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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (1876)"



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Volume XIL] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 



[Number 



The Title-Deed of Our Liberties. 

The Declaration of independence and Many In- 
terest! ng Facts Concerning it. 

The Ind ependence of the United States dates 
from the Fourth day of July, 1776, and the 
glories of this Centeunial year culminate on the 
hundredth anniversary of that day, July 4th, 
187t>. The great event of the day one hundred 
years ago was the formal signing of that grand 
document known as the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. It is appropriate to the present to 
refresh our memories concerning the sterling 
deeds of tbat early time and to fill our minds 
with double weight of the reverence and re- 
joicing with which we have been taught from 
childhood to greet the coming of the nation's 
birthday. 

To aid our readers to this patriotic sentiment 
we reproduce the grand, ringing sentences 
which compose the iubtrument which gave form 
and unity to the revolutionary effort, and men- 
tion many interesting facts concerning it which 
recent research has brought to light. 

The Declaration of Independence. 

On another page we print the declaration 
with the type woven into the outline of the 
historic "Liberty bell" which rang out its 
adoption to a waiting people. 

How the Declaration Was Written. 

For the following interesting facts concern- 
ing the Declaration we are indebted to a timely 
and well written article in Scribner's Mag- 
azine for July, reviewing the historical facts 
which led to the Declaration. As is generally 
known, the Declaration was written by Jefferson. 
He was unsurpassed in his time in power of 
expression. He accordingly framed it; Frank- 
lin and Adams suggested a few verbal amend- 
ments; Sherman and Livingston had none to 
offer, and the document stood ready to be re- 
ported to the Congress. 

Some of those who throng to Philadelphia 
this summer may feel an interest in knowing 
that the " title-deed of our liberties," as Web- 
ster called it, was written in "a new brick 
house out in the fields" — a house still standing 
at the south-west corner of Market and Seventh 
streets, less than a quarter of a mile from Inde- 
pendence square. Jefferson had there rented 
a parlor and bedroom, ready furnished, on the 
second floor, for thirty-five shillings a week; 
and he wrote the Declaration in this parlor, 
upon a little writing-desk, three inches high, 
which siill exists. In that modest room we may 
fancy Franklin and Adams listening critically, 
Sherman and Livingston approvingly, to what 
was for them simply the report of a committee. 
Jefferson had written it, we are told, without 
the aid of a single book; he was merely putting 
into more systematic form a series of points 
long familiar. 

Signing the DocumenL 

Jefferson used to relate, "with much merri- 
ment," says Farton, that the final signing of 
the Declaration was hastened by a very trivial 
circumstance. Near the hall wos a large sta- 
ble, whtnce the flies issued in legions. Gentle- 
men were in those days peculiarly sensitive to 
such ditscomtorts by reason of silk stockings; 
and when this annoyance, superadded to the 
Slimmer heat of Philadelphia, had become 
intolerable, they hastened to bring the busi- 
ness to a conclusion. This may equally well 
refer, however, to the original vote; flies are 
flies, whether in July or August. 

Ameiicjn tradition has clung to the phrases 
assigned lo the different participants in the 
Boene: John Hancock's commentary on his 
own bold handwrittng, "There, John Bull may 
read my name witnout spectacles;" Fiaoklin's, 
"We mast hang together, or else, most as- 
suredly, we shall all hang separately;" and the 
heavy Harrison's remark to the slender El- 
bridge Gerry, that, in that event, Gerry would 
be kicking iu the air long after his own fate 
would be settled. These thiugs may or may 
not have been said; but it gives a more human 
interest to the event, wbeu we know that they 
were even attributed. What we long to know i«, 
that the great acts of history were done by 
men like ourselves, and not by dignified ma- 
chines. 

Reading the Declaration. 

On the fifth day of July, Congress sent oat 
circulars annonncing the Declaration. On the 



sixth the document appeared in a Philadel- 
phia newspaper and on the eighth it was read 
by John Nixon in the yard of Independence 
hall, as shown in our illustration. Before the 
reading, the king's arms over the door of the 
supreme court room in Independence hall 
were torn down, and these trophies were 
burned in the evening in the presence of a 
great crowd and amid the joyful pealing of the 
old Independence bell. 

Facts About the Signers. 

Even those who look with the greatest pride 
and hope upon the present and future of this 
nation, must admit that the Continental Con- 
gress contained in 1776 a remarkably large pro- 
portion of able and eminent men. The three 
most eminent delegations naturally were from 
what were then the three leading States— Vir- 
ginia, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. Vir- 



army was sustained in its closing campaign, and 
who was afterward a prisoner for debt; Morton, 
who had been a member of the "Stamp Act 
Congress;" Koss, the mediator between the 
Colonists and the Indiana; Dr. Kush, renowned 
for Rcience and for hu'iianity; Clymer, soldier, 
ntudent, writer, and prison reformer; the Irish- 
born Taylor and Smith, and the Scotch Wilson. 
Yet the other colonies were represented by 
delegations hardly less eminent. New York 
sent Livingston, of "Livingston's manor," the 
correspondent of Edmund Burke, and one of 
the framers of the "Address to the people of 
Great Britain" in the first Continental Con- 
gress; Lewis, the Welsh merchant, to whom 
the British government had given 5.000 acres 
of land for his services in the French and In- 
dian war; Floyd, who, during the greater part 
of the Bevolution, was an exile from his home, 
leaving it in the bands of the British ; and 




READING THE DECLARAIION IN 1776. 



ginia contributed Thomas Jeffersot: , who framed j 
the Delaration; Richard Henry L'^e, whose] 
resolutions preceded it; Fr .ncis Liehlfoot Lee, 
his brother; Wythe and Braxton, who had stood 
by Patrick Henry in the old House of Bur- 
gesses; Nelson, who had first proposed organ- 
izing the Colonial militia of Virginia, and who 
later, as a g neral in the field, bombarded his 
own house at Yorktown, and Harrison, after- 
ward the father of a President. Massachusetts 
sent Hancock, the President of the Congress; 
Samuel Adams, who shared with Hancock the 
honor of being excepted from a royal pardon; 
John Adams, "our Colossus on the floor;" El- 
bridg" Gerry, afterward Commissioner to France 
and Vice-President of the United Stiites, and 
Robert Treat Paine, who had acted as public 
prosecutor after the Boston massacre. Pennsyl- 
vania contributed Dr Franklin, "the genius of 
the day and the patron of American liberty;" 
Robert Morris, "the financier of the Revolu- 
tion," by whose sole credit the Continental 



Morris, afterward succeeded in Congress by'his 
more famous brother, Gouverneur. New Jersey 
sent H'>pliin8on, lawyer, wit, and poet — the 
author of "The Battle of the K-^gs;" Dr. With- 
erspoon, the Scotch clergyman. President of 
Princeton college; Stockton, a patriot, and the 
ancestor of patriots; Clarke, known as "the 
poor man's counselor. " though not a lawyer, 
and "honest John Hart." New Hampshire 
had chosen Dr. Bartlett, the first to sign the 
parchment roll; Dr. Thornton, who sticceeded 
Governor Wentworth, and beome acting Gov- 
ernor of Now Hampshire; and Whipple, who 
rose from a cabin-boy to bea generul, (ou- 
mandins with S'aik at Bennington, and under 
Gates at Saratoga. Connecticut sent Roirer 
Sherman, shoemaker, lawyer, and judge, who 
hud studied while working at his bench, and 
had become a profound lawyer on borrowed 
law books; Huntington, afterward President 
of Congress, and Wolcott, who defended the 
Connecticut coast against Tryon, and, later. 



made peace with the Six Nations. Rhode 
Island sent Hopkins, who had introduced a 
bill into the Rhode Island Assembly to abolish 
slave importation, and had at the same time 
emancipated his own slaves; and EUery, whose 
house was bnroed by the British army as soon 
as It took pos^e8sion of the island. 

Delaware had elected Rodney, who rode 80 
miles, as already stated, to be present at the 
vote for independence; Reed, who had roused 
his colony to contribute for the sufferers by the 
Boston port bill, and McKean, the only man 
whoservedjin Congress through the whole Revo- 
lutionary war. The South Carolina delegates, 
forming at first the only delegation which had 
united in opposing independence, were equally 
united in finally approving and practically sus- 
taining it, Middleton losing his fortune in the 
cause. Hay ward being scarred f ir life by a gun- 
shot wound, and both, with Rutledge, being 
imprisoned for a year at St, Augustine by the 
British; while young Thomas Lynch, who had 
come from the London Temple to espouse bis 
country's cause, escaped the dangers of war 
only to be lost at sea at 30. These were all na- 
tives of the colony from which they came; but 
North Carolina and Georgia were honorably 
represented by what we should now call "car- 
pel-baggers." North Carolina sent Hooper, a 
Massachusetts man, who had studied law under 
James Otis; Hewes, the New Jersey Quaker, 
and Penn, the Virginian, who afterward rallied 
the mountaineers of his adopted State against 
Cornwallis. Georgia, again, sent the Virginian, 
Walton, who had learned to read by the light of 
pine knots when a carpenter's apprentice; the 
English Gwinnett, and Hall, of Connecticut, 
who at first came alone to the congress, and 
was admitted to represent his district before the 
young colony had made up its mind. Finally, 
Maryland was represented by Chase, who, as 
judge upon the bench, afterward said to a timid 
sheriff, doubtful about getting some rioters to 
jail, "Summon me, Mr. Sheriff, and I'll take 
'em;" by Paca, who said, after his first session, 
that the Virginia gentlemen alone seemed able 
to carry on the Government, so that no one" 
else was needed; Stone, one of the committee 
that afterward framed the Articles of Confedera- 
tion, and Cbturles Carroll, who, lest some name- 
sake should share his risks, added "of Carroll- 
ton" to his name. 

This is the story of the signing. Of the mem- 
bers who took part in that silent drama of 1776, 
some came to greatness in consequence, be- 
coming presidents, vice-presidents, governors, 
chief justices, or judges; others came, in equally 
direct consequence, to poverty, flight, or im- 
prisonment. "Hunted like a fox by the 
enemy," "a prisoner 21 hours without food," 
•not daring to remain two successive nights be- 
neath one shelter," — these are the records we 
may find in the annals of the revolution with 
respect to many a man who stood by John 
Hancock on that summer day to sign his name. 
It is a pleasure to think that not one of them 
ever disgraced, publicly or conspicuously, the 
name he had written. Rejoicings everywhere 
throughout the colonies followed the signing. 



Legal Holidays. 

The Governor has, says the Sacramento 
Record-Union, appointed the third and fifth of 
July as legal holidays, for the reason that the 
programmes of celebration in many places em- 
braces those days, and calls on all persons to 
desist from their ordinary vocations on those 
days and to devote them to the celebration of 
the Centennial year of the nation. The law 
under whirsh the Governor acts in declaring 
Monday and Wedn sday legd holidays is found 
in Section 7 of the Civil Code, and reads as 
follows: "Holidays within the meaning of this 
Code are: Every Sunday, the first day of Jan- 
uary, the twenty-second day of February, the 
fourth day of July, the twenty-fifth day of 
December. ev<ry day on which an election is 
held throughout the State, and every day ap- 
pointed by the President of the United States 
or by the Governor of this State for a public 
fast, thanksgiving or holiday." The Governor 
Calls upon all citizens to devote the three days 
to the celebration of the origin, progress and 
greatness of the American people. 

Pltuouth Chubch has fixed the salary of 
Beecber at $20,000 annually. 



[July I, 1876 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



fEditorlal Correspondence.] 

The Centennial at Philadelphia.— No. 7. 

The recent redaction in railroad fares, and 
the information which has gone out that hotel 
charges are not exorbitant here, added to the 
knowledge that the exhibition is now essentially 
complete in all its particulars, has had the 
efl'ect to materially increase the number of vis- 
itors to the Centennial within the past few 
days, and tha grounds are now daily thronged 
in their every part with great multitudes of 
people, who come hither from all parts of the 
country to witness the wonders of mechanism 
and other handicraft which go to make up the 
great panorama of the world's progress for the 
last hundred years which is here presented. 
The picture shown could never have entered 
into even the wildest dreams of the sages and 
pee.s who planted the seed, the ripe fruit from 
whicii we are now enjoying. Besides our 
twn, sixteen foreign nations are here repra- 
seLtod and their industries illustrated, to all 
but c'le of which I have made more or less 
niln-i' n, and to that I will now call attention 
a-' the last but most important. 

The British Exhibition. 
Great Britain and her colonies occupy about 
one-third of the entire foreign space in ma- 
chinery and agricultural halls, and about one- 
quarter of the same in the main building, 
where the miscellaneous exhibits of all natioris 
are shown. Her contributions of machinery 
are not as numerous or varied as the American 
visitor had expected or might wish to behold. 
She is noticeably deficient in niAchine tools, in 
which particular the United States exhibit is 
remarkably full. A comparative exhibit of 
machine tools by Eugland and the United 
States would have offered a most interesting and 
instructive study. But England, as a general 
thing, has brought only those articles with 
which she can best compete with our people. 
Her exhibits are largely of a heavy character. 
She shows but little that is small — much that is 
wonderful and useful. Among the wonderful 
we may especially notice her exhibit of 

Heavy Armor Plates and Tested Samples. 

In the manufacture of heavy masses of metal 
England excels the world. Her well known 
steam hammer plant for forging 81-ton "^uns 
affords an illustration in this direction. Her im- 
mense plants for forging heavy armor plates 
furnish another. These huge ma»ses of 
rolled iron are among the most wonderful ex- 
hibits at the Centennial, while the tested 
samples, exhibiting the effect produced upon 
them by the impact of steel and chilled iron 
balls from her improved Armstrong guns, show 
what progress the so-called science of war is 
working among our cousins over the water. 

In this exhibit we have, first, a fine specimen 
of armor plate, eight inches thick, and cut 
from an original plate 25 feet long by seven and 
one-half wide. The welding is so perfect tbat it 
is difficult to detect from its polished edge tbat 
it was not rolled out from one massive biootn. 
Near this is a smaller section cut from a plate 
in feet long by five and one-half wide and 
21% inches thick. One side of this plate has 
not been trimmed, but has been left to i^how of 
how many layers of plate upon plate or differ- 
ent blooms it has been built up. The ragged, 
nnfinished end shows them distinctly, while a 
finished edge shows the perfection with vthich 
the work has been done. Near by we Lave 
another plate 11 inches thick, wbicb has buen 
tested with a seven-inch rifled gun, loaded with 
an elongated chilled shot, discharged with a dis- 
tance of only 30 feet between the muzzle and 
plate. Five shots appear to have been fired, 
four entering so as to make only one large 
cavity; a fifth was delivered a short di-tatice 
apart, showing what a single ba:l can do when 
fired from a modern rifled gun against a mass 
of solid iron. It had bored its way fully six 
inches info the solid wrought iron, forcing 
back the iron so as to form a jagged projecting 
fringe all around it. A further interesting ex- 
hibit would have been the shot itself or its 
fragments after it had performed its misbiion. 
None ol the shots had passed through ttie iron; 
but where the four shots had been so tired ai 
to make a ainglo cavity the coiJC:is8i::n bad pro- 
duced a Slight bulge in the back of the plate. 
These plaits are exhibited by Messrs. Cauimel 
& Co., of Si tffield, England. Messrs. John 
Brown & Co., of Sheffield, also exhii>lt 
sevtral plates which have been tested with 
resul 8 bimilar to ttie above. Another firm 
exhibits a splendid 14-iLch plate which no- 
body has attempted to punch. Tnese wonder- 
ful exhibits, in counectMn with the mammoth 
Krupp guus in the German exhibit, near by, 
are constantly being stared at by gaping orowas 
of all classea of our pei'ple, wita the awe and 
amazeujeni Urtually ultiibaied to the prjviucial 
alone. Bat one must be to the manor born, so 
to speak, to be able to look upon such wonder- 
ful tiiumpbs of human i-kiU without a shudder 
at their sight and an inevitable reflection upon 



the terrible game of strength and skill which 
now constitutes the artillery practice of war. 

It is with real pleasure that we turn from 
this exhibition of the skill of man directed in 
the way of producing agencies destructive of 
life and property to the more congenial and 
useful 

Display of the Arts ol Peace. 

That which comprises moat of the wonderful 
with the useful in this direction is the "Walter 
web printing machine," so called. This 
printing press is really one of the 
wonders of the exhibition, and attracts most 
marked attention. It stands on the fractional 
portion of the section in the English exhibit, 
marked 8 in the diagram which appeared in 
the Fbess two weeks since, so as to bring it as 
close as possible to the American presses shown 
in the sections marked A. Its only competitor 
is the Bullock press, on which the Tribune is 
printed, and which is similar to the one on 
which the Evenbui Post is printed in San Fran- 
cisco. As much as the Bullock press is in ad- 
vance of the other American presses, it is far 
from being abreast of the Walter press. The 
Walter press has its forms stereotyped and 
fitted to a small cylinder the same as with the 
Bullock press, and prints both sides, rolling off 
the paper continuously from a cylinder, print- 
ing it on both sides and cutting and delivering 
it in two piles, at the rate, as the gentleman in 
charge assured me, of fifteen miles of paper per 
hour — almost up to the average speed of a rail- 
road train! Even at that great speed it is 
wonderful with what precision and neatness it 
does its work; it cannot be excelled in that par- 
ticular by any cylinder press of any make. 
The English most certainly lead us in this 
direction. 

The next most wonderful as well as useful 
exhibit in the English departuiiut is a Jacquard 
silk loom from Coventry. This loom is set to 
weave portraits of Washington, Victoria, 
Shakspeare, Grant and others. It weaves 2U 
portraits of the same individual at one time, 
which are turned off in a continuous ribbon 
and cut apart and sold at a dollar each, almost 
as fast as they are woven. It is really wonder- 
ful to observe how perfectly it does its work — 
almost equal to the best work of the engraver. 
Eight different colors are used in Washington's 
portrait. The loom scarcely requires any at- 
tention at all. There is an American Jacquard 
loom in the United States department, also set 
to weave portraits. 

A Coal Cutting Machine. 

An exhibit of much interest to the coal min- 
ing fraternity hereabouts is the coal cutting 
machine of William Baird & Co. This ma- 
chine ought also to attract the attention of the 
coal mine managers of the Pacific coast, for it 
or something similar must soon be introduced 
to save the present waste of coal and reduce 
the cost of getting it out with the comparatively 
high cost of labor there. I cannot learn that 
any such device is used in any .\merican coal 
mine, although there are a large number used 
in Great Britain with great sucess. It would 
ba difficult to describe the machine without 
diagrams. It may be sufficient to saj-, in this 
connection, that the machine is very simple 
and eas-ily bandied. It works by compressed 
air, and outs its way through a seam of coal to 
a depth of from three to five feet. It first 
makes a cut under the seam to any desired 
length along the vein, then cross-cuts until the 
projecting section of coal, having no support, 
falls of Its own weight, or if necessary is 
thrown down in a large mass by driving wedges 
over the top of the seam. The machine will 
cut through from 300 to 350 feet of a three-foot 
vein in from eight to ten hours, thus throwing 
down in that time, in the very best possible 
condition, 75 to 90 tons of coal, requiring the 
attention of only two men and a boy. The 
gentleman in attendance is a son of the invent- 
or, and explains its working so as to be readily 
understood by any intelligent miner. It is 
somewhat singular that these machines have 
never been introduced into this country. But 
we presume this exhibit will be the means of 
effecting so desirable an end. Haines &, Pay- 
ton also exhibit a coal cutter. 

An Underground Locomotive. 
There is another English exhibit of a pecu- 
liarly constructed locomotive, of small size and 
constructed for underground work. The boiler 
forms a hood which entirely covers all the 
working parts, thus protecting them from the 
dripping water and falliug debris, which is so 
injurious to a locomotive of ordinary build. 
We believe the only underground motor hith- 
erto employed on the coast is a small ordi- 
narily constructed narrow gauge locomotive in 
the Sutro tunnel. The motor here exhibited is 
well worth the attention of those in charge of 
extCLSive mining operations, who may ero long 
find it a matior uf economy to employ frteam lu 
place of man or horse power lor drawing cars 
in Ijug underground tunnels. 

The Aveling and Porter Road Locomotives, Elc. 

The Messrs. Aveling & Porter exhibit several 
of their celebritei road locomotives — one of 
which, some of our readers will recollect, was 
imported into California a few years since, bat 
was never considered a success there. It is 
now, I believe, laid up in a storehouse near the 
Pacific Mail company's wharf. It is said that 
one reason why these machines hiive never 
succeeded in Ihu Atlantic States is ou account of 
ihe inferiority and uneven character ot our 
roads. Such an tbjection. at least so far as 
the unevenuess is concerned, cannot acconat 
for the impracticability of such machines ou 
the valley roads of California. Notwithstand- 
ing all that has been said in regard to their use 



in Scotland and the north of England, we are 
inclined to think they are not vary common 
there. They present every evidence of strength, 
durability and handinesa for use; but were it 
not that this is an age of progress in almost 
everything, we should be inclined to think the 
road locomotive was an impractical idea. 

In connection with this exhibit, several steam 
cranes are shown, which are worthy of special 
consideration by all parties having heavy bodies 
to move short distances. These cranes are 
capable of lifting from three to five tons, while 
the work of steering, driving and working the 
crane is performed by one man, stationed on 
the foot-board. They have a working circum- 
ference of about 150 feet. These cranes have 
been of very great service in lifting goods and 
machinery into place in machinery hall, and 
are pronounced most superior and efficient 
machines. They have proven the most useful 
of all the visiting machines on the ground, hav- 
ing promptly made themselves at home there 
and gone to work. 

Other English Exhibits. 

One of the most notable exhibits in this direc- 
tion which England has brought us is a fine 
plant of sugar machinery from Glasgow, de- 
signed for the production of raw sugar on the 
plantation. Then we have improved machines 
for working wool and cotton in operation, per- 
forming the actual work of carding, spinning 
and weaving; also machines for making and 
shaping confectionery. What appears to be a 
very superior mode of securing picks upon their 
handles is shown, which I presume will be 
placed on exhibition at the Mechanics' fair, in 
August next. Mining men will do well to ex- 
amine these picks. A metallic shield is first 
slipped on to the handle, and the pick is then 
dropped on over this shield and secured in 
place by a simple and apparently effective de- 
vice. We have also calico printing machines, 
hydraulic presses and a few machine tools for 
heavy iron work. Several pumps are also 
shown in the hydraulic annex. 

la machine tools the English exhibit, as 
already stated, is rather deficient. We have a 
few for metal and heavy iron work; but noth- 
ing at all, comparatively, to what is shown by 
the United States. Perhaps such an exhibit 
could hardly have been expected from a coun- 
try where such tools are so little used to what 
they are here. 

Several useful inventions are shown in mod- 
els, among which we msjy mention prominently 
a railroad junction, fitted with a patent system 
of interlocking switches and signals for work- 
ing on the block system. A model is also 
shown of a device for rendering this system 
automatic, by means of an electro-mechanical 
machine, which operates the levers without the 
interference of any other agency than that of 
the approaching train itself. With the increas- 
ing demand for faster passenger trains, and 
the rapidly accumulating business on some of 
our more important roads, improvements in 
this direction, calculated to afford better pro- 
teciion for human life, will be gladly received 
and their merits carefully considered. 

There are many other minor matters con- 
nected with the English exhibit which we 
should notice, did space permit; but with what 
has already been written we must close our 
notice of foreign displays in machinery hall, 
until we come to a g^neral comparative sum- 
ming up. My next letter will be devoted to 
the United States exhibit of machinery. 

W. B. E. 

Centennial Grounds, June 14th, 1876. 



Discursive Discussions. 

Editoes Pbess : — I've been for some weeks 
wishing to write to you, but nature is so busy 
these long days that farmers must perforce be 
also busy, that they may direct her mighty 
forces to their own personal advantage. Our 
play time must come later in the season if it 
come to us at all. 

It strikes me that as a people we lack play- 
fulness; we are altogether too glum and grim. 
On those rare occasions when we indulge our 
cachinatory muscles in a smile, we smile grimly, 
as though we grudged them their unwonted ex- 
ercise; and those of us who "smilo" metaphoric- 
ally, (alas! some but too frequently,) in bar 
rooms, perform the operation with visages as 
glum and as nervous clutchings after that other 
allaying beverage as though we fully appre- 
hended an immediate verdict of ' "spontaneous 
combustion" to be pronounced over our self- 
incremsted bones. There is too much of the 
child and too little of the youth about us. We 
retain the selfishness, peevishness, and ill regu- 
lated temper of childhood; but we lose the 
frankness, modesty, playfuluf'ss and noble en- 
thusiasm of youth. The ancient Greeks knew 
better. They believed in 

Play, 
And I have had to make this somewhat lengthy 
prologue as an apology for talking about a 
game. The Greeks called the game that I want 
to talk about the "discus;" it was something 
like our game at "qnoits, " and I suppose nine 
readers out of ten never saw a g <ma at quoita. 
As nea ly as I can recall the game it is played 
thus: Two iron pins are driven into the ground 
some 50 feet apart; each player has two flat 
iron rings, thick near the center and tapering 



towards the edge, and so marked that he can 
recognize them. Standing at one pin the 
players in turn throw tbcir quoits, so that if 
possible, the quoit may encircle the other pin, 
or come as near that as may be. He whose 
quoits come nearest the mark is adjudged win- 
ner. 

Now, Messrs. Editors, it is my pleasure to 
disregard Webster's etymology of the word dis- 
cussion, and to believe that the word discus- 
sion is derived from my Grecian game at qnoits, 
(diskoa). Furthermore, I propose to some of 
your correspondents to enter into a game of 
diskos, or into a discussion with me. The 
ground to be famished by the columns of the 
R. P., not the P. R. (prize ring). I will pitch 
the pins for the first game and throw my quoits 
first. Each correspondent to pro^de his own 
quoits and to do his best to ring the pin. You, 
Messrs. Editors, will, I know, act as umpires, 
see fair play and make sure that the mark 
aimed at is the truth, so far as it is ascertaina- 
ble. Finally, a quoit misthrown is a dangerous 
missile; let us each endeavor to come some- 
where near the mark, and not have our quoits 
alight by any mischupce on our adversary's 
corns. 

Manures. 

As no one opposed my previous assertion that 
manure well applied was beneficial to all lands, 
I now suggest that one of the most highly fer- 
tilizing of manures, superphosphate of lime, 
might profitably be made of the boiled bones of 
the various matanzas now being established. 
The entire carcass would then be utilized and 
result in canned meat, grease, wool, skins, glue, 
blood manure (rich in the much needed nitro- 
gen,) and superphosphate. I believe but little 
apparatus is required for the manufacture of 
superphosphate; lead tanks and bone crusher 
would probably be the most expensive. The 
crushed bones, untreated by sulphuric acid, 
would, I think, be an available manure for 
Alfalfa Lands. 

Broken bones are highly esteemed as manure 
in the pastures of Cheshire, England, where the 
famous Cheshire cheese is made. It appears 
to be commonly set forth among us that alfalfa 
can be raised to time without end, if only the 
water supply holds out. This is undoubtedly 
a fallacy. All plants not only imbibe from the 
Roil, but also emit some characteristic secretion . 
The clover family is more especially noted for 
this, hence, "clover sick" is an every day ad- 
jective. Alfalfa, from its roots being so far 
penetrating, may perhaps retain a healthy habit 
for a longer period than more tender rooted 
clovers. But I expect to hear the word "alfalfa 
sick" added to the farmer's vocabulary before 
many years pass; although I fully expect my 
friend Olden will put in his quoit that the al- 
falfa lands of Los Nietos never could so mis- 
behave themselves. 
"Hang a Calf Skin on Those Recreant Limbs." 

Mrs. Nichols asks, "do my cows kick ?" I 
think I could make any cow kick by adopting 
the right method. Cracked teats and clumsy 
manipulation will in most cases induce recalci- 
trant behavior on the part of the long-suffering 
cow; but flesh butter and better handling may 
insure a removal of the complaint If not, fol- 
low Shakspeare's advice, and have a thong of 
calf skin with a loop at one end, pass it around 
the hind legs, connect the loop and free end in 
a noose and then hitch on to the tail. This 
won't make the cow give dowa her milk, though, 
and my remedy for that is to convert the milk 
into beef and then ask no more favors as to 
giving it down; I let the butcher knock it 
down. The easiest plan for a novice to pick a 
good cow for milk, is to examine the "escutch- 
eon" or shield shaped streak of up-turned hair 
on the back of a cow's udder and thighs. In a 
first-class milk cow it extends from the bottom 
of the udder almost to the root of the tail, 
and covers the entire width of the udder, and 
is sometimes six inches wide up the thighs. 
But no cow can do well on poor feed. I have 
my cows fatten up well when they are dry and 
keep them fat after calving. I always preach 
that it is the surplus food that an animal eats, 
over and above what is necessary for its sup- 
port, that brings in the profit. An animal had 
better starve outright than be kept on the verge 
of starvation year in and year out. The sur- 
plus food goes to the accumulation of beef or 
batter, and that's what we want. 

Mr, Robert Ashburner 
Stuck a pin in the Rcbal Press ground some 
weeks since, and promised to exhibit his skill 
at the diskos game. The cultivation of man- 
gold wurtzel was to be his mark. I've looked 
in vain to see him throw his qnoits. 

Cherry Culture. 

Your cherry culiurist, who favored ns with 
his valuable experience lately, omitted, I think, 
to tell us a fact that experience has taught me: 
tUat if you want fruit Irom your cbeiry trees, 
you must give ttiem lots of water when the 
fruit is bCitiug and swelling, or your show of 
bloom will be a vain delusion. Moreover, 
care in grafting must be taken, to graft free 
growers ou to fiee g'OWirs, and slow i.rowers 
to slow growers. If not, tbe stock and scion 
grow unequally, and the tree is worthless. 
The Chinese and Public Lands. 

The BulMin claims that the Chinese are to 
blame that 30,00J,0U0 acrtsof public lands in 
California are not settled np. I claim that ihe 
fault is with the 30,0J0,00O acres. I'va been 
nearly 11 years in this State, and I don't know 
where to find IGJ oat of all those 30,000,000 
acres that I want to homestead or pr^-empt. 
The fact is, Messrs. Editors, hundreds of people 
come here trom the East, deceived by glowing 



July I, 1876.] 



acconnts of special garden spots in Californian 
publications, which speak as though the special 
garden spot described was a fair average of the 
nnoecnpied public lands that await settlement. 
On arrival, they find the garden spots selling at 
$300 per acre, and the 30,000,000 acres to con- 
sist mainly of huge black chaparral mountains, 
such as I can introduce intending settlers into. 

I know a young man and family from the 
East looking for a quarter section to make a 
home on, and if any brother farmer knows an 
available 160 acres open to pre-emption, he'll 
oblige that young man by sending me word. 

The truth is, the Chinese have helped the 
settlement of the country, by making roads, 
etc., for which white labor would have been 
too costly, if attaioable. This question of 
Chinese immigration is •ssentially a farmers' 
and manufacturers' question. We are called 
upon to produce cheap food and cheap goods; 
we have competitors in all countries, of all 
colors and tongues; if we debar ourselves as a 
nation from using cheap labor, we put 
ourselves (already heavily handicapped 
by high freights, long distances, sacks, 
etc.) at a disadvantage in competing with 
others to whom Chinese labor is not 
debarred. There is no doubt but that — now 
that the Chinese have found emigration profit- 
able — they will emigrate. Already Australia 
and South Africa employ such labor; and, by- 
the-by, we are already behind Australia in the 
price our wheat brings in the English market. 
Australian wheat sells for two shillings per 
quarter more than best Californian grades. 

Is it that it is cleaner? Are they better 
farmers than we? Or are we to give their 
climate the preference? Bah! Let's put it 
down to British prejudice. 

But to return to the Chinese ; let us remember 
that we have forced ourselves as traders, etc., 
on them at the point of the bayonet. As long 
as tieaties were made in which the whole of 
the benefit was on our side, we were well satis- 
fied. "A pull at the pagoda tree" filled many 
white pockets. Now John wants his innings, 
and that is all unfair. He has no right to any 
innings. We all adopt Bret Harte's epithet of 
"Heathen Chinee;" but we miss the moral of 
the poem, which seems to me thus: that v ces 
which are venial, if not rather commendable 
in the white man, are black and unpardonable 
in the yellow. As long as the white gambler 
created John out of his loose cash everything 
went swimmingly, but when John begins to see 
how the trick is dene, and to do his share, he is 
to be "made for" by all patties. 

Let those who impute untold vices to the 
Chinese "pull the beam out of their own eyes 
first." 

I put it to farmers and dairymen generally 
whether, even with the number of laborers (of 
all colors) in the State, their profits are not 
almost all the time swallowed up by their labor 
bills. I think that is my share of the game for 
the present, Edwakd Berwick. 

Monterey, June 16th, 1876. 



Notes from Ventura County. 

Editors Press: — The crops around here 
are most excellent, though wheat in places 
shows some rust. Judging from the brisk 
business there is doing in farming machinery, 
etc., there must be a good breadth of land to be 
harvested. Haying is about over, crop good; 
fruit crop pretty good, orchards young; straw- 
berries do well with irrigation. Both here and 
at Santa Barbara I see and hear of Pekin 
ducks, Leghorn and Dark Brahma fowls from 
Col. Eyre's yard, Napa. Mrs. Edwards here 
has some of his pedigree fowls, from which she 
is successfully raising a fine stock of choice 
birds. She recently sent 12 eggs to Rev. Mr. 
Hough, of Santa Barbara, and they yielded 12 
chicks. At Santa Paula saw White Leghorns 
raised by me from e^^gs shipped by Col. Eyre 
to Ukiah, then brought down here. In a ride 
to Santa Paula saw a lovely valley and some of 
the finest alfalfa. Big stacks of the baled hay 
are in the fields and some seems ready to cut 
again. Water from the creek comes along in a 
ditch and makes orange, lemon, lime and other 
fruit trees, live willow, Osage orange and locust 
fences look well. Corn, flax, pearl barley, 
common barley, etc., are to be seen along the 
road, all well, except that volunteer barley and 
early sown flax are very weedy in places; but 
past expprience proves that all these crops can 
be successfully grown. This and the ciimate 
and continual immigration, makes land com- 
mand a good price; from enquiries it seems to 
rent lower in proportion than it sells. Here at 
Sdnta Paula are some finely fixed farms, belong- 
ing to men who seem to know how to farm. A 
great deal of harve.-ting is done by hogs, sav- 
ing a large amouut of txpense and work, and 
provit g very profitable. Sinta Paula is quite 
a thriving place. My old friend, L. S. Snuffius, 
from Uliiab, keeps a good temperance hotel and 
poetoffice. In the reading room I found a file 
of the Bubal Paess. I have organized strong 
Good Templar lodges at Carpinteria and Ven 
tura, and expect to at Santa Ptiula, shortly. 
Was much interested in visiting the soap rock 
works, and seeing the amount of petroleum oil 
brought for shipment from the wells and 
spriugs a few miles ont. They are about to 
work a refinery. The wharf is beiug extended. 
There is a good deal of enterprise aud very fine 
society; a good free reading room and public 
library. To-morrow I leave for Loa Angeles, 
whence more. J. W. Wbbh. 



Irrigation. 

Editors Press : — Irrigation under ground is 
somewhat limited in extent. The cost of ma- 
terial does not always justify the undertaking. 
Five inch clay pipes, two feet long, answer 
well and may do for a small garden. Redwood 
boards, nailed together, with a four inch square 
opening, with auger holes two feet apart, serve 
a good purpose, and are cheaper. Others dig 
open ditches to the hard pan, which also an- 
swers well for drainage in the winter. Under- 
ground irrigation is well adapted to dry cli- 
mates. It favors deep roots and nourishes 
those near the surface by absorption or perco- 
lation. 

Irrigatiort as a Fertilizer. 

A stream of water should acquire a tempera- 
ture equal to the atmosphere and the earth. It 
carries with it ingredients of matter as a fer- 
tilizer. The process of flooding or warping 
land along the stream leaves a large deposit of 
sediment equally distributed, and enriches the 
soil to a great extent. If the amount of matter 
annually washed down by hydraulic mining 
could be equally distributed by the process of 
warping, what a fertilizer we would have. 
Then the soil would not get exhausted. The 
farmer could use the heavily laden, nutritious 
water for every day food for his plants. 

Irrigation to become complete requires judi- 
cious underdrainage. If the soil will admit, 
good subsoiling is required, as it requires as 
much care to draw off the surplus water as time 
to bring it in. In all ordinary humid climates 
drouths are experienced. But irrigation, judi- 
ciously applied, this coast has logically proved 
to be a grand success and decidedly profitable. 
The great fertilizing element that is to unlock 
the latent resources of productive power of the 
soil is water; the question of fertility resolves 
itself into one of capacity for irrigation. 

Sacramento, Cal. G. R. 

Notes From Mendocino County. 

Editors Press: — I have failed to see any- 
thing in your paper from Mendocino county; 
for that reason I think I write to let the read- 
ers of the Press know that there is such a 
place. You will strike Anderson valley about 
30 miles west of Cloverdale, on the Mendocino 
stage road. This valley is about IG miles long 
and from one-half to two miles wide, with the 
Navarro river running along the south side. 
The mountains on the north side are open and 
thero is good grazing land, which is mostly cov- 
ered with sheep. The north side is a solid 
body of redwood and tanbark oak. The peo- 
ple of this valley want some man with from 
$2,000 to $5,000, and a little brains to keep 
him level, to come in here and put up a saw, 
bark and grist mill. We have no sawmill 
within 30 miles, and our grist mill is in Ukiah 
valley, 25 miles. Farming is not carried on 
very extensively here. There is from 12,000 
to 18,000 bushels of grain raised here a year, 
and from 200 to 300 tons of hi-y. The hay 
crop is extra this season, 1 ut the grain is late 
and not so good. We have a Grange here. 
Laurel Grange organized last September with 
about 30 members. The most of them are in 
attendance at our meetings, but some of them 
want a good lecturer to stir them up. We have 
a Good Templar lodge here also, which is doing 
good work with a membership of 76. It is 
making the Booneville saloon keeper turn pale 
around the gills. J. V. N. B. 

Booneville, Anderson Valley, Jane 16th. 




Dairy Show at the Centennial. 

The American dairymen's association has 
erected, in close proximity to the agricultural 
building of the Centennial international exhibi- 
tion, a model cheese and butter factory, with 
rooms for an extensive display of dairy prod- 
ucts and the apparatus and appliances used 
in the manufacture of the same. The dairy 
house is in the form of a double L, the fiont 
portion being 116 feet long by 28 feet wide, and 
comprising three apartments: the center one 
illustrative in its appointments of the American 
cheese factory, and crramery system; the end 
rooms bting fitted up for the exhibition of but- 
ter and fancy cheese. The wings are 64 feet 
in length by 30 feet in width, and are a|)pro- 
priatfd, one for the display of foreign cheese, 
the other for American. Baneath the building 
is a cellar of 861 square feet, for the storage of 
products not ready for exhibition. The whole 
structure is of two stories in bight, the upper 
floor being fitted up with reception rooms, 
offices for committees, rooms fur the storage 
and the preparation of products, and for res- 
taurant purposes, it being designed to establish 
a farmers' lunch room in the building. Access 
to the interior of tha exhibition roumd will be 
closed to visitors, ample opportunity being 
given to view the display thruugU numerous 
windows opening upon the Vcranda which 
surrounds the whole structure. 

Cheese and batter will be displayed on 
benches, or low tables, provided free ot charge. 



Producers may themselves assume the charge 
of their goods, or can place them in the care of 
a thoroughly capable custodian, selected by 
the bureau, and paid by the exhibitors accord- 
ing to a scale of prices to be established by the 
dairymen's association. 

The dairy building will be ready for the re- 
ception of exhibits continuously from June 7th 
to November 1st, it being designed to have a 
constaBt exhibition, a feature commending 
itself to the fullest support of dairymen. To 
afford, however, opportunity for more active 
competition, it has been decided to have two 
grand exhibitions, one of spring butter and 
cheese, June 2Gth to July 6th; and one of 
autumn butter and cheese, October 17th to 21st. 
For the guidance of producers, the bureau of 
agriculture has devised the following regula- 
tions: 

Butter. 

Butter will be judged upon the relative 
merits as to the make, color, flavor, texture, 
solidity and keeping quality. Parties exhibit- 
ing for competition must be prepared to 
furnish full statements as to the making of the 
butter, upon printed blanks, which will be 
supplied. Butter offered for competition will 
be in most acceptable form, if made under the 
following classification, applicable respectively 
to the manufacture of creameries and dairies; 
Best sample of 200 or more pounds, made at 
any time. Best package of 35 pounds or over, 
made at any time. Best package of 35 pounds 
or over, made in each month respectively. 
Best package of 35 pounds or over, of oldest 
make. Best sample of five pounds in one 
pound prints. Best sample of five pounds or 
more, made respectively from the produce of 
the various breeds of cattle. 
Cheese. 

Cheese will be judged upon the relative 
merits as to quality, make, texture, keeping, 
flavor and color. Parties exhibiting for com- 
petition must be prepared to furnish, upon 
printed blanks, which will be supplied, full 
statements as to the method of making and 
curing of the cheese, and the preparation of 
the rennet. Cheeses must not be cut, bored, or 
tried in any way before being exhibited, or 
they will be disqualified for competition. 
Awards will be made upon the various estab- 
lished appellations, both of foreign and home 
production. Cheese entered for competition 
will be divided into classes, respectively ol 
factory manufacture and dairy production of 
that made previous to the year 1876, and that 
made during the year 1876. Cheese offered 
for competition will be in most acceptable form 
if made under the following classifications: 
Heaviest cheese of good quality. Best cheese 
of 5,000 pounds or over. Best three cheeses of 
each brand respectively, between three and 10 
pounds, between 10 and 30 pounds, between 30 
and 50 pounds, and between 50 and 70 pounds. 
Best three cheeses in each class artificially 
colored. Best three cheeses in each class arti- 
ficially flavored. Best cheese in each class of 
natural color. Best three cheeses for special 
display in October, of not less than 40 pounds, 
made on the American factory plan, in the 
second and third week respectively, in June, 
July, August and September, 1876. Best three 
cheeses for special display in October, ot not 
less than 20 pounds, of dairy production, made 
in the second and third week .respectively, in 
June, July, August and September, 1876. Best 
cheese of oldest make, of each appellation. 
Best lot of three preserved rennets. Best 
sample of coloring for dairy products. 

Entries for exhibition, either continuously or 
at the periods of stated displays, can be made 
free of charge, upon forms, which will be fur- 
nished upon application. Producers who ap- 
ply for room will receive permits for space, aud 
oflScial labels to be attached to the packages. 
Freight must be paid at point of shipment, 
which will secure the delivery of goods in the 
fao'ory. 

Blank forms for the entry of products, and 
any further information desired, may be had 
upon application to Burnet Landreth, chief of 
bureau of agriculture. 



Tt|E H®^SE. 



Paper Blankets. — A suggestion, says the 
British Mail, that has frequently been made in 
the newspapers that a sheet of brown paper 
used as a bed covering between or on top of 
other wrappers, will impart additional warmth 
and be as serviceable as a blanket, has been 
acted upon by a Mr. Loder, who has taken out 
a patent for paper blankets. They are perfo- 
rated at distances of about four inches, in 
order to promote the ventilation which the 
density of the brown paper material interrupts. 
These paper blankets will be a great boon to 
the poor, and as they are clean, economical and 
ready for use in any emergency, they will be 
acceptable in hospitals, for the supply of which 
Mr. Loder has already obtained two or thn e 
ixjntracls. In schools and private families 
their cleanliness and comfort will bring tbeui 
into much service, and in hot climates, where 
blankets are liable to be infected with insects, 
these paper coverlets will be found to be very 
detirab.e. 



HviR Cloth.— The only manufactory in 
the world where they make hair cloth by au- 
tomatic machinery is in Pawtucket, R. I. 
Horrie's tails furnish the hair, and these are 
piirjhased in interior Russia at the semi-uuiiu 1 
fairs. The tails come from Siberia. Atiout 
600,000 horses' tiils are used every year. The 
'en^th of the hair ranges 12 to 36 inches. The 
36 inch hair, however, is so scarce that not 
more than three pieces of that width are made 
in a year. 



Trying to Master the Horse's Foot. 

In Wallace's Monthly we find a letter by 
"Viator" stating some researches he had made 
into the philosophy of horse shoeing, in which 
he is led to an approval of the positions taken 
by Dr. Dunbar of Stockton. We quote the fol- 
lowing interesting paragraphs from "Viator's" 
letter: 

Present Methods of Slioeing Incorrect. 

The experience of my youth and early man- 
hood had fastened upon me the truth that no 
horse's foot, after once having been shod ac- 
cording to existing methods, was ever as good 
as before. I found, too, that horsemen and 
smiths, when questioned upon the point, ac- 
quiesced in my conviction. Upon reading up 
the authors, also, I found them in possession 
of but little valid knowledge concerning it, nnd 
found one of the best so conceding. Closely 
observing the practical result of what was 
taught by them, I perceived that much of it 
was insignificant, more erroneous and hurtful, 
a I'd all a. failure. 

Ever and anon a most oraiular denunciation 
of the smiths for paiing the frog or cutting 
bars, etc., met my eye while perusing the agri- 
cultural and live stock papers. These articles 
would generally suggest that the whole secret 
lay in the treatment of the frog, etc., and 
that if it were never touched with the knife it 
would "supply the foot with moisture," act as 
a wedge to keep the foot spread out, and similar 
wonderful offices that would prove the sover- 
eign remedy for all the ills the hoof was heir to. 

Why the Old System is Wrong. 

One more clear conviction came at least, and 
has been reaffirmed by reading and observation 
since, viz. : that the assumption of effect for 
cause is the vitiatiyig <jerm of the old teachings. 
Thereupon a "right-about-face" enabled me to 
unlearn about all that the books teach. The 
great difficulty that had ensnared the veterinari- 
ans seemed this: The features and functions of 
the hoof under natural conditions were taken 
as a guide for its management within condi- 
tions wholly artificial. This difficulty clearly 
perceived, the way was cleared for what 
seemed a true line of investigation, viz. : "How 
far does the artificial use of the horse supersede 
natural adaptations of the parts of the foot, or 
pervert the peculiarities of their growth?" 

Dunbar Furnishes Light. 

I was helped to the perception of this ques- 
tion by the much abused Alexander Dunbar, 
who gave me real and valid instruction. He, 
in his ignorance of existing systems, had un- 
covered essential facts concerning the relative 
growth of the various parts of the foot, as well 
as their natural economy; and his treatment 
sought to adapt the shoeing so as not to per- 
vert but utilize these, under artificial condi- 
tions. Dunbar was a discoverer, but his dis- 
coveries are not wrought into a sufficiently sys- 
tematic whole to enable all his pupils to fully 
grasp or apply their merits. While he may 
master every form of hoof difficulty that he 
personally treats, his students do not generally 
equal their master's success. For this reason 
his method is often brought into disrepute by 
the failures of his pupils; which failures the 
disciples of the old school are not slow to exag- 
geraie into "humbug." 

[Dr. Dunbar writes us as follows concerning 
the reasons why some of his students have failed : 
"The failures attributed to my pupils by Viator 
are not confined alone to those simple reasons, 
but much more frequently to insufficient ex- 
ecutive ability in their not exacting strict 
obedience from the farrier when operating, and 
the grooms in care-taking before and after the 
operation. Obedience without reasoning is 
essential to success, as in compromising with 
the old school they slide back imperceptibly."— 
Eds. Press.] 

The Philosophy of the Dunbar Method. 

Here and there, however, a pupil of a mind 
more philosophic and better disciplined than 
Dunbar, has grasped his facts and drawn them 
out into philosophic order; discovering in the 
process new facts, and establishing correlative 
principles. If we ever have a system of shoe- 
ing that shatl meet the exigencies of the foot 
in all its conditions, that system will be iu- 
det)ted to the discoveries of Dr. Danbir. 'But 
over and beyond his "secrets" (which his pu- 
pils may not reveal, except such as are author- 
ized by'bim to teach), there are trutLa that form 
a net-work of systematic treatment that will go 
far to displace the olden abuses. Primary 
among these truths are these conditions to the 
healthy state and action of the fjot: 1, outer 
conformation; 2, freedom of oiiculation and 
secretion; 3, normal position of the bones. 
There conditions are essential, and to maintain 
aud restore them is the aim of an intelligent sys- 
tem of shoeing. If the first condition be dis- 
turbed by loss ot moisture, or, mechanically, 
by stioeiog, it is easy to see ho.v the other two 
nonaiiions must be \iolaiod. Therefore in the 
first condition lies the s cret of the health or 
ruin of the foot; and it is exactly in this ques- 
tion of outer conformation, astffected by con- 
traoiion, that veterinary soienoe has commiited 
its greatest t>luoder, aud shoeing its greatest 



[July I, 1876 



P&W1I9 %t ||bpmbki. 



THE HEADaXJAXTEKS ot the California 
State Grange are in the Grangers" Building, northeaet 
comer of California and Davis streets, over the 
Grangers' Bank of California and California Farmers' 
Mutual Fire Insurance Association. Master, J. V. 
Webstek; Secretary, Amos Adams. 

The Oran^irs' Business Association of California is 
on Davjs street, north-east comer of California. 



Orangers' Business Association. 

It becomes necessary to remind those who have 
done and wish to do business with the Grangero' Bus- 
iness ARsociation, of the change of business manager, 
Mr. T. J. Brooke retiring from the house and Mr. Dan- 
iel Inman asHumirg mauageiueut of the same. There- 
fore it is desirable that all communications for or 
consignments intended for our house, should hereafter 
be sent to the "Grangers' Business Association. San 
Francisco." Ajjos Adams, 

Sec'y Grangers' Business Association 



Copies of the Constitution and By-Laws of the 
National, State and Subordinate Granges, containing 
the latest amendments, are now printed and for sale 
at this office, at Ave cents per copy, post-paid. They 
contain blanks for inserting the name and No. of the 
Subordinate Grange. 



P. OF H. — Subscribers who pay fully one year ($i) in 
advance for the Pacific Buiial Pbess can receive the 
Califoknia PATBON/re«. besides other premiums. See 
our premium list in another column. 



Let Every Grange Celebrate. 

It Beems fitting to us that every Grange 
sbonid take some part in the celebration of 
the national birthday. In the first place, as 
organizations of Americans the Granges should 
be inspired by patriotic sentiment. This re- 
mark would apply of course with equal force 
to allboSies of good citizens; but it seems to 
us the Granges have especial reason to recall 
and refresh the spirit which won victory a hun- 
dred years ago. The true revolutionary spirit 
is not a turbulent spirit. It is a spirit of strong 
determination, of wise resolution, of decisive 
action. A hundred years ago this spirit met 
oppression and swept it away. It chal'enged 
those who would subject it to unfair exaction 
and vanquished them ; it met wrong with vigo- 
rous right; it met monopoly with might. The 
result was the ^establishment of a government in 
which the just and true relations between man 
and man \iere observed as they bad never been 
under the old regime. It was a practical re- 
form in the affairs of government which stands 
to-day as an example and incitement to all 
who are down-trodden or oppressed. It is to do 
honor to such a spirit that our celebrations are 

planned. 

Because of its significance as we have in- 
terpreted it, there seems to us especial reason 
why the Granges should give enthusiastic com- 
memoration to the day. The spirit which tri- 
umphed over oppression a hundred years ago 
is not vastly unlike the spirit which will tri- 
umph to-day over unfair exaction and wrong. 
The spirit of truth which wins battles is not un- 
like the truth which wins the peaceful vie ories 
of right. When we recall the revolution which 
gave birth to our government, it is plain to see 
how valuable the effusion of its spirit would be 
amon^ the farmers of the county. The con- 
test of 1776 was undertaken in defen.se of holy 
principles. The strength of these principles 
and their appreciation among the people knit 
oar fathers together in the struggle and gave 
them irresistible power. The result was, as 
we have said, a true and lasting reform. Ihe 
field is open for a similar victory to-diy. In 
the contest against darkness and for wider in- 
telligence; in the assertion of upright dealing 
instead of unholy combinations and monopo- 
lies; in insisting upon the right of (he governed 
to a fitting share in the formation of the gov- 
ernment, there is opportunity for the salutary 
working of the old spirit, the old unity of 
action, the old effective truth of purpose and 
truth of life. 

We would have the Granges celebrate the 
Fourth of July freely and heartily. In many 
interior towns there will be a gathering, and 
exercises worthy of the day; in these town and 
county celebrations the Granges should be fit- 
tingly represented. We notice by our ex- 
changes that it is the intention of several 
Granges to take a leading part in the proces- 
sions and other exercises. This is well. But 
there will be many Granges located out of ea^y 
reach of the town gatherings. To such as these 
Wd would say, celebrate at home. Call a little 
social gathering; it is in these that the Grange 
star shines brightest. Arrange some simple ex- 
ercises which shall call to mind the early days 
of the republic, especially the characteristics of 
that lime to which we have alluded. Let it go 
on record that the Grange borrowed new reso- 
lution and new strength from the contempla- 
tion of the old revolutionary spirit. 

The Fourth of July in the country. This is 
where we have most often passed the day, and 
there it seems to us the occasion has more sig- 
nificance than in the crowded, crushing city. 
Let no one think that miles of parade and ions 
of explosives are the essential things in a loyal 
and salutary observation of the day. It is in 
the heart rather than in the eye and ear that 
the influence of the commemoration should 
rest. We believe a celebration is never more 
impressive than in the quiet of the country. 



There is certainly far more individual heart in 
the observation. Each one has a more active 
sense of his paiticipation. Let no one refrain 
from doing some honorable thing to show his 
remembrance of the day because he may live 
where few can gather together. Wait not for a 
crowd. Let every little hamlet in the land 
breathe the old true spirit of the day and let 
each make some sign of its incoming. Thus 
the day will leave us better than it found us. 
Thus may we gain some of the glorious patriot- 
ism and truth of the beginning to carry us along 
our day's journey into the second century of 
the republic. 

Agricultural Education in Germany. 

III.— Boarding Schools, Their Expenses, Etc., and 
the Agricultural Museum. 

Allow me to conclude, for the present at least, 
this record of facts collected concerning the 
edncationitl interests of German agriculture, 
by presenting your readers, according to prom- 
ise, with a tabulated view of the 15 agricultural 
boarding schools alluded tcTin my first letter o' 
this series, and some comments on the general 
subject under consideration. Such a table 
places facts of considerable importance from 
the information they contain in a mucn clearer 
and more condensed form than they can well 
be presented in any other manner. In this 
form they may be of use for future reference to 
some of your numerous readers. Where the 
letter X is used in a column of figures, it means 
unknown or indefinite. 

The very low rates at which board and tui- 
tion, especially the former, are furnished, are 
really remarkable, when we remember that the 
eoraolaint throughout Germany, as universally 
as with us since our civil war, is that since the 
late war with France, victorious as the Ger- 
mans were, and though paid such a large 
indemnity, almost all the necessaries of life are 
more expensive than before the war. What an 
argument this, among many others, for the fos- 
tering of universal peace. 



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Co imenis. 

While striving to collect reliable facts during 
three weeks' stay in Germany on agricultural 
education, and in recording them here for the 
use of my fellow Patrons, the following words 
of our St. Louis "Declaration of Purposes" 
have constantly recurred to mind: 

"We shall advance the cause of education 
among ourselves and for our children by all 
just means within our power. We especially 
advocate for our agricultural and industrial 
colleges that practical agriculture, domestic 
science, and all the arts which adorn the home 
be taught in their courses of study." 

If any details in these letters concerning the 
thorough Prussian system tcay tend to aid our 
Order, and our friends everywhere, in carrying 
out more fully this very noble object of improv 
ing our methods of practical education, the 
writer will feel well repaid. I must here return 
thanks to the several friends through whom I 
was enabled to learn these facts. To one es- 
pecially must I give credit, a young lady relative 
of mine, without whose invaluable assistance 
as interpreter and translator this work of col- 
lecting icformation in Germany could not have 
been done. Herself a thorough teacher, she 
has spent nearly three years there, ?>tndying 
under various noted instructors and paying 
particular attention to the entire system of 
German education. Having now completed 
this task as chosen by herself, she will return 
home with me. It affords me much pb asure 
to thus give credit to a very noble worker la 
The Cause of Truth. 
Her name will not be unfamiliar to many of 
your readers, and without her knowledge I wish 
to record it hero as a tribute to eminent but 
modest merit, such as all appreciate who admire 
ability and excellence in woman. I allude to 
Miss Julia S. Tutwiler, whose name many of 
your readers have seen in more journals than 



one, as her facile pen has given us numerous 
instructive and charming letters and verses. 

When we discuss the various means provided 
in Germany for a complete agricultural educa- 
tion for those of its youths who may choose 
that occupation which Washington himself has 
called "the most healthful, most useful and 
most noble employment of man," there is 
another institution which can be appropriately 
included under this hend. This is the very ex- 
tensive nnd admirable 

Agricultural Museum in Berlin, 
No. 26 Sehulzen strasse. It is in charge of 
Dr. Witt'mack, a gentleman eminently fitted for 
his post, and withal a thorough English 
scholar. Being favored by an introduction to 
him from Minister Friedenthal, I enjoyed the 
privilege of his valuable explanations while 
thoroughly examining its large and well classi- 
fied collection. The doctor informed me that 
they are now somewhat cramped for want 
of room, as they are occupying temporary 
quarters only, but that within five years it is 
proposed to erect a building especially adapted 
to their wants. 

A dozen rooms or more of fair size contain 
their specimens, arranged in very compact 
form. Anything like a full description of a col- 
lection which, by its systematized object 
teaching, is such a valuable aid to education, 
would form a series of letters. Here, only brief 
allusions can be made to some of it., main fea- 
tures. 

The first, or "grain room" furnishes material 
for hours of study. In a large glass ease and 
outside of it are tastily arranged samples of 
grains and various seeds in large and small 
jars, as well as heads and straws together. 
You see there a handsome cotton plant from 
Georgia, «,nd our California wheat and barley, 
as exhibited in the Vienna exposition. There 
are also large wax models of the blooms of dif- 
ferent cereals, and fine samples of sugar. But 
nothing there was to me so peculiarly interest- 
ing as the clear mode of illustrating what 
chemists call the (/ualitative and quantitative 
analysis of plants. There are long glass tubes 
containing, in solid and liquid forms, all 
the chemical elements, and the oils, the water, 
the starch, etc , composing different agricultu- 
ral products; for instance, the sugar beet and 
its plant, potatoes and the potato plant, oats 
and oat straw. The amount analyzed of each 
is a kilogram, or something over two pounds 
(2.2), the substances obtained by analysis, be- 
ing shown in grammes or thousandth parts. A 
large glass jar, alongside of the tub s, contains 
a kilogram of the raw product analyzed. 

In other rooms are wax models of fruits and 
roots, some illustrating diseases of f uits, of 
plants and of animals. The walls are adorned 
with valuable maps, charts and engravings. 
There are thoroughly graded samples of wool, 
of cocoons and silk, bees and honeycomb, mod- 
els of different farm implements of various 
ages and races of mankind, samples of plows, 
etc., dairv furniture, farm machinery and fish- 
ing tackle. There are models of troughs and 
dams for fish breeding. One room contains 
over 1 500 samples of wood. There is a large 
agricultural library connected with it, contain- 
ing thousands of books and pamphle's, more 
than 15,000 in all. 

In snort, all through this splendid establish- 
ment, which is certainly one of the most com- 
plete to be found in the world, you see all those 
marks of minute thoroughness for which our Ger- 
man and especially our Prussian friends are dis- 
tinguished. Many features in it may well furnish 
models and guides for such a museum as our 
Order is now forming at Louisville, Ky., in 
connection with our National Grange head- 
quarters, and for our other National and State 
collections in the interests of agriculture. 

Really, in the future, each State Grange 
should have just such an agricultural museum; 
if not 80 very extensive, at least quite as thor- 
ough in its way. 

Whenever our agricultural education is sys- 
tematized, extended, illustrated and honond 
as it should be, instead of the great drainage to 
which our agricultural population has been 
subject, to the injury of ourselves and to the 
injury of our towns and cities, wo shall begin 
to see the [ranks of our honorable profession 
recruited by many of the brightest and best of 
our sons, as it should be. J. W. A. Wbight. 

London, Eng., April, 1876. 

Analysis of an El Dorado Mineral Water. 

Prof. Hilgard furnishes ns with the following 
interesting report which he made on a subject 
presented him by El Dorado Grange: 

C. J. Shkldon, Esq.,— J9ear Sir: In accord- 
ance with the suggestion and request of Mr. 0. 
D. Brooks, on behalf of your Grange, that I 
should examine a mineral water from a mine, 
wbw^e beneficial efl'rtct upon the soil of your 
1 region has been remarked. I have made of it 
suob analysis a, the small quantity furnished 
has perojitted, with the view of obtaining an in- 
sight into the most prominent needs of your 
soil. I regret that the iusufficieney of the ma- 
terial has prevented me from obtaining definite 
numerical dita; but I think the result is never- 
theless sufficient to indicate its mode of action 
as a fertilizer. 

The total amount of soluble matter in the 
water is at the rate of 90 grains per gallon. 

Upon boiling it, carbonic acid gas escapes, 
and alter evaporation there remains a white 
residue, a part only of which again dissolves 
in water. 

The part soluble in water consists mainly of 
chloride of potassium, with small quantifies of 
sulphates of lime and magceiia. 



The less soluble portion consists of sulphate 
of lime (gypsum), carbonate of lime (calcareous 
spar, limestone) and a small amount of bone 
phosphate of lime. Also a trace of iron and 
magnesia. 

The amount of the latter substances is quite 
small; as regards the phosphate, so much so 
that I should not attribute to it any large share 
of the fertilizing effects. So far as I can judge 
at present, I should attribute the manurial effi- 
cacy of the water to one or tioth of two in- 
gredients, viz: the chloride of potassium, and 
the gypsum. The latter substante being cheap 
and easily procured, I suggest that your 
Grange, and others located on similar soil, try 
its effects upon your chief crops the coming 
year, using it at the rate of from three to six 
bushels per acre. As regards potash, I would 
advise two sets of experiments. One, of the 
direct application of crude commercial "pot- 
ashes," at the rate of about 75 pounds to the 
acre. Alongside, a similar (say quarter acre) 
plot dressed with slaked lime, at the rate of 
about four barrels per acre, or less if the soil 
is rather light. The object of the latter experi- 
ment is, both to ascertain the effect of lime in 
general, and to test its efficacy as compared 
with the potashes; my impression being that your 
soil contains abundance of potash in the una- 
vailable form, which will probably be brought 
into action by the lime. It will, however, be 
very desirable to gain farther insight into the 
nature of your soil by direct examination, 
which I will give it if you will supply me reli- 
able and representative specimens, taken in ac- 
cordance with the directions I furnished Mr. 
Brooks. Euo. W. Hiixjard, Prof, of Agr. 

Univ. of Gal.. June 23d. 



The Grange at Haywards. 

Editoks Pbess: — It has been my good fortune 
to be favored with an invitation to attend the 
festival of the Grange at Haywards on the 10th 
iust., audi have ever since that memorable day 
intended to avail myself of your uniform kind- 
ness in Grange matters by asking space in your 
columns to express the thankfulness I feel to 
the good Patrons there for their hearty welcome 
and abundant oheer extended to me and my 
better half. I have, however, delayed doing so 
until LOW, because I desired to show some ap- 
preciation of their goodness to us by manifest- 
ing a desire to be useful in the business of most 
farmers there in the matter of sale of fruit, etc. 
Beverting to the festival, it was a Grange 
feast, and when that is said the highest meed 
of praise is given; that it was first-class of its 
excellent kind I am not alone as a witness; 
Master Webster, our brothers Cressey, Inman 
and Blanchar, with sisters Cressey, Inman, 
Blanchar and Thompson will sustain me, ai d 
our only sorrow in the whole matter has been 
that we, the guests, were so taken np with our 
own enjoyment that among tis all none were 
thoughtful enough to thank our sisters for the 
exquisite repast they favored us with and which 
must have cost them no little trouble to pre- 
pare. 

The addresses by Master Webster, Brothers 
Cressey and Blanchar were unusually good, es- 
pecially that by the Worthy Master of the 
.State Grange. Speaking as a judge, and what 
lawyer does not hope to be one, there is 
oratorical power of no mean order possessed by 
Master Webster, and the ho. est preparation 
which he gives to his discourses marks them as 
worthy of being listened to by audiences as in- 
telligent even as the one he was so fortunate as 
to be before on that occasion. The day was 
beautiful and no one need say that the scenery 
and surroundings were charming. Haywards 
needs no praise from me nor any one else, and 
the whole affair was characterized by friend- 
liness and pure enjoyment — it was a marked 
success. 

Eastern Shipment of Fruit. 
I have said that I waited till now to mention 
this visit, because of a special reason. This is 
it: At the meeting and in the business talk at 
the Grange hall the project of sending fruit to 
the Eastern cities by the new patent refrigera- 
tor car was discussed and a committee ap- 
pointed to meet the owner of the patent at San 
Francisco on the following Monday to consider 
the matter. The committee met Mr. Mdler, 
who owns the patent right, at the office of the 
Grangers' Business Association, and a'ranged 
to forward a carload of currants and cherries. 
The hot weather, however,so materially affected 
the crops that the scheme was abandoned solar 
as sending that carload froJi Haywards was 
concerned, but as this matter of shipping fruit 
East is one of considerable imp irtanee to our 
brethren at Haywards, I thought I would defer 
publishing this letter until I could tell them 
what was done further in the ma ter. The man- 
ager of our Grange business house, apprecia- 
ting the situation and desiring to further any 
project which tended to benefit fruit growers, 
immediately detailed one of his assistants, 
Brother Vanderbilt, to go with Mr. Miller te 
Vacaville, to seek a load of apricots and 
peaches; the crop there is light and the car 
had to be sent forward to Marysville, where it 
has been loaded, and it went East Sunday. A 
second car is being prepared and will be for- 
warded this week under the immediate charge 
of a person from Grange headquarters. A fair 
trial will be given the patent, and in the mean- 



July 1, 1876.] 



time etich steps have been taken that if found 
to be sncces^fal the patent right is secured in 
snch manner as to place it at the disposal of the 
producers instead of its becoming another 
means of profit to middle men. The prospect 
for success in this matter is very good, and if 
it should be fully realized an important ele- 
ment will be introduced into the fruit business 
of California. If successful at all, it is proba- 
ble that the patent and process can be so util- 
ized as to enable the shipment of fruit in ordi- 
nary packages without wrapping in paper, by 
the ordinary slow freight trains and at corre- 
spondinglyjlow rates, thus making it possible to 
send Eist other than the highest priced fruit. 
As matters progress in this connection I shall, 
with your have, through your valuable paper 
keep our friends at Haywards advised. 

A. W. T. 



WAENiNG.^It is not strange that the Grangers 
are often bewildered and distrustfal of their 
best friends. Every device is used to deceive 
them. It seems that a number of unprincipled 
parties in New York city have obtained posses- 
sion of lists of Grangers in the various States, 
and are selling the names and addresses to 
swindling firms in that and other cities, thereby 
enabling the rascals to flood the country with 
plausible appearing circulars to dupe the credu- 
lous and bring reproach upon the Order. — 
Hoosier Patron. 



\^^}C\iLJ\}R\L flojES. 



California. 

ALAUEDA. 

The Gbeen Point Dairy. — Washington 
Independent, June 24th: The Green Point 
dairy rancho, under its present manager, S. 
Davis, Esq., is turning out a great quantity and 
an excellent quality of cheeses. About 20 per 
day or nearly 150 per week are manufactured 
in the buildings of this establishment. The 
lands owned by the company aggregate about 
4,500 acres in all, and they have cut 1,500 tons 
of hay on the same this year. They have 250 
milch cows, and it is an interesting sight to 
look at the eight rows or lines of stalls when 
the cows are all brought in and standing there 
ready to be milked. Twice every day, morning 
and evening ^ they are driven in from their pas- 
ture for this purpose. The two large cheese 
rooms with their sides all covered with shelves 
and the shelves filled from top to bottom with 
cheeses also a£ford a pleasant sight. The new 
narrow gauge railroad passes over the lands of 
the rancho close to this establishment, and 
will soon furnish an easy transit to San Fran- 
cisco for all the produc's of the rancho. 
OOLTJSA. 

Db. Glenn's Loss. — A dispatch from Chico, 
dated June 26th, says: A strong north wind has 
prevailed in Colusa county for the past 24 
hours, destroying several thousand dollars 
worth of property. Dr. Glenn's large ware- 
house was blown into the river at Jacinto. 
About 320 acres of barley belonging to Glenn 
were destroyed by iire la^t night. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

Habvest — Point of Timber correspondence 
Gazette, June 24: Harvest is well in hand and 
heading will be over in about two weeks. 
Carter's threshing machine blew the first 
whistle May 29th, and several machines are 
now at work. The first of this season's har- 
vest was shipped from the landing June 9th, 
being 90 tons of barley from George Fellows. 
Barley turns out well; but Sonora wheat upon 
summer fallow is going back on them. The 
wind played havoc with grain between here 
and Moore's landing, but not to any great 
extent between here and Antioch. 

FRESNO. 

New Enterpeise. — Expositor, June 21: We 
learn that a new company is being organized at 
Kingsburg to construct a new canal from Kings 
river for the purpose of conveying water for 
irrigating the land in the vicinity mentioned. 
A number of responsible and energetic citizens 
are interested in the enterprise. It is proposed 
to divert the water at a point lower down than 
that occupied by the works of the Fresno canal 
and irrigation company. 

LOS ANaEI.ES. 

Magnolia Flower. — Herald. June 24: Most 
of our citizens are aware that there is a magno- 
lia tree eight or nine years old flowering in the 
splendid grounds surrounding the residence of 
Mr. C. E. Thorn, on Main street, but they are 
perhaps not aware that this, on the Pacific 
coast rare tree, is now covered with blooms, 
one of which was last evening presented to us 
by Mr. Jackson A. Hathwell. It is a truly 
beautiful flower, snowy white and full six 
inches in length and diameter. It is as fragrant 
as beautiful. Major McPherson gives us the 
following concerning the magnolia: "Mdgnol, 
a French botanist, was the first to introduce 
this right royal flower of North America to 
Europe. There are some seven species of this 
admirable order of the flowery kingdom." 
MONTERET. 

Grain iNJUBEn.— Democraf, June 24: From 
what we are told by intelligent farmers coming 
from that quarter, the hot spell of last week 
was very injurious to grain from the Spence 
rancho southward. The early wheat especially 
was much shrunken by the scorching snn of 
Sunday and Monday. It was an ill stroke of 
luck. In this neighborhood and hence to the 
sea, the report is that no great damage was 
done. 



EoTPTiAN Oats. — As'^a sample of what our 
lands are capable of, we note a bunch of Egyp- 
tian oats which we saw in H. S. Ball's office 
this week. It came from land cultivated by E. 
Gillette, part of Sausal rancho, in this vicinity. 
The stalks are seven and a half feet long, hav- 
ing heads that will, as estimated, yield from 
100 to 120 bushels to the acre. The intention 
is to forward the sample to the Centennial 
exhibition. 
NAPA. 

Hops — Star, June 24: St. Hel- na has this 
year about 80 acres of hops, divided among 
growers as follows, A. Clock, 35 acres; C. A. 
Story, 30 acres; E. F. Montgomery, 7 acies; 
James Dowdell, 8 acres. These people may 
produce anywhere from 30 to 50 tons worth 
at a paying rate of 25 cents per pound. They 
may be much higher or lower. The season has 
not yet far enough advanced to decide their 
character for the year; it would be premature 
now to speak of the probable quality or quan- 
tities of the crop. 
PLACER. 

Systematic and Pbohperous Farming in the 
Foothills. — Transcript: Kanchers in the foot- 
hills, as a rule, have the reputation of being 
shiftlesB and improvident, and we are sorry to 
say that in many cases the reputation is well 
earned and richly deserved. There is one 
ranch we know of, however, that shows for it- 
self that its owner is a genuine farmer. Every- 
thing around the place is in order. Hereto- 
fore the principal production of the ranch, like 
most others of the foothills, has been hay. Now 
thatjthe railroad can transport the article in win- 
ter, it is feared by producers in this county 
that prices will not be so remunerative as for- 
merly, and jDsiah Dodge, the owner of the 
ranch in question, and which is situated four 
miles below Grass Valley, has made his calcu- 
lations so that prices of that commodity will 
not affect him. His plans, we believe, are so 
good that we will give them for the benefit of 
others similarly situated: He proposes to raife 
no more hay for market. All the productions 
of the farm wi'l hereafter be fed to animals on 
the place. He has meadows thit will produce 
50 tons of hay a year from the natural growth. 
He proposes to keep cows enough to eat it all. 
His side»hill land is treated in this manner: He 
has divided it into four fields of about forty 
acres each. Field number one was sown to rye 
about four years ago, field number two was 
sown three years ago, number three was sown 
two years ago, and number four was sown last 
winter. There has been a good crop on three 
fields each year from volunteer growth. In the 
winter and spring, when the ground is not too 
wet, cows are turned on it, and they obtain 
much of their food there. In the summer, 
when the grain has attained a good size, hogs 
are turned in and kept there until they are fat- 
ted for market. The animals feeding upon the 
ground tend to enrich instead of impoverish 
the soil. Every four years each field in turn 
will be plowed deep and resown, if necessary. 
This kind of a crop Mr. Dodge has found by 
experience to be the most profitable of any ever 
raised by him, and the expense is but a trifle 
compared with the old methods of raising hay 
on uplands for sale. All the hay raised on the 
natural meadows, as before stated, will be fed 
to milch cows in the winter and spring when 
the fields do not aff'ord sufiiciect. The manure 
made on the place is used to enrich the land 
which is used for raising vegetables, and prin- 
cipally potatoes. Mr. Dodge has lately bonght 
a Cummings cutter, made in New York, which 
is run by water power, and is capable of cutting 
one ton of hay per hour. The hay after being 
cut is mixed with the bran, and upon this food 
his cows are made to give nearly as much milk 
in winter as in summer. From the butter 
made, the pork and vegetables produced, the 
income of the farm will be much greater than 
before, and the labor required will be much 
less. Mr. Dodge thinks rye far superior to any 
other crop, alfalfa not excepted. If any one 
wants to see a good farm and a prosperous 
farmer, they can do so by calling on Jo. Dodge. 
SACRAMENTO. 

The Melon Sugar Entkrpbise. — iJee, June 
24: Josiah Pool, the pioneer swamp-lander of 
Isleton, Old river, is in town. He represents 
that the erection of the sugar factory there will 
soon be begun, and the machinery and super- 
intendent are shortly expected to arrive from 
Europs. They propose to make the sugar from 
melons, and they intend to pay a price for 
them which will justify the land owners in that 
vicinity (Brannau, Grand and Andrus islands) 
in holding their lands at $200 an acre. 

More Boys Wanted. — Record- Union, Jane 
2G: The proposition to hire white boys instead 
of Chinese to do light work, such as picking 
and packing fruit, appears to be meeting with 
a favorable reception throughout this section of 
the State. J. F. Whyte, who takes threat inter- 
est in the matter, ha^ received from S. li. 
Chandler, of Lincoln, a communication asking 
information on the subject, as he (Chandler,) 
has the Nickerson orchard near Lincoln, and 
thinks of employing a number of boys, if satis- 
fied that they will at least do as well as Celes- 
tials. 
SAW JOAftUIN. 

High Water and the Crops. — Stockton 
Independent. June 24: One of our prominent 
grain merchants has reci ntly returned from a 
trip up the valley and brings back interesting 
intelligence about the crops, the busy harvest- 
ing everywhere in progress, and the remarkably 
high water in the San Joaquin. He says that 
but one ferry on the whole length of the river 
is in a condition to take teams across, and that 
is Fairbank's ferry, at Crow's landing, 17 



miles above Grayson. At G. W. Trahern's 
ranch, below the mouth of the Stanislaus, the 
river has cut a new channel, sweeping far inland 
in a greater body than the main stream. At 
Bantas the water is within 100 yards of the town, 
and almost surrounding it on two sides. 
Between Bantas and Lathrop the river is at 
least five miles wide in one sheet of swiftly 
flowing water. On reaching Bantas he found 
that he wai unable to cross at any of the ferries, 
and was obliged to leave his horse and buggy 
and come in on the cars. He also reports that 
the yii Id of grain is falling short from one-third 
to one- half of the estimated quantity, notwith- 
standing the fine prospect presented by the 
large growth of straw and fine heads. Fields 
that were supposed to promise a yield of not 
less than 30 to 40 bushels to the acre are turn- 
ing out from 15 to 20 in actual results. An in- 
spection of the heads shows that at each end 
they are deficient and have not filled out the 
kernels, and the clusters have, as a general 
thing, but two kernels where four should have 
been, the missing grains being represented by 
empty husks. The cause is a lack of late rains 
at the critical time when they were needed. 
The stalk grew finely and got an excellent start 
early in the season, but later in the season 
when the moisture was wanted to fill up the 
heads, it was lacking. On McPike's ranch 
were fields of barley, estimated by good judges 
to yield from 75 to 90 bushels to the acre, the 
actual yield of which has been 10 bushels, and 
this condition of things is reported to be a 
universal fact throughout the valley on both 
sides of the river. One noticeable feature 
which he says he observed was the fact that on 
the sandy loam, and all soils except the adobe, 
the winter sown wheat on winter plowing was 
far superior to that on the summer fallowed 
land. Wheat sown in February and plowed or 
harrowed in yielded greater results than the 
fall sown wheat. 

Weevily Wheat. — Weevily wheat is made 
into flour for the China trade, large qu mtities 
of it being disposed of in that way. The 
weevils are all blown out before the grain is 
ground. The trade in flour with China is grow- 
ing to be an important one, although a first 
class article is not in demand. A brand called 
XXX is uniformly demanded. If we can get 
the whole Chinese nation to consuming Cili- 
fornia wheat and flour, a more satisfactory 
market than the European will be opened 
almost at our doors. The present demand is, 
no doubt, created by those who have lived in 
California a number of years and acquired a 
taste for ot breadstuff's, rather than by the 
British and American residents of that country, 
who would, doubtless, require the very best 
quality of the article. 

That Large Headee. — Messrs. Dewey & 
Applegarth, of Plainsburg, are having a monster 
header built to operate on the sand plains, the 
cutting and running gear of which is being 
built at Matteson & Williamson's. When 
finished it will be the largest header ever con- 
structed, having 29 feet of knife sections and 
cutting a swath 28 feet wide. The wheels are 
of iron, five feet in diameter and 10 inches 
width of tire, braced unusually strong with 
double spokes of angle iron. This mammoth 
machine will cut nearly four acres of grain for 
every mile traveled, and, at a snail's pace, 
should cut 50 to 60 acres a day. What would 
our Eastern farmers, with 40 acres of ground, 
think of farming on such a scale as this? 

Improvements. — The San Joaquiu Valley 
agricultural society is expending alioat $1,500 
in the erection of new stables on their grounds, 
in addition to the conveniences already there. 
The sheds for the exhibition of she»o and cat- 
tle are to be removed to the east of the grand 
stand . 
SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

Pasiube Bobned. — Tribune, June 24: Ma 
jor Pond informed us on Friday that a few 
days ago a fire broke out on the Eureka ranch 
about two miles east of his house, and before it 
could be subdued burned over 600 acres of his 
best pasture. Supposed to have caught by 
some person dropping a lighted cigarette. 

SONOMA. 

Hay. — Petaluma Argus, June 24: The 
amount of hay produced in this part of Sono- 
ma county this season is undoubtedly much 
greater than in any previous year. "The area 
harvested is a great deal larger, and the yield 
per acre above the average. The amount of 
old hay stored in town is about 100 tons. The 
quantity of this year's crop thus far received is 
about 600 tons, and at present it is arriving at 
the rate of 50 to 60 tons per day. A. P. Whit- 
ney has. already sold ten tons of baling rope, 
and will probably sell 20 tons more during the 
season. Five pounds of rope is required for 
one ton of hay. Prices at present range from 
$8 to $9 per ton for average quality, which is 
much lower than usual. We are informed that 
hay at $10 per ton yield.< to the producer about 
the same profit as wheat at $1.50 per cental. 
So large is the quantity of hay produced in this 
vicinity this year that the present storage ca- 
pacity will fall far short of providing for all of 
it. 
STANISLAUS. 

Harvest Fires. — News, June 23: A threshing 
machine at work for G. P. Ostrom on Mr. C. C. 
Baker's ranch, together with a stHck con- 
taining some 700 bushels of barley, were 
burned last Saturday. The fire caught from 
the sparks of a steam engine and spread so 
rapidly that no time was given to save the sep- 
arator and derrick forks. On Sunday last, 
three acres of standing wheat on T. A. Wil- 
son's ranch, near Grayson, were burned. Out 
of hia large fields, that burned was the only 



portion of his crop not insured. ( rday 

last a grain stack on Mr Armatror ich, 

containing about 800 bushels, wa.-> .ued. 
The stack was being threshed at the time, and 
it is not known whether it was set on fire by 
the engine or not. The separator belonged to 
Mr. R ley, and was damaged considerably by 
the fire. On Wednesday last a thresher, large 
grain stack, derrick wagon and fork, belonging 
to Jack Dallas, on his farm east of Turlock, 
were burned. We have not heard as to what 
the loss will aggregate, but learn that the grain 
was insured to some extent. Mr. Wardrobe 
lost about 300 acres of sheep range by fire last 
Tuesday. 
SUTTER. 

Success with Flax. — Banner, June 15: We 
were shown this week a specimen of flax grown 
on the farm ofB. F. Walton, in this county. 
It is of large growth, and finely filled heads. 
Walton has several acres which he intends cut- 
ting for seed. 
TULARE. 

Harvest.— Grangeville Cor. Delta, June 18 f 
This whole country, from the slough to the 
lake, is one vast area of waving golden-headed 
grain, while everywhere now ia life and energy; 
headers and header wagons, with groups of 
men and horses in gangs, are clipping off the 
long, fat heads and piling them in huge stacks 
for the thresher. I am told that twelve new 
headers have been brought into this section 
this season, and that none of them are idle; the 
only fear is that there may not be enough of 
them to harvest the grain in time to prevent 
loss. Two new steam threshers have been 
bought by the ranchmen themselves, and one 
vibrator with horse power; besides, a steamer is 
coming from near Tulare to help us, and all 
will have enough to do. 

A Timber Enterprise.— C. W. T., writes to 
the BelUi concerning bringing timber from the 
mountains to Visalia: "I can now safely say 
that we have at our control a fine body of tim- 
ber and an excellent river which can be used to 
deliver lumber at our doors for one-half the 
price that we now have to pay, and still leave a 
handsome profit to the millmen. There is no 
business in the country that would remunerate 
a few men with capital more than this enter- 
prise, and being so feasible, practicable, remu- 
nerative, and not expensive, it ^eems strange it 
has not been taken hold of before. I could, 
with a few river drivers, soon put Kings river 
in good driving order for lumber, and make it 
a thoroughfare for millions of feet of lumber 
and thousands of cords of wood; and by fixing 
the water ditches they can be made useful for 
the Fame purpose, to deliver the lumber to the 
ranches and save hauling." 



Oregon. 



The Fr.ooDs.— Recent telegrams [from Ore- 
gon speak of almost unparalleled floods in the 
Columbia and Willamette rivers. 

The Grain Outlook — Oregonian, June 17 : 
As the season progresses, the crop pros-necta 
in the State improve, and it now seems likely 
that the numerous predictions of what has 
never occurred, a failure of the wheat crop, are 
to fall to the ground. The editor of the Cor- 
vallis Democrat, who is situated in the center 
of the wheat producing section of this valley, 
in speaking of this matter says: Never in the 
history of our country have the farmers been 
blessed with .more flattering prospects of an 
immense yield of cereals than at this time. 
The continued rains of the past unprecedented 
winter caused fears that the farmers would be 
unable to sow much of their ground, particu- 
larly where it lay flat and low, and the conse- 
quence was that wherever new ground could 
be had, the farmers have broken up and sown 
large tracts of fresh soil. The spring was not 
so unfavorable to the sowing of grain as many 
feared it would be, and most of the old ground 
was sown, though some of it would have been 
very late for an ordinary season, yet the splen- 
did showers to which we have been treated, 
together with the cool, cloudy weather, has 
brought even the late sown grain forward, and 
without any more rain it will make a fair crop, 
while that sown early and the large amount 
sown on new ground promises an immense 
yield. A much larger area has been sown to 
wheat and oats than ever before in this county. 
The above remarks are probably applicable to 
the Willamette valley generally. 



General News items. 

The managers of the St. Gothard tunnel 
works have notified their workmen that they 
will soon be discharged. 

Gkneral 'Crook has had the first brush of 
the season with the Sioux Indians, and oame 
off victorious. He had a horae killed under 
him. 

Rbab-Admibal John J. Almy is detached 
from the command of the North Pacific squad- 
ron July 1st, and ordered to return home and 
await orders. 

The official order has been issued by the 
Secretary of War relieving General Schofleld 
from the command of the Military Division of 
Pacific and assigning him to the West Point 
military academy, relieving Col. Rueger. Gen- 
eral McDowell will take command of the Mil- 
itary Division of the Pacific. 

While considering the Sundry Civil Appro- 
priation bill, on motion of Banning, an item of 
$50,000 was inserted for Wheeler's geographi- 
cal survey ot territory west of the 100th merid- 
ian. Ou ui> tion nf Cildwnll, an item of $14,000, 
was inserted for P»of. Jjnney's sn-viy o' tht 
Black hills. 




3r(jb'<!#ieJ 



aiffm^s ipa^ss. 



[July I, 1876 



Uncle Sam's a Hundred." 



A Centennial Ode. 

Ob I ye powers I wbat s roar, 
Such was never beard before — 
Tbunderinf; from sbore to Bhore: 
•'DOcle Sam'8 a bundred." 

Cannon boom and trumpets bray, 
Fiddles squeak and foimtalns play — 
'TlB bis great Ceutounlal day: 
"Uncle Sam's a bundred." 

Stalwart men and puny boys. 
Maids and matrons swell tbe noise: 
Ev'ry baby lifts its Toice: 
•■Uncle Sam's a hundred." 

Nervous folks who dote on quiet. 
Though they're half distracted by it, 
Can't help mixing in the riot: 
"Uncle Sam's a hundred." 

Brutes that walk and birds that fly. 
On the eaith or in the sky, 
Join the universal cry; 
"Uncle Sam's a hundred." 

Well, suppose he is, what then ? 

Don't let's act like crazy men. 

MutI we take to fooling when 

"Dncle Sam's a hundred /" 

There he stands, our modern Saul— 
Bead and shoulders above all; 
Yet "Pride goes before a fait," 
K'en though one's a hundred. 

"What's a hundred in our day?" 
Foreign Uncle Sams will say; 
"Let us Bit and watch the play- 
He is but a hundred. 

"Granted he's a shapely youth- 
Fair and ruddy— yet, forsooth! 
He's too yottnff — and that's the truth ! 
Only just a hundred. 

"When he's twice as old, pard'e! 
'Twill be easier to foresee 
What will be his destiny— 
.Vow he's but a hundred. 

"When he's played bis boyish prauks. 
Should be seek to join our ranks, 
We'll reflect. But now— no, thanks! 
Why, he's but a bundredl ' 

Yes. our uncle's years are few; 
He t« young— the charge is true. 
Let us keep that fact In view, 
'Though be counts a hundred. 

Uon't let's tempt him to igrore 
Warnings that have gone before: 
Perils both by sea and Bhore, 
Now that he's a hundred. 

Let us strive with earnest heart, 
ICaeh 0/ us to do his part. 
So that he may 'scape the Bmart,' 
Seeing he's a hundred. 

And with solemn, grateftil thought, 
or the deeds that he has wrought, 
Ouided, cherished, favored, taught. 
Till he's reached a hundred. 

Let us, as we vaunt his worth. 

Mingle soberness with mirth. 

While we shout to nil the earth, 

"T'ncle Sam's a hundred." 

— ^V. }'. F.vening Post. 



Overland Chat. 



[For the Press by Mabi Mountaiji— No. 1,] 

No one can fully realize the desolate uarae- 
neBB of Nevada scenery until they travel 
through and spy out the land. 

Rpno in the cool, clear air of morning had a 
brisk and bnsiness look with its clean, new 
honses and faces of 

''Consolidated" Keenness, 
And in several other little towns the homes 
looked as homelike aB is possible with such 
bleak surroundings; but our pilgrims seemed 
to think it would be wild-catty indeed to take 
stock in the soil or visible productions of this 
fimons country. 

All along here our San Francisco stock 
brokers broke out in such eager excited talk 
one might imagine them sniffing very closely 
the richness of hidden treasure. The wife of 
one of these was a friendly, chatty little body, 
and told me they would have goue to see the 
old mother long ago if it had not been that 

"Stocks Acted So Mean;" 
And much of her Centennial pleasure depends 
upon stocks behaving as they are expected to. 
I admired the good sense that had led her to 
travel in a neat dark calico; and the skill of her 
cookery, toasting, boiling and broiling over the 
queer car stove was truly wonderful. ^ When 
we reached Omaha this chrysalis became a 
butterfly and hardly a lady in San Francisco 
could excel her in richness of gurments and 
jewelry. 

At Ogden we branched off to 
Salt Lake City, 
Accompanied by the Geropian proftamr and 
onr Uttle school-ma'am. We had by this time 



a good right to say "our school-ma'am" for 
she waB traveling alone and glad to be gathered 
under cur wing. 

Of course the Professor's little children were 
along, and a pleasure to have them; for they 
are intelligent, patient and polite. Little Otto, 
the youngest, had l>een homesick the day be- 
fore and asked "Where, then, is our home, 
papa?" The answer was, "Here, my child, in 
the seat with papa." So he tried to accept it 
and began to ask tbe other children to visit his 
home. How glad we were to leave those close 
homes and prance away to the beautiful valley 
with plenty of room! And now again my ad- 
jectives begin to weaken, for this valley and city 
and grand surrounding chain of snow-capped 
mountains form together the moBt beautiful 
sight I have ever seen. 

Doubtless the swift change from the ugliness 
of 

The Alkali Desert 
Tends to highten the charms of this perfect 
oasis that is now set in our memories as a joy 
forever. 

The valley is larger, the city handsomer, the 
mountains whiter with snow and more com 
plete in circle than I had expected, for they 
reach an arm along the northern boundary to 
keep off cold winds and nestle this darling 
nook in a climate full of health and sweetness. 

As we ascend a terrace of the town the eye 
taKes in the whole area of 20 miles wide, 25 
miles long, and close in the foreground are tbe 
houses of Brigham, the broad, low dome of the 
tabernacle, the temple slowly growing into a 
thing of beauty, and ah, "the whole city full" 
of pleasant homes and neat, quiet streets. 

The high-walled gardens are filled with fruit 
trees, vegetables, and a gay trimming of flowers 
and little white-headed children peeping 
through the gates. 

If I say that the public buildings are hand- 
some, the smoke of manufacturing like a cloud 
in the distance, the Great Salt lake shining 
and still under the far off mountains, let no 
one think I am forgetting the farms, those 
gems of 

Little Farms Well Tilled 
That not only dot the valley but cover it with 
closest links of verdure. We can have no 
quarrel with the religion of these farmers as 
We look upon the work of their handH and see 
that industry and economy are blessed here as 
they deserve to be everywhere. Crops are not 
far advanced, some just ottt of the ground and 
the tallest grain only a few inches high; but 
these are the last dajs of May, and they say the 
season is not forward as usual. Pastuie grass 
is rank and rich; good butter on our table, and 
all food good and cheap both at Ogden and Salt 
Lake. 

We visited the tabernacle, and were pleased 
to find tbe inside so bright and cheerful. 
Wreaths and immense banging baskets and 
vases are gracelully hung in the wide dome, 
and in tbe central aisle is a large marble basin 
ornamented with crouching statues, and here, 
when Sabbath days are warm, the fountain 
plays for the cooling of the people. Twelve 
thousand can be seated here, and for exit 20 
doors, nine feet wide, open outward. The 
tabernacle is only used for summer worship, 
as there is no heating apparatus. 

And bow shall I describe the organ? It is 
immense and beautiful, larger than many a 
modest cottage I have known, and it takes four 
men to blow it. Our guide said it is the largest 
organ in the world and thoroughly Mormon in 
design and execution, wholly the product of 
home talent and home material. This guide 
or janitor of the holy places was quite an 
elderly man, nimble and talkative. As we 
asked after the health of Brigham, he straight- 
ened himself and answered with enthusiasm, 
"I am happy to say, sir, that 

Our President 

Is again in excellent health and is making a 
trip in southern Utah. He is 75 years old to- 
day, and looks about 60. Why, sir, he walks 
off as straight and strong as I do," and upon 
this, away he went leading the way to the tab- 
ernacle, and put us all to shame, for his dap- 
per legs sped along over the walk as though the 
springs had been newly oiled and meant to run 
forever. We afterward met him on the street, 
outpacing everybody, and could not help laugh- 
ing at tbe pains he took to impress ns with the 
spirit and extreme youthfnlness of 
Veteran Mormons. 

Of course we were too polite to ask him how 
many wives he has. 

We went into the art gallery. Well stocked 
with the usual pictures and excellent stereo^ 
scopes, at San Francisco prices. 

This day (June 1st,) was not only Brigham 'b 
birthday, but monthly fist day with the Mor- 
mons, and services were held in all the ward 
churches. We went into the one near Brig, 
ham's house and saw two of his wives, rather 
heavy, ordinary looking women, with ruffled 
gowns and stylish hats. The service was con- 
ducted by the President's brother, Joseph 
Young, and the prayer was very fervent, after 
the ancient Methodist 8t>le in manner and ex- 
pression. 

Notbiug could exceed the zeal with which he 
demanded blessings for the saints, and espe- 
cially for Bro. Brigham. "O, Lord, bless him 
in bis l>ones and in his flesh ; in his head and in 
his body, and in his stomach; bless him, O, 
Lord, in all the functions of his tabernacle." 
This was twice repeated like a lesson, and is 
correctly reported. If prayer can hold him to- 
gether, Bro. B. will last a longtime yet. 

The exhortation was lively and reproachful, 
for the saints had not come up gladly to tbe 



house of the Lord, and the few who were 
present took meekly the censure that should 
have fallen upon the absent. There were 
present only 13 women, five men, including the 
speaker, and a few children. 

A man with a loud clear voice played the or- 
gan and "carried the tune" at such a rate we 
could hear no voice but his, although some of 
the women moved their lips as if faintly help- 
ing. 

As our time was limited, we could not quite 
finish the usual course of sightseeing, but re- 
turned well satisfied to Ogden on a special 
train that took up a director and the president 
of the road to inspect the break in Weber 
canon. 



Prize Essay on Eyes. 

There are a great many kinds, colors and 
shades of eyes. There are blue eyes, gray 
eyes, brown eyes, red eyes, eagle eyes, hawk 
eyes, buckeyes, soft eyes, stony .eyes, green 
eyes and cross eyes. 

Poets seem to have a great deal of sympathy 
for blue eyes. Whole pages have been written 
about "eyes as blue as the sky;" but who ever 
thought of writing to his lady love such a sen- 
timent as this: "My dear girl, your eyes are as 
gray as a mouse." Why, he would get notice 
to quit. If I were a young lady, I'd never have 
gray eyes at all; Chey should be hazel, which is 
a very fashionable color — and it wears just as 
well aa gray. 

Then there are brown eyes, two kinds of red 
eyes, and two of black. One kind of black 
eyes is tbe kind a man is born with, and which 
he cannot help; the other kind is when some 
other man "giveshima black eye." This kind 
is not fashionable in this neighborhood; in fact, 
some people would rather do without black eyes 
all thi ir lives than to have this kind. Sometimes 
Nature intends to give a man brown eyes, but 
she makes a mistake and gives him red ones. 
Red eyes do well enough when the color is nat- 
ural. Some people have one red and one blue 
eye, and we treat them just as well as we do 
anybody else — for no man is responsible for 
the natural color of his eyes; but there is a 
kind of red eyes that men are accountable for. 
It is the kind caused by strong drink; by mid- 
night debauchery; by wine that quencheth not. 
Let all such beware, for not only men hold 
them responsible, but God aleo; responsible 
for the thoughts and actions that accompany 
such eyes; responsible for their wasted and 
ruined lives; responsible for the want and mis- 
ery of their families, and for tbe appetite for 
strong drink that ever tempts the drunkard's 
child. 

Then there is the eagle eye. Great warriors, 
mighty chiefs, heroes of every laud; men whose 
glance is like the lightening's glare, and whose 
voice is heard in thunder tones; men who rule 
minds, as other men herd sheep— are always 
spoken of as having an eagle eye. 

The hawk eye is an expression of the eye 
that belongs to men of narrow dispositions; 
men who are always fearful of being cheated; 
men who distrust every one, and act as if the 
whole world were a set of robbers and they 
were the men tofind^tbem out and.report accor- 
dingly. This kind of an eye is sure to make 
its owner unhappy. 

Soft eyes are the ejes of woman— gentle, lov- 
ing woman — and they denote submission; hence 
soft-eyed women are easily governed. They 
have but one idol, and that is their husband, 
and such a woman is a good one to have in a 
family, for no'matter how selfish and disagree- 
able all the other members of tbe family are, 
she soothes them all down, rubs all their feath- 
ers the right way and keeps peace^ and quiet 
there. So I advise all you young men who are 
looking for a wife to hunt up a soft-eyed 
woman; you can abuse] her all you please, and 
she will never answer back. But beware of 
the girl whose eyes sparkle when she is glad, 
snap when she is mad. She would be a splen- 
did woman to help you along in the world, 
but she would not be imposed upon. 

Again, there are people with stony eyeg- 
eyes devoid of all sentiment, all daring, all no- 
bility. No man with stony eyes ever rushed 
into a burning building to save his wife or 
child; no boy with such an eye ever 

Stood on the burning deck, 
Whence all but him had fled; 

No girl with such eyes ever sat up till two 
o'clock in the morning knitting a tidy for a 
birthday present tor her mother; no young man 
with stony eyes ever mortgaged his watch and 
chain to buy licoiice drops for the girl of his 
choice; and no woman with stony eyes ever 
cooked a breakfas-t, nursed tbe baby, baked 
buckwheat cakes and did the churning, with a 
smile on her brow at the same time— oh, no! 
nor made a martyr of herself for any cause. 
Never trust your hfe, property or affections to 
a man with stony eyes. Such men will bury 
their dearest friend without a tear. The suf- 
ferings of others never cause their eyes to 
moi.sten; no grief, however deep, ever causes 
their eyelids to quiver; no joy makes them 
soften, no shock gives them pain. They stare 
at you always the same — hard, immutable, im- 
movable, stony and expressionless. No sym- 
pathy, no help, no compassion, ever came from 
KUch eyes as these. 

Cross eyes. This is a defect inithe arrange- 
ment of some.children's'eyes, and it should re- 
ceive spaedy attention from a good oculist. 
No child should be allowed to grow up with 
cross eyes— it is not just to the child. But 
there is another kind of cross eyes, and it is 
very hard to cure. It is caused by getting mad 
BO quick that your eyes don't have time to af- 



filiate with your temper, and you turn yonr 
head so quickly, to look at the offending party, 
that your "off" eye looks at yonr nose and 
your "near" eye looks at what you are mad at. 
This is a very dangerous disease, and if suffered 
to run on, will draw the noBe up slightly at the 
point, and draw down tbe corners of the 
mouth. I have seen some otherwise beautiful 
faces spoiled by this kind of cross eyes. 

Then there are the merry, dancing, sparkling, 
laughing eyes of childhood— eyes that look at 
you from the depths of souls as unspotted as 
the snow ; eyes to which all things are funny, 
or wonderful, or sad. To many the memory 
of such eyes is a dream— the grave having 
closed over bright, loving eyes long ago; and 
time in its flight cannot efface the picture we 
love BO well. 

Green eyes is a disease that afflicts married 
folks and lovers mostly; it has some strange 
symptoms, and sometimes ends in death. 
When lovers have it, they do not sit and warm 
their feet at the same stove any more, nor eat 
pie off the same plate, nor drink from the same 
glass, nor sit on tbe same sofa — all things in 
this world wear a different look to them from 
what they did last week, when they were en- 
gaged and happy. When married people have 
green eyes, it is still worse; it makes them do 
the silliest of things, and the worst of it is, 
they are not ashamed when it is over. In my 
opinion, nearly all the divorce cases are caused 
by this disease. — Rural World. 



Spkcial Car.— We do not know that it is 
such a very big thing to travel eaet in a special 
car. A fellow who does so is sure to get his 
name in the papers when he starts, and that is 
about all the fun he has on the whole trip. 
He is shut up in his exclusiveness and cannot 
see the other people who are going along at 
the same time, and more than half the pleasure 
found in traveling is seeing people. The spe- 
cial car man may have nicer cushions to ride 
upon, may have champagne and other delica- 
cies, may get a little more obsequious attention 
from the train porters, may not have to lie 
interviewed by the boy who sells prize candy, 
and he may not be in great danger of catching 
the itch; but still be cannot be very happy. 
He i^its up and thinks of himself and has no 
fresh man, who may be a character, to come 
along and give him a new sensation or to sug- 
gest to him an idea which is novel and enter- 
taining. The traveler who does not mix with 
all sorts of people and keep an eye on all the 
various characters to be met with in a journey, 
may travel far and see nothing. For all prac- 
tical purposes such a traveler had as well be 
switched off on a side track and left to himself 
for a duly appointed time. We were reminded 
of this by being in Colfax the other day when 
an eastern-bound train stopped there, and with 
which there was a special car. The windows 
of the special car were immediately blinded 
and a guard stood at either door of the car to 
prevent an invasion. The traveler in that car 
did not want to see nor to be seen. Then 
everybody knew that some stuck-up idiot was 
in there, and that that idiot did not want to 
learn any more than he now knows, and the 
outside world lost nothing by that shutting up. 
Exchange. 



The Sick Chambeb. — Health and' the sun 
have been always sung and praised. We will 
now celebrate sickness and shade. We will 
celebrate thee, bodily Bickness, when thou lay- 
est thy hand on the head and heart of man, and 
sayest to the sufferings of his spirit, "Enough!" 
Thou art called on earth an evil; ah, how 
often art thou a good, a healing balsam, under 
whose benign influence the soul rests after its 
hard struggles audits wild storms are still! 
More than once hast thou prevented suicide 
and preserved from madness. The teriible, 
the bitter words which destroy the heart are by 
degrees obliterated during the feverish dreams 
of illness; the terrors which lately seemed so 
near us are drawn away into the distance; we 
forget, God be thanked, we forget and when at 
last we arise with exhausted strength from the 
sick bed, our souls often awake as out of a 
long night into a new morning. So many 
things, during tbe illness of tbe body, conspire 
to soften the feelings; tbe still room, the mild 
twilight through the window curtains, the low 
voices, and then, more than all, the kind words 
of those who surround us; their attention, 
their solicitude, perhaps a tear in their eyes; 
all this does us good, does us essential good. 
And when the wise Solomon enumerated all the 
good things which have their time upon the 
earth, he forgot 10 celebrate sickness among 
the rest.- Bremer's Fresident'a Daughter. 

A Pbecious Pbilosopheb. — A young philos- 
opher of seven years of age, who had not got 
far enough to hear the Holy Scriptures dispu- 
ted by science, listened attentively in his fa- 
ther's' parlor, the other evening, to a warm dis- 
cussion on the Darwinian theory, and, alter 
the guests had departed, somewhat surprised 
the paternal with: "Father, 1 don't believe 
Mr. Darwin is right." "What?" said the pa- 
rent, looking down at his unexpected reasoner, 
who stood before him with a little Bible in his 
hand; "you do not, and why?" "Because, 
papa, my Bible says 'God created man in his 
own image,' and I don't believe it was a mon- 
key." "Well, well," said the sire, laughing, 
"run along. Tommy; you are too young to 
talk about such things." "But, papa, almost 
the next verse says: 'God saw everything He 
made, and behold it was very good'. Now it 
wasn't good if men were monkeys, was it? For 
you are gooder than a monkey, ain't you, 
papa?" 



July 1, 1876.] 



7 



Influence Immortal. 

Scientists tell ns that all matter is affected 
more or less by all matter — that is, that there 
is no particle or atom of matter, however small, 
but what is operated upon by other particles of 
matter. This principal is true, as well in the 
moral as in the material world. No act of life 
but what has its influences; no word but what 
its force is felt for good or eril; no thought 
expressed but what its influence makes those 
who hear more Christ-like or devilish. 

Influence is immortal. Do we think so? 
This careless world acts as though it mattered 
not what it said or thought or did. Perhaps 
reflection might change that opinion. I opine 
that we cannot perform a single act but what 
has an eternal influence. 

The searcher after illustration may find one 
in the shop of the smith, who wields his ham- 
mer in the shaping of the heated iron. To a 
spectator looking carelessly at the man of the 
forge, beating into shape a rude piece of iron, 
the blow of the hammer has lost its influence 
or force or effect, if you please, when it has 
struck the iron upon the anvil. Not so, how- 
ever, to the searcher after truth. If he exam- 
ine the anvil, in it the force or effect of those 
blows still remains. If you touch it it will soon 
inform you of the presence of beat. Tbe anvil 
is hot from those blows. The influence of those 
blows is heat in the anvil. 

Well, we have many anvils in the [moral 
world to beat upon. Every blow has its force. 
We may feel no change while we hammer 
away ; but God takes care of the heat we do not 
see or feel. 

There is no such thing as neutral influence. 
We must act, nolens volens. Then care, exam- 
ination, reflection, should attend every act. 
If down the stream we should send an influ- 
ence that will bless, and that will leave behind 
us a good name, we should be actuated by the 
purest motives and be influenced ourselves by 
the highest incentives. Inadvertence cannot 
be plead as a justifiable excuse when we come to 
reader a final account. To him who has given 
us the grand opportunity of life we must all 
give a correct statement of its use, with all its 
forces; and of all these influence is the mighti- 
est. Nothing but a recognition of responsi- 
bility and faithfulness ttniiX death will be accept 
able to the great Searcher of Hearts. 

A Hint to Husbands. — A few weeks ago a 
lady with one child dependent on her replied 
to an advertisement for colorers of photographs 
and secured the situation offered. In two weeks 
she became as skillful in the art as women ordi- 
narily do in six months, and elicited the warm- 
est praise from her employer, who paid her 
•iberal wages for her work. The secret of 
her success was simply this: Her husband 
learned in Scotland the art of coloring designs 
for carpets, and made in this country a hand- 
some living by his profession. After his mar- 
riage his wife assisted him, and learned to han- 
dle the pencil with so much skill, and to har- 
monize colors with such taste, that for the lat- 
ter part of the three years of their married life 
she earned a third as much as he did. But not 
being mistress of the art, when he died she 
sewed for a support until her engagement with 
the photographer alluded to. Now she has 
prospect of plenty of work with generous re- 
muneration. At the head of the oldest house 
in America in the importation and manufacture 
of chronometers, watches, and scientific instru- 
ments, is a woman who, from choice, went 
through the mechanical and mathematical 
training necessary to enable her to understand 
and share her husband's pursuits. He died 
leaving her in narrow circumstances with three 
children, obliged to exert herself in some way 
for their support. The hope that she might by 
taking her husband's place in the firm preserve 
the business for her son stimulated her to un- 
dertake what seemed a herculean task, but 
her efforts were crowned with abundant success 
and the house still holds its plaice at the head 
of houses of that kind in this country. Are 
comments necessary? Cannot every thought- 
ful husband draw the moral of the two narra- 
tives? — N. Y. Tribune. 




German Cradle Song. 

Sleep, heart-loved baby ! my darling art thou ; 
Close quick thy little blue eye-peeps now. 
All around quiet and still as the night; 
Sleep, and I'll watch till thou wakest so bright. 

Angels from heaven, as lovely as thou. 
Float round thy cradle and smile on thee now. 
Later, 'tis true, yes, they'll hover still near, 
Only to dry from thine eye the sad tear. 

Just now, my lambkin, is golden the day; 
Later, ahl later, 'twill not be so gay; 
When sorrows at first thy cradle surround. 
Then, darling baby, thon'lt not sleep so sound. 

Sleep, heart-loved baby I although comes the night, 
Mother will sit near thy cradle iu sight; 
Be it so early, or be it so late. 
Mother-love, darling, still watches thy fate. 

— The Churchman. 



Letters to Boys and Girls— No. 14. 

Dear Children: — I am going to write to the 
little ones, and all I ask of the older ones is 
that they read this Ittter to the "wee bits" who 
like letters. You cannot guess what I have 
been doing this beautiful June afternoon, so I 
will tell you. I have been running the sewing 
machine, making a dress; but I had the advan. 
tage of dressmakers, for I taught school at the 
same time. Do you remember Carl? Well, 
he was taken sick with the diphtheria some days 
ago and the doctor said that bis little sister 
Annie must be kept away from him. She is 
pretty lonesome, so I told her we would play 



QooD F|eA.i-TH< 



ESJIC EcQfl^ 



Waste op Food Supplies. — Human intelli- 
gence does not shine in tbe management of 
such ferce naturae as minister to the wants of 
man. The salmon has been wasted in British 
rivers, the trout fished out of the Austrian 
streams, the seals well nigh exterminated on 
several banks, the African ostriches hunted 
to the Siihara, the lobsters on the coast of the 
United States canned off until they can no 
more, and tbe oysters — but their loss is too 
painful to dwell upon. The mischief being 
done, recourse is now bad to legislation, pisci- 
culture, oyster farms, and various methods by 
which creatures that only asked to be allowed 
to live and multiply as best they might at their 
own expense are now reared with considerable 
trouble and cost. Perhaps the strangest turn 
of fortune is that which has in this manner be- 
fallen the rabbit. After being from time im- 
memorial '.killed down as vermin, this ani- 
mal has met with a triumphant rehabilitation 
iu Germany, where several influential societies 
are engaged in promoting "rabbit culture," is- 
suing periodicals on the subject, and giving 
rabbit dinners to demonstrate the excellence 
of their protege as an article of lood. There is 
much to be said in favor of extending their 
movement, to the success of which climate offers 
no obstacle, to this country, where the unsat- 
isfactory state of tbe meat supply demands all 
tne auxiliary measures which ingenuity can de- 
vise to meet the need. — tlngtish Paper. 



school this afternoon. She ran for her little 
rocking chair, set it by the machine, got her 
book and reod, "It is an ox, I see the ox," etc. 
Then I read over her spelling lesson, and she 
studied it in loud whispers. The last word was 
"Sam." When she spelled it her black eyes 
began to shine, and she cried out "Oh! teacher 
'scuse me quick! P'ease 'scuse me quick and 
me bring you a new scholar." Off she ran, 
but soon came back bringing Sambo, for you 
see, the word "Sam" in her lesson made her 
think of him. Sambo is a black boy dressed in 
a black jacket with red trimmings, red trousers 
with black stripes on the sides, black boots 
and red cap, all knit out of worsted yarn. He 
is a very tine doll, and though he had never 
been to school before, he spelled the whole line 
without winking, or at least he stood up very 
straight in Annie's lap, and some one spelled 
the words as fast as I pronounced them. But 
my little scholar had other bright ideas. After 
recess I heard a carriage rumbling over the 
carpet, and there in her nice little carriage was 
Miss Ida, a rosy cheeked dollie with real hair 
flowing down over her silk dress. Her hair 
.does not seem to have grown in very firmly, for 
when Annie was combing it the other day, 
quite a little handful came out. Ida did not 
cry. She never cries when she has her hair 
combed, as some children do, and she does not 
seem to miss it. Well, Miss Ida would not 
have ii said that a black boy could spell better 
than she could, so she stood up and looked 
straight at me with her black eyes, and every 
word was spelled right. But Annie thought 
that the school was not large enough yet. She 
asked to be 'smissed, (she meant dismissed,) 
and away she went with her carriage, soon 
returning with Dinah, a large black rag doll, 
made for her when she was a baby. Dinah is 
old and well stricken in years. One pt her 
black button eyes was pulled out some time ago, 
and her black rag nose has been fearfully 
snubbed. She has been quietly slipped into 
the rag bag by Annie's mamma a half-a-dozen 
times, and as quietly slipped out again by Miss 
Annie, who has no idea of letting her children 
end their days in an insignificant rag bag or be 
ground up into brown paper. 

But Dinah was not the last scholar, for Annie 
brought along a black dog, about as large as a 
half grown kitten, and a wooden horse with a 
broken leg, declaring that they could read and 
spell as well as Sambo and Ida; so the same 
words were again pronounced, and again 
spelled correctly. She then made a desperate 
effort to find Susie, a poor little doll about as 
long as your band, with both hands and one 
foot broken off. It was no use to look for 
Minnie, her beautiful wax darling; for, alas! 
Minnie had a fall which cracked the back of 
her head. Annie did not feel as badly as she 
would if she had not been longing ever .since 
she had the doll to look inside her head that 
she might see how her eyes opened and shut. 
When the back of her head came clear off, 
Annie squeezed out a few tears, but quickly 
began to examine her eje.s, which she found 
were as round as an apple, and attached to a 
leaden weight, which fell into the top of 
Minnie's head when she lay down. This 
turned the balls over, so that they weie flesh- 
colored on the right side, instead of blue. The 
school was soon closed, and ihe scholars — all 
but the oldest one — were tuken home in the 
carriage. 

Since then a large brown I ear has been per- 
forming in the street in front of the house. 
Annie crii d when she saw the same one at the 
beach, in York, Maine, last year, but to-day 
she liked to watch him, as he danced, walked, 
played with a cane, at.d kissed his keeper, all 
the while standing upon his bind feet, until it 
seemed to ua that he must be very tired. Do 
you suppose if you play school that a perform- 
ing bear will come to amuse you? J. F. J. 



Position in Sleeping. 

It is better to go to sleep on the right side, 
for then the stomach is very much in the posi- 
tion of a bottle turned upside down, and the 
contents are aided in passing out by gravitation. 
If one goes to sleep on the left side, the opera- 
tion of emptying the stomach of its contents 
is more like drawing water from a well. After 
going to sleep, let the body take its own posi- 
tion. If you sleep on your back, especially 
soon after a hearty meal, the weight of the di- 
gestive organs, and that of the food, resting on 
the great vein of tbe body, near the back bone, 
compresses it, and arrests the flow of the blood 
more or less. If the arrest is partial, the sleep 
ia disturbed, and there are unpleasant dreams. 
If the meal has been recent or hearty, the ar- 
rest is more decided, and the various sensa- 
tions, such as falling over a precipice, or the 
pursuit of a wild beast, or other impending 
danger, and the desperate effort to get rid of it 
arouses us; that sends on the stagnating Mood, 
and we wake in a fright, or trembling, or per- 
spiration, or feeling of exhaustion, according 
to the degree of stagnation and the length and 
strength of the effort made to escape danger. 
But when we are not able to escape the dan- 
ger, when we do fall over the precipice, when 
the tumbling building crushes us, what then? 
That is death! That is the death of those of 
whom it is said, when found lifeless in their 
bed in the morning: "They were as well as 
they ever were the day before," and often it is 
added, and ate heartier than common! This last, 
as a frequent cause of death to those who have 
gone "to bed well to wake no more, we give 
merely as a private opinion. The possibility 
of its truth is enough to deter any rational 
man from a late and hearty meal. This we 
do know with certainty, that waking up in the 
night with painful diarrhea, or cholera, or bil- 
ious colic, ending in death in a very short time, 
is properly traceable to a late large meal. The 
truly wi^e will take the safer side. For persons 
who eat three times a day, it is amply sufficiient 
to make the last meal of cold bread and butter 
and a cup of some warm drink. No one can 
starve on it, while a perseverance in the habit 
soon begets a vigorous appetite for breakfast, 
so promising of a day of comfort. — Hall's Jour- 
nal. 



The Art of Carving. 

It is worth learning, worth in fact the expend- 
iture of a good deal of time and patience in 
order to its thorough mastery. When an affa- 
ble but modest ho.'it has two or three times 
succeeded in landing the hissing turkey iu his 
neighbor's lap, and the platter and gravy in 
his own, he will appreciate and strive to famil- 
iarize himself practically with the following 
regulations, laid down by tbe Rural New Yorker. 
We would merely suggest that his first experi- 
ence takes place in a retired part of the house, 
where no curious quidnuncs are present to mar 
the solemnity of the occasion. The writer 
says: It is not proper to stand in carving. 
The carving knife should be sharp and thin. 
To carve fowls (which should always be laid 
with the breast uppermost), place the fork in 
the breast, and take off the wings and legs 
without turning the fowl, then cut out, the 
merry-thought, cut slices from the breast, take 
out the collar-bone, cut off the side pieces, and 
then cut the carcass in two; divide the joints in 
the leg of a turkey. In carving a sirloin, cut 
thin slices from the side next to you (it must 
be put on the dish with the tenderloin under- 
neath), then turn it and cut from tbe tender- 
loin; help the guests to both kinds. In carving 
a leg ol mutton, or ham, begin by cutting 
across the middle of the bone; cut a tongue 
across and not lengthwise, and help from the 
middle part. Carve a fore quarter of lamb by 
separating the shoulder from tbe ribs, and then 
divide the ribs. To carve a fillet of veal, begin 
at the top and help to the dressing with each 
slice. In a breast of veal, separate the breast 
and brisket, and then cut them up, asking 
which part is preferred. In carving a pig, it 
is customary to divide it and take. off the head 
before it comes to the table, as to many persons 
the head is revolting; cut off the limbs and di- 
vide the ribs. In carving venison, make a deep 
incision down to the bone to let out the juices, 
and then turn the broad end toward you, cut- 
ling deep in thin slices. For a saddle of ven- 
ison, cut from the tail toward the other end, on 
each side, in thin slices. Warm plates are 
very necessary with venison and mutton, and 
in winter are desirable for all meats. 



A New Anaesthetic. 



Dr. W. Preyer, of Jena, Saxony, has re- 
peatedly found that a concentrated solution of 
lactate of soda in water, administrated as a hy- 
podermic injection, or in sufficiently large 
quantities introduced in an empty stomach, 
causes a sensation of fatigue and sleepiness 
perfectly similar to that of a natural sleep, pro- 
vided, of course, that no disturbance of the 
senses is applied to keep the person awake. 
Similar symptoms show themselves after the 
drinking'of large quantities of fresh milk, and 
more so of milk which has become slightly 
acid, also of buttermilk either sweet or acid, 
and even of concentrated sugar-water. The 
sleep thus produced shows itself sooner among 
young animals than old ones; more among 
those which have a more excitable reflex ner- 
vous disposition than among those in which it 
is weaker; among rats, cats, pigeons and frogs 
sooner than among rabbits and marmots; it also 
shows itself sooner in small animals than in 
large ones, and soonerduring cold than dur- 
ing warm weather. 

Man is very variously affected by lactate of 
soda; some experience an uncontrollable som- 
nolence after having in the morning, on an 
empty stomach, drank a glass of thick milk or 
concentrated sugar-water, or a solution of half 
an onnee of sugar in four ounces of water; but 
others will feel no effect. Dr. Preyer thinks 
that the effects of the lactate of soda deserve to 
be experimented upon as an antipyretic, as a 
sedative in mania and certain forms of convul- 
sive affections, on account of the promptness 
with which it produces muscular relaxation. 
Every time he observed hypnotic effects of this 
salt, he found that the respiration became 
slower and deeper, the irritability diminished, 
and that, at least among cold-blooded animals, 
the temperature went down under the influence 
of strong doses, which are well supported, 
without ever leaving any inconvenient result. 
Exchange, 



Grapes in Fever. — Dr. Hartsen, in Central- 
blatt fur die Med. Wissenschaften, recommends 
grapes as a valuable diet in fever. Tbe grape 
contains a considerable amount of hydro-car- 
bonaceous matter, together with a certain 
quantity of potassium salts, a combination 
which does not irritate, but on tbe contrary 
soothes the stomach, and consequently is used 
with advantage, even in dyspepsia. While 
considering the carbo-hydrates contained in 
the grape, we most not neglect the organic 
acids, particularly tartaric acid. Dr. H. thinks 
the nourishing influence of these acids too 
much neglected. It is indeed known that they 
are changed to carbonic acid in the blood, and 
are excreted as carbonates in the urine. Pos- 
sibly careful research might show that, under 
some circumstance-", the organic acids are 
changed to fata. Dr. H. believes that the 
org.inic acids should be ranked with the c irbo- 
bydrates as food. When fresh grapea are not 
to be had, raiaiua or dilute') wine might be 
used. 



Onions. — The unpleasant breath which eat- 
ing this vegetable produces is perhaps the 
greatest objection to its use, but still it is a 
very wholesome and desirable article of food 
for many, and hence should be brought on the 
table in the most attractive form. White on- 
ions and those grown in the South are least 
odorous and pungent. Take off the outside 
skin, cut off both ends close, and let them 
stand in cold water an hour, then drop them 
into a saucepan with two quarts of boiling 
water. Cover, and boil fifteen minutes. Have 
a kettle of boiling water on the fire ready for 
use, pour off the water from the onions, and 
add as much more — be sure the water is 
boiling— and boil half an hour longer. Scald 
a cupful of rich milk, pour off the second 
water from the onions, add the milk and a lit- 
tle graham flour to thicken it. Salt and other- 
wise season tertaste. Boil up a few minutes 
and serve the onions whole; or thef may be 
cut in halves before cooking. 

Crushed Wheat. — This preparation of wheat 
is not yet generally in use by those who are in 
favor of farinaceous food. The whole grain is 
"crushed" in such a manner as to retain all its 
particles quite together. Nothing is lost or 
sifted out. It is made from good white wheat, 
and is very clean, and well put up in packages. 
It cooks more readily than tbe cracked grain, 
has more gluten, and has all the sweetness and 
flavor of the wheat. I cook it just as I do oat- 
meal; having a quart or two of boiling water on 
the fire, stir in two handfuls of the grain— all 
I can grasp — for each quart of water; boil rap- 
idly for twenty minutes, stirring frequently to 
prevent its adhering to the bottom of the ket- 
tle; then let it simmer over a slow fire for ten 
minutes, covered tightly. I like it better when 
cool; the gluten forms a jelly, and when mould- 
ed makes a handsome dish for the table. 

Applk Puffs.— These are nice for party sup- 
pers, and, in fact, are good any time, but 
rather too tedious to make for frequent use. 
The quickest way of making them is to roll 
two large sheets of dough on separate boards, 
and put as many tiny spots of mashed or sifted 
sauce upon one of them as you judf;e there 
will be room to make puffs; then cover it all 
with the other sheet, which should be a trifle 
larger, and cut out with the biscuit cutter 
wherever there is a bunch of sauce. If too 
much sauce is put in, it will stew out bad and 
disfigure them; print around them with a three- 
tiued fork— if you have nothing belter-—to 
press the edges together and keep in the juice. 
By the way, an old wooden clock wheel is 
quite a handy thing to roll around pies, and 
makes a very pretty margin; cheap, isn't it? 
and it is never out of order. 



GoosEBKUBY CusTAiiD. — Three pints of green 
gooseberries; quarter of a pound of sugar; four 
eggs, and two tablespoonfula of orange-flower 
water. Sat the gooseberries in cold water over 
a slow fire, and simmer till soft; then drain the 
water away, and rub them through a sieve, to 
a pint of pulp add the eggs, the suijar, and 
oraugo flowe-r wut<r; t.ft it over the fire, stirring 
constantly till it beoomeii thick, and wUcu cold 
serve in oustard glassea. 



8 



IP^ftSSS* 



[July I, 1876 




PUBLMHBD Vt 



CO. 



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Saturday, July i, 1876. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

OENERAL EDITORIALS —The Title-Deed of 
Our Liberties; Legal HolicayK, Pa g-e 1. Our New 
Volume; The Celebration iu this Ciry; The Centen- 
nial Fourth. 8-17- California; Th»-n and Now, 17. 
Notts from Sacramento; A Fly Antidote; Patents and 
Inventions. 20. 

II.L.USTKATION9.— Reading the Declaration in 
1776,1. Centennial Bells, 8. Scenes in the (ireat 
National Park of the Y- Uowstone, 9. "Let Music 
Swell the Breeze;" Possible Effect of the Cincin- 
nati Convention, 10. A Kingiug Declaration; The 
American Eagle, 11. Sham Battle and Grand Nival 
Botnbarjment in 8 F. Harbar, July 3d, li>76, 12-13. 
The Original Thir een, I7. 

CORRESPONDENCfc,.— The C«-ntennial at Phila- 
de phia; Diecurmre Di^cusbions; Notes (rom Ven- 
tura County; Irrigation; Notes from Mendocmo 
luuty, 2-3. 

THE Dairy.— Dairy Show at the Centennial, 3. 

THE HORSE.— Trying to Master the Horse's 
Foot, 3. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.-Let Every 
Orange Celebrate; Agricultural Education in Ger- 
many; Analysis of an El Doiado Mineral Water; The 
Grange at Haywards; Warning, 4-5- 

AORlOULTtTHAL. NOTES trom variona ootin- 
ties in Califurnia and Oregon, 5. 

HOME CIRCLE.— "Cncle Sam's a Hundred" (Poe- 
try); Overland Chat; Prize Es-iay on Eyes; Special 
Cur; The Sick Chamber; A Pn clous Philosopher, 
e. Influence Immortal; A Uitit to Husbands; Waste 
of Food bupplies, 7- 

YOU NO iOLKS' COLUMN.— German Cradle 
Song (I'oetryi; Letters to Boys and Girls, 7- 

OUOD HEALTH.— Position in Sleeping; A New 
Anaesthetic; Grapes in Fever, 7- 

OOM.E8TIO ECONOMY.— The Art of Carving; 
Onions: Crushed Wheat; Apple Puffs; Gooseberry 
Custard, 7 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.— Disease on Apricot 
Kooti: Sua)) fur Scab; Xlie Diviug Prmciple, 20. 

