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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (1877)"

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Galifornia ^lalc Jiltinin^. 



ED07 lESb3bl M 

Pr California State Library 



Date receired 



No. J^JlMO^ 



/3 



Ftftm an Act prenrribiiiij Uttlett for the Corerument «</ the State Library^ 
ptiftned ^f^lrvh Hth, IS'IJ. 

Section H. The Libmrian shall rauso t»j W- kept a register of 
all lKK>kB issued and retiirncrl ; ami all books taken by the raemberg 
of the Leginlatiiri', or it« ofRcei-s, shall be returned iit tho close of 
the sewion. If any person injure or fail to return any book taken 
from the Library, he 8hall forfeit and pay to the Libniriaii, for the 
benefit i)f the Library, threi' tinn*.s the value thereof; and In'fore 
the Controller shall is>«ne hit^ warntnt in favor of any uu-niber or 
uflieer of the Lej^ii^lature, or of this State, for hit) per diem, allow- 
ance, or Halary, lie shall be satisfied that such member or officer 
has n'tnrned all books taken out of tlie l^ibrary by him, and has 
settled all aeeonnts for injuring surh books nr otherwise. 

Sec. I'l. Hooks may Im- taken from the Library by the menibei-s 
of the Le^slature and it.-* nfficere during the session of the same, 
and at any time by the tJovernor and the officers of the Kxecutive 
Department of this State, who are required to keep their offices at 
the seat of government, the Justices of the Supreme ('ourt, the 
Attorn i'V-G(Mi era I, and the Trustees of the Library. 



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Volume XIII. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 6, 1877. 



Number i. 



Tahiti. 

We have thought that a little information 
concerning Tahiti would be of interest about 
this time. The island commands the attentioH 
of our fruit importers, and large imports of 
Tahitian semi-tropical fruits are made every 
year. Thus the island becomes of intere.st both 
to our fruit-growers and fruit-consumers. 

The rising of Tahiti into commercial import- 
ance is one mark of the general ad\ance which 
the islands of the Pacific liave made during the 
last score of years. In the case of Tahiti, as 
with several other islands, this advance has been 
fostered by the growth of the Pacific coast of 
the United States, for had it not been for the 
ne^r markets which our city affords the stimulu^ 
to production and commerce would have been 
wanting. 

The commerce of Tahiti sprang from very 
.small beginnings. In order to contrast the past 
with the present we give a little engraving of 
the style of trade which the islanders carried on 
before the great trading ships carried away their 
produce. Whenever a ship came in sight the 
natives were wont to push out from the shore in 
their peculiar ' 'balanced canoes" and transact 
their business upon the deck of the visiting ves- 
sel. We iind a description of this early trade 
in a book of travels written by a French voy- 
ageiir in 1845. We translate as follows: 
"Scarcely had our anchor fallen when we per- 
ceived a fleet of little balanced canoes fluttering 
about us. The arrival of a ship is always an 
event for the Tahitians. Soon the deck was 
covered with a troop of men who came to take 
us by the hand. On all sides we were greeted 
with polite salutations, which might be trans- 
lated: 'Good day, if you please, your excel- 
lence. ' Our visitors showed by every action the 
pleasure they had in seeing us. They were 
eager but not importunate, and the sincerity of 
their reception, full of cordiality, apjieared in 
their countenances. What a difference betvceen 
these islanders and the natives of the 
Cape of Good Hope. There we saw 
human beings in the lowest scale of intel- 
ligence, without intellect, badly form ed, 
savage and stupid. Here at Tahiti we TaL 
were met, not by hideous scones and re- 
pelling nudity, which the eye of the 
traveler sees with disgust. A graceful 
scarf enveloped the handsome men, large, 
well-made and cleanly. I returned from 
Tahiti with most favorable impressions of 
the people." 

■ Thus early did the natives of Tahiti 
display superiority over the other races 
which were at that time comparatively 
new to the thought of the world. In 
their progress since that time they 
have manifested much enterprise in turning 
the capability of their soil to the produc- 
tions demanded by commerce. From the day 
of the small "balanced canoes" there has come 
a growth until the newspaper, now printed at 
Papeete, the capital city, contains several col- 
umns of the names of arriving and departing 
vessels from all ports of the world, and in 
these lists of ships San Francisco is frequently 
given as the port of destination or departure. 

To give a better idea of the formation of the 
/sland we give a little map showing Tahiti, the 
main island, and Emeo, tlie next largest of the 
Tahiti group. The islands are mountainous in 
the interior. The highest peak in the main 
island, as shown in the engraving, has an eleva- 
tion of 7,339 feet. The chief part of the pro- 
ductive land on the island lies in a belt or bor- 
der from one to five miles in width, which lies 
between the base of the hills and tide water. 
This land is exceedingly rich, and is level and 
well adajjted to cultivation. In the general ap- 
pearance tlie mountains of Tahiti are alike. 
Their origin is volcanic and consecjuently they 
are largely composed of lava, basalts and pom- 
ice stone. Aside from the strij) of good land 
along the sea-shore, there is considerable variety 
of soil in the interior. The sides of the moun- 
tains are in some places thinly covered with 
earth, and there are lagcons and small lakes to 



which small streams are tributary. On lands 
near these sti'eams and lakes a part of the pop- 
ulation find their homes. The climate is health- 
ful and very mild, the range of the thennome- 
ter through the year being inuonsiderable. Be- 
sides the breadfruit, the island produces almost 
e\'ery tropical vegetable and fruit, and some 
fruits have been introduced from the temperate 
regions. Tlie guava shrub is now common and 
bears a profusion of fruit upon which pigs and 
cattle feed with avidity. The introduction of 
oranges and limes has been very successful, as is 
shown by the large cargoes which come to our 
market. 

As we have said, the chief trade of Tahiti 
is with San Francisco, and thus it is proper to 



Is Heat a Remedy for Potato Disease? 

Our potato growers are severely troubled 
with the blight or rot of the tubers. There is 
grea'; interest manifested in the cause and euro, 
but so far as we are informed, there is little be- 
ing done in the way of experiment to overcome 
the evil. In order to awaken inquiry in this 
connection and to draw out our growers in vn-it- 
ing what observation they may have made, we 
are going to tell what an English grower has 
done and the results which he claims. In a late 
issue of the London Chemical News we read that 




THE EARLY TRADE IN TAHITIAN FRUIT. 



take the island into our circle of neighbors. 
The principal port of the islands is Papeete or 
Papeite, located on the northeast corner of the 
island of Tahiti, as shown in the map. Here 
several foreign merchants reside, and here the 
government buildings are located. 

The geographical ])osition of Tahiti is 17° 28' 
south latitude and 152° I' west longitude. 



How THE Rural Sj-keads the Fame ok the 
State. — We are informed by Bro. Broiighton, 



J. B. Hannay has reached a conclusion that in- 
creasing the temperature of the soil by drawing 
the sun's rays tends to a stronger growth of the 
tuber and a freedom from disease. Black is an 
absorptive of heat, as any one knows who has 
worn a black hat in sunshine, and Mr. Hannay 
attempted to raise the heat of his soil by giving 
it a black color. He describes his observation 
and experiment as follows: 

"Most of us have noticed that oven during 
the worst periods of disease some potato fields 




ISLANDS OF TAHITI ANB EIMEO. 



of the Lompoc Rtcord, as an evidence of how 
widely the Hukal Pkkss is circulated and read, 
that he has just received a lettef of in(piiry 
about the Lompoc Temperance t'olony, from a 
gentleman in Bath, England, who learned of its 
existence from reading the Hural Press. 



Afiorx two out of every three passengers on 
the train w hich fell through the bridge at Ash- 
talmla •v.t^rc killed by tlie fall, the tire or the 
cold. 



e3cai)e infection, and I have found on careful in- 
quiry that as a general rule tho.ie fields which 
escapwl have been of a darker colorTthan those 
attacked, and this has led me to the conjecture 
that the heat caused by the absorjttion of the 
.solar rays must have strengthened the constitu- 
tion of the plant. Soot is considered by praeti- 
cnl men as a prtiventive of the disease, and it 
occurred to nie to determine by ex]>eriment 
whetlier, besides the good which its contained 
ammoniacal salts etTect a part of its viit\ic 



might not lie in its imparting a dark color to 
the soil and so rendering it a better absorbent of 
solar heat. I therefore had the following ex- 
periment tried to decide this question: A piece 
of ground was chosen, little adapted for the 
growth of potatoes, consisting of a kind of blue 
till. The ground was divided into two parts, 
and both were jjlanted with potatoes in the ordi- 
nary way, using stable manure. The one half 
was left as planted, while the other was covered 
with soot, which had been carefully wamhed till 
no soluble matter remained in it. Those with 
the soot sprouted first and were all through 
much healthier than the others. A series of 
temperatures were taken until the foliage was 
too thick for much simlight to penetrate, and 
then resumed when the foliage was beginning to 
fail till the tubers were dug up. The tem- 
perature of the air was not kept, as we have no 
idea from it what is the real temperature of the 
leaf, as we do not know how much heat it ab- 
sorbs from the sun's rays. AH the tempera- 
tures were taken on sunny days, as on others 
there was no difference in temperature." 

The tables of temperature which Mr. Hannay 
compiled from his thermometer tests show that 
at depths of two inches an average of 61.96° in 
the soot-covered earth against one of 59.83° 
in the other, and at a depth of eight inches 
60. 1 9° against 58. 74°. The writer adds : ' ' These 
numbers show distinctly that the potatoes growTi \ 
in a dark soil have a warmer climate, so to speak, 
than those in a light one. The tubers with no 
soot were weak and a great deal of disease 
among them, whereas those which had the 
covering were larger and nearly all healthy. 
Still, as was shown by analysis, the jirincipal in- 
organic constituents were present in nearly the 
same proportions, from wiiicli it may be con- 
cluded that the soot did not act upon the pota- 
toes as a fertilizer." 

Although the chemical analysis did not show 
any marked difference in composition, it was 
found by microscopic examination that the 
starch granules were much larger and the starch 
was more abundant than in the tubers giown 
without the soot. This uidicates a more vigor- 
ous and heaWiy growth of the soot-heated 
ground. 

These observations are of course far from con- 
clusive, for closer examination might disclose 
other causes for the difference than the toit 
treatment. AVe should be pleased if our rca<l- 
ers, after reading the above, would write us 
any facts in their experience w hich would agree 
or conflict with Mr. Hannay's conclusions. 
Please state in what soils the evil has been 
greatest. If black soil is all that is necessary 
we could perhaps give our ])otato fields a top 
dn-ssiug of adobe which would tangle the sun's 
rays pretty effectually. 

Amkrican Grapes in Eorope. — At a recent 
meeting of the French Acclimatization Society, 
says the Rural )\'orl(l, there was an interesting 
liiscussion on the value and prospects of the 
American varieties of grapes which have been 
largely jilanted in some of the districts where 
the ravages of the ])hylloxera have been great- 
est. In the Herault alone some 15 American 
vines have been planted, and great ho])es of 
success are entertained. The variety called the 
Clinton lias been extensively planted, and, 
v\hilst some members stated their experience 
with it as a shy liean^r, it was stated that as 
many as 180 bunches had been gathered from 
one i'ane. The wine produced by it is said to 
be highly colored, aii(l without the unpleasant 
flavor commonly attributed to it, and almost as 
rich in alcohol as Kouissillon. The unanimous 
ojiinion was, that the American varieties sutler 
less from the phylloxera than the French ones, 
and if not so valuable for their fruit, they are at 
least of great use as stocke. 

Bone Meal vor Grapes. — The editor of the 
London Iforticidlurixl asserts that among all the 
fertilizers ])ro]io.sed for the grape, none cmbo('y 
more ^of tlie necessary ingredients than lioiio 
meal. It should be applied as early in the sea- 
son as ])ossible. About a ton to the acre makes 
a dressing that will prove valuable in two or 
three ycai'S. 

, Sechetahy Rodeson has assured the secretary 
of war that the na\-y de)miiment will cordially 
eo-o|»erate with the war department hi the daily 
simultaneous meteorological observations now 
being nia<le by many nations around the world. 



^^mwm wmusjL ^iiBSs. 



[January 6, 1877. 



kORRESPONDENCE. 



Large Talk in Agriculture. 

Kditoks Puess: — Under the head of "Large 
Talk ill Agriculture"' in the Press of Decemlier 
Kith, 1876, yon say some good things, but while 
reading it 1 eould not help thinking of your 
page of "Agricultural Notes,"- taken mostly from 
country papers. Tlicy are j)rLncipally records 
of successes, not one-fourth of them failures; and 
you are not to blame for not recording the fail- 
ures, because you don't find them noticed in 
the local i)apers. No, no, not they! that 
wouldn't do. If it should be known that there 
was ever a failure of a crop it would injure tlie 
reputation of the place, and that wouldn't ilo" 
There wouldn't anybody settle there then. 
Then again, some of your traveling correspond- 
ents write some high or "large " talk. For in- 
stance, a few weeks ago one wrote from Scott's 
valley, Siskiyou county, that there was 100,- 
000 tons of timothy hay cut there in the vjilley 
this season. At two tons per acre (and that is 
more than it will average), that would take 50,- 
000 acres. Now, I lived in Scott's valley about 
nine years, in different part.s, and have been 
iill over the valley from side to side, and from 
end to end, and I dtm't think that tliere are .">0,- 
000 acres of tillable land in tlie whole valley. I 
can't imagine wliere the balance of the stuft' he 
wrote about came from. And corn; I never saw 
10 acres (jf corn all tlie time I was there. Per- 
haps tliey have taken to raising corn since I left, 
some six years ago. I was somewhat anuised in 
his statement about the prominent business men. 
Some men have risen wonderfully if they arc 
the most prominent men there, or else others 
have fallen. The facts are, those of us that 
have been here in C'alifornia for 10 or 15 years, 
anil have learned tlic ways, just read such ]jieccs 
or letters as the above referred to, and laugh 
over them, and they don't do us any luirm. But 
the jjoor immigrant that has just arrived, or 
those who think of coming here, usually get ter- 
ribly deceived, and 1 tliink the country is injured 
thereby in the end. But the "locals'" argue: 
Induce a big crowd to come, and .^ome of them 
wll l)e bouml t<) stick, because it is so far they 
can't all get away again for want of means. 
After all, I like (Jalifornia better than I do the 
Eastern States. S. Wihtmoue. 

, San Diego, Dec. I8th. 

[We have no personal knowledge of the locali- 
ty which our correspondent refers to. If our 
readers in the valley can show the writer that it 
has gi"own beyond his recollection, it will be 
jirojKir to do so. 

We believe with our correspondent tliat harm 
has been done by the large talkers, still we are 
just as sure that truthful statements of what 
men really succeed in accom])lishing, no matter 
how great may be the success, are of great 
value in nerving others up to renewed endeavor, 
thoughtful investigation and more profitable ac- 
tion. " Wliat man has done man can do" if he 
work aright, an<l all we desire in connection 
with the statement of a great deed in agricul- 
ture is that it /ni.i l)een done, /loir it has been 
done, and the amount of skill, industry ami 
sacrifice involved in tlie undertaking. — Ei>s. 
Prkss. ] 

Hop Culture in Sacramento County. 

Editors Press: — I have seen it stated in your 
paper, and copied into others, that Santa ( 'lara 
county was the largest producer of hops. Now, 
I disclaim any intention of tinding fault with 
any one, or l>eiiig envious, if such is the case, 
but merely of setting the matter right and giv- 
ing cre<lit wlicre credit is due. I think that the 
mistake is traceable to the asses.sors of the re- 
si>ecti\'e counties. While that of Santa (!lara 
has gatliered in his statistics the products of all 
the hop yarils in his county, the assessor of 
Satrramento county has not reported more than 
one-ijuarter or (me-third of the j'ards and yield. 

In the winter of 1S57-8 Wilson Flint and my- 
self planted one-half of an acre of hoj)s on (mr 
land, one mile below Sacramento, as an experi- 
ment, neither of us having any practical 
knowledge of the culture of hops. We made 
no attempt to pidc them the first year, learning 
that in the J^ast they did not bear until the 
second season. Somewhat to our 8uri)rise, the 
vines made quite a growth and produced hops 
the first season, an.l, taking a hint from that, 
the ne.\-t yard (five acres) that I i)lanted, I set 
one pole to eacli hill, and witli ratlicr of a poor 
staml at one end of the yard, it produceil me 
(>,000 pounds of No. I hops. 

When in search of poles for my first yaril, I 
got into conversation with one of my neigh- 
bors, a '4'.)er !ui<l a geniu.s, in regai<l to hoji 
culture. He told me that I liad better plow up 
my hop roots and plant something more profit- 
able, for he said hops would do nothing in this 
rich soil— would run all to vines and bear no 
hops. Not having farmeil .-iiiy since 14 years of 
age, I must confess that his advice discouraged 



mc a good deal. I told him as long as the roots 
were planted I would get a few poles and try 
them one year anyhow. To add still to my 
doubts, down came two bright luminaries of the 
legislature, either prosiiecting or for a w^alk, and 
tliey asked me why I raised hops; says they, 
why do you not grow staple articles, such as 
t(d)acco, rice, cotton, wheat and barley, etc.? I 
told them a peraon was apt to grow on his 
laiicli that which was the most profitable. If 
I had sown this five acres with wiieat, at the 
outside price I would not have received more 
tlian .?-250, and tlie first offer that I liad for the 
hops was §3,000. 

The first two years I had no kiln, press or 
conveniences for hop culture. I procured all 
the works and articles on hop culture and inter- 
viewed every jicrson that ever saw a hop vine 
climb a pole, and by that means I gradually 
gained some knowledge of the business. To 
show tliat 1 hail still something to learn, and 
had to depend on mother wit to help me out, I 
will relate a little incident that ha]>pened in my 
early e.\j)erience. The State Board of Agricul- 
tuie offered a i prize for the best acre of hops, 
and a])poiiiteil I)r. H. and others to visit the 
yard. The Doctor, by the way, was an enthusi- 
ast and exjiert in hop culture, and as he entei-ed 
the yard he was very lavish in his praise of the 
size, hight, quantity, quality and mode of cul- 
ture. He asked me how far apart my hills were, 
how many males I had to the acre, and request- 
ed me to show him one. 

If there had come a good shock of an earth- 
quake about that time it would have relieved 
me a good deal, and I jiresume changed the sub- 
ject. 

As nothing hap]iened to divert the Doctor's 
attenticm or relieve my embarrassment, I con- 
cluded to rely on mother wit. Not aware that 
gender was apjilicd to the hoj) family, T wa-s to- 
tally un]irei)ared to ])oint out the sex. However, 
I started rapidly towaiils the center of the yard, 
looking right and left for a male vine. Shortly 
I saw a ]iolc that had a large vine on it, but no 
lioj)S, and I concluded if there was such a thing 
as the male vine that this must be one, so I said 
to the Doctor, "Here is one," and he walked up 
to it and pronounced it a fine one and in the 
right ])lace. 

I will not relate the difficulty I had with my 
first kiln, heating apparatus, press, etc., or the 
shrugs that I got from the cold .shoulders of the 
brewers and dealers, while trying to introduce 
my first hops, for it would approach an essay, 
instead of a short article, which I intended to 
write when I began this. Suffice it to say that 
there was a strong prejudice against hops as well 
as there was against our barlej' and wheat, and 
I find that jirejudice will soon disajipear in the 
former a,s it has in the latter, and to-day our 
hops are quoted three to six cents higher in the 
Kastern market than all other brands. 

I started out to say and show that I thought 
Sacramento was the banner county in the growth 
of hops, and I will here show wh.at she <lid in 
the t'entennial year, and would be very mucli 
Jileased to hear from every hop-growing county 
in the State: Number of acres, .S74; number of 
bales, 3,-2:«); number of pounds, 637,500. That 
is an averiige of a little over 1,700 lt>s to the 
acre, and nearly 2(X) lt)s to the liale. The price 
started in at 17^ cents t' tti this year and ran up 
as high as 30 cents. I think the a>eraged price 
would not be (juite 25 cents. 

There aie 23 hop growers in the county; the 
smallest is two acres and the largest 53 acres. 
Calling the hops at 25 cents the crop produced 
a revenue of a little over S15i(,000, or an aver- 
age of a little less than lj;7,000 to each grower 
Most of our hops found sale in the Kastern 
States, where they are received with more favor 
as tliey become more acquainted with them. 
Daniel Flint. 
Sacramento, Dec. 27th. 

[We slimild be pleased to receive notes of the 
hop yields in the different counties and of other 
points in connection with the industry. — Eds. 
Press. 1 



Barbecue at Berryessa. 

Editors Pkb.ss: - On Friday, the 22d instant, 
the peo]ile of the Berryessa neighborhood gave a 
grand old-fashioned barbecue, commemorative 
of their recent victory in the big lawsuit with 
H. S. CaqKjntier, in which the titles to their 
homes were long involved. After fighting fraudu- 
lent claims for over 20 years, and siiendiiig vast 
sums of money, the dark cloud that so long 
hung over their well-improved places has been 
disjjelled by the itecisions of the highest courts 
of the land, and ftie clear sunshine of brighter 
jd'ospects is upon them. And it is not strange 
that after contending, shoulder to shouhler, so 
long for their riglits that many of them have 
grown gray in the strife, they should now feel 
like meeting together and ha^■ing a good time 
rejoicing over their hard-earned victory. 

The place selected for their festivities was the 
scliool-house and yard in the village of Berry- 
es.sa. On our iirrival at the place, al)Out noon, 
we found all the lanes and fences lined with 
horses and carriages, and a large conqiany of 
]>eople already on the ground, while out on "the 
roads in every direction -were loads and loads of 
men, women and children coming in. 

The day was as warm and as jileasant for out- 
door enjoyment as could be desired, and I jire- 
sume nearly every family living on the large 
grant was well rejireseuteil. I heard the ci'owd 
variously estimated at from 1,.500 to 2,0(K) jk^o- 
ple. I did not learn the number of families in- 
terested in this land dispute, but it must be 
quite large, as the grant covers atf area of 15,- 
(XH) acres, and most of it is thicklj^ s«ttleil. 

Everybody looked pleased and hajijiy, and 
everybodj' was rejoicing with every body else. 
Hearty congi-atulations and hand-shaking 
seemed to be the order of the day. 

But the most interesting feature of the occa- 
sion was the dinner, w-hicli was provided for by 
the good jieojde of Berryessa district on a mag- 
nificent scale, and to which everybody was in- 
vited. The arrangements for feeding the vast 
company were bountiful and complete. Two 
long tables in the school-house yard were loaded 
with everything a hungry man could wish for. 
The tables were well served by young men and 
maidens detailed for that purjMise. There was 
hot coffee of the verj' best Havor in abuniLance 
for all, and warm meats — beef, pork and mut- 
ton, broiled over V)eils of hard wood coals, and 
done in the most approved barbccuic style. 
Tliere was enough for aU, and enough left for 
as many more. 

At the time of our leaving, at 3:.30 o'clock, 
there seemed to be no jierceptible lessening of 
the crowd, nor any abatement of the interest; 
but on the contrary, as the throng around the 
table thinned out and gave way, they became 
more loquacious and sociable; and .all round in 
every circle, men, women and children were 
talking and laughing gaily. The school -house 
was now becoming the central ]M>iiit of attrac- 
tion, especially to the younger i>eople. The 
desks were removed out of the way, and the 
sound of music and dancing came from the open 
windows as we drove out for lnnn'e. How long 
this was continueil, or at w hat hour the gay 
party broke up, this deponent knoweth not. 

(;. \V. M. 
Santa Clara, C'al., Dec. 2()th, 187<i. 



twelve to fifteen hundred bushels to the acre, 
thir method of cultivation is simply to have 
the ground thoroughly plowed and laid off in 
furrows tvyo feet apart, the tubers dropjxMl a 
foot apart in the rows and covered by a plow. 
When the i>laiits are well up they should have 
a good working with plow or cultivator, and the 
work is finished. Contributor 

Merced, Dec. 27th. 

An English Opinion. 

One of the contributors to the London Oiinlfti, 
in si>eaking of the .lenisakm artichoke, reiter- 
ates what is above claimed for this plant. He 
says: One caimot help wondering that a iilant .so 
prolific, and that can .always, under .all condi- 
tions and circumstances, "in any kind of soil and 
with but little attention, lie relied on to j)roduce 
a crop, should have received so little attention 
as this artichoke. However, such is tlic fact, 
and, except in the gardens of the we.altliy, it is 
.almost unknown. They might, however, have 
a trial, for although probably their peculiar Ha- 
\'or would not suit every taste, yet they might 
be m.a<le into soup or cooked in various w.ays, 
.and in the winter they would furnish a desirable 
change of vegetivbles. Doubtless many have 
condemned them or refused to grow them with- 
out really knowing what they are. 

Plant the sets like those of potatoes, in March, 
either with or without m.anure, .according as 
the Land is good or otherwise, or whether large 
or small tuliers are required. Plant in rows 
three feet apart, twelve inches asunder and six 
inches deep. All that is necessary afterward is 
to kee]) down weeds till the tops get fairly into 
growth. About July the enilij of the shoots 
may be shortened a little to keep them frohi 
flowering .and within bounds, and to strengthen 
the crop. Some leave them in the ground alto- 
gether, and just, dig a few when reijuired. 
Thi.i, however, is a bad pnactice; they shouhl 
always be lifted before growth begins. The best 
shaped tubers should be selected for use .and 
stored like potatoes; the others should be re- 
served for seed. 



Solano County. 

KruTons Press: — Our f.armers have been very 
busy this season in putting in their crops. More 
ground has been plowed and sowed than I have 
ever seen before. The farmers have nearly fin- 
islied their seeding for this year; many have 
stopped sowing on .account of the dry season. 
We are looking for rain, as we generally have 
some al>out ('hristni.as, but it h.as not come yet. 
The north wind h.as been blowing for the last 
three days, .and the cold frosty mornings begin 
to make tlie farmers in this p.art of the county 
have mouths drawn down to represent a r-ain- 
bow. The crops need rain badly, as the early 
feed is nearly gone, and what is not gone tlie 
wild geese will soon have, as tliey are very nu- 
merous. If the editor will call and see me I 
will give him a wild goose dinner, or ducks, if 
he i>refers, as 1 ha\e not much to do but hunt 
them at present till it rains. 

Most every farmei- takes the RrR.vi, Piskss, 
and if they did not get the paper Saturday af- 
ternoon they would be lost, and some M'ould not 
get out to church on Sund.ay, for they would 
not know what wheat w.os worth. 

Tlie tules are on fire between .S.acr.amento and 
Itio V'ist<i, sending up black columns of smoke 
by day and fire by night. I suppose that they 
are clearing up the tide land for crops for 
the dry sewon. (!. A. Brown. 

Binghamton, Dec. 25tli. 



New Jerusalem Artichol<e. 

Editors Press: — Although so called, it is in 
no way allied to the artichoke, but as th.at is the 
name most of us know it by, I sujtpose it makes 
little ditference as to its botanical name. I am 
sorry that it is not better known and its mer- 
its better understood liy our f.armers in general. 
Perhajis a few remarks concerning its great 
value .and e.osy method of cultiv.ation may not 
be out of ])lace. 

Tlie .artichoke is .a n.ative of Br.izil, and .as 
our climate is simil.ar, California soil offers 
great inducements for its growth. Although a 
native of a warmer climate it has .already been 
proven to be one of our hardiest plants, .and de- 
riving ius it does through its Large leaves most 
of its substance from the air, it improves in- 
stead of imjHivershing the land. It is eagerly 
eaten by horses, cattle, sheep and swine, fur- 
iiisliing .an .aliment as nutritious as it is healtliy, 
cheap .and easy of cultiv.ation. It is, I think, 
the most ]irofit.able root croj) that could be 
planted. It is rich in farinaceous substance 
and all .animals do well and improve when fed 
on it. It hius been tested and it h<as l>ecn found 
by an .accur.ate chemical analysis that the arti- 
choke confciins one-third more nutriment than 
the l)cet. Besides, it will jield a fair profit 
on soil too jioor for either jiotatoes, beets or 
carrots, .and more relished by .stock than cither. 

Few plants stand our summer drouths ;is well, 
and at the s.anie time our wet winters. We of- 
ten allow them to remain in the ground all 
winter, only turning them out with a jilow as 
they are neeifcd, and we always find the tubers 
in perfect order, unmolested by insects or rot. 
Another point of great importance is, that a 
field of articliokes once well .set needs no further 
planting. And .again, on good .authority it is 
said that a field or plantation will thrive and 
remain in full perfection on the same spot first 
planted ten to fifteen yeai's, often yielding from 



Poison in Blue Cloth. 

Editors Prkss:— While the papers are dis- 
cussing the projierties of poisons in different 
articles of wearing apparel, I wish to gi%-e my 
experience with a very common garment, "blue 
overall cloth. " Twice 1 hafl a milking jacket 
made from the same material, and twice I have 
suffered and am now suffering from its iioison- 
ous condition. The arms appear inflamed, 
especi.aUy at the wrists, where the cloth comes 
in contact with the skin, and the itching there- 
by is intolerable. For some days I could not 
account for the affliction, until I remembered 
having h.ad the same symptoms when I firet put 
on a fonuer jacket. I immediately sent the 
Idue vestment to the w.ash-tub, the wjksher being 
poi.soncd in one washing. 

As blue color is generally inailc from green 
and yellow, it is very probable that "paris 
green ' is used. If so, no wonder it produces 
the itch. [.See note below. — Eils. Pkicss. ] 

The cloth is so universally worn as overalls 
that much evil may be caused from the effects 
of the jMiisou without knowing the why or 
wherefore. Let any person who wishes to test 
file above f.acts procure a small striji of the 
goods and tie it around the wrist, and if intiani- 
mation takes place, with a desire to al- 
lay the itching, they will find by experience the 
tnith of my statement. .loHN T.WLOR. 

Mt. Pleasant, Dee llth, 187(). 

[Our correajjondent is doubtless accurate in 
his experiences, but he is at fault in his sur- 
mises. A blue color is not and cannot be pro- 
duced by a combination of green and yellow. 
Blue is a primary color and cannot lie produced 
by any mixture whatever. Our corresi»onileiit 
is doubtless misled by the memory that 
blue and yellow proihice green by mixture. 
There is no "jiaris green"' in any blue dye, and 
our sufferer cannot attribute his discomfort to 
this cause Blue dyes were fomicrlj- maile al- 
most wholly of "pnissiaii blue" (prussiate of 
iron), but of late the introduction of aniline col- 
oi-s li.as been genenal. We have read of iioison- 
ing l)y aniline dyes, and here may be the 
trouble. So far as the practical effects of the 
clotti arc mailc known by our correspondent, 
his contribution is of gener.al v.ilue and should 
be heeded. Eds. Press, ] 



Murder OK SciENTi.sTs. — The Chicago Tmwn 
s.ays: L.ate news from New (iiiinea conveys the 
intellgence that two persons engaged in making 
•scientific collections on th.at island were lately 
murdered by the natives. The one was a Dr. 
.I.anies of the United States, the other a .Swede, 
his companion, who h.ad lieeu some time with 
him exploring (iule island. The two hail gone 
in their large boat to the eastsiile of Hall sound 
to shoot birds of paradise, when they were at- 
tacked by three canoes and l>oth were killed. 
The native crew nuanaged to get away in the 
boat and carried the news of the sad calamity to 
Cape York. Only a fortnight liefoic the notice 
of Ills death reached Flnglaiid Dr. .lames's first 
collections arrived there, and the excellent way 
in which they were pi-eserveil, together with 
the careful notes accompanying them, betoken 
that science has lost a promisinj{ .auxiliary 
tlirough his untimely decciise. 



January 6, 1877.] 



w&mwm mwiiAi* ip^bbs^ 



Tl|i hmKY- 



Experience of a Napa Bee-Keeper. 

Editors Press:— In looking over tiles of the 
Rural for an address of j)arties having Italian 
bees (pure) for sale, I saw an inquiry from Santa 
Rosa for information ahout savuig swarms. I 
am only an amateur, but I lose no swarms if T 
see them flying. With a pail of water and a 
wisp broom 1 sprinkle them lively, either as 
they leave the hive or as they circle in the air, 
^d follow them up until they begin to cluster, 
as they surely will when they get heavy with 
the water. When I perceive them Ijegin to 
cluster I get a box or empty tive-gallon syrup 
keg, well cleaned beforehand, and empty what 
have clustered right into it l)y shaking them, 
holding the box right under, or, if the cluster 
is low, by cutting the bushes "near the ground, 
and lifting them carefully, and shaking them 
right into the box or keg. Then I turn the keg 
over, mouth down, on the board already pro- 
vided, and placed as near the swarm as conve- 
nient to Work. I lay some small" sticks on the 
board, under the keg, to make room for the bees 
to go in freely. Those already in immedi- 
ately cf>mmence to buzz, which those outside 
hearing, commence to march in like an army. 
If any continue to gather on the bush I shake 
them with tliose first taken ofl', and keep the 
bush in motion, or take it ofF entirely if not 
valuable. A large napkin or table cloth, folded 
once, laid from the bush (if low, ) to tlie hive or 
box, will assist, and you may detect the queen 
or qxieens if there are any. If the liees are 
slow a little sprinkling with a wisj) broom, 
dipped lightly in water, will hurry them in, 
but you must not get them too wet. 

The bees can be then moved to their stand. 
It need not take over twenty or thirty minutes 
if one has an empty hive, ivhicli nlwiil/l he, rcailji. 
They can be eniptied right into the hive where 
they are to stand. It would 1)C a goo<l idea to 
keep them slmt up for a few days, until an 
hour or two before sunset, until they get used 
to their new place, and there will not be much 
risk of their leaving. Be 

Sure That the Queen 
Is with the swarm. It is very easy to find out 
by spreading a sheet on the ground before the 
Idve, one CTid resting on the bottom lioard, (a 
loose one is best) then empty all tlie bees on the 
sheet, and as they march in liave a glass tumbler 
and imprison her when you see her. If not 
successful the first time try it again, until she is 
found. Sometimes several are found, when it 
will be necessary to kill all but one, or else di- 
vide and make two swarms in case the swarm is 
large. 

Last summer I had a swarm leave three times 
and finally saved them by letting them out late 
for a few days, and closed tlie entrance until 
just big enough for one bee to go in or out at a 
time. I have 

Sto|>ped Robbing 
By the same process. Having a short time ago 
applied for a name for a lioney producing 
plant and having got the name through tlie 
JluBAL, I take this opportunity to return 
thanks. I am only a beginner in the bee busi- 
ness, but I take an interest in it. I have five 
swarms, all conimon bees, but they are in good 
condition an<l now in movable frame hives. My 
experience has cost me about .$75, which makes 
.f 15 a hive (a rather steep price, ) but I think that 
by another spring that I can reduce the average 
price considerable. I shall try to 
Italianize Them All 
This commg season. I transferred a strong 
colony from a box hive to a movjdde hive, on 
the 11th of the present month, (Dec, 187(). ) I 
had to put two combs together, and put what was 
the bottoms together in the middle, making the 
top do for the outside ends, making two frames 
12x18 of brood, and two the same size filled 
with honey and capped. I use wliat is calle<l 
the improved Quimby fi-ame with closed ends. 
I have made some additions of my own but the 
])rinciple is the (Quimby. vSo far I like tliem 
very well. The bees sealed tlie centers togethei', 
making one single comb, and have new sealed 
brood in them already, and are prospering. In 
fact I think they like the change, they are 
bringing both lioiiey and pollen in quantity. I 
fastened the comb in for a few <lays, with sti'ips 
of light wood, until the Itees fastened tliem to 
the frames. I have since added friunes with 
comb and a sujjply of honey. All my swarms 
have lots of stores, and have worked every day 
since tli« first rams. 

Honey Plants. 

The manzanita has been in l)lof)m liere in the 
foothills since November 15th. Laurel came in 
November 25th. The California poj)py has l)een 
in bloom since the golden rod went out, now 
the crocus has come and wild flowers are coming 
daily. There is a weed that some call "dove 
weed, " which is full of little black seeds, and of 
which doves and turkeys are fond, from whence 
the bees get pollen when everything else is 
gone. I can tell it by its gray color. 

I sent in Septend)cr to the Kast for two jiurc 
Italian fiueons, but lost them in introducing. 
'I'he lioney season was over and tlie bees were 
very jealous of a strange queen, but I shall ti^ 



it again in the spring. The moths have not 
trouVded me this season, as I have kept my bees 
from ^swarming as much as I could under the 
circumstances. 

I find that I can sland the stings better than 
when I commenced. 1 think that I must be 
inoculated and that my system is getting used 
to them. In securing swarms I use no protec- 
tion, but in handling hives 1 jirotect my face 
with a vail and use smoke, with a Quimby 
smoker, using decayed hard wood. 

Napa, Dec. 25th. J. T). Enos. 



Measurements of Angles by Bees. 

The editcn- of the "Scientific Record" in the 
Pliri'iioloijical JouriKil makes some observations 
as to the structure of the compound eyes f)f the 
higher insects, that may possibly furnish a 
basis for the scientific explanation of the ac- 
curacy with which bees measure angles. As 
most readers are aware, the cornea of the insect 
eye consists of a single membranous layer of 
transparent lenses or cells, sometimes hexagonal, 
as represented in standard works, but almost as 
frefjuently round or square, depending on their 
situation. These cells, or double convex lenses, 
are about one-three-thousandth of an inch in 
diameter, and, by a method of experiment cal- 
culated to ascertain their thickness, I find it to 
be in bees about one-fifteen-thousandth of an 
inch. The cornea is not movable as respects its 
position, but, by means of a circular muscular 
band, it can, as a whole, be rendered more or 
less convex, according to circumstances of 
vision. If a calculation be entered into, as 
concerns the accuracy of direction of which con- 
vex lenses so minute are susceptible, compared 
with the lenses of the human eye, it will appear 
that, whereas tlie average deficiency as respects 
the estimation of angles in a trained geometer, 
is about one degree in ninety, the deficiency as 
concerns the eye of a bee cannot exceed three- 
one-millionths of that amount — that is to say, 
if a human eye may be stated as able to dis- 
tinguish dimly between an angle of 80 degrees 
and one of 00, the eye of an insect is, by cal- 
culation, capable of distinguishing between an 
angle of 80 000097-1000000" and an angle of 00. 
The extrordinary nicety with which liuilding 
insects construct their works is thus readily ac- 
counted for by the extraordinary nicety of per- 
ception conse(pient upon such congeries of lenses, 
and by the immovability of the eye as concerns 
its jiosition in the head, without the necessity 
of calling in a special instinct. Tlie lobster, the 
eye of wliich terminates a bulb styled the eye- 
stalk, and has a cornea ctmsisting of s(juare 
lenses, shows, under extraordinary circum- 
stances, a nicety of perception as concerns di» 
rection which approximates to that of insects. 



Y^^- 



M. KviiK, .!](., Nupa, Cal., CiiiTospi>ntlin!,' Kditiir of this 
Department. 



Mysteries in Poultry Breeding. 

There are many intricate or mysteriously 
wrought operations in the formation of the egg 
in pi'oducing that curious and wonderful com- 
bination holding the \dtal principle of animated 
being. But little is known, says the Poiiltri/ 

ll'or/f/, by actual, thorough experiment, of the 
details of the workings of this natural construc- 
tion, so wonderful in its origin and through all 
its changes, from the infinitesimal vesicle form- 
ing at first in the ovary, down to the ejectitm of 
the perfect shelled egg laid by the hen. The 
ovary (or egg-sac) in the fowl lies just in front 
of tl>e left kidney. The passage from it out- 
ward is called the oviduct. The ovary contains 
the little globular germs of the eggs that are 
naturally formed with the early growth of the 
hen, and are very numerous, some 700 (of vari- 
ous dimmutive sizes) having been counte<l in 
pullets less than a year old. And this ascer- 
tained fact gave rise to the hypothesis that all 
the eggs a domestic foul would ever lay, are 
formed at one time in the first instance in this 

embryo life. These globules slowly increase in 
proportions, those lying nearest to the mouth of 
the oviduct enlarging first and passing out, one 
by one, into the passage as they approach ma- 
turity. When the first or outer vessel has 
become aliout the natural size of the common 
yolk, it is caught in the funnel-shaped end of 
the egg-passage; and each yolk, as it goes slowly 
down through the flexible tulie, has formed 
alxnit it the albumen or " white " of the egg. 
This substance contains fine strong threads in 
its composition, which holds the yolk in its 
place in the futui-e shell. The mcinbranc that 
lines the shell is then formed, and finally the 
(Uiter har<l shell. The " white " of the egg is 
first formed at the mouth of the oviduct; the 
membranes, half way down; the hard shell last, 
at the lower end of this egg-passage. 

Hens are often ill, or in a weak condition, 
when they drop what is called " soft-shelled 
eggs." If the oviduct be inflamed from any 
cause — either through eating too much stimulat- 
ing food, 01' by colds, fevers or being worried by 
the cocks- the membrane does not form around 
the yolk properly; or, if it have, the hard shell 
will not secrete naturally, and the thick-skinned 
yolk is extruded prematurely. Kill a vigorous 
laying fowl any day when a year old, and care- 
fully examine the ovary and oviduct. V'ou wdl 
find" <me perfectly formeil hard-shelled egg ready 
to be laid, frequently; then a fuU-siised "soft- 
shelled" egg above it; then a smaller mcmbra- 



,neous-covered yolk above that; then a yolk 
two-thirds size, then half size, then quarter size, 
and so on (from the upper end of the egg-tube 
into and through the oviduct), still smaller em- 
bryo eggs or yolks, from those of the dimensions 
of a pea to those of finest mustard seeds, or less, 
in bulk. Count all you can see, if you are curi- 
ous, then apply the microscope, and you may 
find as high as 700 of these tiny vesicles, of 
various sizes, each of which would have formed 
a perfect hard-shelled egg in time. 

These eggs are impregnated in the yolk after 
they enter the egg-passage, undoubtedly, and 
before the outer membraneous secretion (or 
white) is formed. How many are impregnated 
or rendered fertile at one time is a question not 
decided. But the best authorities give us the 
most reasonable answer to this inquiry, that but 
very few are impregnated at the same moment; 
and that by the continuous association of the 
cocks with the hens only can the eggs laid be 
rendered truly available for successful hatching. 



THjE ST©ck Y^^^O'- 



A Card from Mr. Carr. 

Editors Press: — Having been absent in the 
northern part of the State (Modoc county) I 
did not learn that I had been classed as a short 
hcn-n fipeciilafor instead of a breeder, until I read 
Mr. Robert Ashburner's article in your valuable 
journal of the 2.3d inst. Thanks to both your- 
self (in your paper of the Nov. 11th) and Mr. 
Ashbunier of the 23d inst., iir defending me "as 
a breeder." I would like C. N. W., of Wat- 
son ville, to inform me "what constitutes a 
breeder." If I am not a breeder in the true 
sense and meaning of the word, I confess I 
don't know what constitutes one. I have made 
tino direct ini])ortations of Short Horns, the first 
from Kentucky and the seconil from Canada, 
what did I do with those? On their arrival on 
this coast did I take them over the State offer- 
ing them for sale, or <lid I advertise them for 
sale? No, I took them immediately to the Ga- 
bilan rancho and have kept them there since 
lireeding. W. S. Chapman and myself pur- 
chased a car load of Short Horns from Minnesota. 
These were not shipped out on ordir, but were 
selected on letters of iiKpiiry that we had writ- 
ten to the party that shipped them (('ol. W. S. 
King). On the arrival of them here, satisfying 
ourselves that the jiedigrees of them were all of 
the best, we purchased the entire cargo. Did 
we turn around an<l off'er thein for sale? No, 
we sent them to the (iabilan and have been 
breeding them - also. I have also purchased 
high bred grade cows and have been breeding 
them to my thoroughbred bulls, the bull calves 
of which I have been selling and also shipjiing 
some of them to my ranch in Modoc county. I 
have also sent two thoroughbred liulls up there, 
all to breed to my common cows. 

Ford, Robson and Abbott are all my neigh- 
bors here. They are^all gentlemen of enterprise 
and have taken some jiains to improve their stock, 
but if a man purchasing one or two animals 
a' hninc at moderate prices is more com- 
mendable than one who goes abroad and takes 
the risk of importation, besides paying lihjli 
jirlc.i'ii, in order to get the purest and best pedi- 
grees as well as the best animals he can find, I 
confess I dim't see it in the same light as does 
C. N. W. 

I am not fond of newspaper articles and would 
not notice this article of C. N. W., if he had 
not cliarged me as being a xjieridafor instead of 
a bre('<l<'r of Short Horns. I could have purchased 
Short Horns in this county probably for one- 
half of what mine cost me to import them. [ 
went abroad for the most of mine because I 
wanted the best Short Horns both as to loohn and 
jifdUjrn'. I confess I had S(mie pride about this. 
My importations were costly, possilily in a 
financial point of view too much so for this mar- 
ket, and it may jn-ove to be an unwise invest- 
ment of mine, but this county has and will ha\-e 
the benefit of my importations whether 1 profit 
by them or not. Had I been purchasing Short 
Horns to bring here on speculation I could have 
purchased for one-quarter or one-fifth of the 
prices I paid and l)rought animals here that I 
could have sold to persons not versed in Short 
Horns and their pedigree for about as much as I 
could sell those 1 imported. I contend that if we 
expect to inii)rove our stock as it can be im- 
proved we cannot do so with the majority of the 
stock imported to this county by spcnilu/or.sfor 
aiilf. ( iood stock with the best pedigrees cannot 
be had in the Atlantic States or Canada without 
paying good prices such as .■i/icciilu/oi-x irill not 
jxxij. If I am a njmf.alafor in Short Horns 1 think 
it would lie well for the State if every cattle 
breeder in the State was a sjx'riildfor. 

1 started out to ask C. N. W. only one (pies- 
tion, " What constitutes a breeder?" but I 
feel a good deal of interest in this Short Horn 
liusiness, as I view it as one of the most laud- 
able enterprises in the State, and have there- 
foi'e said a good deal more than I starteil to say. 

Salinas City, Dec. 27th, 1876. 

J. 1). Caur. 

[Mr. Carr's statement is very pointed, clear 
and conclusive, and with it will close the 
discussion of the subject. We have admitted 
the matter to our columns, from the first posi- 
tion of C. N. W. to the close of the discussion 
by Mr. Carr, because we believeil it would be a 
iroi)d thill'' to hav-t: the line drawn between in- 



porting for breeding value and ing f(. 

"speculation," as the term is und< among 

breeders. Purchasers of cattle shuu,.i. always 
consider whether stock offered for sale has been 
imported and bred for the jiurity and practical 
value of it or otherwise, an<l we are glad that 
attention has been drawn to the subject. — Eds. 
Press. ) 



Jerseys as Butter Cows. 

The annual meeting of the New York State 
Dairymen's Association was held during the 
first week of December. Among the topics 
presented was a showing of the Jerseys as but- 
ter cows, by W. L. Rutherford, of St. Law- 
rence county, whom we know as a successful 
butter maker. From the report of Mr. Ruther- 
ford's statements as given by th#Utica Herald, 
we quote as follows: 

History. 

After alluding to the iniportaiice of the study 
of breeds, both historically and as regards their 
practical qualities, the speaker jiroceeded to trace 
the origin of the Jersey cow. Many writers 
claim that she originateil in Brittany or N(U'- 
maiidy, but he maintained that she was first 
bred ujKMi the island of Jersey. She was there 
bred for the special purpose of producing cream 
and butter. He sketched her development upon 
the island, claiming that the farmers even then 
saw that she would yiehl more and better Initter 
than any other bree<l. They were, therefore, 
content to possess the ugly, ill-favored animal 
with flat sides, flat between the ribs and hips, 
"cat-hammed," with liigli hips and hollow 
liack. Yet her fawn-like head, large soft eyes, 
elegant crumpled horn, small ear, yellow with- 
in, and her capacious udder attracted them. 
Shortly after her introduction into England, a 
deinand for solid colors sprang uji, which caused 
some breeders on the island to sacrifice their 
bulls from their best cows if they were parti- 
colored, and to use bulls from inferior cows if 
they were soli<l or self-colored. The mania 
spread to this country, and for a time seemed to 
threaten the usefulness of the breed. The dan- 
ger, so far as relates to this country, however, 
has passed, but another danger still threatens, 
that of breeding f<ir quantity of milk. It lies 
in the fact that the (|uality of milk from cows or 
breeds yielding a large quantity is inferior in 
(piality; and as a rule they do not hold out as 
well in their milk. 

Quality and Quantity. 

It appears that when a cow devotes her ener- 
gies to the production of a lai'ge quantity of 
milk, the deterioration in (piality is out of pro- 
portion to the increase in ([uantity. We have a 
notable instance in the case of the Ihiglish-brcd 
Jersey cow "Milkmaid." She is a typical, solid- 
colored, English and Jersey, and her record has 
been made public by her present owner, Mr. 
Sharpless, of Philadelphia. Her best yield was 
22A cptarts, or about 45 pounds of milk per day, 
and yet she only produced on trial ) 1 pounds 
and 3 ounces of butter per week, requiring over 
27 pounds of milk to produce a pound of butter. 
By means of other tests he had found that the 
milk of the English-bred Jersey is inferior to 
that of the home or Ajiierican-brcd cow. The 
milk of a good breed of Jerseys should pro- 
duce a pound of butter from 10 pounds of 
milk. A good Jersey cow gives from 
25 to 28 pounds of milk per day; and instances 
are not rare of cows yielding 12 or even 14 
pounds of butter per week, and that is ipiite 
a))ove the average. He had not the detailed 
record of Mr. Sutlitt''s famous cow "Pansy," 
which produce<l 574 pounds of butter in a year; 
IKU- of Mr. Motley's cow "Flora, '' which pro- 
duced 51 1 jiounds — both causing much discus- 
sion at the time — but according to the weekly 
record of Imtter, "Flora" never prodnce<l over 
14 pounds per week, even in the month of June. 

1lie speaker then presented the record of a 
single cow from his own dairy, during the ])ast 
season, a notoriously unfavorable (me. She 
calved January 2t)th, and her milk was saved from 
February 5th. The total number pounds'of milk 
was 5,072, producing 282.^ pounds of butter, the 
reconl extending to the ciiil of November. The 
highest aggregate was in June, when 817 pounds 
of milk yielding 51 pounds of butter were jiro- 
duced. This, for the fifth month, was a remark- 
able yield. During the period of drouth the 
falling olf was marked. The average tpiantity 
of milk per cow in his dairy last year was about 
4,640 pounds, and of butter, 289 pounds. 

There was no error more common, he con- 
tinued, than that of breeding for (juantity of 
milk. To illustrate this point he cited the case 
of Ceorge Rule, a St. Lawrence county dairy- 
man, who had made a test of the butter quali- 
ties of his cows. He set the milk of each cow 
separately for a week, and churned the cream. 
The result was that five out of his herd of 17 
cows went below five pounds of butter per 
week, and were consigned to the butcher. They 
were all good milkcr.s, and one in particular, 
which was estimated to yield at least 210 jiounds 
of milk during the week of trial, only produced 
two pounds of a very inferior quality of butter. 
In order to maintain and promote the character- 
istics of any breed, we must adhere to the cou. 
ditions which produced those charactcristics- 
A course of treatment which will produce a cer- 

Continued on page lO. 



[January 6, 1877 




THE HEADQUARTERS of the California State 
Orange are in the (Jran^ers' ItuiMin^, northeast corner of 
California and Davis Streets, over the Oranpers" Bank of 
California and C'alifoniii Fsmiers' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Association. Master, J. V. Wkbstkr; Secretarj-, Amos 
AnAM!i. 

Tie Oranjfers' Business Assoc! ition of California is in 
Pa vis Street, northeast comer of California. 



GluxoE DiRICTORY. - A full list of Subordinate (iranxeH, 
Masters and Secretaries of California and Nevada, is pub- 
lished as often as once a quarter in tliis department. See 
Issue of Sept. 23d for latest insertion. 



Letter from Brother Wright. 

Editors Pke.ss: — Xo facts stated in your late 
issues have afifonled nie more pleasure than those 
which prove that the brother ohosen by our 
State Grange to succeed me as Lecturer agrees 
with me so exactly in his views on the principles 
and needs of our Order. 

Though I have never had the jileasure of 
meeting Brother Pilkington, I shall hope to see 
him soon, and chat about the interests of the 
brotherhood to which every Patron has pledged 
fealty. 

In one of your numbers, soon after liis elec- 
tion, I was glad to see your statement tliat he 
does not believe in mere elotiuence and rhetoric, 
but in plain statements of practical facts on the 
social, educational and liusiness interests of the 
Grange, or words to that efl'ect. Xow if you 
had attempted to express my own sentiments in 
that article, you could not have given them 
more accurately. I am delighted to have a suc- 
cessor of such congenial views. 

Of course it is well known and admitted by- 
all sensible people, that mere eloqence in itself, 
or mere rhetoric in itself is of very small ac- 
count, but that trtie eloquence and true rhetoric 
have been and will be, in all ages and by all 
right-thinking people, esteeuied as a valuable 
means of making truth clear to others, and of 
forcing conviction on all real seekers of truth. 

Like other things in the Grange and in life gen- 
erally, these qualities should not be made the 
ends of our efforts, but the means of doing 
good work. Take economy, for instance: when 
we make it the whole end for Mhich we strive, 
we become penurious, miserly, "j)enny wise and 
pound foolish, " but when we make it a means 
of carrying out worthy objects and great objects, 
we become pnident, saving and frugal. 

I wish our present Worthy State Lecturer 
every success in his labors. It is to be hoped 
he will be well sustained, as a brother called to 
such work always should be, by the Kxecutive 
Committee, the State < irange, and the lirother- 
hoo<l generally, and I hope he will be jiroperly 
paid for his la>)or. In this way oidy can his 
ability and devotion to the Order do the good 
service which they are naturally capal>le of do- 
ing. It is a mistaken view for our Order, or 
any >)ody, to take of such services, that the 
honor of the position should pay a good part of 
the salary. Unfortun.ately the mere honor of 
the thing won't buy meat and breail, shoes anrl 
clothing. 

I am glad to see from the last Rcrai. that 
Brother Vi'clwter has got home safely from 

7 he National Grange. 
He wiU, no doubt, give you all the desired in- 
formation about this earnest working session. 
Even if the conjservative, pnulent course of the 
Rural Pke,s.s always in the past were not a 
sufficient guarantee tliat in your colunms there 
will not be found any of the false an<l absurd 
statements about this body, and its last session, 
such as have of late lieen going the rounds in a 
few papers, the information Bro. Webster can 
give should prevent such wrong impressions on 
our coast. I have such confidence in his 
prudence, and his knowing that, because of our 
many outside enemies, all Grange meml>ers 
should work together in harmony, and sustain 
by word and act our chosen and constituted 
authorities- even though person.-illy we do not 
fully approve of everything done — that I believe 
he will use his influence to prevent inaccurate 
and injurious statements from finding their way 
into our Pacific papers, especially our Grange 
press. 

Being constantly for several months M^here I 
could watch the spirit of the press as regards 
the Grange on this side of the Rocky mountains, 
I have been interested to see how, as the time 
approached for the National Grange to meet, 
many papers, some political and some claiming to 
be agricultural, began to i)repare for a regular on- 
slaught on that body when it should meet, no 
matter how its work might be done. All sorts 
of a<lvice wits given for the guidance of these 
representative farmers. Some even went so far 
as to say they dtmandud so and so, which, you 
know, is entirely out of keeping with the spirit 
of our Order, or indeed of any true fraternity. 
Fraternities are not given to demanding or com- 
manding, unless some serious wrong has been 
done. 

Well, the session of i;f working tlays is ended, 
.and really, the officers and niendiers exertud 
themselves to do the best they couM for tlie 
general interests and ]jrogre»s of the Order. Of 
coarse, they could not succeed iu pleasing every- 



body. And now, though most papers speak in 
moderation and appro\'ingly of the work done, 
a few are jiouring out the phials of wrath which 
they had already ])re]>ared. One or two papers, 
notably the Chicago Tinted, have been making 
not only false statements, but some of the most 
al)8urd imaginable in regaril to the session. 
Strange as it may seem, such utterly false and 
absurd statements have been copied by a few 
papers claiming to be iu our CJrange interests, 
as reliable information for Grange members. 
Vet Worthy Master Allen, of Missouri, whose 
devoted services to our Order are so well known 
and appreciated, shows in a recent letter that 
one of the abusive articles in question contains 
no less than tiO erroneous assertions. Think of 
such "bosh" being given out to influence our 
members. Surely, they will not allow them- 
selves to be influenced by such stufi". When 
each Subordinate Grange gets the complete 

Journal of Praceedings, 

Which has been prepared most carefully and 
truthfully, they M-ill see how many incorrect 
statements have been made. These will soon be 
distributed to Secretaries of State Granges. 

It is to be hoj)ed that when Masters or Sec- 
retaries of Subordinate ({ranges receive these 
reports they will not put them in their pockets, 
or anywhere else, and forget all about them; 
but that they will have them read and under- 
stood by their memljcrs at successive meetings. 
They are intended for the correct information of 
all our memliers. They are furnished with an 
index this time, which will make them easier to 
study and understand. 

One or two ]>oiuts more. One of the most 
ridictilous errors one paper has made, and sev- 
eral others have copied, is a little ra\ing about 
"Priests of Merida," as a set of "closeted aris- 
tocrats of the tirange," and all that sort of 
thing. Xow it is impossible to imagine a more 
supremely ridiculous mistake than all such ex- 
pressions are. "Merida!" Why, there is no 
such woril anywhere in the whole work of the 
(irange. It is altogether a new invention. 
Where in the world such a crazy thought came 
from it is hard to tell, unless it be that the first 
])erson who used the absurd expression meant 
to say Priests of Demeter. You know Brother 
(irosh uses this expression several times in his 
attractive "Mentor," published for general use, 
(pp. 331 and 337, 1 where he gives some exjdana- 
tion of the seventh degree. Demeter, you 
know, is the (ireek for Ceres, by whose name 
the seventh degree is called. For one 1 cannot 
see why any of our mend>ers should worrj- them- 
selves nuich al)Out these high degrees. They 
really amount to very little, one way or another, 
except as a means of teaching very beautifully 
pome of the best lessons in which life is con- 
stantly schcMjling us. In proof of such facts we 
need only remember that out of the 13 days' 
session only about two hours were S)>ent in the 
sixth degree, and about as long a time another 
evening in the seventh. Nearly all the session 
was in the fourth or business degree of the 
Order, and all members of the fourth ilegree in 
good standing were present when they wishe<l 
to attend. 

The view that it is a good plan to "let well 
enough alone, ' and to retain those features of 
the Oriler under which it has so grown and pros- 
pered, seems to be prevailing in the National 
I irange and in suViordinate lH)dies. Surely there 
are much more important matters fof the Ma- 
trons of Husbandry to occupy their attention 
with than this constant "tinkering" with the 
Constitution, which lias made us «liat we are. 
Regard ing 

The Important Que&tion of Ca-operatlon, 

Not in the mere sense of acting togethei', but as 
a safe and well matured business system the 
great mass of our memljers are Vieginning to 
look uiKin it with decided favor especially' in 
its use for local, State anil inter-.State traile. 
Others do not yet see their way so clearly in 
that higher and future develoinnent of co-ojmra- 
tion, which seeks to apply the same principles 
to j)art of that immense tradi' between us and 
other nations, which has long existed, and will 
always exist, whether our Order ever looks after 
its interests in it or not. Very many of our 
memljers and papers favor such an enterprise, 
when they think we are ready for it. This is 
all right; we must first prepare for it. Most of 
those who oppose it do so either because they 
do not yet understand it or are opposed to the 
(irange engaging in any traile in any form, or 
are really in the interests of trade and capital, 
rather than of our fanners. A few oppose it 
from blind and bitter personal prejudices which 
they cannot rise above in considering the inter- 
ests of our brotherhood. Though some of these 
opposers have never examined enough into the 
matter to really know what is proposed and how 
it can be done, just say "international co-oper- 
ation" to them, and it makes them as rabid as 
it does a mad dog to show him water. They 
rave and fume and give no good reason for it. 
Now, fellow Patrons, when you get full copies 
of the Proceedings of the National Grange, ex- 
amine well what it recommends and see if you 
cannot find much sound sense and many prac- 
tical suggestions in its acts. In weighing the 
work done, let us be guiiled by reason and com- 
mon sense, not by passion and prejudice. 

Fraternally, J. W. A. \\. 
Louisville, Ky., Deo. 14th, 187<). 

S.VlK.\MKNTO GrANIJE. — EUITOKS PkES.S: 

There will Im a public installation of officers 
of this (irange with a harvest feast on .lamiary 
IStli, 1877, at II o'clock .v. .m. — Pioneer hall. 
Georcjk Rich, Sec'y. 
Sacramento, Dec. iWth, 1876. 



Worthy Lecturer's Visits. 

KlUToRS I'Kts.s: .Since last writing you I 
have \-isited Woodland, Sacramento, Yuba City 
and Chico Granges. At Woodland there was a 
greater attendance from adjoining Granges than 
from Yolo Grange, but while the numbers 
showed a lukewarmness and lack of interest in 
the Yolo Grange, generally those that were 
there, from their very active and earnest W. M., 
Brother Blowers, to all present, are alive in the 
(irange work, and gave good evidence of coming 
fniitfulness in the CirangB future. I received 
here marked attention from all, evincing the 
true spirit of (grangers, and passing a night 
with Brother Blowers in his most comfortable 
and well appointed home, I was greatly grati- 
fied and instructed as well as most comfortably 
entertfiined by his wife and family. I wish 
every . farmer's home could exemplify as well 
Granger's home ought to 



be 



what 

Brother Blowers's. 

From WoiHlland I went to Sacramento, and 
on Dec. 19th addressed Sacramento (irange in 
the afternoon, and held a meeting f«r improve- 
ment in the secret work iir the evening. Here 
I met our Worthy I (ejmty. Brother Overhiser, 
from Stockton, with visiting brothers from Elk 
(irove. Florin. F.nterjirise and Cosumnes 
(iranges. We had a very interesting meeting, 
as after an aildress of an hour and a half from 
the State Lecturer we hail five to l,'>-minute 
speeches fr-mi a large number of the brothers. 
W. N. Hancock ])re8ide.il, and was in his best 
mood, and inaile all feel at home in the Sacra- 
mento meeting. The evening meeting was jiro- 
ductive of great giKHl, as Brother Overhiser, the 
Deputy from Stockton district, was j)erfectly 
])Osted in all that pertained to the secret work, 
anil it was very jirofitable to compare notes 
when so many masters of different Granges were 
togetlier. Here was living evidence from both 
brothers and sisters that this portion of the 
State is alive to the (irange interest. 

From Sacramento I went to Yuba City, there 
meeting Patrons from Marysville, Wheatland 
and North Butte Granges, and where we had a 
most interesting time. Brother Ohleyer, of 
Yuba City, jiresided, and opening with appro- 
priate instrumental and vocal music, my ail- 
dress was listened to with rapt attention for 
nearly two hours, when short addresses were 
made by many of the Patrons present from both 
Yuba aiid the visiting Granges. On my arrival 
I^was taken care of by Brother Ohleyer, and 
after the meeting by Brother Smith, the W. 
Lecturer-elect, who the next day gave me a ride 
of ^{0 miles through the Itest i)ortions of Sutter 
county, visiting (iranges and doing (irange work. 
Yul>a City Grange is alive and alrejvdy doing a 
warehouse business that commands not only the 
confidence, respect and business of (irangers, but 
of this whole community. 

P'roiii Yiilia City 1 came here to meet with 
Chico and Nord Granges; found Xord out in 
force, but Chico too much engaged in getting 
reaily for Christmas. To make uji for lack of 
interest in Chico (irange we had a representa- 
tion of Evening .Star (irange. from Nelson sta- 
tion, in Brother Nelson, and with those from 
Nord sliowing a true (irange spirit, with Brother 
ThorjH;, of (.'hico (irange, presiding, we had a 
pleasant meeting. 

Here ends my labors as .State l^ecturer for the 
year iH7(>, but only to fill the a))pointments al- 
ready made for half the month of January, 1877, 
with private calls from Vallejo, Santa Rosa, St. 
Helena, Healdsburg, Ukiah, Nord, Colusa, and 
many others, which our Brother Secretary must 
try and get into some of his future appointments. 

So the (irange work goes nobly on- not deail 
nor sleeping as its enemies re]Kirteil it, but alive 
to its great and good results; and at this rate of 
growth, by the meeting of the State (ir.inge in 
October next, will call for alliance and co-opera- 
tion with all industrial associations of our State, 
so as to become that good and great Iwnefactor 
to the labor interest, and the great equalizer of 
capital and laVjor. "S'ours fraternally, 

B. PiLKlNUTON, 

chico, Dec. 23d. State Lecturer. 



From the Granges. 

Plymouth Grange. 

Editors Pke-ss:— Our people up here do not 
seem to appreciate the real objects to be attained 
by belonging to and working in the Order. 
Many of the members seem to lack in energy 
and j)erseverance to accomplish the desired re- 
sults. This has a tendency to make our meet- 
ings ilull and uuinteresting. We are iu neeil of 
a good, healthy /fc^iin; to awaken an interest and 
point out the evil results of non-attendance. 
Yours tnily, S. C. Wheelkk, Sec'y. 

Plymouth, .\madorCo., .Ian. 1st, 1877. 

Santa Clara and Saratoga Grangis 
EuiTi)R.s PRE.S.S;-- The officers elect of Santa 
Clara (irange will be installed on second Satur- 
day, 1.3th of January, at I v. m. The installa- 
tion will be jniblic. Saratoga ( irange will join 
forces with us by consolidation, and deliver up 
their charter to State (irange. I have discour- 
aged this resolution during the last year; but as 
Santa Clara is a more central point, to which 
place nuuiy of the .Sar.-vtoga folks go every week, 
and for otiier reasons, that (irange will join us 
on the occasion of our installation. 

I. A. Wiuiix. 
Santa Clara, Dec. 30tli, 1876. 



Election of Officers. 

A.NTIOIH (iKANGK, No. 145, CoNTRA (,'OSTA 

Co.— M. A. Walton, M.; W. J. Smith, O.; Jo- 
siah Wills, L. ; W. W. Smith, C. : Wm. Darby. 
S. ; Seth Davison, A. S. ; Wm. Sellers, G. K. ; 
S. Broacher, T. ; Mrs. J. ('. Smith, Secretary; 
Mrs. J. H. Dean, Ceres; Mrs. Olive Veal, Po- 
mona; Mr*. Olive Ijtverly, Flora; Miss T. VV id- 
ton, L. A. S. 

Cottonwood Granok, No. 116, Merckd (k). 
Election, Dec. 16th: .1. L. Crittenden, M.; E. 

L. Sturgeon, O. ; A. Ewing. L. ; S. Ewing, S. ; 

R. M. C. Hale, C. : C. S. Johnson, T. ; J. J. 

True, Secy; E. F. Hale, A. S.; W. T. Bradley, 

(i. K. ;Mr)i. M. Gardner, Ceres; Mrs. F. W. 

Ralley, Pomona; Miss Letitia 'Tinnin, Flora; 

Miss L. True, L. A. S. 

DeNVERTON (iRANGE, No. 123, SOLANO Co. — 

Election, Dec. 8th: R. H. Barkway, M.; W. 
D. Merrill, O. ; John B. Carrington, L. ; Wm. 
Spencer, S. ; C. Garfield, A. S. ; J. H. Bullard, 
C. ; Mrs. Merrill, T. ; John Bird, Secretary; O. 
T. Stewart, (i. K. ; Sliss Mary E. Cook, (?ere»; 
Mrs. O. D. Arnold, Pomona; Mrs. Wm. Spen- 
cer, Flora; Mrs. Jane E. Stewart, L. A. S. 
Trustees — John B. Carrington, Oscar D. Arnold, 
John Bird. 

FeRSDALK (iRANlJE, No. 102, Hr.MBOLDT 

CoiXTY. -Election, Dec. 16th: F. Y. Boynton, 
-M. ; .lames Smi'th, O. ; J. D. Ferrell, L. ; D. H. 
I..angston, C. ; J. Criss, S. : Wm. Flowers, A.S. ; 
J. Baldwin, T.; E. C. Damon, .Sec'y; W. V. 
Wooldridge, (i. K. ; Julia Branst«ter, Ceres; 
Martha Wooldridge, Pomona; Mary Dungan, 
Flora; Ethe Minar, L A. S. ; Trustee, R. .1. 
Bugbee. 

Fra.vkli.s Grange, No. 147, Sacramento Co. 
Election, i)ec. 16th: Wm. Johnston, M. ; W. 
S. Runyon, O. ; H. T. Huggins, L.; J. B. Brad- 
ford, S. ; P. B. Brailford, A. S. ; J. W. Moore, 
('.: P. R. Beckley, T. ; Mrs. S. (i. Bradford, 
Sec'y; Thomas Anderson, (i. K.; Mrs. Amanda 
Moore, Ceres; Mrs. Mary H. Runyon, Pomona; 
Miss Belle Johnston, Flora; Mrs. Hannah P. 
Flexman, L. A. S. , 

IjOmpoc (iR.VNGE, No. 248, Sasta Barbara 
Co. Rev. J. W. Webb, .\'.; Rev. E. H. Elkins, 
( '. ; Sebem .Steele, Sec'y. ; Henry Summers, T. ; 
Win. .Jackson, L. ; Joshua Barker, S. ; J. Shriner, 
X. S. ; .Miss Susan Barker, L. .A.. S. ; John 
Olinger, C. ; A. Abbey, G. K.; Mrs. J. B. 
Pierce, Ceres; Mrs. rf. Heacock, Flora; Mrs. 
.Shriner, Pomona. Trustees were elected as 
follows: Wm. Jackson, three years, E. H. 
Heacock, twi> years, and J. B. Pierce, one year. 

Lower Lake (iRANOE, No. 77, Lakb 
County. -James A. Harris. M.; Mrs. I>ena 
Voight, O. ; Mrs. I-ena Harris, L. ; .1. D. Hend- 
ricks, S. ; C. L. Wilson, A. S. ; .Mrs. ,1. D. 
Hendricks, (.'. ; James Chrisinan, T. ; H. Win- 
chester, Sec'y; David Voight, (i. K.; Mi-s. I.. 
Winchester, Ceres; .\trs. pjnma Kouns, Flora; 
Mrs. E. Morrell, Pomona. Thomas Morlan, 
Trustee, vice .Tames Chrismaii. 

Plvmoith (iRANGK, No. 2.32, Amador Co. 
Election, Dec. 9th; Chester Perry, M. ; Hugh 
H. Bell, ().; Susie Choate, L. ; Isaac W. Whit- 
acre, .S. ; Simjison B. Newman, A. S. ; Sophia 
Horton, C. : Eleazer S. Potter, T. : S. C.Wheeler, 
.Sec'y; James F. (iregg, (i. K.; Amy Perry, 
Ceres; Charity Rickey, Pomona: Mary A. 
Mathews, Flora; Sarah .(. .Sallee, U A. S. ; 
.Iame,s Rickey, Trustee. 

PoMo (Ikange, No. 216, Mendo<'ivo Co. — 
Election, Dec. 9th: B. Pemlterton, M. ; Wm. V. 
Kilbourn, O. ; L. T. Yount, S. ; John Me- 
whinney, .\. S. ; M. P. (ioforth, I . ; D. Wool- 
ever, C. ; T. W. Dashiell, T. ; E. V. .Fones, 
Secretary; Alfred WiMilever, (i. K.; Mrs. .Mary- 
Brown, Ceres; E. Woolever, Pomona; R. C. 
Yount, FTora; Miss Jennie Deselin. L. A. S. 

PoPK VaI.LKY (iRANGE, No. 197, NaPA Co. 

Election, Dec. I«th: C. A. Biwthe, M. ; P. H. 
Wallace, O. ; R. S. Hardin, k : W. A. Wallace, 
S.;J. R. Duvall, A. S. ; J. Boothe, C. ; Jesse 
Bamett, T. : Sallie Bayne, Sec'y; H. K. (irote- 
gueth, (i. K.; Mrs. R. S. Hardin, Ceres; Mrs. 
J. A. \'an Arsdale, Poinoua; Mrs. J. A. Hor- 
rell. Flora; Mrs. Annie Dollerhide, U 'X. S. ; E. 
Kean, Trustee. 

Potter Vai.lev Grange, No. 11,5, Mendo- 
cino Co.- Wm. Eddie, M. ; S. H. McCreary, 
O.; E. L. Maze,.!*; B. P. Whitney, S. ; Lyman 
Engleman, ,\. S. ; H. W. Baker, C. ; S. U 
Foster, T.'; Taylor Vann, (i. K.; Mrs. A. H. 
Slingerland, Sec'y; Mrs. I<aura Lierly, Ceres; 
Mrs. H. W. Baker, Pomona; Miss Ella Burkhart, 
Flora; Mrs. Jane E. Carnes, I^. A. S, 

Raisina Grange, Central California Coi - 
ony, Fre-sno Co. -Election, Dec. 23: Bemhard 
Marks, M.; T. W. Bartholf, 0.; (ieorge Row- 
ell, L. : James W. Hingley, S. : Thomas O. But- 
ler, A. S.: John RiUhie, C; Wm. Muller, T.; 
Albert Rowell, Sec'y; James Hansen, (i. K.; 
Mrs. S. C. Booth, Ceres; Nancy Booth, Flora; 
Mrs. Benihard Marks, Pomona; Mrs. Richard 
White, L. A. S. ; Trustees, Richard WhiU-, 
(iustaf Eiseii, Mrs. Hannah .Sewell. 

Rincon ({range. No. 227, San Bernardino 
Co. — Election, Dec. 2d, 1876: H. C. Brook, M. ; 
T. B. Walkenshaw, O. ; John Gregory, L.;R. 
W. Rives, S. ; W. R. Lovick, A. S. ; J. M. 
Hathaway, C. ; S. B. Mathews, T. ; John Tayl«r, 
.Sec'y; John Arbon, G. K. ; Beatrice Gregoiy, 
Ceres; Caroline Mathews, Pomona; Mrs. Josenh- 
iue Stanfield, Flora; Eliza Gregory, L. A. S. ; 
W. T. Stanfield, Trustee. 



Rincon (Jrangk. — EUIT0R.S PRKSii: — We 
would like to have the Worthy State Lecturer 
vinit our (irange. 

•John Taylor, Sec'y Rincon Grange. 



January 6, 1877.] 



4QI\lcJLXa^ii^L fl@TES. 



California. 

AL.AMSDA. 

Ditch. — Independent, Dec. 30; The irrieating 
ditch that runs from Niles to Center\-ille and 
beyond will be capable of conferring immense 
benefits upon many farmers this winter, and its 
capacity and extent may be so enlarged as to 
aid a great many more, who do not now think 
of trying to avail themselves of its advantages. 
The reservoir can be enlarged and the ditch 
extended so as to accommodate a great many 
who are now beyond the reach of its friendly 
waters. We hope to see it utilized to the 
greatest extent possible by all in need. 

Squirkel KiLLiN(i WITH CtAs. — E. H. Dyer, 
of this county, after experimenting for years, 
has discovered that by a combination of char- 
coal, sulphur and coal tar a gas is produced that 
causes instant death to squirrels and gophers. 
The process is simple, effective and cheap. A 
small furnace is required, with a blower attached. 
A pipe is attached to the blower by a flexible 
joint that can be adjusted to enter the squirrel- 
hole. The machine is mounted on a common 
wheelbarrow, which, together with material 
sufficient for a day's use, will only weigh a few 
pounds. A charcoal fire is kept constantly 
burning in the furnace. The sulphur is mixed 
with the coal tar, and, after the machine is set 
at a hole, about a taV)lespoonful of the mixture 
is put into the furnace and the blower started, 
which will force tlie smoke through all the 
holes connected therewith. As soon as smoke 
is seen issuing from a hole stop it up tight. Set 
the machine at every hole that you cannot force 
smoke from. Stop all holes tight as soon as 
they are fUled with smoke, and you will have 
every squirrel. Machines can be obtained at 
W. T. Garratt's brass foundry, Fremont street, 
San Francisco, for $2!i; coal tar of any dealer in 
paints and oil, or at the gas works, for 25 cents 
per gallon; sulphur of wholesale druggists for 
six cents a pound; charcoal at any coal-yard, at 
$\ a sack. Material for 100 acres will not cost 
over $4. It requires two men to work to advan- 
tage; one with the machine, and one with a 
long-handled spade with a heavy iron ring on 
the end of the handle to tamp the holes with. 
Any person desirous of seeing the machine in 
operation and witnessing the effect can do so by 
visiting Mr. Dyer's farm near Decoto station. 

COLUSA. 

Crop.s. — Sini, Dec. .30: Grain is looking better 
everywhere than people expected it wouhl, with 
uo rain for over two months and so much frost 
as we have had. The summer-fallow that was 
sown before the October rains is up antl doing 
very well. The frost has given the volunteer a 
yellow cast, but there is no danger of its drying 
with rain any time in the near future. On sum- 
mer-fallow land the ground is wet clear down, 
and spring rains will make crops. There have 
been any number of seasons when we have had 
rain in November and December that the ground 
was not nearly so wet as it is now, and when 
crops were not looking so well at this date. We 
have seen good crops raised when the ground 
was ;iot wet over an inch or two on the 1st of 
January. It may be that some seed sown just 
at the wrong time has rotted in the ground — 
especially -when it was soaked a good while in 
bluestone water before it was sown, but from 
all we can learn the damage from this source is 
comparatively small. 

Geehe .\nd Duck.s.— Geo. Hoag bought, the 
other day, 10 kegs of powder, for the purpose 
of having the geese on his place killed. He has 
10 men constantly at work shooting them. Mr. 
Clark, who owns a place near Dunigan's, says 
that the ducks are worse than the geese down 
there, and they spread over the fields at night 
and destroy the grain. Farmers there have to 
keep men out with lanterns at night to scare the 
ducks away. 
KERN. 

Stock LoH>iEs.— California)!: We regret to 
learn of the serious loss of our popular citizen, 
Mr. John G. Dawes, who left hero two weeks 
ago with his flock of 2,000 sheep for the north. 
While crossing the alkali lands near Tulare 
lake he camped for the night, and in the morn- 
ing when he awoke he saw his sheep all lying 
down but one, and on examination found that 
there ' was but that one alive. They had all 
quietly died in the night; a loss of more than 
*5,000. The Frenchmen who moved southward 
with their 7,000 sheep last week, are losing 
about 50 head per day, and should a cold storm 
come on while the flock is in its poor condition, 
it is most likely all would die in a single night. 
LOS ANGELES. 

Bke-Keepers' Mketin(*. —Herald andEj-press: 
The Bee-Keepers' Association met on Saturday, 
December 16th, at Mr. Binford's office, on Court 
street, Los Angeles. On motion, Mr. N. Lever- 
ing was chosen Chairman. Mr. Levering stated 
that lumber for bee-hives could be had at Santa 
Monica at «26 and $37.50 for rough and dressed 
respectively, and that he expected the lumber- 
men there would soon be able to furnish material 
for frames. He also said that he hoped within 
a short time to complete arrangements for fur- 
nishing extractors and honey-tanks at reduced 
rates. The following officers were then elected 
for the ensuing year: President, A. J. Davidson; 
Vice-Presidents, Pleasants and Muth-Rasmus- 
89n; Secretary, N. Levering. The thanks of the 
Association were tendered Mr. Wm. Muth-Ras- 
musseu for the able manner in which he had dis- 



charged the duties of his office as secretary. 
MERCED. 

The Chance,s.— ( "/% Argus, Dec. 30: 
While it is true that but little rain has fallen in 
the valley this fall, experience teaches us that 
with a reasonable amount of rain during the 
months of February, March, and April, fair 
crops may be han-ested. It is true that there 
will probably be a loss of seed on summer-fal- 
low and volunteer fields, but prudent farmers 
know that such misfortune need not be fatal to 
crop .prospects, as the lands can be re-sown 
either before or after the rains commence. Wait 
yet awhile before you give up; for with the 
varied and boundless resources of our State none 
need fear a famine. A dry season would cause 
the people to utilize the waters flowing from the 
mountains for agricultural purposes, and also 
the now waste tule lands of the San Joaquin, 
Sacramento, and other great valleys of the 
State. Let us ever make the most of the re- 
sources we have and all will be Hell with us, 
even though no rain should fall until the 1st of 
February. There is a plentiful su^jply of grain 
and meat in the .State for the subsistence of the 
people of the State for another year, even if 
there should be no harvest, or a verj- light liar- 
vest in 1877, and the alarm need not be sounded 
until the winter months are spent. 
MENDOCINO. 

Crop.s in Potter. — Dnnocrot, Dec. 23: We 
are told the ground in Potter valley is in excel- 
lent condition. Taking a surface view of some 
of it, it would seem to oe hard, but turning over 
an incli or two it shows up all right. Prospect 
for grain good. 
MONTEREY. 

Bought a FaRiM.— /«(/e.'', Dec. 30: Mayor H. 
S. Ball, of Salinas City, has just purchased of 
Messrs. Sherwood & Hellmau 166 7-10 acres of 
land, paying therefor at the rate of #60 per 
acre, or a total of .'S10,020, cash down. It is 
situated about a mile and a half from Salinas, 
oppo.site Perry Jack's farm, and between those 
owned by the McKinnon Bros, and Mr. Lynn. 
In this purchase Mr. Ball has secured one of the 
finest pieces of land in the valley, and at a very 
reasonable figure, too. We would be glad to 
see a general cutting up of the large tracts of 
land in this valley into small farms and offered 
for sale on terms that would bring them within 
the leach of men of moderate means. 
NAPA. 

Sc.VLFS. — Register, Dec. 30: Tliose very useful 
men, the squirrel hunters, have been reaping a 
bountiful harvest this month at the expense of 
the squirrels. During the week beginning De- 
cemfjer 20th and ending December 27th, about 
.$400 worth (in bounty money) of scalps liave 
been brought in to Napa. Squirrel scalps alone 
do not form tlie whole stock of any hunter. He 
always manages to bag a few 'coons, polecats, 
and those industrious but destructive animals, 
gophers. A drive through any country district 
during harvest season, or later, would make one 
think that an epidemic had fallen upon the 
squirrel tribe, so many are seen lying dead. But 
a glance at the animal's head shows where the 
hunter has left his mark. In spite of the large 
number killed every month the little animals 
are by no means extermina'i,ed, though their 
number has been greatly les.sened. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Florin. — Record -Union, Dec. 29: The soil at 
and about Florin is peculiar. Wliat is called 
bedrock or hard-pan is reached at the depth of 
from three to five feet. In the dry season of 
1863 Florin produced first-rate hay, grain and 
fruit crops, which is accounted for on the theory 
that the hard-pan does not allow the passage of 
what moisture the soil may possess. Abundant 
supplies of excellent water can be obtained at 
depths varying from 14 to 45 feet. After reach- 
ing the stratum of quicksand, the water will 
rise in the well to within six or 12 feet of the 
surface, and will retain its hight with but little 
variation throughout the year. After boring 
these wells, no piping or curbing is required. 
Two men can easUy bore a six-inch well in from 
a day to a day and a half, according to the 
depth. It is estimated that there were raised 
at Florin last season at least 3,000 tons of 
grapes. Table grapes were not sold at less than 
•IHO, while wine grapes brought from $8 to |0. 
Twenty-seven tons of raisins were made from 
the White Muscat, and 60 tons, while in jiro- 
cess of curing, were ruined by the October rain. 
With the advent of rain there will be from 30 
to 40 more acres set out in strawberries. 
SAN JOAQUIN. 

Ti'lare Lake to Antioch. — Ledger, Dec. 23: 
The surveying party under Chief Engineer Hall, 
of the West Side survey, arrived at Antioch on 
Wednesday evening, having compled the line of 
survey from Tulare lake to tide water at this 
place. The party commenced operations about 
the first of September, and have been contin- 
uously in the field since that time. The 
weather has been most favorable for the work, 
and the party, consisting of 23 men, has enjoyed 
remarkably good health. They report the resi- 
dents along the line, with few exceptions, as 
being unanimous in their expressions favoring 
some plan of irrigation, as upon this they liase 
their hopes of permanent prosperity as regards 
agricultural operations. The only remaining 
work in the field is to take the soundings of 
Tulare lake, which will be done by Engineer 
Hall in company with the commissioners. A 
full report wul be made to the Governor by tlie 
first of March next ,aa required by law. 
SAN BENITO. 

Marks OF Droi'th. — Knlerpriie, Dec. 23: — 
We hear it remarked that it is too soon to oruak. 



that if we get copious rains before January 1st, 
all will be well. We admit all this, yet we can- 
not close our eyes to the truth that seeding is at 
hand, and feed is getting distressingly short. 
Perhaps one-tenth of the acreage intended to 
be cultivated the present season has been drj- 
sown, but the seed rema.ins in the ground un- 
sprouted and will so remain until enough moist- 
ure falls to bring it up. In this regard this 
county is probably much better off than some of 
the northern localities of the State where rain 
fell bountifully in the fore part of the season, 
but subsequently dry weather has prevailed and 
is killing the growth. 
SONOMA. 

Crop Prospects. — Democrat, Dec. 30: We 
learn from farmers generally in the county that 
the prospect for the coming harvest was ne^er 
more favorable at this season of the year than it 
is at present. The first rains in October 
thoroughly softened the ground and placed it in 
most excellent condition for plowing and sowing. 
The fair, deliglitful weather since that time has 
enaVjled farmers to push their work without in- 
terruption, and perhaps there has been more 
giain sown than ever up to this season, and as a 
general rule it has been put in in better con- 
dition. Tliat sown early is now several inches 
liigh, and, notwitlistanding the frequent frosts, 
is stout and growing finely. 

Farm Notes. — Alex Stiles informs us that 
most of the wheat land in tlie \'icinity of (iey- 
serville has been plowed and sowed. A little 
rain would be acceptable about this time. A 
man named Wyckoff took a number of hogs to 
fatten on the shares and turned them into his 
\-ineyard; he says that hogs fatten on grapes 
more quickly tlian upon stubble. Quite a num- 
ber of persons fed their grapes to hogs on ac- 
count of the low prices that ruled last fall. It 
is a great pity, for we believe that the grapes of 
that section will make the best wine in the 
State. John Gallagher, of Analy township, was 
in Santa Rosa Thursday. He informs us that 
there is no pressing need for rain in that section 
yet. The wheat sown looks well and some 
farmers are still planting. The fruit raisers 
generally are setting out fniit trees to enlarge 
their orchards. 

(i. N. San'born has been clearing up a tract of 
willow land on the Laguna. It makes, when 
ready for the plow, the best hop land in the 
State. Mr. Sanborn will set out a hop field on 
his place, and will doubtless make as great a 
success as others in the same neighborhood have 
done. The hop crop on the Laguna was not 
quite as good as usujil, but was sold at remun- 
erative prices. , 

J. H. Overton, of Vallejo township, informs 
us that the grass in that section is exceptionally 

food. He never saw it better for the season, 
'here has been more grain sown in Vallejo 
township than ever before known. All the 
grain that is up looks well, and a light shower 
would bring up all that has been soh7i. 

SANTA BARBARA. 

Notes in Reply. — Santa Barbaia Fre)<i>, Dec 
23: "Santa Barbara county " is the subject of a 
rea<lable letter signed "Wabois, "in the last 
issue of the Pacific Rural Press. The corre- 
spondent makes an argument endeavoring to 
prove that fruit-growing in this county has been 
unduly stimulated, and that the pursuit has not 
made the county as prosperous as fine stock- 
growing would have done. We differ from the 
correspondent, and think it might be "difficult 
to realize " how the business of growing fine 
cattle and liorses, if widely adopted by our 
husbandmen, ^^'ould prove invariably or even 
generally profitable. We are not convinced 
that the margin of profit on dairy products is .so 
large in this region as to make the pursuit de- 
sirable above other branches of farming. And 
as for fancy stock-breeding, it must beiapparent 
upon a little reflection, that that is a luxury 
which small farmers in this section could not 
generally indulge themselves in with financial 
safety, because, in the first place, it re<juires 
much means to set up an establishment of that 
kind; and, in the second place, the demand for 
fine animals of any kind for breeding or otlier 
purposes is not sufficiently great in the adjacent 
thinly-populated pastoral region, upon which 
our breeclers would have to draw for a market, 
to justify and stimulate a large production. 
We cannot think that our people ha\e made 
any mistake in the matter of planting fruit- 
trees of any good kinds. It is well tliat the 
foundation for an extensive business in this de- 
partment of husbandry has been laid so broad 
here. The results will tell in good time. Pa- 
tience and work are necessary before the full 
harvest is reaped. The fact that exaggerated 
estimates of the profits to be realized from the 
culture of almonds, olives and walnuts in Santa 
Barbara were made by enthusiastic and theo- 
retical cultivators "in 1868-'69-'70 and years 
following," is no sufficient argument against the 
fair and reasonable success which has been 
achieved in actual experience. Nobody has a 
right to expect a profit of .$900 or |400, or even 
of .$240 per acre from the culture of .any of 
these fruits, year after year, through thick and 
thin. But a profit of coiLsidenably over .f 100 
per acre has been and can be realized. This is 
demonstrated by the careful statement of Mr. 
Olinstead, published in the Pre/ii on the 9th 
inst., showing the actual results of his opera- 
tions in almond culture. This is good enougli. 
VENTURA. 

Bee Ranch. — Signal, Dec. .30: Mr. Nathan 
Shaw, a brother of Henry Shaw, of this place, 
late of Omaha, h.as made arrangements to estab- 
lish an apiary in che Canada Larga, haxang pur- 
chased all the hives of Mr. D. Kuudebusli. Mr. 



and 



Sh.aw has had experience in bet 
will doubtless succeed. 

Dry Weather. — Some alarm is expressed by 
those not long in the country that we will have 
a dry season and a failure of crops. It should 
be remembered that our soil a few inches down 
is very moist, and a small amount of rain will 
do the coming season. Old feed is still abun- 
dant and hay is cheap, and many farmers have 
taken the precaution — which all should — of sav- 
ing their straw piles, in which there is much 
good feed. No danger need be apprehended in 
this part of the country if rain does not comfl 
till the 15th of January. Preparations should 
be made, however, for a dry season, irrigating 
ditches sliould be put in order, so the land 
under them may be flooded this winter. 
STANISLAUS. 

Conditions. —iVc»M, Dec. 29: The young 
grain that is already up is holding on to life 
witli a tenacity most remarkable, when the 
great length of time without rain we 
have had is considered. This is produced 
no doubt from the fact that we have had little 
or none of the usual dry northwest winds, 
which usually sweep over our plains during peri- 
ods of winter drouths. Many of the farmers 
have been compelled to suspend plowing and are 
feeding large teams of horses and mules that are 
lying idle at a heavy expense. Live stock, 
where the pasturage is not .abundant, has al- 
ready began to suffer. Each d.ay they are, in 
such cases, becoming weaker, and should they 
have to pass through cold, heavy rains, thou- 
sands would die before the growth of young 
grass would be sufficient to save life. Certainly 
the outlook is not flattering. Tnie, there is yet 
time for sufficient rain to produce an abur>dant 
grain crop. The difficulty, however, will be in 
plowing and seeding the large fields that are cul- 
tivated in this locality. There will certainly be 
a diminution of the acreage sown to grain. 
Still what fields will be cultivated with late 
spring rains may produce heavy crops. 
YOLO. 

The Outlook.— J/o(7, Dec. 29: Christmas 
has passed and still the earth is dry. The sum- 
mer-fallowed wheat fields look green and thrifty, 
but the volunteer, the dry-sown, and that 

Elanted in the fall-plowed ground needs rain 
acUy. The sky has been overcast with light 
clouds for several days. A bright ring around 
the moon was visible on Monday night, V)ut all 
these signs have not given us any assurance of 
rain. We beheve there are some of our farmers 
who still have hopes of plenty of rain, and there 
may be a regular flood before many days, and 
we really Ijelieve there will be. 

Oregon. 

Fa^mino Items — Oregonian, Dec. 23: The 
Dispatch says: Seattle is no bad place for farm- 
ers to bring their produce. A Lewis county 
farmer stayed there three days this week and 
sold 1,160 pounds of home-cured bacon, 1,040 
pounds of domestic cheese, 400 pounds of butter 
and 120 of lard, besides a big lot of eggs. The 
Douglas C'ounty Independent says: A majority 
of our farmers are about through plowing for 
the season, and are now nearly prepared to lay 
aside care and labor until spring arrives. There 
is no doubt that there has fjeeu a larger acreage 
of grain sowed in this county this fall tlian ever 
before. In many places wheat and oats are up 
and growing finely. The Polk County Tribune 
says : There has been more wheat sown the past 
fall than has been for several years past, we are 
informed. The weather has been unusually 
good for fall and winter sowing, and a very 
large acreage has been seeded. The grain sown 
early in the fall is up and looks well, while the 
grain put in the gi-ound in the early part of De- 
cember is also up. The farmers are very busy 
plowing their lands now, and have been for 
some time. From present .apjjcarances the 
yield of grain in Polk county next harvest will 
be very large. W. Waterhouse, writing to the 
Willamette Farmer from Polk county, intimates 
that Oregon potatoes are small now compared 
with the productions of pioneer days. He says; 
I noticed the article of J. B. Dimick, on pota- 
toes, in which he s.ays he r.aised one weigliing 
six and three-quarter pounds, and five pounds 
is the largest that Bliss has any record of. Now, 
that is behind time, for in the f.all of 1852 there 
was a potato raised on Tualatin plains, in this 
State, Wiushington county, on the place owned 
by H. Lindsay, now of this place, which 
weighed eight pounds, variety, Blue Neshan- 
nock. Ag.ain, m Marion county, there was 
some years ago, same kind, weight, eight 
pounds. Later, there was one raised one mile 
from here, same variety, weighing seven and 
one-half pounds. I saw it weighed. This year 
there was one raised about six or seven miles 
from here weigliing seven pounds. 



The British fleet has withdrawn from Turkish 
waters. One correspondent says this has no 
political significance. Another says it is because 
the Sult.an, in an inter\-iew with the Marquis of 
Salisbury, definitely refused to accept the pro- 
posals formulated by the Powers. 

The man.agers of the trunk lines have decided 
to advance the rates on grain and fourth-class 
freight between Chicago and New York five 
cents, making the rate 35 cents on grain and 40 
cents on fourth-class. 



The late heavy gales on the English ooast 
liave caused very great damage. A number of 
marine disasters are reported. 

The Siernas have never been so bare of snow, 
in tha bej{imuiig of January, sine IS49. 



t^(s^Wdk<JB' Xw vb^ O JtCxi^JLl* ^tkA»«GjO%$« 



[January 6, 1877. 




The Herons of Elmwood. 

I By IlKNRV W. LllSiiFKLIJJW.J 

Warm and still is thu suinnier night, 
As litre by the river's lirinii 1 wanJer; 

White overhead are the stars, and wliite 
The ffliniinerinj,' lifjrhts un the hillside yimilcr. 

Silent are all the s<pinids "f day: 
Nothing,' I hear hut the ehirp of crickets, 

And the cry of the herons winsfing their way 
O'er the poet's house in the Elm\vo(jd thickets. 

Call to hiui, herons, as slowly you jiass 

To your roosts ii^ the haunts of the exiled 
thrushes; 
Sin;; him the son^r of the green morass, 

Aiid the tides that water the reeds and rushes. 

Sinif him the mystical son;; of the hern. 
And the secret that baffles our utmost seckiiift: 

For only a sound of lament we discern. 
And cannot interpret the words ycm are speakiuf;. 

Ming of the air, and the wild delight 

Of wings that uplift and winds that uphold you 
To jov of frecdr.m. the rapture of Hight 

Through the drift of the flo.iting mists that en- 
fold you; 

of the landsca|ie lying so far below. 
With its towns and river, and desert places; 

And the siilcndor of light above, and the ghiw 
of the hmitless, blue ethereal spaces. 

Ask him if songs of the troubadours. 
Or of minnesingers in old black-letter, 

.Soiuid in bis cars more sweet than yours. 
And if yours are not sweeter and wilder and 
better. 

Sing to him, say to him, here at his g-atc, 

Wbcrc the boughs of the stately elms are meeting. 

Some one had lingered to meditate; 
And send him unseen this friendly greeting; 

Tliat many another hath done the same 
Though not by a stiund was the silence broken; 

The surest jiledge of a deathless name 

Is the silent houi'igc of thoughts misi>oken. 

-Junmt rjf A fid ntt\\ 



Woodside Papers — No. 8. 

(Written for the RfRAL Prkss by .J. E. .I.^mksox. J 

"There wife, you are going to have com- 
pany," said Mr. Paysoii one morning a sliort 
time after Mrs. Payson's couversatiou with Mrs. 
Towue. "There's neighbor AVeudall's sou, anil, 
as most of tile callers come to see you lately, 1 
siijipose T might as well depart in peace; though, 
as poor Mr. I'eters would say, ' 'Tisu't human 
nater fur a poor heu-pecked husbaml like myself 
to go on my way rejoicing.' " So sjiying, Mr. 
I'ayson proceeded \ery meekly to take down his 
hat, when suddenly he found himself sitting in 
an easy chair, wliile liis wife shook her finger at 
hinf and exclaimed, "The ideal Yoii pretend- 
ing to he a hen-]>eckeil husband. Now, you 
may just sit there and entertain Mr. W'endall, 
while I go and make my pies. " But before .Mrs. 
Payson could leave the room, Clarence \\'en<lall 
entered, and throwing liimself upon a chair, ex- 
claimed, "Would you believe me if I told you 
that my gofid mother had turned me out of 
house and home? " 

"Well, young man, that might have hap- 
pened long ago, if you had had what you 
deserved,'' said Mr. Payson, putting on a very 
long face, though his eyes twinkled mischiev- 
ously. 

"There, there, Kenilric, he will think you 
are in earnest. What is the trouble, Clarence'/ " 

"Oh, my mother is going to have a lot of 
company, and she told me this nn)rning tliat 
there was a good house .standing empty, and if 
I were married and living in it she slumlil have 
more room for them. She repented, of course, 
but it hurt my feelings fearfully. AVhat shall I 
do, Mrs. Payson." 

"Now, Clarence Wendall, you know what I 
think .about it. They say that, 

'The gudc or ill-hap of a gude or ill life 
Is the gude or ill choice of a gude or ill wife," 

And you know that I think Kmma Moulton 
would make a guile wife, and if I were you I 
would occupy tliat house before many months. " 

"Well, Mrs. Paysou, you are a wise woman, 
and I think -I— I will tell you what I think 
some other time. There is Mrs. Towne, and I 
gness I will take my departure." 

"Oil, why didn't she wait until I got my pies 
madel Never mind, I will take her right into 
the kitchen. Hf>w do you do, Mrs. Towne, and 
how is your husliand?" 

"Ah, Mrs. Payson, I've great reason to be 
thankful, fur Kl)en has be'n at home every even- 
ing since I was here. I have tried hard ti) make 
it pleasant for him. I've worked over the stove 
and cooked just as good ;us I could, but its be'n 
hard work. There's pie», now! Eben's 'mazin' 
fond of pies, but my crusts don't taste jest 
right. How do you make yours';" 

"I make cream crusts when I have the cream, 
but I cannot spare it to-day, so I shall make 
hard crusts," said Mrs. Payson, vigorously sift- 
ing Hour into a new tin dish. I want to make 
four pies, with two crusts each. I take as nnich 
Hour as I can hold lightly in both hands, for a 
double crust. It is handy to make some such 
ca'mdatiou, so that you may have enough, and 



not much left over. Take a heajiing spoonful of 
lard for each pie. Put in a teaspoonful of salt, 
one-half teiuspooiiful of cream of tartar, and a 
(piarter of a teas|K)onful of sinla. Work in the 
lard with your liand.s, and add cold water until 
it is right to take upon the iMianl and knead, as 
you want it. Tlure! here is mine all made. 
Now 1 jmt on the under cru.st, letting it ccmie to 
the edge of the jdate; then put in the ajiple an<l 
sugar, a Large spoonful of water, and a little nut- 
meg. Now, before laying on the upper crust, 
the edge of the lower cru.st must be wet, .and 
when the upper crust is pressed down upon it, 
it will i)revent the juice from coming out wliih; 
it is baking. 1 li.ave known old cooks who were 
greatly troubleil because their pies would pereist 
iu losing the juice out in the oven, but I am 
never troubleil, if I moisten the under edge. 
The under crust must be kneadeil luirder than 
the other, that it may not lie soggy. For my- 
self, I much prefer pies made without an under 
crust. " 

" I believe I must try to make some real nice 
pies, hkit there, I do feel so miseralile iu the 
morning that 1 can hardly drag arouml, " .saiil 
Mrs. Towne, numrnfuUy. 

" There miLst be something the trouble, " re- 
turned Mrs. Payson. "Iilonotsee why you 
shoulil feel so miserable in the morning. How 
do you ventilate your sleeping-mom'; " 

"What do you mean. Let out the air";" 
queried Mrs. Towne. 

" Why, yes, and let the fresh air iu." 

"Oh I I leave the door oi>en iuto the sitting- 
room," said Mrs. Towue. 

"Do you luive any windows open there?" said 
Mrs. Payson, cutting the edge of a pie-crust 
from the plate. 

"No, it would let in the cold, " said Mrs. 
Towne. 

"Let iu the eolill" groaned Mrs. Payson, 
"Isn't the air in the sitting-room the .same that 
you have been breathing all the evening, and 
didn't you know th.at air that has been breathed 
already is poisonous'; 

"Why, yes, 1 sui>poae the air has been breathed 
in the evening, but I didn't know it was jioison," 
returned Mrs. Towne slowly. 

