francisco 






i ■ 

n 



I 




The P. M. S. S. Indiana 



EUREKA BOILER WORKS CO. 

Designeia and builders of all kindi of Marine, Station- 
ary, Locomotive, Straw-Bumins and Traction Engine 
Boilers. Special attention paid to Repairs' of Ship Work, 
' Boilers, Tanks, and Sheet Iron Work. Building and 
Installing of Oil Plantsa Specialty. Machine Black- 
smithing. Telephone Kearny 2453. Main Office 
Works: 57-59 Mission St., San Francisco, California. 



BENWICK Z. DICKIE 



DAVID W. DICKIE 



D. W. & R. Z. DICKIE 

Engineers anJ Naval Architects 

Room 824, Santa Marina Bids. 

Photte Kearny 2907 I 12 Market Si. 



JJ PLANS and SPECIFICATIONS 
jl for all kinds of engineeiins work of 
steel, wood or concrete: oil-burning 
plants, wharves, bunkers; launches, 
propellers, steam and gas-engined 
(uei..and steel and wood vessels oi 
ail kinds. 



Alex P. Bailey Telephone Douglas 1398 Geo. Anderson 
ANDERSON & BAILEY 

[RegiBtercd] 

Sanitary and Ship Plumbing 

Sheet Metal Work 



216 Steuart St., bet. Howard and Folsom 



San Francisco 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Volume II 



SATURDAY, APRIL 10. 1909 



Nomber 4 



I 



SPEECH OF HON. J. SLOAT FAS8ETT OF NEW YORK IN 

THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

TUESDAY, MAY 26, 1908. 

However gentlemen may dltfer In other respectg. there 18 no 

rnotn for an honest difference of opinion anions |)atrlotlc Amerl- 

'■: aH to the desirability of restoring our merchant marine to 

II ■- former position of importance U|)on the high seas. Its 

liinKulshiiiK and dying condition has been a matter of regret and 

liiiiiilllaiion for fifty years, and yet Congress has lalien no 

■• • live steps to enable American mariners to meet their deep- 

, rivals successfully in the contest for carrying our own goods 

iiiU) the marktts of the world. Ninety per cent of the markets 

of the world are today accessible only by water. The great 

international coniests of modern times are not concerned with 

armored navies and I3inch guns, but they have to do with 

irade, with ccmmerce. with the interchange of products of 

InduBlry, and the weapons used are sltill and thrift, labor, tariffs 

and subventions and subsidies. The universal cry from every 

civilized nation is trade and ever more trade, marltets and ever 

more murkeis. as the power to jiroduce overtakes by leaps and 

IkjuikIs. with the ai)pllcatlon of steam and electricity, the jjower 

ii) cDiisume and the rivalry for access to the markets and the 

■11 of the markets of the world intensifies. It not only 

iTir.ii iii.s in energy and aggressiveness, but It Intensifies in 

necessity and utility. Adequate markets for the consumption 

of our surplus products are indispensable, for they have to do 

with the welfare of our laboring people, our manufacturers and 

our merchants. They touch the prosperity of the farm and of 

the workshop, as well as of the counting-house. 

The situation is such that we can not any longer atford to 
ignore It. The body of our merchant marine lies prostrate and 
bleeding before us. The situation is too serious to be ignored 
In the Interest of a mere academic attitude of mind. It Is a 
(|uestlon of national protection, of national security and of the 
uniN 1 il welfare of all clasre^i and of ail interests among all 
■ i le and not of a construction of the Conslllutlon. 
li i.T of twofold signlflcauce. First, we should have the carry- 
ing capacity, giving us access to the markets of the world for 
the purpose of commercial profit; second, we should have a 
navy and a body of teamen in constant readiness to assist our 
armored ships in case of conflict for the purpofe of national 
security. 

The growth of this country during recent years In almost 
every direction, and In almost every department, has been 
stupendous and amazing: It has reached proportions so ample 
as to be practically beyond comprehension; expressed In terms 
of dollars and of tons the figures actually bewilder us. In a 
comparatively few years we have quadrupled the numlier of 
farms. Increased the quantity of their out|iut and their value 
more than sevenfold. The output of our manufacturing estab- 
lishments alone exceeds annually the value of all the exports 
of all the exporting nations of the world, ourselves included, by 
more than one thousand millions of dollars. 

Our production of minerals equals the output of our factories; 
our railroads have increased so tremendously that If put In 
one single line they would reach to the moon; our telegraph 
wires have increased \>y hundreds of thousands of miles; our 
telephone wires have Reached an equal distance; our Interstate 
commerce reaches proportions far In excess of all the exports 
and imiwrts of all the exporting and Importing nations In the 
world, ourselves included. For the past seven years we have 
grown richer at the rate of JS.OOO.OOO each day, holidays and 
Sundays included. 

The great |)ro8perIty which has blessed this country has been 
for no single class, but has reached to the poorest paid toller 
In the most crowded cities of the land. Our i)eople constitute 
86.000.000 of the best housed, best fed. best clothed people in 
the entire world, whose children have the amplest opportunity 
and the bn>adest outlook of any of the children In the whole 
round circle of this earth. We live on a higher plane of physical 
comfort: we pay the highest wages in the world, and the out 
put in any line of human endeavor Is higher In this country 
for liidlvidual workmen than anywhere else In the world. Al 



most all of our multiform enterprises are protected by a syatein 
of tariff laws so adjusted as to overcome the natural disad- 
vantasea asainsi which otherwise we would be compelled to 
BiruKKle, such as the lower plane of living and (he lower wac«a 
of labor prevailing in other countries of the world. We pro- 
tect the farmer and the artisan; we protect (he mechanic and 
(he manufacturer: we protect the output of the .Vorth, (he 
Ka8(, the South and (be West, and under the stimulus of this 
protection the creative enerslea of the American |>eople have 
surprii-ed and bewildered the world. 

Hut there Is one Industry— one calling, not less noble than 
scores of others thus carefully protected — which seems to have 
been systematically noKlected, If not wholly despised, and (hat 
la the carrying of our own goods (o (he marke(s of our neigh- 
bors. N'lne(y per cen( of the people of this world who are pos- 
sible customers of ours must be reached by means of the deep 
sea. We furnish H i>er cent of (he export trade of the world — 
we carry less than 1^ per cent of I(. We pay $2IO,000,(MM) each 
year for freigh( and passenger service on the deep aeaa, of 
which ships bearing (he American flag receive lesa than 10 i*er 
cent. In IStO we carried 90 |>er cent of our forelsn trade; in 
1860, with 1.200,000 tonnage of registered vessel*, we oarrted 
63 per cent of our foreign trade; In this year of grace we have 
only nine seagoing steam-pro|ielled veaaels carrying our gooda 
on the Atlantic, with a (onuage leas than l>0,000, and on the 
Pacific only seven steam-propelled vessels, with less than 50,000 
tons. 

One of the great problems confronting the nianufacturera of 
the United States Is how to extend proflubly our trade In the 
yet undevelo|)ed markets of the world. 

No missionary is so efflclent in the real development of trade 
as a proper means of trans|iortatlon and communication. 

What would we think of (he sagacity of John Wanamaker 
If he hired Selgel A Cooper to deliver his goods for him? Hut 
that is Just precisely what we are doing in the great markets 
of (be world. Not a single ship carrying the American flac 
sails to South American veaports KOU(h of the Caribbean Sea, 
and only four small steamers there. We are the best cus- 
tomers of South America. We bigr 30 per cent of what Mrazil 
sells, and we yell Brazil less than 13 per cent of what she 
buys. We sell China 10 i>er cent of what she buys. We sell 
Africa less than 11 ver cejit of what she buys. We sell all 
South America less than 5 per cent of what she buys. Our 
best customers by sea are England and Germany and Japan, 
but England and Germany and Jaiuin carry (he goods. The 
markets where we must go for future grow(h. the so-called 
"undeveloped markets." are the markets whither we are 
sending no American vessels. The reasons for this condition 
of affairs are not far to seek. If two ships of equal capadtjr 
and eoual Intelligence In direction and administration leave a 
|)ort. that ship will obtain (he business which can render the 
same service for (he least money, and the ship can render «Niual 
service for the least money which costs the least to build and 
the least to maintain and operate, and if two shliui cost (he 
same to build and the same to maintain and operate, then that 
ship can carry trade the cheapest which r«MlvM the moat 
artlflctal assistance in the way of government mbaidy or gov- 
ernment retainer. The ships of (he United Sutea have to meet 
a handicap at each one of these three neoeaaary atepa. It ooaU 
more to build ships In the United SUtes because it ooaU man 
to pay every man who labors on any part of the veasela of the 
tTnlted States, and It costs more to pay every roan becanse our 
system of taritf has lifted up (fie whole plane of livlng^nnd 
the endre wage scale (o a point It ha* not reached in any other 
country in the world. We are committed to the policy of pro- 
tection. Our entire industrial, commercial and social system 
Is tuned up to It. and the American people will never consent 
to abandon it. 

It costs from 26 D«?r cent to 40 per cent more to build an 
All ship and equip It than In any other country. If K 

rii MO to build a ship In America, it would cost |300.(K)0 

to iMiii.i lie same ship In England. It would cost 5 per cent, 
or $20,000. to borrow (he money In America and S par caot, 
or 19.000. to borrow the money In England, and there ytw have 



S«U St "^nat Mas Pitta." n Market Strvet 



L 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



a handicap of 111,000 a year, which must be overcome before 
the American boat can meet the English boat on even terms. 
It will cost each boat 5 per cent for depreciation. It will cost 
each boat 6 per cent for insurance; but for the ordinary re- 
pairs it will cost the English ship 2^^ per cent, while it will cost 
the American ship 3% per cent, and there is a handicap of 
14,000 more before the American ship can meet the English 
ship on equal terms. 

It will cost 25 per cent more to feed the crew of an American 
ship than to feed the crew of an English ship. It costs from 25 
per cent to 50 per cent more to pay the crew of an American 
ship than it does the crew of an English ship, and these two 
additional handicaps must be met and overcome before the two 
ships can compete on an equality of terms. It by greater in- 
genuity or the application of better machinery, or by the will- 
ingness of the American sailors to live on a lower plane than 
their brothers who work on the land, it would be possible to 
equalize these differences, there still remains the handicap of 
subsidies. All of our opponents and all of our commercial rivals 
subsidize; little Japan subsidizes over $4,000,000 a year, and 
she is driving us off the Pacific. Germany subsidizes by giving 
over $5,000,000 a year in cash and by giving rebates and favor- 
able differentials on freights carried on government railroads 
to be exported on German ships. She subsidizes sufficiently 
to give the German vessels an advantage over their competitors. 
The Hamburg-American and the North German Lloyd lines 
have themselves, in the last eighteen years, increased more than 
two millions of tonnage in registered deep-sea vessels. One line 
of boats alone, the German-Hamburg-American, has paid in ten 
years $51,000,000 in dividends, an average rate of over 7 per 
cent — 126 per cent for their invested capital. This is a signifi- 
cant contrast to our own dwindling merchant fleet. France 
subsidizes $9,000,000 a year. 

England subsidizes not less than $7,000,000 a year, and 
always she subsidizes when necessary to meet the competition 
of her rivals. Recently she presented to the Cunard Company 
two of the most superb steamships in the world — 750 feet long, 
costing $6,500,000 each. These boats were bestowed upon the 
Cunard people upon terms which substantially amounted to a 
gift; the Cunard Company has only to make an income over 
operating expenses. This is competition that no individual or 
corporation can successfully meet and overcome. The Lusitania 
and the Mauretania, 40,000 tons each, able to carry each 10,000 
soldiers, fully equipped and armed, are living off our commerce. 
If either of them could be lifted on end, it would tower 250 feet 
higher than the Washington monument — living off our com- 
merce in times of peace, to utterly destroy us in times of 
war, together with our commerce! These two boats alone can 
carry as many men and munitions of war as all of our Atlantic 
merchant vessels combined. 

The most prejudiced mind must admit that this is an unnatural 
and an unhealthy condition of things, and the intelligent observer 
realizes at a glance that it is an entirely unnecessary condition 
of things;, it is not necessary for us, who have succeeded in every 
single direction to which we have turned our attention, to be 
whipped by all the world, including the newest comers into the 
family of nations, on the high seas; our people have proven 
time and again their masterfulness and their natural superiority 
at sea. 

This condition of things has come from our indifference and 
from our saueamishness, but as that great secretary of state, 
Thomas P. B'ayard, so well said, "When foreign nations do not 
hesitate to pour wealth into the laps of our trade rivals, the 
time has come for us to cease to be squeamish." 

Even as I speak we may get the news that Japan has pur- 
chased the Pacific Mail and taken five of our steamers off the 
Pacific. The great prizes of the future in trade are to come from 
deep-sea trade. We may feel indifferent, because just now, in 
spite of the tremendous activities of all our great enterprises 
everywhere, our capacity to consume has outstripped our capac- 
ity to produce, but this can not long endure. In the new South 
during the last ten years there has been an Increase of 680 per 
cent in manufactures and in eighteen years an increase in the 
manufactures of textiles of 1090 per cent, and even at that we 
are only manufacturing less than 5,000,000 of the 13,000,000 
bales of cotton we produce annually. 

In Pittsburg and its environments is originated in iron and 
steel and their allied products a greater tonnage than originate 
in similar lines in all Germany or England. It has been found 
in the last five years almost impossible to get enough either raw 
material or finished products to feed the hungry maw of the ex- 
panding and extending American people. Nevertheless, the pro- 
ducing capacity is overtaking the consuming capacity, and when 



it is overtaken, what then? Either we must shut our factories 
and turn out our employees or we must open up markets and 
dispose of our goods elsewhere on the face of the earth. We 
must imperatively then get our share of the undeveloped 
markets of the world. 

It will then become a question of commercial life and health 
and of national safety, and no longer a theme for academic dis- 
cussion. Under such circumstances as these we should no longer 
be content to trust to our trade rivals, who are running neck 
and neck with us, to obtain these very same undeveloped mar- 
kets of the world, to carry our goods. We could not afford to 
take the risk; we could not afford to handicap ourselves in the 
slightest degree. People Of our ingenuity, of our shrewdness, of 
our ability, should concentrate and bend the necessary effort to 
open up and hold these outlying markets for the relief of our 
home manufactures. Our rivals are subsidizing against us to 
the extent of $30,000,000 per year. To equalize and overcome 
that rivalry and deadly stimulus it has never yet been esti- 
mated we would require over $9,000,000 or $10,000,000 per year. 
But even though it require $50,000,000 per year to overcome 
and meet these subsidies against us we could well afford to do it. 

You will remember there are two great American questions 
put to every proposition: 

First — Is it right? 

Second— Will it pay? 

Both questions being answered in the affirmative, there usually 
is no further hesitation, and we embark upon the enterprise. 
Let me call vour attention to the figures in the case. It will 
pay to subsidize even to the extent of $50,000,000 per year, pro- 
vided that by so doing we can secure all we now pay to our 
rivals for carrying our own goods. We now pay a total of, say 
$210,000,000 a year for ocean freight and passengers. Of this, 
not to exceed 10 per cent is paid to American bottoms. Ten per 
cent is equal to $21,000,000, so that our rivals receive $189,000,- 
000 of our own good money to build up and sustain their heavily 
subsidized merchant navies, rivaling us in times of peace and 
threatening us in times of war. Now, then, if a reversal of our 
present policy by an outlay of $50,000,000 would result in a 
reversal of present conditions, giving us the 90 per cent of the 
traffic and leaving the 10 per cent to our rivals, we should bring 
into American possession a clean advance over what we now 
receive of $68,000,000, or $118,000,000 per year over and above 
the $50,000,000 subsidy, and the energizing influence of this 
money would flow into American instead of rival channels. 

But there is another aspect besides the commercial aspect 
which should give serious concern to all patriotic citizens, and 
that is this — even though it may be and doubtless is true that 
American capitalists can now and do own and maintain and 
conduct at a profit ships under foreign flags, and thus are even 
now securing a part of their earning power to the advantage of 
this country — we are confronted with the startling consideration 
that ships thus owned and controlled are manned by foreign 
crews, are operateij under foreign flags, under the direction of 
foreign officers, and afford, therefore, no recruiting reserve for 
the American navy in times of war. 

We have expended $300,000,000 upon our navy; we have a 
splendid navy, superbly officered and superbly manned, magnifi- 
cently equipped — a navy that can meet any other navy on equal 
terms; a navy that would give an account of itself under any 
circumstances — but we were unable to send that navy to the 
Pacific without hiring from our rivals ships for colliers and 
incidental services. When we had the Sjianish war we were 
unable to get American ships to do the work, and 'this was right 
at home. When we wanted to send our navy to the Pacific 
we had to get four ships from Norway and twenty-four from 
England — the lowest American bid for. carrying coal was $8 
per ton, and the foreign bid was $5.85. 

If, by any mischance or freak of fate, war were to be de- 
clared this moment between us and any other naval power, 
these twenty-eight ships which we have hired would become 
contraband of war and would be under obligations to incur 
either the risk of capture or make for the nearest neutral port. 
Our fleet, crippled for the want of coal, could go no further 
than the steaming radius of the battleships. 

If such should come — which God forbid — and we were faced 
with the necessities of war, and if our navy and our army 
should undertake to meet ideal conditions and strike the swiftest 
possible blow with the greatest possible force, at the greatest 
possible distance from home, we should find ourselves utterly 
unable to meet conditions. We could not embark a single army 
division of 20,000 men, fully armed and fully equipped and 
prepared at any point, either on the Atlantic or Pacific coast. 



Sold at Oceanic Pharmacy. 148 E»mt St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



We could not supply the auxiliary transporU and hosplUI 
ships and other necessary ships for the navy alone, to say 
I. iiiug of supplying ships to carry and provide for troops. We 
M' iiUl be reduced, in spile of our glorious navy, to the rldlcu- 
I and dangerous. If not the fatal, absurdity of operating our 
:!• • I within sight of shore and waiting to receive the attack of 
! ■ -nemy at the enemy's own pleasure and in the enemy's own 
n'n.i[ way. 

If we were to undertalte to build for the nation's ownership 
adequate supply of the right kind of ships and auxiliaries 
Br the complete auxiliary navy, and a complete fleet to move 
« less than two army divisions at any given moment, the 
■itlal cost to the government would be not less than $200,- 
""0,000, but (he outlay of $200,000,000 would mean an annual 
Ked charge of 3 per cent for interest, 5 per cent for main- 
pnance — for Iron ships only last twenty years — 6 jier cent 
Br insurance, 3^4 per cent for repairs, not less than 6 per cent 
or salaries and labor, per cent for food and 6 per cent for 
nel. or a grand total expenditure of $71,000,000 in the way of 
xed charges. If this were done, and the American people 
f would meet such an outlay to maintain our national honor, we 
would have the dlfflculties and friction contingent upon finding 
the men and officers, and of controlling and disciplining them, 
and there would be the Increased expense for mere operation, 
for so large a body of ships and men could not be kept In abso- 
lute stagnation in times of peace. They would have to be con- 
stantly occupied to keep them In proper condition for immediate 
response In times of iieril. 

To build and maintain and man all the extra ships needed to 
make the navy utieful in its best degree, and the army valuable 
at the most essential point, would thus be the most expensive 
possible way to meet an end so desirable and so essential. 
Whereas, by a patriotic, intelligent and farsighted policy of 
proper distribution of subsidies, which Is ])ursued by every 
one of our trade and naval rivals, we could build up, as once 
Bfore we had, a peerless merchant marine which would carry 
»r flag into every sea and our ships into every \K>rt. and be 
eveloping our foreign trade in times of peace and training men 
piuid offlcers for our protection In times of war. 



AMERICAN SHIPPING. 
Hv .\I,K.\.\Ni)K|{ |{. S.MITH. 

Injurious Effects of Free Trade — Beneficial Effects of 
Protection. 
Were a (lemonslratidii tlVsireil of (he inefficiency of free 
trade, i.s it not to be found in the nearly two-thirds decline 
in our tonnajre in the foreign trade during the last forty- 
six years? Were the benefits of protection, applied to our 
■hipping, in need of a demonstration, what of the fact that 
our steam shi|)ping in the foreign trade did not increase a 
ton during the twenty-four years preceding the enactment 
of the existing Frye subsidy act of 1891, while it has 
trebleil uiuler the operations of that act during the past 
-!\ti'cii years? 

When the Democrats Rejected Discriminating Duties. 
In 1894. when the WiLson-Gornian tariff bill was beforft 
the Unitwl States Senate. Senator Frye moved an amend- 
ment, the effect of which would have been to have restored 
the early-day policy of discrimituiting <iuties. The Demo- 
crats, then in control of each branch of Congn-ss, and in a 
position to restore the old discriminating duty policy, if 
they believed in it. refused to take advantage of their op- 
port luiity, so forcibly brought to their attention by Sena- 
tor Fryp's proj)nsed amendment. 

Republican Indorsement and Repudiation of Discrimin- 
ating Duties. 
In 1896 the Republican National platform, and the 
IVesidcntial candidate "of the Republican party, both 
M'hcmently advocated the re-adoption of the early-day 
.Vinerican policy of discriminating duties. The Dingley 
tariff bill of 1897 was srt amended as to put the oUl dis- 
criminating duty policy into full effect, except where 
treaties protected imports against the collection of an 
xtra or discriminating duty. The Elkins bill, to re- 
-tablish the discriminating duty policy, was then before 



Congress, and it was incorporated in the Dingley tariff 
act as Seetiou 2J, with the provision eliminattnl that wotdd 
have abrogatcti all treaties in conflict with the full and 
comi)lete re^fstablishment of that jwlicy. That the then 
attorney-general, and lioanl of Ueneral Aijpraisers, by 
opuiion and decision, were able to nullify the effects of 
Seetiou 22 of the existing tariff act, and that it has been 
nullified by executive fiat ever since its enaetnient, except 
for the brief period when scores of collections of the extra 
or discriminating duty were made by our collectors of 
customs along our northern border, before they were iu- 
striicted to discontinue such collections, aiul before the 
decision of the Hoard of Ueueral Appraisers put a final 
stop to such collections, does not minimize the importance 
of that enactment. 

What Enforcement of Existing Law Would Accomplish. 

If Section 22 of the existing tariff act were being en- 
forced, as was the intent of the Congress that enactetl it, 
from twelve to fifteen millions of dollars more would be 
collected annnally in custom duties than are now collectetl. 
During the past ten years from i}il25,tKR),OOU to ♦ISO,- 
OOO.OtM) additional customs revenue would have accrued 
to the United States. But this would have been the least 
important part of the effect of the full enforcement of that 
act. The njost important result woidd have been to en- 
courage an enormous construction of American vessels, 
which would, by this time, probably, have succeeded to the 
carrying of a vastly larger ])ro|H)rtion of our foreign com- 
merce than now. Probably one-half of our entire carrying 
would now, as a result of tlie enforcement of Section 22 
of the existing tariff act, be conducted under the American 
flag, and with American-built vessels, commanded, 
officeretl, and manned by American citizens. With all 
laws wiped out that interfered with the collection of the 
extra or discriminating duties, and with only the treaties 
in operation to protect imports in foreign vessehi from 
such collection, im)>orts in British vessels from all parts 
of the world, save alone his Britannic majesty's possession 
in Europe would, for the past ten years, have been paying 
that extra or discriminating <luty. This would impose a 
handicap upon British tonnage that would have given the 
carrying to our own — or to a white-washed tonnage of 
other nations, imports in whose vessels are protected by 
existing treaties. 

American Ship Protection Through Tariff Instrumentality. 

The advocacy of the policy of discriminating duties 
continues. Some Repid)licans still believe it to be the bet- 
ter plan, antl not a few Democrats in antl out of Congress, 
are advocating it, in all earnestness and sincerity. There 
is this to be said : It would protect our shipping in the for- 
eign trade in the same way, and by the same instrumen- 
tality (the tariff) that we protect all of our other indus- 
tries that are subject to a foreign competition. That is 
the way we protected our shipping from 1789 until 1815- 
1828-18r>0. Antl during that period, by levying a higher 
duty on imports in foreign vessels, and a higher tonnage 
duty on foreign vessels than we levied upon im|>orts in 
American vessels, or than we assessed upon American ton- 
nage, respectively, American ships carrietl an average of 
over 80 per cent of our foreign commerce. To be sure, we 
have, since that time, put into force fn)m thii^y to forty 
treaties with as many different nations, binding ourselves 
not to discriminate against foreign ships or the imports 
therein : or. by act of Congress, we ha<l stopped such dis- 
criminations until the enactment of Section 22 of the exist- 
ing tariff act, which the executive branch of the govem- 



SoU at •Thmt Maa Pitta." T3 Market Strvct 



6 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



ment has seen fit to continuously nullify since its enact- 
ment without giving the Federal courts, as in fairness 
they should have been given, an opportunity to judicially 
determine the intent and purpose of Congress in the en- 
actment of that section. 

How Other Products Would Suffer if Denied Tariff 
Protection. 
Producers of rice, upon the imports of which our tariff 
now levies a duty of over 100 per cent, might be able to 
realize the plight in which American shipping in the 
foreign trade is placed, in competition with foreign ship- 
ping, were they told that treaties with foreign govern- 
ments made it impossible for our government to protect 
them in the production of rice through the instrumentality 
of the tariff. Would they then ask for protection by 
bounty, or would they prefer to see their industry die ? 
Or, the producers of sugar in the United States, upon the 
imports of which the duty, and thereby the protection, 
exceeds 80 per cent, might be able to realize how profitable 
to them their sugar production would be if they were to 
be barred from any protection against foreign sugar, be- 
cause our government had seen fit to exchange treaties 
with other nations binding itself not to use the instrumen- 
tality of the tariff for the purpose of discrimination 
against foreign sugar. Doubtless a large majority of our 
producers of rice and sugar would be horrified, and bit- 
terly opposed to any protection by subsidies or bounties, 
for American shii)ping in the foreign trade; doubtless, too, 
they would weigh the matter very carefully indeed, if it 
should be suggested to them that, by freeing our shipping 
from the entanglements of treaties and laws, the instru- 
mentality of that tariff' might be again invoked for the 
protection of our shipping in the foreign trade. Certainly 
American shipping in "the foreign trade i.s seriously handi- 
capped when through treaties it is denied the means by 
which every other American industry that is subject to 
foreign competition is protected against that competition 
— by discrimination against the foreign product! 

The Suggestion of Bounties on Exports. 
Reference should also be made to stjU another form or 
method by which our shipping in the foreign trade may be 
protected — bounties on exports carried in American ves- 
sels. The constitution of the United States forbids the 
collection of duties on exports from the United States, but 
there is nothing in the constitution to forbid the payment 
of "bounties upon such exports, if carried in American ves- 
sels. Were such a policy adopted, it would be necessary 
to first abrogate practically all of the treaties that now in- 
terfere with the collection of extra or discrimination 
duties on imports in foreign vessels. In 1895 Mr. David 
Lubin of Sacramento, California, came into prominence 
through his advocacy of a bounty on exports of agricul- 
tural staples, which for years he pressed upon the atten- 
tion of the farmers' organizations all over the United 
States. He contended that, in the matter of these agricul- 
tural staples, which in large quantities we exported, even 
if our tariff did provide for a duty upon competing foreign 
agricultural products, such protection was fallacious and 
non-existent. He claimed that the prices of our great 
agricultural staples were fixed in the dearest market — 
the foreign markets, to which our surpluses were exported, 
and that the price thus fixed abroad, generally in England, 
was the price received by the American producers of such 
exports, less the cost of carrying such staples from the 
place of their production to their foreign markets. Mr. 
Lubin did not suggest that the bounties be paid only on 
'such exports as were shipped in American vessels, but the 

80ld at Steaex'a News Depot, 3 Steuart St 



vessel-owning and building interests took up the matter, 
and, for a time, advocated such a measure, as at once pro- 
tective of our large agricultural and our comparatively 
small shipping interests. It was believed that if these two 
interests should combine in a demand for such i)rotection, 
whereby the protection afforded the one would also afford 
protection to the other interest, Congress would be com- 
pelled to heed it. While the matter was vigorously dis- 
cussed all through the year 1895, it was rejected by the 
economic and political quidnimcs of both the great politi- 
cal parties. Republicans asserted that it was the extreme 
of paternalism, a characterization which they denied was 
properly applicable to our present protective tariff policy, 
while Democrats, especially free traders, were vehement 
in their assertion that it was the complete and just corol- 
lary of the protection afforded by our tariff", and, in iron- 
ical and satirical pronouncements they urged its adoption 
upon the Republicans, as a means, they asserted, by which 
the complete fallacy of the protective principle would be 
fully demonstrated. A bill measurably along such lines, 
drawn by Senator Cannon of Utah, was voted upon in the 
United States Senate in 1896, but it was overwhelmingly 
defeated. It should be said that, beginning in the reign of 
William and Mary, in 1688, England adopted a policy 
along similar lines, that was in force for a great many 
years. A bounty was paid upon exports of corn, when that 
commodity was carried in English vessels, provided that 
the master and three-fourths of the crews of such vessels 
were English subjects. The purpose of the bounty was 
primaril}' to protect ttie farmers of England, and inci- 
deutally to protect the shipping. That it was retained for 
so long a period upon the British statutes, would seem to 
indicate that its operation was beneficial to both of the 
interests that it sought to protect. Seemingly, however, 
it is a method that it Avould be difficult to induce the 
American people to adopt. When Mr. Lubin was advo- 
cating it our staple agricultural products were selling at 
comparatively ruinously low prices, and relief for our 
farming population against great hardships was being 
sought. More latterly our farmers have been so prosper- 
ous that such a suggestion would, seemingly, possess little 
interest for or indorsement by them. The stagnation and 
decline of our shijjping in the foreign trade have been so 
continuous, however, that the agitation for remedial meas- 
ures has been persisteut and increasingly insistent. 

How We Have Subsidized Our Ships in the Past. 

The agitation for subsidies and bounties has been more 
prolonged and far more general, than for any other policy 
that has been advocated of recent years. Reference has 
already been made to the abridged act of March 8, 1891, 
and to the original bill out of which that act was carved. 
It should be known, however, that subsidies to mail lines 
were provided first in 1845, and in 1847, uiuler which 
several lines of American steamships were operated for 
about ten years in our foreign trade, preceding the civil 
war. Subsequent to the close of the war one or two lines 
were subsidized by special act, but they were so limited in 
their operations as to prove imavailing in aiding our steam 
shi])ping. The extent to which our steam shipping has in- 
creased since the enactment of the Frye subsidy bill of 
1891 has been shown. 

Recent Efforts for a More General Subsidy Act. 

Although pledged to the restoration of the discriminat- 
ing duty policy, both by the platform utterances of the 
Republican party, and by the indorsement of that declara- 
tion by President McKinley, preceding the election of 1896, 
Republicans repudiated those pledges after their election. 
Under the leadership of Senator Frye, conspicuously and 



PACaFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



actively aided by the late Senator Ilauiia, a prolouged 

and most earnest effort, begiunint; in 18i)8, and ending in 

lf>(>2-U3, was made to establish an all-ronnd and effective 

plan of snbsidies to American shipping in the foreign 

trade. The measures that were successively proposed were 

bitterly, and most unjustly, attacked, largely on the 

^ground that they provided more generous compensation 

[>r the swift transatlantic flyers, that carried little or no 

P«argo, than was afforded to the slower cargo-carrying 

[Temels. The fact seems to have been generally <)verlooke«l 

liat there was no complaint as to the inadc(|nacy of the 

lompensation those bills provided for the slow or medium 

pee<l cargo carriers, while it was always asserted by 

lose mi>st competent to pronounce judgment upon the 

|>ruvi!<i<in of those billa, that the compensation i)rovided 

for the swift (rtearnships was considerably below the extra 

cost of construction and operation to which they would be 

subject in competition with foreign steamships in the same 

trade. 



PROGBESS NOTEa OF THE PANAMA CANAL. 

Tin- riilli)\ving is the full text of the act passed at the 
recent session of Congress, and approved by the President, 
relating to the use. control atut ownership of lands in 
the canal zone : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the I'nited States of America, in ("ongrt-ss as- 
gembled : 



accorded to actual occupants of lauds in good faith. 

Sec. 2. That no portion of the lands of the United 
States within the canal rone shall be leasetl hereunder 
unless it shall first be made to appear, by a statement or 
plat filed by the Isthmian ("anal Commission with the 
eolleetor of revenues of the canal rone, that it is not 
contemplated to use such lauds in the work of canal con- 
struction or to set the same aside as a townsite; and all 
leases shall be made subjetrt to the provision that if at any 
time it shall become necessary, notwithstanding, for the 
I'nittHl States to occupy or use any portion of the leased 
lands, it shall have the right to do so without further 
compensation to the lessee than for the reiisonable value 
of the necessary improvement^i made upon said tracts by 
the lessee, the same to be determined by the courts of 
the canal zone. 

See. 3. That all leases of lands hereunder shall reserve 
to the United States all minerals, oil and gas rights in 
the lands leased. 

Sec. 4. That the l*resident may, in his discretion, re- 
quire a land survey to be made of the canal zone. 

Sec. 5. That the powers conferrc<i upon the l'rcsi<lcnt 
under this act nmy be exercised by him through the 
Isthmian Canal Commission or in such other manner as 
he may designate. 

Approved February 27, 1909. 

• • • 

A new quarantine statiim at Culebra Island was opened 
on March 1. when a case of yellow fever brought from 




A Shovel in Bu ObUpo Cut Lowllnit Udgrntood Fist Cmr*. 



That thft President is hereby authorized to grant leases 
Bf the public lands in the canal zone, Isthmus of Panama, 
"jr such period, not exceeding twenty-five years, and upon 
ich terms and conclitions as he may deem advisable. 
lo lease, however, shall be granted for a tract of land in 
excess of 50 hectares (1 hectare ecjuals 2.471 acres), nor 
to any person who shall not have first established, by 
affidavit and by such other proof as may be required, that 
ich person is the head of a family or over the age of 21 
/ears, and that the application for a lease is made in 
Pgood faith for the purposes of actual settlement and cul- 
tivation, and not for the benefit of any other person what- 
soever, and that such person will faithfully comply with 
_all the requirements of law as to settlement. ri»sitlence and 
Itivation. In granting such leases preference shall be 



Guayaquil was placed in one of the isolation pavilions. 
Passengers are now detained at this station, the oI<l station 
at I^ lioca, known as "La Folic Duigler," having been 
turned over to the (iuarfcrmaster's Department. Ships 
coming from ports against whi<'h quarantine has been de- 
clared are not allowed to lan«l their passengers until the 
prescribed periml has elapso<l. Passengers are transferrc<l 
in a tug to Culebra Island. Visitors are not allowed on 
the island except by special permission. While anyone 
is detained in quarantine a yellow flag flies over the island 
as an indication that no one, excepting those on official 

business, will be allowed to land. 

• • • 

The Panama Canal will have a most important bearing 
upon the trade between the eastern and far western sec- 



8 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



tions of our country and will greatly inerease,the facilities 
for transportation between the eastern and western sea- 
board, and may possibly revolutionize the transcontinental 
rates with respect to bulky merchandise. It will also have 
a most beneficial effect to increase the trade between 
the eastern seaboard of the United States and the west 
coast of South America, and, indeed, with some of the 
important ports of the east coast of South America reached 
by rail from the west coast. Work on the canal is making 
most satisfactory progress. The type of canal as a lock 
canal was fixed by Congress after a full consideration of 
the contlietnng reports of the majority and minority of 
the consulting board and after the recommendation of 
the War Department and the executive upon those re- 
ports. Recent suggestions that something had occurred 
on the isthmus to make the lock type of canal less 
feasible than it was supposed to be when the reports were 
made and the policy cietermined on, led to a visit to the 
isthmus of- a board of competent engineers to examine 
the Gatun dam and locks, which are the key of the' lock 
type. The report of that board shows that nothing had 
occurred in the nature of "newly revealed evidence which 
should change the views once formed in the original dis- 
cussion. The construction will go on under a most effec- 
tive organization controlled by Colonel Gogthals and his 
fellow army engineers associated with him, and will cer- 
tainly be completed early in the next administration, if 
not before. 

Some type of canal nnist be constructed. The lock 
type has been selected. We are all in favor of having 
it built as promptly as possible. We must not now, there- 
fore, keep up a fire in the rear of the agents whom we 
have authorized to do our work on the isthmus. We 
must hold up their hands, and, speaking for the incoming 
administration, I will say that I propose to devote all 
the energy possible and under my control to the pushing 
of this work on the plans which have been adopted and 
to stand behind the men who are doing faithful, hard 
work to bring about the early completion of . this the 
greatest constructive enterprise of modern times. — From 
Mr. Taft's inaugural address. 

• * * 

Expenditures for canal work to December are as fol- 
lows: Civil administration, $2,567,315.81; sanitation, $7,- 
890,356.84; construction a«id engineering, $39,098,789.69; 
municipal improvements, $6,213,237.76; plant account, 
$34,895,695.91— making a total of $90,665,396.01. 

• « * 

Reorganization of the various departments and divisions 
in the zone was begun in July, 1908, resulting in material 
economies and more concentrated organization; while 
some of the departments and divisions show an increase 
by reorganization ; the saving amounts to 6.53 per cent, 
or a total, by combining the gold and silver rolls, of 
$712,208.40 per annum. 

• • * 

Following is the text of the resolution adopted by the 
United States Senate at the time the new treaty with 
the republic of Panama was ratified : 

Resolved (two-thirds of the senators present concur- 
ring therein). That the Senate advise and consent to the 
ratification of a treaty between the United States and 
the republic of Panama, relating to the Panama Canal, 
signed on January 9, 1909. 

Resolved, As a part of this ratification, that the United 
States approves the treaty between the United States and 
Panama, with the understanding that, so far as the United 
States is concerned, no question shall be submitted to 



arbitration herein jjrovided for which in any way aft'eets 
the vital interests of the United States in the construction, 
operation, maintenance, sanitation and protection of the 
Panama Canal, and that this understanding will be men- 
tioned in the ratifications of the treaty, and will, in effect, 

form part of the treaty. 

* * » 

The item of $7,890,356.84 expended for sanitation in 
the canal zone up to December 31, 1908, when casually 
noted, would appear a vast sum of money to expend for 
this purpose, but when present conditions are compared 
with those under which French operations were conducted 
the amount shrinks into insignificance compared with the 
magnitude of the canal enterprise and the health report 
of C hief Sanitary Officer W. C. Gorgas for the month of 
February, 1908, namely : 

The lowest death rate among employees on the isthmus 
for any February since American occupation was reached 
this year, which amounted to 10.98 per thousand; the rate 
in 1906 was 43.00 i)er thousand. Considering the total 
population on the isthmus, the death rate decreased from 
40.20 per thousand in February, 14)05, to 18.59 per thou- 
sand in February, 1909. 

There has been a large decrease in the amount of sick- 
ness among employees during February as cortipared with 
January. During January we had sick every day among 
our employees 1,116 men; during February this average 
was reduced to 951. 

During the month of January we admitted to our hos- 
pitals 1,258 cases of malaria among employees; during 
February only 852. 

During the month no case of yellow fever, plague or 
smallpox occurred on the isthmus. 

The general health of the isthmus I consider excellent, 
and the health of our laboring force is about as good as 
it would be at home. 



PERSONAL. 

Capt. G. L. Anderson, who has been in the service of 
the Pacific Coast Steamship Company for forty years, will 
be retired. Capt. Anderson will be pensioned by the com- 
pany, which he has served so faithfully, and well, and 
by which he is highly esteemed for the service he has ren- 
dered. 

John W. Wynne, convicted of murder, has appealed to 
the U. S. Supreme Court for a new trial. Wynne was con- 
victed of the murder of Third Engineer James McKinnon 
of the S. S. Rosecrans ill this port fifteen months ago. 

Dr. W. C. Hobdy of the Marine Hospital service in this 
port, with headquarters at Angel Island, has been confined 
in his home for the past two weeks with an attack of grip. 



Notes. 

Designs have been submitted by the Ministry of Marine 
of Russia to the Council of Marine State Defignse. The 
plans are of battleships 600 feet long, with a speed of 22 
knots and carrying twelve 12-inch guns. A ship of these 
dimensions would be impracticable, as machinery of 
tremendous power would be necessary. The estimated 
horsepower reqiiired would be between 40,000 and 50,000 
as comjiared with the Dreadnought's 23,000, and the total 
cost of the battleships considerably over $15,000,000 each. 



HAWAIIAN NOTES. 
Honolulu. — The British steamer Kish was forced to put 
into Honolulu for repairs to her machinery, which was 
completely disabled. The Kish was on her way from Vic- 
toria, B. C., to Saku bar. 



Sold at Oceanic Pharmacy-, 148 Baat St. 



PACIFIC MLitLUA-M MAUiNK 



9 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



0/»ce. 95 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



1' E L K P H O N K DOUGLAS 4325 



THOS. C. BUTTERWORTII 
A. B. BUTTF.RWORTH 
M. DAVIS 



Editor 

General Muuger 

Advenitint L>cp«rtm«M 



nieiit and the building of railroadic. These conditioiiH stim- 
iilutt'd the ilosiro of furvii^n natiouH to the upbuilding 
uf a luerehatit marine. 

The jrri'atcr the activity in American labor, the 
Kreater the development of the fon-i^n mcrehMiit marine; 
and while the I'uited States haf> risen to uianufaeturinK 
supremacy, Japan has entered the group of worUl powers, 
other nations have developwl their nu'rehaut marine at 
the expense of American industry, and the foreign trade 
of the United Slates handicappe<| to a greater extent than 
we are willing to admit. 



I'ublinhid by the Pacific MercharU Murine Publishing Co. 
in San Francisco, California, every Saturday mornitiy in the 
interest and development of the American Merchant Ma^'int. 

WILL BE SENT TO ANY ADDRESS in tht UNITED STATES 
$2.50 a Year 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 

Address All Commiinicalions to (he Pacific .Merchant .Marine 



With a wealth of raw material the United States has 
developed the greatest industrial system on earth. There 
can be no surprise in this fact when we consider our 
many opportunities for trading, the foundation upon 
which this great inilustrial .system was built. Coincident 
wilh the increase of our manufacturing so has our com- 
merce declined, and the more we have tried to regulate 
commerce the more are we disposed to allow e(unnu»rce 
to regulate itself. Granted that we have the greatest 
workshop in the world, and that our products have in- 
creased from !|!!>.0(M),l)()().(X)O in IJHK) to $1.">.5(K).(HK).(HH) 
in liMlH. that 7.(MMI.()()() of our popidation are employed in 
the latter pnxluction, and that .'{O.OOd.OlM) depend upon 
subsisteiu'c from this product. Hut what of the output 
of this product, if it continues to increase at a minimum 
rate! Otir present population is unable to consume all 
that we produce. Toda.v we are even, more dependent 
u[)on relations with foreign countries than ever before. 
Does it look reasonable to assume that these rela- 
tions will develop by employing foreign agents to rep- 
resent American goods abroad or that these goods shall 
be transported by a foreign carrier? If so, manufacturing 
id the United States is pa.ssing through a very unhealthy 
stimulus, and Yankee pride in highl.v developed native 
industries is a doubtful bond of our future stability and 
progres,s. 

ObviotLsly the I'^nited States is iner(>aMing the oppor- 
tunities for foreign trade. Other aiul older countries 
are doiilg likewise, and in spite of or because of American 
restrictions on foreign goods are steadil.v and system- 
atically selling their own goods in other markets, antl 
making their profit thereon, from the United States to 
the extent of millions of dollars every year by a delivery 
system wilh which the United States could, buf thought- 
les-sly or otherwise has no desire to compete. 

Some influence exists which blinds American states- 
men to the fact that many foreign nations have estab- 
lished the balance between American industry and for- 
eign merchant marines; that the immense chain of de- 
velopment in manufacturing in which the United States 
leads contains a weakened link; that the energies of the 
American people was being devoted to internal develop- 

S«M at Fcrrr Kaws •<■ 



In HM)G the tonnage of vessels passing through St. 
Mary's Falls canal, connecting Lake Superior with Luke 
Huron, was three times greater than the tonnage passing 
through the Suez canal, and over seven times greater than 
that of the Kaiser Wdhelm canal. More remarkable in 
view of the fact that the St. JIary's canal is only «)iH'n 
to traflic about eight months in the year, while the others 
are open twelve. The increasing tonnage passing through 
St. Mary's canal is noteworthy from the following in- 
formation: In 188(1, 1,244.279 tons passed thmugh; in 
ISHD, 7,')16,(»2'J tons; in \W(i. 41.270.H()2 t.uis, or 3,217..{ 
per cent greater than in iHSd and 44!l 2 per cent u'reater 
than in 188!). 

WRECK OF THE LINER INDIANA. 

FVontlaplrc*. 



The Pacific Mail Steamship Company's Liner Indiana 
Goes Ashore at Point Tosco. 

The Indiana left tliis port early in February for Aneon, 
Panama, ami upon discharging her cargo reccive<l about 
l.'2(K) tons of freight, eonsi.sting of iron, steel and hard- 
ware from New York by way of the Isthmus, consigned 
to San Francisco. Leaving Mazatlan on Thunwlay, the 
1st instant, three days late, with 2..">(K) tons of freight and 
forty passengers, the Indiana reached Point Tosco, the 
.southern extremity of Santa .Margarita Island, 22 miles 
south of the entranec to Magdalena Ha.v, at 7 a.m. Safur- 
tlay morning. The strong currentj* existing at this pohit. 
so well known to navigators on the southern coast, aidtnl 
by a dense fog prevailing at the time, carriwl the ship out 
of her course and up<»n the treacherous rocks of Tonco. 
The holil began to fill at once, and shortly the engine 
and fire rooms were flooded. Distn-ss signals were inime- 
iliately displayed, anil Third Officer James Walsh was 
sent with a boat's crew to row ."{fi miles to Magdalena 
Ba.v. He left at 8 a. m. The roeketji. however, attracted 
the attention of Admiral Swinburne's flagship, the cruiser 
West Virginia. Unable to sail close inshore, the W'est 
Virginia sent a wireless summons across Santa Margarita 
Island. The message was received by Captain Hensor.v 
of the eruiser Alban.v in Magdalena Hay. and accompanied 
by the tugs Active and Navajo reached the unfortunate 
vessel at 9 o'clock Saturda.v evening, in lime to take off 
the passengers. Purser Robert K. Palache. the mails, bag- 
gage, ship's records and bullion an<l gold dust valued at 
$.5.3.000. 

Captain J. P. Robinson and the crew of aixty men re- 
mained aboard the wreck to care for such property as 
ma.v be saved. As the wrecked vessel is in no immediate 
danger of going to pieces and the tugs are standing by, no 
anxiety is f<lt for the safety of Captain Robinson and 
the crew. 

IT. A. Frye. acting general manager of the Paeific 
Afail Company in this cit.v. displayed his executive ability 
in taking every poRsiblc precaution for the nafety and 

■A aaa Fmadas* 



10 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



care of the passengers, and possible salvage from the 
wreck, from the meager information received, by. Mr. Frye 
early Sunday morning. Orders were sent to Acapulco, 
Mexico, to the steamer City of Sidney to proceed at once 
to Point Tosco and render all assistance possible. The 
steamer San Juan left this port on schedule time, with 
orders to go direct to Point Tosco. On board the San 
Juan is Captain A. P. Pillsbury, surveyor for the San 
Francisco Board of Underwriters. Upon the report of 
Captain Pillsbury will depend further action of the Mail 
Company and the underwriters regarding the wreck. 

A wireless message was sent by the West Virginia to 
the cruiser California to Magdalena Bay to be ready to 
leave for the scene of the wreck on short notice in case 
further assistance would be required. The latter was 
unnecessary, as the Albany, assisted by the tugs, had no 
difficulty in transferring the passengers and property. 
The Albany left directly for Magdalena Bay and passed 
the rescued passengers over to the cruiser California, 
which in turn sailed immediately for San Francisco, ar- 
riving at this port at 2 o'clock on Wednesday afternoon, 
twenty-four hours in advance of the scheduled arrival of 
the Indiana. 

Every passenger interviewed was profuse in his praise 
of Captain Robinson, and while journeying up the coast 
to this port organized themselves and delegated Carlos 
E. Mordaunt, a wealthy coffee planter of the southern 
coast, to draft a set of resolutions commending every act 
of Captain Robinson during the voyage and wreck, ex- 
pressing their confidence in his ability as a navigator and 
further qualifying their sympathy with the captain by 
commenting upon the stability of the Indiana, the strong 
currents and foggy weather. The resolutions were signed 
by all the passengers. 

Each passenger appeared to view his experience of 
the wreck and subsequent voyage rather as a pleasant 
adventure. Breakfast was served on the Indiana within 
one hour after striking the rocks, the passengers amusing 
themselves during the day hours of Saturday by fishing 
over the sides, and with more than ordinary luck. Prep- 
arations had been made to transfer the passengers to the 
shore, where tents had been erected, but the arrival of 
the cruiser, aided by her searchlights and a comparatively 
smooth sea, made it possible to begin the work of rescue 
at once. However, many of the passengers remained on 
board the Indiana until Sunday morning. The women's 
trip on the war vessel to this port was enjoyed to its 
fullest extent. 

The steamer Aztec will take the place of the Indiana 
temporarily for freight only from Acapulco south, com- 
mencing April 25, and on May 21 will permanently make 
the complete run. 

The Indiana is an iron steamship of 3,335 tons gross 
and was built by the Cramps in Philadelphia in 1873 and 
was at one time in the United States army transport 
service. Reverting to the Pacific Mail Company, she was 
practically rebuilt a year ago. at a cost of $75,000. 
The vessel had a length of 343 feet, breadth of 43 feet 
and depth of 25 feet ; was valued at $200,000, with a cargo 
estimated at $400,000. About one-half of the freight in 
tonnage, or 25 per cent in valuation, is subject to total 
destruction by water. Little hopes of saving the wrecked 
vessel are entertained by Captain Cottman of the Cali- 
fornia and Purser Palache of the Indiana; unless imme- 
diate action and first-class wrecking appliances are avail- 
able, according to these gentlemen, the vessel wiU un- 
doubtedly be a total loss. 



SHIPBUILDING NOTES. 



Union Iron Works. 

Repairs have been completed on the S. S. Edward 
Sewell. . • , 

The S. S. Roma at works for miscellaneous engine 
repairs. 

The S. S. Missourian on Hunters Point drydock for 
cleaning and painting. 

Installing new wheel on the S. S. Bandon. 
^ S. S. Sver on floating drydock for cleaning and paint- 
ing. 

Gasoline schooner receiving a general overhauling, 
including new tail shaft. 

General Frisbie on drydock for cleaning and paiating. 

S. S. Porter left works last Saturday, after receiving 
general overliauling. 

United Engineering Works. 

Overhauling the steam whaler Tyee Jr., boring out 
cylinders and relining engines. 

Repairs to bottom and new tail shaft installed on the 
S. S. J. P. Haller. 

S. S. Marshland having new tail shaft installed. 

S. S. St. Helens on dock for cfeaning and painting. 

Moore & Scott Iron Works, which company recently 
purchased the shipbuilding plant, drydock and business 
of W. A. Boole & Son, located on Oakland Creek, took 
possession of the plant April 1 and are now operating it. 

At the present time there are but few men employed 
at the Oakland site, but the new owners expect, in a short 
time, to have a large force of men steadily engaged. 

Their first order, taken last week, was a steel lighter 
53 feet long, 17 feet beam by 6 feet deep, to be used for 
freighting purposes on the South American coast. 
George W. Kneass. 

Building 28-foot speed launch, equipped with 16-horse- 
power Corson gas engine, for Jacob & Malcolm, commis- 
sion merchants of this city. 

Gorham Engineering Company. 

Built 3-horsepower gas engine for Henry Goosen, to be 
installed in a 20-foot yawl. 

H. Anderson. 

A new gasoline freight and tow boat is to be built by 
H. Anderson of South San Francisco for the George E. 
Dow Pumping Engine Company. The launch was de- 
signed by D. W. and R. Z. Dickie. She is 56 feet long, 
15 feet beam and 5 feet deep and will be driven by a 
50-horsepower 3-eylinder Doak engine. 
William Cryer. 

Building for P. Nelson & Co., Alaska salmon fishermen, 
a tug to be used in towing barges in Alaska. The tug 
is 48 feet long, I21/2 feet beam, 5 feet deep, equipped 
with two 30-horsepower 3-cylinder Imperial gas engines. 

Sonoma Land Company is having a launch 28 feet over 
all, 9 feet beam, 4 feet deep, fitted with a 12-horSepower 
Standard gas engine. The launch is to be used as a 
dredger tender and for light towing. 

McCormiek Brothers are having a 40-foot launch built 
with refrigerator attachment, to be vised as a butcher 
boat. The launch will be equipped with a 40-horsepower 
4-cylinder Atlas engine. 

A modern principle of education: is if you are in doubt upon a subject the 
next best thing to know is where to look for definite information; the proper 
apphcation of this principle in business transactions is an indication of progress, 
and must bring about the same dejree of success in the latter case as in the for- 
mer, and has made the nameof Weeks, Emerson & Howe, San Francisco, so well 
identified with the Ship Chandlery business on the Pacific Coast. 



Sold at Steacy'a New* Depot. 3 Steuart St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



11 




The Caddie 



THE LAUNCH CADDIE. 

The San Knfai-l I)«vt'l(>|mu-nt Coiiipany's Khallow 
(Iraft i)a.s8eii>;i>r laiiiicli ('acidic haH gone into service on 
San Rafael creek and proveti herself to be well fitted 
for the service for which she was built. 

She was designed by I). W. & K. Z. Dickie and built 
by 11. Anilerson of South San Francisco, and has jjreatly 
pleaseci her owners. Her hull is of the following dimen- 
sions : 

licn^th over all 40 feet 

Len^fth on waterline from fore of stem 3U feet 

Breadth moulded on frames 10 feet 9'/L' inches 

Breadth moulded over planking 11 ffet 

Crown of beam 'i inches in 1 1 feet 

Draft forward at forefoot 

Draft aft at rudder bracket 23 inches 

Freeboard with enffineer fuel and equipment in 

salt water about 22 inches 

Sheer forward 20 inches 

Sheer aft 4 inches 

Lencth of cockpit about 30 feet 

The hull is of a bent frame plank construction with a 
transom stern and a litrht canopy over the coek[iit to shade 
the patMengers 

The engiiu' is of two cyliiuler Iti brake 11. P. Corson, 
which developed l!M/o brake II. P. on the test and on her 
fuel consumption of 1-10 of a gallon of No. 1 distillage 
per II. P. per hour on trial a speed of 8V2 miles per hour 
was obtained, and she prov«»d herself to be an able sea- 
boat. She was calle<l the Caddie owing to her peculiar 
vocation of carrying pas.senbers from Sau Rafael to the 
golf links, a tlistance of about one anti one-half miles down 
San Rafael creek. She is now being used to transport the 
pile driver, and dreilger crews which an* at work improv- 
ing the creek. Freil G. Lewis, who is in charge of the 
San Rafael Development Company's work, is operating 
the Caddie, and while on her maiden schetlnlc voyage to 
San Rafael from the links a dredger swung around a 
two-ton bucket of mud and carried away the canopy. 
Fortunately nobody was hurt, although fourteen men 
were pa.ssengers and each became a human sfansion and 
performed that duty the rest of the trip, taking the 
canopy ashore with them on arrival at San Rafael. 



STUART B.DUNBAR 



III BifUry BM« 

Harkd A Sprar Stf. 

8ita Vnuf'mro 



NAVAL ARCHITECT 



YachU A Work Boala of All CluMt Doucncd A Coulraclion Sup«rine**^d 



While we on the mainland anxiously await the open- 
ing of our all too short yachting season, our more for- 
tunate brothers in the Hawaiian Islands are enjoying 
a perpetual season of that royal sport. 

The Hawaii Yacht Club, situated on the beautiful and 
much talked of Pearl Harbor, has a membership equal 
to any similar club on the Pacific Coast, and is open 
three hundred and sixty-five days in the year. The 
yachts are always in c(unmission. and are only laid up 
long enough to be cleaned up and have the necessary 
repairs done. 

Small boat sailing is extremely po|)ular auKUig the 
Island yachtsmen, and there are many exciting races 
between the "skip-jaeks" and canoes which are largely 
in favor. 

Motor-boating is beginning to take its place in the 
Islands, and there are several fine boats of this type 
enrolled in the Hawaii Yacht Club. 

The Hawaiian Islands form an ideal and unlimited 
cnising ground and there arc innumerable cozy harbors, 
where the yachtsman may drop his hook with perfect 
confidence that his boat is safe again.st even the hardest 
blow, and where he may enjoy the finetit fishing and 
swimming. 

It is seldom that a at calm is encountered, and out- 
sicle of an occasional "kona." which corresponds t(» our 
"southeaster." nasty weather is practically an unkown 
({iiantity. Hawaii is the land ,of the tra<le winds, so dear 
to the sailor's heart, and one starting on a cruise can 
safely figure when he is to get back, a very neet^ssary 
bit of figuring to the average yachtsman. 

The two trans-Pacific races held under the auspices 
of the Hawaii Yacht Club have awakene<| a great deal 
of enthusiasm in the Islands, and although the Hawaiian 
boys have not met with success in either of their entries 
they are still in the game, and it will be no gn-at sur- 
prise in yachting circles if they carrj' off the cup in 
the next race. 

Last Sunday the time honored ceremonial of the 
"Bridge Opening" took place at Tiburon and the major- 
itv of the Corinthian fleet nn<l wveral arks and yachts 



Fred Klarman i^tj 



BOAT BUILDER 

I M*m> Warh TOama. Cal. 

PhaaaMaiilOl 
SaaFw»oK»C)fca.2ll BacUrr BU«.Mart««i3>ca.StrM>i Ptaa* Krarar 4711 

Plaaita^CiPii I lalOahot E»»fr Dilini.* Bait Yaofa aad SU. m SmcL 
RrpHciM Pnapdr Anradid To 



■c < at Vcrrr News Staad, ■•■ FramelM* 



12 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 




Truant — Ex-Com. J. l*e\v 



belonging to other ehibs about the bay came out of 
their winter ((uarters in the lagoon. Owing to a small 

run in. the yachts Gen- 
esta. Harpoon and 
Clara were left strand- 
ed on the mud flats, 
and in spite of the 
heroic work of John 
Norby, the Corinthian 
Club steward, with his 
launch, were forced to 
remain in the lagoon 
much to the displeas- 
' ure of their respective 
owners. They will 
])robably be hauled off 
the mud some time 
next week by one of 
Henry Peterson's big 
launches. 

Abe Meyer's yacht 
Edna, which was 
sailed last season un- 
der Corinthian colors 
by Doe Davis, has 
been purchased by 
Alameda parties and 
will fly the colors of 
the Aeolian Yacht Club. 

Talking of Santa Cruz, why don't more of you launch 
men get in and make the trip? The yachtsmen have set 
the pace and now it is 
up to you fellows to 
get in and show what 
sort of sailors you are. 
Thei;e are enough 
large cruisers on the 
bay to put up a credit- 
able outside race and 
you will find that the 
Santa Cruz bunch 
won't pass up any-, 
thing in the welcome 
they give you. 

We are sorry to 
learn that the new 
schooner yacht Mar- 
ian is up for sale and 
will probably be 
bought by outsiders. 
Such a boat would ad 
as a stimulus to yacht 
ing about the bay, an* 
we need more like In . 
to put the game on its 
proper footing. 

Tom Jennings' Speedwell has been bought by mem- 
bers of the Aeolian Yacht Club, which club, by the way, 
is no dead one in the yachting game, and it is rumored 
that Tom will build a large boal^ with auxiliary power. 
Last Sunday at Tiburon we noticed a sloop rigged 
craft which looked as thought it might be a cross be- 
tween a mowing machine and a pair of green shutters. 
This is the sort of thing that knocks yachting. A bunch 
full of "water front steam" generally goes out in .such 
a boat, capsizes, two or three are drowned, and next 
morning the papers come out with an account of "An- 
other Yacht Disaster." 




As a matter of fact it is seldom, if ever, that we fiear 
of a real yacht capsizing, and the sooner the general 
public gets this into their head the better it will be for 
the game. 

Pete Swanson is building a twenty-five foot sloop for 
Corte Madera parties. She is to be of the shoal draft 
center board type, and is expected to be very fast. 

The Golden Gate Yacht Club, in spite of reports to 
the contrary, is still doing business at the old stand, 
and, judging from the number of new entries in the 
fleet, is stronger than ever this year. 

George Briggs brought his twenty-five foot cruising 
motorboat down from Green Brae last Sunday to undergo 
minor repairs. Mr. Briggs is an ardent motorboat en- 
thusiast and intends to put in much time this summer 
in cruising. He has a trip to Santa Cruz planned for the 
near future, and has his beer ordered and the crew 
signed up. 



Meteor — Capt. W. Hogg 



YACHTING. 

The United States Census Bulletin gives the following 
statistics of yachting in the United States up to and in- 
cluding December, 1906 : 

The total number of yachts reported was 3770 ; 2176 of 
which were steam yachts with a gross tonnage of 82,300, 
and valued at $24,280,800; 1594 were sail yachts with a 
gross tonnage of 24,155, valued at $4,170,000. 

The average tonnage of the 3770 vessels was 28 gross 
tons per vessel, that of the steam yachts being- 38 tons, 
and of the sail yachts 15 tons; the average value of each 
vessel was $7,547, the steam vessels averaging $11,150 
and sail $2,616. Gasoline and electric launches are in- 
cluded among the steam yachts, representing 57.7 per cent 
of the total number of vessels in this class. 

Machine propelled yachts are the only kind reported 
"upon on the j\Iississippi river, and elsewhere, except the 
Pacific Coast, where sail yachts predominate. 

Ninety-one and two-tenths per cent of the yachts are 
owned by private individuals; 6.5 per cent by firms, 1.7 
per cent by corporations, and 0.6 per cent by miscel- 
laneous organizations. 



NOTES. 

The American Hawaiian Steamship Co. has resumed 
service on the old route connecting Puget Sound and 
Honolulu, with New York, and Philadelphia, by way of 
the Straits of Magellan. The steamers Alaskan and Ari- 
zonian have been detailed on this run. The change was 
made to relieve the congested condition of the company's 
Tehuantepec Isthmian route. The Alaskan and Arizonian 
will, on their return from the eastern ports, carry a cargo 
of coal for the Pacific fleet. 

The sister ships Fremont and Shawmut have arrived in 
New York, completing their 15,000-mile voyage from 
Seattle, in sixty-two days. 

The vessels were purchased recently by the Isthmian 
Canal Commission for service between New York and 
Colon. 

The Pacific Coast Steamship Company have placed 
the S. S. State of California out of commission indefinitely. 
With the revival of the spring trade the State of Cali- 
fornia would be too small to handle it; and the Governor 
and President were secured for her place. 

Henry Lund & Co. have chartered on time the S. S. 
Katanga, of the Weir line, at the rate of $4500 a month. 
The Katanga will be placed on the rim between North 
Pacific Coast and Mexican ports. 

VIadivo.stok will no longer be a free port, as a heavy 
duty is now being imposed on goods from foreign ports; 



Sold at Steacy'a New* Depot. 3 Steuart St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



13 



many American products, however, are retained on the 

free list. 

The I'aeific Coast Steamship Company has decided to 
abandon Santa Cruz as a port of cull for thi'ir frcJL'ht 
steamers. 

The first French ship to he chartered to load jtraui 
"II the Coast is the bark Hayaril. The bark is to load coal 
for this port and fjrain from here to Europe, the rate for 
the two voya^'es being .VS shiliinjrs and 3 pence. The coal 
earj.'!) will be on a basis of ll' shillint;s 6 pence, and her 
Krain freight 20 shillings ami 9 pence, this being 8 shil- 
lings below the established union rate. 

The three Kritish ships in the harbor are for the sea.son 
under charter to take cargoes at the union rate of 25 shil- 
lings. 

The apprehensions felt for the little steamer Requa 
were entirely unfounded, as the saucy liner arrived in the 
hay in the best of condition. The Ke(|ua was built on the 
Columbia River and will enter the pa.ssenger service be- 
tween Sacramento to Rio Vista, under the command of 
Captain Fay. The tug made the riui from Coos Hay in 
37 hours. She is 98 feet long, 17 feet beam, and equipped 
with a 2()() horse-power engin<', and is capable of making 
a speed of 15 miles an hour against the tide. The Requa 
is the oidy river craft in the passenger service equipped 
with a propeller. 

The revenue cutter Tahoma, that will be detailed to 
Port Townsend. AVash,. has been completed. 



SOUTHERN NOTES. 

Avalon. — The Freeholders' Improvement Association, 
working in conjunction with the property owners and the 
Bannings Co.. have contrived to close Avalon. excluding 
all transportation companies except the Bannings and 
Wilmington Transportation Companies. 

In the agreement it is stipulated that if the Bannings 
Comj)anies do not complete certain improvements, on the 
petition of ten property owners, the arrangement can be 
made void. Yachting and pica.sure parties will be allowed 
to land, but the Nelson Navigation Co., the Bannings' only 
competitor, will be excluded. 

The construction of the 350 ft. pier will be started at 
once. 

Application has been made to the War Department, 
by the Bannings Co., for permission to construct a 350 ft. 
wh.irf at this port. 

Magdalena.— The British steamer Strathdee was 
rammed by the V. S. tug Fortune while discharging coal, 
and was badl.v damaged amidships. The oflRccrs of the 
tug were res|)onsibIe. and the British vessel will proceed 
to Mare Island to be repaired at the government's ex- 
pense, as .soon as her coal is discharged. The Strathdee 
is the first coal-teiider to bring coal from Newport News 
for the Pacific fleet. 

The .vessels comprising the Pacific fleet stationed at 
Magdaiena are the cruisers West Virginia, Pennsylvania, 
Colorado. Tennessee, California, and South Dakota: the 
gunboats Yorktown, and Albany; the supply ship Are- 
thu.sa, and the torpedo boats W^hipple, Lawrence. Farra- 
gut. Davis. Rowen, Paul Jones. Hull. Tnixton, Stewart. 
Perry Hopkins, and Preble. 

Valparaiso.— The British steamer Cumhal. which 
stranded on the coast near this port, will ho floated on a 
spring tide in abo»it a week. 

San Pedro.— Captain W. G. Ross, of the Treasur>' De- 
partment, commander of the revenue cutter ser\Mce. and 
Caj)tain C. A. ■McAllister, chief engineer of the revenue 
cutter sen-ice. have decided, after investigating the needs 
of the harbor, to recommend that a revenue cutter he de- 
tail. 'd fo this vicinity, with headquarters at this port. 

S«M a 



NORTHERN COAST. 

Seattle.— .V wireless station will be established at 
Juneau. Alaska, the equipment being shipjH'd on the S. S. 
Portland, which sails Monday for soulheasteni and west- 
war<l Alaskan ports. 

The firehoal for this port, building at Richmond B<*aeh. 
will be completed about May 15th. 

The barkentine Jane L. Stanford has been chartered 
to carry lumber from Puget Sound to Valparaiso at 3Ms. 
!KI. The barkentine T. P. Emigh will carry to Maxatlan 
at the same ipiotation. 

The .Norwegian steamer Euphrosyne and the schooner 
S. T. Alexamler of Puget SoumI, have been chartered to 
carry lumber. The former loading at British Columbia 
for Delagoa Bay, and the latter on the soumI for the South 
Sea Islauils. 

The stevedoring work, for the quartermaster's depart- 
ment for the next fiscal year beginning June 30, will bo 
in charge of Rothschild & Co. Th.- department of 
Washington will have to approve the bid before the award 
is made. The Wa.shington Stevedoring Company hold the 
contract at present. 

The revenue cutter fleet, consisting of the Kush. the 
Thetis, and Manning, will start for Alaska May 15th, 
cruising through Cnimak Pass to Dutch Harbor, in the 
Aleutian Islands, 

Pri1)yloflf Islands in B«'ring Sea, where seal poaching is 
carried on extensively liy the Japanese and other foreign 
nati(ms, will be carefully patrolled by the cutters during 
the summer months, 

Portland.— The port of Portland will have an aetive 
competitor, in the Columbia River bar service, in the 
shipping firm of Pope & Talbot, the owners of the Puget 
Sound Tugboat Co. The Tugboat Co. inteiul to plaee a 
fast tug like the (ioliath on the service, and will go after 
the business of the deep water vessels, leaving the coast- 
wise vessels to the Port of P..rtlnnd. If the Port of Port- 
land expect to enter the fiehl on ecpial terms with the 
Puget Sound Tugboat Co., Ihey will be compelled t<» build 
a new tug. as their competitor has the fastest tugs on the 
Sound at the present time. 

The hulk of the historical old merehant ship Zafir<» will 
be sold by a Board of Inspectors of Portland. A few daya 
before the battle of Manila Bay the Zafiro was anchored 
in the harbor of Hong Kong loaded with coal, and was 
pun'hased outright by Conmiodore Dewey, enabling him 
to coal his fleet, etuisisting of the protected cruisiTs 
Olympia, lialtimorc. Raleigh, and Boston, the fourth rat« 
cruiser Petn-l. the gunboat C<mconl, and the re\'en(U' cut- 
ter Hugh MeCulloch: taking the Zafiro along as a supply 
ship: although greatly su|)erior in e<piipment to the Span- 
ish fleet of four cruisers and ten small gtudtoats. Commo- 
dore Dewey succeedrnl in di'stroyinjr the fleet and silenc- 
ing the shore batt<Ti<-s of the Spanish. The battle was 
frtught .May 1, 18!tH. lasting from 5:40 in the morning until 
12:30 midnight. r(*sulting in a loss of six to the Americana 
and about ti.VJ to the Spanish. ConinHxlnri- Di'u-.'v'.^ ni...f 
was practically uninjure<l. 

The fleet of the Sehubach-Hamilinn N. h. I o.. which 
plies between this port. St. Michael and .Nome under a 
traffic agreement, will operate to conneet with the lower 
Yukon River fleet of the North Amerir-nn Tradinir & 
Transportation Co. 

Besides improving fhoir servnv betwi-en Portland and 
.San Francisco by putting the S. S. Kansas City_ on the 
run. the San Francisco and I'ortland S. S, line will also 
make a healthy improvement in the cost of transportation. 
The prevailing rates between Portland and San Fran- 
cisco are now ^5, $10, and ^15 It is now propose*! to in- 

t <Tkat Maa Pitta." T3 Mar tut ftrcct 



14 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



erease the rate to $10, and $20 for steerage and first-class 
passengers respectively. 

The management of the British ship Leyland Brothers 
has been transferred from the R. W. Leyland Company to 
J. H. Wclsford & Co. The Leyland Co. have retired from 
business. 

The fact that three disengaged foreign sailing ships, 
ill this harbor, have turned down offers of lumber cargoes 
for S6uth Africa, is conclusive evidence that the owners 
expect, in the near future, to charter their vessels at the 
union rate of 27s. 6d. to carry grain to the British Isles. 

The French bark Le Pilier had been chartered by a 
Portland exporter for this purpose at the regular union 
schedule. She is of 1739 tons net and is capable- of han- 
dling 110,000 bushels of wheat. 

The excursion steamer Hyak, being built by J. Supple, 
for the Kitsop Transportation Company of Seattle, will 
be completed about April 20th. The boat is expected 
to make a speed of twenty miles an hour. 

Corporation papers have been issued to the Sehubach- 
Hamilton S. S. Co., with Albert Schubach, president; 
Chas. H. Hamilton, vice-president; A. R. Shay, secretary, 
and W. C. Dauson, manager. The firm was originally 
Schubach & Hamilton. 

Tacoma. — Congress has appropriated sufficient funds 
to improve and extend the Puyallup waterway 5,000 feet 
beyond its present limits. Major F. W. Kutz, U. S. army 
engineer, in charge of the government work in this dis- 
trict, will make a preliminary survey in a few weeks. 

Victoria,, B. C. — The Blue Tunnel line is having four 
new liners built with spacious accommodations for pas- 
sengers, and the report is current that the line will enter 
the trans-Pacific trade. 

The S. S. Tess has salvaged all the material possible 



on the wrecked four-masted schooner Sequel, fast on Sea 
Bird rocks, and the salvaged material will be turned over 
to J. C. Newbury, collector of customs, who is the receiver 
of wrecks, charts, and other movable gear. 

The steamer Kaga Maru, of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, 
is now commanded exclusively by Japanese officers. 

Gray's Harbor.— The schooner Chas. E. Palk, owned 
by J. R. Ilanify & Co., is reported ashore ten miles from 
here. Tugs that were dispatched to the assistance of the 
disabled vessel cannot get within three miles of her, 
owing to her peculiar position, and there is very little hope 
of saving the vessel, which will be stripped and aban- 
doned. The captain lost his bearing during a severe storm. 

The Chas. E. Falk M'as built in 1889 at Fairhaven, 
Cal., by II. D. Bendixen. She is a three-masted wooden 
vessel of 299 tons, 142 feet long, 34 feet broad, and 24 feet 
deep. 

Marshfield, Oregon.— The Western T'acific R. R. Co. 
is having two large car barges built by Kruse & Banks, 
ship builders of North Bend. The barges will be used 
to transport trains across the bay and will accommodate 
sixteen cars. One will be completed in two weeks and 
the other early in May. The barges will be towed from 
Coos Bay to San Francisco. 

Seattle.— The P. C. S. S. City of Seattle has been placed 
on the Lyon Canal run, after being out of commission for 
several months. Captain O'Brien is in command. 



The salmon fleet will consist of about twenty ships this 
season, and the last of them will be well on their way 
in two weeks' time. 



TIDE TABLE TO WEEK ENDING SATURDAY, APRIL 7. 
Golden Gate Entrance to San Francisco Bay^ 



HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 



APRIL 





Day of 1 


Moon 




W 


Mo. 


Full 


Mon. 


5 




Tues. 


6 




Wed. 


7 




Thur. 


8 




Fri. 


9 




Sat. 


10. 




Sun. 


11. 


S 


Mon. 


12 


3rd. quar. 


Tues. 


13 




Wed. 


14 




Thur. 


15 




Fri. 


16 


P 


Sat. 


17 


E 


Sun. 


18 


New 


Mon. 


19 




Tues. 


20 




Wed. 


21 




Thur. 


22 




Fri. 


23 


N 


Sat. 


24 




Sun. 


25 




Mon. 


26 


1st. quar. 


Tues. 


27 




Wed. 


28 




Thur. 


29 


A 


Fri. 


30 



Time and Height of High and Low Water 



T. H. 



H. 



H. 



T. 



5:20 
5:55 
0:02 
0:26 
0:50 
1:13 
1:45 
2:32 
3:50 
0:02 
1:15 
2:14 
3:05 
3:55 
4:42 
5:23 



1.4 
1.1 
5.2 
5.1 
5.2 
5.2 



0.0 



6:10—0.3 
0:20 6.0 



11:12 

12:15 

6:26 

7:00 

7:45 

8:35 

9:30 

10:32 

11:35 

5:30 

7:00 

8:08 

9:12 

10:08 

11:05 

12:04 

13:04 



4.9 
4.9 
0.8 
0.6 



9 
1 
3 
5.4 
5.5 
5.6 
5.4 
5.3 



1:00 
1:44 
2:30 
3:33 
4:52 
1:00 
2:00 
2:42 



7:02—0.5 
7:55—0.5 
8:53—0.3 
9:54 — 0.1 
10:55 0.1 





Sat. 


1 


3:16 


E 


Sun. 


2 


3:48 




Mon. 


3 


4:20 




Tues. 


4 


4:46 


Full 


Wed. 


5 


5:21 




Thur. 


6 


6:00 




Fri. 


7 


6:40- 



3.0 
2.4 
M A 
2.0 
1.5 
1.1 
0.7 
0.3 
0.0 
-0.2 



11:55 

6:12 

7:24 

5:25 

Y 

9:18 

10:04 

10:45 

11:28 

12:15 

13:06 

14:04 



0.3 
4.5 



4 
4.5 

4.6 
4.6 
4.8 
4.7 
4.7 
4.6 
4.5 



17:28 
17:56 
13:00 
13:53 
14:54 
16:10 
17:32 
18:42 
19:34 
12:38 
13:36 
14:30 
15:25 
16:10 
16:52 
17:.36 
18:18 
14:07 
15:20 
10:3.T 
17:46 
18:50 
19:40 
12:48 
13:35 
14:24 

15:05 
15:40 
16:10 
16:45 
17:20 
17:55 
18:35 



1.3 
1.6 
4.7 
4.4 
4.2 
4.0 
4.2 
4.3 
4.5 
0.1 
0.1 
0.2 
0.4 
0.7 
1.0 
1.5 



23:48 5.2 



2. 

4. 

4.5 

4.5 

4.6 

4.6 

4.9 

0.5 

0.7 

1.0 



18:30 
19:04 
19:42 
20:22 
21:28 
22:35 

20:15 
20:48 
21:24 
21:56 
22:30 
23:05 
23:40 

i9:62 
19:53 
20:50 
22:02 
23:35 

20:18 
20:50 
21:17 

21:45 
22:08 
22:24 
22^47 
23:15 
23:38 



2.0 
2.4 



4.8 
5. 1 
5.4 
5.7 
5.8 
6.0 
6.1 

2!4 
3.0 
3.3 
3 . 6 
3.6 

h'.i 

5.3 
5.3 

5.3 
5.4 
5.5 
5.5 
5.5 
5.5 



Time used, Pacific Standard. 120th Meridian W. 

Oh — midnight, 12h — noon, less than 12 — Forenoon, greater than 12 — after- 
noon, higher numbers — 12 — afternoon time, 

N — New Moon. E — Moon on the Equator, N. B. — farthest N. or S. of Equator 
A. P. — Moon in apogee or perigee. 



DEPTH AT MEAN LOW WATER, ENTRANCE TO HARBORS 



Place 


Feet 


Date 


Remarks 


Gray.s Harbor 


18 


Mar. 30 


Buoys No. 10, 12, upper harbor 
gone, vessels cro.ssing bar now 
passing of bar buoys leaving 
No. 2 1000 Feet away. 


Willapa Bay 


27 


Apr. 1 


Channel not changed. 


Columbia River 


24 


Feb. 6 




Nchaletn River 








Tillaniook Bay 


13 


Mar. 2 


Channel shifting about }4 mile 
to southward is now ps '"i'e 
south of the whistling buoy. 


Yaquina Bay 


13 


Mar. 12 


Channel not (hanged 


Siuslaw River 


3Ji 


Mar. 16 


Channel gore to north end of 
jetty and beacon on high bank 
marks channel now. 


Umpqua River 


9 


Apr. 1 


Channel to northward of old 
established ranges. 


Coos Bay 

1 


18 

1 


Apr. 1 


Channel remains about the same. 
Aids to navigation in good 
condition. 


Coquille River 


g 


Mar. 26 


2 buoys gone; channel in middle 
between jetties. 


Rogue River. 






No opportunity for soundings 
lately; before rise there was 
7 feet on the bar. 


Klamath River 


6 


Mar. 10 


Entrance at present immediately 
oppoi-ite mouth of river. 


Humboldt Bay 


19 


Apr. 1 


North channel very narrow and 
crooked, difficult to navi- 
gate for large vessels; about 
13 feet in south channel. 


San Pedro Bay 


20 


Feb. 24 


No change in channel. 


San Diego Bay 


26 


Feb. 25 


No change in channel. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



15 



NOTICE TO NAVIGATORS, MARINE ENGINEERS, 

MARINERS AND SEAMEN 

Thk page will be referred ezdusiTely for all official notices and information of importance 



NOTICE TO MAKINERS. 

Astoria. — The lighthutue department of ANturiu has 
orileitMl a new gun buoy to he plaeeit on Tontfue Point 
crosKing. It will be designate*! as buoy No. IVj, and will 
be loeated between gas buoy \o. 1 and Beacon Light 
No. 1. It will be set as soon as praetieable. 

Captain 11. Fcldmenn of the (Jernian S. S. Xuniantai 
re|M)rt8 that January G, IDO!*, in latitude 4() deg. 34 rain, 
north, longitude 124 deg. 34 min. west, he passed several 
large logs and driftwood. 

Washington. Juan de Fuca Strait entrance. Swiftsure 
Bank Lightves.sel to be establi.shed. About April 2(). liKtfl, 
Swiftsure Bank Lightvessel \o. 93 will be established in 
l.'W ft. of water on Swiftsure Bank, about thirteen miles 
north, 48 deg. 4U min. west from Cape Flattery. 

Light ves.sel No. 93 will show one fixi*d white light, 
about fifty feet above the water fn>m the mainmast, ami 
one fixed retHight. alxiut thirty feet above the water from 
the foremast, each from three lens lanterns eneireling 
the nuisthead. 

During thiek or foggy weather lightvessel No. 93 will 
sound a 12ineh steam whistle, giving l>lasts of two seconds 
duration, separated alternately by silent intervals of two 
and twentv-fonr seeonds. Should the steam whistle be 
disabled the .shij)'s bell will be rung by hand. 

Lightvessel No. 93 is a Hush-deck, schooner-rigged, 
steam vessel, with two masts, no bowsprit, and a black 
smoke-stack and the steam whistle between the masts. 
The hull is painted with the name Swiftsure in black on 
each aide, and 93 in black on each bow and each <|uarter. 
The masts are re«l with a white hoop-iron daymark at the 
head. 

Approximate position: Latitude 48 deg. 32 min. 9 sec. 
north; longitude 124 deg. 58 min. '»() sec. west. 



CHANGES AMONG SHIPS' OFFICEBS. 

Following are the names of the officers on the I*. C. 
S. S. President: Captain N. K. C(»usins, C. Brown. 1st 
officer; W. Matheson. 2d officer; F. (Jilboy. 3d officer, 
and R. Ferguson. 4th officer. A. C. Plumb, chief en- 
gineer; W. S. Pierce. 1st as.si.stant ; K. La«y. 2(1 nssi.stant, 
and C. Huertkon, 3d assistant. 

O. Clemmen resumed his fMisition as tliini assistant 
ofWcer on the G. W. Elder. P. Rogers has been placed 
Ml the waiting list. 

Captain Friele has again taken command of the S. S. 
China. 

C. Johnson has resumed his position as 1st officer on 
the S. S. Oovemor. relieving S. Scoby. Mr. Scohy will 
be assistant port captain of the Pacific Coast Steamship 
Company. 

.S. N. Sundgren has resinned his position as second 
officer on the S. S. Coos Bay. 

Following are the names of the officers of the P. C. 
S. S. Queen: IL C. Thomas, master; C. C. Moore. 1st 
officer; H. C. Clark. 2d officer; F. Edthofer. .3d ofRcer. 

chief engineer; J. R. Williams. 1st 

as.sistant. Swett. 2d assistant ; J. H. Eachern. 'ii] assistant. 

R. IT. Bairott accepted position as 4th officer of the 
S. S. Santa Rosa. 



N. P. Short, formerly watertender of the I. .•^. A. 1. 
Thomas, was promoted to 3d assistant engineer, reliev- 
ing I)u Cortonia, n>signed. 

Peter Peterson, 1st officer on the Ureakwati'r of Port- 
latid, has resigned, having a master's |Hisition in view. 

Captain Edward Johnson is to succeed to the com- 
iiiand of the steam schooner J. J. I.ioggie, vice Captain 
lianier. who is to take charge of the big stejtm si'buouer 
which is being built at the Ik'udixon yards here for 
MeCormick & Co. 

Captain A. Dixon has tteeii relieved of the commaod 
of the S. S. Siberia by Captain Adrian Zi*e<ler, and will 
resume command of the S. S. Manchuria. 



LOCAL NOTES. 

Faring a perilous trip up the eoast to Eureka from 
this port the gasoline steamer Kalata sailed Friday. 
Should a storm arise or a break occur, the Hcbooner 
would meet almost certain. destruction. 

The Katata Ls 5.") feet huig. 14-fecl beam and is a len- 
toii ves.sel. Til.- v..Ii,ii.ii,t will be usrd by the Hniiie 
Salmon Co. 

Inspectors m .^ii'iimnoats Bollew and Bulger have ren- 
deretl a decision in the case of the wreck of the Sibyl 
Marston. Ca|itain Sehillinsky is charged with negligence 
and unskillfidness in navigating the Sibyl Marston. The 
inspectors rendered the decision in accordance with the 
new ruling of the department of commerce and labor, 
which retpiires them to place the charges after an in- 
<piiry. and then try the accused on the charges at another 
examination. 

The board of supervisors of Tehama county have been 
ri'<|uested to consider the erection of a steel bridge over 
the Sacramento between Tehama and Molinos. 

Many freighting steamers of the Sacramento' Trans- 
portation (.'o. are idle because of the dullness of river 
traffic. The company will accept this o|)portunity to 
thoroughly overhaid the steamers in anticipation of a 
revival of freighting during the fruit s<'ason. 

The Chamber of Commerce «>f Oakland is pro|M)sing 
to dreilgc the harbor from Tenth avenue, extending into 
the (>stuary and westward to the mouth of the estuary. 
The channel in the estuary is 6(K) feet wide and 2.") feet 
deep, and the chamber will dredge the entire basin to 
a uniform depth of -30 feet. 

Of l.(KKl.(XiO feet of lumber, which compris<'<l the cargo 
of the wrecke<l steamer Sibyl Marston. 6tK).0(KI feet were 
saved, the balance being broken to kindling wo<n1 and 
scrap. 

The A. J. West Lumber Co.. that loaded the Sibyl 
.Marston at Aberdeen. Wash., will stand the loss of sal- 
vage and also the difTen'Uce of the contracted price and 
the pri<*e ri'ccived at Surf. 

The Whitelaw Wn'cking (k>mpany have sncceeclcd in 
salvaging a large (|uantity of gear and machinery from 
the wre<'ked steam sch<Mmer R. I). Inman. The schooner 
is in no danger of breaking uf and there is a goo«] chance 
of reclaiming the entin- main engine. 

The Immigration Bureau is investigating the escape 



S«la at Oc^malr PkarMarr. !«• Kmmt St. 



16 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



of three Chinese from the British tramp steamer Cen- 
tury, which is docked at the China basin wharf. The 
Chinese were members of the ship's crew, and from all 
accounts no precautions were taken to prevent the escape 
of the fugitives. The steamer's master. Captain Downie, 
and Waterhouse & Co. will be held liable, in case the 
Chinese are not captured, under the immigration laws 
to a fine of $500 for each of the Mongolians. 

The Pacific Coast S. S. Company's steamers State 
of California and Umatilla will be laid up for an in- 
definite period, having been superceded by the steamers 
President and Governor. The carrying capacity of the 
State of California and Umatilla has been taxed to the 
limit for a long time and it was necessary to secure 
steamers of larger freight and passenger facilities. The 
vessels will be laid up off the Berkeley side, east of Goat 
Island. 

Upon arrival at San Francisco from Seattle, where 
she is loading 20,000 tons of wheat, the steamer Tallac 
will lay up for annual repairs. 

Lang and McPherson of Valle.jo have violated the 
injunction issued by Judge Buckles depriving them of 
the right to run launches between Vallejo and Mare 
Island. The Vallejo Ferry Co. secured the injunction 
against Lang and McPherson. 

In the suit of Roy B. Goodwin vs. E. K. Wood Lum- 
ber Company, owners of the steamer Olympia, on which 
Goodwin was second assistant engineer. Judge De Haven 
of the United States District Court ruled iu favor of the 
plaintiff, and the defendant was ordered to pay Good- 
win $5.40 for nine hours' overtime. 

Goodwin will not be able to recover his regular wages 
as he broke his contract by leaving the ship before the 
cargo was discharged. 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 



SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING. 

UNION IKON WORKS, 320 Market Street. 



OIL BURNERS. 



S. & p., 102 Steuart St. Phone Kearny 629. 



. BOAT BUILDERS. 

GEO. W. KNEASS. 18th and lUinois Sts., S. F. 



5HIP PLUMBERS. 

ANDERSON BAILEY, 216 Steuart St., S. F. 



WIPING RAGS. 

THE RAYCHESTER CO., 1448 Folsom St., S. F. 
Sanitary Manufacturing Co., 2208 Folsom, S. F. 

WANTED — To charter, a boat of the river type* equipped for 
Sunday excursions, to carry about 400 passengers. Address 
manager Pacific Merchant Marine. 