MISCELLANEOUS ARTiCLBS.-Paper Blank- 
ets; Hair Cloth, 3. Centennial Bells, 8. Tne Yel- 
lowstune Geysers, 0. The Fourth in Philadelphia; 
The First Declaration; Jefferson's Marriage; 
Franklin in Philadelphia; The New Bell lor 
Independence Hall; Averill Chemical Paint, 10- 
The Judges at the Centennial; Off for 
Philadelphia; Who'll I'ill Our Fields a bundled 
Years From Now (Poetry) ; The Boot-Cap of a Plant; 
Adulteration of Sugar; Fire-Proof Suit, 11. The 
Fourth of July in San Francisco; An Early Celebra- 
tion; At the Centennial, 12-13. The Celebration 
in New York; A Centennial Tribute (Poetry) ; A Little 
Centennial Expedition, 13. The President's Centen. 
tennial Proclamation, 20. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Farming Implements, Baker jc Hamilton. San Fran- 
cisco and Sacramento; Excelsior Force and Litt 
Pumps, Holbrook, Merrill & Co., S F.; Seeds, David 
Landreth & Sons, Philadel|ihia Pa.; Poultry, Cattle, 
Etc., Geo. B. Bayley, Oakland, Cal. 



"OuB H0E8E." — Don't startle, gentle reader. 
Once upon a time we owned a real horse. Jim 
Kearny (agent) pat him oat to pasture with a 
compassioDate agricultarist near Lathrop. 
Jim lost the farmer's name and we haven't 
found it — nor got a olaiivoyant who can point 
to our lost Pegasus; whereas, therefore, we 
ofifer a liberal reward of three months' sub- 
scription to the RuBAL Pbess, and two elegant 
(postage stamp) chromos of Andrew Wasbing- 
tou and George Jcckson for a line of inlorma- 
tion leading to said horse. Whoever knows the 
whereabouts of said horse, speak now or for- 
ever hold your tongue. 



VisiTOBs to San Francieco can spend a con- 
siderable time profitably any day in examioiDg 
the wonderful and ititerestiug things to be seen 
at Woodward's Gardens. There will be a grand 
display of fireworks here on the Fourth. 




Centennial Bells. 

Ye belfry'd blackstijlths in the air. 

Smite your sweet anvils good and gtront; ! 
Ye lions in your lofty lair. 

Boar out Irom tower to tower, along 
The wrir kled coasts and scalloped seas. 
Till winter meets the orange breeze 
Friim bridal lands that alwa:>s wear 
The orange blossoms round their hair. 
Centennial Bells, ring on ! 

Pour out, ye goblets, far and near, 

Yotir grand melodlou« iron flood. 
Till pine and palm shall think they hear 

The axes hmi e the statt^ly wood. 
Nor dream the measured cadence meant 
The clock-tick uf the continent I 
The fo t-f«ll of a wcrld that nears 
The field-day af a hundred years. 

Centennial Bells, ring on ! 

Ye blocsoms of the furnace fires. 

Ye iron tulips rock and swi'ig. 
The People's Primal Age expires, 

A hundred years the rrigning king. 
Stri- e one, ye hammers ovtrhead. 
Ye rusty tongues, ring off the red, 
King up the Concord .Minute Men, 
Ring out old Putman's wolf again. 

Centennial Bells, ring on 1 

Where prairies hold th^lr flowery breath 
Like stature in the luurble ledge. 

Where mountains set their glittering teeth 
Through wlue horizon's rugged eoge. 

And hold tlie world with granite grip 

As steady a^i a marble lip. 

And here, and there and everywhere. 

With rhythmic tli under strike the air. 
Centennial Bells, ring on I 

Ring down the curtain on To-day 
And give the Paot the right of way. 
Till fields of buttle red with rust, 
Shiun through the ashes and the dust 
Across the Age, auU burn as plain 
As glowing Mars through window pane. 
How grandly loom like grenadiers 
1 hese heroes with their hundred years ! 
Centennial BtUs, ring on 1 

Ring for the blue-eyed errand boy 

That quavered up the belfry stafr, 
"They've signed it ! Siguid it I" and the joy 

Rolled forth as rolls tlie Delaware. 
The old man started from a dream, 
His uhice hair blew, a silvery stream. 
Above bis he.d ih^ bell un wung 
l^uml) as a morning-glory hung ; 
The time had cume aw ited I'Ug, 
His wrinkled h.nd grew young and strong. 
Be grasped the rope as men that drown 
Clutch at the lite-line driftiut; down. 
The iron dome as wildly flung 
As if Alaska's winds had rung. 

Strange that the founder never knew. 
When from the rao ten glow he drew 
That bell, he hid within its rim 
An anthem and a birthday hymn. 

80 rashly rung, so madly tossed, 
Its old melo<lious volume lost. 
Its thrilled horizon rent and cleft. 
Of sweet vi' 'ration ah bereft. 
And yet, to hear that tocsin break 

The silence of a hundred years. 
Its rude diecoroant murmurs shake 

And rally out tiie soul in cheers 
Would set me longing to be rid 
Of sweeter voices, and to bid 

Centennial Bells be dumb I 

Alihough no mighty Muscovite, 

No iron welkin rudely hurled, 
Th»t hell of Liberty and Bight 

Was heird around the Babel world 1 
Land of the green and golden robe I 

A three-hours' journey for the sun. 
Two oceans kiss thee round the globe, 

I'p the steep world thy rivers run 
From geologic ice to June. 
A hundred years from night to noon 1 

In biossiim still, like Aaron's rod ? 
The clocks are on the stroke of one. 

One land, one tongue, one Flag, one Qod I 
Centennial Bells, ring on ! 

— STibner't MonOdy. 



Immen^k Ceops.— It seems to us ihat the 
wheat crop this year will be one of exceeding 
magnitude. There has never before been a 
season so largely favorable for an abundant 
supply bf grain for transportation. If the fleet 
of wheat-carrying vessels to arrive duiing the 
coming eight mouths is sufficient for the de- 
mands oi\ our wheat shippers, it will prove a 
remarkable fact and be a subject for congrutu- 
lation. 

Thk Old LinEBTV Beix. — The outline of the 
old Liberty bell wbicb we print el-ewbere is 
formed of the type known to printeis as 
brilliant. It i!< the bmallest type made. The 
words of the Declaration comprise 4,042 solid 
ems, equal to ttiree and one-half r2mo pages 
of solid bonrgeois. The Declaration is uU in 
the bell, word for word, but Old Continentals 
may require clear spectacles to read it. 



Our New Volume. 



The Centennial Fourth. 



We print this week the first issue of Vol. XII 
of ^the Pacific Bubal Pbess. We give our 
readers eight additional pages and we stamp 
upon the issue characteristics pertinent to the 
time. We trust our efforts willj aid many to 
bring more vividly to mind the spirit o( the 
past, the greatness of the present and the 
glorious possibilities of the future of onr be- 
loved land. 

The RuB.tL Pbess is in full accord with the 
Centennial spirit. The air is rife with the 
notes of progress and improvement. We are 
resolved to keep abreast of the times and make 
our journal sp bright and true that it will catch 
and reflect every ray of true light which this 
spirited age evolves. 

We are sending forth a paper devoted to the 
highest intere^-ts of ihe noblest class of our 
population. If the people we are proud to rep- 
resent had the power in the land which is their 
right, they would sweep from the eyes of the 
world the corruption which has humbled ns as 
a nation. They would have seen to it that our 
people did not bear the increased harden wbicb 
the age of peculation has brought upon us. 
They would have saved the country from the 
evil deeds in high places which have increased 
tbeir labors and lessened their rewards. 

Toward securing the beneficent blessings of 
true and honest life and action we are devoted. 
We shall thus continue to labor. We aim to 
elevate and uplift all who are joined in the 
noble guild of agriculture. As all thrive we 
would thrive also. In taking pride in furnish- 
ing a first class journal we are giving our 
readers that which in better than gold, because 
we aim to up-build the man at the same time 
that we point, out fur all the elements which 
result in belter work and larger successes. We 
aim to increase present comfort and reward, 
and lay the foundation for truer manhood and 
womanhood in our cbildren. 

As we b^gin a new volume we trust all onr 
readeis will go with as. We would lose none 
because the measure of our support must of 
neces-ity be the measure of our ability to serve 
our readers. It requires more outlay to con- 
duct a j lurnal up<in the plan which guides 
the Rural Pbess, than if our rules as to quality 
of matter, in r;^adint< and advertising columns, 
were looser and more cartl-ss. We desire the 
aid and to-ope'ation of all to enable ns to 
maintain the hish standard of our paper. We 
trust that no one will decide to economize by 
cutting off an agency which enables bitn to do 
better work, and which, by bringing to bis eye 
the best attainable information, constantly 
gives him hints for new saocesses. 

Our Slate etijoys a year of unrivaled pros- 
perity, while elsewhere there is depresi^ion and 
discouragement. In this era of abundance the 
Bubal Pbess desires its share to stiengtben it^ 
hands for future labors. Give us your hearty 
support, kind readers, that the Press may not 
be a orone among the workers, but miy be 
strong and «c ive to lead the way to where 
new stoies of honey lie. 



The Celebration in this City. 

We print on another page an illustrated ac- 
count of the main features of the celebration o' 
the Fourth in this city. The chief credit for 
planning and carrying forward the plan to ex- 
ecution is due to General James Coey, Presi- 
dent of the Day. He has labored zealously in 
the cause, and his efforts will be long remem- 
bered as closely allied with the success of the 
occasion. The other oflScers of the day are 
Hon. D. \. MacDonald, Grand Marshal; Col. 
J. D. Stevenson and Col. Peter Donahue, Vice- 
Presidents, and Frank J. Murphy, Secretary. 
The several committtes are entrusted with im- 
portant trusts. 

The names of those participating in the 
yavilion exercises are: Chaplain, Rev. W. H. 
Piatt; Reader, J. E. McElrath; Orator, Rev. 
Horatio Stebbins; Poet, Jamea F. Bowman. 
The exercises will be interspersed with mui-ic 
and singing. 

The Invitation Committee, presided over by 
Pay Director Cunningham, U. S. N., met on 
Monday at the Palace hotel. Invitations were 
sent as follows: Governor, Cabinet and staff. 
Mayor, Supervisors and School Directors, ex- 
Governors, ex-Grand Marshals, Foreign Con- 
suls, Army and Navy ofiBcera, Federal and 
State Judiciary, Federal officers. Mechanics' 
Institute, United States Senators and Repre- 
sentatives from this State, bold over State Sen- 
ators from this city. President Grant and 
Cabinet, General Sherman, General McDowell. 

The Foubth in Sacbamento. — Following is 
a synopsis of the proposed celebration at Sac- 
ramento on the Fourth: Fireworks to the ex- 
tent of $1,000 to be displayed at State Capitol 
park; the celebration to extend through three 
days— third, fourth and fifth; the citizens are 
requested to illuminate on the evening of July 
third; fire bells to be rang at sunrise, noon and 
sunset on the Fourth, church bells invited to 
join in the choru-; Sacramento association of 
Califo nia Pioneers and improved order of Red 
Men, logttber with the railroad shops fire de- 
partment, will take part in the exerci.ses. It is 
expected that the procession will move at 9:30 
A. M., on the Fonttb, and the borleaqae pro- 
cession at 4 p. u. 



The greatest day of all this greatest year is 
at band. Before another Bubal Pbess shall 
have passed from as to you, kind readers, the 
Centennial Fourth will have been bailed with 
rejoicing and celebration such as no day has 
known since the first century of the republic 
began. While we are now lingering on the 
verge of this peerless national rejoicing, let us 
instance a few thoughts which it is fitting to 
remember. 

What have we done in a hundred years? In 
the first place we have shown to the world the 
possibility of a popular government. A people 
has proved its right and ability to govern it- 
self. We have triumphed over dissensions 
which would have wrecked most other govern- 
ments, or else have placed one-half their people 
in bondage. We have triumphed in such a 
way that there is neither victor nor vanqni^hed, 
and our whole people are free, equal and fra- 
ternal to-day, as in the early bappy days. 
\^ere in the history of the world has there 
been such a victory; where has war been so 
cotnplelely conquered? 

Think for a moment of our national growth. 
One hundred years ago two and one-half mil- 
li< ns of people rejoiced over the adoption of 
the Declaration of Independence; to-day, more 
than forty millions rejoice with fall hearts and 
loud voice and declare again and again the 
brave words of the fathers of the republic. 
Then there were 13 weak bet hopeful colonies; 
now there are 37 strong and united States. 
Then the popular domain hugged the Atlantic 
shore, now it extends from ocean to ocean, and 
the Pacific will sound a loud refrain to the re- 
joicings along the Eastern coast 

Nor has the growth of the country been in 
numbers alone. There has been a material 
prosperity keeping pace with the increase of 
population. Tbe seed of liberty was planted 
on fraitful soil. Tbe temple o. freedom and 
equal rights was erected in a land so rich in 
varied resources that its votaries were not 
nourished xi\ou an idea alone, but were led by 
their own industry into the enjoyment of un- 
equaled prosperity. The freedom to act, 
coupled with tbe material to act upon, has 
won for us men from every clime, and the good 
land holds a good people. It is history as 
well as poetry which says to onr coumry : 
"There's freedom at thy gates, and rest 
For earth's down-trodden and opprest, 
A shelter for tbe hunted mad. 
For tbe starved latwrer t^il and bread." 

The century which ranks first in oar national 
history has no peer in the general advance- 
ment of mankind. No century has witnesstd 
such grand industrial achievements. In no 
century have bright thoughts turned so many 
powers and forces of iialure to tbe service oi 
matkind. Never before has mechani^m lifted 
so great a weight from tbe burden of muscle. 
Wbat a tide of progress is called to mind by 
the mention of the single word — steam. Dar- 
ing the century its greatest deeds have all been 
accomplished. The locomotive snorting npon 
monnLiin tops; tbe steamship cutting tbe 
waves and wind; the powerful stationary en- 
gine, locking in a narrow cylinder tbe force of 
thousands of horses; all these are t»iibin the 
circle of tbe century. By tbe power of steam, 
miles have come 10 be counted in minutes; 
bnt this is only a trifling with time. The speed 
of intelligence waits not for sach tardy carrixge. 
Ovtr the mountains, across the plains, monut- 
ing the hills and threading tbe valleys of the 
East, plunging into the .^.ilantic, springing 
thence beyond the water, flung across the 
many kingdoms of Europe and laughing at the 
width of Asia, a thongbt from the Pac tic coast 
rings in tbe ears of tbe listener in Cbina, al- 
most before the lagging pencil can mark out 
its course. This is an every day oconrrence. 
We think no more of it than we do of tbe flash 
of a ray of sunlight, and yet it is wonderful be- 
yond history, wonderful beyond even the 
imaginings of the fathers of the century. With 
such results accomplished throngb American in- 
vention and discovery, what less than prophecy 
do these worda of Timothy Dwight, written at 
the beginning of the century, become: 
"Fair science her gates to thy sons shall unbar. 
And the East see thy morn hide the beams of her star; 
New bards and new sages unrivaled shall soar. 
To fame.unexlinguibhed when time is no more." 

To write the achievements of the first 100 
years of the republic is really to write its his- 
tory, for each period has some new and striking 
thought or deed. Thus has arrived the won- 
derful afivancea:ent of the country and the 
people. Progress has been continuous. The 
achievements of the past will serve to guide and 
impel the hand which will accomplish the 
deeds of progress which still lie before. 

If it afford satisfaction to review our material 
progress, not less can be gained from tbe con- 
templation of onr advancement in that which 
ministers to mental and moral growth. Wit- 
ness our schoolbouses springing np every 
where close upon tbe heels of the pioneer; wit- 
ness onr higher schools and universiiies; wit- 
ness our vigorous youth in literature. No 
longer can the sneering foreigner ask "who 
reads an American bo (k ?" for American books 
are covered with gold in Enmpe, and .\merican 
authors are crowned with titulary honors by 
the ancient universities of the old world. In- 
telligence presses home upon the dweller in this 
country upon the face of 5,000 newspapers; the 
refining and elevating influence of morality and 

(Oontinued on Pare 17.) 



July I, 1876.] 



^wmm. 



The Yellowstone Geysers. 

There is probably no region in the world 
■where there is such a variety of peculiar and 
wonderful scenery as in the Yellowstone country. 
It has as yet been visited by but few, and the 
only extended accounts of it which have been 
published are those furnished by the members 
of the U. S. geological survey, under Prof. F. V. 



with the liberty of the tourist. Of course it 
will be some time before the railroad will 
render the Yellowstone country easily accessible, 
but we can rest with a consciousness that its 
wonders are not all perishnble, and that at some 
day we will be able to visit and examine the 
most curious tract of country in the world. 

The large engraving acoompanying this will 
give some idea of one of the special features of 
the Yellowstone, viz, the hot springs. The 
engravings were made for the Christian Weekly 



vents are very numerous and the chimneys are 
lined with sulphur. Many of the springs seem 
to remain full to the rim of the crater, and are 
in a continual state of ebullition, and yet no 
water flows from them. Throughout this whole 
tract of country are hundreds and hundreds of 
geysers and hot springs of all characters Biii 
varieties. Some of them are in violent though 
intermittent action, while others are in a par- 
tially quiescent state. There are some that 
might be called spasmodic springs. The 



of tbe hot spring and the cold watf id. 

In the upper right hand corner is t le 

Geyser and the most beautiful spriu- ue 
upper geyser basin of the Madison. The 
Grotto and Giant Geysers are first-class spout- 
ers, throwing a column of water up from 100 to 
200 feet, and continuing the operation from 
one to two hours. The "Boiling Spring" at 
Sulphur mountain is in tbe valley of the Yellow- 
stone, at the locality known as "Seven Hills." 
The open portion of this is about 15 feet in 




^%sCm^^^/ 







Scenes in the Great National Park of the Yellowstone. 



Hayden. They have pretty thoroughly explored 
the region and given us many detnils concern- 
ing it. It may be taken as a very good indica- 
tion of the wonders of this natural scenery that 
the scientific, matter-of-fact geologists and nut- 
uralists have described it at such length and 
praised it so hiyhly. Fortunately for the 
people of the Uuitt;d States this extensive 
region has bten set ai-ide as a great Natiuua 
Purk, where the land belongs to the people as 
a whole and uo iudividual rights can interfere 



from photographs taken by Mr. Jackson, of the 
geological survey, and afterwards published in 
the report. 

The entire Yellowstone basin is covered 
more or less with dead and dying springs, but 
there are ctuters or groups where the activity is 
greatest at the present time. On the south side 
of Mt. Waihimrn there is tjuite a remarkable 
group of a'jiive springs. Tne number of frying 
or simmering sprioj^s is great. Many of the 
dead springs are mere tmsius, with a thick de- 
posit of iron on the sides, lining the channel 
of the water that flows from them. The steam 



springs appear to operate perfectly independ- 
ent of each other. Professor Ilaydeu says ho 
does not know that there is a connection 
between any of the springs in the whole basin, 
though there may be in some rare cases. 

The "Hot S|irnig Conn" shown in the en- 
graving they called the "Fish Pot," from ih^ t ici 
that it extended out info the lake several it-ei, 
so that one conld stand on the silicious mound 
and hook the trout from the cold waters of the 
lake, and without moving boil them in the 
steaming hot water of the spring. There 
seemed to be no co^aection between the orifice 



diameter. The ornamentation about it is beau- 
tiful in the extreme. At the lower right hand 
corner is a smiiU sketch of the culcareous 
springs on Gardner's river, with the enormous 
terraces and bathing pools, which vary in 
temperature bo the bather can find any degree 
he desires. 

Th*; Marysvill" Appeal is the authority for the 
statement that Hank Small has been preaante I 
with $1,000 by the Udea 1 -oomotive company, 
which built engine No. )4'J, on which Hank 
sped from Ogden to San Franoisoo, ', 



10 



The Fourth in Philadelphia. 

A dispatch from Fbiladelpbia furcishes in- 
teresting iDformation of the way the nation's 
birthday will be celebrated in the "Cradle of 
Liberty." The ceremonies will take place at 
Independence ball, beginning at an early hour 
with a review of the military from in front of 
the hall on Chestnut street. A stand, capable 
of accommodating 100 to 150 persons, is being 
erected for the purpose. The literary exercises, 
nnder the auspices of the United States Centen- 
nial Commission, will take place in the square 
immediately in the rear of Independence hall, 
where a platform of sufhcient capacity to ac- 
commodate some 4,500 persons, among whom 
will be the guests of the city, musicians, etc., 
will be provided. The exercises will commence 
immediately after the termination of the mil- 
itary review, at about 10 o'clock, and will be 
initiated by the Right Rev. Bishop Simpson, 
the ecclesiastic successor of the chaplain of the 
Continental congress. 

Overture, "The Great Republic, " by George 
T. Bristow, of New York, member of the jury 
on Musical Awards. 
Chorus. 

Reading of the Declaration of Independence 
from the original document by Richard Henry 
Lee, of Virginia, grandson of the mover of the 
Declaration. 

Hymn of welcome, by Oliver Wendell Holmes, 
written to the music of Keller's hymn — orches- 
tra and chorus. 
National ode by Bayard Taylor. 
Greeting from Brazil — a hymn composed at 
the request of his Majesty, Dom Ppdro, Em- 
peror of Brazil, by the distinguished Brazilian, 
Carlos Gomez, and dedicated to the American 
people. 
Oration by William M Evarts. 
Hallelujah— Orchestra and chorus. 
Doxology — "Old Hundred." 
Gilmore will be given charge of the orches- 
tra, with Carl Zentz as chorus master. 

The period to be covered by the programme 
is estimated not to exceed three hourd. Invi 




[July I, 1876 



Jefferson's Marriage. 



The a£fair was quite a little comedy in some 
aspects, and ended as all comedies should, with 
everybody made happy. "Belinda" had been 
married many years, and her old admirer was 
approaching 30, when he met with a young 
lady of 22 who produced a strong impression 
upon him. She was a little above the medium 
hight, slender, bat elegantly formed. A fair 
complexion, with a delicate tint of the rose, 
large hazel eyes, full of life and feeling, and 
luxuriant hair of a rich soft auburn, formed a 



The other story is thut all three met at the 
door and agreed that they would take their 
turns. Jeflferson entered first, and the tones of 
the lady in singing with her companion de- 
prived the listeners of all hope. However this 
may be, it is certain that the beautiful widow 
consented to become Mrs. Jefferson, and on the 
first day of January, 1772, there was a great 
festival at "The Forest." Friends and kindred 
assembled from far and near; there was frolick- 
ing and dancing after the abundant old fashion; 
and we find from the bridegroom's note-book 
that the servants and fiddlers received fees 




'LET MUSIC SWJELL THE BREEZE' 



combination of attractions which was eminently 
calculated to move the heart of a youthful 
bachelor. In addition to all this, the lady was 
admirably graceful: she rode, danced, and 
moved with elegant ease, and sang and played 
on the harpsichord very sweetly. Add still to 
these accomplishments the possession of excel- 

lent good sense, very considerable cultivation, 

tations to witness the demonstrations of the a warm heart, and a considerable fortune, and 
evening of the 3d, and to participate in the ob- it will not be difficult to understand how the 
aervances of the 4th, have 

been sent by General __ 

Hawley to Governors of 
all the States and Ter- 
ritories of the Union, and 
from several, assurances 
of their intention to be 
present have been re- 
ceived. 



from his especial pocket. It snowed without, 
but within all was mirth and enjoyment, in the 
light and warmth of the great log fires roaring 
in honor of the occasion. Soon after the per- 
formance of the ceremony, the bridegroom and 
his bride set out in their carriage for "Mon- 
ticello," where Jefferson had commenced build- 
ing in 1769, just before the destruction by fire 
of his patrimonial house of "Shadwell." The 
journey was not to end wiihont adventures. 



The First Declaration. 

Before the document 
known as the Declaration 
of Independence 
was adopted, the Conti- 
nental Congress, in the 
earlier months of 1776, 
had for many days been 
steadily drifting on tow- 
ard the distinct asser- 
tion of separate sover- 
eignty, and had declared 
it irreconcilable with 
reason and a good con- 
science for the colonists 
to take the oaths required 
for the support of the 
Government" under the 
crown of Great Britain. 
But it was not till the 
7th of June that Richaid 
Henry Lee, of Virginia, 
rose and read these reso- 
lutions: 

"That these United 
Colonies are, and of right 
ought to be, free and in- 
dependent States ; that 
they are absolved from all 
allegiance to the British 
crown, and that all politi- 
cal connection between 
them and the State of 
Great Britain is and ought 
to be, totally dissolved. 

"That it is expedient 
forthwith to take the most 
effectual measures for 
forming foreign alliances. 

"That a plan of con- 
federation be prepared 
and transmitted to the respective colonies for 
their consideration and approbation." 

These resolutions were presented under direct 
instruciions from the Virginia Assembly, the 
delegates from that colony seltctiiig Mr. Lee as 
their spokesman. They were at once seconded, 
probably tfcer previous nnderstanding, by John 
.\dams, of MaHsachnsetts, Virg nia and Mas- 
SHcbusitts being then the leaoing colonies. 
It was a bold act, for it was still doubtful 
whether anything better than a degrading 
death would await these leaders, if un- 
successful. These resolutions were debated 
from time to time until the second day of July, 
when tb^y were adopted by the vole of 12 col- 
onies. New York, though not voting, ratified 
the vote by a convention within a week. The 
Dedarbtion ol Ind' pendence was then written. 

Ventttra CccxiT — Mr. McArthnr writes to 
us thai he mailed some time since a manuscript 
of notea taken durirg hi-* tour through Ventura 
county. They never reached ns. We hope 
Mr. McArthnr will reproduce them for us. 




POSSIBLE EFFECT OF THE CINCINNATI CONVENTION. 

The Oosetitntion confers upon Congress the eovereipn power over the Territories of the United States for their Government, and the exercise of this power. It is 
the right and dut; of Congress to prohibit and extirpate in the Territories that relic of barharlsm, polygamy, and we demand such leglBlation as shall secore 
this end and the supremacy of American institutirng In all the Territories.— Cincinnott Platform, June 15lh, 1876. 



youthful Mr. Jefferson came to visit very fre- 
quently at the lady's residence, in the county 
of Charles City. It was called "The Forest, " 
and the name of the lady was Mr.". Martha 
Skelton. She was a daughter of John Wayles, 
an eminent lawyer, and had married in her 
]7tb year, Mr. Bathurst Ske.ton, wbo, dying in 
1768, left his young wife a wioowat 19. As the 
three years of mouruing began to expire, th» 
beanliful young lady found herself bebleged at 
"The Forest" by numerous visitors. Of these, 
three were favorites with the fair Mrs. Skelton, 
of whom Mr. Thomas Jefferson was one. The 
tradition runs that the preteiisions of the rivals 
were decided either by the musical accomplish- 
Uients of the young counselor or by the fears 
of his opponents. The tale is differently rela- 
ted. One vertion is that the two uufoitunate 
gentleman encountered each other on Mm. 
Skeltou'a door-btep, but bearing Jttftrnou's 
violin and voice aceompauying the lady in a 
pathetic song, gave up the contest thenceforth, 
and retired without entering, convinced that 
the affair was beyond their control. 



As they advanced toward the mountains the 
snow increased in depth, and finally they were 
compelled to leave the carriage and proceed 
upon their way on horseback. Stopping to rest 
at "Blenheim," the seat of Colonel Carter, 
where they f tund, however, no one but an 
overseer, they left it at sunset, resnlntely bent 
upon reaching Monticello that night. It was 
eight miles oi-tant, and the r^ad, which was 
rather a mountain bridle-path than an hou>st 
highway, was encumbered with snow three feet 
deep. 

We may fancy the sensations of the newly 
wedded bride at the chill appearance of the des- 
olate landscape as she passed along through the 
snow; but she was a nowan of courage and 
Kood sense, and did not care fur inconveuirnoe. 
It was late when they arrived, and a cheerlesa 
reception awaited them — or rather there was 
no reception at all. The fires were all out, the 
servants had gone to bed, and the p'ace was a* 
dark and silent as a grave. Conducting his 
wife to the little pavilion which was the only 
part of the house habitable at the time, Jeffer- 



son proceeded to kindle a fire and do the honors. 
On a shelf behind some books part of a bot- 
tle of wine was discovered; and this formed 
the supper of the bridegroom and the bride. 
Far from being annoyed or discomforted by 
their reception, however, it only served for a 
topic of jest and laughter. The young lady 
was as light-hearted as a bird, and sent her 
clear voice ringing through the dreary little pa- 
vilion as gayly as she had ever done in the 
cheerful drawing-room of "The Forest;" and 
thus the long hours of the winter night fled 
away like minutes, winged with laughter, mer- 
riment, and song.— //arper's Magazine for July. 

Franklin in Philadelphia. 

The advent of Franklin into the city on the 
day when, a shabby lad of 17, he walked up 
High street munching his roll, really marks 
the date of the birth of the intellectual life of 
Philadelphia. There is not an effort for her 
improvement, mental or practical, which can- 
not be traced to its origin in the teeming brain 
of the energetic printer. Schools, universities, 
free churches, public libraries, drainage, fire 
and military companies, street lamps and 
street sweepings — every reform, from the broad 
policy of the statesman to the smallest detail- 
bears somewhere the bold scrawl, Franklin 
fecit. The wisdom and scholarship of that day 
were wholly drawn fron books. Franklin 
dealt directly with the great natural forces, 
physical and human; out of the unlikely mate- 
rial of his fellow-apprentices he made the philo- 
sophic junto; with the petty politics of the 
drowsy town, he studied staUcraft; a kite and 
key under his keen eyeg told the secret of the 
hghtnings, which secret had been kept for 
ages. Nothing was too insignificant for the 
life-giving glance of those keen eyes. He sees 
a seed adhering to the straws on his wife's 
besom, plants, tends it, and gives to the coun- 
try the before unknown broom corn and a new 
source of industry. He observes a green twig 
on a basket lying on the wharf, thrown from 
an Amsterdam brig, plants and tends that, and 
presently Pollard willows grow wild by every 
stream. He is the foremost typical American 
in our history; moral rather than religions; a 
domestic man; faithful to 
his wife, yet cultivating 
platonis friendship with 
other women; never los- 
ing his self control, yet 
with a keen, fine sense of 
fun; testing, one minute, 
a high metaphysical prob- 
lem, and, the next, a 
counterfeit dollar; always 
master of the present 
momeni whether it de- 
manded the making of 
cases, roller and ink, 
which he had no money 
to buy, or the cont truction 
of a new government 
from the ruins of the 
old. — June Scribner's. 

The New Bell fob 
Independenck Hall. — 
The new bell for the 
Pennsylvania State House 
weighs 13,7CK) pounds, 
and is peven feet high 
and 23^ feet in circnm- 
ferencs around the lip; 
the clapper weighs 300 
pounds and the nammer 
more than 200 pounds. 
Its material is a mixture 
of 80 per cent, copper and 
20 per cent, tin; cannon 
• tptured from the Brit- 
ish at Saratoga, in the 
^^^^,^^ Revolutionary war, and 
'^'p^^ bronze guns disabled at 
1^- / J Gettysburg are repre- 
sented in this monster 
bell. The old bell 
weighed only 6.4C0 
pounds. For weeks 
workmen have b e « n 
Bt''engtheniDg the be fry 
vtith stent timbers, and 
experts say that it will 
safely stand the new 
weight. The bell was 
presented to the city by 
Henry Seybert, who also 
put in a new clock, with 
dials nine feet in diameter, at a total cost 
of $20,000. The bell bears the modest inscrip- 
tion: "Presented to the city of Philadelphia, 
July 4th, 1876, for the belfry of Indeteudence 
hall, by a citizen. " Aroutd the lip is the motto, 
" Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto 
all the inhabitants theie:if," and at the t< p, 
" Glory to God in the highest, and on earth 
peace, good will toward men." The bell will 
not be rung until nnon on the Fourth of July, 
when there will be 13 stiokes, one for each of 
the original States. The largest bell ever cast 
in America was the alarm bell in the city hall 
in New Y. rk, weighing 23,00U pounds. 



AvEULL Chemical Paint. — One cf the pro- 
prietors of tbis journal rejoices in having nmd 
this paint over the entire on'side of his huoilile 
mansion. He has also applied it inside of the 
same with equal satisfaction. We have no 
besitiitiou in saying we believe it to be n'>t only 
a most exuiedinijly convenient, but oxcellei t 
article as mauufdctured hy the California 
Chemical Paint Co , No. 117 Pine street, S. F. 



July I, 1876. J 



11 



The Judges at the Centennial. 

We print below a list of the judges who will 
award the preminms in the several departments 
of the exhibition. The method of awards adopt- 
ed by the American Centennial Commission 
differs from the systems in use at other exhibi- 
tions. It dispenses with the international jury, 
and substitutes a body of judges, one-half for- 
eign, chosen individually for their high quali- 
fications. It dispenses also with the system of 
awards by graduated medals, and requires of 
the judges written reports on the inherent and 
comparative merits of each product thought 
worthy of an award, setting forth the proper- 
ties and qualities, presenting the considera- 
tions forming the grounds of the award, and 
avouching each report by the signature of its 
author. The professional judgment and moral 
responsibility of the judges being thus involved, 
assures the integrity of their reports. To exhib- 
itors such reports will be more valuable than 
medals. The list of the American judges is 
as follows: 

Group I. Minerals, Mining and Metallurgy. 
A. L. Holley of New York, T. S. Hunt of 
Massachusetts, E. Harrison of St. Louis, S. 
J. Beeves of Pennsylvania, S. B. Axtell of 
New Mexico, J. W. Mackey of Nevada, Mat- 
thew Addy of Ohio, J. D. Hague of California, 
W. 8. Keyes of Nevada, Fied Prime, Jr. 

Group II. Pottery, Glass. Artificial Stone, 
etc. — Gen. Q. A. Gilmore, U. S. A., Arthur 
Beckwith of New York, E. T. Cox of Indiana, 
Hector Tyndale of Pennsylvania, C. M. Chaf- 
fiet of South Carolina. 

Group III. Chemistry and Pharmacy, includ- 
ing the Apparatus. — C. A. Joy of New York; F. 
A. Genth of Pennsylvania, J. Lawrence Smith 
of Kentucky, C. F. Chandler of Pennsylvania. 

Gr JUP IV. Animal and Vegetable Products, 
and the Machinery for their Preparation. — E. 
N. Horsford of Massachusetts, L B. Arnold 
of New York, Col. J. F. Tobias of Pennsylva- 
nia, Col. John Bradford of Florida, Gea H. 
M. Naglee of California, Geirdo Marks of 
Ohio, Ryland T. Brown of Indiana, Walter J. 
Green of Wisconsin, Decatur H. Miller, of 
Maryland, James M. Shaffer of Iowa. 

Group V. Fish and Fish Products, Appara- 
tus of Fishing, etc. — Seth Green of New York, 
S. F. Baird of Washington. 

Group VI. Timber, Worked Lumber, Parts 
of Buildings, Forestry. — Wm. H. Brewer of 
Connecticut, J. M.Bennet of West Virginia, 
Prof. J. S. Newberry of New York. 

Group VII. Furniture, Upholstery, Wooden- 
ware, Baskets, etc. — Addison Boyden of Miissa- 
chusetts, Chauncey Wiltse of Nebraska, Gen. 
Gibbon of Montana. 

Group VIII. Cotton, Linen and other Fab- 
rics, including the Materials and Machinery. — 
Ed. Atkinson of Boston, Hugh Wardell of 
Savannah, Ga.; Col. Ed. Richardson of 
Jackson, Miss. ; Samuel Wahler of New Hamp 
shire, A. D. Lockwood of Rhode Island, 
Charles H. Wolfe of Ohio, George O. Baker of 
Alabama. 

Group IX. Wool and Silk Fabrics, includ- 
ing Materials and Machinery. — John L. Hayes 
of Massachusetts, E. C. Cowdin of New York, 

Boutillier and C. J. Ellis of Pennsylvania, 

J. Lang of Maine, Barton H. Jenks of Penn- 
sylvania, fl. 0. Goodspeed of Utah, Judge 
WilHams of Iowa. 

Group X. Clothing, Furs, India Rubber 
Goods, Ornaments and Fancy Articles. — W. 
H. Chandler of Pennsylvania, Benjamin Brit- 
ton of New York, W. A. Linthicum of New 
York, Prof. W. C. Kerr of North Carolina, 
Dr. George W. Houston of Colorado. 

Group XI. Jewelry, Watches, Silverware, 
Bronzes, etc. M. L Kennard, Peter Gottles- 
ben of California. 

Group Xfl. Leather and Manufactures of 
Leather. — Ex-Gov. F. H. Pierpont of West 
Virginia, John Cummins of Massachusetts, 
Tliomas Miles of Pennsylvania, W. B. Hasel- 
ton of St. Louis. 

Group XIII. Paper Industry, Stationery, 
Printing and Book Binding. — James M. Wilcox 
• of Pennsylvania, Charles O. Chapin of 
Massachusetts, William Faxon of Connecticut, 
W. W. ConlyofOhio, H. F. Brion of Mary- 
land. 

Group XIV. Anparatns of Heating, Light- 
ing, Ventilation, Water Supplies and Drain- 
age. — C. C. Cox of Washington, Dr. Azel Ames 
ot Massachusetts. 

Group XV. Builders' Hardware, Edge Tools, 
Cutlery, etc. — Daniel Steinmetz of Pennsylva- 
nia, Charles Staples of Maine, George L. Bead 
of Pennsylvania, Gen. Imboden of Virginia. 

Group XVI. Military and Sporting Arms, 
Weapons, Apparstus of Hunting, Explosives, 
etc.— S. C. Lyfort, U. S. A.; H. Abbott, U. S. 
A.; George A. Hamiltonlof Minneso'a. 

Group XVII. Carriages, Vehicles, and 
Accessories. — Thomas Goddard of Boston, B. 
F. More of Maine, B. C. Shaw of Indiana. 

Group XVIII. Railway Plans, Rolling Stock 
and Apparatus, Road Engines, etc. — R. E, 
Ricker of New jersey. Gen. Morris of Indiana, 
Pelic»n Statalafer of Pennsylvania. 

Group XIX. Vessels and apparatus of trans- 
portation. — Isaac Newton of New York, J. W. 
GriflSihs of New Hampshire. 

Group XX. Motors, Hydraulic and Pneu- 
matic Apparatus, etc. — Charles F. Porter of 
New Jersey, Joseph Belknap of New York, 
J. F. HoUoway of Ohio, James Moore of 
Pennsylvania, Horatio Allen of New Jersey. 

Group XXU. Machine Tools, Wood, Metal 
and Stone. — Irving M. Scott of California, G. 
H. Blelock of Massachusetts, W. F. Dutfee of 
Wisconsin, J. A. Anderson of Kentucky. 

Group XXII. Machines, ^Apparatus and 
Implements Used in Sewing and Making 



t^« 



TVUEK. IM 



d«.i 



koM ItiM* ti utii. to tuMii-o.ioKQi. luui ■!■ u.D Br* cr.al.<l iqual : ib.l thoT ar« •■ 
THE PUIt3UlT'or"HAPl*iNE!i3.-TU.vr Ti> SECUBE TUEaE'&lUHTSr 00'VEitNljEST3 
■re fn^tituted ninon^ men, deriviiie tlieir just poWfi-H from the roiibrnt 

OF TUE OOVEltNED.-TIIAr WHENEVEU ANV ioltll y,' GOVEkNilENT CKCU11E3 

PROCLAlia LIBERTY THROUGHOUT ALL THE LAND TO ALL 

DESTUDCTIVE OT THESE ENDS. IT 13 THE RIGHT OF TUE PEOPLE TO ALTER OB 
to abolUh It. nnd to inbtitute A new Uovernment, luj'iiif; ItH rniindntiuD oa 

SAF^Ty'lVD ilAPPlSEbd — PUUDENOfc. INDEED. WILL* DICTATE THAT° QoVeh'm 
mentB long estnbllsbt-d. sbould not be rban^ed for Ksbt nnd tmnvient 

CAU3ES; AND, ACCORDINULY. ALL EXPEKIENCE HATII SHOWN, TUAT MANKIND ARE 

BY ORDER OF THE ASSEMBLY OF THE PROVINCE OF PENNS 

KOBE DISPOSED TO SLIPFER, WUILE EVILS ABE SUFI ERABLE, THAN TO BIOHT THEM 
•elvea hj nholi»bIng tbe formit to wbirh the}- nro nrctiBtonied. But, when a 



r.l,. Suci 



Th* hiatot, ot I 



Putt Ana «r«iD« Ihsoi to alter th.it fottD.i 
n 1 L.n UM ,.Dt k,oB or Otcat Britain li a 



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lU.Mndad 
utt.rlj naElactad t 
laotptofl., ml 



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vapaatad lojurlaa and uaiiriiatlDna, nil hoT |Lj|n/.\/^| IH iDjt, in ditoel olu«t 

•laolutatTranarorarthwoStataa. To pro M UCC/ LI 1 1 ,. tt.la. let facta I 

*"' * qoi.h th. fight VRV^Tilta^tlon °D"llio\'i'gia'otura° *'rfgl,l''inoitii^a£l7t 

oni,.-Ua has cat lad toxathar l.|;i.latifo hodl.a at plac.a nnnaual. uocomfortn 
itor, orth.ir piiblio recotdj. for tfao aolo purpo.o of f.tisuiiif thotn into complin 

' " ' .dly. for oppoainp, mth tnaul, flf tsOM., 

■kRar auch diaaolutloi.a, to cau,c oihan. 
_ _ ho.o r.turnad to tho paople at larco 

itbiD. — Ha baa andaaiorsd to prcaot tho poputatioo of thca Ptntrai for Ihnt pur)K>a«, ob.lructiuK tbs lawa lor 

turaliaation of Ibraitincra; Tafniing t« paaa other, to eorouraGO th.ir toiftratiOD bithtr. and rnlani); tho cooditiooj 

lai* appropriat'ODS of landa. — Ha haa o hatmctadtho aduiinl.tration of iuatica,by rafutlo? hia aa^ant to lanalbt oata 

i'lag jodiciar, powar». — Ha hu mada judc«a dapondabt on hia will alono, for tbe tonuro of their olllcoa, and tho 

Liaat onr peoplo. and aat out their aub aUnca. — Ha baa kept amonj: oa. in timea of peace, atandio(t artniea. without 
maent of our Le,{ialature,-Ue haa afla ctnl to render the luilitary independent of. nnd enperlor to. the citil power 
I combined, wlthotbera, toauhjact ua to n jun.dlction foreign to our Conatltution, and unacknowlcdg*! b, our lawa 
i,~ For qnorterine larco bodiea of armadtroopa among ua.— For protec 



nghtaofthepeopte. — He 



be ele.'tad 



r cutting off our t,ad 
la.of the benefit, of t 
im of Eogb.h Law! 
tender it at onoe iin 



lib, jury — FortranTJort ing u» 
1 • neifthboring Proemco eatftbli 
ample and At inatrumunt for im 



urdcra which tbe. 



lailr. 



Countr,. to 



and baa e 



iliTOaofour people.-Hn, la at t 
ranof, ntreail, begun with circu 
of 1 cleiliaed nation.- Ho has c 



on tho 

o ahaolute rule Into 

a in all canes whi 
la hna ptundarod m 
nrmiea of loreign 
erlld, acareel, ,.ari 



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Ml for rodPMH in th. mo^l hui 



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h>** wnrTn.dth»n..rro 
_ ...inrtod them of Ih. cirrum-Unca of on 

Imltyt anti we hnve fonjun-d the: 



of D 



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■'i;fn 



l*{j*ii(l*Dl talk 



, by tho tii'H of our romniun 

ica<i •ril rorrM|>ona»np». — i ntj, urn, nn*» b*in d^af lo tha iroiro of iu»tic« aiiu »,«u 
■fparntion, md holJ IhPin. u «r* hold thn r««t of mankinil. cnnini** in war. lu psac* 

iTriirMUTy' of the GOiId PEO^^LE'o'F THESE^cmToNl ls,''soL*EMNLv''pUpL!->ill 

~ ' ' denendent Htnt«ii; thnttheva. . 



■■oituiDitt. — Wa mutt, thofofore. »tquir«r« in (tin n<"-M»it. wh>ch dunou 
trioadl.—VV: tberornro. lh« KapraDcnlntiToi of tli<^ (Tn.tod .'^iHtra of Ami 

TUDE OT OUK INTESTIONS. DO. IN THE N.KME. AND UV tAe .. „ „. -_ 

and dpelare, that thM*i United Colontps are, and ofrixbt oucht tobi>,Frec and Independent Htateii; that they areahnoKed from 

c.lco.,n«t.«r,bMw,.-nlb sn, an.l th*SUl» of Gr,.»t lir.l... i»f.H otight I- \.,. lotall- J-—--* --.'.>-. -- f fl 

tabliih comoiMCf, ui4 to do all «;ti«r Acu ami t 



e,<;e&U»ct 



hldi 



F Of riB 
And 
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this D« 



A RTNGIlia DECI.ARATIOK. 



Clothing, Laoe, Ornamental Objects, Pins, etc. 
— George W. Gregory of Massachusetts, E. H. 
Knight of Washington, L. D. T. Poor of Da- 
kota. 

Group XX [II. Agricultural Implements, and 
Implements of Horticulture and Gardening. — 
John Pe Keynolds of Illinois S. L. Giisnell 
of Washington, George E. Waring of Rhode 
Island, James Bince of Oregon. 

Group XXIV. Instruments and Apparatus 
of Hygiene, Medicine, Surgery, 'Prosthesis, 
etc.— Dr. C. B. White of New Orleans, J. 
Henry Thompson of Washington. 

Group XXV. Instruments of Precision, Re- 
search, Experiment and Illustration, includ- 
ing Telegraphy and Music, — Prof. P. A. P. 
Barnard of New York, J. E. Hilgard of U. S. 
Coast Survey, H. K. Oliver of Massaohuaetts, 



Hawkshaw, John Coleman, Prof. Odling, Dr. 
Forbes Watson and Sir Charles Reed, M. P.; 
and among the French judges is tbe Marquis 
de Rochambeau, grandson of the count of Rev- 
olutionary fame. The judges from other foreign 
countries are not yet elected, or at least the 
lists have not yet been sent in. There are to be 
125 American judges in all, and 100 foreign 
judges. Foreigners will be piid $1,000 for their 
services, and the Americans 



Off fob Philadelphia. — The Centennial 
base ball club of this city left here on Satur- 
day for the East on a three months' tour. The 
players chosen to represent California are 
Messrs. Taylor, Gill, Keating, Curran, Williams, 
Parent, Thompson, Piercy and O'Brien, with 
Messrs. CuUen, Ashley and Walker as substi- 




THE AMERICAN EAGLE. 



When freedom, from her mountain bight, 

Unfurled her banniir to the air, 
She tore the azure robe of night, 

And set the stars of glory there! 
She mingled with its gorgeous dytS 
The milky baldric of the skies. 
And t-triped its pure, celestial white 
With streakings from the morning light. 
Then, from his mansion in the sun, 
She called her eagle bearar down. 
And gave into his mighty hand 
Tbe symbol of her chosen laudl 



Majestic monarch of the cloud, 

Who rear'st aloft thy regal form, 
To hear the t»mpesttrumping8 lond, 
And see the lightning lances driven. 

When strive the warriors of the storm, 
And rolls the thunder drum of heaven,— 
Child of the sun! to thee 'tis given 

To guard the banner of the free. 
To hover in the sulphur smoke. 
To ward away the battle stroke. 
And bid its blendings shme afar. 
Like rainbows on the cloud o( w-ir, 

The harbinger of victory.— ./<).«. Rodman Drake. 



George F. Bristow of New York, P. of. W .tson 
of Michigan. 

Group XXVI. Architecture and Engineering. 
—James B. Eads of St. Louis, Gen. W. B. 
Franklin of Connecticut, Richard M. Hunt of 
Rhode Island. 

Group XXVII. Plastic and Gr,»phio Art, 
Sculpture. — 0. C. Perkins of Boston, J. 
Taylor Johnston of New Yurk James L Cleg- 
horn of Philadelphia, Braniz Mayer of Mary- 
land, D. G Mitchel of Connecticut, O. W. 
Nichols of Ohio, J. W. Draper, Jr., of New 
York. 

Group XXVIII. Education and Science. — 
Andrew D. White of New York, Daniel C. Gil- 
man of Maryland, J. M. Gregory of Illinois, < 
J. W. Hoyt of Wisconsin. 

Among the English judges are Sir John 



tates. The club has been presented with a 
magnificent gold badge, to be giv.n to the 
player making the best record. On July 4th 
they will play at Omaha. The first game with 
professionals will be at Chicago with the noted 
White Wtockings. 



Thb following truly national poem should be 
revived with the Centennial Fourth: 

"Keep your eye fixed on the American eagle, 

Whcm we as the proud bird of destiny liail ; 
For that wise fowl you never can inveigle 
By depositing salt on his venerable tall." 



A Good way to fasten screws that have be 
come loose, is to fill up the holes tightly with 
cork. Screws and irons so secured will remain 
perfectly tight, as wh«n put into new wood. 



Who'll Till Our Fields a Hundrp*^ 
From Now? 



TS 



BV HON. EBENEZEB ATEBS. 

Who'll till our fields a hundred years from now 1 
llelds dear to us by many a lasting tie. 

Fields our own hands redeemed from nature's sway, 
For which we fought to conquer or to die. 

On the drear wild, by copse, by hill, by stream, 
Our humble cabins hopefully we reared. 

And with the partners of our earlier years. 
Our trials, hopes and fears and joys were shared. 

We ifrove the plowshare o'er wild nature's glebe. 
And changed the wilderness of the native plain. 

And in its stead there rose a boundless sea 
Of growing, lipening, emerald waving grain. 

Then here and there the village — city rose, 
Ai d deft mechanics came with ready skill ; 

The schoolhouse riKcg- then tbe church's spire. 
And by each gurgling brook, the bus; mill ; 

And here and there, on some uncultivated knoll. 
The marble tombstone rises o'er the head 

Of many a pioneer— the loved and lost— 
The lounders of new cities of the dead. 

Wuo'Il be the joyous tillers of these fields. 
And with true ytoman zeal will hold the plow, 

And with the faith, and with the ardent hope. 
That tills the bosoms of the owners now? 

No, not mch faith, and not such sunny hope, 

As tilled the bosoms of the pioneers — 
For hazard, doubt, and perseverance joined. 

The noble prize achieved much more endears. 

Who'll fill the churches on that Sabbath morn, 
And join their voices in the hymn of praise'' 

Who'll till the halls of legislation then? 
Who win tho civic or the material bays? 

Who'll be the jolly Grangers of that day. 
And spread the banquet in the festive hallB ; 

Fill every station in the walks of life, 
To which their plasure or their duty calls! 

Perhaps some antiquated man may say. 

To tho forthcoming centenary race. 
He knew a few gray headed, tottering men. 

That were the pioneers of such a place. 

That long, long since those early pioneers 
Had sunk beneath the sod their plowshares turned. 

And naught remains except the lands they tilled. 
And some posthumous fame for good deeds earned. 

Impatient nature heeds no laggard wish. 
But ever crowds succeeding seasons on. 

And, will we, uill we, hurls events along. 
Till days and years and centuries are gone. 

Childhood will patter, joyous youth will laugh. 
Fashion still rule with undisputed sway. 

Ambition fire the aspiring statesman's heart, 
And equal vanity affect tbe gay. 

The limpid lakes that gem this prairie land 
Will gleam as brightly in that future hour 

As when the pioneers first stood, amazed. 
Then reared their cabins by their pebbly shore. 

The genial sunshine and refreshing shower. 
Still bless the honest hand that holds the plow ; 

But all unknown to us tho coming men. 
Who'll till our fields a hundred years from now. 



The Root-Cap op a Plant. — A recent writer 
remarks: "The idea held by the earlier botan- 
ists, that the tips of all roots consisted of 
spongy masses of tissue, by means of which 
plants were enabled to soak up their food from 
the soil, has, with tbe aid of the microscope, 
been entirely discarded. The term spongiole, 
which was given to these theoretical bodies, is 
a landmark of departed ignorance, and fur- 
nishes a striking contrast with the known struc- 
ture (the root cap)rwith which the tip of every 
growing root is covered. With tho leading 
botanists of to-day a root is considered to be an 
outgrowth protected by a cap. This definition 
seems very short, but if anything further is 
added, there comes with it a number of excep- 
tions. The name which this covering to the 
root-tip has received is in itself very descrip- 
tive, as it is truly a cap, consisting of a num- 
ber of layt rs of quite dense cells surrounding 
the extremity. These root- caps vary in size in 
different species of plants; sometimes they are 
so small that only with the high powers of the 
microscope can they be seen, while on the 
other hand they may be readily observed with 
the naked eye." 

Adultbbation of Suoab. — A case of adul- 
teration of sugar, recently tried at Marseilles, 
has excited a good deal of attention there. 
Fraud of the kind had long been suspected by 
the customs officials, and the cargo of sugar in 
the present case was from Reunion. The Re- 
union sugars of brown hue are very rich in 
saccharine matter, and well suited for mixtuie. 
It was first thought that the sugar had been 
mixed with'pounded bricks and sand, but on 
analysis the added matter was found to be slag 
(a sort of opaque glass formed in the working of 
various metals, or vitreous lava from volcanoes) 
along with sand, and an economy of 12 fr. per 
100 kilgos. was anticipated. The slag has a 
brigtit granular fractuie, so that it makes a 
very good imitation of sugar. The sand was 
added to make up tbe weight. 

FiRK Proof Suit. — An extraordinary fire- 
proof suit, invented by a Swede namsd Oest- 
berg, was recently exhibited in Vienna, in the 
presence of the Emperor William and several 
other distinguinhed personages. One Captain 
Ahlstrum, clothed in the ' suit, walked into an 
immense fire, prepared for the occasion, of 
wood saturated with petroleum. The account 
says: "The heat of.ttejfire was so intense 
that no one else could approach within eighty 
paces without being burnt or scorched, but the 
Captain walked around in the glowing pile 
perfectly undisturbed, leaning on the burning 
wood, and finally seated himself on the coala." 
After remaining in the fire a quarter of an 
hour, tLie salamander oime out perfectly un- 
harmed, and without "the smell of fire upon 
his garments." 



12 



Jb"^ oTv Jc* o o . 



[July I, 1876 



The Fourth of July in San Francisco. 



Arrangements are completed to make the ob- 
servation of the Fourth of July in this city one 
of the most notable and interesting ever 
planned. Land and water, sea and shore will 
furnish the double field for the exercises of cel- 
ebration. Oa Monday, July 3d, upon land, 
there will be the sham battle and the brilliant 
display of men at arms, and on the waters of 
the harbor there will be bombardment by forts 
and ships of war. Solid shot and murderous 
shell will belch forth from forts and port-holes . 
In all features, save that the marks to be fired 
at are a barren rock and a craft without a crew, 
the engagement will be as real as heavy shot 
and dry powder can make it. 

Our illustration shows the field of conflict 
In the foregrennd is the Presidio Beservation, 
where the sham battle of the morning of July 
3d will take place. On the water the scene, 
which those acquainted with the bay will rec- 
ognize as lying at the entrance to our harbor, 
embraces a stretch four miles in diameter, and 
across this the shot and shell will be hurled. 
The general outline of arrangements is as 
follows : 

The Ahack on Sea and Land 
Will be made in three positions. The dotted 
lines in the engraving represent the shot fired 
from the forts and fleet at the first position. 

The lines formed by a dot and dash repre- 
sent the second .position. 

The solid unbroken lines represent the third 
position. 

A Represents Fort Point. 

B. Lime point. 

C. Fleet of war vessels in first position. 

D. Angel island. 

E. Alcatraz island. 

F. Visiting frigates. 

G. Black point (Point San Jose). 
H. Fleet of war vessels in second position. 
L Harbor View. 

J. California Guard Battery of Second Bri- 
gade. 

K. First, Second and Third Regiments In- 
fantry, with unattached companies, forming 
the infantry portion of the Second Brigade. 

L. Major Hasbrouck's Battery, Fourth Artil- 
lery, U, 8. A. 

M. Major O'Brien's Cavalry of Second Bri- 
gade. 

N. Presidio garrison. 

O. Fire f hip, to be destroyed by batteries. 

The firing in the first position (dotted lines) 
will be directed to Lime point, and will be sus- 
tained from the fleet, from Fort Point, from 
Major Hasbrouck's battery, and the California 
Guard Battery, from Alcatraz, and from Black 
point. While sufficient racket will be created 
in this movement to typify a bombardment, 
the result attained will be little more than 
target practice from different angles and ais- 
tances with flying shots from the fleet. 

In the second position (dots and dashes) the 
fire ship will be brought into prominence and 
will be treated as a ho.stile iron-clad, or, in ac- 
cordance with the imagination of the on-look- 
ers, as a whole fleet of monitors belonging to 
an imaginary enemy. The lines in the dia- 
gram represented by a dot and dash indicate 
the direction of the firing at the ship. The 
fleet will circle round while firing, as in the 
Port Royal tactics. 

In the third position (straight lines) an exhi- 
bition will be given of long-distance firing with 



shell from Fort Alcatraz. 

The Milliary Display 
Will precede the naval maneuvres and the 
cannonading, and will begin about 10: 30 a. m. 

In an order issued from the Headquarters of 
the Second Brigade, the commanders of the in- 
fantry regiments and eaptains of unattached 
companies will report to the Assistant Adjutant- 
General, on the Presidio Rtservation, on the 
3d instant, at 9 a. m., promptly, taking the cars 
of the Central railroad company to Post street 
and Cemetery avenue, thence along Cemetery 
avenue to the Presidio Reserve by the new road 
prepared for the troops. 

Major I-. R. O'Brien, commanding the Cav- 
alry Battalion, will report with two companies 
of his command to Adjutant General Walsh, at 
the Cosmopolitan hotel, at nine o'clock, for es- 
cort duty . 

The Couimander of the Light Battery, Com- 
pany A, California Guard, unattached, will re- 
port c is command to the Assistant Adjutant- 
General at nine a. m., Presidio Reserve. 

The whole of the Presidio Reserve east of the 
garrison is designated as the review ground, 
which the Field Officer of the Day will protect. 
Major James A. Lavan, Second Regiment, N. 
G. C, is detailed as Field Officer of the Day. 

At the Presidio. 
A salute of seventeen guns will be fired on 
the arrival of the Governor and stafl' at the 
Presidio. The formal review ceremonies will 
then be proceeded with and after an interval 
for lunch the tactial evolutions will be executed. 
Twenty rounds of blank ammunition will be 
issued to each man on the field. The column 
of battalions will be deployed into line. The 
line will wheel by fours to the left, and next 
form a new line of battle by moving forward to 
the left of the first four by a left oblique move- 
ment. As quick as the various subdivisions 
arrive in the line they will wheel about by fours, 
thus bringing the new line of battle faced to 
the rear — that is, faced in the opposite direc- 
tion to which the column of fours were ap- 
proaching at the moment the movement was 



ordered. A very picturesque evolution will 
follow. The battalions will form double col- 
umns of fours and move to the new front in 
this formation. After gaining the necessary 
ground to the front, the battalions will again 
deploy forward into line of battle and face 
about. An advance by echelon from the right 
will be next presented for the admiring gaze of 
the multitude. Looking down upon the troops 
they will appear to the eye like the black 
squares on a checkerboard seen diagonally. 
After the necessary interval of rest, the battal- 
ions will describe a half wheel to the left into 
line of battle, thus giving an oblique change of 
front. The imaginary enemy is presumed to 
be in this front, and skirmishers will be sent 
forward to ascertain his intention. They dis- 
cover him in force and the sanguinary work 
commences. General MoComb, to prevent his 
army from being utterly annihilated by the 
stubborn resistance of the foe, will attack it in 
two lines, the lines advancing, alternately pass 
ing through each other, and pouring 
by turns a shower of paper wads on the 
enemy, who is now ofiering such obstinate re- 
sistance that the skirmishers are called off' and 
a murderous fire by battalions is directed upon 
his lines. Under this fierce onslaught he 
wavers and reels back, leaving his wounded on 
the field. Like all great captains, the com- 
manding general takes advantage of the enemy's 
display of weakness, and orders a magnificent 
advance in line, which culminates in a heroic 
bayonet charge. The remnants of the enemy 
having been dispersed or captured, a halt is 
called, the deadly fire is stopped and the broken 
lines readjusted. Then the victorious army 
will be dismissed with a benediction, and the 
soldiers will retire to their homes and once 
more don the unpretending garb of the civilian. 
Spectators who desire to witness the glittering 
pageant will find favorable points of observa 
tion on the surrounding hills. The position 
from which the plan of operations is supposed 
to be taken will be the most desirable vantage 
ground. The best route for visitors will be 
along Cemetery avenue, taking the Cali- 
fornia or Bush street cars. This will bring 
ihem straight to the R- servation, when they 
can readily take to the hills and select the 
point of view that suits them best. 

The naval display is not likely to last 
over an hour, and it is expected that all the 
maneuvers will be completed by 3 P. m. 

On Ihe Fourth 
There will be airanged one of the grandest 
parades and street displays ever witnessed 
on the coast. Already flags are festooning 
Kearny street from end to end. Intheparaed 
on the Fourth, civic and military organiza- 
tions will join. The line of march will be 
as follows: From Second to Montgomery, 
to Montgomery avenue, to Kearny, to Mar- 
ket, to Ninth, to New Montgomery, to 
Mission, to the pavilion. At the pavilion 
there will be stirring and patriotic speeces. 
Rev. Dr. Stebbins is the orator of the day. 
Addresses are expected from the Governor 
and distinguished citizens. In the evening 
the city will be a blaze of light and life and 
resonant with music. Those of our country 
friends who choose to pass the holidays in 
the city may be sure of a varied and en- 
livening entertainment. 



At the Centennial. 

Notes of Travel, Sight Seeing and Relic Hunt- 
ing—No. 1. 

[For the Rural Pbess.) 
It is easy to imagine your sanctum overrun 
with Centennial notes, and were it not like 
rosemary, "just lor remembrance," this 
would not be written at the risk of adding to 
the contents of your waste basket. An impera- 
tive telegram, summoning me to the opening 
of the Centennial exposition, gave one day for 
preparation and seven for the trip from Sacra- 
mento to Washington. Selecting the shortest 
geographical route, via the "Omaha and St. 
Loiiis cut ofi' " — anew road inaugurated last 
February, I missed the opening by 18 hours, 
on account of wash-outs on said road in Ne- 
braska, and have the consolation of believing 
that Providence thus interposed to spare me 
the crush and fatigue and mud of that notable 
day. 

At the Exposition. 
A week of sight seeing in and around Wash- 
ington was all the rest allowed me, preparatory 
to the first installment of this greatest and 
grandest exposition that the world evtr saw. 

The second week after the opening found us 
on the Centennial grounds, housed in a " tem- 
perance hotel " five minutes' walk from the en- 
trance on Elm avenue, near the main building. 
To encourage those who may be deterred from 
coming to Philadelphia through fear of high 
prices of living, I will say that comfortable 
rooms, accommodating two persons, may be 
had for $1 00 and $IJ,0 per day, and meah at 
50 cents each and npwardu, either at hotels or 
restaurants, both outside and within the 



from Gilmore's band, that every forenoon vies 
with the birds and hum of human voices in 
that lovely retreat. 

If one can affL-rd to take the Centennial leis- 
urely, it is a great relief to var" the inspection 
of exhibits in the the interioriof the building 
by strolling out among the fountains and lakes, 
among the quaint structures erected for m^ny 
purposes, where one may almost always find a 
seat and, if desired, a communicative compan- 
ion, in the person of guard or exhibitor. 

Our time being limited, we made the entire 
round of the exposition in three days, and, after 
a rest, began the business of looking after 
speciahies and new exhibits, which. lam vexed 
to say, will be opened daily long after we reach 
the Pacific coast, as now appears from the piles 
of unpacked boxes in the Turkish, Russian 
and Chinese departments especially, and nota- 
bly also in the department of art. 
Securing Mementos. 
There is still enough to see, and happy 
the man or woman who does see and 
appreciate it all. And I venture to say that 
no woman of culture will examine the 
rare laces and china, the exquisite 
carvings in silver, wood and ivory, Ihe bronzes, 
jewelry and embroideries, the pictures, statuary! 
tapestry and mosaics, without breaking the 
tenth commandment, or something near i(, by 
desperately wishing for often imposaible dnpH- 
ca'es. 

But one is met at every turn by the exas- 
perating assurance that nothing can be removed 
from the Eiposilion until next November, and 
one day's experience fully convinced us that 
Ihe commissioners are in earnest about this 
very prop-r restriction. Searching one morn- 
ing for mementos, we visited an upholstery 
section in the British depirlment of the main 
building, where the week before the gentleman 
in charge had off"ered to sell a fine piece of satin 
damask, used as a sample in taking orders for 
covering furniture. But meanwhile the Custom 
House officers had measured his goods, and 
threatened to shut up his place and confiscate 



An Early Celebration. 



A portion of the signers of the Declara- 
tion met two years after, for a cheery com- 
tnemoration of their great achievement, in 
the Philadelphia City tavern. The enjoy- 
ii.ent of the occasion was enhanced by the 
recent deliverance of the city from the pres- 
ence of General Howe, and by the contrast 
between this festival and that lately given 
by the British officers to him. A brief 
glimpse at the patriotic occasion, from the 
hitherto unpublished diaries of William 
Ellery, may well close this narrative. 

"On the glorious Fourth of July [177S], 
I celebrated in the City tavern, with my 
brother delegates of Congress and a number 
of other gentlemen, amounting, in the 
whole, to about eighty, the anniversary of 
Independency. The entertainment was ele- 
gant and well conducted. There were four 
tables spread; two of them extended the 
whole length of the room, the other two 
crossed them at right angles. At the end of 
the room, opposite the upper table, was 
erected an orchestra. At the bead of the upper 
table, and at the President's right hand, 
stood a large baked pudding, in the center of 
which was planted a staff', on which was dis- 
played a crimson flag, in the midst of which 
was this emblematic device: An eye, denotiue 
Providence; a label, on which was inscribed, 
'An appeal to Heaven;' a man with a drawn 
sword in his hand, and in the other the Decla- 
ration of Independency, and at his feet a scroll 
inscribed, 'The declaratory acts.' As soon as 
the dinner began, the music, consisting of 
clarionets, hautboys, French horns, violins and 
bass viols, opened and continued, making 
proper pauses, until it was finished. Then the 
toasts, followed by a discha'ge of field-pieces, 
were drank, and so the afternoon ended. In 
the evening there wan a cold collation and a 
brilliant exhibition of fireworks. The street 
was crowded with people during the exhibition. ' ' 
—iscribner's. 




Sham Battle 



A Lbtteb from Spring creek, in the Black 
hills country, gives the following as the price 
of provisions tliere: Flour brings $1G per 100 
pounds; bacon 35 cents per pound; beans, 16 
cents; corn meal, 14 cents; beefsteak, 20 cents; 
and everything else high in proportion. 



grounds. If one is there merely to see the 
exposition, it is by all means better to locate as 
near the center of attraction as possible, and 
thus avoid the long and tedious tiips to and 
from the city in crowded cars, at ihe expense of 
two or three hours daily. I would say to all 
those who intend coming, plan to stay as long 
as possible, but in any event come, if for ever 



all it contained if at any time they were found 
not to exactly correspond with their inventory. 
"But," said the exhibitor, "at Vienna we 
were allowed to buy and sell as much as we 
chose, and turned the exposition into a regular 
bazaar." He is allowed to take orders and 
deliver th' m as soon as they can arrive from 
England, and New York people have already 



so short a time. It may not happen again on ' ordered some of the choicest goods, that would 
our continent for many years, nor on any other, j grace a Sultan's palace. 



perhaps, that 40 different nations will be rep- 
resented in a characteristic manner in one 
building, or that the finest collection of art 
ever exhibited in one place is grouped together 
so that in less than a (ii\y'a lime it may at least 
be all glanced at, while the various buildings 
that furnish headquarters for the commission- 
ers of different nations are all highly character- 
istic and afford an opportunity of study and 
observation that only months of foreign travel 
can give. 

The grounds are themselves delightful, and 
in Lansdowne valley one may enjoy a seat in 
the shade, bathe their bands in the romantic 
little stream that wanders through it, and at 
the same time listen to the wonderful strains 



But that was too far fetched for ns, so we 
went over to a stout old Englishman in charge 
of a case of common English pottery in odd 
shapes and colors, the like of which he assured 
lis in a tant'tlizing way were not to be found in 
.America. Would he sell that lovely green and 
brown teapot and creamer in rustic pattern ? Ves, 
and it was very cheap, too, but we could not 
take it away. "You call this a free country," 
but he bad never been so hampered and re- 
stricted in all bis iife. Some of the cases had 
been locked up and were under the seal of the 
Custom House inspectors, for selling and deliv- 
ering a few trifles. So we parted with mutual 
regret, but after all the grumbling o( exhibitors 
and visitors, none of us would 1 ke to see this 



July I, 1876.] 



13 



superb exposition spoiled by the confusion and 
continual change that must arise if what is on 
exhibition to-day were sold and removed to- 
morrow. However, there have been and are to be 
bazaars opened upon the grounds in connection 
with the Turkish, Italian and other depart- 
ments, where goods are to be sold and imme- 
diately delivered. 

For ourselves, we were obliged to content us 
with the "flags of all nations," bookmarks and 
badges woven in machinery hall and the 
woman's building, Centennial fans, photo- 
graphic views of the buildings, etc. But many 
homes will be enriched by these works of 
industry and art, as many are already marked 
'"sold," and usually the name of the purchaser 
attached. We notice that newspaper writers 
complain that the 

Prices of Goods 
Are so constantly fl:iunted before the public, 
but I am sure the eager public are more than 
ready to forgive a weakness that furuisbea 
knowledge they are so anxious to possess. 
This is not true of the marbles, however, as we 
saw no price affixed in any case, although many 
were labeled "for sale," or "sold." Indeed, 
many of them are so recently uupacked that 
they are not even catalogued, and no clue is 
furnished as to the origin or destiny of these 
exquisite gems of art. One little fellow in 
marble attracts great notice by the forlorn curl 
of his lip and two big tears rolling down either 
cheek because forced to say his prayers, the 
cross hung from his neck, and the label bint 
ing that they are not of the sort that his tired 
little heart can appreciate. Another very beau- 
tiful and lifelike statue is a girl holding a 
plump, lusty looking baby, and at the same 
time a cup containing hi» food. She has taken 
a spoonfal, and ia cooling it by blowing, with 
the under lip curved with the exact touch of 
nature, while baby gives a lusty kick to show 
his impatience. This reminds me that I 
learned last night of several icts of vandalism 
in chipping bits from these marbles and even 
pictures as relics. We cannot see how suffi- 



Mosaics. 

In the first room of the annex are displayed 
the wonderful Florentine and Roman mosaics, 
hung in pictures on the walls and disposed 
about the room as slabs for the tops of tables 
or already mounted. 

One of the finest, inlaid in ebony, represents 
a harp and statuary, vase and flowers and 
artists' tools; price $5,000. Next to this is one 
still more elaborate, also in ebony, a scroll of 
music (Norma), masque, guitar, book in pearl. 
Comedy of Dante, vase of flowers, painter's 
palette and globe in a frame; $10,000. Another, 
but not so beautiful, is a Florentine mosaic in- 
laid in real porphyry; $5,000. 

One of the most beautiful was an ebony 
flub, inlaid with urns, flowers, shells, and a 
full length figure of Flora, a locket, with ribbon 
of malachite, exquisitely inlaid with lilies of 
the valley and forget-me-nots; $5,000, gold. 
And so on_ down to $3,000, even which seems 
rather a high figure for republican America in 
these hard times. I didn't mean to take you 
to the art gallery, it is such a bewildering, 
hopeless sort of a place, and withal so fascin- 
ating that once inside only the order of the 
guards to close would release you* from the 
spell. 

The State Buildings. 

The hour for closing all the buildings is six 
o'clock, but one evening a lady companion and 
myself presumed upon the courtesy of the ofli 
cials and made a tour of the. Stale buildings, 
which are situated in the most delightful part 
of the grounds, nearly all in a line and facing 
the beautiful lake and main buildings, bridges 
and lawns. Sitting on the porches in the rear 
and looking down the beautiful lawns, shaded 
by trees of natural growth, one could easily 
imagine himself at home, whether in New 
Hampshire, New Jersey or wherever that fa- 
vored spot might chance to be. 

The gentlemen in charge were in several 
cases sitting upon the front porch with a look 
of supreme affability and con'ent, and to our 
remark that "it was rather late to call," gra- 




nt in S. F. Harbor, July 3d, 1876. 



cient protection is to be furnished in the way 
of barriers and official guards to keep sucb 
wickedly selfish beings from ruining some of 
the choicest works of art in existence, unless a 
public example can be made that will once for 
all intimidate every one subject to this tempta- 
tion. 

While in the art gallery I may as well speak 
of a 

Mosaic Picture of Washington 
Which hangs in aemorial hall, on the left as 
you pass out to the annex, which has been 
•'presfnted to the city of Philadelphia as a 
souvenir of independence declared in that city 
July 4th, 1776. Presented by L. A. Gallandt, 
mosaic manufacturer, Bome." The work is 
finely executed and of life size, but the color is 
just the tinge of yellow that one sees in subjects 
of fever and ague along the Missouri river; and 
of course it is unmistakably Washington, but 
one grows so tired of his tame physiognomy 
as seen on paperweights, glass statuettes, book- 
marks, etc , that one needs to be exempt from 
the sight of all of them for a while before judg- 
ing without prejudice any likeness of tbe 
Father of oar Country. 



ciously responded that "the latch string was 
always out and they were very glad to see us." 
A book for registering names of visitors is 
kept in each of these buildings, although some 
are exclusively for residentsof the State owning 
the building, and one cannot help remarking 
that the line of free hearted cordiality decidedly 
tends towards the West, in this as in most 
other matters. 

All styles of architecture are represented, 
from the little log cabin of Mississippi on the 
hill, hung with gray moss, to the stately stone 
building of Ohio and the foreign looking house 
of many rambling roofs, covered with red tiles, 
claimed by New Jersey, and, I had nearly for- 
gotten to say, the California building with its 
swell back and dome-like appendage on top, 
which gave rise to all sorts of speculations as 
to whether it was a huge water tank or Moham- 
medan mosque. However, we are assurod that 
it will be a very fine hall when ftnisheil, and it 
is rapidly approaching completion. 

Soirching for specialties one day, we visited 
tbe 

Colorado and Kansas 
Building, which was not yet open to vieitors^ 



but we quietly ignored the sign "no admit- 
tance" and went around to a side door, where 
the Kansas commissioner kindly received us, 
introduced us to tbe exhibits, which are among 
the finest of the kind on the grounds and the 
most tastefully arranged, unlocked the ladies' 
parlor, gave us seats and went to find Mrs. 
Maxwell, the Colorado huntress who has killed 
over four hundred wild beasts and stufi'ed 
them, together with a large collection of birds, 
which are to be exhibited in the Colorado sec- 
tion of this joint building. 

Many ot the animuls were already mounted 
upon the artificial rocks and mountains which 
she was helping to construct in one corner of 
the main hall. Her manner was cordial and 
womanly to the last degree, and she chatted 
modestly of her exploits in killing buffalo, elk, 
foxes, wolves, bears, eagles, etc., saying that 
her husband was not always at hand when she 
needed to use a rifle, so she had learned to use 
one herself. 

Another notable we were anxious to inter- 
view was the lady engineer who runs the Bax 
ter engine that operates the looms in the wom- 
an's building. We found her in the little brick 
annex in the rear, dressed in an embroidered 
linen suit, looking as clean and cool as if in a 
parlor. She had always been familiar with 
engines in her father's tnills in Canada, had 
studied the subject withjher brother, who is a 
civil engineer, and perfected her knowledge by 
a thorough course elsewhere. She preferred 
the business to teaching school, and there were 
several young ladies expecting to take lessons of 
her this summer. 

Specialties. 
Supposing that everybody knows what is in 
the woman's building, I will only say that I 
noticed a large display of Mrs. Flynt's reform 
garments, and heartily regretted ihatMrs. Cur- 
tis-, of San Francisco, Cal., could not have 
matched her own inimitable inventions beside 
these and thus given the world another valu- 
able hint towards reform in the right direction. 
Another special exhibit was 90 varieties of 
apples, received from Melbourne, Australia, 
last week, via San Francisco, all in fine 
condition, displayed in Victorian court, 
main building. Each variety was carefully 
Itibeled, and some of them looked very fine. 
All were ripened in March, the exhibitor 
said, but he looked so unmistakably "hands 
off," that we didn't ask to be allowed the 
privilege of eating a foreign apple, as we 
were tempted to do. 

The exhibit of fruits from Jamaica in agri- 
cultural hall, to be followed by others 
during the season, attracted much attention. 
Shaddock, mangoes, yams, mammee apples, 
jack-fruit, convey but little meaning to the 
nntraveled native American mind, but it was 
some satisfaction to us to put our index 
finger into some of it, through the coarse 
netting thrown over it, to ascertain its 
degree of softness and to express our 
dissatisfaction that it was all to rot and be 
thrown away in a few days, when we wanted 
to put a tooth into some of it so very much. 
The sapodillos are about twice the length 
of an apricot, with about the same width, 
thickness, color and texture of skin. 

The exhibitor indulged my vindictive 
punch into one of them, and seemed to 
make due allowance for my feminine curi- 
osity to taste the forbidden fruit. 

The mammee apples are an extremely 
rough looking, russet fruit, about the size 
and shape of an ordinary apple. 

The exhibits on this table are to rotate 
during the season, it being filled the week 
previous with tempting Michigan apples, 
which were distributed about Bomtwhat 
promiscuously. 

Near this section is "Old Abe, ' ' the veteran 
Wisconsin war eagle, the hero of 25 battles, 
who exhibits his soldierly bearing daily for 
the benefit of the ornithological society in 
the State that is so justly proud of his 
career and history. His life and photograph 
are for sale by the soldier who carrieii 
him asthe battle flag of the Eighth Wisconsin 
during the late war. 

One afternoon we reveled among sewing 
machines, and discovered two which make 
a lock stitch without a shuttle, tbe Wardwell 
and Monitor, a consummation for which so 
many have been anxiously waiting these 
long years. They are just being introduced 
into u.arket and seem to possess all the 
excellencies of other first-class machines. 

Darning Mach ne.j 
Btiog mindful of the injunction of the stock- 
ing-darner of our family, to purchase a machine 
for performing that labor, I was glad to stum- 
ble accidentally upon one in machinery hall, 
and »njoyed seeing a gentleman darn a hole, 
made for the purpose of showing oflf this "cast 
iron grandmother," in the most improved man- 
ner, which he graciously bestowed upon your 
correspondent, while a lady remarked it would 
be handy to have one's husband do up the fam- 
ily darning in the evening, while the wife read 
the papers. 0. A. Colby. 

Washington, D. C, June 8th, 1876. 



Thk Celrbbation in Nkw Yoke —A telegram 
from New York says: Preparations for the cel- 
ebration of the third and fourth are almost 
completed. The parade will be one of the most 
imposing demonRtralions ever witnessed in this 
city. The entire first division of the National 
Guard will turn out and a number of civic 
societies are to participate. It is calculated the 
procession will be five miles long. The pro- 
cessionists will carry torches. The houses on 
the route are to be brilliantly illuminated. 



A Centennial Tribute. 

[Composod by Sarah Mobton, of Merced, gr ' 

tbe College of Notre Dame, of the class of lu. 

Tho' many a poet's bands bave swept 
Witb wondrous toucb the mystic lyre. 

And strains of patient sweetness stirred 
Our hearts with their impasaloned fire,— 

Tho' thousands still in silvery tones 
Will consecrate this ballowed theme, 

Yet would a daughter of tbe West 
Fain cast one leaflet in the stream. 

One leaflet from Piciflc's shore, 

From Oalifornla's lovely State, 
Upon the mighty onward tide 

That flews through Freedom's golden gate. 

One leaflet 'mid the wealth of flowers 
Strewn round our fair land's deathless fame 

By pens inspired with magic power 
Her peerless prowess to proclaim. 

One bud among the votive wreaths 
That grace Centennial gold-draped balls, 

A tribute of the glorloaa past 
Ere down the silvery curtain falls. 

And softly bome on pinions glad, 
Like crystal spray beneath the sun. 

Are echoed far from shore to shore 
Tbe deeds our noble sires bave done. 

Theirs is the glory, ours the weal. 
And as our suns in splendor glow, 

We reap the golden seed they sowed 
■Tust one bright hundred years ago. 

Oh, ever bright be their pure bays, 
And i-reen the mounds of fallen brave; 

In blood they wrote their glowing tale, 
They fell our own dear land to save. 

Then when liberty's sun was set 
And freedom crushed an I panting fell, 

Till Britain's swords ceased clashing, and 
Her guns grew cold in Yorktown's dell— 

A hundred years ago! What thoughts 
Rise up like stars In night's dark dome. 

Of those who nobly lived and died 
To win us freedom's happy bome. 

Atlantic's stormy billows heaved 

A hundred years ago as now. 
But what a change those years have wrought 

Upon our country's noble brow. 

Tbe East, then but in part unvailed, 
Has eince tbe curtain folds unrolled, 

And where the wild untrodden glade 
Once stretched, now dome and spire behold. 

And in the far-off, boundless West, 
'Mid uumarred splendor rich and rare. 

Vast rolling plains and forest bowers 
Unknown were spread in grandeur there. 

Her giant pines with teolian strains, 
Till o'er the grand old forest dells 

And streamlets spanned by Iris dyes 
All softly sweet tbe cadence swells. 

Broad fields of waving grain now bend 
Where once were barren, wildwood plains. 

And mighty falls and rivers swell 
Successful labor's choral strains. 

And o'er the land from East to West, 
The iron charger's tramp is heard, 

And with a warm electric pulse 
Columbia's heart of hearts is stirred. 

And railroad, telegraph and press. 
And commerce with her white-wiaged fleet 

All add new luster to the land 
Where wealth and power and glory meet. 

And our fair land, our beauteous State, 
Is smiling 'nea'h our Western skies; 

Nor Italy, nor Syrian clime, 
Can rival her In our fond eyes. 

Yosemite's grand'wond'rous vale 
Will charm as long as earth shall be, 

Ana Sbatta's clouded dome shall rise 
Till time shall be eternity. 

But dearer far than nature's charms 

We hold our legacy of fame, 
Our herof s of a huudred years, 

Our Washington's immortal name. 

And thanks to God our conntry stands 

To-day, her starry flag unfurled. 
And waves its wond'rous rarliance now 

Far o'er our grand republic world. 

Float on, thou loved and honored flag, 
North, South, East, West, from shore to shore, 

And our brave eagle, proudly spread 
Thy broad, free wingn forever more. 



A Little Centenniai, Expedition.— At noon 
on Tuesday Mr. J C. Temple, of Carthage, 
Jasper county, Missouri, arrived in this city 
pushing a wheelbarrow loaded with 50 pounds 
of lead ore from the mines in bis region. Mr. 
Temple is past the middle age, but is strong 
and vigorous, and shows few signs of fatigue 
after his arduous journey of over fifteen hun- 
dred miles. In October last he sent out circu- 
lars to the Joplin, Oronago and other mines 
asking that specimens of their ores be sent 
to the mayor of Joplin, and offering to 
wheel 50 pounds weight from that city to 
the Centennial. He started February 28tb, 
accompanied by his son Otto, aged 13, and 
Thomas Wilson, an Englishman, who wheeled 
the baggage barrow. The route chosen was by 
way of St. Louis, tbenco to Vincennes and 
Madison, Indiana; Cincinnati, Zanesville, 
Xenia, Columbus, Ohio; Wheeling, West Vir- 
ginia; Uniontown and Lancaster, Pennsylva- 
via; and thence along the old Laneas'er p ke 
to this city. Everywhere the little Centennial 
expedition was kindly greeted, and in some 
villages many of the inhabitants turned out and 
escorted it a short distance on its way. The 
best distance made on any one day was 27 
miles and the journey took 105 days. This wa« 
due to bad weather and bad roads. Mr. Tem- 
ple's ores, which he hopes to find a nook for in 
the Centennial buildings, comptise splendid 
specimens of lead, iron, zinc, spur, garnet and 
blackjack. The latter holds 20 percent, of 
lead, but some of the specimens are nearly 
puio.—Fhiladelphia Times, June Iblh, 



u 



^liS^Kd^^ Xw J^ U •bi»«0^vJLj* «kr «ku.<tlj> O 0« 



[July I, 1876 



The Pacific Rural Press 

Is a Large and Handsomely lUaatrated Agri- 
cnltural Home Journal; Original, Instructive 
and Attractive; its varied contents, ably written 
and coudensud, render it popular with its 
readers. We endeavor to make it a credit to 
the field it occupies, and to every intelligent 
circle it enters. Entibelt fbke from politios 
its columns are filled with cheerful words of 
encouragement for our Pacific Industries and 
instruction for the people. It extends infor- 
mation of the growing wants and necessities of 
our rapidly increasing and progressing agricul- 
ture. You can read it with pleasure, for present 
and future profit; you can send it with satis- 
faction to your friends anywhere. Its editorials 
are earnest and its contents reliable. No ques- 
tionable advertisements darken its pages. It 
is a journal for rural homes throughout the 
Coast. It is a handsome home print, without 
a rival on this half of the Continent. Sub- 
scription, in advance, $4 a year. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 
No. 224 Sansome St.. S. F. 3p-tf 



The New WiiiLCOX & Gibbs Automatic 
Tension Silent Sewing Machine is the 
latest and most marvellous invention in 
sewing mechanism. It is the only sew- 
ing machine that can be used successfully 
without instruction or experience, and 
invariably does perfect and durable work. 
First premium at American and Frank- 
lin Institute Fairs, November, 1875. 
Send for circulars and price-list to Will- 
cox & Gibbs Sewing Machine Co., E. B. 
Cutler, Gen. Agent, III Post street, S. F. 



AMIIBICAM MaNUBES, or FaUMEBB' AND tUiVTEItB' 

OciDE— Comprises n description of the elements and 
composition of plants and soils; the theory and prac- 
tice of composting; the value of stable manure and 
waste products, etc. Also, a chemical analysis of the 
principal manufactured ferlili7.prB— their assumed and 
real value — and a full expose of the frauds practised 
upon purchasers. By Wm. H. Bruckner, Ph. D., Phila. 
Sold at this office. Price, $1.76; post paid. 



The Trresrebs' Guide, by D. W. Hollihan, 1 practi- 
cal operator with threshing machinery in California 
and other States. A took of useful and friendly hints 
to the grain growers, machine owners and threshing 
superintendents and workmen. Published at the Builil 
Press office, in 1872. Price, $1; in limp cloth binding, 
75 cents; postage paid. 



L. F. MotTLTON, of Colusa county, offers very cheap 
and on terms to suit bard times, some choice farms 
of beat land in the State, on the line of the Colusa and 
Chico railroad survoy. Forty bushels per acre has 
been raised this season on adjoining land of same 
quality. 

Thocghtlessnebb. — Persons sometimes return thei 
paper, marked "stop this paper." Their name being 
pasted on the sheet they think that is all we need to be 
able to cross their names oS. Now that is thoughtless- 
ness. Your P.O. address is needed as much as your 
name. We have tliousauds of names arranged only 
according to locality. Our mailing clerk does not know 
where everybody lives. 



Any Person receiving this paper after giving an 
order to stop it, may know that such order has failed 
to reach us, or that the paper is continued InadVrr. 
tently, and they are earnestly requested to send writ- 
ten notice direct to us. Wo aim to stop the paper 
promptly when it is ordered discontinued. 



Be More Pahticclir. — We can only make the 
changes requested by the following parties on our 
mail list, wnen they, or some one else, send us their 
P. O. address. Otherwise we would have to look over 
from 7,01X) to 10,000 names. Frank Becker, O. Sojwell, 
L. lioyer, M. Levis, F. Anson, and Autonia Byros. 

We also want the address of Wm. Buck. 



Sample Copieb. — Occasionally we send copies of this 
paper to persons who we believe would be Iwneflted 
by eubscriliiug fur it, or willing to ashist us in extend- 
ing its circulation. We call the attention of such to 
our proBptictuB and terms of subscription. 



At our request, Cragin Sc Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., 
have promised to send any of our readers gratis, (on 
receipt of 15 cent* to pay postage,) a sample of Dob- 
bins' Electric Soap, to try. Send at once. 

Unknown.— We have lately received cash at this 
office witUout due explanation, as follows: From Car- 
son, Nev., $4, by express. 

The senders wUl pleaBe give full address, date of 
Bending, etc. 



8EVEBAL First-Clabb Skwiso MACHINES cau b9 had 
at favorable rates to the purchasers, if ordered soon, 
from the Qrangers* Business Association, N. E. Cor 
Uavis and California stieets, S. F. 



Bound Volcves of the Mining and Scientipic Press 
from Jan. Isi, 18U4, are tor aale at this office at i6 per 
volume, two volumes a year. Inbound at $3 per 
volume. 



Ali, Should Have It.— The last Bubal Pbibs is 
worth the subscription for a year. Every farmer should 
have it.— Southait Califomian, Mar. 2S. 



^^^E-r eft co's 

Scientific Press 



Publishera, Patent Ag'ents and Knrravera, 

No. 224 Sansome Street San Francisco Oal 

Scientific and Practical Books 
on Mining, Metallurgy, Etc. 

Published or issued, wholesale and Retail, by DEWEY & 
CO.. Mining and Scientu-ic Press Office, S. F . 

BY CUIDO KUSTEL, 

MiNIKQ Enoineeb and Metaixuboibt. 

Roasting of Gold and Silver Ores, and the 

Extraction of their Respective Metals without Quick 

silver. 1H70. 

This rare book on the treatment of gold and silver 
ores without quicksilver, is libemlly illustrated and 
crammed full of facts. It gives short and concise de- 
scriptions of various processes and apparatus employeu 
in this country and in Europe, and explains the why 
and wherefore. 

It contains 142 pages, embracing illustrations of fm- 
naces, implements and working apparatus. 

It is a work of great merit, by an author whose repn 
tation is unsurpassed in his speciality. 

Price $2.60 coin, or $3 currency, postage free 



Concentration of Ores (of all kinds), in- 
cluding the Chlorinatiou Process for Qold-bearing 
Sulphurets, Arseniurets, and Gold and Silver Ores 
generally, with 120 Lithographic Diagrams. 1867. 
This work is unequaled by any other published, em- 
bracing the subjects treated. Its authority is highly 
steemed and regarded by its readers; containing, as it 
oes, much essential information to the Miner, Mill- 
man, Metallurgist, and other professional workers in 
ores and minerals, which cannot l>e found elsewhere 
in print. It also abounds throughout with facts and 
instructions rendered valuablevby being clearly ren- 
dered together and in simple order. It contains 12U 
diagrams, illustrating machinery, etc., which aloae arc 
of the greatest value. PRICE REDUCED TO i6. 

The Explorers', Miners' and 
Metallurgists' Companion. 

Comprising a Practical Exposition of the Va 

rious Departments of Exploration, 

Mining, Engineering, Assaying, 

and Metallurgy. 

v'^ontainin? 672 Pag'es and 83 Engravings 

BY J. S. PHILLIPS. M. E., 

California, a Practical Operator for Thirty-four 
Vears; Explorer, and Resident in the Pacific states 
and Terhtoriee lor ttie naat Ei^tit Years. 



PRICE, bound in cloth, 110.50; in leather, $12. For- 
warded by mail lor 60c. extra, at the Minino and 
SctEKTiPio Press Office, by 



DEWEY & CO. 



TRAVELING 



AGENTS 



WANTED 



For this paper. Eipeiienced canvassers can 
make excellent wiges. None but intelligent 
persons of good recommendation need apply. 



Newspaper FUebolders. 

Dewey's new elastic flleholders (black walnut) , size 
of the Press, Harper's Weekly and Scientific American, 
for 50 cts. Larger sizes, to suit any newspaper, 75 
cts. By mail, postpaid, 10 cts. extra. Cash with all 
orders. Patent allowed. Address, Dewbt & Co., Pub- 
lishers, San Francisco. 



Mineral City, White Pine Co., Nev., May 2d, '76. 
Messrs. Dewey & Co.— Gentlemtn: 

I have just received Canadian letters patent for Fuse 
Lighter. Also, Canadian letters patent for the Drill 
Extractor. I return you my thanks for the able manner 
in which you have conducted the buBiness. 

Yours respectfully, John W. Platt. 




Choice VonmES.— We have a full new set of Scribner $ 
Monthly— tan volumea— well bound, for sale at this 
office. Price, $3 per volume. 



Mining and Scientific Press, 

started In 1860, Is one of the oldest weekly Jonmalanow 
published in San Francisco. It has been conducted 
by its present proprietors lor ten years, during which 
period it has been repeatedly enlarged and constantly 
improved. The active and steadfast efforts of its pub- 
liBhers have gained for its conduct an amount of practi- 
cal experience greater than any other publishers have 
accumulated on this coast, of a weukly journal. 

The Bum paid by us for the best editorial talent ob- 
tainable for our special class Journal; lor engravings, 
for Interesting news and correspondence, and for print- 
ing a large-sized, handsome sheet, is unequalled by that 
of any other American weekly west of the Mississippi. 
As a Practicai, Minino Joubnai. it has no rival on 
this Continent. 

It Is the only Mechanioal, and the only SciZHTmo 
Journal of the Pacific States. 
Miners, Assayers, MiUman, and Metallurgist in the 

United States should take it. 
Pacific Coast Mechanics, Engineers, Inventors, Manu- 
facturers, Professional Men, and Progresaive and 
InduHtrial Students should patronize its columns of 
frewh and valuiible information. . 

Mining Engineers, Sunerlntendents, Metallurgists, Mine 
Owners and Mine Workers throughout the world 
should profit by its illustrations a d descriptions 
of New Machinery, ProceBSes, Discoveries and 
Record of Mining Events. 
Intelligent thinkers throughout the land, in high or 
bumble sttuation, who would avoid literary trash 
lor genuine information, should SUBSCRIBE AT 
O.VOE. 

DEWEY & CO.. 

No. 234 Suuome Btreet, g. F. 



The Pnblic Lands of Cali- 
fornia." 

The demand for this new work is steadily increasing, 
and the more widely that its merits are becoming 
known. Its usefulness to everyone is becoming more 
fully demonstrated. The map of California and Ke 
vada alone is worth more than fifty cents, the price 
asked for the work, and the fact that a glance at its 
pages shows the leading products, population, etc., of 
each county in the State, besides a list of the surveys 
of United States Laud, subject to the homestead and 
pre-emption laws of CongresB; a correct copy of the 
laws ofkCongress in regard to locating and holding this 
land, etc., renders it of inestimable value. Orders sent 
to Dewey & Co., enclosing fifty cents, will meet with 
prompt attention, as it will be forwarded immediate- 
ly post paid. 



Hamilton, Nev., May 28tb, 1876. 
To MessTt. Dewey <£■ Co., Patent Agents: 

Gentlemen — I write to acknowledge the receipt by 
express of the U. H. letters patent on my invention for 
breech loading ordnance, and to tender you again my 
very sincere thanks for the careful attention you have 
l>estowed upon my application since 1 flret placed it in 
your hands, for the evident great interest you have 
manifested in it, and tor the uniform patient and 
cheerful courtesy which has constantly marked your 
correspondence in reference to it. I have had some 
dealings witu other agencies in the same line in times 
past, and I can assure you that my correspondence with 
yours has been more plcauant and satisfactory than 
with any others, and I shall alwayx take great pleasure 
in recomijicuding your agency tu any and all my ac- 
qnaiutanres without hesitation or reservation, as I 
should certainly prefer to entrust my own business in 
your bands should I have any to transact in the same 
line hereafter. Yours, etc., J. R. N. Owen. 



The Beat Agricaltural Paper in America. 

PoRTEKviLLE, February 10, I87S. 
To THE Enrroas and Publishers or the Rural 
Press:— i><ar Sirs: I am going to change my residence, 
and I will take the Rural Press again, when I get set- 
tled, and will get back numl>ers. I can say without 
flattering you that it is the best agricultural newspaper 
in America, and I will use my Influence in your behalf. 
Youra with respect, John MoIntibe, Jb. 

XTp To The Times. 

Edttobb Press. — I am much pleased with your 
papers, particularly the Rural Press. It seems to be 
fully up to the times, and of a hi<,'h moral tone. 

Lk Roy Whtikoed, 
Patentee Whilford'B Potato Coverer 



The RimAL Pbesb.— Glancing over the columns of a 
late number, we are pleased to find how much excel- 
lent reading matter it contains. It keeps a farmer 
posted i the latest information of real value. It is up 
with the times in su,;gestionB and advice, answers to 
queries, etc. It tells of new trees, seeds and plants, 
mentions discoveries and useful nclpes. The farmer; 
his wife, boyg, girls and help, can all read it with 
pleasure and protlt. It fairly represents each part of 
the State to immigrants. It is now girinf; a short 
sketch and statistics of each county. We shall watch 
with interest when it gets down to Santa Barbara Co. 
It gives prominence to an article from our colums on 
the state of the crops in this valley. Farmers, you 
can't afford to be without that paper.— ^ompoc Reeord. 



Our Poultry Depabtment. — We are In receipt of f re- 
quent letters expreSBlng admiration of our Poultry De- 
partment. Mrs. Stoddard writes: "I look for Mr. 
Eyre's articlei the first thing." Mrs. Pike says: "They 
are ju-^t what we want, common sense, plain and to the 
point." A. P. Smith writes: "I shall not take the I'oul- 
try Bulletin another year, as I get more intorniation in 
regard to management of poultry from Mr. Eyre's wri- 
tings in the RuiuL Press, wLich I shall keep for ref- 
erence." We are u'lad to know that our readers find 
our Poultry Department so valuable. 



" California Patbok."— The first number of this 

eight-page monthly was issued May 17th, 1876. It is 
specially a Grange medium, exclusively under the 
editorial control of the Executive Committee and offi- 
cers of the State Grange. Neatly printed, and well 
filled with official documents, Graup:e reports, and 
news of Imterual interest to Patrons. Subscription, SO 
cents a year, in advance. Address, "CALitoRNiA 
Patron," P. O. box 2361, or No. 40 California St., San 
Francisco. Sample copies, postpaid, five cents. 



Better Returns, etc.— One of the largest businpss 
firms in Sacramento writes us, October 30th, 1875, re- 
mitting the cash for advertising, and a nuw order 
with the following remark: We are more than grati- 
fied with the result of our advertiKing In the Press. 
It has brought us better returns than any paper we 
have ever patronized. Yours truly, J. G. & Co. 



A Real Convenience.— Dewey * Co: Please send 
me the Rural Press. It is a real convenience and I 
cannot do without it. Enclosed you will find five 
dollars. Fraternally, B. F. E. K. 

Anaheim, Cal., October 12, 1874. 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents. 

OFFICE, 224 SANSOME STREET, 8. 1. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent reissues taken out; 
Assignments made and recorded in legal 
form; Copies of Patents and Assignmontg 
procured; Examinations of Patents made 
here and at Washington; Examinations made 
of Assignments recorded in Washington; 
Examinations ordered and reported W Tele- 
graph; Rejected cases taken up and Patents 
obtained; Interferences Prosecuted; Opinions 
rendered regarding the validity of Patents 
and Assignments; every legitimate branch of 
Patent Agency Business promptly and 
thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various in- 
ventions of this coast, and long practice in 
patent business, enable us to abundantly 
satisfy our patrons; and our success ana 
business are constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the pubUc through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we seonte 
with the assistance of co- operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Victoria, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Cunada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Den- 
mark, Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemberg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Grenada, Chili, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European coun- 
tries, but the drawings and specifications 
should be preparod with thoroughness, by 
able persons who are familiar with the re- 
quirements and changes of foreign patent 
laws— agents who are reliable and perma- 
nently established. 

Our schedule prices for obtaining foreign pat- 
ents, in all cases, will always be as low, and 
in some instances lower, than those of any 
other responsible agency. 

We can and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country 
sooNEB than any other agents. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is Rtill boing 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have fall records, of all former 
cases, and can more directly judge of the 
and patentability of inventions discovered 
here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of goverment, 
delays are even more dangerous to theinveut- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents maybe 
lost by extra time consumed in trans mittiiig 
opeciflcations from Eastern agencies back to 
this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

Confidential. 

We take great pains to preserve secrecy in all 
confidential matters, and applicants for pat- 
ents can rest assured that their oommnni- 
catioDs and business transactions will be beM 
strictly oonfldenlial by us. Circulars free. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized ua 
with tbe character of most of the inventions 
already pateoted; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing tl:em to the same 
thing alreEtdy covert d by a patent. We are 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applicants 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We invite tbe acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inveulions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents, or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advise of importance to them from a short 
call at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money 
but their inveniions also, from this cause and 
consequent delay. We hold ourselves re- 
sponsible for all fees entrusted to our agency 

Engravings. 

We have superior ariists in our own office, and 
all facihties for producing fine and satisfac- 
tory illustrations of inventious and machinery, 
for newspaper, book, circular and other 
printed illustrations, and are always ready to 
assist patrons in bringing their valuable .lis- 
ooveries into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO., 

United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scientific Press and the 
Paoiflo Rural Press, 234 Sansome St., S. F, 



July I, 1876. J 



15 



A Standard £naployment 
Agency in San Francisco. 

The agency to which we would now call the 
attention of the readers of the CALiroKNiA 
Patbon, was established twenty years ago, and 
is the oldest establishment of the kind on the 
Pacific coast. From a small beginning in 1855, 
it has grown to such dimensions that it has 
been compelled repeatedly to moTe into more 
commodious quarters, and now it occupies the 
large double store formerly occupied by M. 
Gray & Co., No. 625 Clay Street, next 
door west of the t)anking house of the San 
Francisco Savings and Loan Society, one of the 
most central business locations in the city. 
MESSRS. CROSETT & CO. are daily supply- 
ing orders sent from all parts of the State, con- 
taining requests for every variety of labor, for 
the farm, the field, orchard, vineyard, tending 
stock, or cultivating the soil; for all kinds of 
lumber, milling and mining work, from super- 
intendent down to simple laborer; for the shop, 
mechanics, engineers, artisans, and skilled 
workmen of every kind. Nor do their orders 
contain requests for male help alone. Great 
pains is taken to supply our housewives with 
the very best Domestics, Cooks and General 
Housemaids that can be obtained. They would 
call the especial attention of GRANGERS AND 
FARMERS GENERALLY to their facihties 
for supplying farm help. Referring confidently 
to their past record for faithful attention to the 
wants of patrons, they have no hesitation in 
assuring all applicants who may favor them 
with their orders, that they can nowhere else 
be better or more promptly served than by ap- 
plying to this old established agency. Mr. 
Crosett gives his constant personal attention to 
his business. His long experience makes him 
quick to see and accurate in judging of the 
merits of those who apply to him for situations. 
And his well established and wide extended 
reputation brings to his office an abundant sup- 
ply of every kind of labor, from which he is 
enabled I0 select the best. 

All this advantage Mr. Crosett gives to those 
who favor him with their orders, and that, too, 
without any expense to the employer — all the 
fees, (which, by reason of a large business being 
transacted, are moderate), being paid by the 
employee. The Employment Agency of 
Messrs. Crosett & Co. is supplying a great 
need in our State and we take pleasure in com- 
mending it to all readers of the Patbon. 



Lands and Homes for Sale. 



An Estate in San Diego Countv.— Readers have 
doubtlees noticed the advertisement of Lee H. Utt, of 
Kan Diego couuty, in which he offers for sale a share in 
the estpte called "Aqua Tibia" in Pala, San Diego 
county. Mr. Utt, as we are Informed, has brought his 
property into a fine state of development, and finds 
that its management requires the time of two men. 
He cannot secure hired help to take an interest in the 
work and stay permanently as he desires, and so he 
asks for a man to take half ownership and assume the 
active control of the property. It is an opportunity 
wbich we consider worth looking intu. — Rural Press, 
June 10th. 



Now's THE Time.— Everybody iEterested in mining 
and agriculture should subscribe for the Centennial 
year for either the Bubal or the Scientific Pbess, 
published by Dewey & Co., San Francisco. They are 
ttie beet journals of the kind in this country, and de- 
serve the support of all those whose cause they espouse. 
Everything of interest connected with the Centennial, 
appropriate for these papers, will be collated. Send 
in yoiir names. — Mountain Messenger. 



Fabmees, send to May Bros., Galenburg, III., for 
descriptive circular of their new improved, heavy, 
steel-vane Windmill, and of their "Combined Mill." 
Warranted flrst-class mills. Wholesale price of nine- 
foot wheel, $30 on cars. One month trial given. Any 
carpenter (with the printed directions) can put the 
mill up right in one day. Farmer agents wanted. 



Nth Industrial Exhibition. 

Under the Auspices of the 

MECHANICS' INSTITUTE. 

The managers have the honor to announce that the 
forthcoming Exhibition will be opened to the publio on 

Tuesday, August Stb, 

At 11 A. M., with the usual ceremonies. By the desire 
and co-operation of the leading citizens of San Fran- 
cisco, the Exhibition will ba held on a much grander 
scale than heretofore. 

The Exhibition Building, Occupying an 
Area of over 214,000 Feet 

Of floor room, will be completely filled with the varied 
produ ts of the skill and industry of the people and 
of the soil. Over 700.000 person'* were admitted 
during the last Fair. Tiie maiiit<ers intend to engage 
the I'ervices of the best instrumental talent of the 
country, so as to enable ttiem to give uuiqualed 

I>£uisioa.l Coiioerts A.ftei— 
noon nncl Kvening^. 

In every department applications for space far exo-ed 
expectations, and surpass tho^-e of former li'alrs. In- 
tending exhibitors uiuit not delay filing their applica- 
tions, otherwise they will bo excluded. 

Ttie Exhibition will continue at lea^t one month. 

There will be no charge for exhibiting space. 

Application for space or for intormatiou should be 
addresBid'to the Secretary of the B mnl of Managers, 
Eleven h Exhibition, 37 Post St., Sun Francisco, or to 
J. H. Qllmore, Suijt., at same a idrcs^ 

A. S. HMXIDIE, Pres't. 
J. H. CULVKK, Scc'y. 



More than double the number of Farmers and 
their families read the PACIFIC RURAL 
PRESS than any other journal on this 
Coast. 



A Desirable Bargain. 



Mr. Lee H. Dtt, of Pala, San Diego county, offers for 
sale a share in his valuable place, consisting of 320 
acres, and situated as described above. There ig an 
Apiary on the ranch in successful operation. For this 
business it possesses marked advantages. Twenty 
acres are seeded to alfalfa and eight acres are in vines. 
The place has growing on it 420 trees, many of them in 
bearing. 

The owner will warrant the Cavendish Dwarf Banana 
to grow as well here as in Florida. He has tliree now 
growing. The pasture now enclosed will keep 60 head 
of cattle. The ditch — which is large enough to run a 
mill — is stocked with trout, and has a fish pond 100 
feet square, and full of fish. There is a nice warm 
spring, with bath house; the water contains sulphur, 
salts and iron. 

The place possesses grtat natural advantages, and the 
present owner has not spared money nor labor to im- 
prove; but being a valetudinarian he is not strong 
enough to attend to the wort. To the right kind of a 
man a rare opportunity is here offered. To such a 
person as will come in good faith he extends the invi- 
tation to stop on the ranch long enough to become 
familiar with its characteristics and capacities. 

Parties can refer to I. Nast, stock broker, San Fran- 
cisco, or to anybody of note in San Diego. The place 
bears the name of "Aqua Tibia." Address, 

LEE H. UTT, 

Pala, San Diego County, Cal. 



FOR SALE, 

In Lot.s to .Sdit, 

6,000 Acres of the Lake Vineyard Land 
and "Water Association. 



These lands are in the great fruit belt of Los Angeles 
County. —only six miles from the city— are peculiarly 
adapted to semi-tropical fruits, and adjoin the famous 
Lake Vineyard of Hon. B. D. Wilson. The Southern 
Pacific railroad runs through the land; convenient to 
schoolhouse and church; water in abundance, and the 
water-right is sold with the land. Title perfect. A 
Map of the tract may be seen at the office of Mayor 
Beaudry, on Spring street, opposite City Council rooms. 
References may be made to Hon. B. D. WILSON or 
J. DE BARTH SHORE, at Lake Vineyard, who will 
take pleasure in showing the lands. Also, to Mayor 
BEAUDRY or D. FREEMAN, Los Angeles city. 



A RARE CHANCE 

FOR SALE — My Poultbt Business, with my Farm 
of 115 acres; 22 acres of Vineyard and Orchard; Hou e 
of 10 rooms; Barns; Granaries; 30 Chicken houses. 

Keceipts between $3,000 and $4,000 a "Xear, 

Fully proved to the purchaser. Farm Implements, 
Wagon, Horses, Cows, etc., with Poultry (value over 
13,000) includtd. Price, $12,000, one-half cash. Or 
I WILL sell a Half Interest and 
continue the business in partnership 
- the purchaser to reside on the 
place. Address, 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 

~ In view of above I oB'er a few fine 
Fowls, Bronze Turkeys, etc. (not in- 
cluded In breeding pens and stock sold with farm), 
at reduced prices. 




Fine Dairy Farm for Sale. 

An undivided half interest in a fine Dairy Farm of 
640 acres patented land, all inclosed. One hundred 
acres is good agricultural land, on >vhich fine crops of 
timothy hay, potatoes, apples, etc., are raised. Bal- 
ance affords fine grazing for 100 head of cattle and is 
also handsomely timbered. Plenty of fine running 
water at all seasons, and a valnable mill site and 
privilege are on the land. A good cash home market 
for all the produce of the place. Improvements, a 
comfortable house, three large barns, farming imple- 
ments, wagons, etc. Also 40 head of good milch cows, 
60 head of young cattle, horses, etc. There is also a 
large outside range of from 2,000 to 3,000 acres held 
under possessory title. Will be sold at a bargain. For 
particulars apply to 

BERRY & CAPP, 418 Montg'ry St., 

Real Estate Agents and House Brokers 



FOR SALE, 



A large and well established NURSERY, with an exten- 
sive trade and an excellent business reputation. A 
large and well selected stock on hand that will nearly 
pay for the whole thing the coming season. It is the 
only first-class Nursery in the great Sacramento Valley. 
For further particulars, apply to 




W. R. STRONG & CO., 



, 8 and 10 J St., 



Sacramento, 



STRONO & WILLIAUSON, 

418 and 420 Clay St., - - - San Francisco. 



HUMBOLDT COUNTY LANDS 

And Building Lots In the city of Eureka. For sale 
by DOLLISON b DART Eureka, Humboldt Co., Cal- 



a, K. ouMMiao*. 
1868. 



B. B. BAL8TON. 

1876. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Oommlaslozi 
House, 

RBTABLISHED 1HK8. 

No. 424 Battery 8tre^t, southeast corner of Washington 

Han Francisco. 



Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 
no Interexts that will conflicr with those of the producer 



50 



ViNltintf CarilM, with your name finely 
printed, sent for^.'ic. We liiivc 100 styles. 
AgrentB lVant<>fl. O sampl 's sen! for 
stamp. A. H. Fuller & Co., Brockton, Jfase. 



Valuable Farming Lands, 

NEAR SAN PRAN CISCO. 



1,300 Acres of Splendidly Reclaimed Meadow Lands, 

on Sonoma Creek, in the Whole or in Subdi- 

visiong, on favorable terms, for a 

term of years. 

The land is very fertile, perfectly reclaimed against 
floods, and admirably drained. It is beyond the influ- 
ence of floods in the Sacramento River, and the water 
has never risen more thau 20 inches against the levee, 
which is four and a half feet high and 14 feet broad.' 
The first crop of barley put in last winter yielded three 
tons of hay per acre, and that which was not cut will 
yield heavily in grain. The soil is also superior for 
vegetables. It is 2!> miles from San Francisco, and has 
six miles of frontage on Sonoma creek. The largest 
bay failing craft can load from the banks at any point. 
Steamers touch at the wharf daily. Steamboat freights, 
$2.00 per ton; sailing freights, $1.00 to $1.50 per ton. 

Maps can be seen and particulars obtained from 
ROBERT J. MERCER & CO., 

Real Estate Aokmts, 

426 Montgomery St., S. F. 



1S4:S. 



1870. 



CHARTER PERPETUAL. 

STRICTLY ]MUTUAL. 

ECONOMY! SECURITY! 

Mutual Benefit Life Insur- 
ance Company, 

NEWARK, NEW JERfcEY. 

A-ssetis, January 1st, H*iTO, 
$31,085,011.11. 



LEWIS C. GROV£R President. 

JAMES B. PEARSON Vice-President 

EDWARD A STRONG Secretakt. 

BENJ. C. MILLER Treascber. 

B. J. MILLER AcTOAitT. 

The following is a summary of the business of this 

company from May 1, 1845: 

Total Receipts 1181,149,507 76 

Paid Losses and Endowments 19,284 541 48 

" Dividends or Return Premiums 19,224,5'24 1-5 

" Surrendered Policie-' 4,284.344 82 

" Expenses — Management, Commis- 
sions, Taxes, etc 8,167,91a 0.5 

Ratio of expenses 8.60 per cent. 

These results are more favorable to the Insured than 

those presented by any company in the world. 

ALL KINDS OF APPROVED POLICIES 
ISSUED. 



e^Dividends paid annually, or they can be applied 
on the Accelerative Eidowment Plan, ORIGINATED 
BY THIS COMPANY, to which parlicular atttntion is 
called. 



ACCELERATIVE ENDOWMENT PLAN. 

The plan is intended to meet the wants of these who 
wish prottclion for their dependents in case of p. e- 
mature death, and at the same time to make a wise 
provision for themselves in the event of surviving the 
productive period of life. 

The plan proposes that instead of using dividends in 
reduction of the annual premium, the insured stay, 
at his di-cretion, pay his premiums in full in cash, 
and surrender bis dividends to the company. In con- 
sideration of this surrender, the company will agree to 
pay the sum assured when the policy-holder shall 
have attained a certain age, or at his previous death, 
instead of at death only, thus enabling him to procure 
an Endowment Policy at the usual rates charged for 
policies payable at death only. 

If the policy is already an endowment, payable at a 
given age or previous death, the surrender of the divi- 
dend will enable the company to agree to pay the policy 
at a still younger age. 



H^The Mntual Benefit Life Insurance Company 
issaes Policies insuring the lives of healthy persons 
residing in any part of the United State*. 

JAMES MUNSELL, Jr.. 

Aitont of Iiigiurecl, 

And Acting Agent for persons desiring Life Insurance. 
224 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



The Mining and Scientific Press, 

Established IHBO is a Large, Ably Edited and T.ilier 
aly illUKTated Weckly-the BtsT FbaCtical Mininu 
AND Mechanical JouiiNAJ. Id Am rica. $4 feraiinum. 
postage paid. Dkwkv & Co., San Francisco. 



Suttrb Obeek, February 98th, 1876 
MCfSBS. Dewkt k Co.— ( have received my Letters 
Patent through yon- Aagency. nd, for yotir prompt- 
ness, accept my thanks. Yours, S. N. Emohi, 



Fi^TJiT crj^ 



The preserving of Fruits by hermetically sealing in 
glass jars has increased rapidly in the last eight or ten 
years, so that to provide a store cf fruit and vegetables 
in their natural condition for winter use is becoming 
not only a necessity, but is a provident measure, alike 
conducive to health and pleasure. 

The Gem and Porcelain Lined Jars 

Possess all the advantages and none of the disad- 
vantages of other patent jars, and are in fact the only 
reliable self-scaling jars in market. Each makes its 
joint on the flat shoulder, blown in the glass, on the 
outside of the mouth of the jar, and below the top. 
The surface of the shoulder on which the joint is 
made is pertertly smooth. The rubber being outside 
and below the top of the jar, the syrup cannot bo 
exposed to it, to taint and discolor it; at the same time 
its shoulder, blown in the mold, on which the rubber 
rests, corresponds with the thread on which the screw 
fastening works, so that it insures equal pressure on all 
parts of the cap aud rubber ring:, thereby insuring a 
tight joint. These jars have arrived so near perfec- 
tion there is no hesitiition in warranting every jar to 
preserve fruit an indefluite space of time if care is 
taken. 



MASON'S PORCELAIN LINED 




THE GROOVE RING. 

This jar has a groove in the top of ring in which » 
tin cap is placed, after which the wax is poured into 
the? groove, thus making a hermetic eeal. This is a 
very reliable and cheap jar, costing about ona-tbird 
less than the patent jars. 

The testimony of physicians, added to the experience 
of many, corroborate the belief that acid fruits pre- 
served in tin cans are very unwholesome. 



San Franoisoo and Pacific 

GLASS WORKS, 

(Incorporated June 9, 1876.) 

OARLTON MEWMAN, Manager. 

OFFICE and WORKS, KINO STREET, 
Near foot of Fourth, 

MANUFACTURERS of Vials. Bnttt«». Minerals, Car- 
boys, DeuiijohiiS, Patent GEM Fruit Jar-, GROOVE- 
RING Fruit Jirs. etc., and Sole MaMUiacturers of 
NEWMANS PATFNT fLASTIO DEMIJOd.>H. and 
PATE.NT B.jX DEMIJOHNS. 




CALVERT'S 

CA.11IJO Lie 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 Per QaUon. 

T. W. JACKSON, S.in Francisco, 

Bole Agent for California 

and Nevada. 



16 



fjuly I, 1876 



BEFORE PAINTING YOUR HOUSES 

Send for Sample Card and Circular and Carefully Examine the 



ns/d:i2LEiD K/iB^nDir i^oi^ use. 



t 



This Paint is prepared in liquid form, ready fob the brush. It re- 
qiiirea no addition of oil or epirita. It is composed of the best matetials 
known to the trade— Pure Linseed Oil, Strictly Pure White Lead, Pure 
Zinc, and the finest of coloring matter for tinting. It is the bkst, 

CHEAPEST, MOST DURABLE AND BEADTTFOL PAINT IN THE WOULD. Is 

just what is wanted by every farmer, mechanic and everybody who has 
a houpe, f ncc, barn, or wagon to paint. R- quires no skilled labor, as 
any one can apply it who can handle a brush. It is put up in cans of 
any required size, from a quart to five gallons, and is sold by the o\l- 
LON. It gives a firm, elastic and brilliant glossy finish, and will neither 
crack, peel or was-h ofl", like most paint in common use, but is proof 
against rainstorms and all action of the elements. Buildings painted 
with this paint five years ago look fresh and like new to-dny and will 
need no more paint for y<ars. Of no other paint can this tie said 
and proved. 




The Averill Chemical Paint Company supply a long-ftlt want. They 
not only furnish a Paint more lasting, handsomer, and at the same time 
cheaper than iho best of 1 thera, but it is in a liquid form — white and all 
the fashionuble and most exquisite shades — ready for the brush. So that 
farmers, in fdct everybody, can be their own pointer if uectssary. 
ludted, all tie buildings upon which the Averill Chemical Paint has been 
applied, are marvels of beauty. — Christian Union. 



We know of uo snbj-'ct of such importance to householders as that 
of a good, hHudsome, durable pHiut for their dwellingv. Within the past 
few years we have watched the progress of the Aveiill Chemical Paint 
and have hid trequent oppoitunities to test it fully. We think it 
just the article to supply the need, and give it our hearty endorse- 
mect. — N. Y. Independent. 



From the Thousands of Testimonials sent us, we select the following, which we present for your careful consider atio a: 



A Paint fokFabmkbb.— Prof. J. B. Turner, Jsckgonvllle, 111., is » mac of great practical knowledge and 
experience/ hence, we attach a great deal of value to the following, from his pen, which we find in the 
Prairie Farmer.- 

"Some two years ago I sent for and got from a barrel to a barrel and a half of Av»<rill Chemical Paint, 
of Heht dun color, which I thought would suit me well enough for all work— houKce, d> or», blinds, fences, 
bee-hives, wagonB, tools and all. I put two coats upon my rfsidcncc here, and run over three or four of my 
smaller farm houses on my farms. With what was left I painted my bee-hivcs, wagons, wheelbarrows, rollers, 
harrows, fences, etc., etc. and on all these buildincs. impleuiente. tod", gates, eti-., the paint is as hard and 
glossy to-day, si far as I can see. as It was a month after it was put on. aril bids fair to hold its own at least 
for five years to come, (if nut ten of them,) better than ordinary white lead and oil dO' s for even two years. 

•■I have watched it now for about two years with interest and care, and have never found a single spot 
where it peeled, cracked, or ihaUsed off, as our other paints do. Others who have used this paint like it 
equally as well. But the point is, 1 can take one and the same keg and brush, and go over all my buildings, 
wagons and tools, with uo noedtesa waste of paint, brushes or time. It is quite as good for inside finish, as it 
leaves a coat that shines and washes like glass."— Jf»ore'» Rural Nevi yorker. 

The AvEaiLi. Paints.— In reply 'o some Inquiries of our readers, we would state that we have given 
these paints, prepared by the Averill Chemical Paint Company, a full trial, and they appear to possess all 
that is claimed for them; sproadlDK easily, adhering well, drying soon, and Imparting handsome shades of 
color to the surface covered. Farmers ad others who do their own painting, may avail themselves of the 
convenience of purchasing these paints, of any desired shade, already mixed for use, at a very reaionable 
price.— Cu'fiBofor dnd Country fiCTidenuMi. I 



Placebville, Oetober 7, 1876. 
To THE California Chemical Pai.vt Co: Oentlenien— In reply to your letti-r I have to state that for more 
than six years I have dealt in and used your paint. I have during that time carefully observed its application 
and use, and from practical kU'^wlidge can certify to its unrivalled excellence. During my six years' 
aoqiiaintauce with it, there has cot come to my knowledge a single instance of failure in any case where it has 
been used. All to whom I have supplied It unite in commen'iiug it for its superior cluius over all othir 
paints now in use. The Averill Paint externally used, or. In other words, exposed to the action of the weather, 
neither rubs off nor changes color, as do other paints, and will retain its freshness and adhesive property for 
years. Pure lead and oil will in a short time become dry, and are easily rubbed off: the loss of oil leaves the 
lead in a dry, oxidized state. As a matter of economy the claims of the Averill Chemical Paint to papular ap- 
prei'lation and general use are beyond question. A house properly p^inttd with it once will be better pre- 
served, and present a neater appearance at the expiration of seven years, than it would if twice coated with 
lead and oil paints now in use. There can l>e uo (|iiPstion, then, that to u^ie It Is both labor-savlag ami 
economical. 80 well assured and convinced am I of its established right to this distinction over all kinds, that 
had I llfty bouses of my own to be painted, the 'Averill" alone should be my choice and used. 

Yours, very truly, S. J. Aldes, Druggist. 

Univebsitv of Calitobnia, Berkeley, August 16, 1«76. 
To the California Chemical Paint Co: Gentlemen— In reply to your note of the 13th inst , I willingly 
state that the work done by you in paintiutr the exterior of the Nortli Uall or ColU-ge of Letters is in every way 
satisfa<:tory, and the appearance of the building tince it was painted excites the favorable comment of all who 
have seen it. As I have had occasion to as : the Averill Paint before, my experience has been such that I prefer 
it to any and all others waen properly applied. I am very truly yours, Roui. E. C. bTEABMa. 



Sample Card of Colors Sent Free on Application. Be Sure and Write for One and Examine for Yourself before Buying Any Other. 



p. of H. 

G ItA-NGERS, A-TTEasTION ! ! ! 

Qran^ers' and People's 

IMMIGRANT BUREAU, 

GRANOESS' BUILDING, 

40 CALIFOKNIA ST., - - - SAN FRANCISCO. 

Farmers, send In your orders lor help. We can send 
you all the good men yon want at short notice, selected 
strictly according to your orders. Immigrants are 
arriving every day. All classes of help supplied, male 
and female. Address, 

a. KAiiiv, 

General Imtvlgrant Agent, appointed by the Committee 
on Immigration, Office No. 4U California street, at 
Orange Ueadqiurters. 



Rupture. 



Use no more Metallic Trusrcs. No more J 

,' suffering from Iron Hoops or Steel Sprini^s. 

I>T. Rowe's Patent Elastic Truss is worn with ] 

I ease and Comfort night and day, and will and j 

has performed radical cures when aU others j 

have failed. Reader, if you are ruptured, try ^ 

'one of Dr. Rowe'.s comfortable elastic appli 

' ances; you will never regret It, RowEl'.ii^r;. 

' Tku.xs to., 6C9 Sacramento St., S. F. Si i. i ( r 

' Circular. 



7,000 Sold in 1875. NEW FORCE FEED 

Buckeye Grain Drill. 




WiM xiw uny ilc^ireil q'l.iDliiT wiTu- 

OUT fll AVJE of.iKAR. Will (inw WtlCftt, 

H:v. XiHts. Hiirli'v. Ili-an?*. P««. Corn. 
Kitv»e^). Ac. Just Whttt Vou 
Wttlit. It I'eat* any Kfirw F«al ever 

iii!iit<- Scn-lfiTH circular, or ask your 
Jt^Hler iK shtiw vou ihe liuckeye. 
P. P. M.\ST k CO., Springfield, O. 