"It is though, " said Mrs. Paysou with agreat 
deal of euergj', "and I ilo not wonder you feel 
miserable. Through lack of knowledge the 
people perish, liut it is high time they were 
shaken up out of their old habits, and it is time, 
if tliey inteuil to have even a small portion of 
health left for old age, that they Ijegan to breathe 
pure air. .Some wise liixly has said that the 
people's ignoriuiee in regard to the human body 
is amazing to those whose stock of amazement 
has not hing ago been exhausted in the contem- 
pl.ation of tlie stupidities of mankind. I can- 
not stoji to explain all about the air, which is of 
one part oxygen and four parts nitrogen. But 
oxygen supports life. At every breath a half 
pint of lilood receives its needed o.vygen iti the 
lungs, and at the same time gives out ;ui eijual 
amount of carbonic acid and water. This car- 
bonic acid, if it goes into the lungs undiluted 
by sufficient air, is a poison, and causes cert;tin 
death When it has only a little air mixed with 
it it is slow poison, Vmt sure. AVhen .'i room is 
deprived of fresh air, and the breathing of 
tho.se who are in it has deprived the air of oxy- 
gen and loaded it with carbonic acid, it is slow 
poison. In proof of this, we see mention made of 
the horrors of the 'Bl.ack hole of Calcutta.' 
One huudreil and forty-six men were crowded 
into a room only 18 feet sipiare, with but two 
small windows. After a night of terrible tor- 
ture, there were 1 "23 dead men, .and 2."H halfdeail. 
Also, in KS4S, a cajitain shut up his jiassengers 
in a tight room without windows*. Terrilile 
groans, shrieks .and curses followed, until .at last 
the door yiehled to their blows, when it w.as 
found that there were ~'2 of the "ifK) alreaily 
de.ad, .anil the others were in con^^dsillns, and 
were only brought Viaek to lives of suH'ering. 
When I think of such horrors as these, all for 
want of fresh, pure air, which Cod h.as iirovid- 
ed so generously, I think we are .absolutely 
wicked when we close our doors .and windows, 
and breath, and rebreath, and breath again the 
.s.ame old, miserable .air, until one comuig in 
from out-of-doors feels as though they must put 
a handkerchief over their breathing apparatus. 
You know' it is a great help to put cotton over the 
mouth. Kvery person inspires air about "20 times 
each moment, and vitiates about half a pint at 
each inspiration, and one hogshead every hour. 
Take a sleeping-i'oom 12 feet square and seven 
feet in hight, and two persons will vitiate the 
air in ."lO minutes, four pers^ms in '2'i minutes, 
•lust think of the sin they would conniiit in 
breathing the air over .and over again, after the 
(irst few minutes. Convulsions or tits usually 
occur among children in the night, ami are often 
caused by the imjiure air whicli they breath. 
Parents, who would no more think of giving 
their children strychnine in regular doses than 
they would commit suicide themselves, are slow- 
ly poisoning those they love lietter than life, by 
excluding pure air fmm the rooms thfy occupy. 
It is the strangest thing in the world th.at people 
have so little sen.se upon this subject. I have 
liveil for years in the same house with persons 
who had graduated from colleges and seminaries, 
anil have sometimes had occasion to pass 
through their sleeping apartments after they 
had left them in the morning. Shades of our 
forefathers! What air those rooms contained ! 
I would manage to get through by holding my 
mouth and nose; but it just m.ade me ache tri 
think, that for all their Latin, and (ireek, and 
French, they did not know enough to last them 
over night — at least they did not seem to know 
enough to let in pure air. (!arlMiuicacid isnot the 
only poison there is in air. There are the pores 



of the skin, or the jierspiration tubes, w Inch are 
constantly throwing oil' the dead particles from 
the system. These tubes, or openings, are so 
numerous that ."j,.'>00 of them have been counted 
in one .square inch, on the palm of the hand. 
Kivcli tube descends from the surf.ace into the 
true skin .and forms a coil, the whole length 
being about a quarter of inch. Their united 
length would be about To feet to a square inch, 
or "28 miles over the surface of the body. Only 
think what a wonderful provision this is for car- 
rying away the w aste particles from our _ever- 
decaying bodies. Carbonic acid has no odor, 
but the bad odor we perceive in a close room, 
w here sever.al have slept, is owing to these par- 
ticles thiowu from the lungs and skin. More 
than half we eat and driuk, its nutritive part 
being uscil, is thrown out in this way, at least 
so those say who have studied the subject. A 
large portion of this waste matter remains ou 
the skin, and the pores will take it back into the 
system, unless it is removed, as it should lie, by 
bathing. There is another lack! How often do 
you bathe?" 

.,," I I don't know as I ever did more than a 
few times iu my life," said Mrs. Towne, meekly. 
Mrs. Payson groaned. "There, Mrs. 'I'owne, 
I do wonder sometimes that we live at all. We 
take so little care of what health we have left 
when we come to the age when we have to take 
care of ourselves. ^Ve are not brought up to 
take good care of ourselves. But there's your 
little Eben coming for you, and I don't kiiow 
what 1 have said or haven't said. Do come again, 
and I'll str.aighten it out. " 

Our Grandfathers. 

I Written for the Kniii, Piuats by M. K. TiTTLK. ) 
In this Centennial year it is highly proper and 
right that we pay due respect to the memorj' 
and achievements of our foref.athers. In an 
article In the Pkic-s.^ entitled ".Social Life," tlie 
author enlarges on the days of yore iu eomjiar- 
ison with the present degener.ate times. We 
remendier accurately the amount of work our 
grandmothers performed iu the oLleu time; how 
economical in dress; how simple iu haliits; doing 
all the work for a large f.amily, and tending a 
baViy besides; and then doing the weaving iu the 
odd moments. While the woman of to-day — in 
like circumsUuices — spend their time iu idleness 
and foolish ilress, riding in line carriages and 
making fashionable calls. But while the vii'- 
tues of our gr.andmothers stand out iu such 
bold relief, he has strangely enough ignored 
even a reference to tlie part our jiatemal 
li.'irents bore in this b.attle for an inheritance, 
ami far be it from me to pass in silence tliis un- 
just omission. Might not some in their sim- 
plicity imagine that men had held the "even 
tenor of their ways," and that fifty years ago 
uieu might have been seen sitting in comfort- 
able arm chairs in well furnisheil olHces, clothed 
in genteel business suits, with polished white 
shirt fronts, with gohl w.atch ;md chain, also a 
gold-headed cane and beaver h.at within reach. 
Oh, no! I couhl not be.ar to think th.at some 
young jicrson of to-day should picture to them- 
selves their grandfathers riding about their 
farms in tine buggies with f.ast trotters at- 
tached while they supcrinteiuled the Chin.amen; 
or possibly rode around the field on gang plows, 
or sulky rakes, or reapers and mowers, and 
then declared it enough to kill a man to follow 
stich emplojanent. And .'igain, it would be just 
like our boys to think thiit their grandfathers 
stood with their hands in their pockets watch- 
ing ;i steam thresher put their cleaned grain 
into sacks; or that after .all this arduous em- 
jiloyment they went home and sat down to a 
table shining with silver and chin.a, and ate 
roast beef and a variety of vegetables, with hot 
rolls and pie and pudding for dessert, ;uid hav- 
ing their tempers sadly soured if the children 
ajipeared with soiled faces or clothes or the 
house chanced to be in disorder. 

No indeed, they nnist not harlior such a 
thought, and now I will tell a legend of the 
"olden time." AVhile the care-worn ninthcro 
kept the house of one room in order and tended 
the children when they were not along with 
their f.athers in the tiehls, or wa.shed their 
scanty garments and cooked their meager meals, 
keeping the wheel and loom going at intervals; 
the fathers swtnig the grain cradle or the scj'the 
all day long in the burning sun or raked the h;iy 
or bound the grain, wearing their homesimn 
suits, wet, yea drippijig, w ith the sweat of hon- 
est toil; and when winter came wielded the axe 
with steady blows all through the biting winter 
d.ays, or grublied at the m.itted roots and rolled 
the logs and piled the brush in the "clearing," 
not forgetting to thresh the golden gniin on the 
threshing floor in the barn, where the steady 
blows of theiV well aimed tlails were heard from 
morn till night for weeks together. And when 
night came they taught the children to re.oil and 
write or do then- simjile sums, with ni.any a les- 
son of tmth and righteousness besides, or hushed 
the little ones to rest in their arms. They were 
up liotimes, these men of iron frames, on the 
frosty mornings. 'I"he snowy back log wan 
rolled into the wide fireplace, and like a dream 
there ari.ses in my mind to-day a vision of lilaz- 
ing fagots and cheering wai-mth that tonipted 
I the sleepy eyes and tumbled curly heads from 
oil the pillows of the trundle bed to father's 



knee beside the hearth. -Vnd who tied the 
shoes .and buttoiu-d the flannel ib'csges smig and 
warm? 'twas father's hand; 'twas father's voice 
in ijuiet reproof when settling disputes alHiut 
the w.ai-mest corner or the easy chair. Children 
were acquainted with tlieir f.ather in those days, 
not a person to dread and fe.ar, but one to love 
and honor, who tiiught by example .as well aa 
precejit, to whom it seemed natural and right to 
delegate the honor of being "he;ul of the house- 
hold." 

Cranilfathers as well as grandmothers hail 
nuany faults, no doubt, but their patience .ami 
endurance and devotion to duty are bright ex- 
amples for our iustniction to-day. They had 
little time in those days for anything but the 
bare realities of life. To get a living honestly 
and ileceutly for themselves .and children was 
for many the highest aspiration. If to-<lay 
people have more time for self-culture and ease, 
let us be thiuikful for those great advantages. 
Few men would have their wives go back to the 
days when for a woman to read a new8]iaper 
was giievous idleness. There are "Hamiah 
.lanes ' enough t<i-day who receive nothing but 
contempt for their ignorance, when that igno- 
rance is but the result of years of faithful toil. 



A Lady Farmer of 1739 

[Written for the Rcr.il Pkbss by G. P. W. J 

In Hewitt's Historical Accounts of South Car- 
olina and (Jeorgia, there are some very interest- 
ing articles on the early interest t.aken in devel- 
oping the new country. From the journal <if a 
Mrs. Pine kney, daughter of (Jeorge Lucas, 
fxovenior of .\ntigua, and mother of ( Jencrals 
Charles and Thomas Piuckney of South Carolina, 
we tiuil many items of note. Miss Lucas wae 
only 18 years old when she was entrusted with 
the m.auagement of her father's plantati'm, and 
esjieeially the planting interest. He sent her 
from time to time great varieties of sce<l to ex- 
periment with, and the Hrst indigo that was 
grown in .South Carolina came fivnn this young 
laily's plantation. 

The dates from her journal are as foUows: 
".July, 1739. Wrote to my father to-day a very 
long letter of the iilaiitation affairs; what pains 
I had taken to bring the indigo and ginger, cot- 
ton and lucerne, to jierfection; and that I had 
more hojies of the indigo th.an the others." 

Again: "August, 1741. Wrote according to 
custom to my father to-day, but this time par- 
ticjilarly on the subject of cotton and the silk 
worm." We find also mention m;ule of the 
silk she had spun from those very silkworms, 
that is still in existence. "A veiy rich satin 
damask is now in the possession of Mrs. Kut- 
ledge, of Charleston, t<i which the folhiwing 
memorandum is athxed: In I7r><>, Mrs. Pinekiiey 
took with her to Kngland a quantity of silk 
spun from worms of her own niisiiig at Belmont 
plantation, near Charleston, S. C. It was con- 
sidered by the manufacturers equal to any im- 
portation from Italy. The quantity was sutfi- 
cieiit to lie woven into three dress jwitteriis, one 
of which Mrs. I'iuckney presented to the Princess 
Dowager of Wales, mother of (ieorge HI., .an- 
other to Lord Chesterfield, the third she 
brought to .\merica." 

One can scarcely i-efrain from exclaiming, 
why do we not po.ssesB more of the spirit of en- 
terjirise and self-indeiiendeiic-e that animateil 
the noble woman character a century ago, in 
.seeking to devehip the heat interests of our new 
country. 

"■••' \lii\ .'^■•- 



MoiiAL IsKLi'ENC'E. — Tlie iutlueiice of a goo<.l 
example is f;ir-reaching; for oiu- experience ami 
conflicts with the world lead us at times to in- 
dulge misanthropic sentiments, and charge iUl 
men with sellLsh and impure motives. The play 
of pride, prejudice and passion, and the eager- 
ness manifested by the great majority of men to 
adv.ance their own interests, often at tlie ex- 
pense of others, and in viol.ation of the golden 
rule, cause us to look with suspicion on the liest 
intents of others. Arrogance, hj'pocrisy, treach- 
ery and violenc*!, every day outrage justice, till 
we are almost disposed to distrust human nature, 
and become discouraged. But amid all that is 
sad and disheartening in this Inisy, noisy world, 
now and then there is presented to us a life of 
such uniform virtue that we recognize in it 
a character th.at brings hope for the perfect de- 
velopment and ultimate regeneration of our r.oce. 
Such characters are precious, and such examples 
should be held up to the world for its admira- 
tion and imitation; they should be snatched 
from oblivion and treasured in the hearts and 
thoughts of .all who are in process of forming 
h.abits anil maturing character. 



CuM.Mir Chan'oes iM RiT.sRi.i. — The winters 
in Russia are liecoming colder every year, and 
the snmmer.^ hotter, more drj' and less fruitful, 
owing, a-s is clearly stated by Livingston, to the 
destniction of the woodlands which fonnerly 
alKiunded in the southern districts. The clear- 
ing of these lands has caused such an enormons 
evaporation, that many once capacious water- 
courses have become mere sw.amps or are com- 
])letcly dry. The IMiieiier becomes every day 
more shallow, and its tributaries are no longer 
worthy of the name of streams. The question 
of rejdanting has fre(|uently been agitated, but 
the dried condition of the earth in m.any phices 
in Southern Kussia makes it a great difficulty. 
Kuergetic measures, however, are about lieing 
adopted to overcome this ditficulty by scientific 
means. 



January 6, 1877.] 



Caterpillars in Coal. 

At the last ordinary meeting of the Derby 
Naturalists' Society, the Collieri) Gvardian says 
that Mr. A. H. Stokes produced a caterpillar 
which had beea presented to him as a "find" in 
the coal, 61 yards deep, at Hi"h Moor, Ecking- 
ton. The man frc^m whom helTjbtaiued it stated 
that, on splitting a piece of coal in the ordiiiaiy 
course of his labor, he discovered the insect 
curled up inside, and it being of a "blood-red 
color" it so alarmed him and others that, at 
first, they did not dare touch it. Eventually 
it was secured and taken to the daylight, where 
it proved its mortality by devouring voraciously 
some leaves. Although the spirit in which the 
insect had been preserved had tampered very 
much with the delicate eijidermis, and had thus 
destroyed the coloring, yet it was soon recog- 
nized as the larvai of the goat moth (Consns lii/n.i- 
panla), the larv* of which is sui)posed to be 
the "cossus" of the ancient Romans, by whom 
it was esteemed a great table delicacy. The 
insect appeared to be "full fed," an<l quite ready 
to form its cocoon, and this would account for 
the position in which it was found. How it 
came down the mine it is, of course, imjjossible 
to say. The ordinary home of the insect is in 
the wood of willow trees, where the pupa; are 
sometimes found, and it may have descended in 
the timber used in the mine, or it may have 
descended unobserved on some of the men's 
clothing. Some persons might doubt the ability 
of an insect to eat its way into coal. On this 
point, fortunately, we have ample evi<lence. A 
gentleman once placed some of these larv;e in a 
box, which he deposited upon the piano. He 
was rather surprised the next morning on find- 
ing that these industrious liiters had gnawed 
their way through the box into the piano, and 
had evidently gone on a voyage of discovery 
into the interior. Prof. Henslow, writing to 
the Zoologist (vol. viii., p. 2,897,) say.s: "1 
placed half a dozen caterpillars of the goat moth 
in a glass jar, with .sawdust and a piece of wil- 
low, and covered the mouth with sheet lead, 
which was perforated with an awl to adnut the 
air. Three of the caterpillars were to-ilay 
crawling on the floor, and, on examining the 
jar, I found that they had effected their escape 
by gnawing the lead, having enlarged two of 
the perforations sufficiently to enable them to 
pass out of their prison." Now, an insect which 
can eat its way through lead and through wal- 
nut wood would not make a difficulty over a 
piece of coal. The larv;e of different species of 
Dkraniira are similarly powerful in the jaw, 
and Mr. Stokes's insect was at first taken for 
one of this order. 



A Mother's Words. 



A mother on tlie green hills of Vermont was 
holding by the right hand a son sixteen years old, 
mad with love for the sea, and as he stood by 
the garden gate one morning, she said: 

" Edward, they tell me — for I never saw the 
ocean — the great temptation of a seaman's life is 
drink. Promise me, my son, before you (juit 
your mother's hanil, that you will never drink." 

And said he — for he told me the story — "I 
gave her the promise, and 1 went the globe over, 
Calcutta and the Mediterranean, San Francisco, 
the Cape of (iood Hope, the North Pole and the 
South. I saw them all in forty years, and I 
never saw a glass filled with sparkling liquor 
that mother's form by the gate did not rise up 
before me, and to-day I am innocent of the taste 
of liquor." 

Was not that sweet evidence of the power of 
a single word ? Yet that is not half. 

" For," said he, "yesterday there came into 
my counting room a man of forty years." 

" Do you know me?" 

"No." 

"Well," said he, "I was once brought 
drunk into your presence on shipboard; you 
were a passenger; they kicked me aside; you 
took me to your berth and kejjt me there until 
1 had slept oft' the intoxication; you then askeil 
me if I had a mother. I said I had never 
known a word from her lips. You told me of 
yours at the garden gate, and to-day I am master 
of one of the packets in New York, and I came 
to ask you to come and see me. " 

How far that little candle throws its beams! 
That mother's words on the green hills of Ver- 
mont! O, Cod be thanked for the mighty power 
of a single word. 

Marks of a Gentleman. — No man is a gen- 
tlemnn who, without provocation, would treat 
with incivility the humblest of his species. It 
is vulgarity f()r which no accomplishment of 
dress or address can ever atone. Show us the 
man who desires to make every one around him 
happy, and whose greatest solicitude is never to 
give cause of offense to any one, and we will 
show you a gentleman by nature and species, 
though he may never have worn a suit of broad- 
cloth, uor ever heard of a lexicon. We are 
proud to say, for the honor of our species, 
there are many men in every throb of whose 
heart there is solicitude for the welfare of man- 
kind, and whose ovory breath is perfumed witli 
kindness. 

Happiness is inborn. It is not an outward 
trait. It is generated in the soul. It is 
never bought or sold as an article of com- 
merce. You may fill your house with all man- 
ner of beautiful and curious things, but you can- 
not lay in a stock of happiness in the same way. 
If you are happy, youif happiness is that which 
you are able to make by the use of the mind 
itself. 



Yo'^fiQ p©Lks^ CojL\!pm, 



Old Jenkins and Ben. 



I Written for the Rural Press b.v rniLMORE.] 

Our schoolliouse stood out all alone, 
With a door in one corner so queer, 

With four littio witidows in front 
And four jnst the same in the rear. 

A stone wall, topjied out witl\ a rail 

Was the bonnd'ry one side and no more - 

And that was to stop up a trail 
Where the children came 'cross lots before. 

Old .lenkins, too mean to live well, 
He begrudjjed what others possessed; 

Cut he has ^one, some say to — well, 
Say Kansas or somewhere out West. 

He always contrived to annoy 
Every scholar that passed by his way; 

But chiefly he hated one boy, 
And that boy hates him to this day. 

The schoolmaster, g-ood of his kind, 

Felt bound to earn well liijf fee; 
To the faults of the wealthy was blind, 

But the poor boys' shortcomings he'd see. 

Throuffh a jiond in the meadow a fence, 
All covered with ice and with snow; 

Some rails were missinj^ from thence 
Where were they, no one seemed to know. 

At last the younjf culprit was caught, 
Or at least so old Jenkins maintained. 

And that was the boy who had nought. 
Of course he the best could be blamed. 

The rascal was tried and condemned. 

Though forty more boys were along, 
He only was called to amend. 

For none of the rest could do wrong. 

He was punished as boys ought to be 
Whose parents are helpless and poor; 

The schoolhouse was built to be free. 
But this was too much to endure. 

So a meeting was called to decide 
What was best to be done in the case. 

The result the poor boy nmst abide. 
And perhaps leave the school in disgrace. 

Squire Blunt was the first to address 
The Trustees that were to conclude - 

Says he: "Mister Cheerman, 1 guess 
You won't mind if I sorter intrude; 

"You see, I have knowed this 'ere boy, 
And I have some boys of my own. 

Some on 'em are gi'n to destroy 
And some on 'em can let thing.s alone. 

"Now, the boys all ]>Iayed on the ice. 

Some thirty or forty, they sa.v; 
S(t now, ju.st take my advice - 

Let's see what amount is to pay. 

"T have three, and Ben there is four; 

TcTi dollars for damage the.y claim; 
I'll give one dollar or more, 

Hut ail t'other boys are to blame." 

Now Ben was the culprit to try. 

Looking up to .Squire Blunt with a stare, 
The poor boy, conunencing to cry, 

Said; "I told him the others were there. 

"He told me I lied -called me names, 
Said he knew who broke down the fence, 

He had caught me, he said, at my ganie^, 
And would teach me a lesson fr(jm thence. 

"I ain't got no money to pay. 
But I'll work out my portion for you," 

Said he to the Squire with joy, 
"If you've got any work I can do." 

A purse was m.ade up there and then, 
.\nd received by "Old .lenkins" with joy; 

Given freely by sensible men. 
In justice, to help the iioor boy. 

Many years have since come and fled, 
Many changes have been, gootl and bad, 

Squire Blunt has long since been dead, 
But he lives in the heart of that hiil. 

Old .Jenkins has not been forgot, 
Since be went— we do not know where; 

But whether he is happy or not, 

Ben knows not, nor yet does he care. 



The Horse Hospital. 

There are several large horse residences in 
New York. They each have beds for hundreds 
of horses. Horses, like men, sometimes have 
their ill turns and fits of sickness; and the 
curious part of this is, that they take cold, and 
have sore throats and the rheumatism, and every- 
thing else that men are liable to have if they do 
not take care of themselves. So there is a doc- 
tor ccmstantly on hand to look after tlie com- 
pany, anil to give them their pills and powders. 
The first sign that a car-horse exhiliits of sick- 
ness is a slight lameness when at woi'k. Do 
you think they whip him up and make him go 
faster"? No; they take him right to the hotel, 
and call the doctor. The medical man looks 
wise, feels of the ]joor fellow's feet, and says he 
is feverish and must have a warm l)ath. So the 
doctor's assistant takes off' the patient's shoes, 
and leads him to the hospital for lame horses. 
This is a cool and shady room in the basement, 
and filled with comfortalile stalls, and each hav- 
ing a big tub of warm water. Here the lame 
horse with fever in his feet has a foot-bath of 
warm water and hay-seed. He has tramped 
many a weary mile over the stones of Third 
avenue, and the bath is grateful and comforting, 
and he holds his feet in it with resignation and 
patience, as if he felt sure that the wise doctor 
knew what was best. Then, after the fever has 
gone, the doctor's man dresses the patient's feet 
and wipes them dry, and the horse feels a hun- 
dred times better, and thinks he could try that 
long tramp d(jwn town again without misgivings. 
The shoemaker puts on new shoes, and the con- 
valescent goes to his own room for a good sup- 
per and a night's rest, and to-morrow he will be 
all right again. — " 7'/ie J/ome Hotel," in hi. 
Nicholun. 



Q@©D) 4e^ljI|, 



Air for Infants. 

We cannot lay down any rule with regard to 
exposing infants to the outer air, but we know 
they must have it in some way. Mothers must 
be discreet and not expose their infants to so 
low a temperature that even their warm cloth- 
ing cannot retain sufficient aninuil heat to resist 
tlie depressing inffueucc of cold. Thu extremes 
of temperature must l)e lessened by good man- 
agement. The heat of summer can be lessened 
in its effects upon infants by keeping them in 
cool rooms during the heat of the day, and in 
warm rooms (no hot) iluring the cold; exposing 
them to the outer air in the former case morn- 
ing and evening, and in the latter case, in the 
warmest lumrs of the day. 

In the damp, chilly temperature of spring and 
autumn, when the special diseases of infancy are 
ajit to prevail, too much care and watchfulness 
cannot be liestowed. 

Adults, barely able to move their bodies, 
have been strengthened and raised to a good 
degree of health by Ijeing placed in some con- 
venient caiTiage and taken cuit t<i ride daily. 
In the same way sick infants may be wonder- 
fully improved by being taken into the outer 
air and given gentle exercise. By it the strong 
are made stronger and the weak are rendered 
less feeble. We have known infants so feeble 
that the fresh air was their only medicine, and 
on this they recovered. Compare rural with 
city children. Tlie jiale faces and soft muscles 
of the latter do not compare well with the 
ruddy faces, hard muscles, active limbs and 
sprightly eyes of those who sijend most of their 
time, every projier day, in the f)pen air. 

While we regard the purity we are not to 
disregard the temperature of the inhaled air. 
The mother's plan should be to preserve as uni- 
form a temperature as possible. For it is not 
the absolute temperature that harms infants, so 
much as the vicissitudes of it. A house in mid- 
winter should not have a -temperature higher 
than 70" Fah. It is this difference that 
does the harm, the sudden change from heat to 
cold. Let me rejieat, mothers should not sup- 
pose that because harm does not follow exposure 
at once no harm has been done. Ordinarily the 
bad inriuences of indiscreet exposures appear 
gradually. Some infants are more predisposed 
to "take cold" than others. ,Some are very 
susceptible to vicissitudes of temperature. 
They may be but slightly exposed on some 
<lamp, chilly afternoon. They are put to bed in 
apparently a good .<;tate of health. They do not 
sleep well. The next day they are hoarse, and 
by night are feverish, and in a few hours may 
have indications of sore throat, or iuHammation 
of the lungs, or croup. ^Vhat shall a mother 
do'? If she expose her infant to a lower temper 
ature than that to which it has been accustomed, 
it may take cold. If she keeps it snugly warm 
within the nursery or the house, it becomes very 
tender and susceptible, so that, on the whole, 
she may find, as others have, that her infant is 
safer, less likely to 'take a severe cold, if dis- 
creetly exposed, than if confined to the hot air 
of her dwelling. 

The most and best a mother can do on this 
subject, is to collect from the wise and ex- 
perienced in the business of raising children all 
the knowledge they have, and then use her 
discretion in its application. The greatest 
wisdom and the keenest discretion cannot 
always protect infants in such a way that they 
never "take cold." A young mother, then, 
needs the advice of those who have obtaineil 
their wisdom by experience and observation. 

Feeble children, in whom the powers of re- 
sistance are small, should be guarded against 
exposures in damij and chilly weather. Fresh 
air contributes to the health and comfort df 
infants, but severe cold is an excess of fresh- 
ness and may injure on the general principle 
that moderation benefits and excess hai'ins. A 
vigorous child, who can easily resist the de- 
pressing influences of cold, and who is so 
warndy clothed that it can retain the animal 
heat generated by the various functions of his 
nature, is ordinarily very much benefited by in- 
haling cool air. It renders liiin still more robust 
and hardy. It improves his digestion and his 
assimilation. It enriches his blood and gives 
strength and rapid development. The weakly 
and jioorly developed do need great watchful- 
ness from the mother. We rejieat, the comfort 
and health of infants requires discretion in ex- 
jiosing them to unaccustomed degrees of cold. — 
Prairie. Farmer. 



SESJIC EC©pjQfl| 



Avoid Chills. — It is one of the facts best 
known to science that when a part of the outer 
surface of the body has been exposed long to 
cold the greatest risk is run in trying suddenly 
to re-inducc warmth. To become thoroughlj 
chilled and tlieii to pass into a very warm 
atinospliero, sucli as is found near a fire, results 
in a dangerous reaction which, a few hours 
later, may cause pneumonia, or bronchitis, or 
lioth diseases. The capillaries of the lungs 
become engorged, and the circulation becomes 
static, so that there must be a reaction of heat 
inflanimatiou before recovery can occur. Com- 
mon colds, says a contemporary, are taken in 
the .same way; the exposed mucous surfaces of 
the nose and throat are subjected to a chill, 
then they are subjected to heat; then there 
follows congestion, reaction of heat, jjouring out 
of fluid matter, and tha otlmr local pli«nomona 
•f catarrh. 



Farmers' Kitchens. 

There are several reasons, says the Countnj 
Oaalkmm, why the farmer's kitchen should be 
regarded as one of the most important rooms 
in the house. It will, perhaps, be correct to say 
that it is decidedly the most important. Not 
that we would advise the family to make a sit- 
ting room of it, and to spenil all their time in 
this apartment; for unless his house is very small, 
the farmer should provide a separate room for 
the leisure hours of evenmgs, and for reading, 
writing and study; or for conversation with his 
faniily, and for the sewing and other occupations 
of its female members during the day. 

Nevertheless, the kitchen should receive special 
attention and we now ott'er a few suggestions on 
the subject to the many who are about to build, 
and who look over and digest their plans during 
winter preparatory to commencing operations 
in the early spring. 

First, then, in the list of requirements, the 
kitchen should be made pleasant and respect- 
able. A dark room or badly ventilated apart- 
ment will not favor good cooking, eitlier by the 
hired girl or by the mistress herself. To the 
former a small dark room will convey the im- 
pression that what is done in it is not of much 
consequence, and that the work may be slighted 
and that cleanliness is not of vital importance. 
The mistress will find it difficult to <lo anything so 
well in the dark, or in the foul air, as under 
the more favoralile circumstances. During the 
years of a long life the writer has tested both 
modes. Better servants can be secured and re- 
tained when a comfortable apartment is pro- 
vided, and when all conveniences and appliances 
have been procured, than when there is nothing 
pleasant ami attractive, and where kitchen work 
is performed at a continued disadvantage. We 
therefore provide a well-oiled floor of hard wood, 
which is easily kept clean, cover the walls with 
well-varnished wall-pajicr, place green Venetian 
blinds on the windows, provide ample lights on 
both sides which jiermit free ventilation, bring 
water to the sink by means of two pumps, place 
the valve which opens to the coal-bin within a 
step of the cooking stove, have the store-room 
adjoining, and last, and not least, add a com- 
fortable bed-room for servants, opening from the 
kitchen. 

All these conveniences are not expensive. 
They save money in the long run. The waste 
and breakage of poor servants will more than 
pay the additional cost of better ones, to say 
nothing about the satisfaction of cleanliness and 
well-cooked food which the family and the mis- 
tress will enjoy. . 

The mode for obtaining these conveniences 
will readily suggest themselves to most house 
owners. But there is one point to which we 
wish to invite more jiarticular attention, and 
this is the importance of securing anijile light 
from two opposite sides, besides giving the 
apartment good size. We often see plans of 
dwellings where neither of these requisites are 
secured. 



Almond Cake. — Blanch and pcmnd in a mor- 
tar six ounces of sweet almonds and three 
ounces of bitter almonds; must pound but two 
or three at most at a time, adding a little rose 
water to tliein, to make them white and lighter; 
put them out on a plate when done and take 
two or three more; beat 13 fresh eggs as light 
as can be; stir slowly into them alternately the 
beaten almonds; one pound powdered sugar; 
one half pound sifted prepared flour, and one 
small grated nutmeg. Have a square pan lined 
with buttered white paper, and bake in quick 
oven. Do not move it until done, which will 
be or ought to be in half an hour. When cohl, 
ice with the following icing : Whites of two 
eggs, beaten as usual, and half jiouiul of pow- 
dered sugar, two ounces of sweet and one of bit- 
ter almonds, prepared the same as for the cake, 
and mixed smoothly with the egg and sugar. It 
should be spread over the cake nearly half an 
inch thick; put in a cool oven to dry. Do not 
let it lirown one particle; then cover it with a 
plain icing of sugar and white of egg. Lady 
cake is very nice with almonds in it. Tlic same 
qu.intity of almonds and prepared and finished 
as above. 



How 10 Roast Wild Goose.— This is an ex- 
cellent recipe for geese, turkeys or chickens. 
Take aiijilcs, pared, aliout the same amount as 
you would take of bread, cut them as fine as 
possible, or, what is better, chop them with a 
sausage knife; also chop with the aj^ples half 
a pound or less of sweet bacon and two onions; 
wlicii these are quite fine, add a small piece of 
bread, cruml)cd line, a few handfuls of raisins, 
a very little salt, pejiper and ground ;illspice 
and cloves according to taste; fill your goose 
with this; pin a few slices of bacon on the 
breast of the goose with pine pins ; add .some 
water, and let it roast slowly for from three to 
four hours; from time to time, as it roasts, pour 
the gravy over the goose, so that it does not be- 
come dry. — Rural WorUl. 



Saoo Puduino. — One dozen tart apples; ono 
and a half cups of sago; soak the sago till soft; 
peel and core the apples, and place in a dish; fill 
the apples witli sugar; ])our tlie sago over, and 
bake till tlie ap2)les are cooked. 



8 



tte «0« Q JiM* XO «£\»1yJ J&&«0»^ ^ ^ ^ B ^« 



[January 6, 1877. 




rrnusiiED bt 

DEITATEIir ^ CO. 

i T. DEWEV. W. B EWER. 0. n. STRONG. J. L. BOONE. 

Principal Editor W. B. EWER, A. M. 

Office, No 224 Sansomc stroct, southeast corner of Oal- 
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Large adverti.senicnta at favorable rates. Special or 
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In extraordinary tj-pe or in particular parts of the paper. 
Inserted at special rates. 



The Orioixau Articles in this paper are mostly set in 
solid t>*pe, giving in our columns one-third more reading 
than is contained in ordinary loaded matter. 

Addbfjis all letters to the finn, and not to Individual 
members, or others, who may at any time be absent from 
our office. 



Our Inkfi forms ijo to prens Wednesday erenmg. 

No Quack Advertisements inserted in these 
Columns. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 6, 1877. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



GENERAL EDITORIALS. -Tahiti; Is Heat a 
Remedy for Potitu Oisea.se, 1; The Week; Dairj' Notes 
und Comments; A Pamphlet on Phylloxera; Fungus on 
Nut Trees. 8; The State Agricultural Society; Miion- 
Ilght on the Susquehanna; The Isthmus Canal; Con- 
traction oi the U'H.t, 9. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.- Moonlight on the Susquehanna, 
1; Islands nl Triiti and Eimeo; The Early Tnide in 
Tahitiaii Fruit, d. 

CORRESPONDENCE. Large Talk hi Agriculture; 
Hop CiiUure m Sacramento) County; Solano County; 
Barbecue at K<*rryes.sa; New Jerusalem Artichoke; 
Poi.'ion in lilue Clotii, 2. 

THE APIARY. -Kxiiericnce of a Napa Bce-Keeper; 
Mea-surenientB of .Viij'les bv Bees, 3. 

POULTRY YARD.- M'vsleries in Poultn- Bree<l- 
Ing, 3. 

THE STOCK YARD. A Card From .Mr. Carr, 3. 

THE DAIRY. .ler.M vs as Butter Cows, 3-10. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. -Letter from Hr... 
Wright; \\*orth\ !.ecturcr"s Visits; From the Orange-^; 
Elwtion of otliiVrs, 4. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from vari<ms counties 
in CaliI'onii:i and nregon, 5. 

HO^E CIRCLE. -The Herons of Elmwoo.1, (poetrj); 
Wowlside Pajiers- .Vo. 8; Our (Irandfaihers: A Lady 
Farmer of l/3y; Moral Inltuence, 6. .V Mother's 
Words; Murks of a (Jentleman, 7. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.-Old Jenkins and 
Ben. (I'oetr\ i; Th. Htsc Hospital, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH. Ur for Infants; Avoid Chills, 7. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. Fanners Kitchens; Al- 
mond C-ikc; How to Kna.«t Wild Goose; Siigo Pudding, 7. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES. -Canary Seed and 
Onions; Cuts on Ajiple Trres; Bleaching Wax, 8. 

THE SWINE YARD. -English Cross Bree<ling, lO. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.- Practical Points in Wool 
Growiiig, 10. 

THE STABLE. -About "Balking," lO. 

HORTICULTURE.- ("sing Young Cions; Orange 
MinnaJade. 11. 

GENERAL NEWS ITEMS on page 12 and othtr 
pai,^efl- 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Murder of Scientists, 2. Cli- 
matic Changes in Russia, 6. Caterpillars in Oial, 7. 
Tea-Preparing .Machine; bleaching c;otton;Tl)e Indian 
Cyclone; Bleaching Wool; The Moon's Motion; Cause of 
Error in a Thermometer; The Permanent Exhibition, 11; 
The Wool Clip of 1b7«; The Hroulh; The AshUibula 
Wsaslcr; A Chance for the Ixjw Lands, 12. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Live and Let Live Bull's Head Stock 'iard-,; Auction Sale 
of, Live Stock; Two Thoroughbred Short Horn Bulls; 
Wanted and for Sale, R, P. Saxe, S. F. ; Seed Annual, 
V. M Ferry, Detro t, Mich. ; Flower and Vegetable Gar- 
den, James Vick, N. V.; Floral Guide, Detroit See«l Co., 
)[ich. ; Seetls for Sale, Innisfallen Greenhouses, Spring- 
flold, Ohio; Heavy Fleeced Merino Shecji, Jnhu S. Coc, 
BPOwTisnIlc, Pa. 



The Week. 



The Pre.'i.s is rather proud of its uew clothci 
and does not hesitate to ask its friends to cou- 
trast the new, bright surfaces -with the gar- 
ments which have been laid aside. The dou" 
niug of new type is an event in the histoi-j' of 
any newspaper. It is an indication of pros- 
perity. It is a plain demonstration that rea<i. 
ers of the paper rauk it jio high that their pat- 
ronage warrants expenditure tor improvements. 
And when the publishers return to the patrons 
the benefit ox their substantial support, it 
should be the occasion for all friends of tlie 
paper to give it another push forward. A\'e 
trust that the Rckal will thus bo received and 
promoted by every reader. 

We think the reader will find the new type 
much clearer and more legible than the old. It 
has an open countenance and a frank expres- 
sion which we much admire. The impression, 
too, is sharp and well defined, and thus may be 
the thoughts which are presented. Although it 
is with regret that we lay aside the old type, 
which has gained for us so many times the eyes 
of oiu- readers and the expressions of their approv- 
al, wo trust that the new may secure renewed 
and increased favor. With this expression of 
our hope and purpose, we present the first issue 
of Volume XIlI. to th« reader. 



Dairy Notes and Comments. 

Editors Press:— Our prospect here at present is rather 
'* blue." Onlj' one inch of rain has fallen since last April. 
The old feed is pretty well consumed or trodden to dust, 
and the new is about dried or frozen out. 

A Conundrum for dairj-men might be. " If butter is hard 
of sale at 30 and 35 cents, under present aspect t»f weather 
and feed, what would it have sold for if the sea-son had 
been propitious ':'' 

It is the custom in California to overdo everything that 
promises to pay decently, and it looks as though it were 
possible to produce more butter than will sell at a paying 
tigure, unless we aiu turn the tables and market our 
winter butter Kasl. With our present rates for labor, 
there will l>e very little profit to the producer if butter 
fetches less than 2& cents per pound net. 

There is no money in feeding cattle with beef at present 
rates, and sheep men must have a hard scratch to keep 
even, with wool and mutton at almost less than cost of 
production. 

In my opinion thes j things in great measure arise from 
speculators competing with regular fanners, and from 
over-greedy monopolists. Another rea.son is that farmers 
themselves are too apt to change from one kind of strf)ck to 
another, as the price is temporarily high or low, thus 
making markets unstable. 

Of oourse pitiless political economy ultimately vindi- 
cates her rights and nips monopolist and speculator, solid 
men though they be; but the struggling farmer docs not 
escape scatheless when the pinch comes. I'nfortunately, 
what to the solid man is but the loss of some thousands of 
dollars, is almost total ruin to the farmer 

I know of one "solid man " who made chee-se at a cost 
of $1 per pound, and another who is at present engaged in 
growing pork at a cost of say 'J5 cents per pouiul, live 
weight. The operation does not benefit them uuicb. but 
it helps to depress the market for the legitimate farmer. 
Uf course it also circulates the solidity of the solid men. 

Edk'd. Bkrwick. 

Carmcl Valley, Cal.,t)ec. 29th, 1876. 

These points are forcibly made and worthy 
of consideration. The remedy does not appear, 
unless, as our correspondent notes, a new and 
more capacious market can be found for our but- 
ter when we have a great surplus. The ju'eseut 
condition of the butter market is e.asy to under- 
stand. Asiile from the increased number of 
butter producers, there was the immense yield 
of last winter and spring, because the wet sea- 
sou gave such rich, wide spread and enduring 
pasturage. The price at the time fell low and 
the surplus was pickled. The early rains of 
last October started tlie feed and hastened the 
flow of milk, so that a great weight of fre.ih roll 
came upon the market before the pickled roll 
could be worked oif out of the way, ami thus 
arose tlie glut and present low prices. The iu- 
fluence of the present drouth has not yet had 
tim« to exert itself, because th« supplies on 
hand were so large, but there can be no doubt 
that it will act sharply and speedily if the rains 
are longer deferred. 

In the features notcil above the season is 
somewhat exceptional and may nt>t f)ccur again 
for years. It looks now as though we should 
have a bitter experience in 1877 like that of 
1875; wlien the surplus in pickle was exhausted 
and before the large pi'i)diiotion of fresh roll be- 
gan, there was a need to import large (piantities 
of Kasteni butter to supply our markets. The 
lesson for such a season is to make every ett'ort 
to grow extra green fodder, whicli shall maintain 
thi: flow of milk during August and Septeiiibir, 
and thus be prepared to reap the reward which 
the early marketing of fresh roll always secures 
the producer. The present outlook is that there 
will be money in such a plan if the dairyman 
have land upon which he can grow his green 
crojis next sjd'ing. 

As for marketing some of our winter butter 
in the Kast, we think it can be ilone profitably if 
the effort is made wisely. The time to strike 
the New York market is in February and 
March. At tliis time the supply of Eastern 
butter is small and the qaality very poor, be- 
cause the make of the fall months is generally 
exhausted and nothing comes forward but the 
early hay butter. If the effort to ship butter 
to the East is made it should be done with a 
\'iew to the style of package, etc. , which will 
sell best in their markets, and for this puqjose 
correspondeiice sliould l>e ha<l with the Eastern 
merchants to whom con.siguments are to be 
made. This the dairymen coulil acconi))lish by 
actitig together, aud perhaps they could use the 
California Dairymen's orgauization for this jmr- 
pose. There is nothing in the way of safe aud 
cheap shipment if the butter is properly made 
and packed, l>ecause after the .Sacramento val- 
ley is passed there is no danger of warm weather 
at that season of the year at any point on the way 
to seaboard. It would be well to ship by the full 
car-load, and if fresh, clean cars are used we 
should have no fear of the perfect carriage of 
the product even by slow freight. 

As our correspondent truly says, the rewards 
of legitimate production are always lessened 
by the efforts of amateurs and adventurers and 
with no advantage to them. Every productive 
enterprise wliich attains any success must expect 
this and be prepared to "hold tlie fort" .against 
it. When such forces are operating in the dairy 
production the regular producer must hohl his 
ground and be content to live and Lttle more 
until the reaction comes. Then his reward will 
return and atone for the sacrifice. The success 
is to hijn who perseveres an<l holds himself in 
readiness for the coming. The experience and 
observation of years has shown the wisdom of 
this policj' in agricultni-al production, when tlie 
line of production is one wliich is permanent in 
the demands of men. We believe in the dairy, 
in beef producing and in wool growing, the prices 
of tlie coming year will atone for the lack of 
the i>ast year, to all those whose advantages and 
courage -will enable them to continue the pro- 
iluctiou. 



On File.— "Tree and Vine Planting," W. A. 
S. ; "Industi-y," G. W. W. ; "Orange Scale 
Bug," S. B. ; "Bee Hives," S. P. S. ; "Curing 
Hops," J. M. ; "In Memoriam,"Mattole Grange; 
"It«ms," Fsmdala Grange, BJncon Grange^ 



A Pamphlet on Phylloxera. 

We are disposed to look with favor upon 
every eflbrt to cope with that enemy of our 
vineyards, the phylloxera. We are disposed to 
treat kindly every publication on the subject 
which evinces earnest thought or careful inves- 
tigation on the subject. We hold the critica' 
spii'it in abeyance, and rejoice ■when anything 
good is brought forward even if it is attended 
with much that is crude. We even do not rel 
fjuire that a statement shall be altogether new, 
liecause a good thing, in a time of need, will 
bear repetition. 

This disposition of ours is put to the test by a 
pamphlet on the phylloxera, which is written by 
A. Drioton, and published by A. Roman & Co., 
of San Fr.ancisco. The writer calls his pamph- 
let "All About Phylloxera," and this we con- 
sider rather a presumptuous title when we read 
for a description of* the insect: "The phyllox- 
era, seen through the magnifying glass, is an 
insect someM'hat of the shape and color of a 
bug." If this is the way the author tikes to 
say that the insect is of the Jleini/itera, all 
right; but his method is peculiar. The author 
persists in spelling the name of the insect with 
one "1," which is without authority in the 
Cireek, whence the name is derived. Also, when 
he calls the oidium "odium" he comes very 
near being odious. We harilly find much more 
satisfactinn in the way in which the author says 
the insect is produced, but will not argue the 
point. We pass to the points in the pamphlet 
which in spite of its crudity may lie useful to 
repeat. 

Tlie ■vtTiter finds the reasons why vineyards 
are destroyed by the insect in the exhaustion of 
the soil by continuous drain of its productive 
power without return of fertilizing material, 
and in the weakening of the vine by overbear- 
ing. Tlie secret of the treatment, then, is to 
restore the fertility of the soil aud to prevent 
the vines from excossi\e fruiting. Now, so far 
as these things go they are very wise and good, 
and perhaps ihey do not possess less value from 
the t.tct that every writer upon the subject of 
the jihylloxera has mentioned tliem as points to 
be observed in the combat with the insect. 
\\liat there is new in M. Drioton's pamphlet 
consists in his regarding these items as the sum 
total of Wiufare and defense against the insect. 
He says it is not jxissible to cure a vine which 
has Ijeen attacked; the only remedy is to uproot 
such vines and treat the remainder of the vine- 
yaid so that the insect shall not be developed. 
We are not sure of this statement, although 
from the failure of the insecticides which the 
French have brought to their service there is 
some show of truth about it. 

We shall give the method which the author 
proposes for the conquest of the scourge, 
because if it does not accomplish the result de- 
sired it is doubtle-ss possessed of some qu.'dities 
for strengthening the vines and rendering them 
less liable to all their foes. We quote as 
fullows: 

"Now, let us suppose our vineyard attacked 
by the phylloxera; let us see what will take 
place and how we shall proceed. In the month 
of June, but oftener in August, at the season 
when the sap is in action, will be noticeable one 
or several places where the stocks, losing their 
beautiful dark green color, will change into a 
yellow shade, more or less pale according to the 
intensity of the disease. At that time we shall 
be satisfied with pointing out with a special 
mark all diseased st;ilks, but we shall not touch 
them in any other way, for, by eradicating them 
at that time we would risk wounding some of 
the healthy vines, and it is well kno^tn that the 
wounds infiicted on the vine at the time of its 
bearing are not easilj' healed. But during the 
winter months, whilst the action of the sap is 
suspended, we must pull out all the stalks that 
we have taken care to mark, as well .as those 
lying by the side of them, upon a space of ten 
feet long, proceeding thus: 

"First <lig a hole around the shrub six feet in 
diameter by one aud a half in depth; then bring 
on the spot a i«irtable boiler, of the style of 
those generally seen near all the wine cellars, 
and keep it const.antly tilled with boiling water; 
after that, take three or four buckets full of that 
boiling water and throw it in the hole as well as 
over the mold that has been dug out, aud this 
oi>ei'.ation once performed over all the stalks that 
are to lie destroyed, uproot them and burn them 
on the spot, stems, roots and all, taking great 
care not U> leave a particle alive. Level the 
soil again, and then leave it untouched until 
the month of February. At that time, manure 
it, as well as the rest of the vineyard, with a 
great quantity of farm-yard m.anure, and the 
refuse of the wine-press and still. Then replant 
the vacant spots, and everj' year be careful to 
put in dung suitably so as to keep the soil 
sufficiently fertile." 

I.MPORTF.D Stallio.ns. — A lot of fine imi»orted 
stallions, ovnied by Mr. Baker, of Minnesota, 
have just arrived at Saxe's Bull's Heatl stock 
yard. They are "Boylston," "Baker's Fear- 
nought," "Mambrino Box" and "Blackstone, 
Jr., all well bred and from famous sires. 



The railway operators' strike in Canada still 
continuas. 



QiliF\iES i^ND Replies. 



Canary Seed and Onions. 

Editors Prims: -This week I ordered the Rvral Prf.«8 
through our news agents, Messrs. Bartlett Bros., for one 
year Having changed my position from a dnigf^st to 
that of a rancher on a mnall scale, I naturally thirst for 
infomiation relative to my new occupation, aiid I trust 
you will lend me your assistance on special articles, IsL 
Can canary seed be grown successfully in this part of the 
State'? If so, what kind of soil suitable, amount of seed 
per acre, manner of planting, cultivation and hanesting 
for markef; Is the ordinary seed we purchiise in the 
market suitable for planting'; 

'Id. Which is the best onion to grow for the market, Sil- 
vcrskin or Red Wethers-field? or would you advise both.' 
What is the probable cost of a drill for putting in the 
seed? -C. F. Bi rks, San Buenaventura, C:al. 

We see no reason why canary seed should not 
do well in Ventura county, It has been grown 
with success, we believe, farther down the coast, 
and Ventura should, we think, favor the crop. 
Any laud which will grow good grain will peld 
canary seed. It must be remarked, though, 
that the cleanest land is essential, either for 
hemp, rape or canarj-. If our querist has land 
which has l>een cultivatetl two or three years or 
has p.-issed through a fallow, it may he clean and 
well fitted for the crop. If it has been given to 
volunteer crops the chances . are in favor of a 
weight of foul seed. The amount of seed to the 
acre dejiends considerably upon the quality of 
the land. If it Ik; rich, less seed is desirable. 
I'roVjably from 'M to 40 pounds to the acre 
would be the range under all conditions. The 
sowing and har\esting of canary seed is like 
any of the other small grains. The threshing 
and cleaning are the same. The seed, as fudi- 
narily sold, will do for sowing, but there must 
be care to get good clean seed. This is some- 
times difficult to find in the home-grown article. 

Of onions it would be well jirobably to plant 
one-third red and two-thirrls Silverskins. The 
latter have been the favorites in tlia market this 
season. Many gi'owers use, for sowing the seed, 
a small hand drill, which costs :J1.'25. This tool 
will put away a good deal of seed. Doubtless 
there are larger drills which could be hafl by ad- 
dressing our agricultural implement dealers. 

Cuts on Apple Trees. 

Editors Press;— I notice in the Psfss of December 2Sd 
information wanted regiirding curious cuts on apple trees. 
By Mr. Greenfield's description I slioutd unhc.'-itatingly 
say it wa« I he Work of a kind of woodpecker c-alled the 
sap-sucker, lliere are very few orchards in the Ea«tera 
States free Irom tb.eir marks. He will find the rogue a 
I ttle smaller in appearance than the robin; a gray bird, 
with white and black .*.-|x>ts on the wings and tail, and a 
little re<l spot on top of the head, and lie mokes & "pip" 
of a n<iise as he moves* around and works on the body and 
larger limbs of I he tree. The shotgun is his remedy . — C. 
Capwf.ll, San Jose. 

Bleaching Wax. 

Editors Press:— 1 have but recently became a resident 
of yriur State ainl a subscriber Ut your valuable paper. 
Will you be so kind a« to publish a recipe for bleaching 
beeswax, and oblige a beginuer in the business? — U. B. 
RoctiwooD, San I>iego, Cal. 

\Vill some reader favor us with the best 
method'/ 



Fundus on Nut Trees. 

At the time of onr •visit to the Gilroy region 
we noticedlhat the nut trcs at San Felipe ■were 
rendered very unsightly by the presence of a 
black fungus on the leaves and husks of the 
green nuts. If we remember correctly, both the 
almond and the English \t alnut trees were at- 
tacked. We brought back to the city with us 
some of the leaves for examination. We sub- 
mitted them to Mr. C. Mason Kinne, Secretary 
of the Microscopical Society, and he finds the 
fungus to be a Capnodiiim. The Capnodia are 
a branch of the ConiomycHen family, a group of 
fungi which have for structure little more than 
a mass of dusty spores, and lacking the roots 
and branches (so to speak) which are character- 
istic of the molds and other fungus plants. Mr. 
Kinne has no doubt that the fungus on the 
leaves we t;ave him is identical with the black 
fungus which attacks the orange, or at least is 
similar to it in its structure and effect upon the 
tree and fruit. Tliis fungus was fully described 
in the Kcral Prfas of .liine .'M, 1870, from the 
researches of Prof. Farlow, of Harvard. 

It wdl only be necessarj- to note in this con- 
nection that the fungus, biecause of its lack of 
roots (Myrelhim), does not make a direct on- 
slaught upon the juice and sub-ntance of the leaf 
to ■w'liich it attaches itself, and therefore di^s 
not blight the foliage. The plant sustains itself 
chietly from the air and jiropag-ttes itself by 
means of its myriads of spores w-liich float on 
the breeze. The only way in which it can do 
harm is by spreading its integuments over the 
stomata of the leaves and thus suffocating it. 
This is only accomplished in extreme cases, lie- 
cause generally it does not seem to interfere 
with the fruiting of the trees afflicted with it. 
The fungus will not hn fotmd so serious a trouble 
on the nut trees as on the orange. becai;s3 the re- 
sult in the one case is spotted oranges in the 
market, while in the other the fungtis is re- 
moved with the outer husk of the nut. "The 
chief evils which the jiarasite will accompli-sh 
will be the disfiguring of the trees and possibly 
a reduction of their strength by the smothering 
process. We shall be plea.sed to receive from 
our readers any note of ^>servation which they 
may hav« made upon the fungus. 



January 6, 1877.] 



^wm mwmj.m 






The State Agricultural Society. 

It is announced that on the 25th of the pres- 
ent month the annual meeting of the State Ag- 
ricultural Society M-ill be held in Sacramento. 
The Presi<lent, Mr. Carey, we are told will in- 
sist u))on resigning his office, in accordance Math 
tlie intention e.xpressed some time ago. We 
hear also that, by reason of resignation and 
regular vacancy, there will be need to elect a 
quorum of new members to the State Board of 
Agriculture. Thus tliere will be an opportunity 
to put tlie State Society into tlie hands of a new 
set of managers, and, being in the majority, 
they will have tlie direction of its jiolicy. This 
being tlie case, the Record- Union urges upon any 
who have not approved the way in wliich the 
society has been managed, to step forward and 
put their beliefs into tangilile shape at the elec- 
tion. 

This is fair. It certainly is not right to find 
fault with a popular institution and then make 
no effort to improve it when the opportunity 
offers. We have had a good deal to say consid- 
ering the policy of the society because the inter- 
ests of jjractical and progressive agriculture 
were maile second to the race and its belongings. 
We have said that the exhibitions held at the 
fairs did not fitly represent the agriculturists of 
the State in whose name the institution was 
maintained by public 
aid. Now there is a 
chance for those who 
do not believe in hav- 
ing their name used 
to cover the perform- 
ances which have 
been most prominent 
at the fairs, to conic 
forward and place 
themselves in a posi- 
tion to lead in the 
councils of the soci- 
ety. So far as we 
know the expression 
of dislike to the man- 
agement of the Soti- 
ety has Ijeen of an 
individual character, 
except in the case of 
the Cattle Breeders' 
Society. This organ- 
ization, at its last 
meeting, adopted res- 
olutions asking for 
certain ch.anges in tho 
manner of conducting 
tho exhibi t i o n of 
stock and protested 
against giving so 
great a share of the 
premium money to 
the racers. This so- 
ciety has a member- 
ship embracing some 
of our best farmers, 
and possibly by its 
efforts in the present 
emergency the com- 
ing election of the 
State Society could 
be made to show a 
larger proportion of 
members in the board 
who do not believe 
that agriculture 
should be overshad- 
owed. It seems to 

us that the present is the time to remodel the 
society and it will soon appear whether the 
farmers of the State care enough about it to 
make the effort. 



Moonlight on the Susquehanna. 

What a legacy of beautiful names the Indians 
have left us ! Strike from our geographical 
nomenclature all of Indian origin, and you elim- 
inate from it almost all it has of grace and 
beauty. Compare the Wachusett, Juniata, 
Suwanee, Mississippi, Shasta, Tacoma, of the 
Red Men, with the " Bald " mountains, " Black" 
rivers and " f Joose " creeks of the white settlers. 
And think of " Susquehanna ! " Does not the 
very name breathe beauty and poetry, almost 
tempting us, without further knowledge, to be- 
lieve with Buchanan Read, 

" None half so fair as that broad stream whose breast 
Is ^-emnied with many isles, and whose proud name 
Shall yet become among; the names of rivers 
A synonym of beau tj— .Susquehanna. " 

" It is difficult to imagine," says another, " a 
more continuous line of beauty than the course 
of the Susquehannah, a river \^•hose mild grace 
and gentleness, 'combined with power, render it 
a message of nature to the affections and to the 
tranquil consciousness. This trait of mildness, 
even in its proudest flow, seems to hover upon 
its banks and waters as the genius of the scene. 
No thunder of cataracts anywhere announces its 
fame. It is mostly the contemplative river, 
dear to fancy, dear to the soul's calm feeling of 
unruffled peace." 

This is the poetic aspect, and from this aspect 
should the "moonlight scene" upon this page 



The Isthmus Canal. 

Those California fanners who ,nrc looking to 
the cutting of the isthmus for quick shipment 
of produce to the Kuropean markets, may find 
encouragement for the realization of the project 
in this week's news. During the week a dis- 
patch was recci\ed from Washington stating 
that the commission appointed by Prcsi<lent 
Tirant to examine tlie three proposed routes for 
connecting the Atlantic and Pacific by means of 
a canal, have reported in favor of the Nicaragua 
route. The Cnlt, in commenting on this an- 
nouncement, makes the following statement: 
"The commission consists of ficn. A. A. Hum- 
phreys, C. B. Peterson, of the Coast Survey, 
and Daniel .Animeu, of the Navy De])artment; 
all gentlemen w ell qualified for the task assigned 
them. The report they ha\c made was antic- 
ipated by the general opinion of professional 
engineers and non-professional (experts wlio have 
examined the different routes. We have not 
the reports of the former commis.sions before us 
at this moment so as to give actual estimates in 
detail, but these reports left little doubt that 
the Nicaragua route would be finally selected as 
the mo.st feasible. Still, the work is one of 
gigantic proportions, and will rank, with the 
construction of the SuezVanal aiuPthe building 
of theJP.-icitic railroa<l, among the'great engineer- 




MOONLIGHT ON THE SUSQUEHANNA. 



A New Acstralian Wild Fruit. — Mr. W. 
Howard lately brought under the notice of the 
Queensland Clironic.k specimens of a wild fruit 
which, according to his account, has Oeen only 
recently discovered by settlers on the Burrum, 
and of the edible of \\hich even tlie blacks until 
lately had no knowledge, they having been first 
induced to taste it by observing that their dogs 
greedily devouretl those that had fallen from 
over-ripeness. In size and appearance it is 
very like a sm.all .apple; the color, externally, 
bright red; inside, greenish white; the pulp 
closely resembling tliat of an apple, but drier 
and more fibrous. The flavor is tart but not 
unpleasant, and approximating to that of a 
common crab or wood apple. It contains five 
hard pips of a bright maliogany color, each en- 
close<l in a separate core, and about an inch in 
length. The tree is described as very tall and 
ornamental, and the locality where it abounds 
is near the mouth of the Burrum. The fruit, 
although nol very palatable in its wild condition, 
would no doubt be easily improved by cultiva- 
tion. The tree in fpiestion abounds on the head- 
waters of Tinana creek' and Boppel range, and 
the apple, by keeping, becomes mellow and de- 
licious. It seems to belong to the sapotaceous 
order, and to lie referable to one of two genera, 
ArhniK and Mlinusops. 



Our readers will welcome the advertisement 
of the popular seedsmen, Messrs. D. M. Ferry 
& Co., of Detroit, Mich. Tlieir Seed Annual 
for 1877 far surpasses their previous numbers. 
This firm, one of the largest in the seed busi- 
ness, needs no indorsement from us. 



A TERRIFIC gale has occuiTcd on the fiuglish 
and French coasts, cauaing great danad,g*. 



be viewed to be fully appreciated. But the 
Susquehanna has other associations than those 
of beauty. It has been made an historic stream 
by deeds of blood and massacre exceeding all 
others in the darkest pages of colonial history. 
Wyoming and Cherry Valley are upon its banks. 
It marked, too, the limit of rebel invasion into 
the North. Never did a (ireycoat succeed in 
crossing its waters, though they several times 
reached its western bank. 

A peculiarity of Pennsyhanian geography is 
that the rivers have not the same direction as 
the mountains, but generally run at angles to 
them. Instead of gliding quietly between or 
along them, they seem to decide which is their 
shortest route to tlie sea, and then push boldly 
forward for it, let what obstacle come that may. 
Of this eccentricity, as it may almo.st be called, 
the Susquehanna is chief representative. Num= 
berless seem the mountain ridges and hills 
through which it has cleft in its course to the 
Chesajieake. In some Jilaces it passes through 
as many as five of the so-called "gaps" or 
" narrows '" in the distance of 20 miles. Almost 
its entire course is through the mountains, and 
it has all the characteristics of a genuine moun- 
tain stream, being usually broad, shallow and 
rapid, with here and there long stretches of 
calm, deep water. Its lied is very rocky and 
in many jilaces is studded with lieautiful little 
islets. In the lower portion of the river's course 
its general width is about a mile, narrowing 
occasionally to half a mile or even less. 

For purposes of commerce the river lias little 
value, owing to its shallowness. In the summer 
it can be fcniled almost anywhere. But in the 
winter and sjniiigtim e, when its banks are full, 
it opens a ro.ad to market for the vast (luantities 
of lumber in the densely wooded regions about 
its headwaters, and many are the tiirillinu 
adventures of the strong-armed, steady-nerved 
men who |)ilot the gi-eat rafts down its turbiUent 
current and successfully "shoot" all its rapids 
and " dodge " all its islets and sunken rocks on 
their way to the lower country. 



ing triumphs of the age. The Isthmus of Suez 
connects Asia with Africa, and separates the 
waters of the Mediterranean from those of the 
Red sea. Commerce required that this barrier 
of earth should be removed that shij)s might 
pass from sea to sea, and the work has been 
done. Commerce now requires water commu- 
nication between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, 
and it is only a question of time as to when this 
work shall be done. The State of Nicaragua 
does not offer so narrow an obstacle between 
the two oceans as other points on the southern 
coast. The ■>vidtli of the State varies between 
120 and 240 miles. Lying in the interior of the 
State, a few miles from the Pacific ocean, is the 
Lake of Nicaragua, a sheet of water from .SO to 
40 miles broad, and only 128 feet above the 
waters of the Pacific. This lake will be utilized 
in the construction of a canal. Its depth varies 
from .SO to 90 feet. The great olistacle to be 
overcome in ccmstructing the canal is a volcanic 
range iiinning near the western coast, and rising 
between tlie Pacific and the inland lake to a 
hight of 10,000 feet. This State is supposed 
to show a sejiaration of the great chain of the 
Cordilleras into two clivergeut ranges, having a 
less average hight than tlie main ridge, and 
being su>)ject to partial interruption. The 
commission dcnibtle.ss find favorable passes in 
these broken ranges which render feasible the 
project they have in view. The report estimates 
the co.st of' the work at .•S!100,0(K),0<)0, which our 
disjiatches state to ))e less than former estimates. 
There seems to be an error in this. In the 
year 18-4!) a contract was entered into between 
the Hepublic of Nicaragua and the Atlantic and 
Pacific Ship ('.iiial Company of New ^'ork, by 
which the latter party undertook to coiistiiiot 
the canal for ."if 20, 000, 00< ». The contiaet was 
never carrioil out, owing to the interference of 
the British government; but the terms were 
then considered fair by competent judges. We 
do not know if the present commission follow 
the exact route the New York Canal Company 
had selected, but presume that whatever infor- 



mation courernmg the roost feasible, i ras 

then gathered, has been .at the scrvi. 'ie 

present commi.ssion. Thus, if they have (.ii.i ed 
the route materially they have done so in conse- 
quence of the discovery- of a better one. The 
objections which the British goveniment inter- 
posed at that time are novs overcome bj' making 
the work international in its charactei-, by the 
etpial participation of the great commercial 
powers in its construction and sub.se(pient man- 
agement. The United States (ioverninent is 
now in communication with the several Euro- 
pean nations in regard tfi the enterprise, and it 
is expected that the President will soon be in 
pos.session of documents which will justify him 
in submitting the question to the consideration 
of Congress. 

Contraction of the Hook.— A very inter- 
esting veterinary operation was performed by 
Dr. Dunbar, at the stables, 842 and 844 Howard 
street, in this city, on Tuesday afternoon. A 
valuable st.allioii, owned by .Judge fireen, was 
severely afflicted by contraction of the hoof. 
As is usual in .such cases, the contraction of the 
horny hoof had forced the frog up from its 
normal position, .and the pressure upon the joint 
above had given rise to much inflammation and a 
bad sore wiis forme<l. Dr. Dunbar's operation 
consisted in cutting away a jiortion of the hoof 
anil in fitting thereto one of his shoes, contrived 
for the special pur- 
poseof expandingthe 
foot. This shoe has 
the sink for the nail 
holes within the cir- 
cle of the shoe, which 
tiears the weight, in- 
stead of outside it, 
as in the common 
shoe. The nail holes 
slant toward the ex- 
terior and thus the 
"draw" of the nails 
is outward. The im- 
jiroved shoe has nail 
holes in the toe and 
at the inner and out- 
er toe. It has also 
nail holes at the 
"heels," but the 
"ijuarters" (between 
the toes and heels) 
are left without nail- 
ing. In the present 
case the Doctor set 
the nails in toe and 
heels of the shoe, and 
then apply ing a screw 
between theheels, he 
expanded the shoe, 
and w ith it the hoof, 
nearly three-quarters 
of an inch. This ex- 
pansion was done in 
the cold iron, after 
the shoe was nailed 
to the foot. The op- 
eration will relieve 
the pressure upon 
the joint of the foot, 
and will allow the 
frog to settle down 
to its proper place. 
Now the feet of the 
stallion will be sub- 
initteil to a poultic- 
ing with flaxseed 
meal, and it is ex- 
pected that all inflammation and soreness will 
disappear and the horse be sound of foot again. 
Judge Green's horse is a valuable one, lately im- 
ported from Maine, and he promises to infonii 
us of the further results of the operation. 

Important to Shivpersof Wheat. — Messrs. 

Schroder & Co., of this city, brought suit in the 
Fourth District Court to recover $10,24.'), for 
the value of a shipment of wheat to Hongkong 
some time in 1874, which was submerged in a 
warehouse. The conipl.aint w,as demurred to on 
the ground that there w.as not a total loss, and 
that the wheat was not destroyed by the peril 
of the? sea. In passing upon the demurrer .lud^e 
Morri.son said that to determine the first ut the 
cpiestions it must be determined what is meant 
by "connections." The counsel for the defense 
took the ground that it meant a direct connec- 
tion with the Coloritilo at Yokohama. On the 
other hand, it was claimed that there might be 
many connections by dividing the shiimient to 
go forward from Yokohama, and the loss of any 
one of these shipments was a total loss uithiu 
the meaning of the insurance policy. The mean- 
ing of the term "connection" could be ascer- 
tained by the terms of the jiolicy. The ques- 
tion w hether it w.as understood that one, vessel 
only should be used in carrying the shipment, 
or that it was noutemplateil to send forward by 
several vessels, could only be ascertained on tlie 
trial. It w.as the impression of the .Iud2e that 
the loss occurred by neril of the si-a. 'I he de- 
murrer was overmlod. 



TiiK Detroit Seed Comjiany , Detroit, Mich., 
have issued their New Floral (inide for 1877, 
which they are offering free, V)y mail, to all ap- 
plicants. If you want a handsome floral work 
and reliable seeds, write to thein. 



Queen Victoria was on New 
proclaimed Empress throughout 
gieat ceremony. 



Year's day 
India witll 



10 



[January 6, 1877. 



Continued from page 3. 



tain result will, if persistent in, become intensi- 
tieil anil liereilitiiry. 

Methods and Improvements- 
The treatment of cowsuixm the islaml of Jer- 
sey was ilescribed. Tliey are not allowed to 
roam at large in the rich pastures, but are teth- 
ered, and are moved to a fresli spot three or four 
tin\es a day, and are not even driven up to be 
milked, tlie milkmaid takes lier pail and milks 
her cow wliile she is feeding. In winter the 
cattle are fed half a bushel or more of nx.ts 
with a little hay in the morning. Tliey are 
turned out in the middle of tlie day, and about 
four o'clock they are put intiv tlie stables and 
milked. Tliey are tlicn fed as in tlie morning. 
Two or tliree hours later they are fed a few 
pounds of straw. They are fed a bran mash for 
about two weeks after cal\-iug, but at no otiier 
time. (Jrain or meal is not fed to cattle: in fact, 
no grain except wheat is grown upon the island. 
The heifers are allowed to come into use at two 
years of age, the Hrst calf being dropped in 
early sjirin;', when the grass is luxuriant, thus 
early dcvcdoping her milking ijualities to the 
jiresent extent. In i-egard to the .lersey cow at 
her home on the island, we find four important 
conditions, xix: 1— early maturity; 2— gentle 
treatment; 3 -a succulent, vegetable diet: 4 — a 
perfect diet. While early maturity and succu- 
lent food have a tendency to develop the milk- 
ing qualities as far as (juantity is concerned, the 
conditiims of <piiet and gentle treatment tend to 
improve tlie' quality. Experiment has shown 
that 14 pounds of morning's milk will produce 
as much Ijutter as 17 iHUinds -of evening mdk, 
showing that the cow when resting quietly pro- 
iluces richer milk than when roaming about the 
pasture seeking food. The paper closed with 
this recommendation: " Keep your eye on the 
essential point of utility. Itaise your calves 
from only your best cows; and above all u.se a 
bull from the l>est strain attainable." 



T^E SwiriE Y^^°" 



English Cross Breeding 

Prof. I> )W makes the following notes on the 
results of cross bree liug, as practiced by Kng- 
liflh swine growers: 

In the cases where the ohler races exist with- 
out intermixture, the animal presents remark- 
able characters. Its form is uncouth; tlie liones 
are large and tlie limbs hmg; the back is arched 
and narrow, the shoulder low, the face long, the 
ears large and flapping. It presents, in truth, 
a comliination of the cliaracters wliich breeders 
now wisli to avoid. Yet, with all tlieir defects, 
tlicac animals possess one important quality — 
the females produce large litters, and are the 
bust of all nurses for their yfumg. Tf crossed 
with superior races, as witli the C'hinese or 
the Bcrksliire, the immediate progeny is good, 
retaining the size of tiic dam, and acquiring the 
aptitude to fatten of tlie superior niivle. Thrift- 
less, then, as tliese are iu themselves, with re- 
lation to their power of fattening on a given 
supply of food, yet any one w)io possesses a sow 
of this kind will find lier more valuable than 
any t>ther for the purpose of rearing pigs. 

In '^'orkshire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, and gen- 
enerally in the eastern counties, there ;ire breeds 
of large size, of a white color, and witli pendent 
ears. Tiiese breeds have lieen cultivated with 
more or less care, and have all been affected in 
their form and characters by crossing. The 
county of Suffolk has long been noted for 
producing large quantities of iiork, chiefly for 
the supply of tlie London market; and the 
white Ijrced of .Sufl'olk became early known for 
its goodness. The breeil, however, has been 
crossed and^recrossed by the Chinese or descenil- 
ants of the C'hinese variety, so as to suit its size 
to the demand of the consumers. The Essex 
breed has, in like manner, been crossed with 
the sniiiUer and finer breeds, so as to lessen the 
size and increase the delicacy of the pork; and 
Essex hogs are peculiarly distinguished by the 
fineness of the skin and softness of the hair. 

The same system of crossing has been applied 
to all the former breeds of the country, the 
Shropshire, the Haiiqisliire, the Kudgwiek. The 
latter, so-called from a village of that name on 
the borders of Surrey an<l Su.ssex, were the 
largest swine in England, an<l perhaps in the 
world. The H:impsliire hogs were also a very 
noted breed, from their lieing of large size, and 
well suited for bacon. But the distinctive cliar- 
;icters of these various races have been more or 
less efJ'aced, so tliat varieties descrilied by for- 
mer observers cannot now be traceil. In general, 
it may be said that all the breeds of this coun- 
try have been tending to a smaller size and 
greater uniformity^of character. Of the lireeds 
of England, one greatly v.alued is the Berkshire. 
It is so termed from the county of that name, 
though the principal improvement of the breed 
was made in the counties farther nortli, chiefiy in 
Leicestershire and Statl'onlshire. It still retains, 
however, its original designation, iind the Berk- 
shire has been long known as one of the most 
generally spread of the improved tireeds of 
England. 

The true Berkshires are of the larger races of 
swine, though they fall short in size of some of 
the older bleeds, as the Hampshire, the Kudg- 
wiek and others. They are usually of a reddish- 
brown color, with brown or black spots, a char- 
acter which makes it appear that one of tlie 
iueans employed to improvu tli«iii was a cross 



with the wild hog. The Berkshire is still re- 
garded as one of the superior breeds of England, 
combining size with a sufficient aptitude to 
fatten, and being fittoil for pork and bacon; an<l 
it is hold to bo the hardiest of the more improved 
races. 

But the Berkshire breed has, like every otlier, 
been cros.scd and recrossed with ('liinese, or 
Chinese crosses, so :us to lesneii the size of the 
animals, and render them more suited to the 
demand which has arisen for sm:ill and delicate 
pork. Miuiy of tlie mo<lerii lireed are nearly 
black, indicating their ai)pni;ich to the Siamese 
character, imd sometinies they are black broken 
with white, sho\ving the effects of the cro.ss with 
the white Chinese. From this intermixture, it 
becomes in many cases ditJicult to recognize, 
in the present race, the characters of the true 
Berkshire. The great improver of the breed 
was Richard Astley, Esip, of Oldstonehall. 

Although no doubt can exist with respect to 
the great benefit tiiat Ikvs arisen from diminish- 
ing the size and coarseness of the former swine 
of England, yet, assuredly, there should be 
limits to this diminution of size in the hog, as 
of every other animal cultivated for food. In 
many cases the diminution in size has been mere- 
ly to suit the caprice of taste. The larger kinds 
of pigs do not (iml a ready .sale in the markets 
of great cities, ami hence the more essential 
property of an abundant production of butchers' 
meat is sacrificed. But we should remember 
that the supply of pork is of great importance 
to the support of the iiih:ibitaiits of tliis coun- 
try. In the state of bacon it is largely con- 
sumed by the mass of people, and in the salted 
state it is used for supplies of our numerous 
shipping. It is not, therefore, for the general 
good, that the ohl breeds of Enghuul sliouhl be 
merged iu the smaller races of China and other 
countries. 

While we should improve by every means the 
larger lireeds that are left us, we should take 
care that we do not s;icrifice them altoj^ether. 
The country might one day regret that this over- 
refinement had Ijeen practiced, and future im- 
[irovers exert themselves in vain to recover 
those fine oM breeds which had been abandoned. 
In place of unceasing crossing with the smaller 
races, it wouhl be more praiseworthy ami bene- 
ficial to apply to our larger races tliose princi- 
jiles of breeding which, in the c;ise of our other 
animals, have so well succeeded. By mere se- 
lection of the parents, we could remove the de- 
fective characters of the hirger breeds, and give 
to them all the degree of fineness, which con- 
sists with their Inilk of body; for there is no 
animal so easily cluuiged in form and molded 
to our purposes ;is the hog. 

Amongst tiie kinds of crossing, that with the 
wild hog has lieen lately revived to some extent. 
The (mly good efiect of this cross is a certain 
improvement of the Hesh, by mixing the fat 
more equally with the lean; for, iu tlie wild hog, 
;us in all the less cultivateil races of the domes- 
tic animals, the fat is more mixed with the mus- 
cular parts. But otherwise the crossing with 
the wild race does not seem to be lulvisable. 
The form of the wild hog is not the jierfeet one 
at which the breeder should aim, and we have 
much better models presented to us in the best 
of the breeds already iniinoved by cultivation. 

Hogs are from time to time bnnight by our 
innumerable shipping from the countries of the 
Mediterranean, as Italy, Turkey, Spain, and 
mingled with the swine of this country. Of the 
Mediterranean breeds, the Maltese was at one 
time in favor. It was of small size, of black 
color, nearly <lestitute of bristles, and capable 
of fattenuig quickly. At the present time a 
breed from the country near Naples has been 
introduced, and has been employeil very exten- 
sively to cross the other breed.s. This breed, 
like the Maltese, is of small size, and of a lilack 
cohir. It is nearly destitute of hair or bristles, 
but, on being bred several times in this country, 
the bri.stles come. The flesh is exceedingly good, 
liut the animals them.selves are destitute of liardi- 
.ness, and unsuited for general use. But they 
have been made to cross the other swine of the 
country, and the progeny exhibit much fineness 
of form and aptituile to fatten. Their flesh, 
too, is delicate, on which account tlie Neajioli- 
t;m crosses are at the present time in consider- 
alile favor in several parts of England. But 
there are other races of Italy which might, 
with greater benefit than that of Najiles, have 
been introduced into this country. The best 
hogs of Italy are supposed to be pro- 
duced in the duchy of Parma. They are of 
larger size than those of Naples, while they 
possess even gre;tter a])titude to fatten, and 
yield pork equally white :ind delicate. Hogs 
are sometimes introduced from Africa. Their 
descemlants are of tolerable size and s(piare 
form, and, like the other hogs of warmer coun- 
tries, fatten with facilitv. 




An Iros Torch. -The frnii A'/e says: "The 
combustion of iron in air is a chemical phenom- 
enon now made comparatively easy to the ex- 
perimenter. The most jiracticable method is to 
take a straight bar magnet of some power, and 
sprinkle in>n filings on one of its poles. These 
filings arrange themselves in accordance with 
the lines of magnetic force, and, however close- 
ly they may appear to lie placed, of course no 
two of the metallic filaments are parallel, and 
c(uisequently a certain portion of air is enclosed 
as in a metallic sponge. The flame of any onli- 
iiary spirit lamp or gas burner readily ignites 
the finely divided iron, and continues to bum 
most brilliantly for a consideralde length of time, 
the combustion being appjvrently as natural and 
easy as that of any ordinary substance, and the 
light normal, though vivid. 



Practical Points in Wool Growing. 

We find in the Adelaide Olisenvr an article 
on the care ;ind breeding of sheep, which it 
seems to us possesses many practical points of 
universal application. It is time that the sea- 
S(Uis do not agree with our own, for the lambing 
season is not yet here, but anything valuable 
may be remembered for jiriictice at the right 
moment: 

The unvarying tenor of the London wool 
brokers' rejxirt is that the great decline is on 
the inferior and badly got up wool, while really 
first-class clips, although they suffer to a con- 
siderable extent, do not participate so fully in 
the general decline. This is ju.st what might be 
expected, and as a first-class sheep eats no more 
than a l>:ul one, while the return of the one is 
perhaps double that of the other, it re<piires no 
great amount of wisdom to jierceive which is 
the most judfitable one for the farmer to keeji. 
Without wishing to be considered as taking a 
gloomy iiid.spect of the future, 1 will state 
plainly that I do not expect the wool trade to 
rally or improve to ;uiy appreciable extent for the 
iie.xt year at all events. The (Uitbreak of the 
Franco-Prussian war was the first cause of the 
recent demand for wool and conseipient high 
prices. During the war time the increase of 
sheei) in both these countries received a check, 
eonseipiently continental buyers had to purchase 
more largely in the London m;irket. Our colo- 
nies did not jiossess within IO,(KX),(XK) sheep of 
what they do at the present time, the Statt of 
California has increased her sheep enormously, 
a.s where "20 years since there were scarcely any 
sheep in the country, last year she produced 
4.S, ;").■{(), 000 Itis. of wool. South America is also 
largely increasing her Hocks. It may be argiied 
that the population of the world is also pro- 
gressing, and the demand for articles of cloth- 
ing formed of wool increasing, while the supply 
of cotton, if not decreasing, is not more ;ibun- 
ilaiit than formerly; but taking all these into 
consideration the supply of wool is increasing in 
a very iierceptible way. Having said this much 
I will revert more particularly to the suliject of 
farmers' Hocks, anil endeavor to show the most 
practical way of working them with pryfit, and 
at the same time credit to the owners. From 
now until after ■ shearing is the busy time, and 
as lambing is now generally on, I will ofl'er a few- 
remarks respecting it. One of the first things 
to be seen to is 

Sufficient Shelter 

For the ewes and young lambs, especially where 
the paildocks are treeless and exposeil, as in 
many places is the case. (Jood shelter can Iw 
made to aecommoda,te a large number of sheep 
by weaving tea tree or wattle saplings in post 
and rail fencing, and forming a roof of rough 
saplings or forks thatched with fern or rough 
grass, or if a log fence simply the roof is re- 
(piired, taking care to place it on the lee side of this 
fence. By this shelter many a lamli and ewe is 
saveil that might otherwise perish on c(d(l 
stormy nights. In the civse of a ewe having 
twins, or as sometimes the ca.se, three lambs, if 
the farmer have a dairy the largest and strong- 
est lamb only should be left with the ewe; the 
other should be markeil and brought \i\t on 
eow's milk. The trouble is little, and fully 
compensated by the justice the ewe is able to 
do her lamb that remains with her, and by the 
increased growth an<l condition of the one taken 
taken from her. The 

Lambs Reared on Cow's Milk 
In a few days learn to drink out of a trough, 
but until pretty strong, ie(|uire housing at 
night with some Ijedding until the -weather gets 
warmer. 1 have seen this plan adopted on a 
large station, where fully 1,000 twin lambs were 
fed on cow's milk every year, ami the owners 
informed me that these dry-nursed ones invari- 
ably turned out splendid sheep, and fully repaid 
them for all their troulde. A ewe has sehlom 
more milk than one strong healthy Lamb can take, 
anil if slie has to rear two, the chance is neither 
of them is ever fully satisfied, and cannot grow 
into such fine sheep as a single one. As wean- 
ijig time approaches the ewe lambs should be 
carefully h>oKeil over, and any that show de- 
fects, such as spots, b;ul shape, or have indica- 
tions of being lightly woooled, should be 
marked for fattening for sale to the butcher, as 
the farmer will often obtain more for them as 
butcher's lambs than if he kept them a twelve- 
inoiith hmger. As shearing approaches the ewe 
flocks require culling carefully; all ewes showing 
defects either in shape or wool should be marked 
for fattening off for the market. 

Never Breed from a Bad Ewe, 

And particularly avoid those with light JUid 
what is termed watery wool — wool not growing 
evenly over the body, but in little tufts or knots; 
also those showing much kemp or short white 
luiirs in the fiecce, or black spots. The watery 
wool is mostly found among Merinos, ami is not 
prevalent among long-wooled or cross-bred 
sheep. Uniformity in size .and quality of wool 
should be the great aim of the slieep fanner, 
and he should look to establishing the one lireed 
of .sheep only, and maint:iining that iis far as 
possilile in its purity. Uniformity in bree.l 
produces an even quality and description of 
wool, which at once commends itself to the man- 
ufacturer. It is very hanl to finil a bale of 
I wool, unless from some of the large improved 



stations, that possesses uniformity throughout. 
In order to secure this object the ewes should 
be .systematically 

Classed for Wool 

Just before shearing, and a distinguishing ear 
mark or brand that will not disapjiear when the 
shee]) is shorn placed upon them. The rams 
also should be selected for each chiss of ewes. 
For instance, a ewe may be a large size, a good 
shape, well wooleil and free from ordinary de- 
fects, but the wool may be inclined to run 
coarse ami light. For such a ram shoulii lie 
selected possessing density and fineness of wool — 
in short, slmuhl po.ssess those (jualities that the 
ewe is deficient in. This point does not seem to 
have been sufficiently studieil by fanners and 
small sheep owners, but it is one that if not 
adopted a man can never expect to proiluce uni- 
formity in either sheep or wool; and as quality 
and not (piantity is now required by manufac- 
turers, these ))oints must receive more attention 
from sheep owners. 



^1\ 



BLE. 



About "Balking." 

A writer in the (iolilfii liiile makes some 
sensible remarks on this subject. If the 
education of the colt has been conducted in 
accordance with correct principles he will not 
balk. Balking on the part of colts is, for the 
most part, the result of the trainer's ignorance 
or passion. Veiling and whipping on the part 
of the trainer or driver, overloading, sore 
shoulders, or ill-fitting collars - these are the 
causes that make horses balk. But if you have 
a horse or colt that balks, while one cannot, 
without a personal knowledge of the subject, 
tell you what to do, we ciui tell you what not 
to do -never whip. If he won't go let hin; 
stand still and think it over. He will 
very often think l)etter of it, and after 
a few moments' reHection and a few tosses of 
the head go on of his own accord. Or, if this 
does not answer, get out of the wagon and pat 
him anil talk to him kindly. A horse is very 
susceptible to kindness; and the writer says he 
has knowni more than one quite vicious horse 
gentled into good liehavior by a few gentle pats 
from a lady's gloved hand on the moist neck 
and veined muzzle. Sometimes it is well to 
loosen a strap or start a buckle. The mere act 
of uncheeking and rechecking the animal has 
sometimes answered the purjiose. It took his 
attention ott' in another direction, changed the 
current of his thought, and broke up his pur])Ose 
and determination to resist. For this same 
reason an apple, or a bunch of grass from the 
roadside, or a handful of oats, or a few kernels 
of corn, will often accomplish what an hour of 
beating could never effect. 

The truth is, a man must govern himself 
before he can hope to govern lower animals. 
A man Hushed with passion, his lirain charged 
witli heated blood, and eyes blazing with rage, 
is not in a condition to think clearly; and it is 
just this thinking clearly that is, above all else, 
needed in directing and controlling horaes. 
Hence it is that contact with horses, and an 
actual experience in teaching them, is one of the 
finest disciplines a man can have. He grows to 
love the colt he is teacliing; and no nature is 
utterly depraved in which is going on the 
exercise of affection, no matter how humble the 
object may be. His emphiymeut makes it 
necessary for him to think; and this keeps intel- 
lect, which might otherwise have no ilevelop- 
ment, alive. The language of the stable is not, 
as many pious and ignorant jieople imagine, all 
slang. Care and anxiety are felt in the groom's 
room, and consultations hehl upon the issue of 
which the health and safety of valuable iiroperty 
depend. Plans are formed and methods of pro- 
cedure adopted, upon wliicii fame and vast sums 
of money come and go. Faults of nature and 
errors of education and jiractice are con-ected, 
and the trainer discovers that iu schooling (Jixl's 
creatures he is 1>eing schooled himself. Thus, 
as in all other branches of honorable industry, 
the horaeman discovers that he is the point from 
which one current goes forth and another enters 
in. He bestows and he receives; he educates 
and is educated; and the life which so many 
thoughtless people desjiise closes, as in the case 
of Hiram Wood.nifl' — the upright in heart and 
act — with honor, and a fame wdiich can fail only 
when kindness towards animals and integrity 
among men are regarded as of no account. 



A N.\TUK.\L CuKio.srrv. — The- Ameriran 
MaiiuJ'iu-liirn- says: In the great valley between 
the North and South mountains, in Pennsyl- 
vania, commonly called the East<»ni ridges, a 
well was dug some years since in Franklin, and 
another in Cumberland county, TO or 40 miles 
from the former, which led to a discovery af- 
fording a subject for interesting speculation. 
After proceediug in each instance to the dejith 
of about thirty-six feet, the bottom of these 
wells gave way (but fortunately when the work- 
men had retired) and a torrent of water rushed 
uj). A leail w;is sunk with fifty fathoms of 
line without finding the least obstruction. 
They remain at this time untiniched and of un- 
known depth. The presumjition is, that there 
is a subterranean lake in that quarter, and how- 
far it extends under the base of the vast primi- 
tive mountains situated between the Susque- 
hanna and Pittsburg, will never l)e ascertained, 
unless by some terrible convulsion of nature 
they should be jireciiiitated in the tremenihma 
abyss. 



January 6, 1877.] 



11 



l=|©e^|lCllLjJ^i. 



Using Young Cions. 

Tliere has >)eeii some (iiiestion raised among 
tree buyers in this State whether the eions cut 
from trees in the nursery rows were as good as 
those cut from hearing trees. Some faihires in 
good fruiting liave l)een atti-ibutcd to this cause. 
Tlie question was aslted of Mr. Bateitian througii 
the CoKiitrji Oi'/i/li'iiian, and he replied as fol- 
lows : 

The propoundur of this in(|uiry deprecates the 
practice of nurserymen referred to, as he has 
adopted the common belief that the haliits of 
the parent tree, as well as the \'ariety of fniit, 
are continued or reproduced by the ci<m. This, 
however, is not the opinion of the majority of 
those who have given much attention to such 
matters. In my own experience as a nursery- 
man, years ago, I used annually many thousands 
of cions of both tlie classes mentioned, and on 
noticing tlie result the only ditt'erencc perceived 
was that, as a rule, the cions from bearing trees 
<li<l not make as good a growth the lirst season, 
owing to the shoots on bearing trees being gen- 
erally less thrifty than those on the nursery 
trees ; and lience the latter were j)referrcd 
when they could as well be had of the desired 
kinds, and the wood well ripened. 

I saw afterwards thousands of these trees set 
in orchards and come to bearing age, but could 
di.Scover no difference or fault in regard to fruit- 
ing. Indee<l some of the kiiuls were disposed 
to begin to bear (juite too early — even while 
standing in the nursery ; while others, like the 
Northern Spy, jpecpiire 10 years or more to arrive 
at bearing age. This hal)it, like that of tlie 
usual form of the tree, is, of course, a peculiar- 
ity of the variety, and is continued tiir-ough suc- 
cessive generations by grafting ; but not so the 
condition of an individual tree as to thrift or 
fruit-bearijig, which is consequent upon age or 
accidental circumstances. If this were so, tlic 
using of eions from old ti'ces, as is sometimes 
done, would tend to produce premature age and 
decay iii tlie young trees on which the cions 
were grafted. But no such result is seen. 
Again, we may reverse the case, as is done in 
taking cions from seedling pears, only one or 
two years old, and graftint; tliose upon bearing 
tree.s, for the sake of speedily testing the vari- 
ety. Here we see that the stock, and not the 
ciou, has the most to do in the matter of induc- 
ing fruit-l)caring. The same is true where a 
ci(m from an old tree is grafted mi a young stock. 
It seems at once to assimilate witii the stock in 
its youthfulness and disposition to grow in.stead 
of to bear fruit. Wliy this is so, is like the why 
and wherefore of a good many oth,;i' tlungs per- 
taining to the influence of stocks and grafts 
upon each other : we can only say that as yet 
we do not know. It is right for us to leave 
niiuiy of these problems for }X>sterity to solve. 
Tliey will have better advantages at the start 
than we liad, and ought to make greater prog- 
ress in (lisco\erie8. 



Oranqe Marmalade. 

The Boston Journal of' ('oDiiiicrcc gives an 
account of the way the sour oranges can be 
turned to account in a large manufacturing way. 
It says: Thomas llitchie & Co., Jacksonville, 
Fla. , are the first, and so far tlie only manufac- 
turers of marmalade in the United States. The 
manufacture has been extensively carried on in 
Europe for nearly half a century, the oranges 
being obtained from Spain and the Mediter- 
ranean. The principal seat of the manufacture 
is in Dundee, Scotland, where from a small l)e- 
ginning it has attained immense proportion.s, 
and the preserve is the most esteemed of any in 
the European markets. So great is the demand 
that the supply is inailctpiate to reach it, 
though one luuLse turns out "iO tons per day and 
others almost as much. The Scotch article is 
imported in this country, but the high price has 
interfered with its extensive sale. Thomas 
Kitchie & (Jo. have selected the jiroper locality 
for the manufacture in this country, the sour 
aud bitter oranges of which alone it can be 
made growing wild in the forests of Floi-ida. 
Tlieir factory is modeled on that of one of the 
principal Scotch manufactories, though on a 
smaller scale. Their capacity is five tons per 
day, but can be e;vsily increased to any desired 
amount. Tlie preserve being slightly bitter, 
the taste for it is to some extent an acquired 
one, but there can be little doulit that the 
cheapness of Messrs. llitchie & Oo. 's manufacture 
will lead to its general introduction among ail 
classes, and once known and appreciated its 
sale must be almost unlimited. Besides being a 
most delicious preserve, it possesses medicinal 
(jiialities of a very valuable kind. It is an ex- 
cellent tonic, and a tablespoonful in a tumbler 
of water makes a most delicious and healtliful 
drink. The Indians of Florida have long usc<l 
decoctinns of the hitter orange as an antidote to 
and cure for malarial fever, and in any shape 
the sour orange is useful in that respect. 
Messrs. Kitcliie & Co., though so successful in 
their manufacture as to cany off the honors at 
the exhibition, are determined tir excel still 
more, and we understand that during the com- 
ing, season the manager will be a gentleman 
from Scotland, who has been connected in a 
similar capacity for eight or ten years with one 
of the principal Scotch manufacturers. They 
will also this year add the manufacture of 
orange, lemon and citron oil to their business. 
VVe may look on this as an established and suc- 
cessful enterprise. 



Tea- Preparing Machine. 

AVe have recently had the advantage of see- 
ing the plan and specification of a tea-drying 
apparatus patented by Mr. Ansell, of the 
l)ooteriah estate. If this machine does in prac- 
tice what its inventor claims for it on theoi'cti- 
cal grounds, it certainly will be an inestimable 
boon to planters, and we hope a source of con- 
siderable profit to its inventor. Until one of 
these machines has been actually set up and has 
stood the test of at least one season's practical 
trial, it would of course be rash in the- extreme 
to hazard even an opinion as to its merits or 
defects — so many inventions are simply perfec- 
tion on paper, and yet, somehov/, do not answer 
in practice. Apparently the main novelty in 
Mr. Ansell's machine is that he proposes to use 
steam ff)r drying the tea, and that the appara- 
tus is self-acting. In other words, the steam 
not requirerl for rolling the leaf by machinery 
is available for drying it, and the leaf goes in at 
the top of the machine and conies out at the 
bottom manufactured tea. Mr. Ansell claims 
for his machine that it will turn out liiO lbs. of 
dry tea per hour, or in the working day of 10 
hours, 18 m. (iO lbs. , with an expenditure of 112 
Itis. of wood per hour, or 14 maunds per day; 
lieing at the rate of about three-quarters of a 
niaund per maund of tea. According to Mr. An- 
sell's plan, too, the heat to which the leaf is sub- 
jected can be regulated to a nicety according to 
the wish of the manufacturer, and the possi- 
bility of burning is altogether obviated. In 
addition to the saving of fuel, it also would 
appear that Mr. Ansell's machine will econo- 
mize labor very considerably. On the whole, 
we must say we are pleased with Mr. Ansell's 
invention, and if he can do in practice what he 
claims to be able to achieve on paper — dry a 
maund of tea with three-cpuirters of amauiul of 
woikI — he has s(dved one of the problems which 
all planters have so. long been desirous to achieve 
— economy of fuel in the manufacture of tea. — 
Jhrrjfi'limi Ncirn. 



Bleaching Cotton. 

Some of our readers may find it a great con- 
venience to be able to bleach a few hanks or 
short pattern warps, in order to get samples 
round (juickly; therefore we give the following 
safe metlio<l, from the TtJ't.'de Maniifachirtr : 

Boil well your twist, having first ])ut in the 
water two ounces of soda ash to the gallon of 
water; wash off in cold water. Mix one pound 
of fresh chloride of lime in two pints of water, 
crushing all the lumps, and then add 43 pints 
more water. After allowing time for the lime 
to settle, pour off the clear chloride liquor, and 
immerse the yarn for about seven hours, in a 
cool place. Care must be taken to keep the 
chloride solution and the yarn from contact 
with iron. Wring out .and wash in cold water, 
and do not allow the yarn to remain in the air 
very long. Then immerse in a well mixed solu- 
tion composed of 2(> drachma of double oil of 
viti-iol to 45 pints of water. Allow the yarn to 
remain in this acid solution 10 hours, then 
wring out and wash off in cold water. In order 
to thoroughly remove the acid, work it well 
through a good white soaj) bath, and to this add 
a little marine blue to give the yarn any desired 
tint. Finally wash througii warm water to 
clear away the soap. These projiortions will do 
the least possible injury to the strength of the 
yarn. Tire solutions may be used stronger if it 
is desireil to shorten the length of time of the 
processes. *If soft mule yarn has to be bleached, 
the solutions may be used about one-third 
weaker; but if doubled yarn, the strength of 
the solutions must be increased according to the 
perfection desired in bleaching. 



The Indian Cyclone. — Indian correspond- 
ents are forming theories concerning the late 
cyalone in F]ast India, by which "215,000 lives 
were lost. Nntnrt says: The storm wave 
swept over the islands to a depth in places of 
20 feet, surprising the peojile in their beds. 
The country is perfectly flat, and therefore 
trees were the only secure range. Almost 
every one perished who failed in reaching trees. 
A strange fact about the disaster is that in 
Dakhin Shahabazpoie and Hattiah most of the 
damage was done by the storm wave from the 
north sweeping down to Megliua. Several 
theories, the Tinwx Calcutta correspondent 
states, have lieen started to account ior this. 
One is that the cychme, forming in the bay, 
struck the shore first near Chittagong, and went 
north for some distance, and then turned south- 
ward again. Another is that the wind blew 
back the waters of the Meghna, whicli re- 
bounded with terrific force when the pressure 
relaxed. A third supposition is that there were 
two iiarallcl storms with a center of calm l)e- 
tween tliem. The first or third theory seems 
most probable, as in Sundeep and Chittagong 
the destruction came from the south. 



Bi.KACHiNd Wool. — MM. Dandier & Son 
thus describe a new process for bleacliiug wool. 
It ccmsists in plunging tlie wool or vegetal>le 
mattci'S into a concentrated bath of cliloride of 
calcium, and submitting them to prolonged 
boiling; to the bath may be added some hydro- 
chloric acid, or compounds ot that acid with 
metallic bases, sucli as aluminum, iron, zinc, 
cojiper, or tin, which will then act energetically 
on vegetable matters, while it will ])roduce no 
alteration on wood. 



The Moon's Motion. 

■- Thereilnction of the star occnltations o1)served 
at' the transit of Venus stations, for the purpose 
of determining their longitude, renders neces- 
sary an investigation of the errors of the mo(ui's 
place, as given in the Nautical Almanac for the 
]>eriod during which the work was in progress. 
vSuch an investigation, says the fiide/teiHlent, has 
just been published by I'rofessor Neweomb, as 
Part 111 of the papers issued by the Transit of 
Venus Commission. It apjiears, in the first 
place, that, on the whole, the moon has for the 
last 14 or 15 years been falling continually be- 
hind the place indicated by tlie tables. In 18G4 
the tabular and ol)served ]iositions were sensibly 
accordant; but in 1874 the moon was on the 
average .94" (about 11 miles) behind computa- 
tion. In respect to this I'rofessor Neweomb 
remarks: "The sudden alteration of nearly one 
second per annum in the mean motion of the 
moom seems to me one of the most extraordi- 
nary of astronomical phenomena; but as 1 have 
scussed it in several papers during the last 
five years, I shall do no more here than call 
attention to its continuance, and to the impos- 
sibiljty of representing it by any small number 
of periodic terms, without introducing discord- 
ances into the longitmlc during previous years." 
The explanation suggested in the papers referred 
to is that there may have been an actual change 
in the rapidity of the earth's rotati(m, the 
length of the day having recently shortened 
something like 1-400 <^f a second, in conse- 
quence, probably, of some geological movement 
of the crust of the earth. Another result, 
hardly less startling to mathematical astrono- 
mers, is the discovery of a new inequality in 
the moon's motion, amounting to about 1.5" 
each way. It may be either an inequality of 
the eccentricity and perigee with a period of 
Kiij years, or merely of the moon's longitude 
with a period of 27.4 days. No theoretical ex- 
planation of this irregularity has been reached. 
According to Prof. N. , the only apparent cause 
to which it can he attributed is the attraction of 
some of the idanets. 



Cause of Error in a The^momet^r. 

Mr. H. C. Russel publishes notes on some 
remarkable errors in thermometers recorded at 
Sydney ob.servatory, 1870. For upwards of five 
years the same hygrometer has been in use at 
the observatory. The dry bulb is small, only 
0.3 ineliea in diameter, and the instrument, up 
to February 2(5th, had always given very satis- 
factory reading.s, tested by those of a standard 
which hangs only 3 inches fi-om it. The differ- 
ence in the readings was usually 0.2° to 0.3'. On 
that day tlic maximum shade temperature rose 
to 90.4 about noon; at 3 P. M. the^dry bulb and 
standard read 83.7", and at 9 p. M. 08.9° and 
09. Next morning they read 09.0° and 09.8°. 
As this was Sunday, they were not read again 
until 9 A. !M. on the 28th, when the dry bulb 
read 87.3 , and the standard, 04.9°, showing a 
difference of 22.4°. It was at once thought that 
the glass was cracked, and let in the aii', but as 
no crack could be seen, after careful examination, 
it was determined to continue tlie reading. The 
author had always found before that if a ther- 
mometer cracks in the bulb the mercury rises 
till the tul)e is full, aud he expected it winild be 
so in this case though he could see no crack. 
The result, however, was that the difference 
steadily <lccreascd, at first at the rate of 1 ' each 
day, and in 35 days the dift'erence had fallen to 
less than 0.5', or almost to its normal condition. 
Between April 7th and 17th it rose again, then 
fell. On the 3(1 of May, and again on the 7th, 
sudden rises took jilace; since then the differ- 
ence has l)cen diminishing, except a slight rise 
on May 21. st and 22il. When very closely ex- 
amined with the microscope, a very small piece 
of colored glass is to be seen in the bulb, as if 
lead had lieen reduced by the blowpijie, aud on 
one side of the bulb a mark is visible, as if there 
was a minute ([uantity of water between the 
mercury and the glass at one spot. 

The Permanent Exhibition. 

The Philadelphia jVor^/* American says: The 
permanent exhibition promises to l)e a grand 
success, the applications for room being alrca<ly 
.so numerous as to more than fill the main build- 
ing, and that fact will give our readers an idea 
of what the exhibition will be. Many foreigners 
have applied for space, and it is believed that 
nearly all the countries represented at the Cen- 
tennial exposition will secure room in the 
permanent exhibition for the display of their 
goods. Those articles exhibited during the 
summer aud fall will generally be removed, to 
be replaced by other and still better ones, fresh 
from the manufacturers and artists of this and 
the old world. The manager has received such 
an immense number of aj)plieations that he will 
be compelled to make selections from the mass 
of articles submitted, and by so doing those 
acce])teil will be of the best (luality, and in 
numerous instances superior to those of the 
same character dis])layed at the recent exposi- 
tion. The directors design to improve the con- 
veniences of the main building in every po.ssible 
manner, especially in widening the passages and 
avenues, and introducing such other changes as 
may be deeincd necessary to facilitate the move- 
ments of large crowds and give visitors better 
opjiortunities to view the exhibits. Tiie success 
of the permanent exhibition is assured beyond 
a doul)t, anil we have no fears but it will be 
conducted in such an e'lterprising and liberal 
•,])irit as to merit the supi)ort and well wishes 
not only of Phihuhdpliia, but of the country. 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents 

OKFICK, 224 SANSOME STREET, S. F. 