WANTED — A thirty-foot seagoing gasoline flush-deck launch, 
equipped with an eight or ten horsepower engine of approved 
make. Inquire office of Pacific Merchant Marine. 

FOR SALE — Thirty town lots at Alviso; established head of 
navigation on San Francisco Bay. Inquire office of Pacific 
Merchant Marine. 



LIFE-SAVING STATIONS ON THE PACIFIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES 



Name. 



State. 



Locality. 



Waadah Island Washington 

Gray's Harbor " Just south of Grays Harbor light 

Willapa Harbor " Near lighthouse boat landing 

IlwAco Beach " Thirteen miles north of Cape Disappointment. . 

Cape Disappointment " Bakers Bay, one-half mile northeast of light. . . . 

Point Adams Oregon Three-fourths miles southeast of Fort Stevens. 

Tillamook Bay " 

Yaquina Bay " About one mile south of harbor entrance 

Umpqua River " Near entrance of river, north side 

Coos Bay " Coos Bay, north side 

Coquille River " In town of Bandon 

Humboldt Bay California Near the old abandoned lighthouse tower. 

Arena Cove " 

Point Reyes " 

Point Bonita " 

Fort Point " 

Golden Gate 



Southside " 

Nome Alaska . 



.Four miles south of Point Arena light 

. Three and one-half miles north of light 

. Near Point Bonita light 

.Three-fourths mile east of light on Fort Winfleld Scott 

. On beach in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, three- 
fourths mile south of Point Lobos 

.Three and three-eighths miles south of Golden Gate 
Life-Saving Station . . . .• 

. At Nome 



La 


t., North. 


Long., West. 


eg. 


Min. 


Sec. 


Deg. 


Min. 


Sec. 


48 


22 


40 


124 


35 


30 


46 


53 


15 


124 


07 


15 


46 


43 


00 


124 


03 


00 


46 


27 


50 


124 


03 


25 


46 


16 


40 


124 


03 


00 


46 


12 


00 


123- 


57 


00 


45 


33 


30 


123 


57 


00 


44 


35 


30 


124 


03 


54 


43 


42 


00 


124 


10 


30 


43 


22 


50 


124 


18 


00 


43 


07 


00 


124 


25 


00 


40 


46 


00 


124 


13 


00 


38 


54 


50 


123 


42 


30 


38 


02 


20 


122 


59 


■ 30 


37 


48 


10 


122 


27 


50 


37 


46 


10 


122 


30 


30 


37 


43 


18 


122 


30 


18 


64 


30 


00 


165 


23 


00 



DISTRESS SIGNALS 



In the daytime — 

1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 

2. The International Code signal of distress indicated by 
N. C. 

3. The distant signal, consisting of a square flag, having 
either above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball. 

4. Rockets or shells as prescribed below for use at night. 

5. A continuous sounding with a steam whistle or any fog- 
signal apparatus. 



At night — 

1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 

2. Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil 
barrel, etc.). 

3. Rockets or shells bursting in the air with a loud report 
and throwing stars of any color or description, fired one at a 
time at short intervals. 

4. A continuous sounding with a steam whistle or any fog- 
signal apparatus. 



All officers and employees of the Life-Saving Service will hereafter recognize any of these signals when seen or heard as 
signals of distress and immediately proceed to render all possible assistance. 



Sold at Steacy's New* Depot. 3 Steuart St. 



LAUNCHES 



PLANS 



YACHTS 



STONE & VAN BERGEN 

SHIP BUILDERS 

Fool of B«kcr Street Su Frucuco. C«l. 

TeUi4>oMW<«69)« 



TUGS 



EUtimate. STEAMERS 











UNION IRON WORKS CO. 

Largest Shipbuilding and Engineering Works on the Pacific Coast 

DRYDOCKING 

Now a Special Feature 

Two Gravin); Docks at Uunleni Point unil Three FlontinK Dtx-kii at fool of 16th Street 

Best Facilities for All Kinds of Repair Work 

Works: 20th and Michigan Streets City Office: 320 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 











LOOKING 



■ icvrlf rntftn** bilUt on th** <<t»''t, to iiiit 
i"ii.^' al a rrai«M»«M» wire T Mmiy ro-l inun-. 
. iiHtf- <;«<! pfiffinm from .'i tu nxi II V. 



Gorham Engineering Co., Alameda, Cal. 




10 H r M»*-^i*^t xtv* 1750 \b*. 





CONVENTION OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE 

AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 

IN SAN FRANCISCO 






Henry Cowell Lime & Cement Co. 

Ml. DIABLO CEMENT 

SANTA CRUZ LIME 



# 



ALL KINDS OF BUILDING MATERIAL 



'^A 



t 



Delivery Department, Union and Front Streets. Office 95 Market Street 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Phone Kearny 2095 



CALIFORNIA 



i 



ORGANIZATION ON THE PACIFIC COAST IN BEHALF OF 

AMERICAN COMMERCE SIGNIFIES THE EXTENT 

OF OUR INDUSTRIAL FUTURE 



% 










Pacmfic 
merchant 

jiiARiNE 



M \ 




^^ " 



i^< 



>v^ 




VOL. II 



■;)-.y.;..^H-' 



SATURD AY, APRIL 17, 1909 
CONTENTS 



NO. 5 



The Aquatic Improvement Ass'n of San Francisco 
The American Merchant Marine Continued.' 

Hon. J. Sloat Fatsett 



The Panama Canal 



Yachting and Motor Boating 



Interesting Notes from Pacific Coast Ports 





$2.50 per Year 




THE CLARA BARTON SANITARY 
WIPING RAG 




The Clara 
Barton Brand 
of Wiping Rags 
is guaranteed 
to be thorough- 
ly s'.erilized and 

disinfected 



THE RAYCHESTER CO., INC. 



1448-1460 FOLSOM STREET 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Be sure to have 



CHALLENGE METAL 



For 
High Speed 




in your important bearings. 
Ask about it. 



For 
Heavy Pressure 



SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO. 



SAN FRANCISCO 



SANITARY 
WIPING RAGS 

Washed and Disinfected 

Exclusive Packersof 
Soft Cotton Wiping Rags 

8ANITAHY MANUFACTURING CO. 

2208-2210 FOLSOM STREET 
Phon- Market 1195 Ssn Frsnci>c° 




COLOR WORK A SPECIALTY 



The Buckley Cafe 



UETJEN-MENGEL CO.. lacorporaicd 



H. U DETJBN. Mtmrntm 



German Bakery 
and Restaurant 



Confectionery 

y?// I^inds of Cakes to 
order at Short Notice 



Buckley Building, 97 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
S. E. Corner S(>tar St. One block from Ferry Phune Douglas 2713 




GEO. W. KNEASS »oat builder 



Offic. uMi Work. 

I8th and ItUnoit SiraaU 

Mark*! S«a Fr«Mcl*c*. 

•43 CaL 



BmI Material am4 SO Bumf af aU 
D*Krip<iau Far Sala 

Milt; )'.>!. . llaJli an<l Truck». lluuip 
M..\ri> i.iui Boi lUilIrn ronaUnlly 
"i> I'uii'l Wood Turnlnc 



Steamship Men Take Notice! 

The National Laundry li Mattretf Henova- 
tory Company will five better results both 
In quality and price than can be had else- 
where. Special rates and service cui^*'iiteed. 

O. C. rAIRriCLD. Manaser 

Plant. SM* ISth Street Phone Market •! 



Hart-Wood Lumber Co. 

LUMBER SHIPPING 

WholcMle and ReUil 
807 Fife Building San FranciKO 



P. M. BAMBINO 

Eiclwiw Taiiar 



UairoBt* a (m i*ltv 



2IV.220 Uacklrt •»(. 

9< Mifkn ttnm 



tea Praachca. CaL 




ALKINS QUALITY" 

The best facilities backed by 
experts in each department 
are what made "Calkins Quali- 
ty" the standard in the realm 
of printed publicity. We print 
the Pacific Merchant Marine. 



PRINTING 

ENGRAVING 

BOOK-BINDING 



CALKINS 

PUBLISHING HOUSE 

Calkins Buildinz, San Francisco 
Phone Oouglas 3140 



Matson Navigation Company 

268 Market Street Phone Douglas 3030 

Direct Line Passenger and Freight Steamers and Sailing Vessels to 

Honolulu, Hilo, Kahului, Mahukona, Eleele 

From 

Seattle and San Francisco 

For Freight and Passenger Bates apply to 

Alexander & Baldwin, Seattle Castle & Cooke, Honolulu 

Matson Navigation Company, San Francisco 



Moore & Scott Iron Works 

Successors to W. A. BOOLE & SON 

MARINE WAYS AND DRY 
DOCK at OAKLAND CREEK 

MARINE REPAIRS A SPECIALTY 
Main Office & Wor^s: Main & Howard Sts., San Francisco 




S. S. CARLOS 



EUREKA BOILER WORKS CO. 

Designers and builders of all kinds of Marine, Station- 
ary. Locomotive, Straw-Buinios and Tiaclion Engine 
Boilers. Special attention paid to Repairs of Ship Work. 
Boilers. Tanks, and Sheet Iron Work. Building and 
Installing of Oil Plants a Specialty. Machine Black- 
smithing. Telephone Kearny 2453. M>»in Office 
Works: 37-59 Mission St., San Francisco. California. 



Telephone Tempobakv SOJ 

HERZOG & DAHL 

Electrical Engineers and Contractors 

Marine Electrical Installations, Special Fit- 
tings. Supplies and Repairs. 

150 Steuarl St., San Francisco. California 



Phone Kearny 8(17 






Sellers & Madison 


Co. 


Inc. 


Paints. Oils, Etc., Ship 
Chandlery, Naval Stores 




SMOOTH ON 
P;ici6c Coiist .Agents 


94-9(1 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 



BKXWICK Z DK'KIK 



DAVID W. DKKIF, 



D. W. & R. Z. DICKIE 

Engineers and Naval Architects 

Room 824, Santa Marina BIdg. 
Phone Kearny 2907 1 1 2 Market St. 



Ul PLANS and SPECIFICATIONS 
M for all kinds of engineering work of 
steel, wood or concrete: oiJ-burninK 
plants, wharves, bunkers; launcher, 
propellers, steam and gas-engined 
tuQs, and steel and wood vessels cf 
all kinds. 



Alex P. Bailey Telephone Douglas 1398 Geo. Anderson 

ANDERSON & BAILEY 

[Registered] 

Sanitary and Ship Plumbing 

Sheet Metal Work 
216 Steiiart St., bet. Howard an(J Folsom San Francisco 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Volumie II 



SATURDAY. APRIL 17. IS09 



Number 5 



SPEECH '^F HON. J. SLi^AT FASSETT OF NEW YORK IN 

THE HOUSE OF REPaESENTATIVES 

TUESDAY, MAY 26, 1908. 



(Continued from last week's isHue.) 

Hut. It nia.v be objected, we can not dip Into the Treagury for 
Individual or private purposes. I rei ly. this would be dlpjiluK 
our hands Into the National Treasury for the highest imsslble 
|;ublic interest; for our safety in times of war and for our 
welfare in times of peace. We can meet the world in com- 
petition on equal terms. But for years thtre has ceaned to be 
natural comiietltion on the o:en seas. \Ve have handicapped 
4)ur8elves by the high cost of production resulting from our high 
irotective tariff, and our rivals have handicapped us further by 
their nnstinlod subsidies to ihelr merchant navies. 

if mere cheapness be our cry, then why not open our coast- 
wise trade? Norwegian vesfcis can do the worlt. Cerman ve»- 
tela can do the wi rli. .lapanet-e vesfels can do the work. 40 i)er 
cent cheaiier than our coastwise vessels do now. They would 
do It with cheaper built ships, built by cheaper paid men. living 
on cheaper food, but they would do It and we would see our 
coastwise trade, which now' emjiloys 6,000,000 tons, collapse 
more suddenly and more completely than our foreign trade has 
done. And, also, we should see collapse every American ship- 
yard, save those only which we subsidized in the way of vasOy 
profitable contracts in building battleships. Ky thus protecting 
our coast wife trade we are to that very extent encouraging 
Individuals and corporations contrary to the teachings of the 
strict const P'ctlonlsts. 

The Democratic opposition so solidly made to giving subsidies 
cither In the way of return for carrying the malls or as a re- 
ward for carrying tonnage ^eenis to te based, if one can Judge 
from the arguments which have been presented in this chamber 
upon the other side, u<>on the idea that it Is Improier to make 
direct appropriations for such a purpose; that in eo doing in 
■ome way we give an Improi er advantage to some Individual or 
corporation. Gentlemen forget that it Is lm|>osslble to benefit 
everybody without giving a benefit to somebody. We have been 
for many years In the habit of appropriating for the general 
welfare by means of gifts and subsidies and encouragements 
and protection to special Inleresti'. Even the most broadly con- 
ceived measure for the most universal benefits must work out 
its results by application to certain special localities and to cer- 
tain special Interests and to certain Individual enter])rises. 

We gave cheerfully for years a subsidy to the Soulitern Rail- 
way Company of nearly $165,000 annually to benefit all the i>eo- 
ple bv special acceleration and Improvement of the mall facili- 
ties through the few stales traverfed by the Southern Railway 
Company. For every 7 cents the United States iiays out for 
transporting through the mails news| apera and second class 
leriodlcals it receives in return hut I cent, and for every mil- 
lion dollars It receives from this source It pays out seven, mll- 
I lions. This is In the Interest of the distribution of Intelligence. 
Whether one is Inclined to nuarrel with it or not to quarrel with 
it. it Is a subsidy, and It Is a subsidy of a special Interest, the 
frst beneficiary being the individuals who own the newspapers 
and the second class periodicals. I'ltlmately there Is undoubt- 
edly a benefit wide enough to justify the continued expenditure. 

We have not hesitated to provide mllPons for the irrigation 
of arid land«. The general benefit of this Is Indisputable, but 
the same principle is involved. Onlv recently this House appro- 
iriated from the public treasury $250,000 for the benefit of 
rufferers from a cyclone that swept through a part of the 
southern states. The Democratic reiTesentatlves from those 
ranie states oppose a ship subsidy, and oppose it on the ground 
that it appropriates public money to individuals, but they do not 
hesitate to aoproprlate this quarter of a million dollars to the 
people whose homes and buildings were burned down and who 
were made pennllefs by a catastrophe lieyond iheir control. It 
was a meritorious outlay, no doubt, but It could not be defended 
on any grounds which would not equally Include a subsidy to 
American shipping. 

We have not hesitated to give billions of dollars' worth of 
bonds and lands to railroads to secure better trade facilities be- 



tween the statrB Inside conilnenlal llnea: we have not hesitated 
to give billions of dollars' worth of land to Individual cititens. 
In order that they might build homes, rear families and make 
exiianding home markets for luanufaciurers to sell (oodB to and 
the railroads lo curry freights to and from. 

We h:^ve not hesitated to attend $300,000,000 for a Puiaina 
('anal. Since 1K88 we have appropriated nearly $300,000,000 
u. Inn rove our rivers and harbors. We have not hesluted to 
apiropriate for forty and fifty foot channels In some favoiltK 
harbors, and we have not a sinitle American ship to go through 
the Panama Canal for foreign trade »hen built, nor a single 
thip of any kind requiring forty cr 6o foot channels at any 
harbor. 

We have done everything, everywhere, for every kind of trade 
and every kind of Industry and every kind of manufacturlni; 
except shipbuilding enterprises for the high seas. We have 
generously built up a navy of fighting ships of sumdent strength 
to i>ri/tect us U|M>n the high seas, and »e have absolutely almost 
nothing on the high seas to pnilect, and will foon lose what «e 
have. We have sixteen battleships, going now to Pacific 
water;, and with them are attending convoys, and our deep- 
tea going t-ieamshliis <n ell the world on both oceans are Jus! 
sixteen, of which only seven are on the Pacific. 

What are the rtniedUs? The reniedits | ropocad are: 

Firtt— Free ships, by which is meant that we shall have the 
privilege of buying ships In the markets of the world and regla- 
tering them under the American flag. That would bring us al 
once lo an even keel with our competitors, so far as the first 
cost Is concerned. The obtection would be that It would be 
Just BO much business taken away from our own shipyards. It 
mmt te rfmemlered that already we allow the ImiKirtatlon of 
all mr.teriais to be used In the construction of a shin, free of 
duty, with one limitation, which seems to be a serious objection, 
that i*<e Fh<i> forfeits Its rUht to emftge In a coaalwlse trwie 
at anr time for mere than two montha. 

The next remedy suggested Is difTerential duties, or rebates on 
duties on all goods lni|iorted in American bottoms. There are 
two obiections to this: 

First— That fully half of th« scods we Import *re on tbe free 
list and could not receive any differential duly. 

Second — We have man." treaties with our different trade 
rivals, absolutely guaranteeing that their goods shall be received 
on ec.nal terms with our own, and to violate these treaties might 
lead lo war. 

The next proriosillon Is just the converse — that we should 
4av a bcuniy on outgoing goods In American bottoms. The 
ob'<»ctlon lo this is ihet we have the same numlM-r of treaties 
which guarantees that no such differentials shall take place. 

The third remedy is that of giving direct subaidiea baaed on 
FFrvlce, either In the way of carrying malls or freights, or mak- 
ing ceriain s|)eed. This method Is pursued by all of our rivals. 
In addit'on to d'rect pubFldles some of them give encouragement 
In the way of retainers or rebates. England, for. instance, jiaya 
an annnal retainer to over ."iS.OOO teamen and pays a handsome 
bonus frr mail contracts. 

In addition to direct subsidies. Germany pay* In the way of 
relates on the slate railroads on freifbt chargea on goods to be 
exported In German bottoms. 

Japan pubsidixes In more ways than one. and the signlfleant 
iroioFltion Is that they all subsidize enough. 

The cb'erlion raised against dir<-ct subsidies is purely aca- 
demic, ard whatever force It hi>s applies only lo subsidies made 
with a view to commercial expansion. It must fall lo the ground 
when brought to besr on the pro«K>sltlon of national defense. 
We I ay $146,000,000 a year In pensicns on account of wars that 
have been and for the encoaragemenl to volunteers In wars that 
may be. 

We ex|)end J 'rt every year to take care of our navy; 

we exfend $9<" i year lo take care of our army: we 

evpend •efi.OOO.eOO a year for fortlflrallons. and $10.'H)0,0(Kl or 
$ I .'i.OOO.OOO a year to maintain lighthouses and other similar 
services. 

We begrudge nothing for the national defenses In this way 
which a!<tM«ls to us directly, but In order to make valuable 



••M at "Tkat Mas Pltto," TS llark«« %trt*t 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



the outlay which we have already incurred, and In order to 
utilize in time of peril the defenses we have already provided, 
we must have a merchant navy. We have neglected altogether 
too long; we have not only neglected, but it almost seems that 
we have been inspired to assist our rivals. We pay $700,000 
per year to American vessels for carrying the mails to Europe; 
last year we paid almost as much to foreign vessels, and this 
year we will be paying $600,000 to foreign steamboats for 
carrying our mails. When we turn to the other side of the 
account and see if our few struggling steamships have received 
encouragement from their trade rivals, we discover a situation 
in decided contrast to our own generous courtesy. 



PROGRESS OF THE PANAMA CANAL. 

The grand total of excavation for the month of 
February was 3,148,879 cubic- yards, of which 1,857,315 
cubic yards were removed by steam .shovels, 1,269,399 
cubic yards by dredges, and 22,163 cubic yards by hand 
and scraper. 

"Work on the handling plant at Gatiin, in the Atlantic 
division, is advancing steadily. The unloading eableway 
dock is practically completed and the cement .shed dock 
is ready for roofing. The timber work on the storage 
pile tonnage is 99 per cent completed, a total of 364,000 



ery for laying concrete was begun. The borings along 
the canal prism were completed and additional borings 
on the axes of the east and west dams at Pedro Miguel, 
and of the west dam at Miratlores, to verify the depth of 
rock at certain points. Work was begun at the sand 
storage dock at La Boca. 

The average daily number of laborers employed on 
actual canal construction was 14,330. There were 331,- 
890 tons of explosives used, and 438.270 feet, or 83 miles 
of rock drilling were accomplished. 

On the relocation of the Panama railroad 85,004 cubic 
yards were excavated and 231,175 cubic yards placed in 
embankment during the month, making a total of 886,028 
cubic yards of excavation and 3,563,464 cubic yards of 
embankment accomplished to date. A total of 74,138 
lineal feet, or 14 miles of permanent track have been laid 
on the re-located line. The average daily force of labor- 
ers on this work was 1,487. 

During the month a net profit of $3,131.61 is shown in 
the operation of the line, hotels, messes and kitchens, and 
the Hotel Tivoli showed a profit of $4,614.41. 

The total revenue of the canal zone in February ag- 




AN OPEN-AIR KITCHEN IN VOGUE BEFORE NEW ONES WEKEIERECTED 



feet B. W. of creosoted lumber having been used in these 
tunnels. 

The roadbed for the automatic electric road is 90 
per cent completed, and work on the eableway towers 
was actively prosecuted. At the end of the month the 
walls and turbine foundations at the power house were 
completed to the level of the main floor, and the steel 
in the east end of the building was in place. The framing 
of the mixer building, and its approach channel, and the 
foundation for the driving machinery were completed. 
At Gatun Dam a total of 239,795 cubic yards of material 
was placed in the dam, 19,772 cubic yards of this amount 
being rock from Bas Obispo. The erection of the air 
compressor plant at Porto Bello was completed during 
the month, and compressed air is now being furni.shed to 
the rock drills at the quarry. The electric light plant 
at Porto Bello was put in operation on February 27. 

In the Pacific Division work was continued on the 
handling plants for the Pacific locks and dams. At Pedro 
Miguel the work of filling the west dam was begun, over 
that portion of the dam for which the core trench has 
been completed. At Miraflores the installation of machin- 



gregated $19,980.51 and the general revenues amounted 
to $12,363.89. 

The total enrollment in the white schools during the 
month was 694, and the average daily attendance was 
599. In the colored schools the enrollment was 1,340, and 
the average daily attendance wa.s 855. 

Depth of the Old French Canal. 

A hydrographic survey of the old French (?anal be- 
tween Cristobal aiul Gatun Dam has been completed. It 
show^ that the riding dejjth from Cristobal to the 
entrance of the channel, which leads up to the handling 
docks at Gatun locks, is 12 feet, and 9 feet up to the spill- 
way docks. In several places the canal is 30 feet deep 
and throughout the greater part of the distance . from 
Cristobal to Gatun it is over 15 feet. The survey was 
made preparatory to placing a dipper dredge at work 
and which will excavate until the least depth is 15 
feet. This depth is necessary in transporting rock and 
sand to Gatun. At present the rock and sand barges 
coming to Gatun are not loaded to full capacity. 
Slide on the Panama R. R, Relocated Line at Gatun. 

Another slide occurred at the Panama railroad em- 



Sold at Oceanic Pharmacy. 148 East St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MAKINE 



lianknifnt near (Jatiui on Saturday, .N[arch 20, when a 
-.(•tion of the fill .•}(K) fe.-t long Kettlwl about thirty feet. 
The embankment had reached practically the final height, 
95 feet above sea level, anti was the full width reipiin-d 
throughout nearly ita length. 

The occurrence was identical with the other slides 
which have taken place in this vicinity, the heavy roek 
that had been dumped settling and displacing the soft 
mud and clay below. In all previous slides in this place 
(he movement haa been westward, towards the Chagres 
Valley. In this case the movement was eastward toward 
the hills of Gatun ridge, indicating; that the wide, tlat 
slope built along the west side of the embankment had 
stopped further movement in that direction. 

I'iie drivers are at work building a trestle acrotis the 
depression made by the slide, and when finished, more 
material will be dumped in the embankment, until it is 
again bn>ught up to the proper grade. In case other 
settlings occur, the same process will be repeated until 
the e<|uilibrium of the embankment is established. 
Concrete in Gatun Spillway. 
The first concrete to be laid in the canal work proper 
was placed in the spillway of (Jatun Dam on the morning 
of .March 17. The i)!ant worked well and in less than 
five hours on the first day 122 cubic yards of concrete 
were laid. It is not expected that the plant will reach 
its full capacity this month, but early in April it is prob- 
able that between 3()(( and 4(M) cubic yards of concrete 
will be turne<l out every tlay of nine hours. At this rate 
the lining of the spillway will be completed before the 
beginning of the rainy season of 1910, when it is pro- 
posed to turn the Chagres river through the new channel. 
The channel to be lined is 1,200 feet long and 3(K) 
feet wide, and the width of the Qompleted spillway will 
be 284 feet. The Hoor will be from four feet t« eighteen 
inches thick, with the surface at 10 feet above sea level. 
The walls will be '.i fet-t thick at the surface of the floor; 
they will ri.se on a 1 to 10 slope on the face, and at 4 steps 
at the back to 3 feet thick at the top, which will be 20 
feet above the floor. The building of the concrete dam, 
and the other concrete in connection with the regulating 
works will bring the amount of concrete to be laid in 
Ihf spillway up to about 2()0.(MM) cubic yards. 

The mixing plant for the spillway concrete is located 
on the French canal about 100 yards north of the north 
toe of Gatun Dam and 4,000 feet from the north end <»f the 
apillway. A dock has been built on the canal and barges 
of rock from Porto Hello, and from Nombre de Dios, and 
cement from the shijxs at Cristobal tie up alongside. On 
the dock are a storehouse for cement, and storage bins 
for rock and sand. Two narrow gauge radroads extend 
under the cement storehouse and storage bins, and on 
(hem run the cars that carry the materials to the miners. 
These ears are built in two compartments. 

A car moves under the cement house, and a chute 
is opened which tlelivers two barrels of cement into the 
smaller compartment. The car then moves forward anil 
is stoppetl under the .siuiil bin, where the compartment 
into which the cement has been run is filled with sand, 
when the car again moves forward and the larger com- 
partment is charged with rock under the rock bin. The 
proportions are one part of cement, three of sand, and 
six of rock. The charged ear is pulled by a cable >ip an 
in.'line 24 feet high to a platform above the mixers, and 
when in position to deliver its loa<l into the hopper its 
side doors are opened automatically, allowing the rock. 
sand and cement to fall into the mixers. 



MEETING or THE BOARD OF STATE HARBOR 

COMMISSIONERS, THURSDAY. APRIL 15. 9 A. M. 
The boanl accept.-*! the bid and approved the bond 
of $182,000 of the Associated Contracting Co. for con- 
struction of pier 36, except cement, track nails and fisli 
plates. Secretary Thorpe was instructed to return all 
eertifie«! checks to their respective j)wners. 

Representatives of the coastw.ise transportation com- 
panies protested against refusal of the board to rebate 
lolls ..n flour in transit. The matter was refernHl to the 
a.toniey of the boanl for an opinion. 

Wm. McKenzie. stiperinfendent of Stmt hern Pacific 
river steamers, sent a communication to the board, stating 
that for some time his company had been paving the 
San Francisco (;as an<l Electric Co. for the use of arc 
lights on La Rue dock ; that arc lights are being furnished 
to all other docks on the city front by the State and 
are iucludetl in the numthly rental charge. He asks to 
be advised of the p<»ssible error of charging the company 
for lights on the wharf named. The communication was 
ordere<! filed and secretary instructed to notify .Mr. Mc- 
Kenzie that a refund of *1.:10 for each light used wuold 
be allowed ccmunencing April 1, 1909. 

Julian B. Harris. certifie<1 public accountant. re|>orted 
on the books of the board for the quarter ending March 
31, 1;H)9. and found the same correct. 

The form of lease presented by Secretary Thor|>e. for 
the berth of the lighi house tender Sc(|uoia, was ordered 
made in triplicate as requeste<l by the engineer of the 
12lh lighthouse district, and the secretary aulhoriaed 
to execute a lease in the name of the Hoard of Stale Har- 
bor Commissioners a lease of berih space on the north 
side of Howard street wharf No. 2. commencing at the 
bulkhead, thence a distance of 200 feet, wi h exclusive 
use of said space for the Setjuoia. and other vmsels of 
the lighthouse service; also a similar amount of shed 
space alongside said berth. 

Th<' Pacific Coast Coal Co. applied for 4^)0 feet of 
space on Pier 32 whi-n completed. The space is re(|uired 
to erect four hoisting towers. Space will also be reijuirv-d 
for a 200-lon pocket, and a bridge connecting the com- 
pany's properly with the pier. Actiim un the application 
was deferre*!, pending completion of plans for the pro- 
posed pier. 

The California Transpor4ation Co. requt-sted the 
Hoard to consider the advisability of erecting fire plugs 
on Jackson and Washington street wharves, for the pro- 
tection of state and other property; the company offere<i 
to furnish hose for the fire plugs; the matter was referred 
to the ensineer of the Hoard for report as to cost and 
practicability. 

The engineer of the Hoard submittc«l plans and s|>«'ci- 
fications for a shed on Filbert street wharf (Pier 21). with 
estimated cost of iitl.'>.(M)0: bids will be callod for. The 
engineer also submitted plans and alterations to adapt 
Central Hasin for handling lumber. No action was.laken 
in the matter. The estimated cost is ♦2r).0(K). 

Smith. Emery & Co. were awanbtl the contract for 
inspection and tejiling of cement for construction of 
PiiT No. 36, at a cost of 5 cents i>er barrel. Robert W. 
Hinit & Co. were awarded the testing ami inspection of 
s riict-ural ste<>l to be umhI on the same pier; at a cost of 
65 cents per ton. 



S»U at -Tkat Mas Pltla,' 



NORTHERN COAST NOTES. 
Seattle — The Alaskan <-xcursion steamer S|Mikane, 
belonging to the Pacific Coast S. S. Co . is receiving an 

73 Markrt StrM* 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



overhauling preparaiory to resuming her regular sum- 
mer excursion ruu between Seattle and southern Alaskan 
ports. 

The steamer Zampico, of the Pacific Coast S. S. Co., 
is laid up temporarily at this port. 

An expedition, lieaded by Ernest de Koven Leffeng- 
well. geologist and Arctic explorer, will leave this city 
about May 1, to map and survey northern Alaska. 

The auxiliary yawl Argo, which will carry the party 
to norlhern waters, is now being built in this city under 
the direction of Mr. de Koven Leflfengwell. The yawl 
is 50 feet over all, 141/^ feet beam, and has a 3-foot 
draft. She is equipped with a 2-eylinder 12-horse power 
auxiliary gas engine. The Argo will sail under the flag 
of the Chicago Yacht Club. 

A new steamship company has been organized under 
the name of the Best S. S. Co., with Chas. G. Coker, 
formerly of the Inland Navigation Co., at its head. The 
S. S. Victoria, which is being remodeled at a cost of 
$10,000, and another boat, which was recently purchased 
in the East, will be placed on the Bellingham-Seattle- 
Tacoma and Inland run within a month. The vessels of 
the company will carry passengers only, the freight traf- 
fic being left to Ihe regular freighters. 

The proposed straightening and widening of the 
channel of the Deervamisk will add twejity-four miles 
lo Seattle's water front. The aid of both the State and 
National Governments is being solicited to carry out 
the project. 

After thoroughly inspecting the condition of the fire- 
boat Snoqualmie, P. C. Hibbs, superintendent of con- 
struction of the two submarines to be built bj' the ]Moriin 
Co., rendered a report to the city council, stating that 
the fireboat was only in need of a few minor repairs to 
make it seaworihy. The city council was about to con- 
demn the boat, wiihout an investigatioTi, as unsafe and 
unfit for use in fighting fire. 

A naval board has selected a .site for the new store- 
house, to cost $260,000, to be constructed at Bremerton, 
in connection with the Puget Sound Navy Yard. 

The first of the six 6,000-ton steamships of the Osaka 
Shosen Kaisha, the Tacoma Maru. is scheduled to ar- 
rive in this port July 19. connecting with the Chicago, 
Milwaukee and St. Paul R. R. 

The second vessel of this company, the Seattle Maru, 
will be launched about May 1st. It was the inten- 
tion of the company to build but four steamers for this 
run, but the outlook for increased busiiu'ss warrants the 
addition of two. 

The Osaka Shosen Kaisha owns and operates 106 
steamships and is one of the largest Japanese shipping 
companies. 

The Tacoma-Vancouver S. S. Co. has filed articles of 
incorporation at the office of the Secretary of State, 
with a capitalization of $50,000. The corporation oper- 
ates the steamer Morning Star between Seattle and Van- 
couver. 

Victoria^ B. 0. — The government of Uruguay has 
agreed to compensate Captain Balcom, of this city, and 
associates, for the seizure of the sealing schooner Agnes 
G. Donahue, which was captured in the waters of Uru- 
guay three years ago while on a sealing expedition, and 
taken to Montevideo, where her crew were detained in 
prison for several months. Captain Ryan being sentenced 
to two years' imprisonment. The Agnes G. Donahue, 
which was one of a fleet of seven sealers that went from 
Halifax to the sealing grounds off Uruguay and Cape 
Horn, is now hunting in Antartic waters. 



Astoria, Ore. — The Benson Logging Co. have sold 
their seagoing life raft works to San Diego capitalists. 
The deal includes the old cradle at Wallace slough, two 
complete sea rafts of 5,000,000 feet each, a new cradle 
just launched, in which rafts carrying 6,000,000 feet will 
be constructed hereafter; all the hoisting machinery, 
pile drivers, chains, two large gasoline towing launches, 
etc., in this place, and the mills belonging to the com- 
pany at San Diego, Cal. The consideration was $400,000, 
and the new concern, under the name of the Benson 
Lumber Co., will begin operations at once. 

North Bend — The dock belonging to the Simpson 
Lumber Co. was partly destroyed by fire, supposed to be 
of inCendiary origin. The loss sustained will be from 
$15,000 to $20,000, with absolutely no insurance. 

The steamers operating from this wharf are the Al- 
liance and the M. F. Plant. The steamers will not be 
handicapped in discharging or taking on freight, as there 
is sufficient space on the old wharf undestroyed to 
handle the entire cargoes. 

Eureka — After being in danger of foundering from 
the day she left San Francisco, the gasnline schooner 
Kataka, belonging to the Klamath Packing and Trading 
Co., arrived here six days out from San Francisco. She' 
had three feet of water in her hold, and the cargo, com- 
posed of grain, flour, sugar and salt, was comparatively 
ruined by the salt water. 

Ihe Bank of Eureka has purchased from the Ben- 
dixon Shipl)uilding Co. all iron, timber, lumber and tools 
at Fairhaven, aiul all the logs at Bayside. The consid- 
era ion involved is given at $9,000. 

It is generally conceded that the Chas. R. McCormick 
Co. of San Francisco, Which concern now controls Fair- 
haven yards, will lake over the yards on this ba.y when 
the estate of the late J. Lendstrum is settled. 

Portland — The new steamer Ilyak, which is being 
built by II. Supple at the East Side yards for the Kitsap 
Navigation Co., of Seattle, will be ready to launch April 
20. The contract is for a boat that will make 20 miles 
an hour, and Ihe builder is confident that the Ilyak will 
attain a speed (uiual to if not to exceed that of the new 
steamer II. B. Kennedy. The Ilyak will be placed on the 
run between Seattle and Portland immediately after the 
official trial and acceptance by the Kitsap Co. 

Negotiations are being made to carry out the project 
of a regular steamship line betw'een this port and 
Yaquina Bay. 

The Port of Portland has authorized the purchase 
of the river towboat Oklahoma, and the tug Wallulu, 
owned by the 0. R. & N., for $85,000, and has declined to 
open bids for the construction of steel tugs. 

The French bark Joinville has been chartered to 
bring coal from Newcastle, Australia, to Portland. She is 
the first collier engaged to come from Australia to this 
port this season. , 

The Carmel, which struck the bar while entering the 
('Olunibia river on the night of March 26. and smashed 
her rudder post and part of her keel, has been repaired 
at a cost of $5,000. The Carmel was on the drydock 
thirteen days. 

To be prepared in case of an emergency, the owners 
of the Portland-Tillamook steamer Argo are equipping 
the vessel with towing hilts. The Argo will be able to 
handle any distressed vessels that nuiy be found off the 
coast, thereby earning possible salvage money. 

Tacoma — The British S. S. Shathgyh has been chart- 
ered for September grain loading by Kerr, Getford & Co. 
The .steamer was fixed at the union rate of 27s 6d. 



Sold at Stehcy'a News Depot, 3 Steuart St, 



,■* , 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MAUINE 



LOCAL NOTES. 
A meeting; of the seawall oomtiiission will lak(> place 
on April 22. at 10 o'cloi-k a. in., to eonsi<ler tin- attvisahility 
of (•(iiistruetinj,' another seetion of the seawall. Thf 
seawall eonuni.ssion is composed of the State l-toarti of 
Harbor ('onimi.ssioiiers, the (Jovernor of ih.- State, and 
the Mayor of San Franeiseo. 

• • • 

Thi-re is a possibility that Me.xieo will suhsidizo a 
line of steamers to ply between San Frain-i.seo and 
Seattle, anil west enast ports nf M.vieo and Central 
America. 

A bill has hei-ii ililn>dni-ed in * nni^rrss In that effect, 
and as the Department of Communications has recom- 
mended the subsidy. Ihe bill will no doubt become a law. 
The stejimship line which will receive the lenjjlh of this 
bill is the Jebsen Ostrander (.'o. 

According to the term.s of the concessions, the Jcb.scn 
Ostrander Co. will receive a subsidy of .i!r).(KM» per m mtli. 
and in turn must put steamers of .l.tKIO tons or over on 
the run. carry the Mexican nuiils free and admit two 
naval apprentices on board. 

• • • 

Captain I. Smith of the army tug Slocum has had 
his license suspended for ten days, and the license of 
Pilot T. C. Lockyen of the navy tUK Vi^ilanle, was sus- 
jieniled for five days. 

This is the result of the ci)i8ode which has plnn^ied 
the army and navy (Slocum and Vigilante) into <leadly 
eondiat. but after two eufrajrements in which the imvy 
was forceil to back water, a decisive victory was won 
by the navy. 

• • • 

The Associated Construction Co. secure«l the con- 
tract from thi' harbor commissioners to construct pier 
■Hi. The company's bid was !f!."i<>4.IK)(» with a unit bid 
on any extra cylinders that may be reipiired at the rate 
of *:{ per liiu-al foot. 

• • • 

W. B. Shirley of Lakeview, Oregon, is in San Fran- 
cisco to .secure plans and machinery for a new steamer 
lo be operated on (Joose hake. The boat will be com- 
plete in every detail, of 2<K» tons jrross burden, and fitted 
with a screw propeller. 

• • • 

The ship Tacoma. belonpinp to the Alaska Packer's 
J., was slijrhtly damatred by fin- wbile lyinjf at the 
Spear street wharf preparatory tr) leaving; for liristol 
Bay, Alaska. The ship will be delayed for several days 
while repairs are beinjj made and provisions replaced. 

• • • 

Th«; condition of the revenue cutter service on this 
Coast has pnmiptcil the Chamber of Commerce to p<>tition 
Senator Perkins to aid in improvinj: the .service; and siig- 
srestiuK that the VicksburK. now at Mare Island, be trans- 
ferred to this service. There are but six cutters from 
.\laska to Mexico. 

• • • 

The steamer Leader, which was reei-ntly bnme<1 to 

Jthe wafer's edfte in Stockton, will be com|)letclv recon- 

IfBtnicted. When completed under the new plans she 

will resemble in many ways the steamers T. (•'. Walker 

and J. I). Peters. 

The reconstniction of Ihe Leader on the new plans ami 
cqnippini; her with enpines, machinery, and other appli- 
ances will represent an expenditure of about .t20.flOO. 

8«I4 at Ferrr Kcwa 



The ofHciaU of the Jebgen and PaciHe Mail 8. S. r<»m- 
panicK have formed an alliance apainsl the ('oNmos tramp 
steamers, and wdl fix uniform steamer rates. 

Thi" (harKeursUeuniK tieet will abandon Pujfet S<uind 
as a |M»rt of call, with the sailinp of the steamer Admiral 
Hameliu, coniiuK direct to San Francisi-o from the Orient. 
The company haa found it unprofitable for ita liners to 
call at the northern eoaat porta, aa they are tmi larjre 
for this trade. 

The route of the Charp«>nrs-Rennis steamers has been 
from Antwerp and other Kuropean [xir.s to the Orient, 
Pupet Sound and San Franeiseo, rcturnint; home via 
ports on the west .•■.;,.i ,.r M.yieii. Central .\meriea. and 
South Americii 

« « • 

The Alaska Pacific 8, 8. Co. inaugurated a new 
schedule with the sailing of the S. S. Watson Friday in- 
steatl of Sal unlay, her usual sailinc <I«.V. The Huckman. 
which will arrive April 2(», will be aent to sea for S<>attle 
the fidlowinp tiay. 

The new steamer Admiral Sampsmi, which in heiuK 
Ihorotiphly overhauled at the Kisdon In»n Works, will 
be rea<ly .April 21 for San Pedro. 

• • • 

During the nionlh of March last, eiphty-M.\ sail and 
.steam vessels were built and oiTicially numbered in the 
Inite*! States, seventy-three of lh<m beinp steam, and 
nine sail, seventy-five of woihI, and seven of steel con- 
s. ruction. Of the to;al niindier thirty-five are for Atlantic 
and (lulf, twenty for Pacific, fnurleen for western rivers, 
twelve for (Jreat Lakes, and one for Por.o Rican s*'rvices, 
TI.e jrross tonnap(> of the vessels is 24.024 tons. 

Durinp the nine months ending .March .'il last, (i9ti 
vessels with a pross tonnape of S0,.'{:t2 were built and char- 
tered in this country, as compare<l with 7(m vetiK«'Is. with 
a pross toiHiaKc of 'Mi-i.HiH tons durini; the corn*spondinK 
nine months ending March 31, 1!H)8. 



LEGAL. 

Ail owner of a veasel. unless it is otherwise definitely 
siipulated. must pay members of a ship's crew for over- 
limi. I.'ecision rendennl by JudKe l)e Haven <if ihe 
U. 8. Listrict Court of San Francisco. 
• • • 

Admiralty coiirta an* lo be called u|Nm. according 
to foreign advices, to adjudicate a novel' case gniwing 
out of salvage from a British vessel in Japanese watt-rs. 
The case involves a suit to be brought by the Northern 
Pacific R. R. Co. for coIlecti(»n of freight charges on i»art 
of ihe cargo. The .Vew Vork Marilitm- Kegisfer makes 
the following report : 

A nice tpicslion of law is lik<'ly i.. ar.sc iii c i.inec- 
tion with the wn'ck of the British steamer Adato, which 
has now disa|)peared from vin-s. Th<* cargo saved from 
the wrecked steamer was landed by the Tokio .Marine 
Insurance Co.. anil Mes<»rK. Conn's & Co., Lloyd's agents, 
on behalf of the nndcruriters concenn-il. It is staled 
by the .lapancHc papers that the .Vorthcm Pacific R. R. 
Co.. which und«-rtook the transpor.ation of a (Mirtion 
of the cargo, ia tn institute legal proceedings in the Ameri- 
can courts against Ihe insurance companies (T) claiming 
payment of I he freight. A Yokohama pajwr says: "In 
some r|uartcni I he opinion is held that though it is im- 
pfissible to lay down a fixed pro|Ntsilion in the absence of 
<iefinile rules, or uses a|iplicable to such cases, it would 
not he improper for the Japanese law courts to accept 
such a suit as said to be intende<l by the American 
railway comjiany (Northern Pacific Railroad), inasmuch 

Staad. •*■ Kf a tl aii 



8 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



as the wreck occurred within Japanese waters. Siii)pos- 
ing, they say. the American tribunal decides in favor 
of the plaintiifs, it will have no means of enforcing its 
judgment except through the assistance of the law courts 
of Japan. For this reason the proposed lawsuit is of a 
nature to be instituted in Japan. Much atlenlion is now 

given to the subject in legal and insurance circles." 

« * * 

Notice to Leasing Seawall Lot. 

Notice is hereby given that bids will be received and 
opened by the Board of State Harbor Commissioners at 
their office, room 19, in the union depot and ferry house, 
foot of Market street, in the city and county of San 
Francisco, state of California, at the hour of 10 o'clock 
a. m., on Thursday, the 22d day of April, 1909, for the 
letting or leasing by said board of seawall lot No. 16, to- 
gether with the improvements existing thereon. Said 
seawall lot is situated on the water front of the city 
and county of San Francisco and is bounded by Drumm, 
Pacific and East streets. 

Said property will be let to the highest and best bidder 
for a term not exceeding twenty-five (25) years, subject, 
however, to the power of the board, to reject any and 
all bids, and in accordance with printed terms and condi- 
tions of lease, to which reference is hereby made, which 
are on file in the office of the secretary of the board, 
copies of which will be furnished bidders on application. 

Bids must set forth the purposes for which said lot 
shall be used and the bidder must agree with the state- 
ment of his bid, if the lease is awarded to him, shall be 
embodied in said lease, and he must also agree that said 
lot shall be used onlv for the purposes set forth in his bid. 

W. V. Stafford. Walter E. Uennison and P. S. Teller, 
Board of State Harbor Commissioners. W. B. Thorpe, 

secretary. April 8, 1909. 

• • * 

L. A. Pederson, trading as the Bristol Bay I'acking 
Co. of San Francisco, has sued the Red Salmon Packing 
Co. for $3,000 for transporting the crew of the wrecked 
ship Lucille from Nakuek river, Alaska, to San Fran- 
cisco. A contract signed by 6. M. Anderson, superin- 
tendent of the Red Salmon Packing Co., at that time, 
agreeing to pay $3,000 for the transportation of the 168 
men comprising the crew, was introduced by the plaintiff. 

The suit was postponed for one week. 

• • * 

Judgment .was given against the Thomas Calstens 
Packing Co., Taeoma, Wash., in the Kobe court of Japan 
on the 10th inst., in the claim made against Mrs. Sato 
Mine, owner of the S. S. Taiyeke Maru for damages. 
Of 805 casks of beef shipped on board the vessel, 77 were 
damaged en route. 

The reasons for the dismissal of the claim are not 

yet published. 

SOUTHERN COAST NOTES. 

San Diego — Chas. Steffgen has secured the contract 
to construct the wharf, buildings and tank foundations 
proposed by the Standard Oil Co., on the water front 
between South Twenty-fifth and South Twenty-sixth 
streets, the contract price being $22,500. 

The wharf will be 1043 feet in length, with a "T" 50 
feet long at the end. The width of the wharf will be 
10 feet. 

The Board of Harbor Commissioners are collecting 
data as to the be.st location of the sea wall which is to 
be built at San Diego Bay, for which the State Legis- 
lature at the last session appropriated $100,000. The 
fund for the construction of the sea wall will not be 
available before June. 



San Pedro — The Newport Land Co. have filed an ap- 
plication in the U. S. Engineer's office for permission to 
dredge in the channel of Newport Bay, near the entrance, 
'the Land Company is preparing to reclaim the west end 
of Balboa Island. 

The Los Angeles Harbor Commission have protested 
against the application filed by the Bannings and others 
for permission to build a wharf outside the harbor lines 
at Wilmington. The protest will be forwarded to the 
Secretary of War. 

Local boatmen have also raised the cpiestion as to 
whether the county supervisors have the right to close 
Catalina Island to the boats of any other company ex- 
cept the Bannings. The boatmen want the question 
setiled and have appealed to the War Department for 
light on the subject. 

HAWAII NOTES. 

The lighthouse which is in course of construction at 
]\Iakapun point, the eastern extremity of the island, will 
be completed as soon as the lantern, w'hich is now being 
brought from San Francisco, arrives. The light when 
established will be the finest one in the world and will 
guide vessels for this port arriving from San Francisco 
and other Coast ports. 

Captain Moses, lighthouse inspector of this district, 
is well satified with the new lighthouse tender Kukui, 
de'. ailed to this division, which has returned from an in- 
spection of the navigation aids on the islands of Hasaii 
and Maui. The heavy crane for taking up and laying 
buoys. M'ith which the Kukui is equipped, is too cumber- 
.some for the existing conditions in the islands, and it 
\^ ill be replaced by a boom arrangement similar to that 
on inter-island freight carrying steamers. 



STEAMSHIP CARLOS. 

(Frontispiece.) 

One of the recent additions to the lumber fleet is 
worthy of more than passing notice. Built in San Fran- 
cisco by Stone and Van Bergen, the Carlos was specially 
designed for the service required and accommodations 
tor 46 passengers. Staunch and equipped in detail, the 
steamer was launched April 22, 1908. and in command of 
Captain A. Donaldson was placed immediately on the run 
between this port and Grace Harbor. Her dimensions 
are 196 feet, light load, waterline; 40 feet beam; 15 feet 
depth of hold, and contains a 650 horse power triple ex- 
pansion engine and Scotch marine boilers; is 865 gross 
and 541 net tons; and on the trial trip developed a speed 
of 91/2 miles. She has freight capacity of 900.000 feet 
of lumber, handled by four cargo booms and winches. 
The popularity of the Carlos is manifested by a clean 
record of a full passenger list for every trip since the 
initial voyage. 

The Carlos is owned and operated by J. Homer Vritch. 
Inc., shipping and commission merchants of San Fran- 
cisco, who also own and operate several other vessels in 
the luml)er, wood and coal traffic. The Homer with ac- 
connnodations for 48 passengers will shortly make a trip 
to Seal Islands. The Carmel and Capistrano are lumber 
schooners exclusively, with a capacity of 750.000 feet each 
and no passenger accommodations. 

The four vessels mentioned enjoy the reputation of 
composing the most efficient fleet of lumber vessels on 
the Coast, invariably carry full cargoes from each end 
of their respective runs, and render satisfactory ser- 
vice in every particulai-. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



9 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Office: 95 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



r E L K P H O N E 1) O U (J L A S 



4 3 2 5 



THOS. C. BUTTERWORTH 
A. B. BUTTHRWORTH 
M. DAVIS 



GMi«r«l M«witf«r 
Advcnitinf Ucp«rtmcal 



Published by the Pacific Merchant Marine Publishing Co. 
in San Francisco, CaHfomia, every Saturday morning in the 
interest and development of the American Merchant Manne. 

WILL BE SENT TO ANY ADDRESS m (Ac UNITED STATES 
$2.50 a Year 



ADVERTISING RATES 
Address All Communications to 



ON APPLICATION 

the PaciBc Merchant Marine 



i 



L'onsitliTiiij; the development of coastwise eoniinerce 
in the I'nited State.s. we have much to be thankful for. 
To those enjoying its benefits, and others who fail to 
reeojfnize the interconnection of a mercantile and defen- 
sive navy, no1hin>: remains to be done for the future 
development of an American Merchant Marine. If such 
is the case, the defense of this country enjoys a unique 
and unenviable position, (.'oastwise and navigation laws 
of the I'nited States form a concrete mass upon which 
has been built the greatest industrial system the world 
has ever known. Those same lejrislators who made the 
coastwise and na vibration laws have also dealt with over- 
sea legislation. Sufficient time has elapsed to convince 
them of their own wisdom. If not prone to egotism, how- 
ever, the followinj: statistics are convincing evidence of 
the stimulus in shipbuilding and the increa-se in coastwise 
trade for the past few years. In 1880 the gross tonnage of 
American merchant vessels amounted to 4.(»(J8,().U tons. 
In 1860, before the era of iron and steel ship construction, 
and uiuler protection of ship subsidies, American mer- 
chant vessels aggregated 5,299,175 tons, and controlled 
80% of the trade with foreign countries. Ten years pre- 
vious England increased her ship subsi<lies. from which 
perioil began the rapid decline r>f the American merchant 
marine. In 18.58 France had adopted ship subsidies and 
America lost 80% of the foreign trade, which continued 
to decrease until the opening of and during the Civil 
War, at the close of which, in 1865, foreign commerce 
deprtviated '.ia%. A slight increase developed after the 
war, and continued until 1870. The upward tendency, 
however, was small, a.s but .15% of the foreign trade was 
being carried by American vessels. In 1868 Spain adopted 
subsidies, the following countries doing likewise: Bel- 
gium in 1873; Netherlands, 1877; Italy. 1878; Swetlen, 
18S2; Norway. 188.S; Germany. 1885; Argentine Republic 
and Brazil. 1886; Mexico. Australia and Japan, 1887; Can- 
ada. Russia. Chile. Portugal. Hungary and Trinidad. 1888. 
During this time American shipping interests decline<l 
rapidly, and continued so until the present time. An<l 
the I'nited States is carrying 7.7 per cent of the over-sea 
traffic. 



For the fiscal year ending Jiuie .10. 1908, 22,451 veaaela 
wiih tonnage of 6,:ni,8()2 were engage<i in coastwise trade 
in the I'nited Staten. At the same time 1.55:i veaseU 
with a gross tonnage of 9;}0.4l;{ were engaged in the 
foreign traiie. 

Comparing the figures given for tonnage of wooden 
vessels in 1860 with iron vessels in 11M(7, the difference ir 
6(K),(K)0 tons in favor of the year i»U7 ; but in comitariauii 
with the tonnage of vessels engaged in foreign trade for 
1908, the 600.000 tons remain to the credit of coastwise 
and navigation laws. 

That shipbuilding has increased under the protect 1..11 
of the coastwise laws is shown by the following figures, 
which inchule sailing vessels, steam vessels, canal boats, 
and barges: When in 1905 there were 1.102 vessels built 
. with ;«0,318 gross tons, in 1!MI8 there were 1.457 vessels 
with a gross ttnuiage of 614,216. which is the largest an- 
nual tonnage output in the history of I'nited States ship- 
.vards. The nearest approach to the latter figures »K-curred 
in the fiscal year emling June 30. 1885. when under ship 
subsidies the output of American ship.wirds was .58:j.450 
gross tons. The increase in American merchant shipping 
for the fiscal year ending June .10, 1908. was 426.651 
gross tons, the nearest approach to which was aUo made 
in 18.55 when the increase amount*><l to 409,099 grous tons. 
Despite these startling figures, statislicjs and efforts to 
encourage shipping as an indirect means of increasing the 
power of the I'nited States, extending the tratle thereof, 
to encourage the art of building and sailing of ships, and 
providing seamen; and last, but not least, an auxiliary 
defense; Congress has persistently avoitled the develop, 
meiit of the American merchant marine. 

Trade is but the natural stimulant of indiulry; and to 
be overbalanced in trade is to be overbalancf>d in jMiwer. 
These are facts material and visible, and no less real than 
the navy, the postoffice or custom house. Admitting that 
all other details of the (iovernment are complete, is a 
merchant marine an artificial want! Are the present pros- 
F)erous conditions of the I'nited States teeming with mis- 
chief for the future? Is the problem of the American mer- 
chant marine more difficult to solve than the progress made 
in the past l.'W yearsf Have we no means of investigating 
the relation of events in the history of other countriesf 
Or is the aspiration something of which we are incaimblet 
If so, we should stop at once, and begin immetliHtely 
where we left off. 

It is intieed clear that present commercial inten-Ats 
have not kept pace with the industrial development ; nor 
does it follow that all questions are merge<l in an efficient 
merchant marine; but it can be said advisedly that the 
destiny of the I'nited States rests in the absolute control 
of its own commerce. 

That the elTecliveness of the navy must defiend on the 
maintenance of merchant shipping, remaias undisputed. 
Everj- event in the past history of the United Slates has 
demonstrated this fact. The next offensive act against 
this country by any foreign nation will bring the fact 
home wHth a desire to forget the price it has cost. The 
aggressor may hold temporary control, but the price to 
the United States will remain the same; and the problem 
of an American merchant marine will be settle<1 for all 
lime, for then we will have learne<I the importance of its 
development. 

The comparative growth of the tonnage of merchant 
navies in some of the foreign countries above quoted, from 
1860 to 1907. has bei-n as follows : 

American from .5.299.175 to 6,938.794 

English from .5.710.968 to 18.709,5;<7 



B«ia at Perrr M*wa Maa^ Baa Fraactoca 



10 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Belgian from 33,111 to 1 85,630 

Italian, 1870 from 1,012,164 to 1,321,131 

Swedish, 1870 from 3-16,862 to 921,02-1 

Norwegian from 558,927 to 1,960,589 

German, 1870 from 982,355 to 4,232,145 

French from 996,124 to 1,779,214 

The total documental merchant shipping of the United 
States at the close of the fiscal year June 30, 1908, com- 
prising 25,425 vessels of 7,365,445 tons, is the greatest in 
the history of the United States, and is larger than the 
tonnage under any other flag except the British, the next 
nearest approach to American tonnage being Germany. 
Ihese comparative facts may be verified by reference to 
the table above, and must be qualified by the observation 
that over one-third of our merchant tonnage is employed 
on the Great Lakes, and the great bulk of the remainder 
is employed in purely domestic transportation. 

During the year we had but seven steamships regu- 
larly crossing the Atlantic to Europe, two of which have 
recently been transferred to a foreign flag. Crossing the 
Pacific we have but six steamships, and we have no steam- 
ships under the American flag on route to South America 
below the Isthmus and the Caribbean Sea, to Australia, or 
to Africa. 

The decade following the war with Spain has been 
the period of greatest activity our shipyards have ever 
known. During these ten years the total output has been 
4,295,451 gross tons, while during the ten years which 
culminated in the panic of 1857 the total output was 3,904,- 
233 gross tons. The American shipbuilding industry is 
accordingly, again, absolutely as great as it was in the 
years when the United States was a close competitor with 
the United Kingdom for first place on the sea. This stim- 
ulus occurred during the operation of the postal subven- 
tion act of March 3, 1845, and which was abandoned in 
1858. Relatively, however, shipbuilding in the country 
has taken its place in the ranks of secondary industries, 
and which it retains chiefly through the large amount of 
naval construction not included in the figures just given. 
In the meantime shipbuilding in Great Britain has in- 
creased sixfold within half a century. For several years 
past we have virtually ceased to build ships for the foreign 
trade, and the industry owes its existence almost wliolly 
to the laws restricting domestic transportation by water 
to vessels built in the United States. 



THE AQUATIC IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION OF 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

On December 11, 1908, a number of public-spirited 
gentlemen interested in pleasure and small commercial 
craft on the bay, also those interested in the develop- 
ment of aquatic pastimes, fishing and bathing, met in 
the Hall of Justice and discussed the superior advan- 
tages of the harbor for aquatic sport of every descrip- 
tion, and the undeveloped possibilities whereby, at rea- 
sonable expense, San Francisco bay could be improved, 
thereby adding materially to the fame and susceptibilities 
of this wonderful harbor, to the extent of developing a 
resource of the State, which, like many other of our re- 
sources, has never been appreciated. 

Themeeting was called to order by Temporary Chair- 
jnan C. M. Farrell and Secretary pro tem W. H. Mead. 
The following named gentlemen were present and signed 
the roll of membership: C. M. Farrell, Wm. H. Mead, 
J. W. Staley, Chas. Wilson. T. J. Fitzpatrick, W. H. Her- 
rington, J. E. Scully, T. S. Williams and J. J. Cronin. 



- Subsetpient meetings were held January 26, February 
5, February 26 and March 12. , In the interim efficient ser- 
vice was rendered by the various committees appointed. 
Conferences were held with the Board of Supervisors, 
the United States authorities and others. Encourage- 
ment and data were obtained sufficient to warrant the 
I)reparation of elaborate plans designed by newly-elected 
member J. M. Punnett. The plans show a proposed 
water park to be built by the municipality, adjoining 
Fort Mason, on the south shore of the entrance to the 
harbor. Incorporated in the plans are a harbor for pleas- 
ure boats, aquarium, swimming pool, fishing wharf, 
housings for rowing craft, music stand, and children's 
sections, which, if completed as designed, would rival the 
celebrated aquatic parks of the old world and later 
ones of the United States. 

The extensive marine aquariums and water parks at- 
tached to the world-famous biological stations of Naples, 
Brighton, Berlin, Hamburg, Crystal Palace and elsewhere 
in Europe all receive their ju.st share of the tourist 
patronage; and a visit to the wonderful exhibitions at 
these places forms a subject of absorbing interest in the 
tourist's account of his travels. Americans, however, 
take pardonable pride in the aquarium in old Fort Clin- 
ton, on the Battery, in New York, managed since 1903 by 
the New York Zoological Society. The aquarium and 
park is one of the largest and finest in the world. When 
the Pacific Coast realizes the present importance of its 
fisheries, wherein are engaged 226 vessels of 10,382 tons, 
giving employment to 19,658 people, with invested- capital 
of $12,839,949, and that the annual product is $6,680,866, 
and that these figures are exceeded only, collectively, by 
the south Atlantic states. Gulf states, middle Atlantic 
states, and New England stales of the United States, and 
as a whole in foreign countries by Canada, Japan, Nor- 
way, Spain and Great Britain, every meritorious effort 
to increase our marine resources, whether for pleasure or 
profit, should receive the support of every individual 
interested in the progress of Pacific Coast industries. 

The last meeting of tlie Acjuatic Improvement Asso- 
ciation was held in the chambers of Judge E. P. Mogan, 
in the Grant building, on Monday evening, April 12, F. G. 
Phillips presiding and W. L. Busletemp secretary. The 
meeting was representative of aquatic interests. Re- 
ports were received from Supervisors Rixford and Mc- 
Leran. Communications were read containing the en- 
dorsement of the Corinthian Yacht Club, the Mission 
Promotion Association, the Polk Street District Improve- 
ment Club, and numerous other civic and commercial 
organ i-zat ions. 

The report of the committee on constitution and by- 
laws was read and finally unanimously adopted. The 
plans of Mr. Punnett were exhibited and unanimously 
adopted. It was decided to keep the charter roll of 
membership open until the next meeting, to be held on 
Friday evening. May 14. The following additional names 
were placed on the roll of membership : F. G. Phillips, 
W. L. Bush, W. F. Wood, J. .M. Punnett, W. L. Spencer, 
R. C. Ward, J. G. Gallagher, Chas. Creighton, R. H. Ohea, 
Geo. James, P]dw. Lynch. II. K. McKevitt, W. A. Remens- 
perger, P. T. Carroll, James Wilson, 0. G. Bell, W. J. 
Hogg, N. Prendegast, W. F. Wood, Supervisor Rixford, 
Thos. C. Butterworth, Paul Carroll, Jos. Sundee. O. 
Kottner, J. J. Driseoll, E. Baraty, M. Craven, T. C. Todt, 
J. Davis, R. C. Ward, Dr. T. L. Mahonev, W. 0. Patch, 
A. G. Deel, and John Phillips. 



Sold at Steacr'a Newa Depot. 3 Steuort St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



u 




THE SCHOONER YACHT LUKA. 

The accoiii|)aiiyiii'; cut is of tin- 14(l-f(><>t Rchooner 
Liika, owiK'il l>y (.'aptaiii Mill*-r of lionoliilii. and KaiUnl 
by him iiiuU-r the pennant of the Hawaiian Yaeht Club. 

The Luka was built in New York and iwe»l for some 
time as a pilot boat. She proveil to be very speedy, and 
aa she was suitable in every way for a eruise, was buut;ht 
and fitted up as a yacht by parties intending to make a 
round-the-world cruise. She was .sailed as far as Hono- 
lulu, but owin^ to a disa<!rceinent arising anions the 
owners the eruise ended at that port, and she was bouKht 
at auction l)y a firm in the Koano trade between the 
Hawaiian iBlands and Lason. After making two trips 
the new owners found that she was too small for their 
purpose, and she whs again auctioned otT and bought in 
at a very reasonable tij.Miri' l)y Captaiti Miller. 



The schooner yacht Magic has been purchase*! by 
Captain Harkus and is on Klarman's ways utidergoint; 
extensive repairs. Frank Hartlett. the well kiittwn 
yachtsman, is to sail on the Magic this s«*ason. 

Com. Prank Stone hat! a party otit on the Marian 
laat Sunday and cruised about the bay. finally anchoring 
off the Corinthian Club, where a luncheon waa Kervc^l. 
The Marian has proven herself an excellent sea b<»at ami 
ia especially good tm the wind. 

The various clubs about the bay are busy arranging 
tlieir sailing programs for the coming season. \S'e hope 
to publish these in an early issue. 

The Pacific Merchant Marine, in undertaking to pub- 
lish the current yachting news, moat earnestly d«>sire« 
the Kupi>ort of our local yachtsmen, and word of any- 
thing going on in the yachting litie which may be of 
general inliri'st will bi' heartily appreeialetl. 




THE 8CIIOONEK YACHT LUKA 



She was put into the hands of Sorrenson & Lisle, the 
local boatbtiilders. and entirely refitted in a very elabor- 
ate style, and is now one of .the finest yachts on the 
Pacific. Her cabins are entirely finished in Kt>a or Ha- 
, waiian mahogany. She ha-s an electric light and refrig- 
'erating plant, hot an<l cold running water in all of her 
five .staterooms, and is in fact modern in every respect. 

Her hull construction is white oak and eastern cinlar 
throughout, and she is built to stand the roughest usage. 
The members of the Hawaiian Yacht (Mub are much 
elated over this addition to their already large fleet, and 
laa she will undoubtedly be entered in the next trans- 
Pacific race, it ia not at all unlikely that she will carry 
aft the cup. 



STUART B. DUNBAR 



211 l!i rkkr BIdt. 
MarkM k 8pnr Sl>. 
fUn Franram 



NAVAL ARCHITECT 



rime Kmnj 4731 
Y>cht> A Work Boali of All CluM* D« «i «»«J A Caulractian Sup«rial*md<d 



The Pacific Motor IJoat Club, contrary to a rumor 
recently circulatc<l that it inten<led to disband, is <loing 
better than ever, and the roll of members has largely 
increased. The opening will take place some time in 
May. and preparations for a •-•rl..v ..f raees nr.. imw 
being ma<le. 

Pete Swanson's secret is out ai lasi i The ki.\i_\ -iimt 
launch now building at his shop in Tibiimn is for a Mrs. 
Allen of Honolulu. an<l is to b<- used as a ferry between 
Mrs. Allen's summer home at Pearl Harbor and Honolulu. 
The boat is to be equippe<l with a 1(K) H. P. Staiwlanl 
engine and will make the trip to the Islands under her 
own power. 



Fred Klarman 



re 

SttiFni 



BOAT BUILDER 



\,r^ \ Marw Wari. Tbmna. Cat. 
PhoiiT .M«» 201 
• Ob*. 211 BkUtt Btdt .M«rLn«.Spr.iS<m«i Ptxm K^.nr 47)1 



Cnh d E<nT DanvOM Bdk Y«<A mi SUfi m Swct. 
Htvkmt Prcaw^ AMlfciJ To 



»c 1 at Fcrrr Strtm Stasd, taa F raarUco 



12 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



The San Francisco Yacht Club will hold its opening 
jinks on Saturday, May 8, at the clubhouse in Sausalito 
and on the following Sunday morning the boats will line 
up for their first scheduled cruise. 

• * • 

The yawl lola, formerly of the California Yacht Club 
and the sloop Mary, formerly of the Vallejo Yacht Club, 
are both enrolled in the San Francisco's fleet for the 
coming season. 

• # » - 

Mr. Harry Diamond of the Corinthian Club has made 
several alterations in his sloop Aeolus. He has had the 
center board and casing removed, thereby obtaining a 
largely increased cabin space and is substituting a wheel 
for the tiller. 

• « • 

John E. Hax has kept his large cruising motorboat in 
commission throughout the winter, and has her in good 
shape to make the trip to Sacramento for the water 
carnival on the twenty-fourth of this month. 

Speaking of the water carnival, it will be well worth 
Ihe trip to Sacramento. There will be races of the dif- 
ferent classes of motorboats, swimming and rowing con- 



tests, night and day fireworks, together with everything 
that goes toward making up a Venetian water carnival. 

Sacramento will be in gala attire and is making great 
preparations to welcome her sister cities of the Coast. It 
would be well for those intending to make the trip to 
engage their accommodations in Sacramento before- 
hand, as a large crowd is expected to attend and the 
hotel facilities will be taxed to the utmost. 

There will be a good many entries in the motorboat 
races from about the bay, most notable among which will 
be the KonOcti, owned by Prentiss Gray. This boat has 
beaten everything on the Coast up to the present time. 

Unfortunately few of the yachts are now in commis- 
sion or there would undoubtedlj' be a large attendance 
of the yachtsmen, which would add greatly to the success 
of the carnival. 

The Sacramento Motor Boat Club is rapidly making 
itself felt in boating circles on the Coast and has a large 
and enthusiastic membership, made up of some of the 
most prominent citizens of the river city. The manage- 
ment of Ihe coming carnival rests largely with this club, 
and of the success of the venture there is not the slightest 
doubt. It will in all probability be made an annual 
affair. 



FOE SALE. 




The 50-foot waterlinc schooner yacht Marian was built 
by day's work for a capitalist of San Francisco, and should 
be seen to be appreciated. It is equipped and built in de- 
tail for ocean cruises or short pleasure trips. Nothing re- 
mains to start the Marian for a long or short voyage, 
except the provisions required. Yachting circles about the 



bay are anxiously watching the possibility of an outside 
buyer, as the Marian is considered to be the most promis- 
ing addition to the yachting fleet in this harbor for many 
years. Inspection is invited. 

Inspection or communication, Stone and Van Bergen, 
foot of Baker street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Sold nt Steaoy's News Depot. 3 Stennrt St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



13 



THIRTY-FOUR FOOT AUXILIARY YAWL 




CAKIN AKKA.NUEMKNT 




I- «r 

CONSTRUCTION PLAN HHOWING AUXILIARY INSTALLATION 



k 



THIRTY-FOUR FOOT AUXILIARY YAWL. 

Tlu' craft shown above was lifsiniu'd by Stuart M. 
Dunbar for use on San Francisco Bay. and for outjiide 
cruising. The auxiliary c<piipment consists of a a-horse 
power sinjjle cylinder "Standard" enjrine. and is so 
pliict'd that it does not interfere with the cabin aceommo- 
dations of the boat, and yet is easily accessible when 
needed. The propeller is two-bladed and twenty inches 
in diameter, and will decrea.se the speed of the l)oat 
very little while under sail, the power shown bein^ 
expected to develop a speed of about five miles an hour, 
amply sufficient to buck the avera^ff ti<le and brinj; the 
boat to her moorings in a tiat calm. 

This type of boat has proved its practicability in 
Kas ern waters an<l it is to be hoped that before loiiK 
the Western yachtmen will realize that a little |)ower iu 
a yacht is a verj' handy thinif in case of emergency. At 
present there are only a couple of boats on the bay thus 
equipped and the installation is far from bein>; modern 
and practical. 

The general dinuMiMniis are: 

L. O. A M feet 6 inches 

L. W. L 25 feet 

Beam Midship 10 feet 

P'reeboard bow ! . . . 3 feet 6 inches 

Freeboard lea.st 2 feet 5 inches 

Freeboard stem 2 feet 9 inches 

Sail area (about > 600 stpiare feet 

Headroom 6 feet 

S«ld at •That Mas Pit 



We are publishing this week Circular No. 1S8. !)e|)art- 
ment of Commerce and Labor on K(|uipment of Motor 
Boats. We trust that this will be appreciated, and 
taken to heart by all you motor-boat men. rnfortunately 
the average man operatin^r a |)leasure launch i>r motfir- 
boat is in a blis.sful state of ignorance as to the rul<*s of 
the road. nee<'ssary equipment, etc., and a careful study 
of this circular will not be amiss. 

For some reason impossible to ex|>lain. it has come 
to be the general impr(*ssion that anyone can nm a motor- 
boat. .\'ow this is radically wrong. Anyone can learn 
to operate a gas engine in a comjmrativcly short time, 
but no one should be allowed to take out a motor-boat 
without a proper knowle<lge of the rules of the road. 
e(|uipnient. etc. This knowljnlge is absolutely esMential. 
not only for the protection of the o|>eralor, but for th<' 
safety of others, and it will be a happy day for yachts- 
men and others who are frecpiently conifM-lleil to dtnlge 
the ignorant and foolhanly launch operator when the 
law is [irnperly enforced. 

EQUIPMENT OF MOTOR BOATS. 

March 26. IfM. 
To Collectors of Ciirtcms and olb«ra concfrmed: 

The Dpoartment hsii rereUcd in(]ulr'<>s an to iho (>quipinetit 
reauired bv the pel of .tunc 7. 1897. and H«M:llon 4426. Revised 
Stalutes. to Ix' carried <:n KUiall motor venBelK. In order to InRtire 
unlforniUv In the rnrnrrenient of «bls law. vou are informeil that 
small motor vesHels nnviKni< d In your dlHirlrt should l>c cqu1|iped 
as follows: 

Whistle, Fog Horn, and Bell. 
All motor vessels, without regard to size or use. must be pro- 
vided with an elHclent whistle, an efltdrnt foK horn, and an 
efficient t>ell .No fixe or stvle of whistle, fo^ horn, or bell Is 
prescribed, provided It Is available and sufficient for the use for 

tB," 73 Markt-t Slr««t 



14 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



which :t is intended. The wcrd "efficient" must be talcen in its 
ordinary sense, considered with reference to the object intended 
by the provisions in which the word appears, namely, the pro- 
duction of certain signals. The power to operate the whistle is 
not prescribed, but it must be of such a character as to produce 
a "ijrolonged bl»st," which is defined as of from four to six 
seconds durr'.tion. 

Lights. 
When navigated between sunset and sunrise, they must carry 
regulation lights, namely: 

1. A bright white light at the bow or head of the vessel. 

2. A green light on the starboard side and a red light on the 
port side provided with proper screens. The side lights may be 
so affixed to the coaming or to the sides of the declc house as to 
te properly screened, provided the lantern is backed with metal. 
Whenever the green and red side lights can not be fixed, they 
must be Itept lighted and ready for use as provided by article 
6 of the act of June 7, 1897. 

The law does not appear to permit the use of a three-color 
"combination" light. 

3. A white light aft, showing all around the horizon, to range 
with the head light. 

Copies of Rules. 
Such vessels are also reouired to have on board two printed 
copies of the rules which must be observed by them, which rules 
will be furnished by local inspectors of steam vessels on request. 

Life-Preservers. 
All such vessels of 15 gross tons or less engaged in carrying 
passengers for hire, in addition to the equipment above stated, 
are required to carry one life-preserver for each passenger 
carried and shall be operated only in charge of a person duly 
licensed by the local inspectors of steam vessels. Such vessels 
when used only as private pleasure boats and not at any time 
engaged in the carriage of passengers for hire are not obliged 
to comply with the provisions of law in regard to life-preservers 
and licensed operators. (The life-preservers must be of the sort 
prescribed by the regulations of the Board of Supervising In- 
spectors. They must bear the United States inspectors' stamp.) 
While the law dees not require it, the Department recom- 
mends, in the interest of safety to life, that a life-preserver for 
each person on board be carried on all motor boats, -regardless 
of size or occupation. 



Documenting, Inspection, Etc. 

All motor boats of over five net tons engaged in the carriage 
of freight or passengers tor hire must be documented; that is to 
say, licensed by the collectors of customs. (Vessels under five 
net tons are not documented in any case.) The license of the 
vessel obtained from the collector of customs (designated a docu- 
ment) is r.dditional to and must not be confounded with the 
license required for the operator of a motor boat of fifteen gross 
tons or less carrying passengers for hire. 

Motor vessels of over fifteen gross tons engaged in the car- 
riage of passengers or freight for hire must also be inspected 
by the United States local inspectors of steam vessels and must 
carry a licensed engineer and a licensed pilot. 

Documented vessels must have name and home port on stern 
and name on each bow. Official measurement is necessary only 
in case of vessels requiring to be documented. 

While the law does not require it, the Department recom- 
mends that the name i:e conspicuously displayed on undocu- 
mented motor boats. 

HERBERT KNOX SMITH, Acting Secretary. 



THE INDIANA'S POSITION. 

The steamer Indiana lies a mile northeast of Tosco, 
100 feet from the shore on large boulders from engine-room 
forward; aft sand bottom, and between decks upholds 
2 and 4 tide ebbs and flows; forward hold, engine and 
fire rooms leaking, but under control; after hold still dry, 
slight movement of vessel and damage to bottom prob- 
ably increasing. Hope to save 700 tons of cargo,- includ- 
ing 5000 bags coffee. 

The steamer City of Sydney left Magdalena Bay April 
12 with most of the Indiana's perishable freight on board. 
The dry cargo will be placed on board the steamer Mel- 
ville Dollar. 



TIDE TABLE TO WEEK ENDING SATURDAY, APRIL 7. 
Golden Gate Entrance to San Francisco Bay. 



HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 



APRIL 





Da5 


of 


Time and Height of High and Low Water 




Moon 






















W 
Mon. 


Mo. 
5 


T. 


H. 


T. 


H. 


T. 


H. 


T. 


H. 


Full 


5:20 


1.4 


11:12 


4.9 


17:28 


1.3 


23:48 


6.2 




Tues. 


6 


5:55 


1.1 


12:15 


4.9 


17:56 


1.6 






' 


Wed. 


7 


0:02 


5.2 


6:26 


O.S 


13:00 


4.7 


18:30 


2.0 




Thur. 


8 


0:26 


5.1 


7:00 


O.H 


13:53 


4.4 


19:04 


2.4 




Fri. 


9 


0:50 


5.2 


7:45 


0.5 


14:54 


4.2 


19:42 


2.8 




Sat. 


10 


1-13. 


5.2 


8:35 


0.3 


16:10 


4.0 


20:22 


3.2 




Sun. 


11 


1:45 


5.2 


9:30 


0.3 


17:32 


4.2 


21:28 


3.5 


S 


Mon. 


12 


2:32 


5.1 


10:32 


0.2 


18:42 


4.3 


22:35 


3.6 


3rd. quar. 


Tues. 


13 


3:50 


5.0 


11:35 


0.2 


19:34 


4.5 








Wed. 


14 


0:02 


3,5 


5:30 


4,9 


12:38 


0.1 


20:15 


4.8 




Thur. 


IS 


1:15 


3,1 


7:00 


5.1 


13:36 


0.1 


20:48 


5.1 




Fri. 


16 


2:14 


2.4 


8:08 


5.3 


14:30 


0.2 


21:24 


6.4 


P 


Sat. 


17 


3:05 


1,7 


9:12 


5.4 


15:25 


0.4 


21:56 


5.7 


E 


Sun. 


18 


3:55 


1.0 


10:08 


5.5 


16:10 


(1.7 


22:30 


5.K 


New 


Mon. 


19 


4:42 


0.4 


11:05 


5.6 


16:52 


1.0 


23:05 


6.0 




Tues. 


20 


5:23 


0.0 


12:04 


5.4 


17:36 


1.5 


23:40 


6.1 




Wed. 


21 


6:10—0.3 


13:04 


5.3 


18:18 


2.0 








Thur. 


22 


0:20 


R.O 


7:02- 


-0.5 


14:07 


4.9 


19:02 


2.4 




Fri. 


23 


1:00 


5.9 


7:65- 


-0.5 


15:20 


4.5 


19:53 


3.0 


N 


Sat. 


24 


1:44 


5 ft 


8:53- 


-0 , 3 


16:35 


4.5 


20:50 


3.3 




Sun. 


25 


2:30 


5,4 


9:54—0.1 


17:46 


4.6 


22:02 


3.6 




Mon. 


26 


3:33 


4,9 


10:55 


0.1 


18:60 


4.6 


23:35 


3.6 


1st. quar. 


Tues. 


27 


4:52 


4,7 


11:55 


0.3 


19:40 


4.9 








Wed. 


28 


1:00 


3.4 


6:12 


4.5 


12:48 


0.5 


20:18 


5.1 




Thur. 


29 


2:00 


3.0 


7:24 


4.5 


13:35 


0.7 


20:50 


5.3 


A 


Fri. 


30 


2:42 


2.4 


5:25 


4.5 


14:24 


1.0 


21:17 


5.3 





Sat. 


1 


E 


Sun. 


2 




Mon. 


3 




Tues. 


4 


Full 


Wed. 


5 




Thur. 


6 




Fri. 


7 



3:16 
3:48 
4:20 
4:46 
5:21 
6:00 



M A 

2.0 

1.5 

1.1 

0.7 

0.3 

0.0 



6:40—0.2 



Y 
9:18 
10:04 
10:45 
11:28 
12:15 
13:06 
14:04 



4.6 
4.6 



15:05 
15:40 
16:10 
16:45 
17:20 
17:65 
18:.35 



1.2 
1.5 
1.7 
2.0 
2.3 
2.7 
3.2 



21:45 
22:08 
22:24 
22:47 
23:15 
23:38 



5.3 

5.4 
6.5 
5.5 
5.5 
5.5 



Time used. Pacific Standard, 120th Meridian W. 

Oh — midnight, 12h — noon, less than 12 — Forenoon, greater than 12 — after- 
noon, higher numbers — 12 — afternoon time. 

N — New Moon, E — Moon on the Equator, N. S. — farthest N. or S. of Equator 
A.. P.— Moon in apogee or perigee. 



DEPTH AT MEAN LOW WATER, ENTRANCE TO HARBORS 



Place 



Feet Dat;e 



Grays Harbor | 18 | Mar. 30 



I 



Willapa Bay 

Columbia River 
Nehalem River 
Tillamook Bay 



Yaquina Bay 
Siuslaw River 



Umpqua River 
Coos Bay 

Coquille River 
Rogue River. 



Klamath River 
Humboldt Bay 



San Pedro Bay 
San Diego Bay 



27 
24 
13 



13 

5 



9 

17 



8 
18 



20 
26 



I 



Apr. 1 
Feb. 6 
Mar. 2 



Mar. 12 
Apr. 6 

Apr. I 
Apr. 6 

Mar. 26 



.Apr. 2 
Apr. 1 



Feb. 24 
Apr. 3 



Remarks 



|BuoysNo. 10, 12, upper harbor 
I gone, vessels crossing bar now 
I passings of bar buoys leaving 
I No. 2 1000 Feet away. 
Dop'.h at M L W in channel at 
Raymond 15 feet. 



Channel shifting about J^ mile 
to southward is now J^ mi'e 
fouth of the whistlirg buoy. 

Channel not changed. 

Channel gore lo north end cf 
je'.ty and beacon on high bank 
marks channel now. 

Channel to northward of old 
established ranges. 

Soundings today show a riclgc 
abreast of bla( k buoy off end of 

1 jetty which shoaled last 2 dtiys. 

2 buoys gone; channel in middle 

between jetties. 

No opportunity for soundings 
lately; before rise there was 
7 feet on the bar. 

At present channel is .s'nithwestj. 

North channel IS ft; very narrow 
and crooked, diflicultto navi- 
gate for large vessels; about 
13 feet in south channel. 

No change in channel. 

No change in channel. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



IS 



NOTICE TO NAVIGATORS, MARINE ENGINEERS, 

MARINERS AND SEAMEN 

This page will be reserved exclusively for all official notices and information of importance 



NOTICE TO MARINERS. 
Reports from Alaska slate ihal Ihe iw is breakinK. and mov- 
ing out of Cooks Inlet and that that great arm of the Northern 
Sea will be open to navigation by April 25, and possibly a week 
sooner. 

e • • 
Vessels entering and leaving Grays Harbor formerly itassed 
to the north of the bar buoys, but at present are passing to the 
south close by. leaving No. 2 1,000 feet away. Keacons No«. 10 
and U in new dredged channel, upper harbor, are gone. 

• • • 

The red siiar buoy marking the end of the south Jetty Is re- 
ported adrift since March 30. The Lighthouse Department also 
gives notice thni Dlunt's Reef 1. {"hi vessel No. 83 will be re- 
placed temporarily about April 20, by relief vesEel No. 76. 

• • • 

(''a!>taln I nwson of the schooner Americana reports to the 
Branch Hydrographic office at Port Townseiid. Washington, that 
un March 5, 1909, on a perfectlv clear dav with a smooth sea 
and calm weather, in latitude N. 29 degrees 47 minutes, longi- 
tude E. 142 dettrees 33 minults. he sighted a reef, about 800 f(H>l 
long and 80 feet wide, Iving In an east and west direction, with 
from 6 to 8 feet of water on It. His chronometer was found to 
be correct upon arrival at Cape Flattery 31 days later. 

J. C. UrRNKTT, l.leut. V. 8. N., in charge. 

NOTE. — This position lies about 150 miles to the northwest 
of the Bonln islands. 



CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS. 

The United States Civil Service Commission announces that 
the following examinations will be held at San Francisco, Cal., 
at an early date: 

Architectural and structural steel draftsman. 

Assistant chemist (male), office of public roads. Department 
of Agriculture. 

Mechanical assistant, with knowledge of refrigerating ma- 
chinery, Department of Agriculture. 

Photo engraver, Philippine service. 

At Orland. Cal.. an examination will be held on May 26, 1909. 
for the position of Junior clerk In the reclamation service. For 
application blanks for the Junior clerk examination, applicants 
should pddress the board of examiners, reclamation service, at 
Orland, Cal. 

For application blanks for any of the other positions men- 
tioned above, address Secretary twelfth civil service dUtiict, 
postofflce building, San Francisco, Cal. 



SHIPBUILDING NOTES. 

Union Iron Works. 

S. S. Col. Drake on Hnnter's Point drydock for mis- 
] cellaiieoiis repairs. 

S. S. Ventura on Hunter's Point for miseellaiieons 
repairs, eleaniii^; and painting. 

S. S. Doris on tloatin^ doek for cleaning and paintinp. 

S. S. Santa Rita at the works for general overhaiilinj?. 

S. S. Monticello an«l Arrow on floating; dock for clean- 
ing and painting. 

S. S. Admiral Sntiip.son on dock Thiirmlay for clcan- 
inK. painting and hull work. 

Bisdon Iroji Works. 

Work on the Adiiiirjil SMnipsun will be completed 
about April 20. 

Work on the fireboals is pr<i;rrt's.siii); riipi<n.v and one 
of them will be launched in about three weeks. 

Making; new crank shaft for the S. S. Roanoke. Put- 
ting in reverse bar and floor [)lates in boiler space, and 
making two fresh water tanks with a capacity of 10.000 
csllons. 



Oorham Engineering Works. 

OvcrhaiilinK six-cylinder gas enK>ne belouKing to the 
launch Koiiocti. 

Moore A Scott. 

The British steamer Sirathdec, which was raniiueil li\ 
a Government vessel at MaKdalcna bay. is having sev- 
eral spaces of shell plating reiiewe<l. It was at lirst 
thought that the .Stnithdee would have to go on the <lry- 
dock, but the work is being completed ill the stream. 

The dredger liicic Sam. which was damaged by lire 
in Uaklaiid creek some months ago, ia on the Oakland 
drydock unilergoing extensive repairs. 

The work on the .S. S. San Mateo is progrensing rap- 
idly and it will be ciimpleted alioiit .May 12. 

Three fishing tugs, belimging to .1. Paladini. are on 
the Oakland ways receiving a thorough overhauling, 
cleaning and paintiiii;. 

United Engineering Works. 

Hiiildiii).' liteel barge li>r tile .Stiindard Oil Company 
to he used about the bay points, ll is In be I't feet in 
length and IK feet beam. eqiiip|>ed wilh a hundred hors*- 
power Doak gas engine. Will <-«ist *2.'j.(KKI. 



CHANQZS OF SHIPS' OFFICERS. 

CharlcK l)ext<T. torhierly ol the S. S. Alliance, has 
filled Ihe vacancy on the S. S. Breakwater, caused by the 
resignation of 1'. Peterscm. 

H. Barker relievetl (Jeo. Lochardt as chief engineer. 
If. .Miller relieved B. Connely as first assistant engineer, 
and 1"'. Mitchensfui relieved J. Long as second assiNtant 
engineer of Ihe S. S. F. S. Loop. 

T. Stewart relievcil Second Assistant Eugiucur M. 
JohiLsim temporarily on the S. S. Daisy. 

First Assistant Kiigineer F". K. I'c'l laid off the 
8. S. Senator temporarily, his place being taken by ('. W. 
Munday. 

Firs'l Officer D. Adams left the 8. 8. Missourian. I lis 
place was taken by Second Officer L. R<pe<l. C. Ayre 
Went out as second officer. 

H. Fraser left the S. S. Btickman as second assistant 
engineer. K. (iriffin went out as third assistant. 

S. Lindo relieved II. Rakow as second assistant engi- 
neer of the S. .S. Manchuria. 

1). O'llearn relieved (!. S|M'ncer as junior engine<»r 
an«l I. VandeiTilice relieved O. Lucas aa junior engineer 
of the same vessel. 