K. J3. MOTT, Jr., 

IMPORTER AKD DEALER IK 

STOVES, METALS AND TINWARE 

And Sole Agent for the Ratlibone Eacge. 

63 and 65 J Street, Sacramento. 



JOHN LUTTRELL MURPHY. 
Attorney and Counsellor at Law, 

NO. 535 CLAY ST&EET, 

SAN FUANCIBCO.' 



CHABCOAL 

DENTAL SOAP 

I lor Whitenint^ and Pre 
Boiviiig iiic Teeth. J. W. Ancjkll, Prop., Smi FruULiHco- 



ANGELL'S 



$250 



A MOXTIl—A^ents wanted every* 
wlicre. Ituslnvss honorable and first 







— o — 

MACHINERY, BUILDINGS. PORTRAITS, LANDSCAPES, TRADE-MARKS, LABELS, SEALS, MONOCRAMS, etc. 

^■^i 



1776. 



1876. 



IN TME HIGHEST SrYUE OP TME A I.' I 



E. SCHULTZE, 

MANAGER. 



DE\A^EY A CO., 

Fuhli>:iers ami P3'rnt Agents. 



class. Partliiilars sent free." Addrcsa 
J. WOKTU * CO., bl. Louls.Mo. 



IMPOBTEfJ^BHEEDeR 




The Gilmore Angora Goat 

BREEDING ASSOCIATION, 

iMPusTKiia AND BnEi:DKSS or 

P U R.E BLOODS, 

— ALSO or— 

G It A^ D K »* . 

Stfiek Ra-'Cb sltnat'd at El Dorado. (Mud Springs) 
El D'rado county, four miles iroui Railroad Hlaiion. 
For prices cif stin k and any otlier facts connected with 
tie business, address 

N. OILMORK. 

Dorado. El Dorado Co.. Cal. 



j^jjrrcDj^j^TXG iPTjnvtip 




Raises water^by compressed air to any hight or distance. 

Windmill can be set at any distance from the 

well or spring if required to get a good 

exposure to the wind. 

SEND FOB CIBCULAR. 

i. E. HOLLOW Y, Gen. Agent .for Pacific States, 
31 Beale Street, San Francisco, 

WHERE THE PUMP CAN BE BEEN IN 0PEBATI05. 



CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION. 

PARK VIEW HOTEL, 

Comer 29th and Poplar streets. 

Opposite Fairmount Park, 

P]UI.AJt£I.PHIA. 



This Extensive First-class Hotel consists of thirty (30) 

adjoining and communicating buildings, haviDg 

a frontage on Twenty-nlntb Street of 185 

feet, and on Poplar Street of 315 feet. 

The BuildinKS are partly pressed brick and partly 
Serpentii e stone, entirely new, having tieen built for 
the purpose of hand.4oiue i>rivate residences, with all 
the modt-ru cunveniences. thus affording more coiufort. 
able apartments than perhaps any other betel in the 
city. Every room is furiiislu'd with new and substan- 
tial furniture, cousistinR ol Spring Beds. Carpels, etc., 
and Seven hundred (7iOI guests can be comfortably 
entertained. It will b-- seen that this Hot^l furnisbes 
unusual advantages for families or parties desiring lun- 
tiguous suites of rooms, a featnre which vrill especially 
rtconiniend itself to Lodges ami other org.tnizitious. 

The Location of this U'>tel is equal, if not superior, to 
any place in the city. There is easy and rapid access 
to the Exiwsitton, to and from all tbe Rallr<iad Depots, 
as well as to every pi>rtl'>n of the ciiy. It is situated on 
high ground, wi bin 'JO.' yards ol and over-looking 
Fairmouut Park, and in the imiredlaie neighborhood 
of Olrard College, Uirard Avenue Bridge, Zoological 
Garden, I'airmount Water works, and Lemon Hill, tbe 
latter place being one of the most delightful localities 
in the Park, where Musical and other Entertainments 
will be kept up by the city throughout the season. 

All places uf amuxemeut and interest in any part of 
tbe city may be readily reached by the flirard Avenue 
Line and the Union Paseiiger Railway, the cars of the 
Ititer runiiine directly by the Hotel. All other Pas- 
!i< ugi-r Kuilxay Lines at convenient oist,>Ui:< s. 

Loilglncs, per Day One Dollar. 

Ureakt a»t Filty (Jei. ta. 

Dim er Sev- nly five Cents. 

Sapper Fifty Ueuis. 

^o Meals to be pa^d for unless ordered or taken. 

'i'he Houses l)eing built of brick and stooe. are lar le^^a 
liable t" fire tbau many of tbe wood' u structures now 
put up for Centennial purposes. 'I h^re will be con- 
iiecti'd with tbe Hotel Pnva'e Wstchiiien. Fire-proof 
Safen, Bienage Bojms, etc.. f r the ore ano protecfi'-n 
of property. The HoUl is hupiJlied «itli Thirty B.th 
itooias, with all modern appliances. Uooins may tie 
secureii lu advance for any tune duriiit^ the Exposi- 
tion. TbeHotil will be conducted with tbe ^p.'Cial 
view to acccmmodate vii-iiors to the Centennial Expo- 
sition. Renders of this will please send for lUustrated 
circular, free. 

INTKltNATJOIMAl-. ilOXEL 

AIX NEWLT FCBNISHID, 

824 & 82fl Kearny St., - San Francisoo. Cal. 

(1 .GO k fi per day. Free Ooacli to the House. 
H. C. PATRIDOE, - - - Proprietor 



July i, 1876.] 



17 



'Oontinued from Fatre 8.) 



religion descend fr"iB tens of thousands of pal- 
pits; the spread of an enlightened public sen- 
timent makes ri^ht honorable and wrong per- 
ilous, throughout the length and breadth of the 
country. It cannot be denied that our good 
name must be shown upon the background of 
some of the most Tillainous transactions known 
to history. The corruption which has been 
shown in high places has brought a blush to 
the face of the nation, but the condemnation 
which the wrong-doers have received shows 
that the national heart is right and the national 
oonpcience quick and active. 

With just pride in the past and with full 
confidence in the future, the people of the 
United States enter npon the second centiiry of 
the nation's life. We are at peace with all the 
world. The time is propitious for still further 
progress along the line of advancement which 
we have been pursuing. There is still much to 
be done in the way of promoting the prosperity 
of some large classes of our population. In 
the rapid progress of the last few years there 
have arisen some pernicious growths. Powers 
have been con6ded to the few which belong to 
the many. Self interest has plumed itself 
under the guise of the general welfare and is 
still permitted to exalt itself even to the op- 
pression of the many. It is to the removal of 
these obstacles to true progress, and to place 
privileges and powers where they justly belong 
that the work of the future must be addressed. 
There are indications that this work is now 
underjway. The grand industrial classes of our 
population are advancing in mutual knowledge 
and in the intelligence which pertains to their 
success. The future is full of promise that the 
great masses of our people will secure those 
reforms which theii prosperity demands, and 
that their voice will be more clearly heard and 
more generally respected in the hall^ whence 
come the laws. It is the advance of right, and 
its progress is most hopeful for the republic. 
The end is sure, for 

"TLe eternal step of progress beats 

To that great anthem, calm and slow, 

Which God repeats." 



California. 

While the nation is celebrating its one hun- 
dredth anniversary and rejoicing at the wonder- 
ful progress it has made during these jears, 
the different States which compose the Ameri- 
can Union can each congratulate themselves 
that they have contributed their share to the 
general prosperity. Those which are situated 
west of the Rooky mountains, while they can- 
not, of course, claim to have assisted in gaining 
the independence of the nation, are none the 
less deserving of praise since they have con- 
tributed in a marked degtee to maintain the 
prosperity of the people of the United Sta'es for 
nearly a quarter of a century. The boundless 
agricultural and mineral resources of the Pacifie 
States and Territories, the products of which 
increase from year to year, are objects of 
wealth, not only to individuals and the States 
themselves, but to the nation at large. As real 
producers, the Pacific States are ahead of all, 
as their wealth is the product of the ground 
itself. 

California — the word is a synonyme for bound- 
less riches. The "Golden State" is the term 
by which she is known the length and breadth 
of the land. The fabulous sums taken from 
her mines, the marvelous yields of her bound- 
less farms, the variety and abundance of her 
mineral and agricultural products, have made 
her famous throughout the world. In beauty 
and grandeur of scenery she is not excelled, 
and in variety of soil and climate none surpass 
her. 

The people of the State, whose energy and 
activity have been the means of so soon placing 
California in the proud position she occupies, 
have causes of congratulation to-day aside from 
those they feel in the prosperity of the nation. 
Coming to this coast a band of hardy pioneers 
beyond the confines of civilization and refine- 
nient, they battled successfully with the diffi- 
culties before them, and have succeeded in 
building up a S ate in which not only they but 
the people of the United States feel a just 
pride. With all its natural advantages of soil 
and climate, these effects would not have been 
produced without the energy, perseverance and 
intelligence which are the characteristics of the 
American citiz-n. 

Rapid as has been the growth of the State in 
material prosperity, her boundless wealth of 
resources has been hardly touched. California 
contains millions of acres as yet undeveloped, 
and millions of treasure yet to be dug up. The 
domain comprises 188,000 square miles of ter- 
ritory, and, estimating the population at only 
600,000, it contains less than four souls to the 
square mile, while it is capab'e of sustaining a 
hundred. It was estimated that the increase of 
population last year was about 100,000, and the 
immigrants continue to pour in at the rate of 
about 6,000 monthly. But there is plenty of 
room. When we remember that California 
contains an area nearly three times as great as 
the Bix New England States — greater than all 
the Middle States with Maryland and West 
Virginia added — and greater than England, 
Scotland and Wales combined by 7C,000 square 
miles, we begin to have some conception of the 



grandeur of our domain; within it about 140 
States the size of Rhode Island could be placed. 

The capacity of this vast area for sustaining 
population is undoubted. Within the boun- 
daries of the State there are, according to sta- 
tistics, 3,366,716 acres of cultivated land as well 
as over 6,000,000 acies enclosed. From an 
area of over 2 000,000 acres we have an annual 
product of 20,000,000 bushels of wheat, and 
beside this we have a yield of about 11,000,000 
bushels of barley on an average, per annum. 
The ofiicial records for 1874 showed that with 
a population of about 726,000 we exhibited a 
productive capacity of nearly $1,000 per capita. 
The condition of the savings banks is a good 
indication of the prosperity of the people. The 
average balance to the credit of each depositor 
in the 27 savings banks in this Sta'e, on the 31st 
of December last, was nearly fSOO,, which is 
larg»»ly in excess of that of any other State in 
the Union or country on the globe. In about 
eight years our savings banks have paid their 
depositors in dividends over i|!3i, 000,000 
These figures show a material prosperity which 
admits of no denial. 

A brief glance at what California has done 
and is doing for her own welfare and that of 
the Nation will be interesting at this time. 
Although she is only in her 25th year, a show- 
ing of products and improvements is made 
almost equaling the hundred years' advance- 
ment of other States. We exported last year 
4,199,652 centals of wheat and 233,629 barrels 
of flour. Reducing wheat to flour our exports 
of that great food staple alone amounted to 
1,633,513 barrels. The total products of the 
State for 1875 were valued at i«124,000,000. 



our boundaries yet undeveloped, only need 
more capital to make them yield up their hid- 
den treasures. The assessed value in the 10 
hydraulic mining counties of California in 1874- 
75 was $32,307,523. 

To San Francisco, the metropolis of this 
coast, and the seat of the maia manufacturing 
industries, we must look for the progress in 
manufacture before. A few items from the 
assessor's report of last year will give an idea 
of the improvements of this character which 
have been built up in the city. 

There are in the city three artificial stone 
manufactories, turning out yearly products 
valued at $137,000; three axle grease factories, 
producing $91,000; five barrel factories, employ- 
ing 215 men; five bed-spring factories, annually 
producing $141,000; five bedstead factories, 
employing 725 men, aggregate value of products 
$925,000; two bellows factories, aggregate value 
of products $27,000; six bedding factories, 
producing $92,500; five billiard table factories, 
turning out goods valued at $156,000; twenty 
boot and shoe factories, employing 2,000 per- 
sons, aggregate value of products $2,793,000; 
two borax works, aggregate value of manu- 
factories $620,000; ton box factories, employing 
372 men and producing $980,000 annually; 
eleven brass foundries, employing 273 men, 
value of manufactories $1,055,000; breweries, 
40, value of manufactures S2, 000, 000; broom 
factories, 10, value $200,000; brush factories, 
3, value $50,000; candle factories, 2, product 
$425,000; clothing factories, 8, value $730,000; 
cigar factories, 120, men employed 9,000, cigars 
made annually, 95,000,000; chemical works, 5, 
product $425,000; carriage factories employ 




'ONE aXTNCRED YEARS ACJO ' 



The wheat yield since 1856 is estimated at 
200,000 000 centals. The wool clip of 1875 was 
44,000,000 pounds, and that for 23 years, 300,- 
000,000 pounds. The quicksilver production 
last year was very large, and was valued at 
about $2,000,000. It IS estimated that the total 
product of this article in California has been 
64,748,893 pounds. The wine product of the 
State last year was 10,000,000 gallons; the 
receipts of lumber, 305,000,000 feet; the value 
of manufactures, $63,000,000; the foreign im- 
ports of merchandise, $29,434,000; exports, 
foreign and domestic, $45,000,000; imports, for- 
eign and domestic, $81,721,245. Our exports 
ot treasure — gold and silver — in 1875, amounted 
to $73,465,000, or nearly $15,000,000 more 
than in the previous year. 

Of bullion the coast produced, in 1875, $80,- 
889,037— the largest yield yet. Of this, Cal- 
ifornia produced $17,753,151, being ahead of 
all others, except Nevada, in this class of prod- 
ucts. This State held the lead in bullion 
production until lately, and now Nevada is 
ahead. It must be remembered, however, that 
the mines of the latter State were developed to 
a great extent by California capital, and, in 
reality, are now owned principally in this State. 
From 1865 to 1875 the combined product of the 
two States has been $478,181,520, of which Cal- 
iforLia Iproduced $237,2.53,151. Nevada is, 
however, exclusively a mining State, while the 
majority of the population in California are now 
engaged in agricultural pursuits. California 
mining is, however, by no means on the wane, 
although the surface deposits have been worked 
out but quiie extensive operations are being 
carried on all over the State. The gravel mines 
are operated on a scale ot magnitude before 
unheard of, and their yield is in proportion. 
It takes capital to work these mines, as well as 
skill and intelligtuoe. In ibis particular class 
of mining we have but just bigun work and it 
will be continued on a still more extensive scale 
for years and years to come. The quartz 
mines, too, of which there are thousands within 



400 men, and products are worth $837,000; 
cofl'ee mill-i, 10, value $1,102,000; rope-walks, 
3, value $975,000; distilieries, 6, product $1,647,- 
000; flour mills, 8, producing 446.000 barrels 
annually; foundries, 16, employing 123 men; fur 
factories. 5, product $245,000; furni nre factories, 
20, product $1,636,000; glass works, 2, product 
$270,000; glove factories, 3, product $1.30,000; 
glue factory, one, product $325,000; hat facto- 
ries, 15, product $328,000; hose and belting 
factories, three, product $114,000; jewelry 
manufactories, 3'i, product $827,000: lead and 
shot factory, one, product $1,000,000; mac- 
aroni factories, three, product $120,000; mar- 
ble works, 21, product $860,000; match facto- 
ries, six, product $260,000; malt houses, five, 
product $300,000; oakum factory, one, product 
$25,000; fruit preserving works, four, product 
$850,000; powder works, two, product $560,- 
000; rolling mill, one, employs 300 men, prod- 
uct $750,000; silk factories, two, product, 
$300,000; saw factory, one, product $900,000; 
sash, door and blind factories, 10, product 
$2 500,000; silverware facturies, four, product 
»252,000; shirt factories, eight, product $798,- 
000; slipper fadories, 18, product $200 ODO; 
soap factories, 17, product $513,t)0O; tanneries, 
33, product, $985 ()00; telegraph instrument 
factory, one, product $75,000; tool factories, 
six, product $210,500; trunk factories, six, 
product .$240,000; type founirioc, two, prod- 
uct $55 000; vinegar factories, eight, product 
$122,000; windmill factories, four, product 
$57,000; woodenware factories, four, prod- 
uct $220,000; woolen mills, two, men and wom- 
en employed, 900, wool used, 3,150,000 pounds, 
product $2,200,000; watch factory, one, num- 
ber of watches made 15.000; yeast powder 
works, throe, product $110,000. Assessed 
valUMof property in the city in 1875, $126,350,- 
255; iinprovemenis, $45,558,161; personal prop- 
erly, $148,659 785; total assessed value in the 
city, $316,506,205. Population, 250,000. 

These factories are only those of tbe|metrop- 
olia of the State. Enough have been referred 



to, however, to give those outside our i^ luda- 
ries an idea of the mannfectuting pi of 

California. 

The interior of the State as well as ly 

is in a prosperous condition, and Califoimana 
may well cocgratnlate themselves on living in 
the most progressive State in the Union. With 
these feelings, while they rejoice as all good 
citizens should during the coming holidays at 
the achievements of the nation in its hundred 
years, they also feel a just pride in the ad- 
vancement of their own State in its twenty-five 
years. 



Then and Now. 

Comparisons are not always odious, the old 
saying "to the contrary notwithstanding." 
When anybody compares something of his own 
with something else of his own it is all right; 
it is only when comparisons are made between 
things belonging to difierent parties that they 
become "odious." Surely in this Centennial 
year no one can find fault with Uncle Sam if he 
compares his puesessions when he was young 
and poor with what he has now when he is of 
age and has become rich. His farm is now a 
pretty big one and his tenants numerous; but 
t is not yet all fenced or cultivated, and he has 
room for many more under his protecting eye. 

Just think of how the country has grown 
since the "original thirteen" started out on 
their own hook and left their maternal parent 
fluttering and scolding like an old hen whose 
brood of ducks first takes to the water. It was 
a bold venture and fraught with many dangers, 
but patience, perseverance and energy will al- 
ways accomplish wonders, as they did in this 
case. 

In 1783 the territory ceded by Great Britain 
was composed of the country eastof the Missis- 
sippi river and north of Florida, having an area 
of 815,615 square miles. This whole territory 
was not much larger than Alaska, which we 
bought a few years ago without thiuking it 
much of an accession. Within these 815,615 
square miles were the original thirteen States 
of the American Union, laid out as they are 
shown on the accompanying map. They were 
as follows: New York, Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, 
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and 
Georgia. 

Compare this small though noble list of States 
with the country as it stands to-day. The 
greatest length of the United States, from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific on the forty-second 
parallel, is 2,768 milts, and the greatest breadth, 
from Point Isabel in "Texas to the north boun- 
dary near Pembina, is 1,601 miles. The 
northern frontier is upward of 3,350 miles long; 
the Mexican 1,500 miles. The ocean coast, in- 
cluding the larger indentations, is estimated at 
22,609 miles, of which 6,861 are on the Atlantic, 
3,461 on tbe Gulf of Mexico, 2,281 on the 
Pacific, 8,000 miles including tbe bays and 
islands on the border of Alaska, and 2,000 miles 
ou the Arctic sea. The total area of the United 
States was reported at the census of 1870 to 
embrace 3,603,844 square miles, inclusive of 
the territory of Russian America, purchased 
from tbe Russian government by treaty of 
June 20th, 1867, and annexed to the Republic 
October 28ih, 1867, under the name of A'aska. 
I'be area of the Uni ed Stales excluding Alaska 
is (qual to 1,942 millions of acres, about one- 
halt of which are public lands. At the census 
of 1870 the arable land under cultivation was 
found to be 189,000,000 of acres, or less than 
one-tinth of the total area. The two black 
squares shown on the map give the rtlative 
aiea of the United States at the lime of the 
Declaration of Independence and at the time of 
the celebration of tbe Nation's Centennial. A 
glance at them will show more clearly how 
much the country has grown than any array of 
figures wo could set before our leaders. 

At the census of 1790 the total population of 
the United States, white and colored, was 
3,929,321. At the census of 1870 it was 38,- 
588,371. At the first census in 1790 there were 
seventeen States, the largest of wbi;h was 
Virginia, with a population of 747,610, and the 
smallest Tennt ssee, with a population of 35,691. 
In 1870 there were 37 States and 10 Territories, 
It is stated, on a calculation based on the 
census f.om 1800 to 1870, that on June 1st, 1874, 
the population of the United States was 43,- 
107 0(10— being an increase of 5,500,000 over 
the census of 1870. The estimate for June lat, 
1875, on the same authority, is 14,384,000. For 
June 1st, 1876, it is 45,627,000, while in 1880, 
the year of the next dccenn'.al census, it is cal- 
culated that the United States will have 60,- 
850,000 inhabitants. 

Ff tbo population of the country should con- 
tinue to double itself as many times in the 
next century as in tbe last we should have a 
census covering 500,000,000 souls— or about a 
number eci'ial to ont-half of the present popu- 
lation of the globe. There is little danger of 
Uncle Sam extending his farm as rapidly in 
the future as in the last eentury, for to do it 
he would require all tbe land on this hemis- 
phere, from Greenland to I'atajjonm, and a 
ojilliori ^qnaro miles more. 



The annual rainfall along the borders of 
Puget sound, to the southward of Seattle, is 
from 70 to 100 inches. At Neah bay it often 
exceeds 120 inches. 




18 



«]p<^^QjiIifi ^\^ jiLwJs^A^J^ «P£u.^SS« 



[July t, 1876 



Bl^EEDEI^s' OlI^ECTOI^Y- 

pTTRCHASEUa OF STOCK WIIX KJND IN THIS DiBECTOBY 

THE Names of some of the most rkliable Brkedehs. 
Our Rates.- 8ix lines or less ioserted io this directory at 
So cl8 a line ptr month, payable quurterly. 

CATTLE. 

J. BREWSTER, (Hit Station, Sacramento Co., 
Cal., brwder of Short-Horn Oattle. 



POWERS & STANTON, Sarrsraento, Cal., breea- 
ere of A. J. C. C. Registered Jersey Cattle. Cows and 
Calves tor sale at low rates. Address Lutber 0. 
Powers. 

aT^MAILLIARD, San Bafael, Marin Co., Oal., 
breeder of Je rstys. Oalv ea for sale. 

PAGE BROTHERS, -ioi Davis street, San Fran- 
cisco, (or Ciitate Kancb, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) : 
Breeders of Sbort-Horus and their Grades. 

R. O. SNE ATH, Menio Park, Cal., breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bulls for sale— various ages — at 
HO to $150. 

SHEEP AND GOATS. 

EOVTARD FRISBIE, on line of Cal. P. R. R., near 
Vallejo, Pure Bred Lbicester Sheep For Sale. 



STRAW BURNING ATTACHMENT. 



KING'S PATENT, 



OARNIER BROS., Encino Ranch, Los Angeles 
Cal., breeders of pure French, Spanish, and Saxon 
Merino Sheep. Price, from |'25 to t"iO, each. 



A. Or. STONESIFER, Hill's Ferry, Stanislaus Co. 
Oal., breeder of Pure-Blooded French Merino Sheep 



Li. TJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle 
and Essex Swine. 



B. F. WATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thor- 

oURhbred Spanish Merino Sheep. 



M. EYRE. Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdojrn; 
Sheep. Rama and i^wes, 1 to 2 years old, $'iU each 
Lambs, $15 each^ 



T. A. WILSON, Grayson, Stanislaus county, Cal. 
Breeder and Importer of Spanish Merino Sheep. 



POULTRY, 



U. EYRE, Napa. Bronze Turkeys, Emden Geese 
Choice Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, Ferrets. 



M. FALLON, Cor. Seventh and Oak streets, Oak- 
laud. Br«nze Turkeys. Choice Fowls for Hatching 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 



OEO. B. BAYLEY, Cor. 16th and Owitro sreets, 
Oakland, Cal. Imported Brahmas and other choice 
Fowls for sale. 



ALBERT E. BURBANK, 43 and 44 California 
Market, San Francisco, importer and breeder of 
Faucy Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. 

URS. L. J. W^ ATKINS, Santa Olara, Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, S. S. Ham- 
burgs, L. Brahmas, B. B. Red Game Bantams and 
Aylesbury Ducks. Also Eggs. 

W. H GROVES, Stoc kton, Cal. Eggs for sale from 
Choice PrdiKieP and Selected LiKht Brahmas, White 
and Brown LegUurus. For prices and description 
address as abovu witn stamp. 



Live Stock Notices. 




^^i^^m 



Pare Blooded French Merino Rams 

And 100 Choice Young Ewes 

For sale by MRS. ROBERT BLACOW, of Ceutervllle, 
Alameda county, Cal., n(ar Niles Station, on the West- 
ern and Southern Pacific railroad. 

These Sheep are guaranteed of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Rambouillet, and are equal, 
if not superior, to any of this breed in size and quality 
of wool, and are proven to be the heaviest shearers in 
the world. 

I^-NEW MILCH DITIHAM COWS FOB SALE. 

THOROUGHBRED SHEEP 
Foii sa-le:. 

The undersigned offers for sale his entire herd, con- 
sistlnf; of 150 head of Thoroughbred Spanish Merinos. 
Bucks and Ewes. The Sheep are good, and in good 
condition, and will be sold reasonable. For further 
particulars, enquire of 

A. C. PAULSELL, 

Stockton, Cal. 



THOROUGHBRED SHORT-HORN CATTLE 

FOR, WA.L,E. 

The undersigned offers his entire herd of Thorough- 
bred Cattle for sale on very reasonable terms. Also, 
ome fine Graded Cattle. 

JOHN BREWSTER, 
Oalt, Sacramento Co , Cal 

Foil SA-LE, 

AYRSHIRE BULL-4 years old. 

Enijcike of 
A. B- ROWLEY, Uayfleld, Santa Clara Co. 



The Only Successful Burner Yet Introduced. 

Having secnred the exclusive right to manufacture and attach to engines J. R. Kino's 
P Stbaw Burnino Attachment, I respectfully invite the attention of the threshers to 

aotice why it is superior to all other Straw Burning Engines. They are so constructed as to 
burn Wood, Coal or Straw, and require oue-third less fuel than any other Burner; can be 
changed to burn either in five minutes, thus avoiding the loss of time, and favoring threshers 
in loca.ities where it is necessary to burn Coal or Wood. It is easy to keep up the necessary 
amount of steam with Straw as fuel, and does not require uu experienced person to tire it 
Boys with but little instruction have fired them the whole ueason, and in many cases the 
engineer has done it and attended to hia engine. They have given entire satisfaction in every 
case. 

Modesto, October 9th, 1875. 
Mr. .1. K. KTsa—Dear 5ir.— We have used your Aitachnicnt on our Automatic Hoadley Engine the past two 
seasons; it furnishes all the power necessary to ruu uur lart^e Pitts Separator with a Jackson Feeder attached: 
it more than gave satisfaction to all the farmers for whom we threshed; it required but little straw to farnish 
the necessary amount of steam; our engineer had a boy to fire it, and he attended to the Separator and Engine; 
it was much safer than a wood burner, for when we wished to stop or move, all that was necessary was to close 
the door and everythlna was perfectly safe. We used no spark arrest, as there were no sparlcs to arrest. It was 
a perfect success in every particular. Yours, etc., BENTLV &. YOUNO. 

Linden, October 16th, 187S. 
Mb. J. R. King — Dear Sir.— Having used one of your Straw Burner Attachments on my Ames Engine (wood 
burner) No. 3, 1 feel it my duty to state that it proved to be far more than I expected. It furnishes sufficient 
power to operate my large Pitts Separator. I have seen several regular Straw Burning Engines in operation, 
and would not exchange for any small consideration. I used it all the season without the least difficulty and 
kiuiw It is a success. Vuurs, etc., J. U. DUNCAN. 

The following parties used my Attachment on their Wood Burning Engines last season: Covert k May, 
Grayson, Stanislaus county; W. B. Qilmore, Stockton, on an old style Hoadley Engine, 8x12 cylinder; Morse 
Bros., Modesto, Stanislaus county; C. F. Lcavensworth, Modesto, Stanislaus county, old style Hoadley, 8x12 
cylinder. On the 13th of May, at Stockton, in a test of Straw Burning Engines, a very lively competition ensued 
between the difi'erout Htyle:i and patterns of machinery, particularly between the two Straw Burning Engines. 
My Attachment claims superiority and preference over all others on account of its adaptability to all styles and 
patterns of wood or coal burning engines, |to which ic can be fitted. It has a conical feed tube or funnel, 
through which the straw is fed to the fire box, the interior arrangement of which is also peculiar, contalumg a 
half set of coarse grate bars standing six to ten inches high, and aujunCable to any hight desired and sloping to- 
ward the front. In fr nt of the tubes a circular concave plate is so arranged as to cause the draft to tirkt strike 
the top of the boiler and then draw down behind the plate through the small fiues. Engines rigged with this 
burner are absolutely safe from sparks, there beiu^ no necessity even for a spark arrester on the smoke fctack. 
To show how rapidly it makes steam we a«ld the following record of its performance on Saturday, attached to a 
Gaar. Scott & Co.'s portable engiue: The fire was lighted with the boiler partially full of cold water, (two 
Kauges cold,) and in 25 minutes the whistle was blown, the gauge showing a preubure of 10 pounds of steam; in 
30 minutes, 20 pounds; in 32 minutes, 3u pounds; in 3t minutes, 10 pounds; in 35 minutes, 45 pounds; in 37 min 
utes, 50 pounds; in 3H minutes, 55 pounds; in 40 minutes, 60 pounds; in 42 minutes, (i5 pounds; in 45 minutes, 70 
pounds; in 47 minutes, 80 pounds; in 49 minutes, 90 pounds; in5C minutes, 100 pounds. On reaching a pressure 
of 100 pounds the barley mill, to which it was attached by a belt, was started and ruu to its full capacity, grind- 
ing at the rate of two tons per hour; during this time steam raised to 130 pounds, pumping more than a full sup- 
ply and frequently blowing water out of the boiler; then stopped firing until the steam gauge indicated 80 
puuods; commenced firing again and got 140 pounds in 25 minutes; water raised in boi'er to three gauges; mill 
run to full capacity all the time; this was a Qaar, Scott Engine, cylinder 7x13 inches; boiler, diameter, 2'J inches; 
27 flues, 2ii inches diameter, and 64 inches long; fire box, length, two feet eight inches. 

The Attachment can be seen at H. O.Shaw Plow Co.'s Warehouse, Stockton, and at their Branch Stor? at 
Cressey Station, Merced county. Byron Jackson, Woodland, Patentee of Self Feeder, agent for Solano, Yolo and 
Colusa counties. 

All orders addressed to J. R. King, Patentee, in care of the Qlobe Iron Works, or H. C. Bhaw Plow Company, 
Stockton, will receive prompt attention. Send for Circulars. 

jrOMIV CAIIVE., Proprietor Glotoe Iron Works. 

STOCICTOJV, CAL. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 

OFFICEBS and DIBECTORS: 

DANIEL INMAN, (Pbesident) . 
U. C HAILE, (VicB Pbesident). 
JOHN LEWELLINO, (Tbeasttbeb) . 



AMOS ADAMS, (Sbcbbtaby). 
THOS. UPTON. 
I. C. STEELE. 
0. HUBBEIL. D. CAMPBELL, 



THOS. FLINT. 

G. P. KELLOGG. 

W. L. OVERHISEK. 



SHIPPING and COMMISSION HOUSE, 



Cirangtirs' Biillcllnif, 



10« Oavls S^treet, 8. F. 



Consignments of Grain, Wool. Dairy Products, Fruit, Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and 

advances made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandiae, 

Farm Implements, Wagons, Etc., solicited and promptly attended to. 

We da a strictly Commission Business, and place our rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis that 
will enable the country at large to transact businesa through us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked Grangers' Business Association , San Francisco. Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 

HA.'PiieiT^ INMAIV. Mlanaser. 



C E N T E N N I AA^_H AY PRESS. 

Farmers and Hay Pressers will find it to their advanta<;e to examine this Pre8^ before 
buying any other. It is built compact, combining lightness for moving with the greatest power 
and durability in its working parts, capable of making the average 250 pound bale, more or lei-s, 
baling 10 to 15 tons per day, with three men and a pair of horses, they traveling only 3G feet to 
operate it. No excavations required for this Press. This is the original Gove Press improved, 
after an experience of building Presses in the States the past 15 years, where they give the best 

of satisfaction. Price, No. 1, $250. 

Manufactured and for sale, or built to order, at the EUREKA GRAIN STORAGE WARE- 
HOUSE, by JOHN H. GOVE or ANDREW J. GOVE, Bos 1122 

A Liberal Discount to the trade. For Sale by all Agricultural Dealers. 



EXTRAS! 



EXTRAS!! 



Headquarters for Extraa for the foUowing Harvesting Machines : 

CLIPPER, WOODS EAGLE, EUSSELL'S AND WORLD MOWERS AND REAPERS, DAYTON AND CHICAGO 

PITTS SEPARATORS AND HORSE POWERS, HAINE8' AND CASK HEADERS. 

Orders flUed with utmost despatch. 

LINFORTH, KELLOGG & CO., • ■ • 3 & 5 Front St., San Francisco. 



THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINOS. 

^^^r Siity one and two year old Spanish Merin<' 
^^^W^Eams For Sale, also lOO Ewes and Lamb,^, all 
••■■■••CaHiornia bred, from stock imported from 
Vermont, and as good as any on this Coast. Prices to 
suit the times. Address, B. F. "WATKINS, 

Santa Clara, Cal. 



BOOKBINDER. PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURER, 

621 Clay Street, S. F. 

Blank Books Ruled, Printed, and Boimd to Order 



REMINGTON SEWING MACHINES- 




Superior to all others, because of their simplicity of 
construction: the most durable and are always ready 
for use; will do all kinds of work. Price of Machine 
as represented in cut, with Hemnicrs, Feller, Braider, 
Gouge Tucker, Quilter, .Johnson's Ruffler, and Diamond 
set of Hemmers, $75. 

REUINQTON SEWING MACHINK CO., 

6^9 ICarket st., under Palace Hotel. S. F. 

AGENTS WANTED FOR CITY AND COUNTRY. 

Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FBANCISCO. 



Authorized Capital. $5,O0O.C00. 

OFFICERS: 

Pbksidknt GILBERT W. COLBY. 

Maxaoino Dibkctob C. J. CRESSET. 

Cashier ALBERT MONTPELLIER 

SECEETABr F. A. CRESSEY, 



The Bank was opened on the first of August, 187*, for 
the transaction of general banking business. 

California Farmers' Mutual Fire 
Insurance Association. 

No. 38 California Street, Grangers' Building. 
OAPITAIi. $200,000, GOLD. 

OFFICERS: 

J. D. BLANCHAR Pbesident 

1- (i- GARDNER Vice-Pbestdent 

I,. P, KELLOGO TbraSUREB 

A. W. THOMH.SO.V ATTORJIET- 

KERD. K. RULE Secbetart 

TRUSTEES: 

J. D. BLANCHAR 8. FfI. C. STEELF San Mateo 

G. P. KELLOGG Salinas G. W. COLBY Uatte Co 

I. U. GaRDNKR S. FA. WOLF .Stockton 

CHAS. LAIRD Balina- C J. CREShEY.... Oakland 

URIAH WOOD. San Benito J. O. MERRY KlKLD..Dixon 
A. B. NALLY.,..8anta Rom E, W. STKKLE, 8. L. Obisno 

A. W.THOMPSON 8.F0 S. ABBOTT....MonUriy 

A. D. LOGAN Colaaa'DB. T. FLINT Hollisler 

Statement, December 31st, 1875. 

TOTAL RI.SKS WRITTEN 9n,84A,l t)9.00 

TOTAL PRE.MIUMls TV, not, 78 

LOSSES PAID 8M1.00 

ASSETS DEC. 3l9t, ma l'7O,0O7.41 

•9" Parm Property insured at actual coat on the Mataal 
Plan. Other deairable property insured, and rated ac- 
cording to merit. 



CHEBRMANN 



NEVILLE & CO'S FACTORY 

113 Clay and 114 Commercial Sta., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

BA.Oi$ of All Kinds, 
TENTSjJ, All Sizes and DescriptionB. 
H;0.*<E for Hydraulic Unie. 
CA.1WAW, All Numbers. 
T"WirVE for S^ing, Etc. 

THE LAMB KNITTING M ACHInE 

Is the Only Machine that can Knit all siMs of 
work, and narrow and widen it; that 
can shape and complete, with- 
out hand-finishing. 
Seamless Hosiery, Gloves and Mittens, or knit tbeni in 
all sizes; or knit ribbed, double and fancy stitches for 
Underwear, Jackets, Shawls, Scarfs, etc. It knits over 
25 different kinds of garments. Over HO per cent, 
profit in manufacturing knit goodi. Send for Illus- 
trated circular. Address, 

Lamb Knitting Machine Co., 

120 Sutter St., Room a9, 8. F. 



July t, 1876.] 



19 



GEO. "W. S"WAN. 



OEO. 'W. W^£IDL.£B. 



wat. H 






GJ^EO. ^^r. SAV^N & CO 



14- to 124 Spear Street, between Mission and Howard, ------ San Francisco, Cal. 

GRAPE BOXES, RAISIN BOXES, FlU DRUMS, ONE-POUND BLACKBERRY BOXES and PICKING BASKETS. 

;W AY UF» BOXES. IPTAY DO'WN PRICES. 



LEVI STRAUSS & CO., 

Pj,tent Rivetea 
Clothing, 

14 & 16 Battery St., 
San Francisco. 

These goods are specially 
adapted for the use of 
FAEMEKS, MECHANICS. 
MINERS, aDd WORKING 
MEN in general. They 
are manufactured of the 
Best Material, and in a 
Sviperior Manner. A trial 
will convince everybody of 
this fact. 
Patented May 12, 1873. 

USE NO OTHER, AND INQUIRE FOR THESE 
GOODS ONLY. eow-bp 




HEALD'S 



Business 
C o 1 1 e {r e 

24 Post street. San Francisco- 



The largest and best Business College in America. 
Its teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils 
are from the best class of young men in the State. It 
makes Business Education a specialty: yet its instruc- 
tion is not confined to Bookkeeping and Arithmetic 
merely, but gives such broad culture as the times de- 
mand. Thorough instruction is piven in all the branches 
of an English education, and Modern Languages are 
practically taught. The discipline is excellent, and its 
system of Actual Business Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladies' Dkpabtment. — Ladi' s will be admitted for 
instruction in all the Departments of the College. 

Telegraphic Depabtment. — In this Department 
young men and young ladies are practically and thor- 
ooghly Htted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
Street, or address for ciroulnrs, E. P. HBA.IjD, 
President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 



LEA & PERRINS 

CEI.EllHATK)^ 

WORCESTERSHIRE S.A5JGE, 

nECL.\REI) BV CUN^'OIS.SEl•Ks '10 BE 

THE ONLY^GOOD SAUCE. 

/« co?isequcnce 0/ Spurious Imila lions of 

Lea & Perrins Sauce, 

ivkich are calculated to deceive the Pulilic, 
i^EA y PERRINS have adopted 

A New Label, 

bearing their Signature, thus — 
which will he placed on every bottle of 

Worcestershire Sauce, 

after this date, and without which none 
is genuine. 

November 1874. 
*#* This does not apply to shipments 

' made prior to the date given. 

Ask for LEA ^ PERRINS' Sauce, 

and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle 

and Stopper. 

Wholesale and for Export by the 

Proprietors, Worcester; CrosseK^ Blackivcll, 

London. {3 e., iSc. ; and by Grocers and 

Oilmtn throughout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San Francisco. 



sa^]ee;psta.k:e;s thresheh, 




With all the Latest Improvements for the Pacific Coast, Manufactured for 

FRANK BROS. & CO. 

We will warrant every Machine sold to do Better, Cleaner and Faster Work than any 

other Thresher on the Coast. 

AU who are in want of Threshers should not fail to call and see the improyements that have been put on the Sweepstakes for the Harvest 
of 16 . We also have the Gary Power, to which wa would call sptcial attention. 



349 MARKET STREET- 



ifi^j^istk: bi^os. & CO., 



SAN FKANCISCO. 



Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fruit**: also for the sale of Butter, KgKt, 
Cheese, Hops, Green and Dried Fruit-v, etc., 7:i Warren 
Btreet, New York. Refer to ADlhony lialsey, Oashier 
TradesmeD'ft National Bank, N. Y. ; Ell wanger Jc Barry 
Rochester, N. Y. ; O. W. Reed, Sacramento, 0«l. ; h 
Lnak A Co., Paoifla Fruit Market, Kan Kranolsoo, Oal. 



KELLER & CO., 

IMLPOK-TER,!!!* A.TVD DEALER'S IIV 

AGRICULTU.RAL IMPLEMENTS, MACHINES AND FARMERS' TOOLS. 

FOUSTS' _ 

HAY ^ 
LOADER. _ 

The only Hay Loader 
in BucceBHiul use in 
the world. This Ma- 
chine luade from tire 
winrow, thus Buying 
the labor of cocking, 
and will elevate hay 
on to the wagon at the 
rate of a ton in three 
minutes. 

Hay Loader in Operation. 

HORSE HAY R.\KE8, DOUBLE HARPOON HORSE HAY FORKS, at 
prices paid other dealers for the Single Harpoon. 

Excelsior Mowers, Meadow Lark Mowers. 
Woods' Mowers. 

FISH BROS.' PACIFIC WAGONS, FISH BROS.' SPRING WAGONS. 

IJart>e<l "Wire Tor Fenolnif. 

We also furuibh the Barbs separate from the Wire. They can lie 
Attachtd to any Wire Fence, anywhere. 

The Buckeye Riding or Walking Corn Cultivator, 





FOXJ-*Tfe* HAY I^OA-OEIl. 




Barbed 'Wire for Fencing. 



MUUE SOLD EVERY YEAR THAN THE COMBINED 6ALES_ 
OF ALL OTHEKS. 

STRAW and FEED CUTTERS. 

wine and Cider Mills, 

Gorham Seed Sowers and Cultivators Combined, 

I*X.t>\VM niid IIA.TI«,0'WW. 

Everj thing bolouRlnK to the Implement trade. We import our 
own goods; have nu local agent. Parties sending direct to us save 
a large <'omm:H8lon. Address, 

KELLER & CO., 

43, 45, and 47 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 




* O 



^;^,-:;^_. 



Buckeye Com Cultivator. 



<3 



20 



3PA©i«l@ mSBAS :pm®S8. 



[July I, 1876 



QUeI^IES \^D F^EfLIES. 

Disease on Apricot Roots. 

Editobs Peem:— Can and will you tell me what to do 
tor my apricot trees to save them? Thlg spring I 
noticed one of them started to grow and then went 
back. I examined it sud saw that it was wet enongh. 
It finally died. A day or two ago I du« it up and found 
that the roots just under the ground, close to where it 
was budded, were grown orer with a sort of excrescence, 
similar to such as grows on oaks, on tbe body of the 
tree, and like the knurls on maples. It is a small tree, 
four years old, yet there were three bunches as largo as 
one's flst. I cut one open, but could not find any in- 
sect. As there is another tree near it, one side of which 
has commenced dying in the same way (and It is full 
of fruit), I examined it, and find like bunches on it. I 
chipped some of them off with a chisel. The trees 
stand in a rather heavy sandy, loamy soil. Thnre was 
a pile of ashes between the trees. Do you think it had 
anything to do with the matter ? Please tell me the 
cause and cure, if there be any.— 3. Whitmobk, San 
Diego. 

AVe are unable to give any light on this par- 
ticnlar case. Hive any of our readers similar 
experience to Mr. W. ? If so, what has it taught 
them? 

Soap for Scab. 

ErarOBs PBKfs:— I think I hare found a new cure for 
the scab on sheep, as I have not seen it in the Pre.s6. 
It is common soft soap. First scratch the scab with 
some small nails driven through a board and sharpened, 
then apply the soap with a brush. Good warm soap- 
suds is a good dip.— A. W. Boor, Tipton, Oal. 

The Drying Principle. 

EDrroBS Pbess:— Your Santa Risa correspondent, 
"Inquirer," who challenge- a discussion of the best 
sciebtific plan for fruit drying, can find the "Alden 
process,' ' to which he refers sneeringly, fully described 
in our circulars, a copy of which will be mailed to 
him upon application. We shall not here attempt to 
eater into a discussion of the difference between the 
Alden and other dritrs (several of which are clear in- 
fringements) , but beg to invite "Inquirer" to a careful 
perasal of our circular and of our "caution to pur- 
chasers of fruit driers," on page 396 of your paper of 
the 17th inst. The "higher law," by which Mr. Alden 
"holds his process." will be explained by the 0. 8. 
Court in the case now on trial in Michigan, and we ap- 
prehend "Inquirer" will not discover in the coming 
decision the kind of "light" he apparently most de- 
sires. —Alden FKtnT PBEaEBVING Co. OF CAL. 



Notes from Sacramento. 

Editobs Pekss: — Again we have fine, cool 
breezes, as if the fnrnace heat of summer had 
ended; but from the life and stir of business 
about the hardware and farming impleixteut 
stores on J street, we know the harvesting sea- 
son is just beginning. It is really astonishing 
to see the amount oeing expended for headers, 
steam engines, sulky rakes, etc. One house 
claims to have sold over 80 headers and reapers 
this season, and will probably run sales up to 
100 before the season closes. There is a large 
area of counties that seems to consider this the 
center or headquarters for farming machinery. 
Rotary Plow. 

Last Saturday morning Mr. Underwood, in- 
ventor of a new rotary gang plow, invited all 
interested to witness the working of his gang 
plow on land at corner of Tenth and W streets. 
Qaite an assembly of farmers and dealers was 
present. Tbe land was mixed sand and loam, 
light stubble with small )-taad of alfalfa. The 
plow cut two furrows, 12 inches wide and from 
four to eight inches deep, and was drawn by 
two large horses. The plowing is done by 
steel wheels, three feet ia diameter. Mr. 
Dnderwood claims very many points of advan- 
tage from the use of this plow over the ordi- 
nary gang, and seems ready to convince all by 
actual tesiing. Those witnessing its workings 
were mostly iiell pleased as to its workin;^ in 
moist, soft land, but not ready to insure it in 
all kinds of soil. The patentee seems to be a 
full grown, live farmer from the prairies, and 
proposes to show the truth of all he claims, 
and when this is done there will be a revolu- 
tion in ttie plow. Our dealers are very cau- 
tious, not willing to handle any implement 
before it is proven a success. The plow will 
probably be manufactured somewhere on this 
coast. 

Fruit driers are the next article in urgent 
demand by almost all the fruit growers — 
efficiency and cheapness the great desideratum 
— and almost every day brings some new claim- 
ant for excellence. They, like the plows, must 
show their merits, and also publish to the 
world what they have shown. Merit hidden 
from the public will not pay the inventors or 
serve the public. C. 

Sacramento, June 20th, 1876. 



The Presicient's Centennial Proclamation. 

The following proclamation has been issued 
Jane 26ih, by the President of the United 
States: 

This is tbe Centennial anniversary of the 
day on which the people of the United States 
declared their right to separate and assume 
equal stations among the powers of the earth. 
It seems to demand exceptional observances. 
The founders of the Government at its birth and 
in its feebleness, invoked the blessings of Di- 
vine Providence, and the 13 colonies' 3,000,000 
people have expanded into a nation in strength 
and numbers, commanding a position which 
then was asserted and for which fervent prayers 
were then offered. It seems fitting that on tbe 
occurrence of the hundredth anniversary of 
our existence as a nation, a grateful acknowl- 
edgement should be made to Almighty God for 
the protection vouchsafed our beloved country. 
I therefore invite the good people of tbe United 
States, on the approaching fourth day of July, 
in addition to the usual observances with which 
they are accustomed to greet the return of the 
day, further, in such a manner and at such 
times as in their respective localities and relig- 
ious belief may be most convenient, to make it 
manifest by some public, religious and devout 
thanksgiving to Almighty God for the blessings 
which have been bestowed upon us as a nation 
during the centennary of our existence, and 
humbly to invoke the continuance of His favor 
and protection. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my 
hand and caused the seal of the United States 
to be affixed. Done at the city of Washington 
this 26ih day of June, A. D., 1876, the one 
hundredth year of the independence of the 
United States of America. 

U. S. Grant, President. 

Hamilton Fhh, Secretary of State. 



A Fly Antidote. 

It is pleasant to have an antidote which is 
exceedingly agreeable to apply. For instance, 
we read that tiie Rev. George Meares Drought, 
writing from Ireland says: "For three years I 
have lived in a town, and during that time my 
sitting room has been free from flies, three or 
four only walking about my breakfast table, 
while all my neighbor's rooms were crowded. 
I often congratulated myself on my escape, 
but never knew the tea on of it until two days 
ago. I then had occasion to move my goods to 
another bouse, while I remaiued for two days 
longer. Among other things moved were two 
boxes of geraniums and calceolarias, which 
stood in my window, tbe window being always 
open to tbe full extent, top and bottom. The 
boxes weie not gone half an hour before my 
room was as full of flies as those around me. 
This, to me, is a new discovery, and perhaps 
it may serve to encourage others in that which 
is always a source of pleasure, and which now 
proves also to be a source of comfort, viz: win- 
dow gardening." We think the experiment 
worth making, even if it does not drive away a 
single fly. 



Semi-Tbopioal Fkdit Co. — We receive from 
Cbas. K. Hutton, secretary, a report of the 
business of Southern California Semi-Tropical 
fruit company, for tbe six months ending 
April 30th: "Tbe superintendent reports that 
the season has been very favorable for trees in 
the orchard and nursery, and the grain planted. 
Having tbe time to spare from tbe orchard, he 
has rented 30 acres adjoining it, and tbe crop 
of grain promises a large yield. There has 
been but little opportunity to sell trees from 
tbe nursery. Ou account of tbe great demand 
for money, trees have been put upon tbe mar- 
ket at any price they wonld bring. The sales 
havejamonnted to $66.50." Tbe company now 
has in its orchards a total of 5,331 trees: oran- 
ges, lemons, limes, almonds and walnuts. It 
has in its nursery 10,392 trees: oranges, lem- 
ons and limes. Tbe total number of acres un- 
der cultivation is 150. 



PATENTS & Inventions. 



A Weekly List of D. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Paolflo Coast Inventors. 

FbOU OFnoUL RKPOBTS FOB THX HiNIMO AND BOIE 

TiFio Pbkss, DEWEV k CO., PtTBLUHKBa aao 
D. S. km} FOBEiQN Patent AOENTe.) 

By Special Diapatch, Dated 'Waahinvton , 
D. C. Jvine 27th, 1876. 

Fob Week Endino Jdne 20th, 1876. 
Cabbubeters. — James T. Stewart, Los Angeles, 

Cal. 
Hollow Partition Brick -Jules Borie, Oik- 

land, Cal. 
Process and Appab.\tus fob Dbtino Fruit. — 

William B own, S. F. 
ENDLEiS Traction Kailwats. — Andrew S. 

Hallidie, S. F. 
Machines fob Sawing Shingles. — Frank A. 

Hantington, S. F. 
ricNsTBucnoN OF Wooden Tanks. — Edward M. 

Morgan, S. F. 
Beer Faucets. — Thomas C. Perkins, Brighton, 

Cal. 
Mechanical Movements. — Bobert Swarbrick, 

Oakland, Cal. 

UXDERORODND TnBES FOE PROPULSION OF CaBS. 

Andrew 8. Hallidie, S. F. 

Trademark. 

Liniment. — John H tlloway, Wad^worth, Xev- 

The patents are not ready for delivery by tht 

Patent OfBc« nntll some 14 days after the date of Issue. 
Note. — Copies of U. 8. aud Foreign Patents fumlshef 
by Dbwbt b Co., In the shortest time possible (by tel. 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All paten 
business for Pacific coast Inventors transacted wit) 
perfect secnrity and In the shortest possible time. 



Fairs in 1876. 



The Centennial (World's Fair), Philadelphia. Pa., 
from May 10th to continue till autumn. 

Mechanics' Institute Industrial Fair, S. F., begin- 
ning August 8tb. 

California State Fair, Sacramento, from Sept. 18th to 
Sept. 23d. 

The Southern District Agricultural Society, from 
Oct. 5th to Oct. Uth. 

Nevada State Fair, Reno, Nev., from Sept. 11th to 
Sept. 16th. 

Sonoma and Marin District Fair, from Oct. 9th to 
Oct. 16th. 

Oregon State Fair, Salem, from Oct. 9th to Oct. 10th. 

Northern District Fair, Marysvllle, from Oct. 9th to 
Oct. 16th. 



The Fourth in Stockton. — The citizens of 
Stockton have arranged a celebration wbieh for 
variety and novelty will be hard to beat. On 
Monday there will be a general decoration, 
with illumination and torchlight procession in 
the evening. On Tuesday there will be a grand 
parade undei Grand Marshal J. D. Peters. 
Literary exercises will be held at the corner of 
Commerce and Church streets. Hon. T. B. 
Buck ia PreBident of the Day, L. B. Noble is 
reader and Hon. Tbos. Fitch orator. In the 
evening there will be a display of fireworks. 
On Wednesday there will be a grotesque 
parade, a display of tbe fire department and a 
balloon ascension. 



Good Pbinting Ink.— We prefer Cbas. Eneu John- 
son's printing inks, having used them on this paper 
I for the past four years. H. S. Crocker k Co., printers, 
Btatieners, blank book and paper dealers, are John- 
son's 8. F. agents.— Dkwky b Co., Publishers. 

The Pacific Rubal Pbess— a paper chock-full of 
practical good sense and pood things — urges that a day 
iur tree-planting be set apart bv every Orange in the 
State, and suggests the Patrou's anniversary diy, De- 
cember 4th. as a suitable one to inaugurate this good 
work all over California. — Santa Barbara Press, Uar. 25, 



WooDW Ann's Gabdbns embraces an Aquarium, Mn- 
seam, Art Gallery, Conservatories, Tropical Bouses, 
Menagerie, Seal Ponds and Skatius Rink. 



Sheep Range Wanted, 

To Lease for two or five years; must give ample feed 
and water for 1,600 sheep, and be neai* shipping; point; 
preferred on railroad between Oakland and Stockton, 
but might do if in Santa Clara, Contra Costs, Solano, 
Napa, Souoma or Marin couniies, and near a landing; 
would like a small P^rt fit for raising hay; if sdjuining 
fenced land that could be leased for raisinir swine, so 
much the better; state lowest terms, also whether any 
sheep arc for sale on the range, of what kind and price. 
Address, SHEEP, Lock Box 736, San Franrigco. 



Reeler's Improved American Fruit Drier 




Stands at the head as a Family, Farm ar 
Factory DRIEK. It enables every man to 
bogs his own business and produce un- 
equaled rcgult?<. 



PUMPSI 



Th« Celebrated 

Sluthour Pumps 

Aa now Improved and manufactured in 
San Francisco surpass all others in Sini> 
plicity, Durability and ease of action and 
i;reat result*. 







RNAMENTALl iroixntai.»H, 
GOODS!*. I STATUARY, VASES. 



Aquariums, Rustic Chairs and 
Settees. 

IRON RAILING AND TREE GUARDS, 
stable Fixtures, Weather Vanes, 

Pumps, Engines iMachin'y 



J. M. KEELER & CO. 



Forwarding and Commission 
Eastern and Pacific 
Nos. 328 and 330 Sansome Street, 



Merchants, Agents for 
Manufacturers, 

San Francisco. 



PTJMIPS 



THE 



EXCELSIOR 



FORCE and LIFT 



PUMPS. 



THE BEST INiUSE. 



HOLBROOK. 



MERRILL & CO., 



A.GEIVT8, 



111 & 113 California Street 



-AND- 



17 Sc 19 DAVIS STREET, 



SAN FRANCISCO- 



July I, 1876. J 



s©i^^I© 



S. F. Mav^t ^Ef"oi\X' 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMBSTIO PRODUCE, ETC. 

Sak Fbancisco, Jane 28tb, 1876. 

Trade iB excessively dull, owing in part, most prob 
ably, to the near approach of the holiday week and the 
ran of warm weather. In Domestic Produce there is 
quite a etagnati^D and prices are reduced. Merchants 
are generally looking forward to a prolongel rest next 
week. The Governor has called for the cessation of 
business on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, and bis 
call will doubtless be quite generally observed. Some 
of the banks will close from Saturday at noon until the 
following Thursday, and we hear of a cessation of 
freight business by some railroads. The business 
world will take a rest and it is doubtful whether there 
will be any transactions to report next week. 
Somestio Produce. 

The following table shows the S. F. receipts of Do- 
mestic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, as 
compared with the receipts of previous weeks: 





Week 


Wkkk 


Week 


Week 




June 7. 


Jdnk 14. 


JnNE 21 


.June 28. 


Flour, quarter sacks 


83,107 


44,7-^4 


31,278 


12,644 


Wheat, centals 


29,158 


39,273 


62 921 


120,494 


Barley, centals 


27,166 


29,407 


30,618 


21,986 


Beans, facks 


296 


1,685 


1,012 


391 


Oom, centals 


3.713 


7,684 


5,010 


3,169 


Oats, centals 


3,638 


4.039 


1,250 


1,317 


Potatoes, sacks 


11,71.1 


13,357 


9,593 


11,972 


Onions, sacks 


766 


1,037 


824 


1,051 


Wool, bales 


4 022 


3,213 


4,226 


1,776 


Hops bales 


201 




65 


33 




1,627 


2,002 


1,369 


4,286 









There is some loading of Wheat for the English mar- 
ket. The Oakworth has gone to Vallejo to load Wheat 
for Liverpool. The Gold Hunter, Gfryfe and Respigadera 
are now there for the same purpose, and the Victoria 
Nyama is loading Flour there for Europe. 

Ranee of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool qaotation for Wheat to 
the ProiLUce Exchange during the days of last week has 
been as recorded in the following ta>^Ie: 



Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday... 



Cal. Atkbaob. 



9d®103 Id 

9d@10i Id 

9d@108 Id 

9d®10s Id 

8d®10s — 

8d@108 — 



OUTB. 



10s — @10s 6d 

10s — @10s 6d 

10s — @'0s 6d 

103 — ®108 6d 

9i 10d@10i 6d 

98 10d@108 5d 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date in former years as follows: 
Average. Club. 

1874 128 3d@12s 7d 128 6d@128 lOd 

1876 8s lOd® 9s 2d 9s 2d © 98 fid 

1876 9s 8d®108 — 98 10d@10s 5d 

The Foreigm Review. 

The telegraphed review of the Mark Lane hxjiress, 
dated Jnne 26th, is as follows: 

"The Wheat plant is now mostly looking healthy and 
pro-nising. There appears t < be a reasonable prosper t 
of a moderate if not a fair crop. The acreage is nhort, 
owing to the bad seed time, which rendered it neces- 
sary to sow many fields originally intended for Wheat 
with Beans or Barley. It appears probuble that the 
season of 1876 will be one of moderate crops, of fair 
quality, gathered at a somewhat later period than ordi- 
nary. The Wheat trade, sustained as it has been for 
some time by the Continental demand, and the possi- 
bility of political difficulties, has entered upon a phase 
of quiet, owing to the cessation of foreign require- 
ments and the diminished attention Eastern affairs have 
commanded. At the same timt supplies are being rap- 
idly pushed forward, and with the anticipated enor- 
mous California crop in the background, little proba- 
bility exists of prices advancing. A drooping tendency 
became apparent at the beginning of the week, and the 
fine weather, which has been pretty general through- 
out, haschecked the firmness which wag upheld by the 
consumptive demand. The off-coast Oram trade has 
ruled quiet, but a rather better demand has been ap- 
parent lor cargoes of Wheat, at a decline of about two 
shillings per qu'trter on last week's prices. No im- 
provement has taken place for forward xbipment, asthe 
supply off the coast 1b more than sufficient to meet 
present requirements, and the fine weather further 
tends to render buyers careless. Maize and Barley 
offer no new features." 

The War Cloud. 

Dispatches received Wednesday moriiiug from differ- 
ent European capitals indicate that the Eastern ques- 
tion is not answered yet, and there is still poSHibility 
of a general conflict. The coming week will doubtless 
throw viore light upon the subject. 

The Western Wheat- 
Dispatches from the prairie States speak of Injury to 
the growing Wheat. In Chicago discouraging reports 
are circulated regarding the ravages of the chinch 
bugs and tue Hessian fly in the Wheat fields of North- 
western Illinois and West Wisconsin, Northwestern 
Iowa and Southern Minnesota. In St Paul, Minn., 
numerous complaints are coming in from various quar- 
ters of serious damaze to the growing Wheat by un- 
favorable weather. Many correspondents and news- 
papers claim that not over half a crop will be raised. 
Freights and Charters. 
The past week, says the Post, has been dull and uuin- 
teresting as regards new Wheat charters. There are 
now so many vessels chartered prior to arrival that it 
is seldom that an available ship enters our harbor from 
a deep water voyagi disengaged. The freight ring, it 
is thought, are beginning to feel the first symptoms of 
a pinch that may annoy tbem further nu. Rechaitcrs 
at the present are known to have been made at a good 
reduction on the rates ruling during the two previous 
weeks. Snipping houses do not feel dispoi^ed to pay 
high freights, aod heuce even £ 1 5^ is not suthcieutlv 
low to induce thi-m to operate. Ships are still oflVr.d 
tbrough foreixn houses, but at rat s whi :b are far 
above the views of charterers. We have now iu p irt 
46 244 tons engaged for Wheat goading. Th'4 extct 
amount of tonnage on the way to this port up to the 
present writing 18 278.381 tons. Followini; are the en- 
gagements of the week: Ship Annie U. Smull. 1,582 tons, 
mdse to Liverpool in the Dispatch Line, private. Br. 
ship City of Lahore, 980 tons. Wheat to Liverpool, prior 
to arrival, private, ^t, ship M lulesdin, 1,402 tons, 
Wheat to Liverpool, prior to arrival, private. Br. bark 
Firlhof Forlfi,SSO tous. Wheat to Liverpool, £3 28 ed; 
Cork, U. K. £3 Ss. Br. bark McLeod, 63J tons, now at 
Victoria, Wheat and Salmon from Astoria to Liverpool, 
£3 13s 6d. Br ship Howden. 1.218 tons. Wheat to Liv- 



erpool, prior to arrival, private. Br. ship Swordjith, 
725 tons. Wheat to Liverpool, prior to arrival, £3 lOs. 
Br. bark Geo. Brnughlon, 823 tons. Wheat to Liverpool, 
prior to arrival, private. The disengaged tonnage in 
port comprises 18 vessels, aggregating 14,638 tons. 

Bagrs— There is much difference of opinion concern- 
ing the market for Wheat Bags. The Oceanic brought 
from Calcutta 370,000 Grain Bags, 102 bis Burlaps, 
equivalent to 102.000 Ba;s, and 17 bis Bigging. There 
have been sales of imported Grain Bigs recently at 
13?-4C, 60days. The quotable price at present is 13 }^c, 
four months, though some holders ask an advance on 
this rate. We understand that some old stock of Bur- 
lap goods, on band for two or three years, has been of- 
fered at 13 is c. Some dealers quote the market at 13 ',{ 
@13>ic, while others will report nothing in standard 
Hand Sewed less than 13^ic, with 14c for jobbing lots. 

Barley — New Barley has been arriving in large 
amount, and the market is heavy and weak at present. 
We note Bales: 950 sks old bay Feed, 95c, silver; 200 do 
new, 87)ic, silver; 7U0 do, 87JiSc; 400 do old bay, $1.05, 
half silver; 1,600 do new do, 87 ^ic; 400 do old coast, 90c 
^ ctl, both silver; 1,800 do new Feed, 80c, gold; 900 ctla 
new coast Feed, 85c, silver; 500 gjod do, at87>ic, hal' 
silver; 200 do, 87 ;<c, silver; 5.50 old Feed, 95c, silver; 
400 do, 95c, silver; 1,000 ctls bay Brewing, $1.15 Ijk ctl; 
350 do new Feed, 90c, silver; 500 sks new Feed, 87}^c. 
500 do do, 85c ^ ctl, both halt silver; 200 do do, 87>(Sc;' 
1,000 do do, 85c; 1,000 ctls old Feed, 95c, all silver. 

Beans — Beans are nominal in price. Beceipts are 
very light. 

Corn— Corn is steady and unchanged. We note sales 
of 380 sks large Yellow, $1.15. Small round corn is quo- 
table at $1,20®$1. 22 !«. 

Dairy Produce— Dairy Produce is dull and the 
trade shows nothing new. 

Eggs— Eggs are slightly improved, fresh Califor- 
nia bringing 28@30c. 

Feed— Hay is received in large quantities. There is 
much, however, of inferior quality which sells very 
low. The market generally is abundantly supplied. 
We note sales: 39 tons good Wild Oat, $11.50; 40 do 
Stock, $8; 56 do Stock, $7; 25 do Wild Oat, $9; 60 do Uir 
mixed, $10; 43 do good do, $11.50; 20 tons common, 
$7.50; 12 do at $7; 30 do at $8; 45 do Wild Oat and Clo 
verat $9; 39 do Wild Oat at $11; 25 do Wheat at $12; 12 
do coarse Barley at $7; 46 do common Wheat, $7.50@8; 
25 do choice Wheat, $12 Tfl ton. 

Fruit— The first carload of California Fruit of the 
season has been shipped from Briggs' orchard, Marys. 
TiUe, to Philadelphia. It goes through on passenger 
time. The contents of the car were 500 boxes Moor- 
park Apricots, 100 boxes Cherry Plums, June Plums 
and Pears, and 300 boxes early May Peaches. In this 
market there are a few changes in price, as given iu our 
tables below. 

Hops — We note sales of 10 bales Kusslan Ever 
Hops, 13c; 37 do do, at 12540. Emmet Wells reports the 
New York market for the week ending June Ifith as 
follows: 

"The trauBactions this week have been on a larger 
scale than for several weeks past, the shipments to 
Europe alone amounting to nearly 600 bales. Stocks 
are rapidly working down, and with rontinued ship 
ments- we will go out with a cleaner market in Septem- 
ber than for many years past. There is not much like- 
lihood, however, of an advance in the price while the 
growing crop continues as promising as now. There 
is still some complaint of the potato bug in the Madi- 
son aud Oriskanj Falls districts in this State; other- 
wise, our reports are generally encouraging. Foreign 
crop advices are rather unfavorable. The vine in 
England is spoken of as being very weakly, while in 
Germany the growth has been retarded by the cool, un- ( 
seasonable weather." 

Oats— The first Oats o( the season arrived during 
the week. One lot of 110 sks, from Pajaro valley, was 
of good quality; the other, 430 sks, from Napa va'ley, 
was inferior and mixed with Birhy, etc. They sold, 
low. The market is generally well supplied with old; 
and the new crop is so near that buyers are puroh ising 
in small lots. Wo note sales: 300 sks good old, at $2; 
200 ctls Feed, $1.75, half silver; 150 sks choice Feed 
$2.25; 50 sks good Feed, $2, gold, per ctl. 

Onions — Prices are generally unchanged. Silver- 
skins are a trifle better in price to-day. We note a sale 
of 45 sks choice Stockton at 87 He per ctl. 

Potatoes —The first consigument this seasou from 
Ouffey'a Cove sold at $1.12;^: Half Moon Bay and Mis- 
sion, 75c®$l, with a few extra at $1.10. Other sales 
are as follows: 150 sks New Beds and Early Rose on the 
wharf at 87)!;c@$1.25 per ctl; 3.50 do New Reds, 95 c@ 
$1.10 per ctl. 

Provisions— The demand for cured Meats is large 
and increasing, with prices showing an advancing 
tendency. Freah Beef and Mutton are abundant and 
low. Pork is lower. The supply is moderate and de- 
mand light. 

Poultry— Hens, Roosters and Broilers are cheaper 
than last week. 

Rye— Rye is in fair demand. Sales of 127 sks new 
Coast Feed at 170; 130 liks choice new, at $1.90 per ctl. 

Veg'etables— Watermelons are again in market 
A box of Bay Corn brouglit 35c per doz. Stockton and 
Sacramento River Tomatoes are beginning to arrive 
quite freely. Changes in prices of Vegetables may be 
noted in our wholesale list below. 

Wheat — Transactions in Wtieat have been lage 
and prices are generally lower. Wo note sales of new 
Wheat as follows: 3 400 ctls Shipping, July delivery. 
$1 50 per ctl; 3,500 dT, to arrive, il.o'ily, 1100 do, spot, 
$1.60; 600 do coast, $1 .47 H ; 600 ctls new Coast, $1 .47 )« ; 
600 ctls SbipplniJ, $1.60; 5,41'1 ctls choice Sliippinj,-, 
$I.I52^;; 8,1)00 sks choice new Shippiui;, alongside, $.100; 
2.000 do choice Stockton Milling, $1.65; 400 i^ks new 
Suporfine, $1.40. 207 ctl» new S n ira, $l.52;.j. U is re- 
ported that a greater part of the Wheat necessary to 
load the vessels under charter for July loading has 
been secured. la old Wheat there have been sales as 
follows: 500 sks good old Sauta Clara, at $1.62;<;; 147 
sks old Shipping, $1.G0, half silver; 300 do choice white 
Australian Milling, $1.65; 2,000 do do Stockton do at 
$1.65; 2.000 eks good old, $1.62i6. The best old Milling 
is quoted at $1.65®1.70 per ctl. 

Wool— Wool is unchanged. There have been sales 
at a range of 13®lg}<!c. Free Northern 1b quoted to-day 



at 16®20c, and free Southern at 12®16a. The tele- 
graphed report from the East is as follows: 

New York, June 24th.— The Wool market since last 
report has shown a fair degree of activity, and quite a 
large quantity of domestic has changed bands. This 
increased demand, without doubt, springs directly 
from the satisfactory result of the recent goods sales, 
for since then there has been a steady ioquiry from 
manufacturers, which goes to show that they still have 
confidence in the future of the market, aud are willing 
to produce so long as there is suflicient margin be- 
tween the price of the raw material and the manufac- 
tured article. Prices continue very steady, and th'i 
general opinion is that they have reached tho bottom. 
The sales for the week are 226 200 lbs soring California 
at 2ii@24c; 15,000 lbs fall. 12 k^'i^l.'Jc; 84,000 lbs fine East- 
ern Texas, 17®22c; 22 000 lbs Western, l:i®19c; l,'2O0 
fcs Lake, 22c; 7,000 lbs Georgia. 24}.i@25c; 1,000 lbs 
combing fleece; 40c; 3,000 lbs fine Western do, 3:lc; 1,.W0 
lbs Dutchess county. Mo., 37)^c,aud 24 000 lbs XXX 
Ohio do, 3,000 lbs tub washed do, 2,000 lbs scoured Cal- 
ifornia, 10 bags shearings, 51 bags No 1 pulled. 5 do, 
and 70 do super lamb's, on private terms. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

I WHOLESALE. 1 

Wednebdai m.. June 28, 1876. 

fll^erts 1.^ m 16 

Pecanuts i7 (ai 18 

ONIONS. 
Union City ctl. — ® — 

Stockton. — (3) _ 

.'Vew Reft 75 ^ I uu 

Silver Ski n.s 1 tWia 1 12,'t 

POTATOES. 
Petaluma.^cil. — ® — 

Salt Lake — (^ — 

Uumboldb — ® — 

Early Rose, new I OOoj 1 12;2 

Sweet — -a 

New poa I I2'j 

POIJJLTKY A eAME. 
Hena. perdz... S Co (o» On 

Roosters 7 .V) ta/9 00 

Broilers 3 .50 6)5 00 

Ducks, tame.dz 5 00 @7 01 

do Mallard — 

do Canvass. ... — 

Geexe, per pair 1 7.5 

Wtld Gray dz .i 00 

White 1 5U 

TiirltPvs, Live, lb 
do Dressed .... 

Quail, per doz 

Snipe, EQC.doz. 
Doves, per dozen Mi 

Rabbits I 00 m 00 

Hare, nor do';. 1 .5" 32 10 

PKOVI.SIONS. 

I'al.Bacun.L'i.lb 15'.^^ I(i 

do Medium... 14^ S 1.5 

do Heavy — @ 15 

Lard 14 (a) 16 

Ual.SraokedReef 9 ® Iu 

tsastern do - ® 10 

liaBt'rn Sbould's — (c^ 10 

Hams, Oal U @ U 

do Armour — 14^^'al 1.5 
do Worstei'a. liij^ii 17 
do Dupee's.. 16 ii Is 
do Davis Bris' 16>^3 17 
ISE£DS. 
Alfalfa, Chile B>. 8 @ 10 
do Oalifornia. 12 m 13 

Oanary 18 M 20 

OloverRed — @ 22 

do White .50 ® 55 

Gotten 6 ® 10 

Flaxseed —(ml 

Hemp 1254® — 

ItalianRyeGrasa 25 @ 30 
Perennial do.... 20 @ 30 

Millet 10 ® 12 

Mustard, white. ;t @ 3. 
do. Brown. ... 3 ® 3. 

Elapo 7 § 9 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 30 @ — 

do 'id quality.. 29 @ — 

Sweet V Grass.. — ® 75 

Orchard do 30 fa) 3.5 

KedTopdo... — Co) 25 
Hungarian do 8 !< 

Lawn do 50 ( 

Mesquit do... 20 i 

Timothy 1 i i 

TALLOW. 

Orude.^lli b;'4 

Bettned 8 U . 

W^OOL, ETC 
SPRING— 



«« - 



29g 



BEANS 

Bayo,*ctl 4 .5i)g5 00 

Batter 1 9 ui 25 

I'ea 1 92H'a - 

Pink 2 5Ua3 01 

Sm'l white 1 60al 9) 

Lima 1 90 '5 2 00 

BROOM CORN. 

Common,** B>.. 2 W 3 

Choice, do . . 4 (oi 5 

COTTON. 

Cotton, ^ tb l.i @ 18 

DAIRY PRODUCE, 
ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Oal. Fresh Roll 

per lb 22'-i@ 27,' 

Point Reyes — @ 30 

Firkin 22 la) 26 

W sfn Reserve. 16 @ 20 

New York — @ — 

CHEESE. 

Obeese.Oal., lb . . 10 

doOld - 

Eastern — 

EOGS 

Oal. fresh $ doz 

Ducts' — 

Oreeon 22>< 

Eastern 21 

FEED. 

Bran, per tun 

Corn Meal 27 i'l 

Hay 8 llO 

Middlings 24 UO 

OH cake meal ... 

Straw, ^ tiale... .50 

FEOXJR. 
Extra -iff, bbl.....5 50 rdl5 75 

Superfine 4 .'lO fai4 75 

Graham.'^ bbl..5 .50 (w — 

FRESU MEAT. 
Beef 1st quality lb. 5^ (V 8 

Second do.... 3^^ 4 

Third do iJioO 3 

Spring Lamb ids 5 

Mutton 2H.9 3 

Pork, undressed 6.''j^ 61^ 

do. dressed.... SiiH Vpe 

7nal 5 (ai 5>i 

MilkOalvos 6 foi 7 

GRAIN, etc; 
Barley,teed ctl 1 00 ((0 1 05 

do new 80 fa] 92'*. 

do brewing. 1 05 (^ I 15 

Chevalier I 25 ' 

Corn, White... I 15 
do Yellow.... I 15 

Oats, I 90 

Milling 

Rye 1 80 

Wheat snipping 1 5) 

do milling,. 1 (iO 
HIDES. 

Hides, diy lO ^ 

00 wet salted 6 ol 

HONEV, ETC. 

Beeswax.per lb.. 25 (di 

Honey in comb.. 12>^[cp 

do Strained.... 8 (d) 
HOPS. 



.•<S19 OU 
W28 00 
'313 Oil 

'g) 

®37 ,50 

'gt 60 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



WBOLK8ALE. I 




foj I 35 

m 1 20 

tl 17 '4 
2 ii 
(a) 2 30 
m 2 00 
<a>i 60 
;dl 70 



New crop 10 ft$ 

NUTS-Jobblng. 

A.lm'd8n'rd sh'l lb 8 igj 



13 



do, soft sh'l. 

Brazil do 

Oal. Walnuts.... 
Chile Walnuts.. 
Peanuts per lb.. 



10 

20' 

lb 

14 

12H 

10 



12 



Seedy, "pi lb — 
'celong t"ri 



Choice long tree 

do Northern. 

do short 

Burry 10 @ 

Oregon . 



9 ® 

17 i<8 

.19 m 

13 (0) 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



FRUIT MARKET 

Oranges Mex. %* 

M @ 

Tahiti, do 20 00413(1 00 

Cab do ® 

Ijimes, Mexican, 

* M 12 50g)20 00 

Malatra Lemons, 

%bx (9i 

Cal. 1* 100 2 OU:a( 2 51 

do Sicily Vi U'x. 9 00(ffllO 00 
Bananas, V bnoh 2 St):d) 4 00 
OocoanulB.fdOO. 7 00 (3) 8 00 
Pineapples, #(d2. — W — 
Apples, * box... 75 SSI 50 

do I'hoice — fdi — 

Apnocits, lb 2 r«l 3 

Blackberries.... 12' j i? 20 
Cherries. * lb. . . H (a) 111 

Tartarian 15 (a) 20 

Cherry Plums, box l^'ii) 1 Oi 

Figs ri^.ijl 18 

Gooseberries.. 5 (a; — 

Huckleberries... - (a) — 
Strawber's « ose 8 00 (ftlO 00 

Pomgranutes — ® — 

Raspberries 12'ii'^ 20 

Currants.^ case 2 I'Oaa 00 
Oranberrie3*bol.l3 iir@14 0' 
Peaones, ft box 1 00 § 3 00 
Pears, D* bx 1 UJ@1 5u 

do (Choice.... — (oi — 

Crab aoiiles, 1ft hx — 'ffi — 

DRIED FRUIT. 

Apples. 4t lb. 9 &li'4 

fears, %) lb 8 @13 



IWHOLESALE.i 

Wednesday m., June 28, 1876. 



reaches, ■#. lb 12 ®rj _ 

Aprlcois, * lb 14 (9l5 

Plums. W lb 5 fat H 

Pitted, ao *i lb . . .. 17 (mti 
Raisins, imported. 3 25 w'i 7.5 

Oal. Raisins 5 @ 10 

BlackFigs,^ lb.... 5 @lo 

White, do 12)s®16 

Prunes 12>ia»17 

Citron 28 m iO 

Zante Ourrants. 9 (ffi 10 

V EG ETA B 1, ES. 
Asparagus %4 box. . 1 5,1 a^2 2.5 

Beets !» ctl — '«> 75 

Oabbace. * loi) lbs. ti2'j'^75 
Oarroid, V lUO lbs . 75u( - 
Cauliflower, doz. . 50a) 75 

Jelery, doz .50 @— 

Oarllc. ^ lb 3>2a) 5 

Green Peas* lb .... 2(4 2'; 
(Jreen Corn itt doz.. 10 I 35 
Sum'rSquash V box.— ipjl 00 
Marro'Iat Sqsh.tn — (oj- 
Articholies.^ doz.. — ^— 
String Beans, ^ tb. 3 @ 3,'2 

Lima Beans — ^— 

Parsnips — @— 

Shell Beans — @ — 

Peppers, green, lb. — @50 

Okra — @- 

Ouoambers. 1«doz 10'<$ 20 
Tomatoes, box.... 60fi^ 75 
Egg Plant, box.. -(92 00 
Rhubarb lb 1 fm I'/i 

jettuce, doz \2',i'id — 

Turnips, pr ctl 75^ — 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 

Wednesday, m., June 28 



Butter, Oal. oh'ioe 30 (S37 
Cheese, lb 18 (^30 

Eastern 26 (oBO 

Lard. Cal., ft - W18 

Eastern ... 20 Wi25 

Flour, ex. fam, bl 6 '25 (a% '0 

i;orn Meal, H) 2',^{a! 3 

Sugar, wli. crsh'd 13,'i";il3'- 

do It. brown, lb 8 (^j 9'>. 
Collce, green, lb.. 23 



Bowen Bro. large 

can per doz — 5 00 

Small, do 2 50 

Bowen's Cream 

Tartar lb — 

I a I'd Oy8ier8.dz.2 00 
Syrno, S F.Gol'u. 75 
Dried Apples. ... 
Ur'd Gor. Prunes 
Dr'd Figs, Oal... 



Tea fioB bl', 50, 6.5,75 r^lOl'lDr'd Poaches.. 
Tea finest Jap, .'i.5. 7.5. tOaJIOi oils. Kerosene.. .. 
O ndl 8, Adman e IS-^i 2.5 Wines. Old Port 3 .50 
Soa , Cal., ».... 7 (?) 10 do Kr. Claret.. 1 00 

Rice, lb B la 2>s do Cal..d?;.bot.3 00 

YuHht Powderd/.. 1 -Vi igfi n .Vhisky, O K.gal.S 50 
. Brand > 4 00 




Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly bv StJTBO A Co.) 

San Fbanoisoo, Jun- '28. 3 P. m. 
liEnAL Tendebs in 8. v.. U a. h., 89>4 to 90. Silver 

7;^(*8. 

tJoLD in N. Y. 112 -x;. 

GoLn liABS, 880 to 890. BiLyEB Babs, 12 and 20 per cent, 
diflcount. 

Exchanoe on N.Y., 50-100 per cent.premiura for gold; on 
London bankers, 49; Oommercial, 49M; Paris, Uve Iranci 
per dollar; Mexican dollars, 9 per cent, disoount. 

London — Uonaola. 93 to <■:>(: Bonds. 102tf 

QaiOKSiLVCB in 8. F., b) the flksk, per ft, 47^(g48c 



Wednesday m., June '28, 1H76. 




BAGS. 

Eng. Stand Whl.. 13>i!ai4 
Neville A Go's... 
Hand Sewed.... 

24xan 

24x40 

Machine do 24x40. 

" 23x40. 

" 22x10. 

" 22x3«. 

Clonr Sacks Hs .. 

" ' '4» 

" %a 

Hessian BO-in \2'4m>\ 

do 4,Vin — &WA 

do 40-in .... 8'^ 59 
Wool Saok8,3;<;n>8. 45 "oiso 

do 4'. 50 @.52S 

Stand, itannies. .. H (^15 

single seam do.. — @- 

Bean Bags T-i(m S 

CANNED GOODS. 

Asst'dPie Fruits 
in 2^ lb cans. 2 75 @ 3 f.O 
do Table do... 3 75 @ 4 25 
Jams A Jellies 4 25 @ — 
Pickles H Kl.. — W 3 .50 
Sardines.qr hoil fi5 (a 1 90 

do hf boxes. 3 On ($ 

COAE-Jobblnif. 
Aastralian.lftton — ojlo 50 

Ooos Bay 8 00 (5)10 Oil 

Bellinsham Bay. @ 8 50 

Seattle 10 00 ■& 

OumberI'd -18 00 x'22 00 

Mt. Diablo 8 2.5 (am Ih 

Lehigh :022 Oli 

Liverpool 10 0(1 all 00 

West Hartley... au UO 

Scotch 9 00 'M\ «■ 

Soranton 13 00 @ie 00 

Vancouver's Ul.lO .511 @ 2 tv 
Charcoal, Wsk... 75(a) - 

Coke, ^bbl - @ 60 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island — 'at 21)i 
Costa Rica per lb 22'^@ — 



,1 6> 0)1 65 

1 90 (6D2 25 

. 47^4® 50 

. — (ol SO 

- ei '20 

.. — f<K a( 

. '25 'a) '21 

% 25 

(5 27 

% 27-* 

23 <& 25 

- '<S3 sa 

- «1 37^ 

37>t'ei — 

■ 101 25 



Sperm, crude. . 

do bleached 

Ooast Whales. 

Polar, refined.. 

Lard 

Oleophine 

Oevoe'a Bril't. 

Long Island — 

Kareka 2>i 

Devne's Petro'm 25 
Barrel keroxene 

Olive 

Downer Kerose'c 

Flilainu 

(»as LikM Oil 

PAINTS. 
Pure Wbiie Lead 9*. laim. 

Whiting ■ -■ ■- 

Potty 

Chalk 

PariB White 

Ochre 

Venetian Red... 

Red Lead 

Litharge 

Eng. Vermillion 
Averilj Chemical 

Paint, per gal. 

White A tint8.2 00 

Green, Blue A 
Oh Yellow.. 3 00 

Light Red 3 nfl 

Metallic Roof. 1 30 
RICE. 

China No. i '•M'di h% 

Hawaiian. 1ft lb.. 7><.2) -^ 
Carolina. i^ lb . . 10 "lO) 

SALT. 
Oal. Bay.per ion 10 OIkaM 00 

do Common.. 6 00(S) 7 00 
Carmen Island.. 12 00^1.5 00 
Liverpool flne. . 22 .50 0)25 00 

SOAP. 
Oastile lt*lb... .. 10 la 11)4 




— (4il 25 



(3)2 40 
|2U .50 

le^ .50 

@l 60 




Common brands.. W^Si 
Fancy do .. 7 @ 9 

CANDLES. 

Grant's W/^'ai 17 

Mitchell's 20 (a) 22 

SPICES. ^ 

_'= Oloves %« B) 45 lA 47Si 

0?«8'a 23S43 2«>« 

Citron 28 (a 30 

Nutmeg 9.5 ^ 97U 

Whole Pepper... ll^a l,u 

Pimento Itj % ijS 

Ur'nd Allspprdz — jai 12 

do Cassia do . . — (i^l .50 

do Clovesdo.. — ,^l .5(1 

do Mustard do — (oil 2(t 

Jo Ginger do.. — (gl OO 

do Pepper do.. — @| 00 

10 Mace do... — (aJ2 00 
Bowen's Pure 

Ground W lb — (0 60 



Guatemala 

Java — 

Manilla — 

Ground in cs — 25 

onicorv 27 

FISH. 
Sac.Ury Cod. new 4 

cases 6 

do boneless.... 

Eastern Cod 8 

Salmon in bbls..7 25 

do % bblsS 75 

do 2Ib cans. .2 -50 

no lib cans .1 35 

do Oo!. R. ^b.5 DO 
Pick. Ood, bbls.i2 no 
do X bblsll 00 
Mack'l.No.Li^bls 11 '0 i — 
Extra - i9l2 On 

" in kits 1 911 'att 25 

Ex mess. 351 134 1 

" Ex me.ss.^^^b.s— .^U 00 

Pio'd Herr'g, bx.. 3 00 % 3 .50 I Fine crushed 
Boa . Sm'l! 'dHer'»40 la 50 'iranulatau 

LIME, ETC. 
Lime, S'la Cruz, 

* bbl 2 OOJ) 2 '25 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale, do 2 7.5® 3 50 

do Portland do 4 7.5'.aj 5 .50 
Plaster, Golden 

Gate Mills 3 OOg 3 '25 

Land PJa^ter, f, 

ton 10 OO-oj? .50 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

PllIU - l<!) V/2 

NAILS. 

Assorted size, kei; 3 75 ((t4 00 
OILS. 



SUOAR, ETC. 

Oal. Cube per lb.. — @ 
'Jircle A crusned — ^ 
wdered. 

(5) 

- r<a 



Pacific Qlue (JO 
Neat F't No. 1,1 00 

Pure _ 

CastorOil. No I.. — 

Baker's A A — 

Oocoanut .52 

Olive Plagniol..5 50 

do Possel 4 75 

Palm m 9 

Linseed, raw.. , — 

do boiled — 

China nut in cs.. 65 



'lit 90 

ra - 

(SI 15 

lai 15 

(9 55 

Cold 75 

IS15 00 

@ - 

m 70 



,_ im 

'Jolden O — % lu>^ 



10 (31 M 
•25 



Oal. Syrupin kgs 
FlHwaiian Molas- 
ses 

TEA 
ooloQK.OaoLon.U) ly rt 
do Amoy... 28 ^ 50 
do Formosa 40 (Si 80 
(ir,pt)ii;il, Canton 25 
do Pmpauey 46 
do Moyune . fif) 
Gunpo'der,(Jant. 75 
do PiDiijaaey 
do Moyune. 
Y'ug Hy.,('antoD 
do Pins3uoy 
do MoyuDe.. 
Japan, Yt cheata, 

bulk 

Japan.lacqupired 

bx3,4Hand.s lbs 

Japan do, 3 tb bxs 

\o%h\ % paper 

TtJKPE^TlNE. 

lEastern 51>fi(g»*5 




LUMBER. 



CARGO PRICES OF 
REDWOOD. 



Bough, '■», M 

Rougn refnse, ^ M 

Ro'igh clear. * M 

Rough clear refuse, M.. 

Rustic, ^ M 

Rustic, refuse, ift M 

Surfaced, ^ M 

Surfaced refuse,^ M... 

Flooring, ^ft M 

Flooring, refuse, 1ft M . . 
Beaded flooring, fl M... 
Beaded floor, refuise. M. 

Half-inch Siding. M 

Half-inch sidini^, ref, M, 
Half-inch, Surlaced,M. 
Half-inch Surt. ref., W , 
HalfiHch Battens, M... 
Pickets, rough, ^ M.... 
Pickets, rough, p'ntd... 
Pickets, fancy, p'ntd... . 
Hbinzim U M ... 



»18 00 

. 14 00 

. 30 00! 

. 20 00' 

32 .50 

. -22 5': 

. 30 00 

. 20 00 i 

. 28 00: 

. 18 00 

30 Oil 

. 20 Oil 

20 00 

16 00 

v>5 00 

20 ^1' 

i0 50 

I 00 

13 01 

« 00 

3 01' 



PUOET SOUND PINK, 

- Retail Price. 

Rough, d* M 22 .50 

Fencing, 1« M 22 50 

Flooring and Step, ft M 32 50 
Flooring, narrow, ^ .M.. 35 Ofl 
Floorini,', 2d quality, M. .2.511 

Laths, 1ft M 3 50 

Fiirnne. IS lineal ft, ... — ., 

REDWOOD - Retail. 

Rousjn.l* ,« n 50 

Roujjh refuse, ■^ M 18 00 

Rough Pickets. $1 M. . , . 18 Ofl 
Rough Pickets, p'd, M.. 20' 

fancy Pickets, |l M 30 1 

Siding, % M 25 00 

Surfaced and Long 

Beaded 37 .5(1 

Flooring 36 00 

Do do refuse, 1ft M 25 no 

Hall-inch surfaced, M,. 32 .50 
Rustic, No. 1. 1> .M 

Utten.'i. "V lineal foot... 
ihingleslft M 



40 01 



BEWARE OF FIRE! 

The undersigned, having been appointed 

UCanai^er for that particular Branch 

of Insurance, is prepared to 

INSURE GROWING GRAIN 

And While Standing: in Stacks and Sacks. 

Cooipauies KepreHented: 

SVEA, of Gothenburg. Sweden. 
F.^ENCH INS. C0RP0RATI3N, of P-ris, France. 

LOCAL OFFICES 
AT PlilNCIPAL POINTS IN THE GR VIN-aUOWINO 
DISTKICrS IN ALAMEDA AND BUTTffi COUN- 
TIES AND SAN JOAliCIN VALIKY. THK 
BUSINESS WILL SOON BE EX- 
TENDED THUOUOHOUT THE 
GRAIN DISTRICTS 
OF THK 
STATE. 
RIA.1N OK'JPICli:, Stockton. C»l. 

OHAS. W. DOHRMANN, Manager. 



22 



PAQIFXC 



[July I, 2876 



Nurserymen. 



SANTA BARBARA NURSERY, 

*Located seven miles west of Santa Barbara, Cal. 
Depot, Cor. Montecito and Castillo streets. 
JOSEPH SEXTON, - - • Proprietor. 

CULTTVATOB OF 

Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Tree*. Also 

Orang'e, Lemon, Lime and Palm Trees, 

Pot IPlants, and Hardy Ever : 

g-reen Shrubbery. 



ISLAND VIEW NURSERY, 

B. B. Williams & Co.. - - Saata Barbara. 

Omamentsl Trees, Shmbs, and Flowers; Large Ever- 
greens, Araucarias, Pines, Cypress, etc.; Fine assort- 
ment of Camelias and Lily Bulbs consUntly arriving 
from China and for sale very cheap. Plants packed 
and delivered on the wharf for shipment, free of charge . 
B. B. WILLIAMS, Santa Barbara, Cal. 



BLOOMINGTON NURSERY, F. K. Pb<enix, Blooming- 
ton, 111. Price lists free, i Catalogues, 25c. 



Seedsmen. 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



OF EVERY VARIETY. 

Fresh and reliable, such a« experience and care only 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS. KENTUCKY BLUE 
GRASS, HUNGARIAN, ORCHARD, ITALIAN BYE, 
RED TOP, TIMOTHY, MESQUIT. SWEET VERNAL, 
CHOICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE CLOVER, 
BED CLOVER, Eio. 

Also, RAMIE, JUTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS: to- 
gether with a fine and complete collection of TREE 
SEEDS, AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOLA OIGAN- 
TEA, PINU8 INSIQNIS, Etc. 

For Bale, wholesale or retail, by 



B. F. WELLINGTON, 



(Successor to E. E. Moore). 
436 Washington St., San Francisco. 22vT-ly 



OKAiVT &^ ca.m:er.oiv, 

Seedsmen, 

MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA, 

Collectors of all Seeds of Trees and Shrubs indigenous 
to the Australian Colonies, including 

Blue, Red and Peppermint Gums, Acacias, Etc. 
LAW, SOMNER & CO., 

MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALU k DUNEDIN, 
OTAGO, NEW ZEALAND, 

Offer CollectlODB of Native Seeds, Including 
Blue, Red, and all other Varieties of Gums, Etc. 

•^Illustrated Catalogue free ou application. 



COMAIVSEY GI^A-t^Sii TOP 

FRUIT JARS. 

FRUIT 
IN CONTACT WITH 

GLASS ONLY. 

Elastic Pressure by Spring 
Clamps on Shoulder Joint 

The Screw Clamp turns 
freely on Cover and Inclines, 
and tightens the Jar quickly 
and is Easily Tested. 

Easily opened and closed, 
without wrench or tool. 

Every Jar being in- 
spected, there is no trouble 
In using. 

The Handsomest and Best 
Glass Lid Fruit Jar. 

COHANSEY GLASS MF'G CO., 

N. W. Cor. Third and Arch Sts., Phil'a. 
REDDINQTON & CO., 

Wholesale Agents, - - _ San Francisco, Cal. 




H. H. H. 

HORSE MEDICINE, 

Is gaining a wide spread notoriety. Testimonials from 
all parts of the coast show it to be a companion in 
evry family. It quickly removes Wind Galls. Spavins, 
Callous Lumps. Sweeny, and all bicmiabes of the 
horse, while the family finds it indispensable for 
Sprains, Bruises, Aches. Pains, and wherever a good 
liniment is required. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's, 

HtooUton, Cn,I. 



Agricultural Articles. 



J. W. CASSIDY'S 

FRUIT JORI E R. 

A New Invention, although Thorougrhly 

Tested, which Combines all the 

Improvements. 

We warrant a complete success in drying all sorts of 
Iruit and vegetables as thoroughly and more expe- 
ditiously than any other Ma- 
chine, for less amount of fuel 
by SS per cent , as we utilize 
all the waste heat which is lost 
by all other Machines. 

Its simplicity of construc- 
tion and iti cheapness will put 
it in the hands of all who may 
want a Drier. We don't pretend 
to ask from $1,200 to $1,500 
profit and royalty. We are 
willing that producers should 
make the profit and keep it. 
The Machine has been tested to 
our entire satisfaction, and met 
our most sanguine expectations. 
The fruit dried by our Drier 
was fully as good as that dried 
by any of the renowned Driers. 
We would say to all who con 
template pntting up Machines, 
that we can make it a decided 
inducement for all such to give 
ns a call, as we want to sell the 
entire right of the United States, State, County or 
Local, at such prices that the poor as well as the rich 
can use them. The capacity of the Machine will be in 
proportion to the size, ranging from 100 to 500 feet dry- 
ing surface. This dryer was more fully illustrated and 
descritied in the Rural Pbess of May 'iOth, 1876. Com- 
munications to T. F. BACHELOR.622Clay St, S. F., 
or to J. W. CASSIDY, Petaluraa, Cal., will be 
thankfully received and promptly attended to. 




Agricultural Implement Depot 

— AT— 

Watkins & Scott's Alameda Foundry, 

SAN JOSB, CAL. 



Agent for Walter A. Wood's New Iron Slower, Reaper, 
and tell-BinUer, Haines' Single-Gear Header, Improved 
Sweepntakes Thrrsher, and Uilky Rakes; also, the 
Celebrated Hevolvlug Sulky Rake, and the Champion 
ItC'VolviDg Rake, and the well known Tiffin B,volving 
Rake: La Bellu Farm Wagons, and Spiing Wagons of 
all descriptions. 

The atieution of farmers is particularly called to the 

New Revolving Sulky Rake. 

It has m(t an enormous sale at the East and in and 
around Sacramento. 

Al»o. all kinds of new and secondhand machinery 
for sale. Farmers and others will find it to be to their 
interest to call on me l)efore buying, as I am selling 
everything very low for cash. 

ORRIN TABEll. 




MERCHANT MILL FOR SALE, 

And 150 Acres Land. Turbine Wheel, 190 feet fall, 
M barrels per day. Good Home Market and Never 
falling Whter. 

8. A. POLLARD, 
San Luis Obiapo 



This cut represents a DERRICK AND FORK, for the 
purpose of supplying Grain in the Straw to a 
TiiRERHiNG Machine. The success of this machine is 
beyood question. It is a saving of EuiHT or Ten Dol- 
J.ARS PER Day over the hand fork mode. We also make 
Derricks tor the purpose of Stackikg Hay or Grain, 
which meet with great favor everywhere. Manufac- 
tured by iUATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 
Stockton, Cal. 



T ABEH'S 



IMPROVED HAY FORK. 



[Patent Applied For.] 



Is the mo«t perfect, and easiest operating derrick 
fork in existence. One man can operate it with the 
gr,'atest ease, as the strain of IllUng the fork causes it 
to grapple its load automatically, while a pull upon 
the releasing cord, when the fork has been lifted to 
the desired place, causes it to drop the load luhtantly. 

There is nothing- in tn« construction of this 
Fork that Is liable to gret out of order. 

Farmers will do well to examine this Hay Fork, as 
it Bives expense and greatly facilitates the handling 
of hay, grain and straw. Communications addressed to 

J. T. HOYT, Gen. Agent, 

SAN JtLATiiO, CAL, 
Win receive Prompt Attention 



VINE AND FRUIT GROWERS, 
To Raise Large Crops You Must Irrigate. 

To irrigate successfully, you must have the power that 
does not give out when the wind fails. 

Laufkotter Bros. & Churchman's Horse-Power 




[Patfnted Febbcast nth. 1872.] 
Never fails to supply more water than four or five Wind- 
mills, even supp:>8in2 you had all the wind you want. It is 
aUo suitable tur runninK light macliinerx. such as Barley 
Crackers. Corn Sliellers, Kanniiig Mills, Grain Separalors. 
or fur Sawini: Wood. Thev arc never failing, cannot net 
oat of order, ea'^ily worked, subntantial, ana always give 
satisfaction wherever they have been used. One hora,' can 
easily work two K-inch pumps wilh a continuous flow ol 
water. Force Pu'n|iK, Irom 3,niiO t'> lU.OOO gallons perbonr. 

WIND.MILLS of all kinds manuf.ictured to order. Wells 
Bured, Windmills and Ho'se-Powers eet in any part of the 
Stat«, aal repairing of all kinds done. 

Manutactured and lor sale hy 

LAUFKOTTER BROS., 
Cor. J and lOth Sts., Saoramento. 



JACKSON'S 

PATENT FEEDER & ELEVATOR 




For Threshing Machines. 

The most successful Automatic Feeder yet invented; 
it has had the severest testa in all kinds uf grain, 
long, short, wet or weedy, during the pabt sii years. 
There are over two hundred In use In the Sacramento 
valley. I will give full guarantee to puichasers 
Send for special circular. Address, 

BYKON JACKSON, 
Patentee & Uanufacturer. 
Woodland, Yolo County, California. 



MATTESON it WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 

Hatch In Stockton, In 1870. 

This Plow Is thoroughly made by practical men who 
iave been long In the business and know what Is re- 
juired In the construction of Oang Plows. It is quickly 
idjasted. SuflSclent play Is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It Is so constructed that the 
wheels themaelves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Qang Plow 
n the world. Send for circular to 



t4va-3m 



MATTESON A WILLIAMSON, 
Stockton. Cal. 



BUY THE t^TA.lVI>AIl.I> 




STUDEBAKER WAQONS. 

We keep the Ureatest Variety on the Coast, frcm 

Light Troiting Buggies to Six- 
Horse Team Wagons- 

£. F. AUES, Qen. Asrent, 
Send for Price- List. Sacramento. Cal. 



OAKLAND 

Spring Balance 

Gang Plow. 




Paleiiirii ami uiaiiiitai tured by H. N. Dalton at the 
Pacheco Agricultural Imfdement Works, Pacbeco, Cal 
Established in l>m. Send for Olrcnlsr and Price-list 



Powell's Electric Elevator. 




The great labor, time and money saving machine. 
This machine Is used in the harvest field t« elevate 
Crain, hay and straw from the header box to the stack, 
only a few seconds being required to elevate a large 
four horse load. The load is taken up in a center 
oppnlng nH or sling. Patented April 20tb, 1878. For 
description, circular and price list, address 

THOS. POWELL, Patentee, Stockton, Cal. 
Or H. C. SHAW PLOW CO., Stockton, Cal. 




The Famous "Enterprise 

(Pkbkis'r Patent) 

Self-Regulating', Farm 

Pumping, Railroad 

and Power 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixturrs. 

Have been in nse in Califor- 
nia for five years. Over "lOO 
sold in the towns and farm- 
ing districts of California. 
All Mills guaranteed. Send 
fur circulars containing sec- 
tional and other illustra- 
tions, and farther descrip. 
tion, to 

ISRAEL HORTON, Qen'l Agr't Pacific Coaat, 
Livermore, Alameda County, Cal. 



FAULKNER'S EXCELSIOR 

Portable Family Fruit Drier. 

^es.oo to ^T'S.oo. 

The Best, Cheapest and Only Practical Port 
able Family Frait Drier Hade. 



It will do as g3od work as any Drier. It can be used 
in connection with the cook stove or any small 
stove; may be run in the house or out of doors. 
Is very compact and plain In its construc- 
tion and simple In its management. 
A chi:d can attend to it. 



With this Drier every family can save their surplus 
fruit, and put it in condition to bring the cash or trade 
at the sttire. We have the world for a market : last year's 
stock is exhausted. There will be a ready sale at good 
prices for all you can make. 

Manufactured and for sale by E. T. STEEN, SI Besle 
street, where they can be eeen in operation. Also for 
sale by Messrs. STRONG i WILLIAMSO-V. «8 Clay 
street, San Francisco, and Messrs. W. R. 8TB0NQ 
& CO., 8 and lU J street, Sacramento. 

Ccunty Rights for 16 years for sale lew and on easy, 
terms by 

JAS. vr. FAULKNER, Patentee, 

31 Beale Street. San Francisco 



Marster's Self Regulating 

FEEDER 

For I'liretslilns Ataclilties, 

Is the only Feeder manufactured that feeds without 
moving all the str>w in a body, consequently gives a 
more regular feed than it Is possible to obtain with a 
draper feeder; It feeds the whole length of the cylin- 
der: it is easily changed to feed fatt or slow as desired; 
saves the labor of two men and does not require an ex- 
perienced tableman to feed it. The separator needs 
no all(rati-n with the (xception of the removal of feed 
board to secure It In position, and does not have to be 
taken off when moving. It requires but little power 
to ruu it, and has uocoiuplicated parts liable to get out 
of order. lis success having been fuUy demonstrated, 
I cordially Invite all parties interested to call and 
judge of its merits. For full particulars address 

E. J. UARSTERS, 

Stockton, Cat. 

Worts, Cornel Caliloruia and Sonera Streets. 



Dewey & Co. {bJSSst} Patent Agfs. 



July I, 1876.J 



23 



PT A "R,'\7" "FT', Sr-S' I 'TIKTr^ IVIOW ERS- Wood's Eagle , Peerless & CI 



upper. 



REAPERS —RUSSELL'S PEERLESS. 



I^-A.OHIIsrEI^^Z' 



HEADERS- Haines' Genuine Single Gear. 



SEPARATORS AND POWERS. 

^}]^£Qa,go Pitts. ''^''^ 'End and Side Shake, with Pitts' 10 and 12 horse-powers, the 
best aiid strougest machines in market. 

Steam Engines. 

ENRIGHT'S STRAW BURNER, the latest and best for utility and tconouiy. Capacity, 
15 to 18 horse. MANSFIELD PORTABLE ENGINES, for wood or coal; 10 horse. 



LYMAN'S SELF-FEEDER. 

Invented by a practical thresher. Best in the market. Price only $150. It surpasses all 
others in durability and simplicity of constraction. Can be applied to any Separator in a few 
hours, and taken oflf in 15 minutes. It is guaranteed to give satisfaction or no pay. 



FULL SUPPLY OF ''EXTRAS" FOR ALL OUR MACHINES. 

Linforth., Kellogg & Co., 

Nos. 3 and 5 Front St., San Francisco, Gal. 








^mmi^ 



Buckeye Dloiver and Reaper. 

Xhe most perfect, the most relia>l>le, laiicl most durable Harvester ever 1>iiilt. 

1SS,000 in use on the Pacific Onast. Every farmer using them will hoar (fstiraony to their unequalled nicrits, 
They will do hotter work and will ouil>ist two of almubt every other make of machine. 

,,^ Farmers, SUIT A BUCK^TTJi: in preference to all others. 



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HAINES' SINGLE AND DOUBLE GEAR HEADERS. 

We offer a Header to farmers, this season improved far in advance of Anv Header in (lie nnarkot and one we can 
WARKANT IN EVEKY KESrECT.' 





SCHITTTLEE FARM WAGON. SCHIITTLER SPRING WAOON. 

Superior In strergth, durability, and lightness to any wagon mannfactured. Warranted to rua lighter 
and wear longer than any wagon in America. 

MARCUS C. HAWLEY & CO., 

Fan Franofs'o and Secramento. Sole Agents for the Pacific Coast. 



Farmers, Take Notice. The Most Important Invention of the Age. 
THE ENAMELED STEEL BARBED FENCE WIRE, 

I»a,tontoa l>y J. IP. Gr>ir)l>EN. 




The GLIDDEN PATENT BAKU WIKE buK been tcHted by thousanda of practical farmers, who universally 
recommend it. We ask you to try it for the followinK, among other reasons: 1. If it does not answer the recom- 
mend, you can return it and your money will be refunded. 2. It is the cheapest and most durable fence made. 
3. It takes less posts than any other fence. 4. It can be put up for one-quarter the labor of any other fence. 
6. Cstile, mules, and horses will not rub against and break it down. 6. The wind has no effect upon it, and tires 
will not bum it uo. 7. Stock will not jump over or irowd throuKh it. 8 Your crops will be safe as far as fence 
is concerned. 9. You will know where your stock Is by night as well an by d»y. 10. You can draw enough in . 
buggy to fence lf>0 acres, ond two men can put it up in two days. 11. Becanse it 1b what every farmer need^. 
12. Because it was inrented by a practical farmer and you will say, after a fair trial, it is the BE9T FENCE IN 
THE WORLD! 1.3. The change of seasons has no effect upon it— it being twisted, holds its tension. 14. The 
wire is manufactured entirely from I'teel, which has a relative strength of over 30 per cent, greater than that of 
any common iron wire. 15. The only steel coppered wire barb. 16. The only barb that cannot be displaced 
with thumb or Snger, or cattle's horns. 17. The only barb with prongs projecting from between the twisted wire, 
and cannot be bent, broken, or lubbed off, and never need replacing. 18. The only coiled barb with broad base 
on nnain wire, which renders it immoval)le. 19. The only barb wire which, during process of manulacture, 
its strength is tei-texl equal to that of two-horse power. 20. The only barb put on by machinery— it is n"l 
pounded on with hammer and indented in main wire to hold its place. 21. The only barb wire tha*. givct 
nulversal satisfaction, and has greater sale than all others put together. i^Be sure and ask for the QI.HJDK^ 
Patent Basb Wire. Enquire of Hardware and Agricultural Dealers. Samples sent free of charge by addressing 

aOJVfIS, GIVENH &■ CO., 
general Atrenta for the Ooaat. K and 10th Streets, Sacramento. 



THE CHAMPION FRUIT DRIER. 

The Cheapest, Most Economical, and the Most Rapid and Easily Managed 
Fruit Drier in the World. 

Drying Fruit and Vegetables 
has become one of the depart, 
ments of labor and profit 
among the industries of Call- 
fornia, and we invite Fruit 
Growers to come and see our 
CHAMPION FRUIT DRIER, 
and test it with any kind of 
Fruit or Vegetables before pur- 
cbasiug. 

This Drier consists of a Sheet 
Iron Furnace, from five to 
eight feet long, and two feet 
high, with a partition running 
horizontally six inches below 
the top, on the inside, the full 
length and breadth of the fur 
naee, except a space of five 
inches at the bacft end. Be- 
neath this partition the fire Is 
kept, the heat of which passes 
to the back, and there turns in 
a ranse upward through this 
five inch space, and passes be- 
tween the partition and top, 
back to the front end of the 
fninace and ont of a chimney, 
rising above the chest of 
drawers. 

Thisarrangeiupntcompletely 
equalizes the heat at each end 
and all along the top of the 
furnace, so that no one drawer 
is, at any time, hotter than the 
others. 

The attachment to hold tho 
fruit for drying consists of a 
box or chest of drawers made 
wide enough to set out on each 
side and end about 15 inches 
from the furnace, and it is 
inclosed with tongned and 
grooved lumber, except space 
th front for tho furnace and 
on eacii side for the drawers to 
pass in above the furnace. 
This Chest is lined two feet high on the inside with sheet iron, and two tiers of drawers come in from each 
side, supported by pieces passing from one side across the top of, and one foot above the furnace to uprights 
on the other, and meet in the center over the furnace. The bottoms of these drawers are made of wire cloth, on 
which the fruit is laid for drying. Over the center of each tier of drawers is a hole four inches square in the 
top, with a Plide to keep it open or closed, as the case may require, and through there openings the hot air 
passes in a continuous current from the furnace below. The space in front, not filled by the furnace, is closed 
by apiece of sheet iron fitted over and down on e»ch side, and to this piece there are two ventilators at the 
side of the furnace where the fire is hottest, to admit air. These two are the only pla'es where air enters, and 
it is made very hot by the heat of the furnace, as it enters and pssses rapidly up through the fruit in the 
dnwers, and out at the ventilators at the top. This simple arrangement keeps a constant current of hot air 
passing through each drawer, which keeps it in the most rapidly drying process. 

The chest of drawers is from four feet high to as high as desired. The drawers occupy about fotir Inches 
space in the hight of the chest, and are about two feet deep, and 34 inches wide, and hold 25 pounds of fruit. 
But fruit will dry faster by putting in 12 pound.s, and as it dries out a little, double it up. The machine can be 
built to have from 12 to 108 drawers, and will dry from 1,000 pounds to five tons per day, of green fruit. 

We can dry any kind of Fruit or Vegetables in from one and a half to eight hours, and our machine is well 
adapted for drying Meata and Hops. This Dryer was thoroughly tested on the 32d of May, and many orders 
were taken from the Fruit Growers that tested it. 

PRICES!: 

No. 1.— 12 Drawers, drying 1,000 lbs. of Green Fruit per day $110,00 

No. 2.— 32 ■• " 2.000 " ' " lliO.OO 

No. 3.— 48 " " 4,000 •' " " 280.00 

No. 4,-108 " " 10,000 " " " " " " 640.00 

Orders must be sent to 

J. M. KELLER, 

Of the firm of Keller & Co., J St., Sacramento City, Agent for California 
Parties wishing to purchase can test it with any kind of Fruit or Vegetables. 




THE CHAMPION MILK PANS 



Space Occupied ia Room, 
Depth. Capacity. Etc. 



No. 


Space e.ich 

net 

ocoupie*". 


Oap'y of 

<'ach Dpth 
Pan.^ 


n 1 3 t.^'"°-i°d'"'|''^ ""''"='• h '"• 


' ir'^lll^^j;d^e|'8«al'r,s.|« in. 


2 U!.^^.■'■;i%|2■.«al•n».|8.,in. 


^ |4 "'s" wide h^ «»!•"»• 1' *-• 


4 


1 » rt B in. I'll!.' 1 J- „„i-„. 1 7uin 
1 4 " 11 " will'- 1 *■ 1 ''»'"• 


i 


»^!Vi^Ji3^| 5-l'n..|8 in. 


«l"'V'!'j:i!;;l«"<«>'-h'*- 


"Four pin-) in -et, 



NUTTING & WILLARD, 

SACRAMENTO, CA',,, 




;RAND0LPH; 

:>^ATT. cb.i<.Y; 



24 



JK>;^©0* 



rjuly I. x876 



OUR CENTENNIAL CAMPAIGN. 

THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS WITH PREMIUMS 
FOR $4. 

Ten Thousand New Subscribers! 

We ought to add 10,000 new names to onr 
gabscription list this year. There are twice 
that number of reading farmers on this coast 
who should yet receive the Pacific Bdbal 
Fbess, and who would read it to their pecuniary 
as well as intellectual profit. W# are going to 
try and enlist a larger army of readers; not 
by getting out one or two good numbers of 
onr paper and then running it "thin" the rest 
of the year, but by keeping up superior matter 
and improving the quality of every issue. That 
is to say, by furnishiog 

A Better Paper and Greater Inducements 

Our late rates were established some two 
years ago, when there was this difference i." 
what we furnished each subscriber then and 
now: 

1. Each subscriber paid his own postage. 
Now it ia prepaid out of onr pockets. 

2. The reading matter, like that of most 
other weeklies, was largely set leaded (with 
open lines) . Now it is set mostly solid, fur- 
nishing the subscriber at least one-fourth more 
reading in a column. This costs more for edit- 
ing, composition, proof reading, etc. 

3. Formerly we issued the paper (like othei 
16-page weeklies printed on tbis coast) uncut. 
Now it is stitched and trimmed, ready for use 
on any page, and iu a proper form for preserv- 
ing it (or future reference. This also costs us 
much extra labor and expense. 

Now, makins the most of our improved 
facilities, and 20 years of constant experience 
in editing and publishing industrial news- 
papers on this coast, we are determined first 
to publish an agricultural and home journal 

Worth its Full Price; 

Besides this we propose to furnish Valuable 
Fbemiums Additionai, to Eveky Subscbibkb, 
and therefore will give, from July Ist, 1876, 
until further notice, the following 

New Terms for Subscriptions. 

PBEMIUM A. 

With the Pacific Rural Press, (two volumes 

a year, comprising 416 pagea each) postpaid, anew 
Utbograpbic Uap of California and Nevada, 
of band; size, 16x20 inches— showing the official 
township lines of the surveyed lands of Oalitornls. 
and the three flne plate engravines entitled 
"Burial of the Bird," the "Flower Gatherer" 
and "Paul and "Virginia," all postpaid, cash in 
advance, for $4-00. 



PREMIUM NO. 2. 

With the Pacific Rural Press one year, the 
above named Map, and a really Choice Chromo 
(descriptioa of which we will publish as early as the 

first of July,] all postpaid, for $4.00. 

PREMIUMIINO. 3. 

With the Pacific Rural Press one year, the 
Map, and "The California Patron" (a monthly 
official journal, P. of H.,) and the choice of two of 
the flne plate engraving's—" Love," " Truth" 
and "The Christian Graces,"— all postpaid for. $4.00. 
PREMIUM fNO. 4. 

With the Pacific Rural Press one year, 
Dewey's Patent Newspaper Fil«! Holder 
(black walnut) and the Map of Californi-i and 

Nevada, all postpaid, for $4.00. 

PREMIUM NO. 5. 

With the Pacific Rural Press for two years, 
the Map of California and Nevada, to any 
single address ia the U. S., all in advance $6.00. 

PREMIUM NO. 6 
With the Pacific Rural Press for six months, 
the Map of California and Nevada, post- 
paid $2.25. 

PREMIUM NO. 7. 
We will allow one dollar on the first order, 
amounting to Ave dollars or upwards, for other pub- 
lications than our own (including books, paoers 
and magazines not sold exclusively by a&;ent8) which 
may be forwarded to us with the coin by any yearly 
subscriber of the Pacific Rural Press. 

PREMIUM NO. 8. 

We will credit every present subscriber of 
the Pacific Rural Press with three months, ad- 
ditional suMcription for the name of each new sub- 
scriber they send us with $4 during the next six 
m Dths. The new subscriber to be fully entilled to 
premiums. 

PREMIUM NO. 9. 

With the Pacific Rural Press (to a utw sub- 
scriber) 12 months, one map and 13 assorted 
back numbers of the Rural, postpaid (to any 
address), for 4. 00 

These terms are payable strictly in advance. 

Advance bubscriptions. in actudl clubs of 
five or more (without premiums), will be re- 
ceived at former rates until further notice. 

Persons claiming premiums must ordar posi- 
tively the number of the premium they desire. 
Otherwise, premium No. 1 will be sent. 

Subscribers can have their premiums sent to 
any person they choose in the United States. 

One dollar a year must be added for postage 
on papers sent to foreign countries. 

All premiums will be delivered either imme 
diately or within 30 days from our receipt of 
the order. 

Present subscribers can avail themselves of 
either of the above premiums simply by ad- 
vancing their subscription one year or more 
beyond the date of their application for a 
premium . 

No premium will be allowed on any subscrip- 
tion not paid fully one year in advance. 

For one dollar extra, received from any sub- 
scriber, we will forward to his order the pre- 
miums enumerated in either the above numbers. 

These terms are liable to be changed, accord- 
ing to circumstances, at any time. 



Contents of Pamohlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S. Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 

\ Map of California and Nevada: The Public 
Landd; The Land Districts: Table uf Rainfall in Cali- 
fornia: Counties and Their Products; Statistics of the 
Sia'e ut Large. 

Instructions of the U. S. Land Commls- 
sionera- — Different Classes of Public Lands; How 
Laud.-, may be Acquired; Fees of Land Office at Loc^i- 
tion: Agricultural College Scrip; fre-emptiona; Ex- 
tending the Homestead Privilege: But One Homestead 
Allowed; Proof of Actual Settlement Necessary; Ad- 
joining Farm Homesteads; Lands for Soldiers and 
bailors; Lands for Indians; Fees of Land Offige and 
Commissions: Laws to promote Timber Culture; Con- 
cerning Appeals; Returns of the Rej^ister and Receiver; 
Concerning Mining Claims; Second Pre emption Ben- 
efit. 

Abstract from the U. S. Statutes —The Law 
Concerning pre-emption; Concerning Homesteads; 
Amendatory Act Concerning (Timber; Hiscellaneons 
Pn>vi6lonB: Additional Surveys of Land for Pre- 
emption; List of California Post Offices. 

Published and sold by DEWET & CO., S, F 
Postpaid, 50 cents. 



GEO. B. B A YLE Y, 

IMPORTER AND BEEEDEK OF 

._ Jersey Cattle, 

Choice Poultry, Etc. 

OAKLAND 
Ponltry Ytirclisi, 

Cor. lUtfa and Castro Streets, Oaklaud. 

Send stamp for circular, containing a full description 
of all the beet known and most profitable fowls in the 
country. 

Q. B. BAYLET, 
P. O. Box 659, San Francisco. 




SEEDS 



RUTA BAGA and other TURNIPS 

Of our own Raising. Our Motto Is 

Ijow JPrioes and Illerbi Quality. 

Farmers can obtain supplies by Mail direct, post, 
paid , at smal 1 charge. Send Postal Card for List of 
Prices. 

DAVID LANDRETH & SONS, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Jeaquio Co., 
Cal., Breeder of Improved Berkshire Swine. 



Seeds. 



Seeds. 



Yellow Flint Corn. 
I Beet Seed. 



IMPORTED. 

Crosby's Extra Early I 

Marbl«head Mimmoth \ STrrn/if V,t\Vr\ 

Stowell's Evergreen [ *0>'t/r/l UUl U. 

Mexican Sweet, New I 

Early Canada 

Early Dutton 

Lon« Red Manuel Wurzel 
Vellow Globe 
White Sugar 

ALSO, EVERY DESIRABLE VABIETT OF VEGETA 

BLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, ORA83 AND 

CLOVER SEEDS, ETC., OFFERED AT 

WHOLESALE OR RETAIL. 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

No. 817 Waahington Street, 
▼8-tf 8AN FBAMOISOO. 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer in 




FLOWERING PL.\NTS AND BULBS, FRUIT AND 

ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 

DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 

INGE8, GARDEN HARD WARE. 
Comprising the Most Complete Stuck 

EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 
Prices Unusually Low. 

K^Trade Price List on application. 
*,*My "Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden" 
will soon be ready, and will l>e sent fber to all Ccb- 
TOHKBH. U will contain instructions on the culture 
of Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Tree Seeds, Tobacco, 
Alfalfa, etc. 

R J. TRUMBULL, 
419 and 421 Sansome Street S. F. 



THt June 17th number of the Pacuic Rceal PEuae 
has an illus'ration of sheep corrals and dip on the 
Cotate ranrho, Sonoma county. It is well worthy the 
attention of wool growers.— 5ou(A«r/i Cali/omian. 



ba_ke;r & h[a^m:ilton, 



7 to 1 9 Front Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

The "Pitts Genuine" 

HORSE POWERS 

Are the Only Horse Powers Made 

that can be Relied Upon. s£^^ 

They are all used with 
"CHENEY'S PATtNT BRAKE." 



FACTORY : 

Sweepstake Plow Co., 



PIIICE& IlEr>TJCEI>. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue and Price Lists. 




^ -^/syie^yxt^ jsifnti 



THE GENUINE BUFFALO PITTS. 



9 to 15 J Street, 

SACRAMENTO. 



ALL TUR 

Genuine Buffalo Pitts 

IIOIH-JE I»OWEll-» 

HAVE 

"Cheney's Patent Brake." 

So that wh^-n the Machine is In 

Operation the Driver can Stop 

the Horses in case of an 

Accident. 

THE PITTS HORSE POWER IS THE ONLY 
POWER ON WHICH A BRAKE IS USED 
OF THI3 KIND- 



FARMERS. ONLY BUY THE BEST, AND YOU WILL FIND IT THE CHEAPEST W THE END. 

THE BAIN FARM AND FREIGHT WAGONS 

Are Superior to any other Wagons made. They are all Warranted, and 
will stand the Severe Tests of the Climate of California. 

TIBE8 8E0UEED BY OVAL UEADKH 
RIVETS, AND FEL! OES ALL RUN THROfGH 
BOILING LINSEED OIL. 

K'o::e bat the Most 

EXe'ERIENcED WORKMEN 

EuiploycU b\ ILl- Altmifaiiuiiirs. 
None Oenuine unless Stamped with 




THE BAIN FARM GEAR UNLY. 



EDWARD BAIN, 




THE BAIN WAGON WITH CALIFORNIA STAKE RACK. 



Sole Agents, BAKER & HAMILTON, San Francisco and Sacramento. 

DEALERS IN HARDWARE AND AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS 







Volume XII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 8, 1876. 



[Number 2. 



American Forestry. 

We printed not long ago a note of the organi* 
zation of a national society for the promotion 
of forestry. The objects of the society, as an- 
noanoed, were the collecfioa of accurate statis- 
ticB concerning forest planting and growth, and 
the promolion of every effort to encourage the 
planting and preservation of the forests. The 
society is apparently in full sympathy with the 
movement in progress in this State and which 
we trust will not weary until our hills are 
crowned and our valleys shaded with thrifty 
forests. 

We print on this page a map of the United 
States drawn with especial reference to t'le 
forest areas. The 
regions in which 
the different 
classes of forest 
trees grow are 
marked according 
to the explanation 
on the margin of 
the engraving. 

As one looks at 
the immense areas 
in which trees 
flourish, it appears 
cleariy that there 
is no Incte of nat- 
ural adaptation to 
the growth of 
trees. Alore than 
this, one must take 
into con -idi ration 
the wide stretches 
of prairie lands on 
which the trees 
should flourish to 
the comfort and 
profit of the has- 
baodman. We 
trust the National 
association of (for* 
estry will accom- 
plish much good 
m developing the 
timber and shade 
producing re- 
Bouices. 

As we call this 
subject to mind 
and show how 
vide a timber lot 
pertains to Uncle 
Sam's farm, we 
shoald also call 
attention to the 
Rapid Destruction 
Wnich is being 
made of the val- 
uable possession. 

Some of the figures given to show the enor- 
mous annual consumption of wo 3d are 
startling. For example: The l)Comotives on 
the railroads of the United States annually con- 
sume as fuel as much wood as would repre- 
sent 25 years' growth on 350,000 acres. In 
order to supply the railroad ties used annually 
npoD the roads now ia operation, the timber of 
30 years' growth must be removed from 68,000 
acres of the best natural wood'and. The 
telegraph lines now in opt ration require for 
repairs that at least 250,000 trees be out 
annually. Even the manufacture of such in- 
significant things as shoe pegs and m-itches re- 
quires in the aggregate a great deal of lamber, 
amounting in the former case to 100,000 cords 
of white birch, and in the latter to 230,000 
cubic feet of the best pine. An estimate has 
been made that "during the 10 years between 
1850 and 1860, 30,000,000 of acres of forest 
coveredjlaud were cleared in the United States 
for agricultural purposes, or 10,000 acres a day 
for each working day during that time." These 
are some of the least tbought-of drains upon 
our timber supply, and yet how large they are. 
If we but bring to the estimate ^the enormous 
consumption of wood for fuel and timber for 
building it will be difficult for the mind to grasp 
the annual redaction of the tree census of the 
country. 