PATF2NTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent Peissues taken out; 
Assignments made and recorded in legal fonn; 
Copies of Patents and Assignments procured; 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; FIxaminations made of Assign- 
ments recorded in Washington; F^xaminations 
ordered and reported by Telegi-aph; Kejeeted 
cases taken up and Patents obtained; Inter- 
ferences Prosecuted; Opinions rendered re- 
garding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; FIvery legitunate branch of Patent 
Agency Business promptly and thoroughly 
conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inven- 
tions of this coast, and long practice in patent 
Ijusiness, enable us to abundantly satisfy our 
patrons; and our success and business are 
constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most exjierienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Baden, Peru, 
Ilussia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, (Janada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Denmark, 
Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemburg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Ciranada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European countries, 
but the drawings and specifications should be 
prepared with thoroughness, by able persons 
who are familiar with the requirements and 
changes of foreign patent laws- agents who 
are reliable and permanently established. 

Our schedule price for obtaining foreign patents, 
in all cases, will always be as low, and in 
some instances lower, than those of any other 
responsible agency. 

We can and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from t«o to six months 
(according to the location of the country) 
.SOONER than any other agents. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is stOl being 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, anil have full records, of all former 
eases, and can more correctly judge of the 
value and patentability of in\"entions |discin- 
ered here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast tlian to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by extra time consumed in transmitting 
specifications from Eastern agencies back to 
this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

Confidential. 

We take great pains to preserve secrecy in 
all confidential matters, and applicants for 
patents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
.strictly confidential l)y us. Circulars free. 

Heme Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing to tlieni the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise .applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applicants 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

\Vc iinitc the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regai'd to 
their rights as assignees of patents or jiur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short call 
at our office. 

Ueniittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the (Jovernment, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money, but 
their inventions also, from this cause and con- 
sequent delay. We hold ourselves responsible 
for all lees entrusted to our agency. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in our own office, and 
all facilities for producing fine and satisfactory 
illustrations of inventions and machinery, for 
newspai>er, book, circular and other iirinted il- 
lustrations, and are always ready to assist 
patrons in bringing their valuable discoveries 
into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO., 

United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
li.sliers Mining and Scientific I'ress and tl e 
Pacific Rural I'ress, 224 .Sansome St., S. ¥. — 



w 



12 



iM 



[January 6, 1877. 



The Wool Clip of 1876. 

We herewith present the wool report of E. 
Grisar & Co. for the year 1876: 

WOOU PRODICTIOX 



January 770 

Kebniary "fiS 

March -J.Of.o 

April 31.2l:^ 

May 39,078 

June 12.779 

July «,34.S 



Batfa. 

August 7,142 

September 21,4f>l 

October 31,830 

November 11.256 

December 1,36!) 



Total 168,0f.4 

Pounds. 
Of which there wa« sprins^ wool, 94.102 bags, 

weighing 28,230,600 

Spring wool shipped direct from the interior — 1,834,919 



Total spring production 80,065,&19 

There wa.i fall wool received, 73,952 bags, weigh- 
ing 24,031.378 

Fall wool shipped direct from the interior 204,073 



Total fleece wool 54.300,970 

Pulled wool shipped direct from San Francisco. . 2,250,000 

Total production of California 56..'>.')0.<.i70 

On hand December 31st. 1875, about 420.000 

Keceived from Dre^'on, 13,939 bags 3.823.600 

Foreign wool received, 1,454 bales 545,250 



Or.ind totiil 61,339,820 

KXPOKTS. 

Domestic. Foreign, Pnlled and Scoured. Pounds. 

Per rail, inclusive of shiimients from the in- 
terior 48.399,694 

Per steamer, inclusive of shipments from the 

coa-st 1,844.222 

Per sail 2,344,395 



Total shipments 52,588,311 

Value of exports *j.200,000. 

On hand December 31st, 1876, 12,265 bags 3,500,000 

Difference between receipts and exfwrts has 
been taken by local mills. The weight of re- 
ceipts and exports is gross. The usual tare of 
bags received is about three pounils each; on 
pressed bales shipped, 14 to 16 pounds each. 
Fully two-thirds of the wool graded durin" the 
past year is Al. The balance is A2 and B. 
This proportion has been unchanged for ( the 
past seven years. The severe and long de- 
pression in business which has prevailed in the 
kastern .'states ha.s naturally been felt in Cal- 
ifornia, although in a lesser degree. Those who 
had to lind an outlet for their wools in the 
Kastern markets have suffered most. The wool- 
growing interests here, second only to wheat in 
the value of exports, l>eing deprived of any 
market, except domestic consumption, h.-vs been 
severely trieil by the general slirinkage in val- 
ues. The woolen manufacturers having gen- 
erally been unsuccessful for several years, their 
financial standing had created a general mis- 
tru.st, and caused Eastern wool merchants to be 
very conservative in granting credits, and by 
this action reduced the facilities of buyers, and 
limited the demands for consumption, which 
caused a momentary stagnation in business, and 
consequently during the entire spring season 
wools were sold at rates below the cost of 
production, and if we take into consideration 
the improved nature of the wools produced in 
California, prices were in reality lower than 
they have ever ruled before. 

California wools have become popular among 
manufacturers, and have gone into consumption 
with unexampled rapidity. Manufacturers who 
have never tried them before have found it to 
their interest to use them. Although the 
production during the year has reached an 
amount which a few years ago would have 
seemed impossible, stocks here to-day are un- 
usually small, although somewhat in exce.ss of 
the supply a year ago. The impression is gen- 
eral among those best qualitied to judge on this 
point, that the limit of production in the State 
IS nearly reached, and that a decrease is prob- 
able, especially if any failure of rain should 
occur. Large portions of land, in former years 
devoted to grazing, have been put under culti- 
vation, and in the south the division of the 
large ranches tends to diminish the area of land 
hitherto monopolized by sheep. In Oregon 
there is still room for a large increase, especially 
in the eastern division. Experiments made in 
Arizona have not proved successful, as the wool 
usually received from there is inferior to similar 
wool grown in California, being of header 
shrinkage and harsher nature. 

Spring wools began to arrive at the end of 
March, and met with ready sale until the heavy 
receipts caused an accumulation which exceede<l 
the capacity of the warehouses. After com- 
parative quiet for a short time;, Vmsiness again 
started at a lower range of values, and continued 
active until the larger portion of the clip had 
been marketed. Early in July the improved 
feeling in Fiastern markets nianifested itself 
here, and when fall wools began to arrive the 
spring clip was nearly closed out. Prices ranged 
from 10 cents for hurry and defective to 20 cents 
for strictly free. 

Fall wools commenced to arrive during 
August, and at first realized about the same 
prices the spring wools brought. Under active 
competition, however, rates advanced rapidly, 
and many growers have obtained more for tlieir 
fall than for their spring shearing. In fact, 
prices reached a higher range than those ruling 
during ISTo. Fall wools met with ready sale 
until business was iuteiTujited by j)olitical ques- 
tions, and since tlie early part of November 
comparatively small sales have been made. The 
liigli prices obtained caused extensive shearing; 
but, judging from the large proportion of lambs, 
there will Ik; a greater prcxluction of spring wool 
in 1S77 than even 1876, always nrovided that 
the rainfall is sufKcient to make pasturage 
aliunilunt. 

The condition of both clips has not fulfilltd 
the expectations arising from the abundance of 
feed. Most of the clips of a year's growth ^x■ere 



heavily loaded with tags, arising from the rank 
growth of the grasses. As prices were low, 
growers were also less careful in forwanling 
their wool in merchantable condition, frequently 
wrapping tags and locks inside the fleeces. In 
the fall most of the southern wools contained 
more earth and sand than usual. The southeni 
wools were in good condition, but vei'y burry 
and seedy. Oregon wools have been in remark- 
ably good condition, but have contained a lesser 
amount of combing and delaine. Fine wools 
have been most wanted this year. We see no 
reason, however, to think that California can 
compete with Australia or iSouth America in 
raising fine wools. A medium grade seems to 
flourish best, especially where semi-annual 
shearing is so general; the result is longer staple 
and lighter shrinkage, and on an even market 
there would lie less difference in value of fall 
and spring clips of medium grade than where 
effort has been made to raise exclusively fine 
wo<»ls. 



A Chance for the Low Lands. 

We have now had a succession of seasons in 
which the rainfall has been up to or above an 
average, and as a eonsequenco the elevated 
lands of the great central plains of the State 
have been fully saturated each winter, or rainy 
season, and have produced abundant crops. 
The occupants of them have almost come to be- 
lieve that there had really a change come over 
the climate of California, and that such a dry 
season as that of 1862 and 1863 would never 
again occur. The present continued dry weather, 
however, is shaking the faith of these people in 
this supposition very materiallv, and they now 
see that there is danger ahead. On the other 
hand, the bottoms have ha<l it rather too wet for 
comfort and large crops and good prices. They 
had also come to accept it as a certainty that 
the future winters were to continue wet, and 
that high water and overflow were to be the rule 
instead of the exception. They had, therefore, 
especially during the present winter, employed 
all their leisure time in strengthening their 
weak levees and in building new ones. They 
now begin to feel that while they may not have 
expended their labor and money in this regard 
w ithout avail, yet they may not have any im- 
mediate use for these extra embankments, and 
that they are at last likely to come out all right 
as the wheel of fortune is revolved. Should the 
season prove as dry as it now promises, all the 
bottom lands will produce in great abundance, 
and as prices will rule high, the owners of these 
lands will make a good year of it. To secure 
the benefits of this favorable prospect, however, 
not a moment nor a point should be lost. Let 
every team and every plow be put to work at 
once, and let all tlie available land be turned 
over ready for the seed. The lowest lauds can 
be seeded as late as the month of February. As 
the prospects now are that wheat will rule high 
for the year to come, not altogether because of 
our own dry season, but on account of the com- 
plications in the political world, it may be well 
to sow largely of this grain, wherever there is 
probability of making a fair crop. — S. F. Biil- 
hthi. 



The Ashtabula Disaster. 

Details o a terrible railroad accident which 
occurred this week at Ashtabula, on the Lake 
Shore railroad, have been received by telegraph. 
It is now known that about two out of 
every three passengers were killed. 

The disaster occurred shortly before eight 
o'clock. It was the wildest winter night of the 
year. The train was moving at a speed of less 
than ten miles an hour. The liead-lamp threw 
but a short, dim flash of light in front, so thick 
was the air with the dri\-ing snow. The train 
crept across the bridge. The leaiiing engine had 
reached the solid ground beyond, ami its driver 
had just given it steam, wlien something in the 
under-gearing of the bridge snapped. For an 
instant there was a confused cracking of lieams 
and girders, ending with a tremendous crash 
as the whole train, all but the leading engine, 
broke through the frame-work and fell in a ne.ap 
of crushed and splintered ruins at the bottom. 
Notwithstanding the wind and storm, the crash 
was heard by people half a mile away. For a 
moment there was silence; then arose the cries 
of the maimed and suffering. 

Those who were unhurt hastened to escape 
from the shattered cars. They crawled out of 
the windows into the freezing water, waist deep. 
Men, women and children, with limbs broken, 
bruised and pinched between timbers, and 
transfixed by jagged splinters, begged with their 
last breath tor aid that no human power could 
give. Five minutes after the tram fell a fire 
broke out in the cars piled against the abut- 
ments at the other end. A moment later the 
flames broke from the smoking car, and the first 
coach piled across the other, near the middle of 
the stream, less than 10 minutes after the catas- 
trophe. Every car in tlie wreck was on fire, 
and the flames, fed by the dry varni»lie<l work, 
licked up the ruius as though they had been 
tinder. Men, who in the bewildennent of the 
shock sprang out and reached the solid ice, 
went back after the wives and children and 
found them suffocating and roasting in the 
flames. People living in the neighborhood were 
startled by the crash, and lighted to the scene 
by the conflagration, which made even their 
prompt assistance too late. By niitlnight the 
cremation was completed. The stonn had sub- 
sided, but the wind blew fiercely, and the cold 
was even more intense. 



The iron bridge structure was a single span 
of 159 feet, crossed by a double track, and was 
70 feet above the water. The descent into the 
valley on either side is precipitous, and as the 
hill slopes are piled with heavy drifts of snow 
there was no little difficulty in reaching the 
wreck after the disaster became known. The 
bridge has been regarded as one of the very best 
of the kind in the country. It has been tried 
with six locomotives, and trains frequently 
crossed on both tracks simultaneously without 
causing more than a slight deflection of the 
structure. It is conceded, however, that the 
continued impact of heavy trains crossing these 
iron structures destroys in a measure the integ- 
rity of the iron or crystallizes it in such a man- 
ner as to weaken it; and in this case the ex- 
treme cold probably had a serious effect. The 
accident is one of the worst which ever occurred 
in the United States, but will have the effect 
no doubt of causing a minute and scientific ex- 
amination of the railroad bridges all over the 
country, as the Brooklyn disaster called the at- 
tention of the police to the condition of theaters. 

Too much care cannot be taken or too much 
caution exercised in building and keeping in re- 
pair structures on the strength of which so 
many lives depend, and a careful examination 
of the causes of this disaster may develop facts 
which will be of a protective nature to the trav- 
eling public. As tne bridge fell the driver of 
the locomotive in front gave it a quick head of 
steam, which tore the draw-head from its ten- 
der, and the liberated engine shot forward and 
buried itaelf in the snow. The other locomotive, 
dra-wni backward by the falling train, tumbled 
over the pier and fell bottom upward on the ex- 
press car next behind. 



The Drouth. 



We have thought that at this time some facts 
concerning the rainfall of the past would be in- 
teresting and possibly assist our weather proph- 
ets in their speculations as to the future, and 
therefore present in tabular form the annual 
and monthly rainfalls for the past 26 years and 
for the 27th to date, from observations taken in 



Year Inches. 

186»-«4 10.08 

1864-65 24.73 

1865-66 22.93 

1886-67 34.92 

1867-8a 38.84 

1888-69. .• 21.36 

1869-70 19.31 

1870-71 14.10 

1871-72. 84.71 

1872-73 18.02 

1873-74 23.98 

1874-75 18.40 

1875-76 25.91 



this city: 

Year. Inches. 

1840-50 33.10 

18.10-51 7.40 

1851-52 18.44 

18S2-!i3 36.21 

1853-.^4 23.8' 

1854-55 23.68 

ISS.V-Se 21.68 

1856-57 19.81 

18.S7-58 21.88 

1858-59 22 22 

l,S.i9-60 22.2: 

1860 -<il 19.72 

1861-62 49,2 

1862-6,3 13.62 

The largest monthly fall for each season oc- 
curred during the months and in the quantities 
as follows: 
Year. Month. Inches. 

1849-60 November 8.60 

And in Januarv nearly aa much. 

1850-51 March 1.94 

1851-52 December 7.10 

And in March nearly game. 

1852-.'iS December. '. 13.20 

1853-54 February 8.04 

Previous to January 1st we had only 6.12, not as much as 

during present season. 
1S64-.56 April 5.00 

Previous to January 1st, only 3.72. 
1855-56 January 9.40 

Pre\ious to Januarv 1st, onlv 8.43. 
1856-57 February ." 8.59 

Previous to January 1st, only 7.08. 

18.'i7-.">8 Februarv 6.55 

18.58-.S9 Februarv 6.32 

ia')9-60 November 7.28 

1860-61 December r 6.16 

1861-82 January 24.38 

1862-83 January 3.03 

1883-84 November 2.65 

1864-85 December 8.91 

186,'>-86 Januarv- 10.88 

Previous to January 1st. a total of 5.27, 4.19 of which fell 
in November. 

1860-67 December 1516 

1867-88 December 10.69 

188S-8» Januarv 6.35 

1869-70 Februarv 4.78 

1870-71 Februarv- 3.76 

Previous to Januarv Ist, a total of 3.84, of which 3.38 fell 
in Dec«mf)er. In Januarv we had 3.07. 

1871-72 December." 16.74 

1872-73 December, 7.25 

1873-74 December 10. 12 

1874-75 Januarv- 6.97 

1875-76 November 6 73 

And in January, 8.41. 

For the present season, as far as it has 
progressed, we have had a total of 5.28 inches, 
of which 2.10 fell in August, 0.26 in September, 
2.6',t in October, and 0.23 in November. The 
average for 27 seasons is 26.67 inches. The 
average for the month of January, our most pro- 
lific rain month, is 12.70. The average for 
November is 5.97, and for February it is 6.30. 

By referring back to the season of 18.t6-57 we 
discover that previous to January 7.08 inches of 
rain had fallen, which was just enough to 
enable our farmers to get their plowing and sow- 
ing done in good shape. In January there were 
2.45, and in February 8.59 inches, followed in 
March by 1.62, and in May by a very slight 
shower of 0.02. This was enough to insure 
good crops, but in June came 0.12 more, whicli 
caused much grain to lodge and rust. In 
1866-7 we had our principal rain in December, 
amounting to 15.16 inches. In 1865-6, a season 
more resembling the present than any since the 
settlement of the country, there was a total fall 
of 5.27 inches previous to January 1st, of which 
4. 19 fell in November. In January there fell 
10.88, and it continued late, giving us in Feb- 
niary2.I2, March 3.04, April 0.12, May 1.46, 
and in June 0.04. That season was very like 
the present in respet-t of winds also, there 



being almost none excepting in immediate con' 
nection with rain. There is no occasion yet 
for desf)ondency, and we think we are war- 
ranted in predicting that rains will come in Jan- 
uary and succeeding months sufficient to grow 
and mature a harvest at least as good as the 
average. As usual, however, those who are 
ahead with their plowing will reap the largest 
benefits. In many localities grain is already up 
and far enough advanced to wait for rain in its 
season; in others, farmers are plowing away and 
sowing in faith, and in others they will not 
begin operations until after rain. This latter 
class may find when it does come it will con- 
tinue so as to prevent seeding until quite late, 
and then there may be a deficiency of^ late rain 
to mature the crop. 

Now, a word as to the importance of observa- 
tions. Every farmer should interest himself to 
such an extent as to keep a diary of events and 
a rain record. We believe that science will 
materially assist us in the ordinary affairs of 
life if we will only observe her laws and operate 
in harmony therewith. On this coast we must 
construct our own theories and build up our 
o\»n science, and the sooner we begin the 
Ijetter. — .S". F. Chronicle. 



General News Items. 

The Grand Duke Nicholas is convalescent. 

The Lykens Valley colliery, near Pottsville, 
Pa., is on fire. 

A BILL, to be soon introduced into the House, 
provides substantially for a national registry 
law. 

Ekjhty thkke anb thkke-tk.nth.s of the 
predictions of the Signal Service Bureau have 
Deen verified this year. 

The debt statement shows an increase daring 
December of ^358,142; coin balance, 195,517, - 
418; currency, $9,483,860. 

The German government has ordered the Im- 
perial bank of (iermany to resume the sale of 
silver for account of the German treasury-. 

The Sutter Street wire-rope railroad com- 
menced running on Monday, to comply with 
the law, and the trial was found to be satis- 
factory. The road will be in operation for the 
transportation of passengers in about two 
weeks. 



The People's and Grangers' Immi- 
grant Bureau, 40 California St. 

This institution, according to reports publish- 
ed in the daily ptapers, has pro%-ided situations 
free of charge for more than 6,000 applicants, 
and furnished 7,000 persons in search of lands 
for settlement with letters of introduction to 
prominent citizens in the interior. The ser- 
vices of the bureau are entirely free to all, aa 
it is 8up]K>rted by subscription. It is just what 
we need in California, ana should be supported. 
Onlers for help will be filled free of charge to 
either employer or employee. Send them in. 
Hundreds of iminigrantfl are waiting for them. 

Ahebic^m MATOmn, ob Fauubs' amo Puumas' 
Qdids.— Comprises a deecrlption of the elements and 
composiUon of plaota and toils; the tbeor; and prac- 
ties of composting; the ralne of ttabla manure and 
waste products, etc. Also, a chemical analfslt of the 
principal manufacturod ferlllizerg— their assamed and 
real yalue— and a fall axpote of the frauds practised 
upon purchasers. By Wm. H. Bmckoer, Pb. D., Phtla. 
Sold at this office. Price, S1.76; post paid. 



Tn TBaaaHCBa' Ouiox, by D. W. Hollihao, a practl- 
cal operator with thresbiog machinery in Oalifomia 
and other States. A took of useful and friendly hints 
to the grain growers, machine owners and thresbioc 
superintendeDts and workmen. Published at the Bubal 
Pbkss office, in 1872. Price, 11; in Ump elotb binding, 
TS cents; pogtaRe paid. 



THouoHTLEasHEH.— Persons sometime* return their 
paper, marked "stop this paper." Their name being 
pasted on the sheet they thiuk that Is all we need to be 
able to cross their names off. Now that is thoughtless- 
ness. Tour P. O. address la needed aa much as your 
name. We have thousands of names arranged only 
according to locality. Oar mailing clerk does not know 
where everybody live*. 



To have the money needlessly si>ent every year would 
give substantial comfort to all. To have the money saved 
by buying SILVER TIPPED booU and shoes would buy 
each parent every year a pair of new shoes. Also try- 
Wire yuilted .Soles. 

WooDw .van's Oakdkns embrace* an Aquarium, Mujeum, 
Art Gallery-, Conservatories, Tropical Houses, Meaatreric, 
Seal Ponds and Skatin^^Kink 



Beware of Dry Seasons ! 

Cultivate Irrigrated Land and Get Two 
Crops a Year. No Failure. 

Irrigated l,iiid tor s,-vle in <|uantitieB to suit, on the in- 
stallment plan: four vears' credit, no interest charged. 
.NO CHAROE FOR *ATER KOR IRRIGATION. On 
railroad, only ^ine hours from San Krancisco. Adapted 
to the (jrowth of semi-tropical fruits and all vegetable 
productions. 

THE BEST ALFALFA LAND IN CALIFORNIA. 

Also. IrriK-ated land for rent in uuantities to suit, free 
of char(;e this season, adjoining the Colony, three miles 
from Fresno. 
Call or send for Maps, Circulars, etc. 
CENTRAL CALIFORNIA COLONY. 

306 Pine Street, San Pranclaoo. 
M. TUEO. KEAKNEV, Manager 



January 6, 1877.] 



WMMtWW 



13 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. ETC. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, Jan. 3, 1877. 

The trade of the week has been broken by another holi- 
day. New Year's day was j^enerally observed, and since 
then there ha* been but little life In the markets. The con- 
tinued waiting for rain restricts trade ; both sellers and buy- 
ers of produce refrain from business or else are so far apart in 
their views that trades are difficult. Yet there have been 
some slight fluctuations in prices, and some transactions 
during! the week. Wheat has stood still; there is a dead 
lock between buyers and sellers, and the market is firm 
but inactive. To-day, Wednesday, private advices from 
Liverpool report a firm market, probably because of the 
new threatening in the East. 

Bangre of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been 
as recorded in the following table: 





Cau Avbraoe. 


Club. 


Thursday 

priday 


lis — @118 4d 
lis - (^113 4d 
lis — @ll8 4d 

Holiday, 
lis — tails 3d 
lis — mU 3d 


lis 
lis 
lis 

lis 
lis 


3d(Slls 
.•idcdlls 
SdiffUs 
Holiday. 

2d@Hs 
2d(«ll8 


8d 
8d 


Saturday 

Monday 


8d 
8d 


Wednesday 


8d 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchanj^e 
sompare with same date in former years as follows: 

Average. Club. 

1875 98 10d(gl03 4d lOs 4d(aiOs 9d 

1876' 10s 5d(* Os lOd 10s lOd^lls (id 

18771. !].'.' lis — (*lls .3d lis 2d@lls 8<l 

The Forelgrn Review. 
London, .January 1st.— The Mark Lane Express says: 
The grain trade at the country markets has been generally 
poor, but the decline of a shilling per nuarter on Wheat 
last week has been received with unusual activity in trade. 
At Liverpool especially great animation prevailed. The 
general tone of the market ruled strong in consequence of 
decreased imports and the depletion of granaries. The 
same influences have strengthened the London trade. A 
slight tendency towards lower prices during the recent 
temporary lull has been more than recovered, and a 
healthier feeling pervades trade than at any time during 
the year. Imports into London during the week ha\e 
been limited, while exports show increasing continental 
demand. India continues to furnish the bulk of the week- 
ly supply of foreign Wheat into London. American Wheat 
Is now running very short, and holders have realized an 
advance of one shilling to two shillings per quarter on 
the week. Russian improved a shilling, with a steady 
milling demand and speculative inquiry for both. The 
trade presents a broader feature, millers seeming to derive 
confidence from the diminution of the stocks, the small 
shipments from America, and theknowledge that politcal 
events may occur to enhance the value of Wheat, With 
limited arrivals at ports of call, the floating cargo trade 
has shown considerable firmness. At the end of last week 
there was a very large business done in California floating 
cargoes, but the demand has slackened » ithin the past few- 
days. 

Ne-w York Grain Trade. 

New York, December 31st,1876. -Holiday week, as usual, 
has been an exceedingly dull one in most branches of 
trade. The grain trade of the week has been rather quiet, 
shippers' margin having been adverse, yet the (xisition of 
the market has been very strong for prime Wheat, which 
has sold at 81.32<ai.47 for graded spring, ?1.35(ai.50 for 
winter. The stock of Wheat in store and after to-day is, 
in round numbers, 4,200,000 bushels, against 6,371, 0()0 
bushels at the same time last year. The sentiment of 
leading operators is that prices must go higher during the 
winter. Corn has advanced to 63(*64c for prime shipping. 
The stock of Corn is 3,630,000 bushels, against less than 
three-fourths of a million bushels this time lajst year. 
Cereals are depressed, though prime Barley is firmly held 
The stock is above three times as large as last year, but it 
consists chiefly of very inferior quality. Shipping Flour 
has advanced to ?5. 75 for extra brands, with a stock less 
than half what it was a year ago. Most of the No. 2 
spring Wheat here is held under Western limits fully Sca.Sc 
aoove 8hi]>ping limits. 

Freights and Charters. 

Dnring the past week, says the Cmniiutrcial Setos, Whea' 
freights have remained verj' dull, and a trifling busi- 
ness only has been transacted at extremely low rates. 
The drouth continues, and though there is still time for 
suflicient rain to fall to insure a good crop next year, the 
fact cannot be concealed that the situation is becoming 
serious. The uncertainty continues to act unfavorably on 
our freight market, and is undoubtedly the cause of the 
present stagnation. Taking the latest charters .as a cri- 
terion, we quote wooden ships at £2 to LiverjKjol, and iron 
ones at £2 2s 6d, with the usual advance in both eases for 
orders and the Continent. At the close we have 27,563 
tons in port under engagement to load Wheat, 38,657 tons 
disengaged, and 10,165 miscellaneous. The latest charters 
reported are: Ship Harvester, 1,494 tons; Wheat to Liver- 
pool, £2; Cork, U. K., £2 '2s 6d; Continent, £2 7s 6d. 
Ship Granger, 1,527 tons; Wheat to Liverpool, £2; Cork, 
U. K., £2 2b 6d; Continent, £2 7s 6d. Br ship Castlehead, 
853 tons; Wheat to Liverpool, £2 2s 6d. Br ship Dun- 
britton, 1,536 tons; Wheat to Cork or orders; owners' ac- 
count. 

Receipts of Produce for the Half Year. 

The following is a statement of the receipts of Domestic 
Produce at San Francisco from July 1st, 1876, to date, 
compared with the same period in the previous harvest 



year: 



Flour, qr eks 

Wheat, lOO-lbsks..., 
Barley, 100-tb sacks . 

Oats, sks 

Potatoes, sks 

Com, sks 

Rye, sks 

Buckwheat, sks 

Beans, sks 

Bran, sks 

Hay, tons 

Salt, tons 

Wool, bales 

Hides, No 

Raisins, 20-lb bxs . . . 

Suicksilver, flasks. . 
ops, bales 



July 
to Jan. 



Ist, 1875, 

1st, 1876. 

986,251 

566,703 

696,353 

180,058 

435,141 
92,709 
10,068 
1,180 
76,254 
80,603 
36,175 
4,943 
59,698 
80,856 
16,627 
•29,301 



ceipts generally small; the statistical position is therefore 
favorable to holders. InCalifomia Wool there is little 
or nothing doing. Stocks, however, are carried with con- 
fidence. Sales for the week are: 12,000 tbs Western Texas, 
at 2'24c; 4,200 lbs Eastern do, 24(a26c; 187,000 lbs X and XX 
Ohio, 42J(S48c; 50,000 lbs combing do, 55c; 10,000 tbs 
Western delaine, 48c; and 95 bales Cape for export to 
Canada, 37,000 lbs spring California, 20,000 lbs pulled do, 
40,000 lbs Colorado, 40,000 lbs Western Texas, 5,000 lbs 
Eastern do, 14 bags No. 1 pulled, .39 do super do, 87 do X 
do, 25 do combing do, 12 do black do, 1,400 lbs State 
fleece, 20,000 tt)3 combing Ohio, and 80,000 lbs unwashed 
and unmerchantable do, on private terms. In Boston 800 
bales Oregon sold at 36^c for combing. 

Philadelpuia, January '2d. —Wool in unimproved de- 
mand. Colorado washed, 18(ai'20c; unwashed 17((J18c; ex- 
tra and merino, pulled, 33(a37c; 'No. 1 and super pulled, 
33(<?36c; Texas, fine and medium, 20(a'25c; coarse, 16@18c; 
California, fine and medium, 18@28c; coarse, 17(g25c. 

Domestic Produce. 

The following table shows the b. F. receipts of Domes- 
tic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, as com' 
pared with the receipts of previous weeks: 



July 1st, 1876, 

to Dec. 30th, 1876. 

1,176,391 

8,658,805 

1, '284,669 

177,015 

462,031 

108,268 

17,951 

6, '21 2 

78,584 

137,743 

48,352 

4,'281 

80,561 

107,145 

23,-276 

35,957 

6,580 

Eastern Wool Markets. 
New York, January 2d.— The condition of the Wool 
market is far from satisfactory, so far as the volume of 
trade is concerned, manufacturers being busy at home 
dosing up their accounts and preparing to enter the field 
anew after the tuni of the year. During the past three 
days fleece has attracted considerable attention from the 
few buyers that have visited the market, and if they came 
with an idea of purchasing parcels anything below pre- 
vious current rates, they have found before this that, 
though the market presents but little animation, there is 
no disposition to offer a concession with a view of increas- 
ing the volume of trade. Stocks continue light, and re- 



Articles. 



Flour, quarter sacks . 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, sacks 

Com, centals 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hojis, bales 

Hay, bales 



Week Week Week Week 
Dec. 13. Dec. 20. Dec. 27. Jan. 3. 



23,221 

285,027 

38,708 

5,749 

4,280 

5,290 

17,189 

1,146 

390 



1,035 



73,080 

339,880 

25,206 

4,092 

7,89.'-> 

9,960 

23,392 

1,2.52 

.342 

420 

1,621 



23,568 

157,148 

32,661 

3,449 

5,633 

3, 

19,210 

1,743 

107 

65 

970 



,612 
,432 
,220 
,383 
,072 
,119 
,529 
,200 
98 
46 
.,195 



Wool— The following, from a contemporajy, agrees 
with our view of the trade in this city: There was prob- 
ably never a time in the history of the Wool trade of this 
city when the stagnation was so perfect as it is at present. 
For a period of nearly a month there have been no orders 
from the East, and consequently no sales. The reasons 
given are that there is little or no demand in Eastern 
mifrkets, a.s manufacturers are only buying in very small 
quantities and for immediate use, wishing to have as little 
stock on hand as possible at the close of the year, when 
the annual settlements take place. The unsold stock 
here is variously estimated at 3,500,000 to 4,000,000 lbs, 
much of it of as good qualit\' as the State produces. 
Holders are firai, the general sentiment being in favor of 
holding for 20 cents for the best. 



Bags— Our rates for Bags are reduced to 9((*9ic for 
standard hand-sewed Wheat Bags. This is the jobbing price. 
Large lots at wholesale are obtainable for cash at a lower 
figure. 

Barley— Feed Barley is about 5e per ctl higher than 
last week. Sales of dark Coast were made on Change this 
morning at 81.221 per ctl, and better qualities at higher 
rates. We note Barley sales during the week as follows: 
1,500 sks Coast Feed, >«1.17i; 600 sks bright Coast Feed, 
at*l,20, silver; 600 sks ordinary at .i!l.l7J,and 160 sks 
burry, §1.15, silver. 

Beans -Prices are unchanged. 

Com— Com has advancetl and is now quotable at *1 20 
(u."J1.25 for both large Yellow and White. There has been 
a sale of 100 sks small round at S1.27J. 

Dairy Produce — The depression in Butter finds no 
relief as yet. It has been hard during the last week to 
get 35c for the very best lots. Thij condition of affairs 
need not be long expected if the drouth continues- 
Cheese is without change. 

Eggs— Eggs are plenty and dull at 37J. 

Feed— Cnmmeal is advanced to 428 per ton. and Oi' 
Cake Meal to ^37.50. Hay has sold at last week's jirices 
although .<<18 per ton is only an occasional and extreme 
price for the choicest Wheat. We note wales of other de 
scriptions as follows: 377 tons mixed Wheat and Oat 
.•J15.'25; 30 tons stable, S13.50; 60 tons stock, $11. j0((il'2..50. 

Fruit — drapes are nearly out of the market and quo- 
tations are dropped. Limes are in excess and poor lots 
are hardly saleable. California Oranges also show wide 
range in quality and size, and some sell as low as .-JIO per M. 

Hops— The local market is without news. F^xcept a 
few- sent to Australia, the hops lie in the w-arehouses 
awaiting purchasers. The New York market for the week 
ending Dec. 22d, is reviewed by Emmet Wells as follows: 

i\ large business has been doing this week, but at lower 
prices. Tlie report that choice shipping Hops can be 
bought in the country at '25 ct«. jter lb. and under, has 
caused a most depressing effect uix)n the tra^^e here, and 
resulted in a decline of from 3 to 5 cents per Hi. on me- 
dium and choice grades. Tlie price is now coming to a 
iioint at which Ent,-li8h shippers ought to be willing to 
buy of us; though they find a good deal of fault with the 
quality of our Hops this year, e8|)ccially with the picking 
It seems very hard for holders to be obliged to accept the 
prices now offered, yet they are gradually becoming rccon- 
cile<l to the situation, seeing there is little or no hoj>c for 
a further demand from Gennan>-. England takes from us 
this week, 800 bales, which is a very- fair beginning. We 
hope for larger orders as prices become more settled. Tlie 
receipts for the week foot up over 3,000 bales, t^uotations 
—New Yorks, good to choice, 22 to 27c 18 lb. ; New Yorks, 
low to fair, 15 to '20c 13 lb. ; Eastem, 20 to "2.50 ?9 tt^. ; Wiscon- 
sins, 12 to 17c ¥1 lb. ; Yearlings, 10 to 15c 1ft lb. ; Olds, all 
growths, 4 to 8c V tb. ; Californians, '23 to '25c ^ It). ; Ore- 
gon, '23 to '25c V lb. 

Oats— Oats are firm and prices are maintained. We 
note sales: 300 sks Feed at SI. 90; 200 sks, *1.95; 200 sks 
choice Humboldt Feed Oats, *2 per ctl. 

Onions— Onions have been received in larger supply 
than needed and prices have receded. The very best, 
both from Union City and Stockton, are quotable at 
i?1.12i per ?tl. 

Potatoes Petiiluma Potatoes have advanced a point, 
being now quotable at 85@95c per ctl. Other sorts are 
unchanged, except Early Rose, which are scarce and rank 
as high as the best Petaluma, 95c. 

Poultry and Game — The holiday demand is re- 
moved, and prices for Ducks, Turkeys and Geese have 
fallen. Full lists of prices m-iy be found in our table. 

Provisions— The market is well supplied with fresh 
Meat, and prices are low for the season. Provisions are 
quiet and unchanged in price. The demand for the inte- 
rior is very light. Country merchants are holding off 
awaiting rain. 

Vegetables- Our price Hat of Green Vegetables is 
becoming much reduced. We drop Tomatoes from the 
quotations. Few are received, and those so poor that the 
consumer prefers to go on canned stock. Marrowfat 
Squash has undergone extreme fluctuations during the 
week. One day the supply was small and the Squash was 
sold as high as iS'27..50 at auction on the wharf. To-day 
the supply is ample, and the range is lower than a week 
ago, viz. : 810C<Jl5 per ton. 

Wheat— The transactions of the week have been few. 
Holders are firm in their demand for *"2. 25 for Shipping, 
and offers are at .?2. 20. Holders are confident and at the 
moment are strengthened by the renewal of the war out- 
look in the East. We note a few sales during the week as 
follows; 300 ctls good Milling at S2.20; 8,000 do barely 
shipping quality at 82.17*; 6,000 do at *2.'20; and 40,000 
do for shipment at 8'2.22J; 1,,500 do choice Milling at*'2.20; 
1,000 do smutty at 81.90; 1,200 very choice at 82.27J; 300 
sks fair Milling, JS.IO; 1,000 do Superfine do, 81.90 per 
cU. 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

( wholesale.) 

Wednesdat, .m., Jan. 3, 187 
BAUS Jobbing. { OILS. 

Eng Standard Wheat. 9 i* 9^ Pacific Glue Go's 
Neville & Cos 

Hand Sewed. 22x36.. 9 (ct 9'i 

24x36 10i(fflU 

23x40 11 (<;12 

Machine Swd. 22x36. 9 (tf 9J, 
Flour Sacks, halves.... 9 call 

Quarters 6^7 

Eighths 4i(a 5 

Hessian. 60 inch 11 (ftVl 

45 inch 8liM 9 

40 inch 7ka 8 

Wool Sacks, 3i lb 45 ca,50 

4 1b 50 (*52i 

Standard Gunnies llKal2 

Bean Bags 7 ta 8 

t'A:VDLES. 

Grant's 16 (aiej 

Mitchell's 18 ia20 

CANNED UOODH. 
Assorted Pie Fruits. 

2* lb cans 2 76 (.aS 00 

Table do 3 75 <m 25 

Jams and .Jellies . . 4 25 ta — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 50 (« -- 

.Sardines, qr box..l 65 (al 90 

Hf Boxes 3 00 W - 

COAL-Jobblng. 
Australian, ton.. 8 00 (a 8 25 

Coos Bay 8 00 ta 9 00 

Bdlingham Bay. 8 00 la 

Seattle 9 00 (a - - 

Cumberiand 14 00 (a 17 00 

Mt Diablo 5 75 (a 7 75 

Lehigh 22 00 (a 

Liverpool 8 50 (a 9 00 

West Hartley. . .14 00 ta 

Scotch 8 50 ta 9 00 

Scranton 13 00 ("16 00 

Vancouver Id. . .10 50 (al2 00 

Charcoal, sack... 75 ta 

CV)ke. bbl 60 iff 

COFFEE. 

Sandwich Id, lb. 215(a 

Costa Rica 21 la 

Guatemala 20Ka 215 

Java 23 (a 

Manila 20 (rf 21 

Ground, in cs... 25 (a 

Chiccory 27 <(t 

FISH. 
Sac'to Dry Cod.. 5 la 7i 

Bonel.^ss 8i(a 10 

Eastern Cod.... 8 la 8: 
Salmon, bbls.... 6 50 ca 7 25 

Hf bbls 3 75 (a 4 00 

2 lb cans 2 65 (rf 

1 n. cans 1 80 (a 

Col Riv, bf bbl 4 25 (^ - 

Pkld Cod, bbls.. 22 00 (a 

Htbbls 11 00 VI. 

Mackerel, No. 1, 

Hf Bbls II 00 at- 

Extra 12 00 (a- — 

In Kits I 25 I'/i 2 50 

ExMess, hfbl.l2 00 (a - 
Pkld Herring, bx 3 00 1^- 3 50 
Boston Hmkd H'g 40 (a 50 

LI HE. Etr. 
Lime, Sta Cruz, 

bbl 2 00 (a 2 25 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 75 (a 3 50 

Portland 4 75 ca 5 50 

Plaster, Golden 

Gate Mills.... 3 00 (a 3 25 
Land Piaster, tn 10 00 viXI 50 

NAILS. 
Aaa'ted sizes, keg 3 25 (a 4 00 



Neatafoot, No 1.1 00 w 

Castor, No 1 1 25 «f 

Baker's A A 1 25 lal 

Olive, Plagniol. . ..5 25 litb 

Possel 4 75 (^ 

Palm. 11) 9 (a 

Linseed, Raw. .... 75 (a 

Boiled 80 (a 

Cocoanut 80 f^ 

Cliiua nut, cfi 70 (^(^ 

Spei-m 1 60 cal 

Coast Whales 60 (a 

Polar, refined 62 J(a 

Lard 1 10 (o(l 

Oleophiue 44 (.a 

Devoe's Bril't 44 ca 

Nonpariel 50 fa 

Eureka 32i(a 

Barrel kerosene. . . 32|(tf 

Downer Ker 45 ta 

Elaine 48 (a 

P.AINTS. 
Pure \Vhite Lead. 950 

Wliiting lJ(oi' 

Putty 4 (a 

Chalk IHa 

Paris White 25(a 

Ochre 3|(o) 

Venetian Red 3^0 

Averill Chemical 
Paint, gal. 
Whiter tints... 2 00 (ft2 
Green, Blue k 
Ch Y'ellow....3 00 wS 

Light Red 3 00 ia3 

Metallic Roof... 1 30 (rtl 
RICE. 
China No. 1, lb.... oK?' 

Hawaiian 1 fft 

Carolina \0 iff 

SALT. 
Cal. Bay. ton.... 10 00 (ffl4 

Common 5 00 <a 7 

'arrnen Id 12 00 (a 15 

Liverpool tine. . .20 00 «5 — 
SOAP. 

Castile, lb 10 fa 

Common brands.. 4J(a 

Fancy brands 7 (S 

SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 45 iM 

Cassia 22i(a 

Nutmegs 85 I" 

Pepper Grain 15 (.« 

Pimento 15 c^^ 

Mustard. Cal., 

lb glass 1 50 (rt 

Si;(.iAR, ETC. 

Cal. Cube, til 12-;(a 

Circle A crusbeil.. 12j<a 

Powdered 13 (O) 

Fine crushed 12 Jta 

Granulated 12J(a 

Golden C 10 (» 

Hawaiian 10 la' 

Cal. Syrup, kgs.... 72Jir>, 
Hawaiian Molasses 25 {a 

TEA. 
Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 35 cr 

('ountry pckd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 50 (a 

Hyson 30 (a 

Foo-CMiowO 35 ca 

Japan, Ist quality 40 (a 
2d.iuality 25 (» 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



[wholesale 



FRIIT MARKET. 

Oranges, Mex, 

M 30 00 ("35 

Tahiti (o 

Cal 10 00 ca25 

Limes 4 00 (a 8 

Lemons, Cal. . . .10 00 iaI5 

Sicily, bx 9 00 MIO 

Bananas, buch.. 2 00 i" 3 
Cocoanuts, 100.. 5 00 (c 6 
Pineapples, iloz 6 00 la 8 

Apples, bx 40 (w 1 

Crab, lb 2 (a 

Figs, lb 4 <a 

Pomegranates...— --- <p - 
Cranberries, bbll4 00 (al5 

Pears, bx 1 00 (a 2 

Quinces, bx 75 (a 1 

DRIED FRUIT. 

Apples, lb V^ift! 

Apricots 10 (a 

Pears 7 fa 

Peaches 7 <a 



WEDSEsnAV, M., Jan. 3, 1877. 

Plums 3 (a 4 

Pitted 12® 14 

Raisins, Cal, bx I'oO (a 2 50 
Figs, Black, lb., i" 4 (a 6 

White 10 (a- 

Prunea 124v 17 

Citron 28 (« 30 

Zante Currants.. 9 (t 10 
VEtiETABLES. 

Asparagus, lb... i^>- -- 

Beets, ctl 60 (a 

Cabbage, 100 lbs 50 (a 60 

Carrots 37lta 40 

Cauliflower, doz I 00 (a 

Celery 75 (a 

Gariic, lb 2 (a 2» 

Squash, Marrow- 
fat, tn 10 00 (al5 00 

Artichokes, do/. (a— — 

Parsnips, lb 1 Ca U 

Lettuce, doz 10 ca— — 

Turnips, ctl 60 # 75 

Mushrooms — - {<f - — 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 



Butter, Califoraia 

Choice, lb 

Cheese 

Eastern 

Lard. Cal 

Eastern 

Flour, ex. fam, bbl7 

Qorw Meal, lb 

Siigar, wh. crshd 

Light Brown 

Coffee. Cireen 

Tea. Fine Black... 

Finest Japan. ... 
Candles, Aomt'e,. 

Soap, Cal 

Rice 

Yeast Pwdr. doz..l 



50 #2 



Wednesday, m., Jan. 3, 1877. 

Bowen Bro. Irge 

can, doz 5 

Small 2 

Bowen 's Cream 

Tartar, lb 

Can'd Oysters doz2 
Syrap. S F fjold'n 
Dried Apples, lb . . 

Ger. Prunes 

Figs. Cal 

Peaches 

Oils. Kerosene 

Wines, OUX Port... 3 
French Claret 1 

CJal, dozbot 3 

Whisky, OK, gal. .3 
French Brandy.... 4 




00 ca 




50 (a 




75 (a 


_ 


00 (.a 3 50 


75 i«l 


00 


10 (a 


12 


12Jca 


14 


9 ca 


10 


II m 


15, 


40 (a 


.■ifl 


50 if'.- 


(Kl 


00 ("2 50 


00 (a4 50 


50 ca5 00 


00 C"8 00 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

(wholesale.) 

Wedkesdat, .m., Jan. 3, 1877. 

BEANS. iPecans 17 @ 18 

Bayo. ctl 2 50 @2 75 Peanuts 



Butter 1 50 i.al 75 

Pea 1 80 («2 00 

Red 3 00 ca - 

Pink 2 62}ca2 75 

Sm'l White 1 80 <A% 00 

Lima 2 75 ca2 87! 

BROOM CORN. 

Common, lb 2 ((^ 2i 

Choice 3 (a 4 

COTTON. 

Cotton, tb 15 ta 18 

DAIRY PRODUCE, ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Cnl. Fresh Roll, tb 30 C* 35 

Point Reyea 35 ca — 

Pickle Roll 27i(a 30 

Firkin 25 c<? 30 

Western Reserve.. 16 (a 25 

New York — ^ — 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal, lb.... 10 (a 15 

Old — ca — 

Eastem 125(a 15 

N. Y. State 19 ca 20 

EUUS, 

Cal. fresh, doz 37 J@ 40 

Ducks' 43 (a 44 

Oregon 37Ka — 

Eastern 21 (tf 30 

FEED. 

Bran, ton 20 00 ifi 

Corn Meal 28 00 ca 

Hay 12 00 WIS 00 

Middlings 30 00 (5— — 

Oil Cake Meal.,. 37 50 ca 

Straw, bale 70 W 75 

FLOUR. 

Extra, bbl 6 50 Ca7 25 

Superfine 4 75 ca5 50 

fiiaham 5 50 (36 00 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef, Ist qual'y, lb 4i<ai 

Second 3ica 

Third 3 (a 

Mutton 4 ca 

Pork, undressed.-. 6 ca 

Dressed 8Ka 

Veal ska 

Milk Calves 7'ca 

CIRAIN, ETC. ' 
Bariey, feed, ctl.. I 22l(ai 30 

Brewing 1 30"ial 35 

Chevalier I 25 (al 40 

Com, White 1 20 C" I 25 

Yellow 1 20 (al 25 

Oats 1 80 (a2 00 

Milling 2 00 (a2 12' 

Rye 1 60 Vt — 

Wheat, shipping.. 2 10 ca2 25 

Milling 2 20 (a2 25 

HIDES. 
Hides, dry 20 (a 21 

Wet salted 7 (cO 8^ 

HONEV, ET«'. 

Bi-eswax, tli 25 (a 27? 

Honey in comb 10 (a 12) 

Strained 6 (a S' 

HOPS. 

New- Crop 20 (3 25 

Ni;TS-.lobbing. 
Almonds, hd ahl tb 7 (a - 

Soft sh'l 15 (a 17 

B azil H irt 16 

ChI. Walnuts 8 (if 10 

Chile Wabiuts.... 11 tit 12 



96 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by SciRO &: Co. 1 

San Fkascisco, Jan. 3, 3 p. m. 
Leoal Tendkb,s hi S. F., II A. M., 93i(393i. Silver, 

encaei. 

'Gold in New- Y'ork, 1075. „ i,„ ., . ,• 

Gold Bars. 880ca890. Silver Bars, 8caiO (i! cent, dis- 

''"ExrHANOR on New York. 50ca55-100 li' cent, ni-omiuni for 
gold; on London liaiikers. 49(; Comiuerclal, 49J; Paris, five 
francs TS dollar; Mexican dolls-.., 98. 

London Consols, 96J; Bouds, 102)i. 

CJuicksilver in 8. F., by the flask, V lb, 50c. 



FUbeits 15 ® 16 

ONIONS. 

Union City, ctl. . ..1 I2i(» — 

Stockton 1 00 (SI 124 

POTATOES. 

Petaluma, ctl 85 (8 

Salt Lake 1 50 (^ 

Humboldt 85 (rt vnj 

Half Moon bay.... 70 at 90 

Cuffey Cove 90 cal 00 

Early Rose, new . . 95 ffl: — 

Sweet 75 (a 87S 

POULTRY A «AViE.. 

Hens, doz 7 50 (of8 50 

Roosters 00 (ff7 00 

Broilera 4 50 wb 00 

Ducks, taine 7 50 Cr? 50 

Geese, pair 2 25 ca2 50 

Wild Gray 2 50 C* — 

White 1 00 ^ - 

Turkeys. Live, lb . . 15 ca 17 

Dressed 14 ca 16 

(juail, doz I 00 «'<I 25 

Snipe, Eng 2 00 C^ — 

Doves 50 ^ 57 

Rabbits 1 00 Cal 25 

Hare 2 50 (a _ 

Venison, lb 7 (a 9 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, L't, lb 14 c* 15 

Medium 13Jca 14 

Heai-y isjca — 

Lard I25c<* 14 

Cal. Smoked Beet 10 (ip. lOJ 

Eastern — ^ — 

Eastem Shoulders — ca — 

Hams, Cal 14 ca 14i 

Armour 164ca — 

Worster's l^ca — 

Dupee's 17 ca — 

Davis Bros" 17 ca — 

SEEDS. 
Alfalfa, Chile, !b.. 9 (a 

California 15 ca 

Canary 10 (a 

Clover, Red 22 ca 

White 50 ca 

Cotton 6 (cP 

Flaxseed 3!ca 

Hemp 5 (03 

Italian Rye Grass 25 (fO 

Perennial 20 c«f 

Millet 10 @ 

Vlustard, White... 8 ^ 



14 
17 

12; 

55 
10 

7 
30 
.30 
1? 



Brown 3i^ 

tape 3 ^ 

<y Blue Grass.... 30 (a 

2d quality 29 Ca 

iweet V Grass 75 (a 

Orchard 30 (a 

Red Top 25 (w 

Hungarian % (db 

Lawn 50 C^ 

Mezciuite 20 (a 

Timothy 10 ca 

TALLOW. 

(.'rude, lb ejca 

Refined 8 C<? 

WOOL, ETC. 

FALL. 

'•"•■ee ^2 ^ 

Chiice 14$ 

Northern 17 W 

Burry 10 @ 

Llrpijon, Eastern... 20 @ 

VaUey 25(3 



LEATHER. 



[WHOLESALE.] 

Wednesdat, m., Jan. 3, 1877. 

Sole Leather, heavy, lb .$ 25 (» 28 

Light 20 (a 22 

Jodot. 8 Kil., doz 48 00 (a50 00 

11 toI3Kil 68 00 ("79 00 

14 to 19 Kil 82 00 (^94 00 

Second Choice, 11 to 16 Kil 57 00 (a74 00 

CtornelUan, 12 to 15 Kil 57 00 ("67 00 

Females, 12 to 13 Kil 63 00 (a i? 00 

14 to 16 Kil 71 0(1 ("76 50 

Simon Ullrao, Females, 12 to 13 Kil 58 00 (a 62 00 

14 to 15 Kil 66 00 ("70 00 

16 to 17 Kil 72 110 1^74 00 

Simon, 18 Kil 61 00 ("63 00 

20 Kil 65 00 ("67 00 

24 Kil 72 00 ("74 00 

Roliert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00 ("40 00 

Kips. French, lb 1 00 (a 1 35 

Cal. doz 40 00 W60 00 

French Sheep, all colors 8 00 PI5 00 

Eastern Calf for B.ocks, lb 1 00 (a 1 25 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, doz 9 00 ca 13 00 

For Linings 5 50 ^10 50 

(Jal. Russet Sheep Linings 1 75 @ 4 50 

Boot Legs, French Calf, pair 4 00 W— ■ ■ 

Good French Calf 4 00 @ 4 75 

Best Joilot Calf 5 00 @ 5 26 

Leather, Harness, lb 24^ 32 

Fair Bridle, doz 48 00 ("72 00 

Skirting, tb 33 1* 37* 

Welt, doz : .TO 00 (a50 00 

Buff, ft 17 (a I7i 

Wax Side 17 @ 



LUMBER. 



CAR<;0 PRI<'F„S 
REDWOOD. 

Rough, M 

Refuse 

Clear 

Clear Refuse 

Rustic 

Refuse 

Surfaced 

Refuse 

Flooring 

Refuse 

Beaded Flooring 

Refuse 

Half-inch Siding 

Refuse 

Half-inch .Surfaced 

Refu.se 

Half inch Battens 

PicketB, Hough 

Rough, Pointed 

Fancy, Pointed 

Shingles 



WEnNEsDAY, M., Jan. 3, 1877 
OFPU«ET SOUND PINE. 

RETAIL PRICE. ' 

,» „„ Rough. M .*22 50 

18 00 Fencing 22 50 

14 00 Flooring and Step 32 50 

30 00 Narrow 35 00 

20 25 2(1 quality 25 00 

32 50 Laths 3 .50 

22 50 Furring, lineal ft. J 

30 00 REDWOOD. 

20 00 RETAIL PRICE. 

28 00 Rough. M S'22 50 

1800 Refuse 18 OO 

30 00 Pickets, Rough 18 00 

20 00 Pohited 20 00 

20 00 Fancy 30 00 

16 00 Hiding 25 00 

25 00 Surfaced & Long Beaded 37 50 

•JO 00 Flooring 35 (0 

20 ■'iO Rrfiise 25 00 

1 0() Hall inched Surf aoe<i... 32 50 

13 0(1 (Cistic, No. 1 40 CO 

2<1 on Battens, (iaeal ft ■( 



35 OUl.shiiigles. M. 



Our Poultry Department. 

E. H. Cheny writes from Bodega, Sonoma county, SR 
follows: "Your paper is worth its subscription price 
yearly to any farmer who keeps two d zen chickens, to 
get Mr. Eyre's opinion upon the value of the different 
breeds A f.iwU, the proper treatment for them, the 
diseases to which they are liable and the remedies. ,1 
became acquainted with Mr. Eyre through your col- 
umuB, and I have no ciuse to rfgret it, for in my deal- 
ings with him I ttod everything as represented, and, 
wituout any disparagnment for o'herB, I can recom- 
mend him »» one in whom confldenoe will not be dis- 
placed." __^ 

Sample Copies.— Occasionally -we send copies of this 
paper to persons who we believe would be benefited 
by subscribing for It, or willing to astist us in extend- 
ing its circulation. We call the attention of such to 
onr prospectus and terms of subscription. 



14 



(y it M * w 



f* 



3Pil!BSS. 



[January 6, 1877. 



ri-KCIIASBRS OK STDCK WILL KIM) IX T1II8 DlRElTOKY TIIK 
NAMEB ok H(1«K ok TIIK M08T Rkliablk Bkkkdkrh. 

OiR Rateh. six lincH iir less inserted in this Direetur.v at 
50 cents a line per month, pavahle i|iuirterlv. 



CATTLE. 



A. MAILL.IARD, Sm K.facl. Marin Vo., fal. 
breeder of Jersevs. Calves for sale. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Franciseo, 
(or Cotate lianch, near Petalum:!, S(jnoiii» Co. ), Jirecrt- 
ers of Sliort Horns and their Onuieii. 



R G SNBATH, San Bruno, Cal.. breeder of Jersey 
^■attle. Has Jersey bulls for sale -various ii|^— at *40 

to »UW. 

P. STANTON, Haerainent", Cal., breeder of ehoieo 
.lersev Cattle. Bulls, Cows and Calves for sale. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



L U. SHIPPEE, SUickton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Sp^inisli .Merino Sheep, Uurhani Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



B. F. WATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thorou),'h 
bred Spatiisli Merino Sheep. 

M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thorouijlibred So\ithd.>wn 
Sheep Kinis and Kwos. 1 to i years old, *20 each; 
Lambs, Sl.'i each. 

LANDRUM & RODGERS, WatsoiwUle, Cal. Im 
porters and breeders of Pure Breed Angora Coats. 



POULTRY. 



M. FALLON, corner Seventh and Dak streets, (Jak- 
land. Bronze Turkeys. Choice Eggs tor Hatchin:; 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 



J. M. KERLINGER, Ellis, San Joaquin Co 
Brown Le;,'honis a .specialty. 



MRS. L. J. WATKINS, Santa Clara, Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls, White and Brown Lejfhorns, S. S. Ham- 
burifs, L Brahnias an<l &. B. Red Came Bantams. Also 

Eggs. 

W. H. GROVES, Stockton. Cal., hiis for sale White 
Leghorn Fiiwls and Chicks and a few Light Brahma 
Fowls, for the next thirty days. SUwk flrst-cla.s8. En- 
close stamp for reply. 



SWINE. 




ALFRED PARKER, Bellnta, San Joaquin ('• 
Cal. Breeder of Improved Berkshire Swine. 



BUSINE 3S 
COLLECT 

No. 24 Post Street, 

BAN FltANCISCOi CAI. 



The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are competent and exiwrienccd. Its pupils arc 
froiB the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
B\isines8 Education a siiecialty; yet its instruction is not 
cimftncd to Book-keeping and .\rithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
struction Ls given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and .Modern Languages are )>raetic:illy taught. The 
discipline is excellent, and its system of .\ctual Business 
Practice i-, unsurpassed. 

Ladikh' Dei'aut.mk.nt. Ladies will be wlmitteil for in- 
struction in all the Departments of the t'ollege. 

Telegrakhic L)k.i\kt.mkxt In this llepartment young 
men and young ladies are [iractically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and (laper 

For further particulars call at the Collqfe, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco. Cal. 




L o q K ! 

ALBERT E. Bl'RBANK, import- 
er and breeder of Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, Dogs, Binls, Etc., 
Kggs f*»r batching from the finest of 
imported sttick. Eggs and Fowls 
at reduced prices. Send stump for 
Price List. 

ALBERT E BCRBANK. 
4:t and 44 Caliioriiia .Market, S. F. 



^^0E Mxy, CALVERT'S CARBOLIC 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 Per Gallon. 

.\fter dippili',' the Sheep, is use- 
ful for Preserving Wet Hides. De- 
stroying the Vine Pest, and for 
Disinfecting Purposes, EU-. 

T. W. JACKSON, S. F.. Sole 
Agent for (.'alifornia and Nevada. 




II. K. Cr.M.MlXli 

1.S.58. 



U. II, kai.stos. 
1S7U 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

WHOLESALE FRUIT AND PRODUCE 
COMMISSION HOUSE. 

ESTABLISHED l.V.s 

So. 424 Battery Street, southeast corner of Washington, 
San Francisco. 



Our business being exclusively Commission, we have nu 
nterests that will c<?iiflict with those of the producer. 



BERKSHIRES. 

I am breeding PIRE ENfiLISH BERKSHIRE PIGS 
and have them consUuitly on hand. Also, fifteen two and 
three-year-old Sows, several of them with Pig. These are 
all from Pigs I imiior.ed fr.im Kentucky 

PETER SAXE, Importer. 
Conunercial Hotel, S<an Francisco. 



Tule Lands. 



FOR SALE OR TO LEASE. ABINDANCK oF PAS- 
Tl'UE ON THEM. Address, 

MERCER & McAPEE, 
428 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION, 

Incorporated Feb. 10th. 1875. Capital St' ck, $1,000,000 



DANIEL INMAN. (Pbksmie.nt). 
R. C. HAILE, (VicK Pbbsiuknt). 
JOHN LEWELLIMJ, (Tkkaki itKKi 



OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 

AMOS ADAMS. (Skxrktakt). 
TIK/S. riTON. 
I. C. -STEELE 



o. HlllBELL. IX CAMPBELL. 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION HOUSE, 



TIIOS. FLINT. 

n. P KELLOKC. 

W. L. OVERHISER. 



Grangers' Building, 



106 Davis Street, S. F. 



(''>iisi}»'iiineiits fif (Jraiii. WooJ. Iiajry IVodm-ts, Fniil, Vuj^etables. and nthcr I*pm1ih:u s<ilU>tti;(l. ami 

.Vdvaiirt's UKule on the sjinic. (»r(lerH for Grain and Wcmi] Sarks, rrnduct-. MtrtrhaiKlisc. 

Fann Ini|ilenit^nt-H. Wa^fons, etc., sulicitud and pnmijitly attendi'd to. 

W'v (In a Strictly <*oniniixKinii HiiHitiOKH. and place (Hir rates of Comuii>«sion U|Hin ft fair leptiniatc hv^-At that uill 
enable the nmtitry at larj^e to transact hiixiness throu;;h us to their entire satiufaetiou. 

Consig-nments to be marked "(iranyeiV Busines!< ,\sHociati(»n, San Francisco.'* Stencils for inarkin<:: will W 
furnished free on a)>|)1ic4iti'in. 

DANIEL INMAN, Manager. 



/« consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERKINS' SAUCE, 

ivhich are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Per r ins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, hearing their Signature, 

thus, 

which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and zoithout which none is genuine. 

Ask for LEA dr" PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle ami S'opper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse ami Blackwell, London, 
&'€., &'c. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throu^hottt the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San F;•an^isco. 



CALIFORNIA FARMERS' MUTUAL 

Fire Insurance Association, 

No. 38 California Street, 

(GRANGERS* BL'H.,DING,; 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 



CAPITAL, - - 
ASSETS, OCT. 19, 



1876, 



$200,000 00 
268,716 00 



MUTUAL PLAN. 

A.MOI NT. I'HK.Mll.'HK 

Risks writtun tci Oct 1, TO. . .J<.i,181,591 00 .^1 14.44.% fiT 

Less Aiiiouiit Caiit-elecl 300,(44.00 fi,!»l7.f)0 



Aiiiimiit ill fiirce. Out. 1, 71). ..*4,8S0,!»47.0O !<t08,14S.07 



Loss&spaicl. 

GASH PLAN. 



.*7,20LOO 



ASIOINT. 

Risks Kiittell ti> Oct. 1, '"li «2,.')8.'),1I14.1<1 

Ia!s,s Caiicelerl and Expired il7(>,«08.00 



.\iiioiiii1 in force. Oct. 1, 
Lnsses paid 



70 $1 .IJOn,00«. 19 *W,0(W. SK 

!*10,LW.71 



J. II 
I. (i 
(i P 
A. W. 
KEKD, 



ML.VNCHAIl. 
(iARDNER.. 
KELLOGG.. 
THOMPSON 
K. RILE... 



OFFICERS. 



J,. Pbksiiik.vt 

TRK.\»I IlKR 

Attdk.skv 

swrkthiv 



TRUSTEES. 



J. I>. I5lumli;ir . 
(i. P Kcllc.j;«. .. 
I- G. (.ardiicr. . , . 

('h:is. Uiird 

Criah WiwhI 

A. K Nally 

.\. W. Th'iinfMoii. 

A. I). Lcijrali 

I. (\ Steele 

(i. W Ci.lbv 

A. Wolf...'. 

t.', .1 . ( !res*HCV 

J. C .Merrviield.. 

E. W Steele 

C. K. Ablmtt 

Dr. T. Flint 



San Francisco 

SulinaH 

San FRinciseii 

Salinas 

Sail iiciiito 

SaiiUi Riisa 

Sftn Franciseo 

('i)lnsa 

San Mateo 

Butte (.Viunt.v 

Stockton 

Oakland 

Dixon 

...San Luis ol)is|in 

Moiilercv 

, J.'..^..'. :.Hnl1isUr 



Farm property insured at actual cmt on the Miitiiiil 
Plan, other desirable projicrty insnnal. and rated accord- 
ins; to. merit. 










""•^^t^WJ^ 



My annual Cata1o)L,'ue of Veiiutablc and Hower Seed f^r 
1877 will be reiuly by January, and sent FKKK to all wh" 
apply, ^us^1n)e^s of !;wt Heasoii need not write for it. 
I offer one of the lan^est coUeetionsof Vegetable Seed ever 
^ent ttut by any seed house in Americ;i, a larf,;e portion 
of which were grown un my six seed fanns lYintcd di- 
rections for cultivation on every jmckajife. AM seed sold 
from my establishment wnrnuitetl to be both fresh and 
true to name; so far, that should it pnne otberwiw I 
will refill the i>rder trratis. As the orig^inal introdnivr 
of the Hubbard and Marblohead Squashes, the Marblclnad 
('ahbaifes. and a score of other new vegetables, I invite 
the patronage of all who are anxious to have their seed 
fresh, true, and of the very best strain. Srv I'liffftihffx 
ti itju'.cinlty. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, 



Mai'blehead, Mas?. 



SANBORN & BYRNES, 




Mechanics' Mills, Mission Street, 
Rot. F^r4 iiiid Krcnioiit, San Fniiicisio Orders from 
the country iinmiplly attended to. All kinds of Stair 
Material furnished to order. Wood and Ivory Turn- 
ers, Hilliard Balls and and Ten I"iii8, Fancy Newels and 
Balnst4Ts. 



SEEDS. 



TREES. 



SEEDS. 



FOR SALE. 

.\ line lot of seventy-five hifth ;;nule .-Viiifora (ioats 
Will sell for cash, or trade tor a jiair of j;ood horbes and a 
heavy wa{,'on. For particulars aildress 

I. P. TABOR, 
New Castle, Placor Co., Cal. 



Contiiiiiallv aniviii);. NEW ami KRESII KENTICKV 
ULCE" CRASS. REli TOP TIMOTHY. SWEET 
VERNAL. MEZi^'flTE ami other (irasscs. 
REI» CLOVER. FRENCH WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Etc. 
Also, a Complete Assortnii-nl of HOLLAND FLOW 
ERINi; Kl'LHS. JAPAN LILIES, FRESH AfS- 
TRALIAN HUE (MM, or ■•FE\EIi TREE" 
SEEIi; to;;etlier with all kinds of FRl IT, 
FORF.ST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and cvervthinjr in the Seed line, 
at the Old .SlauU. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

lii.poncr and Hculcr in Seeds, 

425 Washington Street, - San Francisco. 

SANTA BARBARA NURSERY, 

i:aU-d seven miles wot of S:illta H:irhani, Cal. 

Depot, Cor. .M« (iiteeito and Castillo StreetH. 

l*ropriet<ir. 

n l.rnMTOK OK 

Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Trees. Also, 
Orange, Lemon, Lime and Palm Trees, 
Pot Plants, and Hardy Ever- 
green ShrubbeVy. 

BLioMlNtiTON .N'l'KSERY, F. K. PniK.vix, BliKiinint;- 
toii, III. Price list free. Four Catalo^ies, '."ie. 



JOSEPH SEXTON, 



Nurserymen. 



1 -S 



RARE 



^ND VALUABLE 



PLANTS AND TREES. 

STRAWIIERRIES. Ever-lKarins Freneli Hush Straw 
berries, with and without runners: the best of all in 
flavor and t;i.ste Plants without runners make fine 
bonliTs I>riecs: With niimers, l.ftun plants, 910:100, 
ijl r>u; 12, 2:>c. Without runiiBrs, 1, (UK) plants, *20; 100, 
-Si; l-i. .sOe. 

TREES. The real P.iiilowiiia Imiicrialis. .IDc Tw.i dol- ' 
lars each fipr trei^s from two to nine feel hijfli. Wal- 
uutM. pajier shell, the liest of all, viie yeur old. .'lOe. eaoh. . 
Walnuts beariii); three years froiii the seed. Four 
kinds of the flni:st Fnnch Chestnuts, jiist receive<l from 
France, one and tw., ye-.irs old. .Id and (.li!. TVelve 
thousand Plants and Tivos just rccuivcd from France, 
iiieludiu); many new varieties. 
For sale by 

J. GRBLCK, Los Angeles. 
P. o Hox iti 

HANNAY BROS.' NURSERY, 

SAN JOSE. CAL. 

I lUIT, SHADE AND ORNAMENTAL TREhiS, APPLE, 

PEAR. PUM. CIIERRV. PEACH. APRICOT, 

ALMOND. (^IINCE. oLIVE, Fl(!, 

IJRAPEVINES, AND SMALL 

FRUITS. 

HI CALVPTIS. CVPRE.SS, PINE, A(.'A('IA, PEPPER, 
ELM, POPLAR, ETC., ETC. 

< >ur Trees arc well )n^>wn luid hedlth;, and those wisliiiti; 
t t plant liwjjcly will study their own interests by jfivinitr 
us a cal! before purehasin;; elsewhere. 

HANNAY BROTHERS. 

P, O. Box 32. 



FRUIT, EVERGREEN, NEW AND RARE 
TREES. 

BRIGGS' RED MAY PEACH, 
THE EAULItST PEACU IN THE WORLD. 

CALIFORNA FAN PALM, 

( Priehardia l-'ilit'era ) 

THE FASTE.ST CROWEI! AND .MOST IIARDV OF 

ALL PALMS 

FLOWERINR PLANTS AND FLOYERING BULBS. 



K*ir a ('4iiii|tlcte List scud fi«r ;l (';it;iltt^jiic. Aii 

JOHN ROCK. San Jose, Cal. 



STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

Established in 1852, 

W. B. WEST, Proprietor, 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

EVERGREENS, 
SHRUBS AND GREENHOUSE PLANTS, 

(■ompri■,in^'.^^.■l■\tllin^ NEW and RARE in my line. 
SPECIALTIES: 

Raisin Grapes, Figs, Oranges. Lemons, 

And Other Tropical Fruits. 
I have iiii^Kirtcd superior Fi^ and lUisiii (;rapc<i di- 
rect from the plai-c of their nativity in Europe, and hav- 
ing jiropaK^ite-d lari^c t|uaiititles, can now' offer them to the 
trade ami the public on the 

Most Reasonable Terms. 



200,000 

Australian Gum Trees For Sale, 

\ I 
STRATTON'S GUM TREE FOREST NURSERY, 

ll.WWAlIlis, .\LAMEDA CO., CAL. 



Tliese trees are from five to twelve inches high, 
tr.uisplanted regularly into bo.vcn 30x20 Inch.es square, 
wcifiliinu' L'>0 poiinils. 1.1(1 or .M)0 in each box, in 
splendid condition for transjflanlini; to their pemianent 

loL-ation. Price, $6 to $12 per 1,000. wm M.n- 

Iract to plant the trees, or furnish siii>criiiteiideni'c, on 
low lernis, Ca.sh must aecomjiany <ir(lcrs for less than 
S"'0. or if j^reater than thnt amount, city reference nnigt 
be jriven. Address, 

JAS. T STRATTON, 
East Oakland, Alameda Countx. I'al. 



PETALUMA NURSEKIES. 

Established - 1860. 

Wi- otfi.r this KciuHon a largu ami wt-llsclfctcil stock of 
Fruit TrLi's, Fruit ItuHlies, Viucs. Sha<U' Trees ami a general 
assortinetit (»f Kvergrecu Trees ami Shrulis. We have 1,000.- 
00<Hiunm from S5 i"er M uii. accoiflinii tn size. Wc have alwi 
an (►ver-Mt*K;k of I'iiiu« InMgtms. >fniitfrcy rypn^RB. Pure 
Whiti- Paiiiims I'laiitrt. larce plunus. I-iir«e Araucjiria Kx- 
eeitia. American F;Iiii. Black Walnuts iiiitl Hlackherry K<H»t«, 
at very low rates. I'rice List 8<-nt un aiijOicatioii- AtMrt'ss, 
WM. .SKXTON, Petaluma, V&l. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES 

EsT.VIlLISIIKIl IN ls."i"i. 

The largest and most tsimplet« stock of Fruit Trees 

north of San Francisco Itay, also, » ireneral 

assortment nf Shade Trees, Everifreen Trees 

and Shrubs, Green Hi^nse Plants, etc. 

Eucahiitns in varietv Prices low. 

Cataloj^iies and iist of prices funiishol on application 

Address. W. H. PEPPER, Petaluma, Cal. 



SPANISH CHUFA 
SEED FOR SALE. 



Address 

I>owney (*itv, Ix>s AngclM 
CV>unty, Cal. 



January 6, 1877.] 



15 



Agricultural Articles. 



IRON SECTIONAL HARROW. 




This Harrow was Awarded the First 

Premium at the California 

State Fair in 1875. 

The umlersij^iied, having purchiused the patoiit ri^lit nf 
this Harriiw fur California, are niiw niannfacturin),' theni 
in Kosevillu, Placer County, and would call the atteTition 
of Farmers to the superior merits of this Harrow over all 
others now in use. 

As its name indicates, it is made in sections of ahout 
three feel in width, each section haviny four bars, in 
which the teeth are inserted, and by connecting the sec- 
tions with links, the Harrow is formed. 

yhould a farmer require a Harrow upon his farm to do 
all kinds of work, he should purchase six sections, which 
would be suitable for four horses, and would cut 18 feet 
in width; by disconnecting two sections he will have a two 
or three-horse Harrow, cutting about 13 feet. One sec- 
tion alone is complete in itself, and suitable for garden 
work, with one horse. The Harrows are made of the best 
(|uality of iron, and with teeth wan'anted to be steel. 

We give a few of the many reasons why we claim sui)e- 
riority for these Harrows over all others in use on this 
Coast: 
First—By the lightness of the draft, taking into considem- 

tion the amount of work it does. 
Second - liy working uneven or rolling ground just as 

well and as evenly as if it was entirely level. 
Third — They are made of Iron and Steel, and therefore 

are not affected at all by sun or rain, or by heat and 

cold; they are always tight, and ready for use; they are 

also durable, A farmer purchasing one has a Harrow 

that will last a life time. 
Fourth— The teeth being fastened with a nut and screw 

into the cross bars, should one break, another can be 

inserted in a moment. We are making three sizes, all 

being the same in width, but different in depth and 

weight finly. 

Prices, from. $12.50 to $l',.on pm- s^rlhn. 

All orders sent to 

BREWSTER & CO., 

RoseviUe, Placer County., 
Will be promptly attended to, and satisfaction guaran- 
teed in all cases. 

c A utTo n . 

It has come to our notice that certain parties are now 
making this Harrow in this State, and that several of 
them have been sent here from the East. Now this is to 
caution all persons against making, selling or buying 
them, so made and offered for sale, as we shall enforce our 
rights in relation to the matter, and would call the atten- 
tion of all persons infringing upon our patent, to the Inic 
in regard to it. 

BREWSTER & CO. 

Roseville, July l.lth, 187(i. 



MATTESOI^ & WILLIAMSON'S 



Winchester Repeating Rifle 



MODEL 1873. 





Took the I'rcmium over all at the great jilowing Match 
in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is required 
in the constrmtion rti Gang Plows. It is (piickly adjusted. 
Sufficient \^h\y is gi\en so that the tongue will pass over 
enuUe knolls without changing the working position of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can he relied upon as the best 
and most desirable' Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton, Cal 



The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, ^ . 

■' ** ' Strmg measuvmg from cunttT t>i tar- 

get to center of each shot, 3'2^ 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, "'ScLsh'^tTMofhX;.^ 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting, 

Defense, or Target Shooting. 

The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 

Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inch blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set, 
24, 26, 28, 30 inch -blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 2(), 28, 30 iuch-^blued. Octagon ban-el, set, 24, 
26, 28, 30 extra finished, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch- 
extra finished- -C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch beautifully finished--C. H. & C. S., 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbines, 
model 1860. RELOADING TOOLS, PRIMERS AND PARTS OP ARMS. 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for al! kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 

JOHN SKINKER, No. 108 Battery Street, San Francisco, 

SOLE AGENT FOR THE PACIFIC COAST. 



After Nearly Three Years' Test, the STEEL BARBED FENCE WIRE, Patented by 

J. F. GLIDDEN, Stands Head and Shoulders Above all Competitors, and 

Is More in Demand than all Other Barb Fences Put Together. 




OVER 300,000;POUNDS SOLD IN CALlFORNIAjTHE FIRST SEASON OF ITS INTRODUCTION. THE GLID- 
DEN PATENT BARB WIRE HAS BEEN TESTED BY THOUSANDS OF PRACTICAL FARMERS, WHO 
UNIVERSALLY RECOMMEND IT, AND IS SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS: 

1. The wire is manufactured entirely from steel, which has a relative strength of 50 per cent, greater than of 
any common iron wire. 2. The only steel wire barb. 3. The only barb that cannot be disiilaced with thumb 
anil finger or cattle's horns. 4. The only barb with prongs projecting from between the twisted wire and cannot 
be bent, broken or rubbed off, and never needs replacing, h. The only coiled barb with broad biuse on main wire, 
which renders it immovable. 6. The only barb wire during process of manufacture its strength is tested 
equal to that of two-horse power. The only barb put on with macliinery. It is not pounded on with hammer 
and indented in main wire to hold it in place. 8. The oijly barb wire you can lay SO rods or more on ground and 
drag with team and not injure or displace the barbs. ' i). The only barb wire that gives universal satisfaction and has 
greater sale than all others put together. 



JONES, GIVENS & CO., Pacific Coast General Agents, 



Sacramento, Cal. 



Manufactured by Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Company. 



OAKLAND 
Spring Balance 

Gang Plow. 




Patented and mani i - i liy H. N. Dalton, at the 
Pacheco Agricultural implcniunl Works, Pachcco, Cal. 
Established in 18.58. Send for Circular and Price List. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

75 Warren St., New York, 

Commission Merchants in Cal'a. Produce 

Rkferkntk. Tr.adesmcn's National Bank, N, Y. : Ell- 
wangcr Ai Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed, Sacra- 
mento, Cal.; A. Lusk & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 




The Famous "Enterpr. 

(PERKINS' PATENT) 
Self Regulating, Farm 
Pumping, Railroad 
and Power 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures, 

Have been in n.se <»n the 
Pacific Coast in the t(»\\ii8 
and farmini,' distriets for 
over four years, and wher- 
ever the.\' have been sold 
(and there are thousands of 
them (jut) they are doing 
their work as well as when 
]tut np. A eareful penisal 
uf our Circulars g;ives a fair 
representation of them and 
sliows their simplicity. 

We are prepared to fill orders for all sizes, from a 
PUMPING MILL to a 24-fof)t POWER MILL for runninj,^ 
^^achinery, as well as doiiio; the pumping. 

The "ENTERPRISE" FEED MILL 

(PACKER'S PATENT), 
FOR GRINDING BARLEY, ETC., 

Equally as connnendable, has now 
been tested to entire satisfaction 
of all, and meets the demand for 
an article of that kind that has 
not been sujiplied on the Pacific 
Coast heretofore. 

CHEAP AND RELIABLE. 

I All Coods Warranted. 

Send for Illustrated Circulars 
and information tii 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

Managers for California and Pacific Coast, 

Cencrul office and Supplies, 
LIVERMORE, ALAMEDA COUNTY, CAL. 



Grrangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital - $5,000,000. 

OFFICERS: 

I'liEsiDKNT (ill.BKR'r VV. COLin'. 

Manauino 1)ikb( "wr (". .1. CRESSEY. 

t!.\SHiER ALBERT MONTPELLTER. 

Secketary ■ F. A. CRESSEY. 



The Bank was opened on the first of Angust, 1S74, for 
the transaction of a general banking; business. 



PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

SAN FRANCISCO, 

Manufacturers of Linseed and Castor Oils, Oilcake and Meal. 

Highest (irice paid for Fla.\ Meed and Castor Beans delivered at our works. Cositracts made and Seed 
furnished for Flax Seed and Castor Bean Crop of 1877. For [larticulars, inquire at the office. 
BEWARE OF ADULTERATED LINSEED OIL. 

I'urchascrs of onr Oil, boiled or raw, in barrels, should be jiarticular to notice that our trade mark, pasted over 
the bungs, has not been tamjiercd with. The trade mark is ju.st ]iut on to secure its purity, and prevent adulterations 
with fish oils or other chea)) oils. Barrels having our brand have been purchased and tilled with adulterated oil, and 
sold as our own make. This we cannot entirely prevent, but we fully guarantee the jiurity of all oils t.aken directly 
from iiur works. 

The attention of the trade is particularly called to our New and very Superior brand. Diamond Castor Oil, which 
for its Purity and Brilliancy cannot be sur))assed by any Castor Oil ever ofTered in thi^ market, as our testimonials 
from all the princi|)al dealers will show. Purchasers and consumers of the Diamond Ca.stor (til are rci.|uested to 
jiurcbase in original packages, and see that imr trade mark and brand is on each package. 

For sale in lots to suit at 

PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS; Office, Corner California and Front Streets. 

KITTLE & CO., Ag-ents. 



Rupture. 



Metal Trnsses, bciny riyid and nnyieklin^, ' 
arc often displaced from their position by the 1 
\ ^notions of the body, in consequence of \vhi(;h 1 
I they KNLARGK rupture instead of hcahn;; 
1 Their pressure is often wroin^fht u|ion parts c»M 
^ the body which are healthy, thereby eausin^H 
[ \uniba^''o and other diseases of a danycroua na- 
Lture. CallontheMAUNKTK; KLASTKJ TKUSS 1 
i CO.. (i(»'.t Sacramento Street, S. F. 



50 



Vlaiting- Card*, with your name finel7 
' ' '"' ha 



ALEX. BUSWELL, 
BOOK BINDER, PAPER RULER 

AM) lil,.\.NK BOOK .M ANliFACrURKK, 

521 Clay Street, S. F. 

Blank Books llulerl. Printed, and Bound to Order. 



A¥GELLS 



jiriutcd, sent for 'i'lc. We have lOO styles. 

AKr<^nt» W^nnt«<l. » Riimpl'S sent for „ 

tUuop. A. 1£. Fuller & Co., Brockton, Mass. ' bvv\ ing llic I'uclh. .). W. A.nukll, Prop., San Francisco. 



CHARCOAL 
DENTAL SOAP 

for Whitcninj;- and I'rc- 




C A Ujn O N . 

To Farmers and all others who put Barbs 
upon Wire Fences, Making a Barbed. 
Wire Fence, and to all Manufac- 
turers and Dealers in Fence 
Barbs and Barbed 
Fence Wire. 

You are hereby notified, that in putting barbs upon 
wire, making a barbed wire fence, or in using or dealing 
in barbs or barbed fence wire, not made under license 
from us, you are infringing upon our jiatents, and we 
shall hold you strictly accountable for danniges for all in- 
fringements of Letters Patent, Nos. (i(j,182, 07,117, 74,.'379, 
84,062, lWAfi{>;\ l.')7,124, l.W,.^^, 1(14,181, 173,««7; reissues, 
Nos. 7,i;i(i, (),97(). Ii,i)02, 7,035. 7,030, 0,913, 0,914, and 
other patents. (!opies of our claims can be obtained of 
our attorneys, ("oburn and Thacher, Chicago, III., or of 
our etuinsel, Thos. H. Dodge, Worcester, Ma,ss. 

WASIIHCBN & MOEN JIANUF'(i CO., 

Worcester, Mass. 

I. 1,, KM, WOOD & CO., 

De K.alb, III., 
Sole owners and manufacturers, to whom orders for 
Barb Fence or for Loose Barbs should be addressed. 



The Patron's Almanac for 1877. 

Second year of issue. Greatly enlarged and improved. 
Contains 72 jiagcs of useful matter; Tile Constittition and 
By-laws of the Order; Rules for Subordinate (Jranges; 
Decisions of the National Body; Dcclar.ition of Purposes; 
Rules of Onler in the (-range; Origin and Object of the 
Orange, etc. Also, many useful and correct rules, tables, 
etc., for weighing, measuring and calculating the contents 
of timber, lumber, land, boxes, cribs, etc., besides accu- 
rule i»lenflar pages for all parts of the Union. In short, 
it is an indispensable c(mipaiiion for every Patron or 
farmer in the Pacific iis well iis in the Atlantic tStates. 
Price, by mail, p<>sti)aid: Single coines, 10 cents; 12 co|>ie», 
7.') cents; 18 copies for SI. 00; 24 copies, :sil.2.'); 100 copies, 
:;.'). 00. Address, 

S. HOWARD WILSON, 

Mcchanics\ill.-, Bucks Co., Pa. 



INTERNATIONAL HOTEL, 

,\LI, .NBWliV KlIlXISFIKIl. 

824 & 826 Kearny Street, - San Francisco. 

^L.IO and S2.00 per day. Free Coach to the House. 
II C PATRIDOE, Proprietor 

Dewey.A Co. Ua,fs?n1st} Patent Agt's. 



16 



PJLOIM© ItlfmjL^ ?P3^^g3_ 



[January 6, 1877 



m^ 



Scientific Press 






ateat Ai©a©f 6 




Publishers, Patent Agents and Engravers, 
224 8ANS0ME STREET, SAN FRANCISCO 




^fi-o/nn'filJlome Jnur^ 



Some Rtanoii{< for Sufjtt*:rtOi/t(j for It. 

Because it is a |K;nuaneiit, flrst-cIass, conscientious, 
able, and well c^Hiduottsl jounial 

Becauf^f it is the larjijest and best agrieultural weekl\ 
west of the Kooky Mountain's. 

That more fanners' wives and children in their isolated 
homes may be cheered by its weekly visits, laden with its 
pleantn^ yet moral reading, and sound instruction. 

That a more extended interchan;;e uf views and opin- 
ions may be had amon^ fanners, ni>on all the ^eat ((ues- 
tiona touchinj; their mutual interests and progress. 

Tliat the ayrieultunil rus<3urees of the I*acifio States may 
he more wisel,v, speedily and thoro\n;hly devdoptd by all 
open and free disonssion in our colunnis. 

Thai all the honest industries uf our Htute may be ad- 
vanced in oinneclion with that of a^culture, our col- 
umns beini; ever o|>en to the discussion of the merits of 
all progressive improvements. 

Tliat the Rlral, aft-er ha\inj;^ been read and iK»ndere<i 
over by the home circle, can be tiled away for future use- 
ful reference, or forwarded ti» the old Eastern ttreside of 
the Atlantic border, in aid of an iiicreasinj^ immiffration l.' 
our sunny clime. 

St'BMCKiPnoN, -tH a year in advance. 

DEWEY & CO.. Publishers. 
San Francisco, 1877. 

Hard ok thk Pcblishrrn. — 8ome of our subscribera 
when called upon by our a^ent« insist thatsthey have sent 
us notices through (perhaps) a neif^hbor, the postmaster, 
or a letter, and we have taken no notice of their orders, 
for which they feel hard towards us. Now, we never re- 
reived such notices without res^HindinK- tt> them. It \omiM 
he suicidal to our interegtg in igtwrc Ihf.m. The fact ih 
that it too frequently happens that people misdirect their 
letters; too frequently fitr^'et to put the rigrht (or any 
other ) kind of stamps on their letters; they too often send 
a copy of the paper back, which may never reach our bus- 
iness ottlce, or if it docs reach us, niaj lack the name of 
the towni and county in which the subscriber lives, in 
which case we Ciinnot (if we have his name) tell what part 
of our list to find it, to cross it off or clianjife it, without 
lookinjf over some 10,000 names. Postmasters and their 
clerks make omissions and mistakes as well. 4^*\Vhen 
you have business with this olfice remember jwstal thirds 
and letter stamps are cheap, and ask lU) one to do that 
which vou can well do yfiurself. 



Pacific Rural Prrhs.— This well edited and popular 
aifricultural orjfan, published by Dewey & Co., San Fran 
Cisco, by its steady and untirinj^ zeal inailvancini^ the best 
interests of the Gran>fers of the itrreat West, has fairly won 
the proud title of **Ba»nier Journal" on the frontier of 
civilization. Not a line is admitted to it^ columns but 
that i-i of value to the farming interests* of the countn-. 
Subscribe at once for the new year. The teniis are re- 
markably low only A4 per annum, postaj^-e prepaid. — 
Mountain }feHXftujt'r, Di'c. P'-th. 



FOR SALE. 

Ninety a«res of the Mount Pleasant Ranch, situated on 
the turnpike road between Auburn and New Castle, 
i*lacer county, bein^ two miles from Auburn and one mile 
from New Castle. Both places are on the C. I* R. K . 
ajid have Exprens ottice, Post-otiice. etr , and are L'ood 
fihippini; points for produce over the mountains. Aoout 
twenty*ft\e aere« of said land are under improvement; 
two acres in lierrie^, a few choice (Jrapevines, and a few 
Kruit Trees in bearini;. The soil is from three to eitfht 
feet deep and well adapted f j the tfro» inj^ of all kinds of 
Fruit, drain or Alfalfa. Go^kI facilities for iiTiffatin^ 
from Boar River ditch. This is one of the best fruit sec- 
tiouB in the .State, lar^ quantities of all kinds bein^ 
(shipped from here dailj- durin;^ the Summer season. The 
purchaser will be (,Tven house and barn room free 
until he can build. Reference may be made to the Post- 
master at New Castle or .\uhurn, or to C. T. Au.iMu, New 
Castle, who owns land adjoining mine. Title, L'. S. Pat- 
ent. Mv reason for wishing to sell is old a^e and inability 
t<i labor.' Price, Sl,StKi. ,I.\MES MLNSELL, Sr. 

Apply to JAMES MC.NSELL, -Ir, 'H Sansome Street, 
San r rancisco, Cal. 



I rccSi rloniS, Catalogue Gratis, .\ddress, 



Fall Price List and Bulb 

F. 

K PHCENIX, BI«pnlin^ton Nursery, IlL 



Live and Let Live Bull's Head Stock Yards. 



Ninth and Howard Streets 



San Francisco. 



REMEMBER 



No horse with a pajier in his heiulstall will be allowed in the yards 
No diseased horse will lie allout-tl in the yards, 

.\ll bills are Cash, before delivery of stock. No exception to rich or poor, friend or foe. 

I never gamble in milling stuckii, and don't want aiij "pointii" or trades for any stock except live stock. Short 
sN'ries and hmtf friends. 

I<e|iort any complaints to the office, and I will see my buBiness is attended to— promptly and bqiiare to all 

ROLLIN P. SAXE, Proprietor. 
AUCTION SALE OF HOi^SES. 

The llrsi auctlim aale of llorsex and Uuk,'),'ie» will take place at the l^iie and I.el Live Bull's Head Stock Yards In 
about ten days Parties having sU>ck to sell can have them ad»ertised and entered for the next six day.s. TERMS are 
as follows: Auction commission, Ave and one-fourth |>er cent. For horses and cnrriui^es (cusloiners of the v:ir(l)iio 
extra charge, except rost of advertising. For outside horses *1 yard bill will be collected, and expenses of ailv'ertising. 
if advertised. Apply to K< >I,I.IX P. SA.XE, Nhith and Howard Streets, or CREGO & B<1WLEY, Auctiouecra, Cal- 
ifornia Street. 

December 29th, 1876 



AT THE AUCTION SALE OF LIVE STOCK TO BE HELD ABOUT 
The 8th or 9lh instant, at the Live and Let Live ^^ull's Head stock Yards, 

(OKNER NINTH AM> IKiWAKIi STS., WILL BE UlKEKlli A SLX-YEAIi-MLP 

JET BLACK SUFFOLK PUNCH STALLION, 

17* Hands high, l>eautiful mane and tail, ami fit to iiuike a profitable setisoii. Is well broke all ways and »erj kind 



TWO THOROUGHBRED SHORT HORN BULLS, 

.\inerican Herd Book recordiil. Two years old, Red, and in fine condition. Havi- cost over f-vHi each. These arc the 
last two Bulls of the ,Saxe Iniiiortations. as we are now through importing. I *ill sell one of the above lor (foo<i hay, 
grain, beef or Milch Cows. 'The other will be kept at the Yards for service of cows. 



ROLLIN P. SAXE, Proprietor. 



COR. 



Live and Let Live Bull's Head 

NINTH AND HOWARD STREETS, - - . 



Stock Yards, 

- - SAN FRANCISCO. 



cienlifie f/v^M 



' ^-PjlT'I^ 



OPF'OE OP" THE 




j|im«,.»j.^ci.n.ia.p„.., ( 22-4 Suuatome fiit», 

— o « 



< §au J'ranci.sro, 



MACHINERY, BUILDINGS, PODTRAITS, LANDSCAPES, TRADE-MARKS, LABELS, SEALS, MONOGRAMS, etc. 



tk 



^V 



BESlCflS'EU ATS*!! Kf^CKAVF.D ?'f< 



l^4 TME HIGHEST ETYUE: OP" TMC At 



E. SCHULTZE, 

MANAGER. 



DE'WEY & CO., 

Publisbfrs and Pxtfnt Agvnf, 




MILITARY ACADEMY 

For circulars, a^ldresw 

Rev. DAVID McCLURE, Principal, 

OAKLANK. <'AI. 



THOROUGHBRED FOWLS, 

BRONZE TURKEYS, 
Pekin Ducks, Bmbden Geese, 



SAFE ARKIVAL 

OK KOWUS 
fiL'ARANTEED 




Eggs Shipped to 
.\n.\ part of the 
Coast to Hatch Af- 
- ter .\rri\al. 



Price List for 1S77 now Kead> \il>he^>. 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 

(Please inclose slump. ) 

Also. Thoroughbred Southdown Sheep. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets. Oakland. 

Constantly on band and ff>r sale, ch<»ice 

sptH'iniens of the following \-a- 

rietie^of Fowls. 

Daxk and Ligrht Brahmas, Buff, 

White and Partridge 

Cochins, WTiite 

and Brown 

Legrhoms, Dorkings, 

Polish Hamburgs, Game 

and Sebright Bantams, 

Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks 

EfKiS FoU S.M.E AH-EK .lAMAltY -FIliST 

NO INFEKIOf FOWLS SOLD AT ANY PRICE. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 

For further inft^rmation ^en«l Rtamp for Illustrated Cir- 
cular, to 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

F. O. Box t)5», San Francisco, Cal. 




WANTED AND FOR SALE. 

1 HAVE AT THE 

Buirs Head Live & Let Live Stock Yards, 

Cor. 9th, lOth and Howard Streets, 
SAX FRANCISCO. 
Two Thoroughhred Short-Horn Bulls, imported from 
Kentucky, and two years old; RED, and line pedigrees. 
.\s I ha\ e i|uit importing I will sell one of the above at 
S550 (has cost me over .■J900,) and take It in fresh Milch 
Cows or good hay. at the market price. A good chance to 
get a fine bull cheap. 

ROLLIN P. SAXE, Proprietor, 
Bull's Head Live and Let Live Stock Yards. 



on NEW YEAH C.VRDS. seven styles, with nanie, '.'O 
^'* cents; 'M Masonic or Odd Fellow's Cards, with uanic, 
20 cents; 30 Ladies' Knibossed CanN. with name, 20 cents, 
postpaid. J B. Hl'STED, Nassau, Ueiuut. Co., N. Y. 



M. FALLON, 



Cor. Seventh .V Oak .'^t,«. 



OAKLAND, CAL. 

Liuhtand Dark Brahmas, 
Buff, White and Par 

triilge Ciichins, _ 

S)>angle<l, (Jolden anil .'^ilvcr l'oli.sh, 

Spangleil, (JoMen ami .'silver Hamburgs, 
Pure White-faced liliuk Si>anis(h, 
White and Brown lAJghonia, 

Silver I ;rey Dorkings, 
Houdaiis, Silkies, Black-Red (James, 
Bronze TurkeVH, Koueii and Aylesbury I>uek.s, 
All t'roni Premium .Stock of Best Strains. 

Fowls of the above varieties for Bale; also, Cliicks in 
their season Egga packeil with care and sent in rotation 
as orders are receivwl. 



SMITH A WESSON'S 

Ttew model. \ iitomatlc 

38 Calibre. _ : Cartrldg 

C»"ntral 




READY, (j 

and 



Dewey & Co. { 



224 ) 

Sanson! St j 



•atent Agt's. ncv 



For roiivenlence, power and S^k&I 
accuracy, it is uix-i/koio.-i/, I i your ^^^H 
lucre) »iit (l<K-a not keep them, order dt- ^^^^m 
rot l'-..rii the Agency, ''J Cliritnhir.i St. ^^^^ 
New Vork, n. Dr. Uobinsoiii GcD'l A^'ent 



Seedsmen. 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



IMPORTED. 

Crosbj^'s Extra Early ~ 
Marblehead Mammoth ' o *. n 

Stowell's Evergreen ( OWeet UOm. 
Mexican Sweet, New ) 

Early Snton ) YgIIOW Fllllt Com. 

Long Red Mangel 'Wurtzel) 

YeUow Globe I Rppl" Sppfl 

White Sugar , DtJBt iSeCQ. 

ALSO. EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY OF VEGETA- 
BLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, GRASS AND 
CLOVER SEEDS, ETC, OFFERED AT 
WHOLESALE OR RETAIL 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

No. 317 WashinsrtDn Street, San Franclaco. 



R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer In 







FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS, FRl'ITS AND 

ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC FANCY WIRE 

DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 

INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE 

C'lmprisinir the Most Complete Stock 

EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC Cf)A«T. 

I*ripes l.'nusuall.i Low. 

t^fTrMle Price List on appli><stion. 
•.•My "Guide to the \ eijetahle aji.l Flower Garden" 
will 6i)on he ready, and will be sent krkk to all Ci'»T»- 
.VF.KS It will contain in.strnctinns oo the culture of 
Fniit, Nut, and Oniaiuental Trei Seeds, Tobacco, 
Alfalfa, etc. 

R. J. T.^UMBaLL, 
419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 






HI ail.. <l 

..Uappli- 

l^ Oh re- 

., . r.f 2acts. 

r This is one uf the 

hireestClTAUNiCIS 

,|)l,ll^hed, cunltilns 

;il i.ut 2VI i>iiKeB. om r 

<JNI line clipravinKs, two 

i-e.int colored plates, and 

r u,.ts full depcriplions. piiceg 

and dircctitfiis for rianlinc 

...er rji"! v.iri'-lii-« of V.t-,ii,l.li. 

lid Flowei Secdg. Ueddinz I'luulo. 

.-p.i Ac. and l« inraliinMe ^o 

iier. <.;iir.leiier A- Flonsl. .^.ldlBs^, 

.M. FEREY & CO., Detroit, Mich. 

'^Onr Abrid'ed Piicod Calilojuf FREE to ill .^ppliranls. 




Is the most beautiful work of the kind in the world. It 
contains nearly LIO paj.'es, hundreds of fine Illustrations, 
and nix Clin'nnn fintff of Ftotrrrt, beautifully drawn 
an I colored from nature. Price. ."iO cents in paper co\er»; 
<<1.()0 in ele^'ant cloth Printed in German and English. 

■Vick's Floral Guide i.iuarterly, 'ii* cents a year. 

Vick's Catalogue :«)iilllu-lrations,oidvtwocents 
Ad.lri-^. JAMES VICK, Rochester, N. Y. 



miiti:\ii 




EORALsfGUIDE 



Ccnams over l.SOO T*ri.-ti,.s Ver^'tublo aiii 
Floivcr Eeeds. roIX>RED PLATE!*. Elegant! 
woc.d-ciite of vi'Cf (.it.;ea and flowers. llaDdaomcat 
Cnide Pnblishedt aov Scad fir it. 

DETROIT SEED CO.^ I>etrolt, nieb. 

. We will send either of the fr.Ilowing colleo- 
k tioiis for 25CIS., or allfor«l.li<i; lOpku.choice , 
*, Flower Seeds, Aiuiiials; 111 |ikl.. choice Orna- ^ 
Mifiiial cliuilters; 10 pkt.*.ciioice PeremiiaU ; in 
^ j,kl!*. clioi. e Everlasuiiijs ,V Ornamental Grs"---' 
; 1(1 |iki». choice V>.^ci»Me .-^eeds. A Biuiiiil. 
Ll,i.-k,.l of lh>- al.ov,. ...fU and oni ca-nloi;ii. , 
' „i.il..<l n.-. IN'IWINKAI.I.KN'UKEE^'- 
i H«»t' •(»'..>>. N|irineflcl<l.**>>lo. 



SELECT AND 
HEAVY FLEECED MERINO SHEEP. 

Imring the winter I «1II he in San Francisco with s.mio 
.Merino Kanis anil Ewes that are sold, and if correspond- 
ents in California and Fcxas send their orders with re- 
uuttance, we can delifer at same time. 

JOHN S. GOE. 
Brownsville, Payette Co., Pa. 




Volume XIII. 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 13, 1877. 



[Number 2. 



Large-Horned Owl. 

The large-homed owl, or cat owl, shown iu 
our engraving, may be met with almost every- 
where on this continent. All climates are alike 
to it, and it inhabits both the mountain and the 
valley, but is partial to the vicinity of rivers 
and lakes, probably because of the abundance of 
prey in such situations. It has been called the 
"Eagle of the night," and a "Nimrod of the 
feathered tribes," because of its prowess and 
courage. Next to the snowy owl, it is the 
largest of its genus, and is one of the most com- 
mon along the shores of the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi, where it may be met with at all seasons, 
roosting in the young cottonwood trees and wil- 
lows of the banks; and also upon the cypresses 
of the swamps. When the sun glares, it may be 
easily approached, but in cloudy weatlier it 
promptly retreats, and appears to know that a 
night across the stream is conducive to its 
safety. Its flight at night is elevated, rapid and 
graceful. It sails with apparent ease, and cir- 
cles wide, in the manner of an eagle, rising and 
descending without difficulty, merely by inclin- 
ing its wings on its tail. At times it glides si- 
lently near the earth, with incomparable veloc- 
ity, and falls, as if shot dead, on its prey be- 
neath. At other times it alights on a fence or 
dead stump, shakes and adjusts its feathers and 
utters a horrid shriek, in which the woods echo; 
again, its sounds are like the barking of a cur 
dog; then a gurgling noise like the stifled groans 
and cries of a man in distress; and at other 
times its hoo-hoo-hoo-e, (iu B flat, it is said,) ut- 
tered near the listener, seems like the cry of an 
owl a mile otf. This is sometimes so well imi- 
tated by tlie human voice, that numbers of 
these owls are lured to the encampments of 
boatmen and hunters. In the intervals between 
these cries, it snaps its bill with vehemence, 
and turns its head from side to side in a ludi- 
crous manner. Failing to repair to the woods 
before the return of day, it is obliged to settle 
down on some apparently quiet spot; but the 
little birds prove very annoying to it here, and, 
when the king-bird approaches, it is compelled 
to retreat, though unconscious of its way. 