T. Luttrell has severed hin connection with the 
Pacific (.'oast S. S. Company as second officer of the 
8. 8. City of Piiehla. and will be succcedeil by C. Pr-ter- 
son. formerly thinl officer of the name ship. Williiuii 
Dehne. promoted from fourth to third officer, ami -Mr. 
Winslow will lake his place. 

Captain M. Kalniin has been relieve<l -if the command 
of the Pasadena bv M. 8. McOovem. 



A modcra principle of edacatioa: it if *o« are ia doals iipoa a mJbittt ike 
ant bat thia« lo kaow ii whnr lo loos (or defiaiir ialorataiioa: the proper 
application o( ihii pnociplr is biinnm traiartioBt ■• an indtcatian eH ptoprn, 
aad atMl bciag aboul iIm moic <leirec of MKCOi ia dw lafn caae a< ia the (or- 
■et, smI bat sailttlwaMMoi Weak*. EmomAi Howe. SMiFraBCMCo.wwrll 
kiaMited willi dw SIhp Chaadttry hmmtm oa iIm Padftc Coatf. 



Mia M Oc-MUil« Plwr 



arr. 14a Baal >•. 



16 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



TRADE NOTES. 

Herzog & Dahl, formerly located at 104-112 Howard street, are 
now permanently located in their fine new store at 150 Steuart 
street. Coincident with the occupation of the new place it 
marks their ninth anniversary in the electrical field, during 
which time they have gained an enviable reputation for good 
work and fair dealing. 

With a few exceptions, nearly every steam vessel built on 
this Coast has had its electric plant installed or remodeled by 
them. 

In connection with their electrical supply and contracting 
business, they maintain a first-class repair shop, well equipped 
tor making repairs to all kinds of electrical apparatus. They 
also represent Messrs. Carlisle & Finch of Cincinnati, manu- 
facturers of searchlights, and the De Laval Steam Turbine Com- 
pany of Trenton, N. J., turbine generating sets for marine plants, 
and also hr.ndle a number of electrical devices for Naval and 
Marine purposes. 



Smooth-On is an article indispensable to the manufacturer 
and user, for the reason of its peculiar chemical properties, 
namely, of metallizing and of expanding when metallizing, and it 
can be prepared to act quickly or slowly, according to the re- 
quirements of particular uses. 

These properties make Smooth-On a valuable substance in 
the making of chemical iron cements. To this subject the chem- 
ist of the Smooth-On Manufacturing Co. has given careful study 
tor fifteen years, and has succeeded in compounding the valu- 
able iron cements known so generally throughout the world as 
Smooth-On Iron Cements. 

Smooth-On Castings is a chemical iron compound prepared 
in powdered form and used by mixing with water to the con- 
sistency of stiff putty. When in this state it is a chemical plas- 
tic iron that will metalize in a few hours and become a part of 
the casting to which it is applied. When hard it has the same 
color and appearance as cast iron, which makes it valuable for 
smoothing over, and filling uj) blowholes in iron or steel castings. 
One pound of Smooth-On Castings will fill ten cubic inches. 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 



SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING. 

I UNION IRON WORKS, 320 Market Street. 



OIL BURNERS. 



S. & p., 102 Steuart St. Phone Kearny 629. 



BOAT BUILDERS. 

GEO. W. KNEASS. 18th and Illinois Sts., S. F. 



SHIP PLUMBERS. 

ANDERSON BAILEY, 216 Steuart St., S. F. 



WitiNG RAGS. 



THE RAYCHESTER CO., 1448 Folsom St., S. F. 
Sanitary Manufacturing Co., 2208 Folsom, S. P. 

FOR SALE — Thirty town lots at Alviso; established head of 
navigation on San Francisco Bay. Inquire office of Pacific 
Merchant Marine. 

YACHTS AND LAUNCHES. 

JOHN TWIGG & SON.S CO., Illinois St.. near Eighteenth, S. F. 



Shipwright Caulker 

Launches 



Sparmaker 
Yachts 



H. ANDERSON, BOAT BUILDER 

Repair Work on Wtiys 
Cor. 9tli .4ve. &<i St. .S<>. c C" ■ /^ 1 

Phime Butcliertown (,1 ^^^ t" ranClSCO, V_al. 



LIFE-SAVING STATIONS ON THE PACIFIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES 



Name. 



State. 



Locality. 



Waadah Island Washington. 

Gray's Harbor 

Willapa Harbor " 

llwaco Beach " 

Cape Disappointment " 

Point Adams Oregon 

Tillamook Bay " 

Yaquina Bay " 

I'mpqua River " 

Coos Bay " 

Coquille River " 

Humboldt Fay California. . . 

Arena Cove " 

Point Reyes " . . . 

Point Bonita 

Fort Point 

Golden Gate 



.Just south of Grays Harbor light 

.Near lighthouse boat landing 

.Thirteen miles north of Cape Disappointment.. 
.Bakers Bay, one-half mile northeast of light. . . . 
.Three-fourths miles southeast of Fort Stevens. 



Southside 



Nome Alaska. 



.About one mile south of harbor entrance 

. Near entrance of river, north side 

. Coos Bay, north side 

. In town of Bandon 

Near the old abandoned lighthouse tower 

.Four miles south of Point Arena light 

. Three and one-Tialf miles north of light 

. Near Point Bonita light 

.Three-fourths mile east of lig"ht on Fort Winfield Scott 
.On beach in Golden Gate Park, San F'rancisco, three- 
fourths mile south of Point Lobos 

. Three and three-eighths miles south of Golden Gate 

Life-Saving Station 

. At Nome 

DISTRESS SIGNALS "'aVi^ 



In the daytime — 

1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 

2. The International Code signal of distress Indicated by 
N. C. 

3. The distant signal, consisting of a square flag, having 
either above or below it a ball or anything resembling a ball. 

4. Rockets or shells as prescribed below for use at night. 

5. A continuous sounding with a steam whistle or any fog- 
signal apparatus. 



Lat 


., No 


rth. 


Lon 


g., West 


Deg. 


Min. 


Sec. 


Deg. 


Min. 


Sec. 


48 


22 


40 


124 


35 


30 


46 


53 


15 


124 


07 


15 


46 


43 


00 


124 


03 


00 


40 


27 


50 


124 


03 


25 


46 


16 


40 


124 


03 


00 


46 


12 


00 


123 


57 


00 


45 


33 


30 


123 


57 


00 


44 


35 


30 


124 


03 


54 


43 


42 


00 


124 


10 


30 


43 


22 


50 


124 


18 


00 


43 


07 


00 


124 


25 


00 


40 


46 


00 


124 


13 


00 


38 


54 


50 


123 


42 


30 


38 


02 


20 


122 


59 


30 


37 


48 


10 


122 


27 


50 


37 


46 


10 


122 


30 


30 


37 


43 


18 


122 


30 


18 


64 


30 


00 


165 


23 


00 


as9 


r ^fes"^ 


■^^■^■t 


« -3 


■^' l 








- - 


- 


nn 



At night— 

1. A gun fired at intervals of about a minute. 

2. Flames on the vessel (as from a burning tar barrel, oil 
barrel, etc.). 

3. Rockets or shells bursting in the air with a loud report 
and throwing stars of any color or description, Pred one at a 
time at short intervals. 

4. A continuous sounding with a steam whistle or any fog- 
signal apparatus. 

All officers and employees of the Life-Saving Service will hereafter recognize any of these signals when seen or heard as 
signals of distress and immediately proceed to render all possible assistance. 



Sold at Steacy'a News Depot. 3 Steuart St. 



LAUNCHES 



PLANS 



YACHTS 



STONE & VAN BERGEN 

SHIP BUILDERS 



Foot of Bdur Sticd 



Sao FraociKO, Cal. 
W«a69)8 



TUGS 



Eltiimate 



STEAMERS 




For tlif Ih-.iI 4-<yrl<- eniriiif liullt on Ili<' niut. to milt 
I OOICINfl ">"1 c-ommton». al a rramnaltli- pric* ? Many rout more. 
l-V^V/rvll^V* ..<onr worth morr. (Ja* Mirinw from 3 to 100 H. P. 

Gorham Engineering Co., Alameda, Cal. 




»«-■ r aalotkat TJT. 1730 rhr. 



/My.Ny.\v,w<^-t»v'^^«i!,*wtf,sa«>>.- ■ 



-^^^ 









CONVENTION OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE 

AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 

IN SAN FRANCISCO 



M 
M 



.J^ 






'«', 



Henry Cowell Lime & Cement Co. 

MT. DIABLO CEMENT 

SANTA CRUZ LIME 

ALL KINDS OF BUILDING MATERIAL 
Delivery Department, Union and Front Streets. Office 95 Market Street 



i 



Kg 



ft 




SAN FRANCISCO 



Phone Kearny 2095 



CALIFORNIA 



ORGANIZATION ON THE PACIFIC COAST IN BEHALF OF 

AMERICAN COMMERCE SIGNIFIES THE EXTENT 

OF OUR INDUSTRIAL FUTURE 














American Shipping Continued i 

Alexander R. Smith 

Progress of the Panama Canal 
Editorial 



Yachting and Motor Boating 

Marine Notes of Pacific Coast Ports 

Pacific Coast Vessels illustrated) 

S. S. Admiral Sampson 



THE CLARA BARTON SANITARY 
WIPING RAG 




The Clara 
Bahton Brand 
of Wiping Rags 
is guaranteed 
to be thorough- 
ly s:erilized and 
, disinfected 



THE RAYCHESTER CO.. INC. 



1448-U60 FOLSOM STREET 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Be sure to have 



CHALLENGE METAL 



For 
High Speed 







For 
Heavy Pressure 



in your important bearings. 
Ask about it. 



SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO. 



SAN FRANCISCO 



SANITARY 
WIPING RAGS 

Washed and Dismfected 

Exclusive Packersof 
Soft Cotton Wiping Rags 

SANITAHY MANUFACTURING GO. 

2208-2210 FOLSOM STREET 
Phon? Market 1195 San Franciic" 




COLOR WORK A SPECIALTY 



The Buckley Cafe 



IJHTJI-NMKNGRI. CO.. Incarpur>lcd 



H I. DKTJK.N. M.s.ter 



German Bakery Confectionery 

K estau rant ofdtr at sha Notice 



Buckley Building, 97 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
S. E. Comer Spear St. One block from Ferry Phone DoukUi 2713 




GEO. W. KNEASS boat builptr 



Offic* UKi Work. 

18th and lllinoi* Streets 

PkoiM M>rk«l San Frcaciaca, 

943 CaL 



Boat Material aad BO Baal, of all 

DaKripttoa. For Sala 
Kmc PoliM. Halln aii.l 'Iju.V.- \\..n^- 
Movm and llux It<ill< i> i uii>iiiiitl\a 
on hanil. Wuo<l 1 urniiiii 



Steamship Men Take Notice 



The National Laundry li Mattreii Renova- 
tor/ Comp^injr will §)▼• better results both 
In quality and price thkn can be had else- 
where. Special rates and service cuaranteed. 



O. C. TAIRriCLD. 
riant. SS44 18th Street 



MansKer 

Phone Market (1 



Hart-Wood Lumber Co. 

LUMBER SHIPPING 

Wholesale and ReUil 
807 Fife Building San Franc iKo 



P. M. BAMBINO 

Exclusive Jailor 
fHiMnn A incuu.TT 



il9-22« Bwkirr SUf. 



CaL 




ALKINS QUALITY" 

The best facilities backed by 
experts in each department 
are what made "Calkins Quali- 
ty" the standard in the realm 
of printed publicity. We print 
the Pacific Merchant Marine. 



PRINTING 

ENGRAVING 

BOOK-BINDING 



CALKINS 

PUBLISHING HOUSE 

Calkins Buildine, San Francisco 
Phone Douelas 3140 



Matson Navigation Company 

268 Market Street Phone Douglas 3030 

Direct Line Passenger and Freight Steamers and Sailing Vessels to 

Honolulu, Hilo, Kahului, Mahukona, Eleele 

From 

Seattle and San Francisco 

For Freight and Passenger Rates apply to 

Alexander js Baldwin, Seattle Castle & Cooke, Honolulu 

Matson Navigation Company, San Francisco 



Moore & Scott Iron Works 

Successors to W. A. BOOLE & SON 

MARINE WAYS AND DRY 
DOCK at OAKLAND CREEK 

MARINE REPAIRS A SPECIALTY 
Main Office & IVorl^s: Main & Howard Sts., San Francisco 




A. p. S. S. ADMIRAL SAMPSON 



EUREKA BOILER WORKS CO. 

Densners and builders of all kinds of Marine, Station- 
ary, Locomotive, Straw-Burning and Traction Engine 
Boilers. Special attention paid to Repairs' of Ship Woric, 
Boilers, Tanks, and Sheet Iron Work. Building and 
Installing (^ Oil Plantsa Specialty. Machine Black- 
smithing. Telephone Kearny 2453. Main Office 
Works: 57-59 Mission St., San Francisco, California. 



Telephone Temporary 50J 

HERZOG & DAHL 

Electrical Engineers and Contractors 

Marine Electrical Installations, Special Fit* 
tings. Supplies and Repairs. 

150SteuartSt.,SanFrancisco,California 



Plione Kearny 807 

Sellers & Madison Co., Inc. 

Paints, Oils, Etc., Ship 
Chandlery, Naval Slorej 



.SMOOTH ON 
P.icific Coast Agents 



94-96 Market Street 
SAX FRANCISCO 



RESWICK Z. DICKIE 



DAVID W. DICKIE 



D. W. & R. Z. DICKIE 

Engineers &n J Naval Architects 

Room 824, Santa Marina Bldg. 

Phone Kearny 2907 1 1 2 Market St. 



Uf PLANS and SPECIFICATIONS 
j| for all kinds of engineering work of 
steel, wood or concrete; oil-burning 
plants, wharves, bunkers; launches, 
propellers, steam and gas-engined 
tugs, and steel and wood vessels of 
all kinds. 



Telephone Douglas 1398 Geo. Anderson 

BAILEY 



Alex P. Bailey 

ANDERSON & 

[Registered] 

Sanitary and Ship Plumbing 

Sheet Metal Work 
216 Steiiart St., bet. Howard and Folsom San Francisco 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Volume II 



SATURDAY. APRIL 24. 1909 



Number 6 



AMERICAN SHIPPING 

liy Alexanukk K. Smith 

(ttlNTlM KI>) 

Prominent Features of Recent Subsidy Bills. 
Thi- Urst of tlic hills prDposfd hy Senator llaniia antl 
eprosfiitative I'a.vnf provided f«)r the admiHKion to 
aeriean registry of such fon-iKii-buiit vessels as were, 
le time of thp bill's enaetnieiit. owiie<l by Ameriean 
tizeiis aiiil Ameriean eorporatioiis. and it also inelude<i 
ich vessels as were being const ruoted abroad under con- 
tct for Ameriean citizens, on condition that they be built 
the I'nited States e<|ual tonnage to that so admitted — a 
teasure planned somewhat more broadly upon the lines of 
le Coekran bill of 1892. in respect to the admission of 
jreign-buiit vessels. In the first bill it was provided that 
liese foreign-built vessels so admitted should enjoy the 
je anu>unt of compensation that was given to Amorican- 
t vessels. Later the bill was so amended as to limit 
le payments to foreign-built vessels to one-half the 
mounts paid to American-built vessels of the same size 
id speed. Finally, and with great relm-tance. Senator 
rye was induced to eliminate every feature that gave 
imission to foreign-built vessels from his bill. He stated, 
jn the Hoor of the Senate, in advocating his subsidy 
11 which passed that body on .March 17, 1902, that it was 
ferior to the bill which he had last urged upon the 
enate for the upbuilding of our ship|)ing in the fon'ign 
sde, l)ut that the eliminations made were in deference to 
popular demand that he regarded as ba.sed up<Mi a mis- 
ken view of the intent and purpose of the measure, 
iich, however, he felt constrained to yield to. This bill 
ent to the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Com- 
mittee, where, at the succeetling session, late in February. 
93, it was voted upon and rejectetl. and so never went 
fore the House for its consideration. The compensation 
vided in all of those bills was based upon tonnage and 
, being very carefully calculate<l upon the known 
cost of building and operating Anu-rican vi-ssels in 
ftmpetition with foreign ves.sels. The Frye bill that 
sed the Seriate (ui March 17, 1902. was amended in the 
ing lio\irs of the discussion so as to bar all vessels under 
»e thousand tons from any benefits thereuntler. an amend- 
that was regarded as unjust by the owiu'rs of the 
lium-sized sailing vessels engaged in the trade between 
I'nited States and other portions of the western hemis- 
liere, and who felt that their vessels, which are almost 
Ijolly owned by individuals, and which they claimed 
pioneers and promoters of our foreign trade, were 
ititled to a s(|uare deal — to the same consideration that 

^as extended t" the nior sfly corporatioii-owncd stcam- 

llips. 



sident Roosevelt Recommends a Maritime Commission. 

With liu- (jctcat of the Fryc ))ill in the llciusc .Mcnliiuit 

[arine and Fisheries Committee, nothing further was at- 

topted until in his annual mes.sage to Congress in the 

fcember following. Pn-sident Roosevelt reconimendetl 

appointment of a commission for the purpose of sttuly- 
ig and investigating the subject. Such a commi.ssion, 
BnijMised of five senators and five representatives, four 
" them Democrats and six of them Republicans, was ap- 

SoU at "^rhat Maa Pitta,' 



|M»inte«l early in 1904, and for nearly a year it was buay in 
holding public hearingK in the leading sea. lake and gulf 
ports of th«' I'nited States. Its r«'port and a bill to carry 
infti effect its r<>c(imniendationM wew laid before Congren 
in January. 1fH)r». 

Leadings Feattires of the Commission's Shipping Bill. 

This bill proposes to establish a voliuiteer national 
naval reserve of officers and men employed in the merchant 
service, to sulisidize cargo carriers, sail and steam, to the 
amount of ♦o.OO per gross ton per annum if engaged in the 
foreign trade and through moderate mail mibHidies, to 
establish lines to Africa. Central and South America, the 
West Indies, to Australia and to the Orient. As originally 
drafted it pro|)osed to greatly increase the tonnage taxes 
on all vessels, Anu'rican and foreign, entering from foreign 
ports, and rebating the increase ctilleeled upon Anu'hcan 
vessels if they conformed to certain specifieil eon<1itions. 
As the bill first came up for c(msideralion in the S<>nate, 
in which bo«ly it pasm>d on February 14, 190(>. and as this 
feature was regardeil as a revenue-pniducing measur(>. 
which could not originate in the Senate, it was eliminated. 
That bill is. at this writing, in the hands of the Uooae 
.Merchant Marine ami Fisheries Committee. It should be 
said that this sami- conunittee reported favorably what waa 
practically the same bill two years ago. Should all of 
those then members of that committee, whc» tw(» years ago 
voted in itj« favor, vote now to report out this bill, it would 
be so re|M)rted. I>r<>si<]ent Roosevelt strongly favore<{ itj« 
|)assage and he was expecte<l to serul to Congp'ss a special 
messau'c on the subject of .American shipping. 

A Moderate Bill That Should be Speedily Passed. 

This mea-sure is a very nirMierate and just one. It in 
by no means a complete bill. Considering that (>() per cent 
of our entire foreign trade is with Kuroi>e. and that no 
provision is made in this bill for encouraging Anu'Hcan 
shijis to engage in that tratle, except as itinerant cargo 
carriers, it must be apparent that it is, in a measure, ten- 
tative and somewhat experimental. Our transatlantic 
trade employs the finest ships afloat, ships most useful an 
auxiliary cruisers and scouts, invaluable to their several 
governments for naval needs in times of emergency, as 
was proven in the ease of the four fine steamships of the 
American line during the Spanish-American war. Natur- 
ally, any measure making no pn>viaiou for this valuable 
class of merchant steamships, is an incomplete one. Never- 
theless. th<- omission of this class of vessels from the bill 
was not unintentional— it was regardtMl by the commis- 
sion which prepared the bill aa inexpeilient. at this time, 
to attempt to cover that feature of our foreign trade or to 
provide for the class of vessels which it employe<l. The 
bill shuuhl be sptM^iily passed, as it is a measure that would 
inaugurate an Ameriean maritime |>oliey and eventually 
lead to the l'nite<l States assuming its pro|H*r position as a 
maritime nation, besides placing at the hands of the (lov- 
ernment in time of need a large number of vemcls that 
would be found to be essential to the effective o|)eratiODS 
<»f our army and our navy. 

Imported Shipbuilding Materials Duty Free. 

Too great stress cannot be laid upon the fact that "all 
materials of fon-ign prcMluclion which may be nect'ssary 



n Markrt 9trv«< 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



for the construction of vessels built in the United States 
for foreign account or ownership or for the purpose of 
being employed in the foreign trade, including the trade 
between the Atlantic and Pacific ports of the United 
States" are, under the terms of Section 12 and Section 13 
of the existing tariff act, admitted into the United States 
free of duty, as are "all such materials necessary for the 
building of their machinery and all articles necessary for 
their outfit and equipment," as well as "all articles of for- 
eign production needed for the repair of American vessels 
engaged in the foreign trade, including the trade between 
the Atlantic and Pacific ports of the United States." This 
admission of all such materials into the United States free 
of any duty precludes the honest assertion that a modifica- 
tion of the tarifl' in respect to materials employed in ship- 
building for our foreign trade is all that is necessary to 
enable our builders to build ships in this country as 
cheaply as they are built in foreign countries. 



NOTES OF THE PANAMA CANAL. 

The survey of the watershed of the Chagres river has 
been extended to the valley of the Trinidad, where a 



ing the amount needed at the spillway mixing plant. 
The dipper dredge is developing the sand deposits at a 
depth of twenty feet or more, and cannot work to an 
advantage at a less depth. In the course of two weeks 
the old French suction dredge, which was found on the 
bank of the Chagres at Chagrecito, and is undergoing 
repairs at the Cristobal drydock, will be put in service' 
at Nombre de Dios to assist in stripping the surface 
clay and silt from the sand. A new dredge with a clam- 
shell bucket erected on each end, built especially for the 
Nombre de Dios work, will be put in service some time 
dviring the present month, and the best sand to be ob- 
tained in that locality can then be handled in any quan- 
tities. 

The work of driving piles on the Naos Island break- 
water trestle at the Pacific entrance has been resumed 
after about six weeks of enforced idleness, due to lack of 
piles. It is probable that the building of the break- 
water will continue without cessation from this time on. 

The Dredge Marmot. 

The Marmot, an old French ladder dredge of the Bel- 
gian type, was launched at La Boca shipways on March 









'm 


^;,-mj«ife«fi^ 


4 


^^^^^H 


^^HUt 




' 




^^^^^^^HP^» 


-^Jr 







RESIDENCE OF COL. GOUAS AT ANCON 
This wa.s Formerly the Yellow Fever Ward for White People During French Times 



party is now operating about ten miles from the mouth 
of the river. 

As the lock canal of the French did not take into con- 
sideration the water supply of the Trinidad and Gatun- 
cillo rivers, since these rivers empty into the Chagres 
north of Bohio, no records of the run-off of their water- 
sheds were kept by the French. The only gaugings made 
heretofore were those of the Walker Commission, cover- 
ing a period of a few months only. For about twenty- 
two months stations have been in operation at Lagartera, 
about fourteen miles from the mouth of the Trinidad, and 
at a point on the Gatuncillo, about six miles from its 
mouth. 

Diamond drill borings are being made along the Trin- 
idad-Atlantic divide to determine the quality of the 
material in the ridges. 

Sand Dredging at Nombre de Dios. 

The sand that is being delivered at the Gatun spill- 
way from the pits at Nombre de Dios is loaded on barges 
by a clam shell dredge that is not well adapted to the 
work. No difficulty is experienced, however, in supply- 



25th. Within a month we will be at work in the Pacific 
entrance to the Canal, doing the excavation work for 
which it was designed twenty-five years ago, but never 
entered upon. It is a composite dredge made of a hull 
taken from the beach at La Boca opposite the Panama 
railroad wharf, plates diig out of the mud at San Pablo, 
and machinery from an old dredge at Gorgona left on 
the banks of the C'hagres by the French. The cost of 
rebuilding is about .')i35,000, and the capacity of the dredge 
will be about 6,000 cubic yards a day of two 12-hour 
shifts. The hull of the dredge had been erected by the 
French and then anchored at La Boca. Before the 
machinery was installed work was suspended, and the 
hull, an iron box 130 feet long, 38 feet wide, and 12 feet 
deep, was abandoned. Early in the American occupa- 
tion it was sunk in the old French canal in order to get 
it out of the way. When the project for dams at La 
Boca was abandoned the hull was found to be again in 
the way and it was raised and sunk outside the prism of 
the Canal, opposite the steamship wharf. It was floated 
last fall and on November 10th was drawn up onto the 



Sold at Oceanic Pbarmacy. 148 East St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



5 



^hipways. The bottom and a few of the frames were 
oiiipli'toly rotted a\vay< but the plates above the water 
line were in good eoiidition. The frames aniidstiips were 
renewed, and new plates put on the bottom. A set of 
liilffe plates, unimpaired exee[)tinK one eorner were found 
in the niuil at San I'ablo, where they had been left by the 
Freneh. These plates were used and the corner that was 
laeking was supplied from an old dredge at Ciorgona. 
The decks were also renewed. The deck machinery, in- 
•luiling the training engine, is the only new machinery 
installed. 

Three return tubular Scotch marine boilers, taken from 
one of the old dredges at Oorgona, supplied with new 
tubes and made equal to new American boilers of the 
same type, were installed and fitted with burners for 
using oil as fuel. Two vertical double eoaipojind, recip- 
rocating engines, likewise taken from an old French 
dredge at Oorgona, have been repaired and will be put 
in. The high pressure cylinders are 320 millimeters in 
diameter; low pressure, 65() millimeters; revolutions, 51 
per minute; stroke, 75() millimeters; and the combined 
liorsepower is 190. The total horsepower of the dredge 
IS 2")0. The hulder tower was on the hull, but the ladder 
was taken from an old dredge left by the French at San 
I'ablo. New half-yard buckets recently purchased in the 
I'uitcd States will be used. 

The dredge is of the type that makes its own flota- 
tion, and on this account will be especially useful ex- 
. avating in the old French canal where the Scotch type 
of tlredges can work only after a sufficient depth of water 
to float them has been procure<l. 

An old Hi-inch suction dredge left by the French on 
the banks of the C'hagres at San Pablo is on the ship- 
ways at La Boca being converteil into a coal barge. It was 
lut into three sections and carried by train from San 
Pablo to lia Boca. It is 90 feet long by 17 feet wide by 
10 feet high. 

Si.x of the eight concrete mixers to be used in the 
•otist ruction of the Oatun locks have been delivered at 
(iatun. They are of the Chicago cube type and have a 
capacity of two yards. 

1.2r)i),0<J0 pounds of dynamite were received in one 
shipment to Cristobal from Thompson's Point, New 
Jersey. 

Two shiploads of cypress ties for use on the construc- 
tion railroads have arrived on the Isthmus. The cargoes 
were res|)ectively 19.000 and 45,tKM) ties, part of an 
order of 2(M»,(K)0 ties recently placed in the States. 

The highest record for steam shovels in any district 
of the Central Division was made on March 24, by 19 
shovels at work in the Culebra District, when 27,910 
cubic yards of rock were removed, an average of 1,468 
iMiliii- y;irds per shovel. 



PEBSONAL. 

Dr. W. C;. Ilobody. iliicf (|uarantine officer of the port 
of San Fratui.sco, has been ordered to Honolulu as chief 
quarantine officer of the island port. 

Dr. F. E. Trotter, attached to the immigration bureau 
of San Francisco as medical officer, will succeed Dr. 
Hobody. 

Dr. King, at present at the Marine Hospital, will have 
charge of the me<lical dei)artment of the Immigration 
Bureau. 

Rear Admiral Sebree will succeed Rear Admiral 
Swinburne as commander in chief of the Pacific fleet, 
and Rear Admiral Barry will succeed Rear Admiral 
Sebree as commander of the second division of the first 
squadron of the fleet. 

Commander R. F. Lopez. U. S. N., inspector in charge 
of the Twelfth Lighthouse District, will be relieved per- 



manently by Commander W. O. Miller, U. S. N., late 
executive officer of the battleship Minnesota. 

Captain tJow of the Dollar Steamship Company, is 
confined to his home in San Rafael, suffering from an 
attack of malaria. 

Assistant Secretary of the Navy B. Winthrope is on a 
tour of insi)ection of the different navy yards of the 
country, and will probably reach the Pacific Coast dur- 
ing the summer. 

Supervising Inspector John Birmingham has restored 
the master's license of Captain Nicholas Wagner, which 
had been revoked by the Alaskan lioard of Steamship 
Inspec'tors. 

The Alaskan Board, composetl of Ca])tain Whitney 
and a chief engineer, suspended the license of Captain 
Wagner for the loss of the Star of I^ngal, when 111 
men were drowned. After taking six months to investi- 
gate the accitleht the Board finally revoked the license 
of Captain Wagner for unskillfulness and negligence. 
In respon.se to an appeal. Captain Birmingham made a 
decision, in which he says: "I find the said charge to 
be unsubstantiated by the evidence in the case in the 
matter of the loss of the Star of Bengal on Coronation 
Island, Alaska, September 20, 190S, whi<-h resulted in the 
drowning of 111 people. It appearing to me from said 
evidence that Captain Nicholas Wagner was in no way 
to blame for that disaster, it is hereby ordered that his 
revoked license be at once restored to him." 

After contiinious active service for twelve years as 
chief engineer of the P. M. S. S. Asia William Allen had 
his resignation accepted by the Mail Company. Mr. 
Allen came from England on the liner Doric, as the Asia 
was then known, in 1896 on a record trip that has never 
been beaten, an average spiked of 320 miles a day being 
maintained. Mr. Allen will nmke his home in this city. 

Captain C. J. Lancaster, master of the steamer R. D. 
Inman. that stranded near Bolinas Point, starch 20th, 
was found guilty of negligence and unskillfulness, and 
his license was susi>cnded for six months. 



S. S. "ADMIRAL SAMPSON. 



rRONTWMECB 



The Pacific C-oa.st can well be proud <>i on- .->. S. "Admiral 
Samjjson," on which alterations have just l>ecn completed 
at the plant of the Risdon Iron Works. 

This vessel was formerly owned by the United Fruit Com- 
pany of Boston, being operated by them in their service 
between Boston and Kingston, Jamaica. 

The ves.'^el was purchased on the 24th of November, 1908, 
loaded with 1 ,5(N) tons of coal and sailed for San Francisco 
on the 28th of November, four days later. 

She arrived at Conmel on Januar}' 2nd and at San Fran- 
cisco on January 27th of the present j'ear. Four da\-H later 
she was taken over by the Risdon Iron Works for alterations. 
They turned her into an oil burner, built a top-gallant- 
foreca.stle, a top-gallant-|)oop for second class accommo- 
dations, which, we might a<ld, cannot l>e surpassed on the 
Coast, erect«l a new steel deck house containing 16 nwrns, a 
shade deck, installed oil tanks, air compressor, etc., and 
turne<i her over to the Alaska Pacific S. S. Co. on the 17th 
of the present month. 

The ".Admiral Sampson" is 292 feet over all and 280 feet 
between perpendiculars, 36 feet beam and 25 feet depth 
of hold. She has two triple expansion engines 18'x28'x 
45'x3()' .stroke and two Scotch Marine boilers. 

When she was originally built at Cramps plant in 1898, 
she was destinecl for a 14-knof vessel, but has averaged 15 
knots a great many times, while on her regular run between 
Boston and Kingston. With the installation of oil, it is 
anticipated that she will even do better than this. 



8«M ■« "Tkat Umm Pitta." 7% Itarkct S tr ict 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Her passenger accommodations cannot be surpassed on 
the Coast, she having the distinction of being the only two 
berth vessel operating on this Coast at the present time. 

The rooms on the lower deck all open to the inside, as do 
a few on her shade deck. The new rooms recently con- 
structed, however, all open to the outside. 

She has accommodations for 80 first-class passengers and 
72 second-class. About twenty more first-class passengers 
can be accommodated by using Pullmans, with which each 
room is provided. 

On Tuesday, the 20th, the Alaska Pacific S. S. Co. gave 
an excursion on the "Sampson," on the bay, which' was 
highly satisfactory to both the invited guests and to the 
owners. 

The following day, Wednesday, the 21st, she sailed for 
Los Angeles, leaving San Francisco at 10:40 a. m. and 
arrived at San Pedro twenty-six hours later, or 12:30 the 
following day. 

She also gave an excursion at this point and will also give 
one on Puget Sound. 

With this boat on the run, the Alaska Pacific S. S. Co. 
will inaugurate a five-day service, the company's vessels 
leaving San Francisco for the North on the 5th, 10th, 15th, 
20th, 25th and 30th of each month. They have arranged 
for the "Buckman" and the "Watson" to ply between San 
Francisco and Seattle and Tacoma, Bellingham, Everett 
and Anacortes. 

The "Sampson" however, on the 6th and 21st of each 
month will run through to Los Angeles and on the Sound 
will only call at Seattle and Tacoma direct. 

The "Sampson" is equipped with a United Wireless 
Telegraphv, as are also the Steamships "Buckman" and 
"Watson." 

Capt. E. P. Bartlett, one of the best known skippers on 
the Pacific Coast, and former master of the "Watson," 
went out as Captain of the "Admiral Sampson." 

Alexander Ryan, former chief of the American Hawaiian 
Steamship " Calif ornian," and more recently of the "Buck- 
man," went out as chief engineer. 

Toney Allen, former purser on the Pacific Mail S. S. Co., 
is occupying a similar position on the "Sampson" and Mr. 
Geo. Pomeroy is attending to the cuisine. 

We welcome this new steamer to the Coast and trust 
that the company will meet with success in their increased 
service. 



LEGAL. 

The Maritime Court of San Francisco has given judg- 
ment to the Union Transportation Company for $45,000 
for the loss of the steamer Dauntless. 

The California Navigation and Improvement Com- 
pany's steamer Mary Garratt in 1897 collided with the 
Dauntless, practically destroying the latter. Suit was 
begun six years ago to establish the liability, and judg- 
ment was rendered holding the C. N. and I. Co. liable, 
and limiting the liability to the value of the Dauntless 
and cargo, amounting to $35,000. In addition to the 
damages the California N. and I. Co. will have to pay 
interest since 1904. 

Collector Stratton has received the following im- 
portant decision from Washington : ' ' The consignee of 
imported merchandise is deemed, for tariff purposes, to 
be the owner of the merchandise and liable as such for 
the lawful duties assessed. Where such consignee vol- 
untarily enters the merchandise, pays duty and makes 
declaration in the usual forms prescribed by customs 
regulations, he is estopped from pleading his agency for 
the ultimate consignee is against the government so as 
to exempt him from liability for such duty. Where 
goods are shipped to this country by a foreign consigner 



without authority from such ultimate consignee, the lat- 
ter may refuse to recognize the shipment, or to make 
entry for such goods, and thus relieve himself from the 
liability to pay duties on the importation." 

The suit of Albert D. Pierce, libelant against the 
steam schooner Yellowstone, has been dismissed by 
Judge Wolverton of the Federal Court of Astoria, the 
case having been compromised outside of court. On 
December 19 last the steam schooner ran into and sank 
the launch Imperial, belonging to Pierce, and action was 
brought for damages, aggregating $1,600. 



LOCAL NOTES. 

The I'acific cruiser fleet and the torpedo boat flotilla 
will doubtless be in San Francisco Bay the latter part 
of this month. 

Local launchmen are preparing to send a protest to 
Washington against the practice of the army transports 
in throwing straw mats overboard. The mats, filled with 
coal, are placed on board the vessels at Nagasaki, and 
when the coal is used the mats are also burned. It is 
necessary sometimes to transfer coal from one vessel 
to another and in doing this the mats are thrown over- 
board. 

Several launches have been put out of commission by 
the jamming of their propellers from this practice, and 
it has developed into a menace to navigation. 

The Department at Washington has requested Col- 
lector of the Port T. Stratton to extend every courtesy 
to the Japanese training squadron, consisting of the 
ships Soya and Aso, which will arriye at San Francisco 
April 25, remaining here until May 8. 

Special Deputy Collector W. S. Hamilton and Chief 
Boarding Officer Charles A. Stephens have been assigned 
by the Collector to arrange for their reception and en- 
tertainment in connection with the army and navy. 

A new tug launch, Sans Souei, owned by Steward 
Bros, of Sacramento, was launched April 13. The boat 
is forty-five feet long and eight feet six inches wide, and 
will be fitted with a fifty horse power four-cylinder gas 
engine. The boat will be used for heavy hauling on the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. 

McCormick & Co. have let a contract for a lumber 
steamer to be built at the Lindstrom yards on Grays 
Harbor. The steamer will have a carrying capacity of 
1,000,000 feet. 

A survey of the U. S. S. West Virginia was held by 
Naval Constructor Henry T. Wright and Lieutenant R. 
C. Davis, representing the construction and steam engi- 
neering departments at Mare Island navy yard, to de- 
termine the work necessary on the ship when it. returns 
from the Seattle Exposition in June. The result of the 
investigation will be forwarded to the Navy Department 
in order to receive authority to go ahead with the work. 

The steamer Annie E. Smale, out ninety days from 
Hongkong to the Coast, arrived at Tatoosh islands Tues- 
day, the 20th. 

Senator Perkins has introduced a bill providing for 
additional lights on the coast of California. The aids 
asked for and estimated cost of their establishment are as 
follows: Anacapa Island, light and fog signals, $100,000; 
Point Hueneme, fog signal and keeper's quarters, $17,- 
000; Point Tennin, third order revolving light and keep- 
er's (juarters, $1,500; Santa Barbara, fourth order re- 
volving light signal and keeper's quarters, $18,000. 

Secretary MacVeagh will investigate the accusations 
made by James Burns, formerly an engineer of the 
revenue cutter service, involving the efficiency of the 
service. Besides other incidents, Burns severely criti- 
cises the service for its actions, during the wreck of the 



Sold at Steacy's Newa Depot, S Steuart St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Hteainer Valencia in 1906, charfriiif? that the eaptains of 
the cutter, although having full knowledge of the wreck, 
refuned to render any aJwiKtanee ^vhatever until orders 
from Washington were received. 

Traffic couditiong in the Orient are the most <iepres- 
sing in years, and there art- over !MI.()()<) tons of tonnage 
ditiengaged. Several of the Japanese Steamship Com- 
panies, who have been constantly adiling to their Heeta 
for the last two years, are said to be in flnancial diffi- 
culties. 

The steamer C'hiyoda Maru, 167') tons, was recently 
sold at Qoketoyo. after having laid idle for months. The 
steamer Katori Maru, 2206 tons, was attachtnl last month 
at Yokohoma, where she remains at anchor. 



SOUTftPRN COAST NOTES. 

Imperial Beach, Cal. 
The new ocean pier, which has been in the course of con- 
struction for the last month, is now completed. The pier 

is one of the strongest and best built piers in the state. 

* m * 

Santa Cruz, Cat. 
The la.<(t meeting of the Chamber of Commerce was taken 
up nniinly in discu.ssing the nature of the reply which that 
organization will send to the War Department at Washing- 
ton, in re«|X)nse to the government's question as to why 
Santa Cruz should be awanle«l a brejikwater. The govern- 
ment also asks for a reply in detail as t-o how much commerce 
this city enjoys at present and the outlcwk for increased 
business after harbor improvements have been completed. 

* * * 

San Pedro, Cat. 

The new deep water slip at Timms Point, constructed for 
the Southern Pacific, has been complete*!. 

The local custom hou.sc reports the following business for 
the month of March: Imports — Domestic: Lumber, 5,556,(K)0 
feet; shingles, 13.922.0(K); laths, 7,799,0(K); shakes, .33.000; 
ties, 20,337; posts, 5<S(K); piles, 337; trucks, 20; doors, 557; 
.shocks, 16 tons; staves. 22 tons; flour, 162 tons; paper, 432 
tons; grain, 6.561 tons; general merchantlise, 7,291 tons; 
fertilizer, 591,280 pou mis; cement, 1000 barrels; refined oil, 
3,(K)0 barrels; .sheep 139 hewl: logs, 922; machiner>', 21 
packages; merchandise, 1,343 packages; fire<Tackers, 100 
packages; ochia. 24 bales; nitrate of sfxla. 1.(H)S..S.30 pounds; 
tapioca, 498 bags; rice, 3,.5(K) mats; matting. 168 rolls; curios. 
18 cases; sake, 115 casks. Kxports — Domestic: General 
merchandise, 3,128 tons; plaster, 150 ton.*?; cru<le oil, 125,000 
barrels. Foreign: Gasoline launch, 1; fuse, 1 case; caps, 
1 case; dynamite, 600 cases; powder, 1,200 cases; plaster, 
200 tons." 



NORTHERN COAST NOTES. 



Seattle. 

The cruiser Tennessee, which is at Magdalena Bay at the 
present time, will be sent to the Bremerton Navy Yard upon 
arrival at this port. The Tennes.see is l)a<lly in need of 
repairs, and as she will attend the opening of the Alaska- 
Yukon Exposition on June 1, only important repairs will 
be made. 

The codfishing schooner Joseph Russ which /^rounded 
on Port Angeles spit a few weeks ago while on her way to 
the codfishing grounds in Bering Sea from .\nacortes. will 
be laid up for .some time for rep.iirs. In stranding the ves.«el 
starteil her forefoot. 

The winter and spring sea.son's crui.se of Seattle's halibut 
fleet in southeastern Alaska is over and the twelve v< 
comprising the fleet have returned to port. 



Orders have been received from the War Department, by 
the local military head, directing that all quartermtkster's 
supplies for .Alaska army ports. Pugi»t SouimI artillery posts, 
and Forts l^iwttui and George H. Wright shall l>e purchased 
by the ({uartermaster at Srtittle. 

The |)osts for which supplies will \>e Imught through the 
Seattle office are Forts W»)nlen, Casey. Flagler an«l Wanl, 
the four coast artillery posts pn>tecting Puget Sound; Forts 
I^awton and George H. Wright, the thin! infantry postj* in 
Seattle ami Spokane, respectively, and Fort Davis at Nome, 
Alaska, Fort t^^iert, at tlagle. .\laska; Fort Gibson, at 
Tanana; Fort IJscuni, near Valdez, Alaska; Fort St. Michael, 
Alaska, and Fort Wm. H. SewanI, at Haines, Alaska. 

The cutter fleet which will be dispatched to Alaska this 
sea.s(m, will be prepare*! owing to the efforts of Capt. W. 0. 
Koss. chief of the U. S. revenue cutter service, to protect and 
aid the American mer<*hant men in ever>' way possible. 

The 8. 8. St. Croix, belonging to the Schuback Hamilton 
S. 8. Co., now on the way via the Horn from the Atlantic 
will reach Seattle al>out April 27. 

The Puget Sound Navigation Co., and the Canadian 
Pacific are engaged in a rate war on the Seatlle-V'ictoria 
run which will rival the long drawn out struggle of the 
summer of 1908. The steamer Chippewa, l>elonging to the 
Puget Sound Navigation Co., will \>e placed on the run 
towanl the close of April. 

The Pacific Coast Steamship Company will spend in the 
neighborhood of tlO,000 on the 8. 8. Spokane which will 
consist largely of increased passenger accommodations. 
The Spokane is employed visiting the glaciers of southern 
Alaska and as a record-breaking business is expected on the 
run this setison the companies engaged in this trade are 
making preparations to take care of the increased traffic. 

* * 

Victoria, B. C. 

The American fishing schmmer I.ievy Wo<xlbur>' is supposed 
to have been captured by the Dominion government revenue 
steamer Kestrel. 

The private owners of the Twentieth- Avenue wharf at 
Ballard are negotiating to sell the wharf to Seattle which 
city already owns one wharf in that vicinity. 

Preparations arc being miule at Bremerton yanis to re- 
ceive the cruisers of the Pacific fleet which will lie repaired 
during the summer. The cnii.sers which will be repaired 
are the Tennessee, Washington. Pennsylvania ami Colora«lo. 

Capt. Worth G. Koss, conmiandant, and Capt. C. A. .Mc- 
Allister, engineer in charge, Iwth of the U. 8. revenue cutter 
service, have concluded titeir annual inspection of all cutters 
detailed on the Pacific Coast. Capt. Ross announces that 
cutters Bear, Manning, Rush, ainl Perr>' will proceed north 
for their annual s<'al patrol off Bering Sea from May 5 to 
May 15. The Thetis will go into the .Arctic and cruise the 

coast east of Barmw as far as practicalile. 

* * * 

Astoria. 

The Swiftsure Lightship No. 93 has been deUiled to a 
station at Swiftsure banks and will be at her station about 
April 20. These banks are located a few miles off Vancouver 
Island and in the vicinity of the most dangerous coasts on 
the Pacific. 

The fourma.sted schooner, C. S. Holmes, is laid up at 
Young's Bay where she will remain until luml*er charter con- 
ditions improve. 

An appropriation of $3,000 was made by the commission- 
ers of Pacific County, Washington, for a public wharf at 

Nahcotta. 

« * « 

Tacoma. 

The new fishing schooner .Active sailed April 15 on her 
maiden trip to the Halibut banks. In the winter the Active 
will return and fish aroum! Petersburg. 



S«M at Fcrrx Kcwa Staad, S«a Fnii 



8 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



The Weir Waterhouse Line have completed traffic arrange- 
ments with the Canadian Pacific R. R., and the S. S. Minne- 
sota of the Great Northern S. S. Co., will operate out of 
Tacoma to the Orient in conjunction with the Weir Water- 
house Line. The Weir Line was compelled to get the 
Minnesota in order to keep the government contract for the 
transportation of forage. 

* * * 

Portland. 

The steamer Leona will be placed on the freight and 
passenger trade between Portland and McMinnville. 

The Oregon City Transportation Company is contem- 
plating the building of another light-draft steamer for service 
between here and Corvallis, the head of navigation on the 
Willamette. 

Freight and passenger traffic conditions between Puget 
Sound and Alaskan ports are gi'eatly congested at the present 
time and in so far as the Alaska Pacific S. S. Co. is concerned 
there will not be enough accommodations for all passengers 
who apply in the summer. 

The transfer of charters of the Hamburg American Line 
■ to Norwegian steamships is completed and the Portland and 
Asiatic line will take over its new charters beginning with 
the departure of the Rygja about June 15. The Nicomedia 
will not make another trip for the P. & A., but will leave the 
river for Hamburg to be turned over to her owner, as soon as 
she finishes discharging cargo; the other Hamburg steam- 
ships will follow to the home ports as soon as the present 
trips are completed. 

The S. S. Selja will follow the Rygja, being scheduled to 
sail from here July 15; following next in order will be the 
Henrik Ibsen to arrive August 3. 

The Norwegian vessels are of about the same tonnage as 
the Hamburgs and will make about the same time across 
the Pacific. 

The Yukon Transportation and Trading Company have 
closed a traffic agreement by which the steamer St. Helens 
will make three voyages to Norton and Kotzebue sounds 
during the summer, carrying a cargo of 1,000 tons on each 
voyage. The Company will receive the cargo at St. Michael 
and distribute it along the lower Yukon and at Fairbanks 
and China with its stern-wheel steamer Julia B. and liarges. 

Major T. F. Mclndoe, of the local U. S. Engineer's office, 
has requested the Portland Chamber of Commerce to pro- 
vide complete statistics of the total tonnage that goes down 
the river at the present time, dockage and facilities for 
handling freight. 

This data will be necessary to arrive at a satisfactory 
conclusion as to whether the channel of the Willamette 
River from Portland to its mouth, and the channel of the 
Columbia River from the mouth of the Willamette to the 
bar should be deepened to 30 feet. 

After a voyage of 131 days from Newport News, the new 
government dredge Clatsop arrived from the Atlantic 
Coast, Wednesday the 21st, and will l)egin operations as 
soon as the necessary fittings have been installetl. The 
Clatsop will displace the U. S. Ladd which will be sent to 
the government bone yard at Portland. 

* * * 

Aberdeen. 

Owing to a collision with the tug that was towing her to 
sea, the schooner Polaris will be. detained several days to 
make the necessary repairs so that she can proceed to 
Sydney, Australia. The Polaris lost a portion of her main 
rail and her bulwarks stanchions, the damage amounting 

to $2,000. 

* * * 

Seward, Alaska. 

A new wharf, 850 feet in length, has just been completed 
and will accommodate the largest ocean going vessel on this 
coast. 



The Dominion Government will likely dose Hecate strait, 
between the Queen Charlotte Islands and the mainland of 
British Columbia, to American fishermen. This strait is a 
great halibut supply source for fleets operating out of Seattle 
and Vancouver, and the fishermen are making a strong fight 
to keep it open to all. 

Bids are being solicited by the United States pay inspec- 
tor's office, for 30,000 pounds of steel boiler plates. The 
plates will be used in repairing the eight armored cruisers 
that will come to the sound during the Alaska-Yukon- 
Pacific Exposition. 



CHANGES IN SHIPS' OFFICERS. 

Charles F. Liudars, in lieu of II. G. Barning, master of 
the S. S. Venus of Seattle. 

C. E. Ahues in lieu of P. Borgman, master of barge 
Harvester of Seattle. 

W. E. Mitchell will succeed F. G. Blaine as master of 
the S. S. II. B. Kennedy of Portland. 

H. Penfield will take the place of W. E. Trevorah as 
master of the S. S. Indianapolis of Port Townsend. 

Samuel Aitken will succeed Wm. Allen, retired, as 
chief engineer of the S. S. Asia. Aitken was formerly first" 
assistant engineer of the Asia. 

Following are the names of the officers of the A. P. 
S. S. Admiral Sampson: Edward P. Bartlett, captain; 
Thomas M. Burke, first officer; Nelson A. Smith, second 
officer; and Gustaf W. Gustafson, third officer; Alexander 
Ryan, chief engineer; William J. Gunn, first assistant 
engineer; Frank C. Farwell, second assistant engineer; 
Charles Ganong, third assistant engineer. 



SHIPBUILDING NOTES. 

Union Iron Works. 

The S. 0. S. S. Dakota is undergoing a general over- 
hauling. 

The steam schooner laqua is at the works undergoing 
repairs to machinery; also having cargo winches altered, 
altered. 

P. C. S. S. Coos Bay on floating dock Thursday, April 
22 for cleaning, painting and repairs to hull. 

Steam schooner Norwood on floating dock for clean- 
ing, painting and repairs to hull. 

Moore & Scott. 

Repairs have been completed on the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey steamer p]xplorer. Moore & Scott se- 
cured the contract for both the engine and hull work, 
and carpenter and joiner work. The bid on the former 
was $2,995 and on the latter $185. 

The S. S. Shasta will be placed on the drydock the 
first of May for overhauling, and to receive a new pro- 
peller. 

The S. S. Alameda is receiving her usual amount of 
repairs. 

The quarantine tug Argonaut was on the drj^dock 
April 20 for inspoc'tion. 

Gorham Engineerings Works. 

The Gorham Engineering Works have completed the 
launch Peerless, everything being satisfactory on the 
tryout. 

United Engineering Works. 

The S. S. Homer is receiving a general overhauling. 

The S. S. Point Arena is on the drydock for cleaning 
and painting. 

George W. Kneass. 

George W. Kneass is building a 26-foot launch, which 
will be shipped to the Amadyr River, Siberia, to he used 
in carrying mining machinery up and down the river. 
The boat will be equipped with an 8 horse power Unit)n 
gas engine. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Offict: 95 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



I' K L P: P H O N E DOUGLAS 4325 



IHOS. C. BL ITERWORTH 

, B. buttj-:rworth 

DAVIS 



Editor 

General Meaaier 

AJ%cnista| Departmeal 



ublUhed by the Pacific Merchant Marine Publishing Co. 
, San Francisco, California, every Saturday morniny in the 
ierest and derelopmvnl of the Amcrinin Merchant Ma'^ini. 

riLL BE SENT TO ANY ADDRESS in Iht UNITED STATES 
$2.50 a Year 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 
kddress All Commtinicatiuns to the Pacific Merchant Marine 



The five periods in the history of trade re(|uire the 
htellectual f^rasp of the principles eontrollin),;, and dif- 
Brent conditions surrounding; them. Tlie oM world has 
irtieipated in all the five periods— the first eoninieneing 
nth the earliest times and elosing with the fall of the 
7e«tern Roman Empire; the second extending from 
hence down to the discovery of America; the third from 
1500 to 177G; the fourth from 177tj to 1860, comi>risinK 
le peril)*! of steam; and the fifth from 1860 to 
lie present time, or the period of electricity. The 
ter periods have been the most important to the world, 
id with these the United States is concerned and prom- 
lently identified. 

Commencing with the third period trade bcfran to 
equire security and extension, which it totally lacked 
the previous perioils. Augmented by the tlisct>vcry of 
ke Western Hemisphere, commercial interests in Europe 
truKKb'd for supremacy, and this period witnessed the 
jlnres of commercial Spain and l'ortui;al. the rise and 
of Holland, and the beginning of England's present 
iritime policy, which brouf^ht her imnuinity from in- 
iiou. control of the carrying traile of the world, antl 
id an immeasurable effect on the growth of English 
■anufacturcs. 

During the fourth period America develo|»ed the only 

Ivailable resource — agriculture, and to such an extent 

It an American merchant marine was made necessary 

»d was stinuilated by the 2d Act of the 1st Congresa 

July 4. 1789, when customs duties discriminated in 

Ivor of American ships, and again in the .'id Act of the 

ime Congress, on July 20. 178!). when tonnage «hn>s on 

sels owned by American citizens were place<l at fi 

Snts per ton. American vessels owned by foreigners. 

cents |)er ton. and ail other ships ."><( cents per ton. In 

1704 the duties were revised and discrimination contin- 

i. as a result of which, in \l\)'y. American vessels were 

indling !):< per cent of the imports an<l 87 per cent of 

lie exjiorts of the United States. In 18()4 the tonnage 

piacrimination was doubled, and American vessels were 

|ill in control of American commerce and continued ao 

itil the war of 1812-15, when the loss amounted to 

irly 40 per cent. At the close of the war recovery set 



in and continued until 182.'), when England's reeiproeity 
offer was deelinetl, bringing alnrnt conditions best told in 
Webster's boast, "We have a commerce which leaves no 
8©« unexplored ; navies whii-h take no law frt>m superior 
force." In 1827 appeared the cclebrateti lament of the 
Ijondon Times. "It is not our Jiabit to soiuid the tocsin 
on light oct-asions, but we consider it im|Mmsible to view 
the existing state of commerce in this country without 
more than apprehension an»l alarm. Twelve years tif 
peace and what is the situation of Ureat Britain T The 
shipping interest, the cradle of our navy, is half ruined. 
Our commen-ial monopoly exists no longer; we have 
cbtsed the West Indies against America from feelings i»f 
commercial rivalry. Itji active seamen have already en- 
grossed an important branch of our carrying trade to 
the East Indies. Her slarre*! Hag is now conspicuoiw on 
every sea. and will soon defy our thunder." 

In 1828 the I'nited Stat«»s began to rrcipnicate in o<-ean 
treighls. In 18.J0 «»cean fn'iglit reciprtx-ity was extendtnl 
to the English colonial trade. In 1844> we had returnetl 
to conditions of 1795, and in 1849 ocean freight retti- 
procity was agretnl upon as to all English trade. In 1830 
England adopttnl ship subsidies, other coiuitries follow- 
ing Englaad's example as told in the previmis issue of 
I'acific Merchant .Marine. 

Trade in the United States may Ih» divided into two 
periods. Passing comment on the first, the agricultural 
and commercial pericnl, and noting the second, the in- 
dustrial period, we should cotitinue the present inethtuls 
tisetl to combat obstacles .of development in tratle. f<)r the 
first three peritwls of Eumpean trade bear no comparistin 
with the methods that are required toclay. Although con- 
ditions have changi>d. we are le<l to believe every step in 
the progress of civilisation has kept an eipial pace. At 
no time in the world's history has the course of trade 
been free from difliculty; population, industry and re- 
source have always been the three facttirs of mternationai 
trade, the very magnitude of which in any of the iterioda 
mentioned would suggest the difficultii>s in the way of 
controlling commerce by any one or combination of eoun- 
trieii or individuals. 

Conditions existing fmm the twelfth century to the 
sixteenth century brought into existence the Ilanseatie 
League (an asso<-iation of N'orth (Jerman trading towns) 
which incluiled all traditig towns of importance from 
Russia westward to I»ndon, and liube<k as the center 
of a<tivity. The growth of territorial ism in Oermany, 
combined with foreign competition and geographical dis- 
coveries, infiueneed the downfall of the Ilanseatie I/cagiie. 
However, the leagtie ruled th*- commerce of the F^asteni 
Hemisphere, and forms the ctMUui-ting link which nilt>s 
the coinnu'rce of ttHlay. 

The problems sol vet! by the Ilanseatie I/eagtie were as 
moiuimental as the i|uesti<)ns which confront the n-habili- 
lation of an American merchant marine. notwithstan<ling 
the fact that the whole range of affairs has been im- 
mensely broadene<i, that ctunmerce has extended to every 
country of the two hemispheres, that we now have easy 
and rapid transportation of goods by land and sea. that 
we are in qtiick communication from every point of the 
compass, anti the |»revalenee of men-antile law and 
safety, notwithstanding the fact that the Ilanseatie 
League trafist>orte<l a large amount of goods by a camel 
train anil that we of tiwlay have progressi'd to the present 
efficiency of railroads and notwithstanding the fact that 
the Ilanseatie lycague. the most powerfid an<l effective 
trust of the middle ages, did monopolize the commerce 
ofHhe worKI. With th»>se facts before us we lay onr claim 
to a superior state of intelligence, our wonderfid devel- 
opment, prosperons and happy condition, and Lincoln's 
legacy. "You can fool some of the people some of the 



%9lt mt Fcnr News Slaa^ >■■ FrasHM* 



10 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



1 



time, some of the people all of the time, but you can't 
fool all of the people all of the time." And for over 
fifty years we have been playing pitch and toss with an 
American merchant marine. And why? We have 
claimed credit for everything under the sun during the 
two periods of our existence ; we have shown the Avorld 
the greatest and most rapid progress in the history there- 
of ; we have the greatest system of railroads in the world. 
Yet "we have no American merchant marine." We have 
to distinguish the difference between transportation by 
railroad and by water; we have to discriminate between 
the influence which developed a protective navy, which 
so ably assisted our internal development, which in no- 
wise interfered with transportation by either land or 
sea, but, on the other hand, helped to develop both and 
which retarded the building of an isthmian canal, until 
President Roosevelt's anti-trust policy made the Panama 
canal a reality; qualify between the notorious opposition 
of coastwise laws and the adoption of same by which 
the value of active United States craft increased from 
$200,000,000 in 1889 to $500,000,000 in 1908. Know that 
the taxable wealth of railroads and their equipment in 
the United States is $11,244,752,000 and the same for 
shipping and canals is but $846,489,000. 



MEETING OF THE BOARD OF STATE HARBOR 
COMMISSIONERS. 

Tuesday, April 22, 1909. 

The application of the Associated Oil Co., for a modi- 
fication of Rule 91 of the Rules and Regulations of the 
Board, whereby permitting the oil companies to discharge 
fuel oil at other than between the hours of sunrise and 
sunset, was answered in writing by Alfred Stillman, sec- 
retary of the Board of Underwriters of the Pacific, who 
advised against the application. Secretary Thorpe was 
in.structed to so notify the various oil companies in- 
tecested. 

Refund bills in favor of C. Bayfuss & Co. amounting 
to $18.45 were read and ordered paid. 

R. Dunsmuir «& Sons Co., in communication, relin- 
quished use of space occupied by scale and scale house 
at Polsom street Wharf No. 2, to take effect May, 1, 1909. 

The Union Oil Co. notified that all their pipes had been 
removed from the Center street dock. Action on the 
matter was postponed. 

The attorney of the Board submitted a written opin- 
ion stating that it would be an abuse of the privilege 
given to the Board under the law to permit rebates upon 
fiour in transit, as requested by the coastwise transpor- 
tation companies, and quotes from the Political Code 
of California in support of his opinion. Secretary Thorpe 
was instructed to so notify all parties interested. 

Superintendent T. Ahem, of the coast division of the 
Southern Pacific Company, referred to a claim for dam- 
ages to railroad cars on the belt i-ailroad, amounting to 
$15. The matter was referred to superintendent of the 
Belt Railroad. 

Hickman & Masterson Co. notified the Board that they 
no longer required the use of 29,520 feet of space occupied 
on seawall lot B, and on motion, action of the Board dated 
May 1, 1903, was rescinded, to take effect May, 1, 1909, 
or as soon thereafter as the premises were available to 
the Board. • 

The California Navigation Company relinquished 
onter berth at Washington street wharf to take effect 
May 1, 1909. The Petaluma Transfer Company made 



application for use of the berth, which matter was re- 
ferred to the Chief Wharfinger. 

The bond of J. Bardellini as wharfinger in the sum 
of $5,000 was received and approved. 

The Pennsylvania Steel Co. submitted a bid to furnish 
one No. 6 lefthand branch-off and one righthand branch- 
off, both to be constructed of 9-inch girder rail (section 
263 of 241 lbs.) manard hand center type, complete, with 
ground levers in cast iron boxes for the sum of $785 
each. The proposal of the Lorain Steel Co. was $839 
each. The former bid was accepted. 

Promptly at 10 o'clock, as specified, bids were opened 
for leasing of seawall Lot No. 16 and improvements 
thereon. One bid was submitted and opened by Presi- 
dent Stafford in the presence of the bidder, P. J. Molli- 
terno: From May 1, 1909, to April 30, 1914, $101 per 
month; from May 1, 1914, to April 30, 1919, $105 per 



month; from May 1, 1919, 
month; from May 1, 1924, 
month; from May 1, 1929, 



to April 30, 1924, 
to April 30, 1929, 
to April 30, 1934, 



$110 per 
$115 per 
$120 per 



month. The certified check, amounting to $1,440, accom- 
panying the bid, was ordered deposited in the State 
Treasury, to the credit of the San Francisco Harbor Im- 
provement fund. The bid submitted was accepted, and 
attorney of the Board instnicted to draw the proper 
lease. 

Informal bid of Judson Manufacturing Co., amount-, 
ing to $1,540 for furnishing structural steel for bulk- . 
head on Section No. 7 of the seawall, was accepted. The 
company was requested to file a bond in the sum of $800. 

Gray Bros.' Crushed Rock Co. were criticized for 
being dilatory in the construction of Section 11 of the 
seawall. The bondsmen of the rock company have been 
notified and also criticized for failure to acknowledge 
receipt of communication from the Board on the same 
subject. 

Engineer of the Board was instructed to prepare plans 
and specifications for partitions and booths in the waiting 
rooms of the Southern Pacific Company and Key Route 
waiting rooms. 

The following bills were read and ordered paid: 
Eureka Boiler Works, $2,894.85; Moore & Scott Iron 
Works, $786.81 ; S. P. Teamftig Co., $1,280.31; Stockton 
Iron Works, $45; D. J. Ilanlon & Co., .$287.53; Ferry 
Florist, $35; Union Iron Works, $374.98; S. F. Quarries 
Co., $311.40. Total, $6015. 

At the close of the regular meeting of the Board, 
the question of adding two new sections of the seawall 
in San Francisco was taken up in due form, with Hon. 
E. R. Taylor, mayor of San Francisco, present, and act- 
ing with the Board. Hon. J. N. Gillett, governor of the 
State, was absent. 

Plans and specifications approved by the Advisory 
Board of the Department of Engineering were submitted 
by Ralph Barker, assistant State engineer, and formally 
discussed. By resolution presented by Commissioner 
Tuler, it was unanimously decided to construct two new 
sections to the seawall as follows : First — A section of 
seawall to extend from the southerly line of present 
seawall at Section 8 b, 300 feet southerly along the water 
front line. Second — A section of seawall to extend 1,000 
feet southerly along the water front line, beginning at 
a point 6,807 feet southerly of a line projecting from the 
northwest corner of the intersection of Harrison and 
Steuart streets. 

Secretary of the Board was instructed to call for 
sealed proposals for the proposed sections according to 
plans and specifications, proposals to be delivered at the 
office of the secretary of the Board of State Harbor Com- 
missioners on or before 11a. m., Thursday, June 10, 1909. 



Sold at Steacy's New* Depot. 3 Steuart St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



11 





II H season of I'.K)!) is now 
near at lianci and i^iveK 
proinisi' of lieing an aus- 
piriouK one. .)u(lgiu(; 
from tile number of new 
launches beini; built, the 
power boat KHnie i« eom- 
in^; larjf<'ly in favor 
aroiiml the bay. but in 
spite of this faet the 
yaehtsmen are manaK>iiK 
to hold their own and 
are partieularly enthusi- 
astic over the eomiiiK •«*'«i- 

son. 

Although there are few 
new yachts being built this year there seems to be a 
ready market for those which have been put up for 
.sale, aiul it is a notable fact that several old-tinu! 
yaehtmen who have been out of the game for some time 
are again getting into line and will be back at the wheel 

this season. 

The water carnival and races scheduled for July 4th 
will be held at Helve<lere Cove and will rival anything in 
this line ever given on the Pacific Coast. There will be 
several valuable cups to be raced for in the diflFerent 
clas.ses. with entries open to any club, and it is expected 
that there will be in attendance a large luimber of 
lauiuhes and yachts from the clubs about the bay and its 
tributaries. In the evening there will be band concerts, 
fireworks and an illuminated parade of power boats. 
There will be prizes offered for the iM-st <lecorated ark, 
yacht and launch, and the Motor Boat Club will keep open 
house during the afternoon and evening, with dancing 
and refreshments. This will be a great event in boating 
circles, and the Pacific Motor Boat Club takes this op|>or- 
titnity to urge the attendance of as many as possible. 



The yachts Genesta. Olga, White Wings and Mignon, 
and Harry Hawk's ark Atlantis, which were left in Bel- 
vetlere lagoon at the time of the bridge opening, were 
taken out last Sunday and are being put in commission. 



The Vallejo Yacht ( lub holds its opening on Satur- 
day. May 1st. There will be a reception and dancing 
in the atterntxin. with the usual jinks in the evening. 

There are large numbers of applicants for member- 
ship in all the yacht clubs this season. If only a few of 
these become boat owners it will make a substantial addi- 
ti()n to the vachts now on the bav. 



Captain Charles Miller's fast sloop Yankee is now 
undergoing minor repairs at Belveilere. There is keen 
rivalry between Captain Miller and Commodore Fulton 
Berry, owner of the Nixie. These boats are very evenly 
matched and their owners spend much time in racing 
one another. The Nixie is now in commissi«m and Com- 
modore Berry is taking advantage of the fine weather 
and putting in much time aboard his boat. 



STUART 8. DUNBAR 



NAVAL ARCHITECT 



1 r. K • . 1731 
Yachtt A Work Boat* of All CUmob Dctisncd A Cooatmcltoa Sup«riiil*Md«d 



li. C. Tittel is having a launch built at Klarman's 
shop in Tiburon. and expects to have her in commiKsitm 

by the first of .May 
This Iwat Ts pat- 
ternetl after the Ital- 
ian Crab boats and is 
to lie e4|uipped with 
a d<uible cylinder 8 
horse power Hegal 
engine. 




Mr. li. S. Buchanan 
recently completed a 
of liON Angeles has 
thirty-foot auxiliary 
sloop, the power I'Oii- 
sisting of a 4-horse 
power Scripps motor, 
housed umler the 
cockpit. This boat 
will be used for cruis. 
ing between San' Te- 
ilro and Santa Cata- 
liiia Island. 



YA.NKKK— r«|il, C. Mllirr 

The yacht Kamona of lios Angeles has lMH>n eharteretl 
by a party of Easteners, and is to make a trip to Ctieos 

Island in search of 
the buried treasure 
sup|ios4>d to be locat- 
ed there. 




Bert Foster has 
purchased Billy 
W h i t t i e r's fast 
launch Sionara. and 
has her moore<l off 
the Corinthian Yacht 
Club. 



fieorge Briggs in- 
tends to have his nio- 
torboHt yawl rigged 
an<l to use the Miils 
as an auxiliary to his 
5-horse |»ower engine. 
As this boat is built 
on the Italian crab 
boat lin<'s. she should 
i.ADOiK -cir««(v»nk«- prove H'sdily adapt- 

able to this improvement, and as )lr. Briggs will make 
several trips to Santa Cruz this season he believes this 
to be a very nec<>ssary addition t<i his equipment. 



r.z^ l^1o,rr«o« BOAT BUILDER 

rreu rvlarman Y.,**M.«w.r^T»«-.cj 



SmFh 



PIiomMm 201 
>0«or. 211 BkUct Bidk-. MariM&SpruSitrrtt PkcM K.*r>T 4731 



Ptw. «»< Ci iiiiii ii i l C»ll«< E»«T DMLi i»ii . i Bmix Yi.fa ud SIA ■ Stock 



7?: 



mtnh AumM To 



■c 1 at trtrrr Ncwa ttaad, Saa PraacUrs 



12 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Dr. Oliver Nelson of the San Diego Yacht Club "has "ay 9th Opening Day-Cruise in squadron 

»x,,« ii,.,„„ 1 ti,„ , 1 TT n 1 T 1 .1 1 , Assemble at' Club House at 1:30 p. m. 

purchased the yawl Lncas, formerly owned by the late May ifith Open Date 

Commodore Griswold, and expects her to figure in the MlJ-fttsbth./Z/.-.-./cruis^toVaiiejoandNapais^^^^^^^^ 

races tor the coming season. May Slst Returning Monday 

June 6th Open date 

June l.'ith Open Date 

Billy Leavitt, the well known motor boat enthusiast fiS^I^:: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::'^'^'^^°.^:^J^Ell^ 

of this city, has purchased from Stone & Van Bergen •{"'>; ^t''; ^'^ Water Camivai and Races. 4th 

the 20-foot hull built for Charley Morrell and has installed July isth! '. .' . . .' .' .' '. '. . .' .' ' ; ; ; .' ; . ; ' cruise to ParaJlIe cove 

a 14-horse power two-cylinder Detroit engine. jtli^ af ^Wi^: ■..■.■.■.■.■/;;;;.•;;;;;.■.■.■;/;;;;;;. .cruise to Petaium"^!^^^ 

August 8th Open Date 

mu 3 111 ,-,1 , , , , , August 15th Open Date 

1 lie^ good old sloop Clara has probably gone to her August 22nd Cruise to McNear's 

last resting place. She is one of the oldest boats on the seT4^i®sept.■9.■.V.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.V.■.V.•.■.■.■.■.■.■.valiejo RacesandRiver cm^^^^^ 

bay, having originally been built in New York and f^XT^H \f^: ; ; ; ; -. ; ; . ; ; ; -. ; . ; ; ; ; ; •. ; ■ ■. ; ; ; ; ; ; c^ise to Salf "rSIIi 

brought around the horn on a sailing vessel in San September 26th Open Date 

Francisco 's early days of yachting. For many years she 8rtobef fwh.- .•.;::;:::::: ''™'^. '° .°:"^'""^*°^ '^™"^'' .^"" "^X'e^^Dlt 

sailed under the Corinthian penant and has won many October 24th S^'en Date 

famous races. Last summer she was used as a houseboat October 31 st.'.\\ ■.'..■.■.'.■..■.■;■..■.'.'.■..■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■. closing bay- d^^^^ 

by her owner, but dry rot has atteeted her so badly it was The Corinthian program for 1909 has been arranged 

decided it would not be worth while to fix her up, and as follows : 

she has been left on the mud in Belvedere lagoon. Ma°*'^ Opening oLy" ' It o'iT 

. 2 Cruise in Squadron 23 Open 

mu r^ -n nT A T-»iy-nii n- 8 Opeu 29 Oi)en 

i he racihc Motor Boat (_ lub has arranged its program 9 Open 30 Open 

for the season of 1909 as follows : ''' I'*'"'"'"'' Drawbridge 31 l^ecoration Day-Annual Re- 

FOR SALE. 




The 50-foot waterline schooner yacht Marian \\a« Intih 
by day's work for a capitalist of San Francisco, and should 
be seen to be appreciated. It is equipped and built in de- 
tail for ocean cruises or short pleasure trips. Nothing re- 
mains to start the Marian for a long or short voyage, 
except the provisions required. Yachting circles about the 



liii^\ iui- anxiously watching the possibility of an outside 
buyer, as the Marian is considered to be the most promis- 
ing addition to the yachting fleet in this harbor for many 
years. Inspection is invited. 

Inspection or communication. Stone and Van Bergen, 
foot of Baker street, San Francisco, Cal. 



Sold at Steacy'a News Depot. 3 Steuart St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



13 



June 



July 



Auk. 



5 PandlM Cove 
« U«turn 

12 Vallejo 

13 Kelurn 
19 Open 

:!)) Sail fablo Point 
27 Keturn 

3 Army I'oint 

4 Tliruugti ijuliiun Cutoff to Vat- 

Irjo 

5 Return from V'allrJo 

10 HcNear'8 

11 Hrium 
17 Open 

IH Juhn Haninwnrolth Trophy 
Handicap Race 

24 Martinez 

25 Ketum 
31 Open 

I Open 

7 Santa Cruz Race 

H 

14 River Trip 
15 



21 Return 



Sept 



24 

30 

31 

Nov. 14 



Oct. 



ivtalunia 

Return 

.\lYiiHi anil meet 8. B. Y c 

\lv\m> 

Ijibor I>ay— Return 

Inter-Club Recatta 

Open 

Open 

Open 

Open 

Outdtie Sauaalito 

Oulaide 

Open 

Ojien 

McNear** 

Ret urn 

Oinrn 

0|>en 

Paradiw Cove ft Oorinthlan 

(iamea 
Return 
OfMliiK Day 
CruLie in S<|ua<lron 
Itrldge Open* 



One of the prettiest lauiichinpr cereiiioiiies that has 
taken place recently on the hay was that of the sea- 
KoiiiK iTuiser Peerless, at the works of the (Jorhuin Eu- 
gineering Company, Alameda, ("al. 

Ktl Ilelem, Esq., the Los Angeles representative of the 
Oorhaiii Kubber Co., is the proud owner of the craft and 
was present with a large party of frieniUj of the owners 
and builders. 

The Peerless is of the straight stem, compromise stem 
cruiser type, with the interior finish of selected oak. 
The iiphoLstering is of dark maroon leather. The engine 
room and pilot house are also finished in oak. The win- 
dows are of Frendi plate gln.ss to withstand the rough 
seas. The Peerless was designed by 1'. IJagley, Fit(i., of 
the Oorham Engineering Co., and is of the following 



dimensions, and cost, complete, 4:12.000: Length ovi-r 
all, 44 feet; beam over planking. 12 feet; depth to 
rabbet, 3 feet ti inches. The keel is of pine with oak 
stem and stern posts. The planking is of pine with <mk 
frames. The deck is of cedar, natural finish. The guards 
and chafing battens are of oak. The stem band, rudder 
skcg, rudder and j)ropcllcr are of bronze. 

The Peerless is propelled by a 4-cylindcr Ji'jinch 
bore, 7-inch stroke, 4-cycle. ;">(» rated horsepower (itJrham 
open-face marine gasoline engine, dt'signed to run on 
California distillate. On the test stand the engine de- 
velopetl GO horsepower at Tfitt I{ I' M. The net w.-ight 
of the engine is 1.750 pounds. 

Fuel is supplied t<» the engine fr«m four r),">-gMilon 
cylindrical tanks, plact>d under the after decks, giving 
the boat a <Tuising radius of about :{•'>() miles. 

One of the features of the boat is the electric lighting 
plant, worketl from a storage battery charged fnun the 
dynamos on the engine, lighting the incandescent globes 
in the interior of the boat, the running ami head lights 
anil the searchlight. 

The switchboard is complete in miniature of a large 
steamer with all necessary electric instruments, meters 
ami circuit breaker, aiitoiiintically rliar(.'iiit.' "nil dlsi-li:(rg- 
ing the batteries. 

The equipment nl' llic ))oa( inciudes a i i iixx iinder 
with a 3horsepower single cylinder (iorham marine en- 
gine with reversible propeller, in davits on the top of the 
caiiin. There is also a lO-foot skilT for landing in shallow 
water. After a thorough tryoiit of all the machinery and 
e(|uipment, Mr. Ileleni. Mr. Oorham and a party of friends 
will go to San Pedro on the cruiser under her own power. 




THE HKERLF-SS 



THE TIBURON FERRY SERVICE. 



There has been much sjieculation and no little anxiety 
among the members of the Corinthian Yacht Club and the 
people of Tiburon and Belvedere as to the boat service thii 
summer between San Francisco and Tiburon. 

Owing to the many erroneous reports appearing in the 
daily papers it was generally feared that the Northwestern 
Pacific intended to cut down the service to two boats a 
day and the new schetlulc which ha.i ju.st been officially 
announced will l)e a source of gratification to all concenietl. 
It is as follows: 



1 1 AH a. 
.i:M) p. 
5:.30 p. 



m. (Via Sausalito) 

m. 

m. 



12:45 p. m. (Via Sausalito) 
2:45 p. m. 
4:45 p. m. 

6:55 p. m. (Via Sausalito) 
Extra boats Saturday, San Francisco to Tiburon: 
12:45 p. m. (Via Sausalito) 
12:01 a. m. " 
Sunt! ay schedule will be m it is at present with a probable 
addition of two more Ijoats. 



F. to Tiburon 
7:30 a. m. 
9:00 a. m. 



Tiburon u> S. F. 
6:45 a. m. 
8:15 a. m. 



THE BONNIE DOON. 

The motor yacht lionnie Doon. the largest of its kind 
on the hay, was launchetl from the ways at the Hay & 
Wright shipyartls on the Alameiln side of the 
Oakland estuary. Saturday, the 17th. Designed by Henry 



MM at •That Ma> PKta," 73 Harket Street 



14 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 




BONNIE DOON 



J. Gielow of New York, designer of the celebrated steam 
yacht Hanoli, acknowledged to be the fastest steam yacht 
afloat, the Bonnie Doon will undoubtedly be the finest 
yacht, both as to speed and comfort, as there is in the bay. 
The yacht is 66 feet over all, 63 feet on load water line, 
11 feet 8 inches beam and military mast. 

Above the sheer straike are 20 inches of mahogany 
pierced with 12 ports on each side, and four mahogany 
deck skylights. The freeboard at the bow is six feet, 
high sides having been built for rough water in summer. 
Water tight collision bulkheads are provided forward 
and aft. The yacht is supplied with ample pump equip- 



ment, a 14-foot gasoline motor launch and 12-foot dingy. 
Under the cockpit is a water tight compartment for gaso- 
line. 

The main cabin has high standing room, is 15 feet 
long and 11 feet wide. Its furniture and fittings are 
mahogany. Forward is the galley, then the engine room, 
with the crews' quarters. 

The four cylinder four cycle gas engines were made 
by the Doak Gas Engine Company in Oakland, and 
utilize gasoline or distillate for fuel. The cylinders are 
eight-inch bore and nine-inch stroke, and the 400 revolu- 
tions intended will develop 60 horsepower. 



TIDE TABLE TO WEEK ENDING SATURD.W, MAY 7. 

Golden Gate Entrance to San Francisco Bay. 

APRIL 



HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 



DEPTH AT MEAN LOW WATER, ENTRANCE TO HARBORS 



Moon 



Full 



S 
3rd. quar. 



P 

E 

New 



N 

1st. quar. 

A 



Daj 


of 


w 


Mo. 


Mon. 


5 


Tues. 


6 


Wed. 


7 


Thur. 


8 


Fri. 


9 


Sat. 


10 


Sun. 


11 


Mon. 


12 


Tues. 


13 


Wed. 


14 


Thur. 


15 


Fri. 


16 


Bat. 


17 


Sun. 


18 


Mon. 


19 


Tues. 


20 


Wed. 


21 


Thur. 


22 


Fri. 


23 


Sat. 


24 


Sun. 


25 


Mon. 


26 


Tues. 


27 


Wed. 


28 


Thur. 


29 


Fri. 


30 



Time and Height of High and Low Water 



H. 



T. 



H. 



H. 



T. 





Sat. 


1 


E 


Sun. 


2 




Mon. 


3 




Tues. 


4 


Fidl 


Wed. 


5 




Thur. 


I) 




Fri. 


7 



5:20 

5:55 

0:02 

0:26 

0:50 

1:13 

1:45 

2:32 

3:50 

0:02 

1:15 

2:14 

3:05 

3:55 

4:42 

5:23 

6:10- 

0:20 

1:00 

1:44 

2:. 30 

3:33 

4:52 

1:00 

2:00 

2:42 

3:16 
3:48 
4:20 
4:46 
5:21 
6:00 



0.4 
0.0 
-0.3 
6.0 
5.9 
5.6 
5.4 
4.9 
4.7 
3.4 
3.0 
2.4 
M A 
2.0 
1.5 
1.1 
0.7 
0.3 
0.0 
6:40—0.2 



11:12 

12:15 

6:26 

7:00 

7:45 

8:35 

9:30 

10:32 

11:35 

5:30 

7:00 

8:08 

9:12 

10:08 

11:05 

12:04 

13:04 

7:02- 



4.9 
4.9 
0.8 
0.6 
0.5 
0.3 
0.3 
0.2 
0.2 
4.9 
5.1 



7:55—0 

8:53-0 

9:54—0 
10:55 
11:55 

6:12 

7:24 

5:25 
Y 

9:18 
10:04 
10:45 
11:28 
12:15 
13:06 
14:04 



4.5 

4.6 
4.6 
4.8 
4.7 
4.7 
4.6 
4.5 



17:28 
17:, 56 
13:00 
13:, 53 
14:54 
16:10 
17:32 
18:42 
19:34 
12:38 
13:36 
14:.30 
15:25 
16:10 
16:52 
17:36 
18:18 
14:07 
15:20 
16:35 
17:46 
18:50 
19:40 
12:48 
13:35 
14:24 

15:05 
15:40 
16:10 
16:45 
17:20 
17:55 
18:35 



1.3 

1.6 

4.7 

4.4 

4 

4, 

4, 

4 

4 



0, 



0. 



23:48 5.2 




2 
3 
5 
1 
1 
2 
4 
0.7 



18:30 
19:04 
19:42 
20:22 
21:28 
22:35 

26:i5 
20:48 
21:24 
21:56 
22:30 
23:05 
23:40 

i9:62 
19:. 53 
20:50 
22:02 
23:35 

20:18 
20:50 
21:17 

21:45 
22:08 
22:24 
22:47 
23:15 
23:38 



2.0 
2.4 
2.8 
3.2 
3.5 
3.6 

4^8 
5.1 
5.4 
5.7 
5.8 
6.0 
6.1 

2^4 
3.0 
3.3 
3.6 
3.6 

h'.i 

5.3 
5.3 

5.3 
5.4 
5.5 
5.5 
5.5 
5.5 



Time used, Pacific Standard, 120th Meridian W, 

Oh — midnight, 12h — noon, less than 12 — Forenoon, greater than 12 — after- 
noon, higher numbers — 12 — afternoon time. 

N — New Moon, E — Moon on the Equator, N, S. — farthest N. or S. of Equator 
A.. P. — Moon in apogee or perigee. 



Place 


Feet 


Date 


Remarks 


Grays Harbor 


18 


Mar. 30 


Beacons No. 10, 12, upper harbor 
gone, vessels crossing bar now 
pa.ssings of bar buoys leaving 
No. 2 1000 Feet away. 


Willapa Bay 


27 


Apr. 1 ■ 


Depth at M L W in channel at 
Raymond 15 feet. 


Columbia Rivor 


24 


Feb. 6 




Nehalcin River 








Tillamook Bay 


13 


Mar. 2 


Channel .shifting about }4 mile 
to southward is now Jl mile 
south of the whistlirg buoy. 


Yaquina Bay 


13 


Mar. 12 


Channel not (hanged. 


Siuslaw Rivor 


8y2 


Apr. 15 


Channel gor.e to north end of 
jelty and beacon on high bank 
marks channel now. 


Umpqua River 


9 


Apr. 1 


Channel to northward of old 
established ranges. 


6oos Bay 


17 


Apr. 6 


Soundings today .show a ridge 
abreast of black buoy off end of 
jetty which shoaled last 2 days. 

2 buoys gone; channel in middle 


Coquille River 


9 


Mar. 26 








between jetties. 


Rogue River. 






No opportunity for soundings 
lately; before rise there was 
7 feet on the bar. 


Klamath River 


8 


Apr. 2 


At present channel is southwest. 


Humboldt Bay 


18 


Apr. 1 


North channel 18 ft; very narrow 
and crooked, difficult to navi- 
gate for large vessels; about 
13 feet in south channel. 


San Pedro Bay 


20 


Apr, 15 


No change in channel. 


San Diego Bay 


26 


Apr. 3 


No change in channel. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



15 



NOTICE TO NAVIGATORS, MARINE ENGINEERS, 

MARINERS AND SEAMEN 

Tkk p«g« will b« raMnrad exdiwivaly for all official notices and information of importanca 



NOTICE TO MARINERS. 

U. S. U^bthuuse Inspector, Twelfth Olntiict, San Fran- 
Cal., April 17. l»09. 
•bOMt Hay Knt ranee, Calirornia (LUt of Ughts, Buoys and 
DaymarkH. Facillc Cuaiit, 1!)U8, page 37). 

Notice 18 hereby given thai outside bar bell buoy, Humboldt 

»y entrance. California, heretofore reported capsized, was re- 

teed Ai>ril 13. 

Notice is also given that South Jetty Outer E^nd Buoy 2. about 

feet W. by N. of the submersed end of the South' Jetty. 

heretofore reported adrift, was replaced April 13 by a flrst-class 

lun buoy. 

By order of the Lighthouse Board, 

R. F. LOPEZ, Commander. I'. S. N. 
Inspector Twelfth IJghthouse District. 



U. S. Branch Hydrographic Office, 
San Francisco, Cal., April 17, 1!>09. 
A telegram from Kedondo, Cal., dated April 17. 1909. states 
^that the steamer Vanguard passed what api>eared to be a piece 
wrecked vessel eight feet above water, a gr»'al menace to 
tvigation, about ten miles N. VV. by W. fn)m I'oint Arguello. 

J. C. BUKNKTT. 
Ueutenant V. S. N., In charge. 



The regular fog signal at Tillamook Rock will be temper- 

lly out of commission between April 20 and .May 20. during 

rhich time the old steam siren will be changed to a first-class 

utomatic siren, if thick or foggy weather occurs during the 

nstaliatlon of the new siren a six-inch steam whistle will be 

Mown with the same characteristics as the present signal, vis: 

ive second blast, ninety seconds silent interval, repeated. 

The characteristics of the new automatic air siren will be: 

Ive seconds blast, forty seconds silent interval, repeated. 



The following affects the List of Lights and Fog Signals, 
tciflc Coast. 1908, page 13: 

Maui, located on Puu Kii, small island Just northerly of 

ftuiki head, the eastermost point of the island of Maul, and on 

' the southeasterly coast side of Kapueokahl bay. On or about 

April 30 the arc or visibility of this lens lantern light will be 

increased from 180 to 350 degrees. 

By order of the Lighthouse Board. 

STANFORD E. MOSKS, Lieut. Com., U. 8. N. 
Assistant to the Inspector, Twelfth Lighthouse District. 



An automatic air siren is to be substituted for the steam fog 
whistle on Tillamook Kock. twenty miles south of the entrance 
of the Columbia river. The work will be done In the next 
thirty days. The characteristics of the new signal will be a 
five-second blast, with a forty-second Interval, and repeat. 



The following gas buoy lights, off the northern coast of 
llritish Columbia are reiwrted not burning: Alford Reef. Kestrel 
Kock. Spire l^edge. Barrett Reef, Coast Island Range. Watson 
Kock and Kluo Nugget IJght These lights extend from the 
north end of Granville channel to Metlakatla. A nuisance to 
ii.-ivJKntlon has been found iti the discovery of Boat Harbor, 
near Dodd Narrows, of a dangerous rock nearly in the middle 
of the harbor, with a depth of nine feet on It at low water, 
ordinary tides, which will be known as Harbor Rock. The rock 
t>ears from the north entrance point S. 57 deg. E3.. 1 •I-IO cables, 
and from the northern extreme of the Island In the bay N. 37 
deg. E.. 2 cables. The north entrance |)oint can be recognixed 
by a conspicuous bam and other farm buildings. 