The Beneficent Effects of Forests. 

Forest culture has progressed so far in some 
parts of the world that we are able in some de- 



gree to appreciate the influence of the forests 
upon the climate and productiveness of the 
regions in which they prevail. We desire to 
present a few facts in this connection. Let us 
ioatance first the value of the shelter against 
injurious winds. According to M. Becquerel, 
the physicist, who had investigated this sub- 
ject, perhaps more than any other, in the valley 
of the Rhone, it is found that a simple hedge, 
six feet high, is sufficient protection for a dis- 
tance of about 50 feet. The clearing of the 
Appennines i*! thought to have considerably 
ftffected the climate of the river Po, in Italy. 
Mr. Geo P. Marsh, quoting from an Italian 
publication, says: "In consequence of the 
fe ling of the woods on the Appennines, the 
Sirocco prevails greatly on the right bank of 
the P'l; in the Parmesan territory, and in 
Lombardy, it injures the harvests and the vine- 
yard-; .sometimes even ruining the crops of the 



tore." Similar effects have resulted from plan- 
tations made in B Igium. 

In an article publii^hed in the Revue des Deux 
Mondes, quoted by the same authority as be- 
fore, it is said: "A spectator placed ou the 
famous bell-tower of the cathedral of Antwerp 
saw, not long since, on the opposite side of the 
Scheldt only a vast desert plain; now he sees a 
forest the limits of which are confounded with 
the horizon. Let him enter within its shade. 
The supposed forest is but a system of regular 
rows of trees, the oldest of which is not 40 
years of age. These plantations have ameli 
orated the climate which had doomed to steril- 
ity the soil where they are planted. While the 
tempest is violently agitating their tree-tops, 
the air a lit'le below is still, and barren sands 
have been transformed under their protection 
into the most feriile fields." 

In 0Prtnia districts of Sweden where the 



Spates, shown in our map, California has the 
smallest proportion of woodland to her whole 
acreage; while some S'ates have a percentage 
as high as 50 and 60, California has but five. 
Thus it appears tbat there is good call for out 
activity in tree planting, and we trust that each 
recurring year will see more and more of our 
waste land turned to profit by the planting of 
a salutary and valuable growth of trees. 

Aqua Tibia. 

We lately called attention to an advertise- 
ment of an estate for sale in part in San Diego 
county. Alluding to the same property, the 
San Diego Union says: After a hot afternoon's 
Tide, our party of three arrived about snn-et at 
" Aqua Tibia," the residence of Mtjor Lee H. 
Utt, whore wa met a hospitable rc-eotion frotn 
the Major and bis 
1 1. 




THE FoBEST AND PRAIRIE LANDS OP 



i^eason. To the same cause we may ascribe the 
meteorological changes in the precincts of 
Modena and Beggio. In the communes of the 
districts where formerly straw roof s resisted the 
force of Che wind, tiles are now hardly suffi 
"ient; in others, where ti'es formerly answe ed 
for roofs, large slabs of stone are now insuffi 
cient; and in many neighboring communes the 
grapes and the grain are often swept off by the 
blasts of the south and southwest winds." 
Ihere are other instances on rocord where the 
planting of numerous shelter-belts has relieved 
the inhabitants of southern E^iropa from the 
ravages of the dreaded Sirocco. Mr. Marsh 
gives several instances much in point. Ha 
says: "The following well attested in.itance of 
a local change of climate is probably to be re- 
ferred to the influence of the forest as a shelter 
from the cold winds. To supply the extraordi- 
nary demand for Italian iron occasioned by the 
exclusion of English iron during the time of 
Napoleon I, the furnaces of the valley of Bur- 
gamo were stimulated to greater activity. The 
ordinary production of charcoal not sufficing 
to feed the furnaces and forges, the woods were 
felled, the copses cut before their time and the 
whole economy of the forest deranged. At 
Piazzatore there was such a devastation of the 
woods and consequently Bucb. an increased 
ievetity of the climate that maize no longer 
ripened. An association, formed for the pur- 
pose, effected the restoration of the forests and 
maize flourishes again in the fields of Piazza- 



THE UNITED STATES. 

• 

woods have been cut away the spring comes 
about two week later than formerly. There are 
numerous instances on record where the cli- 
mate of a place has been materially changed 
by clearing it of trees. Spring is thus retarded 
and earlier frosts appear in autumn. 
Trees In California. 
We expect to see, when the National society 
compiles its statistics, that California stands 
foremost among the States which deserve 
praise for tree planting. During the last few 
years there has been a widespread spirit of 
tree planting, and seedlings have been put in 
by the million. We are introducing new ir ps 
and have found many which are admiiably 
suited to our climate and soils. We have 
experienced also the beneficial effects rf shelter. 
In some of our southern counties rows of trees 
hold back the ocean winds and render the pro- 
tected orchards doubly fruitful. Our market 
gardeners work behind a wind-break of their 
own planting and secure very early growths of 
vegetation. By the beauty of trees many a 
barren waste has been transformed into a grove 
and many a hot highway has been made an 
avenue of grateful shade. But still there is 
room for wider planting and we look with real 
favor upon any movement which will promote 
the good work. According to the census of 
1870 the amount of woodland in the United 
States was about 380,000,000 acres, and the 
whole area of the country, improved and un- 
improved, was 2,311, 5i4,959 acres. Of all the 



accomplished wife. 
The situUion is a 
beautiful and e>trik- 
ing one. A level 
bench of 30 or 40 
acres, descending 
very abruptly in 
front 100 feet or 
more, then sloping 
gradually to the 
San Luis river, a 
mile away; back of 
ii the steep ridges, 
deep gulches and 
pine clad peaks of 
Smith's mountain, 
one of the longest 
and highest ranges 
in the county, ex- 
tending from 
Warner's ranch 
westward 23 miles 
to the Temetula. 
The house (stands 
right on the edge 
of the Sleep decliv- 
ity overlooking the 
valley It is a 
long, low, white- 
washed structure 
of adobe, with an 
esplanade built out 
in front of it, and 
was partly built by 
the old Indian 
chieftain " Manu- 
elito," many years 
ago. It looks at a 
dibtance like one 
of the castles on 
the Rhine. Back 
of it is a level pi'ce 
of ground, irri- 
gated by one of 
the clear rushing 
mountain streams, 
and well improved with fruit trees, vines, 
alfalfa, gardens, etc. There are some 
immense fig trees, the largest in San Diego 
county. One feature of the place is a warm 
mineral spring, which gave the name "Aqua 
Tibia." meaning tepid water, to the place. 
Over it is a bath house, and a dip in its soft 
water is very refreshing after a hot day's ride. 
Major Utt has a large apiary, and the range of 
feed is very fine, plenty of white sage and other 
honey producing plants. The house commands 
.i very extensive view up and down the river 
for many miles, with high rough mountains on 
either side; the green oottonwoods and syca- 
mores along the river, the bright ribbon of 
water shinins; in the broad bed of sand, and the 
mountain ridges covered with black looking 
brush or clumps of pines. It is a very roman- 
tic and striking sit uation. 

BcTBr.Ai's^irTPHrLADBi.PHiA.— In answer to a 
request of ours, Mr. D. M. Locke made inquiry 
in Philadelphia for burlaps. He reports that 
dealers say there are no burlaps manufactured 
there. Mr. Locke writes that 40-inch 10^^ oz. 
burlaps are quoted at seven and one-half cents 
per yard; 45-inoh (same quality) eight and 

one quarter ce nts per yard. 

FiBST Jdnb Cakoo op New Wheat.— W. A. 
Halcomb & Co. finished loading the Winged 
Hunter on Tuesday, June 27th, with new 
wheat. This is the first full oarge of new 
wheat ever shipped from this port in June. 



26 



,WBJ.m IPEESS, 



[July 8, 1876 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Botanical Excursions. 

[By J. O. IjKmmom.] 

No. 3.— The Big Trees Revisited— Criticisms and 
Consequences. 

" Mail ! Webber l»ke mail ! ' ' 

The trapper's voice was never more welcome. 

'■ Come down, come in," I cried, flying to 
the door and throwing it wide open . 

Leaving hie snowsboes np on the high white 
platean, he descended by the ice-floored steps 
cat in the snow to the porch, and tossed a large 
package of letters and papers into the room. 

To the devotee of a science whose better 
prosecution often requires months of secluded 
study amidst out spread subjects, scarcely a 
visitor is endurable save the mail carrier. 

While eagerly discnssing the local news with 
the weary mountaineer, I placed substantial 
food and a cup of hot cofifee before him, then 
as eagerly seated myself to devour my letters. 
Beserving those from the good Dr. Gray until 
the l»st, I tore away envelopes and reveled in a 
right royal feast. Messages of rempmbrance 
from soul-knit friends in the valley below, lisp- 
ings of love from the left and lone, tokens of 
friendship from comrades on late excursions, 
careful inquiries from devotees of the amiable 
science of botany, propositions to exchange 
specimens from new and distant correspond- 
ents, warm congratulations from patrons who 
know of the long struggle and its glorious re- 
ward, messages of cheer from eminent and 
venerable scientists. Oh, the feast was a full 
requital for the long dearth which gave it zest. 
At last I reached the viands — the double-sheeted 
letter from Dr. Gray. His letters always thrill 
me with emotion. In brief, but plain terms, 
they reveal the warmest heart, the kirdliest 
intf rest, the most helpful self-denial. Reverently 
I drew the sheets from the envelope and read, 
first, a report of my last flowers sent him. With 
quickened pulse I noted the new species found, 
and read the comments thereon and the names, 
conferring more honors upon assisting friends. 
Next came suggestions as to territory for fur- 
ther research, practical directions for gathering 
valuable seeds und plants, then congratulations 
upon past successes, hopes for tbe future, and 
envyings of my opportunity to roam thd Sierra 
at will in summer, then to retire to Webber 
lake and study in winter, etc. 

A length I reach the words, "I lately read 
your ' Scenes in the High Sierra.' " (My heart 
throbs violently at thought of tbe high compli- 
ment.) " They please and interest me." ("Tn- 
multous emotion, expressed by springing from 
my seat and capering around the room.) "They 
are racy and artistic." (I^cstatic delight! 
chairs, tables and libraries are surmounted, and 
I perch upon a high cabinet.) "But," he 
continues, "in your graphic description of the 
Big Trees, like California writers in general, 
you fall into a great error." (Heart stops 
with a pang!) "Over 3,000 years old!" he 
quotes. "Did yon count the rings?" 
(" Fool that I didn't! " I hits, sliding down to 
tbe sofa.) 'Did von ever see any one who 
didV " ("That lying report of Hittell's!" I 
gasp, jumping to tbe floor and stamping a 
figure of the carpet.) " It is only writing large 
alter the fashion." ("Consternation!" I cry, 
sinking upon the sofa.) " That is an over- state- 
ment" ("Horrors!") "which I have been fight- 
ing" ("Zounds!") "for the last 25 years." 
(Speechless I roll upon the floor.) 

• • ♦ # » • 

Going For the Facts. 

The summer following, that is, in 1875, 1 took 
a trip of 400 miles to revisit the Big Trees, count 
their rings and bring away sprays, cones, seeds, 
bark and wood sections for the Centennial. I 
visited several groves, closely examined hun- 
dreds of trees, especially giving attention to the 
fallen and shattered monsters, generally larger 
than living trees of the same grove. 

The great Sequoias are monsters indeed for 
size and magnificent in their columnar appear- 
ance; they are well worthy a trip across the 
continent to behold, but why exaggerate their 
age? The truth is strange enough. "Over- 
statement," Dr. Gray mildly puts it. It is, 
indeed, a wonderful deviation from tbe truth 
when to large figures we add double their sum. 
From this time forward I must help tight the 
"over-statement." The battle will be loug and 
fierce, no doubt, for the story of 3,000 or 4,000 
years is very proudly related and never ftils to 
excite interest; and it is repeated in nearly 
every guide book for tourists, moreover reiter- 
ated by eminent travelers and close observers, 
including John Muir, than whom none gives 
us such charming views of mountain scenery, 
such picturesque forest studies. But let the 
truth always be told, searching for it, if need 
be, under the most deceptive appearances. I 
scold myself daily because, for want of time, I 
took the figures of reputed authorities and gave 
currency to the big story of the Big Trees. Let 
me retract so much ot last year's "Scene II, 
The Big Trees" us was carelessly based upon 
their reported great age of 3,000 or 4,000 years, 
and substitute the following cold facts and 
estimates. I substitute the true figures cheer- 
fully, gladly, triumphantly. The big trees are 
but 1,200 to 1,500 years Old, and I am glad they 
are not older. There is ]>roud satisfaction in 



the thought, but let me repress my joy and its 
reason for the present and proceed with the 
cool facts. 

At the Big Trees. 
On the 1st of September, 1875, I arrived at 
the famous Mammoth Grove of Big Trees in 
Calaveras county, and at once commenced 
careful observations. 

First, a quiet, reverential walk among the 
tall fluted columns, my spirit dumb with 
wonder, my mind raised to sublime concpp- 
tions, ray reason almost persuaded that any 
large story of the great Sequoias must be true. 
Bound and round, in and out among the vast 
trunks the well-worn path leads. Here and 
there a long flight of steps enables the visitor 
to reach the upper side of the fallen trunks, 
where a most impressive view and delightful 
promenade may be erjoyed. Marble slabs im- 
bedded in the soft bark, high up on each tree, 
bear its name and generally the initials of the 
namer. Near tbe road, almost tbe first to greet 
the visitor approaching from the north, stands 
a group of noble trees bearing the names of 
Henry W. Longfellow, Prof. John Dana, Dr. 
John Torrey and Prof. Asa Gray. During this 
first half-day of silent gazing, I found myself 
frequentlv returning to this group of scientists 
wiih a sublime poet added, and trying to com- 
mune with the master spirits they commem- 
orate. During my last call a cone from the 
lofty crown of "Prof. Asa Gray" fell at my feet; 
eagerly I seized it and wrapped it in paper ; 
1 nother and another followed. The squiirels 
were harvesting, so the seed mn t be ripe. I 
drew my army revolver and fired a round of six 
cartridges up into the crown, rewarded by the 
fall of a limb bearing a dozen cones. As I 
bore away the beautitul little cones with their 
tiny, parsnip-like seeds, I thought bow much 
this precious fruit symbolizes those richer 
fruits which that other Professor Gray showers 
upon all who but ask his bounty. Hard at 
work in the great herbarium at the Cambridge 
university, he is devoting, perhaps, tbe last 
herculean energies of a life filled with toil to the 
completion of our C<tlifornia Botany. Receiv- 
ing no salary while on this extra work, and 
hiring assistants in special fields, he toils 
almost incessantly, ever the master mind to 
direct research, ever the umpire to decide 
knotty points, yet ever the kind patron, ready 
to turn aside, examine the plants of tbe youug 
collector and help the humblest applicant for 
knowledge. 

Then the good doctor's tenacity for frutlf is 
so strong! No big stories for him, no flights 
of fancy, no careless writing! I think of this 
with bated breath, compressed lips, clenched 
hands and firm tread as I prepare for work in 
earnest on the morrow. 

Age of the Big Tree Stump. 

The stump of the very large tree which was 
bored off with pump augers in 1852 to form the 
floor of a house, affords a fine opportunitji for 
counting, since it is so evenly smoothed off, but 
still more time is necessary to do it accurately 
than most observers allow themselves. This 
tree should certainly be considered a fair sample 
of tbe oldest of the present generation, for it is 
one of the largest ever seen. Its circuit at base 
is 97 feet by my tape line, held at one end by a 
Puritan and master builder from Boston. 
Longest diameter without bark, five feet above 
the base, 24 feet 10 inches. Suortcst diameter, 
22 feet eight inches. The bark averages 18 
inches in thickness, making the entire longest 
diameter of the tree at five feet above base, 
over 27 feet. A few other trees are met with 
measuring as much or more at base, but they 
Hre generally swollen outward and hollow like 
the shaft of a light house. This monster tree 
was as straight and sound as a candle, hence it 
was undoubtedly the largest perfect tree ever 
yet seen. 

I spent nearly a day counting the rings of this 
stump, and of tbe butt cut of the tree lying 
near it. I counted carefully both ways, putting 
in pins to mark the place of hundreds. The 
stump being a little irregular in consequence of 
its near roots, I counted in three places along 
three equidistant rays. Tbe first count was 
1,200 rings, the second count was 1,258 rings and 
the third count was 1,2G1 rings— average age, 
1,260 years. Counting on the butt, cut 24 feet 
from the base, the rings were of course a few 
less, 1,242 in number, out all very plainly dis- 
cernible, and presenting exact uniformity in 
their decrease in thickness from heart to 
bark. I availed of this uniformity of decrease 
by establishing, after many counts of different 
trees, a rule for determining the mean numb r 
of rings to tbelinearfoot, and fixing the locality 
on a cut across these trees where the rings 
are of average thickness. That point is jutt 
one third of the distance from tbe bark to the 
heart. At the heart the grains are often three- 
eights of an inch thick, at the bark as thin as 
paper. The average, as determined by count- 
ings of all the logs in the grove which have 
been cut across, some halt dozen or more, 
clearly established tbe rule that the rings of aver- 
age width are found one-third of tbe way from 
the bark to the heart. This rule proved very 
useful afterward in estimating age of broken 
trunks. 

Age of "Hercules." 

This monstrous tree was leveled to the earth 
by a gale in 1802. His body has been repeat- 
edly cut across by an ingenious device, and the 
timber manufactured into relics and carried 
away. He was 285 feet high, and now measures 
14 feet in diameter 25 feet from his roots. A 
careful count of his ring-i showed only 1,232 
years. Eighty-eight of these rings, the aver- 
age number to the half foot, just covered the 



space of half a foot t>t the distance of two and one 
third feet from the bark, which is one-third the 
way to the heart, as seen above. This tree is 
often reported as over 3,000 years old. 

Leviathan, 
Another prostrate monster, is about the same 
size, being 270 feet long, and 14 in diameter, 
but nis body is not cut across or so broken as 
to reveal his rings. 

The Father of the Forest. 

Armed with the rule, derived as above stated, 
on the third day I approached the shattered 
trunk of this famous tree, fabled to have sprung 
from the earth soon after the deluge of Noah, 
over 4.000 years ago. 

This huge patriarch has been shamefully 
overrated every way — his size given at 40 feet 
in diameter and his length at 450 feet. Exact 
measurement shows the diameter as only 18 
feet at a distance of six feet from bis roots, and 
his length about 300 feet. His trunk is broken 
or burned out in places, thus exposing cross 
sections where the rings of annual growth may 
be examined. With a hatchet and sharp knife 
I smoothed spaces of wood in three places, 
widely removed from each other along the 
trunk, but each one-third of the distance 
between the bark and heart, and there- 
on counted |one foot of rings, with the re- 
sult following: First count, GG feet from roots, 
232 rings; second count, 186 feet from roots, 
254 rings; third count, 210 feet from roots, 276 
rings. The diameter of the tree at each place 
must be considered, and is as follows: First 
place of counting, 12 feet; second place, 11 
feet, and the third, 10 feet. Now the estimated 
whole number of rings (age), at each place is 
obtained by calculating, viz: 

232xA, Bemi-dismeter at Ist place 1,392 Rings 

2S4x.'SJ<, " ■• 2d •• 1,342 '• 

27Ci5, •■ '• 8d " 1,380 "- 

Adding these products and dividing by tbe 
number of counts, the average of rings (age), 
is 1,371 J^ years only. Probable full age at 
base, 1,500 years. 

One oft-repeated story is true, however; that 
of a passage through a pait of bis body large 
enough to admit horsemen. This passage 
burnt out of his heart commences at a point GG 
feet from the roots and extends 120 feet, com- 
ing out where was once a knot-hole, now en- 
larged by relic seekers to a wide doorway. I 
saw several ladies ride horses of medium size 
through this wooden tunnel, and one day while 
passing, riding one of my hor.-ies and leading 
the other packed with bulky specimens, I 
turned into the cavity and rode safely through. 
The ceiling overhead is four to six feet thick, 
so the grand promenade fur visitors above is 
perfectly safe. 

South Park Grove. 

This grove contains about .500 trees, some of 
them of tbe largest class. One, the home of 
"Trapper Smith," is avast swollen trunk at 
base, 90 feet in circuit and 30 in diameter. The 
"Livery Stable," which has received 22 horses 
at a time into its hollowed base, is 84 feet in 
circuit, and the "Primitive Church" is 81 feet. 
A fallen tree is 15 feet in diameter 20 feet from 
the roots. A cavity is burnt in it sufficient to 
comfortably shelter 25 or 30 horses, or to afford 
the passage of a Concord coach aLd its fuur- 
horse team for over 200 feet. Another, near 
"Trapper Smith's Cabin," and used by the 
tourists as a temporary shelter for their horses, 
is 16 feet in diameter and hollowed for a long 
way. These are certainly fair samples of the 
largest Sequoias both living and fallen, and the 
dimensions above given do not materially differ 
from some published statements, but counts 
and estimates of their rings reveal only 1,200 
to 1,500 in number. 

Other groves visited afforded exactly corrob- 
orative evidence, that though the dimensions, 
being easily determined, are often given accu- 
rately, tbe age has been generally grossly ex- 
aggerated. 

As late as February last the writer saw a 
specimen of Sequoia in the Central Pacific rail- 
road collection at San Francisco for the Cen- 
tennial exhibition, which was sent from the 
Calaveras Mammoth Grove, and is marked 
"four thousand years old." 

Triumphant Conclusions. 

Now I firmly believe with Dr. Gray that this 
is an "over-statement," and, as I said, I am 
glad that it is such. Let India with her 
banian tree — which by the way is a mass of 
trunks, not a single one — take the jialin for 
growth of 4,000 years, let African baobab trees 
reach back still nearer to the Garden of Eden, 
let Palestine boast of her cedars of Lebanon 
growing since Moses' time, and let Australia 
piesent upon every exploration by the close 
observer trees of undeterminable ancient origin; 
all these trees of tbe old world almost, without 
exception, are slowgrowing, fine-grained, 
stunted, gnarled, decrepit, unsightly old relics 
of past ages — only interesting because of their 
great age. 

The famous baobab, Adat^onia digitnta, is 
the largest in circuit at base of any tree yet 
known, but it is only 70 to 80 feet high. The 
cedar of Lebanon, with annual layers, so fine 
that a lens is neoesnary to dislingnish them, is 
similar in shape, tbe trunk an abruptly taper- 
ing spike. 

Now all observers admit that tbe California 
Big Trees, with their vast straight fluted col- 
umns, 200 to 300 feet hit^h and tbeir immense 
crowns of finely divided, evergreen branches, 
are the most symmetrical and magnificent in 
form, the tallest and actually the largest in di- 
mensions of any yet known in all the world. 
How satisfying to the pride of a true American, 
to reflect upon the inference derived from this 



comparatively new fact— formerly a most un- 
welcome one to the thoughtless, insomuch that 
loyal Californians prove their loyalty by declar- 
ing their belief in the great age of the Big 
Trees; hence the warfare to which Dr. Gray re- 
fers, and the great but pardonable assistance 
given to the erring side by eminent writers 
through their praiseworthy love of country. 

But science always searches for the truth. 
Sooner or later the facts will come to be be- 
lieved and they are always best. And the truth, 
in this case so long repressed, is most welcome 
because it gives foundation for the most rea- 
sonable and enthusiastic loyalty. Why, these 
grand giant trees are mere vigorous saplings 
yet, only 1,200 to 1,500 years old! Ages hence 
full-grown trees may be seen 50 feet in diame- 
ter and 1,000 feet high, only limited by the 
proximity of brother trees and the depth of 
tbe valleys where found. We can't expect them 
to be so unneighborly as to choke their broth- 
ers to death, nor to rise above the leveling 
winds that sweep over the canons of the 
Sierra. So let the old world pride itself upon 
old things, old nations, old creeds, old arts, old 
customs, old monuments; we of America re- 
joice that this is a new, unfinished world, with 
yonog yet colossal vegetable growths, strange 
yet beautiful animal forms, modern yet match- 
less peoples, adolescent yet fnll-fruit-bearing 
institutions, unprecedented yet unimaginable 
destinies ! 

"For still the new IranscendB the old. 
In deeds and wonders manifold." 

Finishing Centennial {Work— Adieus. 

Dear reader, again adieu for a reason; my 
other excursions for 1875 were short runs here 
and there for isolated plants, and a flying trip 
late in the season through these beautiful 
northern valleys again, just to collect the au- 
tumn flora and tree specimens for the Cen- 
tennial. As tbe season advanced the labor in- 
creased, employing my utmost energies to se- 
cure and prepare a creditable set of specimens 
of all the Sierra plantn known to me, inclu- 
ding 25 or 30 collected lately for the first time. 

In September I ha&tened np to tbe foretts 
around Webber lake to get sections of trees; 
that district embracing nearly all the trees of 
the Sierra and some species rarely seen else- 
where. With a hired assistant I cut down rep- 
resentative trees, often very large ones, — the 
Picea amabills was 30 feet in circuit, — and took 
out uniform sections exhibiting bark and all 
the layers of growth to tbe heart, also cross 
sections of saplings, young stocks with stubs of 
limbs, leading shoots of old trees, blossoming 
and bearing twigs, cones, acorns, etc., so that 
the visitor by examining a set of specimens of 
any species can readily get an idea of the tree. 
These tree sections filled six large bo^es and 
weighed over a ton. Despatching them with 
much trouble through tbe mud of the late fall 
season, and prepaying freight charges, I then set 
to work upon tbe flowers collected daring the 
entire season. There were thousands of them, 
making three wagon loads, and were scattered 
all through my bales of papers just as gathered, 

To arrange them into families at least 500 
large receptacles were necessary. Three 
weeks of hard, swift work provided beautiful 
and appropriate herbarium rooms, and three 
more placed the plants hurriedly but care- 
fully in their respective pigeon-holes. An- 
oUt«r week brought out a choice selection 
of representative plants, packed them into 
a large box and despatched them after tbe tree 
sections, but by express, prepaid, to Dr. Geo, 
V'asey, Botanist, Agricultural Department, 
Washington, to be exhibited at the Centennial. 
During ihe week following I wrote these "Bo- 
tanical Excursions" for tbe Press, then started 
for southern California, to meet and work with 
Dr. Parry during the winter and spring sea- 
son of this commemorative Centennial year. 

Though my work performed in good faith 
for the love I bear my adopted State was most 
arduous and expensive, costing at common rates 
of wages and for coin paid out nearly $2,000, 
for which I received but $400 in currency, yet 
I have the satisfaction of knowing that Cali- 
fornia will have a fine set of her flora at tbe 
great exhibition, which Dr. Vasey declares "is 
very satisfactory, but causes me much regret 
that you bad so much expense upon them." 

Dear, patient reader, good-bye, until we 
meet at the Centennial — or somewhere. Per- 
haps only in the Rcbal, but anywhere, always 
welcome. 

To Take iMPRESsioN.-t op Leaves, ktc.—M. 
Bertot, of the Paris Academy of Science, has 
just made known a simple method of taking 
impressions of plnnts, requiring only a large 
sheet of paper, some olive (or other) oil, black 
lead, ashes and resin (or colophony). The 
paper is first lightly oiled on one side, then 
folded in four so that the oil may filter throu h 
the pores, and the plant may not come into 
direct contact with the liquid. The plant is 
plated between the leaves of the second folding, 
and in this condition pressed (through other 
paper) all over witb Ihe hand, so as to make a 
small quantity of oil adhere to its Rnrfaoe. 
Then it is taken out and placed carefully on 
white paper; another sheet is placed above 
(since two impressions can be taken), and tbe 
plant is pressed as before. On now removing 
it an invisible image remains on tbe paper. 
You sprinkle over this a quantity of black lead 
(or ashes, etc.), and distribute it in all direc- 
tions, as in applying sand to writing; the im- 
age then appears in all its parts. With an as- 
sortment of colors, the natural colors of plants 
may be reproduced. To obtain fixity, resin is 
added to tthe black lead (previously) in equal 
quantity; the impression is fixed when it is ex- 
posed to a beat sufficient to melt the resin. 



July 8, X876.] 



27 



The Di^ii^Y' 



Dairying In California. 

Hon. X. A. Willard, whose name stands fore- 
most amons; able dairy writers, gives in a very 
emphatio way his opinion in favor of the use- 
fulness of the recently organized California 
dairymen's association. In the latest issue of 
the Rural New Yorker he writes as follows: 

On the 20th of May last leading dairymen of 
the Pacific coast assembled at the Produce Ex- 
change in San Francisco and organized an asso- 
ciation under the name of the "California State 
dairymen's association." This is a step in the 
right direction, and, judging from the numbers 
present and the interest taken in the prelim- 
inary meeting, a great impetus will be given to 
the progress of dairying in California, under 
the auspices of this society. 

The discussions, essays and addresses which 
win now be had at the meetings of the Cal- 
ifornia dairymen's association will give us 
more knowledge concerning the dairy resources 
of the State, while the introduction of the 
factory system and the new processes of butter 
and cheese making will be of the utmost ad- 
vantage in developing this interest in the Golden 
State. 

We are glad to see that Prof. E. J. Wiekson, 
late of the Utica Herald,hfxt now of the Pacific 
RuBAL Pbbss, has been chosen Secretary of the 
association. His experience in the East in the 
management of dairy conventions will be useful 
in putting the California meetings on a suc- 
cessful footing, and we congratulate our friends 
on the coast that they have inaugurated a move- 
ment which will be of great value in developing 
an important industry for California. 

Dairy Advantages of California. 

One great advantage which the coast lands 
possess for dairying is alow, even temperature, 
averaging about 60 deg. Fah. during summer 
and winter, and subject to no extremes of heat 
and cold like those prevailing in the Middle 
and North Atlantic States. The winters there 
are so mild that cattle do not require to be 
housed, and during most of the ticne they cao 
procure sufficient sustenance in the field; in- 
deed, cattle there are often wintered without a 
particle of food other than that which they pick 
for themselves over the ranches, though it is 
not considered good economy to allow herds to 
thus shift for themselves during the first part 
of the rainy season, as the rain washes out the 
nutritive elements of the old grasses, while the 
new vegetation springing up is flashy, or too im- 
mature to aflford requisite nourishment for the 
thrift and well-being of the animal. Hence, in 
November and December it is r-onsidered good 
economy to eke out the pastures by giving the 
herds a daily allowance of fodder. 

In comparing California, as a dairy region, 
with grazing lands on the Atlantic slope, the 
winter and spring mon hs correspood with our 
best grazing season. From the first of January 
to June the grnsses grow in great luxuriance, 
July, August and September correspond with 
onr fall aud enrly winter, while November and 
December, when stock require a little feed, 
may be set against oar six months of cold and 
snowy weather. It is evident, so far as climate 
is concerued, so far as the storing of cattle food 
and the necessary breadth of land for growing 
such food, the advantages are all in favor of 
the dairy lands of the Pacific. But, on the 
other hand, our nearness to the markets of the 
world, the permanency of our grasses, our es- 
tablished system and skill in manufadure, 
must, in a measure, compensate for the rigors 
of the climate and other disadvantages which 
do not obtain in more favored sections. 

Mr. Willard's Visit to Point Reyes. 

In 1870 we spent several days in goin? over 
the extensive butter rannh of Mr. Chas. Webb 
Howard and the Shatter Bros. This estate on 
Point R yes covers some 75,000 acres, and at 
the time of our visit there were about 3,000 
cows in milk, whicb were divided up into 20 
dairies, averaging about 150 cows each. Tbe 
different farms, or ranches, were substantially 
fenced in with redwood pickets, six f et long, 
driven into the ground about six or eight inches 
apart, with a rail placed horizontally two feet 
from the top, to which each picket is n?iled. 
As there is no frost here, fences built in this 
way, Mr. Howard informed us, would st md, 
without needing repairs for 20 years. About 
100 miles of fence had been built upon this 
estate, and good roads were made over the lands, 
so that the difi'erent dairies could be easily 
reached. 

In 1870 the forage depended upon, over the 
Point Reyes estate, was the wild oats and the 
" bunch grass. " This last is exceedingly nutri- 
tions and stock thrive upon it at all seasons, 
■except, perhaps, at the beginning of the rainy 
season, when for a few weeks its nutritiousness 
is impaired from the causes which have been 
previously named. 

The quality of the butter made on the Point 
Reyes estate was very fine, which shows that 
the forage natural to this coast is not objection- 
able for making good milk. 

Comments. 
Mr. Willard remarks above that the " discus- 
sions, essays and addresses which will now be 
had at the meeting of the California dairymens" 
association will give us more knowledge con- 
cerning the dairy resources of the State." This 
is a point which we have urged before, because 
we know the inquiry which prevails among 



Eastern dairymen concerning the dairy adapta- 
tion of our State. We fully believe the labors 
of the new society will not only put our own 
dairymen in possession of much valuable in- 
formation, of which there is now no record, but 
will show up in the eyes of all this important 
interest of onr S'ate. 



^OB^pcdLjJl^E. 



Mulching the Fruit. 

Editobs Pbess: — Those wno cultivate fruit in 
the dry open plains need protection from our dry 
northers and the rays of the heated sun. At the 
present time we have had along hot spell, with- 
ering the leaves and drying up the soil. Veg- 
etation is in a withered state. A great pre- 
ventive of this condition is mulching. By 
thorough mulching, your fruit, flower and veg- 
etable garden can be rescued and your labor and 
expense saved, that would otherwise be lost. 
As the season for irrigation is at hand, those 
who have mulched find a great saving in time 
and less water is required. There is also better 
growth, finer in quality and larger in quantity 
by the operation of mulching. Even in the 
small fruit culture, as the strawberry, a benefit 
IS derived from it. By keeping the crown of 
the plants well hoed up and all tbe loose mate- 
rial drawn around them, and by frequent culti- 
vation, keeping the soil open and porous, and 
breaking the hard crust that is formed by con- 
stant irrigation, much better results are attained 
than by less careful culture. 

The raspberry, a shallow rooter, requires the 
same treatment. The soil soon loses its 
moisture, leaving the tender rootlets near the 
surface, and if not preserved by constant water- 
ing the tender roots aie. But by covering the 
surface with some coarse rotten material you 
prevent the exposure of the roots and retain 
moisture. You therefore save your time by 
causiug less frequent watering and less hoeing, 
and your fruit will be larger and your bushes 
more productive. 

The blackberry is a deeper rooter tban either 
stra \ berry or raspberry, sends its roots far and 
wide for nourishment. But it is also benefited 
by mulching, giving you in return finer and 
larger fruit for your pains. In cultivating use 
tbe cultivator and do not plow so as to cut the 
roots, thereby causing new shoots to spring up 
in the way. A good mulching prevents the 
growth of weeds. With frequent cultivation 
and good supply of water you apply the only 
requisites for a fine yield of the berries. Tbe 
health of the gooseberry and currant bushes is 
better and the yield is better. Stone fruits of 
all kinds are benefited and a liberal application 
of mulching material around them preserves 
the tiees in hot seasons. 

Application of mulch should be made in the 
fall after all the dead wood and branches are 
cleaned off, leaving the surface clean. Apply 
thick on eauh side and the riins of winter will 
wash the ingredients round the roots, feeding 
them with its rich sub-stance. G. R, 

Sacramento, June 17th, 1876. 



Top Dressing for Orchard Ground. 

Top dressing can be applied to orchard trers 
on grass with the perfect confidence that im- 
proved crops will follow, although the grass 
itself may be the first to show the beuefit of the 
top dressing. There is before us an instunce 
of an orchard of apple trees planted on thin, 
gravelly soil; the trees were covered with moss 
and stunted, although not by any moans old, 
(about 25 J ears). The grass of this orchard 
had been mown \ ear after year for the sake of 
tidiness, thus exhausting the soil more than 
the trees did. A rather rough system of top 
dressing was inaugurated at a sacrifice of ap- 
pear-inces, all sorts of refuse material were 
wheeled or carted into the orchard and spread 
over the surface, such as sifted coal ashes, old 
decayed tan, the old soil and rubbish from the 
potting bench, sweepings and scrapings of road, 
etc., until a consideratile th ckness of material 
had accumulated. The fir.-)t result was a 
troublesome growth of grass, which was kept 
down with the scythe, but not cleared away — 
on the contrary, allowed to rot on the surface. 
By and by the trees began to emit quantities of 
young roots from the lower parts of their boles 
into the top dressing, and the second result was 
that the n^xt crcp of apples was considerably 
larger and of a much improved quality; the 
branches were severally thinned to admit light 
and air, well dusted with quicklime to remove 
moss and lichens, and they were amply repaid 
annually by this simple attention.— TAe Oar- 
den. 



)EE8. 



Los Angeles Beekeepers' Meeting. 

W. Muth Rasmussen, Secretary, furnishes 
the following report of the Los Angeles B-'e- 
keepers' meeting, held June 17th. The Pres- 
ident, J. P. Bruck, called the meeting to order. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and 
approved. 

Mr. Davidson read a paper ridiculing the ex- 
travag*tit notions of many persons about the 
profits to be realized in the beej business with 
little or no labor and expense. 

Mr. Levering spoke of hives melting down, 
and the best way of preventino; this and of 
shading the hives was discussed by Phillippi, 
Harmon, Stone and others. 

Cupt. Gordon introducd Mr. J. S. Harbison, 
of San Diego. Mr. Harbison favored the so- 
ciety with remarks upon the best way of ob- 
taining adequate returns for our products. He 
said the present prospect for the sale of honey 
was gloomy, because at this tirae of the year 
but little honey is consumed. He advised bee- 
keepers to keep their honey till September, 
October and November, when honey will be in 
better demand for actual consumption. In re- 
gard to the business in San Dieyo county, Mr. 
H. said there would be but little sage honey 
this year. The principal harvest would be 
from sumac and buckwheat greasewood. There 
were at present 20,000 hives in the county, and 
he probible product this year would be 1,000- 
000 pounds. Mr. H. spoke of the importance 
of keeping within the truth in regard to statis- 
tical reports about the business, mentioning 
instances of great injury occasioned by false re- 
p jrts. 

A general and very interesting discussion en- 
sued in regard to adopting a scale of prices for 
the fdififerent grades of honey, grading and 
classifying, best way of shipping and amount 
to be shipped to difi'erent points, and sampling 
and storing of honey. 

Marketing Honey. 

The following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That a committee be appointed by this asso- 
ciation to act in concert with like emp ^wered commit- 
tfes from adjoining counties, if possible, or for itself 
if nectosary , to investigate the best manner of disposing 
of our honey, to ascertain reliable houses in the princi- 
pal cities of the East, to fix a scale of prices (or the 
various grades of honey, to fix the time and amount of 
shipment to each point and to gather all possible in- 
formation by correspondence or otherwise in regard to 
ihese matters. 

Messrs. Batler, Davidson, Gordon and Lev- 
ering were appointed members of this com- 
mittee. 

The following resolution was proposed and 
adopted: 

Resolved. That in the opinion of this society, No. 1 
comb honey, in section boxes, is worth 18 cents, and 
extracted honey of same grade is worth 10 cents per 
pound in wholesale lots. 

It was resolved that the members of this 
association tender their thanks to Mr. J. S. 
Htf,rbison for his instructive visit with us. 

Mr. Davidson extended an invitation to the 
society to meet at his place, whereupon it was 
resolved that the next meeting be held at Mr. 
Davidson's apiary on the third Saturday in 
July. 

Three new members were added to the asso- 
ciation. 

On motion the meeting then adjourned. 




Califobnia Gbapks at the Centennial. — 
From October 10th to 14th is the period espe- 
cially designated by the Commission for the 
display of grapes at the Centennial; and as 
California can easily excel every other locality 
in the Union, if not in the world, with this par- 
ticular fruit, her large grape growers should 
make their calculations in good time so as to 
make a large and expressive exhibit of this 
luxury for which their vineyards are so cel- 
ebrated. Ttie Golden State has not, thus fur, 
particularly distinguished herself at Philadel- 
phia, even in her specialty of precious metals; 
but she will have an,opportunity to redeem her 
charact-^r during the grape display, a month 
before the Centennial closes. 



The Origin of the Beritshire Hog. 

The "American Berkshire association," at 
.'•pringfleld. III., whose report we noticed re- 
cently, offered in the spring of 1875 a premium 
of $100 for the best easay on this breed of 
swine — ^and that written by Mr. A. B. Allen 
was awarded the prize. Mr Allen in his pre- 
face says his information is obtained from per- 
sonal researches in England anJ this country, 
as well as from his own long experience in the 
breeding and management of this description 
of swine. We quote from Mr. Allen's essay 
his account of the origin of Berkshires: 

The Original Breed of Berkshire. 

Tradition, and the earliest published accounts 
of what has long been pi-rticularly distin- 
guished by the name of Berkshire swine, rep- 
resents them, down to about a century since, 
as among the largest breeds of EigUnd, weigh- 
ing, full grown, from 700 to 1,000 pounds, or 
more. The "Complete Grazier" describes cue, 
in 1807, as weighing 113 stone, (901 pounds). 
This , was exhibited, with others, by Sir Wil- 
liam Curtis, at the cattle show of Lord Somer- 
ville, in that year. Johnson, in his "Farmer's 
Enocopedia," London, 1842, says that they 
weighed at that time from 50 to 100 stone (400 
to 800 pounds.) The latter of these, doubt- 
less, were of the improved breed. 

Originally they were represented as being 
generally of a buff, sandy or reddish-brown 
color, spotted with black, occasionally tawny 
or white spotted in the same manner. They 
were coarse in the bone; head rather larg", «i u 
heavy flop ears; broad on the back; deep in ihu 
chest; flat-sided and long in the body; thick and 
heavy in both shoulders and hams; well let 
down in the twist; bristles and long curly hair, 
with rather short, strong legs. Their meat was 
better marbled than that of any other breed of 
swine in Great Britain — that is, had a greater 
proportion of lean freely intermixed with fine 
streaks of fat, which mViiea it much more ten- 
der and juicy than it would otherwise bo. They 



were consequent'y. from time imn. :, 

preferred to all other swine there, for 08 

bams, shoulders and bacon. They were slow 
feeders, and did not ordinarily mature until 
two and a half to three years old. 

It is thus that I find the Berkshire hog 
figured and described in the earliest English 
publications to which I have been able, thus 
far, to obtain access. But in the second volume 
of the magnificent folio edition, illustrated with 
colored platfs, now lying before me, of "The 
Breeds of the Domestic Animals of the Bntish 
Islands," by Prr^fessor David Low, published 
in London, in 1842, is a portrait of a Berkshire 
as I have described above, except being of 
rounder body and somewhat finer in all his 
points, with ears like most of those of modern 
breeding, medium in size, and erect, instead of 
flopping. This portrait is of a sandy or reddish 
brown color, spotted with black; the feet and 
legs for nearly their whole length, white, 
slightly streaked on the sides and behind with 
reddish brown. It, of course, represents one 
of the old breed considerably improved, and 
marked as I occasionally found them in all my 
visits to Berkshire, down to 1867. But the 
p'vs which I saw thus marked were of the same 
Mze and shape, and as fine in all their points 
as the general run of the black, slate, or plum 
colors of the present day. 

Formation of the Improved Berkshire Swine. 

Tradition tells us that this was made by a 
cross of the black or deep plum colored Siamese 
boar, on the old unimproved Berkshire sows. 
Other traditions assert that the black and white 
spotted, and even pure white Chinese boar was 
also sparingly used to assist in the same pur- 
pose. I can well believe this; for I often saw 
swine in Berkshire spotted, about half and 
half black and white, in addition to the red- 
dish brown, or bnft and black, and so on al- 
most up to a pure plum color or black. The 
produce of the above cross or crosses was nest 
bred together, and by judicious subsequetW; 
selections, the improved breed, as we now find 
it, became, in due time, fixed and permanent 
in all its desirable points. 

It was doubtless with Siamese boars that the 
cross was made on the original Berkshire sows, 
which has contributed so largely to the forma- 
tion of the improved breed, held in such high 
estimation for a full century or more past. 
When was the Gross First Made? 

Several aged men in different parts of Berk- 
shire, of whom I inquired on my first visit to 
England, in 1841, informed me that they had 
known there improved swine of the same type 
as I then found them from earliest childhood. 
But the most particular, and apparently reli- 
able, account I was able to obtain, was from 
Mr. Wes brook, of Pickney Green, Bysham, 
who told me that his father possessed ihem as 
early as the year 1780, in as great perfection as 
the best then existing in the country. Thus it 
will be seen that the improvement is now at 
least a century old, and more probably a cen- 
tury and a quarter; for it would have taken 
some years back of 1780 to begin a new breed 
of swine and get it up to a fixed type at that 
period. 



An Escape fbom Sceubbino Floobs. — A lady 
writer, in one of her letters to the Christian, 
Weekly, tells how she succeeded in obviating 
almost entirely the drudgery of scrubbing. She 
says she procured from a druggist three quarts 
of boiled linseed oil, and the same amount of 
shellac varnith. Also a paint bru«h. This 
quanti y of material will cover as much floor as 
40 yards of carpet, and costs only $3 50. 'The 
floors were cleaned as thoroughly as possible, 
and all spots that will not wash off ought to be 
planed off. We put on the first coat of oil in 
the evening, and the next morning it was dry. 
The following evening we put on a coat of the 
shellac varnish, which was dry by morning. 
Then after t*o or three days we put on the 
final coat of oil, but as the wood will absorb 
Very little oil this time, we put it on with a 
fl-innel, and rubbed it in as thoronghly as pos- 
sible. It was soon dry and ready for use. Now 
we have beautiful floors, easily kept clean by 
wiping off tbe dust with cold water. Once in 
three or six months we can go over tnem with 
a little of the boiled oil, and have themlook as 
well as ever again. Such floors would rob 
"cleaning time" of half its terrors, and add 
largely to the purity of the atmosphere of our 
houses already poisoned by air tight stoves and 
furnaces. It is a cheap reform and easily 
tried. 

ExTEEMiNATiNG Bedbuos. — Where all other 
means have failed to exterminuto bedbugs, 
sulphurous acid gas has succeeded. Take 
everything out of tbe infested room, plug up 
all tbe windows tightly, clo-te all chimneys, 
and empty about one ounce of powdered sul- 
phur on a pan of hot coals, placed in the mid- 
dle of the floor. Shut the doors and cover all 
cracks; let the sulphur burn as long as it will. 
Where the room is large, it is a good plan to 
fasten a piece of tin tube to the bottom of the 
pan, and to this connect enough small rubber 
pipe to lead out of the nearest door. By blow- 
ing into the end of the pipe with the bellows, the 
sulphur will be caused to burn more quickly by 
the draft created, and to give a denser smoke. 
After the sulphur has burned out, paint all the 
cracks in the floor and around the mop board 
with a strong solution of corrosive suolimate, 
and treat the furniture to the sime before re- 
placing it. 

A oooD and simple furniture polish consists 
of a little Castile soap scraped into a pint of 
warm water. Add three tablespoonfulsof sweet 
oil; heat, and apply while hot. 



28 



[July 8, 187 6 



P&t&QIIjl $1 pI^BMBaT. 



THE HEADQTTA21TEBS of the California 
Btate Orange are In tbo Grangers' BulldiD);, northeast 
corner of Cnllfornia and Davia streftH, over the 
Gmngers" Bank of California and California Farmers' 
Mutual Fire Insurance Association. Master, J. V. 
Webster; Secretary, Amos Adams. 

The Gran^^rB' Bnginoss AKsoclation of Cnlifomia is 
OD Dav|B street, nc rtb-eaet corner of CsIKumia. 

A Circular. 

San Fbamciboo, July lat, 1876. 
Obab BiBa AKi> Bbothebs:— You are regpectrully In 
Tiled to send one or more delegates to mett with Golden 
Gate Orange at Buddy's hall, 909;^ Uarket street, on 
Tuesday •▼eniog, .luly 'JStb, at 7 ^ p. m. 

J. D. Blamchab, H. 
Considering the magnitude of the wheat rrop, and 
the low prices that will rule, unless some plan can be 
dCTised and a concert of action had by the producers 
to realize a fair profit for their crop; Therefore it is 
deemed advisable that there should be a convention of 
some of the leading wheat growers of our order to con- 
sider what measures if any can be adopted to effect the 
desired purpose. 

It is thought that great good will grow OHt of a meet. 
Inc of this kind. It is recommended that union meet- 
logs be called for Saturday, July 29th, to bear the re- 
port of their delegates and if deemed advisable to 
adept some plan that may be suggebted to accomplish 
the oh lect. 

Hoping to meet with hearty co-operation from every 
(Train district, we are fraternally, 

Dan Inmak, Manager G. B. R. 
C. J. Cbissky. G. B. 
Amos Auams, Sec'y 8. G. 
A. D, LoOAN, Ex-Committee. 

J. M. COSTIOAll. 

fWe are alfo requested by Worthy Matter J. D. 
Blanchar to state that the Fruit and Wine Interest 
will be dlPcussed at the above named place on the first 
Tneaday evening in August, when it is hoped there will 
be a good representation present.] 



P. or H — Subscribers who pay fully one year (it) in 
advance lor the Pacific Bubal Press can receive the 
Califobnia PATEON/me, besides other premiums. See 
our premium list in another column. 



Qi\i^(fqE Dii^EcxoRY- 



California State Grange. 

OFFTCEBS FOB 1875-7. 

M.ut-r-J. V. WEBSTER. Brooklvn, Alameda Co. 
OreT»<!«r— T. A. (iAREV, Los Angelej, Lob Antreles Co. 
Uriurtr-.1. W. A. WRIGHT. Borden. Fresno Co. 
.V(.-irard-NELSON CARR. Bennett Valley, Sonoma Co. 
.iMirtrtni .S(^.™r.i-M. WOODHAMS, La Honda, S. Mateo Co 
Chnplnin-J. M. HAMILTON. Guenoc. Lake Co. 
Tr(xuur^—J. B. CARRINGTO.N. D. liverton. Solaro Co.* 
Serrftary— AMOS ADAMS, Frunkljn, Hacramcnto Co.* 
(hut K'W'-'—J. B. SAUL, Napa, Napa Co. 
(«•<».— MRS. MARYE.IVKNS, Cambria. S.Lnia Obispo Co. 
Pnmonn—MRH. S. i'. BAXTER. S I'., San Francisco Co. 
F/om-MRS. VIT.VL E. BANGS, Modesto. Suni^iaas Co. 
Lmlu ^«.vc('inf su,r„rd-MRS. NELSO.V CARR, Bennett 
Valley, Sononia Co. 
*P. O. AddresA, for official busiaesg, San Franciaco. 

Executivn Committee : 
J. V. WEBSTER. Chairman. Brooklyn, Alameda Co. 
A. D. L'IGAN. Princeton Colusa Co. 
H. M. LEONARD, Santa Clara, Sauta Clara Co, 
J. M THOMPSON, Suscol, Napa Co. 
W. S. MANLOVE, Sacramento, Sacramento Co 
WM. SIMS, BncUev e. Yolo Co. 
C. H. OOOLEY, Cloverdale, .Sonoma Co. 



General Deputy. 

Ban Franciiico. T. H Merry. No. l.(. City Hall. 

County Deputies. 

COUNTT. DePCTV. fOST orricE. 

Alameda. Thoa. Heller. Hayw;trds. 

Alameda. Alfred T. Dewey. Oakland. 

Amador. H. Vanderpool. Plyuiualb. 

Butte. Ed. Hallett. I'hico. 

Butte. \\. M. Tdorp. Chico. 

Colusa. Jacob Meyers. Grand Island. 

Contra Costa. Nathaniel Jones. Lafayette 

El Dorado. A. J i hristie. Sutler Miils. 

Humboldt. H- W. Arbosast. Arc:itn 

Humboldt. Jackson Sawyer. Table Bluff. 

Lake. H. A. Oliver. Lakcport. 

Los Angeles. The*. A. Garey. Los Angeles. 

Marin. H.F.Taft. Nicasio 

Mendocino. John Mewhinny. Pomo. 

Mendocino. W. D. White. Ukiah. 

Merced. J.L.Crittenden. Special D Duty 

Merced. H. B. .lolly. Merced 

Modoc. C L. Sullivan. Willow Ranch. 

^eTatla. H L Hatch. Indian Spnnfcs. 

Placer. A. J. Soule. Lincoln. 

Sacramento. W. S. Manlove. Sacramento. 

San Benito. J. D. Kowler. Hollister. 

San Bernardino. George Lord. San Bernardino 

San Diego. Chas. O. Tucker, Ballena. 

San Joaquin. W. L. Overhiser. Slock;on. 

San Joaquin. J. W. Kerney. Lodi. 

San Luis Obispo. A. J. Molhershead. .Moro. 

San Luis Obispo. C. H. Ivens. Cainlir a. 

San Mateo. M. Woodhams. l-a Honda. 

San Mateo. I.C.Steele. Pescade o. 

Santa Barbara. O. L. .Ab*)ott^ Santa Baibara 

Santa Clara. J.A.Wilcox. Santa (;Ura. 

Siskiyou. .1. S. MatliewB. Fort Jones. 

Solano. R. C Ilaile. Suisun. 

Solano. J. c. Morryfield. Dimn. 

Sonoma B. B. Capell. Healdsburg. 

Sonoma. G. W. Davis. Santa Ko»a. 

Sonoma. W. W. Chapman. Petaluma 

SutUr. t; Ohicver. VuhaCity. 

Talare. W. Underwood. Li-nioore. 

Ventara. E, B. Higgins. .<aticov, 

Volo, Wm. Sim» V\ inters. 

NEVADA. 

State of NevaJa. A. J. Hatch, Reno. 

Douglas. .1. R. Livingston. Genoa. 

Ebmoralda. KimtHjr Cleaver. Mason ViUey 

Humboldt. B. F. Kiley. Paradise Valley. 

Elko. J. A. Tinker. Elko. 

Farmers desiring Vi oreanize Granges can apply to J. V. 

Webster, (W. Master,; Brooklyn, Alameda Co.. Amos 

Adams, '.W. Seo'y,) 40 Caifornia street, S. P., or to the 

nearest Deputy to their locality. 

Fomoaa Granges, 

No. I.— boa Angeles County, Edwabd Evev, M ; G. C. 

GIBBS, S. 

No. 2.— Fresno County, \V. J. Hctchison. M.; W. A. 

Sandkbs, S. 
No. a.— Solano County. 

No. <.— Sonoma County, L. Goss, M. ; W. McP. HiLL, 8. 
No- S.— Napa County. J. M. M-ixfilld, M-: J. W. Wabd, S. 
No. 6.— Stanislaus County, H. W. Browse. M. : V. E. 

Banos, S. 
No. 7— Nevada County, O, Babbeb, M. ; W. .Stevens, S, 



California Subordinate Granges. 

jThis list contains the names of Masters and Secretaries 
BO far asreported to as. elected to serve during the year 
1876. In Graojtes not reportetl we continue the name# of 
la-'t year's ottcers. Secretaries and others will greatly 
oblige us by making needful corrections.] 

Explanations. —The P. O. address in invQn only where it 
is different from the name of the Grange. 
Orange and P. 0. Master- Sec'y- 

AMADOR C'lUNTY. 
PLYMOl'TR. .1. Sallee. S. C. Wheeleb 

JACKSON VALLEY, w. H. Pboctv. J. O. HAMRira 
SOUTH SUTTER. Tnos. Boycf. G. B. Kichabds 

ALAMEDA COUNTY. 
CENTERVILLE. J. M. Hobner. M. B. Stuboes 

KDEN. Hayward's. J. KUfSELL. Wm Pkabce 

LIVERMORE. D. Inman. O R. Owens 

SUNOL. E. M. Oahr. S. W. Millarti 

TEMESOAL, Oakland. O. B.^ooE. John Collins 

BUTTE COUNTV. 
OHICO. A. Henbt. H. W. Haskell 

EVENING ST »R, Nelson. A D NBLSON A M WooDRUFK 
HAMILTON, Biggs S'n T. A. Rogers. An«on Brow.n 
NORD. .I.B.Clark. Mbs. O. A. Oolbt 

CALAVERAS COUNTV. 
CALAV£R.\S, J'ny Lind. M. F. Grpoohv, R.Thompson 

COLUSA COUNTY. 
ANTELOPE VALLEY. H. A. Logan. P. Petkrson 

CENTER Colusa. D. Bebee. .Mrs. Carrie Webley 

COLUSA, Coln»a. J. R. Totman. R. JoNfai 

FRESHWATER. Colusa. P. S. Pebdue. R. A. Wilsry 
FUNK Sl.DlGll, Colusa. G.H.Abel. Ida Foi.ton 

GRAND ISLAND. J. Meyers. H. D. Stbawther 

PLAZA, Jai into. M. Kendbick. J. W. Bowebs 

PRINi/KTO.N R. R. RcsH. P. H. Scott 

SPRINi! VALLEY. B. Lccas. T Sincleton 

WILLOWS. Princeton. 1. R. Thcxeli,. L. D. Brown 

CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 
AI.HAMBRA, Martinez J. .Strentzkl. Mrs. M. B. Lander 
ANTIOCH. Jo>.iAU WiLL-s Mr.'*. S A. Sellers 

DANVILLE. I). N. Sherbi'RNE Mary Lynch 

•»"iINT OF TIMBER. J. E. W. Cabey. G. W Carter 

IFALNUT CREEK. M. S. Gray. R. M. Jdneh 

DEL NORTE COU.NTV. 
KI.K VALLEY.Cres'ntCy. W.R. RExmnn w. B. Smith 
<OttTH hTAR,Smitir«Riv J. B Hm.iv. W.C. Bailey 

EL DORADO COUNTY. 
t'LARKSVILLE. P. R. WiLLOT. 1. Maltby 

EL DORADO. J. M B. Wkajhebwax Miss C. J. Shelton 
PILOT HILL. P.D.Brown. W. Tatlob 

PLAOKRVILLE Wm. WiLTZE. F. M. Dickehhoff 

SUTTER .MILL, Colonia. J. G. OBbien. 11. Mahleb 

FRESNO COUNTY. 
ADAMS. Big Dry Creek. T. P Haix. T. U. Wyatt 

kORDEN. E. S. Russell. Cuas T. Bauueb 

FRESN'i. Fresno City. 

GARRF. TSON. Kings R. Jos. BuBNs. H. C. Hioby 

KINti^BURG. W'tville. J.W.Tbabeb. W. Levrrmore 
RISING STAR. Panochi. I. N Canfielh. O. B. Hinklev 
RIVERDALE, Fresno City. C. H. Wellino. H. Price 

SVCaMURE. a. O. Bradford. J.A.Allen 

HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 
ELK RIVER, Eureka. T. Meyer. Miss E. M. Wn.LiAMs 
FERNDALE. J. C. Du.s-RAN. E. C. Uauon 

KIWELA'ITAH. Areata. G. B. Kneeland. C. H. Daniels 
MATTOLE. Petroha. S. GoFF. David Simmons 

RuHNEkVILLE. H. S.Oabf. S. Stboso 

TABLE BLUFF. B. W Pollard M. Kf.hrikr 

INYO COUNTY. 
BISHOP'S CREEK. ti. W. McUboskv. G. Collins 
INDEPENDENCE. J. W. Symmfji. W. a. Cabsiuy 

LONE PINE. J. J. McCall. A. 11. Johnson 

KERN COUNTY. 
BAKERSFIELD. O B. Obm-bv. J. T. Ish 

CUMMlNiiS' VAL'V, TehaicUipa. G. Thompson. T.YaTks 
LINN'S VAL'Y. Glcnville. C.Lindsay E. Smitiiwick 
NEW RIVER. BakersBeld. W. Newton. S . G. Bakf.b 
PANA.MA. Bakcrefleld. F. P. May. J. B. Ri'MFord 
TEHICHIPA. M.A.Tyler. Emma Prf.wktt 

WELDON. J B B.mz. James .Swan 

LAKE COUNTY. 
OUENt^C. J. M. Hamii.t.jn. T. W, Wbitington 

KELSEVVILLE. J. H.Resibci. T. "bmiston 

LAKEPORT. ,i. W. BotiGs. J. W. Everett 

LOWER LAKF:. C. L. Wilson. Lucy S. Wilson 

UPPER Lake J. B. Rob.nson. G.A.Lyon 

LASSEN COUNTV. 
LAKESIDE. L. UiCKH Mrs. M. F. B-nohau 

LASSEN, Susanville J. Jensen. J. N. Lono 

LOS ANiiELES < OU.NTY. 
M.LI ANCE. El Monte. J D. Dcbfee E. M. Hakxall 
AZi; -A . H Monte. Iba s. Thompson. J. >:. Preston 
i;OMPTON. C. WCoLTRiN. T. V. Kimule 

EL MONTE. El Monte J. T OORDON. A. H. HoYT 

K.N'rEKPRlSE.L.An'ul's. B. F Clabk. E. S Buttirw'rth 
EUREKV, Pomona. c. Bubdick. W. C. Martin 

FaIR\ lEW. Anahtini. David hvEY J. M. tiuiNN 

FLOKE.NCE, Los Ang I's, J. R. Tansey. R. Ranney 

FRUITLAND, Sta. Ana. N. O Stafford. E. L. Hus.sfj-l 
LO^ANiiELKS. S. A. Waldron. J. 0_A. Staslk/ 

LO-f NIETOS. F. B. Grandin. W. S. Keavis 

NE« river, Corvalli<. M. J. McGaich S. G. Bakkr 

ORANGE. L. ,1. 1.K)cKnART. J.W.Anderson 

SILVER. L.Nietos. W. P. McDonald. Doba Skidmore 
8PADKA. A. T. CcBKi F.B. Joa. Wbioht 

VINELAND, Tustin C. G . W. Freem »N. Eugene Stine 
WESTMIN.iTER. c;. (;Mack. W. F. Poob 

MARIN COUNTY. 
NICASIO. P.K.Austin. J W. Noble 

TOMALES. O lluuBKLL. R. U. Prince 

MENDOi'lNO COUNTV. 
OAHTO. J.J.Thomas. J. H. Clarke 

LAUREL, Boonvillo. N. V. Isubam. F. M. Hunt 

LITTLE LAKE. B. Mast. J. G. Snell 

MANCHESTER. W. H. Ccbhon. J.Lane 

PO.MO. J. Mewhinney. E. V. Jones 

PO TT'iR vaL'Y. H. W.Baker Mrs. A. H. Slingerland 
IIOIND V vLLbV.Covilo. 1' Handy. Will Todd 

SANEL. A. Marshal. Joseph a. Knox 

UKIaH. a. O. i'arpknter. W.D.White 

MERCED COUNTY. 
BADGER FLAT, Los Banos. J. Stockton. W. F. Clarke 
HOPETON John Ruddle. T. Eolkson 

LOS BANOS. ,"<. A. 8MITH. John h. Beaver 

MERCED R. S. Clay. .M. Hebrin 

PLAINSBURG. P. Y. Wel<m. T.J. E. Wilcox 

8NELLING. G C. Bakeb. E. Kelsey 

MODOC COUSTV. 
MODOC. L. E. Henderson, a. B. Obawiobd 

MONTERfcY COUNTY. 
MORNING STAR.Oastroville. J. Mr Donalo. F Bbown 
SALINAS. P. M.kTTHEWS. Claba Westlaee 

NAPA COUNTY. 
BKRRYESSA.Monticello. .I.W.SMITH. Mrs. Stafford 
NAPA. Napa City. D. Gbidley Habby Haskell 

POPE VALLEY. C. A. Booth. Sallie Hayne 

RUTHERFORD, Y'ntville. G. S. Burbeoe. H. W.Crabb 
8T. HELENA. J. Lewellyn Chas. A. Stoby 

VOUNTVILLE. T. L. GRii;siiY. F. liRipriN 

NEVADA COUNTY 
(;RASS VALLEY. Chas. Barker W.Stevens 

INDIAN SPRING. H. L. Hatch. Mrs. E. M. H<5eton 
MAGNOLIA, Grass Val. E M Denton. P. A Womack 

PLACER COUNTY. 
LINCOLN. A. J. SoCLi:. J. S. Philbbick 

NEWCASTLE. J. H. Mitchell. W. A. Donaldson 

ROSEVILLK W. H. MURBV. N. ilEBTES 

PLU.MA8 COUNTV. 
INDIAN VALLEY.Taylorv'lo. E. Hokelkcs. G. Boyofn 
BECK WORTH, Plumas A. J. srooN. T. Black 

SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 
AMERICAN R. E. G. MoRTON. SR. W. W. GlL^lOBl. 

COS UMNF.S, Sheldon .1. A. Elder J.U.Atkins 

ELK t; ROVE. Tuos. McCoNNELL. Deixm Gaok 

EM ERPRlsE, Brighton. J M. Bell. A. Root 

FLORIN. L. H. FabsetT. J. T. AMOS 

FRANKLIN. W. Johnson. 8. G. Bradford 

(iALT. A. B. Bryant. J. L. Fifiei.d 

GEORGIaNA, Rio Vista. H K. Smith. J. H. Maxwf-LL 
SACRAMENTO, G. W. Uanco<k. G. T. Rich 

SHER.MAN L Emmaton. A. J. BloELOW. E. U. Boor.s 

SAN BENITO COUNTY. 
MOUNTAIN, San Benito. G. Brown. W. K. Goff 

HOLLLSTEK. M. PoMEROY. J. D. Fowler 

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTV. 
RINCdN, Chino. T. W Stasfield. John Tatlob 

RIVERSIDE. E. G. Brown. W. O. Price 

SAN BERNARDINO. GEO. Lord. T. D. Henby 

SAN DIEGO COUNTV. 
BALK.VA. C. O. TccKER. MPs. C. O. TrcKEB 

BEAK VALLEY. W. ti.. II. DlNwlDDII- A. M StkifLIN 
BERNARDO. J. P. Janes. W. a. Fuller 

N.vTIi)NAL RANCH. F. A. Kimball. F. M. Kimdall 
FOWAV, J. m. WiK>Ds. E. D. French 

SAN LUIS REY. M.E. Oemsuy. L. J. Cbombie 

SAN,l.\CINTO. T. D. Henuv. .Mrs. M. Collins 

•SAN JOAQUIN COUNTV. 
ATLANTA, Ripon. P. VisuuH. W. J Cambell 

(JASTOKIA. Stockton. F..J. 'VooDWARD. Walter Graves 
COLLEiiEVILLE. A. M. D. McIntosu. L. R. Chalmers 

ELLlOTl. J. WILTSE. B. M. UREINE 

KARMINGTDN. I. R. HENRY. E. O. LoNO 

LIBERTY. Acampo. T. M. Tract. J. schomp 

LINDEN. D. Lewis. James Wasley 

LOCKEFORD. E. P. MoiERLE. F. C. McGerle 

LODI. J. M. Fowler. Mrs. A. W. oove 

RUSTIC, Lathrop, II Moore. H. B. Dunn 

STOCKTON.^ W. o. Phelps. T. J. STEPntNS 

WASHINGTON. A. A. Van Saat. O. Bamert 



D. Wilson 
O. 8. Tuttle 

John Babbt 

F. R Bbown 

F. Michailson 

J. G Lehmon 
W. C. Collins 

L. S WiLs-m 



A. DOSIEB 

A. T. Hatch. 

F. McMULLEN 
A. P. COBURN 

0. O. Pearson 



(iEYStRVILLE. 
HEALDSBURG. 
PETALUMA. 
SANTA ROSA. 
.HEBASTOPOL. 
SONOMA. 
TWO ROCK. 
WINDSOR. 



WEST S. JOA'N, Ellis. D. Needram. J. Qdackenbosh 
WILDWOOD. E. D. Morrison. W. M. Muncet 

WOODBRIDGE. Ezra Fiske. J. D. Huffman 

SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTT. 
ARROYO GRANDE, w. H. Nelson. B.J. Wood 

CAMBRIA O. H. IviNS. H. Olmstkad 

MORO CITY. A. J. Motheesf-ad H.Y.Stanley 

OLD CREEK. J. Flood. a. L. Tolle 

PASO ROBLES. H. W. Rhynf. Jobn Thomson 

SAN LUIS DBISPO. Geo. Steele. A.T.Mason 

SUMMIT, Paso Robles. A. Smith. A.T. F08TEB 

SAN MATEO COUNTY. 
CRESCENT, H M Bay. J. B. Gilchrist. A. o. Woods 
LA HONDA. M. Woodhams. Mrs, J. F,. Woodhams 
OCEAN VIEW. I. tl. Knowlks. H. E. Graves 

PESCADERO. J. C STEELE. E. Leiohton 

SAN MATEO. A. F. Green. C. E. Bowe 

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY. 
OARPINTERIA. O. N. Oadwell. M. Whitford 

CONFIDENCE, Guadalupe. J. Mokse. Jr. F. N. 0<kke 
LOMPot^ Wm. Jackson. W. W. Brouuhton 

SANTA BARBARA. O.L Abbott. V.F.Russell 

SANTA MARIA. S. G LocxwooD. S.J.Nicholson 

SANTA CLARA COUNTY. 
GILROY. C. Wentz. J. H. Adams 

SAN JOKE. O. T. StTTLF. H O. Kekbliko 

SANTA CLABA. I. A. Wilcox. A. B. UtnrTEB 

SARATOGA. F. Dresser Miss Jen.iie Fabwell 

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 
BEN LOMOND, S'ta Cruz. John Burns. Ja^. Bubss 

PaJARO, WatsonviUe D.Crawford. L. B Johnson 
SANTA (3RUZ. B. Pilkinton. ~ ~ 

WATSONVILLE. J. M. RtPLEv. 

SHASTA COUNTY 
COTTONWOOD. O. P. Dunham. 

.MILLVILLE. E. Wagner. 

READING. J. P. OiNSMORF. 

SIERRA COUNTY. 
SIERRA VALLEY. B. F. Lbmmon. 

LOYALTON. F. M Wfjst. 

SISKIYOU COUNTV. 
iETNA. H, S. Matthews. 

MT. BOLIVAR, Callahan's R. R. M .iATPEN. C. F. BOYCI 

SOLANO COUNTY. 
BINGHAMPTON. A. Bennett. O. A. Brown 

DENVERTO.N. R. U. Babkway. G. C. Abnold 

DIXON. G. M. Dudley. Martha McBbide 

ELMIRA. j. McOroeht. J. A (lake 

POMONA. R O. Hail. J. R. Mobris 

MONTEZUMA. CoUnsville. C. M Isn. C.K.Marshall 
RIO VISPA. J W.Cameron. 

ROI^KVILLE. J. R. MOBBIs 

SUl-SUN VALLEY. R. C. Haile. 
VACAVILLE. R. C. Marshall. 

VALLEJO. J. F. Demino 

SONOMA COUNTY 
BENNETT V. S'ta Roia. A. Burnham. G. N. Whitakee 
BLOOMblELD. Wn. H. Whitf- A. B. Ulovf.b 

BODEtJA. E. S. Ferine. K.H.Cheney 

CLiiVERDAL:'). Chas H. Coolet. F. W. Davenport 
A.STITEs. W.H. Adamson 

B.B. Capell. w. n. Gladden 
W. W. Chapman. Freman Parker 
G. W. Davis. .IoliusOrt 

L. Rcss. W. J Hunt 

Wm. McP. Hill. J. A. Poppe 
S. M. Maktin. a. a. Wooden 
J»s. Kennedy. Eleanor Linusat 

stanislai.'s county. 

BONITA, Crow's L'dg. J. W. Theadweli.. A.B. Oeook 
CERES. H. W. Bkoi'se. R R. Whitmobe 

{II iTTO.VWOOD. W. E. Riddle. Oscar Babcock 

'JRAVSON. Wm. Love. A. O. Landkb 

0\K DALE. 0. R. Callendab. C. B. Inoalls 

ORISTIMBA. Hill's F'ry. E. H. Kobison. B. D. Noxos 
SALIUA. .Modeso. J. D. RlIvnUHS. J. P. VINCENT 

STA.MsLAU.S, Modesto. V. E. Bangs. B. B. Roui.s.vin 
TlRLOCK. B. H. IiEANE. MissL. Deank 

WatERFORD. R. R. Warder. W. C. Collins 

SUTTER COUNTA'. 
NORTH BUTTE. B. R. Sullman. J. G. Dow 

SO. SUTTER, Pleas. Grove. Thos. Boyd. W. Trsveuuan 
SUTTER. Meridian. W. I,'. Smith. S. H. Moore 

YUBA CITY. J. C. Drbssar. M. F. Honan 

TEHAMA CiUNTV. 
FARMINGTON. 0. F. Foster. 0. C. Chitteniif.n 

NEW SALEM, Paskento. W. W. Botkib, J. R. Whitlook 
RED BLUFF. R. H. Bloss m. O. E. Fonda 

TULaRK COI-NTY. 
CHRISTMAS, Visalia. S H. Blood. J. Perrin 

DEEPCREKK. A. W. Mathewso.n. W. G. Pennebakfji 
FRA.NKl.lN.Urangeville. T. S. Harrington. G. W. Camp 
LAKE, Grangeville. R. B. HUF.Y. M.M. Rhoads 

KfcYsl'O.ifE. Era.stls AXTELL. N. K. Gulden 

MAXZANiTA. J.K.Ckamek. Mrs. M. C. Becker 

MOUNT WHITNEY. A.F.Thompson. G.W. Duncan 
MUSSEL SLOUGH. W. Underwood. W. H.Battenfbld 
Tl L*RE. PS. Tracy. J.A.Goodwin 

TULE RIVER. C.WMcKelvey. W. H. Atkinson 

VISALI*. J. M. GRAVFji. W.Curtis 

WOODVILLE. j. a. Slover. J. II. Grimsley 

TUOLUMNE COUNTY. 
SONORA. O. C. Soulsbv. j. W.Pubdy 

VENTURA COUNTY. 
OJAI, Nordhoff. il. K Soule. J. Hobabt 

PLEASANT Valley, w. p ramneb. w. o. wood 

SAN PEDRO, Hueneme. .i. V. .saviers. DD.Df.Nure 
SATH'OY. K. B. HiQuiNB. Miss A. Baker 

SESiPE.SanB'ventura. F. A. Spbauue. H. Warring 
VENTURA. San B' ventara. U. 8. Preble. J. M. Brooks 

YOLO COUNTY. 
ANTELOPE. W.J. Clark. T. F. Huohes 

BUCKEYE, Winters. Wm. Sims. Mbs. E. A. Moody 

CACHE CREEK. 8. B. HoLTON. E. R. Holton 

C.APAV ViLLEY. J.N.Rhodes. W. D. Holcom 

DAVISVILLE. J. C. (JAMPBELL. H. Bowers 

FAIR VIEW VAL., Yolo. A. H. NixoN. T.A.Gallup 
WE.ST GRAFTON, Yolo. Geo. Sharpnack. G. W. Parks 
YOLO, Woodland. R. B. Blowers. G. N. Freeman 

YUBA COUNTV. 
KELLEY. Smartsville. J. E. Rickey. Wm. Schmidt 
MARYSVILLE. Moeton Sewell. 

WHEATLAND. J. U. Keeps. C. K. Dam 

Nevada Subordinate Granges. 

[ Under the Jurisdiction of California.] 

ALFALFA, Reno: A. J. Hatch, M.: E. O. McKinkey, 8. 
CARSON VAL' v. Genoa; T. Ibvin, M. ;R. J. 1,ivimgton,S. 
CLOVER Valley. Elko; F. Thomson. M,; W. B. 

Revnolds, S. 
DOUGLASH; a. B. Bales. M. : S. A. Kinsey, S 
EAGLE VALLEY: G. W. CHEDIg. O. : A. F. Gilbebt, S 
ELKO; J. A. Tinker, M.: J. L. Keyseb, S. 
HALLECK: .1. S. Fenn, M. ; M. Geary, S. 
MERRITT. Mason Valley, Esm'lda Co.: KimuerClf-aveb, 

M. ; CLARK Cleaver, S. 
PARAlilSE: J. Bradshaw. M.; J. P. Mui.linix, S. 
LAMOILLE: H, A.VouNG, M.; H. M. Truman. 8. 
STAR VALLEY: W. W. Gbiswold, M. ; O. J. Whitnet, 8; 
WELLINGTON, No. ti, Esmeralda Co.: A.H. Hawley, M.; 

J. N. Mann, 8. 
WINNEMUCCA: W. B. Haskell, M.; H. Babnrs. S. 



Grange Fellowship. 

The principle specially valuable and import- 
iint to the farmers whicb the Order of •Patrona 
of Hu-.bandry incaloates, is good fellowship. 
Tbt; other orders noted for the cultivation of 
this virtue are and always have been peculiarly 
the outgrowths of towuf, cities, and the denser 
populations of their immediate vicioities, and 
thus it happens that, as a general thing, farm- 
ers have never miogled in them to any very 
great degree. This want has been seveiely felt 
and deplored by thoughtful and progressive 
faimers, and it remained unsupplied from the 
creation until the Grange was born. Nothing 
has heretofore been attempted in this way, 
which has so much promise. While Masomy 
and its several ofl'shoots present bean if ul 
theories of mutual dependency and fellowship, 
>et they stop when these simple duties have 
been paid. The great farmers' society goes 
farther and carries the fellowship idea into the 
every day business of life. While, like 
Masonry, it gatht^rs to the sick couch of a 
fiatfering brother, it also tills his fields, cares 
for his business and supplies abundantly the 
deticienciea occasioned by the ill health of the 
member. 

lu the application of this principle of fellow- 



ship it does not stop where reapeotable con- 
servatism does and wait for disaster; it guards 
its votaries from its approach, if possible. Its 
fellow'^hip consults together and the wisdom of 
the brethren is massed, and he who is threatened 
has the full benefit of it. Here, indeed, rests 
the pre-eminent advantnge of the Orant^e over 
any and all the moral or benevolent institutions 
of ihe day, and in addition to this, its mission 
is to that class of people who have hitherto by 
their pursuits and situation been to a great ex- 
tent deprived of even the less advantageons 
intercourse of the other orders. — Examiner and 
Patron. 

Help of Women. 

It is possible, too, that the read; wit and 
practicable intelligence of women may aid 
greatly in the accomplishment of the ends 
sought after by our organizUion.— Co/man's 
Rural World 

Well, we Aoald say so. "That the ready wit 
and practicable intelligence of women may aid 
greatly in the accomplishment of the ends 
sought after by our organization" is not only 
"possible," but it is probable. Indeed, it is 
highly prol'able that we can hardly expect to 
accomplish tbtse ends without their aid. We 
perfect men may insist that our wives and 
daughters have a weakness for unnecessary 
questions, that they delight in tiifling inci- 
dents, that they are prone to tell the same story 
twice, that they have a habit of wanting to 
know what we are talking about just as we are 
finishing our remarks, that they misoonstrae our 
irony and want our jokes explained, and that 
they can't oalcnlate and don't understand bosi- 
ntss. But when it comes to cariog for and 
beautifying our hon.'^es and providing our 
good dinners we have to confess our inferiority. 
And we have to confess, most of u«, that with 
a charming woman we are as clay iu the hands 
of the potttr. To ponr o it onrrilla of oily elo- 
quence on the refining icfluences o2 the Grange 
would be, if women were not members, 10 
gush over a "barren ideality." 

One aim of the Order is to lead farmers to 
devote more attention to the improvement 
and ornamentation of their homes, and yet 
this work when it is done must be done by the 
women. All we horny-han-ied men can do is 
to dig the holes for the rose-bushep, drive nails 
(or the pictures, lift wash-stands and bureaus 
and smile approvingly white our wives do the 
rest. Certainly in the accomplishment of 
this end of our organization the women must 
help us. 

Another aim of the Grange is to soften our 
manners. Bat what is more productive of 
courtesy and politeness than the society of 
ladies? If a lot of men were to meet together, 
whether as a Grange society or as some other 
society, the tendency would be toward boor- 
ishness; and the oltener they met the worse 
it woald be for their manners. Men and wom- 
en are a restraint on each other. The demean- 
or of both classes is better when they arc to- 
gether. We need not specify farther. No 
part of the work of the Order, except perhaps 
the business matters, can be accomplished 
without the hearty aFsistence of our wives 
and daughters. This is not possibly, nor even 
profiably, but certainly true. — Oregon Cultivator, 

Why Join the Qrange? 

There are many reasons. The Grange is a 
means of rational and highly beneficial social 
enjoyment. The Grange is a means of val- 
uable instruction. When farmers meet to- 
gether they naturally talk. They talk of their 
business as farmers, of the markets, the op- 
pressions of monopolies, the rate of interest, 
the railroad Uw, the tbiid term, the prospects 
of the Patrons' movement — in short, of every- 
thing that interests them as men. A few days 
since two good farmers sat here at our table 
and talked of the different breeds of hogs, 
then of their proper care, then of other stock 
matters, and so on— all of us were instructed 
by the talking together. So everywhere, and 
parlicniarly at the Grange meetings, good farm- 
ers will find much valuable instruction in the 
mntual interchange of views and the ^relation 
of their experiences. In this connection the 
advice cannot come amiss if we say, go early. 
It will afford you the greatest opportunity to 
'alk with your neighbors. The Grange is the 
means of large savings in basiness. Already, 
through the titate and county agencies, a vast 
amount of farm machinery and other supplies 
have been purchased by the farmers at greatly 
reduced prices, and arrangements are now 
making for still farther reductions and vaster 
transactions. Co-operative stores have been 
started, insurance companies organized, eleva- 
tors built and agencies for sale of farm prod- 
nets established. All this tends to save money 
(or the farmer, and to teach him habits of 
business. — Ortgon Cultivator. 

GB.4.NaB DiBKCTOBY.— We print this vee\ our 
"Grange Directory," corrected according to ibe 
latest iD(ormatiou which «e have received (rom 
the Granges. Now, as (oriuerly, we invite all 
Granges to favor us with information of errors 
or changes in offices, that our directory may be 
trustworthy ani correct. 

Thk Mission to England. — We have received 
from J. W. A. Wright a copy of an address 
which he recently delivered at £liu Station en- 
campment, Cenleuuial expositiou, giving a fall 
account of his observations among the Euro- 
pean farmers, and his conclusions concerning 
the field (or Grange work abroad. 



July a, 1876.] 



^^©1W@ 



29 



^qi^icJLTjRi^L flojES. 



California. 

BUTTE. 

Extensive Faeminu. — Mercury, Jane 30: 
F. A. Shaffer, of Hamilton township, has one 
of the best grain-producing ranches in the 
connty. On tke home farm he has a wheal. 
field of 640 acres that will yield thirty bushels 
to the acre; on the same farm he has 370 acres 
of barley that will go forty bushels to the acre. 
He had 1,000 acres, but cut all but the 360,acres 
for hay. On his Feather river ranch he has 
700 acres of barley that will yield not less than 
thirty bushels to the acre and may go much 
higher. In addition he has rented 900 acres on 
Butte creek to \Vm. Sharkey, and has one- 
fourth of the crop. Seven hundred acres are 
in wheat that will yield fifty bushels to the 
acre, and 200 are in barley that are estimated 
at 70 bushels. There is, probably, no part of 
the county where the yield will be so great as 
on this Butte creek ranch. We have heard 
farmers speak of Its productiveness as border- 
ing on the marvelous. But Mr. Shaffer's 
farming is not conflned to grain raising. He 
has a large band of blooded sheep that give a 
h( avy fleece twice a year. On his ranch can be 
found some of the best cattle, horses and hogs 
that money could purchase. He has spent 
thousands of dollars in improving his stock, 
and now he is getting well paid for it. 

Eds. Pbess: — Have you ever been in Chico ? 
Of course you have, but every one who reads 
the EuBAL does not know what a beautiful 
place it is. Chico is the center of a very rich 
farming country, and the broad wheat fields are 
an immense source of wealth which the people 
have just Cause to be proud of. I had the 
pleasure of riding out to the place of Jas. 
Decker, and saw one of the largest harvesting 
and teaming outfits in this part of Butte county. 
To attempt to describe all the separate pieces 
of machinery, such as threshers, headers, large 
mule teams, etc., wouid take a whole issue of 
the KuEAL Pbess. One can look it all over in 
a few hours, provided he does not stop to 
make remarks about each separate piece and 
dwell upon its good qualities. Ttuly this is a 
great country, and we are living in a great age 
of improvements. — H. W. K , June 2l8t, 1876. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

The Harvest. — Antioch Ledger, June 24: 
The work of harvesting the wheat crop pro- 
gresses. The average yield is considerably 
larger than any year since '68. Some fields 
will go as high as 60 bushels per acre. There 
is some complaint of rust and frequent in- 
stances of the kernel being pinched, though as 
a whole the wheat crop may be said to be far 
superior to former ye irs. The early club wheat 
has shattered badly; in one instance, that of 
Mr. Stockton, one-half the crop has been lost. 
The little club withst-iDds the wind better, and 
is safer grain for farmers to sow. But little 
grain has been sold, the market price not as yet 
being established. Friedlander, the acknowl- 
edged wheat king, will doubtless shortly send 
forth his edict, upon which depends the net 
proceeds of the California agrioultnrist. Many 
tarmers who are in easy circumstances will 
bold their grain till winter, while others will be 
compelled to sell to meet pressing demands. 
FBESNO. 

GovEENMENT Wheat. — ExposUoT, Juno 28: 
Last winter we received a small package of 
wheat from the Agricultural Department at 
Washington. We gave a portion to Antonio 
Days, one of our most enterprising farmers, 
who planted it in the same manner that he did 
the balance of his crop. The result has been 
very satisfactory to him. The wheat, which is 
a bearded variety, grew well, matured early, 
and produced fine beads of large, plump grain. 
Mr. Days is so well pleased with the grain th'\t 
he will save it and plant it again next season. 
LOS ANOELES. 

State Beekeepeb's Association.— BeraW, 
July 1: We should suggest the propriety of 
organizing a State beekeepers' association, as 
we think by such an organization the general 
interest and advancement of beekeepers would 
be much promoted. These organizations ex- 
ist in most of the Slates and have done much 
towards developing the science of aprionlture, 
awakening an interest in the subject that has 
led to beneficial results. We have conferred 
with some of the leading beekeepers of the 
State on this subject, all of whom seem to favor 
the enterprise. We would like an expression 
from the beekeepers generally on this subject. 
We are in favor of meeting at the most central 
and accessible point in the State in October or 
November next. Will some of our brother bee- 
keepers move in the matter by giving their 
views? Speak ont. 
MENDOCINO. 

Assessing Sheep. — Dispatch July 1 : A con- 
siderable loss has been entailed all around by 
the depreciation in the value of sheep. This 
year sheep are assessed at $1 73 per head, as 
against $2.50 last year, and lambs have dropped 
from SI to 75 cents. It makes quite a diff'^r- 
ence in the amount of the assessment roll on 
personal property. 
UONTEBET. 

Potato Blight.— Editoes Pbess:— This is a 
very busy time with farmers, but the Kcbal 
Peebb must not be neglected. Some time ago 
I saw in your paper a request from one of your 
correspondents for intormation abont the 
potato blight I have examined mine and also 
a field belonging to one of my neighbors and 
find both fields badly blighted. I think from 



passing along by fields of potatoes, from the 
appearance, the most of them have more or 
less blight. I will try and ascertain and let 
you know hereafter. It is now admitted by 
most of our farmers that we will not have more 
than half a crop of wheat and barley in this 
valley, and the corn and potato crops will both 
be light.— B. D. H., Paj»ro, June 24th. 

Grain BaBNKD. — Index, June 29: We learn 
from a private letter, received by a gentleman 
in town, that quite a disastrous tire occurred 
in the grain fields at Chualar last Sunday. It 
commenced on Marston's place, near the ware- 
house, and ran al-.ng the railroad across Peter 
Storm's place, burning 40 or 50 acres of his 
wheat and 400 sacks already threshed. Then 
the devouring element swept on to Carrick & 
Blinn'n, spreading over about 200 acres, and 
destroying some 1,800 sacks of threshed bj,rley 
belonging to the firm. 

Threshing. — Steam threshers are now at 
work all over the Siliuas valley, principally 
engaged in threshing oats and barley. Wheat 
threshing will be in full blast in a few days. 
SACBAHENTO. 

Fruit Canning. — Record- Union, J a^e 29: J. 
Boutier has established on his ranch, on the 
line of the Sacramento Valley railroad, at an 
expense of about $3,000, a f.nit drjing estab- 
lishment, by the use of which he will be able to 
preserve large quantities of fruit that presently, 
owing to low prices in the market, would not 
otherwise be worth collecting from the trees. 
He will commence operations by putting up 
40,000 cans of apricots, and has already had, 
as a preliminary measure, 20,000 cans and a 
ton of white sugar delivered at his establish- 
ment. 

The Debris Question in Court. — Bee, June 
June 24: The contest which for several years 
has been pending between the farming and 
mining interests of the State has at last cul- 
minated in a suit, no*' pending in the District 
Court of Sacramento coun'y, wherein James H. 
Cummings is plaintiff and the Amador and 
Sacramento ^canal company is defendant. No 
answer has been filed in the case, but the main 
fiicts as we understand them are that the plain- 
tiff is the owner of a large and valuable tract of 
land on the Cosumnes river, which, with other 
tracts in the vicinity, all situated in the valley, 
have been overflowed in about the same man- 
ner as the bottoms of Bear and the Yuba riv- 
ers have been overflowed. The defendant is 
an extensive ditch and mining company, en- 
gaged in mining on the various tributaries of 
the .Cosumnes, and has been so engaged for 
many years. "The Cosumnes ani its tributaries 
are rich in mineral deposits, and have been 
constantly worked since the discovery of gold. 
The case will come up for trial at the Septem- 
ber term of our Court. The interests involved 
render it one of more than ordinary importance 
for as this case is determined so must be de- 
termined the question at stake between the 
farmers and miners of the State. Tha farmers 
on Bear river and the Yuba and the miners on 
the same streams, as well as those on the 
Cosumnes, are interested in the questions in- 
volved, and it is not improbable that all will 
lake part in the case. The action was com- 
menced by A. P. Catlia and T. B. McFarland, 
of this city, as attornevs for the plaintiff, and 
we understand that Messrs. Hiiymond &, Con,- 
gins and Ben. BuUard, Jr., of this city, with 
the Belcher Bros., of Marysville, will cunduct 
the case for the defence. 
SAN JOAaUIN. 

Black Roses. — Stockton Independent: Mr. C. 
G. Ernest, of this city, has for a number of 
years experimented in the production of vari- 
ously colored roses, and succeeded in growing 
some almost as black as ink. His plan was to 
engraft a slip of- a dark red rose into an oak 
tree, where they grew, flourished and blos- 
somed, the dark sap of the oak effectually col- 
oring the roses black. He did not succeed, 
however, in transferring the slips so treated to 
the ground, for they invariably died in the at- 
tempt. Slips of roses engrafted into locust 
trees lived for two years, bearing brown blos- 
soms. The experiment successfully carried 
out would be of great botanical interest in re- 
vealing the materials and process which nature 
pursues in coloring her flowers. 

Large Figs. — We were yesterday shown 
some 'immense Smyrna figs, thoroughly ripe, 
and the largest we have ever seen. 'They were 
at least three inches long and large around iu 
proportion, of a delicious flivor, and grown in 
J. D. Peters' garden. If properly cured they 
would no doubt be equal to the fiuest dried figs 
in the market. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

Chqlame Valley. — San Benito Advance, 
July 1st: From ChoUme valley we learn that 
the feed for stock continues good although the 
flocks and herds are almost too numerous for 
each man's limited range. Sheep are selling 
from fifty cents to one dollar and a quarter a 
head, according to circumstances. 
SONOUA. 

Pears or Last Yeae's Growth. — Democ-at, 
July 1: We received yesterday frojQ G. A. 
Gaess, a Sonoma vintner, three pears of last 
year's crop, in a perfect state of pi eservation, 
ripe and juicy. Now we ask where on the face 
of this wide continent, who^e reach is liom sea 
to sea, can the like be shown — pears of last 
year in June. We challenge the State to equal 
it. 

Scorched Apples. — Uncle Tommy Wall 
brought us a branch of an apple tree upon which 
the half grown apples are literally scorched on 
one side from the heat. He thiuks it was done 
on Monday last by the hot north wind which 
blew that day. 



White's Cheese Factobt.— Petaluma Argus, 
June 29: W. H. White will close operations for 
the season in his cheese factory at Bloomfield 
to-day. He has on hand 3,000 cheese, of an 
average weight of about 25 pounds each, or a 
total of 75,000 pounds. Prices are low at pres 
ent, and Mr. White is holding on for a raise. 
His cheese is of excellent quality, and will 
bring the highest price in the market. 
YOLO. 

The Wind and thb Wheat. — Mail, June 29: 
From all farmers whom we have bad a chance 
to interview, we learn that the heavy winds of 
the past three days, commencing on Sunday 
night, has whipped out ths wheat fearfully. 
One man, Mr. Eyder, thinks that one-third of a 
fild of summer fallow belonging to him is lying 
on the ground. Mr. James Moore tells ns the 
same story. Abjut one-half the wheat had 
been harvested before the norther set in, and 
so much has been wholly saved. This, to- 
gether with the hot weather of two weeks ago, 
which ripened the backward grain prematurely, 
causing it to shrink a little, will reduce our esti- 
mate of the yield of Yolo county very materi- 
ally. But we are not prepared to believe that 
the disaster caused by the north wind in whip- 
ping out the grain is general, at least to the ex- 
tent abjve noted, and we hope that when the 
farmers cut their grain and thresh it, that they 
will find their calcnlations a little overrated. 
Last season the north wind swept over the 
wheat fields with more fury and for a longer 
time than it has this year. Some of the farm 
ers thought their wheat was so badly destroyed 
that it would not pay to cut, but when cut and 
threshed they realized double their expecta- 
tions. It may possibly be that the present con- 
dition may be about the same. 

Idaho. 

Editors Press: — The people of the Boise river 
valley have suffered more or less from the 
effects of exceedingly high water. The impres- 
sion has gone abroad that the crops of the 
valley are materially lessened by the floods, 
which is not the case, for the increased acreage 
of this year and the exceeding luxuriance ol 
the remaining crops, owing to the excess of 
moisture in the ground, will more than bring 
up the yield to that of any former season. Our 
harvest has begun; eppecially haying. I saw 
rye ripe and cut on the 18th inst. New potatoes 
were in our market on the 10th and cabbage as 
early as the 5:li. The fruit crop of the country 
this year is exceedingly heavy, but there are 
not many large orchards yet in bearing. The 
mines of the surrounding camps are yielding 
unusually well this season owing to the large 
quantity of snow last winter. The quartz 
mines have also developed very rich ore and 
the miners are happy. — A B. K., Boise City, 
June 24th. 

Oregon. 

The Fliods. — Oregoninn, June 24: The river 
has steadily risen since last Thursday. It is 
now about two feet, or a little more, higher 
than then, and several inches higher than it 
was in 1862, when it was higher than at any 
previous time of which record has been kept. 
All the northern part of the city from Wash- 
ington street and back from the river several 
blocks, is under water. B street is submerged 
as far back as Sixth street, and the Albina 
ferry boat lands its passengers at the foot of 
Fourth street near the residence of Capt. G. H. 
Flanders. North of Washington street on 
Front and to a considerable extent on First, 
business is suspended — the floors of most of 
the stores being covered with water. The 
amount of damage already caused is very con- 
siderable; but the full extent of it cannot 
be estimated until the subsidence of the flood. 
It is probable that the planking of many of the 
streets will have to be taken up and replaced 
and the Nicholson pavement, on the northern 
part of Front and First will probably have to 
be relaid. Fifty thousand dollars has been 
mentioned as the amount of d*mage already 
done, but that sum will hardly cover it. At 
present the water is not rising perceptibly. It 
is thought the highest point has been reached 
and that the water will soon begin to recede. 

Monday evening the Orleans hotel at Uma- 
tilla was carried away. Same evening Fred 
Benzer's bakery at the Dalles was washed 
away. Wedne.sday evening the back portion of 
Merryman Jc Louis' stone building at the Dalles 
washed out. One third of the 0. S. N. Co.'s 
large warehouse at Celilo — about 300 feet — was 
carried out last Saturday night. T>vo small 
fisheries on Deer island and one house above 
Maxwell's lauding have been carried away. 
Wednesday evening a large building was seen 
to float past Kalama, and a portion of a large 
frame building was seen the same day stranded 
on rocks below Martin's bluff. Yesterday a 
small salmon fishery, located at Warrior's 
point, just above St.'ll-jlens, yielded to the 
high water and floated luajestioally down on 
the current. 

Cipt. J. C. Ainsworth received the following 
telegram last evening from the Dalles, sent at 
4.45 o'clock, which looks encouraging: "Just 
returned from Celilo. Everything there safe, 
and apprehend that there will be no further 
d image or danger to property. Hive had most 
of the embankments stayed with rock and 
brush, and am still at work at some of them. 
No report from Foot to-day, but am satisfied 
everything is 'O. K.' on the road, or he 
would advise me. River on a stand since 
morning at Culilo." 

Litest dispatches from the Dalles look favor- 
able. From four o'clock A M. to (our o'clock 
P. M., the river Lad risen only one and a half 
inches. 



Hops at the Centenn*a< 

We hnve received from P. Weilbachet, di- 
rector of the hop department of the Centennial, 
the following rules and regulations for the ex- 
hibition of samples and sample bales of the 
new crop of hops. Those who wish to submit 
specimens should observe the following: 

Full size square samples of not less that one 
pound in weight, and drawn from the bale, ad- 
dressed to the undersigned, and if sent by mail 
to be marked with the initials of the consignor, 
postage prepaid, will be received up to October 
5th. 

Applications for biles should be made in 
time to receive the necessary labels for forward- 
ing and insure the arrival of the hops in Phil- 
adelphia by October 5th, freight prepaid. 

Such samples or sample bales should repre- 
sent the whole growth; samples found to be 
fictitious will be thrown out from the award. 
Advise by letter the number of bales or the es- 
timated gross weight of the whole growth. 
Samples will be numbered and registered for 
competition as they come to hand. 

Prizes. 

In order to have a full collection of fine 
samples and sample bales, and to stimulate 
growers to take the best care in picking and 
curing their hops, the dealers of New York 
city have provided a prize of $50 in gold to be 
handed to the grower of the best sample o( 
hops; a second prize of $30 in gold for the 
next be.st sample, and a third prizj of $20 in 
gold for I he third bsst sample, besides the 
medal to be awarded and given by the Centen- 
nial commission. Should outside subscriptions 
yet be made, the prizes would be raised in pro- 
portion. The trial will come off on October 
10th, at the office of the hop department in the 
Brewers' Centennial building in Philadelphia, 
and to give satisfaction to all concerned, three 
praetical brewers have been selected to act aa 
experts, iu conjunction with the jurors ap- 
pointed by the Centennial commission. P. 
Weilbacher, director hop department, 44 Pearl 
street. New York. 



Sales of Farming Lands. 

Les Angeles. 

One of the largest real estate transactions of 
the year was concluded yesterday in the sale of 
a part of the Cucamonga homestead tract. The 
purchase was made by some San Francisco 
capitalists, and the consideration was $21,000 
gold coin. The homestead company have ex- 
pended a great many thousand dollars iu sup- 
plying water for their entire tract, and now 
have a volume of water in their main ditch 
equal to that of the Los Angeles river. The 
system of irrigation is complete and an invita- 
tion is extended to the public to inspect the 
property.— £'xpress. 

Sania Clara. 

Dun Murphy, of San Jose, is about to cut up 
his extensive ranch, north of Gilroy, and sell 
it in farms of from 160 to 200 acres each. The 
tract will make from 30 to 40 farms of this sizj, 
and can be purchased on easy terms. Other 
large ranch owners in this section of the State 
might imitate Mr. Murphy's example with 
profit to themselves and customers, besides 
contributing greatly to the general prosperity 
of the entire country. — HoUister Enterprise. 

Alameda County. , 

List week, Friday, 0. D. Henry, of Castro 
valley, two or three miles east of Haywards, 
sold his place to Sath Warner, who has recently 
come to our State from Massachusetts. Pos- 
session was to be given this week. The place 
contained 14 acres and a half, and the price 
paid was $10,500 in gold coin. This shows the 
value of land in that vicinity, and what indus- 
try, energy and perseverance can accomplish 
in a short period of time Five years ago Mr. 
Henry bought the naked lind at a compara- 
tively low figure, and has put the present value 
on it by his own continuous exertions. There 
was not only a good bouse, barn and out-houses 
on it when sold last week, but also l,40il fruit 
trees and 60,000 currant bushes, besides various 
other growths, the work of his hands. This is 
one of many examples of what our prolific 
soil, equable climate and favorable location, so 
near the great commercial city of the Pacific, 
can etieot under the hands of enterprise and in- 
dustry. It is an example to be followed 
through all this portion of Alameda county. — 
Independent. 

Tuolumne. 

As an instance that agricultural land is still 
of value in this county, we mention the fact 
that the one-f onrth of 40 acre.) was sold last 
week for $1,040. The landis the Italian garden 
in the vicinity of Columbia. One hundred and 
lour dollars per acre is a good price consider- 
ing the condition of the county, and thousands 
of other acres of land here equally as good can 
be had at Government rates — 1.25 per acre. 
Thorough cultivation— intelligent farming— will 
make garden spots anywhere in Tuolumne. — 
Independent. 

Eablt Flour in Texas.— The first sack of 
flour raised in Texas this year was harvested on 
May 15th, threshed on the 16th and ground at 
the Tudd mills, Dallas. It was then shipped 
to Galveston, with instructions to be sold at 
auction and the proceeds given to the Bayland 
orphan home. On the 23d it was gold in front 
of the cotton exehange, and brought fSQO. 



30 



[July 8, 1876 




The Sabbath. 

Fresh glidei the brook and blowa the gale, 

Yet yonder halU the quiet mill: 
The whirling wheel, the ruBhing Bail, 

How niotiouless and still. 

Six days of toil, poor child of Cain, 
Thy strength the slave of want may be; 

The seventh thy limbs escape the chain— 
A God hath made thee free. 

Ahl tender was the law that gave 

This holy respite to the breast. 
To breathe the gale, to watch the wind. 

And know the wheel may rest. 

But where the waves the gentlest glide, 
■What image charms to light thine eyes? 

The spire reflected on the tide 
Invites thee to the skies. 

To teach the soul Its noblest worth, 
The rest from mortal toil is given; 

Go, snatch the brief reprieve from earth. 
And pass— a guest to heaven. 

They tell thee, in their dreaming gchool, 
or power from old dominion hurled. 

When rich and poor, with juster rule, 
Uhali share the altered woild. 

AlasI since time itself began, 
That fable bath but f»oled the hour; 

Each age that ripens power in man 
But subjects man to power. 

Yet every day in seven, at least, 
One brUht republic shall be known; 

Han's world awh>lu hath surely ceased. 
When Qod proclaims his own. 

Six days may rank divide th« poor. 
Oh, uiyea, from ihy banquet hall; 

The »"venth tiie father op«us His door. 
And holds His feast for a.n.—PtU>lic Opinion. 



Woodside Papers.— No. 6. 

(Written for the RtJiuL Press by J. E. Jameson.) 
One pleasant moroing, as Mrs. Payson and 
Miss Peck were sitting on the veranda witb 
their sewing, they heard a light rap on the 
back door, and goon after Miss Mattie Storrs, 
the only daughter of a merchant, came and sat 
down just inside the bay window. 

"Yon must excuse me for coming in at the 
back door," she said, taking Mrs. Payson't, 
extended hand. "I came up through the field 
for some of the 'Payson medicine,' as papa 
would say. Ha laughs at me and says I stay at 
homa as long as I can endure myself, then 
come up here and get cheered up." 

"You look as if you needed some medicine 
of some kind," said Aunt Eeziah, peering over 
the top of her spectacles. 

" I do feel miserable," returned Miss Storra. 
"Come, Mrs. Payson, turn a crank and grind 
something out of that wise head of yours that 
will cheer me up." 

"Ah, Miss Mattie, I fear yon will have to 
change your life somewhat before yon will be 
very cheerful. But come out here, where you 
can have perfectly pure air aod the benefit of 
the sun." 

"Oh, but the sun tans one so!" sighed Miss 
Storrs. 

"Tails one so!" cried Mrs. Payson. "Mattie 
Storrs, I am ashamed of you! Here you are, 
looking as though you bad been done up in 
cotton batting, and set up on a shelf half your 
life; andyo<^ shut your blinds, and do not know 
that you are bliud to your best interests. You 
should be out in the air all that you possibly 
can!" 

"Oh, don't scold me, Mrs. Payson! Here I 
am, shall I sit in the full bl»ze of the sun?" 

"You might sit so that the sun would faL 
on your shoulders, as it is not oppressively 
arm." 

"Yes," said Aunt Keziah; "old Dr. Hayes 
used to say that people ought to stay in the 
sun in the Bummer that they might lay by a 
ntore of strength for cold weather. A sun 
bath is healthy and cheap." 

"Now, Miss Mattie," t-aid Mrs. Pajson, "if 
you waut a presctiplion, yuu must tell me what 
time you arose this morning — no, how late did 
yon sit up last night?" 

"Last night? Oh, I was reading until — well, 
it wasn't midnight." 

"Why, Mattie! when you have had to leave 
school because your eyes were not strong 
enough to admit of your studying, and now 
you read (oothing but nonsense, I presume), 
when you ought to be asleep. I was sorry that 
you had to leave school." 

"Oh, well, I am studying French and Latin 
now." 

"Sludyin' fiddkslicks!" said Aunt Keziah, 
indignantly. "You had better leave sich trump- 
ery, and be after stndyin' the art of gettin' well 
and keepin' well." 

"Well, yon and papa would agree splendidly; 



he told me this morning that I had bett«r leave 
oflf Latin and study health." 

"There is the great lack in our schools," 
said Mrs. Payson. "Every other study re- 
ceives more attention than the health. To be 
sure, one has a smattering of physiology, but 
that is not enough. They should be obliged to 
read carefully the best works on th& preserva- 
tion of health, like 'Dr. Hall's Guide Board to 
Health, Peace and Compeience.' Could they 
learn the happy art of keeping their health 
good, it would be worth more to them than all 
the dead languages in the universe. They 
should be taught what to eat, and how to cook 
good, nutritious food, and not left to feed them- 
selves on fruit cake and be grievously tormented 
with the dyspepsia half their days. I hold that 
g od morals and good health should be consid- 
ered before education." 

"Oh, Mrs. Payson, " cried Miss Storra, "how 
did you know what I had for breakfast? " 

" I did not, what was it? " 

"Why, I wasn't up until the rest bad eaten, 
so I just took a slice of fruit cake and a cup of 
strong tea." 

" Oh, how foolish! You do not need strong 
tea. Guess how Dr. Hall tells us to make tea. 
One teaRpoonfui in a quart of boiling water, 
two-thirds of a cup of this and one third milk 
or water. Tea drinkers scorn the idea! I know 
persons who use nearly a teaspoonful to a cap 
of water, then say they drink weak tea. I will 
tell you what I drink: A teaspoonful of such 
tea, after it is made, in a cup of hot water. I 
think something warm is better than very cold 
water, becau!<e the stomach has to suspend all 
work until the water is warmed. I could tell 
you of a hundred things more healthy than 
fruit cake for your breakfast to-morrow morn- 
ing. I will tell you something I learned last 
Monday afternoon. Do you see, away up al- 
most to the top of the mountain, that little 
patch of cleared land and the tiny log house in 
the middle of it, with the smoke curling from 
the chimney? We rode up there, as Mrs. 
Snow, the lady who lives there, has been mak- 
ing some rugs for me, and I wished to get 
tbem, as well as to give Aunt Keziah a pleasant 
ride, as she is going away to-morrow. We 
thought wt should be disappointed, for it rained 
qaite hard after dinner; but Grace had cet her 
heart upon going, and declared that it ' wouldn't 
last lon^, for 'twas oiily deal the angels got 
irew their wasbio' and emptin' their tubs;' 
she ' beared their big wringer 'ittle while ago.' 
Sure enough, it soon stopped and we staried, 
ifter I had looked up a good package of papers 
for Mrs. Snow. That reminds me, I wish that 
yea would save all your good, common-sense 
papers and magazines not wanted fur futare 
Use, and give them to her and others who can- 
not afford to buy for themselves. They will 
lend them to their neighbors and they will be a 
source of pleasure and profit. I cannot bear to 
see g lOd papers burned up or sold to b' g^ouud 
up again, when so many might be benefited by 
them and, perhaps, lead to a better life. That 
was a deliubtful ride, up through the maple-) 
and beeches. We were not iutending to g.i in, 
for I know that Mrs. Snow dislikes to have 
people know of her poverty; but the work was 
not quite readv, so we w>-r» almost obliged to 
du so. Poor Mrs. Snow! In her younger days 
she was a tailoress, and had money i>i the bunk. 
But she married a lazy m^tn, aud has to sup- 
port him by doing such work as she can gee. 
A call there is enough to make one contented 
with their own surroundings. There w.i« noth- 
ing bat bare wall!<;no paint, no paper, no 
nothing, I was about to say, but there was a 
loom in one corner, a spinning-whe-^1 in another, 
and a bed in the ihird, a few old chairs, and 
lust, but not least, Mr. Snow's mother, sitting 
by the fire, with her tea-pot, which is always 
kept hot, within reach. Tliey say she drinks a 
half pound a week. 

"Over the bed was a ceiling (?) made from an 
old print wrapper which I gave to Mrs. Snow, 
just, as she said, 'to keep the spiders and 
such from falling down from the roof on our 
faces.' She hag made some print curtains for 
the wee wiudows, and tried to fix up a little, 
but it is about all that she can do to get some- 
thing tJ eat and keep the old lady in tea. 
Well, what I was goiug to tell you was that she 
was cooking some oatmeal, and as she said that 
It was very nice, healthy and cheap, I called at 
the store on our way home and bought some. 
We find it a delicious breakfast dish, eaten 
with milk or cream, and sugar. For our fam- 
ily of five, I sift a teacupful into two or three 
pints of boiling water, into which I have put a 
heaping teaspoonful of salt; I stir it frequently, 
letting it boil about half an hour. It is a uni- 
versal dish among the Scotch, and is very nu- 
tritious. I advise you to turn your back on 
fruit cake and eat some, or some crushed 
wheat, or graham bread, or, if you must have 
something sweet, go into the kitchen and make 
a gingerbread. 1 have an excellent recipe. 
I sometimes eat them warm with butter. Take 
one and a half cups molasses, one cup of water, 
a little warm, two large spoonfuls melted but- 
ter, one hall teaspoonful salt, one teaspoon 
soda, ginger as you like it; I use half a tea- 
spoonful. But what did you do before break- 
fast ? You were feeling very poorly, did you 
try to make yourself feel better ?" 

' Do?" said Miss Storrs, "why, I just slipped 
into an old wiapper, twisted my hair into a 
pug' and washed my face, to be sure! What 
would you have had me do?" 

'■Well," replied Mrs. Payson, "you should 
brush your hair carefully in the first place, then 
put on a nice fresh wrapper, as you have 
plenty of them, and— how did you wash your 
face?" 

"How did 1 wash my face? Why, took some 



cold water, dipped my hands in, and scrubbed 
it, of oour.se! Then put some eoap on my 
bands and scrubbed them. Did you for a 
moment imagine that I did not know how to 
wash my face?" 

"I did, for the simple reason that I never 
knew how to wash mine until a few years ago," 
said Mrs. Payson, quietly. 

"Why, Mrs. Payson! are you crazy?" 

"No, my dear, I am of perfectly sound mind. 
To-morrow morning please take about a pint 
of water, a little warm ; use nice hand soap, and 
wash your hands for some time. You will be 
surprised to find the water very dirty, though 
it is not so surprising when we consider that a 
large amount of waste particles from the body 
have been thrown upon the outside. When 
you wash your face first, these are, of course, 
rubbed upon it; instead, take another tepid 
water for your face — wise men declare that this 
is best for the complexion, with cold water for 
an instant rinsing. Next, brush your teeth. 
Use refined hard white soap, by rubbing a 
damp, stiff brush upon it, at least once or twice 
a week, and common salt as often. They say 
that soap and salt will destroy that which 
causes the teeth to decay. After each meal 
rinse your mouth thoroughly, or use a softer 
brush, twisting it around the teeth that it may 
remove particles of food — in all cases using 
warmish water. I have tried this for years, 
and I know that before my teeth ached fre- 
quently, but since then they have not troubled 
me at all. I also use, a few times a week, 
some tooth powder, prepared by a 
good dentist I tried a few days since to per- 
suade Mrs. Smith, who was groaning with the 
toothache, to try keeping them clean, but she 
said she never owned a tooth brush, and she 
could not think of spending the time to fuss 
with them ; nevertheless she had not been able 
to do her work for some days on account of the 
toothache. I should not dare to say that keep- 
ing the teeth clean would prevent them from 
aching, but I like my own experience, and it 
takes bat little time when the habit is once 
foimed. Perhaps you did not need all this talk 
about teeth." 

"I guess I did, for I only brush mine on 
great occasions, when I want to look very well 
indeed," said Mattie, blushing a little. 

"Well, you have no idea how much better you 
will feel if you prepare in this way for break- 
fast. There is a way in which you can increase 
your health and strength without taking medi- 
cine (I am not at all partial to medicine). If 
your lungs or back trouble you, or you feel 
weak and weary, ja t rub the skin with a cloth 
wrung tightly from cold water, then rub witb a 
cra^h towel, then with coarse white flannel, 
until ttje skin is red. I got this valuable idea 
from a physicitn ia Boston. He also recom- 
mended spatting with the hand before rubbing 
with flannel; but this is apt to m-tke the flesh 
tender, unless one has the strengthening wash 
he provides for his patients. This sboald be 
done night and morning. I know people who 
have kept up their strength for years by cold 
water and rubbing. But here, it is almost 
noon, and I mu-it get dinner." 

The Harvest Bride. 

[By E. Hdnt.) 

It had been a hot day, but the heat was past. 
A pleasant warmth lingered and a reireshiog 
breeze was rushing through the thick leafy 
masses of the tree-i. All the leave-i in the 
woods were tinted with the mellow richness of 
autumn and unier a gleaming sky waved acres 
of ripe yellow corn. 

Farmer Dimsdale and his Eon Bobin were 
returnlug home after work. They had hid 
rather a long spell of it aud the perspiration 
stood in great drops upon their brows. They 
were very glad to enter the last field and to 
come in view of their destination, bat as it was 
n- ar they walked much slower. The way was a 
narrow footpath. The farmer walked first and 
R .bin followed. The path inclined over au 
elevation towards a stile, and the elder man sat 
upon the stile for a rest as soon as he reached 
it. Robin leant his elbows on the topmost rail 
and looked westward. His gaze followed the 
wings of a windmill and h;8 thoughts entered a 
little cottage hidden in a profusion of foliage 
lanned by the air agitated by the white wings. 
The farmer's position on the stile commanded 
a splendid landscape. The sun was sinking 
upon the water and the whole earth, as far as 
the horizon, was bright with the reflection of 
his glory. 'I'he brightest spot in the landscape 
was the farmer's great field of ripe coru. This 
engrossed all bis attention. It was weil grown 
and the ears were large and full. The field 
represented many pieces of gold and ought to 
be cut; but for three days no laborer was to be 
had and farmer Dimsdale was sore vexed and 
troubled about the matter He sat on the 
utile swinging his thick stick between his knees. 
He stared sorrowfully at his field of beautiful 
corn aud wondered what he should do. 

"Son," said he presently, "if so be I could 
get yonder meadow cut, I think I would give 
my consent to thy marriage with penniless 
Bessie." 

"What!" cried the son, starting from a rev- 
erie lit with Bessie's blue eyes. 

The farmer smiled grimly. "I was speaking 
of an impossibility, of course," said he, "but 
it came into my mind and I must nee'ds say it. 
I am so vexed to have this good corn stand 
three days more when it is fall ripe, that 
I said I think I would give my consent to your 
marriage with penniless Bessie if yon could 
manage to get it cut." 

"You promise me thy consent, father," said 
Robin, "and the meadow shall be out." 



"Son Bobin," replied the old man, "you talk 
nonsense. If I cannot get hands, I wist yon 
will not." 

"Trust me," said the son, "I will use my 
own hands; Bessie will not take me without thy 
consent, so I will cat down the corn in the 
meadow, and thy consent to our bridal sluall be 
my wage." 

The old man laughed. 

"Can you cut it down in three days?" said 
he. 

"Ood helping me, I will," answered Robin. 

"Then, verily, thou shalt marry Bessie. 
But mind, she lends no hand to thy help." 

"So be it," replied Robin. Then he shook 
hands with his father to seal the compact and 
they parted, the old man going away with a 
smile of incredulity. 

Robin thought Bessie Hall, the shepherd's 
daughter, was the sweetest maid he knew. She 
was neat and comely and fair withal. She bad 
a simple grace in every movement of her lithe 
figure and two charming dimples when she 
smiled. She had been well spoken of at the 
Sunday school, and her mother called her a 
devoted daughter. She bad innocently engaged 
the afi'ections of the farmer's son; but ^he 
farmer had set his face against the match. He 
liked Bessie; but she was not the wife, he said, 
for Bobin. Robin mast look higher. It was 
true the shepherd's family was as good as his; 
but riches made all the difference. A good 
marriage might better Robin's condition in life. 
He was a handsome young man, and the chance 
was not unlikely to fall in his way. Bessie was 
a good, affectionate lassie; but the farmer was 
very ambitious. He would not consent to re- 
ceive her as a daughter. 

He thought there was no possibility of his 
consent being won in the manner he had sug- 
gested ou the spur of the moment, and he went 
home laughing in his sleeve at his son's folly in 
indulging in such an idea. 

Evening had fallen, Robin's sickle flashed 
to and fro and the corn fell ear upon ear at his 
feet. One of the farm boys followed him, 
gathering them into sheaves; and pretty, buxom 
Bessie stood by looking on, finding it diflBuult 
to restrain herself from lending a hand. Robin 
was silent and swift over his work. He had not 
time to look up, when the moon came out of 
the clouds, accompanied by a Niogle star, and 
Bessie said, "It is night." When she went 
away be did not gaze after her. He sharpened 
bis sickle and fell to work witb a stronger will. 
His heart was throbbing with love. It sent 
new life and new strength through ad his 
limbs as he thought of Bessie. 

Bessie, blithe and bright, came tripping back 
in the morning. She found her lover still 
bent to his work. He had not failed or flag,;ed 
all through the night. Tne farm boy rlept a 
brief sleep on the stubble, but Robin worked 
on as if he had but just begun, and a great heap 
of mown corn lay about him. He smiled as 
Bessie came into the field aud made a short 
pause to eat the breakfast she bad brought. 
Then he woke the farm boy and went on as 
steadily and rapidly as before. 

The sun advanced to the meridian. It 
slanted perpendicular rays through the 
"Silver becoh and maple yellow-leaved," 
until the scarlet berries, the wild roses and the 
nightshade dropped upon the hedgerows. It 
gleamed upon the h-tymakers and the pedes- 
trians until they called out with thirst. It was 
mauy degrees of beat in the sh ide, but the lov- 
e.i stood out in the field and heeded it not. 

All but the bees had left off work. Once 
more Bessie said "good night," and the dew 
gathered upon the herb. Once more the night- 
ingale trilled forth her lay in the hay-scented 
air and the harvest moon rode high in the 
heavens. Once more the farm boy fell asleep 
and all the land was quiet; but love bad not 
tired; still— still from eve till morn, from morn 
ti 1 eve, Robin went on with his work, sustained 
by love and hope. 

On the third day the farmer passed by and 
paused with amazement to see his corn all laid 
i>y his son's single arm. Robin was very pale. 
He had fallen upon the stubble and Bessie knelt 
by his side. She held a cup to bis lips. Her 
eyes were full of joyful tears and a prayer of 
thanksgiving was upon her tongue. Farmer 
Dimsdale approached the group slowly. He 
was agiiated oy conflicting emotions. Fur a 
moment be was silent; then he said, 

"I could not have believed in this; but since 
it is so, every laborer is worthy his hire." 

Then he took Bessie's hand and placed it in 
Robin's; so when the corn was garnered in 
Robin took the wife home he had chosen and 
she was a good wife to bim all her days. Many 
a time did he sit by his fireside and tell his 
children how he had won her in the blessed 
harvest time and in the harvest thanksgiving 
she was remembered by him as a gift from the 
Lord with the golden corn. 

The year is about to take up its bright inher- 
itance of golden fruits. The Lord of the har- 
vest gives us signs of great abundance. He 
hath visited the earth with his goodness. He 
hath watered the ridges. He bath settled the 
furrows thereof. He has made them soft with 
showers, and blessed the springing thereof; and 
songs of thanksgiving are ready to hurst forth 
for the promise which He makes. Blessed be 
the name of the Lord!— Jf core's Rural. 



"That was very greedy of yon, Tommy, to 
eat your little sister's share of oakel" "You 
told me, ma, I was always to take her part," 
said Tommy. 

Thb heart too often, like the cement of the 
ancient Romans, acquires hardness by time. 



July 8, 1876.] 



31 



Foreign Millionaires. — Brazil is reported 
to contain a plutocrat by whose side the lute 
Mr. Stewart appears almost poverty-stricken. 
This wonderful hidalgo recently bestowed 
upon his only daughter, as a marriage gift, a 
diamond necklace variously estimated as worth 
from half a million to three-quarters of a mill- 
ion sterling. His own property, which chiefly 
consists of diamond and gold mines in various 
parts of the world, has been approximately 
valued at £80,000,000 if it could be sold at ex- 
isting prices without paralyzing the money 
markets of the world. At the marriage of his 
daughter, he presented each lady guest with a 
diamond bracelet said to be worth £5,000. 
His total expenses on that occasion, including 
the wonderful necklace, were reckoned at quite 
a million sterling. After this appalling Croesus, 
the millionaires of Hindostan seem poor crea- 
tures enough. Nevertheless, there are some 
rather wealthy natives to be met with here and 
there. A Calcutta banker, named Muttee Soil 
Seal, used to be reported worth £5,000,000, 
and the "Baboo of the Seven Tanks," another 
monetary magnate at the same city, was said 
to posess even greater wealth. Sir Jamsetjee 
Jejeebhoy, the Parsee philanthropist, left be- 
hind him quite £8,000,000 in one form of 
security or another, falthough he had previously 
bestowbd immense sums in charity. This 
enormous fortune started from veiy small be- 
ginnings, bis original occupation being to pick 
up empty bottles at the bungalows of European 
residents and sell them for a trifle in the ba- 
zaar. In commemoration of this fact the 
family of the deceased baronet have added the 
word "Bottleewallah" to their patronymic. 
In the opinion of the native moneyed classes, 
Luchmee Chund Sett, the great Muttra banker, 
is by far the richest man in India. No one 
knows, even approximately, what he is worth, 
but the magnitude of his capital may be im- 
agined from the fact that he has agencies in 
all the principal and second-class towns of 
Hindostan. 



Happiness. — The idea has been transmitted 
from generation to generation, that happiness 
is one large and beautiful precious stone, a 
single gem so rare that all search after it is 
vain, all efi'ort for it hopeless. It is not so. 
Happiness is a mosaic, composed of many 
smaller stones. Each taken apart and viewed 
singly, may be of little value, but when all are 
grouped together, and judiciously combined 
and set, they form a pleasing and graceful 
whole — a costly jewel. Trample not under 
foot, then, the little pleasures which a gracious 
providence scatters in the daily path, and 
■which, in eager search after some great aud ex- 
citing joy, we are so apt to overlook. Why 
should we always keep our eyes fixed on the 
bright, distant horizon, while there are so many 
lovely roses in the garden in which we are per- 
mitted to walk? The very ardor of our chase 
after happiness may be the reason that she so 
often eludes our grasp. We pantingly strain 
after her when she has been graciously brought 
nigh unto us. 

Pabtino — Men seldom appear so humane, 
or in a position so advantageous to their hu- 
manity, as when they part. How few friends 
are there who endure a protracted separation 
without some abatement of warmth, or meet, 
by appointment, without some precautionary 
anxieties, or continue together long without 
some accidental discontents; but none, in any 
degree entitled to that character, ever part with- 
out much regret! Even the cheerful and social 
are not always exempt from those momentary 
perturbations with which selfishness chi'ls the 
pulse, or controversy overheats it. The needle 
will oscillate a little from the| just point of 
its affections, and though its polarity is never 
lost, it is seldom steady. Yet even the petu- 
lent, the irritable, and the more generous of 
the resentful lose all unfriendliness as they 
pass away from each other — sighing at a con- 
versation which, perhaps, they may have mu- 
tually desired. The last shake of the hand is 
sufficient to dissipate a hundred grievances. 
There are then no reproaches which we can re- 
call beside those against ourselves. 



Mothers. — Many a discouraged mother folds 
her tired hands at night and feels as if she had, 
after all, done nothing, although she has not 
spent an idle moment since she arose. Is it 
netting that your little helpless children have 
some one to come to with all their childish 
griefs and joys? Is it nothing that your hus- 
band ii " safe " when he is away to his busi- 
ne,-8, because your careful hands direct every- 
thing at home? Is it nothing, when his busi- 
ness is over, that he has the blessed refuge of 
home, which you have that day done your best 
to brighten and refine? O, weary and faith- 
ful mother, you little know your power when 
you say, "I have done nothing!" There is a 
book in which a fairer record than this is writ- 
ten over against your name. — Rural Sun. 



YQ\i^q pOLKs' GoLd^[l. 