The food of this owl consists chiefly of half- 
grown wild turkeys, pheasants and domestic 
poultry of all kinds, together with several spe- 
cies of ducks. Hares, young opossums, squir- 
rels and mice are equally agreeable to it, and 
whenever chance throws a dead fish on the 
shore it feeds on it with avidity. 

Owls of this variety pair early in February, 
when the wooing and the nuptials are indicated 
by exceedingly grotescjue manifestations of cer- 
emonies and rejoicings. The nest, which is very 
bulky, is usually fixed on a large horizontal 
branch, not far from the trunk of the tree, or 
where two limbs branch off, but simietimes is 
made in a hollow tree, or in the fissure of a rock. 
It is composed externally of crooked sticks, and 
is lined with moss, coarse grass and some feath- 
ers, the whole measuring nearly three feet in 
diameter. The eggs are from three to six, al- 
most globular, and of a dull-wliite. The male 
assists in sitting. But one brood is reared in a 
season. The young remain in the nest until 
fully fledged, and afterwards follow the parents 
for a considerable time, uttering a mournful 
sound in supplication for food, by which they 
are often detected by the Ininter. They acquire 
full plumage the first spring. • 

The large-horned owl, after the breeding sea- 
son, lives a solitary life, and a single one of them 
appropriates to himself tlie range of a neighbor- 
hood or farm, and tlie havoc it commits is very 
great, often to the extent of destroying all the 
poultry of a plantation during a winter. It is 
very powerful, and equally spirited, often at- 
tacking and mastering half-grown wild turkeys. 
Mallards, Guinea fowls and common fowls 
prove an easy prey to it, and it often enters hen- 
roosts in the Northern States, in quest of food. 
When wounded, it contends with its assailant 
with a revengeful spirit, protruding its talons, 
snapping its bill, and expanding its great gog- 
gle eyes. 

The bill admitting Utah into the union is 
now in the hands of the House Territorial Com- 
mittee. The scheme of admission wilj bxiwg the 
Mormon que^tipn into prominency). 



Frost in Florida.— Our Florida friends have 
had quite a severe "freeze." The Florida Agri- 
culturist says: The recent cold spell was the 
longest and most severe that has occurred in our 
residence here of seven years. For a whole 
week, from November 30th to December 6th, 
inclusive, ice formed every night, and remained, 
in sheltered places, undissolved all that time. 
We were informed of the thermometer falling to 



A R.usiN Enterprise in Los Anoeles Co. — 
Some weeks since we made favorable mention 
of a sample of raisins made by Thos. P. Hinde, 
of Anaheim, and asked to be informed of the 
method of curing. In reply, Mr. Hinde writes 
as follows: "Respecting the drying of raisins, I 
can only say that the process is so very simple 
that I did not deem it necessary to describe it. 
I can say, however, that I carefully adhere to 




THE LARGE-HORNED OWL. 



18° in some places in the country, and we feared 
tliat the young orange trees had all been killed. 
But it is with gratification we can report that 
the damage is by no means what was expected. 
The leaves of even the large trees have been 
much scorched and will drop, and some of the 
8 nailer limbs have been killed, but if nothing 
worse comes this winter they will recover in the 
spring. The cold snap may l>e the means of 
bringing into bearing many trees that have 
hitherto been shy bearers. The ripe oranges on 
the trees, in some places, are undoubtedly in- 
jured, and we are unable, as yet, to say to what 
extent, such fifnAiifimg apf^uuts have befn 
received. 



natural heat throughout, keeping all moisture 
away from tlie fruit whil.st drying, and steadily 
expelling and carrying ort' the moisture emitted 
from the fruit it.self. As I intend erecting a 
large drying establishment next season, I shall 
only be too glad to furnish you witli all the in- 
formation connected with the sivine that may 
tend to the dt;\ el ij m'ut of raisin manufactuio 
in this fine and rich climate. " We trust Mr. 
Hinde will meet with success in his commend- 
able enterprise, and hope he will write us fully 
of his plans as soon as they may be decided upon. 

Utah has more miles of narrow-gauge road in 
ojxjration than any State or Territory in America. 



The Potato Product. 

Our potato growers have not found their lines 
cast in very pleasant places this year. The 
market has been heavy almost since the incom- 
ing of the early crop, and those who found the 
balance of last year's crop, which they were 
holding, pushed to the wall by the new crop 
which then followed in the same course toward 
the masonry, have not met with much material 
encoui a^ement for their labor. The city man 
has had cheap food and great quantities have 
gone to waste, but both these things have not 
rewarded the producer. There was a marvelous 
increase of the potato acreage last spring. We 
saw the planting pushed far up the mountains 
around Half Moon bay, and the same vigorous 
increase prevailed on the low lands along the 
Sacramento river. Other regions in the north- 
em counties, and in Monterey county to the 
south, largely increased their planting, and, 
although the blight afflicted all severely, there 
was still an excess over needs, and the marketing 
has been unprofitable. The large amounts of 
potatoes which have been received in the city 
during the year appears in the following sum- 
mary for the months: 

SkB. 



.July 63,644 

Augrusl 62,496 

September 68,269 

October 66,848 

November 119,507 

December 80,167 



January 47,899 

February 51,770 

March 67,385 

April 53,152 

May 37,635 

June 57,263 

Total 775,915 

Although these figures are large they do not 
at all represent the production, for the low 
prices have induced many producers to hold for 
the possibilities of the winter trade. This trade 
promises now to be remunerative, for, aside 
from the nervousness which all jiroduce holders 
feel concerning the drouth, there is such a ten- 
dency to decay in the potatoes that any one who 
can keep sound tubers stands a fair chance to 
sell them well. In our rambles among the com- 
mi.ssion merchants, we hear wide-spread com- 
plaints of the poor qualify of the potatoes. The 
weather seems to spoil them, and the loss we 
ai-e told is greater than during the seasons when 
rains have been plenty. We do not see the rea- 
son for such a state of affairs, but such is re- 
{xjrted. 

In swtet potatoes the experience of the grow- 
ers has not been very different. The receipts in 
the city during 1876 amounted to 54,000 sacks, 
and the rates, as reported from week to week in 
our market columns, have been exceedingly 
low. 

On the whole it is claimed that the potato 
j)roduction of the year has met less reward than 
during any previous year. This will doubtless 
induce a smaller acreage next year, and the 
chances of those who maintain the growing will 
be improved. 



DusERT Lands. — A dispatch from ^V'ashington 
says: " House reported a bill for the sale of 
desert lauds in California, Oregon, Nevada and 
the Territories. It provides for the filing of a 
declaration witli a register and receiver of aland 
district iu whx-h the desert lands are situated, 
tliat tlie jiersons intend to reclaim the tract of 
desert lauds, not exceeding one section, by con- 
ducting water upon the same within periods of 
tliree years thereafter, and u{)on subseiiuent 
proof of such reclamati(m and payment of |!1.25 
per acre for such tract, a patent therefor shall be 
issued. All mineral and timber lands are ex- 
cluded. Lands that will not, without irrigation, 
j)roduce some agricultural crop, are to be 
deemed desert lands. The bill was passed." 



Personal. — We received a call during the 
week from our valued Stf Helena contributor, 
Mr. John Mavity. He reports crops doing ex- 
ceedingly well in his region, and a larger area in 
seed than ever before. He says he never saw 
such a favorable season for uninterrupted farm 
work, and it has been well used by the Napa 
county farmers. We are glad to have such re- 
ports to record. 



18 



F&§its© 3airm*4,s 



[January 13, 1877, 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Lake County. 

Kditorh Prkss: — From your esteemed paper 
we see tliat tlie weatliur all over the .State is 
much the same as here, only more so. We are 
having sunshine and I'ool north winds every 
day, varied ocoaaionally by the wind chopping 
round to the si>uth and threatening with a few 
clouds. But the clouds don't liring one drop 
of rain, oidy heavy frost at night. But the dry 
weather don't hurt us of Lake county one i)ar- 
tide. Whatever the outlook in the lower 
counties, we are sure of a on>p. 1'he beautiful 
Veather, after the heavy soaking rain of last 
October, has enabled us to j)low and seed our 
land. Our grain is slowly sprouting and com- 
ing up. A good rain now would ipiicken its 
growth, provided it clears otf warm, Vuit we 
feel assured of a cto]) any way. This last sea- 
son was one of unexampled hai'dshiji for tliis 
county, in fact, it was the nearest approacli to 
a failure whieh we have ever seen. Owing to 
the weather, much of the grain was sown late, 
and the hot weather of early summer shnnik 
it and disapiiointed us all in the yield. But no 
such result can injure us this year. Our grain 
is in, and rain or no rain for a month, ^\'iIl re- 
turn a iKUUitiful yield. 

In the section of country from which I write, 
t*i wit. 

Bachelor Valley, 
In the nortliern end of tlie lounty, ami \',i 
miles from Lakeport, the soil is excellent. It 
is blesscil with a richness which no other ])or- 
tion of the county can e(|ual. We and the head 
of Clear lake are ilefended iiy mountains on the 
north from drying winds, an<l tlie southerly 
breezes liring up to us tlie moisture from Clear 
.and Tule Lakes. We h.ive here some fiiief.arms, 
notably those of Mr. Halanger, K. C. Parker 
and Isaac Mitchel. Besides those, our valley 
is settled by smaller fiu'mer.s, energetic, hard- 
working and ]irosperous. As .an example of 
what our land will do, Mr. R. C. Parker h.is a 
farm <if 280 jicres, only l.'iO of which .are in cul- 
tivation. He raises the usu.al farm products, 
wheat, barlej- and hogs. At the risk of "incon- 
venicMce," I will here remark th.at his pl.ace Last 
year was farmed(?) in a ratlier slouchy style. 
But for all th.at the little place paid him .P,800. 
Still he s.ays he is not content. He w.ants to 
sell out and go down .South on tlie frontier, 
where land is cheap and jiroduce dear. Some 
people are never contented. 

\\'e have had no rain here lately, as I re- 
marked, but our streams have risen, and some 
of them are flowing briskly. I have noticed the 
phenomenon frequently before, but cannot ac- 
count for it. 

There liave been many strangers among us 
for some time past. Many from the lower 
counties and from the East have come in here 
to rent land, and some have bought farms 
among us. As a rule, however, a good farmer 
is not anxious to sell land up here. It is too 
good to keep. Without bragging, I may say 
tluat I>ake is one of the most healthy of Cal- 
ifornia counties. Still, a stranger would notice 
many inv.alids among' us. These are called in 
by our mineral sj)rings, of which we have many, 
such .as B.artlett's, I'ierson's, Witten, Higlilaiul 
and others; some of these, .as I can testify from 
experience, performing almost miraculous cures. 
Crops. 

We produce chiefly grain and hogs. There 
are quite a number of sheeji in the county on 
the hills .and in the momit.anis. A few hops 
are being raised. Our grain is hauled and our 
hogs driven to Clovenbale and shii)ped there on 
the cars. We need a railro.ad. There was talk, 
a short time .since, of one from Woodland to 
H\imboldt via Lakeport and Blue lakes, but it 
h.as f.allen through, 'nierefore we depend on a 
home m.arket for grain .and h.ay; that usu.ally is 
staple. But high prices in the city call our 
grain out, .and some times leave us in the lurch. 
That is the ca.se just at present. Many liava 
sent their grain below, until now even soeil is 
scarce. < J rain is now two cents, but owners .all 
refuse to sell, and expect three, .and will .'ct it 
if they h.dd on, too. 

Information Asked. 

I have tohl you about tiiis place a little and 
T w.ant to jjick a crow with you, or rather some 
of your coricsponilents. They tell us aliout the 
cajiabilities of diflTerent counties .and the farms 
therein till our mouth waters, .and we wish we 
lived there, but they ilon't say a word about the 
chances for going." Now, next time, I wish 
some of your writers in Los Angeles, .San Diego, 
S.an Bernardino, Fresno, and other places, woul.l 
tell us a little .about the Laud. Is there any down 
there for .sale? What are the ruling prices? 
Is .any (Jovemment Land (good and arable I 
mean) yet to be liad? ( '.an onu get w.ater on the 
Lan.l chejiply and wisily, or will it jiroduee crops 
without? And how aUmt the climate ? Does 
it burn up in summer, or do tliey "still hve?" Do 
the fogs shut off the view every once in a while 
.and the rains float the country off in winter, or 
is everything in the shape of moisture a luxury 
to be dearly paid for? 

Such, information would be very interesting 
to many, and to some in this locality, .^nd 



lest I sliame myself I will conclude by saying, 
that our crops never fail. Our climate is suffi- 
ciently moist to insure good crops, and is re- 
markably healthy. Not much land for s.ale, 
but good land held at i?.')0 to .?60 per acre, and 
some very extra and productive, near the he;ul 
of the lake, even higher. For "good farming 
land" i)robable average is $40. Range and 
pasture .'js'i to $10. Tk.welek. 

Curing Hops. 

Kditohs Pkk.ss: — I was requested by your 
agent, Mr. A. W. Strong, while here last fall, 
to furnish some items about the curing of liops 
for the Iwnelit of many RuiUL. readers who 
wished such information. 

As my friend and neighbor, Mr. \. Clock, is 
a gentleman and a man of large exiwrienco in 
the bu8ines.s, one whose hops bring the highest 
])rice in the market, a s."»tnple of which took the 
lirst premium at the late Centennial exhibition, 
1 thought to interview him, as tlio proper person 
of all others, to furnish the desired infonnation, 
anil here are the facts as drawn from him. 

When -Mr. C. decided to go into the business 
of hop growing, the Hrst thing he did was to 
work one summer for a grower near .Sacramento 
gratis, that he might learn the business. Tlie 
first lesson in curing he learneil was, that in the 
common heating or drying furnaces the ho|>s 
« ere too near t(jgether; hence by carelessness or 
otherwise, .an excess of heat would scorch the 
hops and spoil the delicate flavor desired. To 
obviate this difficulty he h;ul cmly to raise the 
drying floor np a greater distance from the heat- 
ing furnaces below, and aild proper ventila- 
tors, whereby he had contnd of the heat. 

Mr. C. had often heard complaint from brew- 
ers that there was sehloni a uniformity of 
strength in even a single bale of hops; you 
might open a bale and weigh out a given ipian- 
tity feu- a brewing, and the s.ame quantity next 
time would produce a beverage of a different 
strength. ]Sir. C soon learned the difticulty. 
It was this; In removing the dried hojis from 
the dryint; room t<j the sweating room, they hail 
to be handled 80 much th.at the lupuline, or Hue 
yellow' powdur or bitter princijde. wa-s shaken 
off .111(1 worked its w.ay dowrt to the bottom of 
the bin; and as this is the strength or main 
princijde of the hop, it can readily be seen why 
tliey .are not of uniform strength when they 
reach the brewer. To obviate this difficulty he 
had his drying platfonn Imilt ujion a car, the 
floor of which was of w ire gauze laid down in 
sections. When the hops are ilry the i)lat- 
forni or drying box is removed over a railway 
to the store or sweating room, where each sec- 
tion is lifted separately and emptied into the 
sweating bin, there to remain undisturbed 
while going through a sweat; after which they 
are ready for baling. By this improved method 
they are handleil ■nith the least possible ch:uice 
of shaking off the lupuline, that delicate powder 
so necessary to be evenly distributed through 
the entire mass. 

But the m.ain difficulty was molding in the 
bale. This is doubtless caused, says Mr. C, 
by making <uily one picking, taking everj-thing 
clean as they go. In doing this they will have 
more or less immature hops which, retaining 
more moisture th.an the riper ones, will, when 
baled with them, sjHiil the whole nnoss. 

It is l)est to make two or more pickings, dry 
them until the steins are ijuite brittle, .an d there 
w ill be no danger of mold. The extra weight 
ol the fully m.atured hop, will, he s.ays, more 
than compensate for the extra trouble in mak- 
ing several jjickings. 

The hop requires thorough culture and close 
attention to all the detiifls in the process of 
curing, that the article produced may bring 
the highest price in the m.arket, which is neces- 
sary to make the business a success. 

I have saiil nothing al«)Ut the laying out and 
after-cidture of a hop farm; tliis may be the 
subject for another article. Neither have I un- 
dertaken to give dimensions and cost of build- 
ings nec-essary for curinj; and storing, but 
would advise those who are in, or going into, the 
business and do not fully understand it, to visit 
.\lr. Clock. They wilriind in him a gentle- 
man, .affable, ever rea<ly to assist others in 
new enterprises. .1. M. 

St. Helena, Napa (.'o., .Ian. 1st, 1877. 

[We hope our correspondent will pursue the 
subject in other articles. — Kns. Phkss.} 



The "Bulletin" Among the Weather 
Prophets. 

Kditok.s Pkess: Last week an article entitled 
" .-\ Meteorological Test," appeared in the Wfi-khj 
Ihillflhi, and it struck me as most unphilo- 
.sophic.al. 

The gist of it was that we should proliably 
have a dry season because the warm r.ains of 
October li.ad melted some snow on the .Sieiras, 
in the vicinity of (irass Valley, (hi this snow- 
melting a regular house-that-.lack-built story 
was founded. Snow won't cool air, air wiui't 
condense vapor, vapor won't form cloud, cloud 
won't give rain, rain won't soften grounil, 
ground Won't ailmit ])low, etc. 

Now, in the tii-st pl.ace it is the southerly 
storms that bring us rain. How wonhl snow- 
on .Sierras induce southerly stoi-ms? Surely 
cold in any district would iict .as a repellant to a 



wann wind, at Iciust on the earth's immediate 
surface. 

Then, is it the snow that keeps the air cool 
on snow-capi>ed mountains ? \\'hen I last lis- 
tened to Mr. (ilaisher, he had found the upper 
atmosphere far below freezing pf)int hundreds 
of miles from any snow, aiul A\ith genial 
weather in the stratum of air w hich we usually 
inhabit. 

I had presumed that it was not the snow 
that kept the mountains and circumjacent at- 
mosphere cool, but that the cold of space, find- 
ing those altitudes unprotected by much of a 
blanket of aijueous vapor, c-anie down and took 
possession; and, moreo\er, that when any imiis- 
tiire-l.-ulen air w-as driven by a southerly wind 
over the .Sierras, it was comleused by the cold 
of those ujiper i-egions, and not by the cold of 
the snow-fields, which snow-fields themselves 
are only rendered possible by the iifore-men- 
tioned "cold of sijiice. ' 

liii willing to bet a new hat tliat if only the 
soutlu-ni wind will blow long enough and hard 
enough, that the necessary cold still remains 
just w here it was, even if there W a triHe less 
snow near (irass Valley. 

Why it does not rain here in summer .ap|)ears 
to me to he for the simple reason that the snnis 
then sufhciently jH>werful to retain the aqueous 
vapor in the air in the form of vapor. Our ^^^■b- 
foot neighbors, receiving less direct sun rays, get 
rains, mure or less, all the year. 

What would raise a g<.Hjd southerly storm 1 
am sure I don't know, but 1 iun confiilent that 
putting a little more snow near ( Irass Valhy 
w-ould not do it ! 

Some peo])le have a notion that the moon 
regulates the rainfall. This also seems to uic a 
mistaken iilea. Whatever alieiraticns that most 
constant satellite may liavi- been guilty of in 
her youthful days, an astriuiomer can 1>e sure of 
knowing just where to liml her anytime for a 
thousand yeai-s to come, and knows where she 
was, to a minute, a thousand veai-s ago; but he 
cannot tell whether or no it will rain to-morrow. 
There m.ay be occult influences of which philos- 
ophy is at ])resent not cogniz.ant. 

(hir ignorance meets us at every turn of our 
every day life. In s)>ite of our blatant blasts of 
self-congratulation ipii our va.st strides tow-ard 
omniscience, w-e remain still as feeble children 
groping our way painfully (mt of the darkness. 
One comfort is that this condition of things 
still leaves ro.nii for the heroic in the world, 
room for ett'ort ami struggle, rofun .and work for 
all the Heraclidie that California can raise, 

Kdwii. Behwuk. 

Cannel Valley, Cal., .Ian. 1st, 1877. 

Notes from Tuolumne County. 

Ki>rToK.s Pkess; -And as the years jiass 
aw-.ay, so do the weeks, bringing us the ever-to- 
be-tm.sted Rl'HAl. Pi;e.s.s, witli its diversified 
foofl for thought. Surely its practical les.sons 
are much better atlapted for instruction and use 
than vidumes of novels. May the coming weeks 
anil years find the Press in every nir.al hamlet 
of our extended domain. Knowledge is one of 
the most potent of the world's saviors. Knowl- 
edge is disseminated through a well-regulated 
press, but when the press jjanders to vitiated 
t.astes and is a slave to iiolicy and pultlic j)lun<ler, 
public demonilization is sure to follow# 

Tuolumne county h;us enjoyed a prosperous 
fruit season. The dried fruit is being sent to 
niiirket by the ton. (iod only knows what the 
consequences will l>e if the rain keeps off much 
longer. The gardens depend more ui)on irriga- 
tion than rain in the winter, but if there is no 
fall of snow in the mountains the common sup- 
jily will be cut off. At this writing -New- ^■e.ar's 
eve there is not one sign of rain. The very 
heavens seem dried iiji. The result will be the 
advance of all farm products, which will be 
keenly felt by the iioor and ni.any in moderate 
circumstances. We must have faith in the 
goodness of an all-wise, almighty ruling power, 
believing that "everj-thiiii; is for the best," and 
perhaps the.se phenomenal visitations are nec- 
cessaiT to teach us that we are only finite and 
mortal lyings. Sometimes we may be forgetful 
of our responsibilities .and accountability. If 
we have no storms to purify and cleanse the at- 
mosphere, we have enough and to sjiarc of men- 
tal storm and ambitious agitation. If .such 
storms couM only produce rain instead of g.ain 
we might pardon {Hditical hot-hejuls, but the 
mental storms will soon sulwide, and the storms 
of the Sicrnis inundate our fruitful valleys, 
making the hu.sbandman t.o sing his rustic songs 
of th.ankaginng. 

There is a growing disposition in (this county 
to build a narrow -gauge railroad to the water- 
front of Stockton. In fact, a narrow-gauge or 
prismoid.-d railway is the only practic.al method 
of insuring success. Kven in the heat of our Lost 
effort to secure a railway, we advocated just 
such a ro.ail, to terminate in Stockton, .as being 
chea]>est and iHist .oilapted to the interests of 
tr.ade. It is to be hoped that the efforts now 
put forth will iiicet with success. 

Mt. l'lca.s,ant, .Ian. 1st. .John T.vylok. 



QncKHiLVKR FiKE Ai.AKM. A tire signal, to 
indicate the breaking out of a tire, which has 
Lately been ]iatented in France by Angehu, 
operates as follows: When the temperatui-e of 
the apartment rises abo\e a predetermined 
IHiint, a, quicksilver thermometer is caused 
thereby to break, and the quicksilver runs into 
a dish, where by its weight it sets iu motion a 
clock work. This last is made to opei-ate an 
.-darin l>cll. 



HoF\TICyLJllE\E. 



The Orange Scale Bug Again. 

Ki.rroKs I'REw: -I have lieon greatly gratified 
in reading Mr. fiarey's article in regard to the 
great orange iiest. The views of one so long 
and largely convemant with orange culture, are 
entitled to the profoundest resjiect, still Mr. 
( lai-ey seems to feel that though much is known 
on the subject, tlie bottom f.acts have not been 
reached, and I have ^ doubt desires tliat wo 
shouhl keep the Kail rolling till we have found 
out whence the insect comes, and how- to fore- 
stall his coming or oust him before he does much 
harm. I propose that we new recruits take 
hold with Mr. Garey and the <Jd orchardists, 
and push our inquiries until w-e find a remedy 
for this evil. I am full of the faith, that a cure 
more efficient than has yet been tried can yet 
be discovered and will l)e, if we set our heart 
ujion it. Don't let anyone he afraid to advance 
a new theory of the cause or cure. What if it 
is bnished away in the ilLscussion, the cleaning 
aw.-iy of the rubbish hel]is to get at the truth 
.OS much as w-iping dust from an eye-glass to 
make :in olije<.'t cleai-er. ( hily let us be candid, 
determined and persevering, and we will learu 
how to grow and protect for our linnies the 
noblist tree which escaped the curse of Parailise. 

Mr. (iarey proposes that we do our best to 
kce]) the tree in vigorous growth, as the liest 
means of preventing the insect from injuring 
the tree or fruit. I .admit that thrifty trues 
and .shoots are less likely to be .attacked by the 
insect than those stunted and slow growing. 
I'robably because the sap is less palatable than 
in the ohler and nuiturer j)arts of the tree. But 
.\Ir. (iarey cites a case on the Azusa ranch, 
where one of the xerj' thriftiest trees was al- 
most destroyed by the bug, .and w.as the first to 
be att«cked. In the Philippine islanils it swejit 
off' nearly all the trees, thrifty as w-ell as 
stunted. Take another case: .lonathan May- 
hew, of Santa Barbara, a ft^w years since ha<i 
the handsomest olive orchard I ever saw. The 
land w.as verj' rich, the care snp;-rV>. the growth 
wonderful. It was Mr. M.ayhew's pride. But 
alas ! the scale bug came, took jmssession, and 
efl'ectually ruined it. Culture and ra]»id growth 
cmild not with.stand them. 

But how can we make the trees grow while 
the infestment of the in.'»ect destroys the func- 
tion of the leaf, and his suction jmmps draw 
the vital juices and albumen from the bark ? 

Mr. Darcy, of Florida, holds tf> the same 
idea, that want of faithful (-ulture is the cause 
of injurj- to the orange by the insect. But how- 
will he account for this .Santa Barbara fact on 
his theory ? How- for a thousand facts like that 
on the Azusa rancho, where very fine trees are 
devastated. While tfiere is much in the view-s 
of the gentleman, there lingers in my mind the 
conviction that very largely the retarded growth 
w-as caused by the insect Itefore it w.as obser\'eil, 
rather than that the iii.sect was invited by the 
stunted grfiwth. 

Ix;t me ask Mr. ( iarey what he thinks of the 
.ash cure theory, broacheil in a former letter, 
»-here I state<i that on a rainy d.ay I took a 
bucket of dry ashes, and threw them in hand- 
fulls thnnigh and through the top of a j»ear tree 
and a large oleander which w-ere infe«ted by the 
scale bug. The ash dnst n>Re through the tree 
like smidte, and settled on every leaf and stem 
on that side of the tree. When the wind 
veered to the opjiosite direction, I took my 
stand on the opjiosite side of the trees and diil 
likewise. The trees looked 'lingj' and sorry 
enough; like the ancient Isr.aelites with ashes 
on their head.s. But it did them goiMl. .Subse- 
cpient rains and dew-s leached these ashes on 
every leaf and stem, and even' bug was de- 
stroyed. Tell us, friend (Jarey, how will this 
remedy ap]>ly to the orange disease ♦ 

S. Bkistdt.. 



Pruning Fruit Trees 

F.DiToKS Pkjws: — In any country fruit trees 
shouhl be so traineil as to fonn a symmetrica' 
he;wl, but the trees in New- Kngland in some re- 
spects should be pruned and managed quite dif- 
ferently from what is required in this more ou- 
;.'enial soil and climate. In every case it is l>est 
to commence while they are small to form the 
toj)S of future years. Tlic usual mode here of 
cutting off the anils of the branches to set back 
the growth is, in my opinion, not a<tvisable; 
especially in some v<arictics of the apple it is a 
decided injury, virtu.olly killing the tender 
shoots, and in most ciises checking tlie natural 
flow of sap, which forces out from lielow many 
vigorous shoots. Otherwise liml>s are multi- 
plied at the end of tile cutting off the twig the 
fii-st year, and these are usually full oi fruit the 
second year. This quinlruples the amount of 
fruit at the extremities, tends to bend and 
break them down by the lo.ad. .So the evil is 
not mitigated when the fruit culturist lieails in 
to boueKt his trees. 

Of late I have employed my time and atten- 
tion in laboring among a choice lot of bearing 
trees, not to be laid aside in after years as use- 
less to the orchanl. 

There is skill an<l science to l>e use<l in a good 
on-hard, and not many have the gift or knowl- 



January 13, 1877.] 



19 



edge to do the tree justice. Many pruners may 
destroy $10 value, while others will save the 
$10, making $'20 difference in one day, so that 
the pruning hook should only be trusted in 
skillful hands. On this coast trees require more 
foliage to protect the growing fruit than in 
colder climates, and here fruit will over-load the 
trees more or less; even with the best of train- 
ing it cannot be wholly avoided. 

There is a remedy to prevent ft some meas- 
ure damage by removing at or near the flower- 
ing time a portion of flowers or sets, which work 
will enhance the size and quality of the balance 
sufficient to remunerate the orchardist for the 
extra labor and trouble. All stone-bearing 
fruit trees require but little pruning, and that 
process of pruning which will avoid in the fu- 
ture a multiplicity of wounds will be the best 
practice to adopt. Like the rearing of children, 
the best mode is to lay the foundation while 
young, so that in mature years you shall reap 
the blessings, the fruits of your labor and save 
7nany a wounded heart. 

1 claim there is no standard to be strictly 
followed in tree pruning; these are only general 
rinciples, which I claim to be well to follow. 

would like to hear from my old friend Mr. 
Gould (who has had wide experience and is a 
very practical nurseryman) through the RuR.iL 
Press. Solomon W. Jewett. 

Merino Farm, Kern county, Jan. 4th, 1877. 

[Mr. Jewett, whom some of our readers will 
remember as an old C'alifornian, has come from 
Vermont to spend the winter with his prosper- 
ous sons in Kern county. We shall be pleased 
to hear from him on practical points during his 
stay in the State. — Eds. Press.] 



F 



Making Hives and Extractors. 

Editors Press: — The simpler the hives are 
made the better. Unnecessary appendages are 
a delusion and a snare; a money-spender and a 
nest for moths. Make the sides of iucli boards, 
10 by 20 inclies. The ends 14 inches long; the 
front end nine inches wide; the back end nine 
and three-eighths inclies wide. Nail the back 
end even with the lower edges of the side 
boards; the front end three-eighths of an inch 
higher, so as to leave a passage- way for the bees 
all along under the front end. Close this space 
more or less, as occasion demands, with three- 
cornered pieces of boards, six inches long, tliree 
inches wide and with small grooves cut in the 
lower sides for moth eggs, which nnist be 
destroyed occasionally. Nail laths or narrow 
strips on the outer, ujiper edges of the ends, 
flush with the upper edges of the sides. This 
will leave the gams upon which are to rest the 
ends of the frames, 10 in number. Make the 
frames of thin stuff, an inch wide, nailed with 
finishing or lath nails; the frames of such size 
that the bees will have three-eighths incli sjjace 
betwdsn the frames and the hive all around, 
top, bottom and sides. To induce bees to make 
.straight combs — with a thin, wet strip laid on 
the under side of the upper strip of the frame 
as a guide, pour a little melted beeswax from 
end to end. This is better and cheaper than 
triangles. Make the bottom l)oard four or five 
inches longer than the hive, for the bees to 
alight upon. Nail two strips three inches wide 
edgewise under the bottom l)oard. This will 
raise the hive sufficiently from the ground. 
The top board must also be clamped with 
strips nailed across. Fasten neither top nor 
bottom to the hive. For surplus honey, remove 
the top board and set a hive in its place. It is 
not essential, but it is best to plane th^ boards 
outside and inside. Paint them or wash them 
with waterlime in skimmed milk. This makes 
a lead color, looking at a short distance as well 
as a paint. Every stockraiser should introduce 
Durham, or other improved blood, into his 
h^rds. Every beekeeper should Italianize his 
bees. He can do this in a short time by 
purchasing one pure Italian queen. Every one 
who keeps half a dozen stocks of bees — and this 
should be every farmer and many town people — 
should have a 

Honey Extr;ictar. 

Nail three cleats across a half inch ))oard, 
lOJ by lOJ inches. At the four corners of this, 
nail four uprights, tkree-eighths by one and one- 
half inches and 19 niches long, notched into the 
lOJ by lOj board so as to be flush, .sides and 
ends. Stay these four uprights with strips 
nailed across from upright to ujiriglit, at the 
top. Nail two strips of lath 12K niches long 
like a cross. At the center of this "cross make a 
half-inch hole, also at the center of the 
square board make a half-inch hole, tlirough 
which holes is to pass a round, half-inch 
iron rod, ,S0 inches long, with a hole for 
a nail three incites from the l)ottom of 
the rod, upon which nad the frame is to rest. 
Upon the two opposite sides of the frame nail 
wire gauze. Thi-ough opposite comers of the 
square board cut holes to receive the projecting 
ends of the frames of honey, so that the combs 
wiU lie against the wire gauze. The combs 
must previously be uncapped with a thin, long, 
sharp knife, occasionally dipped in hot water. 
The rotl must be rounded and sharpened at the 
Tower end, to play in a hole in a block of wood 
nailed in tlie center of tlie bottom of a barrel 



Put two frames of honey in place, run the rod 
up through the center of the extractor, slip the 
cross on at the top; crowd it a little into the 
extractor to hold all fast; to hold the rod in 
place at top, fasten a strip across the top of the 
barrel, with a half-inch hole, through which 
the rod is to pass. Then, with the open hands, 
whirl the extractor rapidly. It would be more 
complete with a whirl on the upper end of the 
rod, connected with a band to a wheel and 
crank. 

I repeat, let eveiy one keep bees, especially in 
California, the bees' paradise. I had two poor 
swarms last March. In four months I had 12 
good swarms, besides using perhajis a liundred 
pounds of honey. This is doing very well, 
although I am aware that many bee men have 
done far better. S. P. Snow. 

Santa Bai-bara, Cal., Dec. 30th, 1876. 



P©yLT^Y 



M. Eyre, Jr., Napa, Cal., Corre-spondiner Editor of this 
Department. 



Thorough'ired Instead of Common Fowls. 

The best breeds, such as the Leghorns and 
Brahmas, eventually contjuer the prejudices of 
those who see no sense in paying ' 'fancy" prices 
for "fancy" fowls. When they ai-e first intro- 
duced into a neighborhood nearly every one 
thinks it nonsense to pay for the improved 
breeds, but they eventually are forced to ac- 
knowledge that, as a question of dollars and 
cents, it will pay to procure such fowls at any 
price. 

The following letter from Navarro Ridge, 
where the first "fancy" fowls were those raised 
from eggs sent to the writer, attests this truth. 

Fowls are a crop which never fail and which 
pay in dry years and in wet, and with one-half 
the care yield ten times the profit of any stock or 
crop raised on the farm. The demand, and at 
very high prices, far exceeds the supply; and it 
is a fact patent in every part of this State 
that the improved breeds pay many times as 
much as the common dunghill fowl. No matter 
what the cost of fine specimens, it will pay any 
farmer to improve his common stock. The dif- 
ference in the yield of eggs from half-breed Leg- 
horns will pay five times the cost of cocks to 
get those half-breeds. Here are extracts from 
the letter I refer to: 

N.VVAKRO RiDOE, Cat, Jan, Ist, 1870. 

Mr. Eyre, Dear Sir:— I wrote you my success with the 
fowls from the eijgs I got from you. and now tell you I ob- 
tained from them in 187() 5,000 e!,'{;s. I am niiK-h pleased 
with the Brown Leghorns. I have my old birds nice for 
breeders. 1 sold no eggs for hatching; no one wanted to 
jiay the price, and we would not ])Ut them down sold eggs 
to San Francisco only ; but they all want them now when 
they see my '22 nice hens laying when eggs have been so 
few. I am so pleased with the stock I got from you that 
yoil must excuse me for writing a little "looney" about the 
hens. Mrs. T. P. Tlrlonq. 



^^B©f\lC(JL7ll^i. 



The Catalpa Tree. 

AVe notice that prominent railroad men are 
iliscussiug the value of the catalpa tree for 
furnishing timber most suitable for railroail ties. 
We find in the /^((j/Hn;/ ^;/c several letters, from 
which we make extracts to show the value of 
the wood to the mechanic and indirectly the ad- 
vantage which it would be to our tree planters 
to grow it: 

In the spring of 1871, in conversation with 
Win. R. Arthur, formerly superintendent of the 
Illinois Central railroad, he stated that catalpa 
ties would last forever; tiiat it was easily culti- 
vated, was of rapid growth, and when planted 
in groves grew straight and tall as any forest 
tree; that he had several groves then growing 
on his farm that had been planted but four years 
and were 20 to 30 feet high ; that he had planted 
them for fence posts, but had subseipiently 
learned that they wouhl hold a spike as well as 
oak and would not split. Hence their value for 
cross-ties. 

Three years ago I cut from a catalpa tree, that 
had been cut down after growing 30 years as a 
shade tree, two railroad cross-ties, and placetl 
them in a track over which trains pass every 
hour, one under a rail joint. The spikes show- 
no signs of loosening. The catalpa does not 
hold a spike as well as o;ik, but surticiently well 
for all practical jjurposes. It does not split 
easily. While not as tough as some woods, it 
should not be termed brittle, as stated in Milli- 
kin's essay. I subjected pieces of cataljja, oak 
and ash, one inch square, to a breaking j)ressure 
twelve inches between supports. The cataljia 
l)roke under a pressure of 703 pounds; ash 890 
pounds; one piece of oak ;ii. 577, one at 709, and 
one at 1,141 pounds. The catalpa deflected 
three times as much as the oak or ash before 
breaking. 

This handsome and valuable tree is native in 
all the southwestern States, but is everywhere 
rare. It is distinguished by its silver-gray, 
slightly furrowed bark, its wide-spreading head. 
the fewness of its branches, and the fine, pale 
green of its very large heart-shaped leaves. It 
is a very profuse bloomer except in wet sum- 
mers. The flowers are very showy, large, bell- 
shaped, white, slightly tinged with violet, and 
dotted with purple in the throat. They are suc- 
ceed(>d by long bc^n-shaped seed pods, which 



hang till the next spring, when they open, and 
the small, thin, broadly-winged seeds are borne 
away on the winds. The "Farmers' and Plant- 
ers' Encylopedia" says the rapid gi'owth of the 
catalpa in almost every situation in which it 
can be placed in the Middle States, and the 
adaptation of its wood to fence posts and other 
useful purposes, make it deserving the attention 
of farmers. The wood, though light, is very 
compact, of fine texture, and susceptible of the 
most brilliant polish, its fine straw color pro- 
ducing a fine effect in cabmet work and inside 
finish for houses. 

Those wishing to propagate the catalpa should 
gather the seed pods this or next month; put in 
a dry place secured from mice. They may be 
found hanging from the catalpa tree, planted as 
a shade tree in most of the cities and towns in 
Ohio. There are fifty or more seeds in each pod. 
Plant in spring, in good soil, in rows three or 
four feet apart, six inches in the row, and thin 
down to one font. Keep the ground clean and 
let them grow three years; then ti'ansplant, 
placing them in rows ten feet apart north and 
south, and six feet apart east and west. In 
from six to eight years remove each alternate 
tree in rows running north and south for fence 
posts and telegraph poles, leaving the remaining 
trees ten feet apart one way and twelve the other, 
3G3 to the acre. In from six to eight years more 
these will be large enough to make four to eight 
railroad ties each, if they have been planted in 
good ground. They should be split or sawed 
through the middle and the round side placed 
OB the ground. The catalpa has oidy a film of 
sap one-sixteenth inch thick. 

Each acre and a half of ground, thus planted 
and properly cared for, wUl furnish enough 
fence posts and telegraph poles in from eight to 
twelve years to pay for the laud and all expense 
of planting, care and protection, and in from 
fifteen to eighteen years furnish railroad ties for 
<me mile of track, which at fifty cents each 
(cheap considering their quality) will pay §50 
per year on each acre of ground for each year 
they have been growing. Can a farmer make a 
better investment for himself and family than to 
jilant ten or twelve acres in catalpa trees? A 
railroad once tied with catalpa would find its 
annual expenses for repairs dimished .^200 per 
mile, a sa\'ing that would add 10% to the value 
of the property. 

A.ies Venusta. 

In the vegetable kingdom the conifers bear a 
markedly high and deserved rank, but none 
more so than the abits, or fir family. One vari- 
ety of the oi/e.< is found alone within the bor- 
ders of San Luis Obispo county, and is so rare 
that, until quite recently, but one specimen was 
to be found in all Europe. So rare is a knowl- 
edge even of this beatiful tree that we have 
heard but two persons mention it in our two 
years' residence in San Luis. These gentlemen 
were Dr. W. W. Hays and Mr. Ernst Krebs. 
Mr. Krebs has spent large sums of inonej' to ob- 
tain specimens, but has never succeeded in get- 
ting healthy ones until the present week, 
when he received seventeeu fine young plants. 
The foliage resembles, slightly, the common firs 
of the forest. It is far more delicate, the leaves 
longer and not so crowded upon tlie limbs, 
which are slender antl gi-aceful. The upper side 
of tlie leaf is a deep bright green, while the 
under surface is striated with silver, white and 
pale sea green, perfectly beautiful in their deli- 
cate l)lending. It is said to be the most beauti- 
ful object among all California's forest treasures, 
and when, the wind puts in motion its airy 
branches ie said to resemble undulating waves of 
silver foam. From tliese young specimens in 
the grounds of Mr. Krebs, we can imagine what 
a forest would be where the spiral trunks rear 
themselves to a hight of 50 or 60 feet, and are 
clothed with a profusion of its delicate foliage. 

The habitat of this treasure is a circumscribed 
spot of a few acres in the deep recesses of the 
Santa Lucia mountains, on the border of Mon- 
terey county, and so inaccessible that but few, 
even of the hardy hunters, have ever seen it. 
This is said to be the only spot in the known 
world where the tree is found. In the eartly 
(lavs of (,'aliforiiia the padres used to send Indi- 
ans to gather the resin that exudes from the 
trees where scarified by accident or design; and 
this resin was burned in the censors before the 
high altars upon great occasions. From this 
fact it derives the local name of " Pinabeta de 
los l^adies." Mr. Krebs has made arrange- 
ments to have a supply of seed gathered next 
season, and will, we hope, be successful in intro- 
ducing it into common cultivation. — Suit Luis 
O/ii.tpo Tribune. 



Tl|E 0^1 ^y. 



Milk Fever. 

We hear that our readers have lost cows of 
late from milk fever. This is a disease which 
every dairyman should be on guard against, 
and sliouUl know how to meet when it comes. 
We give below a treatment for the disease as 
jiracticed by A. L. Fish, one of the veteran dai- 
rymen of Herkimer county, New York, who has 
saved many a cow for himself and his neighbors 
by prompt and intelligent action. He writes: 
It behooves those with ';ows coming in to milk 
to l>e watchful in the care and habits of such 
cows to ward off the destructive malady known 



as milk fever. The old axiom, that an c 
prevention is worth a pound of cure, is appi.^a- 
ble in milk fever. Causes that are fniitful in 
producing it are full feed, exposure from excess 
of heat, sudden chill from drinking too much 
In this type of the disease I have found by im- 
mediate post mortem examination from the first 
fit, tlie blood in the large arteries, extending 
under the back to the udder, so clotted as to be 
drawn out of the arteries like a rope. In this 
state, bleeding would be followed by death. So 
would any other prescription. It is in this 
tyjje of the disease in its advanced stage that 
bleeding is found to be an untrustworthy rem- 
edy. But the chances are in favor of bleeding 
if the arteries are not already clotted. No time 
should be lost in applying the lancet at the first 
symptoms described. Administer at the same 
time an active purgative, followed by acomte 
and mix (if treated homeopathically), alternately 
once in two hours with a half gallon of water 
with each done. A dose should be 20 times 
larger than for an adult person, and so continue 
until the fever abates. 

Another Type. 

Another type of the disease is marked by las- 
situde, a staggering gait, falling with inability to 
rise, shrinkage of milk, cold extremities, dull 
eyes, and inattention to movements around her. 
She inclines to lie prostrate on her side for want 
of strength to lie in a natural position, indicat- 
ing a general prostration of the nervous system 
with a morbid circulation. Although this type 
of the disease is not so immediately dangerous 
as the former, it requy-es thorough administra- 
tion of remedies, and constant c.;ire to keep the 
patient lying in a natural position while the 
remedies given are working in the system. A 
well cow will die from lying on her side in eight 
and forty hours. So the fate of the sick cow is 
often fixed by neglect in care when she cannot 
care for herself. 

cold water, a drenching shower, and lack of a 
needed supply of Mater to drink, which sup- 
press important changes in circulating fluids in 
the system about the time they are turning to a 
flow of milk. It often happens after cows are 
turned to pasture, that they calve far away 
from water, and will not leave their calf till 
it will follow. The cow then being diseased by 
thirst, on reaching water drinks too much, or if 
separated from the calf she may woriy herself 
in the heat to ovei- fatigue, and cause depression 
of the nervous system, all of which may be 
avoided by judicious treatment. 

To prepare the sy.stem of the cow for the 
changes that must take place at parturition, care 
is necessary. It may be done by taking four 
quarts of blood from the neck, a day or two pre- 
vious, and administering a half a pound of salts 
with one teaspoonful of saltpeter, dissolved. 
This course will prevent a morbid condition of 
the system, and may be a means of preventing 
an attack of the fever. By ;dl means keep the 
cow from excess of heat or excitement; and do 
not over-feed either before or after parturition. 
After being four or five days in milk, her feed 
may be increased with her full flow of milk. 

Treatment of the Disease. 

The most virulent type of the disease is man- 
ifested in tlie attack by a wild, glaring look, 
high excited movement of the head, irregular, 
giddy steps, with no apjiarent loss of strength, 
uutil the cow falls in a convulsive fit, which 
lasts but a few moments. If the arterial circu- 
lation is not impeded, she rises and dashes 
about wildly till prostrated with another attack. 

Tliere are but few cows, after having been to 
grass a few weeks, that do not require bleeding 
in an attack of milk fever in any form. It has 
been my practice, attended with good success, 
to first bleed in nine cases out of ten, from four 
to eight (piarts, according to size and condition 
of the cow. Dissolve one pound of epsom salts 
and one-half ounce of saltpeter in two quarts 
of thorougliwort tea of good strength and give 
it a dose; in two hours after, give two ounces of 
laudanum, wth a gallon of water, and repeat 
tlie laudanum and water once in two hours till 
eight ounces of laudanum are given; no other 
medicine should be given to counteract those 
given which are found sufficient to carry the 
patient through from a severe attack. After 
the first administration of bleeding and physic 
laudanum and water are relied upon to raise the 
patient, which requires from 12 to 48 himrs. 
When she rises, exchange the medicine for 
nourishing diet. In bleeding, the strength and 
condition of the patient should be duly con- 
sidered. If in low condition and tlie pulse is 
weak and wavering, do not bleed, but give 
physic and stimulate with laudanum as directed. 
If ill high coiulition, witli (piick, \viry pulse, 
lose no time in drawing blood, being always 
watchful of the pulse, and stop the blood if 
irregular beats are observed to increase by the 
flow of blood. If the pulse grows softer from 
the flow of blood, do not be afraid to take 
from eight to ten ()uarts from a large, strong 
cow. After bleeding largely, do not neglect to 
administer water freely, because it passes 
through the system, and carries the medicine 
with it anil induces a flow of milk. 



Persi.vn Railway. — Since reversing his con- 
cessions to Baron Renter, the Sli.ah of Persia 
has thought better of it. NVc are informed that 
he has authorized the construction of a railrojid 
six miles long to join the capital with a palace 
south of Teheran. It is to l)e Inqit^d that this 
niivy be the forerunner of many other Persian 
railways, independent of any through routes 
that may be arranged eventually to shorten th? 
distance in traveling from Europe to India. 



20 



[January 13, 1877- 




THE HEADQUARTERS of the California State 
Grange arc in the Grang-crs' liiiililing, northeast corner of 
California and Davis Streets, over tlie (grangers' Bank of 
California and Califoriii I Fsruurs' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Association. ila«ter, J. V. Wkestek; Secretar)-, Alios 
Ada>is. 

The Grangers' Business Assochtion of California is in 
Davis Street, northeast corner of California. 



Grahoe Dirhctort— a fiJl list of Subordinate Granges, 
Masters and Secretaries of California and Nevada, is pub- 
lished as often as once a quarter in this department. See 
issue of Sept. 23d for latest insertion. 



To the Sisters. 

Edxtors Press: — Often have I felt a strong 
desire M'hen reading tlie soul-inspiring words of 
cheer and council given by the good sisters 
tnrough your valuable paper, to express my 
sympathy and views, if only to say, ' '(iod bless 
you; we love and prize your wise and nol)le 
efforts for our good." Dear sister Grangers all, 
can we not in this new year step up higher and 
do more than has yet been accomplished? The 
Grange, as I have seen it, appears to have a void 
between the grave and necessary business and 
the gay and social dance. Should tliere not be 
Bometliing at once instructive and entertaining, 
especially for the young? I have waited, hoping 
some one more capable ' than myself would 
broach the subject; but as none should excuse 
themselves, believing they possess but the one 
talent, I offer a few thoughts. 

Is not this a part of the work the sisters can 
help to do? Are we filling our true position in 
the Grange? It is claimed that our institution 
is in advance of all others in placing w<jman in 
her true and God-given position in the human 
family. We are supposed eacli according to our 
ability to have an equal share in the labor of tlie 
emblematical farm. But is it practically so? 
Taking the installation of otKcers as an exponent 
of the general sentiment, what do we infer? 
It struck mo quite forcibly when witnessing 
that ceremony for the first time. The n«wly 
elected brothers, some nine or ten, were sep- 
arately instructed each in the duties of some 
part of the labor of the farm and some imple- 
ment of labor given into their liands. Tlie 
ladies, four in number, came forward in turn. 
Ceres, the goddest of harvest, was crowned with 
a wreath ofripe grain, Pomona crowned with 
ripe fruit. Flora with flowers, and my treacher- 
ous memory can remember only sometliing about 
the cultivation of grace, beauty and flowers. 
Then, 80 garlanded, they take their seats facing 
the audience (Emblematical Goddesses! how 
can we complain of a low position in tlie 
Grange?) apparently as objects of adoration. Is 
that not fast becoming tlie general view that 
■woman must be set apart from the toil, decked 
out for admiration, and smile benignly on the 
workers. The Lady Assistant Steward receives 
a crook, emblem of labor, and really has a part 
in the work of the Order. I don't object to 
ladies being the ornamental part of the (Jrange, 
but unfortunately we cannot all be either young 
or beautiful. For us elderly, liard working Ma- 
trons to sit as emldeniatical goddesses would be 
rather awkward had the members the bad taste 
to elect us there. Is tliere then no use for us in 
the Grange? Have we really become so useless 
that our brothers, while honestly striWng to 
give us our part, assign us only this mytholog- 
ical oniamoiital j^osition. "Oh, yes," I can hear 
the gallant gentlemen hastening to say, "any 
position you want, ladies, work, talk, write, all 
you please." 

Thank you, I believe you are in earnest, and 
that if we would but wake up the situation is 
ours, but it evidently was not expected, and it re- 
quires some moral courage to step aside or ad- 
vance beyond the generally accepted sphere of 
woman. (Jiven a position whose duties are pos- 
itive and well-defined, I believe women can be 
found with courage to strive to fill them. Vtc 
listened lately to a stirring lecture from our 
Worthy State Lecturer, upon the needs of the 
day, higher manhood, etc. We have a higher 
womanhood in our Grange, he said, whicli I 
shall tell you of by-and-by; but I own I felt 
somewhat disappointed to hear little more than 
the customary "encourage and sustain" the 
fathers, husbands and brothers in the conflict. 
Our position in the Grange was compared to 
that of the women in the revolutionary times. 
Now do we advance? Do we indeed stand in 
this struggle nobly as they did? They laid hold 
of the spindle and the loom, the ancient em- 
blems of woman's work, and heartily worked 
for the cause. Our worthy brother doubtless 
said as much as could be said con.sideriiig the 
part we really take in the Grange. Thank him 
that his remarks agitated the subject in one 
mind at least. 

I do not ask that we .should plow the land and 
feU the trees, in otlier words do the hea\-y busi- 
ness of the concern, not many of us being edu- 
cated to command that situation. Our little 
Grange may not be a fair sample of all (iranges, 
but here, except at recess, and after closing, a 
stranger might suppose St. Paul had issueil the 
command: " Let your women keep silence in the 
Grange." 

What is the true work and design of the 
Grange? Is it not the intellectual and moral ele- 
vation of the farmei-s and their families? And 
is not all this financial question but a stepping- 
stone to the ultimate end ? Are we striviug for 
mcm»y to build costly houses and WKar fine 



clothes? Do these things in themselves bring 
culture and refinement? Would all the shining 
silks, exquisite laces and flowers of France 
showered upon the savage African lift him one 
step in the scale of intellectual and moral refine- 
ment? Do we not rather look forward to the 
time when we can somewhat lay aside the cares 
of business and attend more directly to our 
higher nature? Shall we not sometime get be- 
yond the old question, " Wherewithal shall we 
be fed and clothed?" 

Our Grange has now been in o])eration some 
tliree or four years, and we are not satisfied 
with the jirogress in this direction. What have 
we to ofier our children when at the tender age 
of 16 they are admitted within our doors? It is 
not to be expected they will care to listen very 
attentively to the ileliberations of those who 
have grown gray solving the vexed question of 
ways and means. They simply endure until, 
the business over, their part of the work, the 
social dance, comes in, and the excuse offered 
for the extreme to which this is carried is, 
there is nothing else. Nothing else? Is this so, 
and must it always be so? Can we offer our 
children, blooming into manhood and woman- 
hood, nothing better, nothing more than they 
can find in any ball-room? 

Dear .Sisters, you who rejoice in your free- 
dom from fashion's thraldom and wear in tri- 
umph your reform garments, can you not urge 
"the children of Israel that they go forward? 

fan we not have some system of literary re- 
views, current news, essays, select reading, etc., 
that every meeting may be both interesting and 
instructive to the young, and teach them that 
the elevation we seek is not to vie with the in- 
dolent votary of fashion in dress and style? 
Must we discard anytliing that will foster the 
idea that higher womanhood means more elab- 
orate dress and artificial make-up. Let us im- 
jire.ss the conviction if possible on the rising 
generation that a mind well stored with usefiul 
information, a fervent love for the right, that 
can lay aside selfish ends and work for the gen- 
eral good, and that old-fashioned virtue and 
common sense can make the true nobleman and 
complete woman though clothed in homespun 
and calico. 

But I must throw aside this pen; it runs too 
fast, and has already far exceeded the modest 
suggestions I intended to advance. 

Please tell us, those who have live, interest- 
ing meetings, how you do it? Help us while we 
strive to help ourselves. 

"Awake, oh north wind, and come, thou 
south, blow upon my garden that tlie spices 
thereof may flow out." A Sister Grangkk. 
Ellis, San Joaquin Co., Cal., Jan. 9th, 1877. 



Sister Jeanne C. Carr's Address. 

Our readers who were present at the late 
meeting of our State Grange will remember the 
interesting address by Sister .Jeanne C. Carr on 
the educational and agricultural features of the 
Centennial exposition. Sister Carr has been de- 
lighting audiences in different parts of the 
State with her graphic descriptions and apt les- 
sons drawn from her observations. We find in 
the Los Angeles Ej-jrrexs an outline of the ad- 
dress, as delivered at the Los Angeles Teachers' 
Institute, which our realers willl>e glad to see: 

She premised her lecture by saying that Prof. 
Carr's duties, under the law, prevented him from 
meeting with the great congress of teachers from 
the whole world, which assembled in Philadel- 
pliia during the present year, and that, in conse- 
quence, she had gone there at his prosy. To at- 
tempt to give an outline of tlie vast array of in- 
teresting facts wliich she gatliered during her 
trip, of their lucid arrangement, of their photo- 
graphic suggestiveness, so to speak, would be to 
mar a most valuable picture and detract from 
the merits of a piece of literary work which we 
liope to possess in tlie enduring form of a hand- 
somely-bound volume. Sketcli after sketch of 
the exhibits of the various .States of the Union, 
in the matter of educational progress, followed 
each other, and as one sketch was comjjleted the 
hearer wondered whether the next could pos- 
sibly present anything new, fresh or interesting, 
and still the interest was renewed and kept un- 
flaggingly alive until the close. If we are not 
mistaken tlie most gratifying declaration that 
the lady made was that the .State of Missouri 
had, all things considered, made the most rapid 
advance of all her sisters in the great work of 
providing for the educational needs of her im- 
mense and co: Biantly inc: rising population. It 
was not very flattering to the amour propre oi a 
Californiau audience to hear the exhibits of 
Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, 
Pennsylvania, Delaware and a score of other 
.States praised and extolled, and not a word said 
of our display, but we must hope for better 
things in our own l«ilialf at the next Centennial. 
( 'erberus has got his sop, however, in the shape 
of the statttmeut of the speaker that a distin- 
guished educator in the East remarked to her, 
that "If his .State had such excellent and well- 
defined laws of education as California, especial- 
ly in the matter of compulsory attendance and 
rigid examinations, then they could hope to ac- 
complish great things." Standing upon this 
vantage ground, let us hope that due advantage 
will be taken of the facilities which are at our 
conimand for jjerfecting our system and building 
up a splendid superstructure upon the founda- 
tions so well anil stronglj' laid. 

The lecturer said that from a survey of the 
wliole field the four nations of the world which 
occupied the front rank in the great field of pop- 
ular education were Brazil, Russia, Japan and 



the United States. She said she would not say 
all she could say complimentary of Brazil, for 
fear she should inspire an exodus of teachers to 
that country wliich would result disastrously to 
our own interests. In Brazil, th« teacher, hav- 
ing passed a satisfactory examination — an ex- 
haustive one, by the way — becomes a Govern- 
ment official. After five years' service he has, 
in addition to an increased salary-, a small pen- 
sion and a home. After ten years' service, sal- 
ary and pension are again increased and a life 
insurance policy suttjcientto maintain his family 
after his death is jirovided. After twenty years' 
service, he has the liberty of continuing his 
labors, but if he chooses to retire, his wants are 
provided for. Where so much is done for the 
teacher, one may be sure that the whole subject 
in all of its ramifications is well attended to. 
•So much, said the lecturer, for Dom Pedro, the 
enlightened ruler of Brazil, and the educational 
system of the empire. The audience showed 
their high appreciation of Dom Pedro by hearty 
applause. 'The lecturer next jjaid a glowing 
tribute to Russia's system, which seems to be 
under the general supervision of the local mil- 
itary boards. Sejiarable diagrams showing the 
topography of every division of the empire, eth- 
nological diagrams exhibiting the features, 
modes of dress, etc. , of the sixty or more differ- 
ent tribes which compose the population of the 
empire, charts exhibiting in relief the alphabets 
of the different languages, and many other val- 
uable atljuncts of the school-room are integral 
parts of the system by which Russia is elevating 
lier whole ])opulation to the proud table-land of 
intelligent free thought. Japan, said the lec- 
turer, has selected three great educational 
centers, one in France, one in England and one in 
the United States, at each of which the bright- 
est and mo,st pniniising of her youth are storing 
their apt and singularly receptive minds with 
whatever is best and most valuable in the learn- 
ing anil science of the two continents. She 
would not say that the best systems of educa- 
tion had been universally adoj)te<l throughout 
Japan, but it was an indisputable and moat 
jileasing fact that in many parts of the empire 
the best results which follow the adoption of 
the best systems had followed their introduc- 
tion, and that the channels in which their 
gracious influences ran were widening and 
broadening and would soon fertilize the whole 
land and bring forth abundant fruit. What the 
lecturer said about the United States as one of 
the proud galaxy of nations thoroughly imbued 
with the idea of the imjiortance of ]>opular edu- 
cation, has already l>een hinted at in this report, 
wliich is but a mere glance at the lecturer's in- 
structive resume. She led the audience by 
pleasant paths of descriptive conversation 
through the agricultural, industrial and scien- 
tific schools of France, Belgium, Switzerland, 
Lapland, and many other tribes and tongues. 
Looking back upon the hour and a quarter we 
spent so pleasantly in her company we sincerely 
feel that in the pleasant pictures which she 
drew of nation after nation, striving manfully to 
advance the educational interests of the people, 
we see a better guarantee of peace, permanence 
and prosperity among the nations of the earth 
tliiui if we had been told of a world in arms and 
eager for the fray. Mrs. Carr paid a glowing 
tribute to the kindergarten system of education, 
and said that the reason why the system seemed 
to 1)0 of so slow a growth was because it required 
talent of a peculiar kind .seldom found - but 
most valuable when found. .She endorsed the 
eminent fitness of the lady who had founded the 
kindergarten in Ixis Angeles for the task she 
ha<l undertaken, and said that she could wish 
the city of Los Angeles no better good fortune 
than that she might succeed fullj' in her under- 
taking, and bnild the foundations of the system 
here so firm and strong that they would remain 
unshaken for all time. We have not followed 
the lecturer's arrangement of her topics in this 
report, which has been written without notes, 
but only from a memory profoundly impressed 
with the value and importance of her most sug- 
gestive address. The report is but a glance at 
what we hope we shall soon possess in an en- 
during form, as a book of reference and a con- 
stant incitement to renewed interest in the 
great subject of education. 

Mrs. Carr also delivered her lecture at the 
San Bernardino County Teachers' Institute, and 
the following resolution was adopted: 

We present our hearty thanks to Mrs. Oarr for her 
careful, comprehensive and eloquent review of the educa- 
tional exhibit at Philadelphia, and that we esteem our- 
selves peculiarly happy in being made fiaitikcrs of her 
abundant knowledge. 

In Memoriam. 

MAITOLE ORANGE, No. 201, P. of II., Pctrolia, Hum- 
boldt county, Cal., Nov. 18th, 1878. 

Whereas, Our llivine Master in his all-wise Providence 
has seen fit U> remove from our midst Brother Jons X. 
CuoN, wlio was among the first settlers of this valley and 
one tif our charter members, respected by all, therefore 
b it 

Rmolred, That in the death of Brother Coos our Grange 
has lost a giuKl and true-hearted member and the commu- 
nity a worthy citizen. 

keiuilved. That wc extend our heartfelt sympathy to the 
family and friends of our decea-sed brother. 

liwilved. That in resjiect to his memory the charter of 
our Cirange be drajKHl in mourning and that all the mem- 
bers wear the usual badge of niouriiing for :iO Jays; that 
these res<jlutions be spread upon the minutes of the 
(Jrange, and that a copy thereof be transmitted to the 
family of the decea»e<l, ' also to the Vest Cuant Signal, 
Humboldt Times, Weekly Standard and Pacuic RiR.tl, 
PiiEHS for publication.— Committee: M. J. Uonklin, David 
Simmons, Jacob Miner. 

Personal. — We have the pleasure of greeting 
Bro. J. W. A. Wright on liis return to Cal- 
ifornia after his long voyaging. We are glad to 
see him halo and hearty. Ho will probably pass 
the winter in this State. 



Farmers and Grangers. 

Open Meetings— Invitations Extended to all— 
Furtlier Appointments. 
The large and enthusiastic meetings which 
greeted Bro. Pilkington, the Worthy Lecturer 
of the State Grange, at Petaluma, Rockville, 
Elmira, Sacramento, Yuba City, etc., to listen 
to his able e||>osition of the principles and ob- 
jects of our Order, have encouraged and in- 
duced further appointments to he made for 
the winter months. Meetings will be held u 
follows: 

Saturday, Januarj' ISth Roseville 

Monday, January l.'ith Orasa Valley 

Tuesday, Jinuarj- Ifith New Castie 

Wednesday, January 17 th Wheatland 

FViday, January Itfth Dixon 

Saturday, January 20th Vallejo 

Amos Adams, 

Sec'y State Grange. 

Election of Officers. 

Colusa Gr.^.^oe, No. 45, Colisa Co. — Elec- 
tion, DecemWr 'J9th : J. R. Totman, M.; David 
Lewis, 0. ; Joseph Kimbrel, L. ; C. S. Jones, S. ; 
L. T. Stomer, A. S. ; F. B. Reed, C. ; John 
Watts, T.; R. Jones, Sec'y; Will S. Green, O. 
K.; Mrs. C. R. AVebley, Ceres; Mrs. L. >L 
Totman, Pomona; Mrs. L. G. Stomer, Flora; 
Miss Katie Jones, L. A. 8. 

Mt. WHiTNEy Grange, No. 231, Tclare 
Co.— Election, Dec. 16th: G. W. Duncan, M.; 
O. H. P. Duncan, O. ; O. W. Catlin, L. ; H. S. 
Witt, S.; O. G. Foot, Jr., A. S.; L. W. Gregg, 
C; O. V,. Foot, T.; A. F. Thompson, Secy; 
W. (f. Rose, (}. K. ; Mrs. .M. Moore, Ceres; 
Mrs. L. A. Duncan, Pomona; Mrs. A. M. 
Hotchkiss, Flora; Mrs. A. Catlin, L. A. S. 

NicA.sio Grange, No. 135, Marix Co. — 
Election, Dec. 30th: C. L. Estey, M.; F. Rodg- 
ers, 0. ; T. B. Roy, X. ; H. TJbies, S. ; D. W. 
Taylor, A. S. ; B. F. Partee, C. ; M. McNamara, 
T.;H. F. Taft, Sec'y; J. Schaub, G. K.; .Mrs. 
C. Thies, Ceres; Mrs. H. E. Estey, Pomona; 
Miss Marj- McNamara, Flora; Mrs. Mary Corn- 
wall, L. A. S. 

Oakdale Grange, No. 160, .Stanlslats Co. 
-S. P. Bailey, M. ; G. F. LeCText, 0.; D. 
Monroe, X: F. G. Whitby, C; B. Seybour, 
S.; Wm. Litt. A. S.; Wm. Waters, G. K.; 
Robt. Ixivel, T. ; C. B. Ingalls, .Sec'y; Mrs. 
R. Lovel, Ceres; Mrs. A. S. Emery, Pomona; 
Mrs. E. V. Ingalls. Flora; -Mrs. S. P. Bailey, L. 
A. S. 

Ojai Grange, No. 165, Ventura Cou.vty. — 
Election, Dec. 30th: Joseph Hob.irt, M.; Theo- 
dore Todd, 0.; J. S. Wait, L.; H. N. McLean, 
S. ; T. B. Steepleton, A. S. ; Wm. Perri, C. ; R. 
Ayres, T. ; Eva Fisher, .Sec'y; John Pinkerton, 
G. K.; Mrs. H. N. McLean, Ceres; Mrs. C. E. 
.Soules, Pomona; Mrs. J. S. Wait, Flora; Mrs. 
John Reith, L A. .S. 

Pilot Hill Grange, No. 1, El Dorado Co. 
—Election, Dec. 30th: P. D. Brown, M.;John 
Bishop, O.; Mrs. M. F. Stoddard, L; C. 8. 
Rogers, T.: J. H. Robb. S.; Silas Hays. C; 
Wm. Taylor, Sec'y; J. J. Orr, O. K. ; Miss Mary 
.Jones, Ceres; Mrs. A. Dobbas, Pomona; Miss 
Jennie Bayley, Flora: Mrs. S. Orr, L. A. 8.; 
John Stegeinan, Trustee. 

Santa Ro.sa Grange, No' 17, Sonoma Co. 
—Election, Dec. 23d: S. T. Coulter, M.; Mr. 
Saliday, O.; A. J. Mills, S.; Theo. Staley, A. S.; 
L. Hendrix, C. ; John Adams, L. ; E. W. Davis, 
Sec'y; W. W. Gauldin, T.; T. Wall, G. K.; 
Mrs. S. T. Coulter, Ceres; Mrs. A. J. Mills, 
Pomona; Mrs. E. H. Light, Flora; Mrs. W. 
W. (tauldin, L. A. S. ; 'TruBtee for three 
years, G. W. Davis. 

Table Bli'ff Grange, No. 101, Humboldt 
Co. , Cal. — E. B. Long, M. ; Chas. C. Dickson, 
O. ; L. Y. Clyde, L. ; Wm. Parrott, S. ; Robt. 
Niles, A. S. ; B. H. C. Pollard, C. ; J. Sawyer, 
T.; James H. Still, Sec'y; H Timy, G. K. ; 
.Mrs. .lessie Dickson, Ceres; Mrs. Hannah .Saw- 
yer, Pomona; Mrs. E. B. Long, Flora; Mrs. Wm. 
Parrott, L. A. S. 

Tulare Grange, No." 198, Tul.^re Co.— A. 
P. Merritt, M. ; T. W. Maples, 0. ; Mrs. T. W. 
Maples, L. ; Joseph Merritt, S. ; f J. W. Wray, 
A. S. ; E. M. Wilson, C. ; J. A. Goodwin, T. ; 
J. H. Hart, Sec'y; P. S. Tracy, G. K.; Mrs. J. 
A. Goodwin, Ceres; Mrs. W. W. Wright, Po- 
mona; Mrs. G. W. Wray, Flora; Mrs. .Toseph 
Merritt, L. A. S. 

Walnut Greek (Jrange, No. 119, Contra 
Costa Co. — Election, DeceiiAer 23<1 : M. L. Ciray, 
M.; A. W. Hammitte, 0.;\i. Jones, L.; C. S. 
\Miitcomb, C. ; W. K. Daly, S. ; Wm. Bradley, 
A. S. ; J. Larkey, T. ; Mrs. M. L. Huston, Sec'y; 
J. W. .lones, G. K. ; Mrs. W. Renwick, Ceres; 
Airs. A. W. Hammitte, Pomona; Miss Lizzie 
Bradley, Flora; Miss Melissa Hammitte, L. 
A. S. 

West Grafton Crance, No. 89, Yoixi Co. — 
Geo. Shaqinack, M.; E. Harley, O.; A. W. 
Morris, L.; J. G. Bower, .Sr., S. ; J. T. HatUey, 
C; S. M. Majies, T. ; J. G. Bower, Jr., Sec'y; 
A. Harley, (i. K. ; Miss Mary Watson, Ceres; 
Miss Alice Bower, Pomona; Aliss Susan Cnllin, 
Flora; Mrs. Mary Harley, L. A. S. 



Walnut Creek Grange. —Editors Press: — 
Our meetings are well attended. There will be a 
public installation of officers elect on Saturday, 
J.anuary 1.3th, at one o'clock p. m., which 
all members and friends are cordially in\-ited 
to attend, Mrs. M. L. Hustok, Sec'y. 



January 13, 1877.] 



,WiaAS iPSBl 



%iy 



^1 



4qfl«cJLTiJi\^L flojES. 



California. 

ALAMEDA. 

Sheep Killed. ^ Independent, Jan. 6: A 
complaint has been filed in the Fourth District 
Court by E. W. Peet and A. J. Severance, to 
recover |2,000 from the Central Pacific railroad 
company, the value of 10 Spani.sh merino 
sheep, alleged to have been run over and killed 
by an engine near Niles station, Alameda 
county, on the 2d of January, 1875. Plaintiffs 
claim that the train approached the station 
about 10 o'clock in the morning, and that the 
engineer saw the sheep, but instead of slacking 
his speed, drove ahead, and before they could 
escape from the track, overtook them and 
crushed them to death. 

CALAVERAS. 

Irrigating Company. — Stockton Independent, 
Jan 6: There were filed last Wednesday, in 
the office of the Secretary of State, articles of 
incorporation of the Calaveras irrigating com- 
pany. The directors are John E. Moore, John 
C. Hussey, Charles Sperry, Charles M. Weber 
and Benjamin S. Clowes. The principal place 
of business will be in this city. 

COLUSA. 
Future Rains. — Independent, Jan. 7 : A 

freat many have entirely suspended plowing; 
ut some are still going ahead aa if the north 
wind did not blow. Those who are plowing 
say that if it raina it will produce a crop this 
year, and if it does not it will get one year's 
rest, and then make an extraordinary yield next 
year. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

Cattle Stolen. — Gazette, Dec. 30: Some 60 
or 70 head of cattle belonging to Mr. William 
Rice were stolen from his pasture inclosure in 
Ygnacio valley, about a mile from Walnut 
creek, some time last week. An opening for 
driving out the cattle was made on the east 
side of the inclosure by removing a length of 
boards, which were found lying together by the 
side of the opening. Diligent search instituted 
immediately on discovery that the cattle were 
gone, has not yet disclosed any trace of them or 
of the thieves. It is supposed they must have 
been driven out over the Pine canyon divide 
towards either Tassajara or the Point of Timber; 
but how thieves could get far away in any 
direction with such a band of cattle, as the 
country is now fenced and settled up, is past 
conjecture; and it is the boldest operation in 
the line, as well as the largest, that we have 
recollection of in our section of country. It 
will, moreover, be very strange if no discovery 
of the stolen cattle or the thieves sliould be 
made. 

Editors Press: — The farmers in this valley 
are beginning to be a little restless on account 
of the contmued dry weather. The majority 
are well along with seeding. The grain that 
was put in in the fore part of the season looks 
well, considering the dry weather. I have been 
a resident of this county for 16 years, and 
never have seen an entire failure of crops in this 
valley. We think that we have the banner 
valley in the State for raising all kinds of cere- 
als. Vegetables do well here when planted and 
well cared for, although the most of our farmers 
depend upon the vegetable pedlars, of which 
there are two running regular, twice a week, 
through the valley. One of the gardens is 
located upon the laguna, owned by Senora 
Francisca Galinda. It is near the beautiful and 
prosperous town of Todas Santas, in Pacheco 
.valley. We will give you tlie average price of 
land in this vicinity, viz. : from .$20 to |80 per 
acre, owing to location, improvements and qual- 
ity. There is some very fine land, well located, 
that can be had at !$65 to .$70 per acre. In look- 
ing over your correspondence of the Press, we 
often wonder why it is they fail to give the 
average price of land in their respective coun- 
ties. W e think if they would do so it would 
be a great source of information, and would sug- 

fest that they give it.— Rural, Walnut Creek, 
an. 8th, 1877. 

KERN. 

The Square. — Courkr, Jan. 6: Messrs. 
Haggin & Carr have purchased section 16, 
township 29, range 27, and will inclose it with a 
substantial board fence. It will complete the 
square form of their ranch, which now contains 
7,000 acres. 

Tehichipa.— When the railroad reached and 
passed us, and freight teams were driven oif in 
consequence, the market for hay and barley was 
pretty much destroyed, the prices reduced about 
one-half, and farmers here have come to the 
conclusion to abandon in part those products 
and raise mostly wheat in future, believing it a 
surer and more profitable crop, for which they 
can get two cents per pound delivered at the 
flour mill of William Baker. It is certainly 
worth while trying to produce at home the 
flour consumed in this part of the county, for 
the drain of money for that article alonej is 
enormous. This scribble would be too tedious 
if I undertook to say all I wish to about the 
farming and other interests in this and the 
adjacent valleys at this time, and must there- 
fore pass on. Owners of stock are nervous over 
the grass question, and although horned cattle 
have not suffered as yet, there is every reason 
to believe they will soon. Sheep are suffering 
badly, and as there is no grass on the plains 
there ia no use to drive them there, and are as 
well off here until the winter atorms set in. 



LOS ANGELES. 

Sending Fruit to Market. — Herald, Dec. 
30; Mr. W. C. Furrey, who has just returned 
from San Francisco, has called our attention to 
a matter which deserves more than passing 
mention. A great deal of fruit is sent from Los 
Angeles improperly prepared for the market. 
While our county is, of course, the great orange 
producing section of California, it is by no means 
the only section of the State where tlie orange 
can be raised. The same may Vie said of lime.s 
and lemons. Mr. Furrey says that the Sonoma 
orange is arriving in the San Francisco market 
in excellent shape, and it is really a very fine 
specimen of this popular fruit. Special care is 
taken in its selection and packing, and inferior 
oranges are not allowed to leave the orchards. 
The same cannot be said as to our orange pack- 
ers. Unripe and inferior fruit is packed and 
sent to San Francisco with a recklessness whicli 
seriously menaces the reputation of our oranges. 
For the same reason the Mexican lime is rapidly 
coming to supersede the Los Angeles lime, al- 
though our county, by right, should have a 
monopoly of the market of California. Half 
ripe and refuse limes are thrown in with good 
fruit by the packers, and the sale and reputation 
of Los Angeles products suffer accordingly. 
Owing to the care taken by the Sonoma orange 
growers, the oranges of that county have been 
retailed in the San Francisco markets at f 1 a 
dozen, or upwards of $80 per 1,000. It will 
thus be seen that there is money in giving this 
matter the closest attention. Our latitude and 
facilities for in-igation enable us to command 
the semi-tropical fruit market if we only have 
good sense enough not to neutralize our advant- 
ages by culpable negligence. Give Los Ajigeles 
fruit a fair show. 
MONTEREY. 

Reclamation. — Democrat, Jan. 6: The pro- 
tracted dry weather has resulted in one good 
effect, at least, for we shall owe to it beyond 
doubt the early reclamation of tlie marshes east 
of the town. The draining ditch has already 
placed a considerable body of land within reach 
of the plow, and it has attained a point from 
which operations may be prosecuted during the 
ensuing summer with very little difficulty. 
NAPA. 

The Season. — Editors Pre.ss: — The season 
so far has been the most remarkable the writer 
has ever experienced in 26 years' residence in 
California. Farmers are nearly done seeding, 
and this too without an hour's rain since they 
commenced after the October rains. The area 
of ground seeded at present in Napa county is 
perhaps equal to that of any previous season and 
I need not add that we all want rain. There is 
plenty of time yet to make a rich harvest if the 
rain only comes. The feeling here is "not de- 
spondent and yet not hopeful. " Happy New 
Year to the Rural and all its friends. — J. T. I., 
Monticello. 

Grapes. — Register, Jan. 6: The low price 
of grapes last year was somewliat discouraging 
to the producers, but the low price of the past 
season should not lead anybody to aban<lon the 
business of grape growing, especially in tliis 
valley, which is so favorable to viniculture and 
wine making. It is the opinion of prominent 
wine men that grape culture will become more 
profitable as the superior quality of our wines 
becomes more thoroughly known, an opinion 
which is based on a good understanding of the 
business, and on sound sense. California is 
bound to be the grape, raisin and wine produc- 
ing section of the country, if not of the world; 
and instead of pulling up their vines, the true 
policy of our vineyardists is to persevere in the 
business, and cultivate the best varieties. Dur- 
ing the past season, many of the Napa vaUey 
grape-growers devoted part of their time to 
raisin-making, more as'an experiment than with 
any view to make money. But tlieir success 
was such as to warrant their going more heavily 
into the work, and next season will probably 
see raisin-making a leading industry in Napa 
valley. For several years tlirifty housewives 
have been in the habit of drying a sufficient 
quantity of raisins to supply the houseliold de- 
mand, and we presume that the sale of im- 
ported raisins in Napa has fallen away in con- 
sequence. 

The Crop Prospect. — Reporter, .Jan. 6: So 
far our Napa farmers have nothing to be 
frightened at in the continued dry weather. 
They say that the early rains allowed most of 
them to finish seeding their crops early, and 
that much- the larger part of the area seeded is 
up and growing. True, it is not growing very 
rampantly in tliese cold nights, but it is gaining. 
PLACER. 

Winter Fruits. — Arcjus, Jan. 6: On New 
Year's day James Munsell, Sr., left at this 
office a box of ripe tomatoes of excellent quality, 
grown in the open air on his place just below 
town. With the tomatoes were a few full 
grown and well ripened strawberries, and it may 
be well to remark that these were not merely a 
few isolated specimens. On the contrary, Mr. 
Munsell brought to market quite a lot of toma- 
toes for which he found a ready sale. We 
know of no more striking commentary on our 
climate and soil. A locality where tomatoes and 
strawberries can be gathered for market on New 
Year's day is certainly a favored one. 
SANTA BARBARA. 

Notes on Dry Season.s. — Editors Press:— 
I like to read the weather items, so will send 
you one or two for others to read. Our weather 
is of the most pleasant kind. It seems too 
clear and warm to ever rain again. We had a 
ahower in October; since then but a threat or 
tw«. We ore not auffaring for rain, but boonti- 



ful rains would set the farmer's heart at rest for 
the coming crop. We need not despair yet, as 
there is ample time for plenty of rain. We 
have had no disagreeable winds at all. The 
leaves are quiet where they fell. Never have I 
known a season so free from wind. To show 
you that it has been dry before I will quote 
from my diary: "Dec. 31st, 1869. Not enough 
rain through the month to lay the dust. Roads 
dusty as July and no grass. Jan. 31st, 1870. 
January has been very dry;but one light shower 
of rain, which came the 5th. Grass, the little 
that had started, is drying up. Some are plow- 
ing and sowing, expecting rain to make a crop. 
Feb. 28th, 1870. Very dry until the 20th, when 
we had a fine shower. A heavy rain the 23d 
and 24th." We had good crops in 1870, but the 
season started in just as unfavorably as this, and 
farmers were not as well prepared for a dry sea- 
son as now. We can get good crops with little 
rain if it comes when we need it most, which 
will be later in the season, and we have plenty 
of time for our seedtime. My notes for Jan. 
31st, 1871, read thus: "Has been very dry; 
very little rain; grass started some but is dry- 
ing up again. Stock are looking well, but rain 
must come soon to prevent suffering." We had 
but little rain in 1871, which made our crops 
very light. It was a hard year for farmers in 
California, being one of the driest on record. 
It will do us no good to repine. W^e are better 
prepared for a dry season than ever before, and 
it need not injure us a great deal. A dry season 
once in a while will not be altogether a loss to 
us, as it may make some more careful of what 
they have grown in more favorable seasons. I 
have been in California since July, 1858, and I 
have had a fair crop every year. I could have 
done no better anywhere else and have no rea- 
son to complain now. — 0. N. Cadwell, Carpin- 
teria, Cal., Jan. 4th, 1877. 
SAN BENITO. 

Hopes. — Enterprise, Dec. 30: Notwithstand- 
ing the unpromising outlook, most of the farm- 
ers keep a stiff upper lip and will be entirely 
content if they can get good rains in the next 
six weeks. They claim that their most pros- 
perous seasons have been when the rains fell 
late; that growing crops are more likely in such 
a year to receive the much needed moisture from 
spring showers; that experience has proven that 
heavy early fall rains have almost invaria- 
bly been succeeded by a dry spring. 
SANTA CLARA. 

Hints for the Sea.son. — Editors Press; — As 
we are still having warm, dry weather, farmers 
in this and, I suppose, in many other localities 
in this .State, are beginning to feel quite anxious 
for rain. Those who sowed early in many 
localities have their grain up and it is looking 
tolerable fair, but will dry up if we do not get 
rain in a few weeks more. Considerable grain 
has been put in among the foothills, and many 
farmers are now trying dry plowing in the val- 
leys — afraid of too much rain if they wait any 
longer. I see no other way only to watch and 
pray for those that cannot do any better. It is 
a good time for farmers to clean up around the 
farm and get material on for fencing, etc. , when 
it is needed. Because a farmer cannot plow and 
sow he should not think there is not anything 
else that should be attended to. Stock needs 
careful attention at such dry times that their 
feed is not wasted, and they should be kept well 
salted. All farm implements may be repaired, 
and it is a splendid time to clean and repair 
harness, break colts, and many such things. 
Some I see are triming their fruit trees. The 
general business among merchants and mechanics 
appears to be somewhat dull in Gilroy, but it 
may be only for a short duration, waiting for 
rain to revive trade as well as farming. — E. H. 
Lewis, Gilroy. 

Agricultural Society. — Mercuri/, Jan. 5: 
The annual meeting of the Santa Clara Valley 
Agricultural Society was held Thursday, Jan- 
uary 4th. The treasurer's report showed a 
total of receipts for the year, .$10,707.45, and 
expenditures, $9,716.59, leaving a balance of 
.$990.86. The above balance is in form of 
deposit receipt, due January 6th, which with 
interest makes a total of funds on hand of $1,- 
304.60. The treasurer announced that about 
|1, 523 had been expended on the grounds dur- 
ing the year, in permanent improvements, leav- 
ing the balance in the treasury comparatively 
small. The following officers were elected: 
President, Cary Peebles; Vice-Presidents, H. 
W. Scale, John Trimble; Directors, A. B. 
Wharton, Mrs. L. J. Watkins; Treasurer, Jolin 
H. Moore; Secretary, E. K. Campbell; Dele- 
gates to the State Agricultural Society, Mrs. 
S. L. Knox, Hon. Cyrus Jones, Wm. C. Wil- 
son, and J. R. Weller. Resolutions were 
adopted looking to the erection of a pavilion and 
extending the premium list. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

Strawberries. — Courier, Jan. 6: The lands 
of Samuels and Thompson, which are now pro- 
ducing large quantities of strawberries, are 
about 500 feet above the level of the sea, in tlie 
Santa Cruz mountains. The land has a southern 
exposure, is sheltered from the north winds and 
is especially free from frost. The gentlemen 
named are confident they can pick berries for 
market every month in the year. 
SONOMA. 

TheCrop.s. — Democrat, Jan. 6: H. T. Hewitt, 
of this city, has been traveling tlirough the 
county within the past two weeks. lie is a 
close and intelligent observer. Having a deep 
interest in the matter, '-.o examined the growing 
crops carefully and reports to us that there is 
no suffering yet in any part of the county for 
rain. The grain sown after ike heavy Oetobar 



rains universally looks well, and its too rank 
growth has been advantageously checked by the 
continued frosts. The grass is not looking as 
well as the grain, but no scarcity is anywhere 
reported. With the excellent start which the 
crop has«made it wUl require but light rains to 
perfect it, and we have the fogs of spring to 
depend on. It is estimated that four fogs equal 
a good rain, and we not infrequently have a 
month or six weeks of heavy fog, just at that 
most trying period when the head of grain is 
forming in the stalk. Up to this time there is 
no cause for apprehension in regard to the crop 
unless we should have neither rain nor fog, a 
contingency too remote for consideration. 
TULARE. 

The Mad Itch.— Delta, Dec. 30: Mr. C. H. 
Robinson, near Jonesa, has recently lost a num- 
ber of cattle by this disease, which was de- 
scribed in ths Delta in connection with a similar 
loss of stock by another party, the feed in the 
former case having been sugar cane, which was 
supposed to have been poisoned by having been 
first masticated by hogs. As this disease has 
proved fatal in all the cases we have heard of, 
the particulars should be given to the' public, so 
that those who have stock similarly afflicted 
may be able, by experiment, to find a remedy 
which will save others from loss. 

Use the Moist Lands. — Our stirring farmers 
have been dry plowing and seeding their ground, 
and it is probable that, even should the season 
prove a poor one, on ground once deeply plowed 
a crop of hay or light grain vrill be made. On 
our moist lands we regret to see that not much 
is doing in the way of putting in crops. On 
these soils a crop can be made every year; and 
as wheat and barley always command a higher 
price in poor seasons, it has invariably turned 
out the most profitable to cultivators of such 
lands. In fact, we know that several farmers 
who live on the dry plains have aimed to own 
moist lands on the river bottoms to be sure of 
making expenses in bad seasons. Yet most of 
our moist lands remain unfilled from year to 
year, growing rank with weeds, diffusing their 
malarious and pestilential influence over all their 
suriouiidings. 

Our Sheep Industry. — The sheep interest in 
this county has, in years past, contributed 
largely to our prosperity, when most all other 
sources of revenue have failed. Now it seems 
that, in addition to dry seasons for the farmer, 
we are likely to experience heavy losses in our 
sheep interests. A visit to the plains south of 
here will reveal a deplorable state of things ex- 
tending into Kern county. Dead sheep are lying 
in all directions, along the road-sides and 
across the commons, in numbers which in sum- 
mer time would produce very unpleasant odors. 
All the flocks we saw in that direction looked 
very hard pushed, and many of the feebler ones 
staggered around in a confused way at tlie sight 
of a strange man or dog. The owners of many 
flocks are buying feed, which can be had for 
about $10 per ton, and will probably be able to 
carry most of them over the season. But we 
hear that even these are suffering many losses. 
There is no disguising the fact that the country 
is overstocked with sheep, by owners who have 
no means of saving them from starv'ation during 
such a season as this. A society for the pre- 
vention of cruelty to dumb animals would here 
find ample scope for their sympathy. We are 
inclined to believe that the losses which threaten 
a certain class of sheep owners, are the result of 
ignorance of their business, and want of fore- 
cast peculiar to some old and many new Califor- 
nians. There has never been, either in the 
local or agricultural press of the State, as far as 
we have observed, any effort on the part of ex- 
perienced sheep men to enlighten and warn the 
inexperienced; and perhaps this is to some ex- 
tent due to the fact that nearly every season be- 
ing different, brings something new against 
which notliing but tillage of the soil for crops of 
hay can guard. 

The west side of the county we hear of much 
less fear of the drouth, and less of suffering in 
the sheep interest. The reason is, obviously, 
that the leed is still fresh and green from in-i- 
gation. Irrigation and the culture of alfalfa is 
the remedy, and wo hope to see it adopt^sd aa 
quickly as possible. 

Oregon. 

Farming Items. — Oregonian, Dec. 30: About 
900 hogs have been slaughtered at Salem this 
season. John Morgan, of Hillsboro, sold 45 
acres of land last week, located near Newton, 
for |10 an acre, three acres beaver dam, the 
rest fir timber upland. The Grand Ronde 
valley wheat is worth 50 cents per bushel, oats 
and barley, 75 cents per 100 pounds; flour, $3 
per barrel; butter, 25 cents per pound; eggs, 
25 cents; potatoes, 75 cents per 100 pounds; 
pork, 5 cents i)er pound gross, 7^ cents net; 
green apples, 3^ cents per pound. The farmers 
of Utah, who plowed up their ground after the 
grasshoppers deposited their eggs, find that the 
eggs have been entirely destroyed by the heavy 
frosts. Tliis will shorten the liopper crop sev- 
eral million, but there will undoubtedly bo 
enough left to go round next spring. Says the 
Port Townseiid Argus: We have examined 
some magnificent looking fruit in Judge Swan's 
office, which was raised by John Bennett, of 
Whatcom, and intended to have been exhibited 
at the Centennial, but was received here too 
late to send to Philadeldhia. We measured a 
couple of apples which wo selected at random 
from the box, and they measured, respectively, 
11| by 122 and 12 by llj inches. The largest 
one belonged to the Dodge crimson variety; the 
other we should name BeoBiett's NenpaxieL 



22 



^SMWIQ UMWukj^ ^mmm. 



[January 13, 1877. 



'i/^\''"'Jl :. '\\ 




The Last Pine. 

Where the tallow-cohired hill 

.lul:^ against a clo\idy wreath— 

(ir.iv the sky. tho jjr'ciund beneath 
White" with sh"re<is from winter's quill- 
Holds a pine of giant erirth 

All alone a patience ^'Htn 

In the ifliasUy cold, the dim 
Sifted lijrht that wraps the earth; 

Like a soldier strictly charged 

Never from his watch to yield: 

Long ;igo w.n hushed the field, 
All his comrades long discliarsed; 

Solid'hangs the icy tear, 

Nmuh his arms with creeping frost, 

And his senses four are lost 
In a hitter strife to hear: 

Yet unmoved he keepeth post, 

Dim of siijht but listening still, 

Lest across the lonely hill 
Call the bujflcs of the host. 

Once upon a silent day 

Heaved the tree snch breaths profound, 

.Mr was carted into sound; 
Thus the pine was heard to .say: 

'*One by one, 
Thoupfh they towered hich .and wide. 
Sank my brothers by my side; 
Kell away my friends of youth: 
Death on them had never ruth. 

One by one 
Dropped my warming arms of (freen. 
Till I stand of branches lean; 
Straight the woodpecker may shoot 
From my crown to knotted root: 

All is done I 

"I am past. 
Once I dwelt with fellows dear. 
Once I felt the green so 1 near; 

Year by year 
In the choir of our wooil 
Craslied a singer where he stood. 
And the boughs that rained forever, 
Lowest first, then ujiward ever. 

On his bier, 
Me with their wide loss did sever 
Still the more from things I love 
Into this drear air above. 

"I might last 
Happy, if my shadow cast 
One deep roof of solid cool 
On a wise man. on a fool. 
On the lowest shape that pa.ssed; 
If the sun, like thus harsh .air. 
Lingered in my scattered hair; 
But no grace from me descends 
While I dnig to usele-ss ends 

Life at last." 

C. DtKnii, in Serihnfr /or January. 



East and West.— No. 9. 

[Written for the Rikau I'kess by I'hil.mouf. J 
NVe arrived in .San Francisco on tlie IGth il.iy 
of May, 18.V2, and about one week after found 
us on the old steamer ^'oiiji'lenre. g<iing up the 
Sacramento river. 

The hills were covered with wild oats, tliat 
waved in the breeze, while flowers of every hue 
were evcrj-where seen. Just this side of 
Benicia we saw a number of antelope upon the 
bank. They looked at us with apparent admira- 
tion as we steamed past them. On the hills 
about Benicia they \\ere cutting wild oats for 
hay, and as we remember, the crop was much 
larger than it lias been ever since. 

Arrived in Sacramento, we took an early 
stage for Coloma, which seemed to lie the gold 
hunters' Mecca, that being the place where 
gold was first discovered by Mr. Marshall. Our 
way to the mines was through seas of flowers, 
that rivaled Eden in beauty. The plains were 
carpeted with them, of every shade from a pure 
white to a dark purple; but, alas 1 they had no 
perfume, and amid all this floral splendor we 
could but look back to our own New England 
fields, that were then strewn with violets, 
whose fragrance filled the air and charmed us 
thougli unseen. .So much for modest worth. 
" It has a scent as though love for its dower 
Had on it all its odorous arrows tost." 

And this great lack in California wild flowers 
we cannot quite account for. Indeed, we can- 
not reconcile them with our standard of floral 
worth, and it so with the very foli.age of tlie 
forest trees. Who that has been through a 
New England wood in summer can forget 
the fragrance that is exhaled from every leaf 
that trembles in the lireeze; even the mossy 
rocks lend a perfume that here we may seek fur 
in vain. 

What reader from the Eastern .States that 
does not remember the "old cart path " where 
wood and timber was gotten out during tlie 
winter and spriug months, now g.-own up to 
pennyroyal, that greets you w-itli fragrance as 
you ruthlessly crush it beue.ith your feet. Ajid 
then the berries and small fruits that grew in 
such .abundance! We have never seen or tasted 
such in tliis country, and we know it is not 
fancy, for but a few years since we visited the 
same familiar spots, and the flowers were never 



more fragrant uor the l)erries sweeter than then. 
In Autumn the wild grapes (ill the sw.am]is with 
a perfume that T.ubin can never eotinterfeit. and 
the boa-sted "extract of a thous.and tinwers" 
cannot compare in grateful odor to the little 
gem that was crushed unheeded in our hoyisli 
rambles. 

We intended this article for a ciinii)arison 
between our California climate and tlie more 
severe and changeable climate of the Kastern 
.States. Even now, while we revel in balmy 
spring, with roses in bloom in our gardens, 
there it is V)itter cold, and every nnj)rotectcd 
flower is long since dead. Our winters are 
nothing but one long spring, when all nature 
dons her gayest attire. Apples, yellow and 
red, may liang upon the trees all winter unless 
the severe storms of wind sh.ike and beat them 
oil. We liave picked last year's ap])les from 
the trees in the month of May .and they were 
uninjured bj- the frosts. One of our verj' severe 
winters miglit ruin them, perhaps, in most lo- 
calities, but there are some favored spots where 
they might remain upon the trees all winter 
with perfect safety. 

The E.astern .States have their ple.asures iu 
summer, and even tlie cold winter months are 
not witliout them. Think of the sleigli-rides, 
.and the skating and the "l)e.autiful snow!" 
What scenes for the pencil and brush. How 
few comjiaratively know what a scene a cedar 
sw.amp presents immediately after a long, steady, 
still fall of snow. 

Whole forests are loaded with the light an<l 
feathery snow until the great bulk is top niucli 
for tlie slender branches and they bow grace- 
fully to the inevitable, and tlieir beauty is en- 
hanced. .Such are those that receive troubles 
uncotnplaiiiiiiijly. Underneath these monarchs 
of the forest are the homes of many of its den- 
izens — and quite comfort.able homes they are for 
birds or be.osts. By-and-by the cold rain ctimes 
and the beautiful snow-clad trees are <lecked 
with diamonds, that glisten and glitter in the 
sun until the beholder almost dreams he is in 
fairy-lauil, where diamonds are too common to 
care for such howling storms, such bitter 
cold. Uncared-for cattle bellow witli pain that 
excites pity in the sternest breast. 

An incident that the writer h.as heard repeated 
many times in his old home, around tlie bhi/ing 
hearth: How liis fatlier and a young man went 
to a town, about 14 miles distant, with a four-ox 
team. It was snowing some when they started, 
early in the morning, wliich continued all ilay, 
and night set in witli a fearful storm. An im- 
mense (piantity of .snow h.ad f.allen during the 
day, and it commenced blowing and drifting 
badly before night, and by dark the roads and 
highw.ays were imp.assable, the snow banks 
covered the walls and fences for many miles. 
It w.as growing lateaijd no signs of the travelers 
yet. Midnight came; the storm increased, tlie 
.anxious wife and mother listened in vain .another 
hour — no drowsy eyes were there. At last, oh 
joy, the welcome voice is heard, and gr.atitude 
fills the eyes I The team had struggled for ten 
miles or more on their homeward journey, when 
all hope of reaching home with the vehicle w<as 
<at .an end. So the cattle were unyoked, and 
driven across fields and through the treacherous 
drifts, one .ahe.ad of another in single file, until 
the jioor animals, nearly famished and exhausted, 
staggered .against their stable dofir, and the 
welcome "whoa" startled the w.atchers from 
their anxious reveries, and the dimly-burning 
candle in the window increased its Hame .as the 
snuffers removed its blackened wick. An arm- 
ful of oily hickorj' wood was laid uiKin the fire, 
while the long-kept me.al was spretul upon the 
table in a manner to temjjt one less hungry than 
tliose heroes of the hour. Such was one of the 
realities of a New England winter .lO years 

Encouragement of Labor. 

The Empress Eugenie has been interviewed 
by a newspaper man, and amongst other things 
tells of the various schemes she .and the Em- 
peror devised to benefit the poor laboring man. 
Among other things was a sort of loan society 
to lend money to those who weie really willing 
to go down to work on the laud, but had not 
money enough to enable them to subsist till the 
crops came in. The Empress said it w,as re- 
markable to note that hundreds applied for loans 
for every imaginable purpose — every one who 
wanted lielp to go down to actual lalxir. But 
she and the Emperor kept strictly to their 
point. No security was exacted but honor for 
the return of the money. The parties Iwrrow- 
ing h.ad to have their honor voucned for by rep- | 
utable persons, and the only penalty for refusal 
to p.ay was that the voucher's words were not i 
taken for any subsequent case. They lent out ' 
1,000,000 francs in this way, of which all but ' 
1,000 francs was duly returned. I 

This little incident pro%'es how many people 
there are wlio will rather live by their wits th.au 
by honest labor, a hundred to one, 8.aj"s the ' 
Empre.ss; and then it proves how honest real i 
honest labor is. It proves a point we have of- i 
ten urged, that encouragement to earnest and 
honest labor is among the greatest wants of our I 
time. We would not have ' 'education" any 
less ehaborate or perfect th.an now; but the edu- ' 
cation which encourages a whole iiopulation to i 
live by their wits rather than bj' their bands, is 
defective, and we certainly ought to do more to 
encourage hard work, both in the interest of ! 
humanity in a practical sense, as well as in the 
interest of good morals. — Oermaittoicn Tele- 
graph. 

Av honorable man honors bit wife. 



The Social Position of Country People. 

[By Mrs. L T. WiirxF. ) 

Can the social position of country people be 
improved? It can; but in only two ways, viz. : 
by individual improvement and home improve- 
ment. These two will bring about .all other 
necessary improvements. But, in order to ac- 
complish this, we must first see the necessity 
for it. If our lives must be given wholly to 
haril work, and nothing else, there will be but 
little time, or inclination, for the .atlvancemtnt 
of intellectual and social life. 

But why all this hard work ! men do not wear 
out their lives for nothing, and this work has 
seemingly become a necessity, from tlie fact that 
money is made by it. Indiviilual imiirovemeut 
implies a separate work for each one. The time 
has been when this could not be don«. But in 
this age of privileges there is no plausible ex- 
cuse. If we go back about three generations, 
we will find that farmers liad to devote their 
whole lime to gain a living for themselves and 
families. Comforts and improvements were far 
in tlie future of their lives. The next genera- 
tion started in l>etter circunisbuices. They 
settled down with tlie idea of economizing for a 
few years, and then they would enjoy them- 
selves. About the time they began to live com- 
fortably, there would be a farm for sale iu the 
neighborhood, or somewhere else, and it must 
be bought; for each of the boys must have a 
farm. Tlien comes the tug of wai- again. In- 
terest to jiay, debts to meet, then more land 
yet. ^Vhat a pity so m,any farmers are wrecked 
just liere? Why not have fewer acres ami more 
dollars? 

Said a young m.an; "When I am twenty -one, 
I shall go into the city. I have had to plow 
ever since I was big enough." "H.ave you failed 
to liecome a good plowman?" 1 asked. "Oh, no; 
I sliould like to see the man that can beat me." 
"Very well, then; you have gained a point some 
men have striven all their lives for- to excel iu 
their business." "I know it's .all very well," he 
s.aid, "but there is no promotion; the old place 
looks the same ever since 1 can remember. I 
want an elegant city home." "Don't go into 
the city for it; fit up your country home as they 
do in the city, and it will exceed it for l)eauty 
and health. Perhaps you do not .apjneciate the 
beauty tliat is about your home?" "Yes, I do. 
Mother and the girls have fitted up the house 
inside, but it takes money to fit up the grounds. " 
"Take it, then; your father is considered a rich 
man." "He would be if hewouhlseU the lower 
farm and use the money." Ah! thought I, here 
is a lesson for many. No wonder young men 
wisli to leave the farm, where they have lived 
from l)al)yhood to manhofnl and see no improve- 
ments. There are too many lower farms. Men 
need less lan<l and more capital. Every farm is 
a scientific world in itself. The soil, trees, 
shrubs, plants, flowers, fruit, l>ees, birds, in- 
sects and many other things, need to lie thor- 
oughly studied. ( 'onsequently men without 
brains cannot be successful fanners. 