The shallowest part Is maiked by a temi)orary cask buoy, 
painted red. and a rocky ledge extends from the buoy to the 
point. The position is lat N. 49 deg. 5 mln. 28 sec.; long. W. 
123 deg. 47 min. 32 sec. 

Vessels approaching the wharf should keep to the southern 
shore, which mav be approached to a distance of half a cable. 
A temporary spar buoy moored in 6>4 fathoms has been placed 
at the gouth(>ast extreme of the reef, which dries at low water 
at the northern entrance of the harbor. Lat. N. 49 deg. 5 min. 
40 sec; long. W. 123 deg. 47 min. 40 sec. 



Dangerous Pinnacle Rock Off Point Tosco, Lower California. 

Branch Hydrographic Office. U. 8. Navy, April 20, 1909, 
Merchants Exchange. 8au Francisco. Cal. 

A letter from Captain William Fisher of the steanMT City of 
Sydney, dated April I3th. to Mr. R. P. Schwerin. ylee-prMideat 
and general manager of the P. M. 8. 8. Co., reports the location 
by Dr. Ifell of the power yacht Aloa of a dangerous pinnacle 
rock eight miles 8 19 deg. W,. true from Point Tosco, in the 
southern approach to Magdalena Bay. l»wer California. Dr. 
Bell sounded on the rock and found an area of s or 9 feet with 
14 feet of water on it. sides almost perpendicular. He buoyed 
the rock with an oar and sailed back to Tosco, and then trailing 
his patent log steamed back and found it the second time 
thouKh his oar was gone Dr. Hell sounded It bom times. 

J. C. BIRNETT. 
Lieutenant. V. S. .V.. in charge. 

"TIE PIECE." 



FOR PISTON RINGS. OPERATING UNDER HIGH HRE88UHB8. 




ii i^ i; 







No doubt many engineers have encountered excessive abra- 
sion of piston rings and cylinder walls, that handle high 
pressure In particular, with iu attending loaa of power and 
other approximate troubles and all primarily due to the "steam 
packing" of the rings. 

Various ex|iedients have been tried and with as varied 
results, always leaving a better method very much desired. 

The accompanying drawing of a "tie piece" Is one designed 
by the writer some time ago and has given very satisfactory 
results for cases of this kind. 

The theoretical conditions we desire and aim to obtain are 
tight pistons and a true cylinder at all times, and this, we all 
know, is "only a dream" and a brief one at that: but to obtain 
this, it means a true cylinder and a solid ring that is a neat 
working fit. Even this has two strong objections: that Is. If 
the ring is too neat a fit there is danger of It sticking from 
unequal exi>ansion and other causes, and a wrecked piston is 
the result. If It is free to work, "safe" from the beginning, the 



A Bodcra principle ofedacaboa: ■ iiyaa SR <a deah spaa • mIiju.! ik* 
Dcxl beil ihiai lo kaow is wkcte to loot (or definiic lofonadioa; ike pwyit 
■ppiicalioa oTlhii principle in bwinen iraaMctioas u an in<l i f «l i on of p»ntmi, 
■od mui< bring sbool the Mmc deeree o( mkccm ia tkc Uart caac •> in ike lor- 
ma, and beeaMdellte naneof Weck>. Fwrtinn & Howe. San Frandaco. m well 
iililiirrl wkh the SUp Owadlery boriaeM oa Ac Pndfe Coa«. 



Sola <■< Ue^anlr Pharntarr. I'M Raat St. 



16 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



abrasion of ring and piston will be such that it will leak in a 
short time to such an extent that a new ring must be installed 
to bring our engine back to its original efficiency. 

With the "cut ring" we have, as everyone knows, a "steam 
packed," rapid-worn ring and cylinder walls; the latter "bar- 
reled" at that. 

A glance at our "tie piece" will convince one that in this we 
have all the good qualities of the solid ring, with additional 
advantages, as a determined and fixed point of expansion, yet 
it can contract. This obviates the possibility of sticking, and 
when worn to a point we set as a limit for wear, all that is 
needed is to remove material at "A" on either ring or lug, 
when we have cur ring in its original efficiency. This saves a 
new ring; then again it will act as a dowel to keep the ring 
in position, and a "chock" to help center the piston, which 
can be shimed to suit. Then if the cylinder is "barreled" when 
the ring is first installed it will tend to parallel the bore again. 

The only precaution to be taken is to see that the tie piece 
is shimed up to the ring so lug "A" cannot get out of the 
grooves in ring, 

This design will show the strength of "tie" to counteract 
the stress due to the "steam packing" of ring (for it must not 
be forgotten that the ring is under the same condition as a 
like section of a boiler shell) and at the same time not ap- 
proaching the limit of strength of this section of the ring. It 
further shows its simplicity and cheap machining at its original 
construction. 

In summing up, it will be found that the essence of this 
"tie" is the projections or lugs and their shape at "A." The 
Lie piece may be made of bronze or cast steel (the latter pre- 
ferred). 

In conclusion will give the proportions that are satisfactory 
from cylinder rings from 25 inches to 45 inches in diameter. 

Referring to the drawing, let D equal inside diameter of 
ring, then R equal .16 D; then from R we have, g equal .23 R; 
B equal .2 R; C equal .27 R; E equal .1 R; and F equal .25 G. 
Of course these proportions may be modified to suit a particular 
case, but due regard must be given the strength of ring at 
the grooves, projections or lugs and its shape at "A." 

(Signed) J. E. A. MILLER, Chief Engineer. 

Adress: S. S. Santa Rosa, Pier 9, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

March 31, 1909. 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 



SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING. 

UNION IRON WORKS, 320 Market Street. 



OIL BUR NERS . 

S. & p., 102 Steuart St. Phone Kearny 629. 



BOAT BUILDERS. 

JOHN TWIGG & SONS CO., Illinois St., near Eighteenth, S. F. 
GEO. W. KNEASS, 18th and Illinois Sts., S. F. 



SHIP PLUMBERS. 

ANDERSON BAILEY, 216 Steuart St., S. F. 



WIPING RAGS. 

THE RAYCHESTER CO., 1448 Folsom St., S. F. 
Sanitary Manufacturing Co., 2208 Folsopa, S. P. 

FOR SALE — Thirty town lots at Alviso; established head of 
navigation on San Francisco Bay. Inquire office of Pacific 
Merchant Marine. 



Shipwright Caulker 

Launches 



Sparmaker 
Yachts 



H. ANDERSON, BOAT BUILDER 



Repair Work on Wutf.-i 
Cor. 9th Ave. &G St. So. c 



Phone Butchertown 61 



an r rancisco. 



,ai. 



SAN DIEGO PILOTAGE AND TOWAGE RATES 

The following tariff is established for pilotage into and out of San Diego harbor: 

All ves.sels under five hundred ton,s, five dollars per foot draught; all vessels over five hundred tons, five dollars per foot draught and 
four cents per ton for each and every ton register measurement; when a ves.sel is spoken, inward or outward bound, and the services 
of a pilot are declined, one-half of the above rates shall be paid. 

Towboat service is rendered at a fixed scale of compensation as follows: 



PER NBXr REGISTER TON 



To Sea. San Diego to Whi.stling Buoy. 
If towed from AVhistling Buoy to San 
Diego, charge the same as to Sea. 
Docking and undocking included in 
these rati's if vessel proceeds immedi- 
ately to or from dock 

Docking and Undocking... 



400 

and under 

600 



$50 00 



15 00 



600 

and under 

800 



S5 00 



17 50 



800 

and under 

1000 



$75 00 



20 00 



1000 

and under 

1250 



$90 00 



22 50 



1250 

and under 

1500 



$100 00 



25 00 



1500 

and under 

1750 



$110 00 



27 50 



1750 

and under 

2000 



$120 00 



30 00 



2000 
and under 

2250 



$130 00 



32 50 



2250 

and under 

2500 



$U0 00 



35 00 



COASTWISE VESSELS 


100-150 


150-220 


200-250 


250-300 


300-350 


350-400 


400^50 


450-500 


500-550 


550-600 


To or from Sea as above 


$15 00 
5 00 


$17 50 
5 00 


$20 00 
5 00 


$22 50 
5 00 


$25 00 
5 00 


$27 50 
5 50 


$30 00 
6 00 


$32 50 
6 50 


$35 00 
7 00 


$40 00 
8 00 







HUMBOLDT BAY PILOTAGE AND TOWAGE RATES 



Pilotage over Humboldt Bar is not compulsory. Pilotage charges 
are included in the towage charges, the masters of tugs being licensed 
pilots of same. 

Towage — Light vessels inward bound to load lumber are towed 
both inward and out to .sea, when loaded, on the basis of 50 cents 
per thou.sand feet of lumber. 

Loaded ves.sels bound in pay at the rate of 121^ cents per ton, 
figured on the basis of cargo on board, and an additional charge of 



50 cents per thousand feet of lumber is charged for taking them to 
sea. 

For moving vessels in port the charges vary according to size of 
ves.sel, and whetlicr loaded or light. 

For light vessels the charge is from $10 to $25; from Red Buoy 
(middle of Bay) to Areata Wharf or Field's Landing the charge is 
from $10 to $40, light, according to size. 



Sold at Steacy's Kens Depot. 3 Steuart St. 



LAUNCHES PLANS 



YACHTS 



STONE & VAN BERGEN 

SHIP BUILDERS 

Fool o( Baker Street Su Fraocuco, C«l. 

TihtliiiiWi MM 



TUGS 



E.umatc. STEAMERS 




Forlhebei'l 4-<vilr- pncirip Imllt on Ihr ms-i !■• -im 
I OOlCINfl cowl roiKlitloiw:*! »rr»i«on»lilri>i1o>-T M»iiy ...•! ii.i.r.-. 
L^\J\JI\.ll^\3 xoiip worth iiiorr. U»» fti|rtn« from 3 to 100 II T. 

Gorham Engineering Co., Alameda, Cal. 




im r ■««".w«i !». I7W 11k. 







i 

i* 






CONVENTION OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE 

AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 

IN SAN FRANCISCO 



Henry Cowell Lime & Cement Co. 

MT. DIABLO CEMENT 

SANTA CRUZ LIME 

ALL KINDS OF BUILDING MATERIAL 
Delivery Department, Union and Front Streets. Office 95 Market Street 

SAN FRANCISCO Phone Keamy 2095 CALIFORNIA 



s 






$. 



•■ii' 



I 



hhi> 








'r: 




VOL. II 






SATURDAY, MAY 1, 1909 
CONTENTS 

American Shipping Continued) 

Alexander R. Smith 

The Isthmian Canal 
Pacific Coast Vessels illustrated) 

S. S. Lurline 



Marine Notes of Pacific Coast Ports 

Editorial 



NO. 7 



Opening of the Yachting Season 
Corinthian Yacht Club 



^r^^^ih 




THE CLARA BARTON SANITARY 
WIPING RAG 




The Clara 
Barton Brand 
of Wiping Rags 
is guaranteed 
to be thorough- 
ly sterilized and 

disinfected 



THE RAYGHESTER CO., INC. 



1448-1460 FOLSOM STREH 



SAN FRANCISCO 




Be sure to have 



CHALLENGE METAL 



For 
High Speed 




For 
Heavy Pressure 



in your important bearings. 
Ask about it. 

SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO. SAN FRANCISCO 



I W ..111 . , ' . - 'I- 



SANITARY 
WIPING RAGS 

Washed and Disinfected 

Exclusive Packersof 
Soft Cotton Wiping Rags 

SANITARY MANUFACTURING GO. 

2208-2210 FOLSOM STREET 
Phone Market 1195 San Francuco 



;._-i*Si»«» -■>» 




COLOR WORK A SPECIALTY 



The Buckley Cafe 



OETJEN-MENGEL CO.. lacocponMd 



H. L. DETJEN. M«m|« 



German Bakery <-'onfcctioncry 

dl~» . . j4ll IfinJa of Cakes to 

Kestaurant order at shon noucc 



Buckley Building, 97 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
S. E. Comer Spear St. One block from Perry Phone Douebu 2713 




GEO. W. KNEASS »"Ar buh per 



Orric* and Work* 
18th and lllinoi* Streets 
Pkeae Muiiai S»b Fraaci 

MS C*L 



Baal Malarial aad SO Boall of all 
Daacriptio** Far S*la 

lliii; ri.l.> llalK aiicl Tnirks II ■ - 
Muvrn 111x1 llox ItulliTt ruiihUiiUiy 
uii hatiil. Wood Turninc 



Steamship Men Take Notice! 

The National Laundry Ic Mattreti Renova- 
tor7 Company will clve better retulU both 
In quality and price than can be had elie- 
wbere. Special ratei and service cuaranteed. 

O. F. rAIRriCLD. Manaser 

riant, 3844 18th Street Phone Market 61 



Hart-Wood Lumber Co. 

LUMBER SHIPPING 

Wholesale and Retail 
807 Fife Building San Francitco 



P. M. BAMBINO 

Eiclwi** Tailor 
UmMMona tncuLTV 



219.220 aackkT aUf. 

9t Markd ttmt 



tm F mc lMi. Cat 




ALKINS QUALITY" 

The best facilities backed by 
experts in each department 
are what made "Calkins Quali- 
ty" the standard in the realm 
of printed publicity. We print 
the Pacific Merchant Marine. 



PRINTING 

ENGRAVING 

BOOK-BINDING 



CALKINS 

PUBLISHING HOUSE 

Calkint Building, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 3140 



Matson Navigation Company 



268 Market Street 



Phone Douglas 3030 



Direct Line Passenger and Freight Steamers and Sailing Vessels to 

Honolulu, Hilo, Kahului, Mahukona, Eleele 

From 

-J Seattle and San Francisco 

For Freight and Passenger Bates apply to 

Alexander js Baldwin, Seattle Castle b Cooke, Honolulu 

Matson Navigation Company, San Francisco 



Moore & Scott Iron Works 

Successors to W. A. BOOLE & SON 

MARINE WAYS AND DRY 
DOCK at OAKLAND CREEK 

MARINE REPAIRS A SPECIALTY 
Main Office & iVoxks: Main & Howard Sts., San Francisco 




M. S. S. LURLINE. 



EUREKA BOILER WORKS CO. 

Desisners and builden of all kindi of Marine, Station- 
ary, Locomotive, Straw-Burning and Traction Engine 
Boilers. Special attention paid to Repairs of Ship Work. 
Boilers, Tanks, and Sheet Iron Work. Building and 
Installing of Oil Plantsa Specialty. Machine Black- 
unithing. Telephone Kearny 2453. Main OAce 
■ Works: 57-59 Mission St.. San Frandsco, California. 




Telephone Temporary 50J 

HERZOG & DAHL 

Electrical Engineers and Contractors 

Marine Electrical Installations, Special Fit- 
tings, Supplies and Repairs. 

ISOSteuartSt., SanFrancisco.California 




Phone Kearny 867 

Sellers & Madison Co., Inc. 

Paints, Oils, Etc., Ship 
Chandlery, Naval Stores 

SMOOTH ON 94-96 Market Street 
Pacific Coast Agents SAN FRANCISCO 


1 










? 






BERWICK Z DIC-KIE DAVID W. DICKIE JJ PLANS and SPECIFICATIONS 
__ __- « i-» -7 r^f /^i^ii-« '""^ *" '''"'^* ^ engineering work of 
lJ, W. & r\. ^. L/IC'ICIEI Heel, wood or concrete: oil-burning 

plants, wharves, bunkers; launches. 
Engineers &nd Naval Arcbilects propellers, steam and gas-engined 
D o'iA c \M • Dij t"0*> and steel and wood vessels of 
Room 824, Santa Manna BIdg. j] [jj^j. 

Phone Kearny 2907 1 1 2 Market St. 




Alex P. Bailey Telephone Douglas 1398 Geo. Anderson 

ANDERSON & BAILEY 

[Registered] 

Sanitary and Ship Plumbing 

Sheet Metal Work 
216 Steiiart St., bet. Howard and Folsom San Francisco 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Volume II 



SATURDAY. MAY I. 1909 



Number 7 



AMERICAN SHIPPING 

Hv AuKXANOKit H. Smith 

(CONTINV'KD) 

A Modified Free Ship Suggestion. 



Tl>e priiifiplf outluu'd in thf Haiiiia, Krye aod Payne 
bills, of admitting foreign built tonnage to American 
registry, where such tonimge is owned by American citi- 
zens or corporations, on condition that c(|uai tonnage to 
that NO admitted shall be built by its owners in American 
8hi|)yards. all such tonnage so admitted or built being con- 
finwl to the foreign trade, is one that is <leserving of more 
thoughtful consideration than it has hitherto received. 
The fact that such foreign-built American-owned tonnage 
as is now engaged in our foreign trade is likely to wear out 
in that trade because of the physical impossibility of sub- 
stituting for it an e<pial tonnage of American construction, 
even under the operations of the most liberal and encour- 
aging laws for the upbuilding of our deep sea shipping, 
should minimize objection to such a departure, if the re- 
sultant benefits outweigh the possible injuries. During 
the fiscal year which cndetl on June .30, 1!K)."), the increase 
in the value of our seaborne foreign commerce amounted 
to !flt)2, 87 1.775. The value of the entire foreign commerce 
carried that year in the 943,750 registered t«)ns of Ameri- 
can ves-sels then engaged in our foreign trade, was $290,- 
«07.946. 

Startling Statistics of Our Commercial Growth. 

This shows that the increased .seaborne foreign com- 
merce was eipial to 55 per cent of all that was carrietl in 
American vessels. For vessels of the I'liited States in that 
year to have carried what they did carry and to have suc- 
ceeded to the carrying of our increase*! seaborne foreign 
commerce alone would have necessitateil a construction in 
excess of 5<K),000 registered tons of new v«>ssels — an ac- 
complishment entirely beyonti the bounds of possibility. 
In the fiscal year which endetl on June .'{0, li)06, the in- 
crease in the scabonie foreign commerce of the United 
States amounted in value to !)!296,205,151, while that car- 
rie<l in American vessels amoinited in value to but $322,- 
347,205. For American vessels to have carrie<l the foreign 
tonnage last year that they did carry, and to also have 
carried mere"ly the increase alone in our seaborne foreign 
commerce would have necessitated the construction in 
American shipyards of 92 per cent additional tonnage, or 
approximately 864,000 tons of new ships — again an ac- 
complishment that would, under the most favorable con- 
ditions, be utterly unattainable. 
Ftirther Consideration of Modified Free Ship Provision. 

If. therefore, the present American owners of foreign 
vessels coidd be induced to place their vessels under 
American register, under adequate aid from the Oovem- 
ment to enable them to operate them in profitable com- 
petition with the other foreign vessels engaged in our for- 
eign carrying, and they would agree to build in American 
shipyards new tonnage equal to that .so admitted, or even 
to agree to build in American shipyards only .50 per cent 
as much new tonnage as was so admitteil. the result 
might be highly beneficial to American shipbuilders and 
shipowners, and of the greatest possible advantage to 
the ITnited States from a naval and military point of 

9*l« ■( "rhat Mas n<«a," TS MmrUri Btwutt 



view. Of course, it goea without saying that the bare 
registry would be unacceptable, it is unacceptable now. 
Coupled with a rmiuirenient that a<lditional tonnage 
should be built in American shipyanis, and carrying no 
other advantage, the privilege thua grantini would be 
unavail(>d of, and would accomplish uothing. But, with 
ade<|uate compensation front the (lovernment to enable 
the owners to overcome the advente conditions that would 
follow the American registry of such vessels, and thai 
would enable the owners of the new limnage t(» operate 
it in profitable competition with foreign tonnage, there 
might be a large acei>ssion of tonnage under the Ameri- 
can flag in our foreign trade. The admission of sneh 
foreign vessels, ao owned, might be restrictwl in the mat- 
ter of siz«», horse-power and age, and a time limit might 
be wisely fixed beyond which no more such ifdmisKions 
would be permitted. Itonds could be re<(uired for the 
faithful performance of the obligation to build the addi- 
tional tonnage s|H>citit>d in the bill. There is a large 
tonnage of foreign vessels owned by American citizens 
who are acquainted with the business of operating veaaela 
in our foreign lra«le. and who miRht naturally be ex- 
peete<l to take advantage of any reasonably remunera- 
tive and Ktable. act for the encoiirat;emenl of American 
shipping in the fon'ign trade. Desjiite the fact that 
Senator Frye felt constraineil to eliminate a similar pro- 
vision from a shipping bill only a few years ago, in 
deference to what lie properly characterizejl as a mis- 
taken but i>owerful public si'utiment in opposition, the 
suggestion might be renewe<l advantageOusly to the (jov- 
ernment, to our ahipowners and shipbuildera, if enaet«d 
into law. 

Steel Makers Should Subsidize Our Shipbuilder!. 

Still another suggestion may wisely be put forward 
at the present time, for the thoughtful consideration of 
those who ar<' interested in the building up of our ship- 
ping in the foreitrn traile. If the jntwerfid corporations 
that arc en^aucd in the manufacture of steel and irt»n, 
the material most useii in the construction of modem 
vessels, could form a combination for the purpose of 
offering, for a fixed peri(Hi, a substantial bounty for the 
construction in the I'nited Stati>s of shi||^ built of Ameri- 
can steel, much might be done to stimulate a large in- 
crease in our foreign-(:oing sliipping. Of course, it is 
to be remembered that the higher construction cost in 
American shipyanis is but one of the barriers to an 
increased American merchant marine. The increased 
cost of operation, covering the many years of the life 
of a ship, is a more serious matter, and a far greatei^ 
barrier to the construction of such vessels. Such a sug- 
ir*-stion as is here made, therefore, would be impracti- 
cable of adoptiim, were the (tovenjment disinclined to co- 
o|H*rate, as. for instance, is provide<i in the pending McF'^ 
chant Marine Commission's shipping bill. 



PROGRESS OF THE PANAMA CANAL 

The total of canal excavation durinf; the month of .March, 
3.S80..3.'?7 cubic yards, is the greatest niinil)er of yards 
excavated for one month during American occupation. 
In addition to this amount,. 182,295 cubic yards were re- 
tnoved to facilitate construction work, making a grand 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



total for the month of 4^062,632 cubic yards. The average 
daily excavation was 143,716 cubic yards, or 5 cubic yards 
were removed every second in the day of eight hcmrs. 

The. hull of a Belgian type ladder dredge, which was 
abandoned by the French in the Chagres river at San Pablo, 
has been cut into four parts, loaded upon cars and will be 
hauled to La Boca. There the hull will be put together 
again and such repairs made as are necessary to put it into 
condition for service as the float of a marine derrick. A 
crane with machinery will be installed capable of lifting 25 
tons. The chief use to which it was intended to put this 
floating crane is in removing old wrecks from the canal 
prism between Miraflores and La Boca. These wrecks are 
old French dredges and other shipping sunk in the channel 
of the French canal near the crossing of the Rio Grande, 
or that had been laid up on the banks of the Rio Grande 
and had floated into the canal at high water. Those that 
lie directly in the prism of the canal will be blown up with 
dynamite and loaded upon barges to be towed out to sea 
and sunk in deep water. 

In the construction of the concrete plant at Gatun and 
the lock handling plant the factor that will determine the 



Flamenco Island. Ships coming into the port enter this 
new channel between parallel lines of marking buoys and keep 
in about the center until abreast of the La Boca wharf. 

The channel is safe at mean tide for ships drawing 18 feet 
or under, and for ships drawing 18 to 22 feet at three-quar- 
ters tide; but heavier draft ships should enter or depart at 
approximately high tide. The limiting depth in the center 
of the channel is about 30 feet at mean tide, which is found 
from along the wharf to about 4,000 feet south. During 
the lower 2,000 feet of this distance the channel is only 350 
feet at bottom width. 

The section that is undredged is on the east side of the 
channel. Work in this will he finished by June 1. From 
this point 4,000 feet south of the wharf, to a point 10,000 
feet south of the wharf the channel is open to its full bottom 
width and is 40 feet deep and from the latter point to deep 
sea it is open to its full width and is from 45 to 55 feet deep. 
Any information that is required by navigation interests 
will be cheerfully furnished by Division Engineer S. B. 
Williamson at Corozal, C. Z. 

One of the Belgian- type ladder dredge left by the French 
on the banks of the Chagres at Trijoles and floated down 










THE TRACK SHIFTER AT WORK ON COROZAL DUMP 
Doing as Much Work in Two Hours and a Half as Five or Six Hundred Good Workmen Could Do in the Same Time. 



completion is the power plant. The plans for the power- 
house have been approved and the building itself is well 
under way, but the boilers have not yet arrived on the 
isthmus. 

One of the unloading cableways for the rock and sand 
docks is ready for operation, and the construction of the 
other two is well advanced. The structural steel work on 
the cableway plant for the locks will be finished this month. 
Two-thirds of the machinery is now on the isthmus, and it 
is probable that the whole plant will be ready for use in 
June. 

' The rock and sand dock is completed aiid the cement 
dbck is nearing completion. The tunnels through which 
the electric cars will run under the cement dock and the rock 
and sand charging bins are completed and the bed for the 
railway is graded up to the mixers. The eight mixers are 
set up and can be in readiness for operation in a few days. 
On Monday April 5, the Pacific Division began dumping 
spoil from the canal into the French channel, at the crossing 
of the breakwater to Naos Island. AH ships entering or 
leaving the port of Ancon now use the new channel to the 
canal, the sea entrance of which is about a mile southwest 



to Cristobal during the past rainy season, was in such good 
condition that not over $10,000 will need to be expended 
on it before it can take up its work with the dredging fleet 
at the Atlantic entrance. This dredge is No. 5, and is now 
at the Cristobal marine shop being rebuilt. Most of the hull, 
two of the boilers and the main engines are in such good 
condition that they require overhauling to make them fit 
for service. One new boiler will be installed. The principal 
change being made is the extending of the ladder so that the 
dredge will dig to a depth of 41 feet, the depth required at 
the Atlantic entrance, instead of 32 feet for which it was 
originally designed. This will make six of the old French 
ladder dredges now in use. 



SOUTHERN COAST NOTES. 



San Pedro. 

The Grays Harbor Construction Company has acquired 
a large amount of level land along the west side of the 
Wishkal River and will construct a long line of wharfage 
with a view to locating factories, the first of which will 
be an asphalt plant. 



Sold lit Oceanic Pharmacy. 148 East St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Los Angeles. 
The Hoard of Public- Works has retiuested the Western 
lioat Works to prepare plans aud estimates of the mu- 
nicipal ferry to be operated across the San Gabriel River 
about 200 feet north of the draw-bridjfe. 

Redondo. 
The work of extendinf; wharf No. .i 115 feet, so as to 
reach a greater depth and accommodate larger Bteanien, 
has begun, and it will be completed about July. The 
improvements will cost about $20,000. All the pansenger 
steamers of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company will 
in future land at wharf No. '.i instead of wharf No. 1. 
Wilmington. 
It was proposcil at a meeting of the trustees of the 
city to dredge the nnuiicipal channel to a depth oif twenty- 
five feet instead of eighteen, as is now under contract, 
thereby accommodating deep-draft vc-ssels. It will be 
nec«'s.sary to bond the city for $«0,00() to complete the 
work. 

Pacific Grove. 
The As.so(iated tJil ( '<)mi)any '.s oil barge Roderick 
Dhu, which stranded near Point Pintos April 25, will be 
a total loss. The barge is valued at $60,000. 

Monterey. 
Having on board a largo. of 55,(M)0 I)arrel8 of oil, the 
steamer Porter dei)arted April 18 for Juneau, Alaska. 

HAWAIIAN NOTES. 

The ship Dirigo, bound from Haltiinore to the Hawaiian 
Islands, is said to have been stranile<l on the coast of 
Molokai, one of the Hawaiian Islands. The Dirigo is a 
four-masted steel ves.sel, built and owned by Seawall & 
Co., of Hath, Me. The vessel had a >argo consigned to 
the United States Government. 

Captain Mosher has been appointed harbormaster at 
the port of Hilo. He was for many years a nuister in 
the service of the Inland Steam .Navigation Company. 

Captain Miller has eipiipped the old steamer .Mo Solii 
with a gasoline engine, and on the trial trip it proveil 
entirely satisfactory to the new owner. It is not known 
what the vessel will be used for, but Captain Miller's 
hobby of collecting any and every boat that no one wants 
and making the engines grind a barrel of money out of 
them will no doubt stand him in good stead. 

The rejMirt stating that the Hritish steamship Kish 
entered Honolulu in a sinking condition on April 3 was 
erroneous, as the vessel was forced from her course by 
blizzards, strong head winds and high seas. The Kish 
is carrying 4.(M)0.(KM) feet of Iniuhcr from Vancouver to 
Taku, China. 



NORTHERN COAST NOTES. 



Portland. 

Captain Charles F. Pond, who has been in charge of 
the Thirteenth Lighthouse Di.strict since July of last 
year, has been assigned to the command of a new 
armored cruiser. Commander J. M. Ellicoot. now mastey 
of the supply ship Solace at Charlcstim. S. C., will suc- 
ceed Captain Pond as inspector in charge of the Thirteenth 
Lighthouse Di.strict. 

A log raft containing 7.000.000 feet of lumber is in 
course of con.structinn at Stella, Wash., on the lower 
Columbia, and will be towed to San Francisco in May 
or June. 

The Oregon State Pilot Commissioners met in Astoria 
April 17 and effected a temporary organization. The 
commi.ssion consisted of F. C. llagemenn. F. Taylor and F. 
Pendleton and was formed for the purjwse of granting 
licenses to those who are capable of piloting ships in 
and out of the Columbia River. 



The steamer Multnomah, belonging to Captain J 
Gooil, was sold to F. F. Foster of Vancouver, Wash., who 
will oi>erate her in the general towing trade ou the 
Columbia River. 

The local United States Weather Hureau will issue 
maruu- meteorological charts of the North Atlantic and 
North I acific Ocean every mouth, beginning in July. 

Seattle. 
The (harlw Wilson ( ompauy has placed the steamer 
VNellesley on the San Francisco-Seattle route, making 
eight coastwise vt^els this company is now operating. 
The tugboat Atlas, built by A. J. Garrod for W. Grant 
of Harper, was launched Ai>ril 12 and was put in com- 
mission immediately. Tlie Atlas is fifty feet long, of 
twelve-toot beam and draws six feet of water. ' Her 
engine is a sixty five horsci)ower Atlas gas engine. 

The r. S. S. S. .Milwaukee has broken the world's 
record for coaling ship by stowing awav 1.500.7 tons in 
nine and one-half hours. The average per hour was 158 
Urns, ami the best record for one hour was 208 tons. 
The world s record heretofore was held bv the battleship 
\ irginia. A total of 218 men. including those wh9 
weighed and tallietl the coal, took part in the work. 

The International Steamship Company has inaugurated 
a one-way rate of 25 cents between Seattle and Victoria 
on Its steamer Chippewa. It is not thought that the 
( anatlian Pacific vessels will meet the cut. This is the 
first action in the rate war between the two rivals this 
season, but before the season is over rates will doubtleus 
b«' at a minimum. In a later report the 25-cent rate was 
abandoned and a one-way rale of $1 estalilished. 

The Alaska Steamshij) Company, which has formerly 
shared i)ier No. 1 with the Alaaka Coast and the Alaska 
Pacific Steamship Companies will shortly move to nier 
No. 2. ' 

The Hritish steamer Yoseric. of the Andrew Weir line, 
has been <|iioted at 15 per cent. The steamer Yoseric 
struck the wre<k of the steanier Valdwa while on her way 
from Haltimore to Puget S..und and was so badlv dam- 
aged that she was beached at I.,<'bu, Chile. The" cargo 
of the vessel will have to be discharged before anything 
can be done to repair the vessel and take her off the 
l>each. 

The British bark Hawthornbank. also belonging to the 
Weir line, is (pioted at .< per cent. The Hawthornbank 
is 228 days out from Termuxen. Holland, with a cargo of 
creosote for Eagle Harbor. 

The Hritish ship Australian is on the board at 90 per 
cent and there is very little hope for her. The veaael 
sailed from Matzalan November 25 for Sydney and haa 
never been spoken. 

The sailing ship Erskine M. Phelps, which Haile<l fnnn 
Port Townsend. Wash.. January (i for .New York, wan not 
spoken from the time she left until she reached her 
destination April 22. The Erskine M. Phel|»8 cleared 
from Puget Sound with the largest cargo of salmon ever 
shipped from this district— over 1(K).000 caaes. 

Fifty per cent has been paid on the Hritish steamer 
Koloma. which was sunk at Singapore sc'veral months ago 
to extinguish a fire in her cargo of oil. 

The Hritish steamer Cumbal, of the Grace line, which 
was ashore at ( hilor Island, on the South American coast, 
has been i1oat.ed. Twelve guineas per cent has been 
pai<l on the ship. 

Five per e«nt has been paid on the Oerman bark 
Alsterfee. which sailed from Caleta. Hreena, Deeember 
11. for Port Phillijw head. 

The steamer St. Croix, recently purchased in the East 
by Schubach & Hamilton, will go in the Alaska trade. 
She will remain on this run until the opening of Bering 



S«M at •Tkat Maa PKIa." 71 Umrhrt ««*«•« 



6 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Sea navigation and then go in the Nome trade for the 
season. 

The Norwegian bark Skjold arrived at St. Vincent in 
distress, with cargo shifted and lower deck beams broken. 
Upon being surveyed she was found to be in an unsea- 
worthy condition and her general cargo, which was con- 
signed to Henry Lund & Co. of Seattle, will be trans- 
ferred to another vessel. 

The arrival of the Alaska Steamship Company's 
freighter Seward at Cordova will be eagerly watched for, 
as the vessel left Seattle in spite of the protests of a 
majority of the marine underwriters. At the time of 
sailing she was drawing 21 feet 7 inches mean over a 
foot to bow. Should anything happen to the Seward on 
her way to Cordova no insurance could be collected on 
either the vessel or the cargo, as the local representatives 
of the marine insurance companies applied to their com- 
panies to have the insurance canceled. 

Officers and trustees for the Northwestern Commercial 
Company, owned by J. Pierpont Morgan, the Guggenheims 
and the various subsidiary corporations, were elected for 
one year at the annual meeting of the stockholders. The 
election concerned the Northwestern Commercial Com- 
pany, Northwestern Steamship Company, Northwestern 
Fisheries Company and the North Coast Lighterage Com- 
pany. The following officers were elected : President, 
W. R. Rust; vice president, S. W. Eccles of New York; 
secretary and treasurer, D. H. Jarvis, and the following 
trustees: E. S. Pegram, W. E. Bennett, W. P. Hamilton 
and Stephen Birch of New York, and W. H. Bogle and 
Moritz Thomson of Seattle. 

Owing to the inability of Captain John Sutherland to 
secure a crew, the sailing of the twenty-eight ton tug 
Grayling to Panama was postponed indefinitely. A 
voyage down the Coast in so small a vessel is anything 
but agreeable and mariners are not inclined to attempt a 
trip of this character. The Grayling will probably be 
shipped to its destination. 

Astoria. 
The North Pacific Steamship Company has chartered 
the gasoline schooner Gerald C. for service between 
Eureka and the Eel River, a trading port on the Cali- 
fornia coast south of the entrance to Humboldt Bay. 
The schooner formerly operated between Astoria and 
small harbors on the Oregon coast. 

Eureka. 

The work on the new steam schooner which C. R. 
McCormick & Co. are building for themselves is being 
rushed and about thirty-five frames of the vessel have 
been placed. The yards will doubtless run full blast the 
remainder of the season, as the company expect to secure 
the contract for the construction of a new steam schooner, 
in addition to one now in the course of construction. 

Capitalists are contemplating the establishment of a 
marine ways large enough to accommodate the biggest 
steam schooner entering this port. Some years ago a 
similar venture met with failure, and from that time 
on the only ways here was such as would handle but the 
smallest ships. 

Victoria, B. C. 

Because of the continuance of restrictions and the 
presence of such a great fleet of Japanese vessels, thirty- 
nine going into the Bering Sea this year, the Victoria 
Sealing Company has decided not to send out any schoon- 
ers this season. 

Aberdeen. 

A petition signed by every shipman in this port was 
sent to the chief of the lighthouse service, asking for the 



placing of certain buoys and beacons that mark impor- 
tant parts of the channel from Grays Harbor bar to 
Aberdeen which have been missing for a long time. 

South Bend, Wash. 

Articles of incorporation have been filed by the Coulter 
Towboat Company, with a paid-up capital of $11,000. The 
company intends to operate a fleet of towboats on the 
Willapa Harbor and its tributaries. Their fleet at the 
present time consists of the tugs Laurel and Myrtle. 



LOCAL NOTES. 



While heavily laden. with freight consigned to Oakland 
the steam schooner Helen crashed into the 'vVebster Street 
draw-bridge. The vessel escaped injury, but the bridge 
will need repairing. 

The local immigration officials are investigating the 
action of the Jebsen & Ostrander liner Ella, which vessel 
recently arrived in San Francisco with several passengers 
from Seattle. The officials of the Jebsen & Ostrander 
line claim that although the passengers in question bought 
their tickets in Seattle, they boarded the vessel at Van- 
couver, B. C, thereby evading the coasting laws which 
make it impossible for a freight vessel to carry passen- 
gers between two American ports. The immigration of- 
ficers assert that the method of the line in carrying pas- 
sengers coastwise is in the nature of a subterfuge. 

P. Russetof, the Russian coalpasser on the army trans- 
port Sheridan, who was arrested on a cablegram from 
the United States marshal of Honolulu for smuggling, 
was ordered sent back on the vessel by United States 
Commissioner Heacock. The man is wanted for smuggling 
ninety cigars ashore at Honolulu. According to Russetof 
there is wholesale smuggling going on in the transport 
service, as he defended his conduct by stating that he 
saw other firemen and sailors stowing away large quan- 
tities of cigars and other things and later taking them 
ashore, so he thought he would do likewise. The customs 
authorities do not credit the man's story, as the effects 
of the sailors arc scrutinized very carefully upon going 
ashore. 

Olsen & Mahoney have secured the contract to tow 
the army steamer Captain Antone Springer to the Colum- 
bia River. The Captain Springer will be stationed at 
Astoria in connection with the coast defense. The Gov- 
ernment is building many of those steamers, and one or 
more of them will be assigned to each artillery district. 
Under the terms of the contract Olsen & Mahoney are 
required to take out insurance tliat will reimburse the 
Government in case anything hapijcns to the tow. 

The Associated Oil steamer arrived in San Francisco 
Bay from Honolulu, by way of Gaviota, towing the 
schooner Monterey and the tug Rover. In order to with- 
stand the heavy seas a bulwark was built around the 
Rover's bow before leaving Honolulu. The Rover will 
be used in towing oil barges around the bay. 

The Merchants' Exchange has been presented with a 
full-rigged model of the American ship Josephine by 
Captain A. Pilsson of the Tiburon ferry. The time con- 
sumed in the building was three years, but if Captain 
Pilsson could have heard the exclamation of admiration 
from the throng which has constantly surrounded the 
model since its exhibition he would have been amply 
compensated for his painstaking labor. 

Fire and water damaged the Pacific Coast steamship 
City of Pueblo to the extent of $5,000 on Friday, the 23rd. 
The fire was caused by defective electric wiring, starting 
among the life preservers. 



Sold at Steacy's News Depot, 3 Steaart St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Mail will be received at the local pustuftices for west- 
ern and interior Alaskan portH beginning ^lay . 1 and 
continuing throughout the open season of suuiuier. The 
first Hailing affording this opportunity will be that of the 
steamer t'orwin, which sails from Seattle, Wash., May 
10, 1909. 

The schedule of the wrecked steamer Indiana will be 
taken by the P. il. S. S. Aztec, which has lately been 
engaged in the coffee trade along the Central American 
coast. The Aztec arrived at Ancon April 28 and will 
take the business that has been waiting for the Indiana. 

The steamer Melville Dollar arrived in port Monday, 
April 2(J, with 1,0<X) tons of freight from the wrecked 
P. M. S. S. Indiana. The rest of the cargo is of no value 
whatever, as it is entirely ruined by water. The freight 
brought by the Dollar steamer included 7,500 sacks of 
coffee, ITK) mahogany logs, 200 tons of construction iron, 
four lifeboats, a liferaft and the cabin furniture and 
fittings of the steamer. 

On her return trip from Southern California, on which 
she inaugurated a new service between Puget Sound, 
San Francisco and San Pedro, the Alaska-Pacific S. S. 
Admiral Sanipson steamed from San Pedro in twenty- 
seven hours, which is much better than the average 
time consumed in the passage. 

The tank steamer Niagara arrived in port April 27, in 
ballast, for the Standard Oil Company. Although owned 
by the Standard Oil ('ompany, the Niagara is under the 
Oerman flag. The steamer will go on the Hunters Point 
drydock to be cleaned, painted and overhauled. The 
Niagara is the finest and most modern of all the oil- 
tankers on the Pacific. 

The Independent Steamship Company's steamship 
Ilanalu, operating between San Francisco and San Pedro, 
was equipped with a wireless apparatus Ai)ril 25. 



San Rafael — That a common anchor shouhl have the 
extreme tenacity to deliberately pilfer 150 feet of garden 
hose from the deck of a passing barge and with almost 
fiendish ingenuity arrange the evidence so as to make it 
appear, circumstantially at least, that a human hand had 
accomplishetl the deed, was the cause of Henry Garland, 
captain of a bay lumber schooner spending a night in jail. 

Garland, after unloading his lumber cargo, headed for 
the bay, but at the mouth of the canal the boat struck 
on a shoal. A man was sent forward to drop the kedge 
anchor and he discovered the hose dangling to the anchor 
fluke. 

Before the schooner was floated an officer, armed with 
a search warrant, came aboard. lie was shown the hose 
still dangling from the anchor, and Captain Garland 
gave an elaborate description of the dastardly plot of 
the anchor, but alas! the officer was incredulous. 



MEETING OV THE BOARD OF STATE HARBOR 
COMMISSIONERS, THURSDAY, APRIL 29, 1909. 

The iioiir ol '.';l-"> oVIoik a. m.. the time Ri>ccHied for 
the opening and consi<lering of bids for furnishing ma- 
terial and constructing a shed on pier No. 21 (Filbert 
Street wharf), on the waterfront of the C. and C. of San 
F'rancisco. having arrived, the proposals were opened, 
and after due consideration the contract was awarded to 
W. L. Graff on the basis of his bid for the sum of $12.H4:i 
said Mr. (Sraff to give a bond in the sum of $65.0(K), with 
a surety company as sole surety. 

The hour of 9:15 o'clock a. m., the time specified for 
opening and considering bids for furnishing Portland 
cement for use on the waterfront of the C. and C. of 
Siui Francisco having arrived, the following proposals 



were opened : Standard Portland I'ement Company, $1.90 
per barrel; Santa Crux Portland Cement Company, $1.90 
per barrel. 

The swretary was directed to return checks to all 
save the two lowest bidders. 

The bid of the Pacific Portland Cement Company waa 
rejected unopened, as it arrived after the opening of the 
other bids and after the time specified. 

The contract with the Judson Manufacturing Com- 
pany for furnishing structural steel at section No. 7 of 
the Kc>awall was signed by the board and a bond in the 
sum of $800 was approved by the board. 

The attorney of the board, in a communication dated 
April 2:}, 1909. states that he apiM'are<l before the police 
committee of the Hoard of Supervisors on that day and 
explained the reasons leading to the r(H|U(>8t that an 
ordinance be pro|>ose<l prohibiting smoking on wharves, 
etc. lie also stated that the committee named will recom- 
mend to the board that the ordinance be passed. 

The Oceanic Steamship Company, in a communication 
dated .April 27, 1909, draw attention to repairs needed 
at Pacific Street wharf and also to the instability of the 
foundation of their large scales at that dock. The matter 
was referred to the engineer of the board for report and 
recommendation. 

George N. Kneass, in a communication dated April 
26, 1909, asks that the portable building belonging to the 
State, now blocking Illinois Street, be moved so that 
teams may go out Illinois Street an<l thus avoid the incon- 
venience of going six blocks out of their way by reaaou 
of said obstruction. The engineer of the l)oard was given 
|)ower to act. 

F. S. Stratton, collector of customs, in a communica- 
tion dated April 26, 1909, states that the customs service 
has no further use for the scalehoiise now located at 
pier No. 44. but that there is use for such scale on the 
bulkhead at Broadway No. 1. and asks permission to 
transfer said scaiehouse from the place first designated 
to the bulkhead at Broadway No. 1. The permission 
asked for was gratitetl. 

The Pacific Tank Company made renewed application 
for 200 feet of wharf space between the Mercantile Box 
Company and Fourth Street, iti the event of the wharf 
being vacatetl. The matter was referred to the chief 
wharfinger. 

The National Packing Company re<|ue8ts <'ertain re- 
arrangement of their assignment at seawall lot- No. 4. 
stating particulars of such pro|>osed rearrangement. It 
was onlercd filed, and on motion, duly seconded and car- 
ried, the Midland warehouse waa assigned to that portion 
of seawall lot No. 4 beginning 100 feet from the building 
line at the intersection of Bay and Kearny streets and 
extending thence north to what is known as the Harbor 
warehouse spur or the building line on East Street; 
thence 1(>5 feet to the point of beginning square feet; 
rent fixed at $129 per month, payable in advance, be- 
ginning .May 1, 1909, and to continue during the pleasure 
of the board. 

On like motion, so much of the assignment of space on 
seawall lot No. 4 made to the National Packing Company 
on January 1, 1909, as is included in the al>ove assign- 
ment to the Midland warehouse is n'scinded to date from 
May 1, 1909, an<l the rental for the portion not so in- 
clu<led is fixe<l at $1.')6 per month. 

Lieutenant .1. C. Burnett, in charge of the United States 
branch hydrographic office, San Francisco, informed the 
board that the Government having installed a time-ball 
system of its own on the roof of the Fairmont Hotel the 
one on the tower of the Ferry Building will not be oper- 
ated after May 1, 1909, and thanked the Board of State 



■•Id at Ferry FTcwa Staad. Soa Fraarlsc* 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Harbor Commissioners for the use of its system and for 
its prompt and courteous compliance with all requests 
made for repairs thereto. 

The Metropolitan Trust and Savings Bank advised 
the board that it holds an order from the Gray Brothers 
Crushed Rock Company on the Board of State Harbor 
Commissioners for the sum of $12,000, payable out of the 
final payment to become due them on their contract for 
the construction of a portion of the seawall, and asks 
that it be noted on the records of the board that said 
bank holds such order ; and also asks to be advised 
whether such amount may be properly payable. The 
matter was referred to the attorney of the board. 

The engineer of the board reported in relation to the 
extension of the heavy girder construction — said con- 
struction on the Belt Railroad — recommends the pur- 
chase from the Pennsylvania Steel Company of 250 brace 
tie plates, 350 plain tie plates and 50 pairs of channel 
joints, at a cost of about $400 f. o. b. San Francisco. The 
secretary was directed to invite informal bids for fur- 
nishing said material. 

That the Pacific Construction Company is now en- 
titled to the 25 per cent retained on estimate No. 5 (March 
25, 1909) of contract for furnishing materials and con- 
structing bulkhead wharf along section No. 12 of the 
seawall, the amount due being $14,775. Tlie bill was 
ordered paid out of the San Francisco seawall fund. 

Also that M. M. Finlayson is now entitled to the 25 
per cent retained on his contract for alterations on ground 
floor, north wing of Ferry Building, the amount due being 
$5,905.75 ; was allowed and ordered paid. The bill was 
allowed and ordered paid. 

Also that Frank Gallagher is now entitled to 25 per 
cent retained on his contract for furnishing materials 
and constructing the chief wharfinger's office, the amount 
due being $872.75, which was allowed and ordered paid. 

Also that Healy-Tibbitts Construction Company is now 
entitled to the 25 per cent retained on its contract for 
delivering rock for a cross embankment at Fisherman's 
wharf, the amount due being $744.71, which was allowed 
and ordered paid. 

Also that J. I. Mihovich, contractor for furnishing 
materials and constructing a shed on pier No. 8 (Howard 
Street wharf No. 2) has completed the work and the 
contract price, $750, was ordered paid, less the usual 25 
per cent, which will be retained for thirty-five days. 

Also that John G. Sutton ('omjiany, contractors for 
furnishing and installing two hot-water heating plants 
for offices on pier No. 42 and one for pier No. 44, have 
completed work and the contract price, $()20. was ordered 
paid, less the usual 25 per cent, which will be retained 
thirty-five days.- 

Also that Healy-Tibbitts Construction ('ompany, con- 
tractors for furnishing materials and labor for the con- 
struction of a concrete bulkhead at Jackson Street, have 
completed the work and the contract price, $960, was 
ordered paid, less the usual 25 per cent, which will be 
retained for thirty-five days. 

Also submitted bill of Healy-Tibbitts Construction 
Company for extra work done on concrete bulkhead at 
Jackson Street, amoiuiting to $854.79, which was allowed 
and ordered paid. 

Also that Mercer-Fraser Company, contractors for 
furnishing materials and constructing a wharf along 
Illinois Street south of Santa ('lara Street, have to date 
furnished and incorporated material amounting to 18 
per cent of the total contract, and 18 per cent of the 
contract price, $57,741, less the usual 25 per cent, was 
ordered paid. 

Also that Healy-Tibbitts Construction Company, con- 



tractors for furnishing materials and constructing pier 
No. 38, have to date furnished and placed materials 
amounting to 15 per cent of the total contract, and 15 
per cent of the contract price, $41,850, less the usual 25 
per cent, was ordered paid. 

Also that Robert Wakefield, contractor for furnishing 
materials and constructing pier No. 40, has to date fur- 
nished and incorporated materials amounting to 90 per 
cent of the contract, and 90 per cent of the contract price, 
$302,400, less the usual 25 per cent, was ordered paid. 

The chief wharfinger in a report states that J. Bar- 
beitta will vacate the three box- stalls now used by him at 
Fisherman's wharf, commencing May 1, 1909, and in 
future will occupy but two. On motion J. Barbeitta was 
allowed to relinquish one of the three boxes and pay 
for the other two at the rate of $10 per month each. 

Also in the matter of the api)lication of the Petaluma 
Transportation Company for berth space at the east end 
of Wttshington Street wharf, it was moved and carried 
that the assignment of 135 feet berth space on the north 
side of Washington Street wharf, commencing 460 feet 
from the bulkhead and extending easterly along the 
north side of Washington Street wharf, was assigned to 
the Petaluma Transportation Company; rent fixed at $67 
per month, beginning May 1, 1909. 

On like motion a berth space of 135 feet, commencing 
675 feet from the bulkhead and extending easterly along 
the north side of Washington Street wharf, was assigned 
to the United States naval training station ; rent fixed at 
$50 per month. 

On motion it was decided to put in a spur track, as 
per understanding with the Whittell Warehouse Com- 
pany, and the engineer of the board was ordered to pre- 
pare plans and specifications therefor. 

The Board of State Harbor Commissioners will meet 
Monday, May 3rd, at 9:30 a. m. 



PERSONAL. 

A. N. Walton has been removed from his position as 
U. S. Inspector of Hulls at Juneau, Alaska, through 
the complaint of John Birmingham. Walton was 
charged with neglect and failure of duty. 

Captain John Deering will probably take the place 
of Walton. 

The license of John Flink, chief engineer of the river 
steamer Weitehpec, plying on the Sacramento river, 
has been suspended for three months by Inspectors 
Bulger and Bolles. On March 11 low water and a dirty 
boiler caused the sagging of the crown sheet and pulling 
out of stay bolts, which resulted in the scalding to death 
of Elmer Denlis, a fireman on the Weitehpec. 



CANADIAN GRAIN CLAUSE STOPPED. 

Toronto, Ont. — The grain section of the Dominion Marine 
Association at a meeting held in Toronto Wednesday, 
decided to abandon the new clause in the bill of lading 
limiting the shortage on grain to one-half bushel in a thou- 
sand bushels. Certain American vessels and several Can- 
adian ships were accepting charters irrespective of the clause 
and as a result the Canadian grain trade was lieing diverted 
to Buffalo, the situation becoming so serious that the 
Dominion government wired the association to revert to the 
old order of things, and vessels will now accept shipments 
on the best terms they can make. 



It has been reported that Mr. F. H. Johnson has given 
up the idea of building a 56-foot power house boat, and 
will, instead, build a speed launch intended to be faster 
than anything on this coast. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Oi?;« 95 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



r K I. 1. 1' H () N K I) O U (J L A S 4 3 2 5 



THOS. C. BUTTERWORTH f,^^^^ 

A. B. BUTTKRWORTH G«i^l M.u(« 

M. DAVIS --.... Ad»»rti«iii Dapariacal 



Published by the Pacific Merchant Marine Publi»hiiig Co. 
in San Francisco, California, every Saturday morning in the 
interest and development of the American Merchant Marine. 



WILL BE SENT TO ANY ADDRESS in ihc UNITED STATES 

$2.50 a Year 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 
Address All Communicalions lo Ihe Paci6c Merchant Marine 



Tlie henetits to lucrue from the ronst ruction of an Isth- 
mian canal have been evident to the world since the discov- 
ery of the western Continent, though ever>' conceivable 
argument has been used for and against the project. His- 
tory is replete with information from which to draw con- 
clusions, and make comparisons of the motives which 
promptetl the ayes and noes in the discussion of this subject 
and shows the va.st amount of energj- exi)ende<l, and the one 
prevailing object — commercial supremacy and its strategic 
value — which is seen on every page written upon the subject 
of a canal, and which was thexause of interest in the canal 
in this country. 

The first American interest in the canal was aroused in 
1875. from surveys of the isthmus ma<le by Commander 
K. P. Hull, U. S. N., but, owing to internal development, 
the financial condition of, and subsidies being grantni by, 
the United States for the building of railromls. and mainly 
to the opposition of railroad interests, the construction of 
a canal by the (lovernment was abandoned. 

In ISSO Fertlinand de Lesseps organized a F'rench company 
which began operations in 1K83, and vigon)Usly prosecuted 
the work of construction until 18S9, .^pending $156,000,000, 
when the company failed and in doing so involved many 
of the high officials of France and the president of the com- 
pany. The affairs of the company remained more or less 
un.settletl until the total as-sets of the company on the 
Isthmus were purchased by the United States in May, 1904, 
at a cost of $40,000,000,' from which time the work has 
progressed. 

French operations on the Isthn)us made many lulvocatcs 
in America of the policy of Government control ard the 
building of a canal by the United States Government. 
Our territorial relations to the Far East, our insular posses- 
sions on the Pacific, and the marvelous benefit to be tlerived 
by the Pacific Coast states, were arguments* u.seil in favor of 
Ciovemment control of the Isthmian canal, either of which 
w!is sufficiently important to decitle this vital question. 
Hut let us okserve. now after five years of active work on 
the Isthmus and the expenditure o'f $:{()().n00,000, to what 
extent these benefits are likely to be realized. 

The foreign carrv'ing trade of the Philippine Islands for 
inos embraces maritime movements at all entry ports. 



representing the entrance of 1,033 and clearance of i.oiO 
steam and .sailing veoMls. Of these g49 enteral with cargo 
and 358 cleared in ballast, while 1K4 entered in ballast, and 
652 cleared with cargo. The a«xregate lona&g<e, of the 
vessels represented by these entranccH and clearances, 
during the year, was 2,976,350 registeml tons, an increaee 
of .{61,516 tons over 1907. 

While merchandise imported from Great Britain consti- 
tuted but 19 per cent of the total value of ini|xirts frtim all 
sources during HMW, the value repn- ,rgtM»s brought 

to the Islands in lirilish vessels ($1. ,7i cimstitutwi 

52 per cent of the total im|)ort value for the vear. Carg«K^ 
mvoic«l. in the aggregate, at $5,425,49S. or'l7 per cent of 
the total imiM>rt value, arrive*! in vensels flving the Spanish 
flag; vessels of German regi«tr>' brought ' merchandise to 
the value of $3,796,631 or 12 per cent; 3 per cent of the 
import values consisteil of cargoes brought in Japanese 
vessels; while the cargoes of American vessels contributed 
but 2 per cent. 

A notable excess in the value of products shipped from 
the Islands in British vessels ($24,667,S14 or 76 i)er cent of 
the total export value). «)ver the value of pnwlucts con- 
signed to Great Britain ($S,.S70.923) indicates the extent to 
which exjxirt trmle with other countries than CJreat Britain 
was carried on l)y means of British shipping. Consign- 
ments aggregating in value $2,4.35,055, or 7 per cent of the 
total were laden in vessels of Spanish registrv; exports 
declare*! in the aggregate at $I,S6S,;i92. or 6 pr'cent. were 
carrie«l in German vessels; ami pnxluct.s valuwl at $1,576,120 
or 5 per cent, were exported in Japanese iMittimis; while 
shipments in American vessels were valued at $931, S89, in 
French $906,643, Norwegian $3K7,314, and in domestic 
vessels $55,40K. 

The combined value of the import and export trade of 
the Islands, as carried on with all countries during the 
fiscal year 1908, was $63,748..561. Of this, $1.5r,4 11,786, or 
24 per cent, represented merchandise re<-eive«l from, and 
exported to, the United States in commercial vessels, al- 
though cargoes brought to and taken away fmm the Philip- 
pines in such vessels of American registr>- were valued at but 
$1,609,070, or only 2.5 per cent of the trade value. There 
was exchanged l)ctween Great Britain ami the Islands mer- 
chandise aggregating in value $14,980,509. or 23 per cent, 
while British vessels carried cargoe«< to and from the Phil- 
ippine Islands invoiced at $40,920,781 . or fully 64 per cent 
of the total trwie value of the year's commercial tninsart ions. 
These official figures demonstrate the extent to which the 
Unite*! States has benefited, since having acquired the 
Philippine Islands by the treaty of Paris, l)e<ember 1(1. 19()S, 
and for which was paid $20.(M"!(>.()(1(I: also American partici- 
pation in the great profit fmm tra<lc and commerce which 
were sure to develop on the Pacific Ocean as a nwult of 
the purchase. 

The Pacific Coast states should now demand some con- 
sideration in the l)uilding of a canal on the Isthmus, without 
entering into a di.scussion of the merits of the Nicaragua or 
Panama routes or the practicabiltiv of a sea level as against 
a lock canal. The Isthmian canal is a national enterprise, 
has been in course of construction since .May 4, 1904, and 
many millions of American dollars have been sjient on the 
work. As an American enterprise the Canal is being built 
fof the Ijenefit of the American people, which applies both 
to the work of construction and utility rtf the canal when 
completed. Tra<!e with the Orient is "an important factor 
in the building of any kind of a canal; none the less impor- 
tant was the su|)crior advantages of quick communication 
by water l)etween the Atlantic and Pacific statex; of vital 
importance to the Pacific Coast states, was a comjietitor of 
the railroads: of vital imfx)riance to the Atlantic states, 
reasonable rates of transfiortation for Pacific Coast products 
to the .Atlantic Coast; all of which we are assureawill be 



S*IS at rerrj Kewa Staa< Bmm Fmi 



10 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



available in less than six years ; but in the meantime supplies 
are required, materials are being used, equipment is neces- 
sary, much of which is brought by railroad to Atlantic 
shipping points and thence by water to the Canal Zone, 
while the redwoods of California, which have been eagerly 
sought by every country in the civilized world as railroad 
ties, have been neglected on the Isthmus in favor of the 
less desirable cypress ties of the Eastern states and the 
same transported to tidewater by railroad. Yet California, 
Washington and Oi'egon collectively could fell sufficient 
timber on tidewater, construct a log raft, and furnish every 
foot of lumber required to complete the canal, in one ship- 
ment, and land same in the harbor at La Boca with one 
handling. 

Collectively these states at the same comparative cost of 
shipment could supply beef, wool, pork ard dairy products, 
canned fruits, vegetables and fish, sugar, tanning, flour and 
grist mill products, fuel, lubricating and illuminating oil, 
forage, horses, mules, hogs, sheep and goats, hemp, tobacco 
and rice, wine, liquors and cordials, cement and manu- 
factured articles for which Pacific Coast states have an 
enviable reputation; these also include: mineral waters and 
brewery products, motive power machinery, such as gaso- 
line engines, water wheels and dynamos, refrigerating and 
pumping plants, shipbuilding and pleasure craft, cordage, 
^aper and pulp, _ boots, shoes, clothing, and explosives; 
in fact except for' the iron products, every article required 
fOr the construction of the canal. And yet Pacific Coast 
states sold less than $200,000 worth of goods to the canal 
enterprise in 1908. 

Permit us to analyze one Pacific Coast industry which 
has received due recognition on the Isthmus, whereby the 
Union Oil Company of California on January 10, 1906 was 
granted a revocable license to operate and maintain a 
pipe line for the transmission and delivery of oil in the 
Canal Zone. . The license provided that the company should 
pay into the treasury of the Canal Zone the sum of $500 per 
month for the support of the public schools, and should 
furnish to the Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama 
Railroad Company such crude oil as might be desired at the 
rate of 90 cents a barrel. The license has been recently 
amended and does away with the monthly payment of $500, 
places the price of oil at $1.10 per barrel for a period of six 
years from April 1, 1909, guarantees the use of between 
30,000 and 60,000 barrels of oil per month, and provides 
that no taxes be collected on account of the government of 
, the Canal Zone during the terrii of the agreement, which 
expires April 1, 1915. 

--•The history of oil in the United States is too well known 
t^'^^fiter here as an element of discussion of the subject at 
hand. With 400 miles of pipe line extending from Bakers- 
field to Richmond in California, and traversing the richest 
oil fields in the world, places the Union Oil Company in a 
position of independence, and complete masters of the 
transportation of their own product both in California and 
on the Isthmus; entirely free from railroad dictation the oil 
company is in a position to dispose of their product at a 
reasonable cost to the Commission, as compared with prices 
for the article in the states. Imagine the difference in the 
cost of oil in the Canal Zone if the oil wells of California 
ceased to produce, and it became necessary to transport 
oil by railroad in place of a pipe line. 

M. S. S. LURLINE. 

The Matson Navigation Company's steamer represents 
a successful type of steamer for the Pacific — Honolulu to 
San Francisco — trade. The fact that there is a full cargo 
both ways allows of the engine being in the stern. The 
ves.sel was built by the Newport News Shipbuilding and 
Drydock Company to Lloyds three-deck rule, class A. I. 
The dimensions are: Length over all, 436 feet; beam 



moulded, 53 feet; depth moulded to upper deck, 33 feet 
6 inches; load draft, 26 feet; displacement to 26 feet, 
10,000 tons. 

The vessel has two complete steel decks and partial 
steel orlop deck from the stern to the after end of one 
hold. The space deck is laid with yellow pine in the 
forecastle, poop and midship house. 

The hull of the ship is arranged with four holds, with 
the machinery aft. 

The crew's quarter, carpenter shop and boatswain's 
lockers are forward under the forecastle deck. The 
dining saloon, pantry, ladies' and men's bathrooms and 
fourteen staterooms are located in the midship house on 
the spar deck, and above these on the bridge deck are 
the smoking room, social hall and six staterooms. The 
dining saloon and all staterooms are finished in white arid 
gold, and the social hall and smoking room are finished 
in mahogany, upholstered in dark brown. 

On the upper bridge deck are pilot house, chart room, 
captain's and officers' quarters. 

The engineers' quarters, with those of the oilers, 
water tenders, firemen, cooks and waiters, are aft under 
the poop deck, together with the galley and officers' and 
crew's mess rooms. 

Aloft the Lurline has three masts, the fore and main 
fitted with derrick cargo booms. The mizzen is fitted 
with a five-ton boom for handling engine room weights. 
At the masthead is strung the spider or harp for the 
M'ireless apparatus. 

The double bottom is five feet high in the center, level 
across, with a watertight center keel. The margin turns 
down at the bilge to allow drainage. 

The propelling machinery consists of a triple expansion 
engine 51x50x84 inches, 54-inch stroke, with crank shaft 
and pins I6V2 inches diameter and forged steel crank 
webs. Steam is supplied by four single-ended Scotch 
boilers 16 feet 4 inches diameter and 11 feet 6 inches long, 
with a working pressure of 180 pounds. Each boiler has 
four Morrison furnaces 36 inches diameter, with separate 
combination chambers. The. grate area is 79 square feet 
and the heating surface is 2,726 square feet in each boiler, 
making a total of 10,904 square feet for the main boilers, 
giving about 3,600 to 4,000 horsepower burning oil fuel. 
The donkey boiler is a single-ended Scotch boiler 11 feet 
6 inches diameter, 10 feet 6 inches long, with a working 
pressure of 180 pounds. The propeller is 18 feet diameter, 
20-foot pitch, with a projected area of ninety-eight square 
feet and a horizontal area of 115 square feet. 

The average day's run coming around the Horn was 
280 knots, with about 5,800 tons cargo and 2,300 tons of 
fuel besides the bunkers. A deep sea Chase towing ma- 
chine is fitted aft. . 

OIL BURNING TESTS. 

The coast defense monitor Cheyenne, at present at 
anchor in San Francisco Bay, has just completed a series 
of tests for the purpose of trying the respective merits 
of coal and oil as fuel. While no official report on the 
work has been given out, the synopsis of opinion among 
the officers who have watched the tests closely is that 
eventually all warships will be equipped with oil-burning 
apparatus. 

There are numerous reasons for installing oil as fuel. 
Steam pressure can be maintained much more evenly 
than with coal, a higher speed can be obtained and smoke, 
cinders and dirt are eliminated. The steaming radius of 
the Cheyenne with coal was 1,500 miles, but equipped 
with oil-burning apparatus, as she is at the present time, 
her steaming radius is 2,300 miles. 

Staples & Pfieffer's oil-burning plant is being used in 
the tests. 



Sold at Steacy'a Nena Depot. 3 Steuart St. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



11 




OPENING DAY 



Corinthian Yacht Club, Saturday, May 1, 1909, Tibnron, 
California. 

"Hail, gentle spring," chir|)8 the vernal poet. But 
■Vi-u if with the divine afflatus he comhines the gift of 
MfAdii'. be it known that the Corinthian Yadit Club will 
po.sitivcly open the season of litOJ) on Saturday, May Ist, 
and no postponement on aceount of the weather. And it 
is confidently expeeted that the opening will prove wide 
i-nough for the pasaage of all the seheduled events without 
fouling the sides. 

Those who expeet innovations upon the trailitional pro- 
gram will be i'heerfuUy allowed to expeet again. Maebeth 
rants pretty inueh the same today as he di<l three genera- 
tions ago. And so, though slightly alteretl in personnel, 
[ praetieally the same old reception committee will try to 
look gladder than ever, and to all intents and purposes 
will shine in the same gold braid, brass buttons and 
weatlierbeaten complexions that have dazzled the land- 
iubliers. male and fenude, through the long procession of 
years. The parts have been assigned as follows: 

Commoilore W. V. Stone, chairnmn. (without roek«r) ; 
Captains W. J. Hogg, J. H. Keefe. Tlieo. F. Tracy, P. J. 
(;allagher. C. F. Ward. L. .1. McMahon and C. F. Morel. 

In turn will be encountered the familiar floor com- 
mittee, with the following cast: General nuinager, Cap- 
tain Joseph M. O'Hrieii; first assistatit general manager. 
Captain \Villiam Coates; second assistant general nian- 
, agcr, Captain CJeorge Kane; third assistant general 
I manager. Captain A. Cheseborough ; fourth assistant gen- 
eral manager. Captain J. McFarland; fifth assistant gen- 
ant general manager. Captain Ons Dorn : seventh assistant 
general manager. Captain J. Dowling; eighth assistant 
general manager. Captain F. P^irnko])!) : ninth a.ssistant 
general manager, Ca))tain H. Fritch; tenth assistant gen- 
eral manager. Captain V. Dahl ; eleventh a.ssistant general 
maintger. Captain II. I). Hawks; twelfth assistant general 
manager. Captain G. J. Kinsey; thirteenth assistant gen- 
eral manager. Captain John C. Brickell ; fourteenth as- 
!it general manager. Captain F. Raymond; fifteenth 
~ -unit general manager. Captain J. Short. 

These descendants of vikings will do their best to pro- 
mote the annual abrasion of sole-leather. At their behest 
the usual ratio of "ettis" and "inis" will dispense 
through the immortal in.strunu>nts the garlicky melcMliea 
endeared by long acquaintance; and at intervals, when 
they smite the bar'l, the temperature will be relieved 
with aqueous lemonade of the time-honored specific 
gravity. 

Even the lubricants used on the elevator will bear 
the immemorial trade-marks which have caused that 
feature to be pronounced "the slickest part of the show." 

The 5:30 ferry will provide means of escape for all 
but club members, for whom an entertainment shown by 
long experience to set well on beans and chowder, has 
been prepared by the jinks committee: Captains John 



STUART B.DUNBAR 



NAVAL ARCHITECT 



I'tJ- :.. K'-.r > iT.li 
Yachta A Work Bo*ts of All Claitot OoBtmod A CoDftlractioa Suporialeaded 



V. O'Hricn. James R. Miller, Charles F. Morel, Thomas 
Jennings and L. J. SIcMalion. 

General orders, Sunday, May 2, IJM)!): 8 a. m.. dress 
ship; lU a. m., report on board flagship Presto for sailing 
orders for cruise in squadron; 11a. m., make sail at signal 
from flagship. W..F. Stone, commodore. L. J. McMahon, 

secretary. 

• • • 

With the official opening J>f the Corinthian Yailit (Jul) 
today the long looked forward to yachting season of IJ'O!' 
begins, and if the go<ls are good and the propltt<cies Af 
the wise ones come true it will go down yu the great log 

ns one of Ihe most 
suec»>sslid on the Pa- 
cific Coast. The Co- 
rinthian opening will 
lie a memorable one 
in that it is the last 
to h« j)e|d iiji the biti- 
toric old clubhouse 
at Tibtinm. and it is 
expected that there 
will l)e an unusually 
large attendance. 
The pulleys of the 
(■levator have been 
specially greased and 
nlthougli the door 
has not been en- 
larged it has a prac- 
tically unlimited ca- 
l>aeity and will work 
overtime this after- 
noon and evening. 
Captain Jack 
O'Brien has prepared an especially attractive i)rogram 
for the jinks in the evening and has secured niueh new 
talent tor the performance, and the fortunate ones who 
have looked in at the rehearsals say that it is to be a 
corker.' 

Captain John KeetV has on liand a large assortment 
of beans, clams and other dainties to delight the palates 
of the jolly Corinthian tars, who. it is said, have for 
some time been fasting in preparation for the big event. 

• • • 

It has been reported that Frank Barttett has bought 

a half interest in the schooner Magic. 

• • • 

Captain Harry Gomlall's steam yacht Lucera is now in 
commission for the summer. 

• • • 

Commoilore Frank Stone's sloop Presto, flagship of 
the Corinthian ( lub. has had new decks put in and is 
now at her moorings off the clubhouse. 




MERCEDES — J. NORBY. 



Fred Klarman ^^ 



SuFn 



BOAT BUILDER 

I Muim Wan. Timxa, Cd. 
>0«o.. 211 B>akr BUa. M«l«««.Si>nrS«rrrli Pkow Kranr 47}l 



nillMl ll<'~iMMll i"* *! ' F- ) r f- - Pi 'l Vtwb ud Slii> ia Steck. 
Rqxiriaf Praapdr AikxM To 



•o.l at Vcrrr Kcwa Stead, Saa Fraactoaa 



12 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 




WANDERER— p. M. B. C. 



, Mr. "W. L. Oliver's motor yacht Bonnie Doon has been 
entered in the San Francisco Yacht Club fleet. She is 
at present moored in the Oakland estuary, but will prob- 
ably be kept in Sausalito. The Bonnie Doon was out 

last Sunday and 
cruised about the 
bay. The local yachts- 
men are much inter- 
ested in her, as she 
is by far the largest 
and best equipped 
vessel of her type on 

the Coast. 

* * * 

Clarence Doby of 
the Corinthian Club 
iiitends to bring his 
ark La Fiesta back 
to Belvedere Cove 
next week. She has 
been moored near the 
Park Street bridge at 
Alameda for some 

time. 

« * * ' 

A feature of the 
Alaska-Pacific Expo- 
sition, which opens 
Jime 1st in Seattle, will be the yachting and motor boat 
events which will take place from time to time, through- 
out the exposition. There will be many interesting motor 
boat races, open to members of all organized clubs. These 
races will be held under the auspices of the Motor Boat 
Club of Seattle, together with .the management of the 
exposition. There will in all probability be several entries 
in these races from the clubs about San Francisco Bay 
and its tributaries. 

« * « 

The Corinthian Yacht C'lub has accepted the challenge 
of the South Coast Yacht Club for the McDonnough per- 
petual cup. The challenger is the sloop Maphe, now in 
course of construction in the shop of Joseph Fellows at 
Terminal Island, and 
owned by Captain 
Cugh of San Diego. 
The Maphe measures 
40.35 racing length, 
and it is expected 
that she will be very 
speedy. The cup will 
be defended by the 
sloop Corinthian, de- 
signed by Burgess & 
Packard, built by 
Frank Stone and 
owned by the club. 
The Corinthian, al- 
though she measures 
somewhat more than 
the Maphe, can be 
brought down \x) 
within 10 per cent of 
the latter 's racing 
length by ballasting, 
and it is expected 
that the race will be 
a very close and exciting one. The race will be held 
somewhere around the middle of this month, the exact 
date to be announced later. 



Fred Greenwood's motor boat La Boheme is back at 
Belvedere, after wintering in Cordelia Slough. She is 
to be entirely overhauled, and Mr. Greenwood intends 





SCHOONER MAGIC. 

to take her to tlve Alaska-Pacific Exposition and cruise 
during the summer in northern waters. La Boheme is 

enrolled in the fleet of the San Francisco Yacht Club. 

* • * 

Captain Kendall's Alert, California Yacht Club, is to 

have a new suit of sails and be lengthened out. 

« « * 

The clubhouse of the California Yacht Club has been 

entirely remodeled during the winter. 

« * • 

S. S. Niagara on Hunters Point drydock for cleaning, 

painting and general repairs. 

* * * 

S. S. Lansing on Hunters Point drydock for repairs 

to hull. 

* * * 

The crack sloop Starlight, California Yacht Club, is 
being put into trim for the coming season. She is to 

have a new club topsail and watersail. 

* * * 

Ex-Commodore D. J. Keane, of the California Yacht 
Club, has put up a handsome cup to be contested for by 
the yachts of the club in a handicap race to be held 
September 17th. # # » 

Cecil Brown, first officer of the P. C. S. S. President, 
has been appointed assistant inspector of hulls, to succeed 
Thomas Deering, who will be sent to St. Michael for the 
season. # » # 

The California Yacht Club will hold its opening jinks 
in its clubhouse at Sheep Island Sunday afternoon. May 
2nd. A large attendance is expected, and many ol the 
yachtsmen from the other clubs will be present. 



NIXIE— COM. BARRY. 



1 


b 


M| 


s 


N 


n 


HH 








. --=(".. 


I 




— 


iMHTTi TTTrnrr 







KONOCTI. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



13 




Under Body, Showing Parallel Wave Line*. 

KONOCTI. 
The racing motor boat Konocti, owned by E. J. Holt 
and P. Gray, has recently been overhauled and p»it in 
(lonimifwion by the Gorham Engineering Company. The 
Konocti is in all probability the fastest motor boat on 
the Pacific Coast, being claimed by her owners to make 
a speed of twenty-five nautical miles an hour. She was 
built by John Twigg & Sons from their patented design 
in litOS and has made several notable performances since 
her binrn-hiiitr. TTit owners expect to take ln-r to Seattle 




iu June and enter her in the motor boat races at the 
Alaska-Pacific Exposition, liefore going to Beattle she 
will be rac«Hl in Sacramento against General II, owned 
by E. V. Mitchell and Bernard Klune, of the Sacraroebto 
Hoat ( lub, for the California state chamitionahip. The 
boat winning the best two out of three boat race.s will 
carry off the championship and a valuable cup. 

The Konoeti is :l.') feet over all. »! feet beam and is 
equippetl with a 6()- horsepower gasoline motor weighing 
:<.:')(¥» pounds and turnintr 'M' ^'•K) revolutions per niinut*. 



FOR SALE. 




The 5(l-foot waterline schooner yacht Marian was built 
by day's work for a capitalist of San Francisco, and should 
be seen to be appreciated. It is equipped and biiilt in de- 
tail for ocean crui.ses or short pleasure trips. Nothing re- 
mains to start the Marian for a long or short voyage, 
except the provisions required. Yachting circles about the 



bay are an.xiously watching the possibility of an outaidc 
buyer, as the Marian ia considered to be the moat proraia- 
ing addition to the yachting fleet in this harbor for many 
years. Inspection is invited. 

Inspection or communication. Stone and Van Bergen, 
foot of Haker street, San Francisco, Cal. 



a»U at Steaer'a Kcwa D«»«t. S Stcsart St. 



14 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 






SHIPBUILDING NOTES. 



1 Union Iron Works. 

Standard.Oil ship Acme on floating dock for tep airs 
to hulli 

Steamer Fifield on floating dock for cleaning and 
painting. ; 

Reventie' cutter Haftley being overhauled on floating 
dock. 

Tug Restless on floating dock for hull work. 

Gorham Engineering Works. 

Five-horsepower Gorliam engine being installed in 
twenty-foot compromise stern launch owned by Edwin 
Kelttnee of California City. 

The new steamer Triton, built by the American Steam- 
ship Company for travel on Lake Washington diiring 
the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition, was launched at 
Houghton April 24th. 

The schooner Meta AVilson, which was receiving a gen- 
eral overhauling at Lund.strom's shipyards, Aberdeen, 
came off the ways April 25th and will load for Honolulu. 

The schooner Meteor took the place of the Nelson at 
Lundstrom's and after receiving a cleaning and painting 
will load for San Pedro. 

The Alaska S. S. Northwestern went on the drydock 
at Quartermaster's Harbor April 26th and will remain 
on several days to be scraped and painted. 

Tacoma. 

Work on the car ferries for the Chicago, Milwaukee 
and Puget Sound Railroad is progressing rapidly at Hall 
Brothers' shipyards at Winslow and they will be finished 
on contract time. 

The steamer Corwin is receiving a general overhaul- 
ing at Hall Brothers. The Corwin will have a wireless 
installed before leaving the Nome service. 

The schooners William H. Smith and W. H. Talbot 
are at the yards having new masts installed. 



The United States survey steamer Gedney is receiving 
general overhauling of machinery and hull. 

The barkentine Makawell and the schooner William 
F. Garms are at the yards awaiting repairs. 



CHANGES IN SHIPS' OFFICERS. 

Maurice Pillsbury has succeeded E. Dennis as second 
officer of the S. S. City of Sydney. 

Otta Lang has succeeded John P. Jorden as third 
officer of the City of Sydney. 

William Ebert, formerly fourth officer of the S. S. 
Governor, succeeded Charles Burke as third officer. 

Edward Preston joined the S. S. Governor as fourth 
officer. 

The following officers have been assigned to the new 
Government dredge Clatsop, which is operating about 
Astoria : Charles Sanders, captain ; Hugh McCullock, 
mate; chief engineer. Hartley Morgan; first assistant, 
George Copeman; second assistant, James Duffy. 

Chief Engineer Muller, of the Portland and Coos Bay 
steamer Alliance, has resigned. His successor has not been 
named as yet. . ' i 

Purser E. L. Browne, also of the Alliance, has resigned. 
His place was taken by Harry W. Skinner. 

James Barneson, formerly of the S. S. Rose City, went 
out as second officer on the P. M. S. S. Asia, taking the 
place of G. Chatham. 

C. P. Watson will succeed J. Lewin as third officer 
of the S. S. Asia. 

Albert Johnson, third assistant engineer of the S. S. 
Santa Rosa, has laid off temporaily, and his place will 
be taken by R. Trundell. 

Martin Tarpey, second officer of the Santa Rosa, will 
take a vacation. His place will be taken by Ernest Barry. 

Captain Gielow, of the S. S. City of Topeka, who has 
been on his vacation, is back on the City of Topeka, re- 
lieving Captain Hall. 

Purser Carlton, of the S.- S. City of Topeka, has been 
relieved by G. Stackpole. 



TIDE TABLE TO WEEK ENDING SATURDAY, MAY 7. 

Golden Gate Entrance to San Francisco Bay . 

APKIL 
Time and Heiglit of High and Low Water 



HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 



£ 
Full 





Day of 1 


Moon 




w 

Mon. 


Mo. 


Full 


5 




Tues. 


6 




Wed. 


7 




Thiir. 


8 




Fri. 


9 




Sat. 


10 




Sun. 


11 


S 


Mon. 


12 


3rd. quar. 


Tues. 


13 




Wed. 


14 




Thur. 


15 




Fri. 


16 


P 


Sat. 


17 


E 


Sun. 


18 


New 


Mon. 


19 




Tues. 


20 




Wed. 


21 




Thur. 


22 




Fri. 


23 


N 


Sat. 


24 




Sun. 


25 




Mon. 


26 


1st. quar. 


Tues. 


27 




Wed. 


28 




Thur. 


29 


A 


Fri. 


30 



Sat. ■ 


; 1 i 


Sun.. 
Men. 




Tues. 


'-■■*# 


Wed. 


-a 


Thur. 


6 


Fri; 


7 



T. 



H. 



H. 



H. 



5:20 
5:55 
0:02 
0;26 
0:50 
1:13 
1:45 
2:32 
3:50 
0:02 
1:15 
2:14 
3:05 
3:55 
4:42 
5:23 



1 
1 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

3 

3 

2 

1.7 

1.0 

0.4 

0.0 



6:10—0.3 



0:20 
1:00 
1:44 
2:30 
3:33 
4:52 
1:00 
2:00 
2.-42 

3:16 
3:48 
4:20 
4:46 
5:21 
6:00 




6.9 
5.6 
5.4 
4,9 
4.7 
3.4 
3.0 
2.4 
M A 
2.0 
1.5 
1.1 
0.7 
0.3 
0.0 
6:40—0.2 



11:12 
12:15 

6:26 

7:00 

7:45 

8:35 

9:. 30 
10:32 
11:35 

6:30 

7:00 

8:08 

9:12 
10:08 
11:06 
12:04 
13:04 

7:02—0 

7:55—0 

8:53—0 

9:54—0 
10:55 
11:55 

6:12 4 

7:24 

5:25 
Y 

9:18 
10:04 
10:45 
11:28 
12:15 
13:06 
14:04 



4.9 
4.9 
0.8 
0.6 
0.6 
0.3 
0.3 
0.2 
0.2 
4.9 



1 
3 
4 
5 

4 
3 
5 
5 
3 
1 
1 
3 
5 
5 
4.5 



17:28 
17:56 
13:00 
13:53 
14:54 
16:10 
17:32 
18:42 
19:34 
12:38 
13:36 
14:30 
15:25 
16:10 
16:52 
17:36 
18:18 
14:07 
15:20 
16:36 
17:46 
18:50 
19:40 
12:48 
13:35 
14:24 

15:05 
15:40 
16:10 
16:45 
17:20 
17:55 
18:35 



1.3 
1.6 

4.7 



23:48 5.2 



0.2 
0.4 
0.7 
1.0 
1.5 
2.0 
4.9 
4.5 
4.5 
4.6 
4.6 
4.9 
0.5 
0.7 
1.0 

1.2 
1.5 
1.7 
2,0 
2.3 
2.7 
3.2 



18:30 
19:04 
19:42 
20:22 
21:28 
22:35 

26:i5 
20:48 
21:24 
21:66 
22:30 
23:05 
23:40 

i9:62 
19:53 
20:50 
22:02 
23:35 

26:i8 
20:50 
21:17 

21:45 
22:08 
22:24 
22:47 
23:15 
23:38 



2.0 
2.4 
2.8 
3.2 
3.5 
3.6 

4^8 
6.1 
6.4 
5.7 
5.8 
6.0 
6.1 



5.1 
5.3 
5.3 



Time used. Pacific Standard, 120th Meridian W. 

Oh — midnight, 12h — noon, less than 12 — Forenoon, greater than 12^after- 
noon, higher numbers — 12 — afternoon time. 

N — New Moon, E — Moon on the Equator, N. S. — farthest N. or S. of Equator 
A., P. — Moon in apogee or perigee. 



DEPTH AT MEAN LOW WATER, ENTRANCE TO HARBORS 



Place 


Feet 


Date 


Remarks 


Grays Harbor 


19 


Apr. 21 


Buoy No. 1 on Brown's Spit and 
beacon No. 8 gone. 


Willapa Bay 


27 


Apr. 1 


Depth at M L \V in channel at 
Raymond 15 feet. 


Columbia River 


24 


Feb. 6 




Nehalcm River 








Tillamook Bay 


13 


Mar. 2 


Channel shifting about 14 mile 
to southward is now }/g mile 
.■■outh of the whistling buoy. 


Yaquina Bay 


13 


Mar. 12 


Channel not changed. 


Siuslaw River 


8J^ 


Apr. 15 


Channel gone to north end of 
jettv and beacon on high bank 
marks channel now. 


Umpqua River 


9 


Apr. 1 


Channel to northward of old 
established ranges. 


Coos Bay 


17 


Apr. 6 


Soundings today show a ridge 
abreast of black buoy off end of 
jetty which shoaled last 2 days. 


Coquille River 


9 


Mar. 26 


2 buoys gone; channel in middle 
between jetties. 


Rogue River 






No opportunity for soundings 
lately; before rise there was 
7 feet on the bar. 


Klamath River 


8 


Apr. 2 


At present channel is southwest. 


Humboldt Bay 


18 


Apr. 1 


North channel 18 ft; very narrow 
and crooked, difficult to navi- 


- 






gate for large vessels; about 
13 feet in south channel. 


San Pedro Bay 


20 


Apr. 15 


No change in channel. 


San Diego Bay 


26 


Apr. 3 


No change in channel. 


San Pablo Bay 


24 


Apr. 21 


Depth in dredged channel. 



Sold at "That Man Pltt«," 72 Market Street 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



l.^ 



NOTICE TO NAVIGATORS, MARINE ENGINEERS, 

MARINERS AND SEAMEN 

This page will be reserved exclusively for all official notices aad information of importance 



NOTICE TO MARINERS. 

The following informatiun uffects the aids to navigation of 
the Tbirteenlli lighthouiie district: 

Oregon — Yaquina Bay B:itrance: Outnlde Ijar whistling 
buoy, P. S. "Y," replaced March 22. having been rei>orti'd 
missing March 19. 

L. H. It. list of buoys, etc.. Pacific Coast, pp. 46 and 53. 

Or<>t;on and Washington — Columbia River Entrance: The 
f(jlli.ui!]K buoys, found missing, were rei)laoed as follows: 

l'l;itsun spit buoy, 6, first-class nun: A|.ril 6. 

I'eacock spit buoy. 0, flrst-class can, April 1. 

1.. H. U. list of buoys, etc., Pacific Coast, pp. 56 and 57. 

Washington — Grays Harbor Kntrance: Point Drown spit 
buoy, 1, first-class can, reported missing April 7, will be re- 
placed as soon as practicable. 

Alaska — Revlllagigedo Channel: Hog rocks light relighted 
February 9, having been heretofore reported extinguished. 

By order of the lighthouse board. 

CHARLES F. POND, 
Captain, U. 8. N., Inspector. 

Office of Inspector Thirteenth Lighthouse District, Portland, 
Dr.. April 9. 1909. 

China Sea. 

Taiwan (Formosa) — North Coast: Pukl Kaku (Foki Kaku) ; 
light temporarily extinguished; provisional light: The Japanese 
Government has given notice that on January 10, 1909, the 
fixed white liEht shown from the lighthouse on Pukl Kaku, 
mirth coast of Taiwan, would be temporarily discontinued on 
;ir,()unt of necessary repairs to the tower. AIho that durinR 
ili<- progress of the work a provisional fixed n-d lieht, visible 
six miles, would be exhibited from the flagstaff Ktanding to the 
northward of the tower. Approx. position: Latitude 25 deg. 
18 min. N., longitude 121 deg. 32 min. E. 

Chile. 

Ancud Gulf — Chauques Islands; Buta Chauques Island; Shoal 
Northeastward: The Chilean Government has given notice of 
the existence of a shoat, consisting of large stones, which un- 
cover at low water spring tides, northeastward of Buta Chau- 
(ims island, Ancud gulf, Chile, on the following bearings: Tu- 
Kaiio point, S. 18 deg. W.; Guallaimo bluff, .N. 72 deg. W. 