-Y 

Small Farms.— The Semi-Tropical says: 
"Small farms make near neighbors; they make 
good roads; they make plenty of good schools 
and churches; there is more money made in 
proportion to the labor; less labor is wanted; 
everything is kept neat; less wages have to be 
paid for help; less time is wasted; more is 
raised to the acre ; besides it is tilled better ; 
there is no watch of hired help; the mind 18 
not kept in a worry, stew and fret all the time." 



By trusting your own soul you shall gain a 
greater confidence in men. 



How to Write for the Paper. 

[Written for the Young Folks' Column by Oomds 
CANOPns.] 

Among the numerous juvenile readers of our 
"Young Folks' Column" there are, no doubt, 
a great many who would like to, and in a cred- 
table manner could, if thpy only made a trial, 
with the aid of a little advice write a sketch, an 
essay or a story for their department, which 
would bea credit to them and to their column. 
But most of them do not know how to set about 
it; many are too timid, and a number, sometimes 
possessing more ability than they give them- 
selves credit for, fear the displeasure of a rejec- 
tion, and the consequence is that the most im- 
portant art, composition, which every person 
should be tolerably efficient in, remains un- 
taught, undeveloped and uncultivated ino our 
youth. 

The great mass of humanity, widely separated 
as it is, is constantly under the necessity of 
corresponding. Persons in all stations resort 
to letter writing as the one common carrier of 
intelligence, and upon it we must all depend, 
more or less. 

When you write for a paper, do not say, in 
your note accompanying your contribution, "I 
take the liberty to send" or "I take mj pen in 
hand." The bare fact that you write suggests 
that. Do not introduce your article with an 
apology; whatever is worth writing can be 
written without being apologized for. If jou 
feel assured that an apology is necessary, you 
may be just as certain tbat your article will be 
declined. When you have selected your sub- 
ject — which should always be one of which you 
can write without "cramming" for the occasion, 
— and feel that it is one that will interest those 
who read it, after due thought and delibera- 
tion write it out in an easy, natural style, 
without affecting a show of language. Much 
has been said regarding the "mapping out" of 
a subject, — that is, making a rough sketch of it 
before proceeding, but, unless it is desired to 
introduce dates or names of persons or places 
likely to be forgotten, in which case memoran- 
dums are not only desirable but necessary, we 
would not recommend this method. It is too 
much like writing a letter and then copying it. 
Avoid all introductory or cursory remarks, but 
plunge right into the heart of your subject. 
Begin at the beginning and follow your sub- 
ject through, in progressive order, so that what 
should be said last is not first, and vice versa. 
This will prevent confusion, — a thing especially 
to be Fdreaded when your subject is a much 
complicated one, — and enable you to present 
in a concise form everything you wish to say. 
When your theme has become exhausted, which 
you can tell by the difficulty with which ideas 
then present themselves, by all means stop; 
otherwise you will be liable to repeat, with 
only a change of language, what you said be- 
fore, and your subject becomes "drawly." 

Short articles are always more likely to be 
read than long ones, for the reason that the 
short ones can be read through at an odd mo- 
ment, while the long ones, to be read without 
interruption, require more time than the reader 
may have at his disposal or cares to devote to 
the subject. For this reason sub-headings are 
customary in all long articles, which enable the 
reader to pursue any one particular branch of 
the subject. 

A few words regarding materials may not 
here be amiss. Do not use fancy paper or col- 
ored inks; they appear finical. Black ink or 
lead pencil on common paper is most desirable. 
Number your pages, leaving a margin of about 
half an inch at the top, left and bottom of your 
paper, and about quarter of an inch between 
each line. Write names and numbers distinctly, 
as they are most liable to be mistaken, the con- 
text furnishing no clue to their indentity. With 
these rules as a guide, many of our young folks 
can, no doubt, produce something worthy of 
publication. 

Solution to the Floral Letter. 

The following sentiments of flowers form the 
solution to the "Floral Letter to a Friend" 
published two weeks ago, which we invited our 
young friends to solve: — 

Beloved child; early youth; memory; life; re- 
call; joy; contentment; message; absence; separa- 
tion; time; surprise; cheerfulness; rural happi- 
ness;, glory; grandeur; female ambition; diffi- 
culty; unchanging friendship; hope; error; con- 
stancy; folly; gossip; justice shall be done you; 
sincerity; sympathy; sorrow; prudence; fore- 
sight; good-nature; frankness; stratagem; recon- 
ciliation; confident; presumption; keep your 
promises ; consolation ; friendship ; youthful love ; 
absent friends; liberty; prosperity; welcome; 
anxious; impatient of absence; I expect a meet- 
ing; I feel your kindness; I partake your senti- 
ments; neatness; ecstacy; goodness; you please 
me; I will think of it; I desire to please; grati- 
tude; thankfulness; pity; forsaken; truth; I 
love; ardently; you occupy my thoughts; 
dreams; your image is engraven on my heart; 
hope; think of me; expectation; delay; success 
to your wishes; farewell; love; forever thine; 
your devoted admirer; hidden merit. 



QOQD fJEi^LTH' 



Care of the Hair. 

A writer in Harper's Bazar says: To get and 
retain beautiful hair you must attend to daily 
brushing it, occasionally washing it, and peri- 
odically trimming it, and striving at all times 
to keep the general health up to the average. 

Now as to brushing. The skin of the head, 
like that of every other part of the body, is 
constantly being renewed internally, and throw- 
ing ofif minute scales externally, and these are 
removed by means of the body brush. But it 
is not so easy to brush the hair as one might 
imagine. Few hair dressers, indeed, know very 
much about it. The proper time for the oper- 
ation then, is in the morning, just after you 
have come out of your bath, provided yon 
have not wetted your hair. Two kinds of 
brushes ought to be found on every lady's 
toilet table, a hard and a soft. The former is 
first to be used, and used well, but not too 
roughly; it removes ail dust, and acts like a 
tonic on the roots of the hair, stimulating the 
whole capillary system to healthy action. Af- 
terward use the soft brush — to give the gloss 
from which the morning sunshine will pres- 
ently glint and gleam witib a glory that no Ma- 
cassar oil in the world could imitate. Whence 
this gloss? you ask. Why, from the sebaceous 
glands at the root of the hair, nature's own 
patent pomade, which the hard brush does not 
spread. 

Secondly, one word on washing the hair. 
This is necessary occasionally, to thoroughly 
cleanse both head and hair. One or two pre- 
cautions must be taken, however. Never use 
soap if you can avoid it; if you do, let it be the 
very mildest and unperfumed. Avoid so-called 
hair-cleansing fluids, and use rain water fil- 
tered. 

The yolks of two new-laid eggs are much to 
be preferred to soap; they make a beautiful 
lather, and when the washing is finished, and 
the hair thoroughly rinsed iu the pure st rain 
water, you will find when dry that the gloss 
will not be destroyed, which an alkali never 
fails to do. The first water must not be very 
hot, only just warm, and the last perfectly cold. 
Dry with soft towels — but do not rub til: the 
skin is tender — and afterward brush. Be al- 
ways careful to have your brushes and combs 
perfectly clean and free from grease, and place 
other brushes on the table for friends of yours 
who happen to be Macassarites. 

Pointing the hair regularly not only prevents 
it from splitting at the ends, but renders each 
individual hair more healthy and less attenua- 
ted—if I may apply the term to hair — and 
moreover, heaps up the growing process, 
which otherwise might be blunted or checked. 
Singeing the tips of the hair has also a bene- 
ficial effect. 

It will be seen that I am no advocate for oils 
and pomades. My advice in all cases is to do 
without them if you possibly can, for by their 
clogging nature and overstimulating properties 
they often cause 'he hair to grow thin and fall 
off sooner than it otherwise would. Let well 
alone. 

One word in conclusion, about dyes. Avoid 
them if you be your own friend. Hair dyeing 
is very satisfactory as far as dead hair is con- 
cerned, but on the living head its perfect suc- 
cess is a chemical impossibility. As to hair 
restorers, those that are not simply stainers, 
but depend upon the action of the light chemic- 
ally altering and oxidizing the application 
alter it has been used — their incautious use, I 
must add, is fraught with great danger. 



E871C EcQ[io^Y, 



A Natural Disinfectant. — Some interesting 
experiments were made very recently at 
Campbell's sewage works, Wandsworth road, 
London, with a new substance which is practi- 
cally animal charcoal, and which will probably 
find extensive use at no distant date in purify- 
ing the effluent water of districts that treat 
their sewage by precipitation, in clarifying the 
waste water of dye works and mines, and the 
thousand and one other ways that will suggest 
themselves at once to persons conversant with 
sanitary matters. It is the product of a com- 
pany that owns some 1,200 acres of the 
district on the Dorsetshire coast where the fa- 
mous Kimmeridge shale deposit is found. 
This is a deposit which is of undoubted animal 
origin, and is supposed to consist of blubber, 
fish and other forms of marine animal life. 
However this may be, the shale is found to 
yield more plentifully than cannel coal, and at 
less expense, an excellent carbon, one ton of 
the shale, after giving off 9,000 cubic feet of 
gas, leaving 11.6 cwt. of residue, which is the 
sanitary carbon in question. This substance 
is found to have precisely the same properties 
and action for all sanitary purposes as animal 
charcoal that costs from £14 to £18 per too, 
and the company hope to be able to produce it 
for one-fourth the price. The experiments 
adverted to, consisted in running sewage 
throueh a layer of the sanitary carbon, when 
the effluent water came out as clear as crys- 
tal. A more crucial trial still was made by 
mixing sewage with a compound of ink dye 
stuffs in solution, forming a liquid more intract- 
able than would ever be met with in actual 
drainage operations, but the result was the 
same, the water running off perfectly clear, 
with no perceptible odor. 



Meat Safes or Closets. 

As the season advances, many housewives 
will feel the necessity of a meat safe, wherein 
various kinds of food can be kept from the flies, 
and also receive a good supply of fresh air, and 
not be so damp as to promote mold. Any 
ingenious man or boy, who possesses suitable 
tools, can construct a box which will answer 
a good purpose, in a short time. The lower 
box can be made of any dimensions desired, 
and square in form. The framework can be 
from three to four inches in depth, and sawed 
from boards of three-quarters of an inch thick- 
ness. They can be nailed together, or a neater 
way would be to dovetail them at the angles, 
after they have been smoothly planed. Then 
the cover must be constructed, and it should 
be made in a curved shape. "To do this either 
osier or cane split longitudinally will be 
required. A wooden frame must be made to 
fit closely over the inner box, and at the four 
corners the pieces of cane must be fastened. 
To do this advantageously, it will be needful 
to bore a small hole through the cane, taking 
care not to split it, and then it can be attached 
to the corners by a small screw. In the center, 
where the supports meet, a screw with a brass 
ring attached can be made to fasten them, and 
it will make a good handle by which to lift the 
safe, if its dimensions are so pmall that it can 
be readily moved. 

When the framework is prepared, wirework 
can be fastened all over it by means of small 
upholsterer's tacks or tinned tacks. Then 
take small strips of wood and nail them along 
the edges of the box to secure the covering 
tightly. Mosquito netting or strainer cloth 
can be substituted for the wirework if it cannot 
be easily obtained. Such a meat safe will be 
found of great use in excluding insects, and 
more than one will frequently be desirable to 
the housewife, to whom small portable safes 
are always acceptable. 

The one described above is of a square or 
oblong shape, as best suits its maker, bnt a 
round one will often be useful, and the hoop 
of an old sieve can be made with a curved roof 
by glueing the covered steels of old hoop-skirts 
over it, and covering them tightly with mos- 
quito netting. 

But a sizable closet fitted up with shelves 
and enclosed with wirework frames and doors 
will be of greater utility during the oppressive 
heat of the summer, and if it can be kept in a 
cool, northern exposure it will be of much ser- 
vice. Such a closet or meat safe can be built 
out-of-doors, but care must be taken to place 
it where the sun's rays do not strike it, and it 
should be built up on stones or bricks at least 
three feet from the ground. It can then be 
made of inch boards smoothly planed, and the 
roof must have a sufficient inclination to shed 
the rain, and also project over the sides for 
better protection. The boards for the floor 
and the roof should be matched and fastened 
tightly together, and the roof may be covered 
with felting or zinc. The back part of the frame 
should be of the same boards as the floor and 
roof. Then a framework must be made to fit 
closely into the other sides, and covered with 
wirework. 

The front should be made with doors hinged 
at the two ends and rabbeted at the center. A 
stout strip of wood must be nailed to the side 
supports, upon which to hang the doors. 
Their covering, and that of the sides also, may 
be of coarse canvas, but it would not be as de- 
sirable as the wirework. Zinc, perforated 
with holes, could also be used, and it has the 
advantage of never rusting, nor needing to be 
painted, while the wirework must either be 
painted or galvanized. 

When the "safe" is made, some shelves and 
hooks must be added. The hooks can be in- 
serted from the roof, and all fresh meat can be 
hung from them. A safe four feet in length 
and three feet in hight, would be of conveni- 
ent size for family use, and it would be found 
to have more than paid for its cost in the sav- 
ing of various articles of food during the first 
summer of its use. — Daisy Eyehrighl. 

Corn and Rye Biscuits. — Pour boiling wa- 
ter on coarse yellow corn meal, and stir to the 
consistency of a thick batter. Immediately 
add coarse rye meal to make into a very soft 
doe; form into small, flat biscuits (fifteen to a 
baking pan) with the hands frequently wet iu 
cold water, and bake immediately in a hot 
oven. They are very nice for variety, and are 
best made of equal parts of corn and rye. 
Bake thirty minutes or more. 

Baked Omelet. — Boil half a pint of cream, 
or rich milk; beat six eggs thoroughly — they 
will be nicer if the whites and yolks are beaten 
separately; have a deep dish hot and buttered; 
stir the beaten eggs, with a little salt, into the 
cream; put all quickly into the dish, and biike 
from five to ten minutes, depending upon the 
condition of the oven. It should be lightly 
browned, and taken directly to the table in the 
dish. 

Mock Apple Pie. For a large pie-plate, 
two crackers (milk or soda), one egg, one cup 
of sugar, one of water, and the juice of one 
lemon; add a pinch of salt, and spice with nut- 
meg or the rind of the lemon. This is quite a 
tolerable counterfeit. 



32 



[July 8, 1876 




PUBLISHXD BT 

DEIVTEIY <S& CO. 

A. T. D»W«I. W. B. KWXB. O. H. STBOHO. I. L. BOONI 

Pkihoitai. Editob W. B. EWER, A. M 

OmoB, No. 224 SanBome street, SoutheaBt comer of 
OalUomla street, where friends and patrons are Invited 
to our SouENTiFio PBK88, Patent Agency, Engraving and 
Printing eBtabllshment. 

SnBsORipnoNS payable In advance— For one year, $*: 
six months, $2.'26: three months, $1.26. Remittances 
by reglaiered letters or P. O. orders at our risk. 
Ad •'EBTisraa Rates. — Iveek, Itmmtt, 3 mot, 12 mo«. 

Per line 25 .80 $2.0« $6.00 

Half Inch (1 square). .$1.00 $3.00 $7.60 24.00 

Onelnch 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 

Four weeks arc rated a month. 

Large advenisemeuts at favorable r,ites. Special or 
reading notlceB, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
la extraordinary type or In particular parts of the paper 
Inserted at special rates. 



Bates of Subscription. 

Secretaries of Oranges and Farmers' Clubs, (and all 
reliable farmers and subicrlbert of the Pbess) are 
hereby authorized to make up clubs, of five or more 
nam*>e, at $:) each, per annum, in advance. 

»^No Agents or Secretaries are authorized to receive 
subscriptions at less rates than $4 per annum except 
In clubs of five or more, strictly cash in advance, 
yearly subscribers. Any arrearages that may accrue 
on club subBcriptions will be charged at full rates. 



No ScJBScaipnoNS will be received at less than four 
dollars a year, except in clubs of five or more, or 
through club or Orange agents who have sent five or 
more subscriptions durinf; the year. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Ku <^ucM;k A.d>'ei.-tjHeinents InseiTted 
m ibese columns. 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Saturday, July 8, 1876. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



OBNERAL EDITORIALS.— American ForeB- 
try. 26. The Dairy East and Wett; The Natii nal 
Holidays; The Centennial at Philadelphia; Overland 
Chat, 3.1. Governor Irwin and the West Side Irri 
gallon; A Side-hill Mower; Wheat yield Fires; Herb 
Growing, 36. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— The Forest and Prairie Landn 
of the United States. 25. Baihing Pools from Over- 
flow of Great Hot Springs, Yellowstone, 33. 

CORRESPONDENCJi.— Boianical Excursions. 26. 
The CDtennlal at Philadelphia — No. 8, Over- 
land Chat-No a, 33 

THE Dairy.— Dairying in California, 27- 

HORTICULTURE. — Mulching the Fruit: Top 
Dressii g lor Orchard Ground, 27. 

BEES.— Los Angeles Beekeopeis' Meeting, 27. 

THE SWINE YARD.— The Origin of the Berk- 
Bbire Hog, 27' 

PATROMS OP HUSBANDRY.— Orange Di- 
rectory; Grange FelljWthlp; Help of Women; Why 
Join the Orange, 28. 

HOME CIROLE.-The Sabbath (Poetry); Wood>lde 
Papers— No. 0; The darvest Bride, 30. Foreign 
Millionaires; Happiness; Parting; Mothers, 31. 

YOU NO FOLKS' COLUMN .-How to Write for 
the Paper; Solution to the Floral Letter, 31. 

Quod health.— Care of the Hair; A Natural 
DUinfectant, 31. 

DOMESaiO ECONOMY.— Meat Safes or CIosetB; 
Corn und Rye Biscuits; Baked Omelet; Mock Apple 
Pie, 31. 

AOKIOULTURAL NOTES from varioui oouD- 
tles In California, Oregon and Idaho, 20. 



Our Beautiiul Premium. 

After canvassing the merits of many fine 
pictures in the selection of one that wontd be 
both Valuable and debirable for our readers, 
we have iselected, as cnr leading preminm, a 
beautiiul cbromo entitled "Gathkeino Pbim- 
BOSKS." The print itself is 17x22 inches in 
size. 

The scene represents early spring olonds and 
sky, a tinted wac>r view wi'th distant hills, a 
near thicket, and several old uistletoed iree.s, 
beneath wh'i^e bate branches two ch-trming 
las^eH, with delighted laces, are gath-.ring the 
lri;jht early flowers. 

Wo have yet teen no premium chromos 
offered which we think superiur, or even equal 
to this in beauty and atitactiveness. It is a 
pleasing compositioa for the udorom'nt ot 
either a country or city home. Our fall pre- 
mium list appears in another column. 

A LccoMOTivB Salute — Among the speciali- 
ties arranged lor ibe Centennial celebration 
was one devised by Mr. Fellows, of the Ctnlral 
Pao.fic railroad, whicn was rather unique. On 
the miirniug of the Fourtb, t«penty or twenty- 
five locouiuiives w. re cjupled together and 
backed np to iiiooklyn on tue overUnd track. 
Jn^t at five o'clock they all uummeticed whist- 
ling in chorus and were run s o\"ly down to the 
round house, rousiog neatly all the citizens of 
Oakland at that early hour to commuuce the 
celebration. The programme was kept quiet, 
and no one knew that anything of the kind was 
going to occur, 'ihe engines were decorated 
and presented a handsome sight. 

Half a Million Sack-. — We are informed 
tbat Dr. Gienn. of Colusa c unty, laid iu 500,- 
OUO sa. ks for this year's crop. Ii took two lull 
boat load:) to carry them up. Tne yield of the 
Olenn farm thid year is estimated to be 8<i 
bushels per acre. 



The Dairy East and West. 

We print in our Diiry department this week 
an allusion to California dairying by Hon. X 
A. WiUard. He gives our coast many and im- 
port ^nt advantages ovsr the E.ist for the prac- 
tice of dairy husbaudry, and where a writer 
whose interests are all elsewhere is so frank in 
the recognition of our adrantflges, it may seem 
greedy to claim more. Accordiog to Mr. Wil- 
lard's own acknowledgment we are the rich 
man of the parable and he the poor man, with 
not liog in possession bat a very little lamb. 
Would it be greedy to go for that lamb? 

In his article, which we quote, Mr. Willard 
recouota our advaotages and then says: "The 
permanency of Eistern grasses, Eastern skill 
and system in manufacture. Eastern nearness 
to the mirkets of the world, must compeasate 
fur the rigors of dim tte and other disadvan- 
tages which do not obtaia in more favored sec- 
tions." We do not propone to dispute these 
p Mssessions of the East nor to speak slightingly 
of them, but let us see whether we do not 
largely enjoy them as well as our Eastern 
friends. 

In the first place, we have permanent grasses 
and forage plants which cannot be surpassed. 
In the coast counties, to which Mr. Willard 
alludes, the richness of the pastures is fur- 
nished by the "rooted grasses," as they are 
called in distinction from the "seed grasses" 
which are the mainstay of the dairymen of the 
interior. Upon the rooted grasses depends 
that quick growth of feed which spiiogs up al- 
most by magic as soon as the early rains touch 
the fields. The rich alfilarea covers the ground 
like a carpet, and a host of other forage plants, 
which are as permanently rooted in the soil as 
any Eastern grass, give our feed a speed of 
early growth and elasticity of endurance which 
cannot be surpassed. It is true that where the 
dependence of the dairyman is upon the wild 
oats and other seed grasses, as is the case iu 
some of the interior regions, the feed is rather 
slower in coming and less tenacions of its 
freshness than on the coast lands, where the 
frequent fogs give continued moisture and in- 
duce continuous growth. On our best coast 
dairy lands we believe the feed both for quality 
and duration is excelled by nothing in the Eist. 
Whatever of disadvantage pertained to d iry- 
ing on the transient seed grasses is being rap- 
idly overcome by the use of alfalfa. The won- 
derful growths of this plant which have been 
obtained in this State are a subject of remark 
everywhere. Ever springing up iie^h and suc- 
culent so long as water is brought to its roots, 
it gives a wealth of rich fodder and sustains the 
flow of milk most satisfactorily. 

Mr. Willard notes, as an advantage of the 
East, the skill in manufacture and the system 
iu manufacture. We had occasion to remark a 
few Weeks ago that the dairy skill of this S ate 
was too often underestimated. We say this 
with no disparity for the East, tiecause we 
have some ot the best Eastern cheese makers 
now at work here, masteriug the new conditions 
and achieving success. Aside from this one 
i^oint let the product be the evidence of the 
dairy skill. Mr. Willard speaks of the fine 
quality 01 the Point Reyes butter. If Mr. Wil- 
lard should visit Point Keyes to-day, he would 
see butter factoiies which for convecience of 
plan, excellence of apparatus, and intrlligeni, 
tboughiful workmen, are unsurpass d in any 
dairy region in the country. Mr. Willard says 
that the butter stiows that the Paint Keyes feed 
makes good m^lk. It is true, and one thing 
more is tiue, viz: the handling of the milk and 
cream and batter i^ on the most approvtd 
principles; everything is done to transfer the 
excellence ot the milk to the excellence of but- 
ter. Iu all our observaiiun of huUer makiug 
on a lurge scale, we never saw the parity of toe 
milk betier guarded, the proper oundition aud 
temperaiure of the cream more closely ob- 
served, aud the treatment of the butter globule 
more g> ntle in all its manipulation fr^m the 
churn to the mold, than in the factories oper- 
ated by Mr. Howard's teuauts. Nor is Point 
R'-yes alone m this perftct skill of handling; 
we see in our city marke's many sampKs ot 
butter whiou sh /W the skill of the makers very 
clear. y. We are sure from these that there are 
othrr establishujejts which we have not yet 
visited which aLo possess this valuable secret 
of Skill. 

Mr. Willard speaks also of system of-manu- 
fncture. We are not sure whether he refers to 
method in mauufacture or to the famous asso- 
ciated system ot the E ist. If it be the latter, 
we can only Ray tLai It ^eems to us, from our 
observation, that the California sy tern of lar^e 
dairies is more conducive to mils of uniform 
(■nrity, aud butier of uniform quality, lh<in the 
Eastern ^ysIem of associations of sniall dairies, 
each with a oiff'erent idea of cattle, feed, and 
care, and each with a different degree of care 
of the milk. Mr. Willard knows of many in- 
stances at ihe East where the product of a num- 
ber of factories has been muck improved by 
btingin ^ them all noder the management of one 
man of superior skill in practice and in super- 
vision. It is not otherwise here iu several in- 
stances which have come under our observa- 
tion. 

Mr. Willatd claim? the "nearness to the mar- 
kets" of the world as an advantage of Eastern 
dairymen. Let us ses. Of course if w? had, 



under present conditions, a production of d'iiry 
goods as great as that at the £ ist.we should be 
utterly at a loss to dispose of it; but this is not 
the question. The opportunity for the dairy- 
man lies in the chance for growth. It is just 
such an opportunity as this that exists here on 
this coast. We have, first, a market which 
cannot be surpassed in its nearaess, and that is 
our home market. To cut off the importation 
of Eastern dairy products comprises one of our 
dairy opportunities. Besides this, we hxve the 
chance of putting fresh bu ti r on the Eastern 
markets when the pi ice is hi><h6jt in the early 
spring, and there is now opening, with much 
promise, a trade in cheese with China. Cheese 
coated with a thin varnish of shell ic has be>n 
shipped across the Pacific with good results. 
It we can develop a trade in cheese with the 
teemiug millions of Asiatic empires, we shall 
have a field for exiensive consunipiion of our 
cheese which will rival the Euglish demand for 
Eastern. This is a field which promises much 
and which should be investigated. 

We make these points concerning the kind 
notice which Mr. Willard makes of our dairy 
advantage*', merely to show that it is neither the 
fortune nor the spirit of the State to be far be- 
hind in any of those things which constitute 
success in auy enterprise which depends upon 
the quality of our natural resources or the skill 
of our laborers. 



The National Holidays. 

Dispatches from all parts of the State bring 
tidings of patriotic and spirited commemora- 
tions of the nation's birth. The local celebra- 
tions throughout the State were planned with 
unusual care and executed with unusual liber- 
ality. They were witnessed by large concourses 
and the Centennial spirit ran high. 

Readers in distant parts will doubtless be in- 
terested to know some of the points of the 
three days' celebration in this city, and how 
the great things which we described in last 
week's Pbess were realized. Let us say first, 
in a general way, that the celebration was of 
such a grand and comprehensive character, 
awakening such general participation among all 
citizens, and was witnessed by such a con- 
course of the city's guests from all parts of the 
coast, that it will be always memorable. Never 
before has anything like it occurred ; but so 
rapid is our growth and progress, one cannot 
tell bow soon it may be surpassed in the future. 
If before the nation's second Centennial our 
State and city advance in the proportion they 
have during the last quarter of a century, 
what we shall call great to-day will be small in- 
deed. 

The Decorations. 

As early as Friday before the Fourth, the 
city began to deck itself in Centennial livery. 
The stars and stripes were woven and inter- 
woven into every conceivable shape and form. 
The beautiful red, white aud blue colors 
tinged, edged, and crossed onr somber city 
marts and business blocks until even the lower 
part of the city seemed crowned by a halo. 
Farther up, upon Ihe hillsides, the decorations 
waved in graceful lines and shapes. The 
mansions of the wealthy were brilliant with 
gilt and colors, but many an humble habitation 
outstripped its proud neighbors in the fullness 
and grace of i's patriotic drapery. During the 
day time the breeze was resonant with the flnp 
and rustic of the flags, and at night the city 
was ablaze with colored liwiht and fantastic 
lanterns. Some of the private and public dec- 
orations were notable, but we have no space to 
particularize. Suffice it to say that several 
S' reels W' re embowered with festoons of flags 
from roof to roof across the walks and carriage 
way. Arches were sprung across the streets 
bearing the national colors and the portraits of 
patriots. Large canvas sh^'ets reproduced the 
scenes at revolutionary battles. Never before 
has the city shown such a bright attire. Every- 
one boU{{ht fl'igs until the flag maiket was cor- 
nered, and even colored cambric increased its 
price six fold. We doubt not that a million 
dollars would be a low estimate of ibe amount 
of money expended for the one item of public 
aud private dtorati n. 

The Days of the Week. 

On S-iturday and Sunday the churches spoke 
the patriots praise. Srruious were on appro- 
priate themes, and choirs sang pitriotio an- 
thems with thanks to Ood for the day. Spe 
cial services of praise were held in some of the 
charohes and the populace surged around the 
doorways unable to reach the densely packed 
areas within. Thus the week began with 
thankseiviog. 

Ou Monday the incoming thous'tndifrom the 
country crowded the avenues of travel and the 
hotels were l>e8ieged for accommodations. 
Even the chairs in the waiting rooms were en- 
gaged and turned to temples of Somnns. Iu 
the early morning the throng tended upward, 
and look possesttion of the hillsides overlook- 
ing the scene of the 

Bombardment 
Which we illustrated last week. The hills were 
black with people, and «hen one considers the 
large stretch of surface which looks down upon 
this pait of the bay, tome little appreciation of 
the nnmbers can be formed- A little before 



noon the firing from the forts and ships b^gan. 
The first shot was hailed with gUdness by the 
throuKS, and for three hours the crowd watched 
the puffs of smoke and the fall of the projectiles 
and heard the reverberation of the explosions. 
The firing of the guns contained many points 
of interest to the one unucquainted with such 
occurrences, but the general feeling w. s one 
of mild disappointment. The people expected 
and anticipated too much. Many expected, 
doubtless, to be well nigh prostrated by the 
thunder of the reports and to behold an exciting 
scene of circling vessels, l>elching broadsides, 
and a ship fired by the shots. The distance of 
the spectators from the guns made the reports 
but dull growling, the long minutes which in- 
tervened between the shots bore heavily, and 
the stationary frigates, which one expected 
would circle aiound their prey and seize it in 
exciting aoiion, coldly and calmly fired for three 
hours aud never once hit the mark which the 
throng was watching, and failed to fire the 
doomed craft until a small boat was sent oat to 
apply a match. The absence of what anticipa- 
tion pictured gave the bombardment a bad 
name in many a month, and yet if the beholder 
will recall the spirited scene upon the water, 
the fleet of small steamers flying hither and 
thither, decked with a multitude of people and 
clad in streaming flags, the three-mile flight of 
solid shot and shell and other interesting points 
which will recur to memory, the bombard- 
ment «ill seem a notable feature of the week's 
events. 

The Sham Battle 
Which occurred on Monday afternoon at the 
Presidio was more stirring and consequently 
more generally applauded. The evolutions of 
the infantry, the dash of the cavalry and the 
discharge of the field batteries won the full 
interest of the multitude and gave them a full 
taste of mimic war. 

The Fourth. 

The glorious day lost no laster from tke stir- 
ring day of rejoicing which ushered it in. At 
an early hour the city was fully awake. The 
most intense excitement prevailed everywhere. 
The streets were soon overflowing with people, 
and numerous processions began to march 
in various directions, all clad in the gayest aud 
and most gorgeous decorations, and forming to 
join in the procession of the day. By 10 a. m. 
the streets were literally lined with men, wo- 
men and children thronging the sidewalks, 
silting on the curbstones and stoops, and in 
every available position, while all the baloon- 
ies aud windows along the route of the proces. 
sion were filled with fiir faces and expectant 
eyes. Positions had been engaged weeks be- 
forehand of the happy owners of a door or win- 
dow along the line of the procession, and every 
tocm was filled by friends aud acquaintances, 
who crowded in to witness the grand march. 
Multitudes had come in from the country, and 
the streets were literally blocked with a crowd 
which increased until room for more could not 
be had. The great proceasion which moved 
t>efore the eyes *of all was formed of at least 
10,000 men. Civic, military, social and com- 
mercial organizations were represented. Trades 
were displayed by appropriate vehicles and 
decorations. Two hoars were required to pass 
a given point, and the beholder tnrned away in 
a whirl of excitement over the changing scene. 

The literary exercises which occurred in the 
Mechanics' pavilion after the grand parade 
were of a high and patriotic order. They 
consisted of an address by General Coey, 
prayer by Rev. W. H. Piatt, oration by Rev. 
Dr. Stebbins, song by Mrs. Bania, and poem 
by Mr. J. F. Bowman. Afterwards a collation 
was served, at which addresses were made by 
Governor Irwiu and others. 

The remainder of the day was occupied with 
a carnival and with fireworks, torchlights and 
all the traditional glories of the old fashioned 
July Fourth. 

As we write (Wednesday) the holidays con- 
liniie. Still the flags wave and the bands 
parade the streets. Upon the bay the white 
winged yachts are racing. Come to-morrow's 
sun, and our business houses and banks will 
ihrcw open their doors agsiu, and the work of 
ihe new century will begin. No one now 
living will forget the scenes of its beginning. 
Bright be its day and great its achievements. 

A New Fastceaqe Law. — Congressmen Hale 
of Oregon and WigHinton of California have 
prepari d a bill to regulate pasturage lands in 
a'id regions, and it has been introduced in the 
House of Representatives. Tbe bill proposes to 
give 2,600 acres of desert land to any man who 
will live upon it fivo years. The grant is sub- 
j. ot to certain condi'ions coDoerning tbe use of 
water and location of laud in respect to streams. 
We shall watch the progress of the m-asure and 
inform onr readers of it fully if the Washington 
law makers give it force by passage. 

Fbuit Jab-".— Inonr advertising columns will 
bs seen an illustration of "the Gem" fruit jnr. 
As we know by experience that it is a good 
article, we take occasion to call the attention of 
our readers to the notice of the San Francisco 
and Pacific glass works, and to the fact that 
they manafacture these superior }\n. Mr. 
Carlton Newman, manaxer of the works, is a 
person of long practice and experience in glass 
msnufacturing, and the pateut»e of some very 
ingenions improvements in bis trade. 

On File— "Overland Chat, No. 4." Mary 
Mouotain; "Notes from Placer County," K.; 
"Irrieation," J. M. H.; "Still on the Pros- 
pect," G. K. M.; "Flax," J. W. W.; "Straw," 
"Missourian." 



July 8, 1876.] 



MEWEM 



W 



mi 



a* 



fEditorUl Oorrespondence.] 

The Centennial at Philadelphia.— No. 8. 

My last letter brought the notices of foreign 
exhibits in n-acbinery hall to a close, and I 
now propose to pass in brief leyiew our own 
exhibitors, previous to icstitating any inquiry 
in relation to the comparative merits of the 
two. By reference to the diagram it vrill be 
seen that fully three-quarters of the entire 
space in mechanics' hall is occapied by the 
United States; this space, however, is largely 
filled up by the frequent repetition of the same 
classes of machinery by different exhibitors, 
the tools and implements varying only in the 
modifications of construction adopted by differ- 
ent builders. Previous, however, to reaching 
the tools, I would ask the reader's attention for 
a moment to a very interesting exhibit from 
the 

Midvale Steel Works. 

These works, located about five miles from 
Philadelphia, may very properly be regarded as 
the model works of the kind in the United 
States, and are under the management of Mr. 
William Sellers, one of the most thorough and 
progressive mechanical engineers in the coun- 
try. This exhibit, moreover, forms the basis 
of that which follows; as all the iron and steel 
which enters iuto the construction of the tools 
which Mr. Sellers' exhibits, as well as those of 
several other exhibitors, is made at these works. 
The display is located in the second tier of fall 
sections from the south wall of the building, 
and adjoining the Engli>h exhibit. We have here 
a most interesting and instructive show of heavy 
cast steel forgings, tool steel, ingots for rails, 
car wheels, axles, etc. They show one steel 
ingot which weighs 7,000 pounds. They also 
make a very interesting exhibit of the process 
of manufacturing car and locomotive wheels; 
the work is shown in every state of its prog- 
ress, from the original bloom to the complete 
wheel, some eight or ten stages. The mode of 
casting is very peculiar and careful, necessarily 
so from the importance of the manufacture, as 
one on which, more than any other one thing, 
depends the safety of railroad traveling. The 
same is shown in regard to the manufacture of 
oar axles. So successful has this company 
been in establishing, from testa and practical 
wear, the reputation of its wheels and axles, 
that the Peunsylvania Central, the most exten- 
sive railroad connection in the world, refuses 
to use either wheels or axles for its passenger 
cars from any other firm. The Siemens-Mar- 
tin steel is used for tires and other heavy pur- 
poses, but for tools, crucible steel is employed. 
At some future time I hope to find leisure to 
visit these works and debcribe them at length, 
with illustrations. 

An Improved Rotary Puddler. 

At the time of my visit to this exhibit, work- 
men were engaged in putting into place a mam- 
moth iron cylinder and furnace, which I was 
informed was an improved rotary puddler, 
upon which Mr. Sellers has recently been at 
work. This furnace is to be exhibited in mo- 
ition, although not charged with the molten 
metal as when in actual work. It seems to be 
'Chaiacteristic of Mr. Sellers that he must al- 
ways be inventing — improving everything that 
comes into his hands. Thus, he is not satis- 
fied with the Danks or any other machine 
puddler, but must have a Sellers puddler; and 
if we are to judge in this instance from his 
past record, he will give us something really 
valuable in this direction. A perfectly practi- 
cal machine puddler would be one of the 
greatest boons which could be conferred upon 
the producer of iron. The Danks puddler ap- 
pears to be a success; but if Mr. Sellers can 
furnish us anything still better, we should liko 
to Bee it The employment of the cheapest 
and best methods of producing iron is the only 
means by which this country can hopo to suc- 
oes-fully compete with foreigners in the indus- 
trial arts generally. 

Machine Tods. 

The general exhibit of machine tools in this 
bnilditig is the most remarkable of the kind 
ever brought together. There are a large num- 
ber of exhibitors — sonoe twelve or titteen in 
number. The first and most extensive collection 
on the floor as we pasidown the building is that 
made by Sellers & Co. Mr. S. was one of the 
few Americans wna had the enterprise and 
courage to make anything like an extensive 
txbibit in this line at Paris and Vienna, and 
as a reward for bis bkill and enterprise aud 
the superiority of his exhibits, he was hon- 
ored at both of those places with the highest 
awards made — at Paris with ihe grand gold 
medal and at Vienna with the diploma of honor. 
The Utter was more than a mere acknowledge- 
ment of superiority in skill, for it was also de- 
signed to cuuvey the idea that its recipient had 
achieved eminent merit in the domain of sci- 
ence and the application thereof to the advance- 
ment of the iuteliectual, social and material 
welfare of mauliind. Tuat award may be con- 
didered the highest honor ever conferred upon 
any industrial pursuit 

As a result of that exhibit, many of the ma- 
chine tools conbtructed by this house have 
been adopted as patterns by machine tool 
makers in Europe: and thus American ideas 
and practice, the germs of which were drawn 
from the old world, are gradually finding iheir 
way back again, enlarged and improved by 
ifaeir manipul aion here. 

The tools exhibited by this firm here are I 



substantially the same as those shown in 
Europe; but with the never ending deaire of 
their manufaciurer to improve and keep ahead 
of ail competitors, he has sine, from time to 
time, introduced such improvements as he has 
thought would pive them additional value 
Tools, like everything else capable of modifi- 
cation, are constautly undergoing changes; but 
unlike many other things brought under the 
universal influence of change, these useful de- 
vices for aiding man in his labors are usually 
bettered by the process, for the reason that any 
alteration in a tool that does not improve it is 
promptly dif carded and can never win its w y 
to popular favor. The smallest changes often 
work wonders in a tool before thought perfect; 
hence the ingenuity of man is never at rest. 
A little here and a little there a thought here 
and an inspiration there— adding and taking 
away, is the history of every invention which 
comes from the brain of man. 

We have no space to describe or even make 
the briefest mention of all the exhibits, and can 
only refer in a very few words to the most no- 
table ones: One of the first that attracts the 
attention of the visitor is a gigantic planing 
machine, capable of finishing with the utmost 
precision a mass of iron ten feet high, ten feet 
wide and thirty feet long! The machine is also 
' o constructed as to be capable of fi nishing an ob- 
ject on three sides at the same time. This in- 
vention is flanked on either side with smaller 
tools of the same description. Near by is a 
large plate shearing machine, a tool which cuts 
through inch iron as readily as ordinary hand 
shears cut paper. This machine will cut inch 
plates five feet in width at a single clip. It is 
used for cutting and trimming long sheets of 
iron and for bridge purposes, or for columns and 
girders. Near this exhibit is a steam hammer 
the pattern of which was originally borrowed 



same class n&d siie, a^ in Colt's pistols, 
American watches, sewing machines, etc. We 
believe Mr. Whitworth was Ihe first to urge 
upon maohiii-it-i throughout t'lo world the 
adoption of certain convenfioual standards 
which have now come into general use. As 
early as 1848 Bancroft & Sellers, now Wm. Sel- 
lers & Co., commenced the manufacture of 
machine tools, and trom that time to this that 
firm has kept at the head of the business, both 
in regard to perfectioa of manufacture and 
extent of business carried on. As an evidence 
of the perfection which Mr. Sellers has attained 
in hie manufacture, he shows here a machine 
for the production of true surfaces, so accurate 
in its work that two straightedges of steel, when 
finished by it and pressed together perfectly 
clean and dry, will adhere so closely as to re- 
quire considerable force to separate them. A 
special piece of work of this kind was recently 
executed in England by Mr. Whitworth, which 
was heralded all over the world as a most re- 
markable triumph of the precision to which that 
eminent mechanic had arrived in finishing off 
his work. Mr. Sellers does this every day, and 
the fact would scarcely have been thought 
worthy of record, had not your correspondent 
in seeing it been reminded of the publication 
in regard to Mr. Whitworth, and which was 
noticed some three or four months since in the 
Mechanical Progress department of the Scien- 
TiFFc Press. 

The introduction of American tools into the 
English market, as above alluded to. and Amer- 
ican ideas into English shops, is a very signiB- 
cint fact, and worthy of a prominent niche in 
the records of our first hundred years of 
mechanical progress. Our English cousins 
have become convinced that, in order to hold 
their place iu the mechanical world, they must 
copy after the Ameiicans in a more general 




from Morrison, of England, but which has 
been greatly modified and improved by transla- 
tion to our American shops. Three sizes are 
shown, of 300 1,500 and 5, COO pound hammers. 
Immense hydraulic presses for forcing loco- 
motive wheels upon their axles and large lathes 
for turning them are also shown, as well as 
numerous smaller ones. Another very interest- 
ing machine, and quite a novelty in its way, 
is an automatic gear-cutting machine for cut- 
ting bevel and spur wheels. This is a great 
labor saving machine, and, we believe, is one 
of Mr. Sellers' own inventions. There is also 
a new and peculiar machine for shapirg 
hexagonal nuts, the work which is of ac- 
complished by six cutters, which fiuisk the nut 
with a single cut upon all its sides at once. 
Mr. 8. exhibits a cylinder boring machine, which 
it is cl limed will finish complete a locomotive 
cylinder in three and a halt hours ! He also 
shows a riveter which has a hydraulic pressure 
accumulator that will give a pressure of 6,000 
pounds to the square inch. Not much chance 
for a rivet to epcape being jammed well down 
nuder such a pressure! Nearly all the iron 
work in the main exhibition building was riveted 
by these machines. 

Machine Tool Making in England and America. 
Ma 'bine tool making, as a distinct branch of 
industry, is of quite recent origin. Machinists 
formerly made, each for himself, such machines 
as they needed in their shops. The result of 
such practice was very imperlect tool-', and still 
more imperfect work was obtained from them. 
Mr. Joseph Whitworth, of England, has done 
much to secure precision in tool making, a con- 
dition which the delicate and intricate state of 
manufacture now demands; and especially the 
praotioK recently introduced into this country of 
luanufai turins; machines and implements by 
"assembling," or making all the parts of a 
machine interchangeable with others of the 



BATHING POOLS FBOM OVERFLOW OF 
GREAT HOX SPRINGS, YELLOWSTONE. 

substitution of tools, for head labor, as being 
both cheaper and more precise. Fortunately 
for them, the advanced intelligence of the age 
is fast driving away wiih the opposition of the 
English laborer to the introduction of labor 
saving appliances, and the question is begin- 
ning to be asked now, "Where shall we get our 
tools? " Such exhibitions as the one now in 
progress furnish the answer. No such exhibi- 
tion of machinery as is here shown would be 
possible in Europe — from those to the manor 
born. Many of the machines have no existance 
there, while those that they have are used but 
sparsely on account of the opposition of work- 
men to their more general introduction, which 
still prevails. The general spread of knowl- 
edge and liberal ideas, greatly aided by district, 
national and international fairs, are working 
important revolutions, which will continue to 
go forward and tell largely upon the world's 
progress during the next hundred years. We 
of the present generation cannot witness 
the results, but our children's children 
will, and may we not hope — have we not good 
reason to believe— that such progress will be 
equally as fruitful in results as those we see 
before us to-day, as the result of the last hun- 
dred years. W. B. E. 



Bathing Pools of the Yellowstone. 

The accompanying engraving shows another 
of those interesting scenes in the Yellowstone 
country, which Prof. Hayden has described so 
pleasantly in his "Geelogical Survey of the 
Territories." The scene in question repre- 
sf nts A general view of the overflow of a great 
spring on Gardiner's river. la describing it 
Prof Hayden says: 

Before us was a hill 200 feet high, com- 
poBed of the calcareous deposit of the hot 
s rings, with a system of step-like terraces 
whicli would defy any description by words. 
The eye alone could convey any adequate con- 
ception to the mind. The steep sides of the 
hill were ornamented with a series of semi- 
circular bisins, with margins varying in bight 
from a few inches to six or eight feet, and so 
beautifully scalloped and adorned with a kind 
of beadwork that the beholder stands am ized 
at this marvel of nature's handiwork. Add to 
this, a snow-white ground, with every variety 
of shade, of scarlet, green and yellow, as bril- 
liant as the brightest of our aniline dyes. The 
pools or basins are of all sizes, from a few 
inehes to sis or eight feet in diameter, and 
from two inchts to two feet deep. 



Overland Chat. 

tWrittenfor the Pbb« b; MauT lIbt>.sTAi.f , 

The Weber river, swollen with melting 
snows, had washed away the track, and pas- 
sengers were transferred with diflloulty, f jr the 
place was rough and swampy and teams very 
tcarre. 

When our car came up late from Ogden, ths 
teams had gone, and we had to make the dis- 
mal transfer on fojt, wading through wet grass 
and wondering about snakes. When we reached 
the waiting train, there were the familiar facei 
we had traveled with from S m Francisco, but 
nearly all looked fagged and fretful after the 
weariness of 30 hours' detention in so dull a 
place. 

AH through Wyoming the country was ex- 
tremely desolate, and snow-capped mountains 
not only in sight but so near the track as to 
give us a cold, keen air. At Rawlins, near the 
summit, we waited at night for the passing of 

The Famous Fast Train, 
Which has been the great topic of the day 
among the railroad men everywhere. 

To see it come in like a flish, wait three 
minutes to examine b:ixes, change engines, etc., 
and flish oft' again like an arrow from the bow, 
was a sight worth keeping awake for; but our 
sleeping comrades growled over the "great 
bother and fuss about nothing." 

To cross the continent in less than 84 hours 
seems fast enough now, but I fear it will at the 
next Centennial be quoted against us as evi- 
dence of our slowness. 

At a place called Bushnell, a small station 
in the extreme west of Nebraska, we 
found considerably excitement over the report 
that a band of Indians from the Black hills 
were on the war path, and had just shot three 
men near the town. 

By and by a one-legged man, with his band 
tied up, came on board our train and said he 
had been in the fight, had seen the three men 
killed and had lost the thumb of his right hand, 
but having a good horse he had escaped with 
his life. 

All our talkers about this time expressed 
very decided opibions as to the duty of the 
Government in the 

Black Hills Business, 
And it seems a pity that Congress could not 
reap a little from this rank growth of wayside 
wisdom. 

At Brule, another small station, we saw such 
queer houses of sod, with grass and weeds 
growing on the roof, and little children grow- 
ing inside. 

And now we sped away over the rich plains 
of Nebraska, where there seemed grass enough 
for all known cattle. We saw an immense 
herd of thousands, with herders galloping 
among them; and again, at a distance, a few 
bufi'alo, and quite a herd of antelope feeding 
near them. At least we were sure of the ante- 
lope, but could not make out, even with our 
glasses, whether the buffalo were quite shaggy 
enough. 

We ought to have had an "old trapper" 
along to point out the wonders of the plains, 
that were often overlooked from trying to see 
too much on the wide horizon. 

Arriving at Omaha, we rested a night and a 
day, and had the pleasure of meeting a young 
man whom we had known well as a boy in C il- 
ifornia. He had been homesick for California 
and in the habit of watching the incoming 
trains for a familiar face. It was too dark to 
see our faces, but he saw that we were in 
trouble and kindly offered to assist us. 

It seems that the great Union Pacific has a 
shabby house of its own at this station, and 
hoping to fill it from every train, no carriage or 
hotel runner is allowed within the station lim- 
its. But guided now by our 

"Good Samaritan" 
We marched off up town, and on the way he 
asked, "Have you ever known anybody in a 
town called Knight's Ferry? Have you known 
a man who lived there by the name of Locke?" 
Down went the big basket on to the sidewalk, 
and with hand extended the weary pilgrim 
cried, "That is my name, sir, and now who 
are yon?" 

"I am Arthur Porter, and lived there near 
you several years ago," etc. 

All this made Omaha lively and pleasant for 
us, although there is some complaint of dull- 
ness, and that Council B.uffs across the river is 
skimming the cream of business. 

Besting at this point cost us the los^ of our 
pleasant comrades, whose through tickets did 
not permit much loitering by the way. We 
could not get six months excursion tickets as 
we bad expected, and none are offered for the 
round trip for longer time than 60 days; but a 
first-class ticket from Omaha to Philadelphia 
is now $36, with a prospect of further reduc- 
tion. 

June 7th. All day we have been riding 
through Iowa and northern Illinois, with a 
constant enjoyment of the varied beautiful 
country. Farms and farm buildings generally 
look well; villages a little raw but cheerful 
enough, and the large towns substantial and 
prosperous. Seeing the country in its spring- 
time freshness, you ard sure to give it your 
heart, and forgetting 

"The Winter of their Discontent," 
Yon will say, "These people ought surely lo 
know when they are well off, and if they are 
not contented who can expect to be?" We see 
their bslts of Cottonwood planted for wind- 
breaks, and in the lee of those I hope the or- 
chards will grow. 



M 



[July 8, 1876 



Bf\EEDEf\s' Oll\ECTOF\Y. 



PUKCHASEBS Or STOCK WILL FIND IN THIS DiKECTORT 

THE Names of some of the most bellible Breedf^s- 
OUB Rates.- Six lines or less inserted in this directory at 
SO ctB a line per mootb, payable qnarterl;. 



CATTLE. 



J. BREWSTEB, Gait Station, Sacramento Oo., 
Cal., breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. 

POVTEKS & STANTON, Sacramento, Cal., breed- 
ers ol A. J. 0. C. Registered Jersey Cattle. Cows and 
Calves for sale at low rates. Address Lutber C. 
Powers. 

A. MAILLfARD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal., 
breeder of Jt rstj-s. Calves for sale. 



PAGE BKOTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Fran- 
cisco, (or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) : 
Breeders of Short-Horns and their Grades^ 

R. G SNEATH, Menlo Park, Cal., breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bulls for sale— various ages— at 
$40 to $160. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 

EDWARD FRISBIE. on line of Cal. P. R. R., near 
VaUejo, Pure Bred Leicester Sheep For Bale. 

GARNIER BROS., Encino Ranch, Los Angeles 
Cal., breeders of pure French, Spanish, and Saxon 
Merino Sheep. Price, from $25 to toO, each. 



A. G. STONESIFER, Hill's Ferry, Stanislaus Oo. 
Cal., breeder of Pure-Blooded French Merino Sheep 



JC. XT SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle 
and Essex Swine. ^^ 



B. F. Mr ATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thor- 
oughbred ijpauiah Merino Sheep. 



HC. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown; 
Sheep. Rama and £we8, 1 to 2 years old, $20 each 
Lambs, $16 each. 

T. A. WILSON, Grayson, Stanislaus county, Cal. 
Breeder and Importer of Spanish Merino Sheep. 



POULTRY 



v.. EYRE, Kapa. Bronze Turkeys, Emden Geese 
Choice Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, Ferrets. 



U. FALLON, Cor. Seventh and Oak streets, Oak- 
land. Brenze Turkeys. Choice Fowls for Hatching 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 



GEO. B. BAYLEY, Cor. 16th and Castro sreets, 
Oakland, Cal. Imported Brahmas and other choice 
Fowls for sale. 



ALBERT E. BTTRBANK, 48 and 44 California 
Market, San Francisco, importer and breeder of 
Fancy Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. 



URS. L. J. W ATKINS, Santa Clara, Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, 8. S. Ham- 
burgs, L. BrahmaB, B. B. Red Game Bantams and 
Aylesbury Sucks. Also Eggs. 



W. H GROVES, Stockton, Cal. Eggs for sale from 
Choice Pedigree and Selected Light Brahmas, White 
and Brown Leghorns. For prices and description 
■ddreas as above witn stamp. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co. 
Cal., Breeder of Impruved Berkshire Swine. 



Live Stock Notices. 




We respectiully call the attention ot Farmers and Stock 
Raisers to our l-rge and soperior dock of Angera G'»fttB. 
We have about 3uo hwad of Pure Breed Angoras to select 
from, some of which are superior to any in America. O -r 
prices are set according to the me' it) of the animal, and 
everytliing guaranteed to be as represent^'d. Send for 
circular. LAN DRUM & RODGERS, 

Watsonvilie. Santa Cj^uz Co., Cal. 



THOROUGHBRED SHEEP 

FOR 8A.1L.E. 

The under!>igned offers for sale his entire herd, con- 
sisting of 150 head of Thoroughbred Spanish Merinos, 
Bucks and Ewes. The Sheep are good, and in good 
condition, and will bo sold reasonable. For further 

particulars, enquire of 

A. C PATJLSELL, 

Stockton, Cal. 



THOROUGHBRED SHORT-HORN CATTLE 

The undersigned offers his entire herd of Thorough- 
bred Cattle for sale on very reasonable terms. Also, 
ome fine Graded Cattle. 

JOHN BREWSTER. 

Oalt. Sacramento Co., Cal 



THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINOS. 

^I^P sixty one and two year old Spanish Merino 
^ pWJI Rama For Sale, also 100 Ewes and Lambs, all 
aMHIMCalifornla bred, from stock Imported from 
Vermont, and as good as any on this OosHt. Prices to 
suit the times. Address, B. F. WATKINS, 

Santa Clara, Oal. 




Pare Blooded French Merino Rams 

And 100 Choice Youngr Ewes 

For sale by MRS. ROBERT BLACOW, of Centerville, 
Alameda county, Cal., near Niles Station, on the West- 
em and Southern Pacific railroad. 

These Sheep are guaranteed of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Rsuubouillet, and are equal, 
if not superior, to any of this breed in size and quality 
of wool, and are proven to be the heaviest shearers in 
the world. 

aS-NEW Mn.OH DCRHAM COWS FOB SALE. 



REMINGTON SEWING MACHINES. 




Superior to all others, because of their simplicity of 
construction: the most durable and are always ready 
for use; will do all kinds of work. Price of Machine 
as reprcBented in cut, with Hemmers, Feller, Braider, 
Gouge Tucker, Quilter, Johnson's Ruffler, and Diamond 
set of Hemmers, $7S. 

REMINGTON SEWING UACHINE CO., 

629 Market St., under Palace Hotel. S. F. 

AGENTS WANTED FOR CITY AND COUNTRY. 



Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Authorized Capital, $5,000,000. 



OFFICERS: 

Peesident GILBERT W. COLBY. 

Managinq Dibkctok C. J. CRESSF.Y. 

Cashier ALBERT MONTPELLIER 

Seobetabi PA. CRESSEY. 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of general banking business. 



California Farmers' Mutual Fire 
Insurance Association. 

No. 38 California Street, Rrangers' Building. 

$200,000, 



CAPITAL, 



GOLD. 



OFFICERS: 
J. D. BLANCHAR President 

I. G. GARDNER VlCK-PllESiUENT 

G. P. KF.LLOOG Trbasdreb 

A. W. THOMH.-sDN Attorney 

FERD. K. RULE Secbetaby 

TRUSTEES: 



J. D. BLANCHAR S. F 

G. P. KELLOGG Salinas 

I. O. G»RDNKR S. ¥ 

CHAS. LAIRD Salina- 

URIAH WOOD. San Benito 
A. B. N ALLY... Santa Bosu 

A. W. THOMPSON S. F 

A. D. LOGAN Colusa 



I.e. STEELE San Mateo 

G.W. COLBY Buiie Oo 

A. WOLF Stockton 

C. J. (JRESSEY.... Oakland 
.J. 0. MERRY KIELD.. Dixon 
E. W. STKKLE, S. L. Oliispo 
O S. ABBOTT.. ..Monterey 
Dr. T. FLI.VT Hollisler 



Statement, December Slst, 1875. 

TOTAL RISKS WRITTEN Sa.eiA,! 80.00 

TOTAL PREiHIUMb '»»,aol,7S 

LOSSES PAID t»«1.00 

ASSETS DEC. Slst, 1875 170,»©T.4,1 

(9- Farm Property insured at actual cost on the Mutual 
Plan. Other desiiable property insured, and rated ac- 
cording to merit. 



NEVILLE & CO'S FACTORY 

113 Olayand 114Commercial Sts., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

e A.OSSJ of All Kinds, 
TENTS!*, AU Sizes and Descriptions. 
HOSSE for Hydraulic U*e. 
CA-NVAW, All Numbers. 
TWINE for Sewing, Eto. 



Fi^xJiT vJj^:e^s. 



The preserving of Fruits by hermetically sealing in 
glass jars has increased rapidly in the last eifcht or ten 
years, so that to provide a store c f fruit and vegetables 
in their natural comlitlon for winter use is becoming 
not only a necessity, but is a provident iSieasnre, alike 
conducive to health and pleasure. 

The Gem and Porcelain Lined Jars 

Possess all the advantages and none of the disad- 
vantages of other patent Jure, and are in fact the only 
reliable self-sealing jars in market. Each makes its 
joint on the flat shoulder, blown in the glass, on the 
outside of the mouth of the jar, and below the top. 
The surface of the shoulder on which the joint is 
made is perfertly smooth. The rubber being outside 
and below the top of the jar, the syrup cannot be 
exposed to it, to taint and discolor it ; at the same time 
its shoulder, blown in the mold, on which the rubber 
rests, corresponds with the thread on which the screw 
fastening works, so that it insures equal pressure on all 
parts of the cap and rubber ring, thereby insuring a 
tight joint. These jars have arrived so near perfec- 
tion there is no hesitation in warranting every jar to 
preserve fruit an indefinite space of time if care is 
taken. 



MASON'S PORCELAIN LINED. 




THE GROOVE RING. 

This jar has a groove in the top of ring in which a 
tin cap is placed, afier which the wax is poured into 
the^ groove, thus mating a hermetic seal. This is a 
very reliable and cheap jar, costing about one-third 
lees than the patent jars. 

The testimony of physicians, added to the experience 
of many, corrcborate the belief that acid fruits pre- 
served in tin cans are very unwholesome. 



tsian Franeisoo nncl Pacific 

GLASS WORKS, 

(Incorporated June 9, 1876.) 

OAELTON NEWMAN, Manager, 

OFFICE and VTORKS, KING STREET, 
Near foot of Fourth, 

MANUFACTURERS of Vials. Bottles, Minerals, Car- 
boys, Demijohns, Patent OEM Fruit Jars, GROOVE- 
RINO rruit Jars, etc., and Sole Mauufactiirers ot 
NEWMAN'S PATENT ELASTIC DEMIJOHNS, and 
PATENT BOX DEMIJOHNS. 



INTERN-A-TIOINAlLi HOTEL. 

AIX VXrVt rUBBttUCD, 

824 & 826 Kearny St>. - San FranclBOO. Cal. 

tl. 50 & 12 per day. Free Coach to the Hotue. 
H. O. PATBIDGB, - - - Proprietor 



Lands and Homes for Sale. 



A Desirable Bargain. 



Mr. Lee H. Dtt, of Pala, San Diego county, offers for 
sale a share in bis valuable place, consiating of 320 
acres, and situated as described above. There is an 
Apiary ou the ranch in successful operation. For this 
business It possesses marked advantages. Twenty 
acres are seeded to alfalfa and eight acres are in vines. 
The place has growing on it 420 tree*, many of them in 
bearing. 

The owner will warrant the Cavendish Dwarf Banana 
to grow as well here as in Florida. He has three now 
growing. The panture now enclosed will keep 50 head 
of cattle. The ditch — which is large enough to run a 
mill — is stocked with trout, and has a fish pond 100 
feet square, and full of fish. There Is a nice warm 
spring, with bath house; the water contains sulphur, 
salts and iron. 

The place possesses grrat natural advantages, and the 
present owner has not spared money nor labor to im- 
prove: but being a valetudinarian he is not strong 
enough to attend to the wort. To the right kind of a 
man a rare opportunity is here offered. To such a 
person as will come in good faith he extends the invi- 
tation to stop on the ranch long enough to become 
familiar with its characteristics and capacities. 

Parties can refer to I. Nast, stock broker, San Fran- 
cisco, or to anybody of note in San Diego. The place 
bears the name ot "Aqua Tibia." Address, 

LEE H UTT, 
Pala, San Diego County, Cal. 



FOR SALE, 

Ik Lots to Stnr, 

6,000 Acres of the La^e Vineyard Land 
and Water Association. 



These lands are in the great fruit belt of Los Angeles 
County. — only six miles from the city— are peculiarly 
adapted to semi-tropical fmits, and adjoin the famous 
Lake Vineyard of Hon. B. D. Wilson. The Southern 
Pacific railroad runs through the land; convenient to 
schoolbouse and church; water in abundance, and the 
water-right is sold with the land. Title perfect. A 
Map of the tract may be seen at the office of Mayor 
Beaudry, on Spring street, opposite City Council rooms. 
References may be made to Hon. B. D. WILSON ur 
J. D£ BARTH 8HORB, at Lake Vineyard, who will 
take pleasure in showing the lands. Also, to Matos 
BEAUDRT or D. FREEMAN, Los Angeles city. 

A RARE CHANCE 

FOR SiLE~My Podltby Bcsikess, with my Farm 
of 116 acres; 22 acres of Vineyard and Orchard; Hon e 
of 10 rooms; Barns; Qranaries; W C hicken houses. 

Receipts between SS.OOO and $4,000 a 'Sear, 

Fully proved to the purchaser. Farm Implements, 
Wagon, Horses, Cows, etc.. with Poultry (value over 
$3,u<j0j includtd. Price. $12,000, oae-half cash. Or 

J I WILL i«iXL A Half Ivterest and 
continue the business in partnership 
^ — the purchaser to reside on the 



M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 



In view of al)Ov6 I offer a tew fine 
Fowls, Bronze Turkeys, etc. (not In- 
cluded in breeding pens and stock sold with farm) , 
at reduced prices. 

Fine Dairy Farm for Sale. 

An undivided half interest in a flne Dairy Farm of 
640 acres patented land, all inclosed. One hundred 
acres is good agricultural land, on which flne crops of 
timothy hay, potatoes, apples, etc., are raised. Bal- 
ance affords Hne grazing for 100 head ot cattle and is 
also handsomely timbered. Plenty of flne running 
water at all seasons, and a valaable mill site and 
privilege are on the land. A good cash home market 
for all the produce of the place. Improvements, a 
comfortable house, three large iMtms, farming imple- 
ments, wagons, etc. Also 40 head ot good milch cows, 
no head of young cattle, hones, etc. There is also a 
large outside range of from 2,000 to 3,000 acres held 
under possessory title. Will be sold at a bargain. For 
particulars apply to 

BERRY & CAPP. 418 Montgr'ry St., 

Real Estate Agents and House Brokers 



FOR SALE, 




A large and well established NURSERY, with an exten- 
sive trade and an excellent business reputation. A 
large and well selected (tock on hand that will nearly 
pay tor the whole thing the coming season. It is the 
only first-class Nnrsery in the great Sacramento Valley. 
For further particulars, apply to 

■W. R. STRONG & CO.. 
, 8 and 10 J St., - - - - Sacramento, 

OB 

STRONG & WILLIAMSON, 

418 and 420 Clay St., - - - San Francisco. 



HUMBOLDT COUNTY LANDS 

And Building Lota in the city of Etireka. For sale 
by D0LLI80N It DART Eureka, Humboldt Co., Cal' 



THE LAMB KNITTING MACHINE 

Is the Only Machine that can Knit all sizes of 
work, and narrow and widen it; that 
can shape and complete, with* 
out hand-finishing. 
Seamless Hosiery, Olovcs and Mittens, or knit them in 
all sizes; or knit ribbed, double and fancy stitches for 
Underwear, Jackets, Shawls, Scarfs, eto. It knits over 
25 different kinds of garments. Over 100 per cent, 
profit in manufacturing knit goods. Send tor illus- 
trated circular. Address, 

Lamb Knittinr UaoMne Co., 

120 Sutter St., Room 89, S. F. 



The Mining and Scientific Press, 

Established 18(W, is a Large, Ably Edited and Liber- 
ally Illustrated Weekly— the Bust PiicncAi. Mini.no 
AND MKCHA^^OAI. JotJBHAi. in America. $4 per annum, 
postage paid. Dkwsi k Oo., Ban Francisco. 



July 8, 1876.] 



35 



GEO. Vr. S'WAN. 



GEO. W. WEIDLEK. 



WM. HIGB 



xs 






Q^EO. ^W. SAVA.N & CO 



114 to 124 Spear Street, between Mission and Howard, ------ San Francisco, Cal. 

GRAPE BOXES, RAISIN BOXES, FIG DRUMS, ONE-POUND BLACKBERRY BOXES and PICKING BASKETS. 



WAY XJP» BOXE»!!. \^AY DOWN F» K, I C E 1 



LEA & PERRINS 



CELEBllATEli 



WORCESTERSHIRE SAUCE, 

DECLARED BY CONNOISSEURS TO BE 

THE 0NLYJ300D SAUCE. 

In consequence of Spurious Imitations of 

Lea & Perrins Sauce, 

■which are calculated to deceive the Public, 
L^EA tsf PERRINS have adopted 

A New Label, 

bearing their Signature, thus — 
which will be placed on every bottle of 

Worcestershire Sauee, 

after this date, and without which twne 

is genuine. 

November 1874. 

*^* This does not apply to shipments 

made prior to the date given. 

Ask for LEA & PERRINS' Sauce, 

and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle 

and Stopper. 

Wholesale and for Export hy the 

Proprietors, Worcester; Crossel^ Blackwell, 

London, l3c., ISc. ; and by Grocers and 

Oilmen throughout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS Sc CO. /San Erancisco. 



50 



VlDitingr Carflu, with your name finely 
printed, sent for 2oc. We liave lO© styles. 
Agrent" W^anted. O sampl.-s sent for 
stamp. A. H. Fuller & Co., Brockton, Mass. 



st^e;epsta_k:e;s thresher, 




all the Latest Improvements for the Pacific Coast, Manufactured for 

FRANK BROS. & CO. 

We will warrant every Machine sold to do Better, Cleaner and Faster Work than any 

other Thresher on the Coast. 

All wbo are in want of Tbreshers should not fail to call and fee the improvements that have been put on the Sweepstakes for the Harvest 
1 We a!so have the Gary P^wer, to which we would call special attention. 



349 MARKET STREET. 



]P:E^J^3^iC BK.OS. &c CO., 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



JOHIV H. OOVE'S* 

C E N T E N N I AJ^^ AY PRESS. 

Farmers and Hay Pressers will find it to their advantage to examine this Press before 
buying any other. It is built compact, combining lightness for moving with the greatest power 
and durability in its workiog parts, capable of making the average 250 pound bale, more or lefs, 
baling 10 to 15 tons per day, with three men and a pair of horsf s, they travelino only 36 feet to 
operate it. No excavations required for this Press. This is the original Gove Press improved, 
after an experience of building Presses in the States the past 15 years, where they give the best 

of satisfaction. Price, TSo. 1, $250. 

Manufactured and for sale, or built to order, at the EUKEKA. GRAIN STORAGE WARE- 
HOUSE, by JOHN H. GOVE Of ANDREW J. GOVE, Box 1122. 

A Liberal Discount to the trade. For Sale by all Agricultural Dealers. 




BUSINESS 
COLLEGE, 

No. 24 Post Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAI. 



The largest and beat Business College in America. 
Its teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils 
are from the best class of younR men in the State. It 
makes BusincBs Education a specialty; yet its instruc- 
tion Is not confined to Bookliceplng and Arithmetic 
merely, liut gives such broad culture as the limes de- 
mand. Thorough instruction is given in all the branches 
ofanEnRlish etlncation, and Modern Lanjjuages are 
practically taught. The discipline is excellent, and its 
system of Actual Business Practice is nnsurpssecd. 

Ladies' Department.— Ladi % will be admitted for 
instruction in all the Departments of the College. 

TELEonAPHio Depaetment. — In this Department 
young men and young ladies are practically and thor- 
oaghly fitted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HBALD. 
President Business College, San rranclaco, Oal. 



E. B. M:0TX, Jr., 

IMPOBTEB AlTD DEALER 117 

STOVES, METALS AND TINWARE 

And Sole Agent for the Ba^hboae Range. 

68 and SB J Street, Sacramento. 



Farmers, Take Notice. The Most Important Invention of the Age. 
THE ENAMELED STEEL BARBED FENCE WIRE 



Patentert l>y J. 1-^. iiX^1T>imTS. 




IiP-heIrivianN: 



Gloves Made to Order 

At priceB most economical to rnHtnm«»rfl, at the 
.SACKAMENTO til.OYE. FACTOJllf <,f I. IV. 

I>u*ik, Tenth St.. btiween .1 and K Hts,, SaTamento. 
NouH but the be-t <iualltv (if California t;inned skins used, 
l.adien' and Gentn' colored, plain and Indinn dressed 
ridinK and C'>mmon (jIov(-b and mittcnH on hand, or made 
to order on short notice, a®* Send your size or number 
and you can order by mail. KaliHfaction gunraoteed. 
Ladies, farracrs, minors, fn^fineers, and all requiring ser- 
vloeable gloves are invited to oaU at the fautury. 



The GLIDDEN PATENT BAKB WIKE has been tested by thousands of practical farmers, who universally 
recommend it. We ask you to try it for the following, amont; other reasons: 1. If it does not answer the recom- 
mend, you can return it and your money will be refunded. 2. It is the cheapest and most durable fence made. 
3. It takes less posts than any other fence. 4. It can be put up for one-quarter the labor of any other fence. 
6. Cattle, mules, and horses will not rub agalust and break it down. G. The wind has no effect upon It, and tires 
will not burn it up. 7. Stock will not jump over or crowd through it. H Your crops will be safe as far as fence 
is concerned. 9. You will know where your stuck is by night as well as by day. 10. You can draw enough in k 
buggy to fence 160 acres, and two men can put it up in two days. 11. Because it is what every farmer needs. 
12. Because it was invented by a practical farmer and you will say, after a fair trial, it is the BEST FENCE IN 
THE WORLDI 13. The change of seasons has no effect upon it— it being twisted, holds its tension. 14. The 
wire is manufactured entirely from steel, which has a relative strength of over 30 per cent, greater than that of 
any common iron wire. 1.5. The only steel coppered wire barb. 10. The only barb that cannot be displaced 
with thumb or finger, or cattle's horns. 17. The only barb with prongs projecting from between the twisted wire, 
and cannot be bent, broken, or lubbed off, and never need replacing. 18. The only coiled barb with broad base 
on main wire, which renders it immovable. 19. The only barb wire which, during process of manufacture, 
its strength is tested equal to that of two-horse power. 20. The only barb put on by machinery — it is not 
pounded on with hammer and indented in main wire to hold its place. 21. The only barb wire tha'. gives 
universal sutikfaction, and has greater sale than all others put together. lET'Be sure and ask for the Olidden 
Patent Baru Wire. Enquire of Hardware and Agricultural Dealers. Samples sent free of charge by addreaaing 

JONES, GIVEIVH A OO.. 
Oeneral AicentB for the Coast. K and 10th Street*, Sacramento. 



BOOK BINDER. PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTUUER, 
5S1 Clay Street, S- F. 
Blank Books Kulod. Printed, and Bound to Order 
OHABCOAL 

DENTAL SOAP 

for Whitening and Pre. 
eorrlng the Teeth. J. W. Anoell, Prop., San Francisco 



fiWfi>>^Wd 



ASK YOUR GROCER OR OIL DEALER FOK 

ELAINE 

THE FAIHILV SAFE GUARD OIL 



$250 



A MONTH— Agents wanted every. 

wlicre. lltisliieaa honorable and Orit 

lass, rarlifulur.-i frent free. Address 

J. Vi'OKTU & CO., St. Louls.Mo, 



&6 



^S3mm &M&^& 



[July 8, 1876 



Gov. Irwin and West Side Irrigation. 

We hare noted the fact that the irrigation 
CommisMoners finditg no provision in the West 
Sidd irrigation act appropriating money to bear 
the expense of the preliminary surveys, etc., 
had appealed to the people to subscribe. The 
commissioners, it will be remembered, prom- 
ised to reimburse all Babscribera from the ap- 
propriation which they expected a subsequent 
legislature would mike. They appealed to the 
Governor to know what would be his actJon in 
reference to a subsequent legislative appropri- 
ation, and he has written as follows: 

J. R. McDonald, Esq., Presideiit of Board 
West Side Irriqalion Commissioners —Sir: Your 
favor of the 8th inst., in which you state the 
plan your board has adopted for raising the 
necessary funds to enable you to perform the 
duties imposed on yon by the act creating the 
oommiseion, and ask my views in relation 
thereto, is before me. 

It is well known by Mr. Scrivner, the author 
of both the original and supplemental West 
Side irrigation bills, th»t I was anxious that 
there should be embraced in the supplemental 
bill a clause appropriating a suffl jient sum from 
the State treasury to enable the commissioners 
provided for in the bill to make the surveys 
and perform the other acts required of them; 
such sum to be returned to the State from the 
proceeds of the bonds of the district, if bonds 
should be issued in pursuance of the provisions 
of the original West Side irrigation bill. I sug- 
gested to him that he should put a provision of 
that kind in the bill. He replied that at that 
stage of the session— it being the last day of 
the session, when a single objection would pre- 
vent the introduction ot a bill— it would be im- 
possible to pass the bill, if it should contaiu a 
clause appropriating money from the State 
treasury. He further stated that the parties in- 
terested would devise some method for raising 
the necessary means. As I was vtry desirous 
that the supplemental bill should pass, I did 
not press the suggestion of an appropriation 
from the State treasury. 

You inform me that the board has determined 
to effect loans from parties interested in the 
irrigation scheme, imder a promise to reimburse 
them from the proceeds of the bonds of the dis- 
trict, if the vote of the district shall be in fa- 
vor of the issu-ince of bonds; or to use your in- 
fluence, in the event that the people of the dis- 
trict shall decide against the issuance of bonds, 
With the next legislature to have them reim- 
burst d from the State treasury. 

You dchire to know what position I will oc- 
cupy in the event that this last contingency 
shall arise. Willi advise the next lagislature 
to make an appropriation to pay the liabilities 
which you must contract in discharging the 
trust imposed on you by law? la other words, 
will I use my iDfloeuce with the legislature to 
have the parties who may loan you money 
paia from the State treasury, if the people of 
the district shall decide not to issue bonds to 
go on with irrigation? 

To this question you wish, I presume, a 
plain, direct, categorical answer. It gives me 
pleasure to be able to say, I feel no hesitation 
in rtturning such an answer. 

Whatever sums of money may be necessary 
to enable the commissioners to discharge faith- 
fully all the duties, and perform fully all the 
acts required of them by law, I advise them to 
borrow, if tney can. All sums so borrowed 
should be reimbursed from the proceeds of the 
bonds of the irrigition district, if, in pursu- 
ance of law, bonds of the distiict be issued. 
If, however, on the snbmissiou of the question, 
the people of the district shall decide against 
the issuance of bonds, I will recommend to the 
next legislature the appropriation of a sufficient 
sum from the State treasury to pay the loins 
which the commissioners shall have found it 
necessary to make to enable them to perform 
the acts required of them. 

Trusting that this answer will be regarded 
as sufficiently broid and explicit, and that it 
will serve the purpose for which you desire it, 
I have the honor to be, with great respect, 

W11.LIAM Ibwin, Governor. 

Sacramento, June 12th. 

A Side Hill Mower. 

In many parts of the State oar readers have 
thtir fields more or less "set up on edge," as 
some one his described side hill land. There 
has always been trouble to secure either a plow 
or a mower which would do firet-class work on 
the side of a hill. We notice that a farmer in 
Santa Cruz county has introduced a mower, 
which; for side hill work, seems to satisfy him. 
From a letter written to the Hinta Cruz Sen- 
tinel we extract a few points concarning the 
maobine, which are of value for general infor- 
mation. Ic is a direct draft mower, made by 
the Towanda mower manufacturing company, 
Towaada, Bradford county, Pa. The letter 
writer mentioned above, says; IWhile it is for 
level and valley lands almost a perfection, it is 
also peculiarly suited to side hill farms, 
working on any kind of land, however steep or 
rough, as no other mower in the market will 
wotk, and has the following points of superiur- 
ity over all other mowers in ttiis market, so far 
as I have seen or known them: It is reversible, 
and this fa^t gives a choice of the side to mow 
on, working the machine back and forth on the 



side hills, cutting back and forth across the 
lodged grass, cutting across the deep furrows 
instead of mowing with them, always catting 
long swaths — all features of great advantage 
in practical work. Mr. Pilkington, of Santa 
Cms county, writes of the machine: I have 
tested it on my farm by cutting about 30 acres 
of very rougb, badly washed and very steep 
side hill laud, sowed with barley for bay, and 
cut it with greater ease to my two light horses, 
and in much less time than any four-feet 
mower in the market, cutting, as it does, a six- 
feet swath. 



Wheat Field Fires. 

Editjbs Pekss:— On Thursday evening, 29th 
June, about two miles north of Woodland, a 
grain field was fired from the threshing engine, 
and made it a severe battle to save the ma- 
chinery and stop a wide-spread conflsgration. 

On Friday, 30th, a header in the field of Mr. 
Brown, one mile west of town, seemed to be 
the cause of igniting a flime which sprang up 
in its rear. The men at h^nd rushed to ex- 
tinguish the flames, but the horses becoming 
frightened, they were obliged to secure them 
and rescue the wagon and header from the 
spreading fikmes, which in stubble three feet 
high made fearful strides. 

Stacks of grain were soon on fire. The few 
men imoaediately at hand made great exertions 
to check it, but before sufficient aid— water to 
wet sacks and men to use tbem^could be sum- 
moned, all of Mr. Brown's grain, and also Mr. 
Gallup's, were destroyed. And only a very 
favorable wind enab'ed the saving of Mr. G:il- 
Inp's house and barn. Mr. iJouglass had bi^ 
grain mostly sacked, and it was but little in- 
jured. 

The ground burned over was about 320 acres, 
or half/ja mile wide by one mile long. 

Suggestions. 

First. Twenty or 30 old sacks lying near the 
engine always wet or moist, would be ready for 
instant use and save time and cost nothing. 

Second. On the first alarm of a fidid fire, any 
common tub or barrel that can be placed into 
an express or lumber wagon, and sacks and 
water filled in, can be started direct for the 
battlefield and is ready for use when there, and 
10 or 15 men can start a countermarch fire ,in 
very heavy stubble and soon check the fire's 
progress in any one direction. New sacks do 
not moisten in an instant, owing to th« gloss 
sizing on them. Gunny bags are the best be- 
cause heavier and more lasting. 

Some stacks were on fire at Divisville, San- 
day fcvenint?. Supposed to be from a railroad 
engine. Let every farmer have old sacks ready 
auainst fire. C 

Woodland, July 3d, 1876. ^.^ ^j ^ ^ 



Herb Growing. 

Is there anything being done at present 
among our readers in the way of growing herbs 
for market? When we go to the druggist to 
buy the consoling catnip or the wryful worm- 
wood, we are given little packages of com 
pressed herbs bearing the brand of the solemn 
Shakers of New York. This industrious class 
ot people have coined fortunes by their herb 
growing, and their brand is known everywhere. 
There is no reason why we should import the 
useful herbs from New York; on the other hand 
there seems every reason why we should build 
up a profitable trade in this line of production. 
We cDmmend the matter to the study of some 
wide awake m^n who has a little piece of 
ground which he desires to occupy all his time 
and pay him good wages on a small investment. 
This subject is not altogether new. We know 
of an intelligent man in Alameda county who 
went so far in the business as to secare seeds 
and plants and get them well a-gro wing, but 
through his attention being demanded by other 
matters, was forced to allow his herb planta- 
tion tog) to waste. He is, however, just as 
strong in the belief that a good paying business 
can be developed in this line as he was when 
he began. 

Id the line of growing some special costly 
plant for the druggist there is also opportunity 
for profitable work. Oar attention is called to 
this subject by a letter from a Virginia corre- 
spondent of the Country Gentleman . From the 
following it appears that the herb "ginseng" 
has been in the mind of a California farmer, 
and perhaps the hints may reach him or some 
one else for his good. The writer says: "Some 
five or six years ago my attention was called 
to the value of ginseng as an article of com> 
merce, through a correspondent of the Coantry 
Oentltman, then residing in California (I regret 
very much that I have since lost his address). 
In his letter be asked particularly as to the na 
ture of the plant, the soil upon which it was 
grown, the time required for it to come to ma- 
turity, etc., and if I thougbt it could not be 
acclimated, or, I should say, cultivated in open 
ground, exposed to the rays of the sun. After 
a great many inquiries upon the snbject from 
persons who were engaged in the gathering of 
the ginseng in the mountains, I was informed 
that It was never found anywhere except in the 



woods, and general doubts seemed to be ex- 
pressed as to the possibility of getting the 
plant to grow except in the damp, shaded gorges 
of the mountains: However, I procured some 
seed and attempted to grow them. The effort 
was a failure, until I accidentally discovered 
how the seed could be propagated, and I as- 
sure you I watched with no little interest the 
oaly plant I obtained the first season. The 
plant yielded a good crop of seed the second 
year, which was planted and came up in due 
time, and I think from present appearances I 
will claim the honor of acclimating the ginseng. 
If the plants of last season yield as they now 
promise. I think the growing of ginseng will be 
as easily accomplished as growing a crop of 
potatoes. The only difficulty 1 now see is 
this — it reqnires two seasons for the plant in 
its wild state to become large enouijh for mar- 
ket — or I should say at thit age it has arrived 
at a state in which it is considered more sale- 
able in market. What I want to know is this — 
what fertilizer I could nse that would force the 
growth of the plant. Possibly some gentleman 
who has an analysis of ginseng at hand, could 
aid me or make some suggestion as to the 
proper manure. Toe present price of ginseng 
has caused the gathering of a larger amount 
than usual the past season. Although the 
State has passed very stringent laws to protect 
the plants growing in the moantains, it is but a 
question of a few years, when ginseng will be- 
come extinct, and any means by which the de- 
mand for this article can be supplied will cer- 
tainly be a sourc ■ of gre^t revenue." 

The Hl'lbubd Establishment at Placer 
viLLB. — It appears from the Placerville Demo- 
crat that there is exceeding life and action in 
tl'(- Hulburd drying and canning works in that 
p'acd. Two large brick buildings are used. 
Preparations are active for putting up the new 
Hulburd drier. The Democrat says: The Hul- 
burds are preparing a bnokyard in the neigh- 
borhood of their factory, where they propose 
to burn the brick to be used in the construction 
of their furnace, chimney and drier. These 
brick will be molded and barned of a curvi- 
linear shape, especially adapted to the circular 
walls into which they are to be laid, thus 
effecting a great saving compared witb the ex- 
pense of trimming bricks of the usual shape. 
A full description of tbe new drier patented by 
Mr. Hulburd through Dewey & Co.'s agency is 
promised soon. 

New Bbeisds. — Two new and distinct breeds 
of sheep have lately been introduced into Eng- 
land from tbe west coast of South America. 
The first are two fine, white wooled sheep, 
each having four massive horns, twj of which 
have a forward curve over the head, while the 
other two curve downward under the eyes, giv- 
ing the head a singular appearance. Of the 
second, which are said to be a species between 
the 11am i and alpaca, there are three, one 
male and two females, which are thickly covered 
with long, dark brown, but exceedingly fine 
hair or wool, which is highly prized by the na- 
tive Indians for the manufacture of their more 
delicate fabrics. The male stands about three 
feet high at the shoulder. 



Patents & 1nvention& 



A Weekly List of D. 8. Patents Is- 
sued to Paoiflo Coast Inventors. 

Fbom OmoiAi, Rbpobts roa thx Mihiho and Boibk 

Tino Pbeu, DEWET & 00., PuBUsHSBa aho 

U. 8. AND FoaKiOK Patkbt Aosim.) 

Fob Week Enddjo Jdne 27th, 1876. 

Watch CASE Springs. — Charles O. Farcoit, S. F. 

FuBNACES FOR Steam Boilebi.— John L. Heald, 
"Vallejo, Cil. 

LnBRiCATOBs. — Nicholas Seibert, S. F. 

Axle Sets and GAaKS.— William C. Carlton, 
Boise City, Idaho. 

Pbopeluno Canal Boats.— Houstoa I. Chap- 
man, Portland, Oregon. 

Bucket Ears. — Joseph F. Djnkin, Grayson, 
Cal. 

FauiT Dbiers.— Hiland G. Hulburd, Placer- 
ville, Cal. 

Mabkino Implements. — Joseph Perkins, S. F. 

Bao Fabteninob. — Antone Bihn, Coulterville, 
Cal. 

Liniments f.)e Bheumatism — Clinton Sfeane 
and James Kearney, S. F. 

AhTEsiAN Well Bobkb.— John A. Woodhonse, 
Anaheim, Cal. 

Desions. 

Photoobaphic Mount. — Isaiah W. Taber and 
Thomas H. Boyd, S. F. 

Tbade-Mabks. 

Floub.— Savier & Co., Portland, Oregon. 

*The patents ue not ready for dellverj by the 

Patent OJDm imtll some 14 days after tbe date of Isene. 
NoTK. — Copies of D. 8. aud Forolxn Patents famished 

by Dkwxt & Oo., In the shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 

boBlnees for Pacific coaat Inventors transacted witb 

perfect security and In the shortest possible time. 



TVoodwabd's Gabi>bn8 embracoB an Aqnarlnm, Ho- 
seam. Art Oallery, Oonservstorles. Tropical Houses, 
Menagerie, Seal Ponds and Skatiue Rink. 



Good Pnnrmia Ink.— We prefer Chas. Enen John- 
son's printing inks, having used them on this paper 
for tbe past four years. B. 8. Crocker k Co., printers, 
statleners, blank book and paper dealers, are John- 
son's 8. F. aflenta.— Dewbt A Oo., Publisben. 



A Standard Employment 
Agency in San Francisco. 

The agency to which we would now call the 
attention of tbe readers of the Califobnia 
Patron, was established twenty years ago, and 
is the oldest establishment of the kind on the 
Pacific coast. From a small beginning in 1855, 
it has grown to such dimensions that it has 
been compelled repeatedly to move into more 
commodious quarters, and now it occupies the 
large double store formerly occupied by M. 
Gray & Co., No. 625 Clay Street, next 
door west of the banking house of the San 
Francisco Savings and Loan Society, one of the 
most central business locations in the city. 
MESSB8. CROSETT & CO. are daily supply- 
ing orders sent from all parts of the State, con- 
taining requests for every variety of labor, for 
the farm, the field, orchard, vineyard, tending 
stock, or cultivating the soil; for all kinds of 
lumber, milling and mining work, from super- 
intendent down to simple laborer; for the shop, 
mechanics, engineers, artisans, and skilled 
workmen of every kind. Nor do their orders 
contain requests for male help alone. Great 
pains is taken to supply our housewives with 
the very best Domestics, Cooks and General 
Housemaids that can be obtained. They would 
call the especial attention of GRANGERS AND 
FARMERS GENERALLY to their facilities 
for supplying farm help. Referring confidently 
to their past record for faithful attention to the 
wauts of patrons, they have no hesitation in 
assuring all applicants who may favor them 
with their orders, that they can nowhere else 
be better or more promptly served than by ap- 
plying to this old established agency. Mr. 
Crosett gives his constant personal attention to 
his business. His long experience makes him 
quick to see and accurate in judging of the 
merits of those who apply to him for situations. 
And his well established and wide extended 
reputation brings to his office an abundant sup- 
ply of every kind of labor, from which he is 
enabled to select the best. 

All this advantage Mr. Crosett gives to those 
who favor him with their orders, and that, too, 
without any expense to tbe employer — all tbe 
fees, (which, by reason of a large business being 
transacted, are moderate), being paid by ths 
employee. The Employment Agency of 
Messrs. Crosett & Co. is supplying a great 
need in our State and we take pleasure in com- 
mending it to all readers of the Pbe^s. 

The Mining and Scientific 
Press Patent Agency was estab- 
lished in i860 — the first west of 
the Rocky Mountains. It has 
kept step with the rapid march 
of mechanical improvements. 
The records in its archives, its 
constantly increasing library, the 
accumulation of information of 
special importance to our home 
inventors, and the e.xperience of 
its proprietors in an extensive and 
long continued personal practice 
in patent business, affords them 
combined advantages greater 
than any other agents can possi- 
bly offer to Pacific Coast invent- 
ors. Circulars of advice, free. 
Address, 

DEWEY & CO., 
Publishers Min-ing and Scien- 
tific Press and Pacific Rural 
Press, San Francisco. 



As Estate is 8an Diboo Cointt.— Keadcra have 
donbtlees noticed the advertisement of Lee H. Dtt, of 
ban Diego cou'ity. In which he offfrs for sale a share In 
tbe eetrtp called "Aqua Tibia" in Pala, Ban Diego 
connty. Mr. Utt, as we are informed, has brongbt hlB 
property into a fine state of developiueot, and finds 
that its manaKement reqnlrea the time of two men. 
He cannot secure hired help to take an interest in ilie 
Work and stay peruianently as he desires, and so he 
asks far a man to take half ownership and aaeume th<. 
active control of tbe property. It is on opportunity 
which we oonaider worth looking into. — Rnrai Prat, 
June Wtk. 



Fabmebs, send to May Bros., Oalenburg, III., for 
descrlptire circular of their new improved, heavy, 
steel. vane Windmill, and of their "Oomblned Mill." 
Warranted flrot-class mills. Wbolesalc price 01 nins- 
foot wheel, }30 on cars. One month trial given. Any 
carpenter (with tbe printed directions) can put the 
mill np right in one day. Farmer agents wanted. 



At our request, Oragiu & Co.,ot Philadelphia, Pa., 
have promised to send any of our readers gratis, fun 
recript of 19 cents to pay postage, ) a sample of Dob- 
bins' Electric Soap, to try. 8end at once. 

SuTTEB Cbkbx, February 96th, 1878. 
Messrs. Dewet h Co.— I have received my Letters 
Patent throuHh your Aagency. nd, for your prompt • 
ness, accept my thanks. lours, 8. M. Kkiqht. 



Manatactorer of 

Dr. Ely's Patent Artificial Limbs. 

OrnOE AJtD Addbbss, 

No. 166 TEHAUA 8TBSBT, 

Cor. Third, bet. fioward and Folsom, Baa Fraaolaco 
•owbp 



July 8, 1876. J 



37 



S. F. IWi^iv^ET RjEpoi\x. 



Weekly Market Review. 

SOUKSTIO PBOSTTOE, ETC. 

San Fbancisco, July 5th, 1876. 
Tbe almost UDiversal cessation from business tliis 
week, in accordance with the proclamation of the Gov- 
ernor, recommending the observance of throe holidays' 
renders our market nomiua'. In tbe absence of trans- 
actions we have no comments to make upon tbe differ- 
ent produc'B. We take occasion to lay before our read- 
ers Mr. Frledlander's annual grain circular. We print 
it, as is our custom, for whatever information our 
readers can find in it, without assuming any responsi- 
bility for the statements it contains. 

Frledlander's Grain Circular. 
In reviewing the business of the past year, which, in 
California as in the other markets of the world, has 
beeu a most unsatisfactory one, the reflection ca: 1 hardly 
escape us how little really prohtable business has been 
done for several years past. From 1870 to 1874 the 
Europtan crops were poor, and prices high. Home 
grown Wheat in England ranged from o2s 6d to 60s in 
1871, 53s 9d to^eos 3d in 1872, and from 54s 6d to 64s 6d 
in 1873; and yet, through it all, there never was a good 
profitable business done. The crop of 1874 was a very 
large one all over the world , but the fall in values was 
so much more rapid than any one imagined possible, 
that the trade again suffered severely by contracting 
ahead, the market declining from 649 in June to 43s 6d in 
October. While the English and Oontinental operators 
thus had to stand heavy losses, tbe Americans on both 
sides of the continent were deprived of all profit. The 
crop of 1875 was in no part of tbe world a very promis- 
ing one, even when at its best; for Hussia and the 
United States were positive'y short, France had beeu 
seriously damaged by floods, while Germany, Hungary 
and Turkey showed nothing above a poor average. The 
English crop looked pretty well through the spring, 
but her acreage was less than that of the previous year, 
and there was nothing in the appearance of the plant 
to justify any expectations of more than an ordinary 
yield. Still, there was no cause for alarm; and with 
homo grown Wheat ranging in England from 44s in 
January to 40b in May, it is not surprising that the 
Liverpool corn factors maintained a position of posi- 
tive apathy. In July, however, just as the Wheat crop 
was blooming, a spell of extraordinary rains set in, 
which fairiy flooded the country, and worked an imme- 
diate change in prices. Wheat rose Irom 438 to 54s per 
quarter in a fortnight, and had the flood continued, it is 
not improbable that 76s to 80s mij^ht have been reached; 
for another fortnight of storm would have utterly 
ruined the English crop, and France and Germany 
under similar influences were suffering terribly. Tne 
effect on the markets of the producing countries was 
instantaneous, and when the storm cleared, and a cal- 
culation of actual injury was possible, a flood of grain 
bad been started towards the English coast from all 
parts of the World, which has hardly spent its force 
even now. The damage to the crop proved to have 
been overestimated, but the effect on the trade was 
ruinous. No one had any conception of the amount of 
Wheat of 1874 remaining in stock throughout the world, 
and when the surplus of wiieat began to pour into 
England, no one supposed it could last. But when, in 
November, New York had not finished shipping old 
Wheat, and tbe untouched crop of 1875 was on tbe sea- 
board, cautious people began to shake their beads, and 
to look for a range of prices much lower than had been 
deemed possible a few weeks before. The mischief, 
however, had then been done, for the Wheat operators 
were all loaded up, and Irom that time forward nothing 
met them but disaster and loss. One by one they lost 
ttieir hold, and, while all were seriously crippled, many 
bad to suspend. Wheat in Liverpool went back to 42s, 
and for weeks seemed likely to touch still lower fig- 
ures. Fortunately, early in May, the Continent began 
to call for Wheat, and the downward movement was 
checked; but the English seaport towns are still 
crowded with wheat, ai d the relief which has been 
prayed for so long depends on the weather, and may 
nev>r take place; and if it does not before the now 
supplies be^in to come In, we can expect nothing but 
low prices during tbe coming year. Still, it must not 
be overlooked that the Continent is bare of stocks, and 
that the supply of Wheat throughout the whole world 
has been wonderfully reduced, and should a spell of 
unfavorable weather set in and last for any time the 
effect would probably be almost magical. 1 he market 
has beeu supported aurlug the last two months entirely 
by the Continental demand; and the Continental opera- 
tors suffered last season very little in comparison with 
those of Great Britain. They, consequently, have both 
the means and the disposition to stock up heavily; and 
it cannot be overlooked that, although within the past 
few weeks the weather has been more propitious, the 
general cSaracter of the season has beeu backward, if 
not actually poor. The Continental demand at present 
Is light, and prices are settling down again to a low 
plane; but a fortnight of bad weather woula change 
all this, and. although we look upou an European war 
as improbable, still it is a factor In the sum which 
ought not to be overlo >ked. As it now stands, the sit- 
uation appears to be this: Tbe English warehouses are 
full of Wueat; but, once established that future ship- 
ments were to go to the Oontiuent, consumption would 
overtake stocks in six weeks. The Continent is bare of 
old stock, and the comiug crop does not promise to be 
even an ordinarily good one. The United States is going 
to have a great deal of Wheat for export, but her own 
granaries have been much depleted, and it will take 
gome time for the new crop to reach the seaboard in 
large supply. The other Wheat producing sections of 
thS* world have fair crops, but not sufliciently large to 
affect the markets of Europe materially, unless it be 
that India, with her enormous produutfve power, is go- 
ing to step in. But without pretending to prophe.ny, 
we can confidently say that the prospect for anything 
more than fair prices during the coming year is hardiy 
encouraging. 

Calliornla shared in common with others the excite- 
ments and the losses of the season. Opening at tl.CO 
@1.65 per 100 pounds, in May, for forward delivery, 
our barvest was only commencing when, under the 
influence of 55s, 56s and 57s limits from Liverpool. 
Wheat rose to $2.37 Ji . As throughout the tpring, limits 
bad been most slack at 458, the excitement was natur- 
ally very great, aud,a8iu former years, we had more 
than once worked oil' our crop on orders ranging as high 
as 653, it is no wonder that mo^t of our producers and 
many of our factors looked for much higher rates than 
had ruled for many years past. Everything served to 
favor tbe delusion. Tbe first estimates of our crop 
gave us from &,6(X),UIJ0 to 6,400,000 centals of wheat sur- 
plus. In addition we had carried over from the pre- 
vious year's crop a very considerable stock of old 
wheat. But as the threshers got to work they reported 
a lighter and lighter yield, until some began to doubt 
if we could spare anything over 4,000,000 centals. The 
farmers took the alarm, and the more they were 
offered for their crops the more disinclined they were 
to sell. Speculators began to range over the country 
offering prices that were based on nothing but their 
own wild imagination:!; and even many, legitimately 
in the trade, losing sight of the present, began to sjiec- 
nlate on a future market, and loaded up at rates which 
foreign quotatioDS, eveu when at the highest, in no 
way justilied. Of courae then; could be only one result 
to all this; and when the break occurred in Liverpool 
the losses here were very great, particularly as they 
were coupled with an extremely stringent money 



market, resnltlDg from the bank failures, and a steadily 
growing conviction that our crop really exceeded con- 
siderably the highest estimates made in the beginning 
of tbe season. Still tbe country has gone through It, 
and, on tbe whole, has not suffered as much as 
was at one time feared: and witb the experience gained 
from the past, and the bountiful barvest now being 
reaped, we may hope that, by the end of the year, the 
traces of disaster will all have disappeared. 

■WTlieat— Our crop has become so important a factor 
in the problem of the world's supply of wheat, that the 
history of cur market during the past 12 months is 
pretty well embodied in the resume we have given of 
the course of busiuess in Europe and tbe Atlantic States. 
Still, as a matter of record, it may be well to note that 
it ruled as follows during the year (quotations are per 
100 lbs. alongside ship, in U. S. gold coin) : July, $1.63 
@$2.05; August. $2.20®$2 37^; September, $2 20@f2.10; 
October, S2.10(a$2.05 ; November, $2.05@?1.97 ii ; Decem- 
ber, $2.00®$2 03; January. $1.96@$2 00; February, $1.95 
@$2.00; March. $1 92}i@$l 97)«; April, $1.95(g»$l,85; 
May, $1.85@$1.75; June, $1.76@$1.80, the old crop hav- 
ing become about exhausted by tbe middle of the last 
lamedmontb, and new operations commencing on a 
basis of $1.60®$1.65 for new wheat delivered in June and 
July. The business of tbe year, as may well be imag- 
ined, as been unsatisfactory, imd both farmers and op- 
erators have met with some serious disappointmeuts. 
The ultimate results, however, will undoubtedly be 
beneficial, inas I uch as the tendency towards specula- 
tion has received a very severe check. Our market, for 
years, differed from those of the great West, and indeed 
of New York, in the fact that our merchants and factors 
confined themselves to the execution of legitimate or- 
ders. It is perhaps fortunate that, when they left this 
well trodden field, and took to speculating on their own 
account, instead of meeting with a success, which in 
the nature of things could only be transient, and 
which would lead infallibly to disaster in the long run, 
they encountered a rebuff. Shipments on California 
account will probably be little heard of henceforth lor 
some years to come. 

We are entering now on a new season with stocks re- 
duced to a minimum and the promise tf a most abun- 
dant harv-st. There c»n be no question that the latter 
will be the largest ever reaped in the State, while the 
quality gives every promise of being very superior. 
What our surplus will be, is, of course, at the preseut 
moment, largely a matter of conj cture, particularly as 
our harvest is somewhat late; but it will disappoint the 
conjectures of many if it does not amount to 750,Ui)0 
tons of 2,000 lbs. each. Our area under grain is ex- 
tremely large, and the experience of the past year indi- 
cates the necessity for caution in figuring ou a crop 
either exceptionally small or large. What prices will 
be realized, of courte no one can tell, but our farmers 
are disposed to meet the market, and we rath* r look for 
a satisfactory business. The crop in Oregon does not 
promise quite so well as last year, the winter having 
been unpropitious, and the plant of wheat circumscribed 
by a protracted wet season. At one time tears were 
entertained that it might not turn out over 60 per cent, 
of that last year; but the spring, we are happy to say, 
has beun genial, and tbe result of the harvest will 
probibly show nj serious diminution from that of 
1875-6. 

Barley— The Barley crop of 1875.6 was a large one, 
and of good quality, 'fhe moving of it, however, was 
impeded by the tenacity with which the farmers held 
on to their stocks when really profitable figures were 
offering, by whicu the trade with the Mississippi valley 
was much curtailed. The mistake was, perhaps, not 
unnatural, for the sudden and rapid rise in wheat nat- 
urally reacted on other grains, and in addition the Oat 
crop was a poor one and maintained a high scale of 
prices all through the teason. It was, however, not 
the less unfortunate, for bad farmers met the market 
freely our whole surplus might have beeu dioposed of, 
whereas the close of the season saw us with a ]&■ ge 
stock remaining on band. The market opened in June, 
July, at $1.40 per 100 pounds, but rose to $1.70@1.75 
before September. Through the tall and winter, rates 
slowly declined to about $1.20, and by January were 
down to $1.10. The spring witnessed a rally to $1. '20 
@1 .25. but with a very restricted business; and when 
April and May were reached the best prices obtainable 
for even jobbing lots were $1@1.05. The new crop is 
now coming in rapidly, and is probably the largest and 
bett ever harvested in the State, but ihe market opens 
very low, and it looks as though it would continue so 
to the end. The discount ou silver is a very disturb- 
ing element in the trade, as by far the largest portion 
of the crop is sold in the State, and the jobb-srs are in 
most cases compelled to take payment, at least partially, 
in depreciated coin. This deranges quotations very 
much, but as we write, bright new Barley cannot bj 
quoted in gold over 90c per 100 pounds. The crop of 
Chevalier Birley this year will be much smaller than 
the last, as for some reason the farmers have reduced 
the plant materially. This is much to be regretted, as 
our Chevalier Barley was well liked in Australia, and 
was beginning to be appreciated in England. Some 
heavy shipments of this description were made last 
winter to New York by sailing vessels, but tbe prices 
realized were not remunerative, and it is not probable 
that the experiment will be renewed on any considera- 
ble scale. Still, in the absence of a market here, a con- 
siderable quantity of our ordinary brewing qualities 
may find its w^y there, and indeed, one lot of a thous- 
and tous has already been dispatched. With a cuntin- 
uance o( present luw prices, we hope for an outlet for a 
considerable portion of our 8ur,dus to Chicago and St. 
Louis. 

Oats— The Oat crop was a poor one last season, both 
in California and Oregon, but as oor entire exports 
amount to very little, the. e is no necessity for giving 
the market any extended review. Prices opened early 
in August at aoout $1.75 per 100 pounds, but by the end 
of October had dropped to $1.50, by which time, or a 
little later, the stocks were concentrated in a few hands, 
and prices were put up to $2@2.60, reaching in tbe eud 
$2.75 per 100 pounds. A large p rtion of our supplies 
come from Oregon, and this spring some parceJ s reached 
us by rail from Utah and Nebraska. The coming crop 
promises well, and that of Oregon will be unusually 
large, and with low prices ruling for other Feed grains 
and the chance of low freights to the Colonies, our Aus- 
tralian friends may see their way to sending lis some 
orders. 

Flour — During the year we dispatched eight com- 
plete cargoes of Flour to Great Britain, comprising 
126.000 barrels, and 18 parts of cargoes, aggregating 
70,(J00 barrels. This busiiies-s has not afforded any mar- 
gin of profits, but it will probably be continued ou 
about the same scale in the coming 12 months, as there 
are parties regularly in the trade, who will, by continu- 
ing It, be ready to seize any advantage the changes of 
the market may afl' jrd. Our trade with China has been 
stimuliitod by extremely low freights, and the China- 
men, during the spring, have been largo exporters. 
Outside of these the market has presented no features 
of especial iiitorest. Our millers have doue a steady, 
but hardly a profitable trade, as they all suffered by the 
rapid and heavy decline In Wheat at a time when they 
were heavily stocked; but the probabilities are, that 
with a year of low and uniform prices for Wheat, they 
will more than recover the lost ground during the 
coming 12 mouths. Superfinos opened in July at $4. .50 
per barrel in cloth, and Bakers' Extra at S.'i.OO; by the 
middle of August they had risen to $5.50 and $6.60 re- 
spectively. From these figures the market slowly de- 
clined, ruling in December about $.')@6 per barrel, and 
by February we again reached the prices at which the 
market opened in July. As we write Superflnes (city 
brands) in quarter and half sacks are quotable at $1.25 
per barrel; Kxtras, at $4..'>0; and Bakers, at $4.75. The 
Imports from Oregon this season have been free, and 
have interfered considerably with the business of our 
city Uiills, but with a smaller Wheat crop In that State 
and an enlarged direct trade there with Great Britain, 
we will probably feel the competition much less during 
the coming year. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



BEANS. 

Bayo, Veil 4 5035(10 

Batter I 9'(a,2 25 

Pea I gji^-a — 

Pink 2 mm Oil 

Sm'l white I eOMI 90 

Lima 1 90 @2 00 

BROOM CORK. 

Common, W lb.. 2 (co 3 

Choice, do ... 4 ® 5 

COTTON. 

Cotton, ^ B) l.i @ 18 

BAIRX PROBX;C£, 
ETC. 

BUTTEH. 

Oal. Fresh Boll 

per lb '22'-2& 'i'l! 

Point Reyes — @ 30 

Firkin 22 m 26 

Wat'n Reserve. 16 @ 20 

New York — @ — 

CHEESE. 

Obeese.Oal., lb.. 10 (i 

doOld - I! 

fiaetern — ^ 

Oal. fresh Tf> doz 295 

Ducks' — fi 

Oreeon '22H'i 

Eastern 21 {i 

FEEB. 

Sran, per luu 

Corn Meal 27 51) 

Hay 8 IKI 

Middlings 24 00 

Oil cake meal . . . 

Straw, ^ bale... HO 

FLOITR. 
Extra ^ bbl. ....•) .M Mi 73 

Superfine 4 .".0 W4 73 

Graham.^ bbl...'S .'iO @ — 

FRE.SH MEAT. 
Beef 1st qaalitr lb. 5!iffl 6 

Second do .... 3^'^ i 

Thirddo 2>2g 3 

Spring Lamb i^'^ 5 

Mutton 2iit'<i 3 

Pork, undressed 6!^a 6 

do, dressed 9>i» 9 

I^eal 5 (a 5, 

Milk Calves ffl 7 

ORAIN, ETC*: 
aarier,teed otl 1 00 @ I K 

do new 80 @ 92'* 

do brewing. 1 OS 

Chevalier 1 2.^ 

Corn. While... I 16 
do Yellow.... I 15 

Oats 1 90 

Milling 

ttye 1 80 

Wheat shipping I .5) ©1 60 

do milling.. I 60 (4,1 70 
UIBES. 

Hides, dry 10 & 13 

Uo wpr salted 6 al 6^^ 
HONEY, ETC. 
Beeswax. per It).. 25 [tit 27! 
lioney in comb.. Vi/i'di 15 

do Strained... 8 ® 10 
HOPS. 



New cron. 10 C<$ 

NUTS -Jobbing. 
Alm'dan'r'i sh'l lb 8 
do, soft sh'l... 18 

Brazil do 14 

Oal. Walnuis.... 12 
Ohil« Walnuts.. 11 
Peanuts per lb . . 9 



1 WHOLESALE.) 

Wednesdat m.. July 5, 1876. 

filberts 15 ~ 

Pecanuta n 

ONIONS. 

Union City otl. — 

Stockf^n. — 

New Red 75 

Silver Skins.... 1 00( 

POTATOES. 
Petalama,^ otl. — & — 

Salt Lake — a — 

Humboldt ~ ^ — 

Early Rose, new 1 00 a 1 12^ 

Sweet — la 

l^few s(i(^ I 12V, 

POrtTRir A OAME. 
Uena. perdz... S CO (w9 Oi 

Roosters 7 .50 m;9 00 

Broilers :! ,w &5 110 

Ducks, tame. dz 5 OO &^^ O'l 

do Mallard — &',»!) 

do Canvass — @5 Oi) 

Gee«e per pair 1 75 iu,2 25 
wild Gray dz 3 110 (3)4 Oil 

White 1 50 ■§12 00 

Tarkeys, Live, lb IS m 2i> 
do Dressed..,. 22 @ 24 

Quail, per doz — 19 

Snipe, Em;., doz. 2 0032 505 
Doves, per dozen .^0 Co) 57 

Rabbits 1 00 Ml 00 

Hare, per do7.,.l 51 '^2 10 

PROVISIONS. 

i'al.Baciin,L't,lb ISS^a Iti 

do Medium... I4)|a IS 

do Heavy — @ 15 

Liard 14 m WA 

Oal. Smoked Beef 9 @ lu 

blastern do.... — iS 10 

tfast'rn Should's — m 10 

Hams, Cal 14 @ U<^ 

do Armour I4S^ 15 

do Worster's. 16!-^ a) 17 
do Dupce's.. 16 <3> W-i 
do Davis Bros' 16}4^ 17 
SEEBS. 
Alfalfa, Chile lb. 8 
do California. 12 

Canary 18 

Clover Bed — 

do White 50 

Cotton 8 

Flaxseed — 

Hemp nai 

ItalianRyeGrass 25 
Perennial do.... 20 

Millet 10 

Mustard, white. 3 (^ 

do. Brown 3 @ 

Rape 7 & 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 30 @ 

do 2d quality.. 29 @ 

Sweet V Grass.. — @ 

Orchard do.... 30 iSl 

Red Top do... — ® 

Hungarian do 8 @ 

Lawn do 5" 10 

Mesquit do... 20 @ 

rimothv II a 

TAl,l,OW. 

Orude.^lb b^j'S 

Refined 3¥^ 

WOOL, ETC. 
SPRING- 

SeBdy,« lb 9 @ 

Choice long free 17 ^a 
do Northern... 19 @ 

do short 13 (di 

Barry 10 & 

Oregon — (aj 



IS 



.al9 0(1 
WM 00 
4 13 Oil 

@37 50 
'a) 60 



12 



S. F. RETAIL MARKET RATES. 



POtrtTRir, GAME, 

Chickens oi) iSil UO 

Eggs, Hens 35 " 

do Ducks' — 

Turkeys, i* lb.. 21 

Ducks, each 1 00 

Geese.wild, pair. — 

Tame, % pair. .2 50 
Snipe, ^ doz — — 

do English.. — 
Quail, per dozeni — 
Prairie Ch'k s,pr — m — 
Hares, each ... 25 (55 35 
Rabbits, pair.... -17 % S'l 
Sauirrels each... 10 ia) 15 
Hams, Hal. W lb. 16 « 2" 

FISH, MEATS, ETC, 

Flounder.^ tb 20 'S W 

Salmon. |» lb - iS> 5 

Smoked — (rt 10 



Wftinesdai m., July 5, 1876. 



12 



30 



S3 00 
S3 00 



Cod Fish, lb 

Lake Big. 'Trout. 
Beef, tend. ^ lb. 

Corned, 'S lb.. 

Smoked, '$ D).. 
PorterllouHeSt'k 

Sirloin do 

Round do 

Pork, rib, etc.. lb 

Chops, do, "^ lb 
Veal,* lb 

Outlet, do 

Mutton-chops, BD 
jLegMuttiin.^ B) 

Lamb, * lb 12 

Antelope — 

Tongues, beef, . . 75 

do. do, smoked 
Tongues, pig, lb 
B^con, Oal., # lb 



® 



20 



20 
15 
10 1$ 

n'A9 

16 ~(9 

12;. •a 
IS "a 

6 
10 



@ 9 

a IS 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



15 



- (<Si - 

75 .91 00 

75 roll 00 

12'-^ 3) — 

l(i % 20 



FRl'ITS, VEGET.VBI.,ES. 



20 



Apples, pr lb.... 5 

Pears, per lb — 

Apricots, lb — 

Peaches, lb IS 

Plums — 

PiueApples.each 75 

Grapes — 

Bananas, ^ doz. . 75 

Muskmelons ... — 

Watermelons.. . — 

Hlackberrierr. .. — 
Oal. Walnuts, lb. 
Cranber'es. Org., 

do Eastern qt. — 

Huckleberries.. — 

Strawberries, lb IS 

Raspberries, lb. 20 
Gooseberries. .. 5 

Currants 5 

Cherries, f* 'b.. 10 

Nectarines. ... — 

Pomegranates... — 

Oranges.B doz.. 60 

Lemona .'iO 

Limes, per doz .. — 

Figs. dried Cal. . \VA, 

Figs. Smyrna, lb 25 
Asparagus. !b.. H 

Artichokes, doz. 2> 

do Jerusalem.. — 

Beets, i» doz 20 

Potatoes, ^ B) . . . 2 

Potatoes.sweet. . — 

Brooooli, eacb.. 10 



Oaaliilower. . 10 
Green Peas H lb. 3 

Oabbage, per lid.. 10 

Oyster Plant. bn — 

CarroM, ■» doz... — 

Celery, Ifidz 75 

Cress, IS doz Dan 20 

Onions .1 

Turnips, % doz 

bunches — 

Brussels Sprouts — 

Eschalots — @ 3J 

Dried Herbs, doz 30 (^ so 

Garlic |« ft) 10 fc) - 

Green Corn, doz. .SO @ — 

Lettuce, ^ doz.. '25 ,■§ :is 

Mint, "f, bunch. — @ 12'^ 

Mushrooms. ^ lb — (5) — 

Horse radish,?*lb 1.' 

Okra, dried, I* lb - (a) 
Pumpkins, ii* ^ . S ^ 

Parsnips, doz .. — @ 

Parsley 12'.^S 

Pioklea,fr8h.*lb — "(3 

Radishes, doz.. 20 (& 

Sage — (a 

Summer .'Squash 3 (($ 
Marrowfat, do 5 toi 

Hubbard, do — <& 

Tomu'oesjlb l2-2@ 

Mangoes, "i(* doz. - (g) 

Spinage ^ bskt. — w) 

Rhubarb 4 W 

Green Ohilies... — @, 



® 25 



20 



LEATHER. 



I wholesalr. i 

Wedsesdav m., Jul; 



Olty Tanned Leather, W lb ■ 
Santa Cruz Leather, ^ lb . . 



Country Leather, 1^ lb. 

Stockton Leather, '8* lb 

Jodot, !) Kil., per doz 

Jodot, II to 13 Kil. .per doz 

Jodot U to 19 Kil.. per doz ..^...... 

Jodot, second cuoicb. U to 16 Kil. V doz. 

Oornellian, 12 to 16 Ko 

Oomellian Females, 12 to I' ■•••• 

Oornellian FJinales. 14 to- 16 Kil. 

Simon Ullrao Females, 12 to 13, Kil 

Simon Ullmo Fuin.iles, 14 to 15, Kil 

Sun on Oil mo Keinali-s, 16 to 17, Kil 

Simon, 18 ill.. W do2 

Simon, 20 Kil. 4* doz 

Simon. 24 Kil. V doz ■ 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 

b'renoh Kips, Tj* lb 

California Kip, W doz 

Ifronch Sheep, all colors, ^ doz 

Baatern Cal f for Backs, |» B) ■ ■ ■ 

Sheep Roans for Toppmg, all oolort, V doz 



Sheep Roans for Linings, •» doz... 
Oaliforuia Russett Sheep Linings.... 

Best Jodot Calf Boot Legs. * pair 

Good French Calf Boot Legs. * pair. 
French Calf Boot Legs,* pair 



"., I87C, 
..tltatr 

....tidsn. 
....■n'h-i' 
....imw 

(.su m 

mai 79 IHi 
OO'nl 91 iili 
W)im 74 00 

mm 67 ix' 
mS) 67 m 

llO® 76 .5(1 

00@ Wi 'III 

OOW 70 0(1 

00<« 74 IIO 

0(l(gi 1 3 m 

IIO(d 67 III 

0«@ 74 'II 

Um 40 'Ki 

(109 I IS 

0(lr<* (' KI 

ooia 15 o(t 



1 a 

13 00 

10 .SI 

4 .«< 

5 2.' 
1 7' 



@ 3 l.il 
9 4 25 



I 3 50 
I 1 90 



BAGS. 

Eng. Stand Wht.. li>im 

Neville A Go's... 

Hand Sewed.... 13H@I 

24x36 - 1^- 

21x40 — ®- 

Machine do '24x49. — m 

•• ■23x40. iwa- 

" 22H0. 14 '5- 

" 22l36. 13 (ai: 

Plonr Sacks Ss. . . 9.^'al 

" '■ Ms 6 @ ■ 

" ii,a 4im 

Hessian 60-ln Itii'aii 

do 45-in — (ai\ 

do 4fl-in .... »Smi 
Wool Saoka,3,v,|tig. 45 (at!) 

do 4 ". .10 ®fi 

Stand. Unnnies. . . 11 (cOl 

single soam do.. — @- 

Bean Bags 7H® 

CANNEB GOOB.S. 
Aflst'dPie Fruits 

in -04 B) cans. 2 75 

do Table do... S 75 
Jams A, Jellies 4 25 
Pickles >i gl.. — 
Sardines. qr boxl 65 

do hf boxes. 3 Oti (flj 

COAI.,-JobblnK. 
Anatrahan.itton - 11.IO 50 

Ooos Bay 8 00 SSlO OU 

BelllnKham Bay. a 8 60 

Seattle 10 OO la 

OumberI'd —18 00222 00 

Mt. Diablo 6 25 &i 2S 

Lehigh '^22 00 

Liverpool 10 00 ®ll |iO 

West Hartley... ai4 iK: 

Scotch 9 00 ail «. 

Soranton 13 00 (ailH Oil 

Vancouver's Isl.lO .5(1 & 2 Oc 
Charcoal. Hsk... 75 (3) - 

Coke, ISbbI - 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island — 
Costa Rica Per lb '22*^ 

(Guatemala — 

Java — 

Manilla — 

Ground in os — 25 

Cnicorv 27 

FISH. 
Sao.Ury Cod. new 4 

cases 6 

do boneless.... 8,' 

Eastern Cod 8 

Salmon in bb1s..7 25 

do *i bblsS 7S 

do 2Ib cans. .2 .SO 

do IB) cans .1 3^ 

do Col. R. «b.S 00 
Pick. Cod, bbls.22 00 



WB0I.E8ALB. I 

Weditesdat m., July 5, 1876. 

Sperm, crnds..,.! 61 i3)l 65 
do bleached..! 90 (312 ti 



m 



9 



m oil 



Coil 41 
@5 0(1 



— (a so 

— 61 -20 

— (a 28 
25 m -n 



26 la 27 

25 (A n't 

23 (S 25 

— ca3 .so 

- a J7)< 

37>t'q) — 

li (« U 




-®\ 25 



do % biilsll 00 
Mack'I.No.l.'^bls 11 (05 — 

" Extra — i,4Vi OO 

in kit8....l 90 @2 '25 
Ex mess. 3 51 ffl)4 Oi 

" Ex mess.J^bs— 0^12 UO 
Pic'd Herr'g. hi.. 3 00 ^ 3 SO 
"Bos . Sra'k''iHer'g40 @ .SO 

LIME, ETC. 
Lime, S'la Cruz, 

* bbi 2 00® 2 23 

Cement, Rosen- 

(iale, do 2 75® 3 50 

do Portland do 4 75^ 5 50 
Plaster, Golden 

Gate Mills 3 003 3 25 

Land Planter, !S» 

ton 10 OOfa'2 .SO 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Pulu - «!) 714 

NAILS. 
Assorted sue, keii 3 7S (44 00 

OILS. 
Pacific Olue Oo 

Neat F't No. l.l 00 (a 90 

Pare _ fai _ 

Castor Oil. No. 1.. - (gl 15 

Baker's A A — f^\ 15 

Cocoanut .S2 f^ ,55 

Olive PlagnioL.S .SO (5,5 75 

do Posael 4 75 135 DO 

Palm lb 9 @ _ 

Linseed, raw.. . — M 70 

do boiled - @ 76 

i/hina nut in OS.. 65 ^ — 



Coast Whales... 
Polar, refined.. . . 

Lard 

Oleophine 

Devoe'8 Bril't... 

Long Island 

M'nreka 

Oevoe'a Petro'm 
Barrel keroxene 

Olive 

Downer Kerose'e 

Elaine 

GaaLiehi Oil. . 

P.VINTS. 
Pure White Load iM SHW^ 

Whiting — (a IV 

Putty • « -^ 

Chalk 

Paris White. 

Ochre 

Venetian Rod... 

Red Lead 

Litharge 

Eng. Vermillion 
Averill Chemical 

Paint, per gal. 

White 4 tint8.2 00 @2 46 

Green, Blue & 
Oh Yellow. 3 00 (2i)3 .50 

Light Rod.... 3 00 @3 50 

Metallic Roof.l 30 al «0 
RICE. 

China No. 1 •'•'a a 5M, 

Hawaiian. It* B).. 7'Ma 7ilJ 
Carolina. » Bi . . 10 "m 

SALT. 
Cal. Bay.per ton 10 00(314 00 

do Common.. 00(a 7 00 

Carmen Island.. 12 00(ffil5 00 

Liverpool fine. .22 .S0oj2S OO 

SOAP. 

Castile |» fti in (a nu 

Common brands.. 4Ka (t 
Fancy do .. 7 @ 9 

CANBLES. 

Grant's. loijla I7 

Mitchells '20 (a K2 

SPICFJ4. 

Cloves^ lb 45 (a 

Cassia 231.^^ 

Citron 28 0t 

Nutmeg 95 

Whole Pepper... I4^i 

Pimento ]« ' 

Gr'nd Allspprdz — 

do Cassia do . . — 

do Cloves do.. — 

do Mustard do — 

do Ginger do.. — 

do Pepper do.. — 

lo Mace do.. . — 
Bowen's Pure 

Ground ^ lb — 

SUGAR, ETC. 

Oal. Cube per tt>.. — 

Circle A crusned — 

Powdered — 

Fine crushed. -. — 

ilranulatea — 

lolden O 

'luwatlan 10 (a || 

Oal. Syrup in kgs — M 62K 
Hawaiian Molas- 

«"» TEA.** ® "^ 

Dolong.(;anton,lb' 19 

do Amoy... 28 m, 

do Formosa 40 !S> 
tmperihl, Canton 25 

do Piogaiiey 46 

do Muyane . 60 

Ounpo'der.Cant. 

00 Pinubuey 

do Moyune. 

V'ng Hy., Canton 

do Pingauey 

do Moyune.. 

Japan, % chests, 

bulk 

ilapan, lacquered 

bxs.lH and s Bia 
.Japan do,3 lb bxa 45 
1 do pl'Dbx.JljB) 35 
I doH^I lb paper 30 

TURPENTINE. 

1 Kastern 51>i j».SS 



12J, 

a 12M 

(S li 

(a iit« 
>a loK 




FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



1 wnoL 
W 
FRUIT MARKET. 

OrauKC^ Mex. '^ 

M "ffl 

Tah ti, do 20 I>0,a30 00 

Cab do -® 

Limes, Mexican, 

** M 12 .S03'20 00 

Malaga Lemons, 

Itbx Cw, 

Oal. "9, 100 2 Oil* 2 5) 

do Sicily 'iflb'i. 9 OOilO UO 
Bananas, V bncb 2 SOoj 4 00 
Oocoanuta.ldOO. 7 00 f3) H 00 
Pineapples, Wd?. — at — 
Apples. ?i box... 7S (d)l .SO 

do I'hoice — 'a — 

Apricyt.^, lb 2 fu! 3 

Blackberries.... T2.'jal '20 
Cherries. *> lb. .. 6 Cn) Is 

Tartarian 15 (g\ 20 

Cherry Plums, box 7.S'a) 1 

Figs T2!2(l) 18 

Gooseberries. . 5 $1^ — 

Huckleberries... - (fl) — 
Strawber's » csu 8 00 (alO 00 

Pomgranates — '^ — 

Raspberries 12'.. a) 20 

Currants. Ti* can: 2 Kia.l 00 
Cranberrio8lt» bul.13 iil(n;14 II' 
Pcacnes, TS box 1 00 ^ .s 00 
pears, it* bx 1 u J(o: 1 .50 

do Choice.... — foi — 
Crab abides. W bx — rt\ — 

BRIEB FRUIT. 
apples. «* lb. 9 t4>l2S 

Cears, Iji Bi 8 («13 



ESALE. i 

EONESDAV M., July 5. 1876. 

roaches,?, lb 12 (gir2.^ 

Apricots, B lb 14 (<B15 

Plums. ■» Tb 5 'a 6 

Pitteo. O" H Bi ... 17 a22 
Kaisln^. imported. 3 25 S3 73 

Oal. Raisios 5 @ 10 

Black Kigs.V B) 5 taiO 

White, do 12)40lj 

Prunes 12>49l7 

Mtron 28 (a) 30 

2ante Ourrants. 9 ^a lU 

VEGETABLES. 
Asparagus ^ box. . 1 5,l«i2 '25 

Beets *ctl ^- 

Uabbagn. «t ion Bis. 
Oarru„d, >, 100 lbs . 
Cauliflower, doz.. 

welery. doz 

Mrlic. ^ lb 

(jreen Peas if* lb . . . 
i^reen Corn s* doz. 
Sum'rSquash -^ hox.- 
Vlarro'Iai Sqsb.tu — 
Xrtichokes.l* doz.. — 
String Beans, ^ B> 

Lima Beans 

Parsnips 

Shell Beans 

r'oppers, green, !b. — (g.SO 

Okra — a — 

Cucumbers. ^* doz 10'(i '20 
Tomatoes, box.... .50^ 75 
Kgg Plant, box.. -(i2 00 

llhubarb lb 1 '01 I<^ 

uettuce, doz l2Jja — 

Pllrnlps. pr otl 75^ — 




RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 

Wednesdav, m., July 5, 1876. 