It cert.ainly is not very fl,attering to the pres- 
ent generation, or else our forefathers had a poor 
ojiiiiion of their children. They began with verj- 
little education, and very little money, .and suc- 
ceeded. The next with more money and more 
eiluc.ation. The present with a good education, 
land an<l money, and are not able to live well 
yet, and cannot afford convenient and comfort- 
able homes. This e.agerness forw-ealth has been 
the greatest barrier to social life tlie world ever 
knew. 

Home improvement suggests a domestic .affair. 
Women hay the foundation; men must help to 
build, or the stnicture will fall to pieces. Two 
men met at a depot. "Have you heard of this 
great temperance movement?" "A\'ell, no, noth- 
ing in particular. Are you posted?" "Yes."' "It 
seems the women have started it." .Just so, 
the women are at the bottom of everything. If 
the women are at the bottom, is it necessary they 
should remain there? But I hope they will ever 
be at tlie bottom of everj' good and noble work. 
Now, I hold there is not a nobler or better class 
of women than tho.se in the country. And ny 
class receives so little encouragement as they. 
It has been said th<at when a man builds a 
liouse, it will be either an ho.'spital, or a grave, 
or a home for his familj'. Many a dull and 
cheerless home has been the grave of a wife's 
minil. Knowing, then, that it is necessary to 
man's existence to have a home, why not make 
it the brightest and most attractive place on 
earth? 

A certain man wrote an el.aborate piece on 
"Woman," and finished by saying "she would 
endure any amount of toil and trouble, with a 
bit of green comfort now and then." I do not 
know why he should call it green comfort, un- 
less because it is a very pleasing color to the 
eye. Now there are a great many bits we might 
h.ave — a pail of water, an armful of wood, or a 
word of approval, are pleas.ant bits. You may 
call them j^reen if you please, or any other color, 
but let us have plenty of them. 

But what has all this to do with the improve- 
ment of home, you .ask? It is this: Home and 
women will improve but slowly as long as woman 
must work hanl six days out of seven. And 
in the same ratio that women improve, will be 
the advancement of social life to a higher 
standard. 

The kitchen is the wheel-house, from which 
proceeds the power that propels the whole do- 
mestic raachinerj'. Why can it not bo fitted up 
•o that two days' work can be done as easily as 



one is now. We would then h.ave h.alf the time 
to devote to arts and sriuuces, and tiie h«ap of 
mending whii'h is-aiwsys to be done. One rea- 
son our kitchens are not well fitted up is that 
the men consider housework so trifling as not to 
pay the cost. Talk about trilling work. Think 
of the hOO,") me.als to get in the year. Ajid if 
there are five in a family, which is far below the 
average, there will lie .5, 47.'> persons consume the 
\ictuals each year. And this is only one item 
of housekeeping. 

Another reason, the men are doubtful if we 
wouhl improve the time. Let me ask, how do 
the men occupy their time, since machines took 
the j|)lace of handwork? Life is not what we in- 
tend or hope to do, but what we .actually do. 
It is therefore nece^sery that wc do well. In 
youth it is natural to look forward to the future. 
In old age we look back to the past. For this 
reason we ought to lay a useful and happy 
foundation. Our childhood may have lacked 
many things. But if everj' home in the country 
were fitted up as it might be, the cliildren that 
now occupy them would have a rich store of 
jjleasant memories to look back upon. Let not 
the children be defrauded of their birthright to 
a happy childhood. 

Kit up your homes, farmers. Let us liave 
(lowers, arbors and shady lawns iu summer, 
and cosy rooms iu winter, with books, papers, 
maps, paintings and music, a bright fireside and 
brighter f.aces. Convenient and beautiful homes 
will bring .about a grand result. We do not 
wait too long for the golden sometime. We do 
not half realize how fast we are growing old, 
neither do we half realize the inqtortance of 
living well. 

Let u.^ grasp the golden sometime now, so 
that when old age creeps ujkiii ub, and our 
minds become too enfeeble<l to participate in 
passing events, we may sit in our e.a.sy-chair8 
and revel in the treasured memories Of the 
past. — J^armert Jiomf Journal. 

Industry. 

lWritt«n for the Kihal Vktmh by O. W. Wortme.i.) 

To be/rcc is to be a ulei-fto ijooti habil*. " It 
is only by labor that thought can Iw made 
healthy, ami only by thought that lalwr can 1« 
made happy, and the two cannot be separated 
with impunity.'' 

Industry is he mainspring of every attain- 
ment; by it the ancient orators acquired their 
elcKiuence. It is not by starts of ap]ilication, or 
by a few years' prejiaration of study, afterwards 
discontinued, that eminence can be .attained. 
No; it can be attained only by means of regular 
industrj', grown into a habit, and ready to be 
exerted on every occasion that calls for in- 
dustry. 

Nothing is no great an enemy both to honor- 
able attainments and to tlie real, to the brisk 
.and sjiirited enjoyment of life, as that relaxed 
state of mind th.at arises from indolence and dissi- 
p.ation. Is it not a significant fact that our great- 
est s,;holars, most eminent statesmen, liave 
become such on account of native t.alent, home 
influences, povertj', singly or combined? I once 
heard a physician say that it is not because of 
the eflicacy of medicine that our patients re- 
cover, but mainlj' because the constitution of 
the p.atient is strong enough to resist the com- 
bined effects of medicine and the disease. 

The halls of learning were open. Daniel Web- 
ster, the boy in his suit of jeans, entered. In 
spite of millarj- discipline, hazing, dissipation 
and effeminating influencje (ho had no time for 
these) he stniggled on »n<^ our countiy beheld 
the result. 

\ATiy have we not more strong, lionest men 
to-day? Arc our times too degenerate? No. 
The " bone .and sinew" of the countrj- are vir- 
tuous. But they are too indifferent, too willing 
to leave the management of the Cioveniment to 
a few demagogues. The working class must bo 
aroused; the people must come to the front. 
Meantime, our entire eilucational system must 
be renovated. The work must commence at 
home, be carried on in schools, to train the child 
to habits of untiring, well-directed industry. 

It tiikes so little to make a child happy that it 
is a pity in a world so full of sunshine and 
pleasant things, th<at there should be any wist- 
tul faces, empty hands, or lonely little hearts. 
Keep the child interested, make work play, keep 
liim fairly employed, olwerve in what he takes 
the most delight, knowing very well that where 
tlie heart is the mind works the best. Then 
will the rod seldom need be used. Instead, it 
M'ill be a sufficient lesson to deprive the child of 
that in which he takes his chief delight. It has 
been well said, keep the child busy or he will 
keep you busy. 

" Labor ia life! 'tia the still water (ailetta; 
Idleness ever despaireth, bewaileth; 
Keep the watch wound, for the .lark nist aasailelb; 
Himers droop and die at the stillness of noon." 

We should furnish in every town and village 
throughout the land, t'> as many as will receive 
it, that complete .and general education of mind, 
heart and liand, which, as Milton says, fits a 
man to perform, justly, skillfully, and majfnan- 
imously, all the offices, both public &a,A pnva^ 
in peace .and in war. 

"(tRKAt men" said Themistocles, ".are like 
the oaks, under the branches of which men are 
happy in finding a refuge in the time of storm 
and rain." But when thej- have to spend a 
sunny day under them, they take pleasure in 
cutting the bark and breaking the branches. — 
Oalhf. 



January 13, 1S77.] 



23 



Mrs. Prim on Scandal. 

No, my dear — goodness be thanked! no per- 
son can say that I ever scandiilized any one, not 
even my worst enemy, no matter what he or she 
may ilo! I've had ohance enougli to talk, if 1 
liad a mind to, as every one in this town knows 
full well. Of course, living right here in the 
High street of towii, I can't help seeing a great 
many queer things; and when our windows are 
open and the blinds shut in the summer tinle, I 
can hear them too! But 1 never repeat them — 
1 scorn to make mischief. ] never lisp a word, 
except when I get hold of stmie person, like 
you, my dear, that 1 can trust. And if a body 
is never to open her mouth among her intimate 
friends, why the world isn't worth living in — is 
it? But that isn't scandal, you know. I hate 
ami abhor that just as much as you, ami I d(m"t 
think any one can say 1 was ever guilty of it in 
all my life. 

But then, as I said before, it isn't for want of 
the chance. VVhy, only last evening as ever 
was, who do you think ] saw walking up by 
here, in the bright moonlight, as brazen as you 
please, ])ut Miss Lennox and Colonel Parke. 
Fact, as sure as you sit in that chair! and they 
were walking close together, and talking so con- 
fidential ! 

I suppose you know all about that disgraceful 
affair with the school-girls? No? My dear, you 
must really live in the dark! Why, they have 
Ijeen writing a lot of anonymous letters to peo- 
ple here in the town, and the j)ostmaster sus- 
pected what was up at last, and he has just kept 
a quiet lookout and caught some of them putting 
the letters in. I don't know Jwhat Miss Clack- 
ett will do. Expel them, I hope; great girls 
like tliose have nfi business to act so! 

There's Mrs. Price going by. I suppose she 
has been down to cheapen a fowl, or get a half 
penny or two taken off' a joint of meat. She's 
the stingiest thing, my dear; it would really 
make your heart ache to hear of the way she 
manages and contrives! And there is her hus- 
band, one of the richest men in tlie to\vn, and 
folks do say that he can't get a decent meal 
of victuals in his own house. Wouldn't you — 

What! gfrfng? CJan't you stay any longer? 
Well, do come again very soon, won't you? 
Oood-bye! 

Thank goodness, she has gone! I really 
thouglit she was going to stay all night. 1 
heard a nice story alxmt her, by the way, last 
week — how shamefully she treats all her ser- 
vants! iSu])pose she thinks 1 don't know it. 1 
might make mischief enough in her family if I 
chose. But I aV)hor scandal. 




'Great Expectations.' 



© 



F 



8C.S 



The Fatal Keg. 

Daniel Sexton, of San Bernardino, having 
read the story of the box which lay embedded 
iu the sand for three years, as told lately in the 
Rural, sends us the following incident; 

Editors Pres.s: — I see in the paper something 
about an old box. Now I will tell you about a 
keg: In the year 1846, Gen. John Bidwell was 
in San Diego with some ten or fifteen men. He 
had warning that lighting had commenced in 
Los Angeles, and that was all he could hear 
about it. So he thought he would take a whale 
boat with three or four men and come up the 
coast as far as San Pedro to see if he could liear 
something more about it. He got up the coast 
as far as tlie Mission of San Juan, and there he 
met a storm from the northwest that came near 
swamping his boat. So he wrote about the situ- 
ation that he was in and put tlie paper iu a keg, 
so that iu case he got lost liis friends might hear 
some time or other what had become of him. 
About four months afterward Commodore Stock- 
ton \\as marching toward Los Angeles by the 
way of San Juan, and General Flores went 
there to give him battle. At the same tinie one 
of the Mission Indians was down on the beach 
fishing and found the fatal keg that had washed 
ashore. He thought he had found something 
nice for himself, so he took the keg up to the Mis- 
sion to show his friends what he had found. 
On his way he was met by one of Flores's offi- 
cers. The officer took charge of the Indian and 
also of the keg, and took them to Gen. Flores, 
the commander, and the papers being in it, and 
nobody there being able to I'cad them, the Indian 
was condemned as a dispatch carrier and shot. 
Mr. John Foster, hearing tliat they were going 
to shoot an Indian, and living near the Mission, 
he thought he would go and see what was the 
matter. When he got there the Indian was 
already shot. The papers were handed to Fos- 
ter to interpret, and he told General Flores that 
he had shot an innocent man; that the papers 
were from parties in distress out at sea. Now 
if I have not told this story correctly Gen. John 
Bidwell and Mr. Jolin Foster will please correct 
it. 

1'kue F/C'onomy of Life. — The true economy 
of human life looks at ends rather than incidents 
and adjusts expenditures to a moral scale oi 
values. De Quincy pictures a woman sailing 
over the water, awakening out of sleep to find 
l»er necklace untied and one end hanging over 
the streai7i,' while pearl after pearl drops from 
the string beyond her reach; whUe she clutches 
at one just falling another drops beyond re- 
covery. Our days drop one after another by 
our carelessness, like pearls from a string, as we 
sail the sea of life. Prudence requires a wise 
husbanding of time to sec that none of these 
golden coins are spent for nothing. The waste 
of time is a more serious loss than extravagance, 
against which there is such loud acclaim. 




How Babies are Treated in Different 
Countries. 

By the siile of the Ganges we can see the 
little traveler of the Parsees, a people wlio came 
long ago from Persia, and who worshiped the 
sun. Tlie peculiarty of this fair-faced baby in 
the laiiil of darker colors is that he is never seen 
with his head uncovered. Man, woman, or 
child, old or young, rich or poor, day or night, 
asleep or awake, indoors or out — the Parsee 
must always keep his head covered. He wears 
a pretty cap of silk or velvet or linen, which is 
very becoming. His dress is always of silk, 
covered witli embroidery, gold .an<l jewels, ac- 
cording to the wealth of his family, and the 
little Parsee is a very picturesque object among 
the naked lialiies of the poorer classes. 

The little traveler in Italy, with his droll 
little ca}), and dress hke his grandmother's, goes 
in leading strings, or a walking-frame of wicker 
work. On the Cornice roa<l he goes to market 
with mamma, ri<liiig in a basket hung to the 
sides of a donkey, with a brother or sister in a 
similar l)asket on the other side. Tlie vegeta- 
bles, which mamma sells, and the babies, ride 
very contentedly together; while the mother, 
with her parasol hat, crowns the droll load, 
buisly engaged in knitting or spinning as she 
rides along. 

In Algiei-s, V)aby rides "pick-a-back," and in 
Bavaria tied flat to his nurse's back; l)ut if he 
belongs to the poorer clas.ses he has the best 
time in I'Vance. Have you heard of that most 
beautiful charity of Paris called "The ( 'radle " 
(Creche), where the babies of mothers who must 
go out to work are kept all day —bathed, freshly 
dressed, fed, doctored anil amused till their 
methers return home at night? The late Mrs. 
Field, in her pleasant letters from France, tells 
about it, and how the children of the richer 
parents are iiitereste<l in it, saving their money 
to pay for a cradle in the house, and then going 
to visit it, and feeling a particular interest in 
the baby which lies in their cradle. 

There is another charity in Paris as well as 
in many other places, for the little traveler who 
is "left out in the cold" by jioor or unhappy 
parents. Here he is apt to start on his life jour- 
ney from somebody's door-step, from which he is 
sent by the owner to a foundling home, pro\'ided 
for such unfortunate waifs; Imt in Paris the chari- 
table home for this little traveler has, in its 
door-way, a box which turns on a pivot. When 
a motlier, from poverty or any other reason, 
feels obliged to give away her baby (and none 
can tell wliat a mother must feel before she 
comes to that), she goes to this door, lays the 
little creature in the movable box, and turns 
it around out of her sight, ringing the door-bell 
as she does so. An attendant takes the gift, 
carries it to kind-hearted women within, who 
dress and feed it, and bring up the motherless 
baby, and in time teach it some triide, and give 
it a start in life. 

The little traveler on our side the water has a 
variety of fashions. In Lima he s\\'ings in a 
hammock; in Yucatan he toddles around amply 
dressed in a straw hat and a pair of sandals. 
Among the Indians of our prairies he begins 
lile as a passive bundle, hung over his mother's 
back or from the limb of a tree. His head is 
made to grow flat by means of a board if he is 
to have the honor of being a Flathead Indian. 
Waste no pity on him; it would be the sorrow 
and disgrace of liis life if his head were shaped 
like yours. He will in future select liis slaves 
from round-headed races, and proudly declare 
that no Flat-head was ever a slave! 

When the little travelers come in pairs, they 
make confusion in the world. Among our Piute 
Indians (as I lately read in a Nevada paper), 
when this liappens, it becomes necessary, by 
Indian law, for the dignified, pompous papa 
himself to take care of the superfluous baby. 
When you remember that an Indian never deigns 
to notice, much less to touch, a papoose, you 
can imagine what a mortification this must be 
to him. 

Among some peoples the exti-a baby is at once 
put out of the way; but in one African tribe 
a curious custom prevails. The hut containing 
the unfortunate i)air is marked by a cloth hung 
before the door, and a row of white pegs dri\'en 
in to the ground in front of it. If any one 
except the parents goes in, he is at once seized 
and sold into slavery. The twins cannot play 
with other cliildien, and no one can use any- 
thing out of that house. The mother is allowed 
to go out to work in the field, bring wood and 
other necessary things, but she cannot speak to 
to any one out of her own family. This perfor- 
mance goes on till the unwelcome pair are six 
years old, when they have a great ceremony — 
music, marching, feasting and dancing; and when 
this is done, the banished family takes its place 
among rcspcctiful people again. — St. Nicholas 
for January. 



f^JiSflC EcQfQ|iY. 



Dyspepsia. 

The ner\'ous energy is the motive power of 
the whole man, spiritual, mental and physical. 
When that power is equally distributed the 
body is well, the braui is clear and the heart is 
))Uoyant. If tlie brain has more than its share, 
it burns itself up, and makes the " lean Cassius," 
— the restless body and the anixous counte- 
nance. 

As there is a given quantity of nervous influ- 
ence for tlie ■whole body, if tlie brain has more 
than its natural portion, the stomach has less, 
coiiseipieiitly the food is not thoroughly assim- 
ilated, or, as we call it, "digested." This being 
the case, the requisite amount of nutriment is 
not derix'od from the food, and the whole Ijody 
sufl'ers, doubly suffers; for not only is the sup- 
]Jy of nutriment deficient, but the quality is 
imperfect. These things go on, aggravating 
each other, until there is not a sound spot in the 
whole body; the whole machinery of the man is 
by turns the seat of some ache or pain, or 
" symptom." This is a common form of aggra- 
vated dyspepsia. 

Such being the facts, some useful practical 
lessons may be learned. 

]. Never sit down to a table with an anxious 
or disturbed mind; better a hundred-fold inter- 
mit that meal, for there will tlien be that much 
more food in the world for hungrier stomachs 
than yours; and besides, eating under sucli 
circumstances can only, and will always, jiro- 
long and aggravate the ccmditiou of things. 

•2. Never sit down to a meal after any intense 
mental mental effort, for pliysical and mental 
injury is inevitable, and no man has a riglit 
deliberately to injure body, mind or estate. 

'A. Never go to a fuU table during bodily ex- 
haustion; designated by some as l)eiiig worn 
out, tire<l to death, used up, (hme over, and the 
like. The wisest thing you can do under such 
circumstances is to take a cracker and a cup of 
warm tea, either black or green, and no more. 
In ten minutes you will feel a degree of refresh- 
ment and liveliness which will be pleasantly 
surprising to you; not of the transient kind, 
whic^h a glass of licjuor afl'ords, but jierniaiieiit, 
for the tea gives present stimulus and a little 
strength, and, before it subsides, nutriment be- 
gins to l)e drawn from tlie sugar and cream and 
bread, thus allowing the bo<ly, gra<lually and 
'oy safe degrees, to regain its usual vigor. Then, 
in a couple of hours you may take a full meal, 
provided it does not bring it later than two 
hours before suikIowu; if later, then take noth- 
ing for that day, in addition to the cracker and 
tea, and the next day you will feel a freshness 
and vi<j;or not recently known. No reader will 
re(i«ire to be advised a second time, who will 
make a trial as above, while it is a fact of no 
unusual observation among intelligent phy- 
sicians, that eating heartily, under bodily ex- 
haustion, is not an infrequent cause of alarming 
and painful illness, and sometimes of sudden 
death. These things being so, let every family 
make it a point to assemble around the family 
board with kindly feelings, with a cheerful 
humor and a courteous sjiirit; and let that mem- 
ber be sent from the talile in disgrace, who prc- 
.sumes to mar the ought-to-be blest reunion, 
by sullen silence, or impatient look, or angry 
tone, or complaining tongue. Eat in thankful 
gladness, or away with you to the kitchen, you 
graceless churl, you ungrateful, pestilent lout 
that yon are. There w.as grand and good phil- 
osophy in the old time custom of having a buf- 
foon, or music, at the dinner-table. — Hall's 
Joiininl of Hcaltli. 

Carpets and Disease. 

Is it true that carpets are a fruitful source of 
disease? that organic particles from the sick be- 
come entangled in them? 

We answer emphatically, yes, and we quote 
Prof. Tyndall, in "Fragments of Science," who 
says, in regard to a case of scarlatina of appar- 
ently spontaneous origin: " But then the ques- 
tion arose, how did the young lady catch scarla- 
tina? She had come there on a \'isit two months 
previously, and it was only after she had been 
a month in the house that she was taken ill. 
The housekeeper at once cleared up the mystery. 
The young lady, on her arrival, had expressed a 
wish to occupy a nice room in an isolated tower; 
and in this room six months previously a visitor 
had been confined with an attack of scarlatina. 
The room had been swept and whitewashed, but 
the carpets had been permitted to remain. This 
is onf case in many. So long as the seeds of 
disease are kept alive epidemics mu.st occur, and 
so long as certain habits and customs prevail, 
then seeds must be kept alive. Imperfect sew- 
erage, unrenovated walls, nncleaned flcors and 
carpets, are among the leading causes of retained 
disease. 

Sewerage in these days is receiving a fair share 
of public and private attention, and the walls of 
houses, where contagious di.seascs have been, are 
very generally cleaned, whitew.ashed or newly 
papered; but c.irpets are too often overlooked 
as the carrier of disease. The truth is that llii'y, 
more than any article of furniture, more even 
than the walls of the room, gather and retain 
dust; and this dust, though chiefly inorganic, 
and comi)aratively harmless, contains organic 
germs, wliich only '..ced to be raised into the air 
and taken into the human economy to develop 
into active- disease; creating, under favoCabla 
circumstances, an epidemic. 



How to Cook a Tougli Fowl. 

Madame De Courcil gi\'es the following direc- 
tions: Select the toughest and cheapest old tur- 
key, chicken or goose that the market affords; 
do not be afraid to take one that every one else 
would reject — it must, of course, lie sweet, but 
no matter how venerable and tough, the process to 
which we will subject it will reduce it to perfect 
tenderness. Kub it well with vinegar and hang 
iu a cool place, repeating the rubbing every day 
until you cook it. When that time arrives, put 
a stick aci'oss a pot of boiling water, tie a string 
to it, and suspend the fowl in such a way that 
he is partially immersed in the water; cover 
closely with towels to keep in the steam, and 
let it cook four or five hours, .according to tough- 
ness, turning; once during the time, that the 
up])er side lie immersed, and re])leiiishing the 
water, from the supply in the teakettle, which 
should be kei)t boiling for the purpose. When 
the fowl is (juite tender take it uj), leaving the 
giblets in the water, and stull' it with a highly- 
seasoned dressing of bread-crumbs, in which 
shoidd be some chopped fried salt i)ork or pieces 
of cold sausage; ru))pork dri))piiigs all over the 
back, wings and legs, and tie thin slices of fat 
salt pork upon the breast; put it in a pan with 
peetecl raw potatoes surrounding it, and bake in 
a (juick oven, b.asting it every ten minutes with 
the drippings from the pork. It will only need 
browning, and will be ready to t.ike up as soon 
as the potatoes are done. .Just before it is done, 
take off the pork and let the breast brown. 
Serve upon a dish with boiled rice surrounding, 
and keep warm while the gravy is being made. 
To do this, turn all the fat from the pan and 
put the li([uor from the kettle in its place, fir.st 
taking out the giblets and chopping them fine. 
Thicken the gravy very smoothly with corn 
starch, season it with jiepper and salt, let it boil 
up once, and the giblets and it is done. 



Stewkd Rabmt. — Burgundy style: Remove 
the legs and skin, draw and cut in pieces, two 
or three young rabbits; put in a stew-pan four 
ounces of Imtter witii six ounces of bacon, cut 
in sm;ill sipiare pieces; fry till lightly brown; 
add the r.abbit and fry again on a live fire for 
ten minutes longer; sprinkle two tablespoonfuls 
of sifted flour over; mingle well by tossing the 
sauce-pan on the fire; remove to the side; 
moisten with red wine and w hite broth in equal 
parts to cover the meat; set on the fire; stir oc- 
casionally until it boils; season with salt, pepper, 
a bunch of parsley with aromats, including 
three cloves and two bruised cloves of garlic; 
add two dozen small onions, partially cooked 
and browned in frying butter; cover the stew- 
pan; let simmer' gently until done (it requires 
about 40 minutes); remove the parsley, after 
having pressed the substance into the sauce 
with the aid of a fork on a skimmer; skim all 
the fat from the surface; dress in the shape of a 
pyramid in a deep entree dish; ascertain if the 
gra\'y is reduced to an apjiropriate consistency, 
pour over the meat and serve. 



ToM,\ro Gravy. — Scald, peel and cut very 
fine, a pint of good, ripe tomatoes; put into a 
stewpau, with a pint of boiling water, and stew 
them one hour; stir freijuently to keep them 
free from the bottom, and to make them very 
smooth and fine. When they are stewed down 
to a pint, rub a large spoonful of flour with a 
lump of butter the size of a walnut, and stir 
into the tomatoes; stir thoroughly till they are 
cooked, then pour a pint of rich, sweet cream 
into the middle of the thickened tomatoes, and 
let them become boiling hot before you stir 
them; then stir well together and boil five 
minutes. Salt to taste. Cut a slice of brown 
bread, or split gems into four pieces, lay into a 
vegetable dish, and pour the tomatoes over 
them. This is very nice when ^v^i\\ cooked, and 
all the ingredients are sweet and fresh. Children 
who are fond of tomatoes like this modification 
of cream and gravy. 

A CiiKAP Pli'ji Pl'pdinc!. — Soak some dried 
apjiles all night, in the morning chop them very 
Hue. Put a teacupful of tiiem into a pint of mo- 
lasses and put them ujion tlie back of the stove, 
where they will keep slightly warm for an hour 
or two. After that add to them one cup of 
chopped suet, one cup of water, one cup of 
chopped raisins, ajiinchof salt, a teaspoonful of 
cinnamon, three half pints of flour, and two 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Put the flour 
in last and stir all together thoroughly. Boil 
two mid a half hours in a bowl or tin pudding 
mold. This may be eaten with wine sauce, and 
is a very good imitation of a genuine plum pud- 
ding. 

Moi.DKl) SAfU). — Take five tablespoonfuls of 
sago, one-fourth pound of sugar, and a little 
pure lemon juice. Steep the sago a quarter of 
an hour in half a pint of cold water. Pour on 
it one and a half pints of boiling water, and 
boil the whole in an earthen vessel in the oven 
about one hour, occasicuially stirring it. Pour 
into molds or basins, and let it stand. When 
cold, turn it out, and serve with stewed fruit. 

Inuian Puudino.— Two teacups of cornmeal; 
half a cup of superfine flour; one cup oT syrup; 
half a teasjioonful of salt. Scald Ihrce quarts 
of milk, and stii' into the above. Let it stand 
half an hour--stir it again. Bake quickly until 
it boils, then slowly about two hour*. 



24 



[January 13, 1877. 




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SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 13, 



1877, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

03NERAL EDITORIALS.- Larjje-Homed Owl; 
Frorit in Florida; A Kaisiii Enterprise in Lns Angeles 
County; The Potato Product; Desert Lands; Personal, 
17. The Week; The Record of the Year; Cooked 
Food for Dairv Stock. 24. The Isthmus Canal; Ucath 
of Commodore Vanderbilt; Rainfall and Forests; Sew 
Publications; The Bull's Head Stock Yards. 25. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. The Lar({e-Horne.l Owl, 17. 
The Late Conielius Vanderbilt; The Nicaragua Route, 

25- 

CORRESPONDENCE. -Lake Coun y; Curing Hogs; 
The lliitlctin Among the Weather Prophets; Notes 
from Tuolumne County, 18. 

HORTICULTURE.-Tlie Orange Scale Bug Again; 
Pruning Fruit Trci-s, 18. 

THE APIARY. -Milking Hives and EitracU>rs, 19. 

POULTRY YARD, thoroughbred Infite-ad of Com- 
mon Fowl-,, 19. 

ARBORICULTURE. Tlie Catalpa Tree; Abies 
Venusta. 19. 

THE DAIRY.-Milk Fever, 19. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. -To the Sisters; 
Sister .leanue C C*rr'» Address; In Slcmoriam; Farm- 
ers and (irangcrs; Election of Olticers, 20. 

AGRICULTIJRAL NOTES from various counties 
in California and Oregon, 21. 

HOME CIRCLE. — I'he La.st Pine, (Poetry); Ea.st and 
aid West.- .So. il; Encouragement of Labor; The Social 
Position of Country People; lndu.stry; Mrs. Prim on 
Scandal; i he Fatal Keg; True Economy of Life, 22-23. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -How Babies are 
Treate<l in liifferent Countries, 23. 

GOOD HEALTH. Dyspepsia; Carpeu and Disease, 
23. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY." -How tn Cook a Tough 
Fowl; Slewed Ribbit; Tomato liravy; A Cheap Plum 
Pudding; Molded .Sago; Indian Pudiling. 23. 

QUERlt!;S AND REPLIES.- Ramie in Mexico; 
Rainfall in Lower California and Mexico; The Apple 
Tree Cuts; Cuts on .\pple Trees Again; Uprooting Wil- 
lows. 24. 

GENERAL NEWS ITEMS on page 28 and other 
pages. 

MISCELLANEOUS.- Quicksilver Fire Alarm, 18. 
Persian R.iilw.ay, 19. Thti Debris Question, 26-27. 
Oil from Wood. 27. California Pisciculture; 
Public Health, 28. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

rragariculture, F. Gilbert, Nevada City. Nevada; The 
Sluthour Pump, J. M. KeeleriCo., 8. F.; Vegetable.s and 
Seed.-", J. Vick, Rochester, N Y.; Spooner's liarilening 
CaUilogne, Wm. H. Spooner, Boston, Mass.; Seeils. Wm. 
Rennie, Toronto. Cimada; Sugar Trough (ioiird, W. F. 
Brown, Oxford,©.; Y'our Names Printed. Clinton Bros.. 
Clintonville, Ct. 



The Week. 

We have seen the clouds gather and disjierse. 
We have felt the warm air wliich betokens the 
coming of the rain Btorm. We have polished 
the barometer and dusted the raiu gauge and 
viewed the skies at midnight and the early 
morning, so that no indication of a change in 
tlie arid condition of sky and earth could es- 
cape us. No indication has indeed escaped, but 
the rain ha« fled to parts unknown. And yet, 
to-night, the signs are again favorable and the 
clouaa which have appearei.1 and vanished thrice 
to-day may fall at last. 

The fears of prolonged drouth have accom- 
plished an advance in nearly all kinds of grain 
and feeds in our markets. At the same time 
the European markets are growing tinner be- 
cause the surety of a war in the Kast becomes 
daily greater. It would be indeed glad for 
the prosperity of our farming population ii 
our season's outlook for growth in grain- 
fields were like that of a year ago. Evcrytliing 
promises a biisk and profitable demand for aL 
the wheat which we can put into ships at 
the next haivest and it would be well Ui 
have the amount large. In those counties, 
where the harvest never fails, there is promise 
of rew<irds greater than have been known for 
years. For tnose who can yet lea<l the rivers 
upon their fields, there is every incentive to 
ett'ort. And for those who have surety, neither 
natural nor artiticial, there yet remains hope — 
hope which, like charity, sutfereth long and is 
kiud, atreugtbeuing the heart for whatever 
Hstid*, 



The Record of the Year. 

The Califorui.in who rejoices iu the growth of 
hi« State may find many gratifying figures in the 
trade statistics of the year which h.as just closed. 
It was, upon the whole, a year of great .activity 
in nearly all productive enterprises. In agricul- 
ture, in which, of course, our keenest interest is 
awakened, there were steps of progresss of 
which all may be proud. The records of the 
trade organizations which show the amount of 
produce received in the city, and the records of 
the Custom House, which show the amounts 
exported to foreign ports, furnish dat.'* by which 
we may measure the results Jittuned with plow 
an<l separ.vtor, with the shears, wit'i t'.ie wine 
press and with vat and chum. 

Let us note, first, the production of the lead- 
ing cereal. The copious rains of last winter and 
the extent of land under the plow, set our sta- 
tisticians fairly wild in their early estimates of 
tlie surjilus of wheat we would have for export. 
It soon became apparent tliat tlieir lines were 
overdrawn, and yet the result is grand enougli. 
It is shown by the receipts reported by the Pro- 
duce Exhange that there were shippeil from the 
interior to this dty 10,516,913 ctls. of wheat. 
In 1875 there were received 7,676,00" ells. Otr 
gain this year is, therefore, 2,840,906 ctls. Of 
Hour the receipts from our mills were 519,- 
114 bbhi., in 1875, 491,408 bbls. : a gain 
this year of 27,706 bbls. The Ciustom 
Ho-.ue recn-ds show the exports of these 
articles. We sent abroad in iS76 9.920,117 
ctls. of wheat, and 506,974 Ibis, of fl >iir; in 
187.'), 7,546,207 ctls. of wheat ai.d -167,7 hi bids. 
•of tiour. The gain this year in oxpo.t w,i», 
therefore, 2,;i73.910 ctls. of wheat, an I 39,255 
bbls. of tiour. The total value of wheat and 
rtour exported during the year w;is §18,564,525. 
This is a gain of $2,000,000 in value over the 
value of 1875. 

In barley there is also a notable percentage of 
gain. Tiie receipt* in 1876 were l,626,0<i6 ctls.; 
iu 1875, 988.280 ctl.i. ; an incre;i.fe this year 
of 6,S7,786 ctls. The exports of this grain h.ave 
grown iu a more rapid percentage than tlie jiro- 
duction. In 1876 the exports were 3.'>0,022 ctls. ; 
iu 1875, 125,158 ctls.; an increase this year of 
224,864 ctls. Our barley has this year been 
brouglit more prominently to the attention of 
Eastern brewers than formerly and there was for 
a few weeks quite a brisk movement both by 
rail and sea. The advance of railway rates, 
just as the movement was fairly started, em- 
barrassed the shippers and reduced the trade. 
Then it was that we saw barley shipped arounil 
the Horn to New York, to be re-sluppldJ>y car 
to St. Louis, because all this distance could be 
compassed for less money than the 2,000 miles 
of rail hence to St. Louis. 

As all our shepherds know to their sorrow, 
the W'Ool trade of the year was exceedingly un- 
favorable, and both clips came upon a dull mar- 
ket. Thus, although the grand totals of amounts 
of wool produced take their place in the columns 
of increase, the low rates received detract 
i^reatly from the satisfaction which might have 
ijeen felt over the result. Last week we gave 
the complete tigures in wool, but in this connec- 
tion it will be well to repeat that the total sliip- 
tnent from the .State by land and sea was 52, - 
J33,923n>s. In 187.5,48,183,017 His. were ex- 
ported. This shows an increase to the amount 
of 4,4,50,906 lbs, but tlie low prices iirevailiiig 
reduceil the increase in v,alue to a low figure. 

The inorea.se in dairy production during the 
year is ipiite notable. The dairy has lieen 
carrie<l into regions which were formerly thought 
unfitted for it, and tliere has been a tendency to 
inorea,se of cowage in the older dairy counties. 
The tigures as compiled by Mr. Stone, the stat- 
istician, show that the receipts of butter during 
the year have been 10,927, 2(X) pounds. In 1875, 
the receipts were 9,.551,500 pounds, an incre.ise 
this year of 1,375,700 pounds. The receipts of 
cheese were 7,017,300 pounds; iu 1875, 6,021,000 
pounds; an increase this year of 996,300 pounds. 
tVom these data, with estimates of the value of 
the commodities, it is safe to say that the ag- 
gregate value of th« d.ii.y products received in 
this city during the year was ^,.500,000. Thi.s 
iudicates that our dairy industry is of no mean 
importance, as it can show a produced value of 
one-half the value of our famous wool clip, and 
one-quarter the value of our wheat and flour 
surplus, which gives us a reputation all over 
the world. The year has closed with butter 
and cheese at much lower figures than were 
common, but the present prospect is that this 
will tind compensation in the coming mouths. 
The drouth, if continued, will prove serious to 
many of the interior ventures, and will re- 
strict the weight of production to the northern 
coast and the ranches on the river low-lands. 

In other lines of agricultural production, the 
year has some points of increase and some ot 
decrease. The jiroduction and exjiort of green 
fruits has been much larger than heretofore. 
Kaisins have been numbered by the ten thousands 
of boxes. On the other hand, the wine export 
has shown but a very narrow margin of increiise, 
only a v.alue of §6,460 over the record of 1875 
being recorded. Hides, which years ago were 
almost the sole article of export from this coast, 
are now yearly decreasing iu amount, and 
leather is also figuring in smaller uuiacr.als. 
Thus the usual course of productive growth is 
foUow«d by our 6tat« m it cha&g«a mora and 



more from the lower to the higher agricultural 
arts. 

Aside from agriculture, the productive indus- 
tries of our .State and coast show praiseworthy 
results. Tlie production of the precious metals 
for the coast has increaaed from a value of S80,- 
8S9,037 in 1875 to 5=90,875,173 in 1876. The 
coinage of our mints shows a total of ?32,069,- 
000 in 1875 to *42,704,.51X) in 1876. 

Not the least favorable de<Iuction from the 
figures of the year is that we are growing in the 
line of independence, and our home production 
is satisfying the needs of our pioiilc. The 
Custom House figures show that the duties col- 
lected on foreign imports were, in 1875, J8, 131,- 
637, and in 1.S76, $7,817,736, a decrejise tlii.s 
year of 1^31.3,901. At the same time the gross 
value of our exports was .^73,463,250 in 1875 
and $80,421,971 in 1876, an increase of §6,958,- 
721. Reducing our expenditures for foreign 
goods and at the same time increasing our 
sales of proiluce for export, is throwing the bal- 
ance of trade more ana more in our favor and 
storing up a surplus of wealth among our own 
people. This movement can continually go 
on if our men of wealth wiU but do their .State 
the justice of patronizing home industries and 
if those in charge of productive enterprises will 
do justice to our splendid conditions of soil and 
clime .ind produce wisely all that it enters into 
the mind of our citizens to desire. 



Cooked Food fi^r Dairy Stock. 

One of the leading dairymen of Oilroy informs 
us that he has completed arrangements for 
cooking food for his dairy cows, using the steam 
from the boiler that furnishes heat to the 
cheese vats. We learn also that one of our 
largest owners of dairy lands in Marin county 
contemplates the erection of a large steam 
cookery for the same purpose. These f.act8 lea<l 
us to make a few comments on cooking fooil 
for dairy stock, expecting to discuss the matter 
furtlier at some future time. 

The prime ailvantage of cooking fodder and 
ground feeds for cows lies in the fact that by 
cooking the substances are lietter fitted for 
.assimilation by the animal economy, and conse- 
(juently richer results are obtained from the 
feed. This is most apparent wlien coarse hay, 
straw, corn fodder and other dry foods are em 
liloye<l in milk making. It has been proved 
tli.it cooking siicli sutistances fits them for 
((uick and perfect digestion, and by thus feed- 
ing the flow of milk may be retained longer 
tlian by the dry feed commonly given when 
the pastures fail. 

Hy cooking, poor hay may be maile to take 
the place of good h.ay ; for it has lieen shown 
by the experience of E.astern dairymen that 
coarse marsh grass cnt and steamed, with a 
small addition of bran or mill stutl's, becomes 
very desirable dairy food. This fact may, per- 
haps, be very profitably used iu this State it 
the present season should prove a.s dry as is 
uow expected. The coarse vegetation which 
will grow in the low places may be thus turned 
to profit iu the maintenance of the henla in the 
scarcity of pasture and good hay and roots. 
We add some testimony of practical men on 
this point : 

Col. Waring, of Rhode Island, writes to the 
American A<jriri(ltiirist as follows: "Our home- 
grown li.ay w.is cut early and stored in the bam. 
It was sweet, jialatable, and nutritious, and 
would have been but little, if at all, benefited 
l)y cutting .and steaming. When we steamed 
corn-fodder and poorer purchased hay, we found 
that we got the same eti'ect from it that we did 
when we used our own hay iinsteamed, and tlie 
effect was nf>t sensibly in.proveil when we 
used our own hay in the steamed mixture. 
This indicates that the result of steaming late 
cut iir poor ha\, is to bring it more to the eon- 
litioii of goiHl h.ay: .and that really good hay — 
youug, tender, and sweet— is not materially 
improved by steaming. Probably the cellulose 
iu good hay is naturally in a condition to l>c di- 
gested by st^ick, while that in poor hay is too 
much hanlencd by age, and needs the softening 
action of cooking to make it digestible. Then, 
too, any slight taint of must or mold, whic'i Mould 
cause cuttle to refuse the hay, is corrected by 
steaming, aud the appetizing flavor of the meal 
or bran added to the mixed fodder, is diffused 
throughout the ma.ss, .and causes it to bo eaten 
:nore readily. The hard stalks of corn, and the 
harder kinds of straw, are made more tender, 
aud their nutritive parts become more readily 
available. To sum up the case: all inferior food 
is made enough better by steaming to pay any 
reasonable cost of the operation, while [/odd 
food is alrea<ly so good that it does not re- 
ceive LD High improvement to make steaming 
profitable. " 

A. H. Proct<ir, of Columbus, Ohio, writes to 
the Ohio Farmer that he has been taking some 
testimony as to the results of feeding grain iu its 
natural and iu its cooked state, and he says: 
"For the last year I have traveled very exten- 
sively among tlie farmers of Ohio and Indiana, 
aud find that this matter has attracted their 
serious attention. If 20 acjes of com cooked 
for feed is worth 30 acres fed raw, then the sub- 
ject is worthy of the best judgment. P"or the 
proof of the proposition, I not only submit the 
testimony as given to me of hundreds who have 
practiced cooking com, or oats, barley, buck- 
wheat, potatoes, roots, all kinds of ground feed, 
jtc, but give a few proofs of the many who 
have, by actual tests, found that on all kinds of 
grain an avarago of one-third i» lavad, wad on 



potatoes and all kinds of roots, fully three-quar- 
ters. Messrs. Wilson & Bros., dairymen, of 
Muncie, Ind., cook ground feed for their cows, 
and s.ay that since they commenced cooking the 
feed their cows have increa.sed their milk tully 
one-third. Mr. M. M. Ixihr, of Licking 
county, Ohio, ha« practiced, for a long time, 
c^ioking corn in the ear for bis milch cows, and 
testifies to the same thing." 

As we remarked before, these facts are worthy 
of consideration at this time, for if the drouth 
chts off feed and the dairy must be maintained on 
purchased food, it is important that the dairy- 
man should so conduct his ojieration that the 
greatest food value can be gained from the pur- 
chased material. If indeed the season comes to 
this, there will be an increased market value of 
dairy products, which will pay the dairyman 
for keeping up his milk at an increa.seil cost. 



QtlEE\lES /^ND F^EfLIES. 



Ramie in IMexico. 

Epitorb Press: -Being an old California resident and 
farmer, I take the liberty of asking you for information 
in regard to the working of ramie. The article grows 
here around Colinia and near the oast luxuriantly and 
almost without care or cultivation, and the only drawback 
to its becoming an article of exportation lies in the fact 
that there is no machinery here to extract the fiber, nor is 
any method known here how to do it. You would oblige 
nic by informing me whether or not it can be shipped in 
bulk or whether it is necessary to have the fiber extracted 
forshipment; whether there is machinery to do it; its cost, 
and where to be got? Also whether there are treatise* on 
it« cultivation and subsequent treatment? the market 
p.-ice of the raw material and the price of the extracted 
ttber? Whether It can be sold in (Wifomia, or has to be 
shipped to the Ea.st or Europe?- £. Urotkam, Colima, 
Mexico. 

We cannot give very satisfactory information 
on these points; indeed we know very little more 
on the subject than we stated in answering sim- 
ilar queries two months ago. We can say, how- 
ever, that the fiber must lie extracted before 
shipping; that there is reported to lie a success- 
ful machine for this purpose in England aud in 
Ixiuisiana, and anotlier, invented uiion this 
coast, is working successfully in the Sandwich 
islands. The cost of these machines and where 
they can be had we cannot tell at present. 
Prof. Hilgard offered to aid us in getting infor- 
mation fif the Louisiana machine, but we have 
not heard that he has succeeded as yet. We do 
not know of any special treatise on ramie, nor 
can we learn of any available in this city. 
There is no market for the fiber in this city. 
That which has been produced in the Sandwich 
islands is sliipped to England. We shall be 
pleased to hear from any reader who can en- 
lighten us on this subject. 

Rainfall in Lower Ca'ifornia and RTexico. 

EnnoRS Press; - Will you or some of your scientiflc 
readers be kind enough to inform the fanning com- 
munity what relation, if any, exists between the ruiny 
seasons of Mexico and Lower California and our own; both 
as regards the amount of rainfall and the period at which 
it occurs, with reference more particularly to Us bearing 
on our present dry season'? There is a deep impreniHon 
on the minds of many that the data furnished from that 
ipiarter would "forewarn," and therefore partially "fore- 
arm" us against the evils of a drouth in this State. With 
the facts before the public. I may recur short!} to the sub- 
ject again— AORicoL.t. Woodbridge. Cal. 

We have nothing definite at hand conceming 
exact dates and amounts of rainfall in the coun- 
tries named. The following from Appleton'a 
New Encyclopedia gives the facts in a general 
way. tM Lower California it says: "In winter 
there are heavy rains and terrific tornadoes. In 
summer and autumn, especially on the gulf 
coast, rain often falls from a cloudless sky.' 

Of Mexico the notes on the subject are: 
"Prfiperly there are but two seasons in all Mex- 
ico: the dry from October to May, and the rainy 
comprising the remaining months. The heaviest 
rains fall in August and .September." If our 
(pierist will st.ate more definitely the way iu 
which he means to draw an analogy between 
the seasons of our soiithern neighlwrs and our 
own, we will endeavor to procure the nee<led 
data. 

The Apple Tree Cuts. 

We receive from .1. T. .1., of .Mouticello, Xaiia 
county, a letter on the cuts reported from Nlr. 
(Jreenriehl, iu which he agrees with Mr. Cad- 
well, of i^.an Joae, attributing the evil to the 
"sap-sucker. He says further: "(to after him 
with a shot-gun lietween the hours of 10 \. v. 
.and 2 I". M. Listen for a shrill note, like that 
of the cricket, more loud aud with a metallic 
ring. He seldom chirps, except when on the 
wing, and he flies like the woodpecker." 
Cuts on Apple Trees Aealn 

Ekitors Prksb;- Referring to communication of W. fl. 
tireenfleld, Lake coniily, as to horse track marks on voung 
:ipple trees, it is prohaLie they are the wi'.rk of w<»od-rati*, 
the most mischievous pests of the orchardist in some local- 
ities. I slaughtered hundreds of harmless rabbit« before 
1 discovered that the rats bad done the mischief. My 
antidote is. first, good cats, and then if that do«« not 
prove sulficiently effective, then i)oison, which they take 
readily, in the shape of com or wheat prepared with 
ph.ispborus or strvchnine - F. M. SiiAW, 8«nu Moniai, 
Cal 

Upraoting Willows. 

Editors Prrss:— I see that a subscriber Inquire.* as to 
the easiest way to extenuinate willows. One of my 
neighbors had a piece of wet land, thickly sot with wil- 
lows and a»h. be drained it partially, cut the brush all 
down close, burnt it and then turned on sheep By the 
time tlie willows sprouted, the sheep ha.1 everytliinj: else 
eaten, and then turned their attention to the willowi, 
which they ate with a\idity, and kept so close trimmed 
that they died and were easily uppM.teil It ii an eaay 
and profltable w ay and worth trying —C , L'kiah, Cal. 

On File. —"Tree aud Vine Planting,'' W. A. 
S.; "The W. L. at Stockton," U. W. H. ; 
IiKluiries concerning "Plows;" "Oakland 
Nurserymen;" Notes from ".Sonora," aud 
' ' Femdal*' ' G ranges. 



January 13, 1877.] 



m 

25 



The Isthmus Canal. 

Last week we allude^l to the fact that a 
decision had been handed to President Grant in 
favor of what is known as the Nicaragua route 
for the isthmus canal. As this is a matter of 
such deep interest to the industries of our 
coast and now seems nearer realization than at 
any former time since the project was broaciied 
we have prepared a little engraving showing the 
route along which our produce may soon be 
speeding to tlie European markets. By this 
engraving the following report of the commis- 
sion may be better understood: 

To the Prtsidtnt of the. United St.nle/<~Sl.r: 

The commission for the United States appointed 
by yon to consider the subject of communication 
by canal between the Atlantic and facitic 
oceans, across, over, or near the istlimus con- 
necting North and South America, have the 
honor to submit, in advance of their more 
elaborate and final report, containing data for 
their conclusions, and alter a careful and minute 
study of the several surveys of the various 
routes across the continent, the following unan- 
imous report: 

First. That the route knovmi as the Nicar- 
aguan route, beginning on tlie Atlantic side at 
or near iSan .luau de Nicaragua, known to Amer- 
icans at Greytown, running by canal to the 8an 
Juan river, following it by slack water naviga- 
tion to Lake Nicaragua, across that Lake to Kio 
del Medio, and thence by canal to Kio del Brito, 
on the Pacific coast, possesses, both for construc- 
tion and maintenance of a canal, greater advan- 
tages, and offers fewer difficulties from engin- 
eering, commercial and economical points of 
view, than any one of the other routes shown 
to be jjracticable sufficiently in detail to enabla 
a judgment to be formed of their relative 
merits. 

Second. That the summit level of this route 
to Lake Nicaragua is designed to be kept at a 
permanent hight of 108 feet above the level of 
the sea. This liiglit is to be overcome in the 
Atlantic slope wita four dams in the San Juan 
river and ten lift-locks, and in the Pacific slope 
■with ten lift-locks. The total distance from tne 
Greytown end to that at Brito is 181 M-lOO 
miles. Of this distance the Atlantic slope 
division from Greytown to San (Jarlos, at Lake 
Nicai-agua, comprises 108 o-lO miles, of which 
63 miles are by slackwater navigation, and 
45 5-10 miles by canal. The summit level 
division comprises 56 5-10 miles by Lake Nicar- 
agua from San Carlos, at the liead of the San 
Juan river to Rio del Medio. Tiie I'acitio slope 
division comprises l(j 33-100 miles by canal 
from the mouth of the Rio del Medio to the 
mouth of the Kio del Brito. The dimensions 
of the locks proposed are 400 by 70 feet, with 
26 feet depth of water. Artificial harbors must 
be constructed at Bnto and near Greytown, and 
although that at Greytown presents unusual 
features, requiring careful study and skillful 
treatment, there is no question of its prac- 
ticability. 

Third. That the cost of construction of this 
canal and harbor, with ali the necessary 
adjuncts, will be at least !S100,000,000, and that 
the cost by any other route will greatly exceed 
the cost by this route. .iw* 

Fourth. That after all the prelimin.ary ar- 
rangements have been made, the time re(juired 
for actuiU construction should not exceed 10 
years. 

Fifth. That an interoceanic canal across this 
continent should be uuiier the jirotection of all 
nations interested, and that tliey should guar 



Death of Commadore Vanderbilt. 

During the week the richest man in the 
United States has gone to his grave, and the 
dust has accorded him no warmer welcome than 
it gives a pauper's clay. His efforts were in the 
line of fortune building and his success was 
great. During his lifetime he cared but little 
for the welfare and opinion of men, and in his 
death his fellow men have for him but the eu- 
logy, of silence. 

_ . Commodore Vanderbilt died in [New York 
city January 3d, aged 82 years. He was a man 
for V. l.oin we had butjittle admiration, "except 



rer red which would have caused a nation to 
h( nor a life which was at least generous in its 
1; st impulses. Hut no such tliought came to the 
' yiug Commodore. His greatfo,.tunc is placed 
in the hands of liis son, with no h iit of charity 
except to a few of those -who directly served 
him. The exaniiile of Astm- and Stewart taught 
him nothing. Instead of building, as did they, 
for the welfare of the helpless and the enlight- 
enment of the ignorant, ^■anderbilt remands his 
foitune to the vortex of .stocks and monopolies 
whence it came, and where, unless its present 
owner prove himself wiser than the time, it may 

; soon pass awaj- and leave no trace of its exist- 
ence except upon the page of the historian. 

' How much better to have made a part of it^tell 




New Publications. 



THE,|LATri COSNIILIUS VANDBRBILT" 



as we cannot resiraln ,1 oort.aiti admiration for 
the genius r.nd will wliic-li can jiusli ('uterprise > 
into profit. He was largely engaged in under- 
takings in which the jiublic ha(l <leop interest, 
and yet we can remember no undertaking of his 
j which was not founded upon the abstract idea of 
gain to himself, irrespective of the comfort and 
[ good of others. If he broke a monopoly it was 

autee not only the neutrality of the canal, but j only with the idea of squeezing money from it 

also of a contiguous strip ot territory on each i and not of relieving the opitressed. There are 

side of not less than 50 nnl-is in breadth, ''aiid'of thousands of witnesses in this State, whose silei.^ 

ocean approacnes for a di.i 

tance ot not less than 100 

nautical miles in any direc- 
tion along the coast and cut 

seaward Irom each end. 
The prospects for an early 

commencement of the work 

are considered extremely 

favorable. Under the direc- 
tion of the President the 

principle maritime powerr 

of Europe have been sever 

ally addressed upon the 

subject of the canal, the 

satisfactory results of the 

surveys which have been 

made, -and also the views 

embodied in the aliove 

report as to the best 

route. Answers have been receive<l troni some 

of the governments, in which they express 

themselves favorable to an early prosecutiim i)t 

the work, and admit the wisdom of according it 

an international character by an equal partici- 
pation in its construction, and in tlie mainten- 
ance for it of an inviolable neutrality. As soon 

as the views of all nations communicated with 

have been received the President contemplates 

submitting all the papers and coiiespondeiice in 

a special message to Congress, in wliich he will 

urge that the United States take the stej/s 

necessary to the inauguration of this great 

enterprise. 

German Almanac. — The "San Francisco 
Kalender," (German,) for 1877, published by 
Wenzel & Huefner of this city, has just been is- 
sued. It is a large pamphlet, containing, be- 
side the usual tabular matter, several illustra- 
ted articles of nmoh iuterest. 



One of the very best of recent contributions 
to th£ literature of agriculture is written by 
our well known contributor, Felix Gillet, of 
Nevada City, California. It is entitled : 
" Fragariculture, or the Ckiltiire of the Straw- 
berry," and is a practical treatise on the culture, 
propagation, management and marketing of 
strawberries, illustrated with photographs, 
representing the average size of best varieties, 
esiiecially adapted to the family garden. It is 
a handsome pamphlet, and in its treatment of 
the snl>ject covers the whole ground of the se- 
lection of varieties, soil, methods of cultiva- 
tion, propagation, picking, packing and ship- 
ping, and a host of other themes closely allied 
thereto, and which will make the thoughtful 
reader master of the art of strawberry culture. 
We are exceedingly pleased with the publica- 
tion. It is illustrated with handsome photo- 
graphs from the fruit. The price depends upon 
the number of photographs. With two photo- 
graphs and the text complete the price is 50 
cents, post paid ; five photograjihs, 75 cents ; 
eight photographs, .«;l.0O; twelve photographs, 
$1.'25. In each ca.se the reading matter is the 
same. It is the cheapest, most complete, 
practical and interesting treatise on strawberry 
culture ever published in the L'nited States. 

A very interesting book entitled, " The 
Life of Major-General George A. Custer," 
has been compiled by Captain Frederick 
Whittaker, and is for sale for $4.50 by A. 
Roman & Co., in this city. The work is a very 
interesting and exciting one, and describes in a 
vivid matter the numerous daring exploits of 
the "gallant C'uster." It gives a c6niplete his- 
tory of his life from his boyhood, with a detailed 
account of his fighting during the civil war, and 
also of the Indian camjjaigns, in the last of 
which he lost his life, fighting to the last. Tlie 
portr.iit drawn seems like that of a knight of 
romance, and after reading the history of this 
i dashing soldier one feels inclined to take him as 
i an ideal hero. He is so looked upon by thou- 
I sands in the nation for which he fought and 
died, and a history of this brave young officer 
should be on the Bhelves of all who admirfe 
i patriotism, bravery, skill and other qualities 
I which go to make a successful soldier. The 
book is well illustrated and comprises about 
650 pages. 

The Bull's Head Stock Yards. 

The enterprise of Mr. Rollin P. Saxe, in es- 
tablishing the "Bulls Head Stock Yards" in 
this city, has awakened so much interest among 
our readers, through the advertisements which 
have appeared in our columns, that we have re- 
ceived a number of inquiries concerning the 
establishment. With a view to answering all 
who may be interested, we made a trip during 
the week to the Bull's Head. The yards are 
located at the corner of Ninth and Howard 
streets, easily accessible by the street cars. 
Here Mr. Saxe has leased a large piece of land, 
500 feet long by 285 feet wide. Around the 
exterior and up through the center ho has erected 
rows of closed and open stalls. He has in all 
140 separate stalls. On one side of the dividing 
line of stalls he has four commodious corrals 



for all tiini^ in the upholding of the unfortunate. 

It i:! tru'- that through the solicitation of his 

wife he gave a pittance to a university in one of . for stock, and on the other side there are two 

the Sonthem States, but this little good, like a I sales corrals, one fitted with seats capable of 

ray of light in the gloom, but casts a deeper holding 2,000 people, and a .stand for the 

shadow upon the theme. It is true a man can 

do as he will with his own; and according to his 

deeds the world can praise or keep silent. Van- 



derbilt has earned naught liut charitable .silence. 
Hm^v-it \vi, KoFv^iTS. — Mr. Meehan, of 




bat t:- 



nothing ti thank 



testiri, ny 
bun for. 

Commodore Vanderbilt figured quite largely 
in tlie early history of this State and we give 
on this page an engraving, taken from a portrait, 
which shows the man as he appeared in his 
prime, 25 years ago, when his "tuV)s " were 
floating in emigrants to this State by the thous- 
ands. Since tliat time age has greatly changed 
his features, but our engraving is true to the 
man when he had most to do in our aflairs. 
That he was a ma i ()Lgreat executive jiower, 
of strong will, ol acuW i)erceptions, and of no 
mean share of what men call talent, none can 
deny. What he lacked was heart, fellow-feel- 
ing, jihilauthropy. 

This great tortune-maker died possessed of 
^85,000,000. What a massive accumulation of 
wealth. What possibilities for gootl lay in the 
power which such a fortune carried in its wake. 
Wliat peerleus monuments could have bee. 



the (■/<//■'/(■;)< )•■" Mo/it/i!;;, i ■. '.vidently an iiitidel 
on tlic raiUiall-loivst faith. He .says: "Our 
European friends arc linding some curious 'facts' 
in regard to rainfall and forests. In France, a 
Mr. l''autral found that there was much more 
rain fell in a forest than on a sandy jilain uot a 
great way from it. It so hajipenod, however, 
that another fori'ster kept an account in a forest 
about the same distance from the sandy plain, 
and the tigures do not .agree. Most jicisons 
would have 8us])ected an error in ascribing much 
influence to the forests, but these two fell to 
discussing the nature of the forests themselves; 
and now it is asked of us to believe, that while 
ten per c<!nt. more rain will fall on a pine forest 
than (m a sandy jilain, only five jitr cent, more I much enterprise and spirit. 



falls on an oak one. The only wonder is that 
95 per cent, should fall on the treeless plain." 



The Lick contesting heirs have relinquished 
all claims to that estate. 



auctioneer. These are intended for the auction 
sales of stock and horses, and the conveniences 
are as good as are employed at the large stock 
sales at the East. The first aucticm sale was 
held this week with these arrangements. 

Other valu ible a(!cessories to the institution 
are Dr. Dunbar's veterin- 
ary offices and smithing 
shops, a clo.sed amphithe- 
ter for breaking vicious 
horses, and stables and 
granaries for the storage of 
te ,'d. 

The best commentary 
which can be made upon 
he success of the estab- 
lishment is that within two 
weeks after the opening 
day the st dls were all oc- 
cupied by animals sent in 
for sale. Large consign- 
ments both of horses and 
cattle were received from 
( )regon and the interior of . 
this State. Of course, as 
sales are made, vacancies are occurring in the 
stalls for new arrival.s. So far as we can see, the 
institution meets a poiiular need of our cattle 
growers and horseiueu, as is shown by the quick 
patronage which %\ as received. The i)lain ad- 
vantages of the I on ern are, first, establishing 
headquarters where sellers and buyers can meet 
and have the fullest opportunity both to dis- 
play and examine animals; second, by offering 
accommodations for large numbers of animals, 
prices for keep and care can be reduced far 
below the prices charged in the cramped stables 
of the city. Besides these there are minor 
advantages which are olivious. 

The Bull's Hea<l is ajiparently managed with 
It appears already 



that the needs of the establishment are wider 
than its space, and Mr. Saxe is planning to 
devote the present quarters exclusively to the 
horse trade, and prepare larger yards for 
ttock. 



26 



pA^ii^i© aairm^s spiaBSS* 



[January 13, 1877. 



The Debris Question. 

A (Hirer's Review of the Situation. 

We reiuiiit frinii the cnluiniis of tlic- Miiihitl 
mill Scii-iiUlii- /'ivM, of this city, the following 
review of the (lel)ris (jiiestion, in onler th;it our 
icailers may have infortiiation of the way the 
ilifliculty is vieMe<l from the miner's standjioiiit: 

For many years past ttio farmers owning and 
cultivating the bottom lands along the several 
rivers and minor streams that traverse or liave 
their sources near the great aui-iferous gravel 
ilepoHits in which hydraulic mining is l>eing 
carried on, have been complaining of the damage 
done such lands by the detritus carried down 
these streams and deposited tliereon. The 
rivers along which this injury lias l>een most 
extensive are the Featlier. Hear and tlie Main 
Yuba, although some harm has also been done 
to the lands lying on or adjacent to l>ry creek, 
Butte c(niiity, and to those along the American 
and Cosunines rivers, with some little caused 
elsewhere in the counties most ex|>osed to the 
encro.achments of sedimentary matter. During 
all the earlier history of these mining operations, 
when the population engaged therein, being much 
more numerous than now, constitut<Ml the best 
customers of those who cultivated the soil, Inly- 
ing at liberal jirioes and consuming largely of 
their products, the fanners raised no objection 
to the evil tliey now complain of, nor did they 
or any one else then (juestion the right of the 
miners to run their tailings into the rivers .ind 
canyons as they are doing at present. And 
even for many years after tliese tailings began 
to fprovo troublesome, the fanners did no more 
tliau nniniiur and protest, lieing deterred fujin 
precipitating a legal ccuillict hecaii.se of tlie great 
expense ami the uncertain results that miglit be 
expected to attend the same. 

Inaugurating Hostilities- 

And an mattere were suH'ered to rem.ain until 
alxmt three years ago, when a farmer named 
Crumb, owning a small ]>la<'e on Dry creek, 
Hutte eouuty, brought an ac-tion .against the 
.Spring Valley canal .and mining company, to 
recover damages for injury done his land by the 
tailing.s Howiug from their mines. This com- 
pany, washing four or five miles above, con- 
ducted operations on a large scale, nmning a 
heavy head of water the year round, .and, .as a 
consuqnenoe, sent down gre.at quantities <if these 
tailings, which were gradually covering uji the 
lilaiiititfs grounds, .a portion of his peach orchard 
having been destroyed prior to the commeuce- 
meut of this suit. Although Crumb ai)pe<ared 
alone .a.s jdaintiff in this action, it was under- 
stood that he received aid and eiicour.agement 
from other jtarties in the neighborhood who had 
similar grievances fo be redressed, it being in- 
tended that this should serve .is a test case, in 
which the f[uestion of the liability of the miners 
for injuries of this kind should be judicially de- 
tennLued. This suit was tried .at (Iroville, 
before a mixed jury of farmers and miners, and 
resulteil in a venlict for the defendants, the 
jury deciding that there was no cause of action. 
AVhile this verdict was, as a matter of course, 
satisfactory to the defemlants on the question of 
damages, the main issue in the suit, it did not 
dispose of several 

Special Issues 
That had l>oen raised in the coui-se of the trial, 
the determination of which w;vs by the miners 
deemed of more importance than the mere 
matter of damages, which could in no event 
have been large, the sum claimed by the jdaiut- 
irt' amounting to no more than .SlO.iK)!). Among 
•ther (|Uestions of moment, these sjiecLal issues 
involved that of the right of the miners after 
h.aving clist^harged these tailings ujion their own 
grcuind to run or sutt'er them to Mow into the 
ereek.s .ami rivers adjacent, as well, also, as th.at 
of their right to .augment tlio volume of water 
naturally flowing in these streams by conduct- 
ing water from other sources, and after using to 
empty it into them, thereby inereiisiiig the 
quantity of sand, gravel and sediment brought 
down and deposited by tliem on the lands 
below. 

The defense introduced a large amount of 
affirmative testimony on these several points, 
but, as the jury failed to pass npon them, they 
wei-e left open .and unsettled, except in so far .as 
they might l>e considered inferenti.ally deter- 
mined by the finding of the jury on the main 
issue. A cert;iin amount of damage, though 
not large, was shown to have been sustained by 
the plaintiff, and upon what hy))othesi3 this ver- 
<lict was base<l, save that the defen<lants had a 
right to inflict this damage, it is dithcult-to con- 
ceive. However this might have been, the 
defendants were themselves so little satisKed 
with the result of the suit, that they resolved 
to get rid of further annoyance of this sort by 
buying up all the lands injuricnisly affected by 
the tailings from their mine, a policy which 
they have since fully carried out, some fifteen 
thousand acres of these lands having been jmr- 
chased by them. By carefully distributing a 
jiortion of their tailings over these lands, the 
company have been able to not only preserve 
them from further injury, but have so improved 
their quality that they hope to more than in- 
demnify themselves in the end for the money 
expended in their purchase .and improvement. 
That [lortion of their tailings not thus utilized 
are eomlucted by a ditch several miles long and 
discharged upon the tule lands that here border 
the .Sacramento river. This coinp.any have 
found by practical trials that these tailings, when 



properly distributed over the he.a\'y clay soils of 
which these river bottoms mainly consist, greatly 
bciictit the s.aiiie, while for the purpo.se of re- 
claiming the tule awam]>s they will jirove of in- 
calcul.able value. 
An Attempt to Procure Seasonalile Legislation. 

During the last session of the (aliforiiia Leg- 
islature, some of the larger and more inriuential 
mine owners sought to procure the ajipointnieiit 
by that boily of a eommittoe to examine and 
ascert.ain the amount of damage done ami here- 
after likely to be done by this mining debris, 
and suggest what measures, if any, should in 
their opinion be lulopted for averting the same, 
this committee to rejHirt the result of their 
Labors to the Legislature .at their next session. 
This effort, so timely and well worthy of atten- 
tion, jiroved, however, of no avail, these legisla- 
tors either failing to comprehend the urgent and 
momentous n.ature of the subject, or being de- 
terred from undertaking a task involving so 
ni.any new aii.l important questions .and lieset 
with such inherent ditliculties. L.ater in the 
session the Committee on Mines and Mining, to 
whom this business had been referred, reeoni- 
niended in their i. port on the subject, that 
Congress be meinm iaiized for the appointment 
of a commission of engineers to investigate the 
matter with a view to havini' the Xation.il Leg- 
isl.ature provide some general plan for disposing 
of these t.ailings witliout prejudice to the inter- 
ests of either the fanners or the miners; an<l in 
this shape the matter stands at present, so far as 
Congress and the State Legislature Mr con- 
cerned. 

The Fanners Meet and Deliberate. 

Early in the month of Januai-y hist, the fai in- 
ers of Sutter and Yul«a eounties, including some 
other cla.sses of business men, began liolding 
meetings in Marj'sville to consider this question 
and devise some feasible iilan loc^kiiig to its tiiial 
adjustment. At these meetings a wide diversity 
of ojiiiiion prevailed as to the projwr means to 
be i)ursiied for gaining the eixl projioued, those 
present thereat not being agreed in regard to the 
rights and liabilities of the miners in the prem- 
ises. These deliberations, however, finally cul- 
minated in the appointment of a committee, 
charged with the duty of preparing a bill to be 
submitted to the l^tate Legi.slature then in 
sessir)n, by the provisions of w liich .all hyilranlic 
niinei-s are to be maile resjionsible for injuries of 
this kind in amounts iiroportioned to the <|Uan- 
tity of tailings they run olF, it having been fur- 
ther deteiiniiied to petition that body for the 
enactment of a 'law whereby the cl.amage arising 
from hydraulic washings ni.ay be, if possible, 
prevented. 

rhey Finally Combine for Aggressive Purposes — 
The Legal Content Renewed. 

Along in the early part of the suiiiiiier the 
land owiiere, .after much conference, began 
forming associations in the several townships 
most allected by the .aceumuLatiou of thi.s hy- 
draulic debri.s. Towanls the Latter part of .luly. 
.James H. Keycs, a fanner residing on Lower 
Bear river, where he owned and cultivated 
about l,t)ltO acres of ixittom land, commenced a 
suit in the Fourth .(udicial District against the 
prinoijial hydraulic miners tailing into Bear river 
and its tributaries, it being understood that 
Keyes, in this action, represented the Farmers' 
Association of Wheatland township. .Sutter 
county. The defendants to this suit consist of 
22 dilferent p.arties, some of them incorporated 
comp.aiiies and others indiviilu.al or partliershili 
coneenis; there being inelmled in the number 
sever.al properties of consiileiable value, and 
which are being operated on a moderately large 
scale, Init none that rank among the first class 
in the .State. This suit is brought in e(|uity 
for the reason, as the plaintilf .alleges, that he 
would, in a court of law, be without remedy. 
Having set forth his cause of grievance, the 
ciiiiiplaiiiant ])rays that by a decree of the 
Court the defendants be peii)etually enjoined 
and restrained from dojiositing the tailings and 
debris of their sever.al mining claims in the 
channel of Bear river or any of its tributaries, 
or sufleriug them to How therein, as well also as 
from fouling or polluting the water of those 
streams, thereby rendering it uulit for domestic 
use or the purpose of irrigation: and, further, 
that the defendants lie by order of the Court 
restrained from committing any of said iicts 
during the ]>endency of this suit, and that the 
plaintitf have judgment for costs incurred in 
prosecuting the same. That he has proceeded 
to seek relief in equity instead of instituting an 
action for damages in law against each of these 
defendants is, .as the plaintitf avers, because 
this latter course wnnld necessitate the com- 
mencement by him of .at least ■"•(I diti'erent .actions, 
to say notliing of others afterw.ards reipiired to 
prevent a repetition of the.se wrongful doings, the 
costs of which would greatly exceed any .amount 
of damages he might hope to recover, even if a 
judgment olitained .against these parties could 
lie collected, which, owing to their being tran- 
sient and irresiionsible persons, it could not. 

Damage— Past and Prospective. 

In this complaint it is allirmed that the dc- 
fend.ants are running these tailings into the 
streams mentione<l at the r.ate of 8.()0I),000 
cubic yards per annum, they having within the 
past three years deposited over 20,000,001) cubic 
y.anls therein: that the Ixulies of gravel ujxni 
w hioh they .are operating are of such m.agnitude 
that they cannot be run oil' in the course of 20 
years, during which time, if the sending <lown 
of these tailin.;s is suffered to go on without 
effectual measures beuig t.aken to prevent their 
lodgment upon the bcjttom lands along ' Bear 
river, amounting to some 40,00!) acres, these 



lands will lie so covere<l up .as to render them 
unfit for cultivation. 10,0(K(.a(Tes thereof ha\Hng 
already bei'n <'overed by a stratum of this 
ni.iteri.al to a depth of three feet or more; and, 
finally, th.at a part of the coinplainant's land, of 
which he has iiver a thou.sand acres, has .already 
in this manner been inundated to a depth vary- 
ing from three inches to three feet, and that 
more of it would have l>een so overllowed had hv 
not, at an expense of several thous;iiid ilollars, 
coiiMtrueted levees for its jiroteetion. 

The Miners also League Together for Mutual 
Protection. 

Foreseeing in this movement a threatened 
danger to this entire branch of business, the 
large hydraulic operat<us and diteh owners 
throughout the more central mining counties, 
resolved, after the example set them by the 
farmers, to ado]it a phm of co-operation for 
their mutual aid and security, to which end an 
alliance, styleil the Hydraulic Miners' .Associa- 
tion, was, in .September last, formed in this 
city, the jneliminary steps looking to .such an 
organization having been taken some time 
liefore. The first and most ellicient parties in 
bringing about this union of forces were the 
large companies, who, though not yet sued and 
abundantly able to t.ake care of themselves 
should they lie assailed, generously undertook 
the defense of their wealier brethren who hail 
alreaily been attacked, ami who, with their 
limited means, might not have been able to cope 
successfully with the powerful comliination 
arrayed against them. 

This iissoci.ation is conqjosed wholly of com- 
panies and persons owning or interested in the 
various branches of gold mining in California, or 
in water-ditches, tail-sluices and other prop- 
erties auxiliary or .i,p]mrteiiaiit to some depart- 
ment of this business. Already its member- 
ships comprise .all the more iinportivnt com- 
l)anies in the .State, the actual value of the' 
property represented thereby amounting, at a 
fair estim.ate. to not less than twenty-live or 
thirty millions of dollars, which sum, it is highly 
probable, will in the end be increased to the 
extent of ten or fifteen millions more. The 
main purpose of this .association will be to ile- 
fcnd all suits brought against any of its members 
wherein any question of general interest or 
principle of common aiqilication is involved, 
they employing counsel .ami d« fraying all the 
costs attending such litigation to its i.ssue in 
the tribunals of final resort, shouhl not a sat- 
isfactory result be sooner reached. Among 
seeomhvry olijects will be the cultivation of 
friendly relations between the members, and the 
general advancement of this branch of mining: 
to which end a commodious ottiee to serve for 
the trau.saction of Im.-iiness and as a place of 
common resort, will be maintained at a eon- 
veiiieiit locality in the city of .San Francisco, it 
being the intention of the founders to make this 
a permanent an<l actively useful institution. 

The Legal Questions and Equities of the Case 

As regards the merits as well as the ques- 
tions of law involvefl, there is, of course, some- 
thing to 1)6 said on Ixith sides of this contro- 
versy. It certainly seems a great hardship that 
so much of these lands, which the present own- 
ers have bought from the (uiveniment .and 
afterwards improved, should be rendered worth- 
less or even have their value temporarily im- 
p.aired, through the causes conqdained of. The 
injury already done is consiileiable, ami if the 
flow of these tailings is suffered to go on with<mt 
diversion or ab.atement, large .additional portions 
of these valuable bottoms must hereafter be in- 
vaded and, for a time at least, be rendered untit 
for cultivation; and the fact that this de- 
structive jirocess is liable to be at any time 
greatly accelerated by one of those winter floods 
that ])eriodically occur in these mountain creeks 
and rivers, is one that should not be lost sight of. 
It is a fund.ameiital principle of law, say these 
fanners, that every man shall be required to so 
use his property as not to cause injury or an- 
noyance to his neighbor, and that for every in- 
tentional injury done the law provides a remedy. 
The injury in this instance lieing palpable .and 
unquestioned, these gotxl peojile are now anxious 
to see the remedial clause of this legal maxim 
liractic.ally tested. To this sort of argument 

The Miners Reply: 
We too have Ixmght our lands from the Gen- 
eral (iovernment, jiaying double prices therefor 
uniler the imijliefl .assurance that we should be 
permitteil to go on and utilize them in the man- 
ner we had been accustomed to do; our occu- 
pation and subsequent iiurchase thereof having 
long ante-dated that o(^ the farmers, while our 
improvements have cost .a hiiiiilredfold innie 
than theirs. We entered upon these lands with 
the coiLsent .and approv.al of the (Jovernment 
nearly thirty years ago, and then ami there com- 
menced this business of gold mining, buihling it 
up and establishing it by such rules and regula- 
tions as our haril necessities suggested and our 
protection required; which local rules, through 
geuer.al a<loption and long use, came at last 
to be recognized everywhere as law, the courts 
being governed liy them, while Congress an<l 
the State Legisl.ature declared that they should 
have the full force and authority of statutory 
eiLactments. .-\niong t^se local rules, so re- 
ceived and engrafted upon our general code of 
laws, was one providing that the hydraulic miners 
might introduce foreign water upon their claims 
for the purjiose of washing, and there discharge 
the same, allowing it to- How thence into the ad- 
jacent rivers and canyons, regardle.ss as to what 
might become of it .afterward. Many years after 
these local regulations had, through prescription, 
sf> gained univer.sal recognition and the force of 



law, and in some instances even after they h.id 
received the sanction of the highest authorities, 
h^gisl.ative .and judicial, these fanners, .although 
there w.as then still plenty of public land else- 
w here iqioii which to settle, c:une and planted 
theiiLselves right in the jiatli of this outHowing 
seiliment, Ijeiiig at the time well .vhnsed .as to 
the existence of these usages, and the danger to 
which they were thus exposing them.selves. 
Tln;j acted with their eyes open; acted with a 
full knowledge of the rights of the miners, the 
decisions of the courts, anil the declarations of 
the (iovernment, as well as of the manner in 
which this sand, gravel iind sediment h,a«l al- 
ready begun to lodge along these sever.al outlets, 
and Wiis likely thereafter to accumulate to a 
damaging extent, and that having so acted, with 
a knowledge of all these facts, they should not 
now comphiin, much less' appeal to the tribunals 
of the country for relief against a troulile that 
they heedlessly brought upon themselves. More- 
over, it is contended by the miners that this 
vexatious and hurtful nuiterial might easily 
liavit been converted from an agent of annoyance 
and harm into one of fertility and wealth, Inul 
these thriftless husbandmen adopted timely 
means for distributing it over their lands, instead 
of suffering it to accumulate in undue quantities 
along the margins of the streams. These tail- 
ings, by the time they have reached the lower 
v.alleys, where the most of these alluvial lands 
.arc situated, consist of a mere silt, or .at most a 
finely comminuted sand, all the large stones, 
gravel and coarser sand being left behind the 
Ix'ulders in the mining pits, .and the balance of 
this stuff in the beds and .along the banks of the 
canyons .and streams above. The water, when 
it arrives in the \icinity of these Viottom lands, 
being charged with this fine sediment and 
warmed by the sun. is in a condition highly 
favor.able for use both ;is an irrigator and fertil- 
izer of the soil, to which puriMises it might in 
all cases be ajildied with great ;vdvaiit;ig«. 

Disastrous Effects of Closing the Mines. 

The foregoing, while they cover the leading 
Jioints, do not by any means embrace all the 
arguments employed by the miners in defense of 
their cause. It is urged, for example, that to 
stop this lir.oneh of gold mining, which is now 
turning out some twelve to fifteen million ihillars 
per year, wouhl, at this juncture, be likely to 
greatly eiubarr.osss the (ieneraHTOvernment, and 
]iossibIy inflict serious injury upon our credit 
abroad ; the great want of the Federal Treasury, 
and, indeed, of the entire financial world, being 
just now a fuller supply of this cl.ass of the 
precious niet;ds ; again, the destruction of this 
business would fall with crushing effect ujxm 
many other industries and callings in the .State, 
to say nothing of the ruin that must thereby be 
entailed niioii that large .and enterprising cl;»ss 
of citizens who, relyiug upon the rulings of the 
courts and the pledged faith of the nation, have 
invested so many millions in these hydraulic 
mines, ditches, reservoirs and other works sub- 
sidiary theret<j. In this entire class of improve- 
ments there have been expended, first and last, 
not less thjui fifty millions of ihillars in this 
.State, and this not including exjienditures maile 
on account of enterprises carried out and ended, 
or tho.sc deail and profitless works, of which we 
have had so many in our day. Upon what is 
known as the .San .Juiui divide, being the high 
ridge lying between the .South and Sie Middle 
forks of the Yuba, there has been expended on 
and about what may lie considered live enter- 
prises, pureha.ses and improvements all included, 
fully twenty million dollars, all of which with 
the stopjKige of hydraidic w.osliing would be 
extinguished at a blow. To arrest this industry, 
even in that one locality. Mould be to throw 
thousands of well-jiaid laliorers out of employ- 
ment, dry up Viist and costly ditches and res- 
ervoirs, blot out of existence jKipulons and 
thrifty towns, as if swept by fire, and in short, 
restore this entire district to its original solitude 
and desolation, no other style of mining being 
here largely prosecuted, and the other uatur.al 
resources of the country l>eing of limited extent. 

This divide has been estimated by tlie U. S. 
Commissioner of Statistics to contain 1,820,000,- 
000 cubic yanls of auriferous gravel, which, at 
the lowest calculation, will yield, under hy- 
draulic treatment, .30 cents per cubic yard, 
making the value of the gold here contained 
$54(5. (K to, 000— a sum "which can only Ije ex- 
tracted by the hydraulic method of washing, 
and which it is not to be supposed either our 
(iovernment or our people will consent shall be 
lost to commerce and the world because of the 
comparatively tinHiug damage that Miould, by 
the process of its extraction, be infiicted ujxin 
the farming lands below. And this is but one 
of the many localities, .almost equally important, 
that might be instanced in Califonii.a. .Such, 
then, are some of the arguments upon which the 
hydrivulic miners will rely to defeat the suits in- 
stituted against them, and to justify themselves 
in continuing .and extentling still further this 
class of operations. 

Legal Foes but Personal Friends. 

It is proper to observe that notwithstanding 
their clashing views and interests, very little ill 
feeling has been manifested by the parties t<> 
this contest, which has thus far been carried on 
ill a conciliatory, and we might almost say, 
friendly spirit. Each is aware that the other 
jxissesses rights in the premises that are en- 
titled to consideration aud respect, lx)th being 
alike anxious for an early ailjustraent of their 
difficulties through legislative or other peaceful 
iustrumeutalities if possible and through the 
intervention of the courts if necessary. No in- 
temperate charges have buen maile nor acrimoni- 



January 13, 1877.] 



27 



ous spirit indulgexl in, nor can it be said that 
either party has, rturin" the progress of this 
contest, shown a disposition to prejudice the 
clain\8 or othenni.se sectire any iih<hie advantage 
over its riv.al. So good an understanding has 
indeed been maintained betweeri these two 
classes, that several of the larger mine owners 
are even now assisting the farmers of Linda 
township, Yuba county, in the construction of 
an extensi\-e and costly le\'ee. whereby many 
thous.aad acres of Ixittom land along the lower 
Yuba will be protected from threatened over- 
flow, the voluntary contributions of these consid- 
ei'ate and laige hearted men in aid of this work 
amounting to some fifteen or twenty thousand 
dollars. Outside this legal tight friendly re- 
lations and the most cordial good will are, and 
no doubt will continue to lie, cherished between 
the contestants, who, it is to be hoped, will yet 
be aide to meet upon some common groun<l and 
through their joint influence and efforts procure 
such legislation as will admit of their difTer- 
enoes being settled and disposed of without 
the intervention of the courts. 

To put an entire stop to this branch of min- 
ing is out of the c|uestion. In the discussion oj 
this matter, that much may safely be assumed. 
To hold the hydraulic miners answerable to the 
extent that each contributes towards the dam- 
age done, even if just, would hardly be practi- 
cable. If attempted, this plan would lead to 
such .an amount of litigation and strife as would 
necessitate its early abandonment. This ques- 
tion must be settled, not by recourse to tempo- 
rary shifts and expedients, but upon a broad 
and permanent basis, and in a mannei- that will 
take it out of the j)rovince of endless and costly 
contention, the welfai'e of the Government and 
the community at large being consulted as well 
as that of the parties more immediately inter- 
ested. 

A Feasible Way Out of these DIffjcullies. 

Now, fortniiately, a solution of this problem, 
in accordance with the views above expressed, 
is by the best authorities deeme<l altogether 
feasible. Situate along the main arteries of our 
river system are vast tracts i)f tiile swamps, upon 
which this debris from the hydraulic mines can 
readily be conducted, and in the reclamation 
and improvement of which it would be of ines- 
timable vaule. Large portions of the.se marshes, 
even at low tide, are covered with water, ancl 
cannot therefore be drained l)y means of ditch- 
ing, nor can the water be wholly excluded from 
them by levees, owing to the loose iind ])orcius 
natvire of the soil. To eft'ectnally pi'otect them 
from overflow and seepage thej' ~will have to be 
so tilled in as to raise the entire surface above 
high tide level. The mass of this soil being 
made up of tule roots, covered with a layer of 
decomposed vegetable matter there will ha\e 
to be .added to it some material suited to give 
it body and substance before it can be success- 
fully cultiv.ated. The only me.ans by which 
these several ends can be accomplished will lie 
by running upon these swamps this muddy wa- 
ter from the mines, and there ret.aining it until 
it has deposited the bulk of its impacting and 
fertilizing freight. \Yhen recovered in this 
manner these will be much the most val- 
uable lands in the State, selling for prices that 
would greatly exceed the cost of their reclama- 
tion. At the present time, when we are threat- 
ened with one of those disastrous drouths 
which at irregul.ar intervals may be expected to 
occur in (^,aliforni<a, cutting short the cereal 
ci-ops, diying up the grass and decimating our 
flocks and herds, the great value of these tule 
lands becomes strikingly apparent. Improved 
in the manner indicated, these now worthless 
swamps would afl'ord millions of acres of luxu- 
riant, self-renewing pasturage, through the aid 
of which this inunense destruction of 2)roperty 
in seasons of drouth might be almost wholly 
averted. ^Vhile so much would in this man- 
ner be saved, t«'o of our most imjjortant and 
perplexing industrial problems would, through 
the adoption of the policy here jecommeuded, 
find a satisfactory solution : a recep+acle being 
pro\-ided for the hydraulic sedinrent, and the 
vast expanse of tule s^iamps, now the breeders 
of mosquitoes and malaria, would be converted 
into the garden lands of the world. Let, then, 
the farmers .and the nuners, instead of wasting 
their time and money in a strife that can in no 
event be determined for years, unite their 
•trength and procure such legislation to be ta- 
ken as will inaugurate this reclamatory work 
with the le.ast possible del.ay. If the St.ate 
.Legislature is not competent to de.al with the 
subject in all its aspects, then let their .action 
be supplemented by such congressional or de- 
partmental measures as its ett'ectual treatment 
may call for. 



Oil from Woot>. — In Sweden the manuf,a(^turc 
of illuminating oil from wood has become a large 
and successful industry. The roots and stumps 
of trees are employed for the purpose. The 
wood is subjected to di-y distillation, with ex- 
clusion of air, and a variety of products are 
formed which arc of value in the arts. Among 
these may be mentioned* turpentine, creosote, 
tar, acetic acid, charco.al, oil of tar and oil 
of wood. The wood oil cannot be burned in an 
ordinary lamp, l)ut a camphene lamp can easily 
be ad<apteil for tlic purpose. It is not explosive 
.and is remark.ably cheap. The pine tree is the 
best .ad.aptcd for distill.ation, and there .are 1,5 
establishments in oper.ation in Sweden, three of 
which produce l.'ijWO liters (887 g.allons) of oil 
annually. 



Woodward's Garde.V8 embraces an Aquarium, UuBeuiu, 
Art (i^Iler)', Coii-servatories, Tropicftl Houses, Menagerie, 
Seal Pondi and SkuttutfiKiiik. 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents 

OFFICE, 224 SANSOME STREET, S. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats tiled 
expeditiously; Patent Reissues t.aken out 
Assignments made .and recorded in legal fonn; 
I'opies of Patents .and Assignments procured; 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 
^Yashington; Examinations made of Assign- 
ments recorded in Washington: Examinations 
oi-dered and rcpoi'ted by Telegraph; Rejected 
cases taken up and Patents obt.ained; Inter- 
ferences Prosecuted; Opinions rendered re- 
garding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Patent 
Agency Business promptly .and thoroughly- 
conducted. 

Oui' inornate knowledge of the various inven- 
tions of this coast, and long prac.-tice in jiatent 
business, enable us to altundantly satisfy our 
patrons; and our success and business are 
constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
mir widely circulated, tirst-class journals — 
therel)y facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popul.arity. 

foreign Patents. 

In .addition to American Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-oper.ative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
P.atents, including (ire.at Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austri.a, Baden, Peru, 
Bussia, Sp.ain, British India, Saxony, British 
Colundiia, Can.ada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico. 
Victoria, Brazil, Bav.aria, Holl.and, Denm.ark, 
Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemburg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, (Queensland, T.asmania, Brazil, New 
Cranada, Chile, Argentine Rejniblic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obt<ainable. 

No models are required in Euroj)ean countries, 
but the drawings .and sjiecitications should be 
])repared with thoroughness, by .able persons 
who are familiar with the requirements and 
changes of foreign p.atent Laws — agents who 
are reli.able .and perm.anently established. 

Our schedule price for obtaining foreign p,atents, 
in all cases, will always be as low, and in 
some instances lower, than those of any other 
responsible .agency. 

We rail nnil do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country) 
.■LOOSER than any other .agents. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all fonner 
cases, and can more correctly judge of the 
value .and jiatentability of inventions jdiscov- 
ered here than any other .agents. 

Situated .so remote from the se.at of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than t( applicants in 
the Eastern iStates. Valuable patents may be 
lost by extra time consumed in transmitting 
specifications from Eastern agencies back to 
this coast for the sign.ature of the inventor. 

Confidential. 

^^'e take great i);i-ins to preserve seci-ecy in 
all confidential matters, and api)licaiits for 
jiatents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations .and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obt<aining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast h.as f.amiliarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to .save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing to them the same 
thing already covered uy a patent. We are 
always free to a<Uise ajiplicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous .applicants 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

^^ e invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and jiatent right busi- 
ness, believing th.at the mutu.al conference of 
legitimate business .and profess on.al men is 
mutual g<ain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents or pur- 
chaser of p.atented articles, can often receive 
advice of import.ance to them from a short call 
at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the (Tovernment, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
.applicants have not only lo.st their money, but 
their inventions .also, fnun this cause .and con- 
sequent delay. We hold ourselves responsible 
for all fees entnisted to our .agency. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in our own otlice, and 
all facilities for producing fine and s.atisfactory 
illustrations of inventions .and machinery, for 
newspaper, book.circidar and other printed il- 
lustr.aticms, .and .are .always ready to .assist 
patnms in bringing their A-.alu.able discoveries 
mto jinactical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO., 

United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining .and .Scientific Press and tl e 
Pacific Rural Prass, 224 Sansome St., S. F. 



Beware of Dry Seasons ! I B^ggog^s^ Difi^ic|< 



Cultivate Irrig-ated Land and Get Two 
Crops a Year. No Failure. 

Irriy:iite(I I^and for sale in quantities to suit, on the in- 
stallment plan; four vears* credit, no interest charged. 
NO CHARGE FOR WATKR F<»R IRRIGATION. On 
railroad, only nine hours from San Fnincisco. Ad;ipted 
to the ^'rowth of semi-tropical fruits and all veiJfetable 
prodnctions. 

THE BEST ALFALFA LAND N CALIFORNIA. 

Also, Irriffated land for rent in quantities to suit, free 
of charf^e this season, adjoininsr the (Colony, three miles 
from Fresno. 

Call or send for Maps, Circulars, etc. 
CENTRAL, CALIFORNIA COLONY, 

306 Pine Street, San Francisco. 
M. THKO. KEARNEY, Manager. 

CALIFORNIA 




For oircmlars, address 

Rev. DAVID McCLURE, Principal, 
OAKLAND, CAL. 



CALIFORNIA FARMERS' MUTUAL 

Fire Insurance Association, 

No. 38 California Street, 

((IKANCKRS' Rni-KIN'C:,) 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 



CAPITAL, - - - 
ASSETS, OCT. 19, 1876, 



$200,000 00 
268,716 00 



MUTUAL PLAN. 



AMorsr. I'RKMU.MS 

.S.'"),lSl,.'i!il.OO >fll4,445..'i7 
. 300,044.00 (i,2it7.50 



Risks written to Oct. I, 
Less .\inonnt Canceled. 

.\niount in force, Oct. 1, 76. ..S4,8.S0.S)4r.00 *108,14S.«7 
Losses i>aid ir,2,'il.00 

CASH PLAN. 



AMOrNT. 



PRK.MICMS. 



Risks written to Oct. 1, 76 g2,.'>8.'i,ni4.19 .*51,«0(>,« 

Less Canceled and Expired 97fi,ii08.00 lS),5:i8.1( 

Anionnt in force, Oct. 1, 70. . . .¥t,(i09,00(i.l9 ¥S2,0«8.S0 
Losses paid S10,L'>3.71 



OFFICERS. 

.). \). BLANCHAR Phesidknt 

\. G. GARDNER Vicb-Prksident 

(!. P. KELLOOf! Trk.^hirkr 

A. \V. THOMPS( )N Attorney 

EERI). K. RULE SucBKIARV 

TRUSTEES. 

.1, D. Blanchar : San Francisco 

G. P. Kellogg ,„.>.»,,), Salinas 

\. G. Gardner Sari Francisco 

Chas. Laird Salinas 

Uriah Wood San Benito 

A. B. Nallv Santa Rosa 

A. W. Thomp.son San Francisco 

A. D. Logan Colnsa 

\. C. Steele San .Mateo 

G. W Colhy ■ Butte County 

A. Wolf. . ." .-...'.'.■.....:... ..Stockton 

C. J. (Vesse.v ,.,■...<.;, a,... -./..i.-. . .Oakland 

.). C. .Merrytield Di.xon 

E. W. Steele San Lliis Ohisjjo 

C. S. Abbott Monterey 

Dr. T. YWnl llollister 

Farm property insured at actual cost on the Mutual 
Plan. Other desirable property insured, and rated accord- 
inif to merit. 



TYPE FOR SALE. 

\ 

A LARUE QUANTITY OF BREVIEK AND NONPA- 
REIL TYPE, ?'ORMERLY USED ON THIS PAPER. 
FOR SALE AT A BARGAIN. ADDRESS 

DEWEY & CO., 
224 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 



LO^Kl 

ALBERT E. BURBANK, import- 
ei' and breeder of Fancy Fowls, 
Piifoons, Rabbits, Do(ts, Birds, Etc. , 
Eggs for hatching from the finest of 
imported stock. Eggs and Fowls 
at reduced prices, .Send stami) for 
Price List. 

ALBERT E. BURBANK, 
4:i and -H Califorjiia .Market, S. F. 




CHARCOAL 
DENTAL SOAP 

for Whitening and I're- 
i-r\ing the Twth. J. IV. Anoki.i,, Prop., San Vrancisco. 



A¥GELL*S 



plrckaskkh ok stock will kind is thim dlkectory the 
Namks of homk ok thk Most Krliablk Rrmkdkks.'^ 

Our Ratks. — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



A. MAILLIARD, San Rafael, Marin Or, Cal., 
breeder of Jcrscvs. Cahes for sale. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Francisco, 

(or <\>tate Hanch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.), Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 

R. G. SNE ATH, San Brun», Cal. , breeder of Jersej- 
cattle. Has .Jersey bulls for sale-various ages— at S40 

to *100. 

P. STANTON, Sacramento, Cal., breeder of choice 
.Ierse\' Cattle. Bulls, Cows and Calves for sale. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Inipoiter and 
Breeder ot Spaiiiyh Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 

B, P. WATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thorou;{h- 
bred Spanisli Merino Sheep. 



M. EYRE, Jr., Napa. Cal. Thorousrhhred Southdown 
Sheep. Rams and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $20 each; 
Lambs, ^\'* each. 

LANDRUM & RODGERS, VVat.«onville, Cal. Im- 
jjorters and breeders of Pure Breed An;;ora G<»ats. 



POULTRY. 



ALBERT E. BURBANK, 43 and 44 California St. , 

S. F. Fancy Fowls, Pigeons, Raljbits, Etc. 

W. H. GROVES, Stockton, Cal. Eggs for Hatching 
from Pedigree and Selected Light and Dark Brahma, 
Buff Cochin, White and Brown Leghorns. For prices ad- 
dress as above. For sale, a few fine White Leghorns. 



M. FALLON, Cf>rner Seventh and Oak streets, Oak- 
land Bronze Turkeys. Ulioice Eggs for Hatching 
fr<jm Pure Bred Fowls. 



J. M. KERLINGER, Ellis. San .loaquin Co. 
Brown Leghorns a specialty. 



MRS. L. J. WATKINS, Santa Clara. Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, S. S. Ham- 
burgs, L. Brahmas and B. B. Red Game Bantams. Also 
Eggs. 



SWIIl/E. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San .Toaquin Co., 
Cal. Breeder of lni|iroved Berkshire Swine. 



Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



AuMiorized Capital - $5,000,000. 

OFFICERS: 

Presidknt OILBKKT W. COLBY. 

Manaoinc; Dikkctdr C. J. CRKS.SEY. 

Cashier ALBKKT MONTPELLIER. 

Secretary. Jt..<i . *,i F. .\. CUiKSSKY. 



The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking busines.s. 



iiiift 




R. S. THOiVIPSON, 

IMl'ORTKH .*Nn IIRKKDKK IN 

PURE BERKSHIRE SWINE, 
NAPA, CAL. 



SELECT AND 
HEAVY FLEECED MERINO SHEEP. 

During the winter I will be in San Francisco with some 
.Merino Rams and Ewes that aro sold, and if corresi)oiid- 
ents in California and Texas 8end their orders with re- 
mittance, we can deliver at same lime. 

JOHN S. GOE, 
Brownsville, Fayette Co., Pa. 



BERKSHIRES. 

I am breeding PURE'ENCiLISH BEHKSHIRE PIG.S 
and have them constantly on hand Also, fifteen two and 
thrce-year^)ld Sows, several of them with I'ig. These arc 
all from Pigs I in\por.ed from Kentucky. 

PETER SAXE, Importer. 

Commuri'ial Hotel, San Francisco. 



28 



^^Q^MmQ t^^^t^M3 ^(Rtx^SBi 



[January 13, 1877. 



California Pisciculture. 

The past year has shown quite an increase in 
the catch of some of the varieties of fish of Cal- 
ifornia. The increase in sahnon has been most 
marked, and shows already that hy artificial 
hatching the supply of this fish can be almost 
indefinitely increased. Observations during the 
past year have proven that this fish is to be 
found in California every month in the year, 
which is not the case elsewhere. The Fish 
Commissioners of this State have, so far as the 
means at their disposal would admit, acted with 
energy and good judgment. 

The law making a close season Vietween Au- 
gust 1st and November 1st, has been well en- 
forced and with the result that further prosecu- 
tion for violations will probably not be necessary 
in the,future. In the carrying out of the pro- 
gramme of the law, the Commissioners have 
been materially aiiled by the railroad and trans- 
portation companies, who forbade their agents 
and employees to transport salmon out of sea- 
son. 

Successful Propagation of Shad 

The closed season for .shad will expire in De- 
cember, 1877. At that time it is believed by 
the Fish Commissioners that the nattrral in- 
crease of the fish will be so great as to prevent 
their extinction on this coast. As experiments 
have shown tliat young shad cannot be kept in 
safety for a longer time than seven days, I'rof. 
Baird, of the United States Fish Commission, 
will make no attempts to send them from the 
Atlantic coast to Oregon. He intends, if pos- 
sible, to send a full carload of young shad — 
about 3,000,000 — during the coming season, 
which will be jilaced in the Sacramento river. 
Witli this additional number it is thought the 
entire Pacific coast, from San Diego northward, 
will be amply stocked, as from the young shad 
heretofore place<l in the Sacramento river, ailult 
fish have been taken at various points, from 
Wilmington to the Columbia river. Although 
the taking of shad is at present not lawful, yet 
numbers have been caught in nets set for otlier 
fiih at various points in this State. The latest 
instance known to the Fish Commissioners Wiis 
the taking of two adult shad in Sonoma creek 
last week. Tliese fish were almost ready to 
spawn, and their ripe condition so early in the 
season shows that they can be taken here about 
the same time as in Alabama and Florida. 
During the past yearthe Fish Commissioners of 
California have placed 1'2,">,000 young shad in 

food condition into the Sacramento river near 
"ehama. 

Stocking the Rivers With Salmon. 

During the p.ist year the Fish Commissioners 
have had hatched out and placed in the Upper 
Sacramento, Pitt and McCloud rivers 2,500,000 
young salmon, care having been taken to dis- 
tribute them in tlie smaller tributary streams, 
80 as to protect tliese young fish from troijt and 
other enemies. The Commissioners expect to 
hatch out and put into the Sacramento and other 
interior rivers a similar number next year, and 
will continue to do so annually as long as the 
Legislature of California will make suitable ap- 
propriations for the purpose. From investiga- 
tions made by them, the Commissioners are sat- 
isfied that the artificial hatching and introduc- 
tion of the above numberof young salmon yearly 
into the Sacramento river, in addition to tlie 
i icrease from natural sources, will be ample to 
keep up and even increase the supply of salmon 
beyond the consumption of our pei)ple. They 
believe that the business of canning salmon for 
export, as now practiceil on the Columbia river, 
can, in such case, be made profitable in Califor- 
nia. The value of salmon canned the past ye.ar 
on the Columbia river is estimated at about".'<4,- 
000,000, the supply being inadequate to the de- 
mand. The article of canned salmon is finding 
increased sale wherever introduced, and there 
seems practically to be almost no limit to the 
demands in the future. The proprietors of tlie 
canntr es have already made contracts in ad- 
vance for nearly •200,000 cases of the ntxt sea- 
son's catch. The limit of the supply of salmon 
in the Columbia river is said to have been 
reached, an 1 unless artificial hatching is engaged 
in, that river will become as unproductive .as was 
the case in California rivers a lew years since. 
Some of the parties engaged in canning salmon 
on the Columbia river are in favor of the State 
of Oregon and tlie United Stat«s taking some 
joint action in preserving and restocking that 
stream. They state they will assist in defray- 
ing the expense attending artificial hatching of 
salmon, and that a sum of §5,000 to .^JIO.OOO ex- 
pended yearly would be ample to keep up the 
present supply of fish in that river. The Fisli 
Commissioners of this State report that the 
200,000 young salmon placed in the Truckee and 
Little Truckee rivers, Donner lake and Prosser 
creek have done well, the young fish having 
lately been seen in those waters in great num- 
bers. Should these fish sur\'ive the perils of 
poison from saw dust and almost imi>a8sable 
dams on the Truckee river, they will find their 
way to Pyramid lake, and thence annually re- 
turn to stock the waters from whence they 
came. Tlie water of Pyramid lake is said to be 
somewhat salt and abounds with suitable food 
for salmon. During the past year the Fish 
Commissioners have ma<le arrangements to ex- 
change salmon eggs for desirable fish, natives of 
Japan and Hawaii. To the latter tliey sent 
30,000 eggs, a portion of which are reported to 
have hatched out and doing w«ll From Hono- 



lulu a quantity of young fish were shipped to 
this port, but from lack of care died while on 
the voyage. These fish — the arva — are said to 
attain the weight of 15 pounds, resembling the 
salmon in looks, but tasting more like a shad, 
without, however, that fish's abundance of small 
bones. The arrangements for an exchange with 
Japan were made so late in the year tliat 
salmon eggs could not be sent this season. The 
Commissioners sent, however, Viy the steamer 
which sailed on the M inst., ,30,000 white-fish 
eggs, a portion of a supply just received from 
Michigan. They will also send some f'.astem 
trout eggs when received, and some eggs of the 
Sacramento river trout, in March next. In re- 
turn tl>e Commissioners expect to receive some 
mullet and carp, both being of fine eating 
quality. Other varieties of fish are also prom- 
i ed f;om Japan. 

lii?ortation of White-Fish Eggs. 