Ancud Gulf — Chauques Islands; Mechuque Island; Shoal to 
Northward: The commander of the Chilean tender Toro re- 
ports that a shoal consisting of Isolated boulders, exists north- 
ward of Point Escaleras, north point of Mechuque island, An- 
cud gulf, Chile. The shoal is about 600 yards in diameter, 
with a least depth of Ave feet over it. and Is not Indicated by 
kelp. 

Chiloe Island, Caucahue Island— lx)bos Head; New Light 
Established: The Chilean Government has given notice that 
on March 15, 1909, and without further notice, an intermittent 
white light every sixty seconds, thus, light eleven seconds, 
eclipsed forty-nine seconds, elevated 2:58 feet alxive sea level, 
and visible twelve miles, would be established on l.,obos head, 
northern end of Caucahue Island, Chile. The lantern and Its 
support are located forty feet north 72 deg. 45 min. W. from 
the old lighthouse. They are painted while and their com- 
bined height is twelve feet. A keepers dwelling, painted white, 
is also located about eighty feet westward of the lighthouse. 

Valdivia Bay— Port Corral; Tres Hermanas Bank; Light 
buoy Established: The Chilean Government has given notice 
that a lightbuoy exhibiting a flashing white light every three 
seconds, thus, flash 3-10 second, eclipsed 2 7-10 seconds, ele- 
vated thirteen feet above the sea, and visible ten miles, has 
been experimentally established on the northwestern edge of 
Tres Hermanas bank, port Corral, Chile. The buoy Is moored 
in twenty-three feet of water, 650 yards S. 60 deg. E. from 
Atrial rock, and about 133 yards S. 60 deg. B. from the black 
buoy at present marking the shoal, which will be maintained 
pending the permanent establishment of the lightbuoy. 

Patagonian Channels; Messier Channel. English Narrows 
and Indian Reach; Hydrographlc Information — The following 
information concerning the Patagonian channels, Chile, has been 
received from the navigating officer of the V. S. S. Solace: 
Cotopaxi rock buoy is cylindrical, painted black, not red and 
white, as sUted in the Sailing Directions. Williams Island in 
fapproximately) latitude 48 deg. 43 min. S., is apparently located 



further to the eastward than charted. Memphis shoal buoy 
Is conical, painted red. not cylindrical and black, as slated In 
the Sailing Directions. Abtao shoal buoy is painted red, not 
red and wlili<-, as indicated on H. O. chart .No. 570, and stated 
in the Bulling Directions. 

.Magellan Strait; D<>lgada Point IJghthouse; Color— Lieut. 
Commander Raymond Stone, V. S. navy, navigating officer of 
the U. S. S. Solace, re|>orts, under date of January 31. 1909. 
that Delgada point lighthouse, Magellan strait. Is painted all 
white, and not red over a gray house, as staled In the IJght 
List and Sailing Directions. Ap|>roximate position: I.Atltude 
62 deg. 28 min. S., longitude 69 deg, Xi min, W. 

Patagonian Channels; Smyth Channel; Hydrographlc Infor- 
mation — The following hydrographlc Infcrmallon concerning 
Smyth channel, Patagonian channels, has been received from 
the U. S. S. Solace: The anchorage indicated by crou bear- 
ings on H. O. chart No. 1619, southward of the Otter Islaiids, 
In Smyth channel, Patagonian channels, is not a good one. 
1 he Solace anchored on the spot indicated by the anchor on the 
chart, and on weighing the starboard anchor came up with, 
the ball broken off one end of the stock and the port anchor 
with no stock at all. Small vessels should anchor in Otter bay, 
and large vessels somewhat off the bearings laid down on the 
chart, In from twelve to sixteen fathoms, easing down their 
anchors. Approximate imsition: I,Atltude 52 deg, 23 min. 20 
sec. S., l0!i(;itude 73 deg. 40 min. W. There Is no top-mark on 
Bradbury rock beacon. The beacon itself is conspicuous. On 
Alert rock, to the northward of Adelaide islands, there Is a 
small beacon of white slats. This beacon is lightly constructed 
and insecure. Its permanency should not be relied u|ion. The 
beacon on Adelaide island is missing. bei:ig broken off close 
down to the pedestal, which is discernible when close aboard. 
(See Notice to Mariners .No. 10 (4.".0). of 1909.» 
Philippine Islands. 

Luzon— West Coast; .Manila; Time Signal Established: A 
time ball has been established on the semaphore tower. Engi- 
neer island, .Manila harbor. The ball is hoisted five minutes 
before the signal and dropped at noon. 120th meridian (east 
longitude) standard lime, corresponding to 16 hours, Greenwich 
mean time. Should the ball fail to drop on time, it will be 
lowered slowly about five minutes past the hour. Approx. 
position: latitude 14 deg. 35 min, 43 sec. N.. longitude 120 
deg. 57 mill. 21 sec. E. 

Japan. 

Gulf of Tokyo; Kannon Zaki Llghlhouse; Wreck to Sf)Uth- 
ward — The Jnpanese Government has given notice that the 
wreck of the steamer Iburi Maru lies sunk 2.5.50 .vards S. 13 
deg. 30 min. E. from Kanncm Zaki lighthouse, gulf of Tokyo, 
Japan, The wreck Is entirely submerged with a depth of five 
feet of water over the masthead at low water, and Is marked 
by two red flags, one shown from a staff attached to the fore- 
mast, p,nd the other from a staff atlnched to the mlzxenmasl. 
Approximate position: l,4itltude 35 deg. 14 min. 6 sec. N,, longi- 
tude 139 del?, 45 niln, 5 Sf>c. E. 

Kiushu; West Coast; Nagasaki Harbor; Mooring Buoy Es- 
tablished — The Japanese Government has given notice that a 
mooring buoy, numbered 8. has been established in Nagasaki 
harbor. Japan. 1,720 yards N, 11 deg. 30 min. W. from the 
summit of Nat)ekamuri yama. Approximate iKisitlon: latitude 
32 deg. 44 min. 34 sec. N., longitude 129 deg. 51 min. 42 sec. K. 
British Columbia. 

Vancouver Island; Vancouver Harljor; laurel Point Light 
Moved— Referring to Notice to Mariners No. 49 f2211) of 1906. 
the Canadian Government has given further notice that the 
chimney on Injure] loint. Victoria harbor, from which the fixed 
red electric harbor light was suspended, has been taken down 
and the light mov«>d eighty feet to the southwestward to the 
l>ole standing on the bare rock at high-water mark, on the ex- 
tremity of Laurel point, from which It was formerly shown. 



A modrm pHocipleolcducMtoo: is if you ue in doubl upon • wbjccl ifie 
ocxl beat ibiag to koow U where la look foe ilc6iiile iaformslion; the proper 
•ppbcalioa of ikii priociple ia buiacM traawctaoiu » ao nxlicalion of ptogie« « . 
uid tanl briag •mal liie umc lietree of Miccaa in the Uitrr ewe u in llic for- 
mrr. lod hat tatdt the name of Weeiu, EacooaAi Howe. San Fraacuco. w well 
idcnii&ed with the Ship CkaooHcry hiMsrai oa ibc Pacific Coaat. 



S«la <■( 0<~>«ale Pkaraiarr. I4S Raat St. 



16 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



The light is now shown from two 16-candlepower incandescent 
electric lamps, suspended in a red globe, twenty-five feet above 
high water, and should be visible one mile from all points of 
approach by water. Approximate position on H. O. charts, 
latitude 48 deg. 25 min. 22 sec. N., longitude 123 deg. 22 min. 
29 sec. W. 

Strait of Georgia; Mary Island; Shark Spit Beacon Gone; 
Buoy Established — The beacon on Shark spit, Mary island, hav- 
ing disappeared, the shoal .has been marked by a conical steel 
buoy, painted red, moored close off the end of the spit in 3% 
fathoms of water. Approximate positioit: Latitude 50 deg. 5 
min. 31 sec. N., longitude 125 deg. 3 min. 15 sec. W. The width 
of the navigable channel between the buoy and Channel rock 
is approximately 240 feet. 

Capt. Baughman, of the steamship Humboldt, reports as 
follows: April 19, 1909, Indian Rock buoy, Lynn Canal, gone. 
April 19, 1909, Battery Point light, burning. April 20, 1909, 
Potter Rock buoy. Tongas Narrows, replaced. April 20, 1909, 
No. 7, buoy, Wrangel Strait, replaced. April 20, 1909, Holland 
island gas beacon, burning. April 21, 1909, Watson Rock gas 
beacon, burning, April 21, 1909, Morning Rock gas beacon, 
burning. 

Office of U. S. Lighthouse Inspector, 
12th District, 

San Francisco, Cal., April 23, 1909. 
NOTICE TO MARINERS, BLUNTS REEF, CAL. (List of 
Lights and Fcg-Signals, Pacific Coast, 1908, page 24, No. 60, and 
List of Lights, Buoys, and Daymarks, Pacific Coast, 1908, page 
.36.) 

Notice is hereby given that Blunts Reef Light-vessel No. 83 
was temporarily withdrawn from her station for repairs on April 
21, 1909, and the station was marked by Relief Light-vessel No. 
76. The relief light-vessel shows lights and sounds signals hav- 
ing the same characteristics as those of Ligiu-vessel No. 83, 
except that each of the two lights are shown from three lens 
lanterns encircling the mastheads at a height of 46 feet above 
the water and visible twelve miles. 
By order of the Lighthouse Board. 

R. F. LOPEZ, 
Commander, U. S. N. 
Inspector, 12th Lighthouse District. 
Captain A. W. Nelson of the steamer City of Para reports to 
the Branch Hydrographic Office in this city that on March 29, 
1909, off Bona Island, in the Gulf of Panama (latitude N. 8 deg. 
34 min., longiture W 79 deg. 35 min.), he sighted numerous logs 
and whole trees with roots and branches attached, from 20 
to 100 feet long. 

J. C. BURNETT, 
Lieut, U. S. N., in charge. 
The BWtish Colonial Secretary for the Fiji Islands, at Suva, 
has cabled the Branch Hydrographic Office in this city that 
from May 1st to June 1st, approximately, the light on Nailan- 
gilala island, in Nanuku passage, Fiji Islands, will be temporar- 
ily replaced by a white light visible all around the horizon for a 
distance of 8 miles. Further notice will follow concerning the 
characteristics of the new light to be installed. 

J. C. BURNETT, 
Lieut., U. S. N., in charge. 



RECENT CHARTERS. 

Am. ship Henry Failing, load lumber on the Sound for 
$12 per thousand. Ger. ship Schwarzenkek, load lumber 
at Portland for South America at 53s 6d. Fr. bark Bidart 
for wheat loading for United Kingdom at 27s 6d. Barken- 
tine James Tuft for lumber from Columbia river to Mel- 
bourne or Adelaide at 35s. Am. ship John Ena load sugar 
Hilo to Atlantic seaboard. Am. schooner Mabel Gale, 
lumber Astoria to San Francisco. Fr. bark Vincennes, 
grain Portland to United Kingdom at 28s. Fr. bark Byard, 
grain Portland to United Kingdom at 27s. 6d. 

The following lumber charters were annoimced yesterday: 
French ship Berangere, at Portland, thence to one port in 
South Africa, Cape Town, to Delagoa bay, at 42s 6d, char- 
tered prior to arrival; French bark Jacobson, at Portland, 
thence to a direct port in the United Kingdom at 41s 3d, 
prior to arrival: British ship Leyland Brothers, at fortland, 
thence to the United Kingdom; British ship Puritan, on 
Puget sound, from British Columbia to Melbourne at 35s. 
Adderley, lumber British Columbia to Melbourne, ownej.g' 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 



SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING. 



UNION IRON WORKS, -320 Market Street. 



OIL BURNERS. 



S. & p., 102 Steuart St. Phone Kearny 629. 



BOAT BUILDERS. 



JOHN TWIGG & SONS CO., Illinois St., near Eighteenth, S. F. 
GEO. W. KNEASS, 18th and lUinois Sts., S. F. 



SHIP PLUMBERS. 



ANDERSON BAILEY, 216 Steuart St., S. F. 



WIPING RAGS. 



THE RAYCHESTBR CO., 1448 Polsom St., S. F. 
Sanitary Manufacturing Co., 2208 Folsom, S. F. 

— » 

FOR SALE — -Thirty town lots at Alviso; established head of 
navigation on San Francisco Bay. Inquire office of Pacific 
Merchant Marine. 



Shipwright Caull<er 

Laiinclies 



Sparmaker 
Yadits 



H. ANDERSON, BOAT BUILDER 

Repair Work on Ways 
Cor. 9th Ave. iC! St. .So, c C • n } 

I'hone Butchertown 61 >3an T rancisco, ^_al. 



account; Alpena, 35s, lumber, Puget Sound to Melbourne; 
Emelie, 52s 6d, lumber, Puget Sound or British Columbia to 
direct port United Kingdom; steamship Bessie Dollar, Puget 
Sound to Guaymas, lumber, owner's account; steamship 
Puritan, British Columbia to Nome, Alaska, time charter 
(3s 6d on dead weight, two trips) ; Irene, Jumber, Hoquiam 
to Guaymas, private terms; Mezly, 25s, San Francisco to 
Cork for orders. United Kingdom, etc., (full cargo of barley); 
Marechal Castries, Portland to Cork for orders. United 
Kingdom, etc., union rates (September, October); Gael, 
Portland to Cork for orders, United Kingdom, etc., union 
rates, new season; Cornil Bart, Portland to Cork for orders. 
United Kingdom, etc., union rates, new season; Hoche, 
Portland to Cork for orders. United Kingdom, etc., union 
rates, new season; Neuilly, Portland to Cork for orders. 
United Kingdom, etc., union rates, new season; L. Hermitte, 
Portland to Cork for orders. United Kingdom, etc., union 
rates, new season; Andre Theodore, Portland to Cork for 
orders. United Kingdom, etc., union rates, new season: 
Babin Chevaye, Portland to Cork for orders. United King- 
dom, etc., union rates, new season; La Roche Jaquelein, 
Portland to Cork for orders. United Kingdom, etc., union 
rates, new season; Michelet, Portland to Cork for orders, 
United Kingdom, etc., union rates, new season. 



The Whitelaw Wrecking Company has made good 
progress in stripping the R. D. Inman of a number of 
pieces of important apparatus, including three cylinders, 
crank shafts, thrust shaft connecting rods, air compres- 
sor and receiver, circulating pumps, electric lighting plant 
and main bed plates. The position of the wreck remains 
unchanged. 



\ 



LAUNCHES 



PLANS 



YACHTS 



STONE & VAN BERGEN 

SHIP BUILDERS 



Fool of Baker Street 



Sui FrwKuco. Cal. 
WM69M 



TUGS 



Eadnute 



STEAMERS 









\ 


UNION IRON WORKS CO. 

Largest Shipbuilding and Engineering Works on the Pacific Coast 

DRYDOCKING 

Now a Special Feature 

Two Graving D<x-ks at Hunters Point and Three FloatinK Docks al fool of 16th Street 

Best Facilities for All Kinds of Repair Work 

Works: 20th and Michigan Street* City Office: 320 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 











I OOlflMI^ For IIm' iMvt 4-<-yrl<' rn(ine IhiUI on llw ••••a»l. lo »iiU 
»-<'-'^-'»^*l'''>l oo»jit ronillllonii. at • rra«onal>l<r |>ric»? 

Gorham Engineering Co., Alameda, Cal. 

Many Co^t Mf Nona Worth Morm 




Eii(iD» 3 to 100 H. r. 



so H. v.. ITMll-.. Ml «-< i--k 






f m. 



Mm 1 



w, >S 









'^sJ 



CONVENTION OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE 

AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 1 

IN SAN FRANCISCO 



Henry Cowell Lime & Cement Co. 

MT. DIABLO CEMENT 

SANTA CRUZ LIME 

ALL KINDS OF BUILDING MATERIAL 
Delivery Department, Union and Front Streets. Office 95 Market Street 

i SAN FRANCISCO Phone Keamy 2095 CALIFORNIA 



ORGANIZATION ON THE PACIFIC COAST IN BEHALF OF 
AMERICAN COMMERCE SIGNIFIES THE EXTENT 
1 OF OUR INDUSTRIAL FUTURE 




^.^msmmmms^^' 



m 



f 



1 




















SATURDAY, MAY 8, 1909 



VOL. II 



./v;.:v-v-;(.>r.M%-v^f.^. -■ 




NO. 8 



The Pacific Coast Commercial Bureau 

Marine Notes From All Ports on the Pacific 

The Panama Canal 




Editorial 



Pleasure Craft Notes 

The San Francisco Yacht Club 

Racing Events of the Alaska Yukon Pacific 

Exposition 




THE CLARA BARTON SANITARY 
WIPING RAG 




Tlie Clara 
Barton Brand 
of Wiping Rags 
is guaranteed 
to be thorough- 
ly sterilized and 

disinfected 



THE RAYCHESTER CO., INC. 



1448-1460 FOLSOH STREET 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Be sure to have 



CHALLENGE METAL 



For 

High Speed 




in your important bearings. 
Ask about it. 



For 
Heavy Pressure 



SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO. 



SAN FRANCISCO 



SANITARY 
WIPING RAGS 

Washed and Disinfected 

Exclusive Packers of 
Soft Cotton Wiping Rags 

SANITARY MANUFACTURING CO. 

2208-2210 FOLSOM STREET 
Phone Market 1195 San Francisco 





\^SifSlmT^sLAi 


^ 




^/ENGRAVERSV" 
/lLLUSTRATORS\ 


3^ 




CUTS 


Wi 




L\14l VALENCIA ST./ 
^^SAN FRANCISCO/J 

'mm 


¥ 


COLOR 


WORKASPE 


CIALTY 



The Buckley Cafe 



DETJKN-MKNGEL CO., lacorpor.icd 



H. I.. UKTJKN. Stmnmttt 



German Bakery <^ "nfcctionery 
Kestaurant cjcr ai shoh Notkc 



Buckley Building, 97 Market Street, San Francisco, CaJ. 
S. E. Corner S(>car St. One block from Kerry Plume DoucUi 271) 




GEO. W. KNEASS »oat builpcr 

m, J a, ^ Best Malorial «iid 80 Bo«U of all 

l«.l. j'nl^ *°^'. . D.«np..„.,. For S.I. 

IStb and IIubok Street* | , ,^. )'.,|,. p, ., 

P t iiei M«rh»» S«a Fi«bcmco. Mu\,is.ui<! It. ' \ 

•43 C»L oil ll.ll.l. ;!,« 



Steamship Men Take Notice! 

Tbe National Laundry ft Mattreii Renova- 
tory Company will ctve tetter reiulti both 
In quality and price than ean te had elie- 
where. Special ratei and lerrlee cuaranteed. 

O. C. rAIRriCLD. Manager 
Plant. SS44 18th Street Phone Market 81 



Hart-Wood Lumber Co. 

LUMBER SHIPPING 

Whole«alc and ReUil 
807 Fife Building San Franci»co 



P. M. BAMBINO 

Ejccluuvr 1 ailor 



119 220 matkirr RUf. 

9S Mtfkti ftirm 



%Ui FraBCi>c». Cat 




ALKINS QUALITY" 

The best facilities backed by 
experts in each department 
are what made "Calkins Quali- 
ty" the standard in the realm 
of printed publicity. We print 
the Pacific Merchant Marine. 



PRINTING 

ENGRAVING 

BOOK-BINDING 



CALKINS 

PUBLISHING HOUSE 

Calkins Building, San Francisco 
Phone Dotiglas 3140 



Matson Navigation Company 



268 Market Street 



Phone Douglas 3030 



Direct Line Passenger and Freight Steamers and Sailing Vessels to 

Honolulu, Hilo, Kahului, Mahukona, Eleele 

From 

Seattle and San Francisco 

For Freight and Passenger Rates apply to 

Alexander & Baldwin, Seattle Castle & Cooke, Honolulu 

Matson Navigation Company, San Francisco 



Moore & Scott Iron Works 

Successors to W. A. BOOLE & SON 

MARINE WAYS AND DRY 
DOCK at OAKLAND CREEK 

MARINE REPAIRS A SPECIALTY 
Main Office & lVorf(s: Main & Howard Sts., San Francisco 




A. H. S. S. TEXAN. 



EUREKA BOILER WORKS CO. 

Denffnen and builders of all Icindt of Marine, Station- 
ary, Locomotive, Straw-Burning and Traction Engine 
Bralers. Special attention paid to Repairs of Ship Woric, 
Bcnlers, Tanks, and Sheet Iron Work. Building and 
Installing of Oil Plants a Specially. fVlachine Black- 
smithing. Telephone Kearny 2453. Main Office 
W(»ks: 57-39 Miuton St., San Fiandsco, California. 



Telephone Temporakv SOI 

HERZOG & DAHL 

Electrical Engineers and Contractors 

Marine Electrical Installatioos, Special Fit* 
tings, Supplies and Repairs. 

ISOSteuart St., SanFrancisco,CaIiforn!a 



Phone Kearny 807 

Sellers & Madison Co., Inc. 

Ship 



Paints. Oil: 
Chandlery, 



, Etc 
Naval Stores 



SMOOTH ON" 
Pacific Coast Agents 



94-96 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 



RENWICK Z DICXIE 



DAVID W DICKIE 



D. W. & R. Z. DICKIE 

Engineers &ntJ Naval Architects 

Room 824, Santa Marina BIdg. 

Phone Kearny 2907 I 1 2 Market St. 



[PLANS and SPECIFICATIONS 
for all kinds of engineering work of 
steel, wood or concrete; oil-burnins 
plants, wharves, bunkers; launches, 
propellers, steam and gas-engioed 
tugs, and steel and wood vessels of 
all kinds. 



Alex P. Bailey Telephone Dougl. 

ANDERSON & 

[ReBinered] 

Sanitary and Ship 

Sheet Metal W 
216 Steuart St., bet. Howard and Fol 


IS 1398 Geo. Anderson 

BAILEY 
Plumbing 

orlc 

som San Francisco 



Pacific Merchant M 



anne 



Volume II 



SATURDAY. MAY 8. 1909 



Numbers 



TARIFF DUTIES. 

The Chief Articles on Which They Are Collected and the 
Share Which They Form in the National Revenue. 

Twelve articlt-s or clas-scs of articles pay three-fourths 
of the ;{()0 inillioii dollars per annum eolleeted as tariflf 
duties by the Government of the I'niteil States. The 
duties eolleeted under the existing; tariff law have aver- 
agi'il .100 million dollars per annum during the past three 
years, the larjjest sum heinjr in the fiseal year 1!M)7, when 
the total colleetions amounted to '.i'l'.i million dollars. In 
that year, 1!H)7, sugar paid 60 million dollarti duty; 
eotton manufactures, '.iD millions; leaf tohaeeo, 22 mil- 
lions; manufactures of fibers, 22 millions; nianufautures 
of silk, 20 millions; maiiufacturi>s of wool, 20 mil- 
lions; raw wool. It)'/;; millions; spirits, wines, and malt 
liquors. 1<) millions; manufacturi's of iron and steel, 12 
millions; earthen and china ware, 8 millions; chemicals, 
drugs, and dyes, T'/j millions; and fruits and nut.s. 7 
millions — the total for these twelve articles or groups of 
articles being 2">0 millions, or just three-fourths of the 
:t2!l million dollars of tariff duties collected in that year. 

These figures are a summarization of an elaborate 
statement published by the Bureau of Statistics of the 
l)ef)artment of Conuneree and Labor. The statement 
shows the amount of duty collected in each year since 
1S20. the share of the imports which paid duty in each 
year, the average ad valorem rate of dut.v on all mer- 
chandise imported, ami the average on the «lutiable only, 
the duty collected per capita, and the amount of duty 
collected on each, ilutiable article in the more recent 
years. While the statement is a very elaborate one. 
covering in outline the tariff history of HH years and 
showing the duty collected in recent years on thousands 
of different articles, its chief facts ma.v be summed up in 
a few words. The amount of customs or tariff dut.v eol- 
leeted in 1821 was 19 million dollars, in 18:«) 28 millions, 
in 1850 40 millions, in 18«0 5:$ millions, in 1870 192 
milli<ms. in 1880 l:<:{ millions, in 18!KI 221 millions, in I'KK) 
229 millions, in 1!M(7 — the largest sum ever collected from 
tariff — 12*.) millions, and in l!MtH 2H.{ millions; the annual 
average in the i)ast three years being in round terms :{(K) 
millions per annum. The duties collected amounted in 
1.S21 to .{') per cent of the value of the total merchandise 
imported, in 1830 to 45 per cent, in 1850 to 2:i per cent, 
in 18H0 to 1« per cent, in 1870 to 42 per cent, in 1880 to 
29 per i-ent. in 1890 to 29 per cent, in 1!MK) to 28 per 
cent, and in lfH)7 to 23 per cent of the total value of the 
merchandi.se brought into the coinitr.v. 

The share of the imported merchandise which paid 
a duty on entering the I'ountr.v has varie«l greatly. 
From 1820 down to 1833 less than 10 per cent of the 
merchandise entering the country came in free of duty. 
From 1S33 to 1844 the share admittwl free of <lut.v range<l 
from 25 to 50 per cent of the total. From that date to 
1S57 the share imported free of duty range<l fr«»m 9 to 
17 per cent of the total. From 18.57 to 18fi3 the share 
imported free of dut.v ranged from 20 to 27 per cent. 
From 1863 to 1867 the share imptirted free of duty 
ranged from 12 to 19 per cent. From 1867 to 1873 the 
proportion entering without payment of duty range<l 



from 4*/^ to 8>/j per cent of the total. Heginning with 
1873 the share of merchandise importe<l free of duty 
steadily increase<l. commencing with 27 per cent in that 
year and reaching 56 per cent of the total in 1892. 59 
|M'r cent in 1894. 48<j per cent in 1896. 49' j per cent in 
1898. 47' J p«r cent in 1!HJ5. and 44V-: p«*r eeiit in 1908. 

The share which the customs duties have borne in 
producing the revenuea of the country have alao variini 
with varying conditions. From 1791 on i\»\m ti» 1848 
snudl sums were collecte<l as internal revenue, seldom, 
however, reaching as much as one million dollars. Id 
1863. however, the present system (»f int<Tnal revenue 
was estalijishetl. the receipts therefmm in that year being 
in romnt terms 38 million dollars, while the customs re- 
ceipts wen' 64 millions. In the perioil fn)m 1864 to 1868 
the internal revenue receipts averaged 217 million dol- 
lars per annum, and the customs receipts 137 millions 
per annum. With the close of the civil war period in- 
ternal taxes were modified, and the animal average of 
internal revenue receipts during the period from 1869 to 
1897 was 133 million dollars per year, and the customs re- 
ceipta 181 millions per year. During the Spanish- Ameri- 
can war period from 1898 to 1JJ02 the receipt* from in- 
ternal revenue averaged 264 millions per year, and the 
customs receipts 212 millions per year. With the modi- 
fication of the internal revenue taxes following the clos«' 
of the Spanish-American war the recei|its therefrom 
again fell below those of the customs, and the annual 
average of the internal revenue receipts in the period 
between 1!I03 and 1908 was 245 millions, whii"- those from 
customa was 284 millions. 

It nnist not be supposed, however, that because a 
dozen articles or groups of artichn* pay three-fourths of' 
the tariff <luti<'s colh'cted the making of a tariff and the 
determination of rates of dut.v and the amount of reve- 
nue likely Ic) residt therefrom is by an.v nn-ans a simple 
matter. The rates of <lut.v levied are not applied merely 
to ^>ups of articles as a whole, but apply at different 
ratea and in different terms to various grades and i|uali- 
tiea of artii-h'N forming each group, and in nian.v cases to 
the various gra<les of a material bearing a single name. 
I'nder the title of cotton cloth, for instance, the rates of 
duty on cloths not exceeding .50 threads to the square 
inch, ecuuiting warp and filling, are 1 cent per yard if 
the material is not bleached, dyed, or colored, but \Vi 
centa per yard if bleaehe«l. and 2 cents per yard if dyi'd. 
colored, or |>rinted. If the number of threads per sipiare 

inch ex< ds 50 and «loi-s not excee«l KHI the rates are 

still higher — 1 '4 cents per square .vard on that which i* 
not bleached. «lyerl. or colored and does not excejnl 6 
aquare yards to the |>ounil. but 1'/-; cents per square yard 
on that exi-ee<ling 6 stpiare .vards to the poiuid and 1% 
cents per square yaril if it excee«ls 9 s(|uare vartls to the 
pound; for that which is bleaehed still another rate ob- 
tains for the various grad<-s; and for that which ia dyed 
or colored another and still higher rate. 

For cloths exeee<ling 100 and not exceeding 150 
threada to the M^uare inch the ratt-s are yet higher for 
the various classes, whether unbleached. I>le8che<l. or 
d.v«fl. and also in proporticuj to the number of s<pwre 
.vanU per pound. For other gra<l<'s. excee<ling 1.50 and 
no* excci'iiing 200 threada to the square inch, the ratea 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



are higher. For those exceeding 200 and not exceeding 
300 threads to the square inch the rates are still higher; 
and for those exceeding 300 threads to the square inch 
even higher rates are named for the various classes and 
grades. On cotton cloths alone the duties collected in 
1907 were but 5 million dollars. The class of cotton 
goods which pays the largest sum is that of laces, which 
paid in 1907, 24 million dollars, out of 39 millions paid by 
cotton manufacturers as a whole. This class of cotton 
laces includes laces, lace window curtains, tidies, pillow 
shams, bed sets, napkins, and other articles made wholly 
or in part of lace or in imitation of lace ; veils and veiling, 
embroideries, edgings, insertings, and many other arti- 
cles; and pays a duty of 60 per cent. Lace window cur- 
tains, pillow shams, and bed sets made on Nottingham 
lace curtain machines if they have six points or spaces to 
the inch, counting between the warp threads, pay IV2 
cents per square yard plus 20 per cent of the value; if 
they contain 7 points or spaces to the square inch they 
pay 2 cents per square yard and 20 per cent of the value ; 
and so on. the rate increasing with the number of points 
or spaces to the inch (or in other Words, with the increase 
in fineness of the lace), until those having 18 points or 
spaces to the inch pay 71/2 cents per square yard plus 
20 per cent of the value. 

The above complicated features of the "Cotton Goods 
Schedule" of the existing tariff law are stated somewhat 
in detail as an example of the difficulties which confront 
the maker of the tariif and the officers of the Government 
who determine the amount of duty to be collected and 
actually collected on the thousands of articles and many 
thousands of grades of different articles imported ; and to 
further indicate that while it is true that twelve different 
articles or classes of articles pay three-fourths of the 
duties collected, the details of fixing the rates of duty, 
and of determining the amount of duty which should be 
paid and of calculating the amount actually collected, 
are, after all, most difficult and tedious, and explain in 
some degree the difficulties of the task of making a new 
tariff, of collecting the duties which it names, and of 
stating in concrete form the results of these operations. 



Senator Frye proposes to amend the tariff bill and re- 
peal the so-called reciprocal tonnage tax exemption law 
of 1886. By the repeal tonnage taxes imposed on vessels 
in trade between the United States and JMexico, Central 
America, the West Indies and British North America 
(except Ontario) can be reduced 33 per cent, which Sena- 
tor Frye proposes. 

By the Act of 1886 vessels are exempt from American 
tonnage taxes if clearing from foreign ports where no 
tonnage or light dues are imposed on American vessels. 
As is well known, few American vessels cross the Atlantic 
or Pacific. Late in May the British Parliament will 
vote on a bill to abolish light dues. If it passes, the 
British government will doubtless claim under the act 
of 1886 exemption for about $325,000 American tonnage 
taxes annually in return for which American ships will 
be exempt from only $8,000 in British light dues. Nether- 
lands ships for years have secured exemption of from 
$30,000 to $40,000 in the United States, while no Ameri- 
can ship enters ports of the Netherlands or Dvitch East 
Indies to secure reciprocal advantages. 

The Act of 1886 has proved unbusinesslike, and works 
equitably only with the Province- of Ontario, from which 
American vessels are exempt from about $20,000 tonnage 
taxes, Canadian vessels from $15,000. The American 
lake interests, it is expected, will not object to the small 
sacrifice required in order to prevent a possible loss of 



over $300,000 in national revenue under existing law. 

The purpose of the amendment is to remove the 
present inequitable arrangement and to forestall this 
loss, not to increase tonnage taxes — indeed, the net fiscal 
result will be to add only about $7,000 to tonnage taxes 
paid by American vessels and $43,000 paid by foreign 
vessels. Last year American vessels paid $86,680 tonnage 
taxes, foreign vessels $988,735, owing to the small amount 
of American shipping in foreign trade. The rates of 
American tonnage taxes are lower than European rates 
except Holland. 



In the Senate of the United States, April 22, 1909. 
Ordered to lie on the table and to be printed. 
AMENDMENT. 
Intended to be proposed by ]Mr. Frye to the bill (II. R. 
1438) to provide revenue, equalize duties, and en- 
courage the industries of the United States, and for 
other purposes, viz: Insert the following: 

Sec. . That a tonnage duty of two cents per ton, 

not to exceed in the aggregate ten cents per ton in any 
one year, is hereby imposed at each entry on all vessels 
which shall be entered in any port of the United States 
from any foreign port or place in North America, Cen- 
tral America, the West India Islands, the Bahama Islands, 
the Bermuda Islands, or the coast of South America, bor- 
dering on the Caribbean Sea, or Newfoundland, and a duty 
of six cents per ton, not to exceed thirty cents per ton 
per annum, is hereby imposed at each entry on all vessels 
which shall be entered in any port of the United States 
from any other foreign port, not, however, to include 
vessels in distress or not engaged in trade. 

This section shall not be construed to amend or repeal 
section 2792 of the Revised Statutes as amended by sec- 
tion one of chapter 212 of the laws of 1908. approved May 
28th, 1908. or section five of tlie said chapter 212 of the 
laws of 1908, or section 2793 of the Revised Statutes. 

Section 4232 of the Revised Statutes, and sections 11 
aiul 12 of chapter 421 of the laws of 1886, approved June 
19, 1886, and so much of section 4219 of the Revised Stat- 
utes as conflict with this section, are hereby repealed. 

This section .^jhall take effect sixty days after the ap- 
proval of this Act. 



THE ISTHMIAN CANAL. 

A wireless telegraph station will be erected at Porto 
Bello. The station will be built by the Canal Commission 
and the equipment furnished and installed by the Navy 
Department. The cost of installing a telephone system 
for the required service would cost $15,000, to which 
would be added the -cost of maintenance, and this plan 
was re.iected. The cost of a submarine cable, the cost 
of installing which would be double that of the telephone. 
By the wireless system messages will be transmitted by 
the station at Porto Bello to the station at Colon, and 
from there transmitted to any part of the Canal Zone by 
telegraph or telephone. The cost of the wireless system 
will not exceed $1,000, and the cost of maintenance nomi- 
nal. 

The hospital service, and treatment of the sick in the 
Canal Zone, has reached a very creditable and efficient 
point. System, service and methods have been estab- 
lished, and this organized branch well (jualified to treat 
the most serious cases. Much has been accomplished by 
this department in the improvement of sanitary condi- 
tions, the building of hospitals at Colon and Ancon, arid 
abolition of the uuikeshift .line hos])itals and camps. 
During the year 1908 treatment in the sick camps was 
rendered to 27,528 persons, twenty-three of whom died. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



The total number of days of relief furnished was 51,849 
at a cost of 27 cents per day per each patient, and the 
total cost of the sick camps for the year !|<2r),566.47. 

The dispensaries gave relief to 451,694 persona during 
the year. The average cost of subsistence per day for 
patients in hospitals and sick camps was W.i cent«. The 
total number of days of relief furnished was 4.W,652; 
the net cost of hospitals ami sick cam|)s was ^682.13.'M6, 
and the net cost per capita j)cr day was i|>1.55. 

During the month of .March 5(51 persons were arrested, 
representing 49 nationalities; 499 were men and 62 were 
women, and included 55 different offenses. The total 
effective police force in the Canal Zone on March 31 
was 170, the payroll amounting to $19,024.46. 

The monthly expenditures for Canal work since July, 
1!»0S. were as follows: .lidy. !|!2.:{7 1,544.50; August, $2,- 
4(N».291.92; September. .'i;2.ri!»2.2S7.89; October. $2,459,- 
144.14; November, $2.l:{4,<iH2.96; December. $2,696,- 
526.46; January, 1909, .1::J.250,2«1.75. 

Charges and credits against the Republic of Panama, 
on account of the installation, construction, mainten- 
ance, operation and repair of the water and sewer sys- 
tems, and pavements of the cities of I'ananui and Colon, 



various states <lifferent, but in only a few of the states 
is there a thoroughly uniform system of education, so 
that each city or town has some distinct feature in its 
school system. Among the colored children absence and 
tardiness are chronic, and under present conditions are 
practically incurable, although efforts to lessen the ab- 
sence and tardiness are not s|>ared. A constant change 
of residence, indifference on the part of parents and 
children, the large number of pupils to each teacher, 
and the legal restrictions on the punishment of truants 
and sluggards are the more important obstacles in the 
way of curing absence and tardiness. 



PROPOSED STEEL VESSEL FOR THE LUMBER TRADE. 



Capacity, 2,300,000 Feet Board Measure. 

Thcrt' are a few dllUcultteH In carrying lumber In a steel 
vessel that are |>ecullar to thiM Coast, which arc as rollowa: 

The i)revalllng winds are northwest, and all of the lumber la 
north of San Francisco, which condllions necessitate the vestel 
going up against the wind a:id sea light. 

ibe difliculty has been I'artially overcome by the wood vessels 
having a large rise of floor and a deep keel, which, together 
with having a heavier hull, has caused them to draw more 
water than the steel vessels. This was about the only way 









IP 


^■■^■bI 



In the Bakery, Cristobal 

shall l)c tlistributed. kept and stated separately for each 
city as follows: A. Water and sewer systems — (1) 
Capital and cost; (2) new installation; (3) operation and 
maintenance; (4) replacement. H. Reservoirs, pipe- 
lines and filtration plant.s — (1) Interest on capital cost; 
(2) maintenance; (3) replacement. C. I'aviiig— (1) 
Capital cost; (2) new con.stniction ; (3) maintenance and 
repairs. 

In the work now in progri'ss of grading the schools 
of the Canal Zone, three great obstacle's are encountered: 
(1) The difficulty of harmonizing the points of view of 
people coming from hundreds of different places; (2) 
the absence and tardiness; (3) the constant changing 
of places of residence. 

It is probable that, in its extent at least, the first 
of these problems is unique in education. In the Canal 
Zone schools for white children the 722 pupils represent 
over .500 different schools, and a score or more di.stinct 
educational systems. Thirty-six .states, two territories 
and the District of Columbia have representatives among 
the children, and the teachers themselves represent six- 
teen different states. Not only are the systems of the 



to cope with the difficulty, as It Is. not practicable to carry water 
ballast In a wood vessel, except to a limited extent. 

The steel vessel carries water ballast In the double bottom, 
as well as the fuel oil. To help matters, the double bottom 
has gen(>rally been made a little deeper than the rule, which has 
added to the ballast capacity, but It has hrotii;ht another difli- 
culty into action, namely, when the vessel wbh loaded the center 
of gravity was too high owing to the large enii'ly space In the 
double bottom, and before the vessel could be fully loaded sho 
has become tender or cranky. 

Several of the steel vessels on the Paclflc Coast have fallen 
short of their designed carrying capacity for this cause. This 
could have been cured by following the vame rule as the wood 
vesaels^that Is. by giving them a large dead rise and a deep 
keeL The only objection to this Is that it takes a larger vessel 
to carrv the desired cargo and the hull of a steel vessel costs 
in proportion to her leading dimensions — length, breadth and 
depth. Irrespective of the fineness of the vessel. 

To got the full benefit of the dlnicnHlnns as regards carrying 
capacity, they have been made full In model. This has produced 
a type of vessel that carries well, but which has a flat bottom 
and full ends, especially forward. This has made the pounding 
In a sea way going up the Coast very severe and has caused 
considerable damage to the bottoms, necessitating great expense 
for repairs. 

The solution of the problem of getting up the Coast then 
resolves itself into either fining the vessel or carryiog more 
iMtllast, which means a large double l>ottom. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 







firriM wanm 







Length over all 298 feet 

Length after side of stem to forward side of stern post 279 feet 

Length after side stem to forward side of rjudder post 287 feet 

Beam moulded 45 feet 

Depth moulded 22 feet 

Depth double bottom 38 inches 

Depth of hold to top of deck beam 19 feet 9Vo inches 

Draft loaded (B. of T. skin) ; 18 feet 41/0 inches 

Draft loaded with lumber (skin) 19 feet 5 inches 

Weight of 2,300 M. pine : 3,595 tons 





Side Tank Lumber Steamer, Designed by Jam«s Dickie, 112 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 



"'•fiii^ 



PACIFIC MEBCHANT MARINE 



The solution for coming down the Coast loaded is to lower 
the center of gravity of the cargo, which makes the double 
iKjttoni small : that Ib, the double bottom should be large going 
up and small coming down, which of course can not be done. 

We have put the ballast on the sides and under the deck 
exleudiag from the fore peak bulkhead to about the middle of 
thf flrcrooni. the after ends bcinK used as settling tanks. This 
has the advantage of making a clear hold without obstruction 
of any kind and a bold trasily painted and taken care of. 

The objection to carryinK water ballast in this way is the 
well known one that all eaclosed spaces which are wet and dry 
alternately and have heat on the outside corrode rSpidly. This 
is exempllfled by the rapid deterioration that takes jilace under 
the trailers of a steamer, where the entire destruction of the top 
of the double bottom, including floors, keelsons and longitudinals, 
takes jilace In from Hve to eight years where the boilers are 
within twelve inches or less of the double l>ottom. In the hold 
a:id under the engine where it is cool scarcely any deterioration 
t«ik«'S place in twenty to thirty years. 

We pro|)Ose to carry the fuel oil in the sides down to the bilge, 
and. as every one knows, this oil prevents corrosion. Of course 
the entire space above the bilge is not required for fuel oil, 
but oil could be carried in the other spaces occasionally to pre- 
vent corrosion. The principal objection to the system is its 
additional cost and weight. 

The additional weight of a ship of this size Is only nine tons, 
which Is obtained without reducing the weight or thickness of 




Midship Section. 

the outside plating or any strength member. The strength of 
the frame of the ship Is materially increased. 
The additional cost of the i'hip is about $8,000. 

Advantages of This Type of Vessel. 

First — l.«ss cost for maintenance. 

Second — Increased ballast capacity for uivconst part of 
voyage. 

Third — Greater internal capacity and easier stowye. 

Fourth — Increased stability when loaded. 

Fifth — Greater cargo-carrying capacity. 

Sixth — Better return on the capital Invested. 
First — Less Cost for Maintenance. 

This is due to the entire hold being a plain, smooth surface. 
The painting Is much easier done, as there are no corners to 
hold rust and dirt. Should auy repairs be necessary to the 
double bottom from grounding or pounding In a sea way they 
will be easier effected than if the vessel had been carrying oil 
In the double bottom. As the oil Is carried above the bilge and 
the water In the double bottom, the place where the damage ts 
likely to occur Is cheaper to repair on account of l>eing cpm- 
paratlvely clean and free from oil. 

Second — Increased Ballast Capacity. 

This vessel has h90 tons more ballast capacity than the ordi- 
nary form of vessel with a four-foot six-Inch double bottom, which 
shows so plainly on the midship section that the plain statement 
needs no proof. 

This additional weight of water ballast gives the vessel 
twenty-five inches more immersion and the bar keel an addi- 
tional ten Inches, making a total of thirty-five Inches more 
Immersion light, which glvis the propeller a better hold of the 
water, thus increasing its ettlciency. 



The extra draft will also greatly reduce ihe tendency to 
|)ound in a head sea and will reduce tin i.iuirs necessary 
forward. The keel will tend to make the \<'sm I hold on better 
anu stt't'i- u better course at all times. 

The only objection is that it costa more tha:i a flat keel and 
the vefsci draws ten inches more water wilhnut carrying any 
more carRo. If draft of water is i.rohlbltlve or al a premium 
it can b<- left otr. 

Third — Greater Internal Capacity and Easier Stowage. 

A careful measurement of the Internal cul>lc feet of this 
veaael and an ordinary vessel of the same nutslde molded 
dimensions with a four-loot six inch double boilom gives the side 
ballast vessel (\% per cent! more actual Internal capacity. 

At first glance the statement looks like an •-xaggeratlon. but 
on close examination It Is quite clear where thi' KSln in capacity 
Is. (a) The double bottom is lowered: (bl tin- size of the side 
framing Ki^es Into the tank; (c) the beam iiiid frame corner 
brackets; (d) the side stringers; (e) the center stauchlons are 
entirely left out. as we find the deck is strong enough to carry 
the deekluad without them. 

The hold of the vessel Is entirely clear of all obstrucllODa, 
such as side stringers, center stanchions, etc. The stowage 
will be much less broken, so that in fact we can aay that this 
ship will stow 3 per cent to 5 per cent more lumber in the liold 
than tne ordluary type of ship. 

On account of the large hatches and more of them, and no 
ol-structlons in the hold, she will cost less to toad and discharge. 

A smaller vessel of this type will not slow as much in the 
hold as the ordinary type, but a larger vessel will show u larger 
percentage, because the side lank can not be made smaller for 
a small vessel, and Is not required to be larger for a larger 
vessel. This Is on account of the necessity for access or 
getting through the cellular construction for examination, al- 
though it is not required for strength. 

Fourth — Increased Stability. 

The double bottom of this vessel Is only thirty-eight Inches 
deep, In comimrlson with the fifty-fourlnch double bottom of tho 
other type. This allows Ihe cargo to be stowed sixteen inches 
lower down. In other words, to put the center of gravity of the 
lumber cargo In the same place the vessel will carry thirty-two 
inches more d(H;kload. 

This type also eliminates the difficulty of loose liquid fuel 
in the double l>ottom. Taking an ordinary vessel with the fuel 
In the double bottom, with a tight center line. It will be found 
that when the fuel Is partly burned out of one com|iartment, 
leaving the surface free, the metacentric height is reduced 
four and one-half Inches. This Is about equivalent to removing 
one foot of deckload. 

It is always to be noticed that the double bottoms can never 
be filled solid full. It takes ove» twenty-four hours to All tho 
double bottom with oil and get air all out. Therefore not only 
is the compartment that is being used In a loose condition, but 
several of the others are In the same condition. 

While we know these conditions exist, the loss of stability 
arising from them can not be calculated, as the exact con- 
ditions at any one time are unknown. 

Prom what we are absolutely sure of, the loss of stability 
from these things Is at least equivalent to an extra three and 
one-hair feet of deckload, and beyond question more. 

With the side oil tanks this condition of loose liquid ts 
almost eliminated, as the tanks are only twenty six inches wide, 
and the free surface Is so small that it only amounts to about 
one Inch off the deckload. 

In the side tank vessel the stability increases as she pro- 
ceeds on her voyage, as the oil is burned from the top and the 
center of gravity falls as the oil Is burned. Consequently Ihe 
stability increase* Instead of diminishes, while In the ordinary 
type, the oil being burned out from below, the siability decrease* 
as she proceeds. 

Fifth — Qreater Cargo-Carrying Capacity. 

We do not claim that this side tank vessel will carry more 
dead weight cargo. She will carry nine tons l<'ss on the same 
draft of water because the Is nine tons heavier. She will carry 
IH per rent more bulk cargo In the bold. On account of the 
greater stability she will carry a larger deckload of lumber or 
other light cargo. 

Some of the vessels here on the Coast can not carry their 
designed deckloads because they will lot stand up owing to the 
conditions already noted. 

We have shown that the flgureable quantity of IncreAs^d 
deckload due to the extra stability of the sid<- tank vessel la 
about three and one-half feet, and there is still an unflgured lack 
of stability (which Is well known to b*- there* lo be accounted 
for in the regular type of vessel. This vessel, having the neces- 
sary stability, will carry the designed lumber cargo. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Sixth — Better Returns on the Capital Invested. 

Vessels are like street cars; the dividend is in the straps, or 
the deckload lashings. The difference is that when the street 
car straps are well filled the fares are difficult to collect, while 
it costs less to load and discharge the deckload and the freight 
is as easily collected tor the deckload as for the hold cargo. 

The vessel costs just so much to run in proportion to 
the size and horsepower, irrespective of the cargo carried. 
Therefore a vessel that is a large carrier for the dimensions is 
much more profitable than a small carrier. 

With under deck cargoes no vessel should be loaded below 
the British Board of Trade load line, but with a deckload of 
lumber a vessel is perfectly safe drawing 10 per cent more 
than the freeboard rules call for, the deckload furnishing the 
necessary freeboard, provided she has the necessary stability. 

If we can secure the necessary stability to carry a good 
deckload, the vessel is safer at sea and pays better dividend 
on the money invested, even if the first cost is slightly more. 

The vessel shown in the sketch is shown to illustrate the 
sloe tank idea, which we do not claim is original. Several 
vessels of a similar type have been built, but so far as we know 
none have been designed for the lumber trade. 

The arrangement of the cargo, gear, cabins, etc., can be 
modified to suit the conditions of loading and discharging and 
the kind of wharves the vessel calls at. The crew accommoda- 
tion can also be made to suit different conditions. All we wish 
to show is the side tank idea. 

The vessel shown is of the following dimensions: Length 
over all, 298 feet; length from the after side of the stem to the 
forward side of the rudder post, 287 feet; length from the after 
side of the stem to the after side of the propeller post, 279 feet; 
beam molded, 45 feet; depth melded, 22 feet; depth of hold, 19 
feet 9% inches; depth of double bottom molded, 3 feet 2 inches; 
draft of water skin to British Board of Trade load line, 18 feet 
4% inches; draft of water (skin) to proposed load line, 19 feet 5 
Inches; weight of cargo, 3,595 tons; equivalent lumber at 3% 
pounds per board foot, or 640 feet to the ton, 2,300,000 B. P. 



LOCAL NOTES. 



The Japanese liner Tenyo Maru arrived in port Tues- 
day, May 4, 1909, with a record list of cabin passengers, 
. there being 148, which is the largest number this liner 
has ever carried. 

The Howard-street wharf, of which a portion of the 
outer end fell into the bay under the weight of 1,000 
tons of pig iron, is now closed to heavy traffic by order 
of the Harbor Commissioners. This section is the oldest 
along the seawall and has not been repaired for four 
years. 

The P. M. S. S. Korea is expected to arrive in port on 
Monday, the 10th. The Korea has a cargo of 6,800 tons 
which includes raw silk, tea and other merchandise. 

A Chinese transient passenger on board the steamer 
Curacao escaped while the vessel was lying at Broadway 
wharf on May 6. 

The Auckland Chamber of Commerce have passed 
a resolution- urging the Dominion Government to begin 
negotiations for the reinstatement of the old J. D. Spreck- 
els Company steamship service from New Zealand to San 
Francisco. The Spreckels company will rcvstore the old 
service with the same steamers previously used and now 
lying idle in San Francisco. An annual subsidy of from 
$100,000 to $125,000 was the amount suggested by 
the Chamber of Commerce. 

"There will be no restoration of direct service to New 
Zealand by our line until the United States Government 
subsidy is practically doubled," said F. S. Samuels, as- 
sistant to the president of the J. D. Spreckels Company, 
recently. "The net subsidy paid us by the United 
States Government was about $196,000 a year, and by 
New Zealand $85,000 a year. We were making seven- 
teen trips annually before the service was suspended. 

"There is no immediate prospect of resumption of 
through service on this route." 



Bates & Chesebrough have secured the contract to 
transport 350 tons of empty shells from Mare Island to 
lona Island, N. Y., MifHin, Pa., and Norfolk, W. Va., for 
the Government. 

Bids were called for April 30 by the Government 
officials and the following tenders were made : Southern 
Pacific, 55 cents a hundred to destination; American- 
Hawaiian Steamship Company, 55 cents and 60 cents; 
Santa Pe, 15 cents to destination; Pacific Mail, 40 cents 
to New York; Bates & Chesebrough, 45 cents .to 
destination. 

The lowest bid was made on a basis of 30 cents ratio 
New York. The cargo will go on the ship Edward Sewall. 

The Monticello Steamship Company will file a protest 
at the next meeting of the Board of Supervisors of 
Vallejo against the granting to the Independent Ferry 
Company of a franchise to operate a ferry between this 
city and Mare Island with the privilege of landing at the 
Main Street wharf. 

A total of 3,155 boats have passed through the draw- 
bridge of Oakland since the beginning of this year, ac- 
cording to the records of the bridge inspectors of the 
Board of Supervisors. This shows a substantial increase 
over the corresponding period last year, when but 1,522 
boats passed through. 



NORTHERN COAST. 



Seattle. 

Frank Waterhouse, a well known marine transporta- 
tion man, who has .just returned from an extended trip 
through Europe, gives the following opinion of general 
business conditions: 

"The situation is not overly encouraging. Business 
is very dull, not only in Great Britain, but in the eastern 
states of this country. The depression in shipping con- 
tinues general, although I think the feeling is a little 
more hopeful. Owners do not expect much improvement 
in business until late in this year. Their opinion is that 
if there is a good crop in the United States this summer, 
especially in the Pacific Northwest, it will help tremen- 
dously." Mr. Waterhouse is manager for the Puget 
Sound of the Bank Line, and one of the results of his 
trip to London was the completion of a traffic agreement 
with the Canadian Pacific whereby the Bank Line steam- 
ers will handle some of the Canadian Pacific's business 
to and from the Orient. These vessels will make the ports 

of Seattle, Taconia and Victoria. 

* * * 

The steamships Fremont and Shawmut, recently pur- 
chased by the Government for the Panama run, upon 
arrival at New York were placed on the Moore drydock. 
The propellers and shafts were subjected to a close 
scrutiny, but were found in good condition after the 

voyage of 15,000 miles. 

« * * 

Captain Charles F. Pond, of the lighthouse inspector's 
office for the thirteenth district, in Portland, has recom- 
mended the following aids to navigation provided for by 
Congress in an appropriation of $60,000: Hog Rocks, 
Wrangel Narrows, Point Alexander, Lockwood Rock, op- 
posite S. E. Battery Islets from range light at some place ; 
Spike Rock, Burnt Island ledge, 200 yards northwest 
(Mag.) above south ledge; Bush Top Island; Anchor 
Point, Boulder Flat, 365 yards northwest by north (Mag.) 
above Vegetation Point; South Green Rock, south end 
South Flat ; Middle North Plat, opposite Turn Point about 
500 feet south, southwest three-quarters west (Mag.) 
from buoy 9. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



9 



Anticipating a heavy traffic on exeiiraiMn stcamerH in 
Seattle and vicinity thiriiig the suninier Heason, C'olieetor 
of t'ustoniH F. ('. Har|)er has isKue<l a warning to ownen* 
anti Dtliers concernetl. The following notice from the 
collector is a«l<lres«e(i to custoins »»ffieer8 ami others on 
the subject of enforcing the laws covering passenger- 
carrying V4'ssels. It says: 

"With the return of the excursion swson and the 
consc(|uent increase in passenger travel hy water, extra 
precautions must be taken to enforce the provisions of 
the steamboat inspection laws against all steamers arriv- 
ing and departing, to secure |)roper observance of the laws 
and regulations as to passenger signals, lights, etc., and to 
prevent the overcrowding of excursion steamers. 

"Steamers carrying pas.sengers in excess of the nura- 
b<r allowed are lialile to a penalty of $;'><)() under sections 
4165 and VM), R. S.. which will be rigorously enforced. 
All irregularities discovered wijl be reportetl promptly 
to this oflice and are not to be condoned. 

"I'pon receipt of such reports, if it appears a penalty 
was incurreil, the parties concernetl will be given an 
opportunity to exaniiiie and answer the complaint before 
proceedings are taken to enforce the prcsi-ribe<l penalty, 
except in cases where the nature and circumstances of 
the ofTen.se denuind summary action. 

"In all cases the private parties will be adviseil to 
their right to apply to the secretary of commerce and 
lalxtr for the mitigation or remission of the fine or 
penalty." 

The treasury has proiniiigatetl a new rule giving per- 
mission to cord and seal heavy baggage of passengers 
bound to and from Alaska via British Columbian ports. 

"Authority is granted for cording aixl sealing heavy 
and checked baggage containing no dutiable articles of 
passengers destined from Alaskan ports to the I'nited 
States and vice versa via vcs.sels of foreign bonded lines. 
If found upon examination that any baggage presented 
for cording and sealing contains dutiable articles over and 
above the exemption provide«l by law, which exem|)tion 
will be allowed, duty on the excess will be collected prior 
to cording and sealing. Where ihities are cullected an 
official receipt will be given to the payor which will serve 
to clear his effects at his destination. 

"The hand baggage of passengers. leaving Alaska will 
be examined in the usual way in the I'nited .States, and 

hand baggage arriving in Alaska will be there examined." 

• • • 

Kdwanl A. Born, owner of the schiKnier I*. J. Abler, 
has secured the Government contract for tli'livering school 
supplies and merchandise for the natives at various Oov- 
ernment ports from Dutch Harbor to I'oint Harmw, on 
a basis of H(Mt tons. Mr. Horn's bid was between #14.(KJ() 
and iido.UUU, but the Government will ship about 1,200 
tons. • • • 

Captain Roy Devlin, of Kverett. has purchased the 
seagoing gasoline power boat I>a«ly Agries from the 
Dawhy Machine Company, of Taeonm, and will refit, 
rename and put her in commission on the Sound at 
Snohomish River log-towing in conjunction with itit up- 

stream gasoline tug Sunrise. 

• • • 

The Allen steamship line, operating between British 
Cohunbia and New Zealand, will discontinue that service 
after the sailing of the Indravelli from Vancouver in 
May. owing to the withdrawal of the subsidies^ of the New 

Zealand and Cana<lian governments. 

• • • 

The vps.«iels of the Australian mail line, operated by 
Frank \Yaterhonse. of Seattle, will exchange traffic for 
Au.stralia at Vamoiiver with the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way Company. 



The freight steamer Seward, which left this port 
despite the protest* of underwriters, who stated that she 
was overloadtHi and impr«>perly stowed, arrived at Cor- 
dova on reeonl time, bettering her previous voyage by 
nine hours. 

The (lovemment life-saving tug Snohomish ia now 
stationed at .\eah_ bay. where she will remain a greater 
jiart of the year. The vessel will carefully patrol the 
w<>st coast of Vancouver island, keejiing a sharp lookout 
for vessels wrecked or in distri'ss. 

Tkcoma. 

The Weir-Waterhouse liner (lymeric, which arrived 
from the Orient April '.M. has 2.<KM) tons of flour booked 
already for the Orient and many more tons promised. 
This unusual egress of Hour is due to the scarcity in that 
country. 



ROUTHESN 00A8T NOTES. 



Ran Pedro, Oal. 

The city engineer has been instructed to <Iraw plans 
and make (>Ktimates on the cost of a umnieipal wharf 
at the end of the Miner fill in the outer harbor f<»r deep 
draught vessels. Considerable dre<lging wouhi have to 
be done in oriler that ileep<lrawing vessels might use 
a wharf on the city's frontagi'. as there is but eighteen 
feet of wafer on the bulkhead line, and at the end of the 
proposed sli|>s there is but twenty-four feet. In order 
to aeeommiMlate the vessels of the American Hawaiian 
line thirty feet is rei|uire<l. 

San Diego. 

The San Diego and Arizona Railroa<l Company is 
preparing to construct the largest pier built by private in- 
terests in this |H>rt. 

Long Beach.— The twin jetties that will protect I./ong 
Reach harbor from sea and sand have been completed at a 
ciwt of *12.(KH). The jetties are forty feet wide at the 
base and fen feet wide across the top. The jetties are the 
first of the kind to be constructed on the southern coast. 
The arms extend 1100 feet into the (u-ean, which insures 
an even flow of the tidea. 



LEGAL. 

Suit has been filed in the I'nited .States District Court 
by .1. .1. .Moore & Co.. coal dealers of San Fran<'iseo, 
against Howard Smith & Co., of Australia, for ♦.'{..'HK) 
damagi-s. The libelants claim that a cargo of coal re- 
ceived from Ilowanl Smith & Co. was short several hun- 
dred tons. At the present time none of the vessels of 
Howard Smith & Co. are in port and none are scheduled 
to arrive in the near future, but when some ship of the 
defendant arrives it will he attached. 

Portland — By a de<'ision of Cnited Sfat<*s Judge 
.Silverton in the Federal Court last week. .1. H. Schwaner. 
master of the German steamship Tiberius, was awarded 
a judgment for ♦1.531 against Kerr, Gifford & Co., char- 
terer* of the vj-ssel. The decision is practically a victory 
for Captain S«'hwaner, who asked for $l.JMi!t.:W bonus for 
delay on the part of the exporting firm in loading the 
boat with wheat for a foreign |>ort in November and 
December. 1907. 

Aberdeen — The North American Construction Com- 
pany's dredger Coronado has been attached by the Grays 
Harbor Mill Company for f49!i alleged to be due for 
lumber nse«l in repairs. The company's dredger Pacific 
has been attache<l for $600. 



Seattle — .James .Moore, a stevedore, has filed a libel 
suit agniniit the Boston Towhoat Company's steamahip 



10 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Hj'ades. ]\Ioore was injured through the breaking of a 
sling which dropped a load of freight on his head. 

Herman Bruenegraflf has tiled a libel suit against the 
Alaska Steamship Company's steamer Santa Clara for 
$20,000. liruenegralf last September fell into an open 
hatch on the steamer Santa Clara, and charges that the 
hatch was left open through the neglect of the vessel's 
officers. 

San Francisco — After taking testimony on the valu- 
ation of the steamer Aeapuleo, belonging to the Paeitic 
Mail Steamship Company, which sunk in the bay while 
loading, August 26, 1907, United States Commissioner 
Francis Krull places the value of the boat while at the 
bottom of the bay at $27,024.90. The freight aboard the 
vessel at the time is valued at $6,805.21. Several suits 
were filed against the company and it was necessary to 
determine the limitation of liability. 

The widow of Charles R. Lund, who was employed as 
engineer of the lumber vessel Minnie E. Kelton, which 
was wrecked off the coast of Oregon, May 2, 1908, has 
sued the Tillamook Navigation Company for $20,000 for 
the loss of her husband. 

A. J. Nielson has also filed suit against the Tillamook 
Company for $10,000 damages. 



Marine Decision. 
Liability of Owner of Vessel. — Where the owner of a 
vessel employed the captain and chief engineer, and the 
captain employed the mate who employed the sailors, and 
the charterer could not discharge the captain without the 
owner's consent, and if the expenses exceeded the re- 
ceipts, the owner paid the deficit, there was not such a 
surrender of control on the part of the owner to the 
charterer as to relieve the owner "from liability for in- 
juries to a seaman by the negligence of the mate. — Nelson 
vs. Western Steam Navigating Company, Supreme Court 
of Washington, 100 Pacific, 325. 



NOTES. 

Tehuantepec-Orient Route. 

New York — The American-Hawaiian Steamship Com- 
pany announces a special sailing for Japan, China and 
the Philippines (via the Tehuantepec National Railway 
Co. and the Mexican-Orient Steamship line) as follows: 
Leave New York, May 8 ; leave Mobile, May 8 ; leave New 
Orleans, May 10; arrive Yokohama, June 20; arrive 
Kobe, June 23 ; arrive Shanghai, June 27 ; arrive Hong- 
kong, June 30th. Speaking of the new service, Traffic 
Manager A. P. Burden said: "The announcement is in- 
teresting, first, because it inaugurates an entirely new 
route to the Orient, and, second, and chiefly, because it 
enables American merchants in the eastern and southern 
States to land their goods in the Japanese markets in 
forty-two days from New York and Gulf ports at rea- 
sopable rates. This is less than one-half the time usually 

necessary via the Suez routes." 

* * * 

Vessels of the grain fleet which left San Francisco 
toward the end of last year continue to arrive at various 
destinations in Europe and the United Kingdom. Word 
was received here yesterday of the arrival in England 
of the British ship Aeamas, the French bark Jean and 
German ship Albert Rickmers. Captain Bright took the 
ship Aeamas out from here December 12, with 66,177 
centals of barley, valued at $99,768. She arrived at 
B'almouth last Tuesday after a smart passage, occupying 
135 days. The French bark Jean, Captain Le Gal, sailed 



from San Francisco November 29th, bound for Ipswich. 
She had on board 63,815- centals of barley, valued at 
$94,927, shipped by Balfour, Guthrie & Co., and passed 
Scilly on Wednesday last. With Captain Dierks at the 
helm the German ship Albert Rickmers sailed for London 
from this port December 11th, last year. She passed the 
Lizard April 26th. She had on board 19,640 centals of 
barley,' valuei at $29,425, shipped by Balfour, Guthrie 
& Co. 

* * * 

Orders have been issued by the Navy Department of 
the Pacific fleet, as follows: The AVashington, California, 
South Dakota and Tennessee will make up the first divi- 
sion. In the second division will be the Colorado, West 
Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. The Tennfessef; 
will be the flagship of the fleet and the West Virginia 
the flagship of the second division. Admiral Swinburne 
is called to Wa.shington for temporary special duty. 



Up until the present time tea has been allowed entry 
into the United States untaxed, but as the original draft 
of the Payne tariff bill provides a duty of 8 cents a pound 
on tea entering the United States the tea trade of Japan, 
and especially that of the Osaka Shosen Kaisha, the new 
Japanese line, which will begin operating out of Taeoma 
August 1st, will receive a severe blow. 

Tea exported from Japan during 1907 totaled 250,000 
piculs. Formosa's exports alone reached 166,000 piculs. 
The picul is the equivalent of 135 pounds, so that in 
American measurement Jai)an's exports were 33,750,000 
pounds, and those of Formosa 21,600,000 pounds, or a 
grand total of 55,350,000 pounds. This is equivalent to 
27,675 tons. The main buyers of this output were Great 
Britain and the United States, the proportion taken by 
each country being somewhere near one-half the total. 
The revenue from Japan and Formosa tea entering the 
United States with a duty of 8 cents a pound in force 
would amount to more than $200,000 annually, which 
amount now goes to the profit account of tea culture 

and export. 

# * * 

The breakwaters constructed at Salina Cruz, at a 
cost of several million dollars, are to be removed, owing 
to the sea washing the sand and filling up the harbor. 
There were two large breakwaters constructed on either 
side more than 260 feet wide at the base and 36 feet wide 
at the top, and between them the sea is silting up the 
outer harbor so that despite the continual dredging it is 
becoming shallow. As a consequence the position of the 
breakwater will be changed, which will mean an addi- 
tional expenditure of several millions. 



HAWAIIAN NOTES. 



By the last trip of the Matson S. S. Ililouian from 
San Francisco to tliis port the vessel was' in communica- 
tion with the wireless station at Kahuku when out 1,450 
miles. This is a new record for a single kilowatt machine. 
The passengers on board the Hilonian are kept informed 
of all the news of the day through the medium of a wire- 
less magazine published on board every day. 



PHILIPPINES NOTES. 

Customs collections at Manila for the month of March 
exceeded the million-peso mark, the total collections be- 
ing 1,065,516.59. (A peso is equal to 96.5 cents in U. S. 
currency.) 



The German Kteamer Kluiiit; reaflud jmrt Afarch 2<! 
from Sai>»t»n with a full earpo of rite. 

The liritish freifrhter IiKlrasainhn arrived jit this port 
April 12 from Japan ports and lioriKkont; to load a 
larifo of hemp for Hoston and N'ew York. 

Tlie liner Kuhi sailed to llonfrkonK Saturday, Mareh 
27, with forty saloon passenjrers. 

The Campania Maritima liner Kraneiac^ Keyea aailed 
for ('el)u March 2r> with a K'lx'ral earRO. 

The Mritish freighter ( laniey. Captain Davies. arriveil 
Mareh 24 from Norfolk with a ear(fo of eoal for the navy 
at Cavite. 

The S. S. Sehuyhkill sail Mareh 24 for the Atlantic 
Coast via Sinfjapore with a eargo of !(,(>(l<) hales of hemp. 

The (ierman S. S. Nieomedia arrived Mareh 24 from 
I'ortiaml. t)re(ion, via Kobe, with a general eargo from 
the I'at'ifie Coast. 

The Weir line freighter Kumerie arrived March 31 
from l'iit?et Sound via Hongkong with a general eargo. 

The British freighter iJaiua .saileil for .Marseilles via 
Singapore April 3, with a. eargo of (j,l()() halea of hemp. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



11 



MEETING OF THE BOARD OF HARBOR COMMIS- 
SIONERS, MONDAY, MAY 3, 1909. 

The Hoard was advised tliat the plans and form of 
eontraet for the eonatruetion of pier No. .14 involve an 
infringement of certain letters patent granteil by the 
(.'nite«l Statw. and that the infringement eonaiata in the 
proposed eomhination of the concrete wall, together with 
the method of tying it tt) piles; also that a royalty of 42 
a lineal foot for any construction undertaken in accord- 
ance with the plans referred to. The attorney was re- 
ipi'sted to report aa to what liability, if any. attaches to 
the Hoard. 

Hickman & Masterson infornu-d the Hoard that they 
will 'be compelletl to occup.v seawall lot H for a week or 
two longer than May 1, and re<|uest they be charged 
rent accordingly. 

The seeretary was directed to collect rent for the 
month of .May, and later allow a refund pro rata for the 
number of days in said month after the space occupied 
by them on said lot ha.s been entirely vacated. 

The engineer of the Hoard wjw directed to prepare 
an estimate of the number of Koetitz patent piles to he 
used during the period of one year. 

The engineer of the Hoard was ordere<l to prepare 
estimatj-s for the cost of certain repairs to piers Noa. 9 
an<l 11. per request of the Pacific Coast Steamship Co. 

M«H'ting adjourned to Thursday, May ti. ISHW. 
Meeting of Ihorsday, May 6, 1909. 

Contract with W. L. CralT for furnishing materiala 
and constructing a shed on Tier No. 21 (Filbert-street 
wharf) wa.s signed by the Hoard and the bond, $6,5()0, 
with the Empire State Surety Co. was approved by the 
Hoard. 

Contract with the Santa Cruz I'ortlan«l Cement Co. 
for Portland cement was signed by the Hoard, and a 
lM>nd of #2().t)(K). with the Pacific Surety Co.. was ap- 
proved. 

The bill of the Thomson Hridge Co. for repairing 
wharves, piers, bulkheads and ferry slips as i)er contract, 
amoiuiting to #7.832.10 was allowed and ordered paid. 

Informal bids for furnishing 250 brace tie plates, 
3r)0 plain tie plates, and .50 pairs of channel jointa. f. o.b. 
San Francisco, were opened, as follows: The Pennsyl- 
vania Steel Co., 3.^) cushion tie . plates, fitting 0-inch 
girder rail, section 263. at 4.') cents each ; 2"><l bra<'e tie 
plates fitting above section. ti.'» eenta each; iH) pairs chan- 
nel joints, complete with l>ii|ts and nuts; all for delivery. 



f. o. b. San FVaneisco. On motion the al>ove bid was 
accepted 

P. .1. .Moliterno asked permission to ni.ike alterations 
in premises at Seawall l^tt .\o. Ki. On motion lessee 
was giv. n iM'rmiKsion to nnike such changes at his own 
expens.' subje<-t t»> the approval of the Hoard. He alatt 
asked permiaaion to sublet all or portion of realty held 
by hiin under lease at Seawall, lot .\o. 16. On motion said 
permission was granted. 

Informal bids were opened lor the construction of an 
iron feme for the Southern Pacific and Key Houtc waiting 
rooms, and the bid of the Ralston Iron Works, on the 
basis of their bid. namely, for the sum of $1,515. said 
Ralston Iron Works will furnish bond in the sum of 
$800 as sole surety. 

J. Kinnican. auperintendent of the Atchison. Topeka 
and Santa Fe Itailway Co., petitiimed the lioard for an 
extension of 40x15 feet of the present supjily house of 
his company on the wharf betw«HMi slips .\'o«. 2 and 3 
at the ferry depot, and pro|M>s4'd a rental of <il5 |)er 
month lor such additional space. The matter was re- 
ferred to the engintH'r of the lioard for report. 

Mr. Detuiison offered the following resolution and 
moved its adoption : 

Whereas, The ImukIs authorized to be issued under 
that certain act of the Ix'gislature entitled "An Act to 
provide for the issuance and sale of .Stale bonds to create 
a fund for the constru<-tion by the Hoard of State Har- 
bor (^immissioners of tlie seawall and appurtenances in 
the ( ity and County of San Francis<-o, to create a sinking 
fund for the payment of said IkmuIs, and providing for 
the submi.ssion of this act to a vote of the iM'ople." ap- 
proveil .March 20. lfHt3. and known and cited as the "San 
Franci.sc-o Seawall Act." have been duly ex»HMited, as 
recpiired by the provisions of said act and by law, the 
said bonds being numbered consecutively from 1 to 2,000. 

Resolved, liy the Hoard of State Harbor Commis- 
sioners, assembled in regular s(>ssion. that Hon. W. R. 
Williams, as the State Treasurer of the .State of Cali- 
fornia, be and he is hereby rctpiested to sell 500 of such 
bonds in aceonlancc with the provisi(ms of said act. in 
such parcels and numbers as said State Treasurer shall 
be directed by the Honorable James .\. (iillett. aa (Jov- 
ernor of the State of California, under the seal thereof; 
and be it further 

Resolvetl. That the Seeretary of the Hoard be. and 
he is hereby directed to forwani a ccrtifii-d copy of this 
resolution to the (Jovernor of the State of California. 

Cominissioncr Teller seconded the motion, and it was 
unanimously adopted. 

Commissioner Dennison oflTere*! the following resolu- 
tion and moved its adoption: 

Resolved, That from June 1, 19(H). the rental for all 
berth space on wharves, dm-ks and bulkheads under the 
jurisdiction of the Hoard of State Harbor (Commission- 
ers, where the rental is now fixed on a basis of 31 Vi 
cents per lineal f«M>t per month, be an<l the same is here- 
by fixed at .'lO e«'nts per lineal foot per month; provided 
that this reeomnx-ndation shall not be const ru<*d to charge 
the rate of rental for space where a higher rate than 
50 cent.s per lineal fool per month is n<iw being charged. 
The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

The engineer reported that he had investigated the 
possibilities of obtaining eucalyptus for (liling, and its 
value and adaptability for that purpose. The matter will 
Iw considered at the next meeting of the Hoard. 

Also, that (Jray Hnw. ' Crushed Rock Co. contractors 
for furnishing rock and labor for the construction of 
Section No 11 of the seawall, have to April 'iO, 1909, in- 



1 



J^ 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



elusive, furnished 7,087.49 tons at 69 cents, or $4,925.81, 
less the usual 25 per cent, or $1,231.45, and less amounts 
paid on estimates Nos. 1 and 2, or $2,412.94, leaving the 
amount due at $1,281.42, which was ordered paid. 

Also that W. L. Graff is entitled to 25 per cent re- 
tained on his second estimate of April 1, 1909, for im- 
provements at piers Nos. 42 and 44, the amount due being 
$723.50, which was ordered paid. 

Also recommended the purchase of a new dredge 
bucket for dredger No. 3, to cost $2,500. The engineer 
was ordered to prepare plants for the dredge bucket 
desired. 

The engineer of the Board and the superintendent of 
the Belt railroad, in a joint report, recommended re- 
arrangement of tracks of the property of the State at 
Sansome and Lombard streets, whfch are rented to the 
Northwestern Pacific Railroad Co. The. estimated cost 
was $3,500. 

The recommendation was adopted and the work 
ordered done, informal bids being invited for twenty 
tons of sixty-five-pound rail, with fish plates, and the 
purchasing agent was directed to purchase 240 ties and 
120 yards of ballast for such work. The engineer was 
also directed to pi'epare plans for the necessary paving 
incident to the rearrangement of the tracks and informal 
bids are invited for such paving as per plans. 

The Chief Wharfinger recommended that the Pacific 
Tank Co. be assigned the space now occupied by the 
Gray Bros. Crushed Rock Co. for bunker purposes at 
Channel street, between the Mercantile Box Co. and 
Fourth street, provided they take the entire space of 
350 feet now occupied by the Gray Bros. 

Adjourned until Monday, May 10, 1909. 



DEATH OF CAPTAIN J. F. ROBINSON. 

The real cause leading to the death of Captain J. F. 
Robinson, by suicide, will probably never be known. 
Over-sensitive at the loss of his vessel and dissension 
among the crew of the ill-fated S. S. Indiana, no doubt, 
hastened the death of the veteran captain. . Brooding 
over his loss, the first while engaged in his chosen pro- 
fession, continuous from boyhood, and during which he 
held many positions of trust and great responsibility. 
For the past sixteen years Captain Robinson had been 
in the employ of the Pacific Mail S. S. Co., serving with 
credit as master on almost the entire fleet. In the one 
unfortunate mishap of his seafaring life, sympathy and 
confidence were expressed in writing and signed by 
every passenger of the wrecked vessel and presented to 
Captain Robinson. His interest in the pa.ssengers of the 
vessel, anxiety for the property of his employers, and 
his determination to remain with the wrecked vessel 
till the end speak volumes in favor of his sterling char- 
acter. 

Captain Robinson is survived by his wife and five 
childrfen, Leo, Alma, Frances, Muriel and Charles, re- 
siding in Alameda. 

The funeral services were held at the beautiful new 
home of the family, conducted by Rev. Hitchcock, and the 
remains carried to their last resting place by those of his 
colleagues in the employ of the Mail Company, who 
join with the bereaved family in mourning the untimely 
death of a loving husband, kind father and noble friend. 

Captain Frank Boyd, the oldest San Francisco bar 
pilot in the service, died at his home in San Mateo on 
May 2, at the age of 77 years. Captain Boyd was a pilot 
in San Francisco for fifty years and no one was better 
known or more highly esteemed along the waterfront. 



RECENT CHARTERS. 

Tacoma— Shipments of 5,000,000 feet of heavy timbers 
will be sent by the Pacific National Lumber Co. to New 
York in the near future. The ship Joseph B. Thomas 
will take the first cargo and is at the present time at 
P^agle Harbor preparing for the voyage. The cargo of 
the American ship Henry Faling will be the largest 
ever shipped Irom the Sound. Negotiations are now 
pending for the chartering of another ship which will 
also load here. 

Schooner R. C. Slade loaded lumber at Aberdeen for 
Santa Rosalia owners' account. British bar Howard D. 
Troop from Portland to United Kingdom, November load- 
ing. Invertay from San Francisco to Australia — lumber, 
time charter. Peruvian bark Alliance from Puget Sound 
to west coast of South America, lumber, owners' ac- 
count. S. S. Melville Dollar, Mendocino to Guaymas, 
lumber, owners' account. German ship Frieda, Puget 
Sound to Europe, wheat, at 27s 6d. 



S. S. TEXAN. 

The frontispiece is of the large interocean freighter 
Texan, belonging to the American-Hawaiian Steamship 
Company. This company is noted for the care they take 
to get a ship that is of the highest class, and reap the 
results therefrom. 

The Texan is a steel twin-screw, two-deck deep fram- 
ing vessel built by the New York Shipbuilding Company 
at Camden, N. J., in 1902, and has made some remarkable 
passages. 

She is 471 feet long by 57.2 feet, and 31.8 feet depth of 
hold; 35 feet moulded depth; draws 28 feet 10 inches of 
water and has 6 feet 2 inches of freeboard. The loaded 
displacement is about 18,000 tons, and the deadweight 
carrying capacity is about 12,000 short tons of sugar. 
The gross tonnage is 8615 net, tonnage 5636, and the 
under deck 8410 tons. 

The vessel has a double bottom, which, when full, car- 
ries about 2654 tons of water. 

The propelling machinery is composed of two quadruple 
expansion engines with cylinders 19"x28V2"'x41"x60'', 
with 42" stroke. 

Steam is furnished from three Scotch boilers, with 
four corrugated furnaces to each boiler. The grate sur- 
face is 216 square feet and the heating surface 8184 
square feet. With forced draft and good coal the vessel 
can develop 4000 horse-power, but at ordinary sea steam- 
ing the plant is driven at about 3650 horse-power, aver- 
aging lli/> knots. 

The engine room and boiler room equipment is up-to- 
date in all particulars for a vessel of her class, equipped 
with a donkey boiler carrying 120 pounds of steam and 
an electric light plant. 

The Texan is now using oil fuel atomized in a Lascoe 
burner by means of the low pressure air system from 
positive blowers, and is very economical, delivering a 
horse-power on about 1.14 pounds of oil per horse-power 
per hour. 

The present run of the Texan is from Salina Cruz to 
Puget Sound, calling at San Francisco and the Hawaiian 
Islands. 



Proposals have been issued by the Navy Department, 
soliciting bids for the construction of seven torpedo 
boat destroyers. The bids will be opened May 29. 

The Alaska Steamship Company's steamers Seward, 
Dolphin and Olympic will be ecpiipped with wireless in 
the near future. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



13 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Office: 95 MARKET ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



I K L K P H O N K DOUGLAS 4 3 2 S 



THOS. C. BUTTERWORTH 
A. B. BUTTF.RWORTH 
M. DAVIS 



Editor 

GcBcrft] MsBatcr 

Advcrtiftint Ucp«rtiiical 



Publinhfd by the Pacific Miirhant .Marine PuUinhing Co. 
in San Francisco, Calijomia, tiery Saturday morning in the 
interest and development of the American Merchant Mannc. 

WILL BE SENT TO ANY ADDRESS In iht UNITED STATES 
$2.50 a Year 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 

Addreft All CoromunicatioDt lo the Pacific Merchant Marine 



KIsfwhere in this week's issue will be found infornia- 
fion by which Pat-itic Coast nierchants may procure a 
portion of the trade of the Isthmian Canal Commission. 
In last week's issue we eomniented on this .same subject. 

In the building of a canal on the Isthnuis the one 
great (|uestion of access to the Pacific Coast predomi- 
nated all others. American and foreign statesmen made 
this the talking point of their arguments. Our wonder- 
ful resotirces. agricultural and mineral, must be reached 
I by the shortest po.ssible route and at a miiiinuim cost. 
Kortiuiately tor the I'nited States the Istlinnis was 
owned by a frieiully foreign government, willing and 
anxious to grant a franchise or dispose of territory in 
the open market by which the canal could be built. 
National, private, corporate and foreign capital was 
frecplently tempted by the investment. If Pacific Coast 
resources were used to make the canal a reality the ar- 
guments made still hold good, and the states bordering 
on the Pacific are entitle*! at least to a proportionate 
share of the patronage uf the Isthmian Canal Commis- 
sion. 

Sentiment is not an element of construction in the 
Canal Zone, nor do our mercliants apply for charity; but 
they do insist upon an e«|ual chance with other ami more 
favored sections of the Union. We arc open to criticism 
in many of our industries, and in many others are better 
(|ualified to criticize. 

The bill recently introduced in Congri>88 providing 
for the building and operation of ten 5.()0<)-ton steamers 
to operate between Pacific Coast ports of the United 
States and I^a Boca offers a ray of hope to Pacific Coast 
merchants, and a silent apology for the purchase an<l 
removal from the Pacific of the steamships Fremont and 
Shawnuith. which arrived during the pn'sent week on 
the Atlantic to carry goods from .\ew YorK to the Canal 
Zone. This tran.saction would appear ordinarily as rou- 
tine business, but if the two ves.sels had been allowed to 
remain on the Pacific to perform the same service as 
will be expected of them on the Atlantic. Pacific Coast 
merchants woidd be in a position to compete with New 
York merchants for supplies to the Isthmus, and a ten 



to twelve (lay service could have been established between 
Puget Sound aiul La lioca. 

Owing to competition of the foreign merchant marine, 
the I'Vcmoiit and Shawmuth were forced from the over- 
sea trade. Nothing remained but to engage in coast- 
wise trallic either by Ooverinnent or private ownership. 
Private interests hail nmde plans to build vessels for 
the Panaiiia traile. The (Sovernment require*! vessels 
to carry supplies to the Canal, and have iiiHintained a 
Heet for this pur|M>se on the Atlantic Coast for some 
time. The vessels engaged therein leaving New Y«)rk 
with full cargoes and returning from Colon with empty 
holds. Hy this means merchants on the .\tlantic Coast 
are provided by the Ooveriiment with a six-day service 
between New York and Colon, which service will now be 
augmented liy the addition of the Kremoiit and Shaw- 
muth, rc:uove«l from the Pacific, while the merchants 
of this Coast are left to the tender mercies of the rail- 
roatls and Pacific Mail interests, who now monopolize the 
coastwise tradic of the Pacific between Puget Sound 
and Panama, and publicly slate that if any eoncessions 
are granted to Pacific Coast shippers on the Panama 
railroad ((Jovernment owned) that all Pacific Mail freight 
crossing tile Isthnuis will be shipped by way of the 
Tehauntepee railroad, who could not afford to permit 
the Fremont an<l .Shawnuith to remain on the Pacific 
and. untler 0<»vernment ownership, enter the service to 
carry a full cargo to the Canal, make connections with 
the Government railroad fetl by Government vessels on 
the Atlantic, and thus return to the Pacific Coast fully 
laden, in less than tuie-half the time consumed by the 
Pacific .Mail S. S. Co. 

Pa.st experience has taught the people of the I'acific 
Coa.st what can be expected from the railroads and allied 
interests. Past and present experience has shown them 
what can be expected from the Government. Past, pres- 
ent and future experience only will convince them of 
the benefits of concertetl action, an aggre.ssive movement 
fi>r a greater Pacific Coast, a <letermination to learn our 
true coixlition and to be true to its component ]mrts. 
We have much to be proud of. our present conditicui 
probably indicating lassitutle resulting from over-ciuifi- 
dcnce. Our wonderful resources have multiplied many 
times in the past fifty years. No reasonable argument 
can or ever has been presented why the Pacific Coast 
should not devcloj) as rapidly, if not more so, than any 
other section of the United States. Many problems in 
the progress <tf civilization have been solved by pi'f^tple 
of much less intelligence, ami uiuler greater tlisadvan- 
tages.' .Some material cause exists. Many ridiculous 
methods have been resorted to. thousands of theories 
have be<-n advanced, all temling to cloud the issue. Some 
writers have severely criticized the climates of Wash- 
ington. Oregon aiid parts of California but failed to state 
the fact tt'at steamboat tourist traffic of San Francisco, 
Portland and Seattle for the year IJMM) (latest reports) 
was .TO,0<)0.()(Mt passengers or 14 per cent of the total 
steamboat tourist traffic of the United States. Others 
again are still commenting upon the great disaster of 
April, 1JMI6. in San Francisco, but fail to note the com- 
plete recovery an<l building of the most modern cit.v of 
the United States within a space of three years. Th«' 
Bureau of the Census of liMMi only have given correct 
figur«*8 for the export trade by water of Pacific Coast 
products iimounting to 13,:M1.29:i net tons and valued at 
iH)6.148:.i-2ii, 

Familiar with every movement which has retarded 
the progn-ss of the Pacific Coast, and familiar with each 
and every brand of our resources, yet we are content 
to be petted and pampered by a bill placed liefore Con- 



14 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



gress for the benefit of Pacific Coast commerce, and 
calmly view the departure of the Fremont and Shaw- 
muth without raising a dissenting voice, or realizing that 
either one or both of these transactions are significant 
of the proverbial lemon. We are certain that if it be- 
came necessary for the Government to purchase the two 
steamships to facilitate the work of construction on the 
Isthmus, and the interests of the Government were being 
conserved purely and simply, the vessels would have 
been assigned to the Pacific, to establish complete con- 
nection by the Government between New York and the 
Pacific Coast. This one comparatively small business 
transaction by the Government becomes monumental 
when applied to conditions on the Pacific Coast. Pref- 
erably give us a merchant marine on an equal footing 
with our own and foreign countries than the right of 
appeal to consolidated railroad interests representing 
$11,000,000,000, or over 10 per cent of the total wealth 
of the United States. 



SHIPBUILDING NOTES. 



Union Iron Works. 