M 



Butter, I'al. oh'ice 30 (037 
Cheese, lb 18 (<ii30 

Kasierii "25 'aM 

Lird. Cal., lb - (31I8 

Kdsleru '20 ("'iS 

Flour, ex. fam, 1)18 25 («>b '0 

(;orll Meal, II. 'iH'"' 3 

Sugar, wli. cish'd 12'-i" 13' . 

do It. brown, Itt S ^ii 9'.^ 
(.'ollee. green. lO.. 23 



Bowcn Bro. large 

can per doz 5 00 O— — 

Small, do 2 60 @— ' - 

Bowpn'H Creaoi 

Tartarlb — (g) 75 

i.ai'd Oyst«ni.dr.2 00 (03.50 

synu. .S F.Ool'n. 75 Si on 

l)tl'''l Apples.... 10 S) l'2H 
Dr u Ger. Prunes It]-^^ I* 
Dr'd Figs, Oal. " 



'Tei lioe bl'. .50,6.5,75 (alWlDr'd Peaches.... II 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Soteo A Oo. I 

San Fbanoiboo, July 5. 3 P. m. 

Leoal Tkndkbs Id S. I<'., U a. «.. S9'< 10 90. Silver. 
VA as. 

Gold lu N. Y. 112. 

Gold Babs, 880 to 890. »ii.VF.a Babm, I2 and 20 per cent 
discount. 

ExciiANoK on N.Y., 50-100 per cent. premium for gold; on 
London bankers. 49; Commercial, 49><; Paris, five trancs 
per dollar; Mexican dollars, 9 per cent, disuoimt. 

London — Consols. 93 to 93't,. Bonds, IU2H 

gtnouiLvEB In S. v., by t'.ie Oask. per tt, nHH^v 



Tea Hnost Jiip, .'.S,7.S. toaioi 
ilndl s, Adm.>n 'e IS-O 2S 
Soai .Cal., B).... 7 (m In 

Rice, B) 8 O n'yi 

Yeast. Powdardz. 1 SO @2 Ul 



Oils. Kerosene . 

Wines. Old Port 3 SO 
do Fr. Claret..! 00 
do Cal .(I'.bot.S (K) 

i^hisky, OK,gal.3.S0 

(Tr. Hrandv 4 00 



Our Atfunts. 

OuB Friends can do mncb In aid of oor pap«r and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assUting 
Agents lu their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
Induence and encouraging favora. We Intend to send 
none but worthy men, 

.1. L. Tharp— San Frauci.sco. 

B. W. Cboweli,— California. 

G. W. M((Orkw— Santa Clara county. 

.1. II. Mo.UiTHon— Los Angeles. Santa Barbara, Veu. 

tura, San Bernardino and San Diego counties. 
A. C. Knox— El Dorado county. 

C. A. SconKLD— Sonoma couuty. 
0. N. West— Santa Cruz couuty. 
Chas. E. Sa.ious— Philadelphia. 

A. 0. CuA.'arioN— Tulare, Fresno and Kern cannttes. 
Riohabd Role— Nevada. 




m 



v*\» Li «Gi«);«^>^'4JLl* 



.oo« 



[July 8. X876 



Nurserymen. 



j^ SANTA BARBARA NURSERY, 

fiPC Located seven miles west of Santa Barbara, Cal. 

T •* Depot, Oor. Montecito and OaBtUlo atreetg. 
JOSEPH SEXTON, - ■ • Proprietor. 

CT71.TIVAT0B OT 

Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Trees. Also 

Oranire, Lemon, Lime and Palm Trees, 

PotlPlants, and Hardy Ever. 

RTeen Shrubbery. 



ISLAND VIEW NURSERY, 

B. B. Williams & Co., - 3aata Barbara. 

OmUBental Trees, Shrubs, and Flowers; Large Ever- 
greens, Araucarlas, Pines, Cypress, etc.; Fine assort- 
ment of Camelias and Lily Bulbs constantly arriving 
from China and for sale very cheap. Plants packed 
and deUvered on the wharf for shipment, free of charge. 
B. B. WILLIAMS, Santa Barbara, Cal. 



BLOOMINGTON NURSERY, F. K. Ph(EKIX, Blooming- 
ton. 111. Price lists free. 4 Catalogues, 25c. 



Seedsmen. 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



OF KVEKY VAKIETY. 

Fresh and reliable, such as experience and care only 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS, KENTUCKY BLUE 
GRASS, HUNGARIAN, ORCHARD, ITALIAN RYE, 
RED TOP TIMOTHY, ME8QUIT, SWEET VERNAL, 
CHOICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE CLOVER, 
RED CLOVER, Etc. 

Also, RAMIE, JUTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; to- 
gether with a fine and complete collection of TREE 
SEEDS, AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOIA GIGAN- 
TEA, PINU8 IN8IGNIS, Etc. 

For Sale, wholesale or retail, by 



B. F. WELLINGTON, 



(Successor to E. E. Hoore) . 
458 Washington St., San Francisco. a2v7-ly 



Seedsmen, 

MELBOURNE, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA, 

Collectors of all Seeds of Trees and Shrubs indigenous 
to the Australian Colonies, including 

Blue, Red and Peppermint Gums, Acacias, Etc. 
LAW, SOMNER & CO., 

UELBOUaNE, VICTORIA, ACSTRALIA k DUNEDIN, 
OTAGO, NEW ZEALAND, 

Offer Collections of Native Seeds, Including 

Blue, Red, and all other Varieties ot Gums, Etc. 

•^Illustrated Catalogue free on application. 

COHAlNSsiEY GLASS!* TOP 

FRUIT JARS. 



FKUIT 
IN CONTACT WITH 

GLASS ONLY. 

Elastic Pressure by Spring 
Clamps on Shoulder Joint. 

The Screw Clamp turns 
freely on Cover and Inclines, *|| 
and tightens the Jar quickly 
and is Easily Tested. 

Easily opened and closed, 
without wrench or tool. 

Every Jar being in- 
spected, there is no trouble 
*ln using. 

The Handsomest and Best 
Glass Lid Fruit Jar. 



COHANSEY GLASS MF'G CO., 

N. W. Cor. Third and Arch Sts., Phil'a 

BEBCINaTOir & CO., 
Wholesale Agents. - - - gan Francisco, Cal. 

H. H. H. 

HORSE MEDICINE, 
r*- r>- T.— is«s*. 

Is gaining a wide spread notoriety. Testimonials from 
all parts of the coast Hhow it to be a companion in 
evry family. It quickly removes Wind Galls, Spavins, 
Callous Lumps, Sweeny, and ail blemishes of the 
horse, while the family finds it indispensable for 
Sprains, Bruises, Aches. Pains, and wherever a good 
liniment is required. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's, 

Stoekton, Ca,l. 

MERCHANT MILL FOR SALE, 

And 150 Acres Land. Turbine Wheel, 190 feet fall, 
35 barrels per day. Good Home Market and Never 
failing Water 

8 A. POLLARD. 
San Luis Obispo 




Agricultural Articles. 



J. W. CASSIDY'S 

FRUIT JDRI ER. 

A New Invention, although Thoroughly 

Tested, which Combines all the 

Improvements. 

We warrant a complete success in drying all sorts of 
truit and vegetables as thoroughly aud more expe- 
ditiously than any other Ma- 
chine, for less amount of fuel 
by 3.5 per cent , as we utili/.e 
al^ the waste heat which is lost 
by all other Machines. 

Its simplicity of construc- 
rion and it< cheapness will put 
It in the bands of all who may 
want a Drier. We don't pretend 
to ask from $1,200 to Sl,600 
profit and royalty. We are 
willing that producers should 
make the proAt and keep it. 
The Machine has been te<ited to 
our entire satisfiction, and met 
our most sanguioe expectations. 
The fruit dried by our Drier 
was fully as good as that dried 
by any of the renowned Driers. 
We would say to all who con 
template putting up Machines, 
that we can mate it a decided 
inducement for all such to give 
us a call, as we want to sell the 
entire right of the United States, State, Connty or 
Local, at puch prices that the poor as well as the rich 
can use them. The capacity of the Machine will be in 
proportion to the size, ranging from 100 to 500 feet dry- 
ing surface. This dryer was more fully illustrated and 
described in the Rubai, Press of May 00th, 1876. Com- 
munications to T. F. BACHELOR. 6ri Clay St., 8. F., 
or to J. W. CASSIDY, Petaluma, Cal., will be 
thankfully received aud promptly attended to. 




Agricultural Implement Depot 

— AT— 

Watkins & Scott's Alameda Foundry, 

SAN JOSB, CAL. 



Agent for Walter A. Wood's New Iron Mower, Reaper, 
and belf-Binder, Haines' Single-Gear Header, Improved 
Sweepstakes Thresher, and Uilky Rakes; also, the 
Celebrated Revolving Sulky Rake, and the Champion 
Revolving Rake, aud Ihe well known Tiffin Revolving 
Rake; La Belle Farm Wagons, and Spring Wagons of 
all descriptions. 

The attention of farmers is particularly called to the 

New Revolving- Sulky Rake. 

It has met an enormous sale at the East and in aud 
around Sacramento. 

AIfo, all kinds of new and secondhand machinery 
for sale. Farmers and others will find it to be to their 
interest to call on me before buying, as I am selling 
everything very low for cash. 

ORRIN TABElt. 




This cut represents a DERRICK AND FORK, for the 
purpose of supplying G».un in the Stbaw to a 
Tbueshing Machine. The success of this machine Is 
beyond question. It is a saving of lioar ob Ten Doi.- 
LAB-s FEB Day over the hand fork mode. We also make 
DftiBicKS for the purpose of Stackino Hay ob Grain, 
which meet with great favor everywhere. Manufac- 
tured by MATT£SON & WILLIAMSON, 
Stockton, Cal. 



T ABER'S 



IMPROVED HAY FORK. 



(Patent Applied For.] 



Is the most perfect, and easiest operating derrick 
fork in existence. One man can operate it with the 
greatest ease, as the strain of lifting the fork causes it 
to grapple its load automatically, while a pull upon 
the relea^ing cord, when the fork has been lifted to 
the desired place, causes it to drop the load instantly. 

There is nothing- In tne construction of this 
Fork that is liable to get out of order. 

Farmers will do well to examine this Hay Fork, as 
it 8»ves expense and greatly facilitates the handling 
of hay, grain and straw. Communications addressed to 

J. T. HOYT, Gen. Agent, 

BAN M ATrlO, CAL, 
Will ^elve Prompt AttentioD. 



VINE AND FRUIT GROWERS, 
To Raise Large Crops You Must Irrigate. 

Tn irriga'e stuoceavfolly, yon must have the power that 
dofs not give out when the wind fails. 



L_aQf^S tterBrg8^& Ohurchman'sHorse-Power 




(Patknted Febkuaht 13th. I87-2.] 
Never fails to "apply mure w.iter than four or five Wind- 
mills, even supp lainic you had Jill the wind you want. It is 
aNo suitable h r runniDg liifht n>ac-hiner>. such as Barli-y 
(Jrnckers. Corn Shellers, FiinDing Mills, Gain Sepaialors. 
or for Saw inn Wood Ihev are never failir g. cannot Ret 
CHI 01 order, easily worked, substantial, and always give 
satisfaction wherever they have been used. One horse can 
easily work twu fi-incti pumps with a continuous floiv ol 
water. Force PunipB, irom 3,l''i0 t.) lO.UOUgsllons pernour. 

WINDMILLS of all kinds itanufictured to order. Wells 
Bored, Windmills and Ho se-Powers aet in any part of the 
State, an<1 repairing of all kind.i done. 

Manufactured and tor sale by 

LATTFKOTTER BROS., 

Cor. J and 10th Sts., Saoramento. 



JACKSON'S 

PATENT FEEDER & ELEVATOR 











For Threshing Machines. 

The most successful Automatic Feeder yet Invented; 
it has had the severest tests in all kinds of grain, 
long, short, wet or weedy, during the past six years. 
There are over two hundred in use in the Sacramento 
valley. I will give full guarantee to put chasers 
Send for special circular. Address, 

BYKON JACKSON, 

Patentee A Manufacturer, 

Woodland, Yolo Oounty, California. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




a 



o 



Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match In Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow Is thoroughly made by practical men whc 
bave b«en long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It Is qulckl} 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that tbf 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can b« 
relied npon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plov 
n the world. Bend for circular to 
l«T3-am UATTEbON k WILUAHSOS, 

Stockton. Gal. 



BUY THE STA-IVOAIIO 




STUDEBAKER WAGONS. 

We keep the Greatest Variety on the Coast, frcm 

Light Trotting Buggies to Six- 
Horse Team Wagons. 

E. F. AUES, Qeo. A^ent, 
Send for Price-List. Sacramento, Cal 



OAKLAND 
Spring Balance 

Gang Plow. 




Patented ail.: ........i.-uirbd by B. N. Dalton at the 

Pacheco Agricultural Implement Works, Pacheco, Oal 
Established in 1S58. Send for Circular and Price-list 



Powell's Electric Elevator. 




The great labor, time aod money saving machine. 
This machine is used in the harvest &"ld te elevate 
grain, hay and straw from the header box to the stack 
only a few seconds being required to elevate a large 
four horse load. The load is taken up in a center 
opening n(t or sling. Patented April 20th, 187S. For 
description, circular and price list, address 

THOS. POWELL. Patentee. Stockton, Cal. 
Or H. 0. SHAW PLOW CO., Stockton, Cal. 



The Famous " Enterprise 



(Pebkin's Patest) 

Self-Begulatingr. Farm 

Pumping, Railroad 

and Power 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures, 

Have been in use in Califor- 
nia for five years. Over 600 
sold in the towns and farm- 
ing districts of California. 
\11 Mills guaranteed. Send 
for circulars containing sec- 
tional and other illustra- 
tions, and further descrip- 
tion, to 



ISRAEL HORTON, Oen'l Ag't Pacific Coaat, 
Livermore, Alameda County, Cal. 




FAULKNER'S EXCELSIOR 

Portable Family Fruit Drier. 

i^Ot^.OO to ^T'G.OO. 

The Best, Cheapest and Only Practical Port 
able Family Fruit Drier Made. 



It will do as g3od work as any Drier. It can be used 
In connection with the cook stove or any small 
stove: may be run in the house or out of doors. 
Is very compact and plain in its construc- 
tion and simple tn its management. 
A child can attend to it. 



With this Drier every family can save their surplus 
fruit, and put It In condition to bring the cash or tr-de 
at the store. We have the world for a market; lant year's 
stuck is exhausted. There will be a ready sale at good 
prices for all you can make. 

Manufactured and for sale by E. T. STEEN, SI Beale 
street, where tbey can be Eeen in operation. Also for 
sale by Mes-rs. STRONG k WILLIAMSO.V, 418 Clay 
street, San Francisco, and Messrs. W. K. STRONG 
& CO., 8 and 10 J street, Sacramento. 

County Rights for IS years for sale low and on easy, 
terms by 

JAS. Vr. FAULKNER, Patentee, 

31 Beale street. San Francisco 



Marster's Self Regulating 

FEEDER 

For TliruslilniJC Alaolilzies, 

Is the only Feeder manufactured that feeds without 
moving all the striw in a body, consequently gives a 
more regular feed than it is possible to obtain with a 
draper feeder; it feeds the whole length of the cylin- 
der; it is easily changed to feed fast or slow as desired; 
eaves the labor ot two men and does not require an ex- 
perienced tableman to feed it. The separator needs 
no alteratl-n with the exception of the removal of feed 
board to secure it in position, and does not have to be 
taken off when moving. It requires but little power 
to run it, and has no complicated parts liable to get out 
of order. Its success having been fully demonstrated, 
I cordially invite all parties interested to call and 
Judge of its merits. For full particulars address 
E. J. ICARSTERS, 

Stockton, Oal. 
Works, Corner California and Sonora Streets- 



Dewey & Co. {8a,1«bt} Patent Agt's, 



July 8, 1876. J 



39 



E3:.A.I^"V"ESTI]SrO 



MOWERS— Wood's Eagle, Peerless & Clipper. 



REAPERS —RUSSELL'S PEERLESS. 



is/Lj^c:^T3:xisr:EiT^ir 



HEADERS- Haines' Genuine Single Gear. 



SEPARATORS AND POWERS. 

Q]xxca.KO Pi't'tS* "'^^ "Etid and Side Shake, with Pitts' 10 and 12 horse-powers, the 
best aiid 8troijge>t machines in market. 

Steam Engines. 

ENRIGHT'S STRAW BURNER, the latest and best for utility and economy. Capacity, 
15 to 18 horse. MANSFIELD PORTABLE ENGINES, for wood or coal; 10 horse. 



LYMAN'S SELF-FEEDER. 

Invented by a practical thresher. Best in the market. Price only $150. It surpasses all 
others in durability and simplicity of construction. Can be applied to any Separator in a few 
hours, and taken off in 15 minutes. It is guaranteed to give satisfaction or no pay. 



FULL SUPPLY OF "EXTRAS" FOR ALL OUR MACHINES. 

Linfortli, Kellogg & Co., 

Xos. 3 and 5 Front St., San Francisco, Cal. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

Incorporated Feb. lOth, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 

OFFICERS and DIRECTORS: 



DANIEL INMAN, (Pbesident) . 
E. C HAILE, (Vice Pkesident). 
JOHN LEWELLING, (Tkeasuber) . 



AMOS ADAMS, (Secbetahy). 
THOS. UPTON. 
I. C. STEELE. 
O. HUBBEIL. D. CAMPBELL. 



THO^. FLINT. 

G. P. KELLOGG. 

W. L. OVtEaiSER. 



SHIPPING and COMMISSION HOUSE, 

Grangers' Building, _ - - - io« Uavls street, 8. F. 

ConelgnmentB of GraiD, Wool, Dairy Producta, Fruit, Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and 

advancee made on the Bam". Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandiee, 

Farm Implements, Wagons, Etc., Bolicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a strictly Commission Business, and place onr rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis that 
will enable the countiy at large to transact business through us to their entire satisfaction. 

OoDsignmsnts to be marked Grangers' Business Association, San Francisco. Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 

DAIVret. IN »I AN, Manager. 



THE ONLY RELIABLE 



STRAW BURNING ENGINES. 




RICE'S STRAW BURNING ENGINE. 

^m^ 

These Engines -were patented January 4th, 1874; re-issue May 4th, 

1875, and are the first and only Engines which have 

been successful as Straw Burners. 

These engines, for simplicity, durability, strength, and power, will surpass anything ever 
before invfinted. They are unqueetionably the best engine in the world They are used with wood or 
coal, and no change is necessary, except to have suitable grate bars. These engines were sold lastseasion 
tothelarjest larmcrs and best threshers in diflereut parts of the state, and gave the very best satisJacton, 
as ia proved by the many letters of recommendation which have been received. 

CA.UTIOIV. 

This ia to give notice that I am the inventor and patentee of the original and only straw burning engine 
In use on this coast, and that any persons making or using straw burning engines other than thof^e author- 
ized by roe or my agents, are infringing on my patent rignt, and will be prosecuted to the full extent of the 
law. I have already commenced suit against several of the infringers, and shall shortly extend my fiiit to 
all others. I have appointed Marcus 0. Hawley & <)o. as my sole agents for the manufacture and sale of 
my straw burning engines on the Facitic Coa^t, and all orders should be addrefsed to them. 

San Francisco, January 10th, 1876. H. W. KICE. 

Referring to the abov», we beg to inform our friends that we are making arrangements for manufactur- 
insc the KICE srR\W BUi£NlM(i ENGINE on a large scale, and hope to bo able to supply the large do- 
mind for the season of 1876. We would request all those in want of an engine to scn'-i in their orders 
pily. ,S'n I for circulars, testimonia's. and all other information to our oflkc, lOS and HO Front Street 
San Franci co. and corner Second and .J Streets, Sacramento. 

r3feb;Ga* MARCUS C. HAWLEY & CO. 



EXTRAS! 



EXTRAS!! 



Headquarters for Extraa for the following: Harvesting: Machines : 

CLIPPER, WOOD'S EAGLE, KUSSELL'S AND WORLD MOWERS AND REAPERS, DAYTON AND CHICAGO 

;PITTSESEPARATOR8 AND HORSE POWERS, HAINES' AND CASE HEADERS. 

^Orders i^fllled with itmoat deepatcb. 

LINFORTH, KELLOGG & CO., - - - 3 & 5 Front St., Sqn Francisco. 



THE CHAMPION FRUIT DRIER. 

The Cheapest, Most Economical, and the Most Rapid and Easily Managed 
Fruit Drier in the World. 

Drying Fruit and Vf getables 
has become one of the depart, 
ments of labor and profit 
among the industries of Cali- 
fornia, and we invite Fruit 
Growers to come and see our 
CHAMPION FRUIT DRIER, 
and test it with any kind of 
Fruit or Vegetables before pur. 
chasing. 

This Drier consists of a Pheet 
Iron Furnace, from five tt) 
eight feet long, and two feet 
high, with a partition running 
horizontally six iuches below 
the top, on the inside, the full 
length and breadth of the Jur 
nace, except a space of fl^e 
inches at the back end. Bi- 
neath this partition the fire 1b 
kept, the heat of which passes 
to the back, and there turns in 
a ranse upvard through this 
five inch space, and passes be- 
tween tiie partition and top, 
back to the front end of the 
furnace and out of a chimney, 
rising above the chest of 
drawerf. 

This arrangement completely 
equalizes the heat at each end 
and all along the top of the 
furnace, so that no one drawer 
is, at any time, hotter than the 
others. 

The attachment to hold the 
fruit for drying consists of a 
box or chest of drawers made 
wide enough to set out on each 
side and end about 15 inches 
from the lurnace, and it iB 
inclosed with tongued and 
grooved lumber, except space 
in- front for the furnace and 
on eacli side for the drawers to 
pass in above the furnace. 
This Chest is lined two feet high on the inside with sheet iron, and two tiers of drawers come in from each 
side, supported by pieces passing from one side across the top of. and one foot above the furnace to uprights 
on the other, and meet in the center over the furnace. The bottoms of these drawers are made of wire cloth, on 
which the fruit is laid for drying. Over the center of each tier of drawers is a hole four inches square in the 
top, with a Flide to keep it open or closed, as the case may require, and through there openings the hot air 
passes in a continuous current from the furnace below. The space in front, not filled by the furnace, is closed 
by apiece of sheet iron fitted over and down on e«ch side, and to this piece there are two ventilators at the 
side of the furnace where the fire is hottest, to admit air. These two are the only places where air enters, and 
it is made very hot by the heat of the furnace, as it enters and passes rapidly up through the fruit in the 
drawers, and out at the ventilators at the top. This simple arrangement keeps a constant current of hot air 
passing through each drawer, which keeps it in the most rapidly drying process. 

The chest of drawers is from four feet high to as high as desired. The drawers occupy about four inches 
apace in the hight of the chest, and are about two feet deep, and 34 inches wide, and hold 25 pounds of fruit. 
But fruit will dry faster by putting in 12 pounds, and as it dries out a little, double it up. The machine can be 
built to have from 12 to 108 drawers, and will dry from 1,000 pounds to five tons per day, of green fruit. 

We can dry any kind of Fruit or Vegetables in from ouc and a half to eight hours, and our machine is W«II 
adapted for drying Meat' and Hops. This Dryer was thoroughly tested on the 32d of May, and many otuers 
were taken from the Fruit Growers that tested it. 

No. 1.— 12 Drawers, drying 1,000 lbs. of Green Fruit jSer day $110.00 

No. 2.— 32 •' '• 2,000 ' 

No. 3.— 48 '■ " 4,000 •' •' " 

So. 4.-108 " •• 10,000 " " " " ■■ ■■ 

Orders must be sent to , 




IfiO.OO 
280.00 
640.00 



J. M:. KELLER,, 

Of the firm of KBLLEB & CO., J Street, Sacramento City. 



Or to B. ^V. TA'S'LOR, 

203 Seventh Street, San Jose, will receive prompt attention. 



THE CHAMPION MILK PANS 



Space Occupied ia Room, 
Depth. Capacity, Etc. 



No. 


Space e ch 

Bet 

occupies. 


Cap'y of 
each 
Pan.* 


Dptli 


|Jt.'8*°-i,';;;«|l2gal'n».|6 in. 


' |!i'Mo'"wide|'S<!»l'"«-|« '"■ 


■^ iJ'^^."\:i3^;i'^-'«<"'-h'^- 


HS"r''w;S'el''^'^'"'-h "- 


* |4"lV"»w!?|4''5K'"'°''-|'«'"- 


5 


i?^JVi?;!;3?l "'''''■•-> -■ 


6 


I?^^i'^?«;i3^i«» «-'•"«! ''■**■'• 


"Four pans in set. 



NUTTING & WILLARD. 

SACRAMENTO, CAL. 




IVIAPCII 201 1/1 

^RANDOLPH. 

X.ATT, CO.ti.Y. 



40 



^JLQXifi^JLO j^MJ^^i^IEy ^«^iSBo* 



fjuly 8. 1876 



OUR CENTENNIAL CAMPAIGN. 

THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS WITH PREMIUMS 
FOR $4. 

Ten Thousand New Subscribers! 

We ought to add 10,000 new names to our 
subscription list this year. There are twice 
that number of reading farmers on this coast 
who should yet receive the Pacikio Rubal 
Pbbss, and who would read it to their pecuniary 
as well as intellectual profit. We are going to 
try and enlist a larger army of readers; not 
by getting out one or two good numbers of 
our paper and then running it "thin" the rest 
of the year, but by keeping up .superior matter 
and improving the quality of every issue. That 
is to say, by furnishing 

A Better Paper and Greater Inducements 

Our late rates were established some two 
years ago, when tht-re was this difference ir> 
what we furnisned each subscriber then and 
now: 

1. Each subscriber paid his own postage. 
Now it is prepaid out of our pockets. 

2. The reading matter, like that of most 
other weeklies, was largely set leadtd (with 
open lines). Now it is set mostly solid, fur- 
nishing the subscriber at least one-fourth more 
reading in a column. This costs more for edit- 
ing, composition, proof reading, etc. 

3. Formerly we issued the paper (like othei 
16-page weeklies printed on tbis coast) uncut. 
Now it is stitched and trimmed, ready for use 
on any page, and in a proper form for preserv- 
ing it for future reference. This also costs us 
much extra labor and expense. 

Now, makine the must of our improved 
facilities, and 20 years of constant experience 
in editing and publishing industrial news- 
papers on this coast, we are determined first 
to publish an agricultural and home journal 

Worth its Full Price; 

Besides this we propose to furnish Valdablic 
Pbemiums Additional to Every Subsobibkr, 
and therefore will give, f om July 1st, 187(), 
until further notice, the following 

New Terms for Subscriptions. 

PREMIXTM A. 

With the Pacific Hural Press, (tvro volumes 
ft year, compriHin; 410 pages eacb) postpaid, anew 
lithographic ISap of California and Nevada, 
of handy size, 16x20 inches— showiug the official 
township liies ot the surveyed lands of Cali(orn<a. 
and the three fine plate engravincH entitled 
"Burial of the Bird," the "Flower Qatherer" 
and "Paul and Virginia," all postpaid, cash in 
advance, for $4.00. 

PREMIUM NO. 2. 
With the Pacific Rural Press one year, the 
above named Map, and a really Choice Chromo 
[descriptiou of which we will publish as early as the 

first of July.] all poetpaid, for $400. 

PREMITTMIINO. 3. 

With the Pacific Rural Press one year, the 

Map, and "The California Patron" (a monthly 

official journal, P. of H.,) and the choice of twro of 

the fine plate en«raving:s— " Love," " Trath" 

and "The Chri -tian Graces," — all postpaid for . $4.00. 

PREMIUM fNO. 4. 

With the Pacific Rural Press one year, 

Dewey's Patent Newspaper Fil« Holder 

(black walnut) and the Map of California and 

Nevada, all postpaid, fur $400. 

PREMIUM NO. 6. 
With the Pacific Rural Press for two years, 
the Map of California and Nevada, to any 

single address in the C. S., all iu advance $6.00. 

PREMIUM NO. 6. 
With the Pacific Rural Press for six months, 
the Map of California and Nevada, post- 
paid ....$2.25. 

PREMIUM NO. 7. 
We will allow one dollar on the first order, 
amounting to five dollars or upwards, fur other pub- 
licationa than our own (including books, papers 
and magtzines not sold exclusively by agents) which 
may be forwarded to us with the coin by any yearly 
subscriber of the Pacific Rural Press. 

PREMIUM NO. 8. 

We ^irlll credit every present subscriber of 
the Pacific Rural Press with three months, ad- 
ditional BUQBcription for the name of each new sub- 
scriber they send us with $4 during the next six 
m-nths. The new subscriber to be fully entitled to 
preminms. 

PREMIUM NO. 9. 

With the Pacific Rural Press (to ■ new snb- 
Bcriber) 12 months, one map and 13 assorted 
back numbers of the Rural, postpaid (to any 
address), for 4. 00 

These terms are payable strictly in advance. 

Advance subscriptions, in actual clubs of 
five or more (without preminms), will be re- 
ceived at former rates until (uttber notice. 

Persons claiming premiums must order posi- 
tively the number of the premium they desire. 
Otherwise, premium No. 1 will be sent. 

Subscribers can have their premiums sent to 
any person they choose in ttie United States. 

One dollar a year must be added for postage 
on papers sent to foreign countries. 

All premiums will be delivered either imme 
diately or within 30 days from our receipt of 
the order. 

Present subscribers can avail themselves ot 
either of the above premiums simply by ad- 
vancing their subeoription one year or more 
beyond the date of their application for a 
premium. 

No premium will be allowed on any subscrip- 
tion not paid fully one year in advance. 

For one dollar extra, received from any sub- 
scriber, we will forward to his order the pre- 
miums enumerated in either the above numbers. 

These terms are liable to be changed, accord- 
ing to circnmstances, at any time. 



The Scientific Press Engraving 
Company. 

As has been announced in our 
columns, this company is prepar- 
ed to do fine wood engraving on 
favorable terms, Mr. E. Schultze, 
managing partner, served a thor- 
ough tuition in his branch of art 
in Germany and New York, and 
has since had over seven years' 
e.xperience in designing, drawing 
and engraving in California. Cus 
tomers can place their orders in 
Mr. Schultze's hands with the full 
assurance of receiving satisfaction 
as to quality of work and fairness 
of price. 

Contents of Pamohlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S. Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 

Map of California and Nevada: The Public 
Landx; The Land Districts; Table of Rainfall in Cali- 
fornia; Counties and Their Products; Statistics of the 
State at Large. 

Instructions of the U. S- Land Commis- 
sioners. — Different Classes of Public Lands; How 
Lands may be Acquind; Fees of Land Ofhce at Loca- 
tion; Agricultural College Scrip; fre-emptions; Ex- 
tending the Homestead Privilege: But One Homestead 
All'twed; Proof of Actual Settlement Necessary; Ad. 
Joining Farm Homesteads; Lands fcir Soldiers and 
Sailors: Lands for Indians; Fees of Land othce and 
Commissions: Laws to promote Tinibfr Culture; Cvin- 
cerniug Appeals; Keturus of ihe Begibter and Keceiver; 
Concerniug Mining Claims; Second Pre-emption Ben- 
eat. 

Abstract from the U- S. Statutes.— The Law 
Concerning Pre-emption; Concerning Homehteads; 
Amendatory Act Concerning Timber; Miscellaneouh 
PriiviElons; Additional Surveys of Land for Pre- 
emption: List of California Post Offices. 

Published and sold by DEWEY & CO.. S F 
Postpaid, 60 cents. 



Fairs in 1876. 

The Centennial (World's Fair), Philadelphia, Pa., 
from May lOtb to continue till autumn. 

Mechanics' Institute Industrial Fair, 8. F., begin- 
ning AUKUSt 8th. 

California State Fair, Sacramento, from Sept. 18tb to 
Sept. 23d. 

The Southern District Agricultural Society, from 
Oct. 6th to Oct. nth. 

Nevada State Fair, iteno, Nev., from Sept. 11th to 
Sept. 16th. 

Sonoma and Marin District Fair, from Oct. Uth to 
Oct. 16th. 

Oregon State Fair, Salem, from Oct. 9th to Oct. 16th. 

Northern Dlatiicc Fair, Marysrille, from Oct. 9th to 
Oct. 16th. 

Nuw'g THE Time.— Everybody isteresied In mining 
and agriculture should subscribe for the Centeunlal 
year for either the Bubal or the Scieirnric Pbebs, 
published by Dewey h Co , San Francisco. They are 
the best Journals of the kind in this country, and de- 
serve the support of all those whose cause they espouse. 
Everything of interest connected with the Centennial, 
appropriate for these pnpers, will be collated. Send 
In your names.— Jfou/ifotn Matenger. 

AMF.RIC.\N MANXntES, OB FaHJIEBb' AND PLASIEBS' 

OriDE.— Comprises a description of the elements and 
composition of plants and soils; the theory and prac- 
tice of composting; the value of stable manure and 
waste products, etc. Also, a chemical analysis of the 
principal manufactured fertilizers— their assumed and 
real value— and a full expose of the frauds practised 
upon purchasers. By Wm. H. Bruckner, Ph. D., Phila. 
Sold at this office. Price, $1.75; post paid. 



The Turesuebs' Quide, by D. W. Hollihan, a practi- 
cal operator with threshing machinery in California 
and other States. A took of useful and friendly hints 
to the grain growers, machine owners and threshing 
Buperintendents and workmei:. Published at the Bcr.il 
Pbess office, in 1872. Price, $1; In limp cloth binding, 
75 cents; postage paid. 



L. F. MorLTos, of Colusa county, offers very cheap 
and on terms to suit bard times, some choice farms 
of bedt laud in Ihe State, on the line of the Colusa and 
Chico railroad survey. Forty bushels per acre has 
been raised this season on adjoining land of same 
quality. 

" Califobnia Patbon."— The first number of this 
oigbt-nage monthly wus issued May 17th, 1876. It is 
tipecially a Grange medium, exclusively under the 
editurltil control of the Executive Committee and offi- 
cers of the State Orange. Neatly printed, and well 
filled with official documents. Grange reportd, and 
news of fraternal interest to Patrons. Subscription, 50 
cents a year, in advance. Address, "California 
Patbon," P. O. box 2361. or No. 40 California St., San 
Francisco. Sample copies, postpaid, five cents. 



"Twenty Dollars a Tear." 

"t would not be without that Kural Phf-pb for 
twenty dollars a year," says an old subscriber to our 
agent in Yolo c»unty; "that is the best paper out for 
good and useful information. I have had the reading 
of It fcr two years, but now will take it." 



Emnloyment Wanted. 
Wanted, some kind of employment In the country. 
Can run a small engine or do many kinds of light work 
in farming. Refercnc;e famUbevl. Address B., this 
office. 



Ilth Industrial Exhibition. 

Under the Auspices of the 

MECHANICS' INSTITUTE. 



The managers have the honor to announce that the 
forthcoming Exhibition will bo opened to the public on 

Tuesday, August Sib, 

At II A. M, with the usual ceremonies By the desire 
and co-operation of the leading citizens of San Fran- 
cisco, the Exiilbltioa will be held ou a much grander 
scale than heretofore. 

The Exhibition Building, Oocapying an 
Area of over 214,000 Feet 

Of door room, will be completely filled with the varied 
produ te of the skill and industry of the people and 
of the soil. Over 700,000 persons were admitted 
during the taut F^ir. The managers intend to engage 
the services of the best instrumental talent of the 
country, so as to enable them to give tmequaled 

jMiisieiil Concerts A-tter- 
noou and E-veningf. 

In every department applications (or space far exceed 
eApectations, and surpass tho.se of former Fairs. In- 
tending exhibitors must not d«lay filing their applica- 
tiont, otherwise they will be excluded. 

The Exhib tion will continue at least one month. 

There will bo no charge for exhibiting space. 

Application for space or for information should be 
addressed to the Secretary of the Board of Managers, 
Eleventh Exhibition, ^7 Post St., San Francisco, or to 
J. H. Oilmore, Supt , at same aildres-'. 

• A. 8. HALLIDIE, Pres't. 
J. H. CULVER, Sec'y. 



GOLDEN GATE ACADEMY, 

Oakland, Oal. 

AH Departments Open for Yonth of Both 
Sexes. Next term commences Thurs- 
day, August 3d, 1676. 

Full in'ormatlou respecting the Academy and the 
Establishment of a 

CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC 

Will be found in the Academy Bulletin^ with supplement 

containing Mibill's birds-eye 

VIE-W OF OAItLA-ND. 



Copies sent free on application to 

J. N. HAf^KlNS.l 
A. E. KELLOQd, | 



Pilnolpsls. 



Practical 
B O O IC S 

—AT— 

BANOEOFT'S. 



A. L. Bancroft & Co. keep on band a lar(,e stock of 

American and European Books, 

Suitable for 

CIVIL ENOINEERS, 

FARUEHS, 

HACHINIST8, 

And Industrial Classes generally, and supply them, post 
free, at published prices; for particulars of which see 
catalogues, which will be forwarded on application. 

A. L. BANCROFT & CO., 

721 Market Street, S. F. 



Sheep Range Wanted, 

To Lease for two or five years; must give ample feed 
and water for 1,(00 sheep, and be near sbippiui; point; 
preferred on railroad between Oakland and Stockton, 
but might do if in Santa Clara, Contra Coiita, Solano, 
Napa. Sonoma or Marin cuuniies, and near a landing; 
would like a small pirt St for raising hay; if adjoining 
fenced land that could be leased for raisin-j swme, so 
much the better; state lowest terms, also whether any 
Sheep are for sale on the ran^-e, of what kind and price. 
Address, SHEEP, Lock Box 736, San Francisco. 



Rupture. 



■ Any person KuHVnug with the dangerous and 
H distrevslng ccuiplalnt, huplure, and »huse 
^^ existence is rendered miserable, being obliged 
^^ to wear the turturou" metal trusses year after 
^B year without at y benefit or relief whatever, 
^H can be relieved and curtd without inconven- 
^^ft ienco or restriction in exercise or diet. Con- 
^^B sulfation and Examination Free. Call or ad- ' 
^B dries MAGNETIC ELASTIC TRU-fS CO., 6U9 
■1^ Sacramento street, (up stairs,) Sun Francisco. 



JOHN LUTTRELL MURPHY, 
Attorney and Counsellor at Law. 

NO. 535 CLAY STREET, 

SAN FKAN CISCO. 



The Best Agrricultural Paper in America. 

POBTKEviLLE, Februaiy 10, 1875. 
To TBK EorroEs aud Publisueks of the Kubai. 
Press:— /7car Sirt: 1 am going to change my residence, 
and I will take the Ruhai. Puess again, when I get set- 
tled, and will got back numbers. I can say without 
flattering you that it is the best agricultural newspaper 
in America, and I will nse my influence in your behalf. 
Yours with respect, Joon McUixmE, Jb. 



Dewey & Co. iB».««8t} Patent Agt's. 



Seeds. 



Seeds. 



IMPORTED. — .-- 

Crosby's Extra Early | 

Uarblehead HCnmmoth I .Qvip/iof PrvT'Ti 

Stowrell's Evergreen [ *JVVCCl \J\Jl U. 

Mexican Sweet, New I 

Early Canada 

Early Dutton 

Lons Red Kanirel Wurzel 

Yellow Qlobe 

White Sug'ar j 

ALSO, EVERY DESIRABLE VABIETT OF VEGETA- 

B1.E AND FLOWER SEEDS, ORABS AND 

CLOVER SEEDS, ETC., OFFERED AT 

WHOLESALE OB RETAIL. 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

No. 817 Washingrton Street, 
▼8-tf SAN FBAN018OO. 



jYellow Flint Corn. 
1 Beet Seed. 



TO LEA.«*E, 

Valuable Farming Lands, 

NEAR SAN FRANCISCO. 



1,300 Acres of Splendidly Reclaimed Meadow Lauds, 
on Sonoma Creek, in the Whole or in Subdi- 
visions, on favorable terms, for a 
term of years. 

The land is very fertile, perfectly reclaimed against 
floods, ard admirably drained. Ills beyond the influ- 
ence of floods in the Sacramento River, and the wa er 
has never risen more than UO inches against the levee, 
which Is four and a half feet high and 14 feet broad. 
The first crop of barley pu' io last winter yielded ihree 
tons of bay per acre, and that which was not cut will 
yield heavily in grain. The soil is also superior for 
vegetables. It is "iS miles from S>o Franc scu. aud has 
six mlirs of frontage on St.uoms creek. The lareest 
bay >ail ug craft can load from the banks at any point. 
Steamers t'lUch at the wharf dally. 8teamlK<a> freights, 
t2.0O per ton; sailing freights, $1.00 to $1.50 per ton. 

Maps can be seen and particulars obtained from 

ROBERT J. KERCER & CO., 

Reai. EsrATE Agents, 
426 Montgomery St., S- F. 



R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Qrower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer in 




FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS, FECIT AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES. ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 
Comprising the Most Complete Stock 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 
Prices Unusually Low. 
■^Trade Price List on application. 
***My "Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden" 
will soon be ready, and will be sent fbxb to all Cca- 
TOMER1. It will coutain instrnctions on the culture 
of Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Tree Seeds, Tobacco, 
Alfalfa, etc. 

R J. TRUMBULL, 
419 and 421 Sansome Street S. F. 



GEO. B. B A YLE Y, 

IMPORTER AND BREEDER OF 

Jersey Cattle, 

Choice Poultry, Etc. 

OAKLAND 

Poultry Ya.r<i»s, 

Cor. 16th and Castro Streets, Oakland. 

Send stamp for circular, containing a full description 
of all the best known and most profitable fowls in the 
country. 

O. B. BATLET. 
P. O. Box 659, San Francisco. 




a. I. otrMumas. 
18S8. 



B. B. BAX«TOa. 

1R76. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholeasile Fruit and Produce OommiBSlon 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1868. 

N o. 424 Batteiy street, southeast comer of Washington 

Han Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 
no interests that will conflict with those of the producer 



Davis & Sutton, Commission {Merchants, 

For California Fruits: also for the ule of Butter, EgKi. 
Cheese, Hop«, Greeu and Dried Kruit", etc.. ■».•» Warreo 
•treet. New York. Refer to Aothonj H;il»ey, Cashier 
Tradeameo's National Bank, N. Y. : Ellwaniier A Barry, 
Rochester, N. V.: O. W. Heed. SaorameDlo. 0^.; A 
l.nak A Oo., Paoifiu Frnit Market, San Fraoolsoo, Oal. 




Volume XII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 15, 1876. 



[Number 3 



Natural History of the Bee. 

Inquiries which we receive trom time to time 
reveal to us the fact that there are aome of our 
readers who are beginning bee keeping with 
little or no knowledge of the natural history of 
the useful insect. These matters are elemen- 
tary, and should be clearly understood before 
one can become thoroughly versed in the higher 
subtleties of the apiarian's science. To aid in 
the dissemination of the ground facts of the in- 
dustry, we give upon this page an illustration 
showing the different stages in the growth of 
the bee, the three classes into which the occu- 
pants of the hive are divided, the structure of 
different parts of the bee as shown by the mi- 
croscope, and the distinct kinds of cells which 
appear in the brood comb. Each figure in the 
engraving will be introduced in the proper 
place as we proceed with the description. 
The Working Bees. 

Of the three kinds of bees inhabiting a hive 
the workers form almost the entire swarm. 
They are called "neuters," because they do not 
serve for the propagation of the species. To 
explain this singular fact in the order of nature, 
it is thought that all the workers would have 
been females, like the queen, had not tbe eggs 
from which they were produced been deposited 
in ceils loo narrow to allow a proper develop- 
ment of their sexual parts. They are much 
less in size than the queens or drones, being 
about half an inch in length. 

Tbe working bee (Fig. 8) is no less admi- 
rable in the structure and form of its body than 
wonderful in its instinct or sagacity. It is 
p6rf»ct in proportion, and harmonious in the 
combination of its parts, all concurring to the 
design of its >,oreation. On each side of its 
head is a large, round eye, sufficiently hard on 
the snrf ace to be proof against injury from con- 
tact with the substances it ordinarily meets. 
When these eyes require cleaning, it is per- 
formed by the brush of the legs. The head is 
also furnished with two "anteunee," or horns, 
of delicate touch, by means of which they re- 
ciprocally obtain by feeling a knowledge of each 
other, their queens, as well as their young. It 
is by these simple organs that bees are guided 
in the dark, and are enabled to construct their 
comb and cells and feed the young brood. It 
has a long tongue, proboscis or trunk (shown 
in magnified form in Fig. 12) for licking and 
sucking the honey, and two. strong mandibles 
or teeth, which enables it to construct the cells 
and combs, as well as to carry all obnoxious sub- 
stances from the hive. It has four wings and 
six legs. The third pair of the latter is much 
longer than the others, each containing a 
triangular cavity lined with strong curved 
hairs, used for the purpose of holding and car- 
rying to the hives the pellets or little balls of 
pollen which it gathers from the anthers of 
flowers. Thus, when a bee enters a flower the 
pollen adheres to its body, whence it is collec- 
ted by the hairy legs into the form of a pellet, 
and deposited in the cavity for transportation 
to its home. At the extremity of each of the 
six f^et are little f4Dg9, with which they occa- 
sionally Httaob tht-m-it-lveH in clntiters to each 
other, and lo the sid s oi the hive. The ab>lo- 
men is pr >vi<ltd with two stomuths (magnified 
in Fi^. 15)— tbe first being only a ^illlple b^g, 
Wbioh i-i tritusparent, and. when filird. itot 
tbe i-ize of a p»a. contuioing nothing but honey, 
as it is coilectt-d from tbe fie d->, a nuniou of 
wbioh is disgor^' d into the cooib.^, to serve us 
a store for tiie fiitnre, whilst another pnriioii 
passes f >r noarisbment in o the second s om- 
ach. At the extremity of the abd 'men there is 
a Sling (magnified in Fig. 13), its weapon of 
defei 0", not consisting of a simple sbarp- 
piiutrd instiuipent, bat of two lancets, am- 
celled in a director, and operated upon by 
mascl^s of unc 'mmon strength, which to a 
casual ubstiver would seem to be the sting it- 
self. Tbe exttrnal side of each of the-e lan- 
cets is provided with nnmerous arrow shapad 
barbs, which prevent their extmctiun when 
pi^rced into tbe flesh, without fjreat pain. 
When the retreat of the bee is hurried, or when 
the part stung is loo firm, as the bkin of man, 
tbe sting remdins in the wound, and the ^bee 
thus injured only departs to die in a few hours. 
Notwithstanding tbe sting has become de- 



tached from the insect, it still retains its 
power of penetrating further into the wound. 
Again, the em barbed part of the sting is so 
finely polished that even with the best micro- 
scope no inequalities of surface can be dis- 
cerned. 

The Queen 
Is distinguished from the others by her form 
and size (Fig. 7), beii'g usually about twice as 
long as a worker, with a color tending to a 
deeper yellow, although queens vary in size, 
according to the cells in which they are bred, 
some being scarcely larger than the working 
bee. Her abdomen is longer in proportion. 



will be produced from the egg she deposits. 
She lays profusely in the spring, less in sum- 
mer, but little in autumn, and in winter not at 
all. She first deposits eggs for workers, one, 
or rarely two, at the bottom of a cell; and, as 
the combs are placed perpendicularly, the eggs, 
of course, rest in a horizontal position (Fig. 
2), and not on one side of the cell like those 
of wasps. She next lays eggs in the male 
cells, intended for drones, and, last of all, in 
royal cells for queens. She always lays in the 
same order in respect to the kind of eggs, 
though they are 'less in number at every suc- 
cessive brood. EacTi sort is hatched in three 










THE HONEY-BEE, ILLUSTRATED. 




and its thickness is augmented when filled with 
eegs. Her legs are neither provided with 
bristles nor cavities, and hi-r wing-< are much 
shorter than her bf^dy, in consequence of which 
It is soojewhat difficult for her to fly. Her 
sting, wtiich she seldom uses except when iu 
combat niih a rival, is strong, and t>ent at the 
end. The queen lays all the eggs in a colony. 
Fig. H bhows the ovigeruus tubus aud appen 
.(ages in a magnified form. The eg^s'are quite 
small (magnified in Fig. 1), elongated, sli»thtl.v 
cuived, of a brown color, and are deposited 
into celld adapted in size and shape to the kind 
cf L)ee that is destined to ococpy tbem. Tbe 
queen, before she deposits an egg, examines 
whether the cell is clean and suitable to its fu- 
ture occupancy, being aware which kind of bee 



or four d <ys by the warmth of the hive, accord 
ine to the Reason or climate, into "larva)" or 
white worms, which lie in a curved oostiion on 
the bottom of the cells (Fig 3), surround- d by 
a thin, transpireut fluid, or bee-bread, believed 
to be prepared from pi^llen. mixed with boney 
ind water, which appears tobexdaptrd to their 
age. As they advance in growth, they lie hor- 
izontally, with their he A-* toward tbe en- 
trance, and repeatedly moult or shed their 
ooat-t. After tbe larvae are i-uffloiently large, 
nearly to fill their cells, (Fii{. 4), say in about 
eight dayn, they prepare for another Htate, 
called "pupa," "chrysalis" or "nymph," (Fig. 
5) dnring which they require no food. The 
workers being aware of this change, cover the 
mouths of tbe cells with a light brown wax. 



When they are thus entombed, they are at first 
milky and soft, in which state they continue 
even after they assume the insect form, until 
they gradually harden and change color, and in 
eight , days more, at a trying moment, resulting 
in the death of many, break through their cov- 
ering, and, without assistance, come forth per- 
fect bees, the whole period of metamorphoses 
occupying about 20 days from the time of de- 
positing the eggs. As soon as the young bees 
emerge from their cells, they are wiped clean 
and presented with food by the workers, and in 
24 Lours after birth are capable of sallying 
forth into the fields, changing from a grayish 
or silvery hue to a yellowish brown. The larvae 
of drones are hatched in the same way as those 
of the workers; yet the time of their growth is 
somewhat less than that of the queens, which 
is usually about 16 days. 

The Drones 
(Fig. 6) are larger and thicker than the work- 
ers, though similar iu color, and are shorter 
than the queens. As they never visit flowers 
for collecting sweets, their proboscis are shorter 
than those of the workers, and they require no 
strong hairs to brush off, nor cavities in their 
hinder legs to hold pollen, and accordingly 
have not been provided with them. They are 
known to be males, and are only useful in 
propagating their species, taking no part in tbe 
construction of the ce'ls, in collecting the food, 
nor any interest in the economical duties of the 
hive, which they seldom leave except in the 
middle of warm days. 

the Comb. 
Those who have seen a honey-comb must 
have observed that it is a flattisb cake com- 
posed of a vast number of cells, for tbe most 
part hexagonal, regularly applied to the side of 
each othe., and arranged in two strata or layers, 
placed end to end. Those intended for workers 
(Fig. 9) are hexagoftal and horizontal, about 
an eighth of an inch in diameter, and six times 
as deep they are wide; those for drones (Fig. 
10) are also horizontal, somewhat irregular, 
and larger; but the royal cells (Fig. 11), or the 
departments for queens, are circular, still 
larger, and arranged perpendicularly in the 
comb. 

Agricultural Statistics. 

The latest issue of the monthly report of tbe 
Department of Agriculture at Washington, con- 
tains a detailed description of the exhibition 
which the Department is making in the gov^ 
ernment building at the Centennial. It appears 
that a number of large charts have been pre- 
pared to show, by scales and diagrams, the 
production of the different agricultural staples 
in tbe several States. Some of these charts 
are printed in reduced size in tbe report and it 
will be interesting to review them and state tbe 
position occupied by our State in the showing. 

It is shown, by figuring from total produc- 
tion and amount exported, that the amount of 
wheat consumed in this country is an average 
of five bushels per year for each individual. 
California produces an average of 29% bushels 
per capita according to our population. Min- 
no=ota produces 42 9 10 bushels per oipita. 
Minnesota is the only State which surpasses 
Oa ifornia in this resp ct,. Or g >n, 25 Ji; 
Iowa, 24%; Wise nsio, 24 J^. All the other 
States are uudtrr 17 bushels The N^ w England 
S ates di> not average a bushel a bead and 
B lode Island, the least of all in wheat, only 
31, 000 of a ba-hel to a man. 

Another chart shows the proportion of 
nb at sown bioidoast and in drill-. Oalifor- 
nindiiils 2 per Cent, of her seed; Oregon 19 
per cent. 

A sep^irate diagram shows the average yield 
per acre in the several States. Californi'k heads 
the whole list and is credited with a yie'd of 
38 2 per Hcre, as an average of the crops be- 
tween 1866 and 1875. Minnesota is in the sec- 
ond class and scores Zi,% bushels, Oregon i* 
placed at 29. 9. 

Tbe wages of farm laborem, monthly rats 
witbout b>aid, from 1866 to 1875, are given 
for all the S a<es. This shows the flaotnaiion 
in the price of farm labor during this peroid 
of 10 ycard. There is shown to have been a gen- 
eral decline in most States. California is marked 
at 145.71 in 1866 and $44.50 in 1875. These 
figures head the list, Oregon being the next, at 
""8.25. per month. 



42 



FJ*CII#I© ^Waj-S PBESS, 



:^: 



[July 15. 1876 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Farming in Placer County. 

Editobs Pbesr: — On the road from George- 
town, EI Dorado coiinty, to Auburn, the county 
seat of Placer, Home good farming land is to 
be seen, more particnlatly between Greenwood 
and Pilot hill. 

Having ascertained that an article Lad ap- 
peared not long since in the BrsAL, in reference 
to matters agricultural, horticultural, etc., 
about Auburn and New Castle, I set oat, almost 
immediately after my arrival, on a visit to Rome 
of the ranches lying within a compass of six to 
eight miles of Auburn. Ten years ago I trav- 
eled trough Eome of these mountain counties. 
During that time the popnlation in many places 
has greatly diminished. Some villages have 
changed so little that they look, no doubt, as 
Qf^tural to me on this second visit as to the 
oldest inhabitant. Not so with 
Ophir. 

It had greatly improved. Its quartz mines 
have done much for it, so that its name is 
almost as widely known as in the days of King 
Solomon. But it is not of its mines that we 
propose to write. The most striking change 
was in the number of homes beautified in this 
time by the planting of orctards and vineyards. 
Little did I dream that those little orange plants, 
just set out, would be found bearing, some 
sixty and some an hundredfold. 

As a sample of what is being done here by 
Messrs. Peck, Curts, Geraldson and others, 
Mr. Bowman informed me that he i-; able to 
raise all kinds of fruit, such as apples, pears, 
peaches, plums, apricots, cherries, figs and 
oranges, also the smaller varieties, strawberries, 
blackberries, raspberries, gooseberrits and cur- 
rants, besides a great many other varieties 
of grapes. He has about 800 of the Malagas 
which he makes mostly into raisins. He finds 
that they do much better to be irrigated, be- 
coming larger, sweeter and more solid, and do 
not dry up so much. He explained to me in 
detail his method of making raisins. As it 
might be a matter of interest to some of your 
readers, it will be given as briefly and concisely 
as is consistent with clearness. 

How Mr. Bowman Makes Raisins. 

The grape is allowed to become fully ripe. 
It is then picked and put on a frame, three feet 
square, inlaid with slats made of split shakes. 
The frames may be placed in a drier, if the state 
of the weather sheuld make it necessary; but 
the best mode is to lay the frames on the 
ground, where the soil is dry and sandy. One 
principal advantage in the use of frames is that 
by placing an empty frame, turned npside 
down, over another frame filled with grapes, 
two men can turn over both frames at once, 
and thereby turn all the grapes at (ne opera- 
tion, avoiding the tedious process of handling 
one bunch after another. A second advantage 
is that in case of rains the grapes can be speed- 
ily placed under shelter. He prefers to dry in 
the sun, and when the drying process is nearly 
complete, the grapes are placed in a house, 
packed in shallow boxes a week or so. They 
are then laid on the frames again, which are 
now put into the drier to kill the insects, when 
they are boxed up for the market Four pound of 
grapes, when well filled out, make one of raisins. 
Mr. B. will probably make 2,000 pouuda this 
year. In addition to the older orchards here 

Messrs. Dixon & Symington 
Have a tract of 160 acres, on which they have 
recently set out 500 trees and some 4,000 berry 
plants. The latter seem to pay the best. I 
was informed by Mr. Jamison that from two to 
three tons of raspberries could be produced to 
the acre, which would yield at the market rate 
of about $400 per ton, somewhere in the neigh- 
borhood of $1,000 per acre. They are ship- 
ping from New Castle, the nearest station, 
about one ton per day. 

A few miles north of Ophir, Mr. Hulbert has 
a large number of Lanquedoc almonds, and is 
going extensively into the small fruits. On my 
way towards Dry creek, Mr. Andrew Smith is 
engaged in raising vegetables of every imagina- 
ble description to supply the farmers in the 
valleys. He will also set out about 2,000 to- 
bacco plants this season. It has been success- 
fully cultivated in this vicinity. In all this 
region about Dry creek and bordering on Bear 
river, fruits and vegetables do well. Alfalfa, 
when irrigated, can be out four times daring 
the season, and is said to yield from five to ten 
tons per acre, according to quality of land and 
amount of manuring. 

On the authority of Mr. Oeah, two crops of 
potatoes under irrigation would yeild from six 
to 20 tons per acre. This gentleman resides 
within a milo of Bear river; represents the 
climate on all this range as healthful, free from 
chills and fever and having an abundance of 
good water for drinking and also for irrigating 
purposes. He has 14 difterent varieties ol 
grapes; makes a considerable amount of wine 
annually, and has never failed in having a crop. 
He intends to cut down his grapes to two or 
three varieties by grafting, viz: the Catawba, 
the Black Zinfindel and the White Mu-cat. 
The first is in no danger from birds or wild 
animals, besides being the very best for wine. 
The Zinfindel makes the hest claret, and the 



White Muscat be considers the best variety for 
raisins. There is not such a superabundance 
of fruit here or in El Dorado county, for two 
reasons — they did not commence so early and 
are nearer to market. The 

English Walnut 
Is a successful grower about Clipper gap. 
Mr. Predpore has a few very large trees that 
produce abundantly and are now 18 years old. 
Mr. Honn has a tree of the same kind with a 
history that will bear repeating. It began to 
split at one time in tbe main fork. A hole 
was bored through the body of the tree 
immediately below the fork. An iron bolt 
was inserted and the two parts were firmly 
united by means of a screw. It is now all 
grown over. The tree was saved and is 16 
years of age, measuring two feet from tbe 
ground, 45 inches in circumference and is 
loaded with nuts. In the same yard was a 
large cherry tree, with a number of rocks in 
their forks, and in the walnut tree scraps of 
iron, such as old plow shares, parts of Dumps 
and bars of iron. I inferred that they were 
placed there to get them out of the way. In 
this I was mistaken. It was for the pur- 
pose of preventing the sap from rising too fast, 
and for keeping the fruit and the nuts from 
falling before they came to maturity ; also to 
secure a more abundant yield. The fact and 
the reason assigned are given for what they are 
worth. 
Mr. HoQu and his neighbors have found the 

Castor Bean Useful 

In exterminating the gopher. The bean is 
placed in the hole. As it is an experiment that 
costs but a trifle, I have thought it worthy of 
mention. It might be tried to some purpose 
in other places. 

Lime. 

In this vicinity lime is quite a product. 
Messrs. Holme.^ & Gwin are making about 20 
tons per day. On my way I passed a ledge of 
limestone covering about 20 acres, the property 
of Mr. P. W. Cook. The lime is certainly of a 
superior quality, as white as the driven snow, 
and said not to blister in plastering. Two kilus 
are burned per month, which turn out about 
GOO barrels of lime, consuming about 40 cords 
of wood. 

Mr. C. has 400 acres of land, well supplied 
with wood and living water, and in addition to 
his lime business, produces a very considerable 
amount of hay. Many others in tbe county 
are similarly engaged, cutting from ten to 100 
tons. We found one of the patent mowers at 
work even as high up as 

Todd's Valley. 

Mr. White in that neighborhood expected to 
cut from 90 to 100 tons. Mr. J. P. Gaines, who 
lives within a mile of Auburn has put up 100 
tons and Mr. Collins, his next door neighbor, 
about 70 tons. 

Considerable attention is paid to stock. Some 
hogs, sheep, horses and cattle are seen every- 
where and many bands of goats. Mr. Gaines 
has about 60 head of horses, mules aud cattle, 
mostly fine blooded stock. In the 

Angora Goat 
Line, Mr. Willet near Bear river bus probably 
the largest band, about 1,200 including all 
ages and grades. At Mr. Sbirlands, three 
miles below Auburn, we tasted for lunch, some 
as finely flavored kid as that which tempted 
Esau to sell his birth-right, and we are also 
almost tempted right here to say something 
pretty in the way of a compliment, if we only 
knew how; but let that pass. 

Mr. S. has under bis charge about 900 goats, 
some of them of high grade. A portion of a 
fleece was seen here that measured over 12 
inches. Mr. Tabor of New Castle has about 
500. Rev. Mr. Peck at Ophir 400. Mr. Calvin, 
county superimendent of schools, from 4.50 to 
500, and many similar or smaller flocks, mak- 
ing in the aggregate for the county of upwards 
of 5,000 head. It is said by those conversant 
with the business here, that there is no danger 
of glutting the market with mohair, that the 
demand is mucli greater than the supply, that 
Eastern manufacturers have to import it, and 
furthermore that tbe production can and in all 
probability will be doubled from year to year. 
As the fleece will be continually improving in 
quality as well as in quantity, the price as a 
consequence will grow better, as more will be 
induced to engage in the business of manufac- 
turing when there is a better and more abun- 
dant supply of the raw material. K. 

Forest Hill, June, 1876. 



Irrigation No. 1. 

Editobs Pbkss:— As there seems to be a fall- 
ing off in your irrigating correspondence, and 
Bsl am asked to give my views and such facta 
as my long experience in irrigation has de- 
veloped, the present time is perhaps a favor, 
able one for that purpose. I submit the follow- 
ing synopsis: 

Winter Irrigation. 

I have workei: out some experiments the 
present season upon winter irrigation. The 
results have been so satisfactory, and its work- 
ing so consistent with nature and reason, that 
I am almost ashamed to acknowledge its never 
entering my head before. Believing the sub- 
ject to be cf great importance, and that some 
of your readers may be as unthinking as my- 
self, and knowing also that many of them reside 
in dry (pounties, I look upon it as a duty I owe 



them to make known my experience, together 
-with some arguments that may be urged upon 
the subject. 

You are aware that many in this region pre- 
dicted a large quantity of rain last winter. I 
was faithless; beleiving that there was a prob- 
ability of their being mistaken. And, knowing 
that most of my land would not produce a pay- 
ing crop without more water than fell the pre- 
vious winter, also, that we were more liable to 
suffer in California from a scanty supply of 
water than from a superabundance, I concluded 
to irrigate; and commenced in December, 1855, 
to irrigate lands I wished to crop m 1856. 1 
thoroughly wet some 80 acres. The wheat on 
the lands thus wet was 40 inches average hight, 
containing 72 grains to the head, plump and 
good. The unirrigated was 25 inches average 
hight and containing 24 shrunken grains to the 
head. The same quantity of seed and same 
amount of labor, with the exception of the ir- 
rigation, which cost 25 cents per acre, had been 
expended on one as the other. The vegetable 
land was cropped in 185.5, some portions of 
which entirely failed, other portions were de- 
stroyed by a worm ; the whole was decidedly a 
poor crop. This year the crop is good, and the 
worms have not injured it, (while the unirri- 
gated, adjoining lands, are quite overrun by 
them) and had this not been irrigated, the crop 
would scarcely have been worth gathering. 

The long, dry summers of California, extract 
or absorb all the moisture contained in ubcuI- 
tivated lands to the depth at least of ten feet. 

The earth is a reservoir which nature fills 
and empties, at least once a year, in a perfect 
or imperfect manner. If imperfectly filled by 
nature, man should make up the deficiency, as 
far as he wishes to cultivate. ° His garden and 
orchard shoBld be particularly attended to. 
Ten feet of dry earth will swallow up one-third 
of its bulk of water; hence if a man be pos- 
sessed of 10 acres of land, he has at the end of 
the dry season, a reservoir 10 acres in extent 
and thiee and a third feet deep, upon which it 
will be impossible to cultivate any crop, until 
the reservoir is at least partially filled with 
water. If imperfectly filled, your crops will bo 
more or less imperfect. If perfectly filled, yon 
can raise a better crop with less labor than you 
could by expending thousands of dollars to con- 
struct a reservoir of sufficient capacity to con- 
tain the amount of water desired, and apply it 
as your judgment dictated after the crop was 
planted. And for tbe reason that the first i.s 
applied to the roots of the plants upon per- 
fectly natural principles, they receiving 
nourishment regularly and constantly, causing 
a perfect, firm, healthy growth and maturity, 
while the latter is altogether artificial and ir- 
regular in its application, frequently stunting, 
(which unavoidably happens where water is 
searce) and then stimulates an nnnatardl 
growth and maturity, causing premature decay, 
as frequently happens with potatoes, onions, 
cabbage, etc. 

The above was written in 1856, and after a 
further practical experience of 20 years and a 
careful perusal of the ideas contained therein, 
I see nothing in it to reject, but much to be 
said in its favor. Jno. M. Hoeneb. 

Washington Comers, Alameda Co., July 2d. 

Still on the Prospect. 

EDIT011.S Press: — Last week I took a trip on 
the Southern Pacific railroad out to the desert. 
I went to take a look at a few of the blooming 
sages aud flowerets on the desert side of Mount 
San Jacinto. I did not stay long for two 
reasons. One was excessive heat, and next, 
there seemed to be some danger of my being 
condemned by a court of examination to the 
walls of our insane asylum for daring to talk 
apiary or horticulture in this regi'-n. ,VI1 over 
California, sheep and cattle husbandmen change 
lange with tbe seasons when they can. With 
the desert blooming sages in a few hours ran 
of Los Nietos, why cannot we of Nietos Corn- 
fields (for we are all going into the bee bus- 
iness), run our bees out to some favored nook 
at Jacinto's foot, and when the heat of June 
arrives run them back, and turn them loose on 
our neighbors until Octol>er. To turn goats or 
pigs on our neighbors won't do, for they have 
redress at law. But we are privileged to 
swell our neighbors' eyes shut, and torment 
him, till he quotes psalms by chapters, with our 
bees, and call it all a joke. 

Nestled about the foot of San Jacinto, on the 
desert side, are huge groves of the palm, not of 
dwarfish grow merely, like the seven palms, 
but of tropical dimensions. 

The aborigine here has long since cultivated 
the Mission grape, and horticulture with him 
is a success. Where the palm is indigenous, 
why could not its ronsib, the banana, flourish 
also? And why should not some of our fruits 
and vegetables, so much in quest for our early 
markets, succeed there also? Time and experi- 
ence can soon toll. 

Through San Gregonia pass, as a matter of 
philosophy, the winds are terrific. On the last 
section of the Southern Pacific railroad, the 
drifting sand is giving some trouble. Perhaps 
the track may have to be set for a few miles on 
trestle work. 

Next month I calculate to make another 
cruise desertward. also to San Jacinto's sum- 
mit, aad I will write you of her v/ild bees, lofty 
pines, sawmills and eternal snows. 

Gko. Kat MnxKK, 

Lob Nietos, Jnly Ist, 1876. 



[EditoriBl Corregpoudcnce.] 

The Centennial at Philadelphia.— No. 9. 

After spending some five or six weeks in 
close attendance upon the Centennial, your 
correspondent has left his post for a while, to 

attend to another duty equally imperative 

that of visiting the "old folks at home" and 
spending a few days amid tbe pleasant retreats 
of his early years in eastern Massachusetts. 
What he has seen and learned there; the 
changes, progress, etc., of|a quarter of a century 
or more, may form the subject of some future 
letter. From this distance he is of course un- 
able to give in deUil the progress or condition 
of things in Philadelphia, and instead thereof 
•will endeavor to place upon paper some facts 
in regard to 

The Peculiarities of the Centennial. 
One of the chief peculiarities of this Ameri- 
can exposition consists in the fact that, unlike 
the expositions of the old world, which have 
been expected to show merely the developments 
and progress which may have been made be- 
tween one exposition and the next preceding, 
ours is called |a "Centennial," and we are ex 
pected to show a century's progress, an effort 
which carries us back to the very infancy of 
modern mechanical appliances — to a point of 
time anterior to the faintest conception of many 
of the achievements in science and art which 
during the century have stamped themselves 
deep into the very existence of tne present age. 
By the act of congress that has called intojexist- 
ence the commission which has inaugurated 
this exhibition, the American people ^were in- 
vited to show their progress during the century 
in the 'arts which benefit mankind, in com- 
parison with those of other nations." This in- 
vitation gives us something of an advantage in 
point of historic interest over other nations, 
who have come hither as they have heretofore 
gone to London, to Paris and to Vienna, with 
those appliances only which tell of to-day— 
which show forth their perfected manhood, 
leaving us alone to contrast the great achieve- 
ments of the present time with the germs from 
which they started "one hundred years ago." 
In this first Centennial period of our existence 
as a nation, it is natural to think of tbepist 
and strive to form some approximate idea of 
tbe real life and surroundings of those who 
participated in oar struggles for national ex- 
istence, and the early steps which were taken 
in the great march of material progress which 
has led to the triumphant results which we see 
before us in this great exhibition. The 
home life of our forefathers and the condition 
of I he industrial arts one hundred years ago, 
are of much interest for our present considera- 
tion, made all the more bo from the wonderful 
changes which have taken place during the 
past century — changes which during that time 
have wrought a complete revolution in almost 
everything which relates to domestic affairs 
and to the industrial interests of the world. 
History offers no other such marvellous specta- 
cle, no other such example of the might, grand- 
eur and progress of, a nation. Therefore most 
fitting is it that on this anniversary we invite 
the nations of the earth to witness the triumph 
of art and industry, in the advancement of 
which our own people have performed so large 
a part. Although those who have had this 
great charge in band have given us no cause to 
apologize for the general character of the en- 
tertainment to which we have invited tbe na- 
tions, it would seem to have been more in keep- 
ing with the call and tbe occasion had tbe ex- 
hibitors been instructed or encouraged to have 
more largely mingled the past with the present. 

It is true they have done much in this direc- 
tion, but with a little forethought much more 
might have been done to add to tbe interest 
and instructive character of the occasion. The 
progress of the spinning machine, from the 
primitive domestic wheel, might have bem 
most profitably shown through all its principal 
gradations up to the present most approved 
machine. One of the rough and clumsy hand- 
looms upon which many of our fathers wove 
the cloth they wore upon their backs, might 
have been most instinctively placed in compar- 
ison with the light and elegant "jacqnard " 
loom, which is to-day weaving, in machinery 
hall, elegant Centennial mottoes, with most 
perfect portraits of Washington, Victoria and 
other distinguished personages. So of the lathe 
and all the various machines for working 
in wood and iron. It would be interesting to 
look upon the clumsy contrivances originally 
used lor hulling and ginning cotton, and be 
able to compare them upon the spot with tbe 
perfected machines now in use and on exhi- 
bition. Th^ old leathern fire-buckets, to use 
which at a fire we old men, when boys, had to 
"form a line," and the antiquated hand engine 
of the same period should hiivo been shown in 
contrast with tbe brightly burnished steam fire- 
engine of the present day. We would like also 
to compare the bright steel blades of tbe Ames' 
shovel, as shown to-day, with one of the old 
tools which, 40 years ago, the writer was accus- 
tomed to see the present millionaire turning 
out with his own hands— bis father working in 
the shop by his side. 

One hundred years ago there were but two 
steam engines in tbe United States — one of 
which wa.<9 running a anall pump in a brewery 
in Philadelphia and the other pumping water 
from a shallow copper mine, just acro's the 



July 15, 1876.] 



.iPA(§t#la§ 



4P 



river, in Kevv Jersey. What more interestiog 
Bight oonid have been shown than the interme- 
diate steps by which those primitive machines 
have been gradaally developed into the magnifi- 
cent Corliss engine, which now stands ont so 
prominently in machinery hall as one of the 
mechanical marvels of the day. 

The First Locomotives in America. 
The few pieces of antiquated machinery which 
are shown at the Centennial are jast snfScient 
to create a desire for a more general exhibiiion 
of that character. Near the English exhibit, 
in machinery hall, there are several pieces of 
old iron, which the ordinary visitor would sup- 
pose were thrown aside for transportation to 
the junk shop, but which the more careful ob- 
server learns, from the label attached, are 
sacred relrca, and all thatJremainR of the first 
locomotive ever placed upon a railroad in 
A a erica, called the Stourbridge Lion, built in 
England and placed upon the Delaware and 
Hudson railroad on the 8th of August, 1829, 
at Honesdale, Pa. What remains of this inter- 
esting relic are four tires and two hollow iron 
beams, the use of which latter, about a locomo- 
tive, would be difficult for any modern engineer 
to divine. In the engineering department, in 
the front gallery of the main building, is also 
shown the original drawing of the first Ameri- 
can built locomotive ever put together, and 
which was first run on the Charleston and 
Augusta road, in South Carolina, on the 25lh 
day of December, 1830. It was called the Best 
Friend of Charleston. The second built Ameri- 
can locomotive, the West Point, was placed 
upon the same road on the 5th of March, 1831, 
less than three months later, at which time and 
place the writer of this letter was present. The 
wonderful progress that has been made in per- 
fecting the locomotive and in advancing trans- 
portation facilities during the 45 years that 
Lave intervened since the dates above given, 
are among the marvels of the age. 

Relics of Early Steamboat Experiments- 
Near by the drawing above alluded to, in the 
gallery of the main building, may be seen 
the original boiler and twin screws built and 
operated by Stevens; also a second pair of 
screws, subsequently experimented with on a 
somewhat larger scale. They were mere mod- 
els in size, designed for propelling nothing 
larger than an ordinary sized sailboat. There 
is also shown, in immediate connection, the 
remains of what we believe was one of Fulton's 
small boilers, used in his early experiments. 
These relics possess an interest of no ordinary 
magnitude to the engineer and student, and 
we think they will De preserved to grace the 
next Centennial, when, perhaps, even steam 
itself will have been superseded by some more 
potent or convenient motor. 

Other Relics. 

The first steam fire engine ever constructed 
is shown in the main building. Franklin's 
printing press — the one on which he is said to 
have worked in London — is also shown in the 
same building, and in the department devoted 
to the exhibition of printing presses and ma- 
terial. This department comprises one of the 
most interesting and instructive exhibitions 
shown, from the fact that by it the visitors may 
trace all the steps of progress from the old 
"Kamage" through all the various kinds of 
hand and power presses up to those marvels of 
perfection, the American Bullock and the 
English Walter press. 

In the agricultural building we have also a 
few relics illustrative of ihe progress which has 
been made in the construction of agricultural 
implements. We have an old plow from Kil- 
lingworth. Conn., said to be 120 years old, at 
least. The bandies are made of roots formed 
by nature in the proper shape for such purpose. 
The mold board is of wood with an iron point. 
This plow was once used to turn up the virgin 
soil of old Connecticut; but is now preserved 
with the greatest care as a remarkable relic of 
the past. Another plow with a peculiarly 
elongated wooden mold board is shown bearing 
the date of 1776 ; and still another very ancient 
one from Ohio. These ancient relics of the 
olden time present a marked and interesting 
contrast with the polished steel blades and 
elegant woodwork of the modern instruments 
which are shown by their side. A similar ex- 
hibition in connection with other agricultural 
implements would have formed a most inter- 
esting and instructive study. 

Among the relics of more modern days is a 
plow said to have been made on Daniel Web- 
ster's old farm at Franklin, N. H., and under 
the personal supervision of the great Granger- 
statesman himself. 

Remington exhibits, in connection with his 
show of fire arms, the first breech-loading rifle 
ever made in the United States. It was made 
at Harper's Ferry in 1826. It is a "flint look;" 
the chamber being raised by a spring, and 
hinged at the hind end. The cap is raised 
from the pan and the piece primed in the old 
way. This weapon is exhibited as the inter- 
mediate step in the manufacture of fire arms 
between the old flint lock musket and the 
modern breech-loaders and revolvers. 

The Centennial System of Awards. 

Another peculiarity in which the American 
Centennial diflfera from all previous interna- 
tional exhibitions is in the system of awards 
which has been adopted. It has been urged, 
heretofore, that the prizes and awards were too 
cheap; that the wish to be popular and not 
give offence has prompted the managers to be- 
stow many medals that were not deserved, and 
which were conferred in classes whose premiums 
had been taken on merit, but were considered 
vitiated by the repetition and multiplication of I 



honors bestowed where there was no display to 
deserve them. At the Centennial there are to 
be no medals awarded. The substitute therefor 
and the general plan of awards is given in a 
report of the Executive Committee as follows: 

"Awards have generally been made by an in- 
ternational jury of 600 members. The appor- 
tionment of jurors to countries was tried on 
various bases, but was usually made on the 
basis of relative space occupied by products of 
each country respectively in the exhibition. 
The great jury was divided into numerous 
small juries, who examined the products and 
prepared lists of names of persons whom they 
proposed for awards, bnd the proposals thus 
made were confirmed or rejected by higher 
juries. This system brought together, un- 
avoidably,(many individuals unqualified for the 
work. The basis of representation was ap- 
parently fair, but its results were delusive. The 
countries nearest the exhibition occnpied the 
largest space. Numerous remote countries 
filled smaller spaces. The number of jurors 
allotted to the latter body left them in many 
instances without jurors on many classes, and 
thus in voting on awards they had no voice, 
and the awards were in effect decreed by the 
few contiguous countries. Written reports 
were not usually made by juries, and if made, 
were not printed, consequently no person out- 
side the jury knew on what grounds awards 
were made. Medals, when distributed, were 
silent verdicts, and awards thus made conveyed 
little useful information. Awards were based 
upon anonymous reports or reports not 
published, and final decisions were recorded in 
vague and mystic language not satisfactory to 
producers or the public. 

'•The method of awards adopted by the Cen- 
tennial commission differs from this system. 
It dispenses with the international jury, and 
substitutes a body of 200 judges, one-half 
foreign, chosen individually for high qualifica- 
tions. It dispenses also with the system of 
awards by graduated medals, and requires of 
the judges written reports on the inherent and 
comparative merits of each product thought 
worthy of award, setting forth its properties 
and qualities and presenting the considerations 
forming the ground of the award. Each report 
must have the signature of its author. The 
professional judgment and moral responsibility 
of the judges being thus involved, the integrity 
of the reports is assured. The success of this 
method absolutely depends upon the judicious 
selection of judges." W. B. E. 



K|oi\XicUljiJi\e. 



Almond Culture in Santa Clara Valley. 

Editors Peess:— In the southwestern por- 
tion of this valley there are several quite ex- 
tensive orchards of the almond tree, which, so 
far as I have observed, are doing very well. Of 
these, the orchard on the Spring Brook ranch, 
near Los Gatos, is the most prominent as to 
size, location and thorough culture, as far as 
my observation has extended. 

While driving in this neighborhood last week 
I was so attracted by the beautiful dark green 
appearance of this plantation, the uniform size 
of the trees in their straight rows, and the gen- 
eral neatness of the whole place as seen from 
the road, thit I opened the big gate and drove 
down the avenue through the orchard to the 
dwelling house, which is pleasantly located 
about half a mile from the road at the foot of 
the hills, and near the fine springs that have 
suggested the name of the ranch. Here under 
the shade of some fine trees in the yard I had 
the pleasure of meeting the proprietors of the 
property, Messrs. Gardner <fe Neff, of Placer 
county, from whom I received the following in- 
formation in regard to their almond enterprise : 
The orchard, which is of the Languedoc va- 
riety of almond, covers an area of 
One Hundred Acres, 
And numbers 20,000 trees. Although only two 
years old from the nursery last winter, they are 
BO large and well grown as might well surprise 
any one who might see them, not acquainted 
with the w onderful productiveness of our cli- 
mate and soil. The whole plantation is on 
gravelly, though level foothill land, and the cul- 
tivation has been thorough, not a weed or blade 
of grass conld be seen from the drive. Mr. 
Neff informed me that they have their men go 
through the whole plantation six times a year 
with the most approved tools for cultivation. 
By this frequent disturbance of the soil moist- 
ure is retained near the surface of the land 
the whole summer through. 

It would seem that a few more years will 
settle the question as to whether almond cul- 
ture can be made profitable in this portion of 
the valley, if indeed there remains any question 
on the subject. Everything so far looks favor- 
able for the best results. "The trees are healthy 
and grow remarkably well under good cultiva- 
tion without irrigation, and come into bearing 
very early, as may be seen by many of these 
young trees. The proprietors estimate the crop 
of nuts this year at 10,000 pounds— pretty good 
for trees less than three years old from the nur- 
sery. The only drawback to realizing large 
crops every year is late spring frosts, but in 
this locality the probabilities are that no seri- 
ous trouble will come from this source. There 
are several other almond and walnut orchards 
in this neighborhood, which I wish to notice in 
some future letter. G. W. M 

Santa Clara, ^aly 6th, 1876. 



Almonds in San Luis Obispo. 

The San Lais Obispo Tribune has been at 
some pains to investigate the condition of 
almond culture in that county. It says: "A 
few trees have been planted in almost every 
yard and orchard, but in no single instance 
have they been planted in numbers to coosti- 
tate an orchard. The nearest approach is 
upon the place of J. P. Andrews, about three 
quarters of a mile from the court house- 
Here we find a little cluster of sixteen trees 
now seven years old. These trees have their 
third full crop upon the boughs, which is a 
sight to gladden the heart of man. Mr. An- 
drews informs us that tyo years ago, when 
the trees were but five years old, the gathered 
crop was one hundred pounds to the tree. 
Last year, owing to overbearing the previous 
year, it was fifty pounds to the tree. This 
year it is far in excess of two years ago, from 
the fact the trees are much larger, but we 
will call the present crop one hundred 
pounds to the tree. Here for three years we 
get an average annual production of 83J^ 
pounds. This, at present quotations, 20@22 
cents per pound for California soft shells, will 
give $17.20 as the annual cash returns per tree. 
With 100 trees to the acre, bearing equally 
well, we should have a cash return of $1,720. 
The cost of production could not in any case 
exceed twenty per cent of the product, which 
deducted, leaves a clear profit of $1,376. This 
is better than the best orange orchard in the 
world. It may be urged that we cannot rely 
upon these returns. All we can judge by is 
what has been done and here we have three 
successive crops to base our calculations upon. 
Those inclin ed to doubt the profits of this bus- 
iness should go to Mr Andrews' place before he 
gathers his crop and judge for themselves. We 
are willing to cut down the crop to 20 pounds 
and then we can see ten times the money in 
almonds that there is in barley, wheat or sheep 
and with little more labor." 



SHiEf j{^D Wool. 



The Spring Clip of 1876. 

The semi-annual wool circular of E. Grisar 
& Co., for the six months ending July 1st, is at 
hand, from which we make the following ex- 
tracts : 

In reviewing the wool business of the past 
six months, the increase in the production and 
the low prices at which it was marketed are the 
most noticeable features. The clip of this 
spring is the largest ever shorn in California, 
and exceeds the entire production of 1872. It 
18 doubtful whether the clip will be as large 
again for some years, as the high price of land 
and the low price of wool and sheep render the 
business unremunerative. 

Taking the improved character of the wools 
into account, prices have bsen lower than for 
many years. In many cases growers realized 
no more for their spring clip than for the fall 
shearing in 1875. 

Although the quantity to be marketed was 
large, it has been readily removed, and stocks 
in proportion to receipts are smaller than they 
were a year ago. 

At the opening of the season long stapled 
free wools, in fair condition, brought 18c. to 
19c., and averaged stapled good conditioned 
parcels 16c. to 17c. Prices afterwards declined 
to 16c. and 17c. for long stapled and 14c. to 15c. 
for averaged staple, while parcels in poorer 
condition brought 13c. to 14c. Long stapled, 
slightly burry wools have ranged from 13c. to 
14c., and ordinary wools from lie. to 13c. A 
considerable amount uf free wool has been sold 
at 12c., but such parcels were usually in poor 
condition or contained wool from diseased 
sheep. Choice northern wools opened at 18o., 
but soon advanced to 19c., and superior lots 
have brought 20c. to 21o., but only very light, 
good stapled lots realized the latter figures. 

As to condition, the clip has not been up to 
expectations when we consider the abundance 
of feed which the sheep had, and the frequent 
rains during the winter. Many wools were 
taggy, and especially clips of 12 months' growth. 
The shrinkage, as a whole, is, however, rather 
less than last year. 

The circular gives the receipts at San Fran- 
cisco as follows : 

Bags. 

January 770 

February. 738 

Marcti 4,05S 

April 31.213 

May 39,078 

June ..12,779 



The VirlEYi^\ 



R. B. Blower's Raisin Making. 

On Tuesday enening we spent an hour at the 
home of Mr. R. B. Blowers of Woodland, 
Yolo county, and secured from him much in- 
formation concerning the grape and raisin 
business. Mr. Blow«rsis not so extensive as 
he is thorough in his work. He has spent time 
labor and means in hi j work, and has been 
abundantly rewarded for his expenditure. He 
stands the equal, if not the superior of any 
man in the United States in producing raising. 
It has been decided that his raisins are superior 
to any in the Eastern market, or we might say, 
in the world. He recognizes but one variety 
of grape — the Muscatel— as pre-eminently a 
raisin grape. Of this variety he has about 25 
acres, and about two acres in other choice va- 
rieties to the number of 25. 

There is method in all be undertakes, and 
he first studies the art of production. He 
prunes his vines tolerably early, and believes 
in systematic irrigation. Not content with the 
liberal suppy of water which nature gives dur- 
ing the winter, he taps the canal, fills the 
ground full of water, and then again after the 
rains, or about the first of June. This water 
serves two purposes. It destroys the insects 
that infest the soil, and adds at least one-third 
to the production, both in quantity and quality. 
This he did last winter, and the masses of 
bunches and innumerable clusters which weigh 
down the vines at the present time, evince the 
wisdom of this work. His vines promise a 
yield at least one-third greater than ever be- 
fore. 

Last year he sold for table use, $2,259 worth 
of fresh grapes — about 900 orates of which 
were sent East. He also furnished over 100,- 
000 cuttings, mostly of the Muscatel variety, 
to parties in this and other States. Aside from 
this, he made 1,500 boxes of raisins, weighing 
20 pounds to the box. These he disposed of 
readily to San Francisco merchants, who claim 
that they are superior to any foreign raisins in 
the world. The estimate he places upon the 
present crop is that he will, after furnishing his 
usual amount for table use, make between 
4,000 and 5,000 boxes of raisins. To meet the 
demands of the second crop, he is preparing 
to build a drying house. The rains come be- 
fore 'the second crop is fully dried, and in this 
drying house, he will finish up the second crop. 
"The first crop is sun-dried, which he claims as 
the best mode of drying. 

Let no one who reads this suppose for a 
moment that all this is done without labor and 
expense. Mr. Blowers is an inveterate worker, 
and aside from his own labor he employs, from 
the first of September to the middle of Novem- 
ber, 15 or 20 laborers at a cost of from $1,200 
to$l,500— and he pays them all in gold. He 
produces an article on which there is no dis- 
count, and demands pay in a currency not sub- 
ject to discount. There is nothing shoddy in 
his business. He has a grape called the "Em- 
peror," which he promises to ship in good con- 
dition, to any part of the United States in good 
order. It is a fine table grape, and delicious to 
the taste. — Tolo Mail. 



Cool Water. 



88,633 



Pounds. 
26,690,000 



Sliipped exclusive of above 1,303,311 



Total 27,896,314 

On band January Ist, about 420,000 



28,315,314 

Oregon, 1.020 bags 302 000 

Foreign, 601 bags 120,000 

Grand total 28,737,314 

The shipments during the six months aggre- 
gate 23,655,507 fi)9., leaving a stock on Land of 
about 2,500,000 fcs. Of the quantity shipped 
away, 1,305,314 Sjs. went from points in the 
interior, and 5,890,162 fts. went by rail. 



A writer in the California Agriculturist gives 
the following useful hints about securing a con- 
stant supply of cool water for home use: 

Our nights are so cool that a small stream of 
water running slowly a few rods will become 
cool enough to be very refreshing all through 
the day. 

The arrangement may be very simple and 
cheap. Two syrup barrels and forty feet of 
trough will do it. The barrels will cost aboat 
two dollars, and should be thoroughly scalded 
and washed to take out the syrup i taste. Set 
one near the water supply, and fill it. Set the 
other in the best cool place within ^ each. Hop 
vines will grow and cover an arbor for the 
barrel very quickly. Leave the shelter open 
on the north side. Before going to bed at 
night turn the faucet at barrel No. 1, so a small 
stream will run to No. 2, at the same time draw 
off the water left over in No. 2 to moisten the 
surrounding shelter. 

The plan can be modified to suit circumstan- 
ces. The water may be located in the milk 
house, but should be so arranged as to leave no 
permanent dampness about the floor. Where 
there is a tank raised from the ground a small 
pipe can be inserted and the water run any de- 
sired distance, and the larger the body of wa- 
ter thoroughly cooled by the night air the 
cooler it will keep through the day. 

I have practiced for years drawi g a barrel 
of water ont of my irrigating ditch, taking care 
to fill the barrel in the morning be fore the sun 
shines on the ditch. If we ever do ubt its pay- 
ing for the bother we have only to neglect to 
fill the barrel one day and we have no doubt 
about it afterwards. 

In the cities where ice is plenty perhaps a 
tank of cool water is not so necessary, yet I 
think there are many places where its cool 
waters and surroundings would be welcome. 
Where the city water comes into the chambers 
it would be easy to pass a small pipe through 
the wall and around the house into a lower 
room provided with a tank that would have a 
cooling influence on the whole house, and by 
passing the water through a filter before it en- 
tered the tank it would be improved in every 
respect. 



«£> 's^«'\biJit(B iLw Ju\» y JtbiCTuJU* Jr«fcvJi?oO» 



[July 15. 187 6 



P&Wm 91 ||B|B&IBai. 



THE HEADaUAXTERS of the Oalifomia 
8t«te Orange are in the GraDgera' Building, northeast 
pomer of California and Davla BtreetB, over th<' 
Grangers' Bank of California and California Farmers' 
Mutual Fire Insurance AsBociation. Master, J. T. 
Wf.bsteb; Secretary, Amos Adams. 

The Oranjtrs' Business Association of California is 
on PaviB street, ncrth-esst corner of California. 



A Circular. 

B.»N Fbajjiiuco, July 1st, 1876. 
Deas Siiis AND Bbotiuebs:— You are respectfully iu 
vited to send one or more delegates to meet with Golden 
Gate Grange at Buddy's hall, 909 M Market street, on 
Tuesday evening, July '25th, at 7 ^ p.m. 

J. D, Blanchak, M. 
Considering the ma^itnde of the wheat crop, and 
the low prices that will rule, unless some plan can be 
devised and a concert of action had by the producers 
to realize a fair profit for their crop; Therefore it is 
deemed advisable that there should be a convention of 
some of the leading wheat growers of our order to con- 
sider what measures if any can be adopted to effect the 
desired purpose. 

It is thought that great good will grow out of a meet. 
inK of this kind. It is recommended that union meet, 
ings be called for Saturday, July 29th, to bear there' 
port of their delegates and If deemed advisable to 
adopt some plan that may be suggested to accomplish 
the oblect. 

Hoping to meet with hearty co-operation from every 
grain district, we are fraternally, 

Oan Ixmam, Manager G. 6. B. 
C. J. CBE88ET, O. B. 
Amoe AsaMr, Sec'y 8. O. 
A. D. LoGAK, Ex-Committee. 
J. M. COSTIQAM. 

fWe are also requested by Worthy Master J, D. 
Blanchar to state that the Fruit and Wine Interest 
will be diccuBsed at the above named place on the first 
Tuesday evening In August, when it is hoped there will 
be a good representation present.] 

A. CAItr>. 

lONE Vallkv, Cal., July, la76. 
Jfr. J. D. Blanchar, Prei't California Farmers' Mutual 

Fire Irawance Asiociation : 

Deab 8ie:— You will please permit me to acknowl- 
edge through you the receipt of ■*! ,500, paid to me by 
your company on the '29th of June, it being the full 
amount of Inaorance on my barn, bay and stock, undaj^ 
policy No. 1688. Said insurance was taken by your 
traveling agent, F. L. Jackson, on the 1.5th of May last, 
anJ on the 20th of June I met with the loss, having to 
wait only nine (9) days for my money, without any loss 
of time or cost whatever to me. I would most earnestly 
recommend your company to the farmers of California 
as a safe, cheap and prompt company to insure with. 

You have my permission to use this in any way yon 
may see fit. 

With my best wishes for the success and welfare of 
the company, I remain. 

Yours, very truly, 

DwifiHT YOCSOLAR. 



Gbanuk Dibectory.— A full list of Subordinate 
Oranges, Masters and Secretaries, of California and 
Nevada, is published as often as onco a quarter in this 
dtpartment. See Issne of Jnly 8th for latest insertion. 

P. or H.— Subscribers who pay fully one year (tt) in 
advance for the Pacific Rural Puesb can receive the 
Calitobnia PATBON/rse, besides other premiums. See 
our premium list in another column. 



Centennial Chat.— No. 1. 

(Written for the PEi.<s m Mabi MoujjTAra.] 

Arriving in Philadelphia, we were directed 
b; a fellow traTeler to a qnaint old tavern called 

"The Black Horse," 
and if one may jadge from its ancient style it 
will Boon be celebrating its own Centennial 
birthday. Its low ceilings, dark and narrow 
passages, olamsy half-doors and enormous old- 
fashioned bolts were all worth seeing, but the 
sitting-room itself was just an antique picture 
with its long, wooden Eettee and tall, wooden 
chairs, painted first a shining black and then 
•ancifuUy touched off with roses, poppies and 
hollyhocks. But the pleasure arising from 
close contact with "ye olden time" was pretty 
nearly smothered when we entered our room 
and fonnd the bed fat and high with immense 
feather-beds, two feath^ bolsters and huge 
pillows. 

As a dainty dish for our late sapper they 
served hot buckwheats and syrup, acd for 
breakfast cold bread and jelly, thus ttvttfixxg 
the usual order. The landlord was fnt and 
jolly, his bouse neat with fresh paint and wLite- 
wash, and it seemed to have a steady -going 
prosperity of its own wholly independent i.f the 
piesent rash and scramble. 

Next day we moved out "home" to the great 
Grange Encampment, 
Aud the story of our satisfaction still go's on. 
There is no trouble here for those who can 
enter into the spirit of the place, so WHrm and 
friendly, so cool and airy, cheerful imd njusi- 
cal, quiet and restful, with a free ai'd eRsy air 
of hospitality in the wide roominess «t hfiUs 
and corridors where you meet plenty of p«-ople 
from everywhere ready to be cordial. Then if 
you want seclu.^ion there is your snug little 
room, really so small that it must be i-nug; and 
the comical roughness or rather plainneiis of 



walls and furniture is quite agreeable to onr 
old memories of early Caliiornia. And yet 
there is "another side" to these broad parti- 
tions which forces me to say they are not very 
secluding after all. Bight on the other side of our 
boards are some women with the loudest voices 
and the greatest amount of silly small talk; 
so much that they wake up in the night to talk 
some more; and so loud ihat we cannot if we 
would avoid hearing their most confidential non- 
sense. In the night, when forbearance ceases 
to be a virtue, I rap on the wall but the effect is 
merely temporary; for such tongues were made 
to go and go they must. These nimble talkers 
occupy the two next rooms to ours and as they 
were about to go down to their first dinner they 
bawled out to each other jnst where to leave 
their money and this gush of confidence must 
have been heard by a dozen or more persons. 
I speak of this as a 

Charming Tribute 
To the houei-ty uf our encampment; and not 
with auy idea of recommending this new way of 
hiding money. There is hardly need of saying 
that the.<!e women are not Grangers; and though 
so full of noisy cackle over this first great jour- 
ney of their lives, they are reserved toward 
others and caref al not to make acquaintance, 
so that I am sorry indeed to be obliged to know 
so much about them. All this again agrees 
with our pioneer memories of the old cloth and 
paper bouses that could keep no secrets. 

This vast building is such an "original" that 
we all take the liberty of quizzing it and plan- 
ning it all over to suit ourselves — at least this 
is in order among "us Yankees. Of coursu we 
plan our rooms a little wider and the corridors 
a little narrower; and when we get home so 
tired at night we wonder why we are spread 
over so much country that a great deal of walk- 
ing must be done to reach any given poiut. 
But by the time we have been down to see Mr. 
Martin and bis pleasant troop of table girls, 
and have taken our fill of nice hot supper, we 
are ready to respond to the quizzical new 
comer. Well, these Grangers have 
Built for a Multitude 
Who have not arrived. About the time of 
Harvebt-feasts there will probably be no empty 
space here to wonder at; and this will be the 
largest and jolliest camp in the world. 

Up to date, June 2.5. h, there have been en- 
tertained about '25,000 people, and the average 
length of stay for each person has been about 
four days. Very many who have gone intend 
to return, and for the week of the Fourth they 
expect 1.500 guests. The whole number at any 
one time has not as yet been over HW, and 
just now there are not quite 300. They opened 
the 10th of May, and our Mr. Ewer, of the 
Bubal, was their first guest. It is pleasant to 
hear them speak of him so affectionately. 

"Ah, you should have seen Mr. Ewer as 1 
fonnd him one morniog shivering out there by 
the kitchen range, and the rain pouring down 
all around him. You see we were all unfin- 
ished, and everything in confusion; he had only 
a bunk to sleep in like the rest of us, but he 
never flinched; — stuck by us like a brotherfand 
gave us sympathy and all the help he could. 
We Shall Never Forget Mr. Ewer." 

There are now about a dozen Californians 
here, and I surely expect to meet Mis. Carr, 
whose pleasant words have so often brightened 
our Bubal columns; but she is registered at the 
Globe hotel, and we oan only wonder what 
charm is strong enough to keep her away from 
our camp. 

The pleasantest evening treat has been lis- 
tening to Bro. Wright, just home from Europe, 
and his lecture was full to the brim of topics 
nearest our sympathies and interests. Hear- 
ing praise of the speech and admiration of the 
man going the rounds, we were proud to say 
"he is one of our California farmers." Then 
the question was sure to come, "Do you have 
many of that sort out there?" * " Now 
what could yon answer to that':' It is to be 
hoped there are several, and you may be sure 
we do our best to uphold the honor and dignity 
of our class and State. Every Fiiday evening 
is devoted to a 

Farmers' Club. 

A topic for discussion is given out the pre- 
vious week, but the frequent shifting of guests 
bears hard upon "the question," preventing 
organization aud sastained interest Yet this 
loss is more than made good by the novelty of 
an impromptu collection of master spirits from 
north, sonih. east and west, and after some 
ready-witted brother has started ihem off with 
a few brisk words, away they go on the full 
swing of talk and not one can avoid the wish 
to throw in his best thoughts; but there is not 
time for all to give, though each can take a 
few good things to remember. We happened 
to arrive on Friday, and the topic for that even- 
ing was 

"Home Conveniences " 
Many sisters were present, and I wondered 
how they could all keep still when there was 
not only invitation for them to speak, but much 
to provoke or insi^ire just the words that weie 
needed But they strictly attended to the in- 
spired (?) command of St. Paul, and allowed 
tLe husbands to do all the talking. If yon ask 
why did not I open up for the good and glory 
of my sex, I can only reply that my trunk had 
not come, and how can a woman talk with a 
trunk on her mind? Yet, though fully con- 
scions of my jaded condition and travel-stain d 
garments, I felt'my soul rising to the demands 
of the moment and was about to say a word 
for 

California Homes and Husbands, 
When uprose my fellow pilgrim, "with eye in 



a fine frenzy rolling," and pursuing the special 
topic then under way he actually told that con- 
servative audience (all dressed up, nice and 
dignified) how to do the family washing; and for 
the husband to roll up bis sleeves and pitch 
into the suds and "ru.sh things" until this 
dreaded "blue Monday bugaboo" shall shriok 
to the smallest size Hnd fewest possible min- 
utes. Thus did he fearlessly vindicate our 
California "washing conveniences," and now 
let every man rally to the standard. 

Does anybody wonder why I neglect to write 
about the great Centennial? Ah, my dears, 
that's just what I am dreading. There is so 
much — so much; and my poor pen so stiff and 
incapable. I have heard more than one say 
that five years would not be enough for the in- 
telligent observation of all the articles spread 
out here by all the world. So it weighs upon 
me like a burden that cannot be lifted; but next 
week I shall begin to lift a little at one corner. 

On the first of July a very enjoyable enter- 
tainment was held at Elm station. It was a 
fraternal gathering of the "friends of the pen 
and plow, " or in other words the representa- 
tives of the newspaper press of this and for- 
eign countries, with a few invited guests. A 
feast was had and timely and spirited toasts 
were proposed and responded to by the editors 
present. All had a very pleasant time and 
good feeling abounded. 

Points on Co-operation. 

PiofesBor Francis A. Walker, late Superinten- 
dent of the Census and now Professor of Polit- 
ical Economy at the Sheffield Scientific School 
of Yale College, has written an elaborate work 
on the subject of wages, entitled " The Wages 
Question," aud the work is published by Henry 
Holt & Co., of New York. Professor Walker 
outers into the treatment of bis theme with a 
depth of philosophy aud a dash of controversy. 
The book may be tmthfully commended to all 
who wish to enter deeply into the study of the 
relations between the employer and the em- 
ployed, between labor and capital and all the 
issues growing out from these relations. Not 
that we would commend the book as infallible, 
for there are a number of positions taken 
by the author which we cannot approve, 
but it is worthy of praise as an honest effort to 
throw light upon a very important matter, and 
will be found worth reading, even for those 
things in which it is suggestive. 

On the subject of co-operation. Professor 
Walker takes the position that " productive co- 
operation " has serious objections, which, with 
him, apparently, are so strong as to lead him 
to consider it well nigh a failure. Of "dis- 
tributive or consumptive " cooperation, he is 
is better impressed. As this distributive co- 
operation is the principle upon wbich our 
Grange stores are chiefly maintained, it will be 
interf sting to quote the reasons why, in Profes- 
sor Walker's opinion, they are useful and suc- 
cessful. He writes: " By distributive co-opera- 
tion men seek to expend their incomes to bet- 
ter advantage. They seek to divide among 
themselves the profits of retail and even whole- 
sale trade. The advantages of this species of 
co-operation are: 

1. The division among the co-opprators of 
the ordinary net profits of the retail trade. 

2. The saving of all expenses in the line of 
advertising, whether in the way of printing and 
bill posting, or of thi* decoration of stores with 
gildinf; and frescoing, with costly counters, 
shelves and show cases, with plate glass win- 
dows and elaborate lighting apparatus, or of 
high rents paid on account of superior location. 
The aggregate saving on these accounts is very 
large. The " union " store may be on a back 
street, with the simplest arrangements, yet the 
associates will be certain to go to it for their 
supplies, without invitation through news- 
papers or posters. 

3. A great reduction in the expense* of hand- 
ling and dealing out goods. 

4. A saving of vast amount, in the abolition 
of the credit system, involving, as that does, 
the keeping of books, the rendtring of accounts, 
and much solicitation of payment; and, sec 
ondly, a very considerable percentage of loss by 
bad debts. 

5. Security, so far as possible with human 
agencies, against the frauds in weight and 
measure and iu the adulteration of goods, 
which are perpetrated extensively under the 
system of rettil trade, the poorest customers 
being generally those who suffer moat. 

The difficulties of consumptive are fewer and 
lei's severe than tbo^^e of productive co-opera- 
tion. To handle aud sell goudj is a much less 
serious business than to produce them. When 
once marketed, the contingencies of produc- 
tion are - asl, the quality of the goods is already 
determined, and in the great majority of citseH, 
only moderate care is required to prevent dete- 
rioration. Then again, the profits of retail 
trade are relatively higher, for the capiial and 
skill required, than the profits of m mniiicture; 
and hence there is more to hu gained by total 
or even a partial success. Finally and chiefly, 
the destination of the goods is already practi- 
cally provided for; the members are certain to 
take off what is bought, if only ordinary dis- 
cretion is used; wahte and loss are therefore 
reduced to the minimum. 

There an-, therefore, powerfUi reasons in the 
Dature of the case, for the success of consump- 
tive co-operation. The facta bear out the prog- 



nostication, although even this form of asuocia' 
tion has had many disappointments and often 
come to grief, not always from causes easily to 
be determined. "Cooperation," says Mr. 
Holyoake, the historian of the movement iu 
England, "is the most unaccountable thing 
that is found amongst the working classes. 
Nobody can tell under what condition it will 
arise. Why it flourishes when it does, and 
why it does not flourish when it should, are 
alike inexplicable." We may fairly presume 
that the case is not altogether so mysterious as 
Mr. Holyoake would make it out to be. Lack 
of interest in the result, and consequent lack 
of the patience, pains and self-denial neceesary 
to achieve success, and unfortunate choice of 
managers, through indifference or intrigue, 
would probably explain most of the failures of 
co-operative trading, where the principle of 
cash payments has been strictly adhered to, 
and where the enterprises have been confined 
to the supply of the co-operators with the simple 
necessaries and comforts of life, without ventur- 
ing into lines where fashion and taste pre- 
dominate. 



The Duty of the Hour. 

Editobs Pbkrs. — Oar farmers are now en- 
gaged in harvesting the largest grain crop ever 
produced in California. The fertile fields, in 
response to the copious rains of the past sea- 
son, have smiled upon the farmer and rewarded 
his toil with a bountiful crop, and he and his 
household have already counted the farm im- 
provementB and the additional comforts with 
which they propose to surround themselves; 
there is joy in his family circle, while they 
bend all their energies to garner in the ripened 
grain. Bit now a cloud has arisen in the hori- 
zon, which bids fair to darken all his prospects, 
and if the danger cannot be averted, the poor 
farmer finds himself likely to fa il in realizing 
his anticipations. Not that his crop will fail 
or even be diminished, but that are'entlfssfoe 
is on his track, and eager to seize upon the 
lion's share of the crop, leaving to the farmer 
only a pittance for all his toil and expenditures. 

But why deal in metaphors? The plain 
English of the above is that the farmers are 
this year blessed with a large crop of wheat and 
other cereals, and that the hungry cormorant — 
the '• wheat king " as he loves to be called — and 
other buyers and exporters of wheat have 
formed a ring to control the entire wheat mar- 
ket, and to pay the farmers just whatever price 
they have a'mind to for their wheat, leaving to 
them barely enough to defray the expenses ot 
raising and harvesting, while the speculators 
reap t' r themselves a golden harvest through 
the labor of the tiller of the soil. And we are 
informed that ceitain bonanza kings, not aali-i- 
fied with the millions they have acquired by 
"cinching" the laboiiog people of San Fran- 
cisco by their stock operations, have now 
turned their attention to the farmers, and 
joined the "wheat nog" ol this city. There is no 
use to disguise the fact that a very powerful 
combination is made to control the wheat mar- 
ket, by chartering all the available tonnage and 
dictating their own terms to the farmers. But 
the que.-itiun arises, the evil is apparent, but 
how, in what manner can it bs averted? Not 
by the farmers becoming themselves shippers, 
this we would not advise, and we know that 
with the Morgan's 8uns' experience, the advice 
would not be heeded, if given; no, our purpose 
is not to lead the farmers into complications 
which might bring disaster upon tbem, but, on 
the contrary, to endeavor to back the efforts of 
those who are planning their financial mm. 

The farmtr can master the situation and 
bring the ring operators to terms if they will 
act upon this suggestion. In order to prevent 
competition in freif<ht3, and also to prevent 
farmers and others from shipping wheat on 
their own account, the wheat combination have 
chartered all the available tonnage in port and 
to arrive. In the charter or contract, ttere is 
a clause binding the charterers to pay a certain 
stipulated amount, generally from $200 to $300 
a day, for every day that the ship is det-iinod 
beyond the number of "lay days" specified by 
the charter party. Many of the ships in port 
have nearly exhausted their "lay days," the 
ring have bought enough wheat to load these 
ships, but the chartered ships are fast filing into 
port, and will soon be clamorous .or their car- 
goes. Now right here is the point, if the farm- 
ers will combine and refuse to sell their wheat 
at current prices, they will soon bring the ring 
to terms. Let those needing money and com- 
pelled to' have it, place their wheat in store- 
houses, they will then be able to borrow what 
money they need on reasonable terms. While 
it will co-ft something for storage, the farmer 
will have the benefit of increased prices. Be- 
sides a general war is imminent in Europe; al- 
ready it has broken out, and vast armies are in 
the field. Rurisia, our great competitor for the 
English wheat market, will foon find her ports 
on the Baltic closed, shutting out her avenues 
fir wh>'at expor'ation. Besides, thoold Bus- 
b 1 iitKe .t band in the war, they will need all 
Ibeir |.rfrient crop at home to provide for fu- 
ture contingencies. In that ciiBe, wheat will 
command a high price iu Liverpool, and if our 
farmers break up the freight combination they 
will be able to get a good round price for their 
wheat. The tables will then be turned and the 
farmers being masters of the situation, will be 
able to dictate terms to the ring. That this 
result can be accomplished there is no doubt, 
the only doubt in the premises is whether the 



July 15, 1876.] 



PM^t»w§ mwmAs ipmirss. 



the farmers will co-operate and unite for their 
mutual benefit. Divided they can accomplish 
nothing, and even the efforts of a few would be 
futile. Let the Patrons in the wheat produ- 
cing sections of the State meet in their Granges 
and sign an agreement binding themselves to 
each other to hold their wheat until a certain 
specified time, or until a certain specified price 
is reached, and then let them abide by their 
agreements as honorable men, who are deter- 
mined to protect their mutual interests. 

The wheat ring presumes upon the ignorance 
of the farmers, and their inability to co-oper- 
ate for their mutual benefit. Let us show these 
greedy cormorants that they are now counting 
without their host, that the farmers knowing 
their interests are determined to protect them, 
and not,allow a few moneyed speculators to reap 
the fruits of their toil. In this connection we 
are pleased to note that a convention of wheat 
p odncers is called to meet at the hall of 
Golden Gate Grang9, in this city, on Tuesday, 
July 25th. Let the farmers of every wheat 
producing section of the State meet and send 
one or more delegates to that convention, and 
let all the brothers, and sisters too, living in 
the counties adjacent to this city all come to 
this meeting, and let ns in the harmony and 
fellowship of our loved Order, endeavor to 
counteract the efforts of tbose who are so eager 
to despoil the farmers of their hard earnings. 

T. H. M. 



In Memoriam. 

Ceres Orange, No. 64, at a regular meeting, hold 
June 'ilth, 1876, adopted tlie following resolutions: 

Whereas, It has pleased an all-wise Providence to 
remove from our midst our worthy sister, Miss P. 
Harp (daughter of our Worthy Past Master W. B. Harp) , 
loved by all for her modest Christian and noble qual- 
ities, and, while health lasted, ever encouraging her 
Bisters and brothers in our grand work by her pres- 
ence, therefore be it 

Resolved, That while we bow with humble submis- 
sion to a decree of an all-wise Providence, we mourn 
the loss of a beloved sister and friend, and most deeply 
regret the pain her departure has caused. We hereby 
do offer our heartfelt sympathy to her bereaved parents, 
relatives and friends. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to 
the bereaved family, that they be placed on the min- 
utes and that a copy be sent to the Pacific Euhai. 
Press, Modesto fleraWand Stanislaus 2V«ws.— [Commit- 
tee: Mrs. Lucy A. Hawkins, Cyrus Lee and J. M. Hen- 
derson. 



qr^icdLTjRi^L f^ojES. 



Dinner and Hop at Elm Station. — We 
ackoowledge the receipt from R. H. Thomas, 
secretary of Elm Station Centennial Encamp- 
ment, of an illuminated invitation to a compli- 
mentary dinner and hop, given the Press July 
Ist. Verily Elm Station is a joyful place. 



General News Items. 

Mb. WyMAN has qualified as United Statts 
Treaburer. 

A PROCLAMATION has been issued c tiling to 
arms, all Christians throughout Turkey. 

Thk excessive heat in the Eastern States the 
past week has been the cause of many deaths. 

Santa Anna, the famous Mexican general, 
died in the city of Mexico on the 21st ult. at 
the age of 84 years. 

Theee was a light rainfall in this city on 
Friday last — an unusual occurrence at this time 
of the year. 

The loss of property in central Iowa by the 
recent floods is estimated at oveV $1,000,000, 
over $300,000 of which is in Warren county. 

At the request of the President, the Commis- 
sioner of Internal Bevenue tendered his resig- 
nation, to take effect on the 31st day of July. 

The tornado of last week in Iowa caused a 
terrible destruction and great loss of life. The 
village of Eockdale, was completely swept 
away. 

The North and Northwest Lancashire cot- 
ton spinners' and manufacturers' association 
has resolved to reduce wages 10 per cent. The 
reduction affects from 50,000 to 60,000 English 
operatives. 

On tae 1st ins*. Major General McDowell 
assumed command of the Military Division of 
the Pacific, vice Major General Schofield, 
who goes to West Point. 

On the 7th of July, 30 years ago, the Ameri- 
can flag was hoisted at Monterey as a symbol 
tbat California had ceased to belong to Mexico 
and was a part of the United States. 

At the request of the President, Postmaster- 
Goneral Jewell resigned on Monday. He will 
be succeeded by Judge J. N. Tyner, of Indiana, 
now Assistant Postmaster-General. 

A London special says that a dispatch from 
Valparaiso, by way of Montevideo, June 7th, 
announces that the American steamship 
Georgia, which left New York May Uth for 
Panama and San Francisco, and which has 
been previously reported as having touched at 
Eio Janeiro, is ashore in the Straits of Magel- 
lan, and will probably be a total lo.-is. 

How TO Bden a Stump. — This is the way s 
man in the south says he gets rid of his 
"stumps":— "I dig a hole about eight or ten 
inches deep by the btump— if possible between 
two projecting roots. If I cannot find two, 
then be:ide one. Then take a two-inch auger, 
with a long shank; set it near the center of the 
top of the stump, ranging the point to the hole 
dog by the side, and bore through. Make a 
fire in the hole in the ground, and there is no 
moye trouble with the stump, except to fill 
up the hole where it once was. The auger hole 
serves as a flue or pipe that draws the fire, not 
allowing it to go out." 



California. 

CONTRA COSTA. 

Sebiods Loss bv Pibe. — Gazette, July 8: 
Last Monday afternoon the barn of Mr James 
M. Stone, about a mile north of Danville, in 
the San Eamon valley, was totally destroyed 
by fire, together with some 40 tons of bay, a 
separator, stpam threshing engine, a valuable 
horse, various faruing implements, sets of 
harness, and several minor outbuildings. The 
loss was placed at $3,000; insurance f 1,500. 

Fine Wheat. — Dr. Strentzel has left a sample 
of fiuely headed Australian wheat from his bills 
on the Carquinez straits. The straw of the 
sample left measures fiom four and one-half to 
more than six feet in length, the heads averag- 
ing from 50 to GO grains each, and he thinks 
the crop will not fall short of 40 bushels per 
acre. The tallest straw and largest headed 
wheat is on ground that was worked only with 
a cultivator. 

Wheat and Cobn. — Antioch Ledger, July 8: 
The wheat crop, although exceptionally large, 
will not yield as many anticipated a month 
since. Some of the best grain has been badly 
shattered out by the heavy winds. Eighty 
acres, belonging to J. W. Sttickler, on the New 
York ranch, which would have yielded fiO odd 
bushels to the acre, will fall short more than 
one-half. This was the Proper wheat, but the 
same if true of the Club and other varieties. 
Messrs. Taylor and Plumley have each about 
30 acres of corn near the Point of Timber that 
gives every promise of making a heavy crop. 
It is generally supposed that the land of this 
valley is not adapted to the growth of corn, but 
on that class of land here is undoubted evi- 
dence that mistaken views are entertained on 
his subject. 
LOS ANQELBS. 

Fine Tobacco.— Express, July 8; George 
Spiker, the expert in tobacco raising and cur 
ing, has shown us samples of three varieties of 
tobacco, just raised at Casta, near Anaheim. 
The samjjles comprises Havana, Connecticut 
seed and Turkish. They are nicely cured and 
give forth a very grateful aroma. Mr. Spiker 
informs us that this tobacco was planted in 
April. There are ten acres of ground in culti 
vation, ana seven tons will be produced alto- 
gether this year from the three crops that will 
be planted. 

Laeqe Babley Shipment. — Outlook, July 8: 
Messrs. Lucas Brothers have just shipped their 
barley harvested from 270 acres of land near 
Santa Monica. The entire yield was 14,460 
bushels, making an average of over 53 bushels 
to the acre. 

Dbyinq Wobks in Anaheim. — Gazette, July 8: 
It is with no small amount of satisfaction that 
we announce to our readers that Messrs. 
Heimann i, Sorenson will, within two or three 
weeks, erect Alden drying works on vineyard 
lot C 2, near the residence of Mr. Sorenson. 
MABIN. 

The BtJTTEB Yield. — Journal, Jn\y 6: Point 
Keyes is out doing itself in butter this season. 
The feed is splendid. Mr. A. H. Stinson has 
already packed over 100 barrels. 
MENDOCINO. 

Steanoe Peab Tbee. — A. O. Carpenter 
tells us he has a small, bearing pear tree that 
presents something of a curiosity. Last year 
the frost killed all but four of the first pears, 
and when these were about the size of pullet 
eggs the tree blossomed again and produced 
about 30 pears for a second crop. This year 
the tree is full c f fruit about the size of pullet 
eggs, and is blossoming again for a second crop. 
The second blossoming follows the first right 
up, appearing at the ends of the limbs. 
MEBCED 

^vsnTaoKE.— Express, July 8: On last Sat- 
urday a man by the name of George Sherman 
became overheated while loading his wagon 
with barley on the ranch of Levi Jones, in a 
few minutes grew delirious, and in two hours 
from that time died. He. was a man much 
esteemed by all who knew him. Deceased was 
a brother-in-law to Mr. Dingley of Knights 
Ferry. His death undoubtedly resulted from 
sunstroke. 
NAPA. 

Berkshiuks.— Register, July 8: Mr. R. S. 
Thompson, of Brown's valley, received Mon- 
day evening by Wells, Fargo & Co's express, 
three fine thoroughbred three months old 
Berkshire pigs. They were from J. A. Hower- 
ton, near Paris, Bourbon county, Kentucky. 
Mr. Thompson has been very successful in in- 
troduciDg this superior breed of hogs into Cali- 
fornia, ana is continually importing expensive 
specimens like those just received. 
NEVADA. 

Alfalfa. — Transcript, July 4: J. Perrin, 
since he left the sheriff's office, has been ex- 
perimenting with alfalfa on his ranch below 

Grass Valley. He has 20 acres seeded to that 
crop, which is two or three years old, and he 
has sown 20 acres more this season. He will 
this year cut 140 tons of hay from it. Four 
crops a year can be raised. He irrigates from 
the water of Wolf creek. It is like other sireams 
in which mining is done and Mr. Perrin in- 
forms us that the slickens contained in the 
water act as a splendid fertilizer to the clover. 
He proposes to continue sowing alfalfa until 
all his ground which can be irrigated is seeded. 
There is money in the business. 
SACBAMENTO. 

July Raisb.— Record- Union, July 8: Since 
1849 we have bad but five rains in the month 



of July, including the present. These have 
occurred in the following named years, and the 
following amounts designate the fall of each 
year in that month: In 1853, 0.001 of an inch, 
in 1860, 0.549; in 1866, 0.018; in 1873, 0.015, 
We have not the quantity that fell on Thurs- 
day, but at Sacramento, where the above record 
was made for the past years, the fall must have, 
been at least 0,250 or one-fourth of an inch. 
So light a rain when the atmosphere was so 
dry immedietely before its occurance, and 
followed by drying winds, can have done no 
perceptible damage to cut grain in any shape. 
in standing grain, the high winds before the 
rain commenced may have shelled out some 
and thrown down considerable, rendering the 
labor of gathering it greater and the quaotity 
gathered less. Other than this the damage to 
crops will be inconsiderable. 

Cutting and Cueino Alfalfa Hay. — There 
has been, and is yet to some extent, a prejudice 
against alfalfa hay as a winter feed for stock, 
especially horses. The principal cause that 
gave rise to and kept up this prejudice is to be 
found in the fact that the farmers did not un- 
derstand when to cut it, or how to cure it, or 
perhaps, antecedent to either of these causes, 
we might mention another; that they did not 
know how to sow the seed. The seed was 
sown too thinly on the ground and the plants 
grew large and coarse and woody. Then this 
coarse growth was allowed to stand before cut- 
ting, till the plants had blossomed, and some- 
times till the seeds had formed. In this con- 
dition the stems had become more like wood 
than clover hay, and the leaves had fallen off, 
leaving what was then called alfalfa hay more 
like a bundle of sticks than hay. Then again, 
it was formerly the custom of farmers to allow 
this over-ripe grass to lie in the sun and dry till 
it had neither color nor nutriment in it. and 
till even the seed that had formed on it had 
shelled out. Experience with this Lay has 
taught farmers many valuable lessons as to its 
management. First, they have learned that 
the seed needs to be sown very thickly on the 
ground, so that the stems of the grass will grow 
small and slender. Secondly, they have 
learned that the grass, to make good hay, 
should be cut just as it is coming in blossom, 
before, in fact, it changes its color from green 
to blue. Thirdly, they have learned that as 
soon as the grass is well wilted in the sun it 
should be raked up into winrows and then put 
into ricks and allowed to complete the curing 
in this condition. By cutting the clover while 
thus green and treating it as indicated, the 
fresh, green color is preserved, the hay is kept 
in a soft and pliable condition, and all the 
nutriment is preserved, and the hay is relished 
and eaten by stock of all kinds with the same 
zest that they eat the fresh growing clover. The 
hay, while in the rick, if put up as suggested, 
goes through a sweating process that changes 
the juices to starch and sugar, and that fastens 
all the leaves to the stem, so that in future 
handling none is lost. Alfalfa hay cut and 
cured in this way is actually more valuable for 
cows, horses or sheep than the best wild oat. 
or wheat, or brfrley hay ibat can be i-aised, and 
is a good feed to winter hogs on. If out when 
too ripe, and cured in the sun, alfalfa hay is 
not worth as much as poor wheat or barley 
straw; in fact it is hardly worth anything. 
SAN DIEQO. 

Califobnia Quail fob Italy. — Chronicle: 
Signor Giuseppe Piazza, Italian Consul to San 
Diego, is en route for Europe via Philadelphia 
to visit the Exposition. Signor Piazza will 
make an extended tour and ha absent about 
six months. He has been for many years an 
honored resident of California, and is an en- 
thusiastic believer in the noble destiny of 
the Golden^ State. As a Centennial present 
from his adopted home for his native country 
he takes with him eight mountain quail, eight 
California quail, and eight Arizona quail. As 
he proceeds westward and eastward he will 
procure equal numbers of a different species of 
this handsome bird, and upon his arrival in 
Italy will present them to ornithological socie- 
ties, for the purpose of stocking the country. 
They will constitue a very valuable present, 
and under the genial skies of Italy cannot fail 
to increase and multiply with astonishing ra- 
pidity. Italian sportsmen will appreciate the 
enterprise of their distinguished countryman, 
and King Victor Emanuel, himself a veteran 
"cacciatore," will hail the emigration from 
California to Italy with delight. 

SANTA BARBARA. 

Gbain.— Guadalupe Telegraph, July 8: We 
have samples of "Chevalier" barley from the 
ranch of Wm. Douglas. One bunch contains 
110 stalks and the other 98, each bunch being 
from one seed. The heads are well filled and 
the berries fine and firm. We have been pre- 
sented with a sample of "Smith" wheat, by S, 
D. Triplett, who has introdaced it here this 
season. The berries are plump, bright and 
very fine. It will yield about 20 sack.s to the 
acre, and appears to be just the wheat for this 
soil and climate. 
SONOMA. 