The Commissioners have just received a ship- 
ment of .SOO.OOO white-fish eggs in good order, 
from Michigan. One-half tliis number were 
sent to New Zealand by the last steamer, under 
arrangements made by Prof. Baird, United 
States Fish Commissioner. Another lot of 300,- 
000 white-fish eggs is expected to arrive here in 
a few days, to be divided as above. Those re- 
tained by the Commissioners are to be hatched 
out at Berkeley, ami afterwards to be distributed 
in the waters of Talioe and Donner lakes, and 
Kagle lake, in Lassen county. The white fish 
placed some years since in 'Tulare lake are re- 
))(irted to have done well, large quantities of tlie 
tish having been seen during the past year. Of 
tlios; placed in Clear lake very little is known, 
as very few only have been seen. As the waters 
of this lake are verj' deep, the Commissioners 
tliink the probabilities are that the fish are not 
likely to be tiiken there without systematic fish- 
ing, as is practiced in Lake Michigan, etc., 
which so far has not been tried in California 
waters. 

Experiments with Eastern Trout. 

The Commissioners expect to receive, about 
the 10th instant, 200,000 Eastern trout eggs, 
which are to be hatched out and jilaced in tlie 
public waters of this .State. When hatched out 
notice will be given to the public through the 
press, so that jiarties who may desire to stock 
waters can make ap])lication and procure tlie 
young fish from the hatching house at Berkeley. 
The Eastern trout eggs heretofore received have 
been hatched out and placed in mountain 
streams, among others the South Yub.a, North 
fork of the American and Prosser creek, also in 
Calaveriis creek and other streams in Alameda, 
Napa and Yolo counties. These fish have grown 
and thrived well, a large numl>er having 
spawned, thus insuring a continuous supply. 
Doily Varden Trout. 

The Commissioners the past year made ar- 
rangements to secure a 8upj)ly of the Dolly Var- 
den trout eggs, under the direction of Myron 
Green, of the United .States Fish Commission. 
McCloud river men were sent to the headwaters 
of that stream, but failed to obtain any eggs, 
the fish spawning in .September and October, in- 
steail of February, as is the case with the Sacra- 
mento trout. This difiTerence in spawning time, 
however, assures the prevention of hybrids, no 
other trout being then ripe with milt or eggs. 
Efforts will be m.ade the next season to procure 
a supply of eggs, with the view of distributing 
in other waters in the State which are supjilied 
by melting snows, the only places where the fish 
will thrive. These fish were supposed t<i be 
only native to the McCloud river, but it is now 
known that they are to be found in almost all 
the snow-fed rivers of the Alaskan coast empty- 
ing near Behring straits. The n.ame of this fish 
in pisciculture is Sitimo Cainphellii. 
California Trout. 

A\'ith the view of restocking some of the 
streams that have been exhausted of their n.atu- 
ral supply of fish, the Commissioners have m.ade 
arrangements to procure a quantity of eggs of 
the ordinary trout of this .State. An arrange- 
ment has been made with Myron Green, Lower 
Soda .Springs, .Siskiyou county, by which that 
gentlem.an will collect .and artificially hatch out 
a large quantity of trout eggs. A portion of 
tliese will be purchased by the Commissioners 
ill March. Thit^ trout, which is ciUled Salnio 
irUhn, is highly thought of in the Atlantic 
States, where they are considereil a shyer and 
gamer fish than the native tiout. 

Graili gs and Other Species. 

This fish, s.aid to be the most beautiful in 
.\merican waters, will he propagated in Califor- 
nia the coming season, the Commissioners liav- 
ing arranged to receive 50,000 eg^s from Mi lii- 
g.an. Tliese, when h.atched out, will be placed 
in some of the highest and coldest streams of 
the .Sierras, and in time their produce will be 
used to stock all streams in the .State which 
m.ay be of suitable clearness and temperature. 
Of the other fish introduced into California by 
the Commissioners, the majority seem to have 
done well. The Schuylkill catfish, which were 
placed in the slough near .Sutterville, have 
largely increased, and have been well distributed 
throughout the State. The Missis.sippi catfish 
placed in the .San Joaquin river have also done 
well, a number weighing from three to five 
pounds having been taken at various times. 

Tlie lilack bass in Napa and Alameda creeks 
have largely increased in numliers, and from 
these creeks it is expected to stock other waters 
of the .State. 

In 1873, the Commissioners placed in San An- 
tonio creek a number of tautog or blackfish, the 
only »alt water variety that arrived then in good 



order, These fish were strong and lively, but 
from the time they were placed in the creek 
have not been heard from. They should have 
increased and have been found in rocky waters. 
The Commissioners will this season make fur- 
ther attempts to introduce lobsters on this coast. 
With this view, Livingston .Stone, United 
.States Fish Commissioner, has lieen making a 
series of experiments to keep loVisters alive for 
a sufficient period of time to reach California. 
A full car load of lobsters and salt water fish 
will be brought to this State during the coming 
season. —BulHin. 

Public Health. 

In comparison with several of the years last 
past the death rate in this city is alarming, and 
it is feared that if the present dry weather con- 
tinues, a still further proportionate increase 
may be expected. The eiiidemic of small-pox, 
which has prevailed for some months in San 
Francisco, has of course materially increased the 
death rate, and now for some time the equally, 
f not more, dangerous diphtheria is commit- 
ting its ravages. This is by no means confined 
to the city, as it extends all over the coast, 
varying, however, in degree in different locali- 
ties. This scourge is principally confined to the 
little folks and is not considered dangerous to 
grown persons. Throat affections of different 
kinds are prevalent, however, among grown 
people also. 

Diphtheria has now become so dangerous to 
children that parents all over the coast are 
greatly alarmed and every remedy is tried. No 
specific has yet been found, however, and phys- 
icians diB<agree as to cause as well as to treat- 
ment. Although this is no uncommon circum- 
stance, the treatment varies so greatly that the 
opinion prevails that the profession knows less 
aixiut the disease than its importance warrants. 
To many diphtheria is more alarming than 
small-pox itself, usually considered the most 
disagreeable and dangerous of diseases. For 
it, however, vaccination furnishes a preventive; 
for diphtheria there seems to be none, and what 
is worse, the chances ajjpear less favorable for 
recovery from the fonner than the latter. 

In some families as many as four, five or six 
children have been taken away in the space of 
two weeks. Every precaution is taken by care- 
ful parents to prevent catching the disease, but 
it appears to be in the form of an epidemic and 
one which the physicians are unable to check. 
The old theory that it owes its cause to defec- 
tive sewage seems exploded, as it ap]>ear8 in all 
localities, whether well sewered or not; and the 
interior parts of the .State are by no means free 
from it. Of course the ravages are more ajipar- 
ent in the city, owing to the density of popula- 
tion. 

It is hoped that after a few good rains the 
epidemic will cease, though no medical exjiert 
has publicly given any reason for the expecta- 
tion. The ravages now being committed by 
diphtheria are such as to call to it the most 
searching and scientific attention of the medical 
profession, for unless some sovereign remedy is 
discovered and applied it will doubtless con- 
tinue, periodically at least, to decimate the ranks 
of the children of this coast. The public nat- 
urally look to the physicians for aid, but in this 
case, sad to say, the profession seems deficient, 
and the societies throughout the country should 
give the disease the most unceasing attention in 
order to discover a remedy. 



The iNFLrENCE op Aijriciltir.^l P.vpeks. — 
A larger proportion of farmers fill our mad- 
houses than any other one class of persons in 
the land. We have before stated the reason of 
this to be the monotony of their employment, 
and want of mental stimulus. But this state of 
things is rapidly changing, by the infiuence of 
agricultural journals, which are establishing 
themselves in every section of the country. 
Their tendencies are of a healthful character in 
many ways. By telling the reason of things, 
they open up a new worlil of thought to the 
cultivator of the soil, which is pursued under 
the intluence of a stimulus the most potent in 
all lands, that of profit. Just give the most 
ordinary farmer an inkling of how he may make 
one acre jirnduce as niucli as an acre and a half 
did before, and he will dive into the subject 
with an avidity quite surprising. Then there 
is the pleasure fif intelligent cultivation, which 
is not inferior in its effect on the whole man, to 
the satisfaction of increased profits, while it is 
far purer and more elevating. — HalCs Jourmil 
of Health. 

Bekrif..'». — The Placer Herald says: Of all the 
wonders of this wondrous country, we know of 
nothing so remarkably wonderful as the feat of 
picking fresh ripe blackberries, grown on vines 
III the open air, at an altitude of about 3,000 
feet above sea level, on Christmas day. Yet 
such was really done this last Christmas by 
Chaales H. Hicks, from the \ines in his garden, 
near Yankee Jims. As proof of the fact Mr. 
Hicks sent us by mail, in a small box, last Mon- 
day, two sections of the vine, on each of which 
there were abdut a dozen berries in all 8t.ages of 
maturity; the leaves also were fresh and green. 
Among the lot some eight or ten of the berries 
were fully matured. In size they were large, 
in appearance fine, and in flavor would compare 
favorabla with average summer berries. 



Bee Pasture. 

R. Wilkin writes to the Ventura Signal, as 
follows: The valley lands in California produce 
mustard and other bloom that yield an inferior 
honey compared with that from the mountains; 
besides, cultivating the soil lessens the amount 
of hone)' produced, for a field of com, wheat or 
barley produces no honey. .Southern California, 
especially San Diego, .San Bernardino, Los An- 
geles, Ventura and Santa Barbara counties, is 
especially adapted to bee culture on account of 
the dryness of the climate and the great abun- 
dance of white and button sage, and various 
other blooms on the mountains that jield the 
whitest and best of honey. Thealfilerilla 
abounds most everj-where, and yields lar^ 
quantities of dark, pleasant tasting honey in the 
fore part of the season, much of which is con- 
sumed by the bees in producing young bees. In 
fall, after the good honey is collected, bees con- 
tinue to collect from vinegar plant and other 
sources a ilark, peppery-tasting honey that is 
quite objectionable. But by a judicious use of 
the extractor the dark honey can all be removed 
from the combs of the hive just as they are 
ready to collect the better honey, and when 
they are done collecting the fine honey cease ex- 
tracting and let the bees fill their hives with the 
inferior article for their own winter use; thus 
the different qualities of honey may be kept sep- 
arated to suit customers. Bees may be kept 
profitably even in the valleys where the popula- 
tion is most abundant, and as the valleys settle 
u p to the foothills it makes it less lonely in the 
mountain canyons and if many bees are kept in 
one place it brings more company to attend 
them. Also one may retire from his bees to his 
village home during one-half of the year, having 
them visited frequently. 

General News Items. 

It is reported that parties are in Washington 
from California whose object it is to institute a 
movement for the annexation of Lower Califor- 
nia to the United States. 

The severity of the financial crisis in Russia 
is shown by the fact that the municipality of 
Odessa, one of the richest in Russia, is unable 
to pay the salaries of its officials. 

The Assistant Treasurer of the United States 
at Phila<lelphia has filed an answer to the Cen- 
tennial Board of Finance, claiming for the Gov- 
ernment payment in full of $1,500,000 before 
stockholders are reimbursed. 

OrR merchandise exports last year aggrega- 
ted $31,056,200, and our treasure exports $49,- 
757,800, making a total of $80,814,000, which 
is the largest since the opening of the port, and 
the amount of treasure shipped is the heaviest 
in ten years. 

Greenbacks are actually worth more than 
silver coin in San Francisco at the present time. 
Monday gold coin was sold as low as six and 
one-eighth per cent, premium for greenbacks. 
Only once before since 1862 has this low pre- 
mium been reached, which was in Novemoer, 
1873. This makes legal tenders worth nearly 
94^ cents, or about one per cent, more than half 
dollars in the market. 



Albert Admitted. — We real in the proceed- 
ings of the American Short Horn convention, 
which w.as held in December in Kentucky, the 
following item: "A communication was read 
from Mr. Coleman Younger, of California, ask- 
ing that a certain bull, 'Albert,' whose pedigree 
w.as technically defective, be admitted to record 
in the American Herd Book. Mr. Allen was in 
favor of recording the bull, so as to legitimatize 
his posterity. >fr. Click called for the printing 
of the pedigree in the minutes. After a little 
discussion, a motion to admit the bull 'Albert' 
to record was carried." 



The Debris QriiSTioy in Court. —There is 
in progress this week, in the District Court at 
.S.acramento, a trial in which James H. Keyes 
brings suit against sevenal mining companies for 
injury done to his land by deposition of mining 
debris. As we go to press, testimony is being 
taken on the side of the plaintifi'. \^'e shall re- 
fer to the matter more fully next week. 



Ocr Gai.v is Popclation. — The records of 
the overland railway and the various steamship 
lines show that during the year 1876 there came 
to California 86,433 jjersons, and departed 
hence 50,983. Tliis gives us an increase of pop- 
ulation <luring the year of ,"{6,450 souls. 



The People's and Grangers' Immi- 
grant Bureau, 40 California St. 

This institution, according to reports publish- 
ed in the daily papers, has provided situations 
free of charge for more than C,000 applicants, 
and furnished 7,000 persons in search of lands 
for settlement with letters of introtiuction to 
prominent citizens in the interior. The ser- 
vices of the bureau are entirely free to all, as 
it is supported by subscription. It is just what 
we need in California, and should be supported. 
Orders for help will be filled free of cnarge to 
either employer or employee. .Send them in. 
Hundreds of immigrants are waiting for tltem. 

To have the money needlessly >pent every' ye"' would 

give niibstantial comfort to all. To h.ave the money saved 
y biiyin);. SILVER TIPPED booU and aho«« would buy 
each parent everv' year a pair of new iboM. ALw t^ 

Wu-u Quilted Wulu« 



January 13, 1877.] 



29 




Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, Jan. 10, 1877. 

The drouth and the talk about it conthiue. While the 
trade in all articles mually sent to the interior is dull and_ 
slow, the effect of the seisoii upon produce is becoming 
apparent. Nearly all kind-s of Grain and Ground Feeds 
have expectad quite a noticeible advancj during the 
week. Wheat has held its own in' spite of a slight decline 
In the cable quotations. Sales have been made at full 
prices, and to-day private dispatches report an improve- 
ment in the Liverpool market, which will strengthen the 
hands of holders, which are already firm. 

Range of Cable Prices of "WTieat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been- 
as recorded in the following table: 



Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday . 



Cal. Average. 



lis — @lls 
10s lld@ll8 
lOs lld(rtlls 
lOa Udells 
108 lldglls 
10s lldwlls 



Club. 



lis 2d(ail3 8d 

lis 2d(Sll3 7d 

lis 2d(rtll3 7d 

lis 2d(Slls 7d 

lis 2d@lls 7d 

lis 2d@lls 7d 



000 lbs slightly burry do, 15ic; 10,000 lbs Spring, 31c; 5,- 
000 lbs Western Texas, 25c'; 25,000 lbs No. 1 and above 
Ohio, 42(»17ic; 20,000 tbs unmerchantable do, 35ic; 10,000 
lbs X and above Michigan, SOJc; 5,000 tbs medium un- 
washed Western, 30c; and 505 lbs Utah, 25,000 tbs Western 
Texas, 1,000 lbs scoured do, 20.000 tbs Domestic Noils, 5,000 
tbs washed Ohio combing, and 2,000 lbs fine and medium 
State, on private terms. 

Domestic Produce. 
The following table shows the S. F. receipts of Domes- 
tic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, as com- 
pared with the receipts of previous weeks: 



Articles. 



Flour, quarter sacks . 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, sacks 

Corn, centals 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales 



Week Week Week Week 
Dec. 20. Dec. 27. Jan. 3. Jan. 10. 



73,080 

339,880 

25,206 

4,092 

7,895 

9,960 

23,392 

1,252 

342 

420 

1,021 



23,508 

157,148 

32,601 

3,449 

5,533 

3,738 

19,210 

1,743 

107 

65 

970 



27,612 

104,432 

22,220 

1,383 

5,072 

3,119 

13,529 

1,200 

98 

46 

1,195 



56,257 

273,023 

6,788 

1,084 

4,9.38 

3,687 

14,349 

802 

124 

32 

724 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
«ompare with same date in former years as follows: 

Average. Club. 

1875 98 SdCSlOs Id 10a 2d(ai0s 8d 

1876 lOs 3d(ffl08 Sd lOs 8d@lls - 

1877 lOs lldcills Id lis 2d@lls 7d 

The Foreign Review. 

London, January 8th -The Murk Lane i,'i/(rp«« says that 
sudden variations of tem])eratnre and continued hard 
frosts are being reported in Scotland, and mild weather 
and persistent rains throughout the midland and south- 
ern counties of England. Agricultural affairs have neces- 
sarily been brought to a standstill, the saturated condi- 
tion of the land being unfavorable to cereals. The stock 
of English Wheat on offer in London and country mar- 
kets has been worse than at any other time since the har- 
vest, owing to the impossibility of threshing, the supply 
being extremely scanty. The provincial trade, however, 
experienced another rise of a shilling i)er quarter, but 
some farmers are unwilling to sell even at this advance. 
The imports into London have been light, chiefly of East 
Indian descriptions, and the trade ruled very firm at last 
week's prices. During the past three months the value of 
Wl^eat has been steadily tending upward, and has now 
reached a point where a jiause may be expected, as mill- 
ers, as a rule, are stocked. The publication of stocks at 
our ports shows considerable diminution comi)ared with 
the same period last year. As imports will apjjarentl.^' be 
very mudirate (jr the i eel month or more, the depletion 
of granary stocks will probably continue. Business in 
feeding Corn has been restricted, although, as a rule, 
values are quotably unchanged, with very limited arrivals 
at ports of call until the end of the week. Floating car- 
goes have steadily maintained late prices, excej)! Maize, 
which has given way slightly. 

Freights and Charters. 

The freight market has been quite demoralized. Char- 
ters have Been made for Wheat to Liverpool at £2, and 
some ships lie idle because they cannot charter even 
at that low rate. The Commercial Xews says; The situa- 
tion has not changed during the week. Freights remain 
dull and nominal at ,i;2 direct for wooden and .t2 2s 6d for 
iron ships. There can hardly be said to be any demand, 
and it is difficult for ships to secure business at any figure. 
At the close we have 26,870 tons engaged Wheat tonnage, 
9,427 tons miscellaneous and 35,070 tons disengaged, with 
a large fleet overdue. The latest charters reported are: 
Br ship North Wales, 1,1.50 tons. Wheat to Cork, U. K, 
£2 5s 6d. Ship Elwell, 1,461 tons, WheM to Liverpool, 
£2; Cork, U. K,, £2 2s 6d; Cimtinent, £2 7s 6d. Ship P. 
N. Blanchard, 1,582 tons. Wheat to Livenxiol, £2; Cork, 
U. K., £2 2s 6d; Continent, £2 7s 6d. Br shi|> Orisedale, 
1,222 tons. Wheat to Liverpool, private. 

Chicago Grain Market. 

Chicaoo, January 7th. — Trading in all branches has been 
more brisk during the past week on 'change, and pricts 
for wheat have reached the highest figures for more than 
a year. Speculative influences have been the principal 
agents in the rise. European war rumors have con- 
tributed to the bullish feeling, and receipts of Wheat have 
been remarkably small, considering the high prices and 
diminished movement which has characterized the entire 
fall's business. Sales of cash Wheat have been S1.24il(g 
.?1.26J, closing at 81.1!5J bid. Corn has sold steadily at 
about 44 cents, and Oats at about 34J cents. Rye is 72 
cents, barley 05 cents. 

Provision's have been strong and higher throughout, to- 
day's prices being the best for the week. Pork brings S18 
and Lard Sll. 50. Packing has been carried on very ac- 
tively, and the country's vast su|)|)ly of provisions is 
pretty extensively called for Receipts of Wheat for the 
week: 165,000; Corn, 515,000; Oats, 155,000 bushels, 
against Wheat, 679,000; Corn, 126,000; Oats, 95,000, for 
the same week last year. Shipments — Wheat, 81,000; 
Corn, 320,000; Oats, 89,000 bushels, against last year's 
shipments, Whea.t 86,000; Corn, 266,000; Oats, 59,000. 

Freights East, beside being higher, are, what troubles 
shippers still more, firm at the pul)lished prices, 8o that 
few contracts for grain to the East ar.; taken, as was the 
case in the summer, below the market rate. 
New York Grain Market. 

New York, January 7th —The Grain trade of the week 
has been very dull. Wheat advanced a little, but fell 
back again on weak cables, the English market being un- 
favorably affected by receipts from C'alifoniia Prices 
remain substantially "as a week ago, for all cereals. The 
acreage of winter Wheat is five per cent, larger than that 
of last year. Apprehensions are entertained of a light 
California croj>, owing to dry weather. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, January 6th.— Wool firm. There is scarcely 
anything doing in "fine fleeces. The only sales of the week 
comprised 15,000 pounds Ohio XX and above, at 45c. 
Stocks are held firm, with no iiressuro to buy or sell. 
Sales of Michigan, New York and Western, have been 
159,000 pounds at 40(a41c. There is a firm feeling for 
desirable lots of Western Fall. California Wool is dull at 
15(<*24Jc, and caM only be forced oft at low prices. Any- 
thiiig desirable commands full prices. Si)riiig, 20((<35c. 

PiiiLAUELPMIA, January 9th. —Wool active and firm. 
The supply is ample for all present wants. Colorado 
washed, 18;rf20c; Limb's unwashed, 17wlsjc; Extra and 
Merino pulled, 33(<r37c; No 1 and super i)Ulled, SSfn.StSc; 
Texas fine and medium, '20((i25c; coara>!, 16((il9c; Califor- 
nia fine and medium, 18(a28c; coarse, 17(a20c. 

New York, Jan. 7th. -In the Wool market there have 
transpired no features worthy of record, the demand from 
manufacturers being on a very limited scale, and there is 
no disposition manifested to enter into speculation. In 
Fall California aslight weakness is exhibited, due to the 
comparatively large stocks not only in this city, but also 
in the markets of Boston and Philadelphia; but all other 
descriptions are firm, and no anxiety is manifested as to 
the future of the market. The stock of Domestic shows 
a supply of 6,804,000 tbs, of which 758,000 lbs is California 
8pring,"0reg<>n, Utah and Nevada, 973,000 lbs is California 
All, 30,000 lbs do pulled Texas and Georgia. The sales 
((>r the week are— 25 bales free Fall California at 20c; 20,- 



is quiet and without change. Transactions are light. 

Rye— Sales of 200 sks choice at S1.82f 

Vegetables— Some Green Peas are still received. 
We hear of sales at 8c. Marrowfat Squash has fluctuated 
considerably, and closes at S15i^20 per ton — an advance. 

Wheat — Holders are firm. Transactions have been 
within rates fonnerly quoted. We note sales as follows; 
1,800 ctls choice Milling, $2.20; 1,600 ctls do, delivered 
at Valle.jo, 82.17J; 500 sks choice, ?2.25; 940 sks choice 
Milling, §2.25; 200 do fair do, $2.10; 150 do do, S2.15; 1,500 
do Superfine and fair Milling, S1.85((t'2.10; 3,500 sks 
choice Milling, $2.25; 10,000 ctls choice Milling, ?2.20 per 
ctl; also 900 sks do do, from Livermore, S2.20; 10,000 sks 
choice Milling, S2. 20; 200 do choice Sonora, for Cracked 
Wheat, $2,271; 600 sks choice Milling, .$2.25; 800 do good 
Sonora, 82. 20 per ctl. 

Wool — The trade in Wool is small and of little mo' 
ment. We note sales of 20,000 bales fall at 17c. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



[wholesale.; 



Bags — There has come a further knock-down in Grain 
Bags. We quote jobbing rates for standard Wheat Bags 
at 8J(rf9; and wholesale rates for cash may be lower. 
One of the features of the trade is the amount of Bags 
which may be thrown upon the market, owing to the em- 
barrassments of dealers. The ChroHicle notes one case of 
this kind as follows: "We regret to note the suspension 
of E. Detrick Si. Co., of Clay street, an old established 
firm in the Bag business. A meeting of creditors was 
held yesterday at which a committee of in\estigation was 
appointed. 'The amount of liabilities is not stated, but it 
is understood that they are serious and will chiefly fall 
upon San Francisco, with a portion in Nch- York. The 
emban-assments have originated through the decline in 
Bags and the difficulty of realizing or of obtaining accom- 
modation." 

An advance is noticeable in Wool Sacks. The stock of 
English Wool Sacks is small and local manufacturers have 
advanced their prices. Prices are uow 50(355c, according 
to size. 

Barley— The advance in Barley is considerable and 
holders are slow to sell even at the advance. We note 
sales during the week as follows: 1,000 sks Coast Feed, 
$1.28; 4,000 do choice do, .$1.35; 1,000 do Brewing $1.40— 
all gold; 400 sks fair Coast Feed, $1.30, silver; 500 do good 
do, $1.25, gold; 2,000 do Coast Chevalier, $1.25, half silver; 
8)0 do good Coast, $1.25, gold; .500 do good Brewing, $1.30, 
gold; 2,000 sks Coast Feed, $1.27J, silver; 1,000 .sks do^ 
$1.J5, silver; 400 sks Coast Chevalier, $1.20, silver; 3,000 
sks choice Feed, .$1.35, and 8,000 (a resale) to be delivered 
at Sacramento, at equal to $1.35 here; 1,800 sks Coast 
Feed, $1.30; 4,000 sks choice Feed, $1.35, and $1,000 sks 
choice Bay Brewing, $1.40. 

Beans— A slight advance in Bayo Beans is the only 
change which is made in our table of prices below. 

Corn-Corn makes a step in advance and the market 
is firm. We note sales as follows: 500 sks large Yellow, 
$1.25; 700 dodo, $1.30; »00 do small do $1.. 35 per ctl, all 
silver; 700 sks small Yellow, .$1..30; 300 do, $1.30; a small 
lot of small Yellow brought $1.42J, half silver. 

Dairy Produce -There is yet no improvement in 
the price of Bntter and the receipts are still very large- 
The top price is 32Jc, with an occasional box of fancy 
brand at 3oc. This price it seems to us cannot rule long 
under present conditions. Cheese is unchanged. 

Eggs— Eggs are weak at a reduction. The price is 
now quotable at 35c for fresh. 

Feed- Ground Feeds are all advanced in price, as may 
bj seen in our tables below. Sales of Hay have tended 
toward the higher figures. We note a fuw sales as fol- 
lows: 47 tons choice Wheat at $17; 37 tons good Wheat 
a'ld Wild Oat, .$16..50; 40 do do, $17. A small lot of Al- 
falfa brought $14.50(rtl5. 

Fruit — The Fruit market this week is without 
change. The display is scant. 

Hops -We have sales of fine Hops reported at 19(<i^21c, 
but the chief supplies are held at 22i^'25c. The receipts 
of Hops in this city during the last .vear were 14,579 bales; 
in 1875, 7,589 bales; an increase this year of 7,010 bales' 
Emmet Wells reviews the New Y'ork market for the week 
ending December 29th, as follows: 

A good business has been doing for a holiday week. 
Prices remain about the same as last quoted, excepting 
on choice grades, 25c now being the extreme cash figure 
paid for anything in market. Shipping qualities continue 
quite scarce, yet buyers sliow no willingness to bid up in 
price, saying they can get all the choice Hops they want, 
back in the interior, by simply sending their orders for 
them, and at kiwer prices than asked here. The stock 
back in the country is unquestionably larger to-day than 
it has been, for the corresj^onding season, for many years 
past, and, without renewed orders from Gennany, we 
think there is a poor show for getting rid of our surplus. 
England will continue to take a few of our choice Hops at 
present prices; but she will not order as freely from us as 
la.st year, while our price continues 10c %l lb higher than 
then. It is reported that large quantities of American 
Hops are still "ueing sent over to the London m:irket from 
Germany, the German dealers finding little or no demand 
for them among their own brewers. It would be inter- 
esting to know the cause of the prejudice against the use 
of our Hops in Germany. We have never yet heard it 
explained. Quotations: New Yorks, good to choice, 20(« 
25c; New Yorks, low to fair, 13(nl8c; Eastern, 18(.8f23c; 
Wisconsius, 12(nl7c; Yearlings, lOCMSc; Olds, all growths, 
4<i/8c; Californians, 23(jr25c; Oregon, 23<o25c. 

Oats — Oats have experienced a sharp advance during 
the week. Kates are now quoted as high as $2.45 per ctl 
for the beat. We note sales as follows: 80 sks good, §2.05; 
75 do choice, $2.27*; 100 sks choice Coast Feed, $2, silver; 
I.IO sks heavy Milling, $2,271, gold; 580 sks at $2, gold ; 
350 choice Bay Feed at $2.12A, gold; 400 aks at $2.10, gold. 

Onions Onions have undergone considerable fluctua- 
tion during the week and rule to-day below last week's 
prices; $1 per ctl is the ruling price to-day for the best. 
The market is full of low grade stock, which is offered at 
very low figures. 

Potatoes— Potatoes have improved. The best are 
now bringing $1.00(^^1.05, but many poor lota are in hand. 
The sales are chiefly of Petaluma, Humboldt and Cuffey 
Cove. River receipts have lessened and Half Moon Bay is 
m >stl\' <»ut for the season. 

Poultry and Game -There are a few changes 
noted in our price list below. The tendency is toward 
improvement. Ducks have advanced; the supply of game 
Ducks and Quail is ample. 

Provisions — The luarkst for Fretih aud Cured Meatd 



Webnesday, m., Jan. 10, 1877. 



bea:vs. 

Bayo, ctl 2 75 (43 00 

Butter 1 50 vl 75 

Pea 1 80 (a-2 00 

Red 3 00 W - 

Pink 2 62.JW2 75 

Sm'l White: 1 80 W2 00 

Lima 2 75 (g2 87J 

BROOM t'OU.\. 

Common, tb 2 (y' 

Choice 3 (rt 

«OTTO\. 

Cotton, lb 15 at _- 

DAIKV PRODIK E, I:TC. 

butter. 
Cal. Fresh Roll, lb 30 @ 32J 

Point Reyes 32 J(<« 35 

Pickle Roll 27iW 30 

Firkin 25 (a 30 

Western Reserve.. 16 <ft 25 
New York — i^ — 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal, lb.... 10 @ 

Old — (« 

Eastern \2\{rti 

N. Y. State i9 & 

E008. 

Cal. fresh, doz 35 & 

Ducks' 40 «f 

Oregon 30 (* 

Eastern — @ 

FEEI>. 

Bran, ton 22 50 (ir— 

Com Meal 30 00 C<t31 00 



15 



Chile Walnuts.... 11® 12 

Pecans 17 («> 18 

Peanuts % (it 9 

Filbeits 15 M 16 

O.N'IO.\S. 
Union City, ctl. . .. 87lOTl 00 

Stockton 87 jcrl 00 

POTATOES. 

Petaluma, ctl 1 00 (*1 05 

Salt Lake 1 50 (,« — 

Humboldt 1 00 (gl 05 

Cuffey Cove 1 00 C*l 10 

Early Rose, new.. 95 ("1 DO 

Sweet 1 00 ("1 12S 

rOLLTKV & GAME. 

Hens, doz 7 00 (n8 50 

Roosters 6 00 (ft7 50 

Broilers 4 60 {,''5 50 

Ducks, tame 9 50 cnlO 50 

Geese, jiair 2 25 C«2 75 

Wild Gray 2 50 (* — 

White 1 00 (2 - 

Turkeys. Live, lb . . 16 (rf 17 

Dressed 16 n't 17 

Quail, doz 1 00 vfl 25 

Snipe, Eng 2 00 ((J" — 

Doves 60 («' 57 

Rabbits 1 00 vVl 25 

Hare 2 50 C« — 

PROTISIO.NS. 
Cal. BacoD. L't, lb 14 (» 15 

Medium 13i«' 14 

Heavy ISJc? 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



Hay 12 00 (orl8 00 



75 



Middlings 32 60 W 

Oil Cake Meal. ..37 60 '"■ 

Straw, bale 70 (if: 

FLOIR. 

Extra, bbl 6 50 aa 25 

Superfine 4 75 («5 50 

Giaham 5 50 (36 00 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef. 1st qual'y, tb 4tW 6 
Second 3i("' 



3 ((J 

4 C 

6 (ft 

&m 

5K« 

7 (!! 



Lard 125(" 

Cal. Smoked Beef 10 (,« 

Eastern — tor 

Eastern .Shoulders — (ft 

Hams, Cal 14 (ft 

Armour 16i(rt 

Worster's 15|(« 

Dupee's 17 '('r 

Davis Bros* 17 (£C 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa, Chile, tb.. 8 (<* 

California 16 cv 

Canary 10 (.« 

Clover, Red 22 (it 

White 50 «r 

Cotton & (ft 

Flaxseed 34(n 

Hemp 5 (« 

Italian Rye Grass 25 (ft 

Perennial 20 ((t 

Brewing 1 35 vrl 45 !Millet 10 «V 

CbevaHer 1 25 (ffl 45 l.Mustard, White... 10 (rr 

Corn. White 1 25 (ft\ 30 I Brown 3i('i' 

Yellow 1 25 iftl 30 Rape 3 (ft 

Oats 2 00 <*2 35 Ky. Blue Grass. ... 30 «t 

Milling 2 45 «<■ - 2d quality 29 (•/ 

Rye 1 SO '^\ 90 Sweet V Grass. ... 75 (It 

Wheat, shipping.. 2 10 i"2 25 Orchard 30 w 

MUling 2 20 m2 25 " 

HIDES. 

21 



Third 

Mutton 

Pork, undressed 

Dressed 

Veal 

Milk Calves 

URAIK. ETC 
Barley, feed, ctl...l 25 ("1 40 



Hides, dry 20 (ft 

Wet salted 7 (d 

HO\EV, ET4'. 

Beeswax, lb 25 (<r 

Honey in comb. . .. 10 (ft 

Strained <j (ft 

HOPS. 

New Crop 20 (rt 

\ITS- .JobbliiK. 
Almonds, hd shl lb 7 (ft 

Soft sb'l 15 t" 

Brazil 14 (rt 

Cal. Walnuts 8 (g 



Red Top 25 (ft 

Hungarian 8 c^ 

Lawn 50 (« 

Mezquite 20 c 

Timothy 10 (k 

TALIOM. 

Crude, lb 6i(ff 

Refined 8 (ft, 

WOOL, ET<'. 

FALL. 

Free 12 Or 

Clioice 14 (ft 

Northern 17 (ff 

Burry 10 (ff 

Oregon, Easteru... 20 (ft 

Valley 25(2 



14.J 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



[WHOLESALE. I 

Wednesday, m., Jan. 10, 1877. 



FRUIT MARKET. 

Oranges, Mex, 

M 30 OO ((135 

Tahiti — C*^ - 

Cal 10 00 (0-25 

Limes 4 00 (ft 8 

Lemons. Cal 10 00 ("15 

Sicily, bx 9 00 («~- 

Bananas, buch.. 2 00 (ft 3 
Cocoanuts. 1(K).. 5 00 (" 6 
Pineapples, doz 6 00 (tf 8 

Apples, bx 40 « 1 

Crali, tb 2 (.ft 

Figs, lb 4 (* 

Pomegranates... (ft — 

Cranberries, bbll4 00 (nl5 

Pears, bx 1 00 (« 2 

DRIED FRII'f. 

Apples, It) \\(ft 

Apricots 10 C^ 

Pears 7 (" 

Peaches 7 C. 

Plums 3 @ 



I Pitted Vi (ft 14 

1 Raisins, Cal, bx 1 50 (" 2 50 



Malaga 3 00 @ 


— 


Figs. Black, tb.. i (ft 


6 


White 10 «/- 







IV 


Citron 28 m 


30 


Zaute Currants.. 9 (ft 


lU 


VE<iETARLES. 




Asparagus, 11 J... — «r— 


— 


Beets, ctl 60 (ft - 


— 


c;abbage, 100 lbs 50 (ft 


60 


Carrots Zl\(ft 


40 


Cauliflower, doz 1 00 erf - 


— 


(^eleiy 75 (rt — 





Garlic, lb 2 (it 


■u 


Squash, Marrow- 




fat, tn 15 00 (^20 00 


Artichokes, doz— --- (ft— 


— 


Parsnip'^b 1 c«i 


u 


Lettuce, doz 10 («— 




Pumips. ctl 60 (* 


75 


Mushrooms — - (ft — 


— 



[WHOLESALE.] 



Wed.vesdav, ,m , Jan. 10 
BAIlS-JobbiiiK. 

Eng Standard Wheat, iiai 9 
Neville & Go's 
Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 8S(£f 9 

21.\3B 9|((?10 

23x40 10 (fjlOi 

Machine Swd, 22x36. 9 (rt - 
Flour Sacks, halves.. . . 9 (« 11 

Quarters 6 (a 7 

Eighths mtt 6 

Hessian, 60 inch 11 (al2 

45 inch 8iC<* 9 

40 inch 7i(« 8 

Wool Sacks. 34 tb 50 (ft— 

4 lb 55 (rt- 

Staudavd Gunnits lljcrtl2 

Bean Bags 7^8 

C'.Al^'DLES. 

Grant's 16 Crtl6) 

Mitchell's 18 («20 

i'A\.\ED CiOODS. 
ABsorted Pie Fruits, 

2i lb cans 2 75 (rt3 00 

Table do 3 76 (!l4 25 

Jams and Jellies. .4 25 ft — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 50 (rt - 

Sardines, qr boi..l 65 (rtl 90 

Ht Boxes 3 00 (rt — 

lOALJobbinti!. 
Australian, ton.. 8 00 t" 8 25 

Coos Bay 8 00 (rt 9 00 

Bellingham Bay. 8 00 (rt 

Seattle 9 00 ft- - 

Cumberland 14 00 (rtl7 00 

Mt Diablo 5 76 (a 7 75 

Lehigh 22 00 (a 

Liverpool 8 50 irt 9 00 

West Hartley... 14 00 (rt - - 

Scotch 8 50 (rt 9 00 

.Scranton 13 00 (rtl6 00 

Vancouver Irt. . .10 50 (.(fl2 00 

Charcoal, sack... 75 («' 

Coke, bbl 60 (ft— — 

COFFEE. 

Sandwich Id, lb. 21J(rt 

Cbsta Rica 21 (« 

Guatemala 20J(rt .21), 

Java 23 (ft 

Manila 20 (rt 21 

Ground, in cs. . . 25 (ft 

Chiccoiy 27 (ft 

FISH. 
Sac'to Dry Cod.. 5 (* 7J 

Bonel.^ss 8J(rt 10 

Eastern Cod.... 8 (ft^ 8; 
Salmon, bbls .... 6 50 (» 7 25 

Hf bbls 3 75 c' 4 00 

2 lb cans 2 65 (« 

1 lb cans 1 80 (it 

Col Riv, hf bbl 4 26 (it 

Pkld Cod, bbls.. 22 00 (ft 

Hf bbls 11 00 (a 

Ma(k?rel, No. 1, 

Hf Bbls 11 00 (rt 

Extra 12 00 (it- - 

In Kits 1 25 (rt 2 50 

ExMess, hfbl.l2 00 (tf 

Pkld Herring, bx 3 00 (it 3 50 
Boston Smkd H'g 40 (rt 50 

LI.ME, Etc. 
Lime, Sta Cruz, 

bbl 2 00 (g 2 25 

Crment, Rosen- 
dale 2 75 (rt 3 50 

Portland 4 75 (3 5 50 

Plaster. Golden 

Gate Mills.... 3 00 (rt 3 25 
Land Plaster, tn 10 00 (^12 ,50 

NAILS. 
Ass'ted sizes, keg 3 23 (« 4 00 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 



Wednesday, m., Jan. 1 o, 1877. 



Butter, CaUfomia 

('hoice, lb 

Cheese 

Eastern 

Lard. Cal 

Ea.steni 

Flour, ex. fam, bbl7 

Corn Meal, It) 

.Siyjar, wh. crshd 

Light Brown 

C'Otf ee. Green 

Tea, Fine Black... 

Finest Japan. ... 
Candles, Admfe . . 

Soap, Cal 

Rice 

Yeast Pwdr. doz..l 



40 «a 

18 (ft 
25 (rti 
18 (it 
20 (ft 
00 ("8 

2}(rt' 
125(rt 

8 (rt 
23 (it 
50 (rt'l 
55 (rtl 
15 (ft 

1 («' 



35 

00 
00 
25 
10 
12! 
50 (rt2 00 



Bowen Bro. Irge 

50 i can, doz 5 

30 ; Small 2 

30 'Bowen's Cream 

— ! Tartar, lb 

25 iCau'd Oysters doz2 
00 ISyrup. S F Gold'n 

3 Dried Apples, lb. . 
13!i Ger. Prunes 

9i: Figs, Cal 



("' 



Peaches. 
Oils, Kerosene. . . 
Wines, Old Port., 
French Claret 

Cal, doz hot 

Whisky, O K, gal 
French Brandy. . 



00 (it 


_ 


50 C* 


-- 


75 (rt 


__ 


00 (rt3 50 


75 (rtl 00 


10 (ft 


12 


12iCrt 


14 


9(rt, 


111 


11 (rt 


Kh 


40 (rt 


,50 


50 (rt5 


IKI 


00 (rt2 50 


00 ("4 


.50 


50 (rtS 00 


00 fi% 00 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sitro & Co. J 

San Francisco, Jan. 10, 3 v. m. 

LEOALTKNnEBS In H. P., 11 A. M., 94i(?f94J. Silver, 
6i(rt«i, 

Gold in New York, 106i 

Gold Bars, 880(^890. Silver Bars, 7(g;10 V cent, dis- 
count. 

Exciianoe on New York, .50(rt.55 100 T.' cent, premium for 
gold; on London bankers, 49J: Commercial, 493; Paris, five 
francs %( dollar; Mexican dollars, 98. 

LoNJDON Consols, 96i: liouds, 102i. 

Qi;icK.siLVER iu S. v., by the flask, %l lb, 50c 



1877. 
OILS. 

Pacific Glue Go's 

Neatsf oot, No 1 . 1 00 (« 

Castor, No 1 1 26 (if. 

Baker's A A 1 25 (rtl 

)bve, PlagnioI....5 25 (rt5 

Possel 4 75 (ft 

Palm, lb 9 (% 

Linseed, Raw 75 (flf 

Boiled 80 (gt 

Oocoauut 80 (ce 

Chinanut, cs 70 

■^perm 1 60 §1 

Coast Whales 60 (op 

Polar, refined 62J(rt 

Lard 1 10 C^l 

Oleophine 44 («!' 

Devoe's Bril't 44 (ft 

Xonpariel 50 ^ 

Eureka 32i(rt 

Barrel kerosene . . . 32J(.rt> 

Downer Ker 45 (rt 

Elaine 48 W 

PAI.\TS. 
Pure White Lead. 9J(« 

Wliiting 1^^ 

I'utty i at 

Chalk li(ge 

Paris White 2{Crt 

Ochre 3J(^ 

V'enetian Red 3\(.ft 

Averill Chemical 

Paint, gal. 

White & tints... 2 00 (rt2 

Green. Blue & 
Ch Yellow.... 3 00 03 

Light Red 3 00 (rt3 

Metallic Roof... 1 30 (a\ 
RICE. 
.'hina No. 1, lb.... 53(rt 

lawaiian 7 (rt 

'aroUna 10 (ii 

SALT. 
;al. Bay, ton.... 16 00 (rtl8 

Common 5 00 (rt 7 

'armen Id 16 00 (rtl8 

Liverpool fiire. . .25 00 (rt; — 
SOAP. 

:!a3tile, It) 10 ca 

Common brands. . 4!(3r 

Fancy brands 7 (51' 

SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 45 (^ 

Cassia... 22i(^ 

Nutmegs 86 (» 

Pepper Grain \^ (f^ 

Pimento 15 (£5 

Mustard, Cal., 

i tb rfass 1 50 (rt 

si<;ar, et<'. 

Cal. Cube, 11) \Z'.(ft 

Circle A ciarshed.. 13}(rt 

Powdered 13J(a 

Fine crushed \Z\(ft 

Granulated 12i(<f 

(ioldeu C 10S(rt 

Hawaiian 10 (rt 

Cal. Syrup, kgs.... 72J(rt 

Hawaiian Molasses 25 (rt' 

TEA. 
Young Hyson, 

Moyuue. etc 35 (^ 

Comitry pckd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 50 (* 

Hyson 30 ('< 

Foo-ChowO 35 (^ 

Japan, 1st quality 40 (ft 

2d quality 25 (jj 



lOJ 



LEATHER. 



(wholesale.) 

Wednesday, m. , Jan. 10, 1877. 

Sole Leather, heavy, lb $ 26 (.rt 29 

Light 22 (rt 24 

Jodot, 8 Kll, doz 48 00 (n50 00 

lltoKIKU 68 00 Crt79 00 

14 to 19 Kit 82 00 (rt94 00 

Secon.l Choice, 11 to 16 Kil 67 00 ("74 00 

Coruellian. 12 to 16 Kil 57 00 (rt67 00 

Females, 12 to 13 Kil , 63 00 (rtS7 00 

14 to 16 Kil 71 00 (','76 50 

Sinron Ullmo, Females, 12 to 13 Kil 58 00 ('if62 00 

14 to 15 Kil 66 00 (''70 00 

16 to 17 Kil 72 00 (rt74 00 

Simon. 18 KU 61 00 irt63 00 

20 Kil 65 00 ("'67 00 

24 Kil ' 72 00 (itH 00 

Robert Calf, 7 aud 9 Kil 35 00 (rt 40 OO 

Kips. French, lb 1 00 (rt 1 35 

f'al doz 40 00 (.rt60 00 

French Sheep, all colors 8 00 (('15 00 

Eastenr Calf for Backs, lb 1 00 (rt 1 25 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, doz 9 00 (,rtl3 00 

For Linings 5 50 (rtlO 50 

Cal. Russet Sheep Linings 1 75 ((' 4 50 

Boot Legs. French Calf, pau- 4 00 (rt 

Good French Calf 4 00 (rt 4 75 

Best Jodot Calf 5 M ()» 5 25 

Leather. Harness. It) "4 (rt 3'2 

F,air Bridle, doz 48 00 (rt72 00 

Skirting, lb „ 33 V 37} 

, Welt, doz 30 00 ((r50 00 

Buff,ft If <» 19 

Wax Side 17® 18 



LUMBER. 

Wednesday, .m., Jan. 10, 1S77. 



car(;o prices 

REDMOOD. 



OF 



Rough, M 

Refuse 

Clear 

Clear Refuse 

Rustic 

Refuse 

Surfaced 

Refuse 

Flooring 

Refuse 

Beaded Flooring 

Refuse 

Half-inch Siding. . . . 

Refuse 

Half-inch Surfaced. 

Refu.se 

Half-inch Battens.. 
Pickets, Rough 

Rough, Pointed.. , 

Fancy, Pointed. . . 
Shingles 



.$18 00 

. 14 00 

. 30 00 

. 20 00 

.. 32 50 

. 22 50 

. 30 00 

. 20 00 

.. 23 00 

. 18 00 

,. 30 00 

. 20 00 

. 20 00 

, . 16 00 

.. 25 00 



PI4iET SOl'ND PISiE. 

RETAIL PRICE. 

Rough. M $22 50 

Fencing 22 50 

Flooi ing and Step 32 50 

Narrow 35 00 

2d quality 25 00 

Laths 3 50 

Furring. Iin(ml ft } 

REDWOOD. 

RETAIL PRICE. 

R')ugh, M $22 50 

Refuse 18 00 

Pickets, Rough 18 00 

Pointed 20 00 

Fancy 30 00 

Siding 25 00 

Surfaced & Long Beaded 37 50 



I 00 Flooring 35 00 



20 50 
1 00 
13 00 
26 00 



Refuse. 
Half-inched Surfaced.. 

Rustic, No. 1 

Battens, lineal ft 



25 00 
32 50 
40 00 



35 00 Shingles, M . 



Thanks for Prompt Attention. 

Stockton, June '2«th, 1876. 
Mi'sun. Dewey <(• Co., S. F.:~- 

1 have received the patent for my invention in wagon 
brakes, which you prosecuted for me; jratentcd May 11th, 
1875 No. I(j3,64(!. Thanks to you fur your prompt atten- 
tion to the case; you will hereafter be my attorneys in 
such cases. I recommend all iinentors on the Pacific 
coost to give you a call, which I think they will never 
have anv cause to regret. Verv trulv vours, 

GEO. O. BUCKLAND, 
Stockton, Cal. 

Sa.mi'LE Copies.-- Occasionall.v we send copies of this 
paper to persons who we believe would be benefited by 
subscribing for it, or willing to assist us in extending its 
circulation. We c;ill the attention of such to oiU" pros- 
puctun aud terms of subscription. 



30 



[January 13, 1877 



Agricultural Articles. 



IRON SECTIONAL HARROW. 




This Harrow was Awarded the First 

Premium at the California 

State Fair in 1875. 

The uiulfrsiiiiieU, having prirohusuil tliu |«teiit rij,'lit of 
this Harrow fur C!alifornia, are imw maiiiilactiirini,' thum 
ill Kiisuvillc, Placer duiity, iiiul wmild call thi; atteiitinn 
iif Farmers W the superior merits of this Harrow over all 
others now in use. 

As its name indicates, it is made in sections of about 
three feel in width, each section havini? four bars, in 
which the teeth are inserted, and by connectinj; the sec- 
tions with links, the Harrow is formed. 

Should a farmer require a Harrow uiioii his farm to do 
all kinds of work, he should [nirchase six sections, whicn 
would be suitable for four hor.'<es, and wduUI cut 18 feet 
in width; by discmmcctiiij,' two sections he will ha\e a two 
or three-horse Harrow, cutting' abtjut i:i feet. t)iie sec- 
tion alone is com|)lete in it,self, and suitable for garden 
work, with one horse. The Harrows arc mule of the best 
i)uality of iron, and with teeth warranleil to be steel. 

Wcfc'ive a few of the many reasons why wc claim sii|>e- 
riority for these Harrows over all others in use on this 
Coast: 

First By the li),'litne.ss of the draft, taking into considera- 
tion the amount of work it does. 
Second -By working uneven or rolling ground just as 

well and as e\eii!.\- as if it was entirely level. 
Third -The.\ are made of Iron and Steel, and therefore 
are not affected at all by sun or rain, or by heat and 
cold; they are always tight, and ready for use; they are 
also durable. A tanner purchasing one h.as a Harrow 
that will last a life time. 
Fourth -The teeth being f.astened with a nut and screw 
into the ert)ss bars, should one break, another can be 
inserted in a moment. We are niakiuf; three sizes, all 
being the same in width, but different in depth and 
weight only. 

Pricen, from •Jf/.-'.-in to S;ir,.(iii p^r ;<ectio)i. 
All orders sent to 

BREWSTER & CO., 

Roaevillo, Placer County., 
Will be promptly attended to, ami -atisfactioii guaran- 
teed in all t'a.ses. 

C A ufTo N . 

It has csime to our iu)tice that certain parties are ntiw 
making tliis Harrow in this Slate, and that several of 
them have been sent here frctm the East. Now this is to 
caution all per-^tms against making, selling or buying 
them, so made and offered for sale, as we shall enforce our 
rights in relation to the matter, and would call the atten- 
tion of all persons infringing upon our patent, to the tau- 
in regard to it. 

BREWSTER & CO. 

Roseville, July loth, 18"(J. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Tuok the Premiuiu nvur ull at thu ;,'t«i*1 plowin;,' Match 
in Stockton, in 1:^70. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by prartieal nit-n who 
have been lonj^ in the business atul know wliat is reipiirei^ 
in the construction of Ganji" iMows. It is quickly iuljustcd. 
Sufficient play is tfiven so that the tonyue will pass uvtr 
cradle knolls without chanj^n*; the workin-jpf^siiiunof tlie 
Hhares. It is so constructetl timt the wlieels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow cfurectly. It has various 
point's of superiority, and can he relied ui)on as the best 
and most desirable Ouny Plow in tbi- world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stoekton. Cal 



OAKLAND 

Spring Balance 

Gang Plow. 




I'atentcd and maiiufaclnrcil by H. X. |ialt<.M, at the 
I'aeheco Agricultural Implement Works, I'achcco, Cal. 
Kst;iblished in l.S.'is. Send tor Circular and IViee List. 



II. K. tu.M.Mi.viis. 11. n K ii.srox. 

Is6». IsTii 

HENRY K. CUMMiNGS &. CO., 

WHOLESALE FRUIT AND PRODUCE 
COMMISSION HOUSE. 

E.STAHI.ISHKl) 1»,")S. 

No. i'H Battery Street, southeast corner of WashingUm 
Sui Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively (.'ommission, we have no 
ol'- rests that will conflict with those of the prodncir 




The Famous "Enterprise" 

(PERKINS' PATENT) 
Self Regulating, Farm 
Pumping. Railroad 
and Fowtr 

WINDMILLS. 

Pumps & Fixtures, 

Have been in use on ihi- 
Pacific Cuast in the towns 
and fannint; districta fur 
over four years, and wher- 
ever they have been sold 
(and there are thousands of 
them out) they are duinif 
their work as well as when 
jiut up. A careful pcnisal 
of our Circulars gives a fair 
represent;ition of thum and 
sliows thrir simplicity. 

W'e are prepared to liH oniers i..r .01 siz^s, from a 
ITMPINt; MILL to a •J4-fuot PttWKK MILL for runniTi- 
Machincr\, as well as doinj: tlu' punii>inL,'. 

The ''ENTERPRISE" FEED MILL 

(PACKER'S PATENT), 
FOR GRINDING BARLEY. ETC., 

Kqually as connnen<hit>le. has now- 
been tested to entire satisfaction 
of all, and meets the demand for 
an articU- of tliat kind that has 
imt been supplied on the Pacillc 
Toast heretofore. 

CHEAP AND KELIABLK 

All Goods Warranted. 

Send for IHu.strateil Circulars 
and infonti.ition to 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

Managers for California and Pacific Coast, 

tieneral oIti,M and SujtpHc-s. 
LIVERMORE, ALAMEDA QOUNTY, CAL. 




Nurserymen. 



RARE AND VALUABLE 

PLANTS AND TREES. 

STKAWBEKUIKS. - Kver-beariii),- French Itnsli Straw 
berrie.s. with and without rnmiers; the best of all in 
Havor and taste. Plants without runners make tine 
borders. Prices; With runners, 1,000 plants, #10; lUO, 
SI. .10; 12, 2,')c. Without runners, 1,000 plants, »20; 100, 
Sf: 12, .iOc. 

TRKES. The real I'anlownia Impurialis, .iOc. Two dol- 
lars ach for trees from two to nine feet hijrh. Wal- 
nuts, paper shell, the best of all, one year old, .SOc. each. 
Walnuts bearinj^ three jears from the seed. Four 
kinds of the finest French (.'hestnuts, jnst received from 
France, one and two years old, ."iO and ".ic. Twehe 
thousand Plants and Trees just receiied from France, 
includini; many new varietie.s. 
For .sale by 

J. GRELCK, Los Angeles. 
P. o. Bo.v aw. 

HANNAY BROS.' NURSERY, 

SAN JOSE. CAL. 

KKIIT. SHADE .\XI> ORNAMENTAL TKEES, AI'l'LE, 

PEAR. PLIWI, CIIEKny, PEACH, APRICOT, 

AI..MOJiD, tjl'INCE, OLIVE, FIG, 

GRAPEVINES, AND SMALL 

FRIITS. 

El'CALYPTCS, CYPRESS. PINE, ACACIA, PEPPER, 

ELM, POPLAR, ETC., ETC. 

< )ur Trees are well (frown and healthv , and those wishing 
to plant largely will study their own ii.terests by iriviiiK 
us a call before purchiLsiiii,' elsewhere. 

HANNAY BROTHERS. 

p. O. Box 32. 



FRUIT, EVER6REEN. NEW ANO RARE 
TREES. 

BRIGGS' RED MAY PEACH, 
THE EARLIEST PEACH IN THE WORLD 

CALIFORNA FAN PALM, 

(Prichardia Fiiifera ) 

THE FASTEST CKOWER AND MOST II.VKUV oF 

ALL PALMS. 

FLOWERINR PLANTS AND FLOWERING BULBS. 



For a Complete List senil for a ('atalo-.'iie. Ad 
dress 

JOHN BOCK, San Jose, Cal. 



200,000 

Australian Gum Trees For Sale, 

AT 

STRATTON'S GUM TREE FOREST NURSERY, 

HAYWARDS. ALA.MEDA CO, CAL. 

These trees are from five tu twelve inches high, 
transplanted reifularly into boxes :iOx20 inches sijuare. 
weiKhin^' l.W pounds. 1.10 or .'-oo in each box, in 
splendid condition for transplanting' to their pernuinent 
location Price, $6 to $12 per 1,000. Will con- 
tract to plant the trees, irr fnrnisn »npcrwitendenee, on 
low terms. Ca.sh must a(reompany tirders for less than 
«50, or if greater than tlmt aniouni, city reference must 
be given. Address, 

JAS. T STRATTON, 



East Uakl-niil. \l;inied 



Ml 



STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

Established in 1852, 

W. B. WEST, Proprietor, 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

EVERGREENS, 
SHRUBS AND GREENHOUSE PLANTS, 



(."omprising 



ery thing NEW and RAKE in my line 



SPECIALTIES; 

Raisin Crapes, Figs, Oranges, Lemons, 

And Other Tropical Fruits. 
1 have imported superior Figs and Raisin Grapes di- 
rect Irotn the place ol their nativity in Europe, and hav- 
ing pro)>agated large (juantities, can now ufi'er tliem W Uie 
trade and the ]fubJic on the 

Most Reasonable Terms. 



SANTA BARBARA NUriSEKY, 

Located >c\en miles west i.tf Santa I>:'.rbal'a, Cal. 
Depot, Cor. .Montvcito and Castillo .streets 
.losEPH SEXTO.N, ■ . - . Proprietur 

CILTIVATOR OP 

Frmt, Nut and Ornamental Trees. Also, 
Orange, Lemon, Lime and Palm Trees, 
Pot Plants, and Hardy Eveiv ' 
green Shrubbery. 



PETALUMA NURSEKIE). 

EstabUshed I860. 

\Vf otfvT ihis suasuu a laigL* ami well-selected stock of 
Kruii Trojs. Fruit liushe^ Vincs, ^liade Trt-ea arul a general 
asstH-tiuent of Lverpretn TrUsH ami rthi-ubs. We hav l.WK).- 
UUJ (.iiiniK from i<5 per M ujt. acconlii g Id «ue. We have alao 
an uvcr -slock ol i'niu.-> insitjmis. Mutiler.y ('3 press. I'ure 
White i'ampfts Plants. laiB« plumes. Laitje Ariiucaiia hx* 
celsa, Aineiican Klin, Black WaliiuiB and lilackbt-iry Koola. 
at very low rates. Frice List sent on apiihcaiion. Adiireas. 
WM. ai::,\iUN. reialuuia. Cal. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES 

bSTABLIHIIKD IN ISUS. 

The largest and most com]>lete stock of Fruit Trees 

north t>f .San Francisco Uay, also, a general 

assortment of ^jllade Trees, KvergTcen Trees 

and [Shrubs, (ireen House Plants, etc. 

EuciUyptus in varietv. Prices low. 

Catalofe'Ues and list of prices furnisUed on application. 

Address, W. H. PEPPER, Petaluma, Cal. 

Traoc Planfc Bulbs. Fall Price List and Bulb 
I I CCS, rialils, catalogue Gratis, Address, F. 
K. PHiKNI.\, Bloomin^'ton Nursery, 111. 



SPANISH CHUFA 
SEED FOR SALE. 



Address 

L. L. BEylKrrE, 

Downey City, Los .\nfc'ele3 

County, Cal. 



B 



l.ttU.MINtlTON NIRSERY, F. K Plio:.\i\, Ulooniint'- 
ton. III. Price list free. Four Catalogues, 25c. 




My annual Catalogue of \'esctihle ;ind Flower Seed for 
IST" will be retuly by .lainurj . and sent FREE to all who 
a ply. Customers of last seastm need not write for it. 
I offer one of the larjfest collections of \'e;,'etable Seeil ever 
sent mtt by any seed house in America, a lar^re ]»ortion 
of which were ifrowii on my six seed farms. Printed di- 
rections for cultivation on evcrj luckaKe. .Vll seed sold 
from njy establishment warnmtetl to be both fresh and 
true to name; so far, that should it prove othenvisc 1 
will refill the order (gratis. As the orij^inal intrtKlucer 
of the Hubbard and .Marblehead l^quushes, the .Vlurblehead 
Cabbaj^cs, antl a score of other new vejjetaliles, I itnite 
the patronage of all who are anxious to have their seed 
frc^b, true, and ..f the very best strain. -Vric i'lyilublrt 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, 

Marblehead, Mass. 



SEEDS. TREES. 



SEEDS. 



Continuallv arriviH- NEW and KKESIl KENTrcKV 
HLl'E CRAS.S. RED TOP TIMf'THY, SWEET 
VERNAL. MEZQCITE an.l olber (inis-es 
KEIi CI.i)VER, FRENCH WHITE 
CL()\ER. CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA. Etc 
Also, a tVimplete As-lnt^nimi of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERINd BITLUS,- .IAWW- LILIES. FRESH AfS- 
TKALIAN HLl'E fiCM, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEED; tojfcther with all kinds of FRl'IT, 
FORt-ST and OltNAMENTAL TREES, 
and evervthinjf in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

importer and healer in Seeds, 

425 Washington Street, - San Francisco. 

ALEX, BUSWELL, 
BOOK BINDER, PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK .MANfFACTfREK, 
521 Clay Street, S. F. 

Blank Books Ituled, Printed, and B<iund to Order. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

75 Warren St., New York, 

Commission Merchants in Cal'a Produce 

Kkikkkmk, -Tradcstiica's National Bank, N. V.;EII- 
waiiger iV: Barry, Rochester. N. V ; C W Reeil, Sacra- 
mento, Cal ; A. Lusk & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 



50 



Vi»i(in!ir C'arild, with your name finely 
printed, sent l"or;;ic. Wc have lOO styles. 
As'enta Want«Ml. 9 samples eerit for 
stamp. A. H. Fuller & Co., Brockton, Muss. 



The Leading Optical Depot of the Pacific Coast. 

C. MULLER, 

"Wholesale and Retail Optician, 




IMPORTER OF OPTICAL GOODS, 

No. 135 Montgomery Street, near Bush, 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

Sporlsiii«n, Tourists and MeamiiK l^ekcn are Invited to 
examine our oeiebrated Tourists Ollas.'ies, 'which, fur power 
and durability, arc uue<|ualed. 

Sl'EcT.iCLEs Their adaptation to the various conditions 
of si{,'ht has been my spceially for upwards of SO years. 
Send for MuUer's Pebble " Spectacles. Directions 
and Price List Mailed Free. Orders by mail receive 
promjit attention, loiods forwarded per Wells, Fargo & 
Co., C. O. I), (subject to approval.". 

Those contemplating making IloKdaij Prtrenln, take 
HOtire. 

C. MtJLLER, Optician, 
1S5 .Montgomery Street. San Fnuiciscu. 



Practical 
B O O IC S 



BANCROFT'S. 



A. L Bancroft iii Co. keep on hand a large slock of 

.\merican and European Books, 

.Suitable for 

CIVIL ENGINEERS, 

FARMERS. 

MACHINISTS, 

.Vnd liiilusirial Cla.sses generally, and supply them, pout 
free, at published prices; tor iiarticulars of which, s(« 
eatalogtids. which will be forwarded on application. 

A. L. BANCROFT & CO., 

721 Market Street, 8. F. 



,EV1 STRAUSS & CO., 
Patent Rivetea 
Clothing, 

14 & 16 Battery .St., 

San Fraarlsc. 

These goods are specially 
adapted foi the une of 
FARMEnS, UECHAN'ICS, 
MINEP.3, and WOKKINQ 
JIES In general. They 
are manufictured of the 
Best Material, and In a 
"Superior Manner. A trial 
w.U convince eTerybody of 
this fact. 
Patented May 12, 1873, 

C^E NO OTIIEE, AND ETQUIEI FOB THESE 
GOODS ONLY. 




CAUTION. 

To Farmers and all others who put Barbs 

upon Wire Fences, Malcing: a Barbed 

Wire Fence, and to all Manutec- 

tiirers and Dealers in Fence 

Barbs and Barbed 

Fence Wire. 

You are hereby iiutiAed. that in puttiiig barb* upon 
wire, making a barbed wire fence, or in using or dealing 
in barbs or harlx-d fence wire, lua niaiie under license 
from us, you are infringing ii(H*n our intents, and we 
shall bold'vou slricU.v acci>untabie for damages for all in* 
fringcineiits of Letters Patent, N..s. U»i,HJ2, 1(7.117, 74,379, 
84 11112 l.'i:t,iKI.'., l,'i7,l-.'4, l.''>7„'.i.W, IW.lSl, 173,(Hi7; reissues, 
Nos. 7,i:wt, (l,'.'7ti, «.ilfl2. 7,(I3S, 7,08B, fi,ins. «,i>14, and 
other jiatents. Otipies of our claims can be obtahieil of 
our attoriie.vs, Cohum ami Thncher, Chicago, III., or ol 
<iur counsel. Th IS. H. l>od.re, W.ireerter, Mass. 

W.VSUIURN 4 MOEN MANirO CO.. 

Worcester, Mass. 

1. I. ELLWOOI) & CO., 

Do Kalb, HI., 

Sole 'TWiiers and manufacturers, to whom orders f»r 
Uarh FeiiPe or for Loose Barbs should be addressed. 



WANTED AND FOR SALE. 

1 HAVE .4T THE 

Bull's Head Live & Let Live Stock Yards, 

Cor. 9th, lOth and Howard Streets, 

SAN FRANCISCO, 

Two Thoroughbred Short-Horn Bulls, im|Hirted from 

Kentucky, and two .vears old; REI>, and lino p«ligTee«. 

.\s 1 have ipiit importing 1 will sell one of the above at 

iiM (lias cost mo over ¥iH(0,) and take it in fresh Milch 

Cows or good hay, at the nuirket price. A good chance to 

gel a Hue )>ull cheap. * 

ROLLIN P, SAXE, Propiietop, 

Bull's Head Live and Let Live Stock Yards 



January 13, 1877.] 



<d§m 



t^ tm 



31 



H. W. JOHNS' PATENT 

ASBESTOS ROOFING AINI) ASBESTOS PAINTS, 

ASBESTOS CEMENT FOR LEAKY ROOFS, 

Asbestos Roof Paints for Leaky Roofs, 
ASBESTOS BOILER AND PIPE COVERINGS 




FOR SALE BY ALL COUNTRY MERCHANTS. 

Thompson & Upson, 5 First Street, near Market, S. F., 

KXCLUSIVK IMl'OHTEKS FOR THK PACIFIC COAST. 



After 
J 



Nearly Three Years' Test, the STEEL BARBED FENCE WIRE, Patented by 
. F. GLIDDEN, Stands Head and Shoulders Above all Competitors, and 
Is More in Demand than all Other Barb Fences Put Together. 




OVER 300,OOOJPOUNDS HOLD IN CAMFORNlAYrHF, FIRST SF.ASON OF ITS INTKOIHH'TION. THE (JLIO- 
DEN PATENT BARB WIRE HAS BEEN ' TESTED BV THOUSANDS OF PRACTICAL FARMERS, WHO 
UNIVERSALLY RECOMMEND IT, AND IS SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS; 

1. The wire is manufactured entirely from steul, which lias .i relative utreiitftli of liO |>er cent. KTcatur than of 
auy common iron wire. 2. The only .steel wire barb. 3. The only barb that cannot l)e displaceil with thumb 
and finger or cattle's horns. 4. The only barb with prouffs projeetin;,' from between the twisted wire and cannot 
be bent, broken or i-ubbed off, and never neeiLs rephicin;;. .'>. The only coiled barb with broad base on main wire, 
which renders it immovable, (i. The only barb wire during' process of nianufacture its strcuffth i.s tested 
equal to that of two-horse power. The only barb put on with machinery. It is not pounded on with hannner 
and indented in main wire to hold it in jilace. 8. The only barb wire yon can lay 80 rods or more on iiround and 
drag with team and not injure or displace the barbs, ii. The onlj barb wire that gives universal satisfaction and has 
greater sale than all others put together. 



JONES, GIVENS & CO., Pacific Coast General Agents, 



Sacramento, Cal. 



Manufactured by Washburn & Moen Manufacturing- Company. 



In coiiscqitcnce of spurious iviitations .of 

LEA AND PERKINS' SAUCE, 

which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrtns 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 

ihus, 

which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
S^l UCE, and ivithout which none is genuine. 

Askfi'i- LEA &-- PEIiRJNS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle ami Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester ; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
<5r'c., (s'c. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San Francisco. 




BUSINE ?S 
COLLECT 

No. 24 Post Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are competent and exi)erienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Biisine.ss Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
struction is given in all the branches of an Etiglish educa- 
tion, and Modem Languages arc practically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, and its system of Actual Business 
Practice is ansuri)assed. 

Lauibs' Dei'art.mknt. - Liulies will be iulmitted for in- 
struction in all the Departments ..f Ibe College. 

TkIjKokai'HIC Dkpakt.mknt In this Department young 
men and young ladies are practiciilly and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by soimd and jiapcr. 

For further particulars call at the ('ollege, 24 Post 
street, or addre.sK for circulars, E. P. UEALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 



Dewey & Co. {sa.?s?-^stl Patent Agt's. 



The Patron's Almanac for 1877. 

Second year of issue. Greatly enlarged and improved. 
(.Jontains 72 pages of useful matter; The Constitution and 
By-laws of the Order; Rules for Subordinate Ctranges; 
Decisions of the National Body; I)eclarati<m of Purposes; 
Rules of Order in the Grange; Origin and Object of the 
Grange, etc. Also, many useful and correct rules, tal)les, 
etc., U^x weighing, measuring and calculating the contents 
of timber, liunhcr, land, boxes, cribs, etc., besides acni- 
ra^' calendar pages for all parts of the Union. In short, 
it is an inilisiicrisablc companion for every Patron or 
farmer in the Pacific a-s well a-s in the Atlantic States. 
Price, by mail, postpaid: Single copies, 10 cents; 12 copies, 
7.') cents; 18 copies for $1.00; 24 copies, *1.2S; 100 copies, 
.S''>.00. Address, 

S. HOWARD WILSON, 



Mecba 



vili.-, Bucks Co., 



TULE LANDS. 



FOR SALE OH TO LEASE ABUNDANCE oF P.AS- 
TURE ON, THEM. Address, 

MERCER & McAFEE, 
426 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATIO 

Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 



DANIEL INMAN, (Presiiiknt). 



R. C. HAILE, (VicK Pkksidkxt). 

JOHN LEWELLING, (Tkeasuiier). I. C. STEELE. 



AMOS ADAMS, (Skckf.takv)- 
THOS. UPI'ON. 



O. HUBBELL. D. CAMPBELL, 

SHIPPING AND •COMMISSION HOUSE, 



THOS. FLINT. 

G. P. KELLOGG. 

W. L. OVERHISER 



Grangers' Building, 



106 Davis Street, S. F. 



Consignniunts of Grain, Wool, Dairj' Products, Fruit, A'cgelahles, and other Produce solicited, anil 

A<lvanees m.ade m\ the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandise, 

Farm Implements, Wagons, etc., solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Coimnission Business, and place our rates of Conunission upon a fair legitimate basis that will 
enable the country at lai-ge to transact business through us to their entire satisfaction. 



Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Association, San I'"raiv-isco." 
fui'nished free on application. 



Stencils f<ir marking will l)o 



DANIEL INMAN, Manager. 



Winchester Repeating Rifle. 



MODEL 1873. 




The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, ,, . 

' 3 7 .String measuring from centtr of tar. 

gL't to center of each shot, 32 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, '"fS sh'^rrf-loo Su's."^ 
Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting, 
Defense, or Target Shooting. 

The San Francisco Agency is now atlly sTtpplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating- Arms Company, to wit : 
Hound barrels, )iliiin and set, 24 inch blued. Oct:iKon iiarrel, plain. 24 inch blued. Octjufon barrel, set, 
24, 21), 2H. :iO inch blued. OctaK-on barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 2(i, 2«, 30 inch— blued. Octaffon barrel, set, 24, 
2IJ, 28, :)0 extra finished, ;-ase hardened and check stocks. Octajjon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 20, fi, 30 inch- 
extra finished— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 20, 28, i^O inch beautifully, finished (). H. & C. S., 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and enifraved. Carbines 
i)lued, also gold, silver and nickel pl.ated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, nuiskets and carbines 
nn)del 1800. RELOADINfi TOOLS, PRIMERS AND PARTS OF AK.MS. 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 

JOHN SKIIVKER, No. 108 Battery Street, San Francisco, 

SOLE AGENT FOR THE PACIFIC COAST, 



PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

SAN FRANCISCO, 

Manufacturers of Linseed and Castor Oils, Oilcake and Meal. 

Highest price l>aid tor Elax Seed and Castor Heans deli\ered at our works. Contriu'ts made and Seed 
furnished for Flax Seed and Castor Bean Crop of 1877. For particulars, inquire at the otfice. 
BE-WARE OP ADULTERATED LINSEED OIL. 

Purchasers of our Oil, boiled or raw, in barrels, should be particular to notice that our trade mark, pitted over 
the bungs, has not been tampered with. The trade mark is just put on to secure its purity, and prevent adulterations 
with fish oils or other cheap oils. Barrels having our brand have been purchased and filled with adulterated oil, and 
sold as our own make. This we cannot entirely prevent, but we fully guarantee the puj-ity of all oils taken directly 
from our works. 

The attention of the trade is particuhirly called to our New and \^Y}: Superior brand. Diamond ('astcir Oil, which 
for its Purity and Brilliancy cannot be surpassed by any Castor Oil ever offered in this market, as ttur testimonials 
from all the princi]>al dealers will show. Purchasers and consumers of the Diamond (!astor Oil are requested to 
purchase in (iriginal packages, and see that our tra.de mark and brand is on each package. 

For sale in lipts to suit at 

PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS; Office, Corner California and Front Streets. 

KITTLE & CO., Agents. 




SMITH <&. WESSON'S 



New ]Wo<lcl. 

38 Calibre 
Central 
Fire. 



With Autoiiiutic 

Carlrldy 
t^J(*^«„,^ Ejector 



INTERNATIONAL HOTEL, 

.\l,l, \KWI,V Kl HNIKIIKii. 

824 & 826 Kearny Street, - San Francisco. 

$l..'>0 an<I *2.00 per day. Free Coach to the IIou«e. 
H. C! PATIillKlE, Proprietor. 



HOW READY 

For convenience, power and 

accuracy, it is uni:<iuiulvtl. If your 
mercbant does not keep them, order di- 
rect from tho Agency, 7J> <j/iatnl>rr.s St. — 
New York, M. W. Koblnnon, Geu'l Agent. 



^^0E MAf^f^ CALVERT'S CARBOLIC 

'"'^"- SHEEP WASH, 

$2 Per Gallon. 

After di|ipinii the Sbcc|i, is use- 
fid fi>r Priscrvini,' Wet Hides, De- 
stroyinii' the Vino Pest, and for 
Disiiifeeliii}; Pnrposes, Etc. 

T. W. JACKSON, a. F., Solo 
A^rent for (California and Nevada, 




32 



[January 13, 1877 



Mining and Scientific 
Press Patent Agency. 

The Mining and Scientific 
Press Patent Agency was estab 
Hshed in i860— the first west of 
the Rocky Mountains. It has 
kept step with the rapid march 
of mechanical improvements. 
The records in its archives, its 
constantly increasing library, the 
accumulation of information of 
special importance to our home 
inventors, and the experience of 
its proprietors in an extensive and 
long continued personal practice 
in patent business, affords them 
combined advantages greater 
than any other agents can possi 
bly offer to Pacific Coast invent- 
ors. Circulars of advice, free. 
Address, 

DEWEY & CO., 
Publishers Mining and Scien- 
tific Press and Pacific Rural 
Press, 224 Sansome Street, S. F. 

A. T. DEWEY, GEO. ri. STRONG, 

W. B. EWER, JNO. L. BOONE. 

"Faith and Confidence." 

LiVKKMURK, Oct. 1st, 1.S75. 

Messrs. Dewey & Co., P,vteiit Solicitors: Gentlfin u 
Yours oi the '2'.)th ult. , containing my patent to Kluvatiii 
R. R. duly received, and I hereby return my sincere 
thanks to the MiKixo and SciestiI'ic Press Patent Asjeiicy 
for your proinptnc.s.-i and hones y in regard to our busine.ss 
coniieclions. I have received a tlood of circulars from 
EaUem firms, desiring to deal with nie, but I have de- 
clined any comnninicution with them and prefer as soon 
as circumstances will permit, to negotiate with and pat- 
ronize a home inslitiuion; one in which I have faith and 
confidence Dewey & Co 

.^gain thanking you tor your promptness in securing my 
patent, I remain, ohedientiv j'ours, 

\VM. H. H.\KKIS()N 



Hamilton, Nev., May 28th, 1S7(5 
To Megtrs. Deirey d- Co.. Patent AyenU: 

Gbnti,e.mex;— I write to acknowledge the receipt by ex- 
press of the U. S. letters patent, on my invention for 
breech loading ordnance, and to tender you again my 
very sincere thanks for the careful attention you have 
bestowed upon my application since 1 first placed it in 
your hands, for the evident great interest you have njani- 
fesled in it, and for the unifonn patient and cheerful cour- 
tesy which has constantly marked your corTesi>ondence in 
reference to it. I have had some dealings with other 
agencies in the same line in times past, anu 1 can assure 
you that my corresj)ondcnce with yours has been more 
pleasant and satisfactory than with an\ others, and I 
shall always take great pleasure in rcromniending yotir 
agency to any and all my acquaintances without hesitation 
or reservation, as I should certainl,\ prefer to entrust my 
own business in your hands should I have any to tninsact 
In the same line hereafter. Vours, etc. 

J. R. N. OWEN. 

A COMPLIMENT. 

PUAixsBtRo, Merced Co., Cal., .lime £2d, l(i"4. 

Dewev & Co. Gentlemen: \ herewith tender my grate- 
ful acknowledgements for the energy, promptness and 
efficiency which >ou have disj'Iayed in procuring my pat- 
ent 

.\lthough you were entire strangers to me when I first 
communicated with you. I soon felt satisfied you were 
gentlemen of integrity, and shall always be happy to rep- 
resent vou as such. Verv trulv vours, 

■ li \V. RUCKER, M. D. 



Much ObUered, Etc. 

PoRTLAxn, Oreoos, Junc 2tSth, 1S70. 
Dewet & Co., Patent Solicitors, S. ¥.-~<ienl»: I am 
much (tbliged to you for courtesy shown me, .and am well 
pleased with the manner in which you have done my bus- 
iness, and assure you, will cheerfully recommend you to 
my acquaintances needing such servi<'es. Hope to have a 
case again before long, of my own. I ba\ebeen an inventor 
all my life, but let others reap the benefit, or had work 
stolen from me. Please have the extra copies of my pat- 
ent, etc. , mailed to me direct, and oblige. Yours trulv, 
.1. H. WOODRl M. 

WoollLANIl. Cai,., .Aug. 8th, 1»7«. 
Messrs. Dewey i Co. Gentx: Your letter containing 
he patent for my Cent^riinial ehuni has come duly to 
hand, and you will pleiise accept m\ many thanks for the 
prompt manner in which you atteniled to the business in- 
trusted to your care, and 1 will take great pleasure in rcc- 
oimnending you to any one having an> thing to attend to 
in your line. 1 am having a number of the churns put up, 
which will be ready for sale in a few weeks. 

Yours truly, J.\.MES Root. 



Santa Cuaka, Cal , .\pril (5th, ls7.'i. 
Messrs. Dewey & Co.— tfcnf*.-- We have just received 
Patent No. ltJ0,.')S5, for J. T. Watkins & Co s .Manmiotli 
Road Grader, whicli w;is patented through your .\gency. 
It is the neatest and best that we have ever received. \Ve 
feel proud cjf it and thankful to you for the care and at- 
tention th^t you have given it, and when we have any- 
thing to do in that line of business, we will surelvgivc vou 
a call. Very respectfully, J. T. WATKINS Jt CO. 

Better Retirxs, etc. -One of the largest business 
firms in Sacramento writes us, October 30th, 1875, remit- 
ting the cash for advertiseing, and a new onler with the 
following remarks: We are more than gratified with the 
result of our advertising in the Press. It has brought us 
better returns than any paper we have ever patronized 
Yours truly, ,1. o. k Co 



Paso Robles, Cal., October 18th, ls75. 
Dewey Ji Co.— G'«n(*.— The letters patent for the Tire 
Upsetter have come to hand. For the jiromyil manner 
with which you have brought the matter to a successful 
issue, please accept my thanks. Vours respeclfulh, 

.JOHN H. Mh;KTZ, 




Somt RniMiiix for Suhcrrihing for It. 



Because it is a pennanent, first-class, conscientious, 
able, and well conducted journal. 

Because it is the largest and best agricultural weekly 
west of the Rocky Mountains. 

That more farmers' wives and children in their isolated 
hollies may be cheered by its weekly visits, laden with its 
jileasing yet moral reading, and sound instruction. 

That a more extended interchange of views antl opin- 
ions may be had among fanners. \\\Kn\ all the gi'eat ques- 
tions touching their mutual interests and ]>rngress. 

Th:it the agricnlturul resources of the I'acillc States may 
be more wisely, speedily and thoroughly deveUtped by an 
o)>en and free discussion in our columns. 

That all the honest industries of our State may be ad- 
vanced in connection with that of iigrioulture, bur col- 
timns being ever open to the discussion of the merits of 
all progressive improvements. 

That the Rcral, after having been read and pondered 
over by the home circle, can be filed away for future use- 
ful reference, or forwarded to the old Eastern fireside of 
the Atlantic border, in aid of an increasing immigration to 
our sunny clime. 

St'BSjrRiPTiON, ^ a year in advance. 

DEWEY & CO.. PubUshers. 

San Krancisco, 1877. 



Our Poultry Department. 

E. H. Cheny WTites from Bo<iega, Sonoma county, a.s 
follows: "Your paper is worth its subscription price 
yearly to any farmer who keeps two dozen chickens, to 
get >ir. Eire's opinion upon the value of the difTercnt 
breeds of ftuvls. the proper treatment for Ihcm, the dis- 
eases to which they are liable and the remedies. I be- 
came acquainted with Mr. Eyre through your columns, 
and I have no cause to regrct"it. for in my de.ilings with 
him [ find everything .is represented, and without any 
disp;ir.igemcnt for o'hers, I cm recommend him as one in 
whom confidence will not be disjilaced." 

Hard ox tub Piblibiiers. Some of our subscribers 
when called uinm by our agents insist that they have sent 
iLs notices through (perhaps) a neighbor, the postmaster, 
or a letter, and wc have taken no notice of their orders, 
fir which they feel hard towards us Now, wc never re- 
ceived such notices without responding to them. /( uvidd 
be fuiridal to our mfcri>7« to lannre them. The fact is 
that it too frequently happens that people misdirect their 
letters: too frequently forget to put the right (or any 
other ) kind of stamiis on their letters; they too often send 
a copy of the paper back, which may never reach our bus- 
iness office, or if it does reach us, ma\ lack the name of 
the town and county in which the subscriber lives, in 
which case we cannot (if we have his n;ime) tell what part 
of our list to find it, to cross it off or change it, without 
lodking over some 10,000 names. Poetinisters and their 
clerks make omissions and mistakes :us well. l^Wheii 
you have btisiness with this office remember postJvl cards 
and letter stam)>s arc cheap, and ask no one to do that 
which you can well do yourself. 

Pacific Ri ral Pres.-. -Tliis well edited and popular 
agricultural organ, publishe<i by Dewey tc Co., San Kran 
uisoj, by its stea<iy and untiring zeal in adi ancing the best 
lliteresLs of the Grangers of the great West, has fairly won 
the proud title of "Banner .lournal" on the frontier of 
civilization. Not a line is admitted to its columns but 
that is of value to the fanning interests of the country. 
Subscribe at once for the new year. The terms are re- 
inarkablv low unly !?4 per annum, postage prepaid. - 
}{mmtaln ilesnenger, Dec. 16th. 

A.VY person receiving this paper after giving an order to 
stop it, niaj know that such order has failed to reach us, 
or that the paper is continued inadvertently, and they are 
earnestly requested t»> send w ritteii notice direct to us. 
We aim to stop the paper promptly when it is ordereil dis- 
continued. 

Sa.mi'LE Copies.- Occasionally we send copies of this 
paper to jiersons who wc belie\e would be benefited by 
subscribing for it, or willing to assist us in extvnding its 
circulation. We call the attenti<iii of such to our pro.-- 
pectus and terms of subscription. 

Sitter Creek, February •Jtith, 187.'> 
Messrs. Dewey A; Co. I have received my Letters 
P.itent through vour agencv. .-Vnd, for your promptness, 
accept my thanks Yours, '^ ^' ■••-■"!"'^ 



A Book For All That Have a Garden. 

FRAOARICULTURE, 

OK THE 

CULTURE of the STRAWBERRY, 

.\ Practical Treatise rm the 

Culture, Propagation, Management and 

Marketing of Stra\^berrles. 

ILLCSTK.ATED with PIU )TO()KAPHS represe-nting the 
.ivenige size of best varieties. especiiUIv ailapted to the 
family gju-den; by FELl.X OILLET, Nevada City, Cal. 

PRICE OF TRE.\TISE -niustrated witli two pho- 
tographs, r>0 ets. : with i\\e phonographs. 7.'> cts. : with eight 
photographs. 31 00; with 12 photographs. $1.2.'j. Twelve 
dilTerent varieties represented, including Princess Diigmar, 
The Lady, Col. Cheney, Exhibition, Gov. Booth, Jucunda. 
('ockscomb, etc. It is the best and most complete, prac- 
tical, interesting treatise on strawberry culture e\er pub- 
lished in the I'nited States. Will be sent by mail, prc|>aid, 
at the above prices after receipt of money. 

For sale, at moderate prices, plants of 4S dilTerent vari- 
eties of the nicest and largest sorts of Strawberries (Eng- 
lish. French, .\nierican and CalifomianX Ever bearing 
Raspberry (three crops a year). Cions for graftitig of 
French Chestnut, (Marron cfe Lyon and Marron Combale). 
Best varieties of Pear, Cherry, etc. 

f^Send for full descriptive and price list 

FELIX OILLET, Nevada City, Cal. 



S. N. KNKiHT. 



Boixn YoLiMES of the Pacikic Rikal Press, from \ol- 
umc One, are for sale at this otflce; price, ?.i per volume 
fo.- single volumes; unbound $:!. There are two volumes 
per year. 



Rupture. 



Metal Trusses, being rigid and unvielding, 
[are often displaced from their position by the 
\m<'tion8of the body, in coiistqucncc of which 1^ 
I they ESLAiiOB ru|iture instead of healing it. 
I Their pressure is often wrought upon parts oil 
^Ihe bodv which are health}, therebj causing' 
I lumbago and other diseases of a dangerotis na- , 
\u\n. Call on the MAGNETIC ELASTIC TRISSI 
' C(J., WJU Sacramento Street, S. K. 




THE SLUTHOUR PUMP 

HAS NO EQUAL FOR 

I RRI GATI O N. 

Send Your Orders to 
- J. M. KEELER & CO., Agents, 
330 Sansome Street, - - San Francisco. 

M. FALLON, 

Cor. Seventh k Oak Sts. , 




OAKLAND, CAL. 

Light and Dark Brahmas, 
Buff, White and Par- 
tridge rocliiiis, ._^ 
Spjingled, (Jolden and Silver Polish, 

Spangled, (iolden and Silver Handnirgf), 
I'ure White-faced BLack .^jiani.sh. 
White and Bmwn Leghorns, 

.Silver (!rey Dorkings, 
Houdaiis, Silkies, Black-lied < James, 
Bronze Turkeys, Kouen and Ayleahury I)iiek.-<, 
All from Premium Stock of Best Sti-uin.s. 

Fowls of the above varieties for sale; also. Chicks in 
their season. Eg^js packed with care and sent in rotation 
as orders are received. 



THOROUGHBRED FOWLS, 

BRONZE TURKEYS, 
Pekin Ducks, Bmbden Qeese, 



SAFE ARRIVAL 

OF FOWLS 

fJlARANTEED 




Eggs Shipped to 
.Vn\ part of the 
Coiist to Hatch .\f 
^ ter .\rrival. 



Price List fi>r 1K77 now Rca.l\. .\ddress, ' 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 

(please inclose stamp ) 

Also, Thoroughbred Southdovm Sheep. 



on NEW YEAR CARDS. Seven Styles, with name, 20 
"** cents; 25 Fancy Cards, IJ styles, with name, 10 cents: 
30 Masonic or Odd- Fellow's Cards, with nam , 20 cent*; 
postiiaid. J. B. lU'STED, Nassau, Reiiss. Co.,N. V. 

All SiioiLii Have It. - The last Riral Phesh is worth 
the subscriiition for a year, E\ery farmer should have it. 
Smithern Califvrnian, March .».((<. 



X c'i<^nUfie f/ve:^j 



C-\<s 



f^Ul 





jjinins anS B'«''''fi' il'"». f 



MACHINBRr. BUILDINGS, PORTRAITS, L/'DCCAPES, 7 .■^. -MARKS. LABELS, SEALS. MONOGRAMS, etc. 

«Sl* -• - --- S-* 

N THE HIGHEST" STVLE OF THE ART. 



Seedsmen. 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



IMPORTED. 



Sweet Corn. 



Crosby's Extra Early x 
Marblehead Mammoth ' 
Stowell's Evergreen ,' 
Mexican Sweet, New ) 

Early Canada 1 tt n -m . , n 

Early DuttonT lellOW Hint Com. 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzel ) 

Yellow Globe - geet Sced. 

WTiite Sugar I 

ALSO, EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETi' OF VEGETA- 
BLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, GRASS AND 
CLOVER SEEDS, ETC., OFFERED AT 
WHOLESALE OR RETAIL. 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

No. 317 Washington Street, San Prandsco. 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer in 




FLOWERING PL.\NTS AND Bl'LBS, FRl'ITH AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 
Comprising the Most Complete Stock 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST 
lYiccs Unusually Low. 

tiff'Tr.vic Price List on application. 
*, 'My "Guide lo the Vocetable and Flower Garden" 
will sooo be ready, ami will be sent free to all Cl'»TO- 
MKKS It will contain iIlstruction^r on the culture of 
Fruit, Nut. and Oniamental Tr •.- Sends, Tobacco, 
Alfalfa, etc. 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 
419 and 421 Sanso.ne Street, S. P. 





E. SCHULTZE, 

UANAGSR. 



DEWEY & CO., 

I'ublkbers and Patent Ageain. 



ARE CLANTED BY A MILLION PEOPLE IS AMERICA. SEE 

VlCk's Cata'OTiie 3W Illuaniions,oi l. Iwicents. 
Vick's Floral Guide, Onarteny, •is< cents a year. 

Vlck's Plowtr and ve?etable Garden, lo 

cenls; with cleifdnt cloth eo\er<. .<1 0(i 

.\ll mv publications are printrtl in En,'lish and Ger- 
ni.n. .\ddress, .lAMES VICK. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

$ ONE DOLLAR. $ 

Spooner's Girdening Guide for 1877, 

Anil Spooner's special c..llecti.in, 30 varieties 
choice Flower Seeds, or 2o varieties selei:ied Veg- 
etable Seed.^, milled to any address on nceipt of il.OO; 
or llic (fuide free to applicants. 

WM. H. SPOONER, Boston, Mass. 

s seeds! seeds, seeds, s 

£ MV CATALOOl E OP E 

t Field. Flower and Garden Sesds, Etc., E 

D For 1H77, will be mailed free to all applicants. D 
S WILLIAM RENNIE, - - - Toronto, Canada. S 

Tins CiT shows the form of the Suf^ 

Trou;Ch Gourd. They hold from thr«c lo ten 

^k gallons each. Twenty-five cent* pays for a 

n packat,'e of the seed, and one of Pansy, 

. D.tuble Zinnia and Striped Petunia. I'riee 

list of seeds free. .Vddress, 

Mux 50. WALDO F. HRdWN, Oxford, O. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland. 

Ctinstaiitly on hand and for s:ile, chi>ice 
specinVns of the followiii); va- 
rieties "f Fowls: 

Dark and Light Brahmas, Buff, 

White and Partridge 

Cochins, White 

and Brown 

Leghorns, Dorkings. 

Polish Hamburgs, Game 

and Sebright Bantams, 

Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks 

E(!(iS Fill; SALE AFTER JANUARY FIRST. 

NO INFE.ilOi FJWLS SO-0 *T ANY PRICE. 
Satisfaction Guaranteed. 

For further iiifommtion send stamp for Illustratvd Cir- 
cular, to __ __ 
GEO. B. BATLEY, 

P. O Box 1)59, San Francisco, Cal. 

YOl'R NAME PRINTED on 40 Mixed Cards tor 10 omta. 
CLINTON BROS., Clintonvilie, (X 





Volume XIII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 20, 1877. 



[Number 3. 



Hints on Landscape Gardening. 

The thought of tasteful adornment is one 
which should be in the mind of every rural 
reader. It is one of the chief agents in the con- 
struction of beautiful homes, and beautiful 
homes are conducive to beautiful lives. We 
have in this State some of the most beautiful 
rural homes in the country, and we have other 
homes which a very small expenditure for taste- 
ful adornment will make beautiful. We desire 
to draw the attention of our readers to this sub- 
ject, and for this purpose we have made engrav- 
ings to illustrate an article written for the Press 
by Chas. A. Reed, of Santa Barbara. Of course 
the plans which Mr. Reed proposes are subject 
to many modifications to meet the taste.s or 
needs of those who desire to profit by his hints. 
Indeed, if the plans but lead our readers to 
think, study and plan for themselves, their 
mission wil 1 be accomplished. Mr. Reed writes 
as follows: 

The great object of landscape gardening is to 
develop the beautiful and picturesque in the 
grounds to be laid out, by the pleasing arrange- 
ment of trees, surfaces, buildings and walks, in 
which the harmony of form and color may be 
displayed in the most attractive manner. We 
attain this object by first removing or conceal- 
ing such things in the natural scenery as may l)e 
ottensive or disagreeable to the eye, and then by 
the introduction of tasteful forms, groups and 
colors. 

The beauties of landscape gardening may be 
somewhat expressed in a vei-y small plot of 
ground, where there is only room enough for a 
few trees and shrubs, and a little grass plat. 

Downing, in speaking of this subject, remarks 
that, " If landscape gardening in its proper 
sense cannot be applied to the embellishment of 
the smallest cottage residence in the country, 
its principles may be studied with advantage, 
even by him who has only three trees to plank 
for ornament, and we hope no one will think 
his grounds too small to feel wOling to add 
something to the general amount of beauty in 
the country." 

The ornamentation of residence grounds should 
be in keeping with the general character of the 
country around them. If the region be hilly, 
abounding in cliffs, ravines, brooks, etc., the 
grounds should partake of the same character; 
if flat or rolling the same general features should 
be preserved. By this means we are enabled to 
increase the general beauty of a given piece of 
ground, while it will still be in keeping with the 
surrounding country. 

In a broken region, for instance, we plant 
pines, firs, birch, etc., while on the prairies the 
drooping forms of the elm, willow and the 
bushy Cottonwood are more appropriate, and in 
neither case is nature violated; yet while a care- 
ful interspersing of firs and evergreens in prairie 
land, or willows and cottonwoods among the 
hills, in suggestive places, is admissable and 
even beautiful, it is far from being in conformity 
with the principles of good taste or elegance to 
throw the whole display into discord by planting 
a grove of willows on a rocky cliff, or a forest of 
fir trees in our prairie gardens; an absurdity too 
often to be seen and too little deplored. 

It is by the proper distribution of trees and 
other ornaments that we decorate our grounds, 
and when the principles of landscape gardening 
are better understood by the people, and the art 
more appreciated, we shall have more tasteful 
and natural displays; for it must be borne in 
mind that nature is our guide and our model, 
and it is our province to embellisli and not to 
distort in our imitations. One who has not 
studied the laws of harmony in any department 
of aesthetics is pretty sure to run a principle too 
far, not only in the natural decoration, but in 
the artificial, such as rustic work, vases, statu- 
ary, etc. 

Ornaments of the same character should never 
be repeated in a country residence, for variety 
is one of the chief principles of landscape gar- 
dening. Neither should we place statuary of 
wild animals too near the dwelling, or, in fact, 
have them at all, for they impress us with feel- 
ings of disgust rather than pleasure. Ornaments 
of any kind should not be indi«i?riiniaately scat- 



tered throughout the grounds, but placed in 
such localities as overlook the finest views, in 
some quiet nook or cosy retreat where one may 
dream away many happy hours in the balmy at- 
mosphere of spring time; thus giving a reason 
for their positions. In using ornaments, the 
idea is not to detract from, but to add to the 
general effect of the landscape. It is well, also, 
if such ornament express utility, as one soon 
tires of ornament alone; for extravagance in this 
cannot but detract from the general beauty of 
the scene. The world is growing more and 
more practical every day, and to satisfy this 
growing quality, utility should be comVjined 
with beauty. 

"If" says Downing, "the proprietors of our 
country villas in their improvements are likely 
to run into any one error more than 'another. 



attractive view in nature that does not contain 
more or less of both; but a lawn with its flow- 
ers and small groups of trees, and the crystal 
waters of a little lake more directly expresses the 
former^ while a mountain gorge with evergreens 
and murmuring brooks represents the latter. 

We may, however, to a certain extent, pro- 
duce the picturesque effect on comparatively a 
flat or rolling surface, pro^-iding this character 
is already suggested by nature, by planting trees 
and shrubs closer and more in masses, making 
therein jsleasant openings. The walks, too, 
should wind among the treees in such a manner 
that while traversing them one would suddenly 
come upon these little openings or upon groups 
of flowers, a cozy retreat, an inviting nooK or a 
pool of shimmering water, thus creating an 
agreeable surprise. 




LANDSCAPE GARDENING-PLAN FOR TEN ACRES. 



we fear it will be that of too great a desire for 
display, too many vases, temples and seats, and 
too little purity and simplicity of general 
effect. " 

There are two methods of producing the 
landscape in ornamental grounds — the beautiful 
and the picturesque. In the former we would 
introduce broad stretches of lawn, with gentle 
undulations studded 
with small groves of 
trees of the ornamental 
varieties, such as the 
maple, elm, red bud, 
Irish and weeping juni- 
per, with single speci- 
mens here and there, 
and the spire-like pop- 
lar showing its tapering 
top occasionally from a 
grove of the more droop- 
mg trees. Walks encir- 
cling the lawns, skirting 
the groves and winding 
around the little lakes 
and ponds, where the 
weeping willow may be 
planted with good effect. 
Here, too, we may have 
our rustic seats, temples, 
and other ornaments; 
while about the dwell- 
ing, along the walks and 
skirting the lawns we 
would have the flowers 
arranged in pleasing 
groups, and in rich 
harmonies of color. In 
this display we recog- 
nize the expression of beauty. 

In the picturesque we find the rocky cliffs 
vine<l with ivy and honeysuckle, and crested 
with hemlocks, firs and other evergreens, cas- 
cades and babbling brooks, with larch, birch, 
walnut and other deaiduous trees along their 
banks and extending over the hillsides, merging 
into the oaks and hickories, with opei) glades 
and vistas here and there bordered with some 
of the more ornamental varieties, with clusters 
of the wild plum roofed over by the creeping 
grapevines, fonning a natural arbor or pavilion. 
Here, too, we find the timid rabbits and the 
summer song birds. 

We may sav that this combination of scenery 
is <Uso l^eautiful, for we ^can scarcely select an 




The general lines, also, should be somewhat 
angular, because the picturesque in nature is 
composed, in a great measure, of angles; having 
a care, however, that the effect is not marred by 
overdoing; and the trees should be so arranged 
along the walks as not to make it appear that 
one is going out of the way, and also to protect 
the points of walks, lest one should disfigure 
the grounds by cutting 
across lots, and in all 
cases it should be borne 
in mind that walks 
about the dwelling must 
be made for conve- 
nience, and therefore re- 
(juire no more curves or 
angles than is necessary 
for effect. Whatever 
may be the character of 
the grounds, it is the 
province of the gardener 
to embellishand improve 
what he finds, introduc- 
ing enough of opposite 
features to avoid monot- 
ony. 

In planting about the 
dwelling, single spec- 
imens should be placed 
nearest to it, increasing 
the size and density of 
tlie groves as they near 
the boundary lines. By 
this means we have air 
and sunshine, which 
should never be ignored; 
it also gives a finer view 
of the dwelling, the 
highway and the surrounding country. 

The accompanying plans will, to a certain 
extent, illustrate some of the ideas suggested 
in this article. 

Design No 1 is of a simple and cenvenient 
form, and will somewhat carry out the prin- 
ciples of the more beautiful displays; though 
enough of the opposite character is introduced 
to avoid too much sameness in the general effect. 
It is intended for a lot of about three acres, 
which is supposed to have a gra<lual slope in all 
directions from tlie dwelling. Tlie surrounding 
country being open, the trees are so arranged 
as to give tlie most ''leasing views from the 
dwelling, and other parts of the grounds. 
The main foot approach. A, winds by easy 



PLAN FOR THREE ACRES. 



curves through a small grove of trees, and over 
a la^vu to the dwelling, B. 