S. 0. ship Acme on Hunters Point drydock Thursday 
and Friday for hull repairs. 

S. S! Washtenaw on Hunters Point for repairs to 
shaft and wheel. 

S. S. Senator on floating dock for cleaning, painting 
and shaft work. 

S. S. George Loomis on floating dock for general hull 
work. 

Tug Sea Rover at works for repairs to boilers. 

Grace Dollar at works for miscellaneous repairs.. 

S. S. Roma left works Monday, the 3d. 

S. S. Magara left works Thursday, the 6th, after be- 
ing cleaned, f)ainted and generally repaired. 

Loading two locomotives and eighty fiat cars on vari- 
ous schooners for the North. 

Several hundred Japanese officers and cadets of the 
visiting training ships Aso and Soya will visit the works 
on Saturday, the 8th, on the invitation of president. 

Moore & Scott. 

San Mateo — Work of installing winches and booms 
about completed. Vessel has been on the Moore & Scott 
Iron Works ways and was cleaned and painted. This 
is the largest vessel taken on these ways, being 3,000 
tons gross, and no difficulty whatever was experienced 
in hauling her out. While on the dock the tail shaft 
was drawn in for examination and the rudder was lifted 
for repairing. She will leave for the north about the 
15th of May to enter her new charter with Schumach & 
Hamilton. 

Winnebago is laid up at IVIoore & Scott works under- 
going repairs to her hull on account of damage sustained 
last year when she ran aground. 

Shasta is on the dock being cleaned and painted and 
receiving a new propeller. 

The Oakland float of the Moore & Scott Works was 
extremely busy for the month of April, this being their 
first work at the new place. The dock was busy every 
day in the month and the new owners are well pleased 
with their new acquisition. 

John Twigg & Sons. 

Launched Saturday, the 1st, two launches of the same 
dimensions, viz., 33 feet length, 7 feet beam and 33 inches 
draft. One is to be used on the Sacramento river as a 
butcher boat and the other on the San Joaquin as a fruit 



boat. On the trial trip the boats made 12 miles on 16 
horsepower. 

Constructed yacht tender for Mr. J. V. Coleman of 
S. P. Y. C. 

Installing new propeller and overhauling hull of 
launch Konocti prior to sending her to Seattle to par- 
ticipate in the speed races. 

C. W. Smith, formerly Smith & Olsen, building 25- 
foot launch to be used in fishing about Santa Cruz. The 
boat will be 7 feet beam, 24 inches draft, compromise 
stern, equipped with 7 horsepower California gas engine. 

Building 20-foot, 5-fo6t beam, 18-inch draft pleasure 
launch to be equipped with 4 horsepower California gas 
engine. 

Rebuilding Government launch Madrona. Engine 
will be changed from a steam to a 17 horsepower gas 
engine. Exterior rebuilt in Spanish white cedar and oak. 

The engine of the launch Tiburon, belonging to G. 
Shimea, the Japanese potato king, is being changed from 
a 12 horsepower to 25 horsepower Union. 

The 35-foot launch belonging to B. R. Banning on 
way being overhauled. 

William Cryer. 

Yacht belonging to R. Rideout of San Francisco being 
equipped with 14 horsepower auxiliary gas engine. 

Building a scout boat for the Pacific Electric Light 
and Power Company. The dimensions are 26 feet in 
length, 6 1-4 feet beam and 28 inches draft. 

The steamer Triton, the first of the two sister vessels 
built by the Anderson Steamboat Company of Seattle, 
for travel on Lake Washington during the Alaska-Yukon- 
Pacific Exposition, was successfully launched at the 
company's shipyards at Houghton April 24. The Triton 
is 95 feet over all, 8-foot beam and 6-foot draft, with 
180 horsepower designed to make seventeen to eighteen 
miles an hour. 

Astoria. 

The launch Hazel and Helen went into commission 
April 30. The craft was built at the Driscoll boat yard 
for the Miller-Sands Fishing Company, and is to be used 
as a tender for seining grounds. Her dimensions are: 
Length, 34.9 feet; beam, 10.4 feet; depth, 2.4 feet. The 
launch is equipped with a 20-horsepower gasoline engine. 

Vancouver. 

The Western Transportation and Towing Company's 
new steamer Annie Comings was launched April 29 and 
will go into commission about the middle of May. The 
vessel will be used for towing and freighting. Her dimen- 
sions are 151 feet long, 32.6 feet beam and 5.6 feet depth 
of hold. The height of the freight house is nine feet. 

The new Vancouver-Portland ferryboat was launched 
April 29 and went into commission immediately, dis- 
placing the old City of Vancouver. The new boat 
is of 398 tons register, is 148 feet ' between the 
gates, 54 feet 11 inches over all in width, and only draws 
39 inches of water, which is less than the old boat. She 
is capable of making 15 miles an hour, which is five miles 
an hour faster than the former ferryboat. 

The repairs to the S. & H. S. S. St. Croix are rapidly 
nearing completion at the Moran yard of Seattle. When 
completed she will run to Nome during the summer. 

The U. S. battleship Oregon will be thoroughly over- 
hauled and the latest equipment installed after being 
out of commission two years. The Oregon was placed 
on the drydock at Puget Sound May 3, and the repairs 
will be rushed to completion in order to have her in com- 
mission before the fall. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



PROPOSED ORGANIZATION 



OF 



15 



The Pacific Coast Commercial Bureau 



Our Infantile Elfforts and Hopes for the Rehabilitation of the American 
Merchant Marine receive encouragement. 



On January 9 of the present year Pacific Merchant Marine made its first appearance in public. One object 
prompted the enterprise. Many predictions were made upon the snccess of the same. Our efforts have been 
crowned with success, to the extent that we are justified in placing our magazine at the disposal of those who 
fully aopreciate the commercial advantages of the Pacific Coast and who are willing to inaugurate a movement 
from which results are sure to follow. 

With this object in view, each merchant citizen of the Pacific Coast interested in the commerce thereof is 
respectfully reauested to forward his name and address to this oflSce. When sufficient names have been re- 
ceived notice will be sent from this office of a meeting to be held wholly and solely for the purpose of forming 
an organization in the interest of the commercial resources of the Pacific Coast. 

Pending completion of the proposed organization, no person in the employ of this paper is authorized to call 
upon or otherwise communicate with yon, and we earnestly request that any breach of this fact shall be promptly 
reported at our office. 

PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE. 

95 MARKET STREET. 

SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



STUART 8. DUNBAR «^t-?' NAVAL ARCHITECT 

Pbooe K'vmy 4731 
Yacht* A Work Boats of All rtiMH DoaicMd JkCoMtniclioa Sup«rinl*»d*d 



r.^A k^lo.rv.0,, BOAT BUILDER 

PImmMmi 201 
SuFiudKeOfta. 211 BiKlUr Bld«. MukMAiSpMSaMli Ptxar Krarar 4731 

PUM«w««dC ■■!■ i«ICWic< EmrPiM^iiMi B«aL Y.»li »a SUfc ■ S«^. 
R<(«ina« Pr>ia*ll|> 



16 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 




SAN FRANCISCO YACHT CLUB OPENING. 

ACHTING begins today in earn- 
est for the members of the S. F. 
Yacht ( lub. An elaborate pro- 
gram has been prepared for this 
afternoon and evening and the 
elub house in Sausalito will be 
thrown open to a large number 
of guests. The opening was 
scheduled to take place last 
Saturday but, owing to the Cor- 
intliian opening taking place on 
that day, was postponed. The San Francisco Yacht 
Club is very strong this season and has an unusually 
large number of boats enrolled in its fleet, some of which 
are among the finest on the bay. 





procured, and your ginis will be removed on entering the 
hall. 

Sunday, May 9, the fleet will cruise in squadron, for 
which orders will be issued. 

Report on board the flagship Martha at 10 o'clock for 
orders. 

H. A. RUSSELL. J. R. HANIFY, 

Secretary. ■ Commodore. 



PACIFin MOTOR BOAT CLUB. 

The Pacific Motor Boat ( lub will hold its official open- 
ing this afternoon in the club house at Belvedere. This 
will begin the second season of the club, and the officers 
and members are very enthusiastic as to its success. 

The P. M. B. C. has taken marvelous strides since its 
foundation last June and although the youngest club on 
the bay has by no means the smallest membership. There 
have been several new boats enrolled in the fleet, and 
this season will see some of the finest motor yachts on 
the bay flying the P. M. B. C. pennant. Commodore 
l?()wers has bad his Corsair entirely remodeled and con- 
verted into a raised deck cruiser with ample cabin ac- 
commodations. J. E. Hax's Liberty, one of the most 
successful cruisers on the bay, is in fine trim, and Captain 
Crocker's Alsoran has been extensively overhauled and 
will figure prominently in this season's racing. 

Sunday the boats of the club will run over to Sausa- 
lito to participate in the motor i)oat races, a full account 
of which will appear in next week's issue. 



^1 



Schooner Martha Com. Hanify 



injuijMi 



Will you assist at raising the lid? 

Opening day will be May the 8th and the lid will be 
in three sections. 

The Commodore will start the ball with a salute from 
his 12-inch gun, at 12 m. 

1st Section. Terpsichorean evolutions will take place 
at the club house from 2 to 5 o'clock. Bring your best 
girl, or see that some other fellow's girl gets there. 

2d Section. Dinner for members only at 7 o'clock. ' 

This is the real party, and you will see the reason 
for raising the lid. Under it will be a Ciupino dinner 
cooked in a mammoth kettle by Al Hanify, who doesn't 
cook for the Fairmont because he is too good for them. 
It is pronounced "Chip-peen-o" and you will pronounce 
it good. Al will eat it, too. 

Return the enclosed postal card not later than May 
5th, so that the chef and his muckers can tell how many 
chickens are to be assassinated. 

Third Section. The play's the thing. This will take 
place after 8 o'clock, when you have licked your plates. 
It is hoped and expected that the dinner will be so good 
you'll not care how bad the play will be. It will be bad 
enough. Some of the worst talent to be had has been 



Club House of S. F, Y. C. 

CALIFORNIA YACHT CLUB. 

The opening jinks of the California Yacht Club were 
hi^Id last Sunday at the club house on Sheep Island. 
Owing to the exceptioimlly fine weather there was a large 
attendance and the affair was a thorcnighly enjoyable 
one. There were many visitors aboard the yachts of 
the club and all who attended pronounced the affair a 
decided success. 



THE CORINTHIAN OPENING. 

Needless to say, the oj)ening of the (Jorinthian Yacht 
Club last Saturday was a huge success. The day w«s 
perfect and the club house was taxed to its utmost ca- 
pacity with one of the largest crowds ever assembled 
to partake of Corinthian hospitality and start the merry 
tars off for a season's voyage. 

The afternoon's program was a most delightful one 
and was thoroughly enjoyed by the yachtsmen and their 
visitors, particularly by those of the fair sex and the 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



17 



small boats and lauiu-hes belonging to the club were 
kept busy throughout the atteriioon carrying euthuaiatt- 
tie visitors from yai-ht to yacht. 

The steam yacht Lueera and Captain Oliver's Bonnie 
Doon moored off the club house during the afternoon and 
were the center of much interest. The aehooner ^larian 
was also present in gala attire and received many visi- 
tors al)oard. 

After the departure of the viaitora on the 5:30 ferry 
the meml)ers of the club donned their sea togs and sat 
down to the iLsual bean and chowder feast prepared by 
Capt.'Keefe and his able assistants, finishing the evening 




(.lull Hoi'»e of C. V. C WliKh Will lie Torn Uiwu aud 
Replaced by a )20,000 Structure. 

with one of the best jinks programs ever pulled off at the 
club house, ('apt. Jack O'Hriea has a reputation as a pro- 
ducer of talmt and that he lived up to it last Saturday 
can be vouched for by everyone who was fortunate 
enough to be present. 

On Sunday at 11 a. m. Commodore Stone gave the 
signal for the yachts to get un<ler way for the opening 
cruise. There were many visitors aboard the boats and 
as there was a si)lendid sailing breeze the tlay was hugely 
enjoyed by all hands, and it was with great reluctance 
that'the yachts were tied up at their moorings late in 
the afternoon. 



The schooner Magic has again changed handt?. having 
been purchased by John .Norby. steward of the Corin- 
thian ( !ub. Mr. Norby will have her entirely rebuilt. 

The sloop Mischief is on Klarman's ways undergoing 
repairs. 

Mr. Schwerin's 25-foot launch, which has been build- 
ing in Klarman's slip at Tiburon. is now nearing com- 
pletion and will be launched early next week. She is 
e(tuipped with a "> horsepower Standard engine. 

Mr. Gordon Blanding's fast motor yacht Chipmunk 
has been thoroughly overhauled at the shop of John 
Twigg & Sons and will be in commission in time for the 
opening of the S. F. Y. C. in which club she is enrolled. 

Mr. J. V. Coleman of the S. F. Y. C. has recently 
had a power tender built for his yacht. 

Holt and Gray's Konocti will meet Mitchell & Klnne's 
General II at Sausalito Sunday. May 9th. in the first of 
a series of races for the Taeifie Coast championship. The 
race will be over a straightaway course from Sausalito 
to Southampton shoals and back. 



AQUATIC EVENTS AT ALASKA-YUKON PACIFIC 
EXPOSITION. 

The announcement of the nuttor Iniat and yachting 
regatta to take place at the Exposition has just been 
made ami judging from the number of acheduled events 
it will be the greatest aquatic show ever witnessed on 
the Pacific Coast. 

This will take place in Jtdy during the Alaska-Yukon- 
Pacifie Kxposition under the auspices and rules of the 
Pacific International Power Boat Associiition and the 
N.-W. 1. V. R. A. and will be the first international com- 
bined motor boat and sailing regatta ever held on the 
Pacific Coast. 

The preparations are directly in charge of the Elliott 
Hay Y. C. of Seattle, the racing committee of the P. I. 
P. B. A., and the Motor Boat ( lub of Seattle, and the 
motor boat committee of the A.-Y.-P. Kxposition. 

The events include a 225-mile cruising race from Van- 
couver. B. C., to Seattle, through the most beautiful 
cruising ground in the world. This starts June 2i>th and 
is open to any recognized yacht or m(»tor boat clid). 

A special committee on entertainment has been elect iil 
by the combined clubs and will endeavor to provide some- 
thing of interest for each day of the regatta. Junkets 
and amusements of varied kinds will be offered. The 
club bouses an(t anchorage of the Elliott M. Y. C. and the 
M. B. C. of Seattle will be thrown open to visiting yachts- 
men. Special rates of transportation an«l freight will be 
available. Rowing and canoe events will take place at 
the same time. 



ALASKA-YUKON-PACIFIC EXPOSITION SPEED RACES, 



Including Ten-Metre CI»m for World"* Champlonahip. 

The rrogram of motor boat eventii lo be held on Ijike Wash- 
ington from .?uly 3rd to 10th. under the ausiilces of the Pacific 
International Power Roat Asbc elation and the Motor Ikuit Club 
uf Seattle, are as followH: 

Plrfl event. 40 feet, 30 mllea; serond event, S2 feet, 80 miles; 
third event, 26 feet, 20 mllfs; fourth fvenl. 22 feet. 10 niilea: 
fifth event. 18 feet, 10 mllen: sixth event, hydroplane: seventh 
event, long dlstanre. 66 milcB around Inland: elKhth event, handi- 
cap, all contestants in |)revlouB raccB. 20 nillen. Special — Back- 
ward: tugofwar; boats built by toys under 17 years; claM M 
sweepstakes, over 40 feet. 

Probab'e Dates. 

Saturday. July S. 1909— First h«at. 40 feet (12 metre), free 
for all. 20 mfles: first heat. 32 feet (10 metrel. 30 miles; nml 
heat 26 feet. 20 miles: first heat. 18 feet. 10 miles. 

Tuei-day. July 6. 1909— Second heat. 40 feet (12 metre). 30 
miles: second heat. 32 feet (10 metrei. 30 miles;. first heat. 22 
feet. 10 miles: xecond heat. 18 feet. 10 miles. 

Wednesday. July 7. 1909 — Second heat. 26 feel, free for all. 
20 rollcB: second heat. 22 feet, free for all, 10 miles. Special- 
Hydroplanes. 

Thursday, July 8, 1909 — Third heal. 40 feet (12 metre), free 
for all. 30 miles: third heat. 32 feet (10 metre), free for all. 30 
miles: third heat. 18 feet. 10 miles. Special— Backward race; 
obstacle race. 

FYldav. July 9. 1909— Third heat, 22 feet, 10 miles; third heal. 
26 feel. 20 miles. Special— Tug-of- war: boats built by boys under 
17 years of age. 

Saturday. July 10. 1909- Handicap for all former contesUnls. 
Twenty miles slnisle heat. Time allowance taken from previous 
record. Aay unfinished races not comi leied on above days. 
Class .M sweepstakes. 

Notes. 

Tht» proRTam will be held In conjunction with the 225mlle 
long dihiance race and cruises of the P. I. P. B. A. and the annual 
regatta of the Northwestern International Yacht Racing Asso- 
ciation, making the most s|)eclacular series of yachting events 
ever promoted on the Padflc Coast. 

All cojtestants must l>e members of recognised yacht or 
motor boat rluljs. 

No owner can enter more than one boat in any one event. 

All entries must comply as to type with the speclftcatlons 
of the Pacific International Power Boat Association, which are 
similar to those of the A. P. B. A. 

No boat while racing shall carry less than two people. 



-m* 



18 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



The course for the big classes will be thirty miles; for the 
eight-metre class, twenty miles, and for the smaller classes, 
ten 'miles, best two out of three. 

All races will start aud finish in front of a specially erected 
grandstand inside the exposition grounds. 

The prizes tor the ten and twenty metre classes will be $500 
cups. Other events will have suitable prizes. 

The class races will be run, boat for boat, without restriction 
except as to type. Handicap races will be started on the basis 
of actual performance with 3 per cent disqualificature limit. 

For further information address C. W. Chandler, secretary 
A.-Y.-P. motor boat committee, 321 First Avenue South, Seattle. 



LONG DISTANCE RACE FOR CRUISING POWER BOATS. 



June 29, 1909, Vancouver, B. C, to Seattle, Wash. 

Start — June 29th at 8 o'clock a. m., or such time as the racing 
committee may consider best. 

Restrictions — The race is for <;ruising boats of not less than 
30 feet over all, divided into four classes: 

Class A, over 60 feet. 

Class B, over 50 feet and not over 60 feet. 

Class C, over 40 feet and not over 50 feet. 

Class D, over 30 feet aad not over 40 feet. 

A cruising boat is one built and used for cruising and must 
have accommodations for sleeping and eating for a crew of not 
less than four. 

Special Class — A special class made up of cruising ))ower 
boats which can not comply with the restrictions placed upon 
the four regular classes will be measured and started upon their 
handicaps for a suitable trophy or cup. Such boats shall not be 
eligible, however, to compete for the "Rudder" exposition cup 
or other trophies. 

Propelling Power — An explosive engine or engines operated 
ty either gasoline, kerosene, benzine, distillate or alcohol. 

Crew — The crew shall not be changed during the race. It 
must consist of not less than four persons, two of whom may 
be paid hands. In the event of the owner not being on board 
during the race, he must be represented by a member of the 
Pacific International Power Boat Association, and any member 
of any recognized yacht club and in good standing is eligible 
to such membership. No professional navigators or pilots will 
be allowed on any boat, .and each owner or his representative 
must, if requested, deliver to the committee before the start of 
the race a list giving the names and vocations of all the mem- 
bers of his crew. 

Equipment — Boats may carry an optional amount of fuel, all 
of which must be in fixed tank or tanks jjermanently piped and 
connected. Temporary tanks placed in the boat will not make 
her eligible for the race. Each boat must carry on deck, or tow, 
a tender, must carry two anchors and cables, side and other 
lights required by the Federal regulations, a life-preserver for 
each member of the crew, compass, charts, lead line, buckets, 
and at least two fire extinguishers. IJghts to be displayed at 
all times in full view as per requirements of the Federal Gov- 
ernment, and any person not so displaying same is liable to 
disoualification. 

Rating and Allowance — Minimum beam to be determined by 
the following formula: 



B=20 L-H60+L)= 



20 L 
60+L 



in which B is beam on water line and L is length on load water 
line. This formula is based on a maximum ratio of water line 
length to water line beam of 

4.5 for 30 feet water line length. 

5.0 for 40 feet water line length. 

5.75 for 55 feet water line length. 

6.75 for 75 feet water line length, 
and ratios in proportion for intermediate lengths. 

Racing measurements or rating on which time allowance is 
to be figured shall be determined by taking eighteen times the 
cube root of the square root of the load water line length 
multiplied by the horsepower and divided by the area of the 
midship section. 

3 



RATING: 



\^LWLxHP 



H. P, = 



MS 
D2XSXNXR 



in which: D — Diameter of piston in inches. S — Stroke of piston 



in inches. N — Number of cylinders. H — Number of revolutions. 

C is a constant to vary for two and four cycle engines, as 
follows : 

C — 14,000 for four cycle. 

12,500 for two cycle, two port. 
11,500 for two cycle, three port. 

Time allowance shall be based on ratings of Pacific Inter- 
national Power Boat Association, which correspond to 80 per 
cent of the time allowance in the tables of American Power 
Boat Association. 

In addition, each owner may be required to run his boat at 
full speed under the observation of a neutral expert over any 
measured course agreeable to the measurers. The result of these 
trials will te used by committee as a basis of comparison in 
thf; application of handicaps by measurement. 

Measurements — Measurements will be made by disinterested 
persons or person appointed by the racing committee, which 
will issue to each boat so measured a certificate. Boats without 
certificates must be at Vancouver, B. C, ready for measure- 
ment before 9 a. m. .lune 27, 1909. Measurements will be posted 
at the landing of the Royal Vancouver Yacht Club as soon after 
that hour as practicable, and all protests as to eligibility and 
rating must be lodged with the racing committee before the 
start. If requested, any owner or his representative shall be 
required to furnish a certificate stating that no changes to hull, 
propeller or machinery have been made after the boat has been 
measured. F. S. Brinton and W. H. MacDougall, of Seattle 
and Vancouver, respectively, are the appointed measurers, and 
certificates must be issued by them. 

Course — The course to te as follows: Starting from a stake 
boat in English Bay, Vancouver, across the Gulf of Georgia, 
through Active Pass, Haro Straits, Swanson Channel, leaving 
Discovery I>ight (off Victoria) to starboard; thence around stake 
boat in Pert Angeles Ray; thence south by Point Wilson, up 
Puget Sound through Colvos Passage, on the west side of 
Vashon Island, to and around a stake beat in Commencement 
Bay at Tacoma; thence north on the east side of Vashon Island, 
around Alki Point, Duwamish Head, and finishing in front of 
the Elliott Bay Yacht Club house in West Seattle. All stake 
boats will be clearly designated during the day by a red ball 
or disk p.'^d the colors of the Pacific International Power Boat 
Association, and at night by vertical lights, red-white, blue-white. 
All stake boats must be left to port. 

Fuel — Energine, picric acid, ether or any other ingredient to 
increase the jiower of the fuel will not be allowed. 

Protests — Protests must be made in writing within forty- 
eight hours after the first boat finishes. 

Boats Carrying Sails — Boats carrying sails of any description 
must have them sealed by the committee before the start, and 
the sails must be intact at the finish of the race. 

Entrance and Entrance Fee — All boats must be measured and 
rated before starting. No unrated boat will be allowed to start, 
■ and entries must be made in writing before .June 15, 1909, and 
no entry after that date will be received. Full description of 
the boat should be sent with the entry upon application blanks 
enclosed. All entries will be subject to inspection by the com- 
mittee, while an entrance fee of ?10 to cover the cost of measur- 
ing must accompany application for entry. Checks to be made 
Iiayable to H. W. Starrett, treasurer Pacific International Power 
Boat Association, 809 Railroad Avenue, Seattle. Entry blanks 
accompany these conditions, or can be had on application for 
entry blanks or any further information by addressing Frank 
M. Froulser, secretary, 1303 Seneca Street, Seattle. 

Rejections and Alterations — The committee reserves the right 
to reject any entry if, in their judgment, the boat is not a bona 
fitle, seaworthy cruising craft, or to make any such minor altera- 
tions in the conditions as may be deemed advisable, providing 
such alterations do not conflict with the sjurit of the rulings. 

Prizes — The prize for the boat finishing first under rating 
and allowance will be a suitable silver cup. A $500 perpetual 
challenge cup offered by Thomas Fleming Day, of "The Rudder, " 
which is to be known as the "Exposition Cup," goes to this 
same boat, and is to be held by the winner for one year. 

In addition there will be a cup given for the winner in each 
of the regular classes, and an extra prize will be offered for 
the winner of the special non restricted class. There will also 
be a prize for the best actual time made over the course in any 
of the four regular classes. All winners will receive association 
prize fiags. 

Custom House Regulations — All custom house regulations 
may have to be strictly comi)lied with. We advise all con- 
testants who enter to thoroughly inform themselves regarding 
this matter. 

Note — If sufficient cruisers from 25 to 30 feet I>. W. L. petition 
for a race, a cuii will be offered for such a race, starting from 
Vancouver on Jun9 29th, but covering a shorter, more protected 
course. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



19 



NOTICE TO NAVIGATORS, MARINE ENGINEERS, 

MARINERS AND SEAMEN 

This page will be reserved exclusively for all official notices and information of importance 



OFFICE OF U. 8. LIGHTHOUSE INSPECTOR, 
TWELFTH DISTRICT. 
Notice to Marinerii. §an Pablo May. Cal. (List of Lights. 
Buoys and DaymarkB. Pacific Coast, 1»08. page 30 (—Notice Is 
hereby given that San Pablo Hay Huoy .No. 1. marking the end 
of the shoal off Mare Island, San Pablo itay. California, is re- 
igned almost submerged. It will be replaced as soou as prac- 
ticable. 

Hy order of the Lighthouse Uoard. 

W. O. MILLER, 
Commander II. 8. N., 
Inspector Twelfth Lighthouse District. 



Captain O'Brien of the S. S. .Northwestern rei)ort8 to the 
Branch Hydrographic Office at Port Townsend that on April 
20. liioa. in latitude N. 59 den. i>2 min.. longitude \V. 144 deg. 
4S min., he |:assed a large fender pile, 40 feet long and float- 
ing well up in the water. 

AIho that he met ice three miles off Cape Spencer in large 
quantities, and that the ice in icy Strait was exceedingly thick. 
The passage to the northward of Lemesurier Island was en- 
tirely blocked. 

J. C. BURNETT. 
Lieut., U. 8. N., in charge. 



The I'nited States Board of I.«bor Employment for the 
Twelfth Civil Service District announces that an examination 
will be IK-Id on .May 26. 1909. for the position of Deckhand on 
the Govt-ruuient l>oat8 under the Quartermaster's Department, 
in the Harbor of San Francisco. This iMsition pays |65 per 
month. 

Applicunis are required to have had experience as seaman 
or deckhand. Considerable difficulty has been experienced In 
securing a sufficient number of qualified applicants for this 
examination. No educational teBts are required, but applicants 
must t>e in good physical condition and must be between the 
ages of 20 and 60 years. 

For uppiicatlon blanks and further information concerning 
this exaini.iation. address Secretary Twelfth Civil Servico 
District, or apply at Room 241, Postofflce Building. San Fran- 
cisco. Cal. 



On and after May 1. the time ball will be dropped from a 
staff on the northeast corner of the roof of the Fairmont Hotel, 
and the one on the K>-rrv Building will be discontinued. 

J. C. BURNETT, 
IJeut., U. 8. N., in charge. 



CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS. 

The I'nited States Board of l^bor Employment for the 
Twelfth Civil Service District announces that an examination 
for the grade of Four-Line Teamster at $40 per month, and 
ration, will be held in San Francisco, Cal.. on May 26. 1909. 

.No educational tests are required for this examination, but 
applicants must furnish a medical certificate to show that they 
are in good physical condition. 

Applicants must also prove that they have had practical ex- 
perience as a Four-i..ine Teamster. 

Age limits are from 20 to 60 years. 

For application blanks and further Information concerning 
this examination, apply to Room 241, Postofflce Building, or 
address Secretary, Twelfth Civil Service District, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 



The I'nited States Civil Service Commission announces that 
the following examinations will be held In San Francisco, Cal., 
in the near future: 

Coin Counter. Subtreasury Service. San Francisco, Cal. — For 
this position applicants must prove three years' experience as 
cashier, ussistaat cashier, teller, or in some position the duties 
of which are the handling of money and its representatives for 
banking or other business institutions. 

Mechanician, Weather Bureau, at Mt. Weather, Va. 

Skilled l.aborer (male). Bureau of Animal Industry, Poultry 
Plant, Helhesda. Md. 

For application blanks and further Information concerning 
these examinations, address the Secretary, Twelfth Civil Serv- 
ice District, Room 241. Postofflce Building, San Francisco, CaL, 
indicating the position Interested in. 



The ligh^ on Wailanitilala IkIhikI. Xaniika pasHage. 
Fiji islands, will be replaced by a white li^ht. visible all 
around the horizon for a distaiK-e of ei(rhl mile« fmrn 
May 1. lfK)9. to June 1. 1909. 

Bu«»v No. 1. on Browjis spit. Grays harbor, went adritt 
April 7. 1909. 

Beacon No. 8. between Hociuiain and Grays Harbor 
City, is gone. 



TIDE TABLE TO WEEK ENDING SATURDAY. JIHIE ft. 

Golden Gmte Entranc e to 8an_ Frmnd»co Bjjr^ 

MAY 



HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 



DEPTH AT MEAN LOW WATER. ENTRANCE TO HARBORS 



Moon 


Dkyof 


Ttme and Height of HIch and lorn Water 


W 


Mo. 


T. H. 


T. H. 


T. 


H. 


T. H. 




Fri. 


7 


0:40— 2 


14:04 4.5 


18:35 


3.2 






8sl. 


8 


0:02 5 6 


7:26-0.3 


15.04 


4.6 


i0:12 3.3 


8 


8un. 


• 


0:82 S .1 


8:14—0.3 


16:08 


4.0 


20:15 3.5 




Mon. 


10 


1:13 .S3 


9:08—0.2 


17:10 


4.7 


21:20 3.7 




Tuea. 


11 


2:10 .5 1 


10:05— O 1 


18:05 


4 7 


22:40 3.4 


3rd. qiur. 


Wed. 


12 


3:3fi 4 7 


11:02 0.1 


18:50 


5 






Tliur. 


13 


0:00 3 2 


5:26 4.5 


12:02 


U 4 


19:30 5 2 




KrI. 


14 


1:08 2 !> 


6:58 4 6 


13:08 


7 


20:04 5.4 


K 


8at. 


IS 


2:03 1.8 


8:10 4.7 


14:00 


1 U 


20:40 5 6 


!• 


Sun. 


18 


2:Sfi 10 


9:12 50 


14:50 


13 


21:14 50 




Mon. 


17 


3:35 0.3 


10:12 5.1 


1.1:15 


17 


21:50 6.1 




Turn. 


18 


4:22— 3 


11:14 50 


16:20 


2.0 


22:25 6.3 


NVw 


Wed. 


IS 


S:10-0 7 


12:14 50 


17:04 


2.4 


23:04 6.3 




Thur. 


20 


6:00— 10 


13:15 4 8 


17:50 


2 8 


23:42 6.2 




Frl. 


21 


6:48— II 


14:16 4 6 


18:38 


3 2 




.N 


Sal. 


22 


0:25 SO 


7:40— 


15:20 


4.6 


19:30 3.4 




Sun. 


23 


1:10 .'> 7 


8:27—0.7 


16:20 


4.7 


20:.32 3 6 




Mon. 


24 


1:54 S -2 


8:20—0.3 


17:18 


4.7 


21:48 3 9 




Tue*. 


25 


3.00 4 7 


10:10 1 


18:08 


4 9 


2.-1:15 3.6 


lit. qusr. 


Wed. 


26 


4:20 4 2 


11:00 5 


I8:.V) 


5 2 






Thur. 


27 


0:34 3 2 


5:45 4 1 


11:50 


9 


19:22 53 


A 


Fri. 


28 


1:30 2.7 


6:.S8 4.0 


12:45 


1.2 


19:.'>4 5 6 


E 


Sat. 


20 


2:10 2 1 


8:00 4.0 


13:28 


1.5 


2022 5 4 




Sun. 


30 


2:45 in 


S:00 4.1 


14:08 


«■ 


20:45 5 5 




Mon. 


31 


3:10 II 


9:48 4.3 


14:45 


2.1 


21:00 5 6 



Place 





Tuea. 


1 




Wed. 


2 


Full 


Thur. 


3 




! Fri. 


4 


S 


1 Sal. 


5 



3:45 
4:23 



J f N 

OS 




6KI0— O 5 
6:44— O 8 
6:25— 9 



E 

I0:.'t8 

11:25 

12:15 

13:06 

14:00 



15:25 
16:05 
16:45 
17:25 
18:14 



2 3 
2 6 
3.0 
3.2 
3.3 



21:30 
22:00 
22:.'»4 
23:a'i 
23:40 



5 7 
5 8 

5 9 

6 
5.9 



Time used. Padflc Standard. 120th Meridian W. 

Oh— miilnlRht. 1th— noon, less than 12— Forenoon, greater than 12— atter- 
noon. liiKtier numhers — 12 — ademoon lime. 

K— New Moon. E— Moon on the Equator. K. •.— fartheat N. or 8. of Equator 
A. t. — Moon in apocee or perigee. 



Grays Harbor 

WilUpa Bay 

Columbia River 
Nehaleni River 
Tillamook Bay 

Yaqtiina Bay 
Siuslaw River 



Umpqua River 
Coos Bay 

CoqtiiUr River 

Rogue River 



Klamath River 
Humbr>ldt Bay 



San Pedro Bay 
San Diego Bay 
San Pablo Bay 



Feet Date 



18 

27 

24 

9 

13 
8H 



12 
17 



8 
18 



19 
25 
24 



May 1 

Apr. 1 

Feb. 6 
Apr. 30 
Apr. 30 

Mar. 12 
Apr. 15 



May 1 
May 1 

Mar. 26 



Apr. 
Apr. 



Apr. 30 
May 3 

Apr. 21 



Remarks 



13 ft. at L. W. in channel to Ho- 

quiaiii and AlM-rdw-n. 
Depth at M L W in channel at 

Raymond 15 feet. 

Channel in 3tK) ft. south of buoy. 

Depth of 8 ft. nt L. W. in chan- 
nel to Garibaldi. 

Channel not changed. 

Channel Koiie to north end of 
jetty and iM-acon on high bank 
marIcK rhaiinci now. 

Channel is in kchmI condition. 

12 ft. at L. W. to North Bend; 
1 1 ft. at L. W. to Marnhfield. 

2 buoys gone; rhannel in middle 
between jetti<i«. 

No opportunity for soundings 
lately; l>c^on> rise there was 
7 feet on the bar. 

At prenent channel is aouthwest. 

North channel IS ft; very narrow 
and crortked. difficult to navi- 
gate for large vessels; about 
13 feet in wiuth channel. 

No change in channel. 

No change in channel. 

Depth in dredged channel. 



20 . 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



The accompanying picture is of the twin-screw tugboat 
Olga. being loaded on the ship San Salvador, to be shipped 
to Alaska. The Olga was built by William Cryer for the 
fisheries of Alaska and was necessarily built very heavy 
to withstand the severe conditions. The Olga is 4') feet 
long, 12 feet b^am, 5 feet 6 inches deep and has 23 inches 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 




OLGA. 

of freeboard at the lowest pqint of the sheer. She is 
propelled by twin gas engines, showing on the test stand 
34.8 horsepower at 350 R. P. M., with a corresponding 
fuel consumption of .1 of a gallon per horsepower per 
hour. The boat makes a speed of 9.94 miles per hour, 
which exceeded the expectations of the owners. 



STANDARD SUPPLIES FOR THE ISTHMIAN CANAL 
FOR 1910. 

The first bids for supplies of standard articles to be 
used in the Canal work during the year ending June 
30, 1910, were opened on April 18, in the office of the 
General Purchasing Agent at Washington. These bids 
were for steel and articles made of steel, and they are 
to be followed at short intervals by bids for supplies 
of articles made entirely or partly of rubber, paints, oils 
and other articles that have become standard in the Canal 
work. 

This method of contracting for standard supplies for 
a year is the same as that followed in other branches of 
the Government service and in large business establish- 
ments. Until recently it was not practicable to put it 
into effect in the Canal work, because it is only by' ex- 
perience that a conclusion can be reached as to what 
articles are standard and what quantities of each are 
needed. It was first proposed to ask for bids for a six 
months' supply, or for the period between January 1 and 
June 30, 1909, but the task of compiling the schedules 
was so great that advertisement could not be made be- 
fore January 1, and the method of making separate 
contracts for supplies as they are needed will therefore 
be continued until the beginning of the next fiscal year. 

The new method is to place a contract for one class 
of articles with a qualified bidder on the condition that 
he will supply all of that article needed in the fiscal year 
at a fixed price. Over eight thousand articles are re- 
quired, and these have been grouped into a convenient 
number of classes. For instanc-e, the schedules for ma- 
terial made wholly or partly of rubber includes twenty- 
eight classes, on any one of which a bid will be received. 
Each class is composed of a number of separate articles. 
Class 1 of this article is made up of four items, each 



SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING. 



UNION IRON WORKS, 320 Market Street. 



OIL BURNERS. 



S. & p., 102 Steuart St. Phone Kearny 629. 



BOAT BUILDERS. 



JOHN TVS^IGG & SONS CO., lUinois St., ntar Eighteenth, S. F. 
GEO. W. KNEASS. 18th and lUinols Sts., S. F. 



SHIP PLUMBERS. 



ANDERSON BAILEY, 216 Steuart St., S. F. 



WIPING RAGS. 



THE RAYCHESTER CO., 14*8 Folsom St., S. F. 
Sanitary Manufacturing Co., 2208 Folsom, S. P. 



Shipwright Caulker 

Launclies 



Sparmaker 
Yachts 



H. ANDERSON, BOAT BUILDER 

Repair Work on ]Va>/s 
Cor. Otli A\'i\ Si C, SI. .So. c 17 ■ /^ I 

I'lioiir lJutch(rtowii u San T rancisco, *^al. 



WANTED — A thirty-foot seagoing gasoline flush-deck launch, 
equipped with an eight or ten horsepower engine of approved 
make. Inquire office of Pacific Merchant Marine. 

item including various quantities of four-ply armored 
air hose, in 25-foot lengths, covered with flat steel gal- 
vanized wire braided about the hose. The first item 
includes five different sizes of hose. Bids are made on 
classes, not on items. 

The schedule for standard supplies shows (1) the 
item number, (2) the (juantity of each size required, (3) 
a complete description of the article, (4) proposition A, 
(5) proposition B. Proposition A is a proposal to furnish 
a certain quantit.y at a certain price, subject to the right 
of the Commission to increase or reduce the quantity b.v 
50 per cent or less. Proposition B is a proposal to furnish 
the articles subject to the right of the ('ommission to 
purchase any part or none of the quantities advertised 
for, and to increase or to diminish the quantities pur- 
chased by 50 per cent or less. The purpose of the alter- 
nate proposition is to determine whether bidders in cer- 
tain lines will make better prices when the amount of 
material to be taken is known within certain limits, or 
will make the same price regardless of whether they are 
sure of a sale or not. 

The acceptance of any supplies is contingent on their 
passing inspection in the States, and in some cqses cer- 
tain articles must stand the additional test of use for a 
certain period on the Isthmus. 

(Canal Record, April 14, 1909.) 



A Chinese and Siamese steamship company has been 
formed, to run merchant steamers between Siam, Singa- 
pore, Hongkong, China and other foreign countries. The 
company will first run river and coasting steamers, but 
later will operate trans-pacific lines of the type of the 
Japanese subsidized steamers. 

The company was formed under the auspices of the 
Seventy-two Guides of Canton, with a capital of $1,- 
500,000. 



LAUNCHES PLANS 



YACHTS 



STONE & VAN BERGEN 

SHIP BUILDERS 

Foot of B«k« Sueet Sao Frincuco. C»l. 

• Wm6938 



TUGS 



Elstimatet 



STEAMERS 











UNION IRON WORKS CO. 

Largest Shipbuilding and Engineering Works on the Pacific Coast 

DRYDOCKING 

Now a Special Feature 

Two Graving Docks at Hunters Point ami Three Floating Docks at foot of 16lh Street 

Best Facilities for All Kinds of Repair Work 

Worka: 20th and Michigan Streets City Office: 320 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO. CALIFORNIA 











I OOI^IIM^ For Ihr iHfl 4-cvi-lr rnKtiiF liuiit on llw «M*I, lo tult 
L,\jyjl\.il^\* coMt ronilltioiu. at • rraaonahlr prlre T 

Gorham Engineering Co., Alameda, Cal. 

Many Cott Mor* Nona Worth Mora 




Eachm 1 to 100 H. P. 



30 H. I'. ITJO »•, All M:)tW 



J. 

\ 



'<i 



!"K- 



m i 



i 



CONVENTION OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE f 

AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 
IN SAN FRANCISCO 



Henry Cowell Lime & Cement Co. 

MT. DIABLO CEMENT 

SANTA CRUZ LIME 

ALL KINDS OF BUILDING MATERIAL 
Delivery Department, Union and Front Streets. Office 95 Market Street 

SAN FRANCISCO Phone Kearny 2095 CALIFORNIA 



ORGANIZATION ON THE PACIFIC COAST IN BEHALF OF 

AMERICAN COMMERCE SIGNIFIES THE EXTENT 

OF OUR INDUSTRIAL FUTURE 




% 



■m 



t 



m 



n 



>« ' 



^^^^^^^^mm.r - ''m^^x^^^Mm^^^ 







,^^T 




VOL. II 




SATURDAY, MAY 15. 1909 




CONTENTS 



NO. 9 






American Shipping continued) 

ALEXANDER R. SMITH 



The Isthmian Canal 



History of the Japanese Cruisers Aso and Soya 



Editorial 



News Items from Pacific Coast Ports 

Pacific Coast Vessels illustrated) 

Items of Interest to Mariners 




THE CLARA BARTON SANITARY 
WIPING RAG 




The Clara 
Barton Brand 
of Wiping Rags 
is guaranteed 
to be thorough- 
lysterilizcd and 

disinfected 



THE RAYCHESTER CO., INC. 



1448-1460 FOLSOM STREET 



SAN FRANCISCO 




Be sure to have 



CHALLENGE METAL 



For 
High Speed 




For 
Heavy Pressure 



in your Important bearings. 
Ask about it. 



SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO. 



SAN FRANCISCO 



SANITARY 
WIPING RAGS 

Washed and Disinfected 

Exclusive Packersof 
Soft Cotton Wiping Rags 

SANITARY MANUFACTURING CO. 

2208-2210 FOLSOM STREET 
Phone Market 1195 San Franci»co 




COLOR WORK A SPECIALTY 



The Buckley Cafe 



OETJBN-MENCEL CO.. iMorpocatcd 



H. L. DBTJEN. Muu«€r 



iJ. 



German Bakery Confectionery 

KeStaUrant order at short NoUce 



Buckley Building, 97 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
S. E. ComerSpcarSt. One block from Ferry Phone Dou|;Us 271) 




GEO. W. KNEASS 



PIh 



Office ud Worki 

18th and Illinoii Sireatt 
■• Markal Saa FrancUco 

943 Cal. 



B OAT B U I L P CR 

Beat Malarial aad SO Boats of all 
Daftcriptioat For Sala 

Hue Polls llulU bikI Trucks. Ilouw 
Miivirs an. I Box Kullfrit roriiilantly 
oil liuriil. Wooil Turnloc 



Steamship Men Take Notice! 

Tb* National Laundry ft HatttMi Renova- 
torx Company will kit* better reiulti both 
In quality tnd price than can be had else- 
where. Special rates and lerrlce cuaranteed. 

O. C. TAIRriCLD. Manaver 
Plant, 1844 ISth Street Phone Market «1 



Hart-Wood Lumber Co. 

LUMBER SHIPPING 

WholcMle and ReUil 
607 Fife Building San Francisco 



P. M. BAMBINO 

Eicliuive Tailor 
Umipukms a Srai iai.tt 



2l9-2» RadtlcT lUl. 

tS Markrt iirm 



iaa Fraaciaca. CtL 




ALKINS QUALITY" 

The best facilities backed by 
experts in each department 
are what made "Calkins Quali- 
ty" the standard in the realm 
of printed publicity. We print 
the Pacific Merchant Marine. 



PRINTING 

ENGRAVING 

BOOK-BINDING 



CALKINS 

PUBLISHING HOUSE 

• Catkins Building, San Francisco 
Phone Uouglas 3140 



Matson Navigation Company 

268 Market Street Phone Douglas 3030 

Direct Line Passenger and Freight Steamers and Sailing Vessels to 

Honolulu, Hilo, Kahului, Mahukona, Eleele 

From 

Seattle and San Francisco 

For Freight and Passenger Sates apply to 

Alexander tc Baldwin, Seattle Castle & Cooke, Honolulu 

Matson Navigation Company, San Francisco 



Moore & Scott Iron Works 

Successors to W. A. BOOLE & SON 

MARINE WAYS AND DRY 
DOCK at OAKLAND CREEK 

MARINE REPAIRS A SPECIALTY 
Main Office & Works: Main & Howard Sts., San Francisco 




H. W. L. S. ^S. SAGINAW. 



EUREKA BOILER WORKS CO. 

Desisnert and builders of all kinds of Marine, Station- 
ary, Locomoiivc, Straw-Burning and Traction Engine 
Boilers. Special attention paid to Repairs of Ship Work, 
Boilers, Tanks, and Sheet Iron Work. Building and 
Installing of Oil Plants a Specially. Machine Black- 
unilhing. Telephone Kearny 2453. Main Office 
Works: 57-59 Mission St., San Francisco, California. 



Telephone Temporary 503 

HERZOG & DAHL 

Electrical Engineers and Contractors 

Marine Electrical Installations, Special Fit- 
tings, Supplies and Repairs. 

150 Steuart St., San Francisco,Ca]if ornia 



I'hone Kearny 867 






Sellers & Madison 


Co. 


Inc. 


Paints, Oils, Etc., Ship 
Chandlery, Naval Storei 




SMOOTH ON 
Pacific Coast Agents 


94-96 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO 



\ 



RKNWICK Z DICKIE 



DAVID W DKKIK 



D. W. & R. Z. DICKIE 

Engineers &nd Naval Architeds 

Room 824. Santa Marina BIdg. 

Phone Kearny 2907 I 12 Market St. 



I PLANS and SPECIFICATIONS 
for all kinds of engineering work of 
steel, wood or concrete: oil-burningr 
plants, wharves, bunkers; launches, 
propellers, steam and gas-engined 
tuos, and steel and wood vessels of 
all kinds. 



Telephone Douglas 1398 Geo. Anderson 

BAILEY 



Alex P. Bailey 

ANDERSON & 

[Registered] 

Sanitary and Ship Plumbing 

Sheet Metal Work 
216 Steuart St., bet. Howard and Folsom San Francisco 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Vohnne II 



SATURDAY. MAY 15. 1909 



Number 9 



AMERICAN SHIPPING 

Bt Alkxanoek R. Smith 
(continued) 

German Manufacturers Have Subsidized Oerman 
Producers. 

Such a HUgtcetition aH hax laHt b<M>u made ia by no 
iiieaiiM unique, nor is it iiiilifanl of or untrif<l. For <|uit«» 
a number of years certain powerfiil (ternian nianufac- 
turint; syndicates have paid lari;e bounties on exports 
of manufactures, to the jrreat advantai;e of Oerman 
niaiiufactiirers and the (iennan people. More recently, 
this |>(>liey has been discontinued, not because it did not 
operate successfully, but because it had operated so suc- 
cessfull.v aa to be no lonjrer neeesaary for the encour- 
aKcnient of the nianufuetnrers nor for the advancemeht 
of the trade which it had previously stiniulate<i. Our 
considar reports have, from tinu* to time, niatle ■refen'iice 
to this practice in (Jernuiny. they have instanced the de- 
taila of its operation, and have testitied to its success. 
The matter seems to be worthy, at this time of the con- 
sideration of American manufacturers of steel and iron, 
of our shipowners and our shipbuilders. Such an an- 
nouncement of a bounty on the American construction 
of steel ships, if made by the steel ami iron manufac- 
turers, at this time. miKht stinndate Congress to at once 
enact the pendini; shipping bill, and a great and pro- 
longi'd an<l most prosperous revival of American ship- 
building for our foreign trade be inaugurated. 

Shipowners and Shipbuilders Cannot Alter Conditions. 
What are the shipowners of the I'nited Slates to doT 
They cannot be expected to invest their capital in an un- 
profitable industry, in ships the cost of constructing an«l 
the cost of operating which, in competition with foreign 
.ships, make a profit prohibitive. Should our shipowners 
and our shipbuilders themselves advocate free ships — 
which there i.s little likelihood that they could be induced 
to do — it is doubtful if (Vmgresa would >irant it. after 
more than a century of prohibition. This is especiall.v 
true at thia time, when tff> many of our great industries 
that have been built up under our highly protective con- 
ditions are so prosperous, and when the remnaiit of o»ir 
shipping in the foreign trade ia profitless because of the 
free trade competition to which it ia 8ubjecte<l. Hhipa can 
not be built nor operated as cheaply under our flag as they 
can be built and operated under foreign flags — induatrial 
and social conditions in this country. adjuste«l as they are 
to our highly protective system, forbid such a lowering of 
cost. The shi|)owners are helpless. This is equally true of 
our shipbuilders. They can not build ships more cheaply 
than they do now. Profits are meager in shipbuilding. 
None of the great modem American shipbuilding plants 
yield a profit to their ow^ners. Many have been "reorgan- 
ized" only \ry si{\U'or.\ng out the original- owners; others 
have been bankrupte<l, and still others hover, today, upon 
the verge of reorganization or bankruptcy. Were it possi- 
ble, as the free trade opposition press alleges, to build 
ships in this country as cheaply as they can be built 
abroad, is it to be suppose<l that foreign capital, foreign 
management, and foreign skill would not establish and 



operate great shipbuilding plants here, earning large 
profits and reducing' the prices now paid? 

True Oaiues of Americ&ii Helplessoen. 
Secretary of State Root in his recent Kansas City 
speech said : 

"The higher wages and the greater cost of 
maintenance of American ofHcers and crews 
make it impossible to compete on eipial terms 
with foreign ships. The scale of living and the 
scale of pay of American sailors is fixed by the 
standard of wages and of living in the United 
States, and those are maintained at a high level 
by the prote<'tive tariff." 
Influence Exerted by Our Prohibitively Protected 
Domestic Shipping. 
Thniugh laws passed in 1H17. all vessels engaged 
in our domestic trade must be American-built and Ameri- 
can-owned. The tonnage of the vessels in <uir donn-stic 
trade is five times greater than that in our foreign 
trade. The rates of wages paid in our shipyards for 
the construction of vessels that, in our domestic trade, 
are prohil)itively protecte<l against the competition of 
foreign-built ships, are at the rates of wagtw paid for 
the building of ships for our foreign tra<le. The rates 
of pay on board of our ships are all far higher than ob- 
tain in any other part of the world. ren<lering competi- 
tion by American-built ships with foreign-built ships 
impossible at a profit. The owners and builders of ships 
for our foreign trade are helpless — absolutely helpless — 
so far as altering these conditions, which they have not 
fixed, and which they miisl siil)mit In. 

How Can Owners and Builders Help Themselves? 
Secretary of State Root said further, on this subject: 
"We are living in a world not of natural 
competition, but of sid>sidi7.ed competition. 
State aid to steamship lines is as much a T>art of 
the commercial system of our day as state em- 
ployment of consuls to promote business." 
He had previ<Misly said: "It is estimatwl that about 
♦28.(M)().(MK) a year arc paid by our commercial comp<'ti- 
tors to their steamship lines," in subsidies, construc- 
tion and navigation boimties, and other aids. lie also 
said: 

"It will be observed that both of these dis- 
ativantages under which the American ship- 
owner labors are artificial; they are created by 
governmental action, one by our own (tovem- 
ment in raising the standard of wages and 
living, by the protective tariff, the «)ther by 
fori'ign governments in paying subsidij's to their 
ships for the promotion of their own trade. For 
the American 8hi|>owner it is not a contest of 
intelligence, skill, industry and thrift against 
similar qualities in his competitors; it is a con- 
t*>st against his competitors and his competitors' 
governments and his own Government also." 
The Oovemment Should Remedy Conditions of It« 
Own Creation. 
These are truthful words; their meaning is as clear 
H» crystal — they explain, honestly, just what the diffi- 
culties are.' He adds: 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



"Plainly these disadvantages created by 
governmental action can only he neutralized by 
governmental action, and should be neutralized 
by such actiou." 

Government Should Give Back What It Has Taken 
Away. 

Mr. Root says that "we cannot repeal the protective 
tariff; no political party dreams of repealing it; we do 
not wish to lower the standard of American living or 
American wages. WE SHOULD GIVE BACK TO THE 
SHIPOWNER WHAT WE HAVE TAKEN AWAY 
FROM HIM FOR THE PURPOSE OF MAINTAINING 
THAT STANDARD; AND UNLESS WE DO GIVE IT 
BACK WE SHALL CONTINUE TO GO WITHOUT 
SHIPS." 

Will Republicans Do Their Plain Duty? 

If ilr. Root is accurate — and who can gainsay what 
he says? — has he not proven that the shipowners and 
the shipbuilders in this country are helpless in the grasp 
of conditions which- they did not create and which they 
may not alter? For forty-four of the past forty-six 
years Republicans, who are responsible for these condi- 
tions which are thus authoritatively declared immedi- 
ately irremediable or unalterable, have either had con- 
trol of the legislative or the executive branches of the 
Government, and were thus in a position to thwart any 
effort* to change these economic, indu.strial and social 
conditions. During all of that time our shipping in the 
foreign trade has gone down, down, down ; it has been 
unprotected, and it has been profitless. Republicans 
have promised, over and over again, to remedy these 
conditions. So far, they have failed to do so. Unless 
remedied by adequate protection relief is impossible. Re- 
publicans, when put to the test, seem unwilling or afraid 
to redeem their promises to American shipping. Why? 
Are the intrenched foreign shipping interests, that now 
earn $200,000,000 a year in our foi'eign carrying, their 
friends, their advocates, their agents in this country so 
powerful, and is the sense of justice so dulled in our 
legislative minds, and is the feeling of shame so absent, 
that relief will not be granted? IMust the need of an 
American merchant marine upon the seas be emphasized 
by fearful and irremediable losses of blood and treasure. 
by disaster and humiliation, before the American people 
will compel a reluctant Congress to give the American 
ship upon the seas a square deal — protection against its 
foreign competitor.s equal to the protection accorded to 
such of our land products as are sub.ject to foreign com- 
petition — not for the benefit and enrichment of the 
American shipowner and shipbuilder, but for the pro- 
motion of our foreign commerce, and for the safety and 
protection of the Nation in time of need? 



PROGRESS OF THE PANAMA CANAL. 

Throughout the dr.y season the Cuearaeha slide has 
been moving perceptibly, but two steam shovels have 
been able to excavate the material as it moved towards 
the cut and, additionally, have been able to push back 
the line of encroachment. On April 9 a portion of the 
bank in the slide in which one of the shovels was working 
tell of its own weight, and a few days later more material 
fell onto the steam shovel berm. Work was interfered 
with onl.v temporarily.- aiul the berm on which the steam 
shovels are working was cleared in a ieiv days. The 
material that fell was all within the canal prism, and in 
''the long run the break will be an advantage, as it will 
facilitate excavation. ' 

The electrical subdivision of the mechanical division 
is working on an electric light pole line, to connect Cris- 



tobal and Colon with the large power generating plant 
in process of erection at Gatun. This will be a permanent 
plant, and when in operation will permit of the discon- 
tinuance of the electrical generating plants now in Colon 
and Cristobal, as the Gatun plant will furnish, in addi- 
tion to the current required there, all the current neces- 
sary for the use of the Isthmian Canal Commission and 
the Panama railroad in Colon and Cristobal. 

A storehouse for cereals and miscellaneous supplies 
will be built for the subsistence departni'^nt at Cristobal, 
.just south of the bakery, near Dock 11, and alongside 
one of the railroad tracks that run to the dock. It will 
be 200 feet long, 50 feet wide and two stories high. The 
first story will be built of concrete blocks and the floor 
will also be of concrete. The second story will be of 
frame construction. In addition to the storage space, it 
will contain a coffee roasting plant and the packing 
office-. 

About 2,500 barrels of flour are used each month in 
the bakery and sold at the commissaries, and it is pro- 
posed to keep in store at all times at least 1,000 barrels. 
Next to flour, rice is used in the greatest quantity. Two 
grades of rice are used in the hotels and messes and sold 
in the commissaries. The first is Carolina rice and the 
second is known as *Rango()n rice. Carolina rice is used 
principally in the hotels and sold to Americans. It is 
polished and looks more tempting than the Rangoon rice. 
The latter grade is not polished, and therefore retains 
the nutriment found in the outer skin of the grain. The 
West Indian laborers will not eat rice from which the 
skin has been removed. Twenty barrels of Carolina rice 
are used monthly and about TOO tons of the Rangoon. 
The Carolina rice is purchased in the United States and 
the Rangoon through an agency at Hamburg, Germany. 

Beans and peas also form a large factor. About 125 
barrels of split peas, 40 barrels of dried green peas, 60 
barrels of red kidney beans, 40 barrels of Lima beans 
and (iO barrels of white navy beans are used monthly. 
About 50 barrels of corn meal are sold, and in addition 
the subsistence department disposes of 50 cases of 50 
pounds to the case of corn meal, 40 cases of hominy and 
410 cases, of other cereals. The new storehouse will also 
be used for supplies of salt, sugar and vinegar. About 
f)00 barrels of sugar. 500 barrels of salt and 50 barrels of 
vinegar are used each month. 

During the month of March. 1909, the sixteen post- 
offices in the Canal Zone in which money order business 
is done, sold 16,084 money orders, aggregating .$444,- 
694.16, an increase of $28,544.35 over the amount re- 
ported for February. Of tha $444,694.16 in March, 
$322,779.62 was drawn in orders payable in the United 
States and elsewhere and $121,914.54 in orders payable 
in the Canal Zone. The fees collected amounted to 
$1,892.47, and the amoimt paid and repaid was $124,- 
470.55. 

Enough baiuinas are still raised on the Isthmus to 
supply the subsistence department with between 300 and 
400 bunches each week, although many believe that the 
banana industry had been wiped out; much greater 
({uantities could be obtained if desired. Bananas, how- 
ever, are about the only produce grown in Panama pur- 
chased l)y the subsistence department. Oranges served 
in the hotels and sold in the commissary come principally 
from Jamaica^ sweet potatoes from Barbados and yams 
and avocados frrtm Jamaica. Fresh flsh sold in the Pan- 
ama Railroad commissaries and served in the commis- 
sion hotels and messes is purchased from a merchant in 

•Rangoon, capital of r.ower tl'nrma, on RanRoon river, the 
caKtern deUa stream of tlie Irawafii. 

■fBiirma, an important adjunct of tlie British Indian Empire. 



PACIFIC MEUCHANT MAUINE 



the city of Panama, and alMiut 4,500 pounds are used 
each week. The fish are caiit^ht in PaiiHiiia Hay by 
native fiHhernien every niornint; and are delivered to the 
eontraetor on the niornint; they are taken. lee for the 
fish paekiiiK is furni«hed l)y the Kul>KiKtenee department. 

At .MiraMonti the meehanieal divixion is ereetini; a 
22J,(NM) Kalion tank for the atorage of oil for fuel in the 
electrical plant that will supply power for the eonatrue- 
tion of the locks at Pedm Mit;uel and .MiraHores. The 
riveting work will be done by pneumatic machinery. 
The |>ipe line which now runs from Miratlorea to Ma- 
tachui, and which ia used for the purpose of furnishing 
comprcKsctl air for operating all sorts of machinery, in- 
chnlint; the many drills in Culcbra cut. has recently been 
consiilerably extended. That {Mtrtinn of it between I*a- 
raiso and Has Obispo consists of 10-inch double strength. 
The line carrii-s a pressure of 100 potnids. 

During the month of .March there were used in the 
Canal Zone 488.78 tons of explosivea, 2t).06 miles of traek 
and :M11 feet of sewers laid. 



THE JAPANESE OSUISERS ASO AND SOYA. 

The Japanese war vessels have come and gone from 
San Francisco. Hefore leaving the harlwir Admiral Ijichi 
gave out the following for publication: 

"To the people of San Francisco — The cordial wel- 
come and hospitality which have been extentled to me 
and the officers, catlets and men of my command, while 
in the harbor of San Francisco have ln^*n extremely grati- 
fying to us and far in excess of our anticipation. It is 
iietHllesK to say that we arc very grateful. 

"It is my conviction that these demonstrationa of good 
will bear convincing evidcni-e of the existence of a per- 
fect understanding between the two countries, and I 
earnestly hope that occasions for the display of this 
spirit may often arise. 

"On the eve of my departure it is my wish to sincerely 
thank the representatives of the Federal. State and city 
governments, the commercial organizations of San Fran- 
cisco, and all the good people who have wrought together 
to make our stay so plea.sant. aiul to assure them of my 
heartfelt gratitude as I bi«l them farewell. 

"H. I.nCHI. 
"Rear .\dmiral in command of His Imperial Jap- 
anese Majesty's Training .S<piadron." 

This letter reHeets the true sentiment of a California 




80YA, e.500 ton* (VARY AG). 

welcome and hosjiitality. and during their stay in Ameri- 
can wafers Japan may n'sl assured that the reception of 
the Aso and Soya in San Francim-o was but an introduc- 
tion to American n-speet for any and all enterprising 
tmtions (»f the world. 

The two cruisers have been prominently before the 
public for sfvernl ycHrs. eommencing with the o|>ening 



of the Russo-Japanese war. when the Russian Haltic 
bquadron was destroyctl in the sea '>f Japan. The S<»ya. 
the former Varyag. a cruiser built by the Cramps at 
Philadelphia for Russia, undertook to face a whole Jap- 
anese s<|uadron at the imme«liate opening of ^he war. 
She was lying at anchor with the Korietr at Chemulpo, 
when Admiral Togo went on boaril the Mikasa at Saselto 
and ortlere<l the Heet north, flying the sigbal. "The enemy 
of the emperor Hies the flag of Russia; attack and de- 
stroy." Admiral I'riu's s<|uadron of five cruisers, of 
which the Asama was the Magship. was detached to go 
after the cruisers at Chenndpo. and they surprised the 
Russian seamen. The Japanesi' fleet suddeidy loomed 
up in the offing and sent a message that if the Russian 
ships did not come and surrender within a given tinu'. 
they wouhl enter and sink them at anchorage. The Hrit- 
ish connnander of the Talbot, and the Cnited States com- 
mander of the Vicksburg. advised the Russian captain 
of the Varyag against going out. they maintaining that 
the threat of Admiral I'riu was a violation of in- 
ternational law. 

Nevertheless the two Russian ships prepared for sea 
and fought at overwhelming odds. The Japanese ships 
pounnl a hail of shot and shell in upon them while the 
resi<lents of the Korean port sought vantage points to 
watch the naval battle. Thirty-five minutes after they 
went out the Varyag and Korietz returned, disabled, and 
the hulks were blown up by the renniants of their crews. 
The fon-ign ves.sels in the harbor sent surgeons, nurses 
and appliances to care for the wounde<l Russians. 

After the war many futile attempts were ma<le by 
the Japanese to raise the Varyag. and in 1895 Admiral 
Arai finally succeeded in doing so. and removing her to 
the naval yards at Vokosuka. where repairs to the vessel 




AS^^. 7,800 ton. (BAYAN,. 

excce<lcd her first cost of building. StJit intent, however, 
was the element of r»*storing the two Russian vessels. 

The As<». formerly the Russian warship Hayan. had 
lieen closely watchwl during the war and when opixtrtun- 
ity offered was the main target of the Japanese vi-ssels. 
Under command of Rear Admiral Win-n of the Russian 
navy, the Hayan succctnled in doing mm-h damage f<i the 
Japanese navy. Cnaided the Hayan laid a line of con- 
tact mines over the cniising ground at l'<irt Arthur, which 
resulted in the destruction of the Ja|>anesc battl<*shi|M< 
Ilatsuse and Vashima and the cruiser Voshino. At the 
fall of Port Arthur the Hayan was sunk by the Russians, 
but was easily raise<l and ad<le<l to the Japanese navy. 

The Aso entere<l the harlntr as the flairship of Admiral 
H. Ijichi an<l staff. In all 180 ca<lets arc carried, includ- 
ing two bands. During their stay in the harbor the offi- 
cers and cadets enjoyed their full measure of sighl- 
seeintr ati<l entertainment. Officers an<l men displaye<l 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



all the characteristics of the studious Japanese, observing 
and curious, inquisitive and gentlemanly to a marked 
degree, patronizing the street cars but very little, which 
may be also said of the merchant stores. Each cadet on 
shore leave was given a canteen of water and a small 
lunch; one of the latter, being brought to this office, was 
found to weigh two ounces, consisting of two-thirds 
boiled potatoes and one-third meat. The lunch evidently 
served the double purpose of assuring the men a lunch 
and avoiding the purchase of liquor or food. Much more 
could be said in favor of the general make-up and con- 
duct of the little brown men to this city. 



LOCAL NOTES. 

A projecting plank from the end of the Key Route 
ferry slip, on the San Francisco side, tore through the 
port side of the ferryboat Fernwood Monday, May 10, 
for a distance of 25 feet and caused. a mild panic when, 
from the force of the impact, the boat keeled over. The 
boat was not taken off the run, the necessary repairs 
being made by laying over two trips. 

A subsidized French line will soon begin operating a 
regular schedule between Tahiti and San Francisco, and, 
in that case, the Spreckels liner Mariposa, which is op- 
erating on this run at the present time, will be with- 
drawn and put on the Honolulu run, operating alter- 
nately with the Alameda. 

The repairs of installing a new boiler on the river 
steamer Weitchpec, on which, on March 11, low water 
and a dirty boiler caused the sagging of the crown 
sheet and pulling out of stay bolts, resulting in the 
deatb of a tireman, will be completed and the boat will 
be placed on her .regular run on the river. The new 
boiler will add greatly to the speed of the boat. 

Colonel Bellinger has issued orders to prepare the 
transport Buford for an emergency. The transport will 
be given a thorough overhauling and will be held in 
readiness for special duty. 

Sacramento — The Farmers' Transportation Company 
has agreed to construct 112 feet of wharf on the water 
front immediately adjoining the south end of the present 
city wharf, and of the same design and dimensions as 
the present structure. 

The 112 feet of wharf will bring the entire city struc- 
ture to a length of 400 feet, and it will extend from the 
south line of M street to the south line of N street. The 
new section of wharf will bring the structure to within 
12 feet of the Sacramento Transportation Company's 
wharf. It is probable that when the next tax levee is 
made a sufficient amount to purchase from the Farmers' 
Transportation Company the section of wharf it is to 
build will be included within the estimate. 

A ear float, which was built at Coos Bay for the 
Western Pacific Railroad Company, was towed to San 
Francisco Bay by the steamer Redondo. The barge, 
which i.s 287 feet long, will be used in ferrying freight 
cars between San Francisco and the Alameda side. 

Rear-Admiral Sebree, in command of the second divi- 
sion of the United States Pacific fleet at present in San 
Francisco bay. received from Harbor Master Spaulding 
of Seattle a special chart of the harbor showing location 
of city buoys and Government cables, for use this summer 
in establishing the battleships sent to the exposition. 

The State dredger and the tug Governor Markham 
have recovered practically all of the thousand tons of 
pig iron which fell into the bay when Howard street 
wharf No. 1 collapsed. The French bark Bretagne from 
which the iron was unloaded has discharged the rest of 
lier cargo and is loading a cargo of scrap iron for Genoa. 

Sacramento : Cit.y Harbor Master Blake turned into 
the city collector's office $733 in harbor dues for the month 



of April. He had previously turned in $117, making the 
total for the month $850. When the addition to the city 
wharf is completed, Blake says that the harbor dues will 
run over $1,000 a month or about $12,000 a year. A few 
years ago the harbor dues were less than $1,000 a year. 
Not only has the river greatly increased, but the facilities 
offered at the city wharf have concentrated the business 
there and have encouraged shipping. The expenses of 
rvinning the wharf are about $300 a month, so that the 
city makes a good profit on its investment. 

The Alaskan Steamship Company has sold the 
steamer Pennsylvania, a sister ship of the Indiana, which 
was wrecked at Point Tosca April 3 and is believed to 
be a total loss, to the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, 
for a consideration in the neighborhood of $300,000. The 
Penns.ylvania is about the same dimensions as the 
Indiana. 

The navigation laws on the Sacramento and San Joa- 
quin rivers cannot be enforced by Surveyor of Port 
Woodward's department, and he has appealed to Col- 
lector Stratton for a fast launch to make the offenders 
obey the law. 

Barneson-Hibberd Company, who recently purchased 
the schooner Lizzie S. Sorenson, are fitting out the boat 
for a season of whaling from the Tyee whaling station, 
in Southeastern Alaska. 

While lying at anchor in Guaymas, the schooner Ban- 
gor was run down by the schooner Minnie E. Cain and 
badly damaged. The spanker boom was carried away, 
four of the boats were destroyed and the port afterrail 
ruined. The Minnie E. Cain, which was outward bound 
at the time, was not damaged and proceeded on her way. 

Every precaution is being taken to prevent the 
wholesale smuggling of opium into this port. The bag- 
gage of passengers from American ports, and especially 
Honolulu, was formerly not molested, but since the order 
for the exercise of greater vigilance was received, all 
suspicious baggage of passengers is being searched. The 
new order will not, however, compel a search to be insti-' 
tilted in every piece of baggage from the islands, but the 
inspectors are instructed to watch for any suspicious 
bundles where opium may be concealed. 

The testimony in the investigation to determine the 
cause of the loss of the Indiana, being heard before 
United States Inspectors of Hulls and Boilers, Jlessrs. 
Bolles and Bulger, was continued indefinitely on account 
of several of the important witnesses being detained at 
tlie wreck. The testimony so far taken did not develop 
anything specific, being confined to the actions of Cap- 
tain Robinson before his death. 

The American Association of Masters, Mates and 
Pilots have filed a complaint with Surveyor of the Port 
Woodward, which states that small vessels of more than 
five tons are constantly violating the navigation laws on 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. 

The M. S. S. Enterprise sailed for Hilo on Sunday, 
May 2, with cargo valued at $129,762. 

The P. M., S. S. Mongolia sailed for Ilonolidu and 
ports in China and Japan. The liner's cargo amounted 
to 3,000 tons, which includes 2,500 bales of cotton for 
Japanese ports and 500 sacks of malt for Hong Kong. 

The M. S. S. Hilonian sailed for Honolulu May 5, with 
a cargo which includes 6,000 sacks of barley and 300 
tons of fertiJizer. 

The P. M. S. S. Peru arrived May 4 from Panama, 
with 2,181 tons of freight and treasure valued at $71,038. 

Out 218 days from Baltimore, the Standard Oil ship 
Astral arrived in port May 5, with 5,000 tons of coal 
consigned to the government. 

The P. C. S. S. Curacao sailed for Guaymas May 7, 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



with cargo valued at $43,079, eou8igiit*d to Mexii-an |M)rt«. 

The 1*. M. S. S. Korea arrived in port May lU, hring- 
iiig 192 cabin and 387 Asiatic patweiigerH and 6,80U tons 
oi Oriental freight, which included 1.247 bales of ailk, 
:i,:{42 rollH of matting. '>.4(i2 bagH of rice, 1,820 ehesto of 
tea and 889 xackH of coffee. 

The A. II. S. S. Texan sailetl for Honolulu via Seattle 
May \0j with a cargo of fX|il<>«ivc8 valued at W3..n7. 

The M. S. S. Lurline arrive<l in port May 9. with 
11.2t)0 Hacks of sugar. 4.H(M) boxes of pineapples, 2,tXX) 
mat.s of rjce and 1,(XX) bunches of bananait. 

The German steamer Krna of the Jebsen and Os- 
trandcr line left port Tuesday, .May 11. with a general 
cargo for Mexico. Central America and Panama. 

The (icrman steamer Sakkarrah departed Montlay, 
May 10. for southern coast ports and Kumpe, by way 
of the Straits of MagellHii. She took a part cargo of 
hunbcr and flour from northern ports and received at 
San Francisco 1.000 tons of canned goods of general 
merchandise consigned to Europe. 

The S. S. Nevatlan sailed for Salina Cruz May 8. with 
a large cargo, valnetl at ^21<>.(>42. consigned to N'ew 
York and EurojK'an ports via Tehuantepec railr«>ad. 
The cargo will be distributed as follows: Xew York. 
♦181.124; Germany. !f!22.r)18: Great Britain, $9,343; Bel- 
gium, $4,G90; Mexico, $3.18;"). 

The P. ('. S. S. City of Puehio sailed May 11th for 
Victoria with a general cargo, consigned to various Brit- 
ish ports, valued at $28,60!). 

The codfishing schooner W. II. Dinionti arrived May 
12 from Mega with a cargo of 10r).(K)0 codfish. 

The Japanese liner Tcnyo Maru sailed May 1.3 with a 
very small passenger list and an average cargo of freight, 
the principal item of which was 2.500 bales of cotton for 
•Ia]>anese ports. The liner will also take 1,(KX) tons of 
general -freight for various |M)rts. 

The Australian mail line steamer Century sailed May 
12th with a full cargo of freight, including 2.(MNMN)0 feet 
of lumber and 1,500 tons of general merchandise. 



NORTHERN COAST NOTES. 



Tacoma. 

The steamer A. O. liin<lsay. which has been laid up 
for repairs the last year, will resume her former Seattle- 
.Maskan run. Not long ago the boat was sold at a re- 
•eiver's sjde for $20.(K)0. after the original owners had 
expended $1((0.()00 in improvements on her. The pr«*8ent 
owners value the |jin<lsay at $1.'»0.(MM). 

The Pacific Cold Storage Company of Tacoma are 
conteujplating a new steamer to supplement the Elihu 
Thomson, and the brig Dashing Waves. The new 
steamer will be of much greater dimensions than the 
Thomson. 

Astoria. 

The British barks. Peter Iredale and Calena. which 
were wrecketl on Clatsop Beach, are being rapidly broken 
up and the steel shipped to the rolling mill in Portland. 

The army launch. Captain Anton Springer, which left 
San Kranci.Hco in tow of Olson & Mahoney's steamer Jim 
Butler. arrive<l here safely and. after minor repairs, will 
he connei'ted with the artillery post. 

At Taconuj the new steamer Daring has ha<I her official 
inspe<'tion. and will take the place of the Defiance while 
the latter is being overhauled, but later will operate be- 
tween Tacoma and Seattle. 

Nineteen vessels loaded lumber at the mills in the 
Ix>wer Columbia district during the month of April. 



Their eombineil eargoos amounted to 9,64(i,000 feet of 
lumber and 20,000 railway ties. 

The Nehaleni and S*)uth Coast Transportation Com- 
pany have secured articles of incorporation, with a cap- 
ital Ktoik of $25.(MM). with 250 shares at $100 each. The 
company was formeil for the purpose of operating a line 
of vesKtds between Astoria, Ya<|uina, Suislaw and other 
points on the Oregon Coast. 

A gasoline schooner. e(piipped with a l(NI-horsepower, 
is being built at North Bend for the company and will 
be in service about August 1. The boat will be 95 feet 
in length. 

While l<»ading at St. Helens for San Franclsc-o, the 
lumber schooner Majt-sfic su<ldenly careened inshore, 
and the deck load of 1(I.(MN> railroad ties slid overboard 
an<l were lost. 

The steamer Ilassalo was tianniged to the extent of 
several hundred dollars last week, and she will doubt- 
less be laid up for rejtairs. While entering Megler, the 
current, which was running very strong at the time, 
threw her to the port side, about midships, against the 
piling of the wharf, breaking the guard clear through, 
and the (tides of the lower house and ujipcr decks were 
badly crushed. None of the j)asscngers on the boat at 
the time of the accident were injured. 
Port Towniend. 

Fire broke out on the lumber schooner Winslow May 
1, and destroye*! the schooner's galley, forecastle aiid 
donkey room, the damage ^amounting to $1.(M)0. The 
U. S. revenue cutter Areata and the tug Tyee were just 
entering the harbor at the time of the alarm, and but 
for this timely assistance (both the An-ata aiul the Tyee 
are equipped >vith fire-fighting apparatus) the Winslow 
would have been a total wreck. The origin of the fire is 
unknown. 

The Winslow. which has a tonnage of 496, has been 
laid up at this harbor without a charter for two months. 
The value of the ship, which is owned by George E. Bil- 
lings of San Francis<M>. is approximately $45.(K)(). 
Victoria, B. 0. 

TIn«ler the regulations provided by the Paris tribunal 
of 1894, the spring sealing season ends April 30, until 
the opening of the Bering Sea season in August. Owing 
to Japan not being a party in the regulations, the Jap- 
anese fleet is still in the north following the herd. 

The Greer. Courtney & Skeena Company of this city 
are establishing a steamship line from Van<-ouver to 
Ganges. Pen<ler. Fulferd and other island ]>oints. They 
an' now negotiating fi>r the [lurchase of a steamer of 
125 tons register for this route. The company is also 
contemplating another line betwt-en this city and Bel- 
lingham. 

The Waterhouse steamer Aymeric has left Yokohama 
for this port an<l will arrive about May 2^i. The Aymeric 
is taking the place of the Inveric. which will enter an- 
other trade. This will be the first time this vt«sel has 
been in Puget Sound, and being larger and more modern 
than the Inveric. she will likely remain on this run for 
some time. 

Seattle. 
On her first visit to Piigct Sound the A. P. S. S. Ad- 
miral Sampson acted host to several hiin<lred representa- 
tives of leading firms in Seattle and Tacoma. The trip 
was acro.ss the bay to Port Orchard an<l Bremerton. 
Every attcntiim was pai<l to the guests, a light lunch and 
other refreshments being servetl. enlivened by music 
from a Tacoma band. 

The former lumber bark Fresno, recently purchased 
by the Tyee Whaling Company, sailed for Tyee. Alaska, 
with suppli**s and m«'n for the whaling station. The 



8 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Fresno was bought by its present owners from Pope & 
Talbot and was formerly ^gmployed in the coastwise 
trade. 

Orders have been issued to all oil vessels, barges or 
vessels using oil, not to pour any oil of any kind in the 
water while in this port. Flagrant disobedience of this 
order on the part of oil boats entering this port lately 
have caused the owners of local boats to protest against 
this practice. 

L. H. Gray & Company's steamer Corwin, which has 
been laid up at Eagle Harbor for the last six months, 
arrived in this port May 3 and sailed, with all her pas- 
senger and freight accommodations sold out, ]\Iay 10 for 
Nome and St. Michael. 

Negotiations are being carried on with Captain A. A. 
Moore to navigate the 19-ton tug Grayling from Seattle 
to Panama. Captain Moore wants $2,000 for the trip. 

The S. S. Corwin left this port May 10 for Nome, with 
all freight and passenger accommodations taken. For 
the past eight years the Corwin, formerly a United 
States revenue cutter, has led in the opening of naviga- 
tion on the Bering Sea. The Corwin is equipped with 
two complete sets of the United States wireless appa- 
ratus. She will carry and install on the trip the aids to 
navigation maintained by the United States Govern- 
ment. 

The Alaska Steamship Company's steamer Dolphin 
left port for Skagway via ports May 4. The Dolphin 
has been idle all the winter and during that time was 
placed in first-class condition for the summer's run. 

The report current of the sale of the American ship 
Elwell to a Honolulu firm, for the purpose of transport- 
ing railroad ties from Hilo to San Pedro, was denied at 
the office of the Seattle Shipping ('ompany, the owners 
of the vessel. The Elwell will arrive on this coast about 
May 15 and will load for Bering Sea ports with govern- 
ment supplies. 

Harbor Master Spaulding has filed the following re- 
port, which shows a healthy improvement of shipping 
•for the month of April in contrast with the correspond- 
ing month of 1908 : 

Last month Seattle received 11,146 tons of merchan- 
dise from Pacific Coast ports, 3,207 tons from Alaska 
ports and 7,712 tons from local points, of a total value 
of $2,269,268. To coastwise ports Seattle shipped last 
month 10,607 tons of merchandise, 672,261 feet of lum- 
ber, 5,175 bundles of laths, 1,000 bundles of shingles and 
20,163 tons of coal, of a total value of $1,248,513. There 
is a slight falling off in the exports to the Orient. The 
total for April is $773,859, a loss from $1,003,608 in 
March. The total for April a year ago was $788,137. 

In imports, Seattle business continues to show a gain. 
The total value of merchandise received from foreign 
countries in April was $2,079,304. In March the figure 
was $2,003,428, and in April last year $1,285,664. From 
the Orient Seattle imported goods worth $1,693,395 last 
month, in March $1,497,207 and in April, 1908, $656,640. 

The arrival of deep sea vessels numbered 114 and the 
departures 106. In April of last year the arrivals were 
56 and the departures 53. 

Sitka, Alaska. 
United States Deputy Marshal Shoup has in charge 
the Japanese sealing schooner Kissa Maru, which was 
captured by an officer and a party of marines in two 
launches armed with machine guns May 4. Several seal- 
skins were found, and the crew of thirty men admit 
sealing illegally. The Japanese vessel was found at 
anchor sixteen miles from Sitka. 



Cordova, Alaska. 

The Alaska Coast steamer Jeanie broke her tail shaft 
April 30, and when temporary repairs are completed she 
will be towed to Seattle by the tug Tyee, where she will 
be docked. At the time the Jeanie was disabled the com- 
l)any's steamer Bertha, which had damaged her forefoot 
at Bella Bella the day before, was near and towed the 
Jeanie to a safe anchorage. A portion of the cargo of 
tlie Jeanie was distributed by the Bertha and the rest 
of the cargo, which is consigned to the Cape Hinchin- 
brook lighthouse, will be loaded onto lighters at Port 
Etches and towed to the cape, where the lighthouse is 
under course of construction. 

Aberdeen, Wash. 

C. A. Johnson and Frank Wilson have bought the 
tug Thistle from Andrew Peterson, for $1,500. 

Eureka. 

The gasoline schooner Katata. now plying between 
this port and the Klamath, left the latter place May 8, 
with the N. P. S. S. Company's gasoline schooner Presi- 
dent, which stranded near the mouth of the river last 
spring. 

The French bark Brizeux cleared May 8 for the 
United Kingdom, with a cargo of 1,359,164 feet of lum- 
ber, valued at .$40,375. 



NOTES. 

The last naval appi-opi'iatiiif>; bill provided for five torpedo 
boat destroyers with the highest amount of speed. The 
plans for these boats are now ready and only await the ap- 
proval of the board of construction before bids are invited. 
The boats are to cost, exclusive of arm.ament, $800,000 
apiece. 

The plans of the new battleships are being rushed to 
completion and will include the latest development in battle- 
ship construction. The ship will be named the Arkansas 
and Wyoming and will cost exclusive of the armament 
$6,000,000 each. 

The unprecedented record in wrecks, stranding and 
collisions, a great number of which have proven total 
losses, has combined to force marine insurance companies 
to increase their rates, a move never before found necessary. 

The Firemen's Fund Insurance Company has raised its 
marine insurance rates from 7 per cent to 8 per cent; the 
Canton insurance companies and several other companies 
have done likewise. 

The new steamship subsidy act passed by the Imperial 
Diet, March 22, 1909, will go into effect February 1, 1910. 

The act provides for a bounty of 25 cents per 1000-mile 
gross tons to all vessels of Imperial register less than fifteen 
years old and having a speed of 12 miles per hour. 

The Osaka Shoshen Steamship Company, the new 
Japanese company which will inaugurate" a service be- 
tween the Orient and the port of Tacoma, there making 
connections with the ('hicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
R. R., have made through traffic connection with Man- 
churia and Asiatic Russia to Europe, under a Russo- 
Japanese traffic convention, which just adjourned. Con- 
nection will be made via Japan with the steamer run- 
ning to Dalny, the terminus of the South Manchurian 
Railroad Company, and via the Japanese government 
railroad to Tsurga and the Russian volunteer steamship 
line from there to Vladivostok. 

The Toyo Kisen Kaisha Steamship Company inaugu- 
rated, beginning May 1, with the sailing of the steamer 
American Maru from Yokahoma. a line between the 
Orient ports of Mexico and South America by Avay of 
Honolulu. The Japanese line will receive a subsidy from 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



9 



the Tokio government, itii<l it is poH-sible that the Mex- 
iiiiii govermiu'iit will also suhsidize the line. 

The ports of call, after leaving Honolulu, are: Man- 
ziinilUt. Salina Cruz, (allao and other point« of South 
America as far south as Coronel, where the steaineni will 
coal for the return trip to .lapan. 

The Kteaiiier Sibyl .Marston. which Ktrande<l near 
Surf last January, is rapitlly going to pieces. The hull, 
through the incessant pounding of the waves, is fast 
breaking up. The cargo of lumber, consisting of 1,(XK),- 
(KK) feet, has been salvaged with the exception of 25(),(MX) 
feet comprising the deck load, which was washed over- 
board. 

Till- British shipping trade in liMIS. as reviewed by 
•John White, shows that the output of the shipbuilding 
yanls aniounteii to only about !)(K),(MH) tons of merchant 
steam ves.sels. or little more than half of the preceding 
twelve months. The inimber of British ships now laid 
up at home and foreign ports is c.stinuite<l at 1,(MNI,(MX) 
tons. The review adds that wasteful competition is to 
be terminated by rate agreements, especially in the At- 
lantic tratlic. 

The sailing schedule of the Blue Funnel line for the 
next twelve nu>nths has been issued by the Pacific Coast 
agents at Seattle. 

The Britisli steamer Bellcrophon. at Seattle, sails 
im the return -May lit. Next will be the Ningchow, ar- 
riving at I'tiget Souiul -May IH and .sailing June 16. Fol- 
lowing this liner, these .steamers will arrive on and sail 
from I'uget Sound on the dates noted: Antiloehus, June 
11, July 14; Teiicer, July !». August 11; Titan. Augu.st «, 
September H; Cyclops, Septend)er '.i, October (i; Keenuui, 
October 2. November :}; Oanfa. October 'U. Decendier 1; 
Bellcrophon, November 2t<. Decendjcr 20; Ningchow, De- 
cenduT 2«i. January 2(>. 1!M(); Antiloehus. January 2:1, 
Febniary 2:}; Teucer, February 2(), March 2.{. 

Considerably over half a million dollars worth bf 
wheat and wheat tlour was shipped abroad through the 
port of I'uget Sound during the month of March. Plac- 
ing with this tigure the smaller (piantitira of other graina, 
the total exi>ortation of breads! uffs from Souiul ports 
for the month was valued at *(!18.1(«». There were ;>4.9.')9 
barrels of wheat rit)ur exported, with a vaUn* of $.'178,851. 
The wheat shi|)ments. consisting of 2."{r).3i)8 bushels, were 
valueil at $282,7!t9. All of these figures, however, are 
siiiiiewhat short of thl' shipments made in March of last 
year. Other grains and lircadstufTs were shipped from 
Puget Soiuid last month in the following (|iuintitics and 
values: Barley. 2.122 bu.shcls, .$1..j2«; corn, 2.()!)!t bush- 
els. $2,196; cornmeal. 7 barrels. $:i'.i; oats, 4.824 bushels, 
!|i2.«:{(); oatmeal. 1.62() |X)umls. $71; rye, 'i bushels, $3; 
total exportation. $618.1t»!». The principal exportation of 
livest«>ck through the ports of Puget Sound during 
March was in sheep, of which l,!»8.'i. valued at $7,822, 
were shipped. Only 21 hea«l of c-attle left the shores of 
Ptiget Sound for other parts, and not a single hog wan- 
dercil abroad. Beef products were exported to the value 
of .$27:{. with an additional $1-><) worth of fresh beef, and 
$210 w»)rth of sidtetl. pickled or otherwise cured beef. 
Tallow was exported to the extent of 31.i.0iW pounds, 
with a value of $18,.'»:«». Hog pro<hi<'ts were exported in 
the following (puintities and values: Bacon. i'jH.tWl 
pounds. .$7,848; hams and shoulders <-ure«l. 86.921 pounds. 
$11,881; pork, fresh, .sidt or pickled. l.').24.'> )>ounds. 
$12,477: lard. 120.678 pounds. $1..')87: an<l other minor ex- 
ports of dairy products anrl food animals, making a total 
exportation in these articles for March of $62,919. The dis- 
trict of Puget Sound made a very substantial gain during 
March in the exportation of cotton over March of last 
year. The shipment consisted of 11,521 hales or 6,107.516 



pounds, with a total valuation of $672,:{4:{. The valua- 
tion of the cotton exportation for March of last year 
was $52(1,610. A little over 12,5(MI.(XKI pouiuls or 23,000 
ball's of cotton were exported to .lapan from the United 
States during the month, from which it will be seen 
that approximately half of this amount went through 
Puget Sound ports. 