CuiLENO Valley. — Pctaluma Argus, July 7: 
The beautiful and fertile region which is known 
by the above name has this year been especially 
productive. The hay and grain crops have been 
large beyond precedent. "Chileno valley," in 
the general acceptation of the expression, in- 
cludes an area much larger than the valley 
itself, and embraces hillsides and rolling 
lands that cover thousands of acres. In this 
section is situated some of the finest dairy 
ranches in the State, or in the United States. 
Butter of the best quality, and which has a 
reputation reaching to Chicago, New York, 



Beaton and other Eastern cities, is produced 
here. A majority of those who conduct the 
dairy business are Swiss. They understand 
their occupation thoroughly, and have pros- 
pered well. This season has been a good one 
so far as feed and the quantity of butter pro- 
duced are concerned, bat prices have been so 
low that the profits have not been larger than 
usual. A large proportion of the inhabitants 
of Chileno valley were in Petaluma on the 
Fourth, and participated in the celebration. 

The Distbict Faib. — The Sonoma and 
Marin district agricultural society is not an in- 
stitution local to the two counties whose name 
it bears. Besides the.ie it takes in Mendocino, 
Lake, Napa and Solano, and the inhabitants of 
the six counties can compete for premiums, 
pnrses, etc., on exactly equal terms. Our 
neighboring counties can contribute largely to 
the excellence and success of the coming fair, 
and there is good reason to believe that they 
will this year contribute more extensively than 
they hdve heretofore done. The directors have 
completed the speed programme and premium 
list, and in a few days they will be published 
in pamphlet form, and d'stributed far and wide. 
Our contemporaries in and out of the district 
will do a favor to the society by stating that 
the tenth annual exhibition will commence on 
Monday, October 10th, and continue through 
the week. 

Geasshoppebs.— Grasshoppers have put in 
an appearance in great numbers in some places 
in the vicinity of Petaluma, and have already 
done considerable damage. Their raids thus 
far have been principally upon gardens, but in 
some cases they have attacked growing grain, 
potatoes and corn, and inflicted much injury. 

STANISLAUS. 

Good Gbain. — News, July 6 : The grain that 
has been threshed in the central division of 
our county, that is, around Modesto, Murphy's 
and (Turlock, is generally turning out much 
heavier than was anticipated. The increase 
over the estimates often go as high as 20 per 
cent. The rule in the sections mentioned ap- 
pears to be light straw and heavy grain. 

TULARE. 

Heavy Farming.— i)cJto, July G: We are 
assured by those who have recently visited the 
Mussel slough country that the vast fields of 
grain in that vicinity are entirely free from the 
presence of smut or other disease. The berry is 
uniformly full and heavy. There are patches 
of 20 and 40 acres that will yield 70 bushels to 
the acre, and 100 acre patcnes that range from 
40 to 50, and it is only the poor spots thai 
range as low as 20 or 30. The same may also 
be said of the Tule river section, uniformly. 
Along the lake, on new ground, there is not, 
perhaps, as good an average, but with longer 
cultivation and more perfect and general irri- 
gation we may hereafter expect the lake lands 
to equal the best in the county. There are 
thousands upon thousands of cheap lands ly- 
ing near the railroad all through the county 
which have not been improved for want of easy 
irrigation. They were regarded a few years 
since as almost worthless, from being spotted 
with alkali and corrugated in places with hog- 
wallow. They are now being taken up and 
their best pieces turned to account, and event- 
ually the alkali will be overcome. Then their 
nearness to the railroad will add a value which 
the other lands do not possess. Probably in 20 
years the now vacant lands along the railroad 
will average in value with the first locations. 

Second Ceops.— Farmers on Tule river, who 
put in late crops of cereals and have harvested 
them, have been plowing again and putting in 
crops of corn, beans, potatoes, pumpkins, etc., 
the ground still being moist enough in most 
places to produce these crops without irriga- 
tion. The same may be said of a large portion 
of the Cross creek and Mussel slough section. 
Those lands which the pioneers so readily re- 
jected as only fit for a stock range, are proving 
not only the most fruitful and vauale, butbl 
also the most healthful, and their owners the 
most prosperous and thrifty. 

YOLO. 

Loss Fkom Wind. — Cor. Vallejo Chronicle: 
The north wind of one week ago shattered out 
a large amount of grain in tbis county. In 
some fields of Chili grain, fully 50 per cent, was 
lost. At this writing the bulk of grain in this 
region is in stack. There has been a scarcity 
of harvest hands most of the time, wages are 
$2 a day, although during the hottest days as 
high as $2.50 was paid by some. 'Tbreshing 
has commenced in earnest, and the yield is fully 
up to expectation. We can see hundreds of 
grain stacks in every direction, as far as the 
eye can reach, until some of them resemble 
small yellow dots painted against the horizon, 
and are lost to sight in the shimmering^heat of 
the dim distance. 

Labge Fio.—Mail, July 6: E. K. Howard 
broui^ht to our office on Friday last a fig, 
which was raised upon his place, measuring 
eight inches in circumference. It was quite 
ripe, of the blue variety, and the largest by 
three inches we ever saw. He says he has had 
them even larger than this one, and the meat 
was just as fine and the flavor as nice as any 
ever raised in this country. 

Nevada. 

Editobs PsKas: — People here have justcom- 
menced haying. The grass is abundant, Grain 
looks well. E irly volunteer barley will be ripe 
in about three weeks. Bain fell last night and 
this morning, and if the wind follows, heavy 
grain will' lodge badly.— H. A. Bbadshaw, 
Paradise, Nevada, July 1st. 



\ 



46 



[July 15. id^fi 




The Centennial Ode. 

The following national ode, written (or the 
occasion by Bayard Taylor, was read at the 
Fourth of July celebration at the Centennial 
Exposition: 

Sun of the Btately Day, 

Let ABit iuto the shadow drift, 
Ijet Europe bask In thy ripened ray. 

And over the severing ocoan lift 
A brow of broader splendor ! 

Qlve light to the eafter eyes 

Of the land that waits to behold thee riM: 

The gladness of morning lend her, 

With the triumph of noon attend her, 

And the peace of the vesp-"r Rkles ! 

For, lo ; she Cometh now 

With hope on the lip and pride on the brow. 

Stronger, and dearer, and fairer. 

To smile on the love we bear her— 

To live, as we dreamed her and sought her, 

Uberty'B latest daughter I 

In the clefts of the rocks. In the secret placee, 

Wa found her traces; 

On the hills, in the crash of woodn that fall, 

We heard ber call; 

When the lines o) battle broke, 

We saw her face in the fiery smoke; 

Through toil, and anguish, and desolation. 

We followed and found her. 
With the grace of a virgin nation 

Asa sacred zone around her. 
Who shall ri-Joice 
With a righteous voice. 
Far heard through the ages, if not she '' 

For the menace is dumb that defied her. 

The doubt is dead that denied her. 
And she stands acknowledged and ntrong and 
free. 

IL 
Ah, hark I the HOlemn undertone 
On every wind of human story blown. 
A large dlvinelymolded Fate 
Questions the right and purpose of a Htale, 
And in its plan sublime 
Our eras are the dust of Time. 
The far-off Yesterday of Power 

Creeps back with stealthy feet. 
Invades thn lordship of the hour. 

And at a banquet takes the unbidden seal. 
From all uuchroniclcd aud silent ages 

Before the Future first b'got the Past, 

Till History dared, at last. 
To write eternal words on granite pages; 
From Egypt's tawny drill, and Assur's mound. 

And where, uplifted, white and far. 

Earth highest yearns to meet a star. 
And man his manhood b; the Oangei found, 

Imperial heads, of old millennial sway. 
And Btill by some pale splendor crowned. 

Chill as a corpse-llght in our full-orbed day, 
Ib ghostly grandeur rise 
And say, through stony lips and vacant eyes: 

" Thou that assertest freedom, power and fame, 
Declare to us thy claim 1 " 

III. 

On the shores of a Continent cast. 

She won the invioUte soil 
By loss of heirdom of all the Past, 

And faith ii! the royal right of Toil ' 
She planted homes on the savage snd. 
Into the wilderness lone 
She walked with fearless feet. 
In ber hand the divining rod. 

Till thu veins of the mountains beat 
With fire of metal and force of fCone I 
She set the speed of the river-head 
To turn the mills of her bread; 
She drove ber plowshare deep 
Through the prairie's thousand-centnrled sleep; 
'i'o the South, and West, and North, 
She called Pathfinder forth, 
Her faithful and sole companion. 
Where the flushed Sierra, snowy-starred. 
Her way to the sunset barred. 
And the nameless rivers in thunder and foam 

Channeled the terrible canon ! 
Nor paused, till her uttermost home 

Was built, in the smile of a softer aky 
And the glory of beauty still to be. 

Where the haunted waves of Asia die 
On the strand of the world-wide sea 1 

IV. 

The race, in conquering. 
Som? fierce Titantic Joy of conquest knows; 

Wuetber in veins of serf or king. 
Our ancient blood beats restless in repose. 

Challenge of Mature unsubdued 
Awaits not man's defiant answer long; 

For hardship, even as wrong, 
Provoked the level-eyed heroic mood. 
This for herself she did; but that which lies. 
As over earth the skies. 
Blending all forms in one benignant glow- 
Crowned conscience, tender care. 
Justice, that answers every bondman's prayer. 
Freedom where faith may lead or thoughts may 
• dare, 

The power of minds that know. 

Passion of hearts that feel , 
Purchased by blood and woe, 
Qoirded by fire and steel 
Hath she secured what blaron on her shield, 
In the clear Century's light 
Shines to the world revealed, 
Dea'lariug nobler triumph, liurn of right t 

V. 

Foreseen in the vision of sages. 
Foretold when martyrs bled. 
She was bom of the longing of ages. 
By the truth of t be noble dead 
And the faith of the living fed ! 
So blood in her lightest veins 
Frets at remembered chains. 
Nor shame of bondage has bowed her bead. 
In her form and features still. 
The unblenching Puritan will, 

Cavalier honor. Huguenot grace. 
The Quaker truth and sweetness. 

And the strength of the danger-girdled race 
Of Holland, blend in a proud cimpleteneso. 
From the hemes of all, where her being liegan. 
She took what she gave to man: 
■lustice, that knew no station, 

Belief, as soul decreed. 
Free air for aspiration. 
Free force for independent deed 



She takes but to give again. 
As the aea returns the rivers In rain; 
And gathers the chcseu of her seed 
From the hunted of every crown and creed. 
Ber Germany dwells by a gentle Bhine; 
Ber Ireland sees the old sunburst shine; 
Ber France pursues some dream divine; 
Ber Norway keeps his mountain pine; 
Ber Italy waits by the western brine; 

And broad-based under all. 
Is planted England's oaken-hearted moc ■> 

As rich In fortitude 
As e'er went worldward from the Ipland-w 

Fused In her candid light. 
To one strong race all races here unite; 
Tongues molt in hers, hereditary foeraen 
Forget their sword and slogan, kith and clan: 

'Twas glory, once, to be a Roman; 
She makes it glory now to be a man 1 

Yl. 

Bow down ! 
Doff thine Ionian crown ! 

One hour forget 
The glory, and recall the debt: 

3l!;ke expiation 

Of humbler mood. 
For the pride of thine exaltation 
O'er peril conquered and strife subdued I 
But half the right is wrested 

When victor>- yields her prize. 
Aid half the marrow tested 

When old endurance dies. 
In the sight ot them that love thee. 
Bow to the Greater above thee I 

Be falleth not to smite 
The idle ownerabip of Right, 
Nor sparea to sinews fresh from trial. 
And virtue schooled in long denial. 
The tests that wait for thee 
In larger perils of prosperity. 

Here, at the Century'F awful shrine. 
Bow to thy Father's Qod and thine '. 

VII. 

Behold! She bendeth now , 

Humbling the chaplet of her hundred yean: 
There is a solemn sweetness on ber bmw. 
And in her eyes are sacred tears. 
Can she forget. 
In present joy, the burden of her debt. 

When for a captive race 
She grandly staked aud won 
The total promise of her power begun. 

And bared her bosom's grace 
To the sharp wound that inly tortures yet ? 
Can she forget 

The million graves ber youug devotioa set. 
The hands that clasp above 
From either side, in sad, returning love? 
Can she forget, 
Here, where the ruler of to-day 

The citizen of to-morrow, 
Aud equal thousauds, to rejoic« and pray 

Beside these holy walls are met, 
Ber birth-cry. mixed of kuenest bliss and sorrow <-. 
Wheie, on July's immortal morn 
Beld forth the ]>eople saw her head 
And shouted to the world: "The King is 
dead. 
But, lo ! the Heir is bom ! " 
When fire of youth, and sober trust of age. 
In farmer, soldier, priest, and sage. 
Arose and cast upon her 
Baptismal garments— never robe so fair 
Clad prince in old world air— 
rheir lives, their fortunes, and their sacred 
honor I 

vni. 

Arise : Recrown thy head 
Radiant with blessing of the dead I 

Bear from this hallowed place 
The prayer that purifies thy lips. 
The light of courage that defies eclipse. 
The rose of man's new morning on thy fac« ! 

Let no iconoclast 
Invade the risin- Pantheon of the Past, 
To make a blank where Adam stood. 
To touch the father's sheathed and sacred 

blade. 
Spoil crowns on JefTerson and Franklin laid, 
Or wash from Freedom's feet the stain of Lin- 
culn's blood. 
Hearken, as from that haunted hall 
Their voices call: 

" We lived and died for thee; 
We greatly dared that thou migbt'st be; 

So from thy children still. 
We claim denials which at last fulfill. 
And freedom yielded to preserve thee free ! 
Beside clear-hearted Right 
That smiles at Power's uplifted rod. 
Plant duties that requite. 
And Order that sustains, upon thy sod. 

And stand in stainless might 
Above all self, and only less than Ood ! " 

IX. 

Here may thy solemn challenge end. 
All-proving fact, and eacb discordance die 

Of doubtful augury, 
Or in one choral with tlie Present blend. 

And that half-beard, sweet harmony 
Of aomethlne nobler that our sons may sc ! 

Though pnigant memories burn 
Of days that were, and may again return. 
When thy fleet-foot, U Huntress of the Woods, 
The slippery brinks ot danger know. 

And dim the eyesight grew 
That was so sure in thine own solitudes - 

Tet stays some richer sense 
Won from the mixture o^thine elements. 

To guide the vagrant.schemo. 
And winnow truth from each conflicting dream. 

Yet in thy blDod shall live 
Some force misspent, eome essence primitive 
To seize the highest use of things; 
For Fate, to mold thee to her plan. 

Denied the food of kings. 
Withheld the udder and the orchard fniitn. 

Fed thee with savage roots. 
And force 1 thy harsher milk from barren 
breasts ol man ; 



O sacred woman— form 
Of the first people's need and passion wrought — 
No thin, pale ghost of thought. 
But fair as morning and as heart's blood warm. 
Wearing thy priestly tiar on Judah's hills, 
Clear.eyed beneath Athen's helm of gold; 

Or from Rome's central seat 

Hearing the pulses of the continents beat 
In thunder where her legions rolled; 
Compact of high heroic hearts and wills. 

Whose being circles all 
The selfless alms of saen, aud all fulfills; 

Thyself not free, so loug as one is thrall: 
Qoddess, that as a nation lives. 

And as a nation dies. 

That for her children as a man defies. 
And to her children as a mother <{lve8. 

Take our fresh fealty now I 
No more a Ohieftainess, with wampum-zone 

And featme-clBctured brow; 
No more a new Britannia, grown 

To spread an e<iual banner to the breeze. 

And lift tby trident o'er the double se«g; 
Bat with unborrowed crest. 
In thine own native beauty dressed. 

The front ot pare command, the nsflinchlug 
eye, thine own 1 



XI. 
Look np, look forth and on ! 

There's light in the dawning sky; 
The clouds are parting, the night is gone: 
Prepare for the work of the day ! 

Fallow thy pastures lie 
And far thy shepherds stray. 
And the fields of thy vast domain 

Are waiting for purer seed 

Of knowledge, desire and deed. 
For keener sunshine and mellower rain. 

But keep thy garments pure; 
Pluck them back with the old disdain 
From the touch of the hands that stain '. 

So shall thy strength endure. 
Transmute into good the gold of gain. 

Compel to beauty thy rude powers, 

Till the bounty of coming hours 

Shall plant on thy fields apart. 

With the oak of toll, the rose of art. 

Be watchful, and keep us so; 

B« strong, and fear no foe; 

Be just and the world shall know I 
With the same love love us as we give: 

And the day shall never come. 

That finds us weak or dumb 

T'o join aud smite and cry 

III the great task, for thee to die. 
And the greater task, for thee to live '. 



Overland Chat. 

[Written for the Press by Maky MonhxarN.] 

When we first trudged through the streets of 
Chicago, we began to say, " Why, it seems like 
San, Francisco, don't it? " Only the air is so 
smoky and dirty and murky, it don't srem 
good to breathe, and how it shuts out the dis- 
tance! Ten blocks away eTerything is dingy 
and obscure . 

And how funny the street oars look, open at 
the sides, and some are entered at the sides, 
with seats ranged across instead of lengthwise. 
Many of the wagons, trucks aud carriages look 
quite different from oars, and we notice that 
nearly everybody carries an umbrella, aud 
needs it very often, too, in the course of the 
day, for the pelting showers come down almost 
without warning. 

Passing through the burnt district, we found 
several vacant lots with ruins, almost as the 
fire had left them, and at the railroad station, 
so little has been rebuilt, that we found a wait- 
ing and ticket room much smaller and rougher 
than an ordinary farm kitchen. From Chicago 
to Titasville, Fa., we passed through the lake 
shore country, aud had expected to find it " all 
slicked up" and reposing in a sort of elegant 
leisure. Ho we were disappointed, and especially 
with the first farming country eastward of 
Chicago, where stumps, swamps and the "rag- 
ged edge of despair " were most noticeable. 

Through Ohio the farms look better and as if 
the owners take agricultural papers and save up 
egg money for paint and whitewash. We saw 
very little stock and none better than the aver- 
age in California. 

Titusville 

Wan our next stopping place, and if the man 
in the moon should drop down there 
with a human nose, be would need to ask no 
question about its leading industry, for the air 
is full of it, and the new comer will soon " take 
it in at the pores " and smell as good as any- 
body. 

The relatives we came here to visit are old 
settlers, and years ago had told us of the oil 
that floated on the creek, and how it was some- 
times poaked up in a blanket, wrung out and 
used as an excellent remedy for rheamaiism, 
also as an occasional make-sbift for light and 
for lubricating. There is evidence that some 
former race knew of this oil and collected it in 
pits dug along the river bank, and in many of 
these pits large trees have grown, perhaps gen- 
erations of trees since. 

The Unknown Race " Struck lie." 

Mr. Drake was the lucky aod famous man 
who bored the first well and pumped the first 
oil in this region, and his old derrick, pump, 
etc., have been sent forward for the Centennial 
exhibition. 

Much more remarkable wells were soon 
struck, some bursting out with terrific explo- 
sions that sent oil and gas high in the air, and 
catching fire from the engines immenss damage 
was done before people learned how to control 
these dangerous elements. 

Titusville is in three parts, the beautiful, 
clean and green, where oil princes live in big, 
handsome houses, and plenty of other people 
in commoD cottages; the basinets section, where 
merchandise and oil stocks are offered "cheap 
for cash;" and the oil soaked region by the 
river where you will find eight refineries, para- 
fine works, color works, acid works, machine 
shops and the most enormous tanks holding 
30,000 barrels of oil each. 

Measuring one of these tanks, it was foand 
to be 100 feet in diameter and '20 feet high, 
made of l>oiler-plate iron riveted together. 
And liere arefthe iron pipes that bring oil in from 
the different districts; 12 or 15 of them cross 
one bridge, some of them 13 miles long, and 
the oil is forced through them by huge steam 
engines located at the wells. 

The big kettles holing 3,500 barrels each are 
another cariosity, for the intense fires are kept 
up by gas escaping from the oil , and the town 
is also lighted with gas from the wells io the 
hills. 

It is always considered a good joke to talk of 
Setting the River on Fire, 
But the good folks of Titusville have reason to 
pray that no one will try that jok« on their 



river, for they know already how well it will 
burn. The town has 13,000 inhabitants, and 
the daily product of oil is about 2i,Q0Q barrels. 

At Fleasantville, sis miles up in the hiUs, 
our friends took us to see the taring of a new 
well; also to see the best yielding well in the 
place, and we crept up on the greasy derricks 
to look at the steady black stream that would 
fill a three-fourth inch pipe, and is worth to its 
owner about $1,000 per week. The owner is a 
rough, crude looking man, and with the help of 
his Irish wife does all the work and keeps down 
the expenses, so they will soon have a fortune 
for those ragged little children we saw in the 
shanty close by the well. 

Throughout the oil district the average yield 
is slowly diminishing, and hundreds of wells 
are abandoned. To l>ore a new one takes 20 
days and costs some $2,000, and men are con- 
stantly hunting for new districts as the old give 
out. When a well goes dry the derrick is left 
standing, and in some districts there were more 
than I could count. A barrel factory turns out 
1,000 barrels per day, made from oak wood out 
in this vicinity. 

The crude oil is now worth $2.18 per barrel 
— was once as low as 25 cents, and at that time 
the grocers of this vicinity were in the habit of 
giving to their regular customers all the oil 
they oonid use — and the best refined oil has t>een 
sold at five cents pier gallon. 

Our trip to Philadelphia through the 
Lehigh Goal Region 
Was full of interest, not only on account of the 
wonderful scenery, bat the immense amount of 
business along the many iron roads was a rich 
surprise for us, and took away the very last rag 
and remnant of our Califorma brag. We fairly 
turned pale as we whispered so that no one 
might hear— "Do yon think California ever 
will show so many big towns that make no fuss 
over being big and doing such a perfectly awful 
rush of business?" Market street in San Fran- 
cisco seems busy, but does not begin to give 
that tremendous impression of vast business 
operations which struck us so forcibly during 
one day's ride in the old Keystone State. 

Home Made Ornaments. 

A lady writes the Floral Cabinet that it does 
not need wealth to make our houses look pleas- 
ant with fancy ornaments, for if we use a lit- 
tle head aud hand work we may have a great 
many pretty ornaments that you coald not 
purchase, nor anything one-half as pretty, and 
as I have received instructions through the 
columns of the Gabinel about these things I will 
tell what little I can about them, hoping it may 
be Useful to some one. 

A nice tidy can l>e made by taking red-ribbed 
stockings and catting them in about two inch 
squares and crocheting them together with in- 
sertions of green fingering yarn. Of course 
you can make it whatever size you wish. Pieces 
of colored paper cut in squares of about three- 
quarters of an inch, and doubled three-cor- 
nered twice, and sewed on cardboard or paste- 
board evenly and as closely together as con- 
venient, and then varnished, make pretty 
boxes or picture frames. 

A very pretty lamp-mat can be made by tak- 
ing 18 brass rings, and coveriag them with 
fingering yarn of any color; then sewing them 
together on four sides and across the rings and 
the diamonds which the rings make when 
sewed together, string white glass beads on 
wire, pat two strings in one ring and diamond, 
then put fringe around it, and it is finished. I 
omitted to tell the size of the rings. They are 
preferred about as large again as a finger ring. 
By placing the rings together on a table yoa will 
see how to place them so as to make tke mat 
round. 

You can easily make a comfortable chair by 
following these instructions: The head of a 
barrel is knocked oat and fastened half 
way down, the shape of the l>ack and arms 
chalked out first, and then sawed carefully; 
after that some coarse canvas or old stuff is 
tacked loosely on, and stuffed with horse hair 
or wool; a cushion made for the seat of the 
same, and the whole covered with bright color- 
ed chintz, and it finishes up a chair by no 
mean') to be despised. 

Aa hour-glass table can be made with little 
difiiculty by taking two roand slabs, fastened at 
each end of the small post or leg, and covered 
with chintz, and with two or three pockets hung 
around, are so handy for spools of thread and 
other working material. 

Another lamp mat is cheaply made, in fact 
can be made with little or no expense, by tak- 
ing a cord about a quarter of an inch thick, and 
alK)ut a yard and a quarter long, and covering 
it with yarn, and sewing it in a roand flat 
mat, then take an old carpet slipper, or slip- 
pers, and ravel them, and then take this yarn 
and sew it in on the edge of the center you 
have before made in loops; or yon could take 
yarn of old stockings, but that out of slippers 
is preferred, as it is nicely clouded. 

Another ornament is made in the shape ot a 
moss box, as follows: Take a man's old straw 
hat and rip three or four rows of braid from it, 
then fasten the ends on firm, und sew a handle 
on it of pasteboard in the inside of the crown, 
then line it with white paper and cover it with 
moss. 

A pretty transparency for the window is 
made thus: Take a pin and prick on white pa- 
per the shape and depth of a cross, surrounded 
with moss, then place this between two 
panes of glass and bind together with ribbon. 



July 15, 1875. j 



^AMtmi 



iA% ipmsi 



©;©),. 



4? 



Germany's Greeting. 

On Tnesday, the Fourth of July, in Washing- 
ton, Mr. Cadwalader, Acting Secretary of 
State, presented Mr. Schlager, German Min- 



into a sort of a yestibnle divided from the main 
building by a partition of upright boards, mab- 
orately painted and varnished. Before this 
partition is a high shelf or altar, on which was 
a censer dish, with several tall gilded joss- 




ister.'to the President for the purpose of sticks, stuck in the white sand with which it 



delivering an autograph letter of congratula- 
tion from the Emperor of Germany. Mr. 
Schlager in presenting the letter stated that he 
was instructed by his Majesty to deliver upon 
the Fourth of July to the President in person 
an autograph letter of congratulation upon the 
occasion of the Centennial anniversary, and 
wished to add his personal good wishes for the 
United States. The President briefly replied, 
assuring him of his satisfaction in receiving this 
evidence of good feeling on the part of his 
Majesty, that his kind expressions for the Uni- 
ted States were fully appreciated, and that the 
letter should be properly acknowledged, 
translation of the letter is as follows: 

William, by the grace of God Emperor of Ger- j 
many, King of the Prussias, etc., to the Presi- 
dent of the United States of America — Great 
AND Good Friend: It has been vouchsafed to 
you to celebrate the Centennial festival of the 
day upon which the Great Republic over which 
you preside entered the ranks of independent 
nations. The purposes of its founders have by 
a wise application of the changes of history and 
the foundation of nations, and with an insight 
into the distinct future, been realized by a de- 
velopment without parallel. I wish to con- 
gratulate you and the American people upon 
tbis great occasion; and this affords me so much 
the greater pleasure because since the Treaty 
of Friendship, which my ancestor of glorious 
memory, King Frederick, who now rests with 
God, concluded with you, an undisturbed 
friendship has continually existed between 
Germany and America, and has been developed 
and strengthened by the ever-increasing im- 
portance of their mutual relations and by an 
intercourse becoming more and more fruitful 
in every domain of commerce and science. 
That ihe welfare of the United States and 
friendship of the two countries may continue 
to increase is my confident hope. Receive the 
renewed assurance of my unqualified esteem. 

William. 
Countersigned, Von Bismarck. 

Berlin June 9th, 1876. 



Fruits 



Y©JH*^ pOLKs' GoL 



A Visit to a Chinese Joss-House. 

[Written for the Pbess by Mrs. Geoboie, D. S.] 
"Oh! grandfather, its Floy that got the 
budget of news from the new Chinese joss- 
house," said Kate. She stuck closer than 
death to that poor old Chinaman. She and 
, the laughing black eyes, rested mis- 
chievously on me. "Well, never miad, Miss 
Katie," I answered, "Floy and I, perhaps have 
gained a little more solid information in regard 
to the Chinese than some others I could men- 
tion, even if we did besiege the old Chinaman 
with questions, I am sure he gave it very wil- 
lingly, and seemed proud to have white lady 
visitors," returned Florence. 

"To be sure he was," said grandfather, "and 
little sun-beam and I intend to make his high- 
ness another visit before long." "And to see 
the little sure enough China baby, won't we 
grandfather?" was the eager return. 'Indeed 
we will," was the response, as he stroked 
the golden curls that rested on and mingled 
with the long silver white beard on his bosom. 
It is well worth a visit, I think; and is quite a 
pretentious building for so small a population 
as Mercod. Although every town and village 
in California has its Chinatown adjacent, 
Merced city being situated oa the railroad, has 
a much larger one than is usually found outside 
of a large city. But come Florence, I am get- 
ting impatient to bear something 
budget of information they tell us of." "I can- 
not answer for the information, but I can tor a 
very pleasant day, and a very interesting visit to 
the Chinese temple." "Well, then, at any 
rate, let us have your version of the new Chi- 
nese temple." 

"To begin then," said Florence, playfully, 
"As little Virgie says, we all went. Mamma and 
all. Passing through the narrow streets of 
Chinatown, lined on either side with small 
houses, consisting of market houses with their 
stalls of all kinds of Chinese viands, of fish, 
clams, decayed vegetables, and all manner of 
vile smelling produce, interspersed with stores 
laundries, and eating houses, we hurried on 
through the crowd of loungers idling at the 
doors of their gambling and eating houses, 
amid the sickening odor from their opium pipes, 
until we reached the suburban temple. Here 
we found a square building, fancifully decora- 
ted on the outside, according to the general 
style I suppose, with 



was partially filled, and on either side of this, 
two tall candlesticks with colored candles. All 
were burning, with several paper lanterns, fan- 
cifully painted in birds and reptiles. Each side 
of the door, seated in state, were the gods — at 
least two, in their imitation niches. They are 
small statues, of from three to four feet in 
hight, made of a kind of plaster of paris, 
dreadfully painted, notwithstanding the ex- 
act image of a very ugly Chinaman. 'A kind of 
a brass or copper color highly tinted with ver- 
milion black and brown,' I suggested. 'And 
those two little imitation niches, Florence 
A j speaks of, are nothing more than square boxes 
ornamented in gold and silver tinsel, the 
drapery being of silk and satin fancifully ar- 
ranged, in which the gods are seated with a 
number of tapers and incense sticks placed as 
footlights at their feet." 

Florence continued. "The entrance to the 
inner chamber is through an opening on either 
side of the partition, which is a large square 
room decorated with all manner of fanciful 
devices. At the further end is an elevation, 
something like our pulpits, on which the prin- 
cipal gods are seated on an estrade under a 
suspended canopy of royal silk, embroidered 
in gold and silver tinsel." 

"I suppose they represent the three defunct 
emperors, Fo-hy, Shin-noong and Hong ty, 
who reigned in the fabulous part of Chinese his- 
tory in the remote ages, so many thousand 
years before ours," remarked grandfather. 

"More likely," I rejoined, "they represent the 
last three of the five sovereigns that succeeded 
them, about the time of the Chow dynasty, 
1,000 years before Christ; Yion, Shan and Yu, 
whose race still sat upon the throne at the 
time of Confucius, 550 years B. C. Historical 
facts prove that before the age of Confucius 
the annals of Chinese history are fabulous and 
uncertain. Confucius himself admits that it is 
almost impossible to credit those remote ages. 
Most Christian writers contend that Chinese 
history only commences to jssume an appear- 
ance of probability about the time of the Chow 
dynasty. Thus they place Yaon, Shun and Yu 
cotemporaneously with the three patriarchs, 
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. And in the Shoo- 
king of Confucius there is an account of an 
extensive flood which took place in the reign of 
Yaon, which appears to be derived from a 
tradition concerning the Mosaic deluge, and 
thus they identify Fo-hy with Noah." 

"Well, let that be as it may," said grand- 
father, "Chinese history is so sullied with fable, 
superstition and uncertainty that it is hard to 
come to aright conclusion." 
1 "Yes," I answered, "the Chinese love for the 
ancient and marvelous is so great that their 
national vanity has handed down from genera- 
tion to generation their traditions filled with 
superstition, demons, geniis and all manner of 
impossibilities, until it has induced them to as- 
sign to their country such a high degree of an- 
tiquity that it exceeds all bounds for belief." 

"Dear Florence," I said apologetically, 
"here we have been talking regardless of your 
interruption." 

"Oh! I am sure I was as interested as you 
were," was the ready answer. 

Then I will beg you to proceed," said 
grandfather. 

"The Chinese interpreter told us that the gods 
had been sent from China, that the emperor 
himseif had the ordering of them, he himself 
having full power to order such deities as he 
desired his people to worship. The emperor 
ranks high among their idols, only heaven and 
earth and his deceased ancestors are considered 
his superior. Before the three gods stands 
the altar, on which is another ceD»er dish with 
lighted joss-sticks, whose ashes are caught in 
the dish as they fall, before which a large vase 
of most beautiful artificial flowers is placed, 
and on either side of this is a square transpar- 
ency of white silk, gorgeously painted in flow- 
ers, birds and fishes, and lighted, as the others 
within. Just behind the censer is an urn, with 
lighted tapers burning at its base. On all sides 
are devices of all conceivable shapes, fancy 
about that | paper, lanterns, gaud/ flags representing the 
signs of the zodiac and difi'urent constellations, 
with the sun and moon in all its changes; 
others of variously colored silk in figures of 
dragons, bears, panthers, foxes and all manner 
of hideous caricatures." 

"The strange, unearthly fumes emitted from 
these censer sticks and burning candles was 
anything but enchanting," joined in Kate. 

"We did not see them at their devotions," I 
observed, "but are told that the oblations of- 
fered at their shrines are presented amid the 
fumes of incense, the effulgence of sparkling 
tapers and lighted tinsel. The sound of the 
gong, their one string violin and other musical 
instruments are in keeping with the place. Their 
offering consists in all kinds of eatables, 
such as baked fowls and other meats, cakes, 
fancy candies, wine, etc. These are thought 
essential in order to propitiate their deities. It 
is well calculated to remind one of the chamber 
of imagery erected by the idolatrous Hebrews, 
'As a cnamber wherein every form of creeping 



suppose, with statues, flags and 
curiously carved ornaments of various designs, j things, and abominable beasts, and all the idols 



A writer in the New York Tribuw; constructs 
an essay on the subject of fruits, from which we 
compile the following timely information. 
There is nothing very novel in the statements, 
but they will be useful and interesting to many : 
Fruits may be distinguished from vegetables 
by the circumstance that they contain hardly 
any nitrogen or plastic material, while vege- 
tables are valuable mainly on account of the 
starch and albumen which they yield, and also 
by the fact that, when ripe, fruits require no 
cooking to render them palatable and digest- 
ible, while vegetables do. Fruits may be re- 
garded not so much nutrients as agreeable lux- 
uries, for nowhere are they a food on which the 
life of man depends, though they are eagerly 
sought after in all climates. In hot climates 
they occupy a higher position as foods than in 
temperate regions, since they do not greatly 
produce heat, and yet furnish juices of an 
agreeable flavor which stimulate the sense of 
taste and cool the blood. Fruits consist essen- 
tially of two parts, the juices and the cellular 
parts in which the juices are contained; the 
juices are easily digestible, but the cells are not, 
and are, therefore, when possible, thrown 
away. AH fruits contain much more fluid than 
solid matter, and supply sugar, acids, salts, and 
the various volatile essences on which their 
flavor depends. 

The grape was doubtless one of the earliest 
fruits eaten by man. It was cultivated by the 
oldest civilized Eastern nations, whence prob- 
ably it was carried into Europe, as it does not 
grow there wild. It abounded in Syria and 
Persia. The Romans planted it on the banks 
of the Rhine, and toward the close of the Ro- 
man power in England we find it cultivated in 
several parts of that country by the Anglo- 
Saxons; afterward, while monasteries existed, 
few of them were without their vineyard. In 
Switzerland and other parts of Europe, ripe 
grapes are considered a specific for dyspepsia, 
consumption and some other complaints. Their 
medicinal effect is supposed by some to be due 
to the bi-tartrate of potash they contain. 
Grapes contain sugar, gum, glutinous matter, 
malic, citric and tartaric acids, potash and lime 
in proportions varying with the kind of grape 
and the different conditions of soil and climate 
in which it is grown. 

Apples contain sugar, malic acid, gum, woody 
fiber and water, together with some aroma on 
which their peculiar flavor depends. Though 
chemical analysis may show much less nutri- 
ment in apples than in many other foods, there 
is much available nutriment in them, and the 
vital analysis in the digestive apparatus uses 
them up closely. Pears were brought from the 
East by the Romans, who cultivated them with 
care. The pear is a Lardy tree, and longer 
lived than even the apple. The best varieties 
of the pear rank deservedly among the most 
delicious of fruits. In composition the pear 
does not differ very greatly from the apple. 
The peach is a bative of Persia, and was called 
by the Romans Persica. Both in the fresh and 
preserved state it is a very favorite dessert. It 
contains sugar, gum, pectine, malic acid and 
water. 

The orange has been called the universal 
fruit of commerce, and, though the product of 
tropical and semi-tropical climates, it may be 
had fresh in every region of the world, and at 
almost every season of the year. The agree- 
able sub-acid of the orange renders it one of 
the most agreeable, cooling and wholesome of 
fruits, and the essential oil in the rind is ser- 
viceable to the cook in giving flavor to many 
dishes. Orange flower water, made from the 
blossoms, is a delicious anti-febrile beverage, 
and a tea made of the leaves of the tree is highly 
valued as a drink for yellow fever patients. 
The orange pulp contains citric acid, malic 
acid, mucilage, albumen, sugar, citrate of lime, 
and water. The proportions of these constit- 
uents vary with the degree of ripeness of the 
fruit. The lemon belongs to the same family 
as the orange, and is highly valuable for its 
refrigerant and anti-scorbutic properties. Its 
constituents are citric and malic acid, gum, 
bitter extraction and water. 

BoBACio Acid in the Tbeatment of Ring 
WORM. — Surgeon Mayor Watson has lately used 
boracic acid with great success as an external 
application in the treatment of vegetable par- 
asitic diseases of the skin. In tbo different 
forms of the tinea (T. tonsurans and circinata) 
and in that very troublesome form of the dis- 
ease which effects the scrotum and the inner 
side of the upper parts of the thighs of many 
Europeans in India, its application acts like a 
charm. A solution of a drachm of the acid to 
an ounce of water, or as much as the water at 
ordinary temperatures will take up is employed. 
The affected parts should be well bathed in the 
solution twice daily, some little friction being 
used, and the solution allowed to dry on the 
part. — Am. Jour. Med. Science. 

Food foe Gout. — Dr. Cheyene said, nearly 
200 years ago: "Three pints of milk and six 
ounces of bread, daily, are the only certain 



Home Made Recipe Book. 



A lady correspondent of an English agricul- 
tural gazette says: In view of the cares and re- 
sponsibilities of housekeeping, a young woman 
cannot begin too early to cultivate an acquain- 
tance with culinary art; and there is no better 
way of acquiring and retaining this knowledge 
than by setting up a private recipe book, in 
which to jot down all tried and proved recipes, 
worthy of such distinction, that may be met 
with either at the family board , or at the table 
of a friend. I began the practice when about 
12 years of age, at the instigation of an expe- 
rienced matron, herself a model of order in 
everything relating to housekeeping, and subse- 
quent observations has often made me look 
back on her friendly counsel with respect and 
gratitude, and to say to myself that even in 
worldly things, "a word spoken in season, how 
good is it." That these remarks may be equally 
useful to some young aspirant to prospective 
duties, I proceed to give a few hints to those 
who may feel inclined to adopt the plan. 

First, then, let extreme simpUcity of arrange- 
ment cimracterize the start. In the first flush 
of the new idea it may be very amusing to di- 
vide and classify, but as the novelty wears ofi 
these elaborate devices become irksome, and 
may tend to disgust altogether. All that is 
wanted is a blank ruled book of a suitable size, 
and after numbering the pages and writing the 
name of the owner and the date, it is ready for 
work, which may be proceeded with as follows : 
Never take a recipe on trust, or even on the 
recommendation of a friend; try it before 
entering it in your book — you will thus be 
saved the pain of finding out, too late, probably 
from an error in diction, that it does not turn 
out well, when by adhering strictly to the rule, 
to enter nothing till you have tested it, you 
know at once that all your recipes can be de- 
pended on, and that there is no mistake about 
them. How often in reading a recipe in a 
cookery book, you think that looks promising! 
I wish I knew if it would answer. With your 
own book you need not be at such a loss; you 
have there confidence that is not misplaced, 
and confidence in what you are about is gener- 
ally half the battle. Therefore, we would say- 
write down everything you can make yourself, 
from a water gruel to a pate de foie gras; and 
with your book and your knowledge, you may 
take the world, broadside on, and when other 
trades fail, you can set up a restaurant, or go 
out as chitj de cuisine. 

Some recommend the plan of dividing the 
book into departments, as we see in works on 
cookery — fish by itself — soup by itself, etc.; but 
as 1 said before, I think that|all such divisions 
interfere with the simplicity of arrangement, 
which is the surest means of encouragement in 
what might otherwise become distasteful. In 
preparing a work on cookery for the press, of 
course it is absolutely necessary that every- 
thing should be classified, and as in that case 
the whole is completed at once, it becomes 
comparatively easy. But in a private book — 
added to during the most part of a lifetime— it 
is very different, and there is no better plan 
than to jot down recipes as they turn up, trust- 
ing to the index and the numbering of the pages 
to find what is wanted at a glance. 



Intelligible to them I presume, although so 
enigmatical of us. We were met at the en- 
trance to the temple by an old fat Chinaman, 
whether pope, prelate, or priest, we did not 
know, I am sure, but he was undoubtedly 
keeper of the gods. 
^^'The entrance is through a large oriental door 



of the house of Israel were portrayed upon the 
walls round about.' " 

"But my little starbeam has gone to sleep, 
and the last word she whispered in my ear 
was, 'Grandfather, we will go and see the 
pretty little sure enough China baby, with the 
red cap and blue tassels. Won't we?' " 



remedies for gout. Let two people be chosen, 
as like as possible, both suffering from the 
same cause. Give the most promising patient 
the most approved nostrums, etc., and let the 
other have only the simplest attention, but 

f>laced under a strict diet, the lightest and 
east, milk and seed diet, and I will venture 
reputation and lile that my method cures soon- 
est.'' 



How to Cook Potatoes. 

There are schools of cookery under the pat- 
ronage of the English government, and that our 
readers may know how practical the teaching 
is, we extract from one of the professor's lec- 
tures the following instruction concerning po- 
tatoes: 

"L<jt me teach you how to boil a potato. Go 
home and practice the boiling of a potato until 
you have done it as perfectly as possibly can be. 
Leave your saucepans and stewpansandgointo 
the bai'k lanes and teach the poor how to make 
the most of the food which God in His goodness 
has provided. This is the religion of common 
life. Always remember that the best part of 
the potato is nearest the skin. Select your po- 
tatoes all of the same sort, and as nearly as 
possible of the same size. They must ba all of 
the same sort, because different varieties re- 
quire different degrees of boiling; they should 
be of the same size so as to be cooked in the 
same time. Thoroughly clean your potatoes 
by scrubbing them with a hard brush. A knife 
must never touch them, not even to remove 
the eyes. Pack them tightly in a saucepan so 
as to cover them with the smallest quantity of 
water. Always use clean rain water for cook- 
ing, if you can obtain it. Cover with water, 
adding a teaspoonful of salt to a quart of water. 
Biiug them to the boil. Bet them aside to 
simmer; potatoes are generally spoiled by quick 
boiling. Try them with a thin bone skewer. 
When nearly done finish the cooking by boiling 
up quickly for one or two minutes. Pour 
away uU the water. Partly remove the lid to 
allow the moisture to evaporate. Give the 
saucepan one or two shakes. Lay a clean 
white cloth in a wooden bowl, peel the pota- 
toes quickly, and send them to the table." 

HoMK Made Currant Wine. — To one quart 
of currant juice add three pounds of brown 
sugar with water enough to make one gallon of 
wine. Set it in a shady, cool and dry place, 
open to the air until after fermentation ceases. 
Then draw off and set in close package or bot- 
tles. To obtain the juice place the currants in 
a preserve kettle and bring to a scald, when 
the fluid can be readily pressed out. 



48 



3r»E\jSbS« 



[July 15. 1876 




P0BU8HXI> BT 

OEIVTBIT ^k CO. 

A. 1. DBWBT. W. B. KWKB. Q. B. BTBONO. I. I.. BOOSB 



PtmoiPAi. Editob. 



.W. B. EWKR, A. M 



1 monA, 


3 moi. 


12 mos. 


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$3.00 


$7.60 


24.00 


6.00 


14.00 


40.00 



Oftiob, No. 224 Sansome street. Southeast comer of 
Oalltomla street, where friends and patrons are Invited 
to our 80IKMTIFIO Pbksb, Patent Agency, Engraving and 
Printing establishment. 

auBsOBipnoNS payable in advance— For one year, $4; 
six months, $2.26; three months, $1.26. Kemittances 
by registered letters or P. O. orders at onr risk. 
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Fonr weeks are rated a month. 

liarge advertisements at tavorable rates. Special or 
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In extraordinary type or in particular parts ol the paper 
inserted at special rates. 

Satea of Subscription. 

Secretaries of Granges and Farmers' Clubs, (and all 
reliable farmers and subscribers of the Fbess) are 
hereby authorized to make up clubs, of five or more 
names, at $3 each, per annum, in advance. 

■^No Agents or Secretaries are authorized to receive 
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No SnBscRipnoBS will be received at less than four 
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Our latest forms go to press Wednesday ei^ening. 

tio tiaack A.<I'vei'tlseinen1:s Inserted 
111 tliose oolumns. 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Saturday, July 15, 1876. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



OENERAL EDITORIALS.— Natural History of 

the Bee; Agricultural Statistics. 41. The Week; 

War and Wneat; Flax; The Army Worm; What Can 

be Done with Straw, 4 8. Kaitle Weed; Large Early 

Apricot; A Disastrous Reverse, 49. Notices of Ke- 

oent Patents; Something New for Adobe Soil; Our 

Antipodes, 62. 
ILLUSTRATIONS.— The HoneyBee, Illnstrated, 

41- "LarKe Early York.' 49- 
CORRESPONDENCK.— Farming in Placer Co.; 

Irrigation So. 1: Siill on the Prospect; The Ceiiten. 

Dial at Philarlelrhia, 42-43. 
HORTICULTURE. — Almond Culture in Santa 

Clara Valley; Almnnde in San Luis Obispo, 43. 
SHEEP AND "WOOL.— The Spring Clip of 187H, 

43. 
THK VINEYARD.-R. B. Blower's Raisin Mak- 
ing. 43. 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Centennial 

Cbat; Points pn Co-operation; The Duty of the Hour; 

In Meinoriani, 44-45. 
GENERAL NEWS.— General News Items and 

Mibcellaneoup Paragraphs, on 45 and ether pages. 
AORICULTURAL NOTES from various uuon- 

tI(.'S in California and Nevada. 45. 
HOME CIRCLE.— The Centennial Ode (Poetry); 

Ovcrlnnd Chat; Home Made Ornaments; Oermanv's 

Orftetinj;, 46-47- 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— A Visit to a Chinese 

■To^'8-Hon^e, 47- 
GOOD HEALTH.— Fruits; Boracic Acid in the 

Trestmpnt of lil'jg-worm; Food for Gout, 47. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— A Home Made Recipe 

Book; nuw to Cook Potatoes; Home Made Currant 

Wine, 47. 
aU ERIBS AND REPLIES-Dyeing Sheep Skins ; 

■•Ciinyon," not "Canon," 49. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Washington College, S. 8. Harmon, Principal, Wash- 
Ington, (!al.; Straw Burning ThresJiing Engines, A. 
I,. Fish*: Co., 8 F. 



The Week. 



ThiB is the time of plenty. The city side- 
walks, on the afreets devoted to the trade in 
produce, are covered thick as though some one 
had shaken a tree oji which fruit grew in 
baskets full, or the plow had turned up bags 
of vegetables plenty as stones on Eastern fields. 
"No one need lack for something to eat if he 
has any money at all," cried out a produce mer- 
chant to ns as we passed him standing knee 
deep in baskets of peaches, apricots, plums, figs, 
apples nnd pears, while all around were piled, 
shoulder-high, brown bags from which peeped 
corpulent, bright skinned potatoes, shining,' fat 
cheeked onions, otisp cabbages, blood-red 
beats, and golden carrots and beyond were 
spread abroad the royal purple egg plant (os- 
trich size), ponderous peppeis and all the 
Kweet aud savory jewels of the garden. No one 
need lack for souietbing to eat if they have 
ought to buy with. It is the eaters' harvest 
time and glorious healthy food lies on every 
hand. It is the beneiicent gift from the coun- 
try to the city and we trust that large bags of 
yellow gold will tell to the country the city's 
appreciation. New life, health and strength 
will come to the city if tired bodies and slug- 
gibh minds are but permitted to eojoy the rich, 
refreshing feast which the country now so lav- 
ishly bestows. 

Senator Mobrili, has been sworn in as 
Secretary of the _ Treasury, vice Bristow, re- 
signed. 



War and Wheat. 

— • 

The Eastern question has broken out in tur- 
moil and warfare. There was great efi'ort for 
peace, and English critics expiessed no great 
fear of war. So far indeed the conflict has 
been but preparatory, and no general and or- 
ganized warfare is announced. The outlying 
provinces of Turkey, which make a common 
cause against the central power, have not yet 
succeeded in combining their forces. It must 
be acknowledged, however, that the war cloud 
is much thicker than it was a few weeks ago. 

Of the possible effect of this warfare, should 
it become such indeed, we have spoken before. 
Aside from the general stifiening of prices for 
food supplies, which is the concomitant of war, 
there will be in this case' an especial influence 
exerted upon the available grain supply of 
Great Britain by the cutting oflf of the ship- 
ments from the southern ports of Kassia. 
Should this ensue, there will be a demand for all 
the wheat which can be possibly supplied from 
America, and as a natural res^ult a considerable 
improvement in prices may be expected. What 
the chance now is for the coming of a contin- 
gency of this kind, it is difficult to decide. It 
is wholly a matter of doubt and individua 
action must be undertaken on individual judg- 
ment. Although there is now a show for war, 
no one can tell bow soon diplomacy may 
sheathe the sword. 

Whether it be because of the war possibilities 
or for other reasons, there is noted a firmer 
holding of wheat both in this market and in 
the Eoglish merkets ss we are informed by the 
telegraphed report from Mark Lane. The 
opinion seems gaining ground here that more 
than current rates must be paid to secure the 
grain. It is reported that considerable arrange- 
ments is being made for storage by grain grow- 
ers in Ibis State. 

We are iofurmed from the interior that there 
has been some loss in the wheat fields from the 
beating out of the winds, and that some fields 
which were confidently put down for 60 bushels 
to the acre, thresh but 3U bushels. It will be 
difficult to tell what allowance must be made on 
former crop estimates for unrealized expecta- 
tions, but It wilt be something doubtless. We 
print in our market columns this week some 
reports concerning the wheat crop in some of 
the prairie States, in which, it appears, there 
have been influences which will reduce the 
yield somewhat below last year's amounts. 

In this connection we would mention a table 
which is printed in another column, giving the 
English cable quotation for wheat at intervals 
during each month of the last harvest year. 
From this table the gruingrower can learn the 
course ol the English market during the past 
year better than from any written description. 
By preserving the table for reference, many 
interesting and useful contrasts can be drawn 
from time to time, between past and present 
prices. 



Flax. 

EP1T0R8 Pbesn:— Having re»d your articles on flax 
culture for January and February, 1874, and also several 
more recent, I concluded to try about 25 acres. The 
laud Is strong adobe, and remained wet till the begin- 
ning of March, so Ihnt the seed was n )t sown till the 
end of March and beginning of April. It was well 
plowed, harrowed, seedea, harrowed and rolled. About 
10 acres was rolled after first harrowing, as I thought 
the seed was getting in too deep. This piece is the 
lightest of any. The plant has grown from six to 14 
IncboB and bioomo<l most profusely. It formed ^ood 
capsuUs, with prospects of plenty of seed, but the 
beat of two weeks ago seems to have deprived it of 
kufflcieut moisture to fill the seed. I wieh to know if 
there is any manufacturer on the oast that prepares 
the lint, and, if so, whether it would pay me to pull 
the plant to bale it. I enclose you a s imple, so that 
you can form a better opinion.- T. W. Whiitinqton, 
Mlddlctwon, Lake county, Cal. 

We are interested in Mr. Wnittington's state- 
ment. We are sorry that his crop of seed 
seems to be cut ofi', because, as things are at. 
present, the seed is the only part of the product 
which is sure of a ready market. Good seed is 
in constant demand in this city for the manu- 
facture of oil. First-class seed, we are Inld, is 
worth three and a half cents a pound. 

So far as we can ascertain thers is now no 
establishment in operation in this State for the 
manufacture of the fiber, and we cannot ansure 
our correspondent of any price for bis crop for 
this purpose. If there be a manufactory of 
this kind it is beyond onr knowledge, and we 
trust some one will inform ns of It. There 
was talk of a linen factory a few years ago, but 
we do not know of the realizition of the pro- 
ject. We look upon the growing of flax for the 
fiber as one of the coming industries of this 
State, and the field for it is magoiQeent. Every 
experiment in growing the plant will tend 
toward awakening attention and interest in the 
subject, and, we trust, ultimately lead to the 
investment of capital in what, it seems, must 
be a profitable venture. 

There is now springing up anew a wide inter- 
est in the cultivation of flax as a farm crop 
through all the States. There seems especial 
reason for interest in the subject in this Stale, 
because of cur immense consumption of bag- 
ging materials. Doubtless a few facts of the 
actual condition of the flai manufacture of this 
country will be of interest in this connection. 
A recent compilation of these facts is as follows: 
According to the census of 1870 there were 33 
establishments in the United States making 
lagging, etc., from hemp, jute, tow and flax. 



In this manufacture there were but 7,000 tons 
of flax and tow used, and 12,000 tons of hemp 
and jute. The product Bhow^< not a yard of 
linen goods. The flax was chiefly used in 
Illinois and Missouri, the tow in Ohio, the jute 
in New Jersey and the hemp in Kentucky. 
New Jersey imported $2.'), 000 worth of foreign 
flax and jute, and Now York $41,000. There 
are now probably double the number of flax 
manufactories of all kinds in the States that 
there was in 1870. One linen mannfactory, the 
only one, is just experimenting at Siark mills, 
Manchester, N. H. Several manufactories of 
shoe thread in Massachusetts, a crash manufac- 
tory in Fhiladel phia, the Messrs. Barbour Bros. ' 
flax thread mannfactory at Patersou, N. J., 
employing 500 operatives, but importing all 
their material. Several new flax and bagging 
mills have started in Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky 
and Illinois, one or two of which are using a 
finer fiber than that commonly used in bagging 
manufacture. 

Thus it appears that in the factories of the 
linens, threads and bagging the lint used was 
for the most part imported. This shows that 
the produo) rs of the raw material are more to 
blame than the capitalists. We doubt not that 
the new agitation of the subject at the East will 
induce a planting which will supply the man- 
ufacturers' need in the future. 

The notice which we made last winter of 
the enterprise of some Oregon farmers, in en- 
gaging to furnish a certain amount of flax fiber 
on the condition that a man would bring the 
necessary machinery and begin the manufac- 
ture, is one of the most straightforward and 
promising ways of making a start of which we 
nave heard. We doubt not that other men with 
the skill and capital requisite could be induced 
to come to this State, if a number of 
farmers would unite and make 4milar arrange- 
ments to prodace the raw material. We shall 
be glad to chronicle the success of an enter- 
prise of this kind. 

The Army Worm. 

We htar of the army worm in several locali- 
ties in this State. The latest announcement is 
from Tulare county, where they are reported to 
be "rqowing an alfalfa field at a rapid rate." 
This insect is an old and ruinous pest. Its 
ravages on the prairie States have resulted in 
ULtold loss to the farmers. Its progress in this 
State should be hedged about by as many bar- 
riers as possible. Until the present year the 
method to which the moth resorted to deposit 
the egg from which the worm was ha'cbed was 
nnknown. During the present year the 
method has been discovered by Prof. Riley, 
State entomologist of Missouri. He undertook 
the methodical investigation of this subject, and 
at the meeting of the St. Louis Academy of 
Science, on May Ist, was able to announce that 
his re.searcbes had been enlirely successful. 
Guided by the structure of the ovipositor, Mr. 
Riley coLcluded that the moth would naturally 
secrete the eggu where they could not be easily 
seen. This conclusion was afterward verified 
by direct observation, the anthor having wit- 
nessed the mode of oviposition on blue grass. 
The eggs are, as he surmised, secreted, beina 
either glued in rows of from five to 20 in the 
groove which is formed by the folding of the 
terminal ^rass-blade, or else between the sheath 
and the stalk. The eggs are white, slightly 
iridescent, spherical, .02 inch in diameter. 
They are fastened to each other and to the 
leaf, and covered along the exposed portion by 
a white, glistening, viscid substance. As they 
mature the color becomes yellowish, and by 
the seventh day the brown head of the embryo 
shows distinctly through the shell. 'The larva 
emerges from the eighth to the tenth day, is 1.7 
millimetre in length, dull, translucent white in 
color, with a large black-brown head, and is a 
loopor, the two front pairs of abdominal pro- 
logs being atrophied. On account of its ex- 
tremely small size and of the color resembling 
the pale bases of the grass-stalks near the 
ground, it is almost impossible to find them 
even where they are numerous. The one great 
economical result of these researches is the in- 
dicating of an effectual mode of destroying the 
army worm — viz., burning the (ggs with the 
stubble. 

So long as the practice of burning the stub- 
ble continues among our grain growers there 
would seem to be no great danger of wide 
scourges from the army worm in this State. 
Where it appears in different localities perhaps 
nothing better can be done than to prepare the 
fields for burning over, because one thorough 
destruction of the eggs and larv.-i- may give 
freedom for a long time. 



Points fob thb Bubal Pbess. — Onr 
business correspondence teems with encour- 
aging notes of the satisfaction of our read- 
ers with the Rural Pbe^^s. We have space 
but for one or two, to show that we value onr 
readers' good opinions. N. W. B., writing 
from La Uratiosa, says: "I have been taking 
the RuBAL Pbess about two years, and I don't 
see how any farmer can afford to do without 
it." M. J. H. writes from San Mateo: "We 
are liking the PBE.4a very mnoh. It furnishes 
reading for xui all." 

M. G. Eellooo. M. D., has become an assist- 
ant in Dr. B. J. Smiths' Smithsonian medical 
and phreno-physiological institute, No. 635 
California street, S. F. 



What Can be Done with Straw ? 

EorroBS Press:- I find since I came to Oalifomis that 
it is the prictice among farmers to burn all the stubble 
off the gronnd and burn up all the straw from the stack- 
yards. Kow, will not this way of doing business im- 
poverish the land? TUey claim, however, that the 
ashes will do more good than the straw, and that the 
straw will cause the grain to dry up. Now, I have not 
been here very long, but it seems to me that it id a 
wrooRidea. 1 think it would be better to turn the 
stubble under and pile up the straw and when it rota 
haul it out and scatter it over the fields. In thia way 
you would somewhat compensate for what you take 
off. Now, will some of your numerous readers who have 
had sufficient experience in the matter give us their 
experience through your valuable paper, as this is a 
question in which w« are all Interested. I would like 
the opinion of those who are capable of enlightening 
us on th« subject.- Mmsourian, Colusa, Colusa Co., 
Cal., .June 26th, 1876. 

We have frequently made allusion to this 
subject and pointed out the value there is in 
straw if used in certain ways. There are sev- 
eral reasons why straw cannot be used hero 
according to the Eastern practice, and yet it 
has a value which we believe onr farmers can- 
not always afford to overlook. Our correspond- 
ent asks: "Will not burning straw aud stubble 
impoverish the land?" Of course he who 
draws two dollars from his pocket and returns 
nothing, will reach the bottom of his purse 
sooner than he who draws two but returns 
one before he draws again. In order to keep a 
bank account good a man must make depo- its 
as well as drafts. The productiveness of the 
farmer's soil is his bank account. He starts 
with a certain fund. The constant disintegra- 
tion of the mineral elements of the soil by the 
action of the air, the frost and the rain, added 
to' the incoming of the volatile fertilizing com- 
pounds from the atmosphere, pay him an in- 
terest upon the original fnnd. His wealth 
consists, then, of bis first deposit and the inter- 
est which accrues upon it. Now, if the farmer, 
in his productive effort, draws more from the 
soil than nature gives him as interest, he is re- 
ducing his capital. But if he adopts wise 
practice and restores to his soil an equivalent 
for that which is removed, he lays up strength 
for future requirement. This is the question 
abstractly considered. 

Oar correspondent says they tell him that 
the ashes are worth more than the straw, and 
for this reason they bum the straw and stubble. 
Now this is true in one sense and false in 
another. It is true because on some of our 
i'oils the straw will not rot, and it is said lo 
do injury by making a light soil more light and 
more liable to drouth. Our correspondent 
thinks it would be well to pile up the straw and 
when it is rotted apply it to the land. If any 
means be adopted which will turn the straw 
into manure we have no doubt whatever that 
the return of the straw in that form will be as 
efficacious here as elsewhere, providiug the soil 
be in sucli condition as to take manure with 
good results. We have shown, in a former 
issue of the Fbes?, that the most practical and 
profitable use for the ctraw is to feed it to stock, 
because what they eat and what they trample 
upon result in a good manure, aside Irom the 
feed value of the straw. Practice has shown 
that where cattle can be kept in connection 
with grain farming the profit is satisfactory. It 
will not be until onr system of farming is 
changed somewhat that we shall gen«rally reap 
the rewards of this experience. There are 
cases where, under present conditions, there 
can be nothing done with the straw but burn 
it. We believe this is not the best practice by 
any means, and as our agriculture develops 
we expect lo see straw burning done away. 

We have said that in onj sense it is not true 
that the straw is worth less than the ashes. 
We doubt if any one thinks that the small 
amount of mineral matter which remains in the 
ash can be of more value to the soil than the 
great amount of organic matter which is thrown 
off by the flames. And yet, comparative state- 
ment of the relative constituents of the straw 
and the ash may be new to some readers. The 
following is an averag» of the analyses of straw 
which are on record; Wafer, 14.4; organic 
matter, 80.2; ash, 5.4, It will be seen how 
small a part of the straw is returned to soil in 
the ashes. The organic matter which com- 
prises so large a portion, and which, if properly 
decomposed would become plant food, is passed 
off in smoke. 

Concerning plowing under the stubble, the 
objection raised must be the same as that 
aRuinst applying straw from the stockyard. 
The stubble does not have the same chance to 
decay in our dry soil as at the East where heat 
and moisture occur together and accomplish the 
work of decomposition, nor would the straw 
from the stock yard do to apply to our light 
soils unless it was thoroughly rotted. We 
have seen what is called "coarse manure" ap- 
plied at the East with results which we should 
not expect to see here. We doubt not that 
what onr correspondent's friends tell him about 
the effect of stubble and fresh stock-yard straw 
upon their wheat lands is the result of their ex- 
perience and is oorrect for soils and conditions , 
like theirs. We believe that as a general thing 
straw must be thoroughly made into manure 
before it will do to apply it to most of our 
wheat lands. Feeding it to stock accomplishes 
this result, and we have printed the figures of 
a farmer's experience with this practice to show 
the profit in it. 

Our correspondi'nt calls upon our readers to 
relate their experience with the nse of straw, 
and we shall be pleased to receive communica- 
tions on the subject. It is a matter of consider- 
able importance to our grain growers, 



July 15, 1876.] 



WAMmm mirmAS 3^msss* 



EF^IES \^D ^gpLIES. 

Dyeing Sheep Skins. 



EDtTORs pEEfB: — You Will oblige me and ninny oth- 
ers here, if you will put in the Kubal a recipe f jr dye- 
ing sheep skina the following colors, rea, green, blue 
and orange.— Mrs. Henky Patison, Oakdale, Stanislaus 
county. 

The wool ?hoald be first thoroughly washed 
to remove oil and grease. Most generally a 
sconriog liquor is prepared with one pound of 
soft soap and one pound of common soda (or 
half a pound of soda ash) in ten gallons of 
water, and the material to be dyed is thorotigbly 
scoured through this wash, -his is the only 
preparation that new wool needs before dye- 
ing 

Wool is always died hot; the liquor usually 
being near the boiling point. This necessitates 
dyting in a boiler. Iron vessels should not be 
used, but copper, or copper with tin, are most 
generally employed. The dye stuffs, such as 
ground wood, are generally put into the boiler 
and the wool worked in the mixture, but it is 
cUaner to make a decoction and draw off the 
clear liquor for dyeing. The special colors de- 
sired by our querist can be gained by the fol- 
lowing recipes, the quantities of substances 
named being right for ten pounds of wool in 
each case: 

Red. — Work the wool half an hour in a bath 
made of one ounce of bi-chromate of potassa 
and oae ounce of alum. Wash this out 
thoroughly with cold water. Then work for 
half an hour in a liquor made of three pounds 
of peach or lima wood; lift the wool and add 
an ounce of alum to to the liquor. Work in 
this for 20 minutes, wash in cold water and 
dry. 

Orange. — Work the wool for 40 minutes in a 
liquor made with two pounds of sumach, 
three ounces of dry cochineal, one pound of 
fustic, eight ounces of tartar, and one pint of 
red spirits. Wash out this dye in cold water 
and dry. 

Blue. — Work the wool for 40 minutes in a 
liquor made with two ounces of chrome, four 
ounces of alum, one ounce of tartar. Wash 
this out with cold water and then work hall an 
hour in another liquor made with three pounds 
of logwood. Take up the wool, add an ounce 
of verdegris to the liquor. Work in this 15 
minutes, then wash in cold water and dry. 
This makes a deep dark blue. 

Green. — Work the wool for 15 minutes in a 
liquor made with five pounds of fustic, two 
ounces of argol, five ounces of alum. Take up 
the wool; add half a gill ot indigo extract to the 
liquor. Work in this for half an hour and 
dry. 

These recipes are laid down in the standard 
works on dyeing. If any of our readers have 
discovered easier or better methods in their 
home practice we should be pleased to hear 
from them. 

"Canyon," not " Canon." 

Editobs Pkebs:— Can you give any good reason for 
prluting the word " canyon " without a circumflex, or 
without a " y," as you have done seven times in your 
article on Half Moon bay, in the number of June 24th? 
"Canon" is a good old English word, and has several 
different meanings, but it don't mean a canyon, and 
never did. The word " canyon " is comparatively a 
stranger in our language, having been adopted since the 
Mexican war. In Spanish it is always spelt with a cir- 
cumflex, and it is so spelt in the appendix to Webrter's. 
unabridged dictionary, where it Is also spelt " canyon," 
and Fremont is quoted as authority. Now your reason 
for piloting it " canon " was probably because you had 
not a supply of circumflexed typo; but in that case you 
have Webster's authority for inserting a " y;" and you 
cannot show any good authority, as I believe, tor print- 
ing it " canon." It enriches a language to adopt new 
words from other languages, and the English has done 
Its full share of borrowing. Indeed, a Frenchman once 
told me that the English was a " thief language." But 
if we must borrow, let us at least give the stranger 
words a fair chance, and not spell them so as to ex- 
press what they do not mean. Editors and compos- 
itors ought to be the last men to introduce any more 
confusion into our language. We have enough already 
to acJdle the brains of every foreigner who attempts to 
study it. As you are about entering upon a new vol- 
ume, which is to be enriched with "all the mo'lern im- 
provements," will you not make it one of your improve- 
ments to spell canyon hereafter with a "y." And not 
that alone— will you not recommend to your exchanges 
who are noi supplied with circumflexes, to put a " y " 
into their " canyons," and thus express exactly what 
they mean ?— Shehman Day, Tules, June 28. 

Mr. Day is altogether right in the point 
which he makes upon us so forcibly. Here- 
after we shall ' ' spell it with a ' y .' " 



A New Wheat Woem.— We learn from the 
proceedings of the St. Louis Academy of 
Science that Prof. Eiley exhibited specimens of 
a worm that was just at this time devastating 
the wheat fields of parts of Kansas, and par- 
ticularly of Dickinson county. It does not eat 
the blades, but attacks the heads. Specimens 
bad been sent to him last week by Mr. John 
W. Kubson, of Cheever, but in transit they had 
all eaten out and escaped from the box in 
which they were enclosed. On the way, how- 
evfr, they had moulted, and from the heads 
alone Prof. Riley had determined the species 
to be the Leucania albilinea, though the insect 
had never before been reported as injurious 
from the West. Other specimens, just from 
Prof. F. H. Snow, of the State University at 
Lawrmce, and from Mr. John Davis, editor of 
the Tribune, at Junction City, proved the cor- 
rectness of the determination. The species is 
generically allied to the common army worm, 
and may be popularly called the wheat-head 
caterpillar. As it had never till lately attracted 
unnsual attention, too little was yet known of 
its habitg to warrant any suggestion as to the 
best mode of destroying it. 



Rattle Weed. 

Editors Press :-I send you to-day a weed known 
here by the name of " rattle weed." It grows here in 
a few places on the meadow land, and when it is cut 
and cured in the natural grasses in making hay is very 
poisonous to horses. One man here lost a very valua- 
ble horse a few years ago, since which time I have 
heard of no cases of poisoning from it until yesterday, 
when four horses which had been fed over night on 
hay containing some of this weed were taken sick. 
The symptoms, as near as I can give them, were, first, 
a very profuse slobbering, followed shortly with ex- 
treme pain throughout the t)owel8 and a kind of spas- 
modic convulsion of all the neck, breast and shoulders; 
the muscles of the neck contracting so as to draw the 
nose back nearly to the breast. These occurred about 
every three to five miuutes, and stemed to iocrease in 
violence until relief was obtained. A mixture of a halt 
pint of lard, three tablespoon'uUs ot syrup and oue 
tablespoonful of H. H. H. Liniment gave almost Imme- 
diate relief, and this morning they are all eating and 
seem to be doing well. Can you give me the kind of 
poison contained in the weed, and also what would be 
an antidote. By so doing you may help some of your 
ma.iy readers to save their horses should they be so un- 
fortunate as to mako hay of the " rattle weed."^H. H. 
Bradshaw, Paradise, Nevada. 

Response by Dr. A. A. Kellogg. 

The poison plant is the Anliclea Bouglassii, 
with narrower, more grass-like leaves, but alto- 
gether similar in poisonous effect with the more 
common robust species with larger flowers 
found here, viz: Antidea FremontU, which has 



Large Early Apricot. 

Oar readers will remember a note recently 
made of some apricots received from Pentland 
Bros., of Stanislaus county, which were a 
puzzle to our city fruit men, and which Mr. 
Fox, of Sm .Jose, named the "Large Early. " 
In order to pursue the matter further and 
enable our friends to compare their fruit with 
the apricot grown at the East under the name 
"Large Early," we have secured an engraving 
ot the fruit as it is known to Eastern pomol- 
ogists. By comparing their fruit which is 
grown under several names with this species 
known to be the "Large Early," our orchard- 
ists may be able to discard some of the aliases 
which Mr. Fox mentions and apply a term of 
general significance. The following accurate 
aescription will aid in identification: 

Fruit. Size— medium to large. Form- 
roundish, oblong, compressed, projecting con- 
siderably on the side of the suture. Suture — 
diep and terminating in a projecting point to- 
wards the back or beyond the axis of the fruit. 
Skin — downy. Color — pale oranc,6 in the 
shade, fine bright orange red, and marblings or 




LARa£ EAKLY APRIOOT. 



poisoned several children in California by care- 
less people placing wild flowers in the hands of 
children, who at once put everything in their 
month-*. The Indians call it Death Camass, 
being sometimes mistaken for the edible 
Camass, (Camassla esculenta), which the form 
of the tnnicated bulb much resembles, and are 
often found growing together. In flower the 
true Camass is known by the beautilul blue 
lily-like blossoms— whereas, these others have 
much smnller flowers, of white or greenish 
white, faintly tinged with yellowish — neither 
cattle nor their milk are often seriously pois- 
oned when they crop it young. 

Any oil, especially olive oil, is the best uni- 
versal remedy in all cases of vegetable pois- 
ons. For example, night-shade enough to 
poison a regiment may be taken without 
serious barm, etc. Emetics to expel the poison 
are of course to be properly given and followed 
by any good demulcent, etc. Send for a 
sensible physician, who will advise as to the 
propriety of stimulants, such as brandy, cam- 
phor, or opium, etc., which are only to be cau- 
tiously used, and kept up until the disorder is 
got under normal fuctional control. 

For stock, olive oil, (ir fat with camphor, or 
the like, if at hand, would be much safer than 
whiskey. For extensive convulsions, tobacco 
in some form is the best. 



In Nevada. — "Oar own correspondent," Mr. 
A. C. Knox, who has been associated with the 
business department of this paper since 1865, 
will soon visit Virginia City and other parts of 
Nevada. 



spots of deeper red in the sun. Flesh — pale 
orange, separating freely from thes'one; juicy, 
rich. Stone — tnuoh flattened, oval, sharp on 
the front, perforated along the back, from bise 
to apex. Kernel — bitter. 

Tree. — Of vigorous growth, with large, broad 
oval leaves, tapering towards the footstalks or 
petiole, and with little ear-like appendages in 
place of glands. An abundant bearer, an old 
variety from France, and one of the very best 
early sorts known. 



The Korat. in Santa Cruz County. — We 
are glad to say that we have in this county, at 
present, a good and worthy agent, who is at- 
tending to our business in a creditable and 
satisfactory manner. We allude to Mr. C. N. 
West, who is well and favorably known as a 
resident of Santa Cruz. We hope our friends 
throughout the county, will assist him as far as 
possible in bis eflforts to increase the circula- 
tion of agricultural literature, by renewing 
their subscriptions and speaking encouraging 
words, whenever thoy can do so consistently. 
We expect Mr. West to collect and present to 
the numerous readers of the RubaIj, many in- 
teresting facts concerning the county, from 
time to time. 

On File. — "Farm Life," M. J. H.; "Notes 
from Copay," X ; "Death of a Prejudice," M. 
F. W.; Querries from "Colonist" and E. R. S. 



The building known ::;<) Castle Qarden, New 
lork, was burned on the 9th inst. 



A Disastrous Reverse. 

Just after we went to press last week the sad 
news was received from the Indian country, 
where Custer and command were fighting the 
Indians, that the gallant general and his whole 
command were cut off and annihilated. Gen- 
eral Cus'er with his two brothers, his nephew 
and brother-in law, seventeen commissioned 
oflBcers and 300 regular troops, were all massa- 
cred by the fierce Sioux. The battle was fought 
on the 25th inst., 30 or 40 miles below the Lit- 
tle Horn. Custer attacked the lodian village 
of 2,500 to 3,000 warriors on one side, and 
Colonel Reno was to attack it on the other. 
Three companies were placed on a hill as a re- 
serve. General Custer, oflScers and every man 
belonging to the five companies were killed. 
Reno retreated under the protection of the re- 
serve. The whole number killed was 315. 
General Gibbons joined Reno. The Indians 
left the battle ground. It looked like a slaugh- 
ter pen, as it really was, being in a narrow ra- 
vine. The dead were very much mutilated. 
This is one of the most terrible reverses that 
has befallen American arms in Indian warfare 
for many years. 



( 



Influence op Cuuate on Applks. — From 
the display of apples at the Centennial, the 
Germantown Telegraph draws a lesson of the 
influence of climate and soil upon the fruit- 
Speaking of the display from Iowa and Michi- 
gan, it says: A striking feature of these Western 
apples was their brilliant coloring. Most of 
the varieties were of the very highest character 
in this respect, much no doubt owing to the 
varieties selected or rather saved to this late 
period of the apple season, but yet not wholly, 
for even such a tame looking variety as we gen- 
erally see it, the Rhode Island Greening, had a 
rosy tint on it. When we came to the Austral- 
ian apples the absence of this color was remark- 
able. Out of nearly 100 kinds exhibited there 
was not one with a blush on its cheek equal to 
that on a simple Rhode Island Greening from 
Michigan. Some few had a slight glimmer. 
Northern spy, for instance, was a good deal 
bronzed, and a curious old English kind, known 
as Norfolk Be.tfin, might have been as dark as 
the Black Detroit, if grown in a country like 
ours. The prevailing tint was of a deep orange, 
this running more or less through all the kinds. 
As showing the growing close relationship be- 
tween America and Australia, it was pleasant 
to note that the greatest number of these apples 
were American kinds. The fruits were two 
months on the road, wrapped in cotton on the 
way, and though some had fallen by the way- 
side, the whole came in excellent condition 
considering all things. 

The Heated Teem. — Last week the season of 
unusual heat which has rested like a heavy bur- 
den upon our harvesters took to itself winga 
and sped away chased by cool winds and an un- 
wonted July rain. Many were glad to see the 
flight of the burning air andjtoo fatal sunshine. 
Never, since a record of affairs on this coast 
have been kept has there been such a merciless 
and enduring heat. Two weeks ago we noted 
a number of sunstrokes |and ever since there 
has been here and there a man crowded to the 
earth by the influence he could not withstand. 
The rain which broke the spell was quite wide 
in its extent. We hear from it all along the 
great central grain counties but no great dam- 
age was reported. There has been i-ome thresh- 
ing out by the winds but the rain was voted al- 
most everywhere a welcome visitor. 

At the East they have been having this week 
an infliction like that we have experienced with 
heat. The telegraph on Tuesday mornins no- 
ted at least 50 cases of sun stroke in the East- 
ern cities and prostration is noted in many 
parts. As we write we have a day in the city 
very like those of two weeks ago and possibly 
our California heated term is not yet over. 



Safety prom Rats and Mice. — A. J. Willard 
of School House station, San Mateo county, 
brings us a very simple and in his experience 
a very effective safety against rats and mice. 
He lakes two round pieces of tin, like the 
bottom of a fruit can, punches a hole in the 
center of each piece and strings them on a 
strong wire, one near each end. Then he 
stretches the wire from side to side of a room 
and fastens each end firmly. Anything which 
is hung upon the wire between the plates of 
tin is safe from the rats, for if they walk out 
upon the wire, every time they fry to mount 
the circle of tin it revolves and they cannot 
pass over it. Mr. Willard has found this sim- 
ple contrivance very useful in saving meat, 
grain, etc., and advises all farmers to try it. 

IMMIQBATI0N.--The immigration movement 
toward this last, thus far this year, shows a 
large falling ofi' as compared with last year. 
The throufih arrivals by rail tor the mouth of 
June numbered 5,006 and l.Kit) departures, 
against 7, 058 arrivals and 3,059 departures for 
the same month last year. The departures by 
rail for May were also unusally numerous. 
Much of this apparent decrease is due to visi- 
tors to the Centennial exhibition at Philadel- 
phia, and the autumn months will see most of 
them back agiin. The passenser arrivals by 
sea during the month numbered 7,810, and the 
departures 5,004. The arrivals including 1,200 
from China and Japan, 300 from Panama, 360 
from Australia, 190 from British Columbia and 
140 from Mexico and the Hawaiian islands. The 
arrivals from China show a large falling off. 



50 



w^mwm wmmjJ^ w 



[Juiy 15. 187 fi 



DEWEY & CO. I 

American & Foreign Patent Agents. 

OFFICE, 224 8AN80ME STREET, 3. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats tiled 
expeditiously; Patent reissues taken out; 
Assignments made and recorded in legal 
form; Copies of Patents and Assignmentg 
procured; Examinations of Patents made 
here and at Washington; Examinations made 
of Assignments recorded in Washington; 
Examinations ordered and reported by Tele- 
graph; Rejected cases taken up and Patents 
obtained; Interferences Prosecuted; Opinions 
rendered regarding the validity of Patents 
and Assignments; every legitimate branch of 
Patent Agency Business promptly and 
thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various in- 
ventions of this coast, and long practice in 
patent business, enable us to abundantly 
satisfy our patrons; and our success and 
business are constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, flrpt-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secure 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Qreat Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Victoria, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Den- 
mark, Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemberg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Grenada, Chili, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European coun- 
tries, but the drawings and specifications 
(thould be prepared with thoroughness, by 
able persons who are familiar with the re- 
quirements and changes of foreign patent 
laws — agents who are reliable and perma- 
nently established. 

Our schedule prices for obtaining foreign pat- 
ents, in all cases, will always be as low, and 
in some instances lower, than those of any 
other responsible agency. 

We PAin and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country 
sooNKB than any other agents. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still b<iing 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more directly judge of the 
and patentability of inventions discovered 
here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of goverment, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by extra time consumed in trans mitting 
specifications from Eastern agencies back to 
this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

Confidential. 

idVe take great pains to preserve secrecy in all 
confidential matters, and applicants for pat- 
ents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing them to the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applicants 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents, or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advise of importance to them from a short 
call at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money 
but their inventions also, from this cause and 
consequent delay. We hold ourselves re- 
sponsible for all fees entrusted to our agency 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in our own office, and 
all facUities for producing fine and satisfac- 
tory illustrations of inventions and machinery, 
for newspaper, book, circular and other 
printed illustrations, and are always ready to 
assist patrons in bringing their valuable as- 
ooveries into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO., 
Onited States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scientific Press and the 
Faoiflo Rural Press, 224 Sansome St., S. F, 



Bl^EEDEE^s' OlI^ECJOV^y 



PmtcHASEBfl or Stock will find i> this Directory 
TBE Names of some op thf. moht reliable Bbeedebs* 

OUB Rates.- Six lines or IPs'* inserted in this directoiT'ftt 
50 ctB a line per month, payable qaarterly. 



CAJTLE. 



POWERS & STANTON, SacraraeDto, C«I., breed- 
ers of A. J. C. C. Registered Jersey Cattle. Cows and 
Calves for sale at low rates. Address Lutber 0. 
Powers. 

A. UAILIilABD, San Rafael, Mario Co., Oal., 

breeder of Jerstys. Oalveg for sal^ 

PAGE BROTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Fran- 
cisco, (or Cotate Ranch, near Petalnma, Sonoma Ck>.) : 
Breeders of Short-Homs and their Grades. 

R. G. SNEATH, Menlo Park, Cal., breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bolls for sale — various a^eB — at 
$40 to $160. 

SHEEP AND GOATS. 



EDWARD FRI8BIE. on line of Cal. P. B. E., near 
Vallejo, Pure Bred Leicester Sheep For Sale. 



OARNIER BROS., Enclno Ranch, Lob Angeles 
Cal., breeders of pure French, Spanish, and Saxon 
Merino Sheep. Price, from 125 to $50, each. 



A. G. STONESIFEK, Hill's Ferry, Stanislaus Oo. 
Oal., breeder of Pure-Blooded French Merino Sheep 



ti. IT. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Oal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle 
and Essex Swine. 



B. F. WATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thor- 
oughbred Spanish Merino Sheep. 



M. EYBE.Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown; 
Sheep. Bam* and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $2U each 
Lambs, $15 each. 



T. A. WIIiSON, Grayson, Stanislaus county, Oal. 
Breeder and Importer of Spanish Merino Sheep. 



POULTRY. 



M. EYRE, Napa. Bronze Tvurkeys, Emden Oeese 
Choice Fowls, Pigeons, Babbits, Ferrets. 



M. FALLON, Cor. Seventh and Oak streets, 0<*. 
land. Bronze Turkeys. Oboice Fowls lor Hatching 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 



GEO. B. BAYLEY, Oor. 16th and Oastro sreets, 
Oakland, Cal. Imported Brahmas and other choice 
Fowls for sale. 

ALBERT E. BT7RBANK, 43 and 44 California 
Market, San Francisco, importer and breeder of 
Fancy Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS. Santa Clara, Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, 8. 8. Ham- 
burgs, L, Brahmas, B. B. Bed Oame Bantams and 
AylesWry Ducks. Also Eggs. 



W. H GROVES, Stockton, Oal. Eggs for sale from 
Choice PediRne and Selected Light Brahmas, Whit-e 
and Brown Leghorns. For prices and description 
address as above witn stamp. 



SW//VE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Jeaquin Oo. 
Cal., Breeder of Improved Berkshire Swine. 



Live Stock Notices. 




Pare Blooded French Merino Rams 

And 100 Choice Young Ewes 

For sale by MRS. ROBERT BLACOW, of Oenterville, 
Alam-'da county, Cal.. near Niles Station, on the West- 
ern and Southern Pacific railroad. 

These Sheep are guaranteed of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Rambouillet. and arc equal, 
if not superior, to any of this breed iu size and quality 
of wool, and are proven to be the Uoaviest shearers ia 
the world. 

I^-NEW MILOH DURHAM COWS FOR SALE. 

THOROUGHBRED SHEEP 

FOR. SALE. 

The undcrj-igueil offers for sale his entire herd, con- 
sisting of 150 head of Thoroughbred Spanish Merinos, 
Bucks and Ewes. The Sheep are good, and in good 
condition, and will be sold reasonable. For further 

partlcnlarf", enquire of 

A. C. PAT7LSELL, 

Stockton, Cal. 

THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINOS. 

^H^P Sixty one and two year old Spanish Merino 
^^i|f Rams For Sale, also UIO Ewes and Lambs, all 
•■■■■■^California bred, from stock imported from 
Vermont, and as good as any on this Coast. Prices to 
suit the times. Address, B. F. WATKINS, 

Santa Cluru, Cal. 



serving the Teeth. .). 



CHARCOAL 

DENTAL SOAP 

for Whitening and Pre' 
W. ANnKLL.Prop., San Francisco 



FIE^TJZT vJ^I^S. 



The preserving of Fruits by hermellcai!" sealing in 
glass jars has increased rapidly in the last eight or ten 
years, so that to provide a store cf fruit and vegetables 
in their natural condition for winter use is becoming 
not only a necessity, but is a provident measnre, allku 
conducive to health and pleasure. 

The Gem and Porcelain Lined Jars 

Possess all the advantages and none of the disad- 
vantages of other patent jars, and are in fact the only 
reliable self-scaling jars in market. Each makes its 
joint on the flat shoulder, blown in the glass, on the 
outside of the meuth of the Jar, and below the top. 
The surface of the shoulder on which the joint is 
made is pertertly smooth. The rubber being outside 
and below the top of the jar, the syrup cannot be 
exposed to it, to taint and discolor it; at the same time 
its shoulder, blown in the mold, on which the rubber 
r.38tB, corresponds with the thread on which the screw 
fastening works, so that it insures equal pressure on all 
parts of the cap and rubber ring, thereby insuring a 
tight joint. These jars have arrived so near perfec- 
tion there is no hesitation In warranting every jar to 
preserve fruit an indefinite space of time If care is 
taken. 



MASON'S PORCELAIN LINED 




THE GROOVE RING. 

This jar ban a groove in the top of ring in which a 
tin cap Is placed, after which the wax is poured into 
thel groove, thus making a hermetic t^oal. This is a 
\ery reliable and cheap jar, costing about ona-tfaird 
loss than the patent Jars. 

The testimony of physicians, added to the experience 
of many, corroborate the belief that acid fruits pre. 
served in tin cans are very unwholesome. 



Nan Franc^iseo and Pacilic 

GLASS WORKS, 

(Incorporated Jane 9, 1876.) 
OAELTON NEWMAN, Manager, 

OFFICE and WORKS, KING STREET, 
Near foot of Fourth, 

MANlFACTiRERS of Vials. Bottles, Minerals. Oar- 
boy s, Demi Johns, Patent GEM Fruit Jars, GROOVE- 
RING i'ruit Jars, etc., and Sole Mauufacturers uf 
NEWMAN'S PATENT ELASTIC DEUUOBNS, and 
PATENT BOX DEMIJOHNS. 



iriJTEIllVA.TIOJNA.L. HOTEL 

.UJu KEWLT FtraNISHED, 

824 & 826 Kearny St., - San Franoisoo, Oal. 

$1.50 & $2 per day. Free Ooaoh to the House. 
H. O. PATRIDGE, - - - Proprietor 



Contents of Pamphlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S. Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 

Hap of California and Nevada: The Public 
Lauds; The Land Districts; Table of Rainfall in Cali- 
fornia; Counties and Their Products; Statistics of the 
State at Large. 

Instructions of the IT. S. Land Oommis- 
sionere.— Different Classes of Public Lands; How 
Lands may be Acquired; Fees of Land Office at Loca- 
tion; Agricultural College Scrip; Pre-emptions; Ex- 
tending the Homestead Privilege; But One Homestead I 
Allowed; Proof of Actual Settlement Necessary; Ad. 1 
joining Farm Homesteads; Lands for Soldiers and I 
Sailors; Lands for Indians; Fees of Laud Oifice and 
Commission3;rLaw« to promote Timber Culture; Con- j 
ceming Appeals; Returns of the Register and Receiver; j 
Concerning Mining Claims; Second Preemption Ben- ' 
efit. > 

Abstract from the XT. S. Statutes.-The Law 
Concerning Preemption; Concerning Homesteads; 
Amendatory Act Concerning Timber; Miscellaneone 
Provisions; Additional Surveys ot Land for Pre- 
emption; List of California Post Offices. 

Published and sold by DEWEY & CO., S F 
Postpaid, 60 cents. 



REMINGTON SEWING MACHINES. 




Superior to all others, because of their simplicity of 
construction; the most durable and sre always ready 
for use; will do all kinds of work. Price of Machine 
as represented in cut, with Bemmers, Feller, Braider, 
Qougo Tucker, Quilter, Johnson's RufHer, and Diamond 
set of Hemmers, $75. 

REMINGTON SEWING MACHINE CO.. 

6»0 Market St., under Palace Hotel, 8 . F. 

AQENTS WANTED FOB CITY AND COUNTBT. 



Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FB.\NCI30O. 

Authorized Capital. $5.OOO,CO0. 

OFFICERS: 

Pbesipent GILBEET W. COLBY. 

MANAODta DiBiccTOB C. J. CRESSEV. 

Cashibb ALBERT MONTPELLIER 

SEcnKTABY F. A. CRESSEY. 

The Bank was opened on the tirxt of AuKUSt, 1M74, for 
the transaction of general banking bosineas. 



California Farmers' Mutual Fire 
Insurance Association. 

No. 38 California Street, Grangers' Building. 
CAPITAL, $200,000, GOLD. 

OFFICERS: 

J. U. "LANUHAR Pkesident 

- G. (iARDNER VicE-PnEsii)E»T 



O. P. KELLOGG... 
A. W. TH0MP.>on. 
FEED. K. RULE.... 



Trrahurkb 

...Attorney 
..Secketaiiv 



J. D. BL.ANCHAB 

G. P. KELLOGG Salinas 

1. U. GARDNtCR S. F 

CHAS. LAIRD I$alinii> 

URIAH WOOD San lienilo 
A. B. NALL,Y...>itnta Boaa 

A. W. THOMPSON S. F 

A.D.LOGAN ColuM 



TRUSTEES 
8. F 



t. C. STEELK San Mateo 

G. W. COLBV Butte Oo 

A. WOLF Siookton 

C. J. CREShEY.... Oalilaiid 
J. O. MERRYFlELD.Dixnn 
E. W. .STKKLE, 5. L. Obi«po 
(; S. ABBOTT.... Monterey 
Dn. T. FLI.VT Hollisler 



Statement, December Slat, 1876. 

TOTAL BISK^ WRllTEN >ta,»*R,lliO.OO 

TOTAL PREMIUMS 79,aoi,7« 

LOSSES PAID S»l.OO 

ASSETS DEC. 3l9t, IsT.'i 170,907.41 

1^ Farm Property iosared ataotnal cost on tbe Mutual 
Plan. Other dedirable property insured, and rated ac- 
cording to merit. 



Rupture. 



B Any person snU'ering with the dangerous and ^ 
H distrcesing complaint, Rupture, and whose ' 
^k existence is rendered miserable, beijig obliged ' 
^K to wear the torturous metal tmsses jrar after ' 
^K ;ear without ary beueiit or relief whatever,' 
^H can be relieved and cured witbont inoouven- 
^^^ ience or restriction in exercise or diet. Con- 
^^H saltation and £>iaiaination Free. Call or ad- ' 
^^^ dress MAGNETIC ELASTIC TRUSS CO., e09 
I^B Sacramento street, (up stairs,) San Franciaco. 



7,uouSoMiLisr.s. NEW FORCE FEED 



Buckeye Grain Drill. 



>ni-. lun. . , . . I n,u. 

Ki"V' I. *.-. Jii-i N'. I. ..I Von 

limit. It tHMl- . ' ■ vor 

iiia.lt' S,'U'ir<ira<.[ ^ .)""' 

.l.-»l»r to tliow Tuu the lluc-Lr>-e. 
P. P. MAST * CO., RprlafStld, u. 




July 15, 1876.] 



OEO. Vr. SWAMT. 



-cr 



;bsjmwm& ii.ifiLA:fc ^bm^ 



51 



n^m.Viif I -f 



GlCd. W. WEIDI.«B. 



WK. HZaBY. 







GEO, ^W. SAVA-^^ & CO., 



114 to 124 Spear Street, between Mission and Howard. ------ San FranciscOr Oalc- 

ORAPE BOXES, RAISIN BOXES, FIG DRUMS, ONE-POUND BLACKBERRY BOXES and PICKING BASKETS. 

WAY XJI> BOXIE**, WAY IDOW^IV PJEtlCES!*. 



LEA & PERRINS' 
WORCESTERSHIRE SAUCE, 

df.claeed by connoissetks to BR 
THE ONLY GOOD SAUCE. 

/n ronsequtncc of Spurious Imitations of 

Lea & Perrins Sauce, 

which are calculated to deceive the Public, 
t^EA y PERRINS have adopted 

A New Label, 

bearing their Signature, thus — 



ccca^cXf!^. 



tvhich will he placed on every bottle of 

Worcestershire Sauce, 

•after this date, and without which twne 

is genuine. 

November 1874. 

%* This does not apply to shipments 

made prior to the date giveii. 

Ask for LEA iff PERRINS' Sauce, 
■and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle 
and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the 
Proprietors, Worcester; Crossed Blackwell, 
London, iSe., ISc.,; and by Grocers and 
Oilmen throughout the World. 
To be obtained of CROSS & CO., {San Francisco. 



s^v^eepst-A.ke:s thresher, 




50 



~Vi><itinfir Cards, with your name finely 
printi'ii, sent for;;.">c. We fiave lOO styles. 
Ag-entM Want***!. O .s.inipl"s sent for 
stamp. A. H. Fuller & Co., Brockton, Jlass. 



With all the Latest Improvements for the|Pacific Coast. Manufactured for 

FRANK BROS. & CO. 

We will warrant every Machine sold to do Better, Cleaner and Faster Work than any 

other Thresher on the Coast. 

AU who are in waiil of Threshers should not fail to call and see the improvements that h bem put on the Sweepstakes for the HarveBt 
J We alflo ha^e the Cary Power, to which we would call special attention. 



349 MARKET STREET.. 



iEnK.^nsric BK.OS. &c CO., 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION. 

Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 

OFFICERS and DIRECTORS: 



DANIEL INMAN, (PBEsn>ENT). 
R. C HAILE, (Vice Pbesidem). 
JOHN LEWEI.LING. (Trkashrer) . 



AMOS ADAMS, (Secret ARV) . 
THOS. UPTON. 
I. C. STEELE. 
O. HUBBELL. D. CAMPBELL. 



THOS. FLINT. 

O. P. KELLOGG. 

W. L. OVkKHISEB. 



SHIPPING and COMMISSION I^OUSE, 

Cirangerfe* Buiiaing;, _ _ . _ 1 0« r»a-vl.«i» Sstreet, S- F. 

Couslgnments of flrain, Wool, Dairy Producti, Fruit, Vegetables, aad other Produce solicitexl, and 

advances made on the samr. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacbs, Prodnoe, Merchandise, 

Farm Implements, Wagons, Etc., solicited and promptty attended to. 

We do a strictly Commission Business, and place our rates of OommisBiou iipon a fair legitimate basis that 
will tnable the countiy atlarge to transact business through vis to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked Grangers' Business Association, San Franx-iaco. Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 

l>A.lVi:e:r., irwatA-lV, Mlanager. 



HEALD'S 



BUSINESS 
COLLEGE, 

No. 24 Post Street, 

SAN PRAWISCO, CAt. 



The largest and best Business College in Araerlcil 
Its teachers are campete.t and expt-rieuped. Its pupils 
are from the best class Of young men in the State. It 
makes Business Education a specialty; yet its instruc- 
tion is not contined to Bookkeeping and Arithmetic 
merely, but gives such broad culture as the times de- 
mand. Thorough iustruction is given in all the branches 
of an English education, and Modern Languages are 
practically taught. The dlKcipliue is excellent, and its 
system of Actual Business Practice is imsurpassed. 

Ladies' Deparxvient.— Ladl s will be admitted for 
instrnctlon in all the Departments of the College. 

Teleoraphic Department. — In this Department 
young men and young ladies are practically and thor- 
oughly Utted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further paiticulars call at the CoUese, 'H Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 
President Business College, Ban Francisco, Cal, 



The Mining and Scientific Press, 

Established IStW, is a Large, Ably Edited and Liber- 
ally Illustrated Weekly— the Best Pbaciicax. Mining 
AHD Meohamioal Jodbnai. in America. $1 per annum, 
postage paid. Dkwst & Co., San Francisco. 




JOHN H. GOYE'J* 

C E N T E N N I AjL ^ AY PRESS. 

Farmers and Hay Preseers will find it to their advantage to examine thi« Press before 
buyirig any other. It is built compact, combining lightness for moving with the greatest power 
and durability in its working parts, capable of mahing the average 250 pound bale, more or les h, 
baling \% to 15 tons per day, with three men and a pair of horses, they traveling only 36 feet to 
operate it. No excavations required for this Press. This is the original Gove Press improved, 
after an experience of building Presses in the States the pant 15 years, where they gnve the best 
of satisfaction. PrioO, No. 1, $250. 

Manufactured and for sale, or built to order, at the EUREK.\ GRAIN STORAGE WARE- 
HOUSE, by JOHX H. GOVE or ANDREW J. GOVE, Box 1122. 

A Liberal Discount to the trade. For Sale by all Agricultural Dealers. 



EXTRAS ! 



EXTRAS!! 



Headquarters for Extra, for the following Harvesting Machines : 

CLIPPER, WOOD'S EAGLE, RUSSELL'S AND WORLD MOWERS AND REAPERS, DAYTON AND CHICAGO 

;PITT8;SEPARATOR8 ANDJHORSE POWERS, HAINES' AND CASE HEADERS. 

Orders tilled with -itmost despatch 



LINhORTH, KELLOGG & CO., 



3 & 5 Front St., San Francisco. 



B. M[OTT» Jr., 

impobtee iLHi> kkaleu in 



STOVES, METALS AND TINWARE 



.^d Sole Agent for the Sa,thbone Eange, 
fi3 And fiS J Street, 4Shu>ramento. 



Ha Ha Hb 

HORSE MEDICINE. 

Is guiuiug a wide spread notoriety. TestlmonlalR from 
all parts of the coast show it to be a companion in 
every lamily. It quickly removes Wind Galls, Spavins, 
Callous Lumps, Sweeny, and all blemishes of the 
horse, while the family finds it indispensable for 
Sprains, Bruises, Achos. Pains, and wherever a flood 
liniment is required. 

WILLIAVS & MOORE, Prop's, 

StoeKton, Ca,\. 



Dewey & Co. UJJSii.} Patent Agt's. 



a. ■• ommiaa*. 
18S8. 



n.B. 



kAIiSTOII. 

1HT6. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Oommlsston 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1888. 

No. 424 Battery street, southeast corner of Washington 

Han Francisco. 

Our business being exolnslvely OommlssloD, we have 
no interests that will conflict with those of the producer 

MERCHANT MILL FOR SALE, 

And 160 Acres Land. Turbine Wheel, 190 feet fall, 
36 barrels per day. Good Home Market and Never 
Failing Witer. 

S. A. POLLARD, 
Sa9 Luis Obispo, 



i>2 



3PA@Xtl@ Wi'WW.AX 



[July 15. 187^' J 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Uo. 'a SciKNTiFie Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency the following are 
worthy of mention : 

Fbhit Drikr.-H. G. Hulburd, Placerville, 
El Dorado county. This invention is an im- 
proved mithine for drying fruit, vegetables 
and otner substances. It cousisto of an annu- 
lar chamber which is arranged to rotate around 
a heating furnace and receive hot air fiom it. 
The hot air isrtc ived into the upper portion 
of the rotating chamber, and as it becomes 
charged with moisture from the substances 
being dried, it descends to the lower part of 
the chamber, and is discharged into the open 
air. The natural draft is used for drawing the 
heated air through the drying chambers, and 
the saturated air is renewed by its own gravity, 
so that there will be no forced currents to give 
nneven degrees of temperature in the cham- 
ber, and the fruit will be sal jected to the gen- 
tle action of a uniform temperature. Where 
tlae fruit is subjected to an upward moving cur- 
rent of hot air, whether the fruit is carried to- 
wards or away from the greatest heat the air when 
it becomes saturated with moisture has a tenden- 
cy to desctnd and willarrangeitself in strata, ao- 
oording to its specific gravity or degree of pat- 
nration. The fruit is therefore compelled to 
pass from one degree of heat and moisture to 
another during its entire passage through the 
machine; whereas, many kinds of fruit, vege- 
tables and other substances require a perfectly 
uniform dry atmosphere, and, the inventor 
thinks, should not be subjected to any great 
quantity of moisture during the drying process. 
This is illustrated, the inventor claims, by the 
power of this machine to produce parfect rais- 
ins from grapes, which it has acccmplished in 
the most satisfactory manner. Tho fruit is 
subjected in this machine to a constant and 
uniform temperature of dry air, which is 
heated by tadiation which will not eliminate 
the moisture too suddenly to overheat the 
fruit. 

Artesian Wkll Bdrkr. — John A. Wood- 
house, Anaheim. Considerable difficulty has 
heretofore been experienced in boring wells for 
the reason that frequently at the depth of sev- 
eral hundred feet very hard rock is reached, in 
which the ordinary form of drill fails to cut a 
bore of sufficient ^ize and regularity for the 
well pipe shoe to pass through. To obviate 
this aud other defects, the inventor has con- 
structed a drill which, by reason of an arrange- 
ment of automatically expanding or projecting 
aide drills and chisels, and a main center drill 
111, below sach arrangement of side drills, a bore 
of sufficient size and smoothness will be in- 
sured in every instance. When ruckisieached 
which requires this construction of drill, it is 
coupled with the working shaft, inclosed within 
the shoe or lower cylindrical case of the well 
tube and sunk to the bottom of the well; after 
this the shoe is raised above the several series 
of aide cutlers and the operation of drilling 
commenced. 

Shinole Machink. — Frank A. Huntington, 
S. F. In the first place Mr. Huntington has 
invented an improved arrangement for securing 
saw blades upon their arbors, which arrange- 
ment wir be especially useful in a shingle 
machine, because it admits of carrying the bolt 
or block clo^-e up against the saw arbor and 
tbus^utilizing a greater poition of the blade, 
consequently rendering a saw of smaller diame- 
ter capable of doing the work of a saw of 
larger diameter when mounted in the ordinary 
way. He has also invented an improved ar- 
rangement for automatically operating the car- 
riage which bandies the bolt or block, and pro- 
vided in connection therewith a novel feeding 
device aud a stop for preventing the carriage 
from operating when the bolt or block has 
been bnfficiently cut. 

Field fioii.KB.~John A. Hsald, Vallejo. 
This is an impro^rement in that class of boilers 
which are used for threshing engines and sim- 
ilar purposes. On the cbimney olthe boiler is 
placed a metal plate to deflect the wind in such 
a manner as to cause a good draft. Another 
improvement is in the ooustrnction of the door, 
which turns on horizontal hinges, aud is made 
adjustable so that the opening can be made 
larger or smaller to accommodate any class of 
fuel — wood or straw as desired. There is also 
an arrangement of transverse tubes in the main 
flue which serves the purpose of diverting the 
heated air and prevents it striking the back 
plate, assisting it in returning through the 
smaller tub. s to the cbimney. 

Pabtitio.n Bbice. — Jules Borie, Oakland. 
This comprises certain improvements in hol- 
low bricks by which they are rendered especially 
u.-eful for constructing partition walls in build- 
ings. Owing to their lightness, as compared 
with solid bricks, and to the fact that a circu- 
lation of air can be miintiiined through a wall 
composed of hollow brick, they are especially 
adapted for partition walla. The improvements 
consist first in such a formation of the ends 
of this class of bricks that the abutting ends of 
each two bricks in the wall will iiiterl )ck with 
each otbnr, aud thus form a wall or partition 
in which all the bricks are bound together as a 
unit. Secondly, in providing in the aides of 
each brick perforations for holding the plaster- 
ing of the wall and binding it firmly to the 
bricks 



Bag Fa.stkkiso. — Antone Bihn, Coulterville, 
Mariposa county, Cal. The improvement to 
which this patent refers can be adapted to bags 
aud sacks of all kinds, bnt they are more 
especially adapted to grain bags. Metallic eye- 
lets or rirets are used to fasten the corners of 
the sacks, and hooks made of best wire are 
noed to fasten the mouth. The inventor claims 
to have provided a cheap aud effective bag 
fastening, which can be readily manipulated 
and which will save much time in closing the 
mouth of the bag. Weexpect shortly to illus- 
trate this invention. 

CoNSTRDixioN OF WooDKN Tanks. — Fidgar M. 
Morgan, S. F. Mr. Morgan's improvement in 
the construction of tanks consists in building 
up the sides of the tank of twd or more thick- 
nesses of overlapping boards, which are 
properly bent so as to be applied horizontally. 
It also consists in the application of an inside 
and outside brace at the base of the sides in 
the angles formed by the conjunction of the 
bottom and sides of the tank. 

Markimo Implement. — .Tosepb Perkins, 
S. F. This invention relates to an improved 
implement or pen for marking heavy aud light 
lines such as are usually formed with a broad 
marking pen or brush and colored liquid. The 
improved implement is especially adapted for 
writing or printing by hand directions upon 
packages and boxes, aud for making figures, 
characters or sketches which are composed of 
alternate heavy, light and shaded lines. 

Mkohanical Movement — Robert Swarbrick, 
Oakland. This Invention relates to an im- 
proved mechanical device for converting a 
treadle or reciprocating motion into a contin- 
uous rotary motion. This mechanical move- 
ment is very cheap, and can be used in connec- 
tion with a treadle instead of a crank for driv- 
ing a sewing machine or such ot er machines 
as are nsnally driven by foot power. 

Medical CoirporND. — Shane & Kearney, 
S. F. This discovery is an improved medical 
compound or liniment for the cure of rheuma- 
tism, gout and similar inflammatory diseases. 

Something New for Adobe Soil. 

We find in the Biisxian Bivr Flag a short 
deFcriptiou of a novel agricultural implement, 
to which we shall allude hereafter if we hear of 
its success. It isas follows: 

O. A. Ormstead, at Santa Bosa, who is the 
proprietor of a new patent steam wagon and 
cultivator, is building a working model of his 
invention, which, if it fulfills ihs anticipation 
of the inventor, will revolutionize the cultiva- 
tion of adobe soil. The wagon consists of an 
open frame work, 10x20 feet, and sustains a 
six-horse rotary engine, which drives two cog- 
wheels mashing into a rolling track or wheel, 
consisting of nothing bnt felloes and tire, with 
segment inside of the felloes; so there is but a 
five-inch leverage on the tire, or the thickness 
of the segment, felloe and tire. The wheel is 
the principle patented; power and not speed is 
the object desired. 

The cultivator consists of a ro!ary cylinder, 
armed with spokes, similar to the cylinder of a 
separator, revolving at HOO revolutions per 
minnte. To this is attached a separate engine, 
the whole workiiig independent of the wagon. 
The latter drags the simple weight of the culti- 
vator, which pulverizes the ground into dust 
if desired, leaving it ready for the reception of 
the grain. A grain sower can be placed behind 
the cultivator, followed by a rotary harrow. 
The whole machine when complete will not be 
more than 10 feet wide and 25 feet long, in- 
cluding cultivator, and wiH run about foar miles 
per hour, or as much less as may be desired. 



valve in its entire construction, which performs 
the same labor as the gate, supply and governor 
valves do in ordinary engines. The stuffing 
and packing box are entirely dispensed with, 
and there is a saving of oO per cent, of steam 
and 25 per cent, of fuel in generating the same 
amount of power as is required of those now in 
use. Besides, the boiler is but half the size 
and the machinery is more simple and compact, 
coating for construction about 60 per cent, of 
the amount paid for the cheapest engine 
now manufactured. Mr. Van Deren viill kindly 
comply with the request of many of our citizens 
and exhibit his model, which is a beautiful 
piece of workmanship, on the Fouith of July, 
after which he goes to San Francisco, where 
we hope he will realize what perseverence and 
energy merit. — San Bernardino Times. 

Prices of California Wheat in Liverpool 
for the Harvest Year 1875-76. 



Our Antipodes. 

A wrong idea prevails (if we judge by news- 
paper gossip) regarding the nationality of our 
antipodes. China is usually the accused party. 
But in this case she is innocent. 

To us mortals upon the earth's surface, down 
means iu a vertical direction to the earth's 
center, and real antipodiil points are therefore 
where a straight line passing through the cen- 
ter of the earth cuts the surface. Tnen it is 
evident that the antipode of any place in the 
northern hemisphere must lie in the sjuthern 
hemisphere. The Inlitade of antipodal points 
will be the same, but one will be north and the 
other south. The longitude will differ by 18i I 
degrees. 

'ihus we find our (San Francisco) antipodal 
point to be iu the southern Indian ocean, about 
1,000 miles southeast of the island of Mada- 
gascar. The point opposite New York is also 
in the southern Indian ocean, about 500 miles 
southwest of .Australia. The point opposite 
Peking, China, is in northern Patagonia. A 
shaft from San Francisco which would reach 
Peking if continued must (as the miners say) 
pi'ch to the west and make an angle with the 
veriical of abjut 39^4 degrees. H. 



Nkw Boiler Invention.— The first steam en- 
gine and boiler ever constructed in Southern 
California hjs just been completed by our per- 
severing townsman, George Van Deren. This 
engine codtains improvements that when fully 
known will be considered one of the greatest 
improvements of the age, and bids fair to place 
the name of the inventor on the same level 
with that of James Watt, There is bnt one 



Average. 
1 8/lOffl 9/ 2. 

■i 11/ 0(<(, :>/ *. 

e 9/ Ofiji 9/ 4. 

9 9/ 2(0* 9/ f>. 

13 9/ 4«« 9/ fi. 

U 9/ S® 9/ 7. 

1.5 9/ fro. 9/ 8. 

10 9/ m 9/10. 

19 9/loaiO/ 2. 

20 1(1/ 2(11)10/ fi. 

21 10/ r,(<t)lO/ fi. 

2i 10/ 9(gill/ 0. 

23 10/10(411/ :i. 

27 10/ 2(9>10/ 7. 

28 10/ 2(0*10/ 7. 

29 1.1/ 2(a>10/ 7. 

30 10/ 6(0)10/ 8. 

31 10/ SfqilO/ H 

AConsT. 

3 10/ SCa.ll/ 0. 

f. 10/ 9(0,11/ 1 . 

6 11/ 2(0,11/ «. 

9 11/ 6(*n/ fi. 

10 11/ 9(0.12/ 0. 

12 11/ 6(0*11/10. 

13 11/ mm/ 9. 

17 '....11/ 2(*11/ C. 

21 11/ 2(0*11/ .'i. 

2.) 11/ iKSll/ -i. 

31 11/ 2«in/ .T 

aEPTEMBEK. 

2 11/ mill/ 5. 

4 11/ 010,11/ 4. 

7 11/ 0(0)11/ 4. 

8 10/10(3*11/ 2. 

10 1(1/10(0,11/ 0. 

21 10/ T(o>ll/ 0. 

21 10/ eksiu/ 0. 

28 10/ «(<ill/ 0. 



1 11/ 0®ll/ 3. 

5 11/ l@ll/ 4. 

8 11/ 0®n/ 3. 

12 11/ 0(411/ 4 

19 11/ liiull/ a. 

■ii 11/ ic*n/ 0. 

26 11/ (.'(5,11/ 4. 



NOVEMIIER. 



1. 



11/ (ICtll/ 4. 

2 lli/llMiU/ 2. 

4 10/10(8)11/ 0. 

5 10/10(0,11/ 

fi 10/10(0,11/ 2. 

9 11/ 9(0,11/ 1. 

12 Ill/ 8(3)11/ 0. 

16 10/ imil/ 0. 

23 10/ 9(^11/ 1. 

26 1 0/10(0) 11/ 1 . 

30 10/10®11/ 1 

DECF.MBKK. 
1 lO/lOiail/ 1. 

7 10/10((iir/ 1. 

10 10/ 8^11/ 1. 

14 10/ 8@n/ (I. 

17 10/ 6®U7 0. 

21 10/ 6®ii/ n. 

24 10/ 5® 1(1/ 10 . 

2H 10/ 5(0)10/10. 

.lAM'ABY. 

3 10/ 6(5»10''lO., 

4 10/ 4(0)11/ s. 

5 10/ 4®10/ 9. 

7 10/ 2(q)10/ R. 

11 10/ 3(*l»/ 8. 

14 10/ 50*10/ 9. 

18 10/ 4(0)10/ 6. 

21 10/ 3fo)10/ J. 

28 10/ 1(0)10/ 1. 

28 10/ 0(0.10/ 3. 

FBBHr.\BY. 

1 10/ 0@10/ 3. 

8 10/ 2(1^10/ 4 . 

11 10/ 3(0)10/ 5. 

15 10/ 2@10/ 5. 

IS 10/ 0(^10/ 4. 

23 9/11(0)10/ 2. 

2S 9/10(9)10/ 1. 



T 9/10@10/ . 

7 9/10Co)10/ 0. 

14 9/ll(*10/ 2. 

)7 10/ 1@10/ 5. 

21 10/ 2@10/ 6. 

24 10/ 2@10/ 6. 

2H 10/ a@10/ 6. 

11 10/ 0®10/ 4. 



Club. 

. 9/ 2(ii; 9/ 6 
, . 9/ 4<S) 9/ 7 
.. 0/ 3(a 9/ 8 
, . 9/ 4r^ 9/ 9 
, . 9/ 6(3) 9],' 10 
,. 9/7(0) 9/10 
. 9/9(0* 9/U 
.. 9/11(0)111/ 4 
, . 9/11(0)10/ 4 
,.10/10(0)11/ 
.10/10(0)11/ 
..11/ 3(0,11/ 4 
.11/ 4(*J|11/10 
.10/ 6(-o)ll/ 2 
.10/ 0(0,11/ 2 
,.10/ 0««11/ 2 
,.1(1/ 8(411/ 2 

.10/ mil/ 2 

.11/1(1(0,11/ 6 
.11/ 0(0*11/ 6 
.11/ 5to)ll/10 
.11/ 9(.i*12/ 2 
.12/ 0Co)12/ 6 

,.11/ 9(0,12/ 3 
.11/ 6(^11/ 3 
.11/ 6(0)12/ 

, 11/ 6Co*12/ 
.11/ 2(o<lJ/ 
.11/ fi<i*12/ 

.11/ 7(411/10 
.11/ 4(411/ 9 
11/ 4(1*11/ 9 
11/ 2«l,ll/ 8 
.11/ 0(0*11/ 6 
.10/10^11/ 6 
.10/10(0*11/ ."> 
.11/ 0<<?)ll/ 6 

.11/ mu/ 8 

.11/ r.lqill/ 8 

11/ 4r«ii/ fi 

.11/ 4(411/ 8 
.11/ 4<g)ll/ 9 
.11/ 4(411/ 9 
.11/ mil/ 9 

11/ 4fo.ll/ 9 
.11/ 4(0)11/ 8 
.11/ 4(411/ 8 
.11/ 4(3)11/ 8 
.11/ 4(411/ 8 
.11/ 2f<4i;/ 8 
.11/ 2(0*11/ 6 
.11/ 2(0*11/ 6 
.11/ 3^11/ 7 
.11/ 2(3)11/ 7 
.11/ •i(<ull/ 7 

.11/ 2(411/ 7 
.11/ 2(411/ 7 
.11/ 0(^11/ 7 
.11/ Ofs)!!/ 6 
.11/ 0®11/ 
.11/ 0(0,11/ 6 
.11/ 0(0,11/ 6 

lo/iur-^n/ 6 

.10/10(0)11/ 6 

.1(1/10(3,11/ 2 

.10/10(411/ 2 

.10/ 8f3)ll/ 

.10/ 8®11/ 

.10/ 9(11)11/ S 

.10/ 9(3111/ 3 

.10/ 9®11/ 1 

.10/ frfaii/ 1 

.10;' 6<n.ll^ 



APBIL. 

1 10/ 0®10/ 4. 

1 9/10(410/ 2. 

7 9/ 6@1U/ 0. 

U 9/ 8(S)10/ 0. 

IS 9/ 9@10/ 1. 

21 ... »/ 8(^10/ 0. 

2" 9/ 7(4 9/10. 

2S 9/ 6@ 9/10. 

MAY. 

1 9/ 6(4 0/10. 

2 9/ 7(D 9/11. 

6 9/ 6® 9/10. 

9 9/ 6m 9/ 9. 

16 9/ 8& 9/10. 

23 9/ m 9/10. 

26 9/lOSlO/ ■'. 

311 ... 9/ 9® 9/1(1. 

JI'KE. 

1 9/10(410/ 0. 

2 9/11(410/ 2., 

6 10/ 0#10/ 2., 

18 9/116*10/ 2.. 

16 9/10(410/ 1.. 

21 9/ 9(410/ 1.. 

27 9/ 8^10/ 0.. 



..10/ 6® 10/ 10 
..10/ 6®11/ 
..10/ 6(411/ 
..10/ 6(:.!*11/ 
,.10/ 4® 11/ 
,.10/ 3@l(l/10 
..10/ 3(i»10/ 9 

.10/ 2(410/ 8 
..10/ 2®10/ 8 
..10/ 3(410/ 8 
..10/ 4(410/10 
..10/ 6(411/ 
,.10/ S(411/ 

.10/ 6(410/ 
..10/ :Ko*1o/10 

..10- 3(4111 /ID 

. . Id ■jr'vlii '.I 

. .Ill' IKoiU)/ C. 

..Ill/ 0(3)10/ 6 

..M/ 3(.tHI/ H 

..10/ 2(410/ 7 

, . 9/11(0,10/ 5 

, . '.1/111(410/ 5 

,. n'lli(4!0/ 5 
. 9i0(*10/ 8 
, . 9/10(0)10/ 3 
,. 9/10(410/ 2 
,. 9/10®10/ 4 
. . 9/10@10/ 4 
.10/ »®10/ 6 
.10/ 0®10/ 

.10/ 0(410/ 6 

.10/ 2® 10/ 

.10/ 2(6)1(1/ 6 

.10/ 1@10/ 6 

10/ 2®10/ 6 

.10/ 0@lo/ 6 

. 9/10@10/ 6 



Woodward's Oaildbns embraces an Aquariutn, Hu- 
Ream, Art Gallery, Ctenservatorles, Tropl(»l BoQiieg, 
Menagerie, Seal Ponds aud Skatlus Blnk. 



A Standard Employment 
Agency in San Francisco. 

The agency to which we would now call the 
attention of the readers of the Califoknla 
Patbon, was established twenty years ago, and 
is the oldest estHbli^hruent of the kind on the 
Pacific coatt. From a small beginning in 1855, 
it has grown to such dimensions that it haa 
been compelled rep*-atedly to move into more 
commodious ijuarters, and now it occupies the 
large double siore formerly oocupitd by M. 
Gray A- Co., No. 625 Clay Street, next 
door wtst of the banking house of the San 
Frauci3co Savings and Loan Society, one of the 
most central business locations in the city. 
MESSRS. OROSETl & CO. are daily supply- 
ing orders sent from all parts of the State, con- 
taining requests for every variety of labor, for 
the farm, the field, orchard, vineyard, tending 
stock, or cultivating the soil; for all kinds of 
lumber, milling and mining work, from super- 
intendent down to simple laborer; for the shop, 
mechanics, engineers, artisans, and skilled 
workmen of every kind. Nor do their orders 
contain requests for male help alone. Great 
pains is taken to supply our housewives with 
the very best Domestics, Cooks and General 
Housemaids that can be obtained. They would 
call the especial attention of GRANGERS AND 
FARMERS GENERALLY to their facilities 
for supplying farm help. Referring confidently 
to their past record for faithful attention to the 
wants of patrons, they have no hesitation in 
assuring all applicants who may favor them 
with their orders, that they can nowhere else 
be better or more promptly served than by ap- 
plying to this old established agency. Mr. 
Crosett gives his constant personal attention to 
his business. Uis long experience makes him 
quick to see and accurate in judging of the 
merits of thoi^e who apply to him for situations. 
And his well established and wide extended 
reputation brings to his office an abundant sup- 
ply of every kind of labor, from which he is 
enabled to select the best. 

All this advantage Mr. Crosett gives to those 
who favor him with their orders, and that, too, 
without any expense to the employer — all the 
fees, (which, by reason of a large business being 
transacted, are moderate), being paid by the 
employee. The Employment Agency of 
Messrs. Crosett & Co. is supplying a great 
need in our State and we take pleasure in com- 
mending it to all readers of the Pbk-s. 



Superior Photographs. 

To be sure of a good picture,you have only to patronU* 
Q. D. Morse's Palace of Art, at No. 417 MontRomery 
street, 8. F. The publishers of thia Journal have 
patronized Ur. Horse tor many y^are, and do not hen- 
itate to Bay that his pictums arc not excelled by any we 
have seen produced in this or any other country. No 
one can ask for a better man to patroni/e than Mr. 
Horse. He is affable and re8pe(Afal to all. 

Much Qbltired, Etc. 

PoBTiAND, Ogn., Jnno 2iith, 1870. 
Dewky i: Co , Patent Hollcitora, S. F.—GtnU: 1 am 
mnch obliged to you for courteay abown me, aud am 
well pleased with the manner in which yua have done 
my bosinesB, and a-snre you, will cheerfully recom- 
mend you to my acquaintances needing enoh services. 
Hope to have a case again before long, of my own. I 
have been an Inventor all my life, but let ot, erg reap 
the t)eneflt, or had work stolen from me. Please hav 
the extra copies of my patcut, etc., mailed to me direct, 
andobliRe Yonrs truly, J. H. WonRtv 



Our A.irents. 

Ot;B Fbiknds can do mnch in aid of onr paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by aKxiating 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
Influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

J. L. TiiABP — San Francisco. 

B. W. CnowELl,— California. 

Q. W. McObew — Santa Clara county. 

J. M. McAbthdb— Los Anueles. Santa Barbara, Veii. 
tura, San Bernardino and San Diego connti»M. 

A. C. Knox— El Dorado county. 

F. \. ScoFiEuj— Sonoma county. 

O. N. West — Santa Cruz county. 

Ohab. E. SajciCs— Plilladelpiiia! 

A. 0. Champio:,— Tulare, Fresno and Kern i-oimliet.. 

RiCHABD Rule— Nevada 

Emoloyment Wanted. 

Wanted, some kind of employment in the conntrj. 
Can run a .'tmall engine or do many kinds of liiiht work 
in farming. Reference furnished. Address B., thlti 
office. 



An Estate in Sam Dieoo Countt.— Readers have 
doubtless noticed the advertisement ot Lee H. I'tt, of 
CkU Diego ix>u ity, iu which he nffrrs for sale a shaTe In 
the estete called "Aqua Tibia'' In Pala, San DleKo 
connty. Mr. Ctt, as we are Informed, has brought kih 
property into a fine state of develoiiment, ana tinitn 
that its management requires the time of two men. 
He cannot secure hired help to take an Interest :n the 
work and Btay permanently as bo desires, and so he 
aflkH for a man to take half ownerphip and assume the 
active control of the property. It is an opportunity 
which we consider worth looking intj. — Kiiral Pretr, 
June inih. 



Fabmebs, send to Hay Bros., Qalesburg, III., tor 
descriptive circular of their new improved, heavy, 
steel-vane Windmill, and of their "Combined Mill." 
Warranted firnt-class mlllH. Wholesale price ol nine- 
fout wheel, $:)n on cars. Une month trial given. Any 
carpenter (with the printed directions) can put the 
mill up right in one day. Farmer agents wanterl. 



Goon PBrNTiNo Ink.— We prefer Chas. F.neu John- 
sou's printing inks, having used them on this paper 
for the past fonr years. H. R. Crocker h Co., printers, 
stationers, blank book and paper dealers, are .lohii. 
son's S. F. agents.— Dkwet it Co., Publiahem. 



At our requeat, Oragln k Oo., ot Philadelphia, Pa., 
have promised to send any of our readers gratia, (un 
receipt of IS cents to pay postage,) a sample uf Dob- 
bins' Electric Soap, to tr}'. Send at once. 



a^s^ 



July 15. 1876.] 



53 



S. F. Wi^VEj ^epoflT- 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOUESTIO PRODUCE, ETC. 

8ak Fbakoisco, Wednesday, July 12tii, IHlti. 

The revival of business after ttie patriotic holidays 
effects coaelderable activity in some lices. In Uomes- 
tic Produce there were considerable accumulations 
awaiting shipment to the city, and their coming caused 
a tumble in prices for all fruits and vegetables. On 
the other hand there has a isen a remarkable activity 
in Provisions, and both fresh and cured Meats have 
advanced in price. Other special features In the trade 
in each article of Produce will be noted below. 
Bansre of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The courM of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to 
the Prounce Exchange during the days of last week has 
been as recorded in the following taule: 



Thurtday .. 

Friday 

Saturday. .. 
Monday.... 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 



Cal. Avekage. 

93 9d®lcJ3 Id 

9s 9d@lU-. Id 

98 9d&10s Id 

9s 9d@10s Id 

9s 8d@ll)8 — 

98 «d@10s — 



Olub. 



lOs — @108 
10s — @10s 
10s — ®I03 
lOj — ®10s 
i)i 10d@10s 
lOa — (3»108 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date In former years as follows: 
Average. Club. 