The summer house, 6', is situated in a thick 
grove of trees, looking out upon the highway, 
the distant country and the golden sunset. 

The carriage drive, D, circles up to the dwell- 
ing and thence to the stable yard, E. 

Tlie kitchen garden, F, is surrounded by an 
arborvitse hedge, and is convenient to both 
stable and dwelling. 

The orchard, O, is bordered on the boundary 
by a thick belt of evergreens, as a protection 
against the cold winds. 

On tlie way to, and near the dwelling, flower 
beds are in considerable profusion. 

Design No. 2 was drawn for a lot of about 
10 acres, and will somewhat carry out the prin- 
ciples of the more picturesque displays on a 
slightly rolling surface. 

There is a street or highway at either end of 
the grounds, thus giving an entrance at each. 

The carriage approach, A, circles up to the 
dwelling, B, through a thick grove of trees; 
thence through a profusion of flowers to the 
stable, C, and over the rustic bridge, D, to the 
rear entrance, E. 

The fountain, P, is situated in the center of 
a little grass plot, surrounded by the main foot 
approach to the dwelliag, with flower beds on 
either side. 

G H I and /are summer houses of a rustic 
character; the one at //, overlooks the green- 
house, grapery and the croquet ground. 

The general surface is comparatively level, 
but there is a gradual slope in every direction 
down to the edge of a little lake, in which there 
is a tiny island covered with a thick growth of 
nut-bearing trees, where the children and the • 
squirrels may ramble about in the golden 
autumn and gather nuts for their winters 
store. 

At the right of the dwelling lies the vegetable 
garden, concealed by an arborvitse hedge, and 
the walk at the lower end leading to the lake 
is for the supply of water. 

K and L are the two orchards, and the poul- 
try house, ^f, stands just in front of the stable. 
Rustic work is freely distributed throughout 
the grounds, though mostly in the region of the 
lake. 

Although this design is to represent the more 
picturesque displays, there is enough of the 
opposite feature introduced to avoid sameness 
and monotony of general effect. 



The Wool Product. — The following note on 
the production of wool in the United States 
during the last year, and the stocks now in hand, 
is from the annual circular of James Lynch of 
New York city. ' 'The clip of the United States is 
really not so large as it was last year, although it 
seems greater in pounds gross. The falling off 
in different States east of the Mississippi is from 
five to 20 per cent, from last year, while west 
of the Mississippi the increase, as will be noticed, 
is enormous. It is now clear that the United 
States produces Clothing wool of rather inferior 
staple in great abundance, while the growth of 
long and strong wools, esjiecially of the finer 
kinds, has fallen off heavily, and is not sufficient 
for the demands of American manufacturers, nor 
is it likely to be for years to come. Farmers in 
States where such wools can be grown find it 
more profitable to pay attention to products 
other than wool; hence it is that foreign wools 
of superior (juality and staple must be im- 
ported, whatever tlie tariff may be, or the best 
classes of goods cannot be made in the United 
States. Imports of cariiet wools have kept up 
in quantity, while of clothing they have fallen 
heavily behind. The stocks of domestic on 
hand, in the ))rincipal markets, arc about the 
same in pounds as they were last year, but arc 
considerable below in fact, the great weight of 
the wool, at present, being composed of un- 
waslied and wa<ty kinds tnat will not vicld 
more than 30 to 40 per cent, of clean wool. ' 

Draft Hok.se.s for Utah and California.— 
The Prairie Farmer says: Dr. B. R. WestfaU, of 
Macomb, 111., will leave this State for Utah 
and California in January, with a car-load of 
imported and high bred Norman horses, a part 
of which are already engaged, the balance for a 
market. He will stop first at Ogdan and thon 
at Sacramento. 



34 



^ «i(4»«6^ '^'O % 



January 20, 1877. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



The State Agricultural Society. 

Editors Press:— You say that "on the 25tli 
of the present month the annual meeting of the 
State Agricultural Society will be held in Sacra- 
mento," and "by reason of resignation and reg- 
ular vacancy,, there ^vill be need to elect a 
quorum of new members to the State Board of 
Agriculture. Thus there will be an opportunity 
to put the State society into the hands of a new 
set of managers, and, being in the majority 
they will have the dircctioi\ of its policy. Thi.s 
being the case, the Record- Union urges upon 
any who have not approved the way in which 
the society has been managed, to step forward 
and put their beliefs into tangible shape at the 
election." 

You further state: "This is fair. It certainly 
is not right to find fault with a popular institu- 
tion and then make no effort to improve it when 
the opportunity oflfers. " 

I admit there is an opportunity to make an 
effort, but wliat siu'uiiies making an effort under 
the present constitution .ind bydaws of the so- 
ciety, which admits all annual menibfiv to vote 
for the election of otlicers, as well as life meni- 
bers and delegates from county societies. This 
being the ca.se, the people of Sacramento can 
elect to office whoever suits them or their inter- 
ests, let the person live in San Diego or Sacra- 
mento, for tlie simple reason that they (under 
the present mode) have the power to do it. 
And wliy? 

1st. Because a great portion of the life mem- 
bers reside in or near Sacramento, and can at- 
tend the election without incurring e.xpensc. 
2d. Because the wire-worke-a of Sacramento can 
call in a sufficient nuniler of the citizens, and by 
paying their annual fees they become voter-s 
without any extra e.'cpense, and can carry the 
election (as they did last year| for wlioever they 
choose. On the other haml, tlie few life mem- 
bers that reside in the more remote parts of the 
State, in attending the annual meeting would be 
obliged to incur (juite an expense: so would also 
the delegates from county societies; therefore, 
under the present manner of comlucting the 
election of olficers, the people arc obliged to sub- 
mit, although you say: "It seems to us that the 
present is the time to remodel tlie society, and 
it will soon appear whether tlie farmers of the 
State care enough about it to make the effort. " 
I am a farmer and from the al)ove showing if 
you will ix)int out any mode or devise any 
means whereby a change can be made you will 
greatly oblige ni;iny farmers. Under the pres- 
ent mode of election a farmer any distance from 
Sacramento would be vei-y silly to incur an ex- 
pense of from ??10 to .?<)(! (accor<ling to distance 
or location in the State) and tlien have all his 
efforts blasted. Liider such circumstances 
farmers had better stay at home and save their 
money, and the sooner the State Agricultural 
Society is changed in name to a race course, tlie 
better it will be for farmers. 

F.\RMER. 

[We cannot but think that a determined ef- 
fort on the part of the farmers wouhl be pro- 
ductive of good, even if they were outvoted. 
It would go to show more clearly that the race 
track does not fitlj- represent tlie agriculture of 
the State, and possibly the remedy could then 
be had through the Legislature. We acknowl- 
edge that we do not at present sec how the de- 
sirable end is to be accomplished, but we 
cannot douV>t that there will be wisdom in a 
multitude of counsels on the subject. What 
have other readers to say in this connection?— 
Eds. Press.] 

Redwood Stumps. 

Editors Press: — Riding through a redwood 
forest the other day, I saw a farmer engaged 
in burning stumps. This carried my mind back 
to my boyhood, when I remember spending 
many days, in the Western country, trj'ing to 
rid the fields of immense black-walnut stumps. 
Generally two or three years were necessary be- 
fore these troublesome roots could be disposed 
of by "cremation." Since then I have often 
wished for the money those walnut stumps 
mig.it command at the present day — even for 
the privilege of digging them up and taking 
them away. The more knotty and curled the 
better they would be. Our richest furniture is 
ornamented with parts of just such stumps as 
once were considereil worthless, but are now 
bought up for a valuable consideration. 

Californians need not be told of the uses and 
worth of redwood. It is one of the most dur- 
able of woods. After 20 years' use it seems just 
as fresh and free from decay as when first cut. 
When well selected and made into furniture it 
is not only ornamental but durable. Oil and 
varnish bring out the grain, and there is a 
tenacity of fiber and beauty of color in <ertain 
kinds that make it equal at least to the Spanisli 
cedar. Some trees are beautifully curled and 



dotted, resembling the bird's-eye maple in struc- 
ture. All the trees near the roots are of this 
structure, and this brings me back to the 
stumps. 

In the redwoods are thousands of monstrous 
stumps cumbering as rich and productive a soil 
as c;in be found in California. A soil, too, in a 
climate seldom subject to drouth, or too much 
rain, where nearly all kinds of plants would 
grow that are found north of Slexico. The 
trees have been cut into posts, railroa<l ties, 
Iwards and other lumber, at a distance of live or 
.lix feet from the ground, and what shall be done 
with these stumps? 

However beautiful furniture of redwood may 
be, liowever handsome the veneering and durable 
tlie article, it is evident that in California it 
will not become fashionable or popular. This is 
the home of the redwood and it is too common 
liere to be esteemed as an article of furniture or 
inside finith of houses. 

But as an article of export its inherent <|Uali- 
ties will commend it anywhere; and there is no 
reason why it may not become valuable in other 
parts of the world. The area of the redwood 
is limited to a small district in California. It 
is found nowhere else in the world, and its 
scarcity must in time make it a rarity. There 
are two species — the coast redwood {.Sei/uoii.i neni- 
piri-inn") and the Sierra redwood (.V. i/i'junlUi^ 
or famous big tree of Calaveras and Mariposa. 
The former occupies a narrow belt along the 
coist, scarcely passing south of the Bay of Mi>n- 
terey, and not crossmg the Oregon line to the 
north. The ijiijaiiind is limited to a very few 
groves, wliich arc apparently doomed to an early 
extinction — unless its seeds, which are being 
planted all over the world, should find favor- 
able conditions for its growth as a cultivated 
plant. 

It is the coast redwood which forms such a 
rich dower to California. And this is the tree 
whose stumps are suggestive of an industry that 
Some genius will develop into .dollars and cents 
some of these days. C. L. A. 

Santa Cruz, Cal., Jan. !>th, 1877. 

Berryessa, Napa C unty. 

KimoKs PkI'Xs:— In the last number of the 
I'hkss we rea<l of a "Barljeeue at Berrye.ssa.' 
Tlie name looked familiar, but not having heard 
of a barbecue in our valley, we reatl the article 
and understood there wtis another Berryessa 
besides our own beautiful vale. .Mention has 
been made of it in the I'uks.s from time to time 
l)efore, but we scarcely know the location. The 
one of whicli I write is the Berryessa valley of 
Napa coimty, indeed a beautiful and fertile 
valley, some 10 miles long by from two to five 
wide. It boasts one village, Monticello, con- 
taining one liotel, two stores of general mer- 
chandise, two blacksmith shops, one barber shop, 
etc., with several very nice residences and quite 
a number of families, also a school-hfiuse. The 
land here is fertile, the comfortable farm 
houses and spacious out-buildings, in which 
autumn after autumn are stored the wealth of 
golden grains, prove the farmer's success and 
prosperity. 

The unusually fine weather anfl glorious 
moonlit nights favored the mcrry-maker.s during 
the holidays. If sometmiea this same beautiful 
weather, and briglit, but extremely frosty 
nights, caused a feeling of uneasiness to the 
farmer, hope still cheereil him on, for scarcely 
in the experience of the "oMest inliabitant " had 
a winter passefl away without a long, refreshing 
rain during or near holid.iy week. 

The long-continued diy weather, up to the 
present time, has discouraged not a few. The 
roads are deeply covered witli dust, the grass is 
fading under the pressure of incessant frosty 
nights and drouth. The jiarched earth is long- 
ing for the still ho])ed-for rains. .Anxious ques- 
tions ilisturb the minds of those dependent on 
agricultural pursuits. .NlALLlJi Stajkord. 

Monticello, Napa county, Cal. 

The scene of the barbecue was^Berryessa, in 
Santa Clara county, a few miles from San 
•lose. — Eds. Phe.ss. 



A New Flower — "Gilia Parrya." 

Editors Pkes.s: — I came up here among the 
dlouds the last 'of October, bringing a wagon- 
load of plants, books and the precious micro- 
scope, but as yet have been too sick for much 
scientific work. I became thoroughly tired 
out with botanizing in southern California; such 
a contrast to the High Sierra. I am slowly re- 
covering by means of physical exercise, prin- 
cipally, the while quite abashed at the thought 
of whether it is possible for me to write uj) 
"Botanical Excursions" in that glorious land for 
your readers next spring. The field is so large, 
the rtora so splendid and the citizens are so gen- 
erous! 

Contest Over the New Flower. 

Besides making a large colle tion of the 
known tlora of the South, r)r. Parry and I 
picked up, it appears, several plants new to sci- 
ence; the I )octor a dozen and I half as many. 
Among the latter a beautiful little (lUin from 
the Mohave river, with large pink and white 
lilossoms, very desirable for cnltivation. IJjion 
its discovery I studied it and found it different 
from any species yet published, so sent the spec- 
imens to l)r. Cray, witli the request tliat he 
would name it OiUa Fnrri/a, to honor the noble 



wife of Dr. Parry, whose many years of botan- 
ical service entitle her to recognition. 

A month or so after. Dr. Palmer, an indefati- 
gable collector of that region, also picked up 
the ]jlant and forwarded with his collection. 
When Dr. Gray came to examine the accumu- 
lations of the season, he described the new plant 
and named it Ollia Ptilnieri. As soon as I 
learned the fact, I stoutly protested, arguing at 
length my priority of discovery, also my deter- 
mination, citing Dr. Parry for witness, where- 
ui)on Dr. Gray ha.s just revoked his former ac- 
tion and now the beautiful little gem is named 
for all time (Ulia Parrya, "dedicated to Mrs. 
Dr. Parry," Dr. Gray adds, "whose services to 
botany well merit this recognition." 

J. G. Lemmon. 

yierra Valley, Cal., .Tan. Ist, 1877. 

Tehama County. 

Editors Pkes.s:— Tlie northern part of this 
county, west of the Sa^ameuto river, is fast 
filling up with settlers. Much of the land on 
these pUiins was considered wortliless except 
for grazing. Numerous bands of sheep c<jvered 
the country, and by continuous close feeding, 
the land was denuded of almost everything but 
the coarsest weeds. The wild oat, which it is 
said was once so rank here, had disappeared, 
'i'he advent of the small farmer is fast changing 
this state of things. Nearly every quarter sec- 
tion of government land has been taken u]i, ami 
homes arc being founded on every hand. The 
soil, which is mostly of a reddish cohir and 
composed of a mixture of clay, gravel, and sand, 
has been tiieil and proved and found to yield 
good ero]is of grain. The gr.ipe, fig, peach, al- 
mond and apricot succeed well. In experiment- 
ing the jiast season I grew several hundred 
graiic-vines from cuttings, without irrigation 
anil with very poor preparation of the giound 
or after culture. The young grain certaiidy 
looks lietter and greener on these lands now 
than on the adobe soils in many places. A few 
inches below the surface of the ground is a 
tenacious red clay more or less free from gravel 
and very retentive of moisture. And lierein, 
I think, lies the secret of the verdure now seen; 
also of the numerous springs which abound on 
the surface. Thess latter, in onlinary seasons, 
yield a good supply of water, but arc now dry- 
ing out and we are resorting to deep wells for 
permanent full supplies. Hogs and poultry, 
especially turkeys, are rai.sed in great numbers 
and found to be profitable. We had more or 
less rain <m the fourth and fifth of Sei>tember, 
and on tlie Itith, 17th, 2.ith, 26th and 27th 
of October; a slight .sprinkle a few days after- 
warils. but none .since then. T. N. 

Note on Mexican Agriculture. 

Editors Press: — Agriculture is rather neg- 
lected here, and the ideas of rancheros in Mex- 
ico pretty primitive. We have an abumlance 
of land and all sorts of climates within 200 
miles. We grow barley and wheat, as well as 
cott<m and cane. Coffee growing is at present 
tlie principal project, and several plantatifms 
have been starteil, giving a most increilible re- 
sult. Cotton does well here, but through igno- 
rance two-thirds of the crops are lost. Cane 
and indigo and a multitude of other plants grow 
with little work, but are not cultivated on .ic- 
count of indolence or ignorance. Lands are 
cheap, and are .sold at the rate of -SI 2 to #I.t per 
acre; that is, such ai have irrigation. Without 
irrigation they are wortli from f.'l to $.5. Buy- 
ing a ranch with jiastures good ami lja*l, it is 
worth from 50 cents to $1. Men with small 
capital • say 81, (KK) -would do exceedingly 
well, as rents are also very cheap. Tlie lands 
here are healthy, excepting a few ne;ir the coast. 
E. (il:oTK.\s^s. 

Colima, Mexico, Dec. Uth, l«7(). 




Bee-Eating Birds. 

.1. p. Spaulding writes to the /•«!»>(> Fanm-r 
about bees and bee or king birds eating I>ees. 
He says: I killed several of those binls this 
summer and found none but drones in them. I 
failed to find any crop a« he speaks of, but the 
bees were in the gizzard or stomach. Mr. Bar- 
nard makes some inquiry about the cat bird, 
saying he was not certain whether they ate bees 
or were catching moths. 1 know they are after 
the moths about my hives. There is a pair that 
nest near my apiary each year, and I wouhl not 
have them disturbed for a great amount. [ have 
watched them a great many hours and they will 
sit by the side of the hives and watch for moths, 
and if a bee comes aronnd to see wliat they are 
there for, they will pick at them gently to drive 
them away. If they see a moth tliey gti among 
the Vices fearle.ssly aixl snap him up. 

There is .another liee catclier that f woulil like 
to know more about; namely, the spindle, or 
what is (billed the dragon fiy. They were very 
numerous this summer and I s,iw them citch a 
great m.iny liees. but could not tell whether 
they were working bees or drones. They will 
capture a bee and tly away so quick 1 can never 
t<;l what kind of a bee they have got. My «""• 
I'.l years old, says he saw one catch and cat a 
worker bee this summer. 



PoJLjf^Y Y^P^D. 



M. Etre, Jr., Nsipa, Oal., CorrespandlnK Editor of thia 
De|>aninent. 



Treatment for Roup, Etc. 

Mr. Evke:— Out fowls heretofore have been 
a losing game, but I see a ray of light and hope, 
more es{)ecially since I visited ami have com- 
municated with you. Capt. Hallett comes in 
with his Ri'RAL Prfuss whenever there is an 
article from M. Eyre, .Jr., Na]>a. I give him 
all the iiifomiatiou derived from your letters and 
proof-sheets, and promise him the benefits of 
your pamphlet, when it comes. We have pur- 
chased 15 lbs. of sulphate of iron, 15 ll>s. of alum 
and one ]iound of sulphuric acid. • So you see 
we are prepareil to do battle with that terrible 
disease, the liver complaint. But do you mean 
to say the sulphate of iron should be given con- 
stantly every morning? 

[Answer. — Yes.] 

Liver disease is our greatest trouVile. Cold 
in the head, or snuffles, or a kind of catarrh, 
which would end in roup I can manage very 
well. My experience teaches me that salt and 
water is good. I use about one teaspoonful of 
salt to a half cup of water. 1 clean the head 
by pressing the nostrils just in front of the eye. 
The mucus will come out in the slit in the roof 
of the mouth. If necessary 1 run a quill from 
the roof of the mouth out through the eye. 
Have the point of the ipiill smooth; strip off 
the feathers exce])t some on the enil, dip it in 
the salt and water ;uid draw it through. I take 
a small gla.ss syringe and syringe out through the 
roof of the mouth, eyes and nostrils w ith salt and 
water. In ordinary cases one or two operations 
will cure. We used to lose fowls with the above 
disease, but after trying many different things, 
think salt and water as good or better than any- 
thins else. Mrs. P. Moff.\tt. 

Woodbridge, Cal. 

[This is a valuable remedj-, if as effectual as 
Mrs. M. chaims. -Ed.] 

Plymouth Rocks. 

Ml. M. Kjiri- Sir: I inclose an article "n Pljmouth 
Rock heiiH, cut from the Toledo fl/flrfi*. Would like your 
opinion on the nicrit,s of the fowls. .\rc thc> better lay- 
ers than White I.cjrhorns or an\ other breeds? Do you 
keep PlNTiiouth Rock fowls' NIrh. H. Clay. 

The article referred to is as follows: 

" In a late number of the lilnih, and under 
the he.id of 'Chats with Readers," I notice that 
^no. W., Aberdeen, Miss., asks: Which are the 
best breed of poultry, with a view to eggs ? 
The /f/rtf/c says: 'There is a very great diSr- 
ence of opinion on this point; we should like to 
hear from some of our rea<lers. ' My ' opinion ' 
is that the Plymouth Rocks lay more eggs in a 
year, lay earlier, are hardier, are easier to raise, 
come to maturity earlier, are better for the 
table, set better, are better mothers, Vireak up 
easier, lay sooner after lieing broken up, and 
breed truer than any other fowl I know of, or, 
at least, it has more gooil qualities and fewer 
faults than any other, aiul I have kept different 
varieties of fowls. The Plynnf)Uth Rocks resem- 
ble the r)oininque in color, but are more than 
twice as large, are broad breasted, thick set 
birds, and cimie to maturity much sooner. 

"Of all other breeds, we think Plymouth 
Rocks the fowls for the farmer. They combine 
more in themselves than any variety we know 
of, are so hardy and healthy that they seem 
proof against the diseases that annually carry off 
so many fine birds. They can be depended on 
for eggs all the year round, are not high-flyers, 
and are excellent foragers, when given their 
liberty. 

" >iy Plymouth Rocks are very heavy, have 
lieen brought to a high degree of excellence, and 
are as good as can be found elsewhere. If you 
will be kind enough to forward my address tf> 
your correspondents who are asking for good 
breeds of jimiltrj-, I will answer any questions 
:ind give them any itiformation they desire, 
should they address me. D. P." 

I should say that "D. P.'s" anxiety to adver- 
tise the fowls he had to sell is rather too appar- 
ent. They do not lay as many eggs as the 
lyeghoms; they are no more hardy than the 
Brahma; they do not breed truer to feather; 
they do not. in fact, breed as true as many 
other kin<ls; their principle recommendation is 
that they mature more rapidly than the Brahma. 
Many claim that they are fully equal to the 
Brahma, except in weight, and some prefer 
them as mothers. I keep Plymouth Rock 
fowls this year for the first time. 



Curious GKoi,of;Tr.M. Formation. —Down the 
Ohio river, at Martin's ferry, was discovered a 
few days ago, says the Anieriran Manvfaeturer, 
a \ery curious geological formation about 3.5 
feet under ground. A well was being dug, 
about one-quarter of a mile back from the river, 
and at the depth mentioned, under the over- 
lying sand, tlie workmen found an ov.al of soft 
sandstone, in which w.as embedded a closely- 
packed mass of hickory-nuts and twigs. Some 
of the nuts were broken o\w.n on the lialf-shell, 
w bile a few were comidete even to the outer 
pods, which were opene<l at the radial point. 
'I'here are also some impressions in the stone or 
hard clay which closely resemble small corru- 
gated mollusks. Readers may form their own 
conjectures as to the time requircil for the over- 
lying sand and the «arth of tha river bank to 
accumulate. 



January 20, 1877.] 



^A>^%. 



'MWL^> WmMBS. 



35 



.liCija 



Sl|EEf \no Wq©l. 



Sheep-Raising in Oregon. 

Mr. W. T. Newby, of Yamhill county, Ore- 
gon, in response to a letter of the Commissioner 
of Agriculture, gives the following statistics re- 
garding sheep husbandry in his State. The 
State census of 1875 gave the number of sheep 
at 639,600, which evidently included lambs. 
The aggregate wool product was 1,863,002 
pounds. 

The breeds represented range all the way 
from the poorest to the very best of the highly 
improved varieties. Thoroughbred Merinos are 
of Spanish, French, American and Australian 
origin, but Mr. Newby thinks that none except 
the Spanish are thoroughbred, the others being 
really but grades of that stock. All varieties 
of the Merino are well adapted to the circum- 
stances of Oregon. Spanish rams range from 
16 to 30 pounds per head of unwasheil wool; 
but a ram that does not shear over 20 or 25 
pounds is not considered of niuoh value. Span- 
ish ewes range from 10 to 18 pounds. This 
breed is suited to large flocks, and are supposed 
to be healthier and more clieaply fed than any 
other. '1 hey are not so good nmtton sheep as 
the other varieties, yet they are fair in this re- 
spect, and will average from 45 to 55 pounds per 
carcass when dressed. But as wool producers 
Mr. Newby thinks the Spanish Merinos have no 
equal. Tliey are short, well formed, of excel- 
lent condition, and longer lived than other vari- 
eties. Witli fair treatment they also carry their 
wool longei', seldom losing a lock of wool from 
one shearing time to another; they sometimes 
carry their fleeces two or three years without 
shearing. 

French Merinos are becoming unpopular and 
disappearing from the Hocks. They are too flat 
and "legged," and of feeble constitution. 
Their fleeces are uneven, some parts being tine 
and others coarse. At three years of age the 
wool becomes harsh and dry, the lubricating oil 
being saturated with yellow gum of the consist- 
ency of bee-bread. They are less desirable for 
cross-breeding and shorter lived than the Span- 
ish. 

The American Merino is a good sheep, with a 
moderately fine form, yielding good medium 
wool, at the rate of five to ten pounds per 
fleece. 

The Australian Merino has decreased in num- 
bers in the la.st seven or eight years. It is of 
good form though small, and yields from four to 
six pounds per fleece of very fine, even wool. 
It is well adapted to i-unuing in large flocks; 
but the lambs are tender and need care when 
dropped. 

Cotswolds were imported over 20 years ago, 
and were very popular for 10 or 15 years; but 
when the native grasses became short, and flocks 
had increased from 50 to 1,000 head, these .sheep 
became less profitable and are going out of use. 
They are still of value in small flocks, where 
mutton is in good demand at high prices, and 
where food is abundant and of good quality. 

The Leicesters were imported about 1860, by 
Mr. McKinley, a Scotcli gentleman, wlio liad 
previously been in the service of the Hud:;on 
Bay Company. Another \ariety called the New 
Oxford is but little known, but is spoken of as 
superior for the production of combiug-wool. 

Fifteen years ago the Southdowns were very 
common; but their light fleeces have rendered 
them unpopular, and they are falling into neglect. 
A slight cross of Southdown blood on other 
varieties is beneficial, improving the form, ac- 
tion and hardiness of the resultant breed. They 
were imported from England by the Hudson 
Bay Company about 25 years ago. 

In 1843 the Hudson Bay Company had a large 
flock of Spanish and Mexican sheep, of very small 
frames, shearing from one-half to one and a half 
pounds per head, and dressing but 25 to 35 
pounds per carcass. A flock of 50 common sheep 
was brought across the plains from Missouri, by 
Mr. E. M. Adams, in 1847, and about the same 
time a flock of 75 was brought by a Mr. Sh.aw. 
These were the only sheep at that time in Ore- 
gon, inclutling, as it then did, ^Vashington Ter- 
ritory. The crossing of these flocks constituted 
what are termed the common breed of the coun- 
try, which average from three to six pounds per 
fleece, and dress about 50 pounds per carcass. 
These sheep, if not too deeply crossed with 
Leicester or Cotswold, produce wool a little be- 
low medium, and excellent nmtton. They do 
•well in large flocks. 

Mr. Newby estimates the average cost per 
annum of keeping sheep in Oregon at not over 
50 cents per head, though there is a wide range 
of difference. East of the Cascade mountains, 
where the great mass of the sheeji are kept, 
many flocks get through the winter on the abun- 
dant and nutritious bunch-grass; but this is in 
localities where the snow-fall is light. A shep- 
herd is there employed for every 1,000 head, at 
a salary of about $300 per annum. Sometimes 
hay, to the extent of 40 tons per 1,000 head, is 
provided, at the cost of Ijio per ton; but fre- 
quently not over half the hay is used. 

In the Willamette valley flocks range from 
25 to 300 head, some reaching as high as 2,000 
or 3,000. The cost here varies from about noth- 
ing to 75 cents per head. Even in the latter 
case, the fertilizing value of the droppings ex- 
ceeds the cost of the maintenance. 

The wool product shown by the State census 
of 1875, divided by the number of sheep, gives 
an average product of 3.45 pounds per head; 
but as lambs uushoru were largely counted 
among the animals, the average is too low. It 



should probably be five pounds per head. The 
annual increase from droppings of lambs is about 
90 per cent. 

The number of acres necessary to pasture 100 
sheep varies in different localities and with dif- 
ferent kinds of sheep, Cotswolds and Leicesters 
requiring more than Merinos. The Merinos 
might be kept on one acre per head; the others 
would require one and a half acres. For fleeces 
ranging from thoroughbred to one-fourth Merino, 
Mr. Newby received, in 1874, from 25 to 
30 cents per pound; in 1875, 25 cents per pound, 
averaging the whole. His neighbors got from 
21 to 23 cents per pound. These prices are for 
unwashed wool. No wool is washed in Oregon, 

Sheep here, are generally healthy, but some 
prevalent forms of chronic distemper are noted. 
The scab results from bad management. The 
malady is easily cured by dipping in a decoction 
of tobacco mixed with blue vitriol and lime. 
No other chronic complaint is of sufficient im- 
portance to provoke attention; but Mr. Newby 
describes a new malady, which has become 
quite prevalent in some localities, for which he 
finds neither name nor description in works on 
sheep husbandry. The premonitory symjitoms 
are a dry cough, with swelling lips. The 
swelling continues for two or three weeks, and, 
if fatal, enlarges the lips two or three inches, 
turning them perfectly black and producing a 
very offensive odor, with a very repulsive ap- 
pearance. A putrid state of the whole carcass 
necessitates great determination to comjdete a 
post-mortem examination. A free administra- 
tion of tar is recommended. The appetite does 
pot fail to the last. For lack of a more defin- 
itely known cause, Mr. Newby suggests that 
the disease may result from extreme short pas- 
ture on fallow lands, the animals absorbing a 
large amount of du.st. 

Mr. Newby concludes that sheep-raising has 
proved profitable. A man with 150 acres can 
raise from 200 to 500 bushels per annum more 
of wheat if he keeps sheep than without them. 
Add this to the wool and product, and he thinks 
tiiere is a very substantial element of profit in 
the business. Sheep-raising is a far better 
policy than the summer-fallowing of partially 
worn-out lands. The grain farmers are finding 
this out, and are importing Cotswolds and 
other mutton sheep. Wool jiroduction is 
rapidly increasing in Oregon, which promi.ses 
soon to take the front rank in the business. 



o. 



Horns— Tlieir Indications. 

The veterinary editor of the Prairie Farmer 
writes the following chapter on horns; Much 
may be learned from the. set and form of the 
horns (jf cattle and sheep, as indicative of char- 
acter. Small, short, slouching horns on a two 
or three-year-old ox gives a grave and contented 
aspect to the countenance. Long, slouching 
horns, as on the long horn cattle, seem to op- 
press the head with a constant weight. Horns 
springing outward from the sides of the head, 
then rising up aud tiending backwards, never 
fail to impress that their bearer is quick tem- 
pered, ready to use them offensively, and are 
set so as to toss up any object with ease; such 
horns may be seen on the .Jersey bull. Horns 
curving laterally and horizontally forward give 
a finished appearance to the top of the head 
when viewed in front; such are generally met 
with in Short Horn cattle. Long horns rising 
outward, forward, and having points outward, 
impart a majestic air to the head of the ox. 
Horns rising outward, and then approaching 
behind the head, give an idea of malformation. 
Horns springing outwards, and then coming 
straight forward in the points seem dangerous. 
Horns springing outwards and ajiproaching for- 
ward with the points a little elevated and sep- 
arated, seen sideways seem heavy; but seen in 
front ornament the head. A horn thick at the 
root for its length looks clumsy, aud more so 
when blunted at the point; and both are asso- 
ciated with dull feeders. When springing out- 
wards much, and then turning downwards, they 
are ungraceful. A good horn, however set, is 
small where it emerges from the hea<l, and 
tapers gradually to a fine point. A white horn 
looks better than a dark colored, and a tip of 
brown or black, according to the breed, gives a 
neat finish, though most Short Horns have en- 
tirely white, and being short and curving in- 
wards, serve more for ornament than defence. 
(Jattle with spreading horns are better feeders 
than those with them contracted suddenly in 
front. 

Horns indicate the age of cattle. At three 
years old the horn is uniformly smooth from the 
root to tlie tip. Every year after three it has a 
notch on it, so, counting the notches, and ad- 
ding three, the age of the animal is ascertained. 
Tiicks are practiced by fraudulent dealers in 
filing down the oldest notches, to make the ani- 
mal appear younger, and the unsophisticaycd are 
thereby deceived; but ^ slight inspection of the 
horn will easily detect the fraud. The period 
of calving, whether late or early, affects the 
notches ot the horn, which may give an older 
or younger appearance to the animal than its 
true age. As with cattle, the horns of sheep 
indicate the age of the aniniid. 

The horns are very sensitive organs, no part 
of the body iTidieating the presence of internal 
disease more quickly than they do. In push- 
ing directly forward in a fight, bonis will bear 
a great force; yet a single stroke upon them 
with a cudgel is severely felt by the animal; 
and a single stroke may even cause tlie honi t(i 



slip off' the flint, which, being a vascidar bone, 
is full of blood vessels, and bleeds freely. Such 
an injury may cause inflammation of the brain 
or lock-jaw. When the horns feel death-like 
cold, iniflammation in the body is indicated; 
when hot, fever. The horns are not liable to 
disease; only illiterate people, quacks, and cow- 
leeches imagine that they are subject to an ail- 
ment, by them termed "hollow horn." 



pLO^ICyLfllflE. 



Mosaiculture. 

A French correspondent gives an Eastern 
paper the following very interesting notes of a 
novelty in floriculture: 

Everywhere throughout France may be seen 
a kind of comparatively recent garden decora- 
tion, called mosaiculture. The word is new and 
known only by specialists and amateurs. It 
might, however, be universally adopted, be- 
cause it tells at once its meaning, expressing as 
it does an artistical disposition of plants, leaves 
and flowers, of such shades as will form masses, 
beds, wreaths — in fact, all sorts of designs, 
which are truly vegetable mosaics. I have seen 
the most charming specimens, and I will bring 
here a few of them to mind. 

In Lyons, the place where art, closely allied 
with industry, creates tissues which are the ad- 
miration of the world, horticulture stands in 
high honor; and possibly the delicate taste for 
it enters far more than we think into the inspi- 
ration of the workingman-artist. Public and 
private gardens are numerous, rich and well 
kept. The Pare de la Tete d'Or, for instance, 
with its magnificent shade trees, its vast lawns, 
its elegant greenhouses, showmgnot only a nat- 
ural love for flowers, but also profound notions 
of the horticultural art and science. In this 
noble park have 1 fouiid the best compositions 
of vegetable mosaic. Long and wide beds 
(platebandes) and jmmense massed groups pre- 
sent a great variety of brilliant and select ef- 
fects. The divers varieties of Alteniant/iera and 
Tfilaiilhera ; of the various CoIhik, of Arlujran- 
thii.i, oi Amarniithu-i nwlaiiclioliciislriiher, etc.; 
the Menembri/unt/iemiiin tricolor, the iSfdinii car- 
ntum, the fine Ceiitaurta cimditlissiinn, the 
Gnaphalimn lanntum, the golden-leaved Mat- 
ricaria, etc., are planted so as to form initials 
or words, or to represent richly shaded elegant 
ribbons, or complicated arabesque figures, or 
pretty designs of manjuetcrie, etc. 

Dijon, the capital of Burgundy, also aspires 
to a high degree of floriculture. In the orna- 
mental part of its botanical garden 1 saw also 
very successful mosaic. There I have seen and 
afterward also found in Paris — but what don't 
you find in Paris of anything fine that has been 
pt-oduced anywhere in the world ? — a happy use 
in mo.saic compositions and in borders of Ali/x- 
siim vwritimiim fol. variei/afii, a charming 
plant, compact, low, almost a creeper, resem- 
bling somewhat S'edinn cariienm, but aijparently 
more robust and vigorous. 

Paris has wiped out the traces of vandalism 
and has got a new set of jewels in her gardens. 
She still, and more than ever, is the capital of 
the kingdom of flora, just the same aa she is the 
capital of France and of civilization. Her Pare 
Monceaux is the richest floral gem in the world. 
The plan in both its ensemble and its details is 
admirable, and it is excellently kept up. From 
the mosaic composition in it 1 quote: 

"A mass of Ptiarijoninm zoivile, with white 
spotted leaves, mixed with Ferilla Narikiiitn.sin, 
with Lobelia Erinus — charming effect. 

" An oval formed of ribbons of Coleus of well 
contrasted shades, bordered with an edge of 
Lobelia EritiH-n, Crystal Palace. 

"A mass of Pel. zonule folli-f samjuinei-i mixed 
with C'entaiirea candid i.inima, edged all round 
with Lobelia Erinus and Alternanihera. 

"A mass very much shaped like a cupola 
(hombe) dominated over by a strong growing 
A<jave atrovirens, round which there is a beauti- 
ful mosaic of Althernanthera, Sedum carneum 
and other low growers." 

A good many isolated specimen shrubs on 
lawns are set in a setting of plants of one single 
color, and that a brilliant one, of either leaf or 
flower; or of a mosaic. These settings look 
like flowery nests put in the grass. 

On the sides of a large lawn there rises a 
heavy mass of Acer ncijundo, with spotted leaves, 
rounded by a double border of Pelanjoniinn 
tonale, with flowers of a brilliant red and 
salmon. The effect of it was liotli powerful and 
charming. 

But I would not be able to finish were I to 
enumerate all that is seductive in this admira- 
ble park, half mundane, half mysterious; one of 
the glories of Paris and yet hardly known to the 
multitude. 

"Havre calls me, and tliere, too, I find 
mosaics in full bloom. Havre has superl) gar- 
dens, notably the one before the City Hall, which 
is truly a little paradi.se of a garden. 

On a bank, leaning against a deep mass of 
high shrubs, I s.aw perhaps the most successful 
of mosaic compositions; oblong borders of 
diverse kinds of Alternanihera and Te.ilanthvra 
in large festoons. On a white center, letters of 
a yard length, formed by Menembri/unl/ieinmn 
tricolor and Altcrnanthera paronijchoiden, edged 
with M(dricaria aurea, compose the words — 
City of Havre. The execution is admirable and 
the effect of it is striking. 

I Would further instance: a round gi-oup, rep- 
resenting the national col(>rs; another large 
design composed in this way: center-piece, 
(V/()'/(i/7<,l /iitrjjurea djjectabilis; border, first 



dwarf dahlia, white flower, round which 
border Amaranthus mel. ruber, etc. But I 
must limit myself, my object being to draw my 
fellow-horticulturists in America to this inter- 
esting subject of Europe, whilst in turn I shall 
borrow some points from their studies, their 
works and their experience. 

Flowering of the Eucharis Amazonica. 

Charles J. Haettel, of San Jose, writes to the 
Gardeners' Monthly as follows: After many 
trials I have at last succeeded in flowering the 
Eucliariit Amazonica. Last winter was very 
hard out here on all kinds of plants that needed 
more heat than was afforded by nature. 

From the middle of January we could make 
no fire on account of the water rising to within 
six inches of the surface of the ground, so it 
dried off" the Eucharis entirely, and they were 
standing from January until April in a cold 
moist temperature, many nights as low as 
40°. In April I took pans one foot in diam- 
eter, well drained them, and planted six bulbs 
in each pan, using .soil composed of one part 
peat, two parts loam, with a little well decom- 
posed manure and some leaf mold added. They 
were then placed in a close frame, having a 
strong bottom heat, maintaining a high temper- 
ature, where they soon commenced to grow. 
I gave them plenty of water, both at the root 
and on the foliage, and gradually a little air, 
until the beginning of August, when they were 
taken to a cooler place and kept more dry until 
early in Sejitember; they were then again 
placed in heat, and well supplied with water at 
the root and on the leaves. The first flowers 
opened the last days of September, which were 
most beautiful, being large and pure white, aud 
deliciously fragrant. 



OsEfllL Iflp©E\|ii?4Yt©N. 



The Manufacture of Woolen Hats. 

But few of our readers are acquainted with 
the processes involved in the manufacture of 
woolen hats. The Philadelphia Trade Journal 
is enabled to furnish the following detaUs 
through the courtesy of two prominent Reading 
firms. The processes are as follows: The wool 
is first thoroughly cleansed by immersion in hot 
water; it is then wrung out and placed in a dry- 
ing room to dry, after which it is passed through 
a picking machine, making 900 revolutions per 
minute. The wool being thus prepared, is next 
fed into a carding machine, which turns out 20 
dozen double bodies per day. Each body is cut 
in two, each half forming an entire hat. These 
half bodies are next passed through a felting 
process, by the aid of steam, which renders 
them more compact and of a denser fiber. They 
are then placed in a. hogshead and boiled for 
two or three hours, and are then tied up in 
linen rags and passed through the fulling and 
sizing machine, then soaked in cold water to 
remove the vitriol, which would otherwise turn 
gray; from thence they are blocked and returned 
to the soak for one uight for the same purpose, 
after which they are placed in the coloring tank, 
then reblocked, as the coloring process brings 
them to their original shape. They are then 
placed in the drying-room to be made ready for 
stiffening, which is done by the aid of glue and 
Irish moss. (One of the firms now uses shellac. ) 
They are then put into another drying-room, 
from whence they are taken, ironed, trimmed 
and packed in pasteboard boxes, one dozen of a 
given size in each box ; these boxes are in turn 
placed in wooden ones, one dozen in a box, 
making a total of one gross in each. 

The Rates of Postage. 

Postal cards, one cent each, go without further charRC 
to all parts of the United States and Canada; with an addi- 
tional one-cent stamp thuy p:o to all parts of Kurope. 

All letters, to all parts of the United SUites and Canada, ■ 
3 cents per half ounce, 

Locjil or "drop" letters, that is, for the city or town 
where deposited, 2 cents if delivered by earners, and 1 
cunt where there is no Ciirrier system. 

Newspapers, daily, semi-weekly, tri-weckly and week- 
lies, rc,i;ularly issued and sent to rc;,'ular subscribers, 'i. 
cents per pound, payable at the oHice of publication; news- 
papers anil niaK'-.i/.ines published less frequently than once 
a week, 3 cents per |>ound. 

Transient n«wspapers, niapizines, pamphlets and hand- 
hiiis, 1 cent for each two ounces or fraction thereof, SinL'lo 
eoi)iea of the I'kkss weitthini,' less than two ounces, the 
postag^e upon irrejfular numbers is 1 cent each. All other 
miscellaneous matter, including unsealed circulars, books, 
book nianuacri|its, pnwf-sheets, photographs, etc,, and 
also seeds, cuttin(,'s, bulbs and roots, and merchandise 
not exeeedinj; four iK)\nids in weight, 1 cent for each 
ounce or fraction thereof. 

The following are the postal rates with Kurope. Tlie 
rates for letters are tor the half ounce or fraction thereof, 
and those for newspa|>ers for four ounces or fraction 
thereof: 

To Ureat Urituin and Ireland, letters f) cents; newspapers 2 
cents; France, letters h cents; newspapers 2 cents; Spain, 
letters 5 cents, newspapers 2 cents; all jiarts of Germany, 
including; Austria, letters .■) cents, newspapers 2 cunts; 
Denmark, letters f> cents, newsjapers 2 cents; Switzerland, 
letters ."i cents, newspapers 2 cents; Italy, letters ,■■> cents, 
newspapers 2 cents; Russia, letters f> cents, newspapers 2 
cents; Norway, letters .'> cents, newspapers 2 cents; Swe- 
den, letters .'icents, newspapers 2 cents;'l"urkey, European 
and Asiatic, letters :> cents, newspapers, 2 cents; Kgypt, 
letters 5 cents, newspapers. 2 cents. 

For Asiatic countries, the half ounce lindt for letters, 
and the four ounces for newspapers, still holding good, 
the rates arc; 

To Australia, letters, via San Francisco (except to New 
Sout'i Wales).'', cents. viaSouthamp'on 1,1 cents, via Itrindisi 
21 cents, newspapers via S«n Fi-ancisco 2 cents, via South- 
ampton 4 cents, via Hrindisi 8 cents, China; letters, via 
San Ki-anciseo 10 cents, via Southampton 27 cents, via 
Hrindisi ;t3 cents, newspapers 2, 4 and 8 eent-s, by the 
respective routes; Uritish India, letters, via Southampton 
21 cents, via Hrindisi 27 cents. newsjHipers 4 and 8 cents 
respectively; Jaiwii, letters, via San FYancisco 12 cents, 
\1a Soulhaiuplon 27 cents, via BriuJisi 33 cents, neWB- 
pApers via San IVancisco 2 cents, via Southampton 4 
cents, via Briudisi 8 cents, 



36 



WM^y^^^^^ ^UniLAj)^ ^SiLISol 



January 20, 1877. 




THE HEADQUARTERS of the California State 
Grange are in Ihe Oraiigei-s' Building, northeast comer of 
California and Davis Streets, over the Grangers' Hank of 
California and California Fanners' Mutual Fire Insurance 
ABSociation. Master, J. V. Webster; Secretarj-, Amos 
Apaus. 

Tne Grangers' Business Association of California is In 
Davis Street, northeast corner of California. 



Graxoe Directobt.— a full list of Subordinate Granges, 
Masters and Secretaries of California and Nevada, is puVi- 
lished as often as once a quarter in this department. See 
Issue of Sept. 23d for latest insertion. 

Worthy Lecturer's Visits. 

Editors Press:— According to programme of 
appointments published in your valuable paper 
for the month of January, 1 877, the Worthy 
Master of the State Grange, Bro. J. V. Web- 
ster, gave me a start for the new year, by tak- 
ing me in his own conveyance to fulfill the ap- 
pointment at Haywards, Jan. 3d. We found 
the Orange at Haywards already in session and 
being entertained by Worthy Master Bro. Wilcox 
of Santa Clara Grange till we could arrive. As 
there was to be an installation of officers, then 
a harvest feast and then a lecture, our AVorthy 
State ^Master at once proceeded to install the 
officers, with the assistance of a most efficient 
Assistant Steward, in his usual happy manner 
and most satisfactorily to all present. The har- 
vest feast (and a most bountiful one it was) was 
participated in by all present, with such a joy- 
ous and social cheer as Grangers know liow to 
appreciate. All these exercises took place at the 
Grange hall in full regalia and in closed form. 
At 1 P. M., the entire Grange adjourned to the 
Masonic hall, a much larger building, where a 
public lecture had been announced to be given by 
the State Lecturer. The meeting was a large one 
and great interest was manifested by all present. 
After the address of the State Lecturer, Bro. 
Webster was called on and for nearly one hour 
longer entertained the large and most at- 
tentive audience with a clear recital of doings 
at the Centennial in matters in which the good 
of the Order demanded ventilation. Thus ended 
our meeting at Haywards, and after many per- 
sonal greetings and congratulations Bro. Web- 
ster left me to return home and I tilled my next 
appointment at Kllis on the following day. 

Arriving at Ellis 

About 8 o'clock that niglit, I found that Worthy 
Master Needham had provided for me a com- 
fortable place at one of the Ellis hotels, with a 
promise to call upon me the next morning and 
convey me to their Grange hall, about one 
mile and a half distant. According to promise 
I was met by Bro. Needham and taken to the 
Grange meeting, and there introduced to all the 
Grangers present personally, and after sufficient 
time to have a short personal aecjuaintance, the 
meeting was called to order in open form by 
Bro. Needham presiding, and the State Lecturer 
introduced. It was a large turnout, with ^nsit- 
ing members from surrounding Granges, show- 
ing a live interest in the Grange work. There 
is no lukewammess here, but all are fully alive 
to the situation and as fully expecting new work 
to be laid out for them by the State Lecturer. 
Bro. Needham and the Grange at Ellis deserve 
great praise for their unanimity of feeling and 
action and for their live Grange interest. 

The Lecturer was congratulated on every side 
for the new and practical matter given them, 
with a renewed assurance that they would profit 
by it, and that the Grange head centers at San 
Francisco, the Business Association, the Bank 
and the Insurance Company, should have their 
material suj^port and some plan of co-operation 
entered upon. After the meeting I was beset on 
all sides by brothers to go home with them and 
share of their hospitality, but only being able to 
accept one invitation at a time, and having al- 
ready shared the good will and offices of the 
Worthy Master, Bro. Needham, I went home 
with Bro. Kirlinger, some three mUes dstant 
from the Grange hall, and with him and his 
truly Grange wife, spent a most pleasant and 
profitable night. 1 was taken the next morning 
to the railroad station at Bantas, where Bro. 
Needham awaited mo and accompanied me to 

Stockton, 
Where we arrived on Friday about 2 p. m. , and 
was met at the depot by the Worthy Master ' 
and Master elect of Stockton Grange, Bros. 
Phelps aad Gratton, who at once accompanied 
me to the Yosemite house, where they had be- 
spoken for me the best the house aflbrded. We 
at once entered into Orange work by an inter- 
change of views on the work already done, 
and to be done, and, to more thoroughly post 
me on their situation at Stockton, I was taken 
to their Orange Union store, and there intro- 
duced to Bros. Wolf, Bnrge and others, and 
made acquainted in detail with the rise, prog- 
ress and success of this co-ojjerative institution, 
which has, for the capital employed, so com- 
pletely astonished everybody acquainted with 
it, that it and the Grange warehouse, under the 
same organization has accomplished so much, 
and that, too, against a most indefatigable op- 
position, threatening their immediate destruc- 



tion. Instead of the destruction of the Grang- 
ers' Union in Stockton, all who opposed them 
have had to take down or change their signsj 
again confirming the principle of co-operation, 
that it is the bundle of sticks that when tied to- 
gether cannot be broken while the single stick 
or finn is snapped asunder like tinder before the 
co-operative wheel of progress and material re- 
form. 

On Saturday, the Gth inst., the following day, 
as per announcement in tlieir city papers, the 
Stockton Grange installation of officers for 1877 
was to commence in their Grange hall at 11 a. 
M., har\-est feast at 12 M., and an address from 
the State Lecturer at 2 P. M. All open to the 
public, and, notwithstanding a most exciting 
election for supervisor in the Stockton district 
was to take place on the same day, the Grangers 
turned out almost to a man, with visiting 
Grangers from some five or six surrounding 
Oranges, making a most interesting time, both 
as to numbers and real Grange interest. The 
^^'0^k of installation was conducted by District 
Deputies, Bros. Wolf and Overhiser, who are 
most eminently versed and qualified for the 
work, and in their efficient way made the cere- 
mony pleasant to all present. The harvest feast 
was in every sense of the word a success, such 
a success as Grangers alone know how to make. 
In this particular and in the retiring speech of 
the Worthy Master, Bro. Phelps, and the 
speech of the installed Master, Bro. Gratton, 
was found no small part of the interest. 

The lecture being announced at 2 P. M., and 
after all had well ])artaken of the feast, it was 
my pleasure for one and a half hours to address 
a most intelligent and attentive body of Grang- 
ers and citizens on the principles and objects of 
the Orange movement. I was heard with en- 
thusiastic approval, as manifested by their 
cheering responses, and after the lecture 
speeches were made by Bros. Overhiser, Wolf, 
and many others, citing affirmative matters not 
touched upon by the Lecturer. In a word, the 
meeting at Stockton was a grand success, and I 
hope as much good and gre9.t benefit received 
by all present as was appropriated by the Lec- 
turer. 

It being Saturday, I was taken possession of 
by Bro. Overhiser and, in company with his 
good Granger wife, wafted behind a good pair 
of roadsters to his well appointed and most 
efficiently conducted Grange farm, some four 
miles distant from Stockton, where, in com- 
pany with Bro. and Sister Hancock, of Sacra- 
mento Grange, we were a happy company till 
the Monday following. Bro. Overhiser's farm 
ought to be visited by every Granger in the 
State interested in Short Horns. Here is a 
whole dairy of pure blooded Durliams — bred and 
selected especially for their milking qualities as 
well as their beefing qualities, which with his 
young stock of one and two-year-old calves of 
the same pure blood, is a sight to gladden the 
eyes of any Granger, especially those interested 
in stock. Here is the place for farmers wishing 
to get an animal bred especially for milk and 
beef to come and make choice without fear of 
being disappointed, for nowhere in my visits as 
State Lecturer, as yet, have I met with sudi 
perfection as I found here in seeing Durham 
cattle so well adapted to the dairy as well as to 
the beef market. To see alone is to fully ap- 
preciate. 

Bro. Overhiser is not confined to homed stock 
only, but has quite a variety in his thorough- 
bred and graded sheep, and his pure blooded 
Berkshire hogs. I wish every Granger in ( "ali- 
fomia could become as greatly interested in 
good farming as is Bro. Overhiser, if not in ])Ure 
l)lood, in whatever their select kind of farming 
may be. 

Adjoining Bro. Overhiser is Bro. Gratton, the 
newly installed Master of Stockton (Jrange, also 
a large farmer and as devotedly pursuing a 
specialty of pure bloods as Bro. Overhiser, but 
not in Short Horns so much as thoroughbred 
horses, the strain being Black Hawks and 
HamViIetonians; but here description fails me. I 
can only say that his two-year-old Hambletonian 
stallion is the very picture of the old Hambleton- 
ian, and for qualities of perfection in every- 
thing that constitutes the perfection of that 
noble animal, the horse, this stallion need only 
to be seen to be so called. But, Mr. Editor, I 
must away again to the work of the Lecturer, 
and will ^iromise to give you more next week. 
B. PlLKINOTON, S. L. 

Roseville, Cal., Jan. 13th. 



Co-operative Association. — We learn that 
a good prospect of success attends the Farmers' 
Co-operative Association of Western Nevada 
and North-eastern California. At a meeting of 
the stockholders, representing a majority of the 
stock subscribed, held December IGth, 1876, at 
tlie hall of Alfalfa Grange, No. 1, Patrons of 
Husbandry, in Reno, Washoe county, Nevada, 
the following-named memljersof the Order were 
duly elected Trustees of the Association, to wit: 
John Calilan and Fred Hines, of Honey Lake 
valley; G. W. Mapes, of Sierra valley; George 
Alt, T. W. Norcross, J. C. Smith and A. A. 
Longley, of Truckee valley. On Monday, De- 
cember 18th, 1876, they met at the court house, 
in Reno, took the oath of office and filed articles 
of incorporation in the clerk's office of Washoe 
county. The Board proceeded to elect officers 
of the Association, with the following result: 
T. W. Norcross, President; J. C. Smith, Vice- 
President; A. J. Hatch, Secretary; and A. A. 
Longley, Treasurer. By-laws were framed and 
the machinery for business will be set in order 
at once. 



From the Granges. 

Sonora Grange. 

Editors Press :^Sonora Grange is steadily 
advancing in numbers and popularity. Our last 
meeting was enlivened by the "harvest feast,' 
and truly it was a feast for body and mind. It 
takes the Granger sisters to spread a bountifuj 
supply of good things, spiced by soul-stirring 
music. The remark of one of the invited 
guests, editor of the Union Democrat, is worth 
preserving to show what the effect was upon 
observers. On being asked what he thought of 
the proceedings, he remarked: "Why, this is 
away up — this is high up." Sure enough, this 
Granger movement when properly conducted is 
away high up. Has that declaration no more 
meaning than merely an expression of words? 
Just think for a moment of the farmer's condi- 
tion — socially and educationally — before the 
advent of the Granger movement, and see what 
it has accomplished in a few short years. 
"Away up," yes; and upward it shall go until 
its beneficent influence will be felt at every 
rural fireside, and in councils educated and 
legislative. Its mission is to elevate and 
educate. To strengthen the weak, to cheer the 
weary, to help the struggling, smoothing life's 
rugged road, and lovingly, fraternally following 
the loved ones to their last earthly resting 
place. Yea, and much more for the elevation 
of the husbandman, is the introduction of the 
heaven-born (i ranger movement. 

John Taylok. 

Mt. Pleasant, December Slat, 1876. 

Ferndale Grange. 

Editors Press. — Ferndale Grange is in a 
flourishing condition. They have a few dead 
branches which they intend to cut off on the 
first of the new year, for they are getting tired 
of paying State Grange dues on non-contributing 
members. The Grangers' Business Association 
is in a healthy condition. I believe it has been_ 
l)aj'ing considerable pver running expenses. 
The directors are cutting down the expenses 
with a view of reducing the per cent, charged, 
so that as times get harder goods at the (Jrange 
store will come down in jirice. The steamer 
Condnenlal continues to make regular trips be- 
tween Port Kenyon and San Francisco. There 
is now in the steamer's warehouse nearly 2,000 
tons of freight. The weather is extra fine and 
the farmers are improv-ing it. E. O. Damon. 

Ferndale, Cal., Dec. 18th. 



The Higher Degrees. 

We have a letter this week from a goo<l 
brother in Stockton, inquiring the meaning of a 
clause in Bro. Wright's late letter, in which he 
alludes to the higher degrees, and the action of 
the National Grange on this subject at its last 
session. We learn, by inquiry of Bro. Wright, 
that, in referring to these , degrees, he had in 
view especially the fact that some looked upon 
these higher degrees as tending to produce 
something like an aristocracy in the (i range, 
when notning was further from the intentions 
of the founders of our Order, nor further from 
the wishes and feelings of those who compose 
the National (i range. He assures us that since 
a few petitions have been received by the Na- 
tional Grange, some asking to have the higher 
degrees open to all members and others asking 
to have them abolished, a decided majority of 
that body favor the opening of the higher de- 
grees to all members in good standing. Indeed, 
one of the four amendments to the constitution 
adopted by the National Grange is intended to 
meet this very want. 

The main question is, how can this object be 
best reached in a practicable, acceptable way. 
A majority of the members of the National 
Grange have always, so far, opposed doing away 
entirely with the fifth, sixth and seventh de- 
grees, because they think this would destroy 
the symmetry of our Grange work, which has 
already proved so admirable in uniting and har- 
monizing our farming interests in self defence. 
The principle of action so far has been to let 
well enough alone. 

So far as our Worthy Past Lecturer is con- 
cerned, he assures us that he heartily hopes the 
day is not far distant when the instructive les- 
sons of all the higher degrees may lie within the 
reach of all worthy members, as is the case in 
similar organizations. 



Another New Grange. — District Deputies 
Meyers, of Colusa county, and Sullivan, of 
Modoc county, organized a new Grange at 
CedarviUe, Modoc county, January 8th, 1877, 
with a full list of charter members (30). The 
Grange is known as the CedarviUe Grange, No. 
209, William Dodson, Master, and Luther C. 
Bachelor, Secretary. 



On the Wino. — J. W. Webb, Worthy Mas- 
ter of the Lompoc Grange, and president of the 
New Vineland temperance colony, in Santa 
Barbara county, has started on a lecturing tour 
through Kern and Tulare counties, explaining 
the prmciples and objects of the proposed col- 
ony. We shall no doubt see notes of travel 
from his «ver ready pen, from time to time. 



Notes from the W. Secretary's Report. 

From the quarterly report of Bro. Adams, W. 
Sec'y, we learn the following facta concerning 
the transactions in his office: 
Number of Granges reported for th« quarter ending 

September 30th, 1876 137 

Representing a membership of 8,0M 

Number of domita granted during: U>« quarter 23 

Number of members expelled 180 

Number of members withdrawn 75 

Number of members died 17 

Number of initiations (males). *. . so 

Number of Initiations (female*) Si 

Number of Granges in the State o( Nevada reported 

for the quarter ending September 30th, 187«. 1 

Representing a membership of tl 

Number of Granges in .\rizona Territory I 

Representing a membership of S6 

Consolidations and Surrenders- 

Pajaro Grange consolidated with Watson- 
ville, Suisun Grange consolidated with Rock- 
\-ille Grange, Lakeside consolidated with Lassen 
Grange. The Los Angeles and Atlanta Granges 
have surrendered their charters. 

New Granges Organized. 

The Raisina Grange, No. 267, Fresno county. 
Barnard Marks as W. M. , and Miss Nannie 
Booth, Sec'y. 

The Phcenix Grange, No. 2, located at Phoe- 
nix, Maricopa county, Arizona Territory. John 
T. Alsop, M. ; svnd Samuel C. Hunt, Sec'y. 

Eagle\'ille Grange, No. 268, located at Eagle- 
ville, Modoc county. John W. Brown, M.; 
Robert Minto, Sec'y. 

Pomona Granges Organized. 

Colusa County Pomona Grange, organized 
October 25th. H. A. Logan, M. ; Peter Peter- 
son, Sec'y. 

San Diego Pomona Grange, organized Decem- 
ber 12th. J. M. Wood, M.; C. C. Watson, 
Sec'y. 

Cash. 

The total receipts for the quarter ending 
Dec. 3l8t, 1876, were$l,251.66; disbursements, 
$1,179.85; balance on hand, 37'2.81. 



Porno Grange. 

Editors Pre.ss: — The following preamble and 
resolutions wore adopted by Pomo Grange, No. 
216, at a regular meeting held January 6th, 

1877: 

Wmkreas, Brother John Jlewhinney has retired from 
the chair as Worihy Master of this Grange, having filled 
the same with honor to himself and profit to the Order, 
and this Grange in |)articular, and with uniform courtesy 
to all. 

Remlvfd, That we tender him the sincere and hearty 
thanks of this Grange for the prompt and uniformly 
courteous manner in which he ha« |>erformed the duty of 
Worthy Master, from its organization (for the past two 
years;, till the present time. 

Rtmolved, That we still expect the benefit of his expe- 
rience, aid and advice in the future conduct and wel- 
fare of this Grange and the principles of the Order at 
large. And though he has retired from the chief post of 
labor in this Grange, his duties as a Patron are not ended; 
and we feel confident that he will always be found at the 
front wherever duty may call. 

Resohed, That a copy of this preamble and resolutions 
be placed on the records of this Grange; and a copy be 
sent to the Ri'ral Press fur publication. 

Pomo Grange still survives, although it has 
been a hard struggle for the past three months; 
however, the prosiiect* are more encouraging, 
now that the farmers are through seeding and 
have more time to attend Grange. 

The officers elect for the ensuing year were 
duly installed by Past Master Mewhinney on 
on Saturday, January 6th, and with the excep- 
tion of Secretary, we have a good set of officers. 

A new feature is being established in our 
Grange, which we think will pn)ve of interest 
as well as some amusement. It is a Grange pa- 
per, edited by three brothers of the Order, and 
will be read semi-monthly. It is devoted to the 
interests of the Grange. E. V. Jones, 

Sec'y Pomo Grange. 



Pomona Grange in San Diego. 

C. O. Tucker, Deputy, writ«s to the Patron 
from Ballena: On December 13th I had 
the^'pleasure of organizing, at Bernardo, San 
Diego coimty, a Pomona Grange. The follow- 
ing Granges were represented: Ballena, Bear 
Valley, Bernardo, Poway and San Luis Key. 
Below is a list of officers elected: 

J. M. Woods, of Poway Grange, M. ; W. H. 
H. Dinwiddie, of Bear Valley Grange, O. ; C. 
0. Tucker, of Ballena Grange, L. ; Wm. Bur- 
roughs, of Poway Grange, S. ; A. K. Cravath, 
of Poway Grange, A. S. ; Jas. P. Jones, of 
Bernardo Grange, C. ; Z. Sikes, of Bernardo 
Grange, T. ; C. C. Watson, of Poway Grange, 
Sec'y; L. J. Crombie, of San Luis Rey Grange, 
G. K.; Mrs. C. O. Tucker, Ceres; Mm. J. P. 
Jones, Pomona; Mrs. W. H. H. Dinwiddie, 
Flora; Mrs. Eva Cassady, L. A. S. 

The utmost unanim.ty prevailed among the 
delegates present, consequently the affair 
passed off very pleasantly. At present I believe 
there is a better feeling existing among the 
Granges in this county than at any prior time 
since their organization. 

C. 0. Tucker, Deputy. 



ChaNOE ok OKnCERS IN RoSEVILtE GRANGE. — 

Bro. John McClung ha\-ing declined the position 
of Master, which he had been elected to, Nicho- 
las Mertes was elected Master and Robert Ward, 
Secretary. 



January 20j 1S77.] 



FAefifi® 



37 



. Election of Officers. 

Antelope Grange, No. 100, Colusa Co. — 
Election, Dec. 23(1: H. A. Logan, M. ; John D. 
S. Taylor, O. ; Wm. Rosenberger, Sec'y; John 
Sites, S.; Wm. Maxy, A. S.; M. H. Shearen, 
C. ; Laura E. Sites, T. ; Lida M. Peterson, 
Sec'y; P. Peterson, G. K.; M. H. Shearen, 
Ceres; Sister Clark, Pomona; Sister Logan, 
Flora; Miss Rebecca Logan, L. A. S. 

Bishop Creek Grange. — L. A. James, M. ; 
W. O. McCroskey, O.; A. J. Dell, L.; John 
Mills, S. ; Homer G. Plumley, A. S. ; M. H. 
White, C. ; Mrs. Mary A. Clark, T. ; George 
Collins, Sec'y; Gilbert C. Gracie, G. K. ; Mrs. 
Abigal Cromwell, Ceres; Mrs. E. McCroskey, 
Pomona; Mrs. Virginia E. Custer, Flora; Mrs. 
M. H. White, L. A. S. 

Cloverdale Grange, No. 63. — 0. H. Cooley, 
(re-elected), M. ; J. G. Heald, O. ; C. P. Moore, 
L.; M. V. Stockwell, S.; William McMullen, 
A. S. ; Mrs. E. N. Cooley, C. ; D. M. Wambold, 
T.; Mrs. H. P. Tucker, Sec'y; W. M. Howell, 
G. K.; Mrs. R. Heald, Ceres; Mrs. E. Moore, 
Pomona; Mrs. M. F. Sink, Flora; Mrs. Helen 
Wambold, L. A. S. Trustees, C. P. Moon, A. 

F. Tucker, J. G. Heald. 

Danville Grange, No. 85. — D. N. Sher- 
bumer, M. ; S. L. More, 0. ; M. W. Hall, S. ; 
John Stern, L. ; Louis Wood, A. S. ; S. F. 
Ramage, C. ; R. 0. Baldwin, T. ; C. E. Howard, 
Sec'y; W. Z. Stone, G. K. ; Miss Olive Stem, 
Ceres; Miss Almira Sydnor, Flora; Miss Libby 
Wood, Pomona. 

Elk Valley Grange, No. 255, Del Norte 
Co.— Election, Dec. 30th: J. R. Nickel, M. ; J. 
K. Valentine, 0. ; David Griffin, L. ; John 
Young, S. ; Geo. Walton. A. S. ; G. W. Emery, 
C. ; Mrs. G. W. Emery, Sec'y; Alexander Gor- 
den, T. ; Oliver Charter, G. K. ; Mrs. Walton, 
Ceres; Mrs. Young, Pomona; Mrs. Fairchild, 
Flora; Mrs. Nickel, L. A. S.; E. W. Smith, 
Joseph Bertsch and Joel Fairchild, Executive 
Committee. 

Fairview Grange, No. 39, Los Angeles 
Co.— Election, Deo. 9th: David Evey, M. ; B. F. 
E. Kellogg, O. ; Edward Evey, L. ; Wm. HUl, 
S. ; Geo. Greely, A. S. ; Amos Wright, C. ; J. 
W. Clark, T. ; J. M. Quinn, Sec'y; R. D. Curtis, 

G. K. ; Mrs. Mary J. Curtis, Ceres; Mrs. Mary 
0. Kellogg, Pomona; Mrs. R. A. Evey, Flora; 
Miss Laura Evey, L. A. S. 

Grass Valley Grange, No. 256. — Election, 
Dec. 9th: S. L. Lewis, M. ; Wm. Stevens, 0. ; 
Chas. Barker, L. ; J. W. Stewart, S. ; Chas. H. 
Smith, A. S. ; Cyrus R. Hill, C. ; Thos. Paine, 
T. ; Alex. Henderson, Sec'y; Samuel Alder- 
man, G. K. ; Susan S. Perran, Ceres; Emma Le 
Due, Pomona; Kate McGuire, Flora; J. B. 
Stevens, L. A. S. 

GuENOc Grange, No. 20, Lake Co. — Elec- 
tion, Dec. 28th: J. W. Connelly, M. ; A. H. 
Cheeney, 0.; W. C. Greenfield, S.; J. P. 
Brandt, A. S. ; Mrs. Cheeney, C. ; A. A. Ritchie, 
T.; W. Whittington, Sec'y; T. C. Pyle, G. K.; 
Mrs. Connelly, Ceres; Mrs. Murphy, Pomona; 
Mrs. Ritchie, Flora; Miss Hamilton, L. A. S. ; 
A. A. Ritchie, A. H. Cheeney, J. M. Hamilton, 
Trustees. 

Indian Valley Grange, No. 259, Plumas 
County.— G. W. Boyden, M. ; A. J. Ford, 0.; 
E. W. Taylor, L.; J. A. Hickerson, S. ; D. 
Hedrick, A. S. ; J. T. Taylor, C. ; R. Thomp- 
son, T. ; R. A. Thompson, Sec'y; J. C. Sar- 
fent, G. K. ; Miss Mary M. Thompson, Ceres; 
Irs. Lydia Lee, Pomona; Miss Rachel S. 
Blood, Flora; Miss Mary Ford, L. A. S. 

Lassen Grange, No. 253. — John Cahlan, M. ; 
J. Jensen, 0. ; J. M. Stewart, L. ; F. Hins, S. ; 
J. N. Jones, A. S. ; E. Winchester, C. ; T. N. 
Long, T. ; C. W. Moore, Sec'y; G. Pullen, G. 
K. ; Miss Nellie Johnston, Ceres; Ada Myers, 
Pomona; Emma Hurlburt, Flora; Belle Johns- 
ton, L. A. S. 

Magnolia Grange, No. 261.— E. M. Denton, 
M., Dan. Bilderback, 0.; L N. Richie, L.; C. 
C. Ragsdale, S. ; Wm. Cunningham, A. S. ; J. 
R. Nickerson, C. ; James Gautier, T. ; P. A. 
Womaok, Sec'y; Wm. Sweet, G. K. ; Miss E. 
Skinner, Ceres; Mrs. Higgins, Pomona; Miss 
Flora Denton, Flora; Miss Joey Denton, L. 
A. S. 

North Star Grange, No. 254. —J. L. Lake, 
M. ; J. D. Bailey, 0. ; J. G. Anthony, L. ; R. J. 
Brown, S.; Ensign Rexford, A. S.; J. L. Beck- 
sted, T.; F. C. Bailey, Sec'y; Sister C. Brown, 
C. ; J. D. Kirkham, G. K. ; Mrs. C. E. Anthony, 
Ceres; Miss McKay, Flora; Mrs. A. Rexford, 
Pomona; Mrs. S. J. Hanes, L. A. S. 

Paradise Valley Grange, No. 5, State or 
Nevada.— Election, Dec. 2d: C. A. Nichols, 
M.; W. A. Sperry, O.; J. Blase, L.; D. A. 
Bradshaw, S. ; W. H. Holt, A. S. ; Mrs. H. M. 
Burge, C. ; R. Burge, T. ; Mrs. S. A. Nichols, 
Sec'y; C. Choate, G. K. ; Mrs. Emily Sperry, 
Ceres; Mrs. C. Choate, Pomona; Mrs. E. J. 
Riley, Flora; Miss F. A. Pierce, L. A. S. 

Placerville Grange, No. 242.— W. Wiltse, 
M.; J. P. Allen, 0.; A. S. Cook, L.; W. Lewis, 
S. ; Peter Vignant, A. S. ; Jacob Lyon, T. ; F. 
M. Dickerhoff, Sec'y; Frank Logan, C; Mrs. 
Mary J. Cook, Ceres; Miss Mary Reynolds, 
Pomona; Miss Mary Hart, Flora; Miss Katie 
Allen, L. A. S. 

RivERDALE Grange, No. 251. — J. H Thomas, 
M. ; Thomas Thompson, 0. ; H. L. Benson, L ; 
C. E. Swift, S.; J. M. Swift, A. S.; A. F. 
Pomeroy, C. ; L. Lewis, T. ; Miss E. V. Thomp- 
son, SecV; W. Chamberlain, G. K. ; Mrs. E. 
Combs, Ceres; Susie E. Benson, Pomona; Miss 
Ada Swift, Flor»; M»j. Sarah Thomas, L A. S. 



Rising Star Grange, No. 177. — Election, 
Dec. 2d: J. N. Canfield (re-elected), M.; A. C. 
Lawrence (re-elected), 0. ; H. R. Shaw (re- 
elected), L. ; W. H. Thornburg (re-elected), S. ; 
Daniel Vanclief (re-elected). A. S. ; Lizzie Gard- 
ner, C. ; W. W. Hager, T. ; G. E. Hinckley (re- 
elected), Sec'y; N. B. Vanclief (re-elected), G. 
K. ; 0. S. Thornburg, Ceres; Delilah Canfield, 
Pomona; Rosa Lawrence, Flora; Lizzie Shaw, 
L. A. S. ; Hannah Vanclief, Trustee for three 
years. 

San Bernardino Grange, No. 61. — J. E. 
Pratt, M.; C. H. Mero, O. ; K. Shelton, L. ; 
Geo. King, S. ; D. Wixum, A. S. ; J. Cameron, 
C. ; Mrs. Geo. Lord, T. ; J. D. Osterhout, Sec'y; 
Mrs. E. P. Clyde, G. K.; Mrs. M. Carter, 
Ceres; Mrs. G. E. Bradford, Pomona; Miss E. 
BaUard, Flora; Mrs. D. Kathbun. L. S. 

Washington Grange, No. 228.— S. W. Sol- 
lars, M. ; D. R. Mclntire, O. ; A. A. Van Saneth, 
L. ; John Harris, S. ; Wm. Hall, A. S. ; M. L. 
Cook, C. ; Charles Bamert, T. ; W. B. Stamper, 
Sec'y; Nelson DOl, G. K. ; Mrs. A. E. Blyther, 
Ceres; Mrs. Mary Parvin, Pomona; Miss Me- 
lissa Shelbourn, Flora; Miss Rosa Stamper, 
L. A. S. Trustee, Jacob Harris. 



!CyLXdF(^L piojES. 



California. 

ALAMEDA. 

Fruits and Flowers. — Independent, Jan. 13; 
Freshly plucked oranges, with stems and leaves 
attached, quite ripe and looking finely, have 
been laid on our table this week from the 
orchard of E. L. Beard, Esq., at Mission San 
Jose. Thanks for the present. They afford 
another instance in proof of the fact that our 
foothills are just as good for semi-tropical fruits 
as the environs of Los Angeles. In truth, there 
is quite as little frost in winter in the warm belt 
under our foothills as there is in the south of 
the State, where so many oranges are produced 
every year. Mr. Beard has also left with us 
branches of almond trees growing on his place 
that are now in fuU bloom. They were in 
bloom on the 4th of January, and are still in 
bloom. 

Deep Boring — In Vaik.— Mr. Courtney 
bored an artesian well recently on H. Leitch's 
land, near Alviso, but after going down 672 feet 
and finding no good flow of water, Mr. Leitch 
got discouraged and gave up the enterprise, 
although water has usually been found in all 
that region. 
COLUSA. 

Plowing Land. — Sun, Jan. 13: Some years 
ago — just which, we have forgotten — Maberry 
Davis, of Union township, had a piece of sum- 
mer-fallowed, upon which the mustard sprang 
up pretty thick in the spring, and, in order to 
kill the mustard, he commenced plowing it 
over again, but did not get over the whole field. 
It was all sown in the fall before the rains, and 
was followed by a very dry season. On the 
land plowed twice he cut 41 bushels to the acre, 
and left more on the ground than grew on the 
other— just across the furrow 1 Our attention 
was also called, years ago, to the experience of 
Isaac Howell, of Grand island, in sowing wheat 
across a piece of land he had cultivated in 
broom-corn the year before. While his winter 
plowing, right alongside, sown at the same time, 
did not send a single head out of the boot, the 
broom-corn land yielded 20 bushels. Twice 
plowing will make from five to ten bushels dif- 
ference in a good season, and from 10 to 25 of 
a poor season. The second plowing can be done 
for $1.25 per acre, and, as is usually the case, 
when the teams have nothing else to do, for a 
great deal less. The present season, where land 
has been well plowed and thoroughly pulverized, 
the wheat is looking much better than where it 
has been poorly put in. We noticed when J. P. 
Bainbridge was building a levee for Messrs. Mc- 
Connell, Rowland & Randall, this fall, where 
the land had not been plowed he soon found 
dry earth, but on a piece of summer-fallow, that 
had been well done, he never did find dry 
ground, although he had to take out earth three 
feet deep. We are well satisfied that most all the 
land in this county, if given two deep plowings 
and allowed to fallow, will produce a fair crop 
of wheat the driest season we have yet had. 

Grand Island. — Antioch Ledyer, Jan. 6: 
Grand island is now securely leveed. Several 
hundred men were engaged in the work during 
the past summer, and completed the levee on 
Saturday last. By the floods of last winter, the 
loss in crops and stock on Grand island amounted 
to over half a mfllion dollars, but levees have 
now been constructed of sufficient strength and 
dimensions to withstand both tides and freshets. 

BL DORADO. 

The Season. — Repuhlican, Jan. 11: A num- 
ber of almond trees in this vicinity are now in 
bloom, and if there is not a change in the 
weather soon we may expect to see all kinds of 
fruit trees in blossom. 
LOS ANGELES. 

Trees for China. — Los Angeles is sending 
her fruit trees to China, and at some time in the 
future- the United States may import China 
oranges from southern California stocks. T. A. 
Garey, the well known Los Angeles orchardist, 
shipped 11 cases of orange antf lemon trees for 
China by the last steamer. This shipment com- 
prised 15 varieties of budded orange and lemon 
trees. 

Santa Ay a.— Express, Jan. 13: Many of the 
farmers in the Santa Ana valley are dry-plow- 



ing and seeding their ground, and should the I 
season prove unfavorable a sufficient amount of 
hay and grain will be raised to supply all nec- 
essary demands. Speaking of Rose's vine in 
Santa Barbara county, which produced 812 
pounds of squashes this year, the Santa Ana 
NeAV)! says: "That vine would not be a decent 
shadow for the majority of vines in Gospel 
swamp. J. H. Moesser has a vine that pro- 
duced this year 1,701 pounds of squashes, and 
more than a dozen vines that produced over 812 
ounds." 
MENDOCINO. 

The Season.— Editors Pre.ss: Farmers of 
this locality are much in need of rain, as there 
has been none fallen since the 17 th of Novem- 
ber. The weather since has been cold, clear 
and frosty. The total number of frosts up to 
date is 52, with fog two mornings. Grain of 
all kinds is getting scarce, as also is flour, and 
the cry is, wlien will it rain? Weather prophets 
say we need not look for much more rain, but 
time proves all things, consequently we wUl 
have to wait and by so doing we may know ex- 
actly the result. — E. V. Jones, Pomo. 
NAPA. 

Plow Factory.— Ber/ister, Jan. 13: A short 
visit yesterday to the factory where Myers's Ex- 
celsior plows are manufactured, enables us to 
give a short description of a valuable industry 
that has been carried on for four weeks in our 
midst. The building used is that formerly 
occupied by the Napa plow company, situated 
near the old railroad bridge. Mr. Myers brings 
with him the experience of six years in manu- 
facturing plows of all kinds, and besides, is com- 
petent to do all the wood-work about a plow, 
or any other agricultural implement. The mak- 
ing of gang plows will be the chief industry pur- 
sued, but single plows will also be manufac- 
tured, and next season the proprietor hopes to 
be able to turn out any agricultural implement 
whatever. At present he is engaged in filling a 
contract for 100 gang plows of the "Myers Ex- 
celsior" pattern, for Linforth, Kellogg & Co., of 
San Francisco. A small amount of machinery 
and an engine are in the building, but the 
greater part of the work is done by hand. Five 
men are all that are employed in the factory at 
present, but as soon as the season opens, a force 
of 15 or 20 men will be put on. 

PLACER. 

Green Barley. — Sacramento Valley Agri- 
culturist: The other day we were shown by W. 
J. O'Brien, of this city, a specimen of barley, 
from the ranch of his father-in-law, P. Banuon, 
near Auburn, Placer county, which was over 
four feet long, green and thrifty, and was only 
an average of a field of grain which is now grow- 
ing on Mr. Bannon's farm. How is that for 
New Years? It does not look as if the land 
upon which it is growing is very thirsty. What 
would some of our Eastern, snow-bound farmers 
think to see such a luxuriant crop at this season 
of the year? • 

SAN DIEGO. 

Statistics. — Union, Jan. 16: Statistics of 
last year show the total production of wheat 
to be 56,000 centals, of which nearly 30,000 
centals were exported; wool, 1,800,000 pounds, 
of which 1,400,000 were exported by sea; honey, 
1,277,000 pounds, of which the shipments are 
as follows: Cases averaging 55 pounds, 11,135; 
strained and extracted honey, 151,131 pounds. 
There is yet considerable honey to go forward. 
The next steamer wiU take two car-loads. The 
other exports are: Beeswax, 7,450 pounds; 
whale oil, 145,000 gallons; salt, 100,000 pounds; 
dried fish, 193,000 pounds; hides, 162,670 
■pounds; tallow, 15,000 pounds; potatoes, 74,- 
000 pounds. The importation of lumber and 
bee hive material was larger than in any preced- 
ing year. The general business of the year has 
been excellent. There were no, failures in the 
city and county, and the delinquent ta.x-list is 
the smallest ever known. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

A Feasible Irrigation Project. — Stockton 
Independent, Jan. 10: Our farmers will gener- 
ally admit that if a supply of water could be 
obtained at a reasonable cost to irrigate their 
land in seasons of drouth, its value would be 
greatly increased, and the benefits that might 
thus be secured could hardly be overestimated. 
Notwithstanding their readiness to make this 
admission, all seem to hesitate when it is pro- 
posed to take steps for securing the use of 
water to fertilize their land and render it per- 
manently productive, for the reason that the 
general impression seems to prevail that the 
cost of diverting water from the natural chan- 
nels upon the uplands would be too great to 
render it possible for the work to be done by 
the farmers themselves. There is reason to 
believe, however, that a considerable portion of 
this county could be irrigated from the 
Mokelumne river by an expenditure of money 
and labor not in excess of the capabilities of 
those parties who would be benefited. It is 
possible to divert the water of the Mokelumne 
from its channel at a point in the vicinity of 
Camanche and to bring it across the low divide 
between the Mokelumne and a depression, or 
dry creek, which in the rainy season becomes 
one of the tributaries of the Calaveras and 
through which the water could be conducted 
with comparatively little cost over a large area 
of territory. In the season of the year when 
irrigation can be made most profitable there is 
generally an abundance of water in the river, 
and it could be appropriated without infringing 
upon any acquired right to its use. This sub- 
ject is worthy of the ccreful consideration of 
Iwd owners in that portion of San Joaquin 



county, as by concerted and intelligent ^ 

there is no doubt of their ability to gudid 
against the dis.astrous effects of the drouths 
which may be expected to occur periodically in 
this State. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

Farmers' Association.— Courier, Jan. 12: 
The association met at the Court House on Sat- 
urday, Jan. 6th, 1877. President J. S. Mat- 
tison in the chair. Minutes of last meeting 
read and approved. Philip Frank was proposed 
and elected a member of the association. A 
large number of vegetable seeds from Wash- 
ington were distributed. A large quantity of 
broom com was received, and any who are de- 
sirous of obtaining some can do so by calling 
on the Secretary, R. Conant, providing they 
will agree to report the results. The next meet- 
ing will be held on the first Saturday in 
February, 1877. 
SISKIYOU. 

Scott Valley.— Editors Press:— Under the 
head of "Large Talk in Agriculture, " S. Whit- 
more, writing from San Diego under date of 
December 18th, 1876, takes pains to criticise 
your correspondent's notes of Scott valley, Sis- 
kiyou county, and I think made use of some 
pretty "large" talk himself, as I shall take the 
pains to prove. I am only a stranger here, but 
I call this valley home, and do not like to see it 
misrepresented by any one through the press. 
I have written to the assessor for the statistics 
and will soon be enabled to lay before the 
readers of your valuable paper facts that can't 
very well be disputed, I hope. Mr. S. says: 
"Now, I lived in Scott valley about nine years 
in difi"erent parts, and have been all over the 
valley from side to side and from end to end, 
etc. » * * ^j^^-^^ corn; I never saw 
ten acres of corn all the time I was there. " I 
showed this to a neighbor this evening, who 
said: "Pshaw, that's nothing; there's an old 
blind squaw near here that was born and raised 
in the valley and never saw one acre of corn in 
her whole life." Does Mr. W. know the ranch 
owned by Larin Bills, on French creek, and 
known as the Bills ranch? Well, if he can see 
at all, and will come up here now he can see 40 
acres on that one ranch that was in corn this 
season (1876). I am informed by a gentleman 
well posted in real estate in Scott valley, that 
your correspondent will be sustained by the 
facts. I shall take pleasure in showing Mr. W. 
that Scott valley is not now what it "useter 
was," and that we can afford to talk big, and 
sustain such large language with facts and fig- 
ures. Possibly I have been the means of some 
"poor immigrants" coming to this county and 
finding homes here, and may be more will fol- 
low. We still have room for rich and poor. 
More anon. R. D. Nunnally. 

French Creek, Etna Mills, Cal. 

[Let us have the facts. — Eds. Press.] 
SONOMA. 

Fine Horses. — Petaluma Argus, Jan. 12: 
In saying that there is no inland portion of 
the Pacific coast of the extent embraced 
within a radius of ten miles of Petaluma, 
in which there are so many fine horses as 
here, we assert a fact that is admitted by all 
who are conversant with the facts; and if we 
were to substitute the words United States for 
Pacific coast, we doubt whether the statement 
could be successfully i-efuted. A much greater 
number of horses that have become celebrated 
for their speed and other valuable qualities, 
have been bred here within the last two years 
than ui any other locality west of the Missis- 
siijpi, and more interest is felt in the matter 
than elsewhere in the western half of the coun- 
try. We are glad that it is so, and that there 
is not only no abatement but a continually in- 
creasing interest among our farmers and stock- 
raisers. Petaluma is the horse-raising center 
of the Pacific States, and breeders from far and 
near are continually coming here to purchase 
good stock. The recent importation of Norman 
stallions, which has heretofore been mentioned 
in the Argus, and the fact that other import- 
ations are to be made from time to time, is a 
fact upon which our ])eople, in whatever bus- 
iness they may be engaged, have good reason 
to congratulate themselves. It is the means of 
bringing many thousands of dollars to our lo- 
cality, and confers large benefits upon all bus- 
iness interests. The exhibit of horses at our 
faifs for the last few years have been much 
the best that have been made at any district 
fair in the State, and it is safe to say that 
the exhibition this year will be one of the very 
best that has ever been made at any State, dis- 
trict or county fair in the United States. 
Horsemen everywhere are invited to come 
and see for themselves if what we say is not 
true. 

Charcoal. — A great amount of charcoal has 
been manufactured in Green valley and vicinity 
within the last few years. Tlie parties mostly 
engaged in the business are Italians. Quite a 
number are now at work in the heavy timber 
on the west side of the valley. Thoy pay the 
owners of the land 50 cents per cord for the 
timber as it stands. Most of the coal is hauled 
to the railroad station near Forestville, and 
thence shipped to San Francisco. 
TULARE. 

What Some Sheep Men are 'Doitho.— Delta, 
Jan. 13: A number of our sheep men are turn- 
ing their sheep into hogs, and this is how it is 
done: They purchase a number of lean swine 
to correspond with the number of sheep to be 
disposed of. The sheep arc then slaughtered, 
their pelts dried, the fat tried out into tallow, 

Oontinued on paffs 44, 



38 



wsM%wm awnArn ipbbss- 



[January 20, 1877. 




Through the Lilacs. 

Amoug the unfortunate victims who perished 
at the late Ashtabula disaster was Mr. Fred- 
crick W. Marvin, a young man about twenty- 
two years of age, a nephew of the senior editor 
of this paper. Mr. Marvin was a young man 
of much promise and the only child of a more 
than wiilowed mother, in enfeebled health and 
altogether dependent on him for support. JHe 
was among tho.so who could not be identified. 
Some few years ago his mother, who is an oc- 
casional contributor for ditierent publications, 
penned the following lines, wliich have never 
before been in print; but which have now a 
touching significance. She will never more 
watch for his coming "through the lilacs;" but 
she has the consolation of knowing that when 
he left her "to seek a name for good or ill," he 
returned in due time with unmistakable evi- 
dence "that all was right," and she saw- 
"through the lilacs" that her boy was "pure." 
He will come no more to her, but she will go to 
bim. 

By a low window stands my easy chair. 

M.iny pleinant hourj I have rested there, 

WjU-'hrn;;, ttiniiuh the lilacs, up the little hill 

Wnere the ro.vd comes winding' down, for my Will, 

Wi.h a mother'a searcliini> eye, readin;,' well 

Wiie'-her tale of joy or woe he would tell. 

Wlien ho came with hound and with lips clOTed tight, 

I knew it had been better than -"all in right." 

When he came whistling:, loitering by the way. 

It had bejn "just an ordinary day." 

Bu, w.ie.i ho cime with a slow, measured tread. 

Looking straight at my window, I would dread 

To hear the story of that day. I knew 

There had been chiding —by his conscience, too. 

At length, not long ago, 
He reached his early manhood— it must he so 
With every m Jthers boy— and went away 
To seek u namj for gojd or ill. Some day. 
If he lives, he will come back. I shall s e 
Him thro' the lilacs, coming, and shall be 
Pernaps wild or faint with a mother's joy, 
To welcome back my long-gone, darling boy. 
Ah, then, by what sign c;ui I nightly tell 
If it hath been better th.in "all is well" — 
An ordinary day, or a sinful one? 
I know not »oii> how I shall read my son. 
But 1 know there will be a way, true and sure. 
To see, thro' the lilacs, if my boy be pure. 



California 

Golden Land, with skies so warm and tender, 
With fragr.aiit breath of never-dying tlowers. 

With solemn mountains robed in purple splendor. 
And built with rocky battlements and towers. 

1 love the boAuty of thy quiet canjons. 
Sunlightcii through the summer's dreamy hour.<. 

Willi orange bloom, and shining palm and banyans, 
.\nd the rich fruitage born of winter's showers. 

In thy green aisles and through thy sounding arches. 
Float tenderesl wldspers of far tropic climes 

And dreams of Italy, with glowing majwcs 
Of sunset clouds, and deep blue skies and vines 

On sunny slopefl. lifting their purple clusters. 

All kissed to riclie.st ri|iene.ss by the sun, 
And soft airs from the .\driatic'3 waters, 

With every hour of thy fair delight , O come. 

—Santa Barbara Pretf. 



East and West.— No. 10. 

(Written for the Rir\l I'Rtas by Philmore.) 
The allusions made in last week's Ri'ral 
Pkess to the death of Vanderbilt and the prob- 
able building of the ship canal via Lake Nicara- 
gua call to mind au experience which may be 
interesting at this time. February Ist, 1852, 
the writer sailed from New York for San Fran- 
cisco ou the steamer Prometheus, one of the new 
line of steamers via Nicaragua, owned by C. 
Vanderbilt. 

The winter had been an unusually severe one, 
so much so that Long Island sound was almost 
impasisable in consequence of the ice. When 
wo came through from Stonington one might 
have walked beside the steamer for a great part 
of the way, and we could never have gotten 
through had it not been for the powerful ma- 
chinery and enormous ice-breakers that were at- 
tached to tha steamer's prow. Such was the 
winter of '51 and '52 in and about New York. 
It did not last thus many days, for in less than 
a week's time we were amongst the West India 
islands, and light clothing took the place of our 
thick woolens of the north. Our first view of 
Hayti was like a beautiful dream. We 
were just getting over our sea-sickness, and had 
given up our determined revenge upon the one 
that wrote "A Life on the Ocean Wave" when 
the beautiful vision burst upon us, filling all 
with deliglit and inspiring some with poetry 
that perhaps has never found utterance in 
words. It was early in the morning when we 
steamed past the northermost point, that lingered 
in view Jill day, like the spell of a happy dream 
that is reluctantly broken. As the sun grew 
red in the west, tinting the fleecy clouds that 
hung in splendor over the Queen of the Antilles, 
the scene was changed, and Cape Tiburon 
loomed up before us in all its graudour, upoa 



which we gazed intently until the veil of night 
shut out the scene and left us but the remem- 
brance, and the frail planks upon which we 
stood. The path the ne.xt day vi-as o'er the 
deep, with here and there an island, that dis- 
tance reduced to a mere speck, without form or 
beauty. Still onward the good ship goes, 
" With foam before and fire behind, 

She rends the clinging sea 
Tliat flics before the roaring wind, 

lieiieath her hissing lee." 

There is something exhilarating in the idea 
that you have a power beneath you. It does 
not matter whether it be a spirited horse, a lo- 
comotive or a great ship. You become brave as 
your confidence increases, until you forget dan- 
ger and rush on to destruction and death. 

A few more days brought us to San Juan del 
Norte, which was the terminus of our Atlantic 
voyage. From there we took small steamers up 
the river for t'astillo rapids, where m'c changed 
again to the larger boats upon the lake. There 
was a great deal thought of comfort in those 
days, but it was then as now by those that had 
the lea.st of it. Tlie storm-bound tr.aveler that, 
weak and cold and hungry, plods his weary way 
toward home, thinks of the blazing fire and 
well filled board that aw.aits him and is, jier- 
haps, comforted in the thought; while the in- 
dolent and overfed turn from it entirely obliv- 
ious to the blessings they possess. So doubtless 
it was to the owners of the line upon which we 
traveled, but with all the anticipated happiness 
in store for those California-bounil passengers, a 
great many would then have been willing to 
have exchanged their prospective comforts for 
those Mr. Vanderbilt then enjoyed. Some went 
so far as to say they thought he had more of 
the good things of this world than he was en- 
titled to; while, of course, they on the con- 
trary had less. 

Those that came to California in early times 
need not be told of the discomforts, nor of the 
positive sufferings that attended a voyage hither 
at that time. Old Californians cannot but re- 
member the fearful mortality that aceom])anie<l 
every steamship that entereil this port in those 
early days. Hundreds were cast into the deep 
from a single vessel, and the survivors, more 
deatl than alive when they arrived, were never 
after what they were before. The seeds of 
disease were sown that in the end claimed the 
victim. So it was in this instance. A thou- 
sand passengers sailed from New York well and 
strong, two hundred of whom never reached 
San Francisco. Some sickened and died on the 
isthmus and others at sea. 

We arrived at San .luan del Sud but to be 
disappointed, as the steamship Xorllt Anifi-ira 
that was to take us on our way was nowhere in 
sight. A description of that place at that time 
might not be uninteresting, but this article will 
not admit of it. Suliice to say it was a perfect- 
sink of filth and disease, both moral and phys- 
ical, so that when our great steamer hove in 
sight we felt as though we were about to be 
snatched from the jaws of death, and go on our 
way rejoicing. And so we did, but our rejoicing 
was short lived, for within one week we were 
cast away and wrecked upon the coast of Mexico, 
to make our way to San Francisco as best we 
could. It were long to tell, but after suffering 
privations and hardships for many aweary week 
.and month, we finally reacheil this haven of 
rest, but we found no rest. The first night was 
our grand reception. About 41,000 called upon 
us and manifested the strongest attachment, the 
marks of which were strikingly apparent. It 
was a stirring night, indeed, and will not soon be 
forgotten. We had seen a fiea once before, a 
dead one; we jmrchased the privilege of a penny 
showman and saw the scaly rascal cemented to 
a plate of glass — all for one cent. Here we 
were admitted free to the whole grand menag- 
erie. 

A few days in San Francisco pretty nearly 
convinced us that the country was "played out," 
as the miners expressed it. All talked of the 
fall of '40 and the sprin:; of "fiO, wlien "one 
ounce" (-^IG) w.os the usual compensation for a 
day's Work. When any diggings would not pay 
that it was considered time to migrate. ISIany 
a restless miner has left 810 a day in search of 
something better. Those that would have been 
glad to have received §1 per day at home were 
here dissatisfietl with ten times that, and that 
feeling is not entirely dead to-day. 

Refin'eme.s'T. — Refinement is not fastidious- 
ness. It is not luxury. It is nothing of this 
kind. It is far removed from excess or waste. 
A person who is truly refined will not squander 
or needlessly consume anything. Refinement 
on the contrary is always allied to simplicity 
and a judicious and tasteful employment of the 
means of the good and happiness which it has at 
command. It seeks to divest itself of superfiui- 
ties, and aspires continually to the utmost pos- 
sible purity. Refinement leads to personal 
cleanliness and elegant neatness, good taste ami 
simplicity in dress. All "loudness" or flashi- 
ness is repugnant to its spirit. In its home and 
surroundings the same chasteness and natural 
grace are maintained. The abode of genuine re- 
finement and a mere pretender to it are very 
ditferent. In tue fonuer you will find no excess, 
gaudinoss or false glittering; but the latter 
abounds in it. In personal manner, refinement 
is most conspiouous. A man of refinement is al- 
ways polite without eft'eminacy, and consiilerate 
without stiffness. Display and ceremony are 
identical without refinement like that of the 
heart, which impels its possessor to show on aU 
occasions a regard for the feelings of others. No 
adherence to etiquette can compare with it for 
the spontaneous observance of true asd gratify- 
ing politeaees. ■ "" 



Faithful Dora. 

The blood-red ribbons of the storm -threaten- 
ing sunset were fluttering in the west; the huge 
oak trees and pines of the forest were murmur- 
ing ominously, and the one chimney of the lit- 
tle fami-house on the edge of the woods sent up 
its blue column of smoke, like a cheery hand 
beckoning to the way-worn traveler, over the 
hill. And how bright and cozy the interior of 
the kitchen looked, as Dora Klein stood on the 
threshold, cold, hungry and inexpressibly 
weary. A little girl, blue-eyed and blonde- 
haired, scarcely yet Ifi, with shy aspect and a 
shrinking mien, she had walked all the way 
from the city, seeking vainly for work at the va- 
rious habitations that she had passed, and now 
at nightfall she was nearly discouraged. 

"A girl';' " said Mrs. Myers, dubiously, as Dora 
Klein preferred her meek request. "1 did talk 
of hiring a girl, but I ilon't know anything about 
you. " 

"Please try me,'' faltered Dora. "I am so 
tired, and I know not one in all this whole 
county, and indeed, indeed I will do my best to 
serve you. " 

Mrs. Myers turned to her husband, who sat 
by the fire, trotting a chubby two-year-old on 
his foot. "What shall I do, .J.ames?" 

"She's a total stranger," said Mr. Myers. 

"But she looks so we.ary and worn out.'' 

"Well, let her oome in and stay all night — a 
bowl of bread and milk and one night's lodging 
won't break us." 

So Dora Klein was admitted into the farmer's 
little family, and so neat and handy w.as she 
about the place, so light and agile in her move- 
ments, so quick to learn and steadfast to re- 
member that good-natured little Mrs. Myers hail 
engaged her before she had been in the house a 
week. 

"You women are so impulsive," said the hon- 
est farmer, shaking his head. "Suppose she 
should turn out bad';" "How can she, James?" 
said Mrs. Myers, indignantly. "She has a face 
as innocent as baby's." 

"My dear, I don't believe in physiognomy." 

"Nor I, altogether, but I do believe in Dora 
Klein." 

And as the days and weeks went by, Mr. 
Myers was obliged to confess to himself that 
so far, at least, his wife's judgment, or rather 
instinct, had been correct. The last Novem- 
ber leaves were fluttering down one clear, cold 
afternoon, when Mrs. Myers stood at the door, 
ready to join her husband and baby in the 
wagon, to attend a merry-making at the nearest 
village, some miles beyond, while Dora Klein 
was to remain at home to "keep hou.se." 

"Mind you feed the chickens at five o'clock, 
I)ora, and don't forget the little calf in the pen; 
and if you have any extra time, you can just 
chop the heart and the apples for the Saturday 
mince pies, and " 

"Come, wife, come!" called out her husband 
from the wagon. 

"And if the house shouM catch fire, or any- 
thing, " added the prudent little modem edition 
of Martha, "troubleil with many cares," "re- 
memlier, Dora, that the money is in an tild 
stocking under the old board, by the south win- 
dow, and the silver. in a japanned box close to 
it." 

"Yes, m'm,'' said Dora, kissing her hand to 
the laughing baby; "I'll remember." 

"Some people would say, my dear, that that 
wasn't a very smart proceeding of yours," said 
Mr. Myers as they drove away. 

"What do you mean?" asked his wife. 

"To tell that girl just where our valuables are 
kept." 

".lames! What an idea! ^^'hy, I can trust 
Dora just as implicitly as I would trust myself. " 

Mr. .Myers whistled and drove on, and his 
wife was vexed with him for even thinking such 
a doubt of Dora Klein. 

But as they were jogging slowly homeward 
in the November starlight, a neighbor hailed 
them, joyously, from the top of a load of bar- 
rels. 

"I say, it's time you were home," said Nehe- 
miah Hardbroke; "your gal's got company." 

"What do you mean?" demanded Myers. 

"Why, the doors ami windows were all 
open as I cime Viy the cross-roads, jist where 
ye can see 'cross the medder to your back-door, 
and there was two or three men in the kitchen. 
1 thought it was some of your folks till I see 
your wagon jist now." 

James Myers looked at his wife. 

Mrs. Myers's white, anxious face returned 
the gaze. 

"Dora is there," gasped the wife; "she would 
see that — that nothing happened. ' 

"Dora is there," assentert Mr. Myers, "that's 
the very reason I'm worried. Hold the baby 
firm, and I'll see what speed is left in old 
Dobbin^ " 

How they rattled over the frosty road, 
Dobbin galloping as if trj-ing the turf, and the 
old wood nishing past them hke the scenic 
sjilendors of a panorama, while to the anxious 
hearts of wife and husband every moment 
seemed an age. The bouse was dark when they 
reached it. Mr. Myers flung the reins o\er the 
dashboard and sprang out. 

"Dora! Dora Klein!" he called, but there 'was 
no answer save the faint echo of his own voice. 

And when the lamp was lighted it shone on 
a scene of dismay ana confusion; but the first 
comer at which the farmer glanced revealed to 
him that the loose boards beneath the south 
window had been torn away, and the treasure 
Qook which had held the Bilver spoont and the 



stocking full of bank potea— their little all— was 
empty. 

"So much for your girl and her friends, 
Janie!" said Mr. Myers, in the bitterness of his 
first anger; and Mrs. Myers burst into tears, 
not so much, after all, at the loss of the money, 
although that was a serious enough matter, "as 
to think that little Dora Klein, of whom slie 
had unconsciously grown so fond, was unworthy 
of a kind thought. 