The coffee crop of Central America is at the present 
time being moveil by the way of the Tehuantepec rail- 
road instead of the I'nited States government railroad at 
I'anania. A trial was held with shipiuents of coffee from 
<'entral America via Panama and Tehuantepec. demon- 
strating that the .Mexican isthnnis route is faster than 
by way of Panama. The croj», which will be handled 
through this route, will amount to over .5(M).(HMI bags. 

The agents of the Canadian-Australian liner Aorangi 
at Vancouver and Victoria have been instru<'teil not to 
book any passages on any of the company's steamers 
later than July 1 until further order. This may mean 
that the sid>Nidy paid to this line by the Australian gov- 
ernment may not be rencweil on July 1, and in that ease 
the line will be withdrawn. <• 

The government is contemplating the establishment 
of a nuiil route between I'ortlaiul and Eureka. 

The Toyo Kisen Kaisha's new service to Mexico and 
South .\iiicrican ports was opened by the departure of 
the America Maru. which left Hong Kong April 14. 
Three steamers will be put on this service on regidar 
schedule. 

The America Maru will touch at Moji, Kobe, Yoko- 
hama. Honolulu. Manzanillo. Callao. I((ui(|ue and Valpa- 
raiso, and will sail on her return voyage to Hong Kong 
June 6. 

The next steamer to depart will be the Hongkong 
Maru. which will be followed by the Manshu Maru. The 
three vt-sscls will a«lopt a regular schedule "iili sailing 
dates six wwks apart. 

The Seattle Maru. the second of tin- m.\ sleamers 
which the Osaka Shosen Kaisha intend t^t build for serv* 
ice between Taconui and the Orient, was launched May 
5. at Kobe. 

The Taco;iin .Maru. the first of the fleet to be launched, 
will have her trial trip May 20. and on proving satisfac- 
tory will load cargo for Tacoma. She will proceed front 
Shanghai an<l Hong Kong to Osaka. Kobe and Yoko- 
hanui. sailing fnun the latter port for Tacoma June 29. 
at which ]>ort she is due July 15; sailing again for the 
Orient August 1. 

The Seattle Maru will follow the Taconui Maru. ar- 
riving at Tacoma August 15, an<l leaving again for the 
Orient Septend)er 1. 

All the steamers will be 6,000 tons net register and 
480 feet in length and 55 feet beam. 

Th<' Osaka company has chartered the British 
steanu'r Strathcarn. of the Strat fleet, to o[)erate with 
the Tacoma and Seattle Marus until the third vessel of 
the fleet is ready. 

Victoria. B. ('.. Thursday, May 6. — .Japanese warships 
are to be sent to Ii4>ring Sea fo protect the sealers from 
Yokohama. Tokyo. Nyigata. Hakodate and other ports 
across the Pa<'ific which flock to Bering Sea in growing 
numbers each year. This is the news from an authorita- 
tive source at Tok^'o. 

A letter niceivwl here says: "Fn view of the fact that 
Jiipaiiese sealers are seized eVery year in and about 
liering S<'a on chargw of poaching, the Japanese govern- 
ment is consi<Jering a proposal to send warships there 
during the sealing season for the protection of the seal- 
ers. This appears a somewhat dangerous proeee<ling. 
likelv to involve the risk of international trouble, and 



10 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



many prominent officials are of this opinion. The request 
for the sending of Japanese warships is made by the 
sealing interests. ' ' 

Eleven marine torpedo boats, which are now in reserve 
at the Norfolk navy yard, will be shipped to the Philippine 
Islands for coast service, via the Pacific Coast. 

In an account of an accident which happened to the 
liner Peru at Honolulu, when she bumped into Bishop 
slip, then in the course of construction, which was pub- 
lished in a Honolulu paper, the statement was made that 
the mishap occurred on account of the intoxicated con- 
dition of the chief engineer of the vessel. He was said 
to have misinterpreted the signal and sent the vessel full 
speed ahead instead of full speed astern. As a chief 
engineer of liners the size of the Peru seldom goes into 
the engine room, only when supervising special repairs, 
and having nothing to do with the control of the boat, the 
Item in the paper was unwarranted, and in a later issue 
they apologized for their erroneous statement. 

The Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Com- 
pany has secured a contract to construct two large freight 
and passenger steamers for service on the Pacific Coast, 
to cost in the neighborlftod of $1,500,000. The ships will 
be the highest type of combination passenger and freight 
vessels, will be 400 feet in length and have engines capable 
of driving them at a rate of more than seventeen knots 
an hour. It is supposed that the vessels are to be con- 
structed for the San Francisco and Portland Steamship 
Company, to be used in conjunction with the steamship 
Kansas City, which vessel was recentlv purchased in the 
East. 

Traffic agreements have been effected between the 
New Mexican-Oriental steamship line established from 
Salina Cruz to Hongkong, under the agency of Dodwell 
& Co., with the American-Hawaiian Steamship Company 
for carrying the freight from Atlantic Coast points to 
the Orient via the Tehuantepec Railway. This will be 
an opposition service to the railways and transpacific 
lines engaged in the Oriental trade with regard to freight 
originating in eastern centers, and will not be affected 
by the rulings of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
of the United States, as the transcontinental railroads of 
that country and their allied steamship lines have been. 
Announcement of the inauguration oi tht) new service 
was made by President George S. Dearborn of the 
American-Hawaiian Steamship Company on his return to 
New York after his recent visit to Pacific Coast ports. 
The Mexican-Oriental Steamship Company will operate 
from Salina Cruz to ports of China and Japan and the 
American-Hawaiian line will connect with their steamers 
via the Tehuantepec National Railway at Coatszacoalcos. 
Three British steamers— the Sheikh (2,328 tons), Atholl 
(3,031 tons) and Troll (2,887 tons)— have been chartered 
for the Pacific service of the Mexican-Oriental Company. 
Work on the construction of a lighthouse at Cape 
Hinchinbrook will begin May 1, and it is expected to 
have the lighthouse in operation next winter. The light- 
house will cost between $70,000 and $80,000, exclusive 
of light proper, which will be furnished by the Govern- 
ment, and the contract is held by the Standard Building 
Company of Seattle. Cape Hinchinbrook is located on 
Hinchinbrook Island, at the entrance to Prince William 
Sound. Vessels bound to and from Valdez pass the point, 
which for long has been known as a dangerous spot. 

Supervising Inspector Birmingham has decided that 
two firemen were all that were necessary on a single- 
boiler schooner burning oil and having two furnaces. 
Inspector Birmingham investigated on an appeal case, 
the firemen contending that the glare on the eyes from 
the oil burners was so bad that two men could not serve. 



LEGAL. 

Judge Bordwell of the Superior Court of Los Angeles, 
Cal., has rendered a decision which crowns the efforts of 
Los Angeles to maintain a free harbor at San Pedro and 
Wilmington.. The demurrers of the Southern Pacific, 
the Banning Company and other corporations were over- 
ruled by the court in the twelve suits to wrest from 
. private hands the control of the ocean frontage at Wil- 
mington and granted the defendants thirty days in which 
to file their answers. 

In a decision handed down by United States District 
Judge J. J. de Haven, the interstate commerce act could 
not be applied to steamship lines carrying freight from 
foreign ports to the United States. The decision was 
reached in the suits brought by the United States against 
the Southern Pacific Company and the Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship Company, in which the demurrers of the steamship 
comj)any were sustained and those of the railroad com- 
pany overruled. Several indictments were brought against 
the steamship and railroad companies for hauling matting 
from Kobe. Japan, to Springfield, 0., for less than the 
through joint rate filed with the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. The court held that the interstate act does 
not apply to a common carrier of freight oij the ocean, 
although the freight is carried to some inland point of 
the United States. The Pacific Mail Steamship Company 
contended that it was not bound to observe the rate filed 
with the Interstate Commerce Commission, as the inter- 
state commerce act could not be held to apply to ocean 
shipments. Judge de Haven sustained the company's 
contention, at the same time holding that the railroad, 
having filed a unitary rate with the steam.ship company, 
It could not depart from it, although it applied in part to 
the ocean haul. 

Douglas Brothers have attached the dredger Pacific 
of the American Contracting Company of Aberdeen on 
an unpaid claim of $600. 

i\)rtland— The suit of the Dalles, Portland and Astoria 
.\avigation Company against the river steamer Charles 
R. Spencer, involving a claim for $10,000 for damages 
sustained during a collision with the river steamer The 
Dalles City on the morning of May 81, 1905, is on trial 
in the Federal (lourt before Judge Walverton. The col- 
lision was due, according to the run of the testimony, to 
the rivalry of the Spencer in recklessly running the oppo- 
sition boat while attempting to pass the latter on their 
usual trip down the Willamette. 

San Francisco. 

Suit has been brought in the superior court to recover 
.$3,600 .damages from the Shoshone Steamship Company, 
for the death of Olof NiLsson, a marine fireman. Nilsson 
was employed on the steamer Shoshone, and while in 
Willapa harbor, AVash., he was washed overboard and 
drowned, through, according to the complaint, the negli- 
gence of the captain of the vessel. He was the sole 
support of his aged father. 

Port Townsend. 

The crew of the fishing schooner Alice are preparing 
to force a case into court for the settlement of a point 
that will establish a precedent as to the rights of fisher- 
men in salvage cases. In July of last year the crew of 
the Alice picked up the .steam schooner Otter, which was 
drifting with disabled engines off the west coast of Van- 
couver, and towed her to a safe anchorage. For this 
service the owners of the Otter paid $2.'500. The owners 
of the Alice offered the crew $55 in settlement for all 
claims of salvage, which was refused, but at the same 
time th^ crew agreed to settle one-fifth of the amount 



PACIFIC MKRCHANT MARINE 



11 



oil the owneni, the rest to hv divided ainou|^ theiiwelves, 
Hhare and share alike. 

"Aboard tlie Aliee, as Ik the cuKtoni with ino«t fish- 
ing veKKeln. the crew share e(|ualiy in profits after one- 
fifth lias been deelaretl for the owner," said one of the 
erew. "The erew pays ail fuel bills, as well as every 
other running expense. 

"As operators of the Alice on 'lays.' we contend that 
any rule of distributing earned salvage that holds with 
ordinary eonnnereial vessels has no eflfwt in our ease. 
We shall contest our claim along this line to a finiah." 

K. A. Sims, principal owner of the Aliee, explaining 
the oflfer made the crew, made the following statement: 

"A division of i>oo pt'r man of the erew is on a basis 
of more than one-fourth of the returns as their share. 
Net cash brought i|s2.'{(X) after deducting expenses in- 
curreil. Every court decisi()n we have been able to find 
has been exi-eeded with the offer made, an*! our i>osition 
is final. 

"We maintain that the operation of a fishing boat on 
the share or 'lay' basis does not alter the standing of 
the vessel from the regular merchantman in the matter 
oi salvage money." 



CHARTER MARKET. 

At the present time tluic arc very few sailing veaaels 
under charter to bring European freight to America and 
especially to the Pacific Coast, owing to the uncertainty 
of the settlement of the tariff (piestion. This is an un- 
usual situation for this time of the year, as a large fieet 
of vessels are usually on the way with general cargoes 
for the Pacific Coast. The importers who have engaged 
tonnage have securetl them at so low a rate as to wftrrniit 
a small profit regardless of the tariff revision. 

"Immediately after the tariff question has been st-t- 
tled, more foreign gooils will begin coming into this coun- 
try than ever before. The leatling merchantH and importers 
throughout the Cnited States are impatiently waiting for 
this matter to be disposed of before buying extensively 
abroad. Material of all sorts will be brought to this Coast 
fr«>m the Orient and Europe, and shipping will take on a 
new lease of life." 

Such is the report given out by T. S. McRath, of the 
import firm of T. S. McRath & Co.. who returned this 
morning from a trip to New York and lioston, in which 
eitiejf he spent a month. 

"After the irajwrt duty sche<lule has been fixed by 
Congress." concluded Mr. McRath. "there will be ships 
chartere«l to bring cement, pig in»n. coke, fire bricks and 
great (piantities of building material to this Coaat. There 
will also be heavy importations of silk and other goods 
classed as luxuries. In the shipping world I look for a 
wave of prosperity to roll over the coiuitry. The same 
prediction is ma«le in New York and lioston." 



Owing to the advance made by the shipowners on 
gn'in cargoes from 27s 6<1 to 2Hs 9<1. chartering, which 
started so bri.skly a few weeks ago, has almost com- 
pletely subsided. Some owners are asking as high as :U)s 
for sailing vessels. 

The rates on steam tonnage, recently quoted at 28s 
♦id. have advanced to IlOs on grain cargo«>s. although no 
steamers have so far been engage«l for grain carg<M-s. 

The Hastings mill of Tacoma has canceled its 
charter with the British bark llawthornbank. The vessel 
was 250 days out from Holland for Eagle Harbor. 

French ship David I. Angus, cement. I»ndon to Port- 
land: return to Fhirope with a wheat cargo. 

American schooner Boreal is. lumber at Puget Sound 
for Ouaynias; Nor^vegian steamer Tordenskjold. coal. 



Puget Hound for )lazatlan; American ship R. M. Phelps, 
coal, from Norfolk to Seattle; French bark Pierre Ix)te, 
wheat, Portland to European port, at 27s 6d ; British ship 
Cissie, lumber, Tacoma to Cnited Kingdom. supp<»sed rate 
56s -id; American bark Alta. lumber. Vancouver, B. C.. to 
lqui<tue: American ship William II. .Macy. lumber, Port- 
lantl to Port Natal, private rates; Hritish ship Colony, 
cement, Antwerp to San Francisco, with Portland option; 
British ship Manx King, cement, Antwerp to San Diego, 
with Portland option; schotnicr Melrose, lumber, Puget 
Sound to Ouaynias; schooner Minnie A. Caine, lumber, 
Qray's Harbor to Haiphong; British bark Altair. general 
cargo. Newcastle-on-Tync to Portland; French bark 
Francois, cement, Antwerp t<) Puget SoiukI ; British 
steamers Courtfield. 2.874 tons. Den of Crombic, '.i.Vlii 
tons and the Belle of Vreland. 2,772 tons, coal, from At- 
lantic range to Manila; schooner Oliver J. Olson, lumber, 
F^ureka to Honolulu, private terms; British steamer Clan 
'Macinnis. merchandise, San Francisco to Australia; Bri- 
tish steamer Katanga, coal. Comox to Ouaynias. The 
ship J. B. Thomas has been purchase<l by eastern parties, 
terms private. • 

BJEETINO OF THE BOARD OF STATE HARBOR COM- 
BSISSIONERS MONDAY, MAY 10, 1909. 

The telephone iiiicK of the Monie Telephone Company 
will stop at the northerly end of the Ferry building until 
such time as the company <-an show the boanl contracts 
with customers that necessitate the installation of pro- 
|)ose<l pipe lines along or through said building. 

The bill of R. W. Hunt for 4.144 barrels of Portland 
c-ement amounting to ^2(>7.2() was ordere*! paid. 

The Pacific Cereal Association asks that a uniform 
charge for switching freight cars on the Belt railroad 
l»e establishe<l. At the present time the charge for switch 
ing cars w«'st of Mason street is $^iJ^\ as compared with 
f2.r><) per car for switching east of that street. 

The proposal of the Thomson Bridge Company for 
pulling np the piles on the old drydock at Central basin 
was accept e«l. 

Olson & Mahoney Lumber Co. asked to surrender 
bertli space at Section A of the schwiiII. taking effect 
May U). 190!). 

Secretary was directed to inform those occupying 
l)erth space along the seawall north of the Ferry building 
that the wharf s|)aces inunediatcly behind said spaces 
will be consiilered a part of their berth assignment from 
June 1. liKW. with rental at fiO cents per linear foot per 
month. 

Ailjourned to Thurs.lay. .May l:{. 1!Hi!». 

Meeting of Tbnrsday, May 13, 1909. 

An informal bid of N II. IIi<-kman for furnishing 250 
eucalyptus pil«>s to the board was accepted, to be fur- 
nished as follows: 

12-inch piles 20 cents per linear foot 

1:^itlch piles 21 cents per linear foot 

14-inch piles 22 cents per linear foot 

ir>-inch piles 23 cents per linear foot 

1()-inch piles 24 cents per linear foot 

Inf<irmal bid for furnishing 2tl tons of (>5-pound tec 
rails. A. S. C. E. standard, with fish jilates. f. o. b. San 
Fran<'is<'o. was openwl and the contract awanled to the 
Pennsylvania Steel Co. on the basis of their bid as fol- 
lows: M) or 35-foot lengths, with 10 per cent shorter 
lengths first quality. t4].(i2 per gross ton. With 5 per 
cent second quality rails. ♦4^>.02 per gnm« ton. Necessary 
angle bars. $2.14 per ton. All f. o. h. San Francisco. 

>V. S. Oelatt has installed, with the consent of the 
Commissioners, on an experimental basis, six illustra- 
phon<'s on a monthly rental of f 10 for iinh machine. 



12 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



Hiekmau & Masterson Co. ask to surrender the berth 
space occupied by them at Section B of the seawall at 
the end of the current month. 

The assignment of 200 feet berth space near Mason 
street and east of Federal assignment at Section B of 
the seawall made to Hickman & Masterson Co. was or- 
dered rescinded to take effect June 1, 1909. 

Hickman & ]\Iasterson Co. state that they can still 
use a portion of seawall lot B and ask what rental the 
board would ask for 100 feet off said space west from 
Mason street, between Jefferson and East streets. 

A space of 100 feet of seawall lot B west from Mason 
street, containing 3,968 square feet was assigned to Hick- 
man & Masterson Co. and rental fixed at $30 per month, 
beginning June 1, 1909. 

The Columbia Box Factory asked the board to re- 
consider the increasing of rates in so far as it applies to 
them. 

The board offered the company use of wharf lot space 
as additional part of berth space at the rental of 50 
cents per linear foot. 

The matter was referred to the engineer and the chief 
wharfinger for report as to certain consignments carry- 
ing with the special conditions on Channel street and 
elsewhere. 

The Pacific Coast Dredging Co. have returned the 
mud scow rented to them by the State from April 30th 
up to and including May 7th at $10 per day. 

The engineer estimates that the number of Koetitz 
patent piles that will be used during the ensuing year 
will be about 200. 

The secretary was directed to invite informal bids 
for 80 of such piles, to be followed by orders up to 200 
piles in all. 

The request of Harvey & Roberts to reconsider tho 
board's action increasing rental of berth space occupied 
by them was denied. 

The superintendent of the Belt Railroad stated that 
in reference to the advisability of reducing the charge of 
switching on the Belt Railroad from $3.50 to $2.50 per 
carload in territory west of Mason street, the reduction 
should be made and a uniform charge of $2.50 per ear- 
load be established for all' territory served by said Belt 
Railroad. 

The recommendation was adopted. 

A rental charge of $10 ])er month was fixed, to take 
effect June 1, 1909, by the board, for each cable landing 
maintained by different companies on the waterfront. 

The Gray Bros. Crushed Rock Co. have rented the 
State scow No. 1, beginning at 2 o'clock p. m. of the 12th 
instant. 

The engineer of the Board was directed to prepare 
plans and specifications for the necessary work on Pier 
No.* 9, as per request of the Pacific Coast Steamship Co. 
The board refused to enter upon the repairs and changes 
asked for by the company on pier No. 11. 

Adjourned to Thursday, May 20, 1909. . 



SALVAGE OF THE MINNIE E. KELTON. 

The suit for S40,()00 for salvage of the steam schooner 
Minnie E. Kelton, in the abandonment of which off Yaquina 
Head May 3, 1908, 11 of the crew were lost, was finally 
closed in. the United States Court after several days of 
trial. 

The libelants are the Washington Marine Company, 
owners of the steam schooner Washington, and the latters 
master, H. C. Nason. The Washington towed the Kelton 
into Astoria harbor and grounded the vessel near Smith's 
Point. 



The history of the Kelton from the date of the storm in 
which she almost foundered has l)een one of disaster and 
financial trouble. After she grounded near Smith's Point it 
is declared that attempts to save the vessel and cargo were 
delayed about ten days by libel suits. These were finally 
adjusted. The underwriters paitl the insurance and took 
over the vessel, but by that time the ship was so imbedded 
in the sand that it was impossible for three steamers, acting 
together to pull her off into the channel. Attempts to 
lighter the schooner were then made, but the current under- 
mined one side and while the work was in progress the 
Kelton turned turtle. 

It was necessary to right the vessel, and after this was 
accomplished the ship was lightered again and all was made 
ready to tow her into drydock. While waiting for a tug 
the Kelton broke away and drifted toward the sea, again 
grounding. The underwriters then removed the machinery 
and sold the hulk to Daniel Kern for $1400, after having 
expended $12,000 to .$14,000 in attempting to save the 
vessel. 

Kern, it is said, sold the remaining cargo for $2500 and at 
an expense of several thousand dollars is converting the 
Kelton into a sea-going barge that will be worth $.30,000. 

The $40,000 salvage claimed bj' the steamer Washington 
is for services rendered prior to the disastrous attempts 
to get the Kelton off the beach at Smith's Point, and the 
claim is made by the libelants that the vessel, if that woi'k 
had been properly done, could have })een saved for $1000. 

On the other hand, the owners of the Kelton attempted 
to show that the Kelton was not a derelict when picked up 
by the Washington, and that the Washington forfeited any 
claims for salvage by gross negligence thereafter in attempt- 
ing to tow a waterlogged ship, drawing 24 feet of water, 
over the bar at low tide and in grounding the Kelton at an 
exposed place in Astoria harbor. 

The Kelton's cargo was lumber, taken on at Aberdeen. 
The storm of May 2 completely disabled the vessel which was 
finally anchored near Yaquina Head, with the furnaces 
flooded and all but about 40 feet of the bow out of water. 
The two lifeboats were smashed in an attempt to launch 
them and 11 men were drowned. Captain McKenna ajid 
the remainder of the crew were taken ashore by the life- 
saving crew at Yaquina Station. The evidence conflicts as 
to whether the Kelton was drifting or well anchored when 
the Washington took the disabled craft in tow. It is also a 
disputed point whether Captain McKenna had determined 
fully to abandon the disabled ship. It is the contention of 
the owners that he went ashore to telephone for assistance 
and that no watchman was left aljoard because the ship 
had no lifeboats remaining for use in the event the watch- 
man's life was imperiled. 

In the effort to defeat the claim for salvage, an attempt 
was made to show that the Kelton pounded on the bar so 
hard in crossing that the hull was badly damaged, and the 
counter claim was made that the salvors were really respon- 
sible for the total value of the ship. — Portland Oregonian. 



S. S. SAGINAW. 

The frontispiece is of the steam lumber schooner Sagi- 
naw, recently acquired by the Ilartwood Lumber Com- 
pany. She is at the present time on the run between San 
Francisco and Gray's Harbor. 

The Saginaw was built about eight month's ago and 
is 200 feet in length, 41 -foot ])eam and 15-foot depth of 
hold. She is equipped with an 800-horsepower engine and 
makes IOV2 miles per hour. The Fulton Iron Works of 
San Francisco built the machinery and the Matthews 
Shipbuilding Company of Hoquiam, Wash., built the hull, 
and cost complete $135,000. She has a gross tonnage of 
820 tons and a lumber capacity of 850,000 feet. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



13 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Oi??«. 95 MARKET ST., 


SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 


r E I. K P H O N K 


DOUGLAS 4325 



oAii-iaU to anticipate a dcciKiun in tlieir favor, but it in a 
n-Meetion ujMjn tlii" railruati inttTcsta that needed and 
cn-atecl tln'si- Ihws t<> i-iK-ourage (-"iitiiinHl viitlation of 
tileni. 



THOS. C. BUTTERWORTH 
A. B. BUTTK.RWORTH 
M. DAVIS 



Editor 

Gcncrftl Msnagvr 

Advcrtiiinl Dcp«rlmeBl 



I'ubtinhid by the Pacific Merchant Marine Fublixhing Co. 
in San Francisco, California, every Saturday viorning in the 
interest and development of the Atnerican Merchant Marine. 



WILL BE SENT TO ANY ADDRESS in iht UNITED STATES 
$2.50 a Year 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 
Addrcfs All CommuDicalioni to the Paci6c Merchant Marine 



Judge Sylvester G. Wiiliama of Denver, apeciai ex- 
ninincr for the government. Special Assistant Attorney 
OencrnI ('. A. Severance of St. Paul and Arthur llusted 
of Washington, D. ('., have begun the taking of testimony 
in this district relating to the Western railroads merger 
case. The railroads are represented by R. S. Lovett of 
.\cw York, consul for E. II. Ilarriman, and Peter F. 
IJunne of this city, representing the law department of 
the Southern Pacific Company. The impiiry is being 
contlucted by virtue of a bill of ecpiity filed in the Eighth 
Circuit Court of the I'nited States, and involv»>s the 
I'nion Pacific Company, the Oregon Short Line Railroad 
Company, the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company, 
the San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad Com- 
pany, the Atehi.son, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Com- 
pany, the Northern Pacific Kailroad Company, the Far- 
mers' Loan and Trust Company, the Southern Pacific 
Company, the (Jreat Northern Kailroad Company. E. H. 
Ilarriman. James A. Clark. Henry C. Frick, II. II. Rogers, 
James Stillman. Otto H. Kahn and Jacob A. S<'hifT. Thene 
^■ompanies anil individuals represent va.st railroad inter- 
ests and are pitted against whom? — the merchants of the 
Pacific Coast. 

The able counsel representing the government ia well 
<|ualified to bring forth the most vital points of the in- 
<|uiry. and the testimony th\is far elicited has <leveloped a 
means of comparison between indivi<lual nominal inter- 
<st8 and merger methods. The Pacific Coast has a griev- 
ance against the first, and will suffer proportionately 
from the second. If the merchants of the Pacific Coast 
are c()nd>ating the merging of railroad interests, at the 
.same time they are a<lmitting the merits of the merger 
system, and one as old as the lands we occupy. Yet these 
same merchaiits retain the more anti(|uated form of com- 
petition between one port and the other, and greedily 
accept every opportunity of airing their n-al or faneie<l 
grievances in the mo.st entdc and selfish manner. 

The decision of the government in the railroad merger 
ease can be based only on the jxiints of law involve<I. It 
is no reflection upon the integrity of the government 



The first train connecting the Atlajitie and Pacific on 
lh<' Isthmus of Panama was run »>n October 1, 1851 — the 
forty-eight mile line running from .Vapinwall to (iatun. 
8i.\ years were consumed in building the roa<l, at the sac- 
rifice of many lives ami the expenditure of !^,000,0(J0. 
The road ia the shortest and one of the moat valuable 
transcontinental railways in existence. 



In connection with the organi/.ation in New York, 
under the laws of that state, of the .South American Ex- 
hibit Com|iany. I'nitcd States Consul Alfre<l A. Winslow 
writes from Valparaiso that the movement to inaugurate 
an exposition of United States men-liandise at Santiago 
it^ September, IJKW, has been favorably met in Chili. 

The government is desirotis of forwarding the inter- 
ests of the company in every way possible. Through 
the consul general of Chili, in .New York City, inipiirics 
have been sent to about 7,(KM1 niainifacturcrs as to 
whether they desire<l to extciul their commercial activi- 
(ies throughout Chili, to which 4.200 affirmative replies 
Were received. 

Manufacturers are to be asked to contract for space 
according to their respective re<|uirements. and, after 
having paid the price stipulated by the company in its 
contract forms, will forward their wares to .New Y«)rk, 
whence they will be sliippeil by authorized steamers to 
Valparaiso and sui)se(ptently tratisported to Santiago and 
installed in government buildings. 



A renowned American seaman, the late Captain M. 
F. Maury of the United States .Navy, may rightfully be 
deemed the foiuidcr of scientific marine mctcorolog.v. 
He first gathered the strantls of the subj«'ct, laid them 
up into a coherent whole. an<l eventually arranged the 
result so as to be useful to seafarers for all time. By 
force of his indomitalilc energy and his "infinite capacity 
for taking pains," Maury induced shipmasters of the 
merchant navies all the world over to co-operate with 
him in the good work. They supplied carcfidly kept 
observations of witnl, weather, temperature of air ami 
sea. atmospheric pressure and other items of interest, 
taken at specified hours day and night at <'crtain geo- 
graphical positions during the voyage. Maury's brilliant 
(ietluctiims from the scattered <lata, obtained from thou- 
sands of observations, have seldom been c<pmllcd and 
never surpassed in value. To Maury's masterly methodii 
the worlil's navigators owe very nnieb. 

As a result of that illustrious American's efforts, the 
United States Government convened an international 
maritime confcrcnci'. which met at Brussels in 18.')3 and 
drew u|) a scheme for the record (»f observations of 
marine meteorology. Ever since that gathering of sea- 
men, the collection of data has been steadily proceeded 
with by the state-supported departments of all nations. 
Marine meteorology is. therefore, natnrall.v based upon 
the earnest co-operation of thos<' that go d()wn to the sea 
in ships. 



The British Empire I/eague is an association that was 
formed in I.^>ndon in 189.') for the purpose of promoting 
tra<le between the United King<lom. the colonies and 
India, fostering closer intercourse between the different 
portion,s of the empire b.v the establishment of cheaper 
and more direct steam, postal an<l telejrraphic communi- 
cation, devising a more perfect co-operation of the mili- 



14 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



tary and naval forces of the empire, with a specific view 
to the due protection of the trade routes, assimilating as 
far as possible the laws relating to copyright, patents, 
legitimacy and ban-kruptcy throughout the empire, the 
calling of periodical conferences to deal with these and 
similar questions on the lines of the London conference 
of 1887 and the Ottawa conference of 1894. 



SHIPBUILDING NOTES. 



Union Iron Works. 

S. S. Washtenaw came off Hunter's Point dry dock 
Saturday, Jlay 8. and is now at the works for repairs on 
wheel and shaft. 

S. S. Senator on drydock Saturday, May 8, for miscel- 
laneous repairs. 

Good headway is being made on boiler work on the 
S. 0. S. S. Col. E. Drake. 

Moore & Scott. 

San Pablo at works Monday, May 17, to receive new 
smoke stack. 

Work completed on S. S. Winnebago, and she will 
put to sea Monday the 17th. 

Barge Coolora, used for transporting water for the 
California & Hawaiian Sugar Company, is on the drydock 
for cleaning, painting and repairs to hull. 

Barkentine Jas. Luft will follow the Coolora on the 
drydock for cleaning, painting and repairs to hull. 

Schooner Muriel will be placed on drydock Tuesday, 
May 18, for caulking, cleaning and painting. 

Steamer San Pedro is at the yards receiving repairs 
to her machinery. 

United Engineering Works. 

P. M. S. S. Newport on drydock, for general overhaul- 
ing. 

Portland. 

The artillery boats, which have been in the course of 
construction at the yards of tlie Willamette Iron and 
Steel Company for the last four months, was launched 
May 7. Two of these boats are being built by the iron 
works and the other, which is not quite finished, will be 
launched in about a week. Each of the boats is 98 feet 
long, 22 feet beam and 12 feet draft. The engines are of 
350 horsepower and the contract calls for a speed of 
IQi/) knots. The boats are built entirely of .steel with the 
exception of the pilot house. 

The new^ steamer Hyak, which was built for the Kitsap 
Transportation Company, was launched at the Supples 
Yards May 8. The dimensions of the vessel are : Length, 
1.34 feet; beam, 22.2 feet; depth of hold, 5.5 feet; gross 
tons, 195.93; net tons. 118. The total cost of the Hyak is 
$60,000. She will be operated on Puget Sound. It is ex- 
pected that the Hyak will do better than 20 miles an 
hour. She will operate out of Seattle. 

The work o'f converting the tug Hunter into a freight 
and passenger steamer is progressing slowly, and she will 
not be ready for her journey to Puget Sound before a 
month. f 

The changes on tne tug Hunter, at present at Supples 
Shipyard, being converted into a freight and passenger 
carrier, for service between Bellingham and San Juan 
i.slands, will be completed in a few weeks. 

The Port of Portland is equipping the Columbia river 
bar pilot schooner Joseph Pulitzer with an 80-horsepower 
gas engine, which will give her a speed of 10 miles. The 
pilotage service between Portland and the sea will be 
taken over by the Port July 1. 

The dredge Clatsop is on the drydock for cleaning and 
painting. 



Long Beach. 
The Craig Shipbuilding plant will endeavor to prepare 
the large tug they are building for the Western Pacific 
Railroad Company for laiuiching on July 4. 

Seattle. 

The steamer Morning Star is at Eagle Harbor for re- 
pairs. She run ashore at Deception Pass April 31, and 
upon examinati(m it was found that her forefoot was 
started and she was leaking in the bilges. 

The A. S. S. Victoria, which has been idle all winter, 
was docked at Quartermaster's Harbor May 2 and re- 
ceived a general overhauling, prior to proceeding to 
Valdez and Cordova. The Victoria will take the place of 
the Pennsylvania for one trip, while the latter is being 
overhauled and painted. 

The S. & H. S. S. St. Croix was on the Moran Com- 
pany's drydock for one week, having part of her copper 
sheathing removed and iron work substituted to protect 
her from the ice floes of Bering Sea. 

Built for Maurice MeMicken, a prominent Seattle 
lawyer, and equipped at a cost of about $20,000, the most 
pretentious houseboat in the Northwest was launched last 
evening at 7:30 o'clock at the yards of Joseph Sloan, on 
the East waterway. The ceremony was attended by a 
party of Mr. MeMicken 's friends and after the launching, 
at which Mrs. MeMicken christened the boat Lotus, an 
enjoyable luncheon was served on board. The vessel will 
be finished in a few weeks and will be used by the owner 
for cruising about the inland waters of Puget Sound and 
the northern coast. 

The Lotus is 93 feet long, 18 feet beam and draws six 
feet of water. She is equipped witli an 80-horsepower 
Globe engine and can make about 10 miles an hour. She 
has a fuel capacity for 1,000 miles. Designed and built 
under the supervision of Lee & Brinton. marine archi- 
tects, she is complete in every respect. 

The owner's cabin is forward and extends the full 
widtli of the boat, with his private Imth on the port side 
in the rear. On the starboard side are two staterooms, 
each containing two beds. The main saloon, which is 
finished in fir. is 14x17 feet. 

Back of the engine room are the crews' quarters, gal- 
ley and servants' quarters. On the upper deck the pilot 
house is just in front of the smoking room, which is 
finished in fir. The vestibule is finished in mahogany and 
the staterooms in white enamel. The Lotus carries three 
boats, one a 20-foot power craft, a 14-foot gig and a 12- 
foot dingey. She is lighted by electricity, has hot and 
cold water in all rooms and has an electric hoist or wind- 
lass to operate the anchor. She will be complete by 
June 1. 

Marshfield. 

The Smith-Power Logging Company have finished a 
new stern-wheel tugboat, which . will be used in towing 
logs on the bay and river. 



The Western Steamboat Company, of New W^estmin- 
ster, B. C, has abandoned its steamer Ramona, which 
sank near Fort Langley April 21st. The steamer was 
valued at $18,000, the only parts worth salvaging being 
the engine and machinery, which will be removed and 
sold. 

A modern principle of education; is if you are in doubt upon a subject the 
next best thing to know is where to look for definite information; the proper 
application of this principle in business transactions is an indication of progress, 
and must bring about the same deeree of success in the latter case as in the for- 
mer, and has made the name of Weeks, Emerson & Howe, San Francisco, so well 
identified with the Ship Chandlery business on the Pacific Coast. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 18 



PROPOSED ORGANIZATION 



OF 



The Pacific Coast Commercial Bureau 



Our Infantile Elfforts and Hopes for the Rehabilitation of the American 
Merchant Marine receive encouragement. 



On January 9 of the present year Pacific Merchant Marine made its first appearance in public. One object 
prompted the enterprise. Many predictions were made upon the success of the same. Our efforts have been 
crowned with success, to the extent that we are justified in placing our magazine at the disposal of those who 
fully aopreciate the commercial advantages of the Pacific Coast and who are willing to inaugurate a movement 
from which results are sure to follow. 

With this object in view, each merchant citizen of the Pacific Coast interested in the commerce thereof ia 
respectfully reouested to forward his name and address to this ofl9ce. When sufficient names have been re- 
ceived notice will be sent from this office of a meeting to be held wholly and solely for the purpose of forming 
an organization in the interest of the commercial resources of the Pacific CoMt. 

Pending comoletion of the proposed organization, no person in the employ of this paper is authorized to call 
upon or otherwise communicate with you, and we earnestly request that any breach of this fact shall be promptly 
reported at our office. 

PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE. 

95 MARKET STREET. 

SAN FRANCISCO. CAL 



16 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 





OTII the yachtsmen and the 
motorboat contingent are thor- 
oughly pleased with the sea- 
son's opening, and the prospects 
for a successful year are look- 
ing better every day. After the 
earthquake many of the old- 
timers dropped out of the game, 
and those who would have liked 
to get into it hardly had the 
necessary time or money to de- 
vote to it. Now, however, things 
have dropped back to normal, and those who enjoy a 
whiff of the salt air and the tingle of the salt spray are 
rapidly getting into line and the pleasure of the boat- 
ing game is booming in all its branches. 

The local builders report a steadily growing demand 
lor boats, especially launches, and the end of this season 
will see more pleasure craft on San Francisco Bay and 
its tributaries than ever before. 

Last Sunday the San Francisco Yacht Club's opening 
cruise about the bay started the ball rolling on the 
Sausalito side, and although some of the yachts were not 
in commission, a fine showing was made. The jinks Sat- 
urday night were all that the jinks committee promised 

and thoroughly enjoyed by all present. 

« # » 

Com. Fulton Berry, who has for many years been a 
prominent figure in yachting circles, and especially in 
the Corinthian Yacht Club, has, much to the surprise of 
his friends, put up his sloop Nixie for sale. Nixie is one 
of the finest yachts on San Francisco Bay and would be 
a welcome acquisition to any of the local clubs, and there 
is much speculation as to who will be the lucky pur- 
chaser. She will be sold at auction on the floor of the 
Merchants' Exchange, Thursday, May 27, at 1:30 p. m. 
Her dimensions are 52 feet over all, 38 feet water line, 
14 feet beam and 8 feet draft. 

The members of the Corinthian Yacht Club are much 
exercised over the fact of the sale, and it is hoped that 
she will be bought in by some of the club members. 

Com. Berry has for some time been in poor health, 
and his doctors have ordere'd a complete change of cli- 
mate, necessitating his absence for six months or a year. 
It is generally rumored, however, that upon his return 
he will build a larger boat, as he is one of the most en- 
thusiastic yachtsmen on this coast, and it is hardly pos- 
sible that he intends to give up the game. 

• « « 

Capt. Harry Diamond's sloop, Aeolus, is now in com- 
mission and ready for a season's^ sport. Aeolus was at 
one time the fastest thirty footer on the bay and is the 
winner of many trophies. 

« * * 

G. R. McGuffick is contemplating the purchase of the 

yawl Sea Bird. 

» « * 

The .sloop which has been building in the shop of Pete 
Swanson at Belvedere was hauled out onto the ways yes- 
terday prei)aratory to launching, which will probably 
take place early next week. She is from the design of the 
!Macarthy Brothers, her owners, and is intended for use 



on Corte Madera creek and about the bay. The owners 
expect her to show good speed in addition to being a 
comfortable and seaworthy cruiser, and those who have 
seen her are inclined to agree with them in this. 

* * * 

The announcement that Sir Thomas Lipton will again 
try for the America's Cup and will forward his challenge 
to the New York Yacht ("lub next August, has just been 
formally made from Naples, where Sir Thomas is with his 
yacht Erin. 

* * * 

D. C. McDowell of Sacramento recently launched a 
21-foot motorboat, which on its trial trip developed twelve 
miles an hour with four passengers. The power consists 
of a 6-horsepower double opposing Leader engine. 

« * # 

F. Koehler of Sacramento will soon have his 23-foot 

launch completed. 

* * * 

John Norby has been putting the racing sloop Corinth- 
ian into commission for her coming race with the sloop 
Maphe of the San Diego Yacht Club, and her racing crew 
will try her out Sunday. 

* * # 

Ross AVright, who has, for several years, sailed with 
Com. Berry on Nixie, has signed up as one of the crew 
on Capt. Miller's Yankee. 

* * * 

Admiral Geo. Briggs had a merry crew on board his 
Bonita last Sunday and cruised out to heads and around 
the bay, finally running up to Escalles,. where- a slight 
beverage was indulged in. 

We are told that a certain well known yachtsman 
went to sleep at the wheel last Sunday night and mistook 
California City for Oakland upon awakening. 

* * * 

Several Seattle launches operating on Lake Washing- 
ton have been re]iorted ])y the revenue cutter service to 
the local custom house for having insufficient equipment 
and for otherwise failing to obey the regulations. It is 
said that half a dozen owners have been found disobey- 
ing the law. The charges are now under consideration, 
and it is expected that a few penalties will be enforced 
by the department of commerce and labor in order to 
draw attention to the requirements of the regulations. 

The launches reported have been found without proper 
e<|uipment, such as whistle, fog horn, lights or without 
the pilot rules posted. 

"Persons operating small vessels can get information 
as to the rules and regulations," said a member of the 
local custom force yesterday. "In this office we will be 
glad to furnish all data that is necessary. 

"There will be heavy traffic on the lakes this summer 
and there are many new boats in service. Government 
agents will be active to see that there are no violations 
of the law. and it will be well for owners and operators 
to inform themselves as to what is required aiul to comply 
with the regulations. There will be special details, both 
from the customs and revenue cutter services, to look 
for offenders." 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



17 



Mi-ssrs.' I*. Bahr and W. F. Holmes of Oakland, Cal.. are 
liavin^ a 4()-f<H>t high-speed cruiser huilt from designs l>y 
Carlson & Corficld. 

The plans show a type of l)oat very |x>pular for week-end 
excursions about San Francisco hay an»l trihutaries, the 
speed jiiviiiK sufficient cruising radius to enable the owners 
to spend nearly all day Suntiay at the.jKiint of amusement. 
The dimensions are as follows: Length over all, 40 ft.; 
beam over planking, 5 ft. 5 in.; draft e.xtreme, 28 in.; freo- 
boanl forward, .{ ft. 6 in.; freeboani amidships, 2 ft. 9 in.; 
freeboard aft, 2 ft.; headroom in cabin, 5 ft.; weight of hull, 
lbs.; weight of engine, 2(M)() lbs.; displacement with 
lie!, passengers, etc.. 52()() lbs.; seating capacity, 12 pe<»ple. 
The general finish of the cabin is quartereil oak with semi- 
ermanent plate gla.ss windows .■{-10 in. thick. The sills 
Fare arranged to drain overboard thereliy protecting the 
upholstering and interior finish fn)m the wet. 

Jiy e.xtending the tran.som .seats, two comfortable berths 
can be made up. using the upholstering for the mattress. 
The bedding is stowed in the lockers underneatli. 

The cockpit is self-bailing with a comfortable "lazy back" 
seat acn)«8 the stern. Chairs and campstools pn>vide 
(Seating capacity for the rest of the passengers. 



The propelling power of the boat if a 6-eyliniler 4-cycle. 
make and break gasoline motor of .'>■.,> in. Itore and 5 in. 
stroke, deveU>ping alxmt 5K horsepower. It turns a 21-in. 
diameter by .S6-in. stroke bn)n«* propeller, 10()() revolutions 
per minute and is expecte<l to drive the boat betwwn 
15 and 16 miles* per hour. The shaft is bare from the slwve 
aft and is carried on two struts. 

The s|}ei'ifications call for a Iniat of light construction 
with .scantlings as follows: stem 2 in. siilwl; keel, l?-4 x 4 in. 
oak; fram«» oak '-^ in. x Vu i'l-; planking % in. cedar; deck, 
i^ in. T. & G. covereii with canvtis; clamp 1^ in. x 4 in.; 
stringers Hh in. x 3 in. 

The lM>at is arranged with the fore \n>»k separated from 
the engine r(H>m by means of a water-tight bulkhead. 

The engine riH)m can be entered either thn>ugh the hatch 
in the deck or through a dtwir from the cabin. Over the 
engine a light hunting hood is built for lieadnMim and a 
hatch on top of this IkkkI provides accerw for a general 
overhauling of the engine. The im|>ortant item of ventila- 
tion has been taken care of by mejins of a cowl on the deck, 
three |)ort« on the side an<l thre<» jxirts in the hunting hood. 
Addition:il light is obtained through the gloss windows of 
the engine hatch. 




mmmmf . i , ^ 




Portyfoot High-Speed CniUer Designed by Carlson ft Corfleld, Alameda. Cal.. 1909. 



STEAM YACHT "LtCERA." 

The cut shown herewith is of the steam yacht "Lucera" 
owned by Capt. Harr>' (i(M)dall of the San Franci.sco Yacht 
Club. "Lucera" was built for Charley Fair, in 189.5 and 
was eqtiippe.l with a gasoline engine. With this equipment 
however she was hardly a success, as at that tinie the in- 
ternal combustion engine had not yet reached its present 



KONOCTI BEATEN BY GENERAL XL 

A surprise was handed to the local niotorboat enthusi- 
asts last Saturday when (icneral II. own<'<l by K. For- 
rest Mitchell and Bernard l\lune of Sa<Taniento, beat 
Gray & Holt's famous Konocti by three seconds. 

Satuniay's race was the first of a series of three out 
of five and Gray and Holt still have ho]..-. "T coining out 
victorious. 




LUCERA, 8. F. Y. C, CAPT. GOOOALL. 

state of perfection. "Lucera" was pun-ha.seil in MHVi by 
Capt. (i(M)dall. entirely remodeled and a 2.5() H. 1*. tri|)le 
expansion steam engine installed, giving her a speed of alxjut 

15 knots an hour. She is fitfe.l up in the most luxurious 
style and conipares favorably with any of the F^ustem yachts 
of her size. 

Her principal dimen.sion8 are as follows: 92 ft. over all, 

16 ft. beam. 8 ft. side, 10 ft. draft. 




Utinnil il is a nauii smaller lM>al than Konoeti and 
of a dilTerent type, but Saturday's performance proves 
that she is a dangerous rival and makes her the favorite 
in the betting. 

The tJeneral II has a record of victories in the Fast, 
where it won the Saginaw river championship and the 
Saginaw valley championship, developing a speed of 25V1; 
miles an hour. 



18 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



HOW TO PAINT A BOAT. 

How to paint a boat and how to make the paint wear 
and stay bright after it is applied are two very different 
problems. 

There is eonsiderabLe art, or. at least, "knack;" in 
the proper wielding of the brush — and good paint can 
be made to go wrong by poor application — but no amount 
of skillful work will make good paint out of badly chosen 
material. 

As a general thing, it pays to employ a good painter, 
no matter what the job is, and the painting of large ves- 
sels is always very wisely put into the hands of experi- 
enced painters. The owner of the pleasure boat, how- 
ever, is apt to consider painting as much a part of the 
sailor's work as knotting, splicing, casting an anchor or 
furling a sail. If he takes that view of it, he should 
learn to know paint materials and how to mix them and 
how to apply them. 

What Parts to Paint. 

The outside of the hull, deckhouse and some parts of 
the interior, are proper subjects for the paint brush, and 
some of these parts should receive attention every year. 
Preparing the Surface. 

If the woodwork to be painted is new, dust it off 
carefully and cover all knots and sappy streaks with 
orange shellac. The shellac should be made as follows: 
Four pounds dry orange gum shellac thinned with one 
gallon of pure grain alcohol. Prepared shellacs are often 
made up with deleterious oils which either fail to dry 
hard or crack off. Put the shellac on thin. If too thick, 
the paint will alligator, leaving the knots bare. Prime 
the new wood with a thin coat made up as follows: 
Priming Coat. 

100 i)ounds pure white lead, 

6 to 7 gallons pure raw linseed oil, • • 

1 gallon pure turpentine, 

ll^ pints pure turpentine Japan drier. 

All paint should be mixed from these ingredients at 
the time of painting, not only because the composition of 
prepared paints is uncertain, but also because pigment 
and oil should not be allowed to stand long after being 
:nixed together before the paint is applied. 

After the priming coat has thoroughly dried, all 
cracks, nail holes, dents and defects in the surface should 
l)e carefully filled with putty. Use sandpaper to take 
the gloss off the shellacked knots and to smooth down 
rough places. 

Body Coat. 

Mix the second coat of jiaint as follows: 

TOO pounds pure white lead, 

li/> gallons raw linseed oil, 

11/2 gallons turpentine, 

IY2 pints Japan drier. 

It depends upon how many coats are to be applied, 
as to how the third coat should be mixed. Many boat- 
men put on five or six coats brushed out very thin. 
This is without question the best practice, not only for 
boat painting, but for any painting, for several thin coats 
are much better than the same thickness of film secured 
by putting on two or three thick coats. 

Repeat, therefore, the second coat as many times as 
may be desired, and then finish with a coat mixed as 
follows : 

Finishing Coat. 

100 pounds pure white lead. 

^2 gallon pure raw linseed oil, 

2 gallons turpentine, 

ly^ pints turpentine Japan drier. 

These formulas give a "flat" or dull surface, which 
wears much better under exposure to the water than a 
film rich in oil. 



Interior Painting. 

For painting interior woodwork in cabins, saloons, 
etc., proceed as follows: 

New woodwork should have a thin coat of orange 
shellac, which will prevent the sap from discoloring the 
paint. Sandpaper the shellac with fine paper before 
painting. Putty all nail holes and joints. 
Priming Coat. 

100 pounds pure white lead, 

2 gallons pure turpentine, 

y2 gallon pure raw linseed oil, 

11/2 pints pure turpentine Japan drier. 
Second Coat. 

100 pounds pure white lead, 

2 gallons pure turpentine, 

1 pint light enamel varnish, 

IMi pints turpentine Japan drier. 

Repeat this second coat until all dark places of the 
wood are thoroughly covered. This will give a "flat" or 
dull finish. If an egg-shell gloss is desired, apply another 
coat mixed as follows: 

Egg-Shell Gloss Finish. 

100 pounds pure white lead, 

2 gallons turpentine, 

11/2 pints turpentine Japan drier, 

1/2 gallon liglit enamel varnisli. 
Gloss Finish. 

For a glo.ss finisli add three pounds pure white lead, 
in oil, made into a thick paste with turpentine, to one 
gallon of light varnish. Mix well and apply the same 
as paint. 

Any desired tint can be obtained with white lead ex- 
cept the very dark ones. A very little lamp black. or 
drop l)lack to the hundred pounds of white lead makes 
various grays. A little Prussian blue in white lead makes 
the lighter blues; and so on for all tints of the rainbow. 
Painting Metal Parts. 

Iron and steel hulls, masts or other metallic parts of 
a vessel, should be painted first with red lead, mixed 2.5 
to 31] pounds of red lead per gallon of pure linseed oil. 
The linseed oil should be one-third boiled and two-thirds 
raw oil. Varying quantities of red lead are given be- 
cause conditions are not always the same. The more 
pigment to the gallon of oil the better, up to 33 pounds. 

After two coats of red lead, finish with white lead 
tinted to suit, if on ornamental parts, or with anti-foul- 
ing paint below the water-line if desired. On the latter 
point, however, the best practice is to let the red lead 
stand uncovered below the water line. 

A Few General Suggestions. 

Ill mixing i)aiiit, break up the white lead into a thin 
paste, then add the drier and whatever tinting colors 
may be desired, thoroughly incorporating them with the 
lead and oil. Then add the balance of the oil. 

Use a round pound brush for general painting and 
brush the paint out- well. 

Have a different brush for each color to be used. 

Use a small fitch or sash-tool for corners and other 
places hard to get at. 

Be particular to give plenty of time for each coat to 
dry before another is applied. 



i 



Articles of incorporation have been filed in Sacramento 
by the Washington Motor Boat Club. The directors are 
E. M. Brown. George A. Meyers. C. A. Clark, R. C. Blohm, 
and Alfred Dalton Jr. The organization is incorporated 
for a term of fifty years, and Sacramento is named as its 
principal place of business. The articles .state that the 
purposes of the corporation are to aciiuire, operate, and 
use motor boats and other water craft, and for the social 
entertainment of club members and others. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



19 



NOTICE TO NAVIGATORS, MARINE ENGINEERS, 

MARINERS AND SEAMEN 

This page will be reserved exdiuively for all official notices and information of importance 



Information of Importance to mariners bound for the can- 
neries In the North PaclHc and lierlng Sea U given In the 
current number of the pamphlet issued by the U. S. Hydro- 
graphic Office. Northern waters are not yet accurately chart- 
ed and navigators have to proceed with extreme caution. Where 
raaHters (Ind conditions contrary to what the charts represent, 
the Hydrographlc Ufflce arc pleased to learn of the discrep- 
ancies. 

The master of the schooner North King. rej)orta that only 
two ratboms of water can be carried through IsanotskI Strait 
at the east end of Unimak Island. Therefore vessels can pass 
through the strait only at high water. At the northern end of 
the strait there are depths of two fathoms, but one-half mile 
off shore there are only two fathoms, where the charts show 
sixteen, eleven and twelve fathoms. Isnotski Strait is some- 
times used bv smaller vessels which wish to attempt the 
shorter passage into Bering Sea, rather than go around by 
way of Unimak pass. 



k 



The following hydrographlc information concerning Bristol 
Bay and Vl>*' approach of the Nushagak river, Alaska, has been 
received from Warren & Co., salmon |)ackerB: 

"Vessels bound into the Nushagak river usually proceed 
northeastward along the north coast of the Alaskan peninsula 
to the Chlcagof (Ugaguk) river, and then ahead across the bay 
for Cape Constantlue. Some vessels go to the northeastward 
far enough to sight Johnston's hill, which is 8now-capi)ed the 
year around, before heading across the bay for the Nushagak 
river. This course Is not always practicable, however, and 
some years It Is necessary to steam northward from I'nimak 
pass and approach Nushagak river from the westward, skirting 
the ice pack along Its northi-rn edge. 

"The land of Cat)e ConKtantine and its immediate vicinity 
Is low, and in the spring, when covered with Ice and snow, has 
the appearance of floating Ice fields. Vessels heading across 
the bay from the Chlcagof (I'gagukl river for Nushagak river 
should, therefore, keep Round island, which is high and plainly 
visible, in line with Cape Constantlne. The St Nickolas hills 
are five low hummocks, which can only b« se^n from inside 
the river. They are not 2.'>0 feet high, as shown on the 
charts. 

"The prevailing winds in Nristol Bay In the spring are from 
the eastward, but the ice along the northern coast of the 
peninsula does not drift much, although the currents are In- 
fluenced somewhat by the winds. Approximate position of 



Johnston's hill, laUtude 58 deg. 35 min. north long.; 127 dec 
10 min. west" 

Captain J. S. Greene of the steamer .S'evadan re|K)rt8 to the 
Ilranch Hydrographlc Ofllce at San Francisco that on May 4, In 
latitude 47 deg. 37 min. N., longitude 124 deg. 50 min. W. (14 
miles S. 77 W. true from Destruction Id. IJght I he passed a 
mooring buoy, unpalnted, about lU feet in diameter. 

J. C. BURNE3TT, 
Ueut., U. S. N., In charge. 



Mr. R. W. I>x>k of the steamer Newport reports to the 
Branch Hydrographlc Ofllce as follows: 

At the mouth of the Suchiate river, which forms the boundary 
between Mexico and Guatemala, on the I'aclflc side, a shoal has 
made out, the breakers on it extending out one-half mile off 
shore when the sea Is heavy. 

Off the Samala river, in Guatemala, the lO-fathom curve la 
about two miles farther out than chartered on H. O. chart 931. 

At tlie mouth of the lA>mpa river. In Salvador, there is less 
water outside the 10-fathom curve by about three fathoms, than 
U shown on H. O. chart 9:<1. 

The report on the condition existing off the Samala river Is 
confirmed by Mr. P. Klocking, first ofllccr of the German steamer 
Brna, who also states that the shoal shown on H. O. chart 931 
at that iioint has extended farther to the northwestward and 
southeastward and that it breaks all the way along. 

J. C. BURNETT, 
Ueut. U, S. N., in charge. 



NOTICH TO MARINERS, POINT CAHRIKLO. CAh. (Mat of 
Lights and Fog-Signals, Pacific Coast, 1908, page 22, No, 58. 
and IJst of UghU. Buoys and Daymarks, Pacific Coast, 1908. 
page 36.) 

.Notice is hereby given that Point Cabrillo Light Station will 
be established June 10. 1909, on Point Cabrillo, about 350 feet 
from its end, about 25 miles NNW'iy from Point Arena Light 
House, and about 73 miles SB'ly from Ca|ie Mendocino IJght 
House. 

The light will be of the third order, flashing white every 10 
seconds, 84 feet above the water. 32 feet above base of tower, 
and should be visible 14 3-4 miles in clear weather, the ob- 
server's eye 15 feet above the water. 

The tower is a white octagonal frame structure, with brown 
trimmings, and surmounted by a black cylindrical lantern. It 
rises from the rear of a one-story, white, fog-signal building 



TlUK TABLE TO WEEK ENDING 8ATUKDAY, JUNE 6. 

Ooldeo Q»t« Entrs nce to a»n Frsndsco Bay. 

. MAY 



Moon 



l.<t. guar. 

A 

T. 



Full 
3 



Day of 1 


W 


Mo. 


Frt 


7 


8*1. 


8 


Sun. 


• 


Mon. 


10 


Tuo. 


11 


Wed. 


12 


Thur. 


1.1 


Fri. 


14 


S*t. 


18 


Sun. 


18 


TUM. 


17 


18 


wm.. 


19 


; Thur. 


20 


Fri. 


21 


Sat. 


22 


Sun. 


2.1 


*2S;. 


34 


25 


Wed. 


20 


Thur. 


27 


Frt. 


28 


8*1. 


29 


Sun. 


.10 


Mm. 


31 



Tlma and Height of High and Low Water 



H. 



H. 



H. 



«<40— 2 
0:02 ^6 



0:82 
1:13 
2:10 
3:U 
0:00 
1:08 
2:03 
2:SS 
3:35 



s s 
r> 3 

.■it 
4 7 
3 2 
2 5 
18 
10 
3 



14:04 4.5 
7:26— 3 
8:14— O 3 
0:08—0.2 
10:05— 1 
11:03 1 



4:22— 3 
5:10— 7 
«:00— 1 
6:48— I 1 
0:25 



Tun. 


1 


Wed. 


2 


;r- 


3 

4 


Sal. 


5 



10 
1:54 
3:00 
4:10 
0:34 
1:30 
2:10 
2:45 
8:10 

3:45 
4:22 



5:20 
0:58 
8:10 
9:12 
10:12 
11:14 
12:14 
1.1:15 
14:16 



4 5 
4 6 

4 7 
5.0 

5 1 
5 
5 
4 8 
4 



.■J 7 
5 2 
4 7 
4 2 
3 2 
2 7 
2 1 
I « 
1.1 
J UN 
5 




7:40— O 9 
8:27— 7 
9:20— 3 



5.-00— 5 
8:44--0 8 
6:25-^-0 9 



10:10 
11 (10 
.1:45 
fi:.i8 
8:00 
9:00 
9:48 
E 

10:.18 
11:25 
12:15 
13:06 
14:00 



4 3 

4.4 
4 4 

4 5 
4.5 
4 5 



18:35 
15:04 
IH:08 
17:10 
18:05 
18:50 
12:02 
13:08 
14:00 
14:50 
15:15 
10:20 
17:04 
17:50 
18:38 
15:20 
16:20 
17:18 
18:08 
18:50 

ir.vi 

12:45 
13:28 
14:08 
14:45 

15:25 
16:05 
16:45 
17:25 
18:14 



3 2 

4 6 
4 
4 7 

4 7 

5 
4 
7 
10 
13 
17 
2 



2.1 

2 3 

2 
3.0 

3 2 
3.3 



19:12 3 3 

20:15 3 5 

21:20 3.7 

22:40 3.5 



19:30 
20:04 
20:40 
21:14 
21:50 
22:25 
23:04 
23:42 



19:22 
19:54 
20:22 
20:45 
21:00 

Xl:.10 
22:00 
22.14 
23:05 
23:40 



5 2 
5.4 
5.6 
5 9 
0.1 
3 
3 
0.2 



19:30 3.4 

20:32 3.0 

21:48 3.9 

23:15 3 



5 3 
5 
5.4 
5.5 
5.0 

5 7 

5 8 

5 9 



5 9 



Ttmc (ifiMl. Pacific Standard. 120th Meridian W. 

Oh nildnliEht. llh— noon. I«» than 12— Forenoon, greater than 12— after- 
noon hither numliers — 12 — afternoon time. 

N— New .Moon. E— Moon on the Equator. R. I. — farthest N. or S. of Equator 
A. P. — Moon In apofee or perifee. 



HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE 



DEPTH AT MEAN LOW WATER. ENTRANCE TO HARBORS 



Place 



Grays Harbor 

Willapa Bay 

Columbia River 
Nehalem River 
Tillamook Bay 

Ysqulna Bay 
SiUHlaw River 



Umpoua River 
Coos Bay 

Coquille River 

Rogue River 



Klamath River 
Humboldt Bay 



Ssn Pedro Bay 
San Dicgn Bav 
Ssn Pablo Bay 



Feet 


Date 


18 


Hay I 


27 


May 1 


24 
9 
9 


Feb. 6 
Apr. 30 
Apr. 30 


13 
4 


Mar. 12 
May 1 


12 
17 


May 1 
May I 


8 


May 4 


8 
18 


May 2 
May I 


19 
'25 
24 


Apr. 30 
May 3 
[Apr. 21 ( 



Remsrks 



13 ft. at L. W. in channel to Ho- 

quiain and Alx-rdo-n. 
No cliangi' in diaiincl: 16 r('<-t M. 

L. W.iii cluinni-l to.South liend. 

Channol i." 300 ft. south of buoy. 

Depth of 8 ft. at L. W. in chan- 
nel to Garibaldi, 

Clinnncl not changed. 

B<-»('i>ri I in iM-urh in line with 
miuth side of gulch leadK over 
Ijar. 

Channel i.* in gtMxl condition. 

12 ft. at L. W. to North B«-nd; 
II ft. at L. W. lo Marshfield. 

Channel nhifted north close to 
jetty. 

No opportunity for noundings 
btely: l)efore rise there wss 
7 fcK-t on the bar. 

Channel .shifting t<i southwest. 

North channel crooked and dif- 
ficult; 15 feet in «)Uth chan- 
nel at I.. W. 

No change in channel. 

No change in channel. 

Depth in dredged channel. 



20 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



with brown trimmings and red roof. Three white, two-story 
frame dwellings, with red roofs, stand about 600 feet E'ly from 
the tower; a white barn, with red roof, and several small out- 
buildings near by. 

The approximate geographic position of the light, as taken 
from Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart No. 5705, is latitude 39 
deg. 20 min. (50 sec.) N., longitude 123 deg. 49 min. (35 sec.) W. 

Point Arena Light House, 170 deg. 36 min. true (SSE. % E. 
mag). 

Punta Gorda, 335 deg. 19 min. true (NW. % N. mag). 

The fog signal, a first-class, compressed-air siren, will sound 
thus: 

Blast, 2 sec; silent interval, 2 se6.; blast_ 2 sec; silent in- 
terval, 24 sec. 



NOTICE TO MARINERS, HUMBOLDT, CAL. (List of Lights 
and Fog^ignals, Pacific Coast, 1908, page 24, No. 61, and List 
of Lights, Buoys and Daymarks, Pacific Coast, 1908, page 37.) 

Notice is also given that the characteristic of the fog-signal at 
Humboldt Light-Station, Cal., will be changed about July 1, 1909, 
to sound as follows: 

Blast, 4 sec; silent Interval, 26 sec; blast, 4 sec; silent In- 
terval, 26 sec 

W. G. MILLER, 
Commander, U. S. N., 
Inspector, 12th Light House District. 



NOTICE TO MARINERS, SAN PABLO BAY, CAL. (List of 
Lights, Buoys and Daymarks, Pacific, 1908, page 30.) 

Notice is hereby given that San Pablo Bay Buoy No. 1_ 
marking the end of the shoal off Mare Island, San Pablo Bay", 
Cal., heretofore reported almost submerged, was replaced by a 
new buoy May 11. 

W. G. MILLER, 
Commander, U. S. N., 
Inspector, 12th Light House District. 



CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS. 

The United States Civil Service Commission announces that 
the following examinations will be held at San Francisco, Cal., 
at an early date: 

Architectural and structural steel draftsman. 

Assistant chemist (male), office of public roads. Department 
of Agriculture. 

Mechanical assistant, with knowledge of refrigerating ma- 
chinery. Department of Agriculture. 

Photo engraver, Philippine service. • 

At Orland, Cal., an examination will be held on May 26, 1909, 
for the position of junior clerk in the reclamation service. For 
application blanks for the junior clerk examination, applicants 
should addreSs the board of examiners, reclamation service, at 
Orland, Cal. 

For application blanks for any of the other positions men- 
tioned above, address Secretary twelfth civil service district, 
postofflce building, San Francisco, Cal. 



SIGNS OF THE PROXIMITY OF ICE IN NAVIGATION. 

The proximity of ice is indicated by the following 
described signs, and, if even only one of these is noticed, 
the necessary caution should be used, for, although a 
vessel may receive serious damage from contact with 
masses of ice, the exercise of proper care will make it 
possible to avoid collision with a large berg. 

Before ice is seen from deck the ice blink will often 
indicate its presence. This is readily understood when 
it is known that it is caused by the reflection of the rays 
of light from the sun or moon. On a clear day over 
the ice on the horizon the sky will be much paler or 
lighter in color and is easily distinguishable from that 
overhead, so that a sharp lookout should be kept and 
changes in the color of the sky noted. 

On a clear day icebergs can be seen at a long dis- 
tance, owing to their brightness, and at night to their 
effulgence. During foggy weather they are seen through 



STUART 8. DUNBAR 



211 Buckley Bldg. 
Market 4 Spear Sts . 
San Francisco 



NAVAL ARCHITECT 



Phone Kearny 4731 
YachU & Work BoaU of All Cluus Datigiicd & Construction Superintended 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 

SHIPBUILDING AND ENGINEERING. 

UNION IRON WORKS, 320 Market Street. ~ 



OIL BU RNERS. 

S. & p., 102 Steuart St. Phone Kearny 629. 



BOAT BUILDERS. 

JOHN TWIGG & SONS CO., Illinois St., near Eighteenth, S. F. 
GEO. W. KNEASS. 18th and Illinois Sts., S. F. 

SHIP PLUMBERS. 



ANDERSON BAILEY, 216 Steuart St., S. F. 



WIPING RAGS. 

THE RAYCHESTER CO., 1448 Folsom St., S. F. 
Sanitary Manufacturing Co., 2208 Folsom, S. F. 



Shipwright Cauilter Sparmalcer 

Launclies Yaclits 

H. ANDERSON. BOAT BUILDER 

Repair Work on Ways 
Cor. 9tli Ave. & G St. So. c r • /^ 1 

Plione Butchertown 61 San f rancisco, V^al. 



the fog by their apparent blackness, if such a term can 
be applied. 

They can also be detected from the echo of the steam 
whistle or fog horn. This should be remembered, since, 
by noting the time between the blast of a whistle and 
the reflefcted sound, the distance of the object in feet 
may be approximately found by multiplying by 550. 

The presence of icebergs is often made known by 
the noise of their breaking up and falling to pieces. 
The cracking of the ice or the falling of pieces into the 
sea makes a noise like breakers or a distant discharge 
of guns, which may often be heard a short distance. 

The absence of swell or wave motion in a fresh breeze 
is a sign that there is land or ice on the weather side. 

The appearance of herds of seal or flocks of birds 
far from land is an indication of the proximity of ice. 

The temperature of the air falls as ice is approached, 
especially on the leeward side, but generally onlj' at an 
inconsiderable distance from it. The fall of the tem- 
perature of the sea water is sometimes a sign of the 
proximity of ice, although in regions where there is an 
intermixture of cold and warm currents going on, as at 
the junction of the Labrador current and the Gulf stream, 
the temperature of the sea has been known to rise as 
the ice is approached. If a berg be grounded, water 
flowing past it will be lowered in temperature and thus 
give an indication of its presence. Change of tempera- 
ture may therefore serve as a warning, and frequent ob- 
servations, both of the temperature, of the air and of 
the sea should be taken and considered. 



Tv^J k^Uv^^^ BOAT BUILDER 

r reu rviaimdn Y.rd,&M.n;new.y., Tibu,on,ci 

rhone Mam zUl 
San Francisco Office, 2 1 1 Buckley Bids-. Market & Spear Streets Phone Kearny 473 1 

Pleasure and Comtaercia) Craft of Every Description Built. Yawls and Skiffs in Slock. 
Repairing Promptly Attended To 



LAUNCHES PLANS 



YACHTS 



STONE & VAN BERGEN 

SHIP BUILDERS 

Fool o( Bdier Stmt Su> FranctKo. Cai. 



TUGS 



Estimates 



STEAMERS 











UNION IRON WORKS CO. 

Largest Shipbuilding and Engineering Works on the Pacific Coast 

DRYDOCKING 

Now a Special Feature 

Two Graving; Docks at Hunters Point and Three Floating DtK'ks at foot of I6lh Street 

Best Facilities for All Kinds of Repair Work 

Works: 20th and Michigan Streets City Office: 320 Market Street 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 











I OOIflM^ KorlhrlxT"! 4-<yrl<- rnciiir Ixiilt <in the comt. to m'l 
•-'-"-' »^*l~v» cuut cunilttlnnii. at * n>kM>ti*lrfr Iirlcr ? 

Gorham Engineering Co., Alameda, Cal. 

Many Cott More Nonm Worth More 




Knfin™ 3 lo 100 H. P. 



SO H. i\ i;» ll». Ml fCrrle 






■■'UAV'V.:,Xf^,it-.v 










Mi m 



4 



': It 












CONVENTION OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE 

AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE 

IN SAN FRANCISCO 



Henry Cowell Lime & Cement Co. 

MT. DIABLO CEMENT 

SANTA CRUZ LIME 

ALL KINDS OF BUILDING MATERIAL 
Delivery Department, Union and Front Streets. Office 95 Market Street 

SAN FRANCISCO Phone Kearny 2095 CALIFORNIA 



ORGANIZATION ON THE PACIFIC COAST IN BEHALF OF 

AMERICAN COMMERCE SIGNIFIES THE EXTENT 

OF OUR INDUSTRIAL FUTURE 






If 



1 



i 



I 



m 
m 








li 



t) 



The American Merchant Marine 

Hon. Charle* H. Grosvenor 



The Panama Canal 



Election of Officers of the Aquatic Association 

of San Francisco 




Editorial 



Notes of Interest from Pacific Coast Ports 



THE CLARA BARTON SANITARY 
WIPING RAG 




The Clara 
Barton Brand 
of Wiping Rags 
is guaranteed 
to be thorough- 
ly sterilized and 

disinfected 



THE RAYCHESTER CO., INC. 



1448-U60 FOLSOM STREET 



SAN FRANCISCO 



Be sure to have 



CHALLENGE METAL 



For 

High Speed 






For 
Heavy Pressure 



in your important bearings. 
Ask about it. 



SELBY SMELTING & LEAD CO. 



SAN FRANCISCO 



SANITARY 
WIPING RAGS 

Washed and Disinfected 

Exclusive Packers of 
Soft Cotton Wiping Rags 

SANITARY MANUFACTURING GO. 

2208-2210 FOLSOM STREET 
Phone Market 1195 S&n Francitco 




COLOR WORK A SPECIALTY 




The Buckley Cafe 



DETJENMENCBL CO.. lacorponicd 



H. L DBTJEN. MuMc 



German Bakery 
and Restaurant 



Confectionery 

Jill kindi of Cakes to 
Older at Short Notice 



Buckley Building, 97 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 
S. E. CornerSptarSi. One block from Ferry Phone Douglu 2713 




GEO. W. KNEASS 

otric* «i>d Wo>k> 

ISih and lllinoit Street* 

Pbos* MaHiat S«b Fraaciace. 

»43 CaL 



B OAT BUILDER 

Baal Malarial aad 50 BaaU el all 
DaKrtptioB* For Sala 

HaR I'oli-s. Hallfi aii"l Truckn. lloti»e 
Movrni and Box Kollefs ooiutantljr 
on hand. Wood Tumlnc 



Steamship Men Take Notice! 

Tba National Laundrjr k Mattreii Renova- 
tory CompaDT will civ* batter reiulta both 
In quality and prica than ean b« had elia- 
whare. Special rate* and lerrtea cuarantaad. 

O. e. rAIRriCLD. Manaser 
riant, 3M4 18th Btreat Phone Market tl 



Hart-Wood Lumber Co. 

LUMBER SHIPPING 

Wholoale and ReUil 
807 Fife Building San Franciico 



P. M. BAMBINO 

Excluwvr T»ilor 



219-220 BKktey ftU«. 

95 MsftM fttrccc 



Urn PrMcUco. Cil. 




ALKINS QUALITY" 

The best facilities backed by 
experts in each department 
are what made "Calkins Quali- 
ty" the standard in the realm 
of printed publicity. We print 
the Pacific Merchant Marine. 



PRINTING 

ENGRAVING 

BOOK-BINDING 



CALKINS 

PUBLISHING HOUSE 

Calkins Buiidine, San Francisco 
Phone Douglas 3140 



Matson Navigation Company 



268 Market Street 



Phone Douglas 3030 



Direct Line Passenger and Freight Steamers and Sailing Vessels to 

Honolulu, Hilo, Kahului, Mahukona, Eleele 

From 

Seattle and San Francisco 

For Freight and Passenger Bates apply to 

Alexander & Baldwin, Seattle Castle & Cooke, Honolulu 

Matson Navigation Company, San Francisco 



Moore & Scott Iron Works 

Successors to W. A. BOOLE & SON 

MARINE WAYS AND DRY 
DOCK at OAKLAND CREEK 

MARINE REPAIRS A SPECIALTY 
Main Office & Wor\$: Main & Howard Sts., San Francisco 




P. M. S. S. PENNSYLVANIA. 



EUREKA BOILER WORKS CO. 

Designers and builders of sll kinds of Marine, Station- 
ary, Locomotive, Stiaw-Burning and Traction Engine 
Bcnleis. Special attention paid to Repairs'of Ship Work. 
Boilers. Tanks, and Sheet Iron Work. Building and 
Installing c^ Oil Plants a Specialty. Machine Black- 
smithing. Telephone Kearny 2433. Main Oftce 
Works: 37-59 Mission St., San Francisco, California. 



Telephone Thmporarv 50J 

HERZOG & DAHL 

Electrical Engineers and Contractors 

Marine Electrical Installations, Special Fit- 
tings, Supplies and Repairs. 

150 Steuart St., San Franciaco.Calif ornia 



Plione Kearny 8C7 



Sellers & Madison Co., Inc. 

Paints, Oils, Etc., Ship 
Chandlery, Naval Stores 



SMOOTH ON 

P-icific Coast .\gents 



94-96 Market Street 
SAN FR.\NCISCO 



RKNWICK 2 DICKIK 



DAVID W, DICKIE 



D. W. & R. Z. DICKIE 

Engineers and Na'val Architects 

Room 824. Santa Marina Bldg. 
Phone Kearny 2907 1 1 2 Market Si. 



[ PLANS and SPECIFICATIONS 
I for all kinds of engineering work of 
steel, wood or concrete; oil-burninK 
plants, wharves, bunkers; launches, 
proptrlleTs, steam and gas-engined 
tugs, and steel and wood vessels of 
ail kinds. 



Telephone Douglas 1398 Geo. Anderson 

BAILEY 



Alex P. Bailey 

ANDERSON & 

[Registered] 

Sanitary and Ship Plumbing 

Sheet Metal Work 



216 Steuart St., bet. Howard and Folsom 



San Francisco 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Volume II 



SATURDAY. MAY 22. 1909 



Number 10 



SPEECH OF HON. CHARLES H. GROSVENOR 

of Ohio, in the House of l^epresenlalive* 
April, 1905. 

Mr. Chairman : I propose to adtlrew the House on the 
topic of the .ship-subsidy bill, a topic that is usually dis- 
cussed with a threat deal of interest pending i-anipaiKiis 
before the country and about which very little interest is 
manifested after the election. The language that is used 
ordinarily by the candidate for President, the party plat- 
form, the campaign speakers, and the candidates for Con- 
jrress who are running l)(?fore the people is to announce 
tliat they are in favor of "encouraging" the building of 
ships. I embrace this opportunity to announce that the 
time for "encouragement" has passed and the time for 
assistance is now here. It will not answer in the future 
for any political party or any candidate for any office 
to mislead his hearers by the use of the word "encour- 
age." Kneouragement is a dead letter, and the American 
!• pie who favor some action in behalf of this great 

isure now demand that the friends of the nu'asure 
Nhail co-operate to assist, and "encouragement "• will 
lie hereafter ruled out in party platforms and in in- 
augural addresses and in messages to Congress and in 
solicitation for support by industrial forces of the United 
States. 

What the Bill Will Do. 

This bill of the Merchant Marine Commission, which 
has already passed the Senate, will, in the first place, give • 
the United States what it now ab.solutely lacks — a trained 
naval reserve of the picked oflicers and men of its mer- 
chant marine and fisheries instructed in gunnery, en- 
rolle<i, organized and disciplined, and ready to man the 
auxiliary ships or to re-enforce the fighting crews in case 
of war. Every other maritime power except the United 
Stati's now has such a reserve, a sea militia, a second line 
of ocean defense, holding the same relation to the regular 
navy that is held toward the regular army by our State 
militia or National (Juanl. The existing State naval mil- 
itia in this country is composed almost entirely of lands- 
men, and is u.seful ouly for harbor or coast defense. We 
need a naval reserve of skilled and hardy professional sea- 
men, the possession of which did much to give Japan a 
brilliant victory and the lack of which proved a fatal 
weakness in the naval system of Russia in the recent war. 
Hut we cannot have these naval re«er\'e men unless we 
have, in the first place, ships on which they can follow 
tliiir calling of the sea. This bill will give us a fleet of 
Hfty or sixty first-class ocean steamships running on a 
dozen new lines — vessels aggregating from 2tK),000 to 
i<H),()00 tons, all built on designs approved by the Navy 
Department and held by the terms of their contract ab- 
solutely at the disposal of the Oovemment. These mail 
ships will constitute a naval reserve of fast transports, 
ammunition ships, .supply ships, auxiliary, repair ami hos- 
pital ships, etc., which the report of Admiral Dewey de- 
clares are indispensable to the efficiency of our fighting 
squadrons in case of a contest with a real naval power. 
Without these auxiliaries the most powerful fleet of battle 
ships is worthless. Besides auxiliaries for the Navy — one 
at least for each man-of-war — we must have a large fleet 



of transports to enable us to send our soldiers in an emer- 
gency to China, the Philippines, Hawaii, Alaska, Cuba, 
Porto Ric«>. or the Isthmus of I'anamu. Tlic War Depart- 
ment in its report to the Merchant Marine Commission 
declares that "Now, and for the immediate future, the 
force for which our military establishment is maintained 
cannot be exerted over-sea. The first quick blow, so very 
and increasingly important, cannot be struck at all, nor 
can an expwiition of any greater size be embarked with- 
out delay, except by the use of foreign v»»8sels. This con- 
dition cannot imi)rove until the Amerii-an steam sea- 
going merchant marine has increased in tonnage to ap- 
proximately two and one-half times its pn*sent volume by 
the addition of ships adapted in size and <lesign to quick 
conversion into suitable transports and built under con- 
ditions which make their voluntary surrender to the 
United States on demand a foregone conclusion." 

In other words, in a serious war the United States 
would be absolutely crippled because it has not enough 
ships to send to our possessions over-seas enough men to 
<lefend them against a foreign enemy, and the merchant 
marine of the United States will have to be increased two 
and one-half times before it can transport the troo|>s that 
could be mustered out of our present modest military 
establishment. 

A Great Fleet of Cargo Vessels. 

This bill of the Merchant Marine Commission, through 
its subventions to cargo vessels, will bring, in ten years 
or less, a net addition to our cargo carrying and fishery 
tonnage of l..')(M),(H(() tons, thereby increasing fourf<ild the 
actual ocean ship|)ing of the United States and giving us 
in foreign trade a merchant marine much larger than the 
entire men-hant fleet of France and Norway, twice that 
of Italy, and twice that of Japan. With such a merchant 
fleet as this the I'nited States could carry under its own 
flag, not 10 per cent as now, but 30 or 40 per cent of its 
own imports and exports, and these ships would earn 
for their country, instead of $20.(H)().(K)0. fn.m ♦f.0,0O0,(KK} 
to $80,(N)0.(KIO annually in mail, freight and passenger 
receipts, compensating us many times over for the total 
cost of the subventions. 

These cargo ships and the d(»zen new lines of American 
mail steamshiiis to South America, Central America, Af- 
rica, Asia and the Philippines will reduce freight rates at 
the same time they improve our transportation service. 
They will have the same effect that a i-ompefing railroad 
has upon the traffic of any given comnninity. Instead of 
old, slow, ramshackle foreign craft that now crawl out 
irregularly with our products to South America, we shall 
have regular, swift and economical American steamers. 
These ships must he built in the coast States of the Atlan- 
tic, Pacific or Oulf of Mexico. Hut the materials for their 
hulls and machinery will be drawn from many States — 
from the iron mines of I^ke Stiperior, from the forests of 
Michigan. Wisconsin and the South. And the cargoes 
which these ships will carry will come from every State 
and every Territory in the T'nion. 

A great, prosperous merchant fleet will benefit not 
only the coast States and their people, but the people of 
every State and Territory. This will be a new national 
industry giving work and wages to thousands and tens 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



of thousands of our population. "Ships," declares Presi- 
dent Roosevelt, "work for their own countries just as 
railroads work for their terminal points." These ships, 
once built and afloat, will get to work to make new mar- 
kets for the products of the agriculture of the Mississippi 
Valley, tlie grain States of the Northwest, the cotton 
States of the South and the Southwest, and the manufac- 
tures of New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois 
and Indiana. They will put an end forever to the present 
humiliating dependence upon our foreign competitors for 
the means of reaching the markets where we and they 
are striving for the mastery. We shall have delivery 
wagons of our own with6ut relying upon the delivery 
wagons of our rivals. And above all we shall have wait- 
ing and ready a great fleet of auxiliary and a great body 
of brave, skilled and patriotic American seamen who, 
while serving our trade in peace, will be ready to defend 
our coasts and our flag in war. 



PORTO BELLO QUARRY IN THE CANAL ZONE. 



Capacity of 2,400 Cubic Yards a Day of Eight Hours. 

Two million, two hundred and fifty thousand cubic 
yards of crushed rock are to be used in the concrete work 
of Gatun Locks and the spillway of Gatun Dam. To sup- 
ply this rock the quarries at Porto Belle (a port on the 
Caribbean Sea 18 miles east of Colon) were opened and 
a crusher plant \vith a capacity of 2,400 cubic yards a day 
has been built. An article in The Canal Record of Septem- 
ber 2, 1908, reviewed briefly the conditions at Porto Bello 
and described what had been accomplished up to that 
time. Since then the opening of the quarry has, continued, 
■ and the crusher plant has been practically completed. 

Prom the beginning the construction was delayed by 
slow delivery of materials from the States, and the incon- 
venience of working at a point where a machine shop 
must be erected and a village constructed before the actual 
operations of quarrying and building the crusher plant 
could be carried on economically. On November 20, 1908, 
the earth overlying the rock on the hill above the power 
plant slid and pushed the boilers from their foundations, 
causing an additional delay of several weeks. Notwith- 
standing these hindrances . rock was furnished for the 
spillway concrete as soon as the mixing plant at the spill- 
way was ready. Two crushers are now at work turning 
out 600 cubic yards of rock a day. In the course of six 
weeks all of the eight crushers, comprising two units, will 
be ready for operation. If they work six days a week it 
will require until about January 1, 1913, for the crushers 
to complete their work. 

The Quarry. 

The quarry is in a hill that rises sheer from the water 
on the east side of the entrance to the harbor of Porto 
Bello. Extensive borings indicate that the supply of rock 
is practically unlimited. It has been estimated at twenty 
million cubic yards, and only 6,734,000 yards will be re- 
quired in the construction work — 2,500,000 yards at Ga- 
tun and 4,500,000 in the breakwater in Limon Bay. The 
rock is a massive andesite with a specific gravity of about 
2.70, crushes readily, and is well suited for concrete. 

In opening the quarry work was begup at a point 85 
feet above sea level. A steam shovel was set at work grad- 
ing for the floor of the crusher plant, and has continued 
around the face of the hill, cutting and grading a shelf or 
terrace for tracks and climbing at the grade rate of 2^2 
per cent. The present plan contemplates a line of terraces 
of inclined planes running up to 255 feet above sea-level, 
but it is probable the quarry will be opened up to an ele- 
vation of 300 feet or more. The shelf is made broad 
enough to hold a steam shovel and a double track railroad. 



Before quarrying is begun the rock is stripped of over- 
lying earth by a stream of water forced through a 2-inch 
nozzle, pumped from the bay througli a 10-ineh main by 
an underwriters' pump, delivering 1,500 gallons a minute 
against a static and friction head of 460 feet. The pipe is 
laid up to the 265-foot contour and when the stripping is 
finished it will be used as an, additional air main. The 
stripping is done at less than 2 cents a cubic yard, includ- 
ing the cost of power, pump, hose and labor. The rock 
thus bared is drilled and blasted. Twenty-four 3%-inch 
drills and six 2i/4-inch tripod drills are now in use, and at 
the present time the average day's work for a drill is 
341/; feet, but with more experienced: drill runners 40 to 
50 feet per 9-hour shift will be accomplished. Compressed 
air for the drills is supplied through a 6-ineh main which 
has been laid to an elevation of 265 feet. There is very 
little loss of air at the drills and the working pressure is 
about 100 pounds. The holes are drilled about 10 feet 
apart and are loaded at the bottom and in the middle with 
light charges of 60 per cent dynamite, the object being to 
shatter the rock without throwing itj Toe or lifting holes 
are also used. < 

After it is blasted the rock is loaded upon cars by^ 
steam shovels. Two 70-ton steam shovels are now loading' 
rock, in addition to the two pioneer shovels that are con- 
tinuing the terraces up the hill. When the plant is in full 
operation five 70-ton shovels will be kept busy loading. 
In order that they may not load stone too large for the 
crvisher, the dippers of these shovels have a capacity of 
only l')4 cubic yards, and to enable them to handle stOne 
continuously they are constructed of extra heavy plate 
and have teeth of manganese steel. A two-inch water 
service line supplies the shovels with water. At present 
only a single-track railroad is in use, but when working 
at its full capacity the plant will use double tracks. The 
shovels load the rock upon specially designed Oliver steel 
dump cars of 6 yards capacity. Ten 40-ton, six-wheel, 
.Porter switching locomotives, with a wheel base of 9 feet 
and entire load on the drivers, haul the trains from the 
shovels to the crushers. These locomotives were set up 
at the Porto Bello shop, and are working on as high as a 
41/0 per cent grade and on a maximum 52 degree curve. 
When the permanent track lay-out is completed the curves 
will be reduced to a maximum of 28 per cent and the 
grades to not over 3 per cent. 

Crushers, Power Plant and Shop. 