1874 128 —1^128 2d 128 4d@12s 9d 

1876 98 2d@ 9s 5d 98 4d ® 98 9d 

1876! 98 8d@109 — 98 10d@103 4d 

The Foreign Review. 

The telegraphed review of the European Grain trade 
from the Mark Lane £.c^iress, under date of July 10th, 
is as follows : 

"The neutrality of the great Powers and the warlike 
attitude of affairs have not as yet exercised any great 
Influence on the grain trade, though holders evince a 
Bomewhat increased firmness. The present state of 
trade, therefore, is one of watchfulness, accompanied 
by some anxiety, as there are weather risks as well as 
war risks to be considered. During the patt week the 
supply again exceeded the requirements, and Wheat is 
going into the granary to await events. There has 
been a tteady consumptive demand during the week, 
although quieter at the close. Floating cirgoeshave 
been depressed, owing to the large arrivals at port of 
cull. Sales at the end of the week indicate a decline 
of liy;l I'.d per quarter." 

The Orowing Crops in Other Fields. 

Latest mail advices from abroad report great im- 
provement in the condition of the growing Grain crops 
in nearly all European countries. In Southern Kussia 
the harvest is near at hand, and from the present out- 
look a satisfactory yield will be bad. Winter Wheat 
has been damaged considerably in some sections, but 
the spring crop appears to be a success generally. 
French advices report a notable recovery from the 
damage occasioned by the late heavy tbundur storms, 
and, with one or two exceptions, the pr'jspects are very 
favorable. The weather throughout Holland was set- 
tled, aud dally improvement is noted in all cereal 
crops but Rye. From Hungary there are some few com- 
plaints about Wheat being in a smutty condition and 
the backwardness of maize, but on the whole there has 
been very general improvement since last advices 
Complaints from Austria have all died out, and 
everything looks favorable for a good yield. In Al. 
geria the prospects are all that could be desired. Some 
samples of Wheat have been exhibited which promise 
well. 

In the prairie region of the United States there are 
notes of disasters. Crop reports from %iS points in 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee were 
telegraphed to the Cincinnati Gar.cUe last night. From 
these reports it appears that the season has been very 
propitious for growing must kinds of grain; but just as 
harvest approaches, there is threatened disaster from 
continued rains. From all points, except Tennessee 
and Southern Kentucky, fears of only a partial crop are 
entertained. As crops now stand, Wbext promises to 
yield two-thirds; oats, less than an average crop; corn, 
unusually large crop. 

The Prairie Farmer ot July Ist says: There is no 
doubt that the Wheat crop in extensive districts, in 
Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin and Michigan, has been seri- 
ously Injured. In the latter State, the wet weather 
succeeded by conditions of temperature favorable to 
rust, has done much damage, while in the prairie States, 
Insects have in numerous localities made havoc with 
the fields. Our own private advices, as well as the re- 
ports in the public prints, indicate that the damage to 
Wheat is serious. 

Freigrhts and Charters. 

Freights of all kinds, says the Post, have been inac- 
tive during the week, owing to the holidays, as 
regards Wheat charters the market is in a weak con- 
dition, and the high rates paid by speculators *arly in 
the season are doubtless causing them much embarrass- 
ment at the present. A large portion of the tonnage 
chartered to arrive has been taken at tigures which 
closely approaches £3 58, though even higher rates are 
known to have been paid In many instances. At the 

■ present moment it would be impossible to recbarter 
even a Srst-class iron ship at tuat figure, and many 
shippers are Inclined to the opinion that Si'i 2s 6d is 
above the market, owing to the alow condition of the 
Wheat trade in England. It will thus be seen that the 
speculators have a large amount of tonnage on hand 
which cannot be placed except at a 1:>S3. In this di- 
lemma it is natural to suppose that they will load up 
With Wheat on their own account, in order to hedge 
pr jspective losses. It is reported that chartering to 
arrive is still going on at high figures for California 
account. Outside business presents no new features. 
We have now 43,689 tons in port for Wheat loading. 
The dieengaged toimage Includes 21 vtssels, a*;gregat- 
iug U,219 tons. 

Old Grain on Hand July 1st. 

The Ban Francisco Produce Exchange has just pub- 
lished a statement of the stucs of Fionr and Grain, 
(croi> of 1875), in t le State on the 1st of July. It is 
thought the returns for Wheat comprise all the old 
stock left in the State, bui the same confidence is not 
felt in the returns of Feed Grain. The qunntity of 
Flour on band is given at 1.5,iOj bbln, including 8,000 
bills here and abonrd Teasels In tbe harbor, and the 
balance principally in tbe northern coui.ties. Follow- 
ing are the localities of old Wheat and Barley : 

Wheat. Barley. 

San Francisco and vicinity, ctls 28 200 24,100 

NoitUern Coast 2,000 \ MOO 

Napa Valley, etc 18 700 1,100 

Stcramento Valley 6,000 400 

Lower Sacramento, etc 2 800 9,200 

East Side San Francigco Biy 7,li00 41,60 

San Leandro to Lirermore 2,600 4 tsOO 

Stockton to San Joaquin 46,000 

Redwood to HoUister 8,500 3,200 

Salinas and P.jaro Valley S,30U 6,9U0 

Soatheru Ooasc 100 14,900 



The stock of Oats is given at 4,400 ctls, all in tlie 
city. The quantity ot com is reported at 34,700 ctls, 
of which 28,600 Ctls is still at the place of growth in 
the southern counties, and the balance here. The 
quantity of Grain carried over into the new crop year 
has rarely been so small as this season. It is fortunate 
that we have empty granaries for our bountiful bar- 
vest. 

The Produce Receipts for the Half Year. 

As we closed a half year's trade on the first day of 
July, it will be interesting to note the aggiegates of 
Domestic Produce which have been received. They 
are as follows: 
Flour, qr sks 988.700 Onions, sks 24,8S9 



Wheat, ctls .2,069,723 

Barley, ctls 479,344 

Oats, ctls 95,125 

Corn, ctls 116,109 

Bye, ctls 5,146 

Beans, ctls 41,590 

Potatoes, sks 352,533 



Bran, sks 103,888 

Middlings, sks 20.878 

Hay, tons 32,413 

Straw, tons 2,195 

Wool, bales.... 87,136 

Cotton , bales 86 

Hops, bales 2,172 



Domestic Produce. 

The following tabi* shows the S. F. receipts of Do- 
mestic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, as 
compared with the receipts of previous weeks: 



Abtiousb. 



Week Week Week Week 
June 21 June 28 July 5. July 12 



Flour, quarter sacks 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, packs 

Com, centals 

Oats, centals 

Pot.atoe8, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales 



31,278 

62 921 

30,618 

1,012 

5,010 

1,250 

9,595 

824 

4,226 

65 

1,369 



12,644 

120, 494 

21 ,980 

391 

3,169 

1,317 

11,972 

1,051 

1,776 

33 

4,286 



16,649 

123,231 

14,741 

610 

398 

762 

6,458 

603 

974 

45 

762 



71,776 

110,567 

22,743 

2,136 

1,040 

5,740 

11,4'29 

846 

2,919 

117 

1,779 



Totals 120,600 



107,000 



Bags.— The Bag market is considered "shaky" by 
those in the trade. Standard Wheat Bags are now 
quoted at 13^c for an outside jobbing rate, which is a 
decline of ;sc since our last report. Large lots could 
doubtless be secured for cash below our quotation. 
The dissatisfaction which prevails with the price at 
present offered for grain will load to considerable 
storing in bulk, and Bags will not be needed iintil tbe 
sales are made. It now appears how short sighted was 
the attempt recently made by interested parties in thia 
city to bull and bolster tbe Bag trade. They are like 
to reap themselves the disasters of their narrow policy 

Barley.— An improvement is noted in barley. New 
Feed has advanced considerably since our last quota" 
tiong, and we shall quote hTeafter without destinction 
between new and old, except in special transactionit 
We note sales during the week as follows: Two hun- 
dred sks good new Feed, .$1, gold. Brewing is held at 
$1.10fg*$l.!!0; 1.000 sks good new, 82;-iC, gold; £00 do 
choice old, $1.21 H, halt silver ; 87."> do good old, $1.07 Vi 
^ ctl. silver. Six hundred sks new Feed at $1, half 
silver; 600 do old Chevalier, $1.02}6, silver; 500 ctls 
choice old Brewing at $112 ;^ ^ ctl. half silver; 1.500 
sks good new, 87!<i®90c; 1,'200 do do, 87J<ic; SCO do 
choice old Brewing, $1.'2S, all half silver; 1,700 do do, 
$1.15, quarter silver. The higher rates noted in these 
sales have been gained within the last two days. There 
has arisen considerable inquiry for export, and vessels 
have been loaded tor South America. We notice in the 
commercial reports of late Chicago papers, the offer of 
any part ot 500 carloads ot California Barley (new crop) 
for sa'e. The report adds ^ The best bid heard was $1, 
which was refused. Five hundred carloads, at nine 
tons to the car, would give a total ot 4,500 tons. Com- 
peting with what is incorrectly termed the West on its 
own chosen field is, though not an entirely new phrase 
in our development, a very suggestive one. As the 
great bulk of our grain goes t:> Europe, California has 
not heretofore entered largely into Eastern crop specu- 
ations. 

Beans.— The trade in beans is still very small, al- 
though receipts have been larger this week. Our quo- 
tations are still nominal. 

Corn.— Corn is unchanged. We note fales: Two 
hundred and titty sks large Yellow at si. 20, silver; 350 
do do, $1 15 ^ ctl, half silver; 60Lt do do and 100 do 
large White, private. 

Dairy Produce— Butter is advancing. There is 
beginning to be felt the usual shrinkage in milk and 
the supply of fresh ro'l is smaller in the market. 
Cheese is unchanged. 

"Egga — Eggs are up again, and there has been a 
sharp advance as shown by our quotdtions. 

Feed— Hay is selling at former prices with a ten- 
dency toward the lower figures. We note sales: 31 
tons choice new Wheat, $13; 25 tons poor, $7.25; 40 tons 
good Wild Oat, $12.50; 41 tons. Wheat and Clover, 
$9.50; 53 tons Clover and Oat, $10; 44 do Wild Oat, $10. 
44 do Wild Oat and Wheat, $11.50; 35 tons Stock, $9.25- 
25 do mixed, $10; 70 do Wheat, in two lots, $12.50@13 
per ton. 

Fruit— The market is filled with tine fruit and 
prices have taken a deep tumble for most kinds. 
Peaches are arriving in large quantities. Plums are 
scarce and prices high. Cherries, with the exception 
of those from Oregon, are about out of market. Cur. 
rants are still abundant. Apricots and Blackberries 
are plenty. Limes have doubled in price during the 
last two weeks. Full information of Fruit prices may 
be found in our tables. 

Fish— Fish are again selling at high prices, as noted 
below. 

Hops— There is nothing new in the local trade. 
Emmet Wells reviews the New York trade for the week 
ending June 30th as follows: 

Trade has quieted down considerably since our last, 
and little or no business will be done until after tbe 
4th. The shipments to Europe this week are 200 bales, 
which just about ofl'aet the receipts Prices are irreg- 
uliir and nominal. Crop reports, both foreign and 
home, are somewhat less favorable the past week* 
There appears to be a premature growth of vine in som" 
of the di^t^ictB of New York. In England, just the re" 
verse state of things exist; there the vine is very back- 
ward and weak. The reports from Germany are also 
rather unfavorable tor a large yield. 

Oats— Oats are dull and prices are considerably re- 
duced. We note sales: SOO sks new Feed, $1.70; 200 do 
old d», $1.90; 600 dodo, $1.75, all half silver; 300 sks 
good old, $1.80, half sliver; 300 sks fair new, $1.60; 600 
do good dn, 1.65; 600 do do, $1.60 per ctl, all half sil- 



ver; 400 sks good new, $1.70, half silver; '200 do good 
old, $1.85; 200 sks old Feed, $1.75; 30O do new .10, $1.45 
per ctl, the latter silver; 500 ctls Feed, $1.70, half 
silver. 

Onions— Onions are weak and plentiful, and prices 
have fallen to 75c per ctl for the best kinds. We note 
a sale ot 30 sks Yellow Danvers at 75c. Other sales 
have been as low as 50@62}io. 

Potatoes— We note a sale of 1,000 sks Half Moon 
Bay at $1.25. Early Rose sales at $1 per ctl. Early 
Southern Potatoes have sold at $50@60c ptr sk. 

Provisions— The trade in Provsious is firm and 
active. As will be seen in our tables, fresh Beef aud 
Pork have generally advanced. Smoked meats are sell- 
ing in large amounts. One of the leading dealers in 
these goods tells us he never saw the trade so active as 
at present. 

Poultry— But a few small changes in price are 
noted. 

Vegetables— Nearly all kinds of vegetables are 
more plenty and cheaper. Full prices are given below. 
Lima Beans are fresh in the market and sell at I5c ^ lb 

Wheat— There seems to be a general disposition to 
hold back from present prices, although some sales are 
made. We note the foUowmg: 200 sks good old Mill- 
ing, $1.60; 650 do fair do, $1,50; 3,000 do good new Ship- 
ping, $1.60; 8,600 ctls o'd Salinas at $1.50— sold last 
week, but not before reported; 2,000 do new Coast, 
$1.47)4; 3,000 do do Shipping at $1.50; 13,000 ctls good 
new Shipping at $1.52,^5; 200 do at $1.45; 170 sks fair 
old Milling at $1.60; 2,000 sks new Shipping, $1 .52 >;. ; 
2,000 do fur old Stockton, $1.55; 250 do interior old. 
$1.45; 1,000 ctls new Superfine at $1.40 per ctl. 

Wool.— We hear of no change in the local trade 
Sales are reported of 105,000 Ifes at 14@18c. The New 
York market is telegraphed as follows: 

New Yobk, 'July lOth.— The demand for Spring Cali- 
fornia Wool has been rather limited, but reports from 
Boston state that sales have been made of some 25,000 
bales at prices ranging from 18c to 2.5c. All descrip- 
tions ot foreign clothing material continues dull, but 
holders have refused to grant further concessions. 
Some small lots of new Ohio Fleece have been received 
ot a quality reported as fully equal to that of last year. 
After a suspension of two days, business was resumed 
on Wednesday mornirg, but there weri few buyers in 
town, and since then tho market has been quiet. This 
was anticipated by the dealers generally, for such is 
usually the case after all holidays, and it is often a 
week or two before it has fu'ly recovered from the in- 
terruptioD. There has been no change in values lor 
stocks generally are light— 3nfgif9c for X and above. 
Sales for the week were 70,000 pounds Spring Califori,ia 
at 21(S(22c; 8 OOO pounds do Fall, 14c; 29,000 pounds 
Eastern Texas, i7@23^ic; 10,000 pounds X and above 
Ohio, .35c; 110,000 pounds Mexican, 15c, and 400 bales 
Donskoi and 10,000 pounds domestic Noils, on private 
terms. 



OOMESTiC PRODUCE. 



18 



(fl) 32' 

iffl 26 

(«i 2U 

& — 

® 13 



— '<« — 



SS1.-5 50 
M28 UU 
'313 Oil 

'a) 

@37 .ill 
'a) 60 



BKAK.S, 

Bayo,^oil 4 .'ioao HO 

Batter 1 9im2 25 

Pea I 92'^'iS - 

Pink 3 50®3 01 

Sm'l white 1 60'^1 9:1 

Lima I SO @2 DO 

BROOM CORS. 

Common, IH S).. 2 m 3 

Choice, do . . * fai ."i 

COTTOjr. 

Dotton, =8* Hb l.i f<^ 

DAIRY rRODUCE, 
KTC. 

BOTTEE. 

Cal. Fresh Roll 

per lb 2.^ 

Point Reyes 30 

Firkin 22 

W'st'n Reserve. 16 

New York — 

CHEESE. 

Obeese.Oal., lb.. IM 

do Old - 

Eastern 

EGGS- 

Oal. fresh '# doz 86 

Ducks' — 

Oreeon 'i2'-. 

Eastern 2i 

FEED. 

Bran, per lou 

Corn Meal 27 .VI 

Hay 7 im 

Middlings 24 00 

Oil cake meal... — — 
Straw, H b«le... K 

Extra '-ci hh\....h bit fart 01) 

Superfine 4 .ii) fa) 4 7.5 

CJraham. ':*> bbi..5 .iO (n, — 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef Ist qaality lb. 6 (a S 

Second do ... 4^'S .i 

TUirddo -.S'^^ 4 

Spring fjamb — ^H"^ 5 

Mutton 2i^«5 ;i 

Pork, uudresBod 6'J^ <t 7 

do. dressed 9); (A y 

Veal f, (ai i. 

Milk Ca'ves d'i'(f" 7 

QRAI^, ilTfc. 
8ariey,leQd ctl— 87>i <d 1 (10 

do brewing, i Oi fa) 1 15 

Chevalier 1 25 M I iS 

v:orn. White... 1 1.5 " 

do Yellow..,. I }:i 

Oats I 25 

Milling 

Rye 1 80 

Wheat shipping 1 ,i1 ©l .M 

do milline.. I 60 W. H.l 
HI1>K.*«. 

llides.diy 10 '* 13 

ao wpr Baifftd () til tii-i 
HOXEY, ETti 
Beeswax.por lb.. 2.'j t?^ 27! 
Honey in comb.. \iii/di 15 

do.Stralnpil... 3 (<u 10 
UOP.<«. 

New crop. . 10 (di 

XlIT.*l-aubblnK. 
Alm'dah'rd ,sb'l lb H 

do, softsli'l. . I« 

Brazil do 14 

Oal. Wain ate.... li 
Obile Walnuts.. 11 
Pe»niit8per tb.. 9 



KilbBrtH IS f<4 



WHOLEoALE. ; 

Wednesday m.. July 12, 1876. 

Pecanuts 17 fa) is 

ONIONS. 
union City otl. — ®- 

Stockt'in — fp.t- T.T 

New Red ^0 i^m - 7.i 

Silver Skins «2'»'.; - T.i 

POTATOES. 
Petal lama.^ciL — foi — 

Salt Lake — (c^ — 

Humboldt — jj _ 

ISttrly Rose nowl 00 u 

Sweet .1 a - (i 

l*ew 1 iiv,(3, 1 2.5 

POULTRY * 6AM E. 
dens, per dz... S 00 (m9 0" 

Roosters 7 .5'l (»9 110 

Broilers J 50 So 00 

Ducks, tame. dz 5 00 (ail Oi 

do Mallard — (a)."! 00 

do Canvass — (as5 O'l 

Geese, per patt 1 .^n (tt2 uo 

Wild Gray dz..i 00 ia>i 0.1 

White 1 m ■0,2 00 

Torfepys, Live, tti 1.1 (m 22 

do Dressed 22 @ 24 

Quail, per duz . . — im 

Snipe, EnK., doz. - 4 

Doves, per dozer -io (ct> M 

Rabbits I 00 !0l 00 

Hare, nnr df>7,. 1 .in vi2 10 

PROV1.SIONS. 
Oal.Bacua,l.'t,D) 16 g 

doMediara... Isi^'S 

do Heavy — ~@ 

Lard 14 (a> 

Oal. Smoked Bee' 10 (a, 

biastern do.... - f«) 
HaBt'rn Should's 
Hams, Oal 

do Armour 

do Worster'a, 

do Dupee's.. 

do Ddvis Bros' 

SEEDS. 
eklfalfa. Chile lb. K 1 

ao California. 12 

Janary 18 : 

I'.loverRod - 1 

do White .50 I 

Ootton 6 I 

Flaxseed — ( 

Hemp 12)4i 

ItalianRyeGrass 2.^ 1 
Perennial do.... 20 

.Millet 10 ( 

Mustard, white. 3 ' 

do. Brown 3 

Rape 7 ' 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 30 1 

do id quality.. 29 
Sweet. V Grass. 

Orchard do. . - 
Red Top do... — tei 

HungHnan do 3 ^ 

LawD du S'l (Oi 

Mesnuit do... 20 (a) 

rimothv If (<^ 

TAI^I^OW. 

Orude, "iti tb 6'*a) 

Rettnen ,'j3 ; a) 

VFOOt,, ETC. 

.sPiUNt;- 

SijeOy,'B 0> 9 ra) 

Jhoiee long free 17 a) 
do Northern... lit (fU 

do short 13 to) 

Burry 10 a) 

Oregon — a* 



& 1 20 
@ I 17J4 
(>d I 80 

(a) 1 90 
I 35 



14 @ 
14!4'0 



16 



30 



17 
16 
15 

I6h: 

12.'- 
10 

10 

i4;<i 

15 
17 

16*^ 
17 

10 

III 
20 
22 
.').') 
10 



12 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 



Butler, i^al. oh'ice 
t^heoae, lb 

Kasloru 

Liivd. L'al., lb 

Kibtern 

t'lour, ex. fam, hi 6 

1 ;orii Meal, lb 

Sugar, wh. crsh'd 

dn It. brown, tb 
( 'otlVjo. green, fl).. 
Tei tino bl», .W, M. 
Tea ttiicstJap, .vs, 
' » ndl-s. ALlmanl'e 
Soai), Cal., lb.... 

Rce, lb £ 

Yi-nut Powdcrdz. I 



Weunesdav. m., .July 12 
30 (o;i7 lUowen Bro. largo 

can per doz . . ..'» 00 

Small, d" 1 JO 

Bowen'n Cream 

Taitar lb — 

'2.') K'O '0 Caa'd Oy«tera.(lz.2 (10 
2'*W '■! Isyrun, S K.Gol'n. 75 
l2'i(od3'i Dried Apples.... 10 
8 (a) il^ Dr'd Ger. Prunen 12 
23 (,« 3I( Dr'd Figs, Oal... <) 
.IS idil on I Dr'd PeKohea " 

7.S, IrtnJliK 

do Fr. Olaret.l 00 

do 0«l.,il7,.l)r,t.3 00 

Whiaky, O.K.gal.S K 

fFt. Brand-, < 00 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

L WHOLESALE, i 

WeDnesdai m., July 12, 1876. 



FRUIT MARKET. 

Oranges Mez. %« 

M ® 

Tahiti, do 25 00^30 00 

Oal. do @ 

iiimes, Mexican, 

■m M 25 00® 

Malaga Lemons, 

^fibx (m — 

Oal. ^ 100 2 OOfffl 2 51 

do Sicily * b'i.l2 OOiS 

Bananas, '#) bncb 2 50.a) 3 50 
Ooooanuts.^lOO. 7 00 f3) 8 00 

" sa - 

881 25 



18 W130 

25 (aa>l 

- f*IS 

20 fij,25 



7 ® 10 

(0 I2>t 

SO (Oi 00 



Apricots,?! lb 14 (at\b 

Plums. » lb 5 & a 

Pittea.O" « lb .... 17 %22 
Raisins, imported, 3 25 (aiS 75 

Cal. Raisins 9 @ 10 

Black Figs, ^ lb.... 5 @10 

White, do I2>i®19 

Prunes I2>5a)l7 

Citron 28 m :I0 

Zante Ourrant.s 9 (ffi 10 

VEGETAllt,ES. 
Asparagus iA bus. . 2 00(0^3 -'0 

8eet3l«ctl —■a 75 

Oabbaee. * loo lbs. m'iailf, 
Garrow*, p^ 100 lbs . 75^ — 
Caulitlower. doz.. .50^ 7.W 

Celery, doz fi^t @— 

i>arlic. * lb 3><:2 2 

Green Peas B Bi 2'^% .1 

Green Corn m doz.. 7 (^ 20 
Suin'rSqaash '^ box.— i2— .=10 
Marro'iat Sqsb.tn — 
ArtichofcoB.^ doz.. — 
String Beans, 1* lb 4 

Lima Beaoe — 

Parsnips — 

Shell Beans .— 

Peppers, green, lb — 



■ai- 



Pineapples, ^dz. 
Apples, 1ft box. .. 50 

do Choice — 

Apricots, B) 3 

Blackberries.... 5 
Cherries, it! lb. .. 6 @ 12'/, 

Plums, tb 4 @ 8 

Figs 3 la) 5 

Gooseberries.. 5 @ — 
Huckleberries... - ^ — 
Strawber's ■» cse 5 00 @ 7 00 
Pomgranates.... — ^ ~ 

Raspberries 12 '^^ 20 

Currants.^ ca?e 1 5'la:t 00 

rSranberries'Sbdl.lS W'@H 0" 

Peacnes, %» box — 25 (a — 60;Okra. 

I'ears. 'Bbx — 75 f§l 25 [Ouoambers.i'l* box 50a 75 

do Choice — M — Tomatoes, boi....l 0U@3 00 

Crab annles. 1ft bi — "Wi — Egg Plant, box.. -al 50 

DRIED FRVIT. Riiubarb lb 1 fai la 

Apples. P ». . 9 (^12J<i 1 Lettuce, doz 12><^ — 

"ears, Tft ft) R J913 iTurnips, pr ctl Si'id (!2'-4 

Peaches,?, lb 12 @12;v| 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



pl5 



^2.=i 



WHOLESALE. 1 



Wednesday m., July 12, 1876. 



BAOS. 

Eat. Stand Wht.. 

Neville A Go's... 

Hand Sewed... 

24x36 

24x40 

Machine do 24x40. 

" 23x10. 

" '22x40. 

" '22x36. 

Flour Sacks !>i3 ■ ■ 

'• •• '4s 



13)i«— 
13M@- 




'■i(m& 



I 3 00 
14 25 



3 .'iO 
I 1 911 



HesBian 60-in 
do 45-in 
do 40-tn ... 
Wool SackB,3.i.^lb' 

do 4 ■ 

Stand, uunaies. . 

single seam du 

Bean Bags 

CANNED OOODS. 
Asst'dPie fruits 

in 2,^ lb cans. 2 75 

do Table do.. .3 75 
Jams A Jellies 4 25 
Pickles !* gl.. — 
Sardinesnir boxl 65 

do hf hnxes.3 III! '« 

COAL-Juhblnst. 
Aastralian.^ton 8 75 a 9 00 

Ooos Bay & S 00 

Bellingham Bay. ,^ 9 OH 

Seattle "S) 9 00 

nnmbirl'd —14 00 S'6 00 

Mt. Diablo 6 75 @7 75 

Lehigh 5*22 00 

Liverpool 10 00 all 00 

West Hartley... SU 00 

Scotch 9 00 ,@10 «. 

Soranton 13 00 (ailH 00 

Vancouvei-'s Isl.lO 50 & 2 DI' 
Obarco3il,'8*sk... 75 ffl - 

Ooke, Ijlbbl — (S) 60 

COFFEE. 




Sperm, crude.. ,.1 61 (0)1 6> 

do bleached. 1 90 ©2 25 

Ooaat Whales --- 

Polar, refined — 

Lard — 

Oleophine — 

Devoo'e Bril't... '25 
Long Island — — 

Bnreka 26 

Oevoe'8 Petro'm '25 
Barrel kerosene 23 

Olive — 

l>owner Kerose'e — _ 

Elaine 37>'^ 

Gas Light Oil. . 23"«0 25 

PAINTS. 
Pure White Lead S-M (a)l'l'4 

Whiting 

Putty 

Chalk 

Paris White 

Ochre 

Veoetiau Rod... 

Red Lead 

Litharge 

Eng. Vermillion 
Averill Chemical 

Paint, per gal. 

White A tints.2 00 

Green, Blue A 
Ch Yellow.. 3 00 

Light Red.... 3 00 

Metallic Roof.l 30 
RICE. 

l^hina No. I 

Hawaiian. 1ft ft.. 7;<; 
Carolina. ^ lb.. 10 "O 

SAtT. 
Oal. Bay,per ion 10 00(314 00 

do Common.. 6 00(^7 00 

Carmen Island.. 12 00^^15 00 

Liverpool fine. ..22 .50aj25 00 

SOAP. 

Castile 1ft lb lO ® 

Common brands.. 4>^® 
Fancy do .. 7 fa) 

CANDLES. 




-@1 



@2 40 

fd)3 .50 
f^3 SO 
@1 60 



2 fa) 



IIJ* 



Sandwich Island — ® 21} 
OoBta Rica per lb 'it'^% — 

Guatemala — @ 22.'^ 

Java — @ 31 

-Manilla — @ 2I>^ 

Ground in cs 25 fdi — 

Cnlcorv 21 «* - 

FISH. 
Sao.Dr? Cjd.new — @ 6'i 

cases 6 @ I'A 

do boneless.... S'/s® 

tSastern Cod H ' " 

Salmon in bblB..7 25 

do "^ hbiss 7i 

do 21b cans. .2 i 

do lib cans .1 35 

do Col. R. '^b.5 uO 

Pick. Cod, bbl8.22 00 

do k bblsll 00 

Maok'I.No.l.'^ble II 10 3 — 

Extra.... - @12 Oo 

in kits 1 90 '§2 '25 

Ex mess. 3 51 ®i Oi 
Ex mes3.;^b»-'®l2 liO ,,.. 
Pio'd Herr'g,bi.. 3 OC 'a 3 -iO f me crushed 

Bos . Sm'kMHer'e40 ® 50 Uranulatea 

I^ I ME, ETC. lioldenO 

Lime, S'ta Cruz, lawaiian 

-f, bbl 2 00(^2 25 Cal. Syrup in kgs 

Cement, Rosen- Hawaiian Molas- 

dale, do 2 75fd) 3 50 ses 

do Ponland do 4 75.a) 5 .50 TEA. 

Plaster, Golden Oolong. Canton, lb 

Gate Mills 3 OOg 3 25 do Amoy... 

Land Plaster, ^ do Kormosa 

ton 10 00fa)'2 .50 Imperial, Canton 

MISCEI^LANEOVS. 

Pulu — (ih 7',. 

NAir,S. 

Vaeorted size, keg 3 7) fa4 00 

OIES. 



Grant's 16' 

Mitchell's 20 

SPICES. 

OloTeBfilb 45 

Cassia 23 

Citron '28 

Nutmeg 

Whole Pepper... 

Pimento 

Gr'nd AUspprdz 

do Cassia do . . 

do Cloves do.. 

do Mustard do 

do Ginger do.. 

do Pepper do.. 

-io Mace do. . . 
Bowen's Pure 

Ground ^ lb 

SIJOAR, ETC. 
Cal. Cube per lb.. — @ 
Circle A orusiied — ^ 
Powdered 



47,S 

26^4 



-a) Mt 
(P 97*1 



95 (P 97 S 
l4S'a) l,i4 
16 a 17>i 

- f^l 12 

- m .50 

- ai .50 

- m ■»> 

- §1 00 

- @l 00 

- f<«2 00 

(0( 50 



--% 

- (dl 
_ 'd 
10 ras 

- a 62)^ 

■25 m 27H 



12>< 

12 

12'4 

12 

ll'* 

10>, 



Pingsuey 45 



@ 25 

@ SO 

fa) SO 

(H m 

■ 80 



Paciho Glue ijo 

Neat F't No. 1.1 00 (at 90 

Pare — '.n\ — 

Cast.orOil.No.l.. — Ml 15 

Baker's \ \ — f,i| 1,5 

Cocoanut .52 a 55 

Olive Plagniol..5 .50 (a!5 7.5 

do Possel 4 75 (35 00 

Palm lb 9 @ — 

Linseed, raw.. . — ^ 70 

do boiled - •& 75 

China nnt in CB.. 65 % — 



do 

do Moyune . 611 tol 00 

Ganpo'der.Cant. 75 @l 00 

do Pingsuey 

do Moyane. 

Y'ng Hy., Canton 

do Pingsuey 

do Moyune.. 

•Japan, % cncsts, 

bulk 

Japan, lacquered 

bxs,4>^ and 5 lbs 

.Japan do,3 lb bxs 

do prnbx,4HIb 

do f^Al 0} paper 

TURPENTINE. 

Eastern .51H(^W 




LUMBER. 



CAKOO PRI« ES OF 
REDWOOD. 



Rough, 1ft M 

Rough refuse,^ M 

Ro'igh clear. 1» M 

Rough clear rofuse, M. 

Rustic, i* M 

Rustic, rcluse, "% M.... 

Siirfa'iod, 1ft ,\I 

SurfftoeJ refuse,^ M.. 

Flooring, 1ft M 

Flooring, refuse, 1ft M. 
Beaded llooring, 1ft M.. 
Bca<led floor, refuse, M 

Halfinuh Siding. M 

Uatf-lnch siding, rof, M. 
Ualfinch, Surlaofd,.M 
Half-inch Surl. rel'., M 
HaliiHCh HuttenB, M.. 
Pickets, rottgh, 1ft M . . . 
Pickets, rough, p'ntd. . 
Pickets, fancy, p'nt^ . 
Shln^ldn 1ft M 



J. IK' 



PUOET SOUND PINE 

-Retatll Price. 

Bough. # M '22 .50 

Fencing, ^ M '22 50 

Flooring and Step, 1ft M SI 50 
Flooring, narrow, ^ .■«.. 35 00 
Flooring, 2d quality. M.. 25 
L,aihs,# M 3 50 

K'lrrini'. » ll'ieal ft ... —% 

RED WOOD -Retail. 

aougn.jft »1 22 SU 

Rough reluse, 1ft M IS 00 

Kough Pickets. 1ft M.... IS 00 
Rough Pickets, p'd, M.. 201 

Hancy Pickets, 11 M 301 

Siding, i»M '25 0(1 

Siirfaceci and Long 

Headed 37 50 

Klooring 3*00 

•Ja do refuse, fi M 25 00 

Uali-lncb'surlaoed.H.. 32 Sn 

Rustio, No. 1. 1ft .M 40 0," 

'tatteos. xiineal foot. . . —He 
.I'linnU.* M In 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

(Corrected Weekly hy SCTao A Uo. | 

San Frakoiboo, July 12. 3 P. m. 

Leoal Tekders Id fi. !■■., 11 A. «., 89)^ 10 SO. Silver, 
Viai. 

aoLDinN. Y. UIH. 

Gold Aabs, 880 to 890. 8ii,teb Uabs, 2i and 27S per cant. 
jiBC'oum. 

ExciiANOE on N.Y,, .50-100 per oent.premlum for gold; on 
London bankers, 4:f; Commercial, 49!^; Paris, five fraoos 
per dollar; Mexican dollars, 12 per oent. discount. 

LoKDON — UooBOls, 93 to IU>t ; UoaOa, 102S 

QsiOKBiLvBB in 8. v., br the flitsk, ptr B, 45a 



-r^t:: 



■**■?» 



54 



[July 15. 1876 




Nurserymen. 



\ — — 



SANTA BARBARA NURSERY, 

[ Located neven mllep west of 8»nt« Barb»r», Oal. 
Depot, Cor. MoDtecito md Castillo Btreetg. 
JOSEPH SEXTON, - - - Proprietor. 

CtTLTlTATOB OF 

Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Trees. Also 

Orange, Lemon, Lime and Palm Tree*. 

FotlPlanta, and Hardy Ever 

sreen Shrubbery. 

ISLAND VIEW NURSERY,^ 

B. B. Wllliama, - - - Saata Barbara. 

Oraaraental Treee, Shrubs, and Flowers; Large Ever- 
areens, Araucarias, Pines, Cypress, etc.; Fine assort- 
ment of Oamellas and Lily Bulbs constantly amving 
from China and for sale very cheap. Plants packed 
and delivered on the wharf for shipment, free of charge . 
B. B. WILLIAMS, Santa Barbara, Cat. 



BLOOMINQTON NtlBSERY, F. K. Phoihh, Blooming- 
ton, 111. Price lists free. 4 CaUlogues. 25c. 



Seedsmen. 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



OF BVEKY VARIKTT. 

Fresh and reliable, such ai experience and care only 
can select. ^ 

QBA88 AND CLOVER 8«ED8, KENTUCKY BLUE 
GRASS, HONQAKIAN, OUCHABD, ITALIAN HYE, 
RED TOP, TIMOTHY, ME8QCIT, SWEET VERNAL, 
CHOICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE 0LOV£B, 
BED CLOVER, Ere. .„ ^ 

Also. RAMIE, JUTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; to- 
gether with a fine and complete ceUection of TREE 
SEEDS, AUSTRALIAN BLUE OCM, SEQUOIA GlflAN. 
TEA, PINU8 IN8IGN1S, Etc. 

For Sale, wholesale or retail, by 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

(Successor to E. £. Moore) . 
435 WaBbington St., San Francisco. airT-ly 



SEEDS 



RUTA BA6A and other TURNIPS 

Of our own Raising. Our Motto Ik 

Farmers can obtWn supplies by Mill ilirect, post 
paid, at small char[>e. Sftnd Postal Card for List of 



Agricultural Articles. 



J. W. CASSIDY'B 

FR UIT JDRI ER. 

A Jfevf Indention, althongb Tbvorouirhly 

Tested, -wllielii Combines all the 

I^ipvo^ements. 

We warraitt a c omjleice success in drying all sorts of 
fruit and T«!etaW«» as thoroughly and more expe- 
ditioualy than any other Ma- 
chine, for less amount of fuel 
by 35 per cent . as we utilize 
all the waste heat which Is lost 
by all other Machines. 

Its simplicity of construc- 
tien and its cheapne/is will put 
it in ebe hands of all who may 
vast a Drier. We don't pretend 
M ask from $1,200 to $l,eOU 
proit and royalty. We are 
wlllcig that prodncers staoul<4 
makv the prolit and keep it. 
The X'BChine haa been tested to 
our entil^e satisf action, and met 
our moat sanguine expectations. 
The fraifc dried by our Drier 
was fully AS good as that dried 
by any cf the renowned Driers. 
We wouli say to all who con 
template jrotting up Machines, 
that we i»B make it a decided 
inducem ent for all such to give 

xw a call, ae -we want to sell the 

entire right of the United States, State, County or 
Local, at such prices that the poor- as wel as the rich 
can*»e them. The capacity of th Machine will be in 
prop^ion to the size, ranging fro, n 100 to 500 feet dry- 
Fug surface. This dryer was more fully jnustrated and 
described to the Kubal Press ot M; vy 20tli, 18i6. Com- 
mumca«o^ to T. F. BACHELUR. 622 C;Iay St.. 8 F^^ 
S^ to J. W. CASSIDY. P<;'al°"»v'C»l-- '"1 ^ 
thankfully received and promptly at.Veade d to. 




VINE AND FRUIT GROWERS, 
To Raise Large Crops You Mosi Irrigate. 

To irrigale auccessfnily. von must have »i» cower that 
does not give out when the wicd fails. 

Laufkotter Bros. & Ohurcliman'sHorBe-Power 




iFATfNTED FEBEnAET I3th^372.] 

Never faiie to supply more water than fmir or five Wind- 
mills, even iiupposiDiE you had ail the wind you want. It la 
also suitable tor running light raachinerv. .such as Barley 
Cr,'ickers, Corn Shellers, Fanning Mills, Grain Separators, 
or ftir SnwiDff Wood, They are never failing, cannot ji»tt 
out 01* order, ea-^ily worked, substantial, and always gjve- 
eatisfactioo wherever they have been used. One horse aan 
easily work two b-inch pumps with a continuous flow ol' 
water. Force Puntpe, irom 3,<l')0 to 10.000 ksHods periiaur, 

WINDMILLS of all kinds manufactured to order, \V«]I» 
Bored, Windmills and Ho se-Powers set in any part of ttu, 
State, an'l repair intf of all kinds done, 

Manutactnred and for sale by 

L.AT7FKOTT£R BBOS.. 

Cor, J and 10th Sts,. Saoraaente., 




Prices. 



DAVID LA.NlS«Srt*H fit SOWS 



@eedsiiien< 

JM1B0UB:»E. VICTORIA. AUSTRALIA. 

Collectors of all Seeds of Trees and Shrubs indigenous 
to the Anstraltaa Oolonies, including 

Blue, R«d and P«pp»rmin» Gurni, Acacias, Etc. 
LAW, SOUNER A CO., 

agljBOVBNE, TICTOBIA. AUSTRALIA k DUNEDIN. 

OTAQO. NEW ZX.\LAND. 

Offer OoUsctiooB of Native Seeds. lncludin«r 

Blue, Red, and all other Varieties ot Gums, Elfr 

i^IllUBtrated Catalogue free on application. 



CrC>Jii%.N»EY GLASS TOP 

FRUIT JARS. 



3 E w 

Agricultural ImplemeaJt Depot 

—41 — 

Watkins & ScoU's Atameda foundry, 

SAN JOSS, CAL 

Agent lor Walter A. Wood's 3ew Lrou ti^or. Reaper, 
and bell -Binder, Haines' Single-Gear Header, Improved 
Sweepstakes Thresher, and i:»JSy Rak»»; also, the 
Celebrated Revolvlnt; Sulky Raia. and tte Champion 
Revolvius Rake, and Ihc well knawn Tiftn Revolving 
Rale; La Bell.^ Farm Wagons, an* dpring Wagons of 
all descriptions. , , ,, 3 * *, 

The attention of farmers is partwolarly called to the 

New Bevolvin^ Sulhjr Rake. 

It has met an enorroons sale at the J^t and m and 
around Sacramento. 

Alfo all kinds of new and geconAband mashmery 
for sale. Farmers and others will fin* It to be to their 
interest to call on me before buyiD|c. as I am selllnR 
everything very low for cash. 



FBTTIT 

IN CONTACT WITH 

GUSS ONLY. 

Elastlo Pressure by Spring 
Clamps on ghoulder Joint. 

The Screw Clamp turns 
freely on Cover and Inclinea, 
and tightens the Jar quickly 
and is Easily Tested. 

Easily opened and closet}. 
without wrench or tool. 

B>ery Jar being Ic- 
spected, there is no trouble 
n using. 

The Handsomest and Beet 
QlBBS X.'!^ Fruit ^ar. 

COHANSEY GLASS MF'G CO., 

N. W. Cor. Third p.nd Arch Sts., PhU'a.l 
IIEDDIN3T0N & CO., 

•Wholesale Agents. - - - San Frapcu ico. CaL 

Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fralts: also for the sale of Butter, Eggs, 
f-heeK H° Vs. Green and Dried lYuits,etc,. 7S Warren 
Ltr^lf'New ?or" Refer to Anthony Halsey. OMhler, 
T^esmer^. NaTional Bau^ N Y. ; tliwanger 4_Barry. 
aiirhMtir N y.: O, W. Reed, Saoramoato. C&l.. A 
fSsk 4 Oo, . "iojfli Frnit Market, Sao #r.T.oi.oo, f^sl. ' 





JACKSON'S 

PATENT FEEDER & ELEVATOR 




For Threshing Machines, 

The most successful Automatic Feeder yet invented; I 
It has* had the severest testa in all kinds of j^ain, 
long, short, wet or weedy, during the past sii years. 
There are over two hundred in use in the SacramenlO' 
valley. I will give full guarantee to purchabM*. 
Send for special circular. Address. 

BYKON JACKSON, 

Patentee A If antifocturer. 

Woodland, Yolo County. California, "^ 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




•1 his cut represents a DERRICK' j^HV FOJffi. for the 

bevond question. It is » saving of Ei uur WB ten uoi, 
l!^pk^Dav over the bMid fork mod... We also make 
^i?^e for the purpose of Stackw. Hav ob Gemn. 

whifi meet with%^.t fa^^'^^^iTMSON 
tured by MATTESON * ^»^^ ^t?^?. cil. 



BIPROVED BAY FORK. 



{Patent Appliwf For.l 



Is the most perfect, and eaeiest operatuig ,d«-rlck 
fork in existence. One man can operate it with the 
greatest ease, as the strain of lilting the fork c.us^it 
io grapple its load automatically, while a pull npoo 
the releasing cord, when the fork has been lifted to 
the desired place, causes it to drop the load instarrtiy. 

Jbare la nothing In tne oonetruotion of this 
Fori that is Uabie to jret out of or'ier. 

Farme-s will do well to examine this Ha) Fork, as 
it saves expense and greatly facilitates the bandhng 
of hay, gram and straw. Communications addresspi to 

J. T. HOVT, Gen. A^ent, 

SAN TaA-fiiO, CAL, 
will recelvo Prompt Attention 



Took the Premlom over all at the great Plowing 
match in Stockton. In 1870. 

This Plow Is thoroughly made by practleal men who 
tiave been long in the business and know what is re- 
qiLlred In the construction of Oang Plows. It is qnlckly 
adjasted. Bnfflcient play Is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Host Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Bend for circular to 
UTa-8m MATTESON ft WILLIAMSON. 

etookton. 0*1. 



BUV THE SbTA-NDAKD 




8TUDEBAKER WAGONS- 

We keep the Greatest Variety uu the Coast, frcm 

Light Troiting Buggies to Six- 
Horse Team Wagons- 

E. T. AKES, aen. Aeent, 
Send for Price-List, Sacramento, Oal, 



OAKLAND 

Spring Balance 

Gang Plow. 



<r-- 



Patapto4*nd manuiactuied by H, >. Dalton at the 
Pacheco Agricultural Implement Works. Pacheco. Oal 
E8»»bli»hwl 'n J-SS, Send for Circular and Price-list 




The great labor, time and money saving machine. 
This machine is used in the harvest field t« elcvatt 
Krain. hay and straw from the header box to the stack 
only a few seconds being required to elevate a large 
four horse load. The load is taken up in a center 
opening n(t or sling. Patented April 20th. 1875. For 
des.:ription, circular and price list, address 
THOS, POWBLiLi, Patentee. Stockton, Cal. 

Or H. C. SHAW PLOW CO., Stockton, Oal. 



The Famous " Enterprise 

(Pebkoi's Patckt) 

Self-ResulatinK. Farm 

Pumping, Railroad 

and Power 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures. 

Have been in use in Califor- 
nia for five years. Over fiuO 
sold in the towns and farm- 
ing districts of California. 
All Mills guaranteed. Send 
for circulars containing sec- 
tional and other illustra- 
tions, and further descrip- 
tion, to 

ISRAEL. HORTON, Oen'l A?'t Pacific Coast. 
Livermore. Alameda County, Cal. 




FAULKNER'S EXCELSIOR 

Portable Family Fruit Drier. 

J*et5.00 to SJJT'S.OO. 

The Best. Cheapest'and Only Practical Port 
able Family Fruit Drier Hade. 



It will do as good work as any Drier, It can be usefl 
in connection with the cook stove or an^ email 
stove; may be run in the house or out of door*. 
Is very compact and plain in ita construc- 
tion and simple In its maiugement, 
A chi:d can attend to it. 

With this Drier every family can save their surplus 
fruit, and put it in condition to bring the cash or tr>de 
at the store. We have the world for a market ; last year's 
stock is exhatmted. There will be a ready sale at good 
prices for all you can make. 

Manufactured and for sale by K, T, STUKN, 81 Beale 
street, where they can be eeen In operation. Also for 
sale by Megers. STRONG * WILLIAMSON. 418 Clay 
street, San Francisco, and Messrs. W. R. STRONG 
& CO.. 8 and lU J street. Sacramento. 

County Rights for \r> years for sale lew and on eaay, 
terms by 

JA8. W. FAULKNER, Patentee, 

31 Beale street, San Francisco 



Marster's Self Regulating 

FEEDER 

For TtiresIitriK Slaoliliies, 

Is the only Feeder manufactured that feeds without 
moving all the str>w in a body, consequently gives a 
more regular feed than it is possible to obtain with a 
draper feeder; it feeds the whole length of the cylin- 
der; it is easily changed to feed fast or slow aa desired; 
saves the labor ot two men and does not require an ex- 
perienced tableman to feed it. The sepamtor needs 
no alteruti-n with the exception of the removal of feed 
board to secure it in position, and does not have to be 
taken off when moving. It requires but little power 
to run it. and has no complicated parts liable to get out 
of order. Its success having been fully demonstrate. 
I cordially invite all parties interested to call and 
Judge of its merits. For fall particulars address 

E, J. UARSTBRS, 

Stockton. Cal 
Workc. Comer OalKomla and Sonora 8lrcet«. 



Powell's Electric Elevator, i 



July 15, 1876.J 



w&mwm mwmm 



RR 



H-A^i^^srESTinsro 



MOWERS— Wood's Eagle, Peerless & Clipper. 



REAPERS —RUSSELL'S PEERLESS. 



]VLj^oi3:i:]srEiR."z^ 



HEADERS- Haines' Genuine Single Gear. 

LYMAN'S SELF-FEEDER. 



SEPARATORS AND POWERS 

■with End and Side Shake, with Pitts' 
in market. 

Steam Engines. 



CbicagO PitrtS* '"''^ ^^^ ^^^ ^'"^^ Shake, with Pitts' 10 and 12 horse-powers, the 
best and stroiigesit machines in market. 



ENRIGHT'S 8TKAW BUENER, the latest and best for utility and f conomy. Capacity, 
15 to 18 horse. MANSFIELD PORTABLE ENGINES, for wood or coal; 10 horse. 



Invented by a practical thresher. Best in the market. Price only $150. It surpasses al 
others in durability and simplicity of construction. Can be applied to any Separator in a few 
hours, and taken off in 15 minutes. It is guaranteed to give satisfaction or no pay. 

FOR ALL OUR MACHINES. 



FULL SUPPLY OF "EXTRAS" 

Linfortli, Kellogg & Co., 

Nos. 3 and 5 Front St., San Francisco, Gal. 





'"«*WfflW^ 



Buckeye Mow^er and Reaper. 

Xhe most perreci, tlie moftt reliable*, and moAt durable Harvester ever built. 



I 



1J8,000 in use on tlio Pacific Coast. Every farmer using tliem will bear testimony to tlieir uncqiif 
They will do better work and will outlast two of almost every other make of machiue. 

,.j^ Farmer*, JBITY A BUCKEYl!: in preference to all other*. 



CO 

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o 



o 




<D 




rt 


, 




« 


05 


J 




u 
u 

z 


CO 


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E3 




^ 


z 
o 


<Jl 


^ 






■n 

> 
S 
m 

CO 



CO 



era 

CO 



c/>" 

CD 



o> 



HAINES' SINGLE AND DOUBLE GEAR HEADERS. 



Wc offer a Header to farmers this season Improved far In advance of any Header in the market and 
WARRANT IN EVERY RESPECT. 



one ve can 





SCHUTTLER FARM WAGON. ' SCHIITTLER SPRING WAOON. 

Supprior in strpngth. durability, and lightness to any wagon mannfactured. Warranted to run lighter 
aud wpar longer than any wagon in America. 

WIARCUS C. HAWLEY & CO., 

,=an Franci!«;o and Sncrauieiito, Sole AgentH for the Paciflc Coast. 



GOLDEN GATE ACADEMY, 

Oakla.iic1, Oal. 

All Departments Open for Youth of Both 
Sexes. Next term commences Thurs- 
day, August 3d, lb76. 

Full iuformatiou reapectiDg the Academy and the 
EstabUgbment of a 

CONSERVATORY OF MUSIC 

W)l) be (found in thaAcademy BaUelin, wltli supplement 

containing MiblU'g birds-eye 

VIEW^ OF O A.ItILiA.lVI>. 

CopieH sent free on application to 



THE LAMB KNITTING MACHINE 

le the Only Machine that can Knit all sizes of 
work, and narrow aud widen it; that 
can shape and complete, with- 
out baud-finishing. 
Seamless Hosiery, Gloves and Mittens, or knit them in 
all sizes; or knit ribbed, double and fancy stitches for 
Underwear, Jackets, Shawls, Scarfs, etc. It knits over 
26 different kinds of garments. Over HO per cent, 
profit In manufactiuring knit goods. Send for IHus- 
tratad ciicnlar. Address, 

Lamb Knittinff Machine Co., 

120 Sntter St., Boom 39, .9. F. 



LEVI STRAUSS & CO., 

Patent Riyeted 
Clothing, 

14 & 16 Battery St., 

San Francisco. 

These goods are specially 
adapted fuc the use of 
FARMERS. MECHANICS. 
MINERS, aud WORKING 
MEN in general. They 
are manufactured of the 
Best Material, and in a 
Superior Manner. A trial 
!■ ;i convince everybody of 
tliis f*ct. 
Patented May 12, 187:i. 

tJSE NO OTHER, AND INyillHK FOR THESE 
OOODS ONLY. eow-bp 




A-ILiEX. BUHW^Er-iL, 

BOOKBINDER, PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURER. 

621 Clay Straat, S. F. 

Blank Books Rnled, Printed, Rnt? Bound to Order 



Farmers, Take Notice. The Most Important Invention of the Age. 
THE ENAMELED STEEL BARBED FENCE WIRE 

Patented Uy .J. 'F'. GLiTTJOIiITf. 




The GLIDDEN PATENT BARB WIRE has been tested by thousands of practical farmers, who uniyersally 
recommend it. Wo ask you to try it for the following, among other reasons: 1. If it does not answer the recom- 
mend, you can return it and your money will bo refunded. 2. It is the cheapest and most durable fence made. 
3. It takes less posts than any other fence, i. It can be put up for one-quarter the labor of any other fence. 
6. Cattle, mules, and horses will not rub against and break it down. 6. The wind has no effect upon it, and fires 
will not burn It up. 7. Stock will not jump over or crowd through it. 8. Your crops will be safe as far as fence 
19 concerned. 9. Yon will know where your stock Is by night as well as by day. 10. You can draw enough in * 
buggy to :enc6 160 acres, and two men can put it up in two days. 11. Because it is what every farmer needs. 
12. Because it was invented by a practical farmer and you will say, after a fair trial, it is the BEST FENCE IN 
THE WORLDI 13. Tbo change of seasons has no efl'ect upon it— 11 l)eing twisted, holds Its tension. 14. The 
wire Is manufactured entirely from steel, which has a relative strengtli of over 30 per cent, greater than that of 
any common iron wire. 15. The only steel coppered wire barb. 16. The only barb that cannot be displaced 
with thumb or finger, or cattle's horns. 17. The only barb with prongs projecting from between the twisted wire, 
and cannot be bent, broken, or rubbed oS, and never need replacing. 18. The only coiled barb with broad base 
on main wire, which renders it immovable. 19. The only barb wire which, during process of manufacture, 
its strength is tested equal to that of two-horso power. 20. The only barb put on by machinery — it is not 
pounded on with hammer and indented in main wire to hold its 'place. 21. The only barb wire tha*. gives 
universal satisfaction, and has greater sale than all others put together. i^Be sure and ask for the Gliuden 
Patent Bakb Wuie. Enquire of Hardware and Agricultviral Dealers. Samples sent free of charge by addressing 

JoiVEJw, oiVENS «fe c;o.. 

General Aerents for the Coast- ' K and lOth Streets, Sacramento- 



THE CHAMPION MILK PANS 



Space Occupied la Boom, 
Depth, Capacity. Ktc 



No. 


Space each 

set 

ocoupie«. 


Cap's- of 
each 
Pan.* 


Dptli 


|3""°w'id?l''-'*:'"'»^-h '° 


1 |.f"U."wid';|"*K'"'°«-|« ■" 


•^ |it-S'!-''-^S^e|-^-'^'"'-h •" 


^nn^^^-^^i^^.'^-n.ii .. 


4 |5"lV"wideh'^S''l'»'-|">^>° 


5 |?'.;V;;';^J3^|.'5Kal'n.-'. |8 .n 


« |5"i""w,'de|«''""'"^ 1^^'° 


*Fourpans inset. 



NUTTING & WILLARD,! 



SACRAMENTO, CAL 




TO LEA.<->E, 

Valuable Farming Lands,, 

NEAR SAN PKAN CISCO. 

1,300 Acres of Splendidly Reclaimed Meadow LaiirtH, 

on Sonoma Greek, in the Whole or in Subcit- 

visions, on favorable terms, for a 

term of years. 

The lauil is very fertile, perfectly reclaimed against 
floods, and admirably drained. It is beyond the Influ- 
ence of floods in the Sacramento River, and the water 
has never risen more than 20 inches against the levee, 
which Is four and a half feet high and 14 feet broad. 
The first crop of barley put in last winter yielded three 
tons of hay per acre, and that which was not cut will 
yield heavily in grain. The soil is also superior for 
vegetables. It i.s 25 miles from San Francisco, and has 
six miles of frontage on Sonoma creek. The lareest 
bay failing craft can load from the banks at any point. 
Steamers touch at the wharf dally. Steamboat freights, 
$2.00 per ton; sailing freights. $1.00 to $1..50 per ton. 

Maps can be seen and particulars obtained from 

ROBERT J. UERCER & CO., 

Real Estate Aoemt<, 
426 Montgromery St.S.F. 



NEVILLE & CO'S FACTORY 

113 Clay and 114 Commercial Sts., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

BAGS-t of All Kinds, 

TKIVTS, All Sizes and Descriptions-, 

HOWE for Hydraulic U»e, 

C A.]VVA!!l, All Numbern. 

TWIIVE lor Sewing. Eto. y ' 



$250 



A MOXTIl— Agents wanted every- 
T,lierc. Business honorable aud llrst 
class. Particulars .ent free. Address 
J. WOllTII .tCO-, M. l.ouls.Mo. 



Sheep Range Wanted, 

To Lease for two or five years; must give ample feed 
and water for 1,800 sheep, and I-o near shipping point; 
preferred on railroad between Oal^land and Stockton, 
but miRlit do if in Santa OI:;i-a, Contra Ooeta, Solano, 
Napa. Sonoma or Marin co-.,ntfi8, and near a landing; 
would like a small part li, lt>t raising hay; if adjoining 
fenced land that could bo Waoud for raisinc swine, so 
iiiich the better; St.*© lowest temiH, also whether any 



sheep are for sale o;^ tl^ range, of what kind and price. 
'.EJ.;, I^ck Box 736. San Franclso. 



AddresH. SHEEJ.', 



jpHH LUTTRELL MURPHY, 
AttCAi^ey atid Counsellor at Law^ 

'^ MO- 535 CLAY STREET; 
• - SAN FBAN0I80O. 



56 



[July 15. 1876 



OUR CENTENNIAL CAMPAIGN. 

THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS WITH PREMIUMS 
FOR $4. 

Ten Thousand New Subscribers! 

We ought to add 10,000 new names to our 
Bubscription list this year. There are twice 
that number of reading farmers on this coast 
who should yet receive the PACirio Rckal 
Pbess, and who would read it to their pecuniary 
as well as intellectual profit. We are going to 
try and enlist a larger army of readers; not 
by getting out one or two good numbers of 
our paper and then running it "thin" the rest 
of the year, but by keeping np 6uperi')r matter 
and improving the quality of every issue. That 
is to say, by furnishing 

A Better Paper and Greater Inducements 

Our lato rates were established some two 
years ago, when there was this difference ir> 
what we furnished each subscriber then and 
now: 

1. Each subscriber paid his own postage. 
Now it ia prepaid out of onr pockets. 

2. The reading matter, like that of most 
other weeklies, was largely set leaded (with 
open lines). Now it is set mostly solid, fur- 
nishing the subscriber at least one-fourth more 
reading in a column. This costs more for edit- 
ing, composition, proof reading, etc. 

3. Formerly we issued the paper (like othea 
16-page weeklies primed on this coast) uncut. 
Now it is stitched and trimmed, ready for use 
on any page, and in a proper form for preserv- 
ing it for future reference. This also costs us 
much extra labor and expense. 

Now, making the most of our improved 
facilities, and 20 years of constant experience 
in editing and publishing industrial news- 
papers on this coast, we are determined first 
to publish an agricultural and home journal 

Worth its Full Price; 

Besides this we propose to furnish Valuablk 
Pbemipms Additional to Eveby Subsobibkr, 
p.nd therefore will give, from July Ist, 187t>, 
until further notice, the following 

New Terms tor Subscriptions. 

PBEMIUU A. 

With the Pacific Rural Press, (two volumes 

a year, compriBing 416 paf<e8 each) postpaid, a new 
litUoHraphic Map of California and Nevada, 
of h»ndy size, 16x20 imheB— showing the otficial 
t«wuBhip lires of the surveyert lindfl of California, 
and the thrtu fine plate engra^incH entitled 
"Burial of the Bird," the "Flower Gatherer" 
and "Paul and Virifinla," all postpaid, i ash in 
advaDc«, for $4.00. 

PBEMIUM NO. 2. 

With the Pacific Rural Press one year, the 
above named Map, and a really Choice Chromo 
entitled Qatherins Primroses n-i/'^ 17x22 

inches) , all postpaid, for $4. CO. 

PREMIUM NO. 3. 

With the Pacific Rural Press one year, the 
Map, and ''The California Patron" (a monthly 
official Journal, P. of H.,) and the clioice of two of 
the fine plate enirraving-s— " Love," " Truib " 
and "The Ohriitlau Graces,"— all postpaid for. $4.00. 
PREMIUM fNO. 4. 

With the Pacific Rural Press one year, 
Dewey's Patent Newspaper File Holder 
(black walnut) and the Map of Oaliforni-* and 

Nevada, all postpaid, for $400. 

PREMIUM NO. 5. 

With the Pacific Rural Press for two years, 
the Map of California and Nevada, to any 

single address in tlie L. S., all in advance $6.00. 

PREMIUM NO. 6. 

With the Pacific Rural Press for six months, 
the Map of California and Nevada post- 
paid $2-25 . 

PREMIUM NO. 7- 

We will allow one dollar on the first order, 
amounting to five dollars or upwards, for other pub- 
lications than our own (including books, papers 
and magazines not sold exclusively by agents) which 
may be forwarded to us with the coin by any yearly 
subscriber ol the Pacific Rural Press. 

PREMIUM NO. 8. 

We will credit every present subscriber of 
the Pacific Rural Press with three months, ad- 
ditioDal subscription tor the name of each new sub- 
scriber they send us with tt during the next six 
m nths. The new subscriber to be fully entitled to 
premiums. 

PREMIUM NO. 9. 

With the Pacific Rural Press (to a new sub- 
scriber) 12 months, one map and 13 assorted 
back numbers of the Rural, postpaid (to any 
address), fur 400 

These terms are payable strictly in advance. 

Advance subsrriptioni, in aciual clubs of 
five or more (without premiums), will be re- 
ceived at former rates until further notice. 

Persons claiming premiums must order posi- 
tively the number of the premium they desire. 
Otherwife, premium No. 1 will be pent. 

Subscribers can have tbeir premiums sent to 
any person they choose in the Uniied States. 

One dollar a year must be added for postage 
on papers sent to foreign countries. 

All premiums will be delivered either imtce 
diately or within 30 days from our receipt of 
the order. 

Present subscribers can avail themselves ot 
either of the above premiums simply by ad- 
vancing their subscription one year or more 
beyond the date of their application for a 
premium. 

No premium will be allowed on any subscrip- 
tion not paid fully one year in advance. 

These terms are liable to be changed, accord- 
ing to circumstances, at any time. 



PORTEK Jic CO.'S PATENT 

STRAW BURNING THRESHING ENGINES. 

l< .illl«i/iW 




Best Portable btraw 



Use. 



iDurning Thresher in 

WILL SELL CHEAPER THAN ANY SIMILAR ENGINE ON THIS COAST. 

SHIPMENT JU8T AKBIVED. 

A. L. FISH &, CO., 9 and II First Street, San Francisco, 

MANUFACTURER'S AGENTS. 



IE vy £t 



■^rs^s^ 




t:(jMi 




||iningan»|ettntificflrw«. j aA* ^AXk.6Ji^UXK> .SJtft, j '^ ^^ 

MACHINERY, BUILDINGS, PORTRAITS, LANDSCAPES. TRADE-MARKS, LABELS, SEALS. MONOGRAMS. . t, 



*;* 



E. SCHUl-TZE, 

MAHAt.Kh. 



TMt: W( 



UEWEY A CO . 

hibU'iliei^ .tail Puiftu A'xnih 



Raises water^'by compressed air to any hight or distance. 

Windmill can be set at any distance from the 

well or spring if required to yet a good 

exposure to the wind. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 

J. E. HOLLOWAY, Gen. Aqent (for Pacific States. 
31 Beale Street, San Francisco, 

WHERE THE PUMP CAN BE SEEN IN OPERATION. 




R. J. TRUMBULL, Seeds. Seeds. 

Qrov7er, Importer, Wholesale and Retail 

^^^' ^ IMPORTED. 

I Crosby's Extra Early 
Marbl<4heacl Mommath | .Qii-zioi- T^/ti'Ti 
Stowells Evergreen \ ^"^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ • 
Mexican Sweet. New I 




FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS, IRUIT AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 
Comprising tbe Most Complete Stock 

EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Prices Unusually Low. • 

e^Tride Price List on application. 
*»*My "Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden" 
will Boon be ready, and will be Bent ruEE to all Cos 
TOMER<). It will coijtain inatructlonc on the culture 
of Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Tree Seeds, Tobacco, 
Alfalfa, etc. 

R. J. TRUMBULL. 
419 and 421 Sansome Street. S. P. 



Early Canada 

Early Datton 

Lous' Red Mangrel Wurzel 
Yellow Globe 
White Sugrar 



jYellow Flint Corn. 



r B(!et Seed. 



ALSO. EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY OF VEOETA 

BLE AND FLOWER SEtDS, GRASS AND 

CLOVER SEEDS, ETC., OFFERED AT 

WHOLESALE OR RETAIL. 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 



T8-tf 



No. 817 Washinrton Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



Dewey & Co. UJL^s,} Patent Agt's. 



Lands and Homes for Sale. 



A Desirable Bargain. 



Mr. Lee U. Utt. of Pais, San DieRO county, offers for 
gale a share in bla valuable place, consiatiog of 320 
acres, and situated as described above.- There is an 
Apiary 011 the ranch in succegsfiil operatiou. For this 
buuiiicHB it potsesses marked advantages. Twenty 
acres are seeded to alfalfa and eight acres are in vines. 
The place bas growing on it 420 trees, many of them in 
bearing. 

The owner will warrant the Cavendish Dwarf Banana 
to grow as well here as in Florida. He has tbret) now 
growing. Tbe pasture now enclosed will keep 60 head 
of cattle. The ditch— which Is large enoai(h to run a 
mill— is stocked with trout, and has a &»h pond 100 
feet square, and full of txh. There Is • nice warm 
spring, with bath bouse; the water contains sulphur, 
salts and iron. 

The place possesses grtat natural advantages, and tbe 
present owner has not spand money nor latx>r to im- 
prove; but being a valetudinarian he is Dot strong 
enough to attend to the work. To ihe right kind of a 
man a rare opportunity is here offered. To such a 
person as will come in good faith he extends tbe Invi. 
isiion to stop on the ranch long enough to become 
familiar ^vtth its characteristics and capacities. 

Parties can refer to I. Nast, stuck broker, San Fran- 
cisco, or to anybody of note In Ban Diego. Tbe place 
bears the name of ".\qua Tibia." Address, 

LEE H. UTT, 

Pala. San Diefro County, Cal. 



FOR SALE, 

I« Lois TO Burr, 

5,000 Acres of the Lake Vineyard ' Land 
and Water Association. 



TbeSa lands are In tbe ^reat fruit belt of Los Angeles 
County.— only six miles irom the city— are peculiarly 
adapted to semi-tropical frails, and adjoin the famous 
Lake Vineyard of Hin. B. D. Wilson. Tbe Southern 
Pacific railroad runs through tbe land; convenient to 
schoulbouse and church; water in abundance, and tlie 
water-ri){ht is sold with the land. Title perfect. A 
Map of tbe tract may be seen at the office of Mayor 
Besudry, on Spring street, opposite City Counril rooms. 
References may be made to Uos. B. D. WILttON or 
J. DE BAKTH 8H0RB, at Lake Vineyard, who will 
take pleasurn in showing the lauds. Also, to Matob 
BEAUDRY or D. FREEMAN, Los Angeles city. 

A RARE CHANCE 

FOR BALE— My Poultry Business, with my Farm 
of 115 acres: 22 acres of Vineyard and Orchard; Hon e 
of 10 rooms; Barns; Granaries; Uo Chicken houses. 

Receipts between $3,00O and $1,000 a 'Sear, 

Fully proved to the purchaser. Farm Implements, 
Wagon, Horses, Cows, etc., with Poultry (value over 
$3,U0M) includtd. Price, $12,000, one-half cash. Or 
I will skll a Hali- Intebkpt and 
continue the business in partnership 
- the purchaser to reside on the 
place. Address, 




M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 



— _ In view of above I offer a few Hue 
Fowls. Bronze Turkeys, etc. (not In- 
clnded in breeding peu>- and stock sold with farm) , 
at reduced prices. 



FOR SALE, 



$s^ 



A large aud well established NL RSERV, with an exten- 
sive trade and an excellent business reputation. A 
large and well seKcted i-tock un band that will nearly 
pay for the whole thing the coming seasou. It is the 
only flrst-clasB Nursery In the great Sacramento Valley. 
For further particulars, apply to 



W. R. STRONa & CO., 



, 8 and 10 J St.. 



Sacrameulo, 



STRONO A. WILLIAMSON, 

4lB and 42u Clay St., - - - Htn Francisco. 



HUMBOLDT COUNTY LAKDS 

And Building Lots in the city of Eureka. For sale 
by DOLLISON & DART Eurekn. Humboldt Co., Cal- 



WASHINGTON COLLEGE. 

WASHINGTON, 
A luineclu « ountv.* >(■• 

THB NEXT TERM OF THIS INSTITUTION WILL 

COMMENCE ON THUBfiDAY, 

.njLY 27th, 1S76. 

Full Corps of Able and Experienced In 

structors. 

For Catalogues, address as above. 

S. 8 HARMON, Principal. 



GEO 



B A Y L E Y, 



IMPORTER AND BREEDER OK 

Jersey Cattle, 
Choice Poultry. Etc. 

OAKLAND 
Poultry Yu.r<l»*, 

Cor. 16tb and Castro Streets, Oakland. 

Send stamp for circular, containing a full description 
of nil the best known aud most profitable fowls in tbe 
country 

O. B. BATLET. 
P. O. Box «S9, !^n Francisco. 





Volume XII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 22, 1876. 



[Number ^ 



The Blue Jay. 

We give our readers on this page, au engrav- 
ing of a bine jay — a bird as widely known as 
he 18 injnrious. If "handsome is that hand- 
some does" be true of birds, then the 
jay is a model of ugliness in spite of his bright 
colors. Every man's band is raised against him 
for he is a destroyer of fruit, and grain, and nnts> 
and is a devourer of eggs and the young of 
birds which are of real value to the fruit 
grower and farmer. In spite of the guns and 
traps which beset bis life this worse than worth- 
less bird is still abumdant and seems to thrive 
in the adversity which farmers endeavor to 
visit upon him . 

Of the ravages of the bird on this coast 
many of our readers know from experience. 
The latest written indictment against him is 
from the pen of Dr. F. S. Matterson of Co- 
qnille, Oregon, which we are pleased to quote 
as follows: 

This bird frequents both the forests and the 
fields. He is a noisy thieving pest, a maraud- 
ing vagabond of the first water. He is a vora- 
cious glutton, and like the "shanghai chicken," 
he "e»ts most anything that he can overhaul." 
He opens a nut by holding it in big claw, plac- 
ing it on the limb he is perched on, rising to 
bis full hight and bringing down the sharp point 
of his beak in a steady succession of vigorous 
blows until the shell is broken. He pulls up 
the farmer's young wheat, corn, and peas in 
early spring, steals the eggs of the hens in sum- 
mer, and forages on the granaries at all times. 
He robs the nests and eats the young of birds 
weaker than he is, and makes himself obnox- 
ious generally. He is also a braggart and a 
cow&rd; and when frightened from his pecula- 
ting transactions, he flies rapidly to the cover 
of the nearest thicket, calling out loudly and 
defiantly, "kwak, kwak, kwak, kwak, kwak," 
but as soon as concealed from view he remains 
silent. He does not sing, but his notes are 
many and varied. He cries "jay, jay," with 
much distinctness; he also says, "steal it, steal 
it," very plainly; and will do as he says if op- 
portunity offers. In summer he retires to the 
deep recesses of the forest to breed, returning 
after the incubating season, accompanied by 
his young family, to pursue his free-booting 
operations with undiminished energy. 

His progeny take aptly to the ways of their 
father, and soon become experts at thieving 
and plundering. As may be inferred, he is not 
a favorite, and is remorselessly pursued by the 
settlers with ruus, traps, poisoned ^rain, and 
any other agency which promises his destruc- 
tion; but for every one killed 20 seem to come 
to the funeral. And bO the war of extermination 
goes on, and the omnipresent jay appears still 
as numerous, and his capacity for getting away 
with the farmer's crops and the singing bird's 
eggs as great as ever. 

Effect of Bldkstone on Wheat and Cockle. 
— We notice by the Rural Carolinian that W. L. 
Anderson has been trying some experiments 
with sofikiug wheat, cockle and cheat sted in a 
blnestone solution for the pnipo>e of determin- 
ing the (-ffdot on the viia i<y of the different 
set-ds. Putiiog a quantity of each in a solution, 
he planted out some day after day nniil the 
seed was ail planti d. He lound that ttie cockle 
seed was killed after soaking seven days but 
the wheat and cheat seed germinated even 
after 21 duya soaking. He concludes that it is 
not dnngerons to leave the wheat soaking in the 
bluestone if anything prevents immediate sow- 
ing. 

A Tide of Immiobation Promised. — The Los 
Angeles Express announces that Mr. H. W. 
Batler, of ihe firm of Butler & Severance, who 
has returned from a trip to the East, brings 
the gratifying information that there will be a 
very Inrge immigration movement toward Los 
Angeles this fall. He pays that he conversed 
with people everywhere who had made up their 
mind4 to come here and settle in a portion of 
the United States which has a fature exempt 
from the financial diificulties and business 
stagnation, and from the extreme and wide 
spread distress, which prevail in the Eastern 
States. 



Stump Removing With Dynamite. 

We read in one of our interior exchanges of 
the trouble which was experienced in removing 
pomo large redwood stumps, some times 20 
kegs of powder being exploded under a single 
stump. Our memory is thus freshened by ac- 
cou nts in our English exchanges of a public trial 
which was made of the recently invented explo- 
sive, dynamite. Although this substance has 
been in use for some little time as a blasting 



An Improvement in Wool. 

It is encouraging to see a gleam of light fall 
upon the gloom which has enshrouded the 
wool interest. We are informed by telegraph 
from Boston and New York, as will be seen by 
reference to our market page, that the woolen 
manufacturers have decided that the wool 
market has touched bottom and determined to 
lay in their supplies. The result was an un 




THE BLTTB JAY. 



agent, we are not aware that it has been tested 
for farmers' use in stump pulling. A number 
of experiments were made in ihe presence of a 
committee of farmers. Several stamps which 
had been digged up were split into stove wood 
with a few ounces of dynamite. The experi- 
ments were concluded by blowing bodily out 
of the ground a large intact oak root; this was 
done by making a crowbar hole between the 
ties or manor roots and inserting a charge of 
dynamite under the center. On the shot be- 
ing fireJ, the root was lilted completely from 
its bed. . 

The House has granted a pension of $50 per 
month to the widow of General Custer, 



usual activity in California wool, and stroks are 
now held at an advance over last week's prices. 
It is to be hoped that the market has iodf ed 
touched bottom and will revive. There seems 
some reason to believe bo, for at Ihe public 
sale of woolen goods recently held, an unex- 
pected demand was disclosed, and if tbe Eastern 
people have really struck the bedrock in the 
wardrobes, which have been so carefully 
gnarded since tbe hard times began, the pur- 
chasing will commence anew and the call for 
the sheep will grow londer and louder. 

The deaths in New York last week were \,'l'd%, 
against 858 for tho previous week. The in- 
crease is attributed to the very hot weather. 



A State Society of Beekeepers. 

We noticed recently that Mr. Levering, of 
Los Angeles, proposed the formation of a State 
beekeeper's society. Wo have been familiar 
with the workings of Eastern apiarian societies 
and know them to be agencies of much practi- 
cal value to the members and to all who have 
read their published proceedings. The North- 
eastern society, of which the late Mr. Quinby 
was president for a number of years, has suc- 
ceeded in drawing out much practical and pro 
gressive information. We notice by the Los 
Angeles Herald that Mr. J. P. Bruck, of that 
place, asks that the BubalPbess be called upon 
to ascertain the sentiment of the beekeepers of 
tbe State concerning the proposition to form a 
California society. This we undertake cheer- 
fully. We cannot tell what would be the pros- 
pect for membership, but of one thing we are 
sure and that is, that an industry which is so 
widely influenced by conditions and which de- 
pends for success upon the greatest perfection 
of skill and understanding which can bA at- 
tained, must be greatly benefited by an organ- 
ized effort for full possession of these valuable 
acquisitions. The market problem, too, is one 
which needs the most careful investigation by 
all interested. Upon the face of it the propo- 
sition seems to us a good one. At all events, 
as Mr. Bruck says below, it deserves a careful 
consideration. We quote Mr. Brack's letter to 
the Los Angeles Herald and invite our apiarian 
readers to a full expression of views upon the 
points mentioned : 

As you have invited discussion on the propo- 
sition of holding a State convention of bee- 
keepers, allow me to offer the following amend- 
ment: California is so large a State that we 
are unacquainted with the extent and condition 
of the honey producing industry in those por- 
tions distant, from us. We are, furthermore, 
ignorant of the character of the men engaged 
in the business. We know not if there is suf- 
ficient of those that possess a spirit of inquiry, 
or the means of imparting information neces- 
sary, to make any convention successful. We 
are but little better acquainted with our nearest 
neighbors, but we know that the interest of 
San Diego, San Bernardino, Ventura and Santa 
Barbara counties are identical with our own; 
our climate being so near alike; everything re- 
lating to the practical as well as theoretical 
part of our calling is of like value and import- 
ance to each. It is only after a long struggle 
for life that our own county society has at last 
succeeded in placing itself upon a footing where 
it is alike profitable, as well as agreeable, for 
every beekeeper of our county to attend. 
Would not the next safest slep be to organize a 
district society or convention of the above 
named counties and our own; of those, namely, 
whose interests and wants are the same? 

Though I have little hope of soon seeing a 
State convention in our State of magnificent 
distances, yet I think the proposition worthy of 
discussion, for the purpose of drawing out the 
beekeepers of different sections of tbe State, 
that we may learn more of the spirit that ani- 
mates tbem. 

Let the proposition be published in some 
reniral organ, buob, perhaps, as tbe Pacific 
Bubal Pbess, bo that we may see what favor it 
meeis with elsewhere. 

I think likewise that the time of meeting 
should be later than October, even for a district 
convention. To m ku it a success it would be 
necessary that a committee sbouM arrange and 
publish a programme btforeband of the ques- 
tions and propositions to be deliberated on, so 
thnt all might come prepared for tborongb 
workt 

Limb fob Weevil. — A correspondent of the 
Country Gentleman, writes as follows: Some 
years ago heaiing complaint of weevil in wheat 
about the close of harvest, when I was rioking 
my wheat, I got fresh slacked lime and threw 
over the rick in building it, laying two courses of 
sheaves, then lime sufficient to whiten the stack. 
There was no weevil in my wheat. A neighbor 
who threshed his wheat from the shock, came 
to me a few days after and said he should lose 
his wheat, for it was alive with weevil. I told 
him to throw lime over it, and shovel it throngh 
his wheat, which he did. Two days after there 
was not a weevil to be seen in it. 



68 



!H?li%Ie»©'t 



[July 22, 1876 



kORRESPONDENCE. 



Dutch Flat. 

Editors Press: — Say what you will, there is 
HometbiDg in a name. In boyhood I read a 
novelette, entitled "15ridget." The very an- 
uoancement of the name of the heroine grated 
harshly on my ears. It was distasteful almost 
to disgust. The story advanced step by step. 
In colors the most glowing and in language 
both chaste and fascinating, it unfolded the 
outlines of a character unsurpassed for grace, 
beauty and loveliness. Prejudice gradually 
faded away amid the brighter colors of the 
portraiture. The life-like picture of that 
charming creature 

"Whose pure and eloqaent blood 
Spake in her veins, and so dintlnctly wrought 
That one conld almoet say her body thought," 
Boon made the name itaelf seem almost beauti- 
ful. So much by way of preliminaiy. 

The name of this mountain town is by no 
means euphonious. There may be more music 
in other flats. But let no one imagine from 
the want of taste displayed, that there is an 
absence of it among the inhabitants. On the 
contrary, its streets are lined with the locust or 
other ornamental trees. Its private re.«idences 
are generally decorated with taste and encircled 
with fruit trees and flowers, the climbing vine 
and of(en with the shady arbor. It is not sit- 
uated as the name would indicate, on a level 
plain. It has a greatly varied landscape of hill 
and dale, mountain peak or deep ravine; on 
one part dotted over with grass plats, orchard, 
or vineyard; on the other, covered with tall 
waving "pines, shading down the slopes into 
small trees •! later growth. 
Rosedale 
Is the name given to the home of Mr. E. 
Chamberlain of this place, and well deserves it 
from the large number and great variety of 
roses that are almost constantly in bloom, the 
month of February being the only exception 
during the year; a fact somewhat remarkable 
in view both of the altitude and latitude. As 
an hour was most agreeably spent on the 
grounds among the fruits and flowers, a brief 
description will be attempted, as an illastra- 
tion of what can be done in this locality within 
the short space of three years in the way of 
making an attractive home. Mrs. C, who is 
evidently a genuine lover of flowers, took the 
pains to show me a great variety, and called 
my attention to some that were both beautiful 
and rare. To give some idea of the extent 
(they are cultivated by two delicate hands,) 
there are at least 100 different varieties of roses, 
50 or more of geraniums, from 25 to 30 kinds 
of lilies; 18 of the cactus, and every imaginable 
variety of pinks, pansies, verbenas, carnation 
pinks, etc. , to the end of the catalogue. Among 
the rare plants was a crasula, blossom white, 
and very beautiful, from Central America; a 
variety of cactus from the Kocky mountains, 
and also some smaller varieties, as the serpent 
cactus, from its coiling form, the leaf cactus, 
very delicate, and in some respects resembling 
a small and tender leaf, and the coral cactus 
that spreads in small stems or branches, similar 
to the sea-built coral. There may be seen here 
a wild mountain lily, procured in this vicinity. 
It is now two years old and four feet high, with 
a beautiful delicate green foliage encircling the 
stock every few inches apart from near the 
ground to midway of the plant, and has 32 
large yellow lilies, speckled with dark red 
petals, somewhat heavy, the flowers as a body 
forming a cone. 

The spotted calla lily is a very rare plant; 
last year it bore two double lilies which is 
thought to be very unusual, as mention has 
been made in the Rural of one double one as 
a rarity. 

The night blooming cereus has a large white 
and very fragrant flower, about six inches in 
diameter, and blooms at three years of age. 
Its peculiarity consists in its blooming only 
once a year, between 12 and 1 o'clock at 
night. 

So much space has been given to flowers that 
but little can be spared for fruits. Mr. C. has 
nine varieties each of pears, plums, cherries 
and grapes, and many choice varieties of 
apples, such as the Newtown pippin. Woods 
greening, Astracan, Spitzbergen, und the large 
gloria mundi, all of which do well in this 
climate, a ready market being found at home, 
or across the mountains. Peaches are said to 
be an uncertain crop, and some suggestions as 
to saving the fruit from frost would be accept- 
able. 

Mr. W.W. Phillips, 
The place adjoining, has a good orchard and 
garden, where most of the ordinary fruits, 
melons and vegetables are raised in some abun- 
dance, and of as good quality as in the valleys. 
Water for irrigation is found here, and gener- 
ally throughout the mining regions, and for 
this reason there are probably more families in 
the mountains that cultivate little garden spots 
than can be found among the same number of 
farmers. We noticed 6ome very lartje cabbage 
in Mr. P. 's garden, more piiriioularly that of 
the mammoth Marblehead variety, which often 
weighs from 30 to 35 pounds. Of the smaller 
fruits, the most noticeable for thrift and size 
was the blackberry. He has 30 growing chest- 
nut trees, besides some black walnuts and but- 
ternuts, which are thought to be well adapted 



to this soil and climate. He has 100 stands of 
bees, the honey as seen in the comb looking full 
as well as the best Los Angeles. Some new 
swarms had made for the season two boxes of 
honey, weighing each 32 pounds, and had 
swarmed again. 

Mr. Bilto 
Recently came here from Iowa, suft'ering 
greatly from asthma. He purchased 22 acres 
of orchard with some garden and pasture land. 
He is now making a nice living for his family, 
finding good and ready salo for all his produce 
at his own door, and what is better yet, finds 
himself wholly relieved if notefl'ectually cured. 
I state these facts for the benefit of others, 
suffering in the same way. 

Currant Catsup. 
I have had the pleasure of tasting some ex- 
cellent currant catsup; in fact it was so good 
that I thought it worthy of a place in the Rural, 
under the head of "Domestic Economy," and 
secured the recipe from Mrs. Kilto for making 
it, 88 follows: Four pounds currant juice, one- 
half pound sugar, one tablespoontul ground 
cinnamon, one tcaspoonful of cloves, one tea- 
spoonful of black pepper, one pint of good 
vinegar. Boil all together until sufiiciently 
thick. K. 



PoJLjflY Y^RD- 



Toulouse Geese. 

Editors Press. — Having seen at the last 
Central New York poultry show, at Utica. a 
pair of splendid Toulouse geese only 10 
months old, weighing sixty pounds, and having 
watched their growth from the egg, can fully 
approve the following description given by the 
Poultry yaiion : 

This variety is doubtless the largest known. 
Men in general have an aversion to geese and 
we don't blame them either, for what could the 
little, noisy, voracious, unruly common geese 
be considered on a farm but a nuisance, unless 
securely penned in some swampy field? This 
natural aversion we were not exempt from till 
we tried the magnificent Toulouse, and then it 
was changed to a liking for these geese. In 
appearance they are noble and dignified, and 
will thrive without water to swim in, if plenty 
be provided for drink. They are never unruly 
and can be fenced as easily as sheep; they are 
very quiet, not noisy, and extremely hardy. 
They are good layers, averaging about 40 eggs 
each in a season, and are seldom broody. If 
the old stock is not kept fat, and after spring 
opens only on pasture and vegetables without 
grain, nearly every egg will hatch. 

The goslings are much stronger when young 
than the common, and are more easily raised 
than a pig. We use hens for hatching, and in 
summer have placed them on a fresh grass 
plat, and reared them without any mother. 
Their growth is so rapid that at four weeks old 
they will weigh from six to eight pounds each, 
and at three months from fifteen to eighteen 
pounds. At four weeks old they need no 
further housing, and can be placed in the open 
pasture to graze and shift for themselves, pro- 
vided they have their regular meals of soft 
feed, which should be coutinned till they are 
thiee or four months old. In France and 
England, Toulouse geese are prized for their 
great size, excellent flesh, and abundant yield 
of soft, fine feathers, of which they will average 
about half a pound to the picking, and would 
be profitable for this purpose. In the severest 
weather they require no shelter, and we never 
feed mature birds any grain when the ground 
is bare, where they have access to pasture 
fields. 

In color, geeso and ganders are exactly alike, 
viz: a uniform, haudsome grey, with breast 
and under parts of body a shade lighter. They 
are so mild ana tractable in disposition, and 
possess so many good traits, that they are 
profitable where grain and grass are cheap. 
There are hundreds of waste places upon which, 
with a trifling expense, large numbers of these 
geese could be raised. To show how prolific 
they are, we have known for two seasons past 
one hundred goslings to be raised each year 
from the eggs of eight females, besides a large 
number being sold for hatching purposes. For 
all purposes, the Toulouse should be voted the 
goose of the period. . G. G. W., Jr. 

San Francisco, July 15lh, 1875. 



those still more minute threads which pene- 
trate the tissue in every direction, exhaust and 
kill it, and thus form what we may call their 
fruit, the perithecia, which when matnre emit 
the spores. It belongs to the (;enus Phyllos- 
ticla, of which at least 100 species, mostly leaf- 
inhabiting, are described, and may be called 
Phylloalictn ri<is— grape leaf spot. Perhaps it 
it identical with Siptoria vilis, B. C. 

This parasite makes its appearance earlier 
than the others mentioned above, viz., just be- 
fore the flowering period and during it, and at- 
tacks fks far as known only the leaves, which, 
where abundant, it kills and thus cripples the 
plant; rarely it is found also on petioles and 
peduncles. Dr. Wislizenus informs me that it 
attacks indiscriminately all grape varieties, but 
more the lower leaves of the stock than the 
upper ones; while he finds the phylloxera galls 
on the uppermost not yet full grown foilage. 

The Phylloxera. 

For somn time past I have been diligently 
looking for some news regarding the phylloxera 
from your region; but thus far, I have seen no 
statement of any facts observed this year, as to 
the condition of the infested vineyards, and the 
progress, if any, made by the little pest since 
last year. I iudge from this silence, as well as 
from the defiance hurled at the foe by your 
Santa Rosa neighbors, that the wet winter has 
been hard on the insect, and perhaps a season's 
partial respite may be granted to the vineyards, 
as was the case in France upon the heels of 
one of the most disastrous seasons. If this is 
so, there would be an excellent chance this 
year to circumscribe and exterminate the pest, 
if any concert of action or legislative aid had 
been obtained. As it is, probably nothing 
will be done in that direction, until the next 
dry season teaches us the same lesson that has 
proven so expensive elsewhere. In the mean- 
time, however, it is to be hoped that sufficient 
interest in the matter will be taken by those 
having the opportunity, to ob-^erve the local 
habits of the insect; a knowledge of which may 
hereafter serve to counteract its progress. It 
is especially important to know whether and to 
what extent it assumes the winged form, which 
elsewhere appears most abundantly during 
July and August, and is chiefly instrumental in 
spreading the infection. The fly is very Fmall, 
about the twentieth of an inch in length, but is 
easily distinguished from the gnat tribe by the 
creat length of its four wing', which are habit- 
ually carried folded flat on the back, giving it 
somewhat the appearance of a very small winged 
ant, but with the copiously ringed (cros.=- 
wrinkled) abdomen of the common aphis or 
plant louse. Specimens of such diminutive 
insects may be easily secured and sent on slips 
of paper rendered sticky by mucilage, or even 
molasses, and a few sheets of the latter sort 
huog amongst the vines would soon on examin- 
ation, determine whether or not the winged 
phylloxera exists in anv given locality. 

i most earnestly advise and request that 
attention be given to the matter during the two 
months before us. by all interested in vinicul- 
ture. Even our Santa Rosa friends, with their 
commendable faith in the eflScacy of good 
culture, can hardl/ aff'ord to remain in the dark 
as to the precise mochis operandi of any enemy 
that has shown itself so formidable at other 
points; and no one can think it prudent to 
to imitate the proverbial ostrich by trying to 
ignore the evil. 

I shall be glad to receive specimens, and com- 
munications on the subject, and hope before 
many weeks to make a tour of observation per- 
sonally. — Eug. JI. JFilnard, in Napa Reporter. 



T^E Vl[<EYi^l\D. 



A New Grape Fungus. 

At a recent meeting of the St. Louis Acad- 
emy of Science, Dr. George Engelman spoke as 
follows: I exhibit to you today a grape fungus 
which is new to me, and seems to have been 
unknown to those grape growers with whom I 
have conversed. A ytllowiih-brown spot ap- 
pears on the leaf, a few lines in diameter, on 
the upper side of which a good eye or glass 
will discover a number of very minute black 
specks. These are 1 ttle globules, 0.13—0.15 
line in diameter, which have a little opening at 
the top from which they emit their microscop- 
ical spores by the thousand. These oblong or 
oval i-pores are one-celled, and have a diameter 
of 0.013 or 0.011 line. 

This fungus belongs to the family of Con- 
iomycetes, and to that group which lives on de- 
caying vegetable matter. Those yellow spots 
are the decaying substance; their" vitality has 
been destroyed by the mycelium of the fungus; 



the first sire are perpetuated in the pro geny of 
succeeding ones. 

6. All breeds show a tendency to "breed 
back," or to produce offspring bearing the 
m'arks of their less improved and comparatively 
valueless ancestors; hence, individuals of this 
kind must be rejected from the best breeds if 
we would maintain their excellence. 

7. Certain races and individuals have their 
characters more fixed, and will transmit and 
perpetuate them in greater proportion than oth- 
ers with which they may be crossed. If their 
qualities are desirable, they prove highly val- 
uable in raising other stock of greater excel- 
lence; if undesirable, they will depreciate the 
value of any stock crossed for many generations. 
That fixity of type, however, is above all, a 
characteristic of those which have been care- 
fully selected and bred up to a certain standard 
for many generations, so that in oi/t best, 
longest established and most esteemed breeds 
we have a most valuable legacy left us by the 
successful breeders of the past with which we 
may mould our inferior races almost at will. 

8. While breeding continuously from the 
nearest relations tends to a weakened constitu- 
tion, and the aggravation of any taint in the 
blood to sterility, these may be avoided by in- 
fusing at intervals fresh blood of the same 
family which has been bred apart from this 
branch of it for several generations. Moreover, 
the highest ercellonce is sometimes attained 
only by breeding very close for a time. 

0. Diseased or mutilated animals are gener- 
ally to be discarded from breeding. Mutila- 
tions resulting from disease existing during 
pregnancy, and disease with a constitutional 
morbid taint are, above all, to be dreaded as 
transmissible. — Prof. James LaxB, of Cornell 
University. 



»EES. 



Stock B(\EEDEf^s. 



Suggestions About Breeding. 

1. .V perfect development, and sound, vigor- 
ous health, constitutional, especially in the 
generative organs, are conditions of fertility. 

2. In the maintenance and improvement of a 
breed, the truth that "like produces like," that 
the reproductive germ will stamp upon the an- 
imal developed from the characters of the par- 
ent organism, is the backbone of success. 

3. We can in a great degree, at will, produce 
variatians and improvements in breeds; by 
abundant feeding, a mild and salubrious cli- 
mate, a rich and healthy soil, moderate use, 
education, stimulation or selection of desirable 
qualities; by disease or rejection of undesirable 
characters and properties; by soliciting the 
weight of imagination in our favor; by allow- 
ing the breeding animals to mix only with 
those of the stamp desired; by crossing less im- 
proved breeds systematically with males of a 
better race, and by crossing animals faulty or 
deficient in some particular point with others 
in which this point is developed in excess. 

4 The herding of pregnant high class ani- 
mals with low bred ones, and the resulting at- 
tachments between the two races are to be 
especially avoided, as occasionally affecting 
the progeny injuriously; strong iiupressions 
from a new or unusual condition of surround- 
ing objects are to be equally guarded against. 

5. If a valuable female is allowed to breed to 
an inferior male, she cannot be relied upon to 
produce pure-bred animals for several succeed- 
ing pregnancies. Through a strong and re- 
tained impref'sion, through the absorption into 
the system of living particles (germinal mat- 
ter) from the fcotus, or through some influence 
during pregnancy on the ova, then being most 
actively developed, the good or bad features of 



A Los Angeles Apiary. 

Another mile brought me in sight of the long 
shed and honey house of Mr. E. W. Sinclair's 
Star bee ranch of 155 stands, which is so hid by 
the tall growth of white sage that you cannot see 
it until you are right on it. The ranch is close 
to the foot of the mountain, where (here are 
three springs of clear water, one of which be 
will bring to his house and apiary in pipes. He 
has laid out and begun to build the most com- 
plete and convenient apiary, I believe, in this 
county. He has a neat frame shed, 10 feet 
wide and CO feet long (with GO stands now in 
it), as a beginning of two sheds to be each 150 
feet long, fur which the lumber is on the 
ground. The sheds will be parallel with each 
other, -50 feet apart, set due south and north. 
The posts are seven feet apart in width, and 
the hives are arranged in two rows, four feet 
apart, thus giving the bees the morning sun, 
but perfec-tly shaded from the mid-day sun, 
the roof projecting one and one-half feet on 
each aide beyond the hives. He could give 
them two feet ii needed, and still have room 
between the hives to work and run hie honey 
cart to the honey honse at the lower end of 
the sheds. The sheds are shake roof one-half 
pitch, five feet high at the eaves, but six feet 
four inches in the clear, inside, and you would 
be surprised to see the difference in comfort 
and couvenirnce in handling the bees in such 
a shed compared witb outside in the hot sun. 

The Honey House 
Is small — 10 by Id — but will bo enlarged next 
season by nn addition 12 by 24, making it in 
the form of a T, with room for grading, put- 
ting up and packing for market, and each 
package, can or frame will be labeled before it 
leaves his honse. Mr. Sinclair has an extrac- 
tor made to his order by Coulter A: Harper, so 
that having thrown the honey out of one side 
of the comb, it is only moved one-fourth of a 
circle inside the reel without lilting out, turn- 
ing around and setting it back again, as is 
usually done, thus saving more than one-half 
the labor in handling. He has also a cold 
strainer and a sun extractor (but he does not 
allow any honey from the sun extractor to go 
in No. 1 honey), and all arranged handy and 
kept as neat and clean as a lady's kitchen. 
When completed, both sheds and honey house 
will have eavestronghs the whole length, and 
run the rain water into a large cemented ois- 
tern, capable of holding 1,000 barrels of water 
from 3,000 square feet of roofing, to be used 
for irrigating an apple, pesch and orange or- 
chard, if il is needed.— i<J.s Aw/eles Herald. 

How TO GET A LaRQI^ YiKLD FBOM A HlVE. — 

J. W. Webb writes to the Lompoc Record 
of his observations in Los Angeles, as follows: 
Mr. Walbridge, of Walbridge i Corey, was an 
entertaining informant on this subject. They 
have 33U stands of bees, seven miles from 
Santa Punta, Ventura county. Mr. Walbridge 
has a strong swarm, from which he has taken 
150 pounds of houej', and expects to take 
double that quantity this year. He thought at 
one lime that the man in the recent bee con- 
vention, who said his 50 stands of bees would 
average 400 pounds of honey each, was ex- 
cited. But he now thinks it possible for a 
Hwarm of bees to produce nearer l.OUO pounds 
in a year. By giving a t'trong H«arm a large 
hive, and preventing them from swarming off, 
supplying them with a queen if anything 
should happen to their own, also breeding 
comb, and empty comb ready to fill with honey 
without the time and labor necessary to gather 
and make wcx for for comb, good range, care- 
ful attention, and close watching by expe- 
rienced beu men, he thinks the last named 
quantity attainable. 



July 22, 1876.] 



fm mi 



59 



4©F^t'C*'*-TJ'\E' 



Oranges. 

At L08 Angeles I called on Mr. Thomas A. 
Garey, a great semi-tropical orchardist and 
nurseryman. A few facts gleaned may not be 
uninteresting. But I should state that passing 
through land leased by Fisher, Bichardson & 
Co., for a number of years, I saw between 20,- 
000 and 25,000 thrifty ash and a l^rge number 
of maple trees, imported from the East, for 
carriage, building and manufacturing purposes. 
They certainly look well. They grow on what 
seems to be a sandy loam, not unlike some 
Lompoc soil, which is here irrigated occasioa- 
ally. Mr. Garey's land is the same. On his 
place are some 50,000 trees; when the nursery 
trees are sold off, nearly 5,000 standard trees, 
mostly orange, lemon, walnut and almond, 
will be left; also 15 acres of a general assort- 
ment of northern fruits, which do well, except 
plums and cherries, which will grow too much 
to wood and with little iruit in spite of vigorous 
branch and root pruning, except in occasional 
years. He also owns a half interest in the 
Co-operative Nursery company, of which he is 
president, and which is putting out 400,000 
young semi-tropical trees on 100 acres. The 
trees, I think, are all budded as they now find 
that budded orange trees bear several years 
earlier and a better quality of fruit. They are 
satisfled that as compared with the Pacific 
island oranges, which must be necessarily 
picked a little green for shipment here, oranges 
just as good and sweet can be grown. Very 
valuable experience in orange culture is now 
being rapidly gained and made profitable by 
southern nurserymen. Mr. Garey is experi- 
menting with not less than 

Fifty Kinds. 
I will name a few with some of their character- 
istics. The Navel, from Australia, bloomed 
the first year; some are setting with promise of 
ripening now. A beautiful ornamental kind of 
oranges and lemous, has variegated leaves, re- 
sembling in color of leaf the Japanese honey- 
suckle, or the variegated myrtle, a common 
creeper in our own gardens. The Mediterra- 
nean, Garey 's favorite, is seedless, without pith 
in the center, and has very compact flesh. The 
Seville orange does well; it is valued for its 
bright color and peculiarly bitter rind, which 
with the pulp, makes the best of marmalade, or 
orange preserve. Well do I remember the 
toothsome article my mother used to make for 
our family in England, where we could get the 
oranges speedily from Seville itself, in Spain. 
The St. Michael are generally small, but some 
two-jear old trees had a dozen last season, and 
are now, at three years old, full. This was a 
great favorite in England. I well remember 
having heard the street peddlers call out "here's 
your sweet St. Nicholas oranges," and they 
know well what n>tme takes best with their 
customers. The Duroi, at two years old, bore 
22 perfect oranges. The Maltese Blood orange, 
only two years old, was as full of fruit as or- 
dinary plum trees. Common orange trees were 
pointed out, budded on lemon stocks, that bore 
250 good flavored and sized oranges last year. 
Mr. Garey says trees bear soonest when bud- 
ded, lemon on orange, or vice versa. Mr. 
Strong, nurseryman at Westminster, subse- 
quently told me that he has refrained from try- 
ing the orange on lemon stock, fearing they 
would be small and short-lived trees, because 
the lemon is really but a bush. He is waiting 
to see the matter well tested. A number of 
Mexican lima trees, said to be the best kind, 
were very full of green fruit. They bear the 
year round, and at from five to eight years old, 
bear from 500 to 600 each. The Boquet 
orange is very fragrant and has large blossoms. 
The finest grows in clusters, only oruameutal. 
There is a white-fleshed orange, containing no 
pungent oil in the skin. The Japanese lemons 
are good and early. If I remember. Colonel 
MacLeod has some trees of this kind in his 
garden. The Pumalc is an ornamental tree, 
with fine glossy leaves and fruit 21 to 27 inches 
in circumference, pear-shaped, but coarse for 
eating. The Mandarin is small, thin-skinned, 
and bears early. As a general rule it is said 
where the pomegranate will do well, the orange 
will. 

On very small trees I saw a few oranges that 
will doubtless mature this season. I learned 
that in winter they have some frost and even 
ice, but neither that nor considerable wiud 
hurts when the orange tree is well rooted and 
set. It is possible that in well sheltered spots 
we can grow some of the hardier and earlier 
oranges in our valley. Being evergreens, they 
can be transplanted at any time, even when in 
full bearing. 

When at Westminster I saw an excellent de- 
vice, called 

"Carroll's Patent Transplanter." 
It is a sheet of iron with hioges, so that it can 
be bent round in shape, something like a 
bucket and fastened firmly. The bottom edges 
all round is kept very sharp. It is 8x10 
inches, 15 inches deep, folded around the 
young tree. An axe striking a block of wood 
laid across the top, drives it down level with 
the surface, cleanly cuttieg off every side root- 
let, and holding solid all of the earth with not 
a root disturbed. A horizontally laid sharp 
spade ia bow driven in at the bottom, which is 
easily gotten at, as the removal of the former 
trees of the row leaves a trench. This cuts off 
the tap root, and makes a bottom to the bucket. 
Strong iron rings at the fuur corners afford an 
easy means of lifting the tree. The trans- 
planter is then unfolded and the bottom taken 



out, and strong sheets of paper tied round the 
ball of earth. They can then, with anything 
like fair handling, be sent any distance, and be 
sure to live — never know they were taken out 
of their original bed. The drawbacks are time, 
expense, and loss of soil, where the trees to be 
transplanted are standing very thick. But it is 
the safest and best way I ever heard of. — J, W. 
Webb in Lompoc Record, 



Indian Pony and Race Horse Cross. 

A writer from San Mateo county, (Cal.) to 
the Chicago Live Stock Journal gives some in- 
teresting experiments with crossing the Indian 
pony and English race horse. He says: I 
have detailed my success in breeding the lit- 
tle Indian pony mare to the Yorkshire coach- 
horse, now let us see the result of putting the 
same mare to the English thoroughbred. My 
doctrine in breeding is that the fountain-head 
of all quality, style, beauty, endurance and speed 
is the thoroughbred race horse, and that by 
means of him as sire, all sorts and kinds except 
those of heavy, slow draft were improved, ai»d I 
thought that having a likely colt from such a 
scrubby little mare, by a common coach horse, 
I shou'd have a still better one if I bred her to 
a thoroughbred. So when the imported thor- 
oughbred. Lawyer, came to stand at my place, 
I tried the experiment, and the result was any- 
thing but satisfactory. The cross did not seem 
to suit, and only produced the bad qualities of 
both parents, not only bodily but mentally. 
My little Indian pony in due course produced a 
filly foal by the English race horse, and at first 
I thought I had got a horse which would prove 
even better than the coach horse produce. As 
a foal it was well shaped and handsome, and a 
great improvement apparently on the pony dam; 
but at three years old the growth in height 
stopped at H hands, and the legs were the de- 
fective legs of the sire, and developed a ring- 
bone without any known cause before any at 
tempt to use, wtiich rendered her practically 
valueless. And when haltered and stabled the 
following winter, trying some remedial meas- 
ures on the ring-bone, she showed a cross, mean 
and impracticable disposition, which decided 
me to let her alone as to work, but to try an- 
other breeding experiment with her — a great 
error, I admit. But in those days mares were 
scarce, with any good blood at all in them, and 
the cost of keeping a few horses, more or less, 
was little considered; so, to illustrate the 
anomalies which occur in breeding animals, I 
pursue the history. 

Another Cross. 

In the same year that this filly of mine was 
begot, a fine thoroughbred mare dropped a colt 
foal to Lawyer, which, when a three-year-old, 
I purchased and kept afterwards as a stallion. 
This having proved the right cross for Lawyer, 
produced in the offspring the good qialities of 
both parents, and eliminated the bad; for al- 
though the mare was rather fine and delicately 
formed, the legs of her colt were good and 
strong as possible, although not big of course, 
and he grew into a 16-hand horsT cf first-class 
type. He was a saddle horse fit for a king to 
ride, but he never felt a buggy harness on him, 
as I thought him above the business. I thought 
I would see the result of uniting this half- 
brother and sister, and so put the young thor- 
oughbred to the half bred Indian pony mare, 
and she dropped a filly foal, which turned out 
the queerest mixture of all. When the proper 
time came, she was taken up to be handlei'. 
with several others. It will be kept in mind 
that she had two crosses of thoroughbred, and 
was bred from horse and mare by the same 
sire; all the rest of her was Indian pony. She 
was barely 14-hands high, her withers much 
lower than her rump, good shoulders and tre- 
mendously large and muscular hind quarters 
and legs of iron, moderate sized bone, but per 
fectly clean and sound, and they could not be 
be made otherwise, although she did every- 
thing a horse could do to use up her legs. Her 
temper was demoniacal; she would squeal, bite 
and kick at i/ou from the very, first, and was 
fall of treachery — always ready to play a mean 
trick if she saw the chance; and during her 
breaking lessons smashed more harness and 
Bulkys, got over more fences and into more 
mud holes, than all the others combined. 

My inference is, that the thoroughbred and 
the Indian pony are too entirely distinct in 
their mental and physical organization to 
amalgamate advantageously for useful pur- 
poses, and that, as a general thing, the native 
California mustang will not be crossed to ad- 
vantage, for our purpose, with the highstrung, 
perserving tempered thoroughbred, but rather 
with a good sized, quiet tempered quarter or 
half bred roadster of good born and somewhat 
lymphatic temperament, which will rather tend 
to quiet down and cool the innate spice of devil- 
try which exists ia most of these wild breeds. 
The thoroughbred rouses and intensifies these 
characteristics, and physically having origina- 
ted from a horse of rather small size, is liable 
to breed smaller than a horse of coarser organ- 
ization. 



HoRSb; Meat. — The consumption of horse- 
flesh seems to be steadily increasing in Paris, 
the official report being that during the first 
quarter of 1876, the horse butchers of Paris 
have furnished 2,370 horses, asses, and mule.i 
for public food, yielding *29,30li kilogrammes 
of net meat, or considerably more tban iu the 
same quarter of last year, 



Bread Made from Whole Wheat. 

When told that it is quite unnecessary to con- 
vert wheat into flour before making bread, one 
is inclined to express some astonishment; but 
seeing certain colors are now mixecl, and that 
on a large scale, without any previous grind- 
ing, and without any rubbing at all, thus sweep- 
ing away with the greatest expenses that at- 
tended the trade, we may not refuse to listen to 
a plan for doing away with the use of mill- 
stones, bolting cloths, and all the paraphernalia 
of the flour manufacturer. 

The new system of bread making is the in- 
vention, we believe, of a Frenchman named 
Sezille. Let us state, by way of preface, that 
according to some scientific men, the total 
amount of indigestible matter, or bran in wheat, 
is not more than from four to five per cent, of 
the whole; by the present method of flour- 
grinding and bread-making, scarcely 80 per 
cent, of the alimentary part of the wheat is 
made available. 

Now for the method itself, which is divided 
into three successive operations: 

First. — The wheat is placed in a mash-tub, or 
other vessel, with more than sufficient water to 
cover it, and well stirred with a peel for some 
minutes; by this operation all the overlight and 
damaged grains, as well as dust and other im- 
purities, will rise to the surface, be dissolved, 
or held in suspension; at the end of half an 
hour the water is drawn off, and the wheat 
having been allowed to drain, is afterward 
placed in a cylinder of plate-iron, pierced or 
worked so as to have the effect of a rasp when 
made to revolve. With the aid of this cylinder, 
from two to three per cent, of the outer pellicle, 
which is the coarser, is easily removed; as to 
the second skin, and that in the crease of the 
grain, it only amounts to about two per cent., 
and might all be left in without injury to the 
nntritiv* quality of the bread. 

Second. — The grain is now placed in a vessel 
filled with water, at a temperature of about 
seventy-five degrees Fahrenheit, in the propor- 
tion of about two parts by weigbt of water to 
one part of wheat, so that there shall be a cer- 
tain quantity of water above the grain ; to this 
water is to be previously added one part of half- 
dry yeast and five or six ounces of glucose to 
200 parts of water. The ferment in the water 
acts gradually upon the wheat, and after im- 
mersion for 20 or 24 hours, according to the 
nature of the grain and the temperature, the 
wheat will have absorbed from 50 to 70 per 
cent of water, and be ready for panification. 
The water will now have become of a reddish 
color, having extracted an amount of the col- 
oring matter from the remaining bran, and is 
allowed to run off; thus another step has been 
made towards the bleaching of the dough. 

Third. — After the wheat has been again 
drained it is made to pass through one or more 
pairs of rollers, and, being of ttie consistency 
of cheese, it is easily reduced to a paste; by 
this operation the bran of the second skin has 
become excessively finely divided, and equally 
mixed throughout the whole mass. This being 
done, and the dough placed in a trough, the 
proper amount of salt to give flavor to the 
bread is dissolved in -water and poured over the 
dough, and, should th« wheat not have 
absorbed more than fifty per cent, of water, 
fifteen to twenty per cent, more is now to be 
added, and the whole is well mixed by being 
turned over two or three times by hand. The 
dough is now treated in the ordinary way, 
rolled and made up into lumps, and left to fer- 
ment until the right moment for putting it in 
the oven. 

There is certainly nothing unreasonable in 
this process; the machinery is of the simplest 
kind, and the processes such as any baker 
could carry out without difficulty. It well de- 
serves a trial, and, although the wish has un- 
grateful sound, we heartily wish that M. Sezille 
may have found the method of dispensing with 
the use of mills, millstones, bolting-machines, 
and flour-sacks, and even with the jolly miller 
and his men. — Good Health. 



run the cheaper plan. The import:; the 

bat in the economy of nature has on 

properly recognized. He cites the c. A a. 
forest belonging to the crown in illustration of 
this point. Well grown oak trees being re- 
quired for naval purposes, a notice was issued 
that none should be felled until the receipt of 
special orders. Long after the trees had arrived 
at maturity, the notice remained unrevoked, 
and they were suffered to run on to a state of 
decay. This being reported to the higher au- 
thorities, orders came to cut down the trees for 
firewood. The work was undertaken in the 
depth of winter; thousands upon thousands of 
hybernating bats died from disturbance and 
exposure, and the ultimate result was the total 
destruction of the whole forest, for in the sec- 
ond year after their extermination the damage 
done by caterpillars — which up to this time had 
never been specially remarkable — attained 
such an enormous development as to render 
the felling of the whole plantation the only 
practicable course to be pursued. 



Bats and Insects. 

We make the following extract from a recent 
nunjber of the London Farmer: In the winter 
of 1875-70, a large number of dead, and, for the 
most part, hollow trees in the Thior-garten of 
Berlin, were felled and cut up for firewood. As 
a consequence of this measure, many thousands 
of bats, hybernating in these natural retreats, 
and awaiiing the return of spring to renew 
their energetic campaign against insect vermin, 
were necessarily destroyed. It is needless to 
|toint out here the great utility of these harm- 
lens little creatures; any one possessed of the 
slightest smattering of natural history must be 
well acquainted with the fact. The question 
to be considered is how such a needless de- 
struction of useful animal life may be best 
avoided. Numerous observations have fully 
shown that buts in a state of hybernation can 
endure any degree of cold without injury; but 
that if once disturbed while in this state they 
are extremely susceptible to change of temper- 
ature, and but rarely survive the disturbing 
intrusion on their sleep. Baron Nolde writes 
to a German cotemporary, suggesting that 
such trees as form the restiag place of bats 
should be felled only in the warm months of 
the year, while their inbabitanlH are in a state 
of activity, and able to seek fresh shelter for 
themselves. The only objection in this place 
is, that labor is more easily and ckoaply pro- 
cured iu the winter than iu the summer months. 
But granting this,' it by no means allows that 
by felling such treej in winter is in the long 



New System of Grinding in Germany. 

Some commotion and lively discussion has 
lately been caused in Germany and Austria by 
the announcement that a Mr. "Vincent Till, who 
owns a mill and bakery at Bruck on the Main, 
had discovered a new process of grinding grain 
into flour, which enabled him to make 100 ibs 
of fine white bread out of 80 ibs of wheat. The 
Muehle, which is the official organ of the so- 
ciety of German millers, said, in one of its Oc- 
tober numbers: 

Cylinders are undoubtedly destined to play an 
important part in milling. Yet, however im- 
portant they may be, they will always be sec- 
ondary to a machine which will completely re- 
move the hull of the grain before grinding. 
Such a machine I have finally, after experi- 
menting for many years, invented. With this 
mill I can remove every visible trace of the 
hull while the grain is dry; and loan, more- 
over, remove one, two or even three coats from 
the kernel, without in the least injuring or 
losing any part of the remainder. When this 
is accomplished, all the nourishing parts of the 
grain may be made into flour; and 126 lbs. of 
bread may be made out of 100 lbs of grain. 
By means of this shelling-machine {Schaelmas ■ 
chine), with a good breaking machine (Getreide- 
brecher), and a smooth cylinder run, 70 lbs of 
the finest flour may be made out of 90 fcs 
of wheat; while with burrstones, only 20 or 
30 lbs. can be produced. Burrstones are an 
obstacle iu milling, and should be done away 
with. 

The inventor, continues the Muehle, has 
sent us a small sample of shelled rye, which 
has an excellent appearance, and is superior to 
anything we have ever seen turned out by a 
dry smutter. 

We give the details of Mr. Till's process, as 
they are set forth by the inventor himself: 
A condensed sketch of the process is as fol- 
lows: 

1. The gi'ain is culled by means of a sepa- 
rator. 

2. It is subjected to the action of the smut- 
machine, or wheat-scourer. (The German ex- 
pression means, literally, shelling-machine). 

3. Each kernel is cracked or broken into ten 
or twelve pieces, by smooth-cylinders. 

4. These groabs are ground by cylinders. 

5. The product is then subjected to the 
separating reel. 

6 It is then assorted by the middlings puri- 
fier. 

7. The middlings is thenjagain ground by 
cylinders. 

8. The coarse bran is again ground by cyl- 
inders, as before, and is then 

9. Subjected to the bolting-chest. — Miller 
and, Millinright. 



The "Man-root" of Colorado. 



Thomas Meehan, the well known horticalta- 
rist writes to the Independent an account of a 
wonderful Colorado plant. He says : 

Once, in Colorado, I came on a convolvulus, 
or "morning glory," with wine-glass shaped 
and wine-colored flowers — not a "vine," but a 
bush, about a foot or so over. Seed was not 
ripe, so I tried to get a root; but in no case 
could I get one out of the ground. This is all 
I knew. Bat here at the Centennial I find the 
"man-root" of Colorado— the full size and 
stature of a, man— fifty eight inches long! And 
I am told the account of its digging np. First, 
two men, a half a day, with pick, shovel and 
crowbar; but the plant not ont. The next half 
day so spent; and still no root. Next day the 
men were sent out with orders not to return 
without it; and then it came, and such a root 
as we see! Here is a small spray in my herba- 
rium— 7/)omojate/)<opA)/Wrt; but I never dreamed 
of its having such a history as this. Most 
plants send their leaves and branches into the 
air. the herbaceous parts fall annually, and the 
trunk increases in size; but here the increase is 
all, from year to year, under the ground— a 
trunk like a sntall palmxor tree-fern, crowned 
every year by about 18 inches of foliage, all we 
see, and in icnorance of the great work going 
on below. Wo have something like it in the 
East. The Ceanothus Amcricanus (the New 
Jersey tea) and the "briiir" (Smilax roluyuli- 
folia) have herbaceous tops, dying back annu- 
ally, and yet with roots increasing from year 
to year, and flaally making good-sized under- 
ground trunks. But this Colorado "man-root"' 
beats them all. ii^Hi 



60 



[July 22. 1876 




THE HEADaXTAXTEBS at the Oaliforala 

Q^ie Orange are lu the Oraogerg' Buildini;, oortbeast 
comer of California and Davis streets, over the 
OrangerB' Bank of California and California Farmers' 
Hntnal Fire Insnrance Association. Master, J. T. 
Wkbsteb; Secretary, Ahob Adams. 

Tbe Oran<i.rs' Busincas Association of Calif oruis is 
on Davjs street, north-east comer of California. 

Obanue Dibkctobv.— a full list of Subordinate 
Oranges, Hasters and Secretaries, of California and 
Nevada, is published as often as once a quarter in this 
department. See Issne of July 8th for latest insertion. 

P. OF H— Subscribers who pay fnlly one year ($») in 
advance for the Pacific Ri;b.\l Press can receive the 
Caufobkia PATBON/r«e, besiaes other premiums. See 
our premium list in another column. 



The Grain Problem. 

One of the most vital qnestioni) to the farm- 
ers cf this State is, how to dicpose of their 
graim crops of the present season to the best 
advantage. 

There appears to be a well defined plan 
among the grain dealers to take advanta^'e of 
the farmer's necessities. Owing to the failure 
of crops iaat year in many sections of the State, 
the hnsbandman was reduced to the necessity 
of borrowing money, with which to purchase 
wheat for last seeding, as well as to get some- 
thing to live on in the meantime. Most of 
these loans have been made by commission 
bouses and grain dealers of San Francisco, in 
order to get high rates of interest, and to indace 
consignments of grain to sell on commission. 
Experience has demoustrated that no greater 
inducement can be otl'ered the poor farmers of 
the State than to loan them money on promises 
of consignments and warehouse receipts. And 
it has almost invariably so happened that the 
grain merchant stood in pressing need of his 
money jnst when grain was the most depressed 
in price, consequently the farmer was the least 
able to pay. 'Tis true, the uommit-sion men have 
always appeared anxious to accommodate their 
patrons in all cases of this kind, by selling the 
farmer's grain to themselves, or to somebody 
else, at "current rates," charging for the ac- 
commodation two and one-half per cent, com- 
mission on the gross sales. 

It is asserted, by those who claim to under- 
stand the situation, that commission dealers 
have already secured grain suihcient to load 
■50 or 60 ships. A great portion of thiu grain 
has been purchased directly by the firms in 
San Francisco or their agents, who are scattered 
all through the country. 

It is asserted by some of the manipulators, 
that more than one-half of the farmers of the 
State are embarassed financially to such an ex- 
tent that they will be compelled to realize on 
their crops within the next 60 days. That 
many of those who are comparatively free of 
debt are disposed to take small accommodation 
loans (which are freely oflfered in many sections 
of the State by the grain dealers) , payable on 
demand, or in 30 or 60 days. No doubt such 
loans are, in many cases, unavoidable, but they 
are the life ef the speculator, and death to 
the farmer's independence, and consequently 
should be avoided whenever it is possible. 

Although we do not believe that the em- 
barassment of the farmers is as great as rep- 
resented, nevertheless, it is evident that there 
are millions of money loaned in the country, 
the greater portion of which has been advanced 
on the present grain crop, and which is likely 
to be called for when the tarmer U least able to 
pay it. 

In view of this fact, and the increasing dis- 
position of the grain men to get a firmer hold 
upon the produce of the connirj-, is it not ex- 
pedient for the Patrons and farmers of the 
State to take joint action in self defense? 

It is one of the fundamental principles of our 
Order, that "successful results of general wel- 
fare can be secured only by general effort. 
Unity of action cannot be acquired without 
discipline, and discipline cannot be enforced 
without significant organization." Hence the 
necessity of strict adherence to principle, that 
we may have unity of action in everything that 
is worth undertaking. 

By unity of action cannot the Pattons of the 
State, in a measure, at least, relieve themselves 
of the embarassiuents wnich surrouud them? If 
there are combinations against the farmers' in- 
terest, then shall not the farmers combine for 
mntual protection? 

Cannot they, through the Grange or;;aniza- 
tion, effect an understanding which w.li be 
mntaally beneficial? If eacn farmer ia itit 
Stale will pledge himself to one another ih<ti he 
will not lake less than $1.60 per cenial lor hic* 
wheat delivered in Sun Francisco, will he not 
net it? It may be said that you cannot com- 
bine ail of the farmers in an agreement nt this 
kind; th«n combine half of them and the same 
end will be effected. , 

From carefal estimates it is computed that 
there are not exceeding 650,000 tons of tuiplua 
wheat for export. This amount would rv quire 
some 500 vessels to carry it. There are now 
vessels in port, and to arrive within tht- next 
90 days, of between '280,000 aLd 30u,000 
tons register — sufficient to carry Le.r.y or 
quite one-half of our surplus grhiu. Tuese 
vessels, npon arrival, will hav^ to be 
loaded. It is claimed by those who undrrstaud 
the tricks of the trade, that about one-half of 



this tonnage 'has already been secured by the 
various grain firms. There will be an effort 
to load these vessels before they go on demur- 
rage. For $100 per day, (the usual rate of de- 
murrage) on the 100 vessels for which cargoes 
have not been secured, would amount to 
$10,000 per day, which would soon eat up all 
speculative profits. Whenever these vessels 
arrive for which cargoes have not been secured, 
and, in consequence, are likely to go on demur- 
rage, then the pressure will come on the farm- 
ers who have had accommodation Inans; for it 
will be a question of life and death with the 
dealers who who have ships to load. If they 
cannot get sufficient wheat to supply their 
wants at $1.50 they will pay $1.60; if not at 
$1.60 they will be compelled to pay $1.70. 

It may be said that the grain market in 
Europe will not justify paying such prices in 
this market. Let us see. The lowest price 
for which wheat has sold in San Francisco, for 
the last 12 years, was or about the 1st of March, 
1873, when it touched $1.40 per cental, for a 
few days only, which, within 60 days, arose to 
$1.80. The next lowest price reached was on 
or about the 1st of September, 1866, when it 
touched $1.45 for a short time; but there has 
not been more than 60 days in the Inst 12 years 
when a good quality of wheat has been less 
than $1.00 per cental in San Francisco. 

In nine of the 12 years enumerated, wheat has 
fallen in June and the first part of July, recov- 
ering, in most cases, in August and September. 
In eight of the 12 years the differencein price at 
the opening and closing of the gr>iin season has 
not varied more than 30 cents per cental, and 
in the most of them there is not half that differ- 
ence. 

There has been but three years in the last 12 
that wheat in December has not been worth 
$2,00 per cental. The years excepted were 
1869, when in December, it was worth $1.70. 
In December, 1866, it was worth $1.90, and in 
December, 1874, it was worth $1.60. 

The highest price obtained for wheat in our 
market was reached in 1864-65, when the aver- 
age ;price for the whole year was $4 15 per 
cental. The lowest average for any of the 
years enumerated was in 1874-75, when it was 
$1.60. 

The average prices paid for wheat in San 
Francisco, for the past twelve years, was as 
follows: 

1864-66 $4 161870-71 2.25 

1865.66 1.97 1871-72 2.29 

186667 1.76 1872-73 1.94 

1867-68 2.311873-71 2.02 

18ii8-«9 1.711874-76 1.60 

1869-70 1.701875-76 1.96 

The general average, per cental, for the first 
six years above enumerated is $2.26^.2'; for the 
whole twelve years $2.14; for the eleven years 
last enumerated, excluding 1864-65, in which 
years grain fold exceptionally high, is .$1.96. 

From the above table it must be plain to any 
one who will take the trouble to examine it, 
that it is perfectly safe to hold wheat when it 
is below $1.60 per cental. 

There has been a disposition among design- 
ing men to create the impression that wheat 
would have to come forward freely and tfe sold 
at ruinous rates to the producer, in order to in- 
duce sufScient tonnage to come this way to take 
it. We have seen that there is nearly sufficient 
tonnage here, and to arrive within the next 90 
days, to carry off one-half of our surplus. 
This tonnage will be sufficient to take all the 
grain which should be offered between this and 
the first of January, and we have reason to 
believe that there will be as many vessels head- 
ing this way within the next 90 days as have in 
the last. We have seldom had a dirlh of ton- 
nage in our port. 'Tis true, combinations have 
been entered into every year with the desig