The crushing plant is built in two units, each consist- 
ing of one No. 9 and three No. 6 McCully gyratory crush- 
ers. Rock is dumped from the cars into the No. 9 crusher, 
which takes stone twenty-two inches in thickness and 
crushes it into pieces not over six inches in size. After 
leaving the No. 9 crusher the rock passes through a re- 
volving screen which allows the pieces less than thr.^e 
inches in size to drop into the main chute. : Pieces larger 
than three inches are delivered to any one of the three 
No. 6 crushers, where they in turn are reduced to three 
inches or less and are dropped into the main chute. At 
present one No. 9 and one No. 6 crusher are in use, and 
they crush 600 cubic yards a day without crowding. The 
second No. 9 and five No. 6 crushers are being installed. 
The two additional No. 6 crushers on the lower bench will 
be erected, although it is not likely they will be used ex-' 
cept in an emergency. v 

From the chute the stone discharges into a double 
transmitting pan conveyor. The conveyors are in dupli- 
cate, and either or both conveyors may be used for either 
or both crusher units. The conveyors take the rock from 
elevation six feet above sea-level up an incline to a point 
36 feet above sea-level, where they dump it through hop- 
pers into duplicate cross-bucket conveyors, which move 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



on trackB aruund the storage l)in, the upper track being at 
elevation 69. From the cross fonveyors the rock is tripped 
into the portion of the bin dtsired. The bin is located on 
the edge of the water, and the rock barges tie up along- 
side of it. It has a capacity of 2,.'>(K) cubic yards. At 
each twelve feet along the face of the bin is a chute 
through which the rock is loach'd into the barges. 

Power to run the crusher plant and compressors, gen- 
crate electricity and pump water to the quarries, is sup- 
plietl from a power house located between the storage bin 
and the face of the hill. Steam is developed by six Os- 
wcgo-McN'aul water tube, brickset boilers, rated at 185- 
horscpowcr each, and two Stirling water tube boilers of 
the same capacity are on order. The fuel used through- 
out the crusher plant and quarries is coal, and a bunker 
capable of holding 1.000 tons has been erected on the 
water front near the power plant and rock storage bin. 
A crane mounted on top of the bunker lifts coal from 
barges by means of a clam-shell bucket, and the coal is 
supplied to locomotives and for the power plant through 
chutes in the rear of the bunker. 

Two tandem comi)ound Hall engines, of 300-horsepow- 
er each, both driving on the sanu> shaft, transmit power to 
the crusher plant. All the power is transmitted by rope 
drives, except that from the main shaft to the counter 
shafts of the No. 9 crushers and screens, and the drives 
to the crushers themselves, which are rubber beltetl. Ma- 
nila rope I'/L' inches in diameter turning on a 10-groove 
pulley is used on the main drive. 

The air coimpressor e(|ui[>mcnt consists of one Laidlaw- 
Dunn-Ciordon compressor, with a capacity of 2,200 cubic 
feet of free air a minute to KM) pounds pressure, and one 
Franklin compressor with a capacity of 1.2(K) feet of free 
air per miiuite to 100 pounds pressure. Both compressors 
are compound for steam and air. A 75-k. w. direct cur- 
rent. 115 volt <lynamo. direct connected to an Ames en- 
gine, furnishes current to light the village, for night 
work in the (piarry. and to run the machinery in the shops. 
A duplicate of this dynamo is on order. The accessory 
plant consists of two condensers with air and circulating 
pumps, feed-water pumps and feed-water heaters. 

To assist in erecting the plant and putting the equip- 
ment in service a machine shop was built and etpiipped 
with the following machines driven by two IS-horsepower 
motors: 

One each — 1,100 pound steam hammer; 60-inch radial 
drill; 30-inch by 30-inch planer; 36-inch by 19 feet engine 
lathe; 24-inch by 22 feet engine lathe; 36-inch double 
piuich shears; 24-inch shai>cr universal crank; 20-inch 
sliding head drill : 6-inch pipe thread and cutting ma- 
chine; 2'/l.-inch single head bolt cutter; coM saw; drill 
grinder; duplex emery grin<icr; frame and stone grind- 
stone; portable boiler testing piimp; portable hydraulic 
crank pin ; press; valve reseating machine. A 30-ton crane, 
5-foot gauge, for wrecking and heavy work, and 15-ton 
crarM". 3-foot 6-inch gear, for general work, are also part 
of the e((uipment. 



LOCAL. 

The Canadian-Australian steamship service between 
Vancouver and Sydney via Honolulu. Suva and Brisbane 
will be continued for another year from July 1st. This 
company, which is .subsidized by the New Zealand govern- 
ment, desired to place faster and more motlern steamers on 
the service than the ones on the nm at present if the subsidies 
were increased in proportion. The New Zealand govern- 
ment refu.sed to do thi-< and the company had to be content 
with terms of the subsidy now in effect. 

The San Francisco and Portland Steamship Company 



operating in conjunction with the Pacific Coast Steamship 
Company, has inaugurated a rate between San Francisco, 
I>os Angeles, San Diego antl Portland whereby passengers 
arc allowcil to stop over four days in San Franci.xco by 
purchasing a ticket costing less than that which is chargell 
for a thn>iii:li fare. The present rate is $27.50, but with 
the lay-over the rate has been re<liice<l to $2t5.35. 

A new uiiifonn rate covering the principal items of freight 
entering the Initeil States fnun the Orient, has Ixjen a(h>pte<l 
by the different transportation companies operating in that 
trade. Matting is one of the heaviest shipments Froni the 
Orient, and the rate upon this class of freight has been 
fixe<l by the steamship lines at forty cents |)er hundre<l 
|M)untls. The rate on teji is now fifty cents, that on raw silk 
$2, and on rice S6 a ton. These represent the larger items 
of merchandise brought to this country from the Asiatic 
ports. 

Following the inauguration of the new trans-Pacific 
.service by the Osaka Shosen Kaisha, the Nip|Km Yuson 
Kaisha is expected to fight injurious competition on its 
North American line to Seattle and Victoria, B. C, at the 
hands of the Osaka Shosen Kaisha. 

The Osaka Shosen Kaisha has l)orn)wcd a million dollars 
on the security of their steamers and will have five new 
steamers in the service by next .lanuary which will entitle 
them to annual subsidies amounting to $.5(K).(KK) from the 
.lapanese government. 

Japan has decided to despatch a warship to the Bering 
Sea on account of the repeate<l seizures there of Japanese 
sealing vessels by American and Hu.ssian warships. 

The Navy Department at Washington has given orders 
to transfer the gunboat Petrel, at present out of com- 
mission at the Marc Island navy yard. fi> the San Diego 
branch of the state naval reserve. 

Mayors Mott and Taylor, of Oakland and Aianie<la 
respectively, and the Chamber of Commerce and Mer- 
chants K.xchangc of OHkland, have indorsed the proposed 
removal of the drawbri<lge at Harrison and Webster 
streets, which is considered a hindrance to the develop- 
ment of Oakland harbor, and the tunneling of the estu- 
ary. 

It is the general opinion that the government will 
have to be consulted before work c«)uld be started on the 
proposed improvements, and in case the government 
would stand some of the cost, which is estimated at 
something over !J!l.O<K).(XK). 

This project was agitated about a year ago, but the 
matter was allowed to rest after favorable reports by 
the committee appointed liatl been receive<l and prelimin- 
ary plans had been drawn up. There is no doubt that 
the project will do Oaklantl's harbor an intwtimable 
amount of good. and. as the traffic through the draw- 
bridges is becoming more congested every month, the 
tunneling, with (he consent of the government, will 
doubtless begin very shortly. 

In a collision between the navy yard tug boat and the 
coal gchooner Amelia in the Marc Island channel. May 
14th, a Chinaman was fatally injured. The tug boat 
was badly damaged and will be laid up for repairs for 
several weeks. 

The American-Hawaiian St<,>amship Company will be 
prepared to handle the infltix of sugnr from the Philip- 
pines to tlie rnite<l States, which will begin as soon as 
('ongress pas.ses a pending bill allowing 3(N).0(K) tons of 
sugar free of duty to enter. 

The Nicaragua Government has stdisidizcd the Nica- 
ragua Develompcnt Company to run a new steamer 
service b<-tween Corinlo in S<nith America and the vari- 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



ous ports of the Pacific Coast, from San Diego to as far 
north as Seattle and possibly Vancouver, B. C. The 
service will be inaugurated within the next sixty or 
ninety days and will be devoted principally to the fruit 
exportation trade, although carrying passengers, arid the 
Nicaragua mails. The new company is now negotiating 
for the charter of a steamer of about the size and capacity 
of the Pacific Mail steamers Peru or Newport. The 
products which this company will bring from Nicaragua 
are now practically all shipped from that country by rail 
and water to New Orleans at an almost prohibitive rate. 

With the advent of the new company shipments will 
come in direct to San Francisco and other Coast ports at 
greatly reduced rates. 

The terms of the concession are that the new com- 
pany will construct a wharf and sidetrack to meet the 
Nicaragua National Railroad at Corinto, construct twenty- 
five miles of railroad from El Viego to Playa Grande on 
the Gulf of Fonseca, the estimated cost of which will be 
$650,000. 

The company has secured a grant of land of 123,000 
acres from the government, all its property is exempt 
from taxation, and it is given the privilege of importing 
machinery and other essentials free of duty. The native 
employees of the company are exempted from military 
duty and taxation. They will pay a bond in the sum of 
$10,000 to the Central American Republic. 

The following capitalists are interested in the enter- 
prise: R. F. Guichard, a retired Oakland fruit merchant; 
J. L. Salazar, a coflfee planter of Matagalpa, Nicaragua ; 
Charles G. Fowler of San Francisco; Tucker, Lynch & 
Caldwell, of 53 Post street, and the Hewson-Phillips 
Company of 24 California street. 

The charge of allowing Michael Gabriel to escape from 
the S. S. Mariposa after having been denied a landing 
by the Immigration authorities, which was filed against 
the Oceanic Steamship Company several days ago, was 
dismissed by United States Commissioner Heaeock after 
the company was admonished to exercise more vigilance. 

The gasoline launch J. C. Elliott, en route from San 
Pedro to Seattle, broke down while bound out to sea 
and was towed into port again for repairs. The Elliott 
was in port for fuel at the time she broke down. 

The Pacific Mail Steamship Company has been fined 
$250 for violating the navigation laws. When the 
steamer San Juan arrived from Ancon, March 26th, the 
Surveyor of the Port discovered that no hospital space 
had been provided for female steerage passengers, al- 
though in a report the hospital was said to be located in 
stateroom No. 7, as the regular hospital room was being 
used for other purposes. Upon investigation this report 
was found to be untrue, and the fine resulted. In its 
report the steamship company applied to Washington 
for relief, but the department refused to remit. 

The Standard Oil ship Acme, which is loading . scrap 
iron for New York at Howard No. 1 wharf, was run 
down by the Associated Oil tug Navigator. The collision 
occurred through the misinterpretation of signals by the 
engineer. The Acme was not damaged, but the Navigator's 
stem will require slight repairs. 

The Associated Oil Company has libeled the tug Relief, 
which was towing the oil barge Rhoderick Dhu at the time 
of her grounding at Moss Rock, for $140,000. It is 
alleged in the complaint that at 2 o'clock on April 26th 
the barge, while in tow of the tug Relief, stranded on 
the rocks at Pintos Point and became a total wreck. 

The power schooner Monterey, formerly running in 
the coastwise lumber trade, has sailed to Behring Sea on 
a whaling expedition. 

The whaling steamer Jeanette is loading at Howard 
street wharf supplies for the two whaling vessels, the 



Herman and Karluk, now in the north, and will sail May 
25th. The Jeanette will call ^t the outer whaling sta- 
tions. 

The Japanese liner Nippon Maru arrived in port May 
21 from the Orient, via Honolulu, with an average sized 
cargo of 2,940 tons, which includes 183 tons of raw silk, 
96 tons of matting, 186 tons of tea and merchandise, and 
1,350 tons of freight for overland shipment. 

The steamer San Mateo cleared for Seattle May 17th 
to enter the Puget Soimd and Alaska run during the 
summer months, under the management of Schuback- 
Hamilton. The steamer was idle in the harbor for a 
year and a half and but lately received extensive repairs. 

The Pacific' Mail liner Korea cleared May 21st for the 
principal ports of China and Japan, via Honolulu, with 
400 passengers and record cargo of freight for this year. 
The cargo amounts to 9,000 tons, of which 4,000 tons are 
for the government at Manila. 

The O. S. S. ]\Iariposa arrived May 13th from Tahiti 
with a general cargo, the principal items of which were 
10,473 sacks of copra,. 1,924 sacks of cocoanut, 490 pack- 
ages of vanilla, and other merchandise. 

The Japanese liner Tenyo Maru sailed May 13th for 
ports of Japan and China, via Honolulu, with an excep- 
tionally light passenger list and an average cargo, which 
included 2,500 bales of cotton and about 1,500 tons of 
general merchandise. 

The British steamer Clan Maclnnes arrived May 14th 
with a cargo consisting of 2,363 bundles of hemp and 
8,500 bundles of kapok. The Maclnnes will operate in 
the service of the Australian Mail line, between this port 
and ports of New Zealand and Australia. 

The American brig Aryan, which was dispatched from 
this port last January, arrived in New York May 13th, 
123 days out. She had a cargo of salmon, wine, scrap 
iron and a ninety-foot Oregon pine pole, which will be 
used as a fiag-pole. 

The British steamer Century sailed May 12th for 
Auckland and Sydney, via Apia, with a general merchan- 
dise cargo valued at $83,742. 

The American ship W. II. Macy arrived May i5th, 
112 days from Sydney, with a cargo of 2,630 tons of 
coke. She reached port leaking and her pumps were 
kept, goijig continually while crossing the Pacific. The 
Macy has been chartered to load lumber at Portland 
for Port Natal on private terms. 

The steamer Greenwood arrived May 16th with a 
small quantity of wreckage from the wrecked steamer 
R. D. Inman. 

The Matson steamer Lurline sailed for Honolulu May 
14th with cargo consigned to various Hawaiian ports, 
valued at $153,513. 

The P. C. S. S. Umatilla will leave June 1st for Nome 
direct with a full complement of passengers. 

The American-Hawaiian Steamship Company's steam- 
er Virginia arrived May 20 from Salina Cruz with 8,500 
tons of cargo from the steamers Isthmian and Oregonian 
from New York. 

The American-Hawaiian steamer Nebraskan will sail 
for Salina Cruz with a large cargo of wine and canned 
goods for New York. 

The O. S. S. Alameda sailed May 15th for Honolulu 
with a mercantile cargo valued at $154,032. 

The French steamer Admiral Ilamelin, of the 
C'hargeurs Reunis line, will arrive on May 24th from 
European ports via Asiatic coast and British Columbia, 
with a cargo of 7,000 cases of liquors, including 3,000 
cases of champagne, 300 tons of marble, 500 tons of 
sulphur, 2,000 rolls of matting, 4,000 mats of rice and 
100 tons of oil cake. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



The Norwegian Hteamer Tlior arrived May 20 from 
Xaiiaiiiio with 7,200 tons of coal eonsigned to the Western 

Fii.'l Co. 



NORTHERN COAST NOTES. 



Portland. 
The newly elected menilx'rx of the Port of Coos Bay 

Coininission met May 10th tiiul Dr. K. Minj,Mis, of Marsh- 
field, was choHen t»'m|)<)rary i-hairtnaii and Henry Seng- 
stacken, temporary secretary. The other niembenj pres- 
ent were W. (". Harris of Sumner, and J. C. Gray of 
North Bend. As the fifth member, W. P. Kvans, was 
ntiahle to attend because of illi^ss, the matter of decid- 
ing who should serve the short and long terms was de- 
ferred until the next meeting. 

The Kitsap Steamship Company's. new steamer Hzak 
replaced the company's steamer Kitsap on the Sound run 
l)etween Seattle and Poulsbo, having entered that 
service May 14th. The Ilzak was built at Supple '» yards 
at Portland, and on the trial trip everything proved 
satisfactory to the owners. 

The tank .steamer Lansing sailed from Portland to 
Panama, via Port Harford, where she will receive a 
cargo of fuel oil for the isthmus. The .steamer arrived in 
Portland with .15,000 barrels of crude oil May 11th from 
San Francisco. 

Before leaving Portland the steamer stocked her 
larder with about 6,000 pounds of provisions. This is 
an unusual thing for the oil tankers, which are owned 
in San Francisco, to do, as the outfitting for a long 
cruise is usually done at the home port. All the oil tanks 
running into Portland are ecjuipped with refrigerating 
plants, which makes it possible for them to stock up with 
a sufficient amount to provide for a month or more. As 
Portland receives a greater amount of oil than any 
"fher Northern port on the Pacific, the owners of the 
oil tankers have a.s.sured the local merchants that they 
will b<- given a chance to compete with San Francisco 
merchants, who have had a monopoly of this business 
heretofore. 

The fuel oil, which the Lansing will take to Panama 
will be stort^d for the accommodation of steamers which 
run in there to fill their tanks. 

The new steamer Annie Comings, built for the West- 

rn Transportation and Towing Company, will operate 

III the pulp trade between Oregon City and Camas, 

Washington. The steamer was built in Vancouver, B. C. 

The California and Oregon Coast Steamship Company 
of Portland has completed through traffic arrangements 
with the North Bank railroad between Portland and 
< oos Bay, beginning June o. As a result of this change 
the business of the company will practically double and 
the company proposes to build another steamer to alter- 
nate with the Alliance. Plans for the new steamer were 
drawn up several months ago. but the letting of the con- 
tract was postponed until the negotiations with the Hill 
line had been brought to a satisfactory conclusion. 

The Port of Portland Commission has rented wharf- 
age facilities for the pilotage service, which they take 
over July Ist, at the Ash-street dock, at a monthly rental 
of $100 per month. An arrangement has been made 
with the O. R. & N. Company at Astoria by which the 
(!opimissioii will use that company's dock, with tlie priv- 
ilege of erecting an office on it. The rental will be $15 
lor each tugboat and $10 for each riverboat per month. 
The compensation of the pilots to be engaged will be $20p 
per month. » 



Seattle. 
There is proapeeta of a rate war between the steam- 
ship companies operating on the Yukon and tributaries. 
.Although all the compani(>s have an established tariff, 
overtures are being made by one company to the cus- 
tomers of the other. .Shippers have not reserved any 
space to KiM-ak of. doubtless holding back in the hope of 
securing better rates. 

The first steamer leaves May 29th. and following this 
ib'parture a large fleet will be dispatched in June. 

The freifrht steamer San Mateo, operating under char- 
ter to the Schui>ach-namilton Steamship Company, is 
the first Mhcduletl to leave Seattle. She will sail May 
2;», carrying freight only. The steamer Olympia, of the 
Alaska Steamship Company, will follow at 10 o'clock in 
the morning of May :10. This same company during 
June will dispatch the following vitssels: Vi<-toria. June 
1; .Northwestern, June .1; Ohio, June 5, and Victoria, 
June 21. 

From San Francisco the Pacific Coast Steamship 
Company has the steamer Umatilla scheduled to leave 
for Norton Sound June 1. The same <lay the steamer 
Senator will sail from Seattle, while she will begin her 
second voyage from Seattle June 2fi. 

Following the San Matw), the S<-hubach-Hamilton 
Steamship Company will dispatch the passenger steamer 
St. Croi.\, June .i; the .Stanley Dollar, June 8; the Macki- 
naw, June 16, and the F'alcon, June 25. 

In addition to these vessels the steamer St. Helens 
will be <lispatehed on three voyages under a traffic agree- 
ment with the Yukon Trading and Transportation Com- 
pany. She will leave here on June 1, carrying 1,(K)0 tons 
for this company, in addition to outside freight. 

The Japanese liner Tanyo .Maru arrivetl at Seattle 
from Hongkong, via Japanese ports, with a cargo of 
2,.'100 tons, valued at $150,000. 

The .sailing of the Alaska Steamship Company's 
steamer Victoria has been postiM)ne<l to Jinie 2d at 9 
p. m. instead of June 1st at 2 p. m., thereby allowing the 
passengers two days to visit the exposition. 

The scheiiule of the company's steamer Northwestern 
has also been changed, as she was to leave for Nome 
June ;i<l, but the Ohio was substituted for her. The sail- 
ing of the Ohio on June 5th has been canceled. This re- 
arrang<>ment of dates and steamers was necessary in 
onler to maintain a regular schedule on the N'aldez route 
following the sale of the Pennsylvania. 

The lighthouse tender Manzanita, which is the latest 
addition to the lighthouse service, arrived in Seattle en 
route on a tour of inspection of the aids to navigation 
in the north. 

The .Manzanita is 190 feet long, of :]0 fed beam, with 
steel hull, iron «lecks, twin screw, triple expansion en- 
gines of indicated horse p<iwer of 5.000. capable of de- 
veloping a spe*^! of seventeen knots, and containing all 
the modern equipment of the lighthouse tenders. She has 
an immense steel crane for tise in her buoy work, capable 
of lifting twenty tons. Her deck carries a gasoline boat 
of .35-horsepower, and she has among oth<'r equipment 
an air compressor for handling the drills and repairing 
the buoys. 

The Pacific Coast Steamship Company's steamer 
Tampico. which has been lying idle for several weeks, 
will be placed on the Nome run, leaving Seattle for 
Norton Sound and Kotjwbue on June 10th. 

The steamer Senator of the Pacific Coast fleet will lie 
over at S«'attle for two weeks to receive a thorough 
overhauling preparatory to her being placed on the 
Seattle to Nome passenger run. 



8 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



The' Pacific Coast Steamship Company's freight 
steamer Montana, which has been disengaged since last 
July, sailed from Seattle ilay 21st with a cargo for San 
Francisco, and will load a full return cargo of freight 
for Nome. The Montana will carry no passengers. 

The lighthouse tender Admeria, which has been pn a 
tour of inspection off the southeastern coast of Alaska 
for the last month, has returned to Seattle and reported 
that the several buoys that were missing have been re- 
covered from the bottom and on inspection it was found 
that they had been perforated with bullets. ^ Twelve of 
the missing buoys were replaced or renewed. 

The customs receipts for Seattle are now running 
from $8,000 to $12,000 per day. this phenomenal increase 
being from the duty on exhibits from foreign countries to 
the Alaska Exposition. 

Vancouver, B. C. 

For committing a breach of the shipping laws of the 
Dominion Government the American schooner Sophia 
Johnson will have to pay a penalty of $400. The schooner 
entered Vancouver May 10th, about 10 o'clock, left at 
4:30 o'clock, without the formality of entering or clear- 
ing at the local custom house. While in port the schoon- 
er did not discharge or take on any cargo. 

The Western Steamboat Company of New Westmin- 
ster, B. C, is negotiating for the purchase of the steamer 
Rothsay of Vancouver, to replace the Ramona, which 
sank a few weeks ago. The Rothsay carries 400 pas- 
sengers and 150 tons of freight. 

Tacoma. 

Taeoma's ocean commerce for April shows an increase 
over the Marcih figures, the total value of exports and im- 
ports for that month being $2,443,699. This shows an 
increase of about $70,000 over March. The report shows 
the total coastwise shipments for April were valufed at 
$960,000, and the total foreign shipments at $356,000. 
Foreign imports were valued at $499,310 and coast wise 
receipts at $638,305. 

Lumber shipments for April exceeded those of March 
by 5,000,000 feet. The coastwise shipment totaled 6,407,- 
568 feet and the foreign 7,814,824 feet. From 32,000 
barrels of flour shipped foreign and coastwise in Jlarch, 
the shipments increased last month to 47,000 barrels. Of 
this amount 26,120 barrels went to foreign ports and 
21,011 went coastwise. The coastwise shipnjents of flour 
are larger than in several months past. 

The' names of the new boats building for the Weir 
Steamship Company, Seattle, will be the Lucerig, Orteric, 
Minerie and Roseric, respectively. The first two named 
will operate from Seattle to the Orient and the last two 
will operate on the Atlantic side. 

The announcement contains a list of twenty-eight 
cargo steamers and eighteen sailing vessels now under the 
Weir flag, in addition to the new steamers imder con- 
struction. The list shows the last reported position of 
the fleet under date of May l.st. In the bank line of 
.sailing ships are the following, many of which are well 
known here: Beechbank, Cedarbank, Comliebank, Ellis- 
land, Forthbank, Gantoek Rock, Ilawthomebank, Isle of. 
Arran, Levernbank, Mennock, Oliverbank, Poseidon, River 
Falloeh, Sardbana, Springbank, Thistlebank, Thornlie- 
bank and Trongate. 

In the Australian Mail line, operating from this port 
and the Sound to Australia and New Zealand are the 
Century, which left here April 30th for Sydney ; Invertag, 
which takes the .steaming date of May 28th ; Clan Mac- 
Tunes, steaming June 25th, and Tymerie, leaving here 
July 30th. 



The Alaskan Pacific Steamship Company is establish- 
ing a local agency and making arrangements to place 
Bellingham on their schedule as a regular port of call 
for all their steamships. 

The steam launch Lieut. J. A. Gurney, which was re- 
cently sent to Seattle as the deck load of a San Francisco 
steam schooner, has gone into commission and is now 
serving Fort Ward as a 'tender in the quartermaster's 
department. She does not act much in the capacity of a 
freighter, but is used extensively by the oificers of the 
fort. She is a new boat and was built in California. Her 
length is sixty-five feet and, being equipped with power- 
ful engines, she is able to make fast time. 

Negotiations are under way by the Puget Sound Tug- 
boat Company, it is und^>rstood, to sell or lease the tug 
Tatoosh to the Port of 'Portland Commission. Captain 
W. H. Plummer, general manager of the tugboat concern, 
has been in the city for the purpose of ascertaining what 
sort of craft the port requires to assist the Wallula at the 
mouth of the Columbia. The terms on which she can be 
secured will probably be made known at the next meeting 
of the commission. 

Specifications are being drawn up, it is said, for the 
construction of a river towboat for the Port of Portland 
to operate on the Willamette and Columbia rivers in 
conjunction with the Ocklahama. But it will probably 
be some time before a contract for building her is award- 
ed. In the meantime, another tug to assist the Ocklahama 
will probably be chartered as needed until the proposed 
new boat is ready for operation. 

At present the Tatoosh is under charter to the 0. R. 
& N. Co. and has been towing ships in and out of the 
Columbia river under the management of that corpora- 
tion for a number of years. The claim has often been 
made that she is one of the best tugs for work at that 
particular point on the Pacific Coast. In the event that 
she is secured by the Port of Portland she may be con- 
verted into an oil burner. A dozen other tugs are owned 
by the Puget Sound concern, and there has been some talk 
that one of them may be purchased or chartered. 

The S. S. Iroquois of the Straits Steamship Co. arrived 
in Seattle this morning about 9 o'clock towing the 
Lydia Thompson, which left last night for Port townsend 
and other down Sound ports in place of the disabled 
S. S. Whatcom of tlie same company. The Whatcom was 
towed into port the night before by the tug Wanderer, 
having broken her rudder at Port Williams and forced to 
lie there until assistance came. The Thompson, which 
was substituted for the Whatcom last night, with the be- 
lated mail and passengers, apparently ran into the 
same hoodoo, for she l)roke her propeller and was help- 
less until picked up by the Iroquois of the Vancouver run. 
There will be another boat sent out in place of the 
Thompson tonight, but Port Angeles will be unable to 
have a boat or mail today. 

The Alaska Pacific Steamship Company of Tacoma 
has concluded negotiations with the Chicago, Milwaukee 
and Puget Sound Railroad Company whereby the two 
companies will work in conjunction in the handling of 
freight fo and from California. Up to the present time 
the Ala.ska Pacific Company has had no traific arrange- 
ments with any railroad, but as soon as the agreement 
with the Puget Sound Company goes into effect shipments 
will doubtless increase to such an extent that it will 
necessitate securing more boats. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



9 



SOUTHERN NOTES. 
At a meetitiK of the ilircitors of th«^ Chuiiiber of Com- 
nieree of San Luw ObiH|)o on April 29 a foiuiiiittet> was 
appointed to interview the men liaiits aiul see what sup- 
port they wouhl give an independent steamship line 
whieh wouhl stop at Avlla, ^riviiifj a service of every four 
dax-H. At the present time the cmly steamship eumpany 
stopj)ing at Port San Luis <,Mves a servict- of evi-ry eight 
days. 

An effort wa« made not long ago to doM- I'mi San 
Luis as a port of entry, an order having been reeeived 
by the eolleetor of the port at San Kraneiseo from Wash- 
ington to investigate the amount of business transacted 
at Tort Sail Lui», with a view of diseontiuuing it aa a 
port of entry. 

After an investigation a report was forwarded to 
Washington whieh resulted in an order for flu- maiiiten- 
anee of a port of entry at San Luis. 

The oil barge Rhoderiek Dhu. whieh ran on the roeks 
at Moss Heaeh, April 2t)th. while in tow of the tug Re- 
lief, is being dismantled with diHieidty, and but very little 
salvage of the vessel (not more than ^S.OOO) valued at 
$15(».(M)0, can be saved. The jagged nn-ks that she is 
resting on are tearing large holes in her and the breakers 
pounding incessantly have imbedded the hull deei)er 
in the sand. She is listed far to starboard and a high 
ti«le has almost submerged her. If it were possible to float 
the l)arge there would be no tlifliculty in towing her to a 
.safe anchorage, as the inunense oil tanks with whieh she 
is e()uipped would allow her sut!icient buoyancy to float. 

The Khoderick Dhu was an English built ship and 
formerly operated on a pa.s.senger run between England 
and Australia until five years ago. when she was engaged 
in the sugar trade between San Francisco and Hawaii, 
when the Associatetl Oil Company pureha.sed her and con- 
verted her into an oil barge. 

The German ship Adolf, en route to I^lget Sound from 
Ipswich, will procce«l to St. Vincent and take the eargo of 
the Norwegian bark Skjold. whieh arrived in that port 
in distress, 

San Pedro. 

The Southern Pacific is contemplating improvements 
<m its Fifth-street slip at San Pedro to facilitate the 
handling of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company's busi- 
ness. 

Wellington. 

The Haiiniiig Company is resisting the efforts of the 
city to complete the nuinicipal harbor wo^rk to Water 
and Fries street.i. 

The city has started to fill in Fries street to lead down 
to the harbor improvements at Water street. On the east 
side of Fries street, the Bannings and others claim title 
to about ten acres of land, and under this claim they 
filed application with the War Department for permis- 
sion to luiild a wharf inside the harbor lini's, just south of 
Water street. This application, together with prot<>sts 
fr«Mn mnnicii)al bAdies against it. was recently forwarded 
to the War Department at Washington. 

The Wilmington trustees and others investigated the 
Banning claim to the property and decided that it was 
not valid. \o patent, it is said, was ever i.ssued to it. and 
it is based on a s(|uatter's claim purchased from James 
.McFadden. who maintained a small wharf at this point 
many years ago. It is said there is not even a tid(<land 
patent to it such as that covering the other tidelands 
claimed ))y the Banning interests. 

City Engineer Dessery states that the work the city 
proposed to do at that point is to fill in the street, 
which is covered with water at high tide, and in order to 



prevent the dirt going over on to the adjacent tidelands, 
which thi' Bannings claim, wooden bulkheads were to be 
built. 

San Diego. 

Work <«n the coft.struction of the San Diego naval 
coaling station will start in a few weeks. Two seta of 
plans have been f«>rwarded to Admiral Maniiey, chief of 
naval construction on the Pacific Coast, by the Navy 
Department, and the one best suited for local conditions 
will be adopted. 

That the appropriation of i|!2(KI,(KK), made by the last 
Congn^Ks fiir the completion of the local station, will be 
inadequate, even for the present work contemplated, is 
the belief of Admiral Manney. When asked as to the 
amount of money to be expended on the work, the admiral 
said: 

"I have not been officially notified of the . ,.i. ; ..uioiint 
of the appropriation made by Congress that will be al- 
lotted to this harbor, but from information gained un- 
officially, believe it to be $2mSHHK 

"The cost of the work as outlined in the plans on 
whi<-h we are now commenting has been estimated by the 
Naval Construction Bureau at from ^2ir>,(KK) to $220,000, 
and of course this amount will be expended. 

"If the direct appropriation nmde by Congress for 
this special proje<*t is insufficient, the difference will have 
to be S(pieezed out of some other general appropriation. 
This can easily be done by taking the cost of coaling 
nmchinery and e(|uipment, which is included in the 
I'stiniatc. out of the general api)ropriation for coal and 
transportation. We can always do something under this 
appropriation. , 

"I do not know that the work will be let to a single 
contractor, but am of the o|)iuion that it will be. Some- 
times jobs of this character are split u|) among different 
contractors when the money for all <if the work is not 
forthcoming at one time or for any other obstacle which 
the department has to overcome, but in this instance, 
when the full amount of money is appropriated, I see no 
good reason why one firm should not receive the con- 
tract for the entire construction work. 

"You can say for me that 1 shall forward the work- 
ing plans to the department within a few days, and am 
confident that I shall hear very soon from Washington to 
the effect that the construction bureau has called for 
[iroposals. and the work on the San Diego coaling station 
will be begun immediately. 

"In this San Diego can consider herself favored. I 
have just returned from an inspection trip up the coast 
as far as Seattle. On the way back to San Diego I stopped 
over at Mare Island, and was informed there that the 
proposed constructiim work at California City Point 
ha<l been indefinitely j)ostponed." 

Ail of the construction work on the foundations and 
superstructure of the local coaling station was com- 
pleted out <»f the first ap|)ro))riation under the direction 
of Captain Almy. who was relieved by Admiral .Manney. 

A crew of stevedores are now working on the Sybil 
Marston. wrecked at Surf two months ago. to save 250/KtO 
feet of lumber, whicli- comprised part of the cargo of the 
v««s.Hel. The mai-hincry of the Marston has arrived in San 
F'rancisco. 

The new pier which is to be hnih at the foot of Marine 
street. Ocean Park, will l>e completed in a month's time. 
The structure will be supported on concrete piling. 



NOTES. 

The I'nion Steamship Coiimany of Vancouver, B. ('.. 
subiiidi/<><l by the Dominion Oovemment and operating 



10 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



a service between Vancouver, B. C, and Sydney, Australia, 
has offered to put three steamers of the Marania type on 
the run, thereby reducing the time between Vancouver 
and Sydney to twenty-one days, provided the Dominion 
Government makes a substantial increase over their 
present subsidy. The present mail subsidy held by the 
company expires shortly, and it is probable that the 
Canadian Government will continue the rate of subsidy 
for a period of years, at the same time refusing to in- 
crease the present subsidy under any consideration. 



The report of the Dominion Government drydock at 
Victoria, B. C, for the year ending March 31st, 1909, 
shows that during the year twenty vessels entered the 
dock, and that the total fees collected amounted to $20,- 
583.36 for the year. Two of the vessels were British 
naval ships and were docked at reduced rates and a 
third was the Dominion survey steamer Lillooet. 

The Glenfarg entered dock twice, the first time being 
for ordinary repairs and the second for repairs after 
going ashore in the entrance to Vancouver harbor. The 
Fukui Maru that was rammed in Vancouver harbor was 
ten days in the dock for repairs. 

The following is the complete list of vessels docked, 
with the dates of entering and leaving, and the total 
charges collected: 

S. S. Taunton, April 3rd to April 4th; $201.20. 

S. S. Agapanthus, April 27th to April 28th, $400,000. 

S. S. Victoria, May 18th to May 19th, $512.20. 

S. S. River Fourth, May 30th to May 31st. $401.20. 

.S. S. Suveric, June 2d to June 4th, $873.20. 

S. S. Greenwich, August 5th to August 6th, $401.20. 

S. S. Indravelli, August 10th to August 11th, $407.70. 

S. S. Thyra, September 14th to September 16th, 
$515.60. 

S. S. Admiral Exelmans, September 17th to Septem- 
ber 18th, $561.00. 

H. M. S. Algerine, September 29th to November 16th, 
$1,742.00. 

S. S. Reggia, water supplied, $1.40. 

S. S. Fukuj Maru, November 18th to November 28th, 
$1,747.60. 

D. G. S. Lillooet, November 30th to December 2d, 
$350.00. 

S. S. Eir, water supplied, $4.90. 

S. S. Glenfarg, December 10th to December 22d, 
$3,454.70. 

Ship Lord Shaftesbury, December 23d to December 
24th, $489.10. 

S. S. Glenfarg, December 26th to February 7th, 
$5,979.20. 

S. S. Agapanthus, February 12th to February 14th, 
$577.10. 

H. M. S. Egeria, February 19th to March 9th, $685.76. 

Dredge Fruhling, March 15th to March 16th, $551.10. 

S. S. Princess Charlotte, March 22d to March 24th, 
$527.20. 

S. S. Admiral Duperre, $200. 



The report of the customs business for Puget Sound 
district for April shows imports valued at $1,639,957, 
and exports valued at $1,700,840. In the trade with for- 
eign countries Japan leads the others by the usual wide 
margin, the imports from that country being valued at 
$853,670 and exports to Japan at .$454,266. 



wines and liquors cannot be classified as household ef- 
fects. I 

In making this ruling the board quotes as follows 
from an opinion handed down by the Federal Court : 

"The use of the word 'similar' in paragraph 504, 
tariff act of 1897, limits the articles that may be admitted 
free of duty as household effects to such as are similar to 
books, libraries and furniture. 

"Wines and liquors are not household effects 'similar' 
to books, libraries and furniture, and are therefore not 
free of duty under paragraph 504." 

General Appraiser Hay, who wrote the opinion of the 
board, makes the following comment on the case at issue : 

"The question presented by this case is the admissi- 
bility of certain wines and other spirituous liquors free 
of duty and paragraph 504 of the tariff act of 1897. 
These wines and liquors were imported by the protest- 
ants along with furniture and other household effects 
which were admitted free under said paragraph, but 
duty was assessed upon the wines and liquors. The pro- 
testants contend that the wines and liquors are house- 
hold effects within the meaning of the tariff law and cite 
numerous authorities to show that similar merchandise 
has been held by the state courts to be household effects. 

"If the word 'similar' had not been introduced into 
this paragraph of the law by the later tariff enactments, 
the contention of the importers would have a firmer 
basis. The use of this word, however, limits the articles 
that may be admitted free of duty under paragraph 
504 to such household effects as are similar to books, 
libraries and furniture, the words specifically enumer- 
ated in the paragraph. This limitation has been but 
recently placed upon the law by the Circuit Court of 
Appeals in United States vs. Grace (166 Fed. Rep., 748; 
T. D. 29500). Following" that decision, we are of the 
opinion that wines and liquors are not household effects 
similar to books, libraries and furniture. The protest is 
therefore overruled." 



The Board of General Appraisers has ruled that 



Relative to a buoy which was set adrift in the Arctic 
Ocean for scientific purposes eight years ago the fol- 
lowing interesting report is made: The Norwegian 
Meteorological Institute, early in January, received a 
letter from Soeroe, Denmark, stating that a buoy which 
was driven ashore on November 3, 1908, contained a 
notice to the effect that the buoy was set adrift on July 
24, 1900, near Cape Bathurst, latitude 70 degrees 39 
minutes north, longitude 127 degrees 30 minutes west, 
and about 440 kilometers (284 miles) northeast of the 
Mackenzie river. It is believed here that the buoy, which 
thus drifted more than eight years, was carried through 
the polar seas between Greenland and Spitzbergen. There 
is no doubt this buoy is one of the 35 set adrift in the 
Arctic sea, north of Alaska during the years 1899-1901, 
with the object of securing data as to the direction and 
speed of the circumpolar currents. These buoys are 
known as the Bryant-Melville buoys, and the experiment 
was undertaken and carried out by the Geographical 
Society of Philadelphia. They were set adrift by the 
captains of the American steam whalers, the date, loca- 
tion and ice conditions being reported to the society. 

Authentic news has been received that Japan intends 
to send a sciuadron to Bering sea this season to protect 
the sealers from Yokohama, Tokio, Nyigata, Hakodate 
and other ports. The action was taken because of the 
many petitions from the sealing interests of the unwar- 
ranted seizure of sealers for alleged poaching. 

A letter received at Victoria, B. C, says: In view of 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



11 



the fait that Japanese Healers are seized every year in 
and about the Bering sea on charges of poaching, the 
Japanese Oovernment is considering proposals to send 
warships there during the scaling season for the protec- 
tion of the sealers. This' appears a somewhat dangerous 
proceeding, likely to involve the risk of international 
trouble, and many prominent officials are of this opinion. 
The retjuest for the sending of Japanese warships is being 
made by the sealing interest*. 

The I'nited States tran.sport Dix, which is en route 
from the Philij>pine8 to Tacoma, is burning coal taken 
from the (Jovernment coal mines at Liqua, Hatan Islands. 
The Dix is the first transport to burn Hatan coal and the 
rt-sult of the experiment will be sent to Washington, 
where it is awaited anxiously, as the Government has 
spetit thou.saiiils of dollars in developing the Batan mines. 

The quartermaster's department first commenced ex- 
perimenting with the*liatan fields in UK)2. and the work 
has been given up two or three times. In 1!M)7 opera- 
tions were renewed with vigor. Congress having made an 
appropriation to carry on the work to a definite* end. 
Jlining experts, miners, mine carpenters and laborers were 
sent out from the I'nited States, and an earnest endeavor 
made to develop the mines, with the result above men- 
tionetl. For some time interisland vessels have been burn- 
ing the coal with marked success, the navy reporting that 
the coal' is equal, and, in some respects, superior to Jap- 
anese coal. 

At the present time all United States transports are 
re(|uired to call at Nagasaki, homeward bound to take 
coal for the trip across the Pacific. If the Batan coal 
proves good this will be eliminated in the future, and 
undoubtetUy the quartermaster's depot at Nagasaki, 
which, by the way, is the oidy office of the kind I'ncle 
Sam has on foreign soil, will be abolished. 

There is an interesting story back of the establishment 
of this depot. During the Boxer uprising it became 
neces.sary to place a temporary depot there. When the 
Japanese war scare came up some years ago an inspector 
general of the United States service suddenly discovered 
that no formal permission had been obtained from the 
Nippon (Jovernment f6r the establishment of the office. 
At that late date it seemed unwise to proceed in the usual 
way to have the permi,ssi()n confirmed by the Japanese 
State Department, and considerable correspondence was 
finally had before the matter was adjusted by the United 
States ambassador to Japan. 

Regarding the Batan coal mines, the field belonging 
to the (Jovernment lies on the eastern side of the island, 
which has been set aside as a military reservation. The 
western entl belongs to an American commercial com- 
pany, which is already mining coal with great success, 
and the owners thereof will some day reap rich rewards. 

Capt. Rees. commandant of the naval station at Hono- 
lulu, received a cablegram from Washington asking him 
to secure figures, for the bureau having the matter in 
charge, as to the cost of material here for the construc- 
tion of the barracks for the navy at Pearl harbor naval 
.station. 

I'ursuant to this cable, ('apt. Rees called into confer- 
ence a number of local contractors and builders. The 
bureau of construction is getting these figures in (Trder 
that in drawing up plans and specifications it may meet 
conditions as they exist here in Honolulu. It wants to 
learn the difference in ex|)ense of brick and concrete. 

There is now !(!l80,000 available for the construction 
>f the buildings of the naval station, and the incpiiry of 
the bur«'au. coming by cable, seems to indicate that no 
lime is to be lost in forwarding the construction. The 
builders were closeh' questioned as to the conditions of 



lal>or and material uiuler which they operate. Capt. 
Rees will forward the result of his inquiry by the out- 
going ^longolia. 



SHIPBIILDINO IS JAPAN 
New Tonnage During 1^8 Cumparathcly Small. 

The shipbuilding industry of Japan during 1908 is re- 
viewetl by the "Japan Advertitser," of Yokohama, as follows: 

The Japanese dockyards were occupie<l mainly in fitting 
out ves.sels built in previous years and in the rec-onst ruction 
of ships captured irf the late war; their new tonnage is there- 
fore comparatively small. The armored cruiser, Ikonia, 
of 14,(HM( t<ms, was completed atid ct)inmissionetl early in 
I'.KKS, and her sister ship, the Ibuki. fitted with ("urtis tur- 
i)inc8, is remly for speed trials. In mercantile work |M>rhap« 
the most notable launch was that of the large floating dock 
at Kobe, by the Mit«u Bishi Company. This dock was 
built entirely of home-made steel. The two S.CKMMon 
steamers launche<l by the Kawasaki Company for the Nippon 
Yu.sen Kaislia arc the largest ves.sels yet built by this firm, 
and the volunteer fleet steamer Sakura Mani. by the Mitsu 
Bishi Company, is the first ship fifte<l with turbines tna<le in 
Japan. New contracts have nractically cea,sed since the 
beginning of 190.S, and the trade is now becoming seriously 
depressed. At the Mitsu Bishi Works eight vessels, of 
62.(XX) tons and 52, 1 (X) inclicate<l horsepower, arc building. 
Among these are a third turbine liner for the T<\vo Kisen 
Kaisha, the second turbine for the Japaiu%sc volunti-er fleet, 
and six other steamers. Most of these will be completetl in 
ItXW. The Kawa.siiki Company have i;<.2(K) Urns of new 
work, including two cargo steamers of 12. (MX) t<ins and a 
few torpedo craft for Siam, and the Osaka Iron Works have 
an auxiliary sailing ship and a few dredgers. A large num- 
ber of oil-motor fishing smacks arc being built in Japan, and 
it is stated that more than 200 of these craft will l>e afloat 
in the spring of 1909. 

The following statement shows the number of ves.sels and 
their toiuiage and bor»e|K)wer, constnu'ted in the .lapanese 
shipyards in 1907 and 190S (the number of vessels for 1907 
not being given in the returns): 





1907 






Indicated 


Shipyards. 


Tons. horsepower. 


The Im|>erial Dockyards. . 


53.1(K) 


88,500 


The Mit.su Bishi Wl)rks. . 


:{7.()98 


55,020 


Kawa.siiki Dockyard Co 


17,417 


26,900 


The Osaka In)nworks. 


r>.72'.i 


4,981 


Ishikawajima Co 


l,:{(il 


1,401 


The Olio Shipyard 


71 1_' 


870 


The Fujinagata Shipyard. . 


y.ii 


250 


The Uraga Dock Co." 


89 


.305 


Other firms 


10,516 


9,501 


Total 


127,752 
1908 


187,728 




Indicated 


Shipyards. 


Vessels Tons horsepower 


The Imperial Dockyard 


2 760 


12,(K)0 


The Mitsu Bishi Works . 


4 .TJ.2.')0 


24.348 


Kawasaki Dockyanl Co 


9 24.410 


20,750 


The Osaka Ironworks 


2:i 7,720 


3,022 


Ishikaw.tjima Co 


12 l..'i88 


.520 


TheOno Shipyard 


3 1.130 


870 


The Fujinagata Shipyarl 


1 417 


2.V) 


The Uraga Dock Co. . 


5 367 


4.52 


Other firms 


. . 132 10,816 ^ 


7,516 


Total 


191 79,258 


69.727 



In orrler to encourage the development of the Canadian 
fishing industr>' on the Pacific Coast, where the bounty 



12 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



system prevailing in the Atlantic maritime provinces does 
not object, the Dominion government recently passed an 
order in council granting a rebate of one-third of the express 
rates on all slupments of fresh fish billed from here by Cana- 
dian fishing companies or Canadian fishermen to any point 
in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. This rebate or 
bonus applies ta any variety of sea fish caught in Canadian 
waters, including salmon, halibut, oysters, crabs and clams. 
Less than a fortnight ago the Dominion government in 
pursuance of the new policy of conserving the Canadian 
market for Canadians, issued peremptoyj'' instructions for- 
bidding the New England Fish Company passing for customs 
entry fish to be sold in Canada. This order does not apply 
to any fish imported from the United States in the usual 
way. For seventeen years prior to its enforcement the New 
England Fish Company virtually enjoyed a monopoly in 
this and other Canadian centers by reason of its exceptional 
facilities for handling large quantities and on account of its 
long established trade conditions. Despite the recent 
prohibition, the American corporation is still a factor in the 
Canadian market, the halibut being imported from Seattle, 
and paying the usual duty of one cent a pound. 



CHARTER MARKET. 

Several changes have been made in coastwise lumber 
freights, with an inclination to stiffer rates. 

Pugel, Sound to San Francisco is being done at from 
$3.25 to $3.50 and to Southern California at from $4 to 
$4.25. 

The lower figure has been the asking price for several 
weeks since the late slump in rates. The higher figure is 
the same as that which prevailed 'during most of the 
winter. The general tone of the market is better and 
owners are hoping that freights will continue upward 
until they reach a basis on which business can be done 
with some degree of profit. 

Notwithstanding the better feeling in the coastwise 
market, practically no fixtures were made last week. 
HoAvever, offshore freights are a trifle firmer and several 
vessels have been taken for foreign ports. 

Tonnage owners have no difficulty in securing union 
rates, with the prospect for a heavy crop and large ex- 
port demand. All the available French, and all but 
two available German ships have been engaged. The 
British owners are eviiicing a tendency to hold out for 
a better rate. The engagements for the most part are 
for the imion rate, or slightly better.. 

The majority of the fall wheat tonnage engaged is 
headed for the Columbia river, amounting to 68,818 net 
tons. En route for Puget Sound ports are vessels with a 
total tonnage of only 29,953 tons. Portland's list is more 
than double that of the entire Puget Sound district. 
Several of the craft on the Portland list were taken with 
the option of Puget Sound loading, but the same condition 
will apply to craft on the Sound list and things will 
about balance. 

The tonnage already chartered 'for outward loading 
at Portland will have a carrying capacity of close to 
4,000,000 bushels of wheat. Practically all this will set 
afloat by the first of the year. 

The amount of tonnage en route to this Coast is larger 
than it was some time ago, and there is the belief that 
if grain rates show a disposition to remain steady, owners 
of tramp vessels will not hesitate to send their tonnage 
to the North Pacific with the expectation of securing 
homeward grain charters. Rates for steamers always 
range somewhat higher than for sailers, and some ex- 
porters prefer to pay 30 shillings for steam rather than 
27 shillings 6 pence for sail. The fea-son is that a steamer 
can deliver cargo in the European ma'rket in three 



months, while the average sailer requires five or six 
months. On a market that is fluctuating greatly the dif- 
ference in time of delivery is no minor consideration. 

American steamer San Mateo, on time charter to 
Sehuback & Hamilton of Seattle,' for Alaskan run. 

Most of the sailing now headed for Portland will 
command the union rate of 27s 6d, although a large ship 
was offered at 25s last week. 

The report current that the German schooner Emilift 
had been rechartered to load lumber in British Columbia 
for the west coast of South America, was denied by 
Schramm & Co., of Bremen, the owners of the vessel. The 
Emilie will be held on the expectation of securing a 
fixture in the season's wheat fleet in advance of the 
present union rate of 27s 6d. 

French bark ]\Iarechal de Moailles, general cargo, 
Antwerp to Portland; rumored that she will load new 
crop wheat for return trip to Europe. American schooner 
Inca, lumber from Columbia river to Sydney, Australia, 
at 30s. French bark Bougainville, general cargo, at 
Swansea, Wales, for Portland ; rumored that she will load 
new wheat crop for return trip to Europe. British bark 
Jordan Hill, new crop wheat loading. Portland to Euro- 
pean port, private terms. French bark Max, general 
cargo, London to Vancouver. German ship Pamassos, 
fall whpat, Portland to United Kingdom at 27s 6d. 
American ship Dirigo, sugar from Honolulu to New York, 
chartered prior to arrival. American barkentine Re- 
triever, lumber, from Grays Harbor to Guaymas. Nor- 
wegian steamer Svene, merchandise, Portland to Shang- 
hai, on time charter at $1,000 per month. 

The following schooners load lumber: E. B. Jackson 
at Gray's Harbor for Guaymas, A. B. Johnson, Puget 
Sound, for Guaymas, $5 net, and J. W. Clise do for 
Callao. 



S. S. PENNSYLVANIA. 

The frontispiece is of the S. S. Pennsylvania, pur- 
chased by the Pacific Mail Company for the Panama 
line, in which service she is expected to leave for Aneon, 
via ^lexiean and Central American ports on June 7th. 

The Pennsylvania was built By Cramp & Sons at 
Philadelphia in 1872, and is an iron screw steamer with 
two decks and a spar deck. 

Until recently the vessel was the property of the 
Alaska Steamship Co., running between Seattle and 
Alaska. 

Her dimensions are : Length, 343 feet, beam 43 feet, 
depth of hold 24.9 feet, depth to spar deck 31.9 feet, gross 
tonnage, 3,343, net 2,567. 

The Pennsylvania is lighted with electricity, and 
equipped with wireless telegraphy, being the only vessel 
of the Pacific Mail line equipped with the latter. The 
vessel is i)ropelled by twin engine triple expansion, with 
cylinders 23-36 and 60 by 36-inch stroke, which were new 
in 1891, and develops about 1100-horsepower with 160 
pounds of steam. 

The consideration of the transfer is not definitely 
known, but is reported to be about $200,000, wtiich would 
seem to be high but for the fact of the new engines and 
boilers, and that generally the ship is in good condition. 

The early history of the ship is a long series of dis- 
asters to the crew, losing 43 lives in three years, after 
which her luck turned and since that time has behaved 
normally. Her maiden voyage was from Philadelphia 
to Liverpool in May, 1873. In February, 1874, in going 
from Liverpool to Philadelphia, she had the misfortune 
to lose her captain, first mate, second mate, quartermaster 
and one seaman by a sea taking away the bridge at the 
change of watch. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



13 



Pacific Merchant Marine 



Office: 95 MARKET ST.. SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



TELEPHONE DOUGLAS 4 3 2 S 



THOS. C. BUTTERWORTH 
A. B. BUTTKRWORTH 
M. DAVIS 



Ediux 

Gcaeral Maiutfcr 

Adv*rli»ini U«partmcnl 



Published by the tacific Merchant Marine I'ublinhiiig Co. 
in San Francisco, California, every Saturday mornimj in the 
interest and development of the Anurican Merchant Manne. 

WILL BE SENT TO ANY ADDRESS In |A« UNITED STATES 
$2.50 a Year 

ADVERTISING RATES ON APPLICATION 
Addrcis All Communicatiooi to the Paoiiic Merchant Marine 



Argument in favor of an Anierifan inerohant marine 
JH so obviously sound that only the blind ean fail to see 
its truth; blind. Indicating neither organic nor physical 
ailment. The breadwinner voting population of the 
I'nited States have little or no interest in the subjeet, 
except as the same is made a campaign issue. The need 
of a powerful and effieieyt navy was brought home to us 
in 18118, and few failed to recognize the unenviable p«n»i- 
tioii we occupied; the problem was solved by a universal 
demand for a fighting sciuadron. the a<-<|uisition of which, 
at the time, was more remarkable than its achievements 
in battle, recent wonderful tour of the world, or the fact 
that it was composed of American ships, huilt in Ameri- 
<*an shipyards by American citizens. 

The building of a navy is one question, the mainten- 
ance of a navy is another. The first re<|uired the trans- 
portation of material and supplies b}- railroad, and the 
employment of American workmen for building. Capital 
and labor had a common cause, and we ac(|uired a navy. 
The second question involved direct opposition to rail- 
road transportation and indastrial occupation of Ameri- 
can workmen, a greater inducement than the navy could 
offer. The Treasury had to pay the bills for maintenance 
of a navy; again a common cause existeil and the cry 
went forth that the people's money was being s<|uandered. 
And so what may appear on the surface as arguments for 
or against the building or maintenance of a navy may 
be di.storted to suit the various interesta involved. We 
are all agreed on the question of building a navy; we are 
not all agreed on the question of its maintenance. 

Of yet greater importance to the I'nited States is the 
<|uestion of a merchant marine, and one in which the navy 
will not participate. Every a]>propriation of money 
made on the floor of Congress has returned ten fold to the 
niHs.scs in this country, whether made for the building of 
a navy, the subsidizing of a railroad, the prevention of an 
epidemic, the reclamation of arid land.s. and innumerable 
other objects which have nuule possible the present stand- 
ard of living of our citizens. Over sea traffic alone re- 
mains the one neglected industrj-, one which has been 



attacked from every possible point of view, one which 
constitutes the inexorable law of national supremacy, one 
which will not re<|uire the use of guns to determine. The 
war of our commercial extension is being fought, we are 
less ({ualified to engage in the battle than iit any time in 
our history. We are pitted against the world j>ower8, 
against those who have not or do not re<|uire a navy. In- 
ternal strife is our greatest foe. 



TRADE POSSIBILITIES. 

Morocco is almost entirely inhabited by -Moors, approxi- 
mately numbering BS.tMX) people. In cooking, vegetable 
oil is extensively use<l, the most |Mipular of which is olive 
oil, the best grade of which comniamis a high price. The 
lower grades are selling at higher prices than are obtained 
^or cotton-«ee<l oil. They have a stn)ng flavor, to remove 
which, when r<K)king with them, the Moors use some article 
such a.s a piece of |KJtat<). The dealers heat the cotton- 
sjmmI oil to clear and make it more liquid. The large dealers 
say that some of the Moorish sh»>pkecperK tirv. fatniliar with 
cotton-seed oil, but most of it goes to the consumers under 
some other name, or is mixed with olive oil. They further 
say that the Moor is so conservative it is difficult to get him 
to buy anything new and that to get him to use cott«n-«eed 
oil, as such he must gradually be educated to it. However, 
cotton-.seed oil seems to be taking hold in Tangier. About 
2400 l)arrel8 were handled by the dealers last year. This 
year on account of the poor olive cn)p they anticipate 
handling more. The olive crop cannot be <lci)cndeii u|K)n 
to supply the needs and it is therefore necessarj- t-o import 
other edible oils. Nearly all of the cotton-seed oil sold 
conies from England and France, England supplying most 
of it. This is mainly due t« the fact tfjat the United States 
has no direct steamship connection with Tangier. 

Sugar, cotton clothing hardware, building materials, 
candles, cement, groceries, lumber and flour are also articles 
used, and worthy of the attention of American merchants. 
Most of the houses are built of plaster arid tilings. Some , 
tarred-nH)finp material is also finding its way into this 
market, principally from the United States, but shipped to 
Spain and reshipped. American hams, hardware, flour, etc., 
come through other countries. 

The total iin|K)rts into Morocco as near as can be estimated 
from figures available, are about $1.5,(KK),(KX) annually. 
The bulk of this sum is divided among England, France and 
Germany, in the order name<l. These countries are keen 
bidders for this business and are energetic in establishing 
footholds in Mon»cco. They have direct steamship con- 
nections, agents on the ground pushing their goods, and 
drummers who come regularly to display samples and study 
the needs of the people. 



Our complete organization for the presentation of all 
matters in the interest of American merchant marine is 
demonstrated in the present issue. We are grateful 
indeed to the various departnu-nts of our National Oov- 
ernmcnt and the officials in charge of same, also State 
and municipal officers of the Pacific Coaat and our in- 
sular poHsi>ssions, for the many courtesies extended to u«, 
without the aid of which it would have been impossible 
to have brought Pacific Merchant .Marine to its present 
sUtc. 

We have taken but a preliminary step for the re- 
habilitation of the American merchant marine, and take 
panloiiable pride in the result of our efforts. 

To thoae who are sincere in the devel<»pmejit of over- 
sea traffic we freely grant the columns of this journal, 
and invite all corn^pondence tending to increase Ameri- 
can commerce on the high seas. 

Wc acknowledge the substantial supi>ort of our sub- 



14 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



scribers and advertisers, and assure them of a continu- 
ance of our aggressive policy in behalf of the marine in- 
dustry. 

As previouslj' announced, we will inaugurate the semi- 
monthly publication of Pacific Merchant Marine on Sat- 
urday. June 5, 1909, and publishing same thereafter on 
the first and third Saturday of each month. The editorial 
rooms are being enlarged and thoroughly equipped. 
Telephone communications to Mission 934. 



SHIPBUILDING NOTES. 



Work at the Moore & Scott Iron Works Shipyards. 

The U. S. A. T. Buford is having repairs made to her 
engine, boiler and hull, amounting to $12,683. The con- 
tract was let to this firm, their bid being the lowest. The 
vessel will be removed from her present berth at Folsom 
street wharf to the firm's yards in Oakland Creek, where 
.she will remain until the completion of the repairs. 

Repairs to the U. S. A. T. Logan, amounting to about 
$5,000, are being carried on while the vessel is lying at 
the Folsom-street wharf. This firm not only received the 
contract for the engine, boiler and hull work, but also 
received the contract for the carpenter and joiner work. 
In the specification for the carpenter and joiner work the 
refrigerating rooms Avill be entirely overhauled, so that 
when the vessel leaves this port on her next trip this 
department will be in perfect order. 

The steamer Napa City, which sank some few days ago 
in Oakland Creek, has been raised and placed on the 
Moore & Scott Iron Works ways for repairs and over- 
hauling. The vessel was raised with lighters and towed 
at once to the ways. 

The Barkentine James Tuft has been placed on the 
dry dock for Tsleaning and painting and minor repairs. 

The barkentine Muriel was on the dock being cleaned, 
caulked and painted, 

Union Iron Works. 

U. S. A. T. Logan on Hunters' Point drydock Tuesday 
and Wednesday for cleaning, painting and examination 
of the hull. 

Steam schooner J. M. Marhoffer at works for cleaning 
and painting. 

Steam schooner Yosemite on the floating dock to be 
fitted with a new wheel. 

The P. M. S. S. Korea at works for general overhaul- 
ing. 

P. M. S. S. Pennsylvania having repairs made at Pier 
42. 

Miscellaneous work on the P. M. S. S. Newport. 

Steam schooner T. E. Dorr at work May 20th to load 
locomotive on board to be shipped with secured contract 
for entire hoisting machinery for Pier No. 36. 
George W. Kneass. 

Shipping twelve pleasure skiffs to the Russian River, 
14 feet in length and 4 feet beam. 

Cryer. 

Overhauled police boat Patrol. 
C. W. Smith. 

Repairs completed on the government tug Madrone. 

Work on 25-foot launch to be used in fishing at Santa 
Cruz, is well under way. 

Gorham Engineering Co. 

Launch Peerless, built for the representative of the 
Gorham Rubber Company at Los Angeles, arrived at San 
Pedro May 21st. 

Seattle. 

The three cruisers comprising the first division of the 
Pacific fleet, at present en route from San Francisco to 



Puget Sound to attend the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposi- 
tion, will proceed to Bremerton navy yard ^or repairs on 
Jiuie 10th. The second division of the Pacific fleet will 
return to San Francisco bay for repairs at Mare Island 
navy yard. . ^ 

The Kingfisher, recently built in Seattle for duty 
about the canneries at Blaine, has had her final trial trip 
and Avill be placed in commission immediately. She is 
65 feet in length, 15 feet 6 inches beam, 7 feet draft 
and of 27 tons burden. She is equipped with a 75-horse- 
power gas engine and was designed to develop a speed of 
twelve miles. 

A launch for work or play was launched at the Stet- 
son-Post mill of Seattle last week. The vessel is a com- 
bined launch and towboat, sixty feet in length, with a 
twelve-foot beam and equipped with an 85-horsepower 
Union engine. She is finished in Australian hardwood 
and Avill be available for towing purposes or for a pleasure 
cruise about the Sound. 

The contract for the building of a police patrol boat 
for the Port of Portland has been awarded to Captain 
O. P. Graham. She will be 36 feet long and 7 feet beam, 
with a contract speed of 12 miles. The boat will cost 
$2,350, and will be completed in 60 days. 

Portland. 

The new drydock now in course of construction for 
the Oregon Drydock Company, will be completed toward 
the middle of June. The contract for the machinery for 
the drydock is held by the Willamette Iron and Steel 
Cojnpany, and the contract for wings, pontoons and 
other woodwork was awarded to the Portland Shipbuild- 
ing Company. 

The structure will be 345 feet in length, 76 feet in 
width and construction to accommodate vessels up to 
18-foot draft, which is amply sufficient for the coasters 
and those engaged in the off-shore trade. The company 
operating this dock do not intend to compete with the 
Port of Portland dock, as all the smaller craft w411 be 
handed to them. The present rates for docking will be 
maintained. The dock will be capable of handling any 
ship up to 4,000 tons' capacity. 

The steamer G. K. Wentworth was at the Portland 
Shipyards last week to receive a general overhauling 
and a new shaft. The shaft was cracked some time ago 
and it was decided to equip her with a new one before it 
broke off at a critical moment, disabling and exposing 
her to some danger. 

The new steamer which is being built for the Star Sand 
Company at the Portland Shipyards, will be ready for 
Jaunching in a week. The name of the steamer, Avliich 
will be operated as a towboat on the river, will be thf- 
Chris Minsinger. 



United States Attorney Devlin has obtained a writ 
of error from Judge De Haven in the case of the five 
indictments against the Pacific Mail Steamship Company 
for the violation of the interstate law. At the conclu- 
sion of the recent trial Judge De Haven decided that the 
ocean carriers did not come under the jurisdiction of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, and the alleged 
violation did not occur until the freight in question was 
landed on United States soil. 



Fred Klarman 



BOAT BUILDER 

Yards 6t Marine Ways, TiburoD, Cal. 
Phone Main 201 
San Francisco Office. 211 Buckley BIdg.. Market &Spear Streets Phone Kearny 4731 

Pleasure and Coipmercial Craft of Every Description Built. Yawls and Skiffs in Stock. 
Repairing Promptly Attended To 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



15 



Mammoth Marine Machine Now Afloat. 

Th»" lioscliki- rotary stiaiii sliovcl drtMlgi.T was launt'heU 
on the loth of May from the Fadfie Shipyard and Waya 
Co. at Alameda Point, California. 

Tlie hull of this dredge, whieh is 163 feet long. 40 feet 
wide and 9 feet deep, is of the usual ohlong form, but 
has its end cut out to form a recess or open well in whieh 
revolves the dredger wheel, fifty feet in diameter. 

The dredger wheel is liuilt up of side annular plates 
eonnected to the shaft of the wheel by the spokes, which 

are braced totrether by tlie rinu"^ •;'' piei-es and 

diagonal ties. 

The radial supports for the buckets rest u|)oii alternate 
.TD.ss pieces and extend from the hub of the wheel at the 
shaft to the buckets. These supports have had to be made 



so arranged that they swing from the center to raise ami 
lower the bucket wheel. 

The doora of the burketa have a trip stad ou them 
which, when it arriveii at the proper position to <liReharge 
the eonti-nts, engages with a lever operat<tl by a spring 
in sucl) manner that the door is opened and the bucket 
is discharged into the cun<luit and thence into a hopper. 

From the hopper the material is discharged ont4) a belt 
conveyor driven by electric motors, which convey the 
material to the shore by swinging the dredger on its 
spud, for the purpose of building levees. 

After the levees are finished the materiHl is discharged 
into pumps aiul |>un)peil out through a pipe line to the fill 
in the same manner as it ia done in the ordinary auction 




LARGEST DREDGER IN THE WORLD. 



I 



excessively strong to withstand the severe strains set 
up by cutting the material being dredged. 

Each bucket is also secured to the radial supports just 
above it by oblique bars to hold it up to its work and 
particularly to take care of the side or racking strains. 

The front edge of each bucket is also connected to the 
etoBH piece which 8U[)ports the preceding bucket by a 
tie rod, which holds the lip of the Inieket to its work. 

The buckets empty into conduits at their inner end, 
which discharge the material dredged from the sides of 
the large wheel. 

The wheel is carried on a ahaft which rests on bear- 
ings at the ends of two swinging girders, the girders being 



dredge, the pipe lim- is supported on a line of floating 
pont<M)ns. 

The advantages of this dredger is that it btiihis its own 
levees while the ordinary su<-tion dredge does not, de- 
pending on a clam-shell dredge to l)uild the levees. The 
bottom is kept at a constant depth ami the nuiterial is 
broken up.int<» sizes that can be easily handled by the 
conveyor or the pipe line. 

On the circumference of the wheel there are eight 
buckets held rigiilly whieh will «lig and discharge 
fiixteen loads in a minute, first on one side and then on the 
other. The total ex<-avation is estimatc<l at 400.(KX) eubii: 
yards per month. 



PROPOSALS. 

•Sale of L. S. S. /atiro— Scaled i>roposal8 will be re- 
ceived at the Navy Department luitil noon on the 9th 
ilay of June. 1909. at which time ami place they will be 
opene<l. for the purchase of the.!'. S. S. Zafiro; appraised 
value $5,000. The vessel will be sold for cash to the 
person or i)ersons or the corporation or corporations of- 
fering the higheat priife therefor. Proposals must be 
submitted in sealed envelope addressed to the Secretary 
of the Navy. Wa.shington, 1). ('.. endorsed "Proposals for 
the purchase of the U. S. S. Zafiro." ami each proposal 
must be accompanied by a sjitisfacfory certified che<-k for 
not less than 10 per cent of the amount of the offer. On 
application to the Navy Departnient f«»rms of bids and 
bonds, together with terms and conditions of sale, also 
a printed li.st giving general information concerning the 
ves.sel. will be furnished. The vessel can be examined at 



any time after the «late hereof by applying to the Com- 
mandant of the Navy Yard. Puget Soimd, Wash. It 
must be removed from the limits of the navy yard within 
such rea.Honable time as may be fixed by the Department. 
The Zafiro is not entitled t<i Am<Tican registry. The De- 
partment reserves the right to withdraw the vessel from 
sale and to reject any or all bids. 

G. V. L. MKYER. 
Secretary of the Navy. 
Proposals for repaini to IT. 8. A. T. Shennan — Office 
of the (ieneral Su|»erintendent. Army Tranaport Service. 
No. lllHH North Point street. San Francisco, California. 
.May 12fh. 1!M)9. — S<'aled propomds, in triplicate, for gen- 
eral overhauling and repairs to the I'. S. A. T. Sherman 
will be reeeivetl at this office until 11 «i "clock a. m., Satur- 
day, -lune 12th. \9iiD, and then (HmmkhI. Proi)osaI blanks, 
spei-ifications, etc., will be furnished uiwn application 



16 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 




HE Aquatic Improveimnit 
Association of San Fran- 
cisco held its third regular 
meeting on Friday, May 
14. and the following per- 
manent officers were elect- 
ed : 

President, F. O. Phil- 

Hlips; vice presidents, C. M. 
Farrell, W. F. Humphrey, 
A. J. Giannini, W. J. 
Hogg. J. R. Hanify, A. J. 
Le Breton, Dr. T. L. Ma- 
lioney and C. H. Crocker; 
* secretary, W. H. Bush; 
board of directors : Ed- 
ward Skully, J. J. Cronin. D. Erskine, Edward Lynch. J. 
R. Hiekey, Thomas S. Williams, James Punnett, Charles 
Creighton. Thomas C. Butterworth and W. F. Herring- 
ton. 

The annual class flag regatta of the California Yacht 





EVEN THE LADIES SAIL. 

( lub was held last Sunday over the club's ten-mile 
course. A still breeze was blowing at the .start but fell 
light before the finish. The results were as follows: 
Thirty-six Foot Class. 

Time 



Start Finish. Elapsed 
.12..30.43 2.01.24 1.31.24 
2.03.06 
2.19.15 



.12..30.25 
. 1 2.30.43 



1.34.06 
1.48.32 



Boat Owner 

Alert, Captain Kendall.... 
Maryland, Captain Du Butz 
Alice M., Captain Keane . . 

Thirty-Foot Class. 
Tigress, Com. Broadwater ....12.25.20 
Starlight, Captain Patterson. . .12.24.50 

Flash, Captain Louchs 12.25.40 

The fleet of the California Yacht Club will cruise to 
Vallejo on May 30th, and on Sunday, th(! 31st, a cruising 
race will be sailed from the Vallejo Yacht Club house to 
the California Yacht Club moorings at Brooks Island. 



2.08 ' 

2.08.32 

2.20.30 



1.43 

1.43.42 
1.54.50 



The Class Flag regatta of the Aeolean Yacht Club will 
be held Sunday, May 23d. 

The California Yacht Club will move its club house 
from Brooks Island to a more accessible location on the 
lower bay some time this summer. 

George Woods is making a new suit of light sails for 




GOING UP RIVER. 

the sloop Starlight, California Yacht Club. 

The assertion has been made b.v a member of the 
Aeolean Club that Commodore Berry's Nixie would un- 
doubtedly be bought in by a member of that club. The 
Aeolean Club, by the way, is making rapid strides and is 




A CRUISING OUTFIT. 

tiikiiig many of the best boats from the other clubs about 
the bay. 

The members of the California Yacht Club are ar- 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



17 



ranpitit; for a cnihe in sqiiadron to Sacramento. The 
jatf set is Jiiiif <>th. and the ownt-rx of the jachtK Star- 
litrlit. Mh-r. Flash and Lillian have Kit^iicd up already. 

Ex-('(>iiiin(Kl<ire Jcnniii'Ts' Speeiiwell. formerly of the 
Corintliinii Yacht ( lub, is the latt>Kt ac(|iiiHitioii. 

It is reported that Doc MeMahcm and Eddie Saager 
of the Corinthian Club intend to charter the schooner 
.Mugie for this seasoq. 



VILLAIN. 

The ilesign shown herewith is of Villain, formerly a 
iH-foot racing yawl, which is i^dw at Klarman's shop in 
Tihuron heing converted into a raised deck cruiser for 
Dr. Rathpcn of the Pacific Motor Boat Club. 

Villain was originally built by the late Captain Tur- 
ner of Hcnicia, and presented t<t Andrew Swanson of 
Tibiiron. She was one of the fastest yachts of her size 
on the bay. but has been used very little the last couple 
of years and was purchased at a bargain by' Dr. Ruthgen. 

Owing to her peculiar lines Villain is readily adapta- 



ble to (onvemion info a motor l>oat. and it k expected 
tliat shf will wake a very handy cruiser. 

She is to have a roomy cal)in, with "> feet G inches 
head room and sleeping accommodations f<ir three. The 
jMiwer will bo furnished by a 2»l 11. P. double opposed 
automobile engine housed inider a bridge de<>k in the 
cockpit, which will be entirely out of sight, although 
readily .u cessiblc. A skylight on t«ip of the cabin will 
furnish ample ventilation, in addititui to three |H)rt lights 
on each side. 

The cockpit, which is self bailing, is to be 10 feet in 
length, and arranged to seat eight p(H>plc comfortably, 
giving as much roitm if- i-; •■• !•■■ f'Muid in tin- Hvcnit'c open 
launch. 

Th<' |)lans for recMnstru'-tinii are from the board of 
Stuart It. Dunbar, and the principal dimetiKions are shown 
as follows: 

L. <). A.. 31 feet ; beam. 8 feet; draft (extreme). 2 feet 
(j inches; freeboard (bow), ;i feet; freeboani (least), 1 
foot () inches; freeboani ^steriiV 1 r><>t >; lii.-ti...;- li. ■!,,!- 
room. 5 feet 6 inches. 




Converted Raised Deck Cruiser Villain 



HINTS TO YACHTSMEN 



APPROXIMATE WEIGHT AND STRENGTH OP 







CORDAGE 








Circumfer- 


Diameter 


VVeigl 


It of 


Weight of 


Strength of 


ence in 


in 


104) F 


ath. 


1(H) 1 


■'ath. 


Manila rope 


inches. 


inches. 


Man 


ila. 


tarred hem| 


>. in lbs. 


«; thr'd 


7-:{2 in. 


12 


U.S. 


15 


lbs. 


500 


!t " 


1-4 •• 


1> 


•• 


22 


1 1 


750 


12 • 


:. ir, ■• 


22 


" 


27 


tt 


1,(HH) 


1.-) ■ 


:i.s •• 


28 


a 


:15 


1 1 


1.250 


IVi in. 


7-16 " 


:{5 


(< 


42 




1..5(H) 


1-2 " 


15 


1 1 


55 




1.800 


1% * 


!t-l(i ■ 


liO- 


'*t 


75 


\ I 


■ 2,500 


2 '• 


5-8 •• 


80 


i( 


KM) 


" 


:i.200 


21, '• 


:M " 


100 


ti 


125 


t i 


4.0(H) 


•) 1 ■ ■ 


l:! !•; •• 


125 


<i 


155 


tt 


5,000 


2-1 ■ 


7 '^ 


1.50 


tt 


190 


1 1 


6.(XK) 


:i •• 


1 


175 


it 


220 


" 


7.2(H) 


Ml, •■ 


1 ! '■ 


'><K) 


i( 


2r>o 


t ( 


8..5(H) 


:{'.. .' 


1 1 ~ 


'■'> 


" 


.too 


it 


9.8(K) 


3=h " 


11-4 


:i75 


(< 


:}5(» 


1 1 


11,500 


4 " 


15-16 " 


.300 


tt 


400 


" 


13,fHH) 


1 


i:i-8 " 


:i.50 


tt 


450 


( ( 


14,5(X) 


t 


1 1-2 " 


4(X) 


tt 


.5<M) 


" 


16.(H)0 


4^4 •• 


19-16 " 


4.50 


tt 


.560 


1 1 


18,(HH) 


5 " 


15-8 " 


-.<>o 


1 1 


625 


t ( 


20.000 


5'/4 " 


1 11-16 


">(» 


t * 


685 


1 1 


22,<HM) 


5Vj " 


l:l4 


t)«K> 


tt 


750 


* t 


24,000 


6 *• 


2 


700 


tt 


875 


1 1 


28.(XH) 


6»/L- " 


21-8 •' 


800 


t i 


10.541 


(4 


:«,000 


7 " 


2:i-8 " 


0<X) 


1 1 


12(H) 


tt 


:19.(HK) 


IV' " 


2 1-2 " 


1100 


tt 


14<H) 


i . 


45.000 


8 " 


2.5-8 " 


VMro 


t. 


16(H) 


" 


51. .500 


8'..'. " 


27->' 


1425 


( f 


1850 


1 ( 


.58,000 


9 " 


:? 


15.50 


li 


2050 


(( 


65,000 



9>: 
10 
11 
12. 



;15-16 

312 

4 



1750 
1950 
2:i(H) 
27(H) 



22<.> 



227 
2.51 H) 
:{(MM) 
:i(i(H) 



72,500 

8^.000 

1(H).(HH) 

120,(XK) 



Manila is about 10 per cent stronger than Sisal. 
Hawser laid rope will weigh one sixth less. 
The working strain is one-third of the breaking strain. 
Four-strand rope weighs 10 per ci-nt m«»re than three- 
strantl. 



TO MARK A LEAD LINE 

Two leads arc used for soundings, the hand lead. 

weighing from 7 to 14 |>ounds. with a line mark<-d to 

20 fathoms, and the deep sea lead, weighing from 40 to 

1(X) poinids. the line being about 1(H) fathoms in length. 

Both lines are marked as follows: 

2 fathoms from the lead, with 2 stri|>s of leather. 

3 fathoms fnmi the lead, with 3 strips ot leather. 
5 fathoms from the lead, with a white rag. 

7 fathfims from the lead, with a re<l rag. 

K) fathoms from the lead, with leather having a hole. 

\i fathoms from the lead, same as at 3 fathoms. 

15 fathoms from the lad. same aa at 5 fathoms. 

17 fathoms from the lea<l. same a« at 7 fathoms. 

20 fathoms from tjie lead, with 2 knots. 

25 fathoms from the lead, with 1 knot. 

:H) fathoms from the lead, with 3 knots. 

35 fathoms from the lead, with 1 knot. 

40 fathoms fn»m the lead, with 4 knots. 

An<l so on. 

The intermeiliate soiuidings are called "deeps." and 
the only fractions of n fathom used are a half and a 
quarter. 



18 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



MEETING OP THE CALIFORNIA STATE HARBOR 
COMMISSIONERS. , 

Thursday, May 20, 1909. 

The contract with N. H. Hickman for furnishing 250 
euealj'ptus piles to the Board of State Harbor Commis- 
sioners was signed by the Board and a bond in the sum 
of $1,500 was approved by the Board. 

The Standard Oil Company made application for space 
formerly occupied by them near Fishermen's wharf. 
The space will be used as a stand for tank wagon con- 
taining naphtha. A space 7x12 feet on Section li of the 
seawall, at a rental of $10 per month, was placed at their 
disposal, beginning June 1, 1909. 

F. A. Koetitz submitted informal bid for furnishing 
"Koetitz Concrete Casings" of 24-inch outside diameter, 
2 1-2-inch shell, properly re-enforced and made of 1 to 3 
concrete in length, of 18 to 24 feet, at the price of $2 per 
linear foot if the Board furnishes the cement, and $2.30 
per linear foot if bidder furnishes the cement. The price 
is f. o. b. State's barge at the factory. 

Referred to the engineer of the Board for recommen- 
dation. 

The Olson-Mahoney Lumber Company asked for the 
cancellation of berth space at Section A of the seawall, 
and requested a refund of rental paid from May 15th to 
June 1, 1909, stating as the reason for the above cancella 
tion that they will not be permitted to use wharf lot 
space for storage purposes. 

The assignment of 200 feet of berth space on Section 
A of the seawall east of Charles Doe Lumber Company 
made to the Olson-Mahoney Lumber Company was re- 
scinded and the request for a refund allowed. 

A. Ashton requested permission to put up a small 
shed (12x8 feet) on the wharf at First avenue, Butcher- 
town. The matter was referred to the engineer of the 
Board. 

The' assignment of 200 feet of berth space on Section 
B of the seawall, east of the Standard Oil Company, 
made to the Columbus Box Factory on May 15, 1908, was 
rescinded at the request of that company. 

The assignment of a berth space at the intersection 
of Section Nos. 2 and 3 of the seawall — 70 feet on Section 
No. 2 and 142 feet on Section No. 3, made to the Belling- 
ham Bay Lumber Co. on July 1, 1903, was rescinded at 
the request of the said company, to take effect June 1, 
1909. - 

The Mercantile Box Company requested an additional 
assignment of 100 feet adjoining their present assign- 
ment of 150 feet on the north side of Channel, between 
Fourth and Fifth streets. The request was granted. 

The Hart- Wood Lumber Company protest against the 
Board fixing the rate of rental for berth space at 50 
cents per linear foot per month, in so far as the advance 
affects that company. The protest was filed. 

The assignment of 350 feet of wharf space on the 
north side of Channel street, between Fourth nnd Fifth, 
commencing at the northwest corner of Fourth and 
Channel and running thence westerly 350 feet, made to 
the Gray Bros. Crushed Rock Co. on March 1, 1908, w.^s 
resciiidcl to take effect June 1, 1909. 

The assignment, made to the Mei-cantile Box Co. on 
March 1, 1908, of wharf space on the north side of 
Channel street, commencing at a point 350 feet west of 
its junction with Fourth street and extending v/esterly 
150 feet, was rescinded to take effect June 1, 1909. 

The assignment, made to the Pacific Box Factory on 
July 15. 1906, of wharf space on the north side of Chan- 
nel srreet. commencing 150 feet east of the northeast 
corner of Fifth and Channel street and extending thence 



easterly 200 feet, was rescinded, to take effect June 1, 
1909. 

The assignment of wharf space on the north side of 
Channel street, commencing at the northeast corner of 
Fifth and Channel street and running thence 150 feet 
easterly, made to the Hart-Wood Lumber Co. on July 
15, 1906, was rescinded, to take effect June 1, 1909. 

A wharf space on the north side of Channel street, 
commencing 20 feet westerly from the northwest corner 
of Fourth and Channel streets and running westerly 200 
feet, was assigned to the Gray Bros. Crushed Rock Com- 
pany and rental fixed at $62.50 per month. This rental 
is based on the rate of 31 1-2 cents per linear foot on 
condition that said company shall keep said wharf in 
repair at their own expense. 

A wharf space on the north side of Channel street, 
commencing 225 feet westerly from the northwest corner 
of Fourth and Channel streets and running westerly 250 
feet, was assigned to the Mercantile Box Co., and rental 
fixed at $78.00 per month. This rental is based on the 
rate of 31 1-2 cents per linear foot per month in consid- 
eration of the said company keeping wharf in repair at 
their own expense. 

B. H. Teitjen requested that his assignment of berth 
space at ]\Iission street wharf No. 2 be reduced from 
140 linear feet to 95 linear feet and that the office rental 
on said space be readjusted to include the rental of 
berth space. 

The Chief Wharfinger has been directed to rigidly 
apply wharfinger rules on all unassigned territory where 
lumber trucks or other material occupies State property. 

The request of the San Francisco Labor Council that 
the Ferry Building be illuminated on the evening of 
September 6, 1909, on the occasion of the Labor Day 
celebration was granted. 

An application for permission to establish a drug 
store in the Ferry Building made by Mr. Jeff Pen-n was 
denied. 

The engineer of the Board recommended that the as- 
signment of space on Beale street wharf to the Pacific 
Coast. Coal Co. be rescinded, but that said company be 
allowed to occupy said space while it is practicable to 
bring ships into their berth. The recommendation of 
the engineer was accepted and said company will be 
allowed to hold said space after July 1, 1909, but they 
will be required to vacate without additional notice. 

Secretary was instructed to collect bill against Thom- 
son Bridge C^ompany, amounting to $200 for the rental 
of State Driver No. 1 during the month of April. 

Secretary was directed to collect bill against the 
Western Fuel Co., amounting to $5,215.26, as their por- 
tion of the expenses of labor for the repairs on the Fol- 
som street wharf No. 2, as per agreement. 

Bill in favor of J. W. McDonald, amounting to 
$227.70 for repairing the bituminous pavements in front 
of Ferry Building and on Mission street wharf, was re- 
ferred back to the engineer for revision. 



The San Francisco and Portland Steamship Company 
will re-establish a $10 and $15 passenger rate between Port- 
land and San Francisco upon the arrival of the company's 
new -steamer Kansas City. The large numbers of steam 
schooners which carry passengers on this run charge from 
$8 to $12 and the Harriman steamers were forced to reduce 
in order to compete with them. The heavy traffic, however, 
which will result from the exposition, the schooners will be 
unable to take care of and the old rate will be restored in 
anticipation of this. The Kansas City will reach San Fran- 
cisco early in July and until then the steamer State of Cali- 
fornia will be kept on the run. 



PACIFIC MERCHANT MARINE 



19 



NOTICE TO NAVIGATORS, MARINE ENGINEERS, 

MARINERS AND SEAMEN 

Thk page will be reserved exclusively for all official notice* and information of importance 



THE PORTLAND CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 
PORTLAND. OREGON 

The Portland Chamber of Commerce begs to point out to ship- 
owners the cusloniarv <ii!ir... « whirh «hl|>M loading h<T<' may 
expect to Incur: 

BAR PILOTAGE. — 1 iiis ciKirgf i» not compulsory. However, 
I'llotiiK"' hereafter will be under the direction of the Fort of 
I'ortland Commission, a .Municipal Cor|>oratlon eslabllshed by 
the Oregon State LeKislature. The Tort of Portland ComnilKSion 
will conduct both the pllotaK<' and towage services in a most 
efficient manner — this being their sole object. Beginning ap- 
liroximately about July 1, 19U'.i. pilots will be kept on the bar at 
all times, either in a i;ower ullot l>oat or tow boat. In good 
weather a tow boat will be kept outside the bar and In stormy 
weather it will be kept either off the bar or inside the Jetty, 
within a short distance of the ocean. Pilotage and towage 
rates are not compulsorj". 

Master* are strongly recommended not to attempt to enter 
the river without pilots, except in cases of grave emergency. 

RIVER PILOTAGE Is not compulsory, the Port of Portland 
undertaking to man their tow boats with capable pilots in order 
to abate this unnecessary expense. The towing is done by 
stern-wheel iM.ats of high power, lashed firmly to the quarter 
of the ship, from which It will be seen that there Is absolutely 
no need of an additional pilot. Your special attention Is called 
to these facta, as masters may be approached by river pilots who 
make their headquarters at Astoria and solicited to employ their 
services. These remarks apply only to sailing vessels; steamers 
require pilots In all cases, their charges being 12.00 per foot 
of draft and 2 cents per ton net register, up or down the river, 
and $7.50 for each move in the harbor. 

LINING FOR WHEAT CARGOES. This should be done by 
contract, and should not excet'd $.")(». 00 to IS.^.OO per sailing 
ship, according to size, and $125,00 to $230.00 |)er steamship, 
according to pize. In addition to the cost of lumber, which will 
average about $13.50 per .VI., and burlap at 6%i cents i)er yard. 

LINING FOR FLOUR CARGOES costs 10 to 16 per cent more 
than for wheat cargoes. 

SEAMEN. I'nder the present state law boarding masters 
are permitted to charge $30.00 for each man shipped