That was one side of the little, every-day life 
story at the cottage; and now let us take a peep 
at the other. Her master and mistress had 
scarcely been gone an hour, and Dora was chop- 
ping away at the heart, singing some roundelay 
as she worked, when there was a creaking on 
the floor, and turning her head, she started to 
behold two tall, gruff-looking men in the room. 

"Who are you?" demandeiY Dora, with feigned 
valor, "and what do you want?" 

"Don't worry yourself, my lass," said the 
taller of the twain, gruflly, "and don't make 
any noise, if you don t want your neck twisted 
round like a chicken's." 

While the other, busying himself in recon- 
noitering the cupboards and shelves, turned 
suddenly around with a volley of oaths. 

"Nothing but tin and pewter," he snarled. 
"Where is the silver, girl?' 

"We have no silver," said Dora, falteringly. 
"What should poor people like us do with 
silver?" 

"The money, then? I know there is money; 
for I saw him come out of the bank, yesterday 
morning, with a walletful. Quick, we haven't 
any time to lose. '" 

"It's — it's upstairs, sewed into the bottom of 
the feather lied, in the spare room," heititated 
Dora. "But you won't hurt me?" 

" What should we liurt you for?" scornfully 
demanded the ruffian. "Go up stairs, •Tack, and 
see, while I stay here to keep this girl from rais- 
ing the neighborhood. " 

"I shaD not scre.am," said Dor.a, elevating her 
head a little contemptuously. " Who is there 
to hear me if I did ? We are two miles from a 
house." 

"And that's true enough," said the man called 
Jack. "Give us your knife, Casey, and we'll 
stir up the live geese feathers to some purjwse. 
The gal won't trouble us." 

But the heavy fix)tsteps of the men had hardly 
sounded at the head of the stairs when Dora 
Klein's langtiid assumption of indifference van- 
ished. Like a winged sprite she flew across the 
room, and noiselessly prying up the loose boards 
with a knife, she caught up the japanned box 
and the stocking, and, hiding them in her apron, 
jumped from the low window to avoid the noise 
of the rusty door-hinge, and struck into the wood 
at the back of the house. 

No hare ever darted more swiftly through the 
tangled paths of the forest than did Dora Klein, 
until at last safe in the deepest recesses, where 
no one who was not nimble as a deer and slen- 
der as herself could follow. And then crouching 
down among the undergrowth, she watched ana 
waited. As the ni^ilit ajiproached, and a friendly 
dusk crept over hill antl dale, she ventured by 
degrees to ajiproach the side of tlie woods, 
where the north star beamed overhead, assur- 
ing her of her whereabouts. And when at 
length the hoarse voices of the two men hurrying 
down a by-road struck momentary terror to her 
heart, the afterthought followed with blessed 
relief— the certainty that they were gone and 
she was safe. 

Mr. Myers and Janie were sitting sadly by 
the fire that they had just re-kindled, neither of 
them with any heart to set about the prepara- 
tion of the frugal evening meal, when the door 
creaked on its hinges and something glided in 
pale and silent. 

The next moihent the japanned silver-box and 
stocking lay in Mrs. Myer.Vs lap, and Dora Klein 
was sobbing on her shoulder. 

"Why, Dora," exclaimed the former, "What 
does all this mean ?" 

And Dora told her story incoherently and 
full of sobbing pauses; and when it was con- 
cluded Mrs. Slyers threw her arms around the 
girl's neck and kissed her again and again. 

"James, James," she cried, almost hysteric- 
ally, "you will never mistrnst Dora Klein 
again." 

And James Myers, wiping a stray dewdrop 
or so from his eyes, confessed that little Dora 
Klein had been as true a heroine as Joan of Arc 
herself.— .V. Y. HVW. 

The Fate of Books.— Out of 1,000 pub- 
lished books, 600 never pay the cost of printing, 
etc., 200 just pay expenses, 100 return a slight 
profit, and only 100 show a substantial gain. Of 
these 1,000 bookj, 6.50 are forgotten by the end 
of the year, and 150 more at the end of three 
years; only 50 survive seven years' publicity. 
Of the 50,000 publications put forth in the I7th 
century, hardly more than 50 have a great rep- 
utation and are reprinted. Of the 80,000 works 
published in the 18th century posterity has 
hardly preserved more than were reecued from 
oblivion in the 17th century. Men have been 
writing books these 3,000 years, and there are 
hardly more than 500 writers throughout the 
globe who have sunived the outrages of time 
and forgetfnlness. 

"Students' Review. " — The students of the 
Stockton high school have issued a bright sheet, 
called the .'>lu(/entj>' Becieip. It will be published 
monthly, and will be devoted to the best inter- 
ests of "the schools and scholars of the city of 
Stockton. Its matter will be original and will 
be furnished by students of the public schools 
and graduates of the high school, «xcluflively. 
The BeviHo ha« our beat wiabea. 



January 20, 1^77.] 



3D 



Entertaining Company. 

Do not we sometimes grudge the trouble some 
friend puts us to or think our time ought to be 
better spent than in merely entertaining com- 
pany? But only reminding you of the Christian 
duty involved, I would look a little farther into 
this matter of entertaining. I have two friends 
in my mind as I write. One of them when mov- 
ing, early last fall, said, "Our new house has 
one advantage, there is no spare bed-room. 
Mother has always told me I could not afford to 
have a spare bed-room and I know it now to my 
cost, so I'm glad the new house is small.'" I 
had been to visit this actjuaintance (I can hardly 
call her friend) once and did not wo)ider that 
she could not afford a spare room. Her hus- 
band was only moderately well off and they 
lived, I knew, quite simply, but you never 
woulil have thought so from the way 1 was en- 
tertained. The "best things" of every kind 
were brought out, extra and uimecessary dishes 
were provided at every meal, and all the usual 
routine of the house was, 1 felt instinctively, in- 
terrupted by my visit. As all tliis display 
tickled the young woman's pride, her spare 
room was often used; but care was taken to in- 
vite those that in some way would "do them 
credit." No wonder the tax was felt to be a 
heavy one. 

The other frien<l was one who had the expe- 
rience of eight or ten years of married life to 
guide her, and was also not at all well off; but 
m describing her new home, she said; "And the 
best of it is, I have a nice sjjare room. " Per- 
haps she guesse<l wliat was passing in my mind, 
for she added, "You know I have always been 
fond of entertaining my friends, and I don't 
mean to give up the jdeasure. I shall keep 
the rule I made when we were married, 
though." 

"What was that''" 

"Not to make any ilift'erence in my manner of 
living. You know I am kept by home duties 
from working in any of the societies or associa- 
tions, so 1 like to do my share of the work by 
entertaining. It is not always my intimate 
friends that enjoy my spare room, but any tired 
lonely soul that I happen to hear of. But come 
and spend a few days with me next week and 1 
will give you a practical illustration as to enter- 
taining. Dcm't say you can't come. 1 promise 
you shall be as free to write or read as at 
home. "' 

The invitation was very tempting and as one 
of the dear aunties came to visit the children I 
reached my friend's house about dusk one day 
the next week. She took me at once to her 
"spare room." It seemed a sitting room as well 
as bedroom, with its nice square table covered 
with an odtl looking cloth, its lounge, hanging 
baskets, books and j)apers. 

I stayed three days with my dear friend, and, 
as far as any feeling that I was interrupting her 
in her duties, I might be " there still. In the 
morning she went about her house, for she was 
a notable housekeeper, while I, accustomed to 
teach my boy, gladly took care of lier little 
girl's lessons. In the afternoon we worked and 
wrote and walked out. I have never spent 
three happier days. The afternoon of the last 
.day she saiel, "Now do you understand my 
practical illustratiou about entertaining?" 

"You mean you take your company in your 
home life'/ don't put your home lite all on one 
side because you have company? " 

"Yes, that's it. Now, just as a matter of 
curiosity, here is a list of last week's marketing 
and here of this week's. See how nearly the 
two weeks correspond. I have not made com- 
pany of you, inasmuch as I have not bake<l 
extra cake or pies, but I've enjoyed you 
thoroughly. " 

Ah, that is the secret of entertaining your 
friends aright! Faijoy your company. If your 
means are ample and you can indulge in extra 
dishes, if that is pleasure to you, indulge your- 
self, but don't think because you ought not to 
spend money on such things, you must not have 
company. The best of us grow a little careless 
and a new face expected among us is a good 
thing. We brighten up our silver, arrange our 
pretty vases and books afresh, and do manv a 
little thing that has been left from day to day 
"to be done to-morrow." But when your 
friends come, remember they come to see you, 
not the results of two or three days' hard 
work. Yet don't feel afraid to leave a friend 
alone. If your children, luiuse or neighbors 
need you, attend to the duty and trust to a book, 
or paper to amuse your friend. — ChriMkiu 
Wefkly. 

Preserving Spikes ok Pampas-grass.— 
Those who have made house ornaments of 
pampas-grass and found the spikes sifting out, 
will be pleased to read the following, which Mr. 
Henry Vilmorin, of Paris, communicates to the 
\Mm\m\ (htrdi'ni'r* (.'hroniHe : "I have always 
found the best plan for preserving the spikes of 
pampas-grass in perfect condition to be tlie fol- 
lowing: Cut the stems before the spikes are 
half out of the sheaths, store them in a dry 
place and leave tliem undisturbed till entirely 
dried, then remove the leaf which partly 
envelopes the spikes; the latter will appear per- 
fectly bright, and with a silky gloss on them, 
only they are rather stiff; then submit them 
carefully to a goodly heat, either in a well- 
heated oven, or, better still, before a brisk fire, 
when each floret will expand, ami give the spike 
the feather-like appearance so mucli appreciated. 
The spikes prepared by that process wUl not 
drop one of their glossy pistils, and wiU keep 
for any length of time if kept free from the 
tarnishing effects of dust. " 



Ye^ftQ F©Lks' 0©nJpN. 



Bed Time. 



'*Baf>.v want to g-o to sleep?" 
See the head shake -"No, no, no!" 

"Baby want to play bo-peei)?" 

See the face all in a g'low! 
"Baby go behind the door?" 

See how fa.st the small feet go! 
"Baby want to play some more?" 

See the head shake, tired, "no," 

"Baby want to go to sleep .'" 
Nodding now an eager "yes." 

See the baby quickly creep- - 
Into whose arms, do yon guess? 

M. B. If.. !n N. Y. Trihiini-. 



Qq©d \\ei 



How Kitty was Saved. 

Tliere was no help for it. Daisy must be 
drowned — little, gentle, two-months-old Daisy, 
that was always so good and quiet, and yet so 
full of life and frolic! Little Katie's heart was 
quite broken thinking about it. But mamma, 
who knew best, had sai<l so, and there was no 
help for it. Three cats took so much milk. 
And there were so many human mouths to feed. 
And milk at 10 cents a quart. Poor little 
Katie! She saw it was best, but it brought 
grief to her heart. 

"If some one would only buy Daisy," she 
said, clinging to her mother's dress. 

"People don't buy kitties," said her mother, 
stooping to kiss the little flushed, tearful face 
lifted to hers; but I wish some one would take 
her as a gift. You wouldn't mind giving Daisy 
away, would you, Katie? That would be better 
than drowning her." 

"Yes, indeed; a hundred times better!" an- 
swered the child, her face lighting up. 

Tliat night a little tear- wet face pressed 
Katie's pillow. The child was offering up her 
evening prayer. "Dear Father," she said, 
"please send some one 'long who wants a kitty. 
It is so awful to have Daisy drowned, and it 
liurts .so! Please, dear Father, be good to 
Daisy, and don't let her be drowned." And 
here the little voice grew choked, and great 
tears fell on the white pillowslip. Soon, luiw- 
ever, she fell asleep; her prayer had quiete<l 
her. 

"Ciood-bye, Daisy. 0! I wish God had 
thought it best. But he didn't, and you must 
go." And Katie turned from her brother 
Beuben, who held Daisy in his strong arms. 

"Don't cry, Katie," said tlio boy, pausing a 
moment, "I'll do it real (juiek; she won't suffer 
a minute. I'll tie a big stone to tho bag, and 
it'll be all over in a jiffy." 

Poor, blundering Reuben! He meant to com- 
fort Katie, but his words only made her cry the 
harder 

Reuben walked along far from comfortable. 
There was the bag in his pocket and Daisy in 
his arms, looking \ip in his face confidingly as 
tliough ho were the best friend she had in the 
world. In a few minutes poor Daisy would be 
struggling in the water, and he sluni'.d have to 
go back and face Katie and tell lier it was all 
over. 

"I declare I can't do it!" he exclaimed half 
aloud. "I'm going in here to Bill Watson's, 
Perhaps his folks would like a kitten. Any 
way, I'll see," 

A little gill stood in the doorway. 

"Hallo, Jenny! want a kitty? I've brouglit 
you a beauty — look!" 

Jenny's pretty face flushed with delight. 

"O, mother!" she exclaimed, nmning Ijack 
into the room, "may I have this kitty? Reuben 
has ))rought it on purpose for me!" 

Reuben had to tell his story — how they had 
two other cats at home, how there wasn't milk 
enough for them all, and liow Katie had cried 
when mother said Daisy must he drowned. 

"Don't .say another word," interrupted Mrs. 
Watson. "Leave puss here. I'm right glad of 
her." 

So Reuben put Daisy into .Jenny's arms, and 
witli a heart-felt "Thauk you, ma'am, Katie 
will be so glad," he hurried home to tell his 
sister the good news. 

O, how happy Katie was that evening! "(iod 
did hear me; didn't he, mamma?" 

"Dear little Daisy! I think God must love 
kitties almost as much as he does little girls; 
don't you, mamma?" 

" 'His tender mercies are overall his works,' ' 
murnnired Katie's mother to herself, then she 
turned to her little girl and said: 

"God loves and cares for everything that he 
has made, dear child. I thank him that my 
Katie has a tender, loving heart toward his 
creatures; and I am glad, too, that Daisy has 
found so good a home." -Dnmli Animaln. 



ESflC Ec©[*©[fl^. 



Wearing and Washing Flannels. 

We read in Hold Journal of Health that the 
very best thing that can be worn next the skin, 
in sunnner as well as winter, is common woolen 
flannel. One color has no advantage over an- 
other, except that white is more agreeable to 
the sight. Recent scientific experiments, care- 
fully conducted, prove the truth of the popular 
sentiment, that woolen flannel is the best fabric 
to lie worn next the skin, as it absorbs more' 
moisture from the body than any other material, 
and by so doing, keeps the body more perfectly 
dry. Cotton al)Sorbs the least, hence the per- 
spiration remains more on the skin, and lieing 
damp, the heat of the body is rapidly carried oft' 
by evaporation and suddenly cools when exer- 
cise ceases, the ill efl'ects of which no intelligent 
mind needs to be reminded off. Hence it is that 
the common observation of all nations leads 
them to give their sailors woolen flannel shirts 
for all seasons and for all latitudes, as the best 
ecpializers of the lieat of the body. 

We believe it to be one of the most difficult 
things about the house to properly wash flan- 
nels so that they will neither shrink nor full up 
and become hard, Mrs. Beecher has a talk in 
the (' Ill-Mian Union about this, as follows: 

Cut up what soap may be needed, and dissolve 
in a skillet of boiling water. Lot it stand on 
the stove and simmer till every particle is dis- 
solved. Never rub soap on the flannels or allow 
a bit to settle on them. Nothing "fulls" flan- 
nel so ba<lly as rubbing soap on it or letting bits 
of it settle on the cloth, A place on which a 
bit of soap lias lodged or been rubbed will have 
a dift'erent shade from the rest when dried, 
making the whole garment look spotted. 

Take a small tub, not quite half full of scald- 
ing hot or boiling water. Into this pour enough 
of the dissolved soap to make a rich suds, pour 
to this some ammonia, prepared from "concen- 
trated ammonia" — a tablespoonful and a half to 
10 or 12 quarts of suds is a fair proportion. Stir 
this and the soap into the hot water till it is all 
tlioroughly incorporated. Then put in the 
flannels. Two or three articles are quite enough 
to soak at one time. Press them well under the 
water, but turn them over in the water occa- 
sionally while they are soaking. Let them 
remain in the water till it is cool enough to put 
the hands in without discomfort. While wash- 
ing keep a good quantity of water at boiling 
heat on the range for rinsing purposes and to 
keep the suds as hot as it can be used. Before 
one piece is washed and ready to be wrung out, 
All a small tub half full of clear hot water. 
Into this stir a little more "blueing" than 
would be used for cotton or linen. Shake out 
each piece as soon as washed quickly, and throw 
at once into the hot rinsing water. 

Rub the flannel as little as possible, but draw 
it repeatedly through the hands, squeezing 
rather than rubbing. Harsh rubbing thickens 
and injures the fabric. Never wring with a 
wringer, as the pressure mats the nap down so 
closely as to destroy all the soft fleecy look of 
good flannel. Wring with the hands as dry as 
possible, then rinse und wring out again; and 
when as dry as it can be made by hand, snap 
out, stretcl5 and pull out into tlie true sh;ipe; 
dry in the open air, if jjossible. Bring in when 
not quite clry, roll up a short time, and iron 
while still a little damp, so that each part can 
be more readily brought into shape. Pressing 
when ironing is better for the flannel than rub- 
bing. It does not make the fabric feel so hard 
and wiry. 

Scarlet flannel is poisonous to some skins if 
used before washing, and as one is not always 
sure how one may be affected by it, it is safer 
to give it a scald in hot water with a little soap 
— not enough to make a sti'ong suds. Let it 
stand and soak a few minutes, then wring out 
and treat like other flannels. 



Brown Bread. 

Mrs. Susan Everett, M. D. , sends the follow- 
ing from a lady who attended one of her courses 
of lectures, 'The author states that 25 years 
ago she attended a course of lectures on hygiene, 
and the lessons she then learned have enabled 
her to keep in good healtli ever since. She sent 
this recipe with a loaf of ilelicious brown bread 
to Mrs, Everett, during her course of lectures 
at Perth Amboy, N. J. We regret that we are 
not i^erniitted to give the lady's name: — "We 
make our owai yeast from hops of our own rais- 
ing. The vine makes a delightful shade for the 
south end of our back porch, and from that vine 
we gather, the last of August, hops enough for 
our own use during the year, and also for some 
of our friends. To three pints of water put a 
handful of hops, and boil tliem half an hour; 
put into the yeast pot or jar six tablespoonfuls of 
flour and one tcaspoonful of salt: set your jar 
near the kettle, and dip the hop tea into the jar 
through a sieve or culander. When you Iiave 
strained enough to wet all the flour, stir it well, 
and then strain upon it the rest of the hoj) 
water. The mixture should be about the con- 
sistency of batter for griddle cakes. Wlien it 
is cool, not cold, stir in a gill of good yeast; set 
it in a warm place; do not cover it close. When 
fermented, put it in a cool place, and cover close. 
This is the yeast from which we set out white 
bread in the evening. The next morning we 
take a good handful of the dough; put it in a 
large yellow bowl, and add a teaspoonful of salt, 
a half cup of molasses, a pint of lukewarm 
water, and enough graham flour, making a 
dough softer than tor white V>read; set it to rise 
and bake. We do not knead tliis bread. This 
makes two loaves. Brown bread is not im- 
proved l)y sugar." 



The Best Rule, — "The best rule," says a 
wise writer, "is to say all the good we can of 
every one, and refrain from saying evil, uidess 
it becomes a clear matter of duty to warn. 
Slander is a sin much worse than theft. We 
sliouhl no more bite one with our words than 
witli our teeth. An angry word is as bad as a 
blow often, and a satirioal word is like a sting." 



As a cross word begets a word that is cross, 
80 will a kind one beget its own likeness. If 
people only knew the power they possess in 
being kind, how mncli good would tiiey achieve 
for themselves, how much misery prevent to 
others. 



Useful and Healthful Children. 

A lady writes for the New York Tribune as 
follows: The great eflort of many parents seems 
to be to so surround their children with bulwarks 
against want and trouble that they may bo in a 
measure secure from a large part of tlie ills that 
flesh is heir to. The father is unwilling that 
his children should struggle against overwhelm- 
ing odds as he has done, should toil and econo- 
mize and plan and fight as he has had to do, and 
he fancies that investments in real estate and a 
balance in bank will be the best inheritance lie 
can leave them. So he denies himself indulg- 
ence in even necessary things that he may save 
and make for his family. Tlic mother, remem- 
bering how irksome household tasks wore to her 
in her girlhood, permits her daughters to lead 
lives of domestic ease and indolence, thinking 
that in so doing she makes the best manifesta- 
tion in her power of maternal lovo. As a nat- 
ural consequence of this view on the part of 
parents, we see growing up all around us young 
men and women ])erf'ectly useless for all the 
practic:il purposes of life, mere hot-house jilants, 
that under glass and with ijroper conditions of 
moisture and temperature thrive luxuriantly, 
but so tender and helpless and unprovided 
against adversity, that one blast of the north 
wind freezes them to tlie core, withers all their 
activities and paralyzes all tiieir faculties; or if 
they take lieart of courage and battle against 
misfortune, tlicy are so ignorant of the use of 
the weapons they niusf namlle, that tho fight 
goes against thom. 



Saoo Cream Soup.— The following recipe ap- 
pears iiii an English journal as one given at a pop- 
ular "cooking school:" An old fowl tliat is only fit 
for the stock pot makes delightful stock for this 
soup, and either it may be boiled till every par- 
ticle of goodness is extracted, or if a less strong 
stock is wanted it may be boiled only till tender, 
and the meat afterwards used up in some of 
the made dishes where a white meat is required. 
Add to the stock while boiling some whole white 
pepper and a blade of mace. Strain and skim 
the stock; this last operation is best done witli 
what is called kitchen paper, a most useful arti- 
cle, and of which a supply should be at the 
command of every cook. Lay the paper on the 
top of the stock, and draw it off; the fat on tho 
top will adhere to it, and the process should be 
repeated till the paper comes off free from 
grease. For every two quarts of stock take 
three ounces of sago or of tapioca, wash it in 
hot water, and boil it in the stock for one hour. 
Break the yolks of two eggs in a basin, and add 
to them half a pint of cream or milk; pour in- 
to it gradually a little of tlie hot soup, then 
turn it all into the remainder of the soup and 
heat it up, taking care it does not boil, Tho 
stock for this soup may be made of rabbit, or 
of veal, or of a mixture of all three. 



A Gexuine Veoetartan Dish. — The follow- 
ing, from the Eni/li.'ifi Mechanic, has no admix- 
ture of animal food, and our country friends 
would do well to try it as no bad substitute, on 
a pinch, for a meat dish at dinner: "Take 
carrots, turnips, parsnijis; slice very fine, and 
fry till quite brown, in oil. Then take cabbage, 
onions and potatoes; cut the cabbage as for 
pickling, cut tlie potatoes into four, and tho 
onions into shreds. Strain the carrots, etc., 
from the oil, and put them in a saucepan witli 
water. When the water boils put in sufficient 
celery seed and caramel (burnt sugar) to give an 
agreeable color and taste. Then add the cab- 
bage, onions, potatoes, etc., and boil until quite 
tender. A leaf of sage or a sjirig of thyme is 
an improvement. Only suflicient water must 
be used to prevent the vegetables burning. 
Serve with pepper and salt." 



Baked Batter PrnniNO with Fruit. —Take 
a half-pound of flour; one pint of milk; the yolks 
of four and whites of two eggs, and lialf a tea- 
spoonful of leaking jiowder, Kub tlie powder 
till smooth, mixing it well with the flour, an 1 
as much milk as will make it a stiff liattcr; beat 
it till (juite smooth, then add the remainder of 
the milk, and tlie eggs, well beaten. Put some 
apples, cut as for a pic, into a buttered dish; 
pour tlie batter over, and Ixike in a moderately 
hot oven. Damsons, currants, gooselierries or 
rhubarb may l)e used in the same way. 



Bread-Ckumh Omeijjt. — The following is 
from another English source, and is called a 
"vegetarian recipe," notwithstanding the e.LCgs 
in it: one pint of bread-crumbs, a large handful 
of chojiped parsley, with a large slice of onion 
minced line, and a teaspoonful of dried marjo- 
ram. Beat 11]) two eggs, add a tcacupful of 
milk, some nutmeg, pepper and salt, and a piece 
of butter the size of an egg. Mix all together, 
and bake in a slow oven tiU of a light brown 
color. Turn it out of the disU apd send , to table , 
immediately. i ,',,,,. ;. im-.' q/-,. 

Baked Irish Potatoes, — Boil soft eight good- 
sized Irish potatoes; mash them, add two table- 
spoonfuls of butter and a pint of milk: salt to 
taste. Put into a. dish and bake half an hour. 



40 



^«E^iE5aS» 



4 



[January 20, 1877. 




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SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 20, 1877. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

aBNERAL EDITORIALS.- Hints on Landscape 
Gardening; The Wool Product; Draft H.irses for Itah 
aod California, 33. The Week; Rain-l>roi>s; Agricul- 
tural Credit, 40. The Beef Canning Industrj'; A Cana- 
diaji Portable .Saw-.Mill; 'Oie Hops of the World, 41. 
Pa entfl and Inventions, 44. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. -Landscape C.ardeninK— Plan for 
Ten Acres; Plan for Three Acres. 33. Cunadiau Porta- 
ble Saw-Mill; Boiler and Engine, 41. 

CORRBSPONDENCE.-The State Agricultural 
Society; Redwo<nl Stuiiip.s; Borryessa, NapaConnty; A 
Kew ?nower— "Gilia Parrva;' Tehama County; Xote 
on Mexican A'gricultiu-o, 34. "Satan Came also Among 
Them," 44. 

THE APIARY.- Bee-F^ating Birds. 34. 

POULTRY YARD.-Treatnuni t..r Roup, Etc; 
Phinouth Hocks. 34 

PA'TRONS OP HUSBANDRY. -Worthy Lec- 
turer's Visits; Co-Operative Assoclatiou; From the 
Oranges; Tlie Higher Degrees; Another New Grange; 
On the Wing; Notes from the W. Secretary's Report; 
Pomo Orange; Pomona Orange in San Diego; Change of 
Otflcers in fiosevllle Orange, 36. Election of Ottlcers, 
37. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from various counties 
In Califon}ia, 37-44 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— Sheep-Raising in Oregon, 
35 

THE STOCK YARD.— Homs-Their Indications, 35. 

FLORICULTURE. -Mosaiculture; Flowering of the 
Eucharis Amazonica. 36. 

USEFUL INFORMATION.— The Manufacture of 
Woolen Hats; The Itates of Postage, 35. 

HOME CIRCLE.-Through the Lilacs (Poetrj); Cali- 
fornia (Poetry); East and West— No 10; Reflnemeiit; 
Faithful Dora'; The Fate of Books; EnterUining Com- 
pany; Preserving Spikes of Pami>a»-OrasH, 38-39- 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.-Bcd Time d'oetrj); 
How Kittv was Saved; The Best Kule. 39. 

GOOD HEALTH.- Wearing and Washing Flannels; 
Useful and Healthful Children, 39. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.- Brown Bread; Sago 
Cream Smiji; A Genuine Vegetarian Dish; Baked Batter 
Pudding with Fruit; BreadCrumb Omelet; Baked Irish 
Potatoes, 39. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.-Nuraber of Plnws: 
Diabrotica Duodecempunctata; Tree Selling by Colored 
Plates 40 

GENERAL NEWS ITEMS on page 44 and other 
pages 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Curious Geological Formation, 
34. Tree and Vine Planting; Weather Watching, 42. 
Magnetic Declination; Nitrogen and Electricity; Cleans- 
ing Old Iron Water Pipes at Elgin, 43. Raiu Everj'- 
where, 48. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Chile Alfalfa Seed. R. J. Trumbull. S. F ; California Yea.st 
Cokes, R B. Scott, .Sacramento, Cal; Wanted, R. Wil- 
kin, San Buenaventura, Cal. ; Red Games, J. Annear, 
Ceres, Cal. ; Saul's Catalogue, John Saul, Wa.shington, I). 
C. ; Swiss Motto Cards, J. B. Husted, Nassau, N. Y.; 
New Vineland Temjierance Colonv, Santa Barbara 
County, Cal.; Music Books, Oliver bitsfni i: Co., Bos- 
ton, Mass. ; Labor, Zeehandelaar & Co. , S. F. ; Fruit and 
Ornamental Trees, Thos. Meherin, 8. F.; Trees and 
Plants, W. R. Strong & Co., Sacramento. 



The Week. 

The rain has come. Coy came it like a maid- 
en. Many times daring the last few days has 
it essayed to approach, but adverse winds denied. 
But it came at last, full and free and wide reach- 
ing. The whole coast smiles beneath it. It is 
a wide smile, reaching from San Diego to Olym- 
pia. It is a high smile; for the quick telegraph 
marks its progress from the grin on the coast's 
chin to the smiles alone the great valley's mouth 
and then laughing in tlie snows on High .Sier- 
ra's nose, the merriment dies in the desert's 
eyes in Utah and Montana. It is a glorious 
down-pouring and the heart of the Western 
man uprisea commensurate with the downfall. 
Almost like magic, confidence is restored, and 
tidings from the interior, which one short week 
ago were dark and foreboding, are now light 
and fnll of strength and cheer. Already note 
comes that counties expect greater crops than 
ever before. Already the vigilant merchants 
are clearing their counters for the trade which 
restored confidence in the country will produce. 
Already men have dropped the talk of subter- 
fuges and remedies and stand in thankful con- 
templation of what God in nature grants an 
expectant people. It is a time of great rejoic- 
ing. Both men with aches and men ■with acres 
are happy, for the rain will bring both health 
kod irsftlth. Let it oontinu*! 



Rain-Drops. 

Now that the rain recalls the time of growth 
and the outlook of the .State is cleared by 
clouds, as for two months it has been clouded 
by sunshine, there are a fpw remarks pertinent to 
the new condition. Although it is early to count 
harvest results, and future events may hold the 
keys to many happenings, it is the present pros- 
pect that our fields will yield a greater weight of 
produce than ever before. The long season fa- 
vorable for field work, before the drouth chained 
the plow, gave opportunity for greatly incre.ts- 
ing the cultivated area of the State. From many 
counties it was reported that never since the 
beginning of our agricultural growth had work 
been so unintcmipted. From this fact, coupled 
with the greatly increased number of workers 
which our agriculture now can muster, it is 
plain to see that the rain now falls on wider 
fields than ever before. The growth of plant 
which was gained in those fields, although held 
in check by the lack of moisture, will now come 
forward rapidly. The general verdict was from 
the wlieat-growing counties that the plant would 
well endure a longer period of drouth, so we in- 
fer tliat the rain comes in season to meet most 
needs. 

This being the promise for another good crop 
year, it is well to know the way is well cleared 
for it. The report of the Produce F.xchange, 
which we print in our Market Review, gives the 
amount of wheat remaining in this State, Janu- 
ary 1st, 1877, as 3, 640, 700 ctls. This shows that 
we lia*l lesst han 800,000 ctls. more than we had a 
year ago. This shows plainly that the surplus 
of last year's crop was not nearly as large as 
the estimates anci that there will not be any 
amount carried over to interfere with the com- 
ing crop. On the other side of the water there 
is still the Eastern complication to restrict pro- 
duction in Southern Kussia. The war still 
hangs on the skirts of diplomacy. Even if Rus- 
sia should refrain from the conflict there is no 
certainty yet tbat the rebellious provinces will 
give up the conflict, and if they continue it 
through the spring there will be considerable 
nun-.bcrs of Russian adventurer.^ attracted over 
the border. These facts cannot but limit the 
business which will be done at Odessa for ths 
English market. 

A still graver trouble afflicts another of Eng- 
land's tributaries in the wheat 8ui)ply. India, 
which h.ts mounted suddenly into such great 
prominence in wheat production, bids fair this 
year to be in need of English charity, A c.<ible 
dispatch from London, dated January 1.5th, gives 
the following painful facts: "The Indian office 
publishes a dispatch, dated January l'2th, from 
Lord Carnarvon, acting Indian Secretary in the 
absence of Lord Salisbury, to Lord Lytton, Gov- 
ernor (ieneral of India. It requests that a 
weekly summary be henceforth sent by tele- 
graph, giving the main facta in regard to tlie 
famine. Lord Carnarvon, summing up the in- 
formation he has hitherto received, considers it 
alarming; that 840,000 persons arc already em- 
ployed on the relief works in Madras, and 250,- 
000 in Bombay. The government estimates 
show that tlie famine in Bombay will gradually 
increase, reaciiing its maximum in Aj^ril, when 
nearly a million persons will require relief, after 
which it will gradually decrease. In Madras 
the prospect is proportionately wprse. 

"The districts affected in Madras cover 80,000 
square miles and contain a population of 18,- 
000,000. In Bombay the famine stricken ter- 
ritory covers .54,000 square miles, and has a 
population of 8,000,000, 5,000,000 of which are 
in districts more immediately affected. The 
London Timer's special from Calcutta gives a 
hater summary of the situation in one of the 
Bomb.-iy districts. At Sholopore the crops have 
totally failed, and things are nearly as bad in 
two other districts. The crops have partially 
failed in six other districts. Already '287,000 
persons are on the relief works in Madras. The 
famine prevails in 12 districts, and now nearly 
1,000,000 persons arc on the relief works. The 
cost to the .State is estimated at over £2,000,000 
sterling in Bombay and £4,000,000 in Madras." 

Thus it appears that the best deeds of our 
grain fields will be needed this season, and it is 
for the general good of the world that these 
rains have not been longer denied. 

There is one other point. Although there 
has been much steady and unusual cold weather 
prevalent because of the drouth, there has been 
nothing so severe for stock in exposed positions 
as the nrinng rains have been and will if they 
continue. The present rain has been doubly 
cold and piercing. There are many flacks and 
herds in different parts wliich have been on 
short allowance of feed, and consequently are 
considerably weakened; nor can they regain 
strength until the time is long enough for the 
fresh feed to start. Therefore it is a time for 
the most careful shelter which the farm can be 
made to afl'ord. Just at this juncture, too, the 
young lambs are coming on, and it is a hard 
world they are coming into in many cases. 
Where they escape the hatchet stroke they will 
meet a worse fate unless some extra care is 
taken of them. One of our correspondents, 
writing just before the rains, says: "Our sheep 
are getting a Larger percentage of twins. I see 
no other sign of hard times. I have seen two 
dry seasons and I thought we had a great many 
twins both years. It may have Ijeen because 
the sheep were poor and one lamb was enough." 
Probably it was more in the thought than in the 
•h««p; but if th« tbonght ivill l»ad to doubled 



care during the present trying time it will not 
be altogether worthless. 

In addition to good care it will he profitable 
to give all farm stock as generous feed as can be 
afforded for the time that remains before the 
pastures recover their richness. This will 
bring them upon their season's growth and 
production in good heart and strength, and the 
good feed will tell. This can be done at little 
expense, for the prospects of the season will 
cheapen supplies which have been of late rap- 
idly advancing. Let the animals be used well 
for a few weeks now, because there is every 
pro.spect that there will be a wealth of material 
for triem to work up during the season. 



Agricultural Credit. 

We are glad that popular attention is being 
drawn to the claim of the agricultural industrj" 
of tliis State to the accommodation of the capi- 
talist. The credit which is now accorded to the 
farmer by the majority of our institutions of 
loan and trust is one fraught with many hard- 
ships, and amounts really to the discouragement 
of the industry instead of the encouragement o 
it. It is true there is one institution which has 
been organized by farmers which is an excep- 
tion to this rule, and which, so far as its means 
go, is doing a most commendable work for the 
encouragement of the fanner b^ placing funds 
within his reach on conditions which are hon- 
orable to accept. It is true also that the coun- 
try banks, as a general thing, are willing and 
ready to place the accommodations of their in- 
stitutions at the command of the farmer. These 
are tlie exceptions and they are to be honored 
for it. 

AVhat we protest against is the general policy 
which characterizes tnemajority of our moneyed 
institutions M'hen matters of agricultural credit 
are brought before them. It is claimed that 
this feeling is giving way and that agricultural 
credit is coming to be recognized at its true 
value for stability and true promise. It is 
claimed that this disposition is springing up 
because of the unstability and uncertainty of 
the enterprises which have in view the develop- 
ment of the treasure resources of the State. 
.Stocks have been the pets of the capitalists and 
of the moneyed institutions, while crops have 
been remanded to the gentle mercies of the in- 
terior tradesmen. To show that this state of 
affairs is coming to be differently regarded, we 
quote from an article written by George R. Gib- 
son, Esq., in a recent issue of the Evening Post 
of this city. 

"I assume the tenable position that credit has, 
in modem times, come to be regarded as one 
of the most powerful forces in the production 
and accumulation of wealth. It means the em- 
I)loynieut by active and willing hands of that 
surplus of the world's capital which otherwise 
would lie idle, and any branch of industry 
which is deprived of its benefits is placed at a 
disadvantage as compared with those enjoying 
its privileges. Agricultural pursuits prove no 
exception to this rule, but are promoted or pros- 
trated as credit is granted or denied. Fanning 
differs from most industries by reason of the 
long period required in its operations, rendering 
long loans an imperative necessity. Bank dis- 
counts for .30, 60 or 90 days, unless they are 
repeatedly renewed, do not satisfy their wants, 
but the fluctuating nature of deposits and the 
sensitiveness of confidence compel t:ie banks to 
make short loans. 

"These commercial banks perfonn an inval- 
uable service to society, but they are inadequate 
to meet the demands of the land owner. Col- 
lateral banks, of course, confine their operations 
to stocks, and the savings banks, though they 
possess extraordinarily large deposits, generally 
employ their money in the city, leaving the 
niral borrower uncared for. The millions on 
California street turn a deaf ear to the demand 
for money based upon the best collateral in the 
world — the solid earth itself. The commercial 
side of credit is fully developed, as is attested 
by the great expansion of the banking system 
within the last few years. But the agricultural 
side of our financial system has not grown in a 
manner corresponding to the wants and im- 
portance of the landed interest. These consid- 
erations lead us to the conclusion that what we 
want here is a system of agricultural credit re- 
sembling the best systems established on the 
continent of Europe. In 1763, Frederick the 
(Jreat, of Prussia, established a land credit 
companj' as the best means of rescuing the land- 
owners from the condition of misery and des- 
olation into which they had been plunged by his 
devastating wars. At the present time there 
are 16 institutions of this kind in successful op- 
eration in Germany. Their issue of obligations, 
•which bear four to five per cent, interest, 
amounts in the aggregate to $150,000,000. 
That the land credit institutions are in accord- 
ance with the correct principle of public economy 
is attested by their long existence and suceeas. 
Not one of them has failed. 

From these premises Mr. Gibson argues that 
the establishment of an institution in San Fran- 
cisco which should embody these ideas, would 
be a profitable enterprise to those who under- 
take it and to the development of the agricul- 
ture of the State. We also believe that such an 
agency of credit properly managed and guided 
by a true and wise policy would be for the 
advantage of the State. We are glad the 
subject is being discussed in the hearing of 
those who have heretofore bad large eyes and free 
hands for the encouragement' of almost every 
indnatry but that of th« f*nn. 



ESSIES i\^ND Replies. 



Number of Plows. 

EDrTORs Press:- 1 shall feel obliged if you can give me 
an idea of the number of plows made yearly in the United 
States, or an idea of the number in use. If you have any 
idea of the number of farms in a State, that would enable 
me to calculate the matter, within say 6.000. Are there 
100,000 or 200,000 made yearly, lew or more!— Edward 

THOMlltOX. 

We iave no data for accurate answer. Accord- 
ing to the ninth census of the United States, 
there were 5,525,503 men engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits. This includes proprietors and 
farm laborers. We presume in most States the 
plows on the farm will at least average one to 
each man. If our querist can calculate satis- 
factorily from the number of farms, he certainly 
can from the number of hands capable of plow- 
holding. We are of the opinion that he may 
increase his estimate of the yearly consumption 
of plows several times. We think at least one- 
fiftn of the plows in use must be replaced each 
year by new ones. We should be pleased to 
hear his fin:d estimate. 

Diabrotica Duodecempunctata. 

Editors Prkss:— I send you by mall this day a small 
bo.x containing a number of insects and their work upon 
the leaves of my orange trees and on the ro«es. Will it 
trouble you to give the name of the Insect, what I am to 
expect of it and what I shall do with it?— H. G. NinfTON, 
Pasadena, Los Angeles county, Cal. 

The insect is that voracious plague of the 
florist, the Diahrotica duodecempunctata. It is 
a small, yellowish beetle, verj- like the yellow 
squash and cucumber bug in shape and color, 
but insteatl of stripes it has upon its i^-ing cov- 
ers 12 black spots, from which it takes its spe- 
cific name. The insect is cousin to the cucumber 
beetle, to which we have comjiared it; that 
being D. vUata. These insects are both vora- 
cious leaf eaters. The one sent us by Dr. New- 
ton was first discovered at the East at work on 
the dahlias. Since then it has feasted upon al- 
most every flower growth, having a particular 
liking for roses. Its attacking the orange is new 
to us. Although the insect is such a pest, 
florists are unable, so far as our experience goes, 
to cope with it successfully, and some make no 
special effort but let it take its course. Vari- 
ous remedies have Ijcen tried ujion it as upon 
the regular "rose beetle" (Macrodactyhts sttb- 
spinogus) but without victory. Hand-picking, 
knocking off on blankets or sheets placed under 
the bushes, drenching with whale oil, soap suds 
and dusting wth lime and ashes; all these have 
had their advocates, and all have accomplished 
but a temporary relief As with many other 
insects, it appears that the best way to keep 
them in check is to woo the assistance of the 
birds. We doubt not the prevalence of the in- 
sect at this time is due to the drouth which has 
prevailed. If any of our readers can tell ns of 
successful contests with this insect we shall be 
glad to hear from them. 

Tree Selling by Colored Plates. 

Editors Prbss:— Can you tell nie anything about 
Oreen & Palmentur, or Green i Co , nurserymen, located 
in Oakland? .\n agent of theirs came to this section a 
few days ago and snowed what he represented to be cor- 
rect colored drawings of the fruit (applea, peaches, etc.,) 
which he said would grow on the trees he proposed selling 
us. If it Is a reliable firm, they will be benenied by your 
indorseni nt; if unreliable, you" will be doing good service 
by exposing them. — J. Hobart, Nordhuff, Ventura county, 
Cal. 

We believe there is or has been afirm of that 
name or names with heatlquarters at Oakland 
during the last year. ^Ve do not know any- 
thing of them except that they claimed to l)e 
connected with Eastern nurseries. There have 
been operations conducted also in Oakland un- 
der different firm names, which we are told are 
by the same parties. We cannot endorse them, 
for we know nothing about them. We can, 
however, say this very decidedly, and that is, 
that any rea<ler who purchases trees from col- 
ored fruit plates from a party he knows nothing 
of, incurs a risk which we would not assume. 
Selling from plates has been the method of some 
of the greatest tree frauds which have been 
practiced upon Eastern farmers. We know of 
the operation of these traveling agents in New 
York and New Jersey, and we would sooner 
throw the money away than cumber our grounds 
with the worthless trees they have delivered. 
We cannot advise our readers to deal with these 
agents. Tliere may be honest ones, but the 
chance for fraud is too great. It would be far 
safer to purchase of our established nursery- 
men or their agents, for then the purchaser has 
the warrant of a well-known firm and has some 
remedy in case of disappointment These re- 
marks are of general application. As for the 
firm named above, we know nothing of it, and 
if they are responsible they can assure us and 
our readers of the fact. 



Hoo Cholera is Illinois.— The great de- 
struction caused by hog cholera is apparent 
from the following figures given by the secre- 
tary of the Berkshire Association. It seems 
tbat there is an association in .Springfield which 
makes a business of buying up the dead hogs 
and trying them out for grease. The secretary 
writes: "Ou the 6th inst., 12,000 pounds of 
hogs were received here, and since 27,000 
pounds— all having died of disease within a cir- 
cuit of 18 to 20 miles. 1 give you these figures 
as an indication of the death rates at this time. " 
And this is in a small part of Sangamon eounty 
only, with 100 other counties in the state to 
hear from, and 300 other counties in half* 
dosM other StAtaa. 



January 20, 1877.] 



41 



The Beef Canning Industry. 

While our agricultural friends at the East 
are reaping the profit of learning how to sell 
fresh beef in the English markets, our neighbors 
are fast developing an industry in the way of 
canning, which bids fair to rival their salmo''' 
enterprise. The last issue of the IVilhmff/t: 
Farmer gives some interesting facts concerning 
the business, from which it appears that the 
whole grazing region, which is tributary to the 
canning establishments, will have its capacities 
taxed to furnish material for the hungry can- 

ners. The Farmer says: 

In conversation with Mr. \V. S. Newbury, of 
Portland, who has lately 
visited the upper coun- 
try, we learn that the 
canning of beef at 
Astoria has caused such 
a demand for beef cat- 
tle as to seriously affect 
the supply in the vi- 
cinity of the Dalles. If 
this result is percepti- 
ble already we may ex- 
pect that a continuance 
of the beef canning busi- 
ness will call for all the 
fat cattle that the 
Columbia river region 
can supply. We do not 
see why the canning of 
beef should not jirove as 
large a business as the 
canning of salmon, that 
is, if the article supplied 
answers tlie demands of 
commerce, and that 
seems probable, from the 
fact that the price has 
somewhat advanced 
since canning com- 
menced early in the fall, 
and there is no reason to 
expect the demand to 
cease, but rather that it 
will increase, for all 
vessels that make long 
voyages need some fresh 
meat, and it will take 
an immense amount of 
the canned meat to sup- 
ply the wants of com- 
mer ce. 

There are several 
reasons why this busi- 
ness can be carried on 
here to great advantage, 
and may result in mak- 
ing cattle as profitable 
to the stock men of 
eastern Oregon and 
Washington as sheep 
husbandry. First: We 
have the vast extent 

of bunch grass pasture lands to depend on 
for range, and it is evident that the beef 
fattened on those pastures is of a superior qual- 
ity and calculated to satisfy a very exacting de- 
mand. Second: The climate is suitable to 
beef packing, especially at Astoria, where the 
weather never is warm, being tempered by the 
sea air. Again: The canneries having finished 
the season and disposed of the salmon catch in 
the month of August, are prepared to begin' the 
beef canning in September and continue it until 
April, the season of the year when such work 
can be done to the best advantage and when the 
beef will be in best order. The canneries being 
already constructed and in profitable use, are so 
much capital available for the business of can- 
ning beef, which is no small item, as it enabled 
the gentleman who conceived the idea of can- 
ning meats to put the experiment to actual, and 
it appears to successful test. 

The demand for beef cattle will prove a great 
encouragement to the stock men of all the in- 
terior and increase the settlement of tlie Upper 
Columbia country. Something was needed to 
lend a little more prosperity to those who are 
struggling to make a living in that part of Ore- 
gon and W^ashington, and also to encourage the 
settlement and cultivation of all the good agri- 
cultural lands there. We do not know that Dr. 
A. C. Kinney was the first man who ever con- 
ceived the idea of making Oregon beef available 
by canning it for foreign markets, but he seems 
to have been the first to put tlie idea into prac- 
tical and successful operation. Another year 
the Messrs. Kinney will make some improve- 
ments in the beef business. It is thought that 
the meat will keep safer and also be more pal- 
atable if slightly corned before canning; they 
will also make a superior article of dried beef 
for shipment to Europe, using the hams for that 
purpose. They have been the leading operators 
m the canning of beef up to the present time, 
but other houses, including West & Co. and 
Badolet & Co. , have engaged in it with success, 
and there is no reason to doubt that it can be 
continued on a large scale if cattle can be fur- 
nished at the rates they are able to pay. Can- 
ning mutton has also been experimented with 
successfully, but not so profitably, as it costs 
much more to take the meat off the bones of 
mutton than of beef, which makes the business 
l«ss profitable and more tedious, but we see no 
reason why the canning of mutton should not 
be carried on to a great extent. 



A Canadian Portable Saw-Mill. 

We give on this page some illustrations 
which will be interesting to readers in our 
lumbering counties. There was on exhibition 
at the Centennial a machine commonly known as 
the Canada saw-mill, which attracted mucli fa- 
vorable notice both on account of the simplicity 
of its construction and the speed and accuracy 
with which it accomplished its work. It was 
designed by the Waterous Engine Company, of 
Brautford, Ontario, Canada, expressly for use 
in the extensive himlier districts of the Domin- 
ion, to saw up the timber in the localities where 
it is felled, and thus to save the trouble and 



pactly arranged in an iron frame, and can also 
be loaded and moved without being taken apart ; 
80 that, when resetting the mill, all that is 
necessary is to frame the foundation timbers 
previously used in the ground, set the mill on 
them, coupling the engine shaft and saw man- 
drel, lay the track, place the carriage on it, and 
liie mill is then reatly to start. The whole oper- 
ation does not take more than from one to tM'o 
days. 

The boiler is supplied with sawdust grates, by 
means of which it is enabled to keep up a full 
supply of steam with no other fuel than pine 
sawdust and refuse edgings. It is also covered 
with hair felting and lagged with wood or sheet 
iron. Its form is clearly sliown in Fig. 2. The 
plates »te of the best English material, and the 
heads are Lnwinoor iron. Each boiler is sub- 




CANADIAN PORTABLE SAW MILL. 



QRBATauSering in India, owing to crop failures. 



the expense of the carriage or rafting of the 
logs to distant points ; and being portable, it 
may readily be removed from an exhausted 
part of a forest to a new situation. The ma- 
chine is also excellently adapted for employ- 
ment in ship-yards, in most of which establish 



jected to 120 lbs. cold water pressure before 
shipment. The 20-horse power engine drives a 
56'-inch saw, which ^vill, it is claimed, cut from 
6,000 to 10,000 feet of lumber per day, or 1,000 
feet of one-inch pine lumber in a single hour. 
The 25-horse power engine, which is usually em 



ments in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, we ployed in connection with a tubular stationary 




BOILER AND ENGINE. 



arc informed, it has superseded whip sawing by 
hand. 

In the annexed engravings. Fig. 1 represents 
the mill as it appeared at work wliile on exhibi- 
tion at the Santiago (Chile) exposition of 1875 ; 
and in Fig. 2 the portable boiler and engine are 
shown. The portable machine has a twenty- 
hor.se power engine, which, together with its 
boiler, is of such weight and of sucli construc- 
tion that both boiler and engine may easily be 
loaded on trucks, when changing tlie position 
of the mill, without any disconnection being nec- 
essary ; so that the labor of a skillful machinist 
is not required to readjust the mechanism. 
The saw mandrel, feed and gig work are com- 



l)oiler, drives any size of saw up to 6'6 inches, 
and its capacity is said to he. from 8,000 to 12,- 
000 feet of lumber jier day. 

At the Chile exposition, the 20-liorse power 
mill, we are informed, sawed and edged l,0fi0 
feet of lumlier in 40 minutes, vanquishing 
all competitors and gaining a medal and di- 
ploma. It has received the lirst premiums at 10 
Canadian provincial cxhil)itions, besides a highly 
favorable report from tlie judges at the Centen- 
nial. 



Ten vessels of the fishing fleet of Gloucester, 
Mass. , are missing, and doubtless lost with all 
hands. 



The Hops of the World. 

It will be interesting to our hop-growing it ; : i 
ers to learn the leading facts concerning the 
European production of hops and the rate of 
their consumption. A book has been lately 
published in London, entitled "Hops and their 
Use in the Different Countries," in which the 
writer, Mr. Simmonds, shows that in the three 
countries, Bavaria, Baden and Wurtemberg, 
which may be called Germany proper, there are 
very nearly 70,000 acres of hop land, or about 
the same as the I'nglish hop acreage. In Aus- 
tria it appears that there^are nearly 18,000 acres. 
In Holland and Belgiumj^there are 10,474 acres 
and in France 9,223 
acres. According to 
these figures the total 
Continental acreage 
amounts to over 100,000 
acres, and it is calcu- 
lated that at least .S0% of 
this has been planted 
during the last 12 years. 
Large as is the hop acre- 
age in Germany, rapid 
as has been its increaes, 
the amount of beer con- 
sumed there is propor- 
tionately large. It will 
he seen by tables of the 
consumption of beer per 
head of the population 
of various countries, 
given in this work, that 
in Bavaria each person 
consumes 219 liters (a 
liter equals one and 
three-fourths pint), per 
annum. The inhabi- 
tants of Wurtemberg 
rank next to the Bava- 
rians as thirsty souls, 
swallowing 154 liters 
per head per annum. 
After these come the 
Belgians, who imbibe 
145 liters per head. 
Then follow the British- 
ers, with the compara- 
tively modei;ate allow, 
ance of 118 liters each. 
From a statistics! 
work entitled "Beer,'' 
written by Mr. Vogel, 
of Nuremberg, it is 
gathered that the in- 
crease in consumption 
in Germany generally 
has been immense dur- 
ing the last few years. 
To give one instance, 
the annual consumption 
of beer per head in 
Wurtemberg was 70 
liters in 1852, as against 
154 in 1873, thus having more than 
doubled within that period. The same 
writer shows that the consumption cf 
beer in Baden has increased 106% within 10 
years, and tliat a great increase has taken place 
throughout the Continent, so that growers who 
are frightened at the extraordinary increase in 
the foreign hop acreage may take heart again, 
seeing how greatly and rapidly the taste for beer 
has spread. 

Mr. Simmonds shows tliat the Americans have 
largely increased their hop acreage, especially 
in New York and Wisconsin, whose extent of 
hop land is as large as that of the rest of the 
States put together, and in California, whose 
soil and climate are peculiarly suited to the 
growth of the hop plant. 

lu Tasmania there are about 6()4 acres of 
hops, which do remarkably well. The cultiva- 
tion of hops has been successfully carried on in 
New Zealand, in Victoria, where it is encour- 
aged by the government, and attempts are be- 
ing made to introduce them into India. 



Trkks and Plant.s. — Wc lately had the op- 
portunity of looking through tlie stock at the 
San Francisco depot of B. S. Fox's San Jose 
nursery, on Battery street in this city. There 
is on hand a very select and comprehensive 
stock of ornamental trees and shrubs and fiower- 
ing plants, and the sui)]i!y is reinforced from 
San .lose frequently. Mr. Thomas Mcheru, 
Mr. P'ox's agent, is one of our most intelligent 
and obliging Horticulturists, and we are free to 
say tliat his stock, as advertised elsewhere, is 
well worthy of examination. 



Oregon Wheat Shipments.— We learn from 

the Orenonian that the shipment of wheat 
from that State, during tlie year 1876, was 
2,894,722 centals, valued at 14,405,029. This 
is a gain of 799, 190 centals, and $794,857 over 
the exports of 1875. 



Lecture on Trek Planting.— No one should 
fail to read the interesting lecture on tree and 
vine planting which is published in this issue 
of the Ki'KAL. We have the pleasure of first 
presenting this lecture in unabridged form. 



On File.— "When to Plant Gum Trees," 
W. A. T. S. ; "W. L. at Stockton," G. W. H.; 
"In Memoriam," San Jose and Tehichipa 
Granges. 



42 



2P(*q*QXjc^X0 dEuu^sJLlEi 3P^^BB« 



January 20, 1877. 



Tree and Vine Planting. 

The following is a lecture delivereil by Prof. 
\V. A. Sauilers, before the people of the t't- iitral 
California colony, Fresno county, Saturday 
evening, December 30th, 187(>: 

I wiU preface my remarks by a quotation 
from that most eminent author on fruit culture, 
Charles Downing, in a note appended to liis great 
work, "Fruits and Fruit Trees of America," 
after liis visit to California a few years ago. He 
says: "The fruit is rather fairer, Iiandsomer, 
aud quality equally good (as at the East), except 
strawliciTies and blacklierries, which were not 
quite so high ihivorcd. Orapes are grown ex- 
tensively in many localities, and succeeil admi- 
rably. They are grown in the open air, and 
require but little laljor compareil with our 
system of cultivation. Figs are aliuudant and 
of fine quality. English walnuts, almonds and 
olives are grown succcssfidly in most places." 

These are the words of the highest autliority 
(in fruit culture in our country; and the admis- 
sions of a man who is .saiil to have expresse<l tlie 
belief before coming here that the visit of 
himself and associates wnuld result in greatly 
correcting the overestimate placed upon Califor- 
nia for fruit production. 

We may add to Downing's testimony that the 
great valley of California, of which your locality 
here is one ot the most favored spots, is the 
natural home of the choicest fruits of botli 
temperate aud semi-tropical climates. 

One of my neighbors, Mr. Hazelton, has some 
old seedling orange trees, that in vigor of 
growth, and prolific bearing of excellent fruit, 
remind one of the orange trees of the best 
parts of tropical Mexico. 

Hon. S. (.». Houghton informed me, in a con- 
versation some time ago, of the successful 
growing of a variety of banana in his neigh- 
borhooil. I have since learned that plants of 
tliis variety can be oljtained, in any quantity, 
from W. B. West, of Stockton, and that iiiniiy 
of them have been successfully grown in our 
valley. 

But enougli of the what we can raise, and we 
will give our .ittention to the mtiniifr of doing 
it. The first matter to claim our notice is 

Preparing the Land 

For trees {ir vines. The land should be well 
plowed to a ilepth of from eight to 10 inches. 
Then, wliere it can be done, as liore in your 
favored colony, tlie entire surface of tlie land 
should be covered with water. Wliere this 
cannot be done, deeii furrows should Vie plowed 
where the rows of trees are to be planted, and 
these furrows should be filled with water at 
least 48 hours, then turn off the water and 
when the ground is sutiiciently dry, dig the 
holes for your trees, which shouhl be at least 
two and a half feet square and 18 inches deep. 
And here I wish you to understand that no 
investment of like amount [pays anywhere near 
as well as the labor that makes up the ditl'er- 
ence between putting your laiul in ;/oo(/ condition 
or leaving it in jiaor condition for the setting of 
your (jrcliard. I wonUl liave you regard each 
tree as a living being, whose life is to be 
rendered long, vigorous aud fruitful, by the 
care that you shall now bestow upon it. 

Trees, Vines, etc. 
I suppose that nearly all the trees ami vines 
which you will set here will be obtained from 
nurseries. Upon the inaiiiirr and tlini' of taking 
them ujj and setting them out <lepends not oidy 
their lapidity of growth and future value for 
producing fruit, but in many cases the life of 
the trees also. It will be seen, then, how very 
important it is that tliis matter of transplanting 
sliould be well <lone. 

Time to Transplant. 

All deciduous trees, that is, trees that shed 
their leaves (not evergreens), should be taken 
up in .January or the first half of February, ami 
slioulil be set out as soon after being taken up 
as possible. And here the most important thing 
to be known is that the tree does not live by 
means of its large underground roots or stems, 
but that the tree absorbs nourishment only by 
means of the delicate mouths at the enils of 
each of the little, hair-like fibrous roots. Be 
careful, then, that these delicate rootlets shall 
not become ilry or in any wise injured, for upon 
their vitality depends the growth and usefulness 
of the tree. If your nurseryman has ilone as 
ho should, packed the routs of the trees in nu>ist 
eartli or moss, and tied the whole in a covering 
of sacks or tules, to protect from becoming ilry 
or mutilated, you can set out your trees easily 
with a certainty of their growing. But if the 
roots are in any wise exposed, or are not fully 
covered with dirt, tliey should bo sulijecti'd to 
the operation of 

Puddling 
Before .setting them out. Tliis is dmie as fol- 
lows: Make a hole two feet scjuare and nearly 
ai deep, in the nuist ciuivenient place, \iear the 
center of the grouuil you are to set with trees. 
Fill this hole with water, then stir into the 
water fine, soft, loose earth, clayey or seiliment- 
ary is best, till you have mixed up a hole fidl of 
mud of the consistency of pan-cake batter. 
Take each tree separately, whose loots are not 
already fully covered with dirt, and <lip the 
roots carefully into this hole full of mud until 
every root and fiber is completely coated with 
the mud. Then take the tree to the hole where 
it is to stand and set it from two to four inches 



deeper than it stood in the nursery. Downing 
and others to the contrary notwithstanding. 
Fress the fine soft dirt c:arefully around the 
roots, inclining them a little more downward 
than they naturally grew, using the top soil for 
filling in directly around the roots. In our rich, 
warm soil no manure should be put under tlj^- 
roots of the tree. The hole should be tilled up. 
forming a cone of <lirt a foot in <liameter around 
the tree, and an inch or two higher than the 
surrounding surface. Between tliis cone and 
the level of the ground's surface leave a trench 
aVtout a foot wide and six ni- eight inches deep. 
Mulching 

Fill this trench around the tree with straw, 
chaff, leaves, weeds, rough manure fcom the 
stable, or what is better than any of them, vour 
last year's tomato vines. They answer «ell the 
])urj)oses of a mulch to retain moisture, .and 
also to prevent the baking of the earth when 
the water is tunieil off, besides wliicli they har- 
bor no form of insect life, being in ,this resjiect 
superior to anything else that can be used as a 
mulch. 

Wrapping the Trunks. 

When your orchard is set out, before the hot 
we.ither comes on, you should put boanls or 
boxes around your trees to shade the tninks 
from the sun. Or what will answer the same 
purpose, is more (juickly done, and much 
cheaper, is to wrap them from an inch lielow 
the surface of the ground to the liranches. Any 
kind of cloth or st<uit pajier answers perfectly 
for this purpose. The oi)ject is to protect the 
Ijody of the tree from becoming burned by the 
sun; at the same time it keeps out borers and 
may be made to jirevent rabbits from gnawing 
them. For this latter purpose it is necessary to 
soak the cloths in a solution of soa]) or lime 
and fresh cow manure liefore winding them 
around the trees. 'I'he trunks of your orchard 
trees should, during every summer, Ite protected 
from the sun till the tops of the trees shall 
have become bro.vl enough to shade them. 

Distance Apa t for Trees- 
Downing says, apples 40 to M feet; cherries 
18 to '20 feet; peaches, nectarines, apricots and 
plums l(j to 2.'i feet; pears 20 to .'{Ofeet. These 
distances undoulitedly are best for the Eastern 
States, and jiossibly for the coast region of our 
own St.ate, lint for our hot valley, where experi- 
ence has shown that trees grow and bear better 
where they partially shade each other, the ilis- 
taiices should not be more than four-fifths as 
great, except for apricots, which grow larger 
here than at the K-ast, .inil thrive out in the full 
glare of the sun's rays. 

Seedling Trees, 

Though grafting or budding subserves the 
purpose of, first, rapi<lly increasing any valuable 
sort of tree; second, to renew or change the shape 
of the heail of a tree; thiril, to render delicate 
sorts hardy l>y using hardy stocks; fourth, to 
dwarf certain kinds \>y using slow growing 
stocks; fifth, to produce late and early fruit on 
the same tree, thereby giving variety and pre- 
venting an overload on the tree at any one time; 
sixth, to quickly obtain a specimen of fruit from 
a seedling by grafting a cioii from it on to the 
bearing wood of an older tree; yet natural 
seedling trees have certain qualities to recom- 
mend them, which, 1 believe, will make them 
the standard fruit trees of the orchardist in the 
early future. These qualities are: First, they 
are vastly longer lived than other trees; second, 
thej' are far more hardy; third, if proiluced 
from the seed right where they are to grow, 
they more perfectly adapt themselves to any 
local peculiarities oi soil or clim.ate than do any 
other trees; fourth, when mature, they are far 
more prolific bearers and they continue much 
longer in perfection of bearing than ilo other 
trees. Besides, the sciency of botany is now so 
well understood that we can [troduce seedlings 
exactly like the ])arent tree with as much cer- 
tainty as we produce pure blooded chicks from 
our Brahmas or Leghorn fowls, }>y keeping them 
shut up from contact with the scrub [toultry of 
the neighborhood. You have all doubtless 
noticed how Indian corn mixes. As far as the 
little dust-like particles from the tassel, called 
pollen, of one kind will fiy and light upon the 
silk of another kind, just so f.ar will it hybridize 
or mix. In the blossoms of our common fruits 
these two ))art8, tlte female portion correspond- 
ing to the corn-silk and the male portion corre- 
sponding to the coni-tassel, are closely united 
in the same flower; the former is the delicate 
little stem or tiilje reaching up from the embryo 
fruit directly through the center of the flower; 
the latter are the hair-like fringe surrounding 
this and directly within the fiower leaves or 
Hower cup. (Here, the speaker, by means of 
large drawings of apple and cherry blossoms, 
which he had prepared, illustr.ated to the audi- 
ence the hydridi/.ing of seeds). These two sets 
of organs are so close together in every perfect 
flower that were it not for bees constantly 
crawling over them and carrying the pollen on 
their bodies from one to another, every tlower 
would certainly produce see<ls after its own kind. 
But bees so constantly passing over the Howers 
of fruit trees hybridi/e them with pollen from 
every allied tree growing near them. What 
then is the remedy, or how can we grow seeil- 
ling trees that will certainly produce after their 
own kind '! Nothing is more simple. If you 
wish to start .WO or any other number of vigor- 
ous seedling Petite il'Agens (that best .and 
most profitable of all prunes) you have only to 
write to any reliable orchardist who raises them, 
and have hiin cover the entire head of any vig- 
orous bearing d'Agen tree, before it blossoms, 
with tarleton or mosquito-bar. aud keep it cov- 



ered, so that no bee or other insect can by any 
possible means get upon a single one of its 
blossoms while it remains in bloom. The seed 
of every blossom so protected will as surely pro- 
duce perfect d'Agen trees as would grafts or 
buds from the ^ame tree produce d'Agen trees. 
What is true of this is equally true of any other 
tree; they will grow true to their parentage 
by the same process and with the same certiiinty. 
I am acting on this principle in setting a 
large acreage to .almiuuls this year. I obtained 
the seeds from .fames R. Keene s place, Mi.ssion 
San .lose. The superintendent,.!. C. Woods, 
hail the seeds gathered for me from the east 
end of the almond orchard, nearly half a mile 
from peach, plum <m' other stone-fruited trees. 
This (foes not give absolute certainty that none 
of them have been hybridii',e<l from peach, plum 
or other lilossoms, but the distance makes it 
j)robable that they are impregnated only with 
their own pollen, or tliat of surrounding almond 
trees. If they are hybridized with the peach, 
jilum, nectarine, cherry or certain kinds of 
apricots, the nuts will l)e bitter and worthless. 
It crossed with certahi other kinds of apricot, 
they will be very hard-shelled, but sweet and 
of good riavor. I shall plant these seeds right 
where the trees are t<i grow, thus avoiding the 
expense .and injury to the trees of transplanting. 

Transplanting Evergreens. 

Evergreen trees should be set out when the 
ground is warm. In this general cla-ss of evcr- 
geens I include all the trees of the orange 
family, also the eiu-alyptus family; in short, the 
evergreens of the tropics as well as those of 
more temperate clinu^s. 

All authorities do not agree with the rule I 
have given as to the best time to set out ever- 
greens. LiutUey, the highest Kuroiieaii au- 
thority, says: "The best season for planting 
evergreens if that which is best for other trees. 
But he also says: "As evergreens are never de- 
prived of their leaves so they are never incapa- 
ble of forming roots. If an evergreen is planted 
in the month of May aud the weather happens 
to be cloudy, mild and damp as the plant is just 
commencing the renewal of its growth, and is 
forming fresh roots abundantly, if such a state 
of weather lasts for a week or two there is no 
doubt the jilaiit will succeed, and so it will if 
removed at midsummer." Downing says al>out 
the transplanting of evergreens: "The early 
spring is the best time. We have been very 
successful in May. ' Hoopes, the highest .Ameri- 
can authority on evergreen culture, in his 
"Book of Evergreens" says: "Practice has 
fully proven to us the utility of transplanting 
evergreens when the buds lommence percejitibly 
to swell; at that time the trees, when trans- 
planted, start immoliatcly into action and per- 
form their functions in the new soil; on the 
other hand, the peculiar fiesl y texture of the 
roots renders them remarkalily impatient oi 
lieing in a st:vte of inactivity after transplanting, 
an<l they will perish from this cause, iis is in- 
stanced in very early spring planting." 

Carey, of I.os Angeles, the king of orange 
r,aisers, and Stratton. who is entitled to a like 
distinctiim in the production of blue gum trees, 
.agree to the rule I have Laid down. That rule 
in detail would be this: Prepare your ground 
as for planting an orchanl, then, say some time 
in February, notify your nurseryman how many 
trees you want, and give him his own time to 
dig and send them to you, and don't worry if 
they do not come before the leaves have matte a 
very jjerceplible start on other trees. 

One of the most successful transplantings of 
evergreen trees in our .*<tate, was done by Mr. 
(iarey. He took 1,(KX) orange trees from his 
nursery and set them upon an .adjoining farm, 
with but a minimum of lis.s, and . without per- 
ceptibly checking the growth of most of the 
trees. He did this in the hot weather of the 
latter part of summer. 

Evergreens have alternate periods of active 
growth .-yid dormancy. After a tree has been 
dormant for a considerable time, which is 
evinceii by the ends of the twigs becoming well 
hardened, they may Ije moved with safety, be it 
June, Octol>er, or any other time in warm 
weather. 

Covering Orange Trees. 

The trees of this family, being natives of trop- 
ical climates, are liable when young to make a 
very vigorous autumn growth; the wood so pro- 
duced being yet soft in winter is liable to 
injury from frost. The young trees must be 
protected from this cau.se until they acquire a 
"second mature'' or habit of growth like our 
n,ative trees, viz., active growth in summer and 
dorm.ancy and hardening of wood in autumn and 
winter. Much towards the accomplishment of 
this end in<ay l>e done by allowing no irrigation 
of such trees after the middle of Augu.st. (Jen- 
erally, when they are never allowed to "winter- 
kill, " the trees will need no care after they are 
three years old. By that time their hivbits of 
growth will have fully conformed to our seasons. 
The trees are then jierfectly hardy, being able to 
stand 20 below the freezing point witnout in- 
jury. 

Planting Vines. 

If y«ur grapevines are already moted you will 
observe the same manner of prep.oring the 
land, puddling and setting the vines, as has 
licen already given for setting orchard trees; 
except tliat with the rich soil and abundance of 
water here in your colony you need not dig the 
holes near so large, nor should you set your 
vines more than six or eight feet apart. Yen 
should sot your grapevines by themselves, and 
not have a mixed lot of \ines and trees together, 
for the reason that the time will come here, as 
elsewliere, when to insure perfect health aud 



best bearing qualities of your vines you will be 
compelled to 

Pasture Sheep 
In your vineyard. In the raisin region of 
southeni Spain, also among the best vine cul- 
turista of our own country, as soon as the grapes 
are gathered sheep are turued in aud kept in 
the vineyard till they have eaten up everything 
eatable .and have jierfectly disisised of all leaves, 
trash and noisome insects by treading them into 
the soft mud formed by the early winter rains. 
They leave the vineyard cleaned for the winter 
work and fertilizeil for the next summer crop. 
Setting Grape Cuttings. 

For a vineyard, in which it will jjay to wait 
to obtain the best results, 1 much prefer cuttings 
to rooted vines. The cuttings should lie three 
feet long and made from the largest limbs of the 
vines whence they were obtained, not more than 
two from each liiiili - better only one. 

Dig your holes 18 inches long, the width of a 
narrow spade and two spades deeji; all extend- 
ing in a unifonn northeast and southwest direc- 
tion, the southwestern comer being exactly 
where you want your vine to stand. Then put 
the butt end of your cutting in the Ixittom of 
the northeast corner of the hole: Lay it across 
the bottom to the southwest comer, where you 
should licnd it so that the top half of the cutting 
will stand nearly upright in the southwest 
corner, one or two buds extending out at the 
top alxive the surf.ace; tlieii fill the hole with 
fine, soft dirt, treading it firmly down upon and 
around the cutting. Puddling should be re- 
.sorted to, as for fruit trees, unless the ground is 
very wet. Some of the .advantages of this exact 
way of doing are: (1) You know where every 
unilergrouud stem is. and you can avoid them 
in sub.soiling in after years. (2) You can get 
along with far less water, in times of scarcity, 
by digging small holes directly over the under- 
ground stems into which the water can \ie con- 
veyed once or twice a month, where, in the 
absence of mulch, the shade of the vine will 
keep the ground from Viaking when the water 
is turned oil'. (3) During the first vear's growth, 
when protection from the sun's lieat is neces- 
sary, the shade of the vine will exactly cover 
the underground stem cluring the hottest part 
of the rlay. (4) The cuttingsoeing so long, yet 
no jiart being below the iiiHuence of the sun's 
heat, each bud will throw out a sprangle of 
roots, thus insuring a vigonius growth and 
great vitality to the vine. 

Novelties. 

My ailvice is, that you. invest very sparingly, 
either of labor or money, in anything new, any- 
thing not thoroughly tried. But a few of them 
I have a desire to try. In many places along 
our Kings river bottoms there is a douse growth 
of dewlierries (blackl>errie»). They ripen early 
n May, are of large size, fine fiavor and prolific 
bearers. I believe they will be a valuable ac- 
cession to our cultivated fmits. 

On the north slope of the Campbell mountain, 
the south one of the "Three Kings,'' east of 
( 'enterville, there is said to be a wonderful 
growth of wild currants of large size aud tine 
flavor. I have never seen them, but shall do so 
this summer. 

in sight of here, to the eastM'ard, in the .Sierra 
foothills, are storaxes that in profusion and 
fragrance of fiower riv:d the most beautiful 
orange trees; rhododendrons and azaleas pro- 
fuse in their abundance of showy blossoms, and 
Ulies that rival the auratum, while a little 
beyond them are giant sequoias, with thousands 
of young seedlings growing lieiieath their shade, 
while around are dozens of varieties of trees and 
shrubs, all to Ije had for the going after them 
.and bringing and setting them out about our 
dwellings. 

From France we shall doubtless obtain two 
additioiual varieties of grapes; the Denizoo, (I 
s]>ell it as pronounced) the largest grape known, 
and the Malingre, the earliest grape; both are 
black and noted only for the lea<ling qualities 
mentioned. 

In France and .Spain they gniw a dwarf wal- 
nut tree, in size and ap]M.'araiice resembling our 
California buckeye. I'his is favorably spoken of 
by Downing .as a distinct variety, (page 573, 
Fruits and Fruit 'Trees of America). The 
Italian chestnut, which furnishes the jjeople of 
Italy with their staple article of fooci, would, 
doubtless, grow well and be very profitable 
here. 

From Asia certain things may I* worthy of 
attention. I have tried the tea tree of China 
and Japan (Tlien riri'lin); our climate is too hot 
for it. The Tlim hohra, the tea tree of southern 
China aud India, might succeed here. The 
( hincse wax trees may in future prove them- 
selves profitable for our climate. The lacquer 
tree of .lapan, from which the celebrate<l var- 
nishes of that country are matle, may become a 
valuable accession to our list of cultivated trees, 
•lajkau boasts of over 40 varieties of jiersimmons; 
doubtless some of them would be profitable 
here. And last but luit le.a8t, I am sure that 
corfee can be profitably grown in this county; if 
not here in the valley, it certainly can lie grown 
in the "iio-f'ronf belt" of the Sierra foothills. 



Wk.vihek WATCHisti. — The chief signal oflS- 
cer in his .annual report states that during the last 
fiscal year over 88 Jier cent, of his ' 'probabili- 
ties" of the weather were verified. He thinks 
that an average of 90 per cent, is attainable. 
Owing to lack of appropriations the receipt of 
signals from the W est Indies has been sus- 
jiended. There are 14o signal stations in the 
United .States. There is now being agitated a 
proposition to issue "probabilities' applicable 
to this ooast. 



January 20, 1877.] 



43 



f 



Magnetic DeJination. 

The latest issued report of the Coast Survey 
contains a new rliscussiou of "'J'he Secular 
Change of Magnetic Declination in the United 
States and other parts of North America," by 
Cliarles A. Schott, Assistant, U. S. C. S. Forty- 
three stations are represented in the discussion, 
and over 400 observations. Formul;e are given 
for each station, with decennial tables computed 
therefrom. Mr. Schott says: 

" A cursory examination of the column con- 
taining the epochs of greatest easterly excursion, 
the deflecting force producing the secular 
change attaining them an easterly maximum, 
shows that the needle became stationary in 
direction, and then reversed its secular motion, 
in the New England States toward the end of 
the past century, in the Atlantic coast States 
to the west and south early in the present, and 
in Mexico about the first third of the present 
century. In California, Oregon and Washing- 
ton Territory, it has not yet reached this con- 
dition. We thus have the following epochs for 
comparison: Halifax, about 1711; Portland, 
Portsmouth, Newljuryport, Salem, Boston, Cam- 
bridge, Nantucket and Providence, about 177i); 
Hartford, New Haven, New York, Hatborough, 
Philadelphia, Washington and Clape Henry, 
about 1800; Charleston, Savannah, Key West 
and Havana, about 1800; New Orleans, about 
1831; Vera Cruz, Mexico, Acajmlco and San 
Bias, about 1837; San Diego, Monterey and 
San Francisco, expected aljout 1907 (yet very 
uncertain). 

We are thus directed to the extreme north- 
eastern States for probable indications of what 
may be expected to f(dlow on the seaboard in 
moi'e southern and western States. Respecting 
the secular movement of the needle, apparently 
a little more than a century passed before the 
influence which produced the turning of the 
north end of the needle westward in Maine 
(increasing there the western declination) was 
felt in Lower California (<liminishing there the 
eastern declination). In California, Oregon and 
Washington Territory the eastern declination 
is at present still increasing, but with a losing 
rate. By the time the western elongation of 
the secular change is reached in Maine, we may 
expect to see the needle in the opposite phase, 
or at its eastern elongation, in California. We 
cannot as yet follow this inHuence directly over 
the interior of the United States for want of 
early observations; tlie westernmost interior 
stations for which an epoch could be made out 
were Buffalo, Erie, Cleveland and Detroit; these 
ive the average turning epoch 17'.M. It may 
le quite practicable hereafter to trace out curves 
uniting all stations where the needle was 
stationary at a given epoch, and again at other 
epochs for regular intervals of time, say of 10 or 
25 years. 

Nitrogen and ELErTRiciTy. — Recent French 
investigations, says the Journal of Cliemixtvij, 
indicate that atmosphei'ic electricity may have 
an important influence on the absojjtion of nitri - 
gen from the air by plants. At a meeting of the 
Academy of Sciences at Paris in October, a 
paper was presented by M. Berthelot, describ- 
ing some experiments he had been making 
which shed light on this subject. He availed 
himself of the normal electric tension of the 
atmosphere. A closed tube of thin glass was 
placed within another; in the former was a roll 
of platinum connected with a conductor electri- 
fied by the atmosphere, at a hight of two 
meters, or about six feet and a half, while a 
thin sheet of tin surrounding the outer tube was 
connected with the earth. The space between 
the tubes contained either pure nitrogen or 
atmospheric air, along with moist strips of blot- 
ting paper, or a few drops of syrupy solution of 
dextnne. Twelve of these double tubes were 
exposed to the air from July "iOth to October 
6tli. In all of them nitrogen was fixed by 
the organic matter, tliough ni varying quanti- 
ties. In two cases green spots of microscopic 
algie were found on the strips of moist paper in 
tul>e3 containing nitrogen alone, shownig a 
greater fixation of nitrogen in these. Tlie ex- 
periments are of much interest as suggesting an 
influence in vegetation hitherto unsuspected, 
and we shall await further investigations with 
no little curiosity. 

Cleansing Old Iron Water Pipe,s at El- 
gin. — A short time ago the commissioners 
of Elgin resolved to cleanse the old iron water 
pipes, and relay them in those p:irts of the town 
where they would be of use. The first portion 
of the pipes (which had been in the ground for 
more than 20 years, and were much incrusted) 
has now been cleansed. The process was gone 
through at New Elgin, where a rough furnace 
was erected to meet the object in view. The 
pipes, two at a time, were laid into the fur- 
nace, and subjected to an intense heat for about 
half an hour. The action of the heat loosened 
the incrustation of the pipes, and when the 
pipes were lifted out of the furnace the greater 
portion of it at once fell off. The most trouble- 
some portion of the work, however, remained 
to be done. The pipes had to be cleaned with 
a spring scraper, made to exactly fit the size of 
the pipe. After undergoing this work, tlie pipe 
was allowed to cool till it was in a fit condition 
to be dipped into a "well" some 12 feet deep, 
containing Smith's patent solution, where it re- 
mained for nearly a minute; after which it was 
taken out, and presented all the appearance of 
a new pipe. By the adoption of tliis j)roce.s3 
the town will, it is said, be £300 richer than if 
the old pipea were sold as mere metal, and new 
pjp«B bought to replace ihem.— 'Ironmonger. 



Economy Due to Employers. — "Waste not, 
want not," is a grand old proverb. "He 
that is faithful in little is faithful in much." It 
i.s true enough that a person who takes no care 
of materials committed to his hands liy an em- 
ployer, will not be careful of his own property. 
Economy and wastefulness are habits that will 
influence us, whether with our own substance 
or that of another. As a rule, the man or boy 
who takes care of his employer's goods will be 
likely to look after his own, and is on the road 
to prosperity. Some men are worth much more 
than others, simply because they waste nothing. 
If an employer be wealthy, and stock abun- 
dant, that is no excuse for waste or carelessness. 
Loss is loss and robbery, whether it be in much 
or little. It is forcibly said that "Heaven al- 
lows nothing to be destroyed." There has not 
been a single droji of water wasted since the cre- 
ation. The decomposed elements of the past 
autumn will supply aliment for the next spring. 
Economy, rigid economy, is one of the laws of 
Nature; and we shall not realize the "good 
time coming" until we are careful and economi- 
cal. 




Some Bensons for Suhscrih'ing for It. 

Because it is a pemianent, first-class, conscientious, 
able, and well conducted journal. 

Because it is the lai^est and best a(,TicuItural weekly 
west of the Rocky Mountains. 

That more farmers' wives and children in their isolated 
homes may be cheered by its weekly visits, laden with its 
pleasing yet mora! reading, and sound instruction. 

That a more exten(ied interc'hange of views and opin- 
ions m.ay be had among fanners, upon all the great ques- 
tions touching their mutual interests and progress. 
I That the agricultural resources of the Pacific States may 
be more wisely, speedily and thoroughly developed by an 
open and free discussion in our columns. 
] That all the lionest industries of our State may be ad- 
vanced in connection with that of agriculture, our col- 
umns being evtr o|ien to the discussion of the merits of 
all progressive imiirovcments. 

That the ItiRAL, after having been read and pondered 
over by the home circle, can be filed away for future use- 
ful reference, or forwarded to the old Eastern fireside of 
tlve Atlantic border, in aid of an increasing immigration to 
our sunny clime. 

SuBscRirnoN, $4 a year in advance. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

San Francisco, 1877. 



Contents of Pamphlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S Land Laws, Map of 
California ard Nevada, Etc. 



Map of California and Nevada; The Public 
Lands; The Land Districts; Table of Kainfall in Califor- 
nia; Counties and Tlieir Pro.lucts; Statistics of the State 
at Large. 

Instructions of the U. S. Land Commis- 
sioners.— Different Classes of Public Lands; How Lands 
may be Acquired; Fees of Land Office at Locaticm; Agri- 
cultural College Scrip; Pre-emptions; Kxtending the 
Homestead Privilege; But One Homestead Allowed; Proof 
of Actual Settlement Necessary; Adjoining Farm Home- 
steads; Lands for Soldiers and Sailors; Lands for Indians; 
Fees of Land Office and Commissions; I^aws to Promote 
Timber Culture; Concerning Appeals; Returns of the Reg- 
ister and Receiver; Concerniug Mining Claims; Second 
Pre-emption Benefit. 

Abstract . Prom the U. S. Statutes.— The Law 
Concerning Pr'e-emjition; Concerning Homesteads; Amend- 
atory Act Concerning Timber; Miscellaneous Provisions; 
Additional Surveys of Land for Pre-eini)tion, List of Cali- 
fornia I'ost Ortices. 
Published and sold by DEWEY & CO.. S. F 



Our Poultry Department. 

E. H. Cheny WTites from Bodega,' Sonoma county, as 
follows: "Your paper is worth its subscription prico 
yearly to any farmer who keeps two dozen chickens, to 
get Mr. E.vre's opinion upon the value of the different 
breeds of fowls, the proper treatment for them, the dis- 
eases to which they are liable and the remedies. I be- 
came acquainted with Mr. EyTC through your columns, 
and 1 have no cause to regret it, for in my dealings with 
him I find everything as represented, and without any 
disparagement for o hers, 1 can recommend him as one in 
whom confidence will not be disjjlaced." 

"Faith and Confidence." 

LlVERMORE, Oct. l.st, 1875. 

Messrs, Dewey & Co., Patent Solicitors: Gentli'inen — 
Yours of the 2t)th ult. , cuntaining m.i,! patent to Elevated 
R. R. duly received, and I hereby return my sincere 
thanks to the MrNi.va and SciBNTrnc Press Patent Agency 
for your promjitness and honesvy in regard to our business 
connections. I have received a Hood of circulars from 
Eastern firms, desiring to deal with me, but 1 have de- 
clined any communication with them and prefer as soon 
as circumstance.! wdl permit, to negotiate with and jtat- 
ronize a home institution; one in which I have faith and 
confidence— DEWEy & Co. 

Again thanking you for your promptness in securing my 
patent, I remain, obediently yours, 

WM. H. HARRISON. 



Pacific Ri'raIj Press.— This well edited and popular 
agricultural organ, published by Dewey & Co., San Fran 
Cisco, by its steady and untiring zeal in advancing the best 
interests of the Oi-angcrs of the great West, has tairl.v won 
the proud title of "Banner .lournal" on the frontier of 
civilization. Not a lino is admitted to its columns but 
that is of value to the {arming interests of the country. 
Subscribe at once for the now year. 'ITic terms are re- 
markably low— only S4 per annum, p istage prepaid.— 
Moiintahi Mi'.Kneiifier, Dec. liHh. 



Boi'ND Volumes of the Pacific Rural Press, from Vol- 
ume One, are for sale at this office; price, $5 per volume 
for singlo volumes; unbound 83. Tboro are two volumcn 
per year. 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents 

OFFICE, 224 SANSOME STREET, .S. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent Reissues taken out 
Assignments made and recorded in legal form; 
Copies of Patents and Assignments procured; 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; E.xaminations made of Assign- 
ments recorded in Washington; Examinations 
ordered and reported by Telegraph; Rejected 
cases taken up and Patents obtained; Inter- 
ferences Prosecuted; Opinions rendered re- 
garding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Patent 
Agency Business jironiptly and thoroughly 
conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inven- 
tions of this coast, and long practice in patent 
business, enable us to abundantly satisfy our 
patrons; and our success and business are 
constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Nreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including (ireat Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Baden, Peru, 
Russia, Spam, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Uenniark, 
Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemburg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Granada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRV IN THE WORLD 
where I'atents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European countries. 
but the drawings and speciHcations slioidd be 
prepare)! witli tlioroughness, by able persons 
who are familiar with tlie re([uirements and 
clianges of foreign patent laws — agents who 
are reliable and permanently established. 

Our schedule price for obtaining foreign patents, 
in all cases, will always be as low, and in 
some instances lower, than those of any other 
resjjonsible agency. 

We can and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the ojuntry) 
SOONER than any other agents. 

The prmcijial portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
d(me, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more correctly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions jdiscov- 
ered here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of government, 
ilelays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by extra time consumed in transmitting 
specifications from Eastern agencies back to 
this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

ConfidentiaL 

We take great pains to preserve secrecy in 

all confidential matters, and applicants for 

patents can rest assured that their commuui- 

. cations and business transactions will be held 

strictly confidential by us. Circulars free. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing to them the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applicants 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain: Parties in doubt in regard to 
tiieir riglits as assignees of patents or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short call 
• at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the (Jovornment, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money, but 
their inventions also, from this cause and con- 
sequent delay. We hold ourselves responsible 
for all fees entrusted to our agency. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in our own office, and 
all facilities for producing fine and satisfactory 
illustrations of inventions and machinery, for 
newspaper, liook, circular and other printed il- 
Itistratioms, and are always re.ady to a.ssist 
patrons in bringing their valuable discoveries 
into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO., 

United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Milling and Scientific Press and the 
Pacific Rural Pruas, 22'! Sanaoma St., 8. F. 



P.IRCMASKRS OF STOCK WILL FIND IN THIS DIRECTORY THB 
N.l.MES OF SOME OK THE MOST RELIABLE BREEDERS. 

Oi'ii Rates. — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



A. MAILLIARD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal., 
l)reeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Francisco, 
(or <.'nt:itL' i;:inch, ni*;ir Petal uma, Sonoma Co.), Breed- 
ers of sliort I [urns .and their Grades. 



R. G. SNEATH, San Bruno, Cal., breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has .lersev bulls for sale— various ages — at §40 
to $100. 

P. STANTON, Sacramento, Cal., breeder of choice 
Jersey C;vttle. Bulls, Cows and Calves for sale. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
fireeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



B. P. WATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thorough- 
bred Spanish Merino Sheep. 



M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep. Rams and FJwes, 1 to 2 years old, S20 each; 
Lambs, §1.') each. 

LANDRUM & RODGERS, Watsonville, Cal. Im- 
porters and breeders of Pure Breed Angora Goats. 



POULTRY. 



ALBERT E. BURBANK, « and 44 California St., 
S. F. Fancy Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, Etc. 

W. H. GROVES, Stockton, Cal. Eggs for Hatching 
from Pedigree and Selected Light and Dark Brahma, 
Buff Cochin, White and Brown Leghorns. For prices ad- 
dress as above. For sale, a few fine White Leghorns. 



J. M. KERLINGER, Ellis, San Joaquin Co. 
Brown Leghorns a specialty. 



MRS. L. J. WATKINS, Santa Clara, Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, S. S. Ham- 
burgs, L. Brahm;is and li. B. Red Game Bantams. Also 
Eggs. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Hellota, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal. Breeder ot Improved Berkshire Swine. 

CALIFORNIA 




MILITARY ACADEMY. 

For circulars, address 

Rev. DAVID McCLURE, Principal, 
OAKLAND, CAL 



Beware of Dry Seasons ! 

Cultivate Irrigated Land and Get Two 
Crops a Year. No Failtire. 

Irrigated Land for sale in quantities to suit, on the in- 
stallment plan: four vears' credit, no interest charged. 
NO CHARGE FOR VVATER FOR IRRIGATION. On 
railroad, only nine hours from San Francisco. Adapted 
to the growth of semi-tro])ical fruits and all vegetable 
productions. 

THE BEST ALFALFA LAND U CALIFORNIA. 

Also, Irrigated land for rent in quantities to suit, free 
of charge this season, adjoining the Colony, three miles 
from Fresno. 

Call or send for Maps, Circulars, etc. 

CENTRAL CALIFORNIA COLONY, 

306 Pine Street, San Francisco. 
M. THEO KEARNEY, Manager. 



TYPE FOR SALE. 

A LARGE QUANTITY OF BREVIER AND NONPA- 
REIL TYPE, FORMERLY USED ON THIS PAPER, 
FOR .SALE AT A BARGAIN. ADDRESS 

DEWEY & CO., 
224 Sansome Street. San Francisco. 



SELECT AND 
HEAVY FLEECED MERINO SHEEP. 

During the winter I will be in San Francisco with son e 
Merino Rams and Ewes that arc sold, and if correspond- 
ents in California and Texas send their orders with re- 
mittance, we can deliver at same time. 

JOHN S. GOB, 
Brownsville, Fayette Co., Pa. 

ALEX. BUSWELL, 
BOOK BINDER, PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURER, 

621 Clay Street, S. P. 

Blank Book;! Ruled, Printed, and Bound to Order. 



44 



2i%^ *Ete^ 4^ 2r Wi !S B B • 



January 20, 1877. 



Oontlnued from pagre 37. 



and the offal and meat thrown to the hogs, 
which thrive and grow fat, when they in turn 
are sold, slaughtered, and turned into money. 
It is getting to be high-binding times with our 
sheep men. In ordinary seasons tliose who have 
wool in warehouses at the bay can draw well up 
to its value in coin, l>ecause the commission 
merchant can borrow of the bank; but in such 
a season as this, the bankers, knowing that a 
continued drouth will ruin many sheep men on 
whom tlie merchant dcjMnds, refuse to loan. 
In short, the banks keep up the commission 
men, the commission men keep up the pro- 
ducers, and the producer, liaving no one to keep 
him up when the season fails, is ground to 
powder between the upper and nether mill 
stones, for he alone, of all the dealers, takes the 
risk for the smallest sliare of the profits. 

C.\MPHOR WEEi).--\Ve alluded last week to a 
disease in sheep, on which account a large num- 
ber were being slaughtered. We have since 
learned that the cause of tlie malady is tlieir 
feeding on camphor weed, causing a weakness 
of the spine, affecting the brain and laming the 
animal in the loins, soth.at, altliough fat, and to 
appearances in good condition, tliey are unable 
to walk about. Until all other feed is gone 
sheep will not eat enougli camjjhor weed to 
affect their system, but wliun forced to it by 
hunger, and there is nothing else to be had, the 
continued use of it as an entire diet will produce 
death. If, however, the flocks affected are 
removed to green feed they recover from its 
effects. 
YOLO. 

OcR Stock Men. —Mail, Jan. 11 : A few enter- 
prising men of Yolo county are making efforts 
to int-oduce line breeds of cattle, sheep and hogs. 
This is a commendable enterprise, and is as 
equally commendable as the importation of fine 
horses. We note an importation from Ohio, by 
Mr. E. Bynum, of some fine breeds of hogs. 
They were shipped per express from Butler 
county in that State and are known as the 
Magie hogs. The pedigree of these hogs, as 
given by the producer, is as follows: They were 
proiluced from four pure and distinct breeds of 
nogs, tliree of which were imported, namely: 
Poland, Big Spotted Cliina, Big Irish Urazier 
and Byfield. They are of fine bone, but large 
in size, combining more eminently than any 
other the excellencies of both large and small 
breeds. They fatten readily at any age, and 
yet attain great weiglit at maturity. They some- 
times dress 3.50 lbs at from 10 to 12 months old, 
and from 18 to 20 months old 500 to 600 fts. 
They have long bodies, short legs, broad straiglit 
backs, deep sides with square, heavy hams and 
shoulders, and are of fine style generally. Mr. 
Bynura has three of these hogs. They were re- 
ceived here about three or four weeks ago, and 
at that time were but small pigs, two of them 
coming in one bo.v; now they are very large, 
plump and fat as butter. They are growing 
rapidly, and will, by the time they are a year 
old, weigh 500 ITh. "it will not only be a grati- 
fication, but it will pay any one who will make 
the trip just to examine them, for they are 
strangers in the.se parts, and it may lead to the 
introduction of a few more of the same sort. 
Next to those of Mr. Bynum's, \\'m. (iibson 
has some of the finest hogs we have seen in this 
country. His are also part China, but are not 
so neat and smooth as the Magie liog. The in- 
troduction of fine-wooled slieep has been going 
steadily on, and already there are many in Volo 
county. Mr. Coil, Mr. Pond, Mr. VVatkins and 
Mr. Blowers have each very nice herds of im- 
ported stock, and we learn that others have been 
introducing fine-wooled l)reeds. From these 
initiatory steps we may expect some beneficial 
results in a few years. We believe there is 
more of a desire to imjiort fine sheep, hogs and 
horses than there is to bring blooded cattle to 
this coast. We don't know why it is, but we 
never hear of any of our fanners importing fine 
milch cows, except such as figure at the State 
fairs for premiums. E. Comstock, living on the 
Sacramento river, has been dealing in some very 
good blooded cattle, and Geo. W. Scott, of Cot- 
tonwood, bought some at the fair sales two years 
ago, which we believe were of the finest breeds 
known to be on tlie coast. A few Angora goats 
have lieen brougl.t into Yolo county, but there 
does not seem to be any particular sensation 
created over them. We have an idea that after 
a while, when irrigation will l)ecome more gen- 
eral and the alfalfa fields more numerous for 
l)asture, and when it will not require quite so 
much care and attention to take care of stock, 
that a finer and better breed of all kinds will be 
introduced and become the staple product of 
stockraisers. 



What there is in an Onion.— The savory 
onion lias at last fallen beneath the scrutiny df 
the analyst an<l the Srientinc Farnin- tells us 
what there is in it. By Messrs. Wellington & 
Bragg, under the direction of Prof, (ioessman, 
at the Massachusetts Agricultural College cliem- 
ical laboratory, Iwing the first authentic analy- 
sis of this plant on record. One thousand parts, 
air dry, contain: Water, 8<.)2.000; organic mat- 
ter, 10.1f)88; nitrogen, 2.120; total ash, 4..%2; 
potash, 1.680; soda, 0.082; lime, 0.354; mag- 
nesia, 0.159; iron (sesquioxide), 0.027; phos- 
phoric acid, 0.688; sulphuric acid, 1.1.53; silica, 
0. 1 43. 

Tav. Mark Lane Ej-pre«.t asserts that 500 tons 
of fresh American beef reach England weekly 
Ihis new branch of trade has created consider- 
able anxiety in the English agricultural districts 
of Shropshire and Staffordghira. 



"Satan Came also Among Them." 

[Written for the Precb, by C. L. Axdkrsok, M. D.) 

" No quack advertisements inserted in theee columns."— 
RlRAL Prkss. 

Sometimes I feel a pang of sorrow (and may 
be a blush of anger) when I take up our religi- 
ous papers and see the quack advertisements. 
Side by side with some noble sentiment — some 
temperance admonition — some extract from a 
popular sermon, we read of pills for female dis- 
orders (which are properly named, no doubt), of 
"stomach bitters" (made of the worst quality of 
whisky), or a certificate from some quack doc- 
tor or injudicious judge or feeble-minded clergy- 
man, recommending a cure for consumption, or 
some other disease about which the certifier 
knows little or nothing. 

Some of tliese paper not only advertise these 
unblushing frauds, at a rate, too, much below the 
usual rates paid for honest advertisements, but 
they enter into a sort of partnership to fleece 
unsuspecting victims of disease of their slender 
means by sharing in the sales the advertisement 
may bring. 

Now, this kind of advertising is found not 
only in our Eastern religious papers, of the 
most orthodox kind, but in those of this coast. 
I need not mention one, for I think they are all 
guilty; but if there sliould be one that does not 
advertise such humbugs I should l>e happy to 
mention the exception with due credit and 
praise — that there is a good Christian paper in 
California that does not "bow the knee to Baal. " 

It is a singular fact that some of our best agri- 
cultural papers ignore all such advertisements. 
Some years ago the Ameriran AyrirtdttiriM pub- 
lished a number of articles, exposing the system 
of these quack advertisers. Nine- tenths of 
them were found to be the basest frauds in ex- 
istence. The common gambler is an honest 
man beside some of them. They added to ordi- 
nary rascality a touch of religious hypocrisy, 
representing at times "retired physicians," 
"missionaries," "clergymen," etc., when in fact 
their names and places were mythical, and their 
famous recipes could not be compounded by any 
dniggist. There was always one or more ingre- 
dients that the benevolent individual alone could 
furnish at a very high price, for it was a precious 
article, only to be found in Africa or India, or 
some other far-off place. 

Now, I thought the exposure of so many of 
these rogues was known to everybody. But to- 
day I took up two leading religious papers and 
there I saw the same old Satan, with scarcely a 
change of dress since I noticed him 20 years ago. 
Among all these g(X)d things presented by the 
sons of God, as in the days of .Job, " Satan 
came also among them." But these good editors 
ought to know the devil by this time, e.specially 
in his old familiar dress! They 8)iould not in- 
dorse his certificates even by admitting them for 
pay in their papers. If their papers cannot live 
without the patronage of Satan they certainly 
can do no good by living with it. Better for 
them to die than to eke out a miserable exist- 
ence advertising for the devil. That the greater 
part of patent nostrums advertised so extens- 
ively are base frauds, and the doctors who ad- 
vertise in the same way no Ijetter, does not need 
an argument among the enlightened readers of 
this day. But when a confiding Christian 
family see an advertisement in a Christian paper, 
that seems to be an endorsement of the article 
or person advertised, and thus the unsuspecting 
are swindled. 

It may be the good managers of these , papers 
are acting up to the best light they have. I 
should be glad to have them consider this sub- 
ject, and if they can make out a good excuse I 
have no doubt the editors of the Pre.s.s would 
gladly publish what they have to say. 

Nevertheless there are a good many people 
who would prefer to take their religious reading 
without the mixture of quack advertisements. 

SLiTHorR PuMP-s. — The advantage of being 
prejjared for irrigation, as clearly shown by the 
late protracted drouth, make pertinent a remark 
about pumps. The Sluthour pumps, which have 
been illustrated in the Rural, and M-hich are 
now oti'ered for sale by J. M. Keeler & Co., as 
seen in their advertisement, have been tested 
and we are told are excellently adapted to their 
work. It is claimed that one man can raise as 
much water with one of these pumps as can be 
brought up with a horse with most other 
contrivances. The largest size, which has a ca- 
j)acity of 1,000 gallons per minute, may be 
worked with a two-horse power or a small en- 
gine. The claim of the pump is for durability 
and large results, according to the power re- 
quired. This is accomplished by the mechan- 
ism of the pump, which does away with the 
friction in the ordinary piston pump, and ap- 
plies the full power of the lever directly to rais- 
ing the water. The parties presenting this 
pump claim to be able to get up 1,(XX) gallons of 
water i)or minute at about one-half the cost of 
any other apparatus. 

New Mrsir. — Oliver Ditson & Co. send us 
three fine vocal pieces: "Clouds at Eventide," 
one of four German gems by Franz Lachner, 
".Sun of my Soul," quartet, which has new 
music to a favorite hymn, and "Summer 
Friends," by Pinsuti, a composer who has a 
charming talent for composing neat English 
songs with Italian melodies. There are also 
three equally good piano pieces: a perfectly ir- 
resistible "Irresistible Schottische" by Sudds, a 
nice "Fairy Legend," for violin (first position) 
and piano, by Eichberg, and a beautiful ro- 
mance, "Angels' Wings,'^' by V, B. Aubert 



Rain Everywhere. 

The rain-storm, which up to this (Wednesday) 
afternoon had deposited . 75 of an inch of rain 
in the rain gauge of the Signal Service in this 
city, has been general throughout the coast. 
We print below some dispatches received last 
night, January 16th, by the Associated Press. 
To-day the storm has continued, and doubtless 
the sprinkle in may places has changed to a 
pour. 

Californa. 

Colusa, Colusa Co. —It clouded up last night, 
and this morning looked very much like rain; 
but after a slight sprinkle — about a drop to the 
sqare yard — it cleared off, and the wind is now 
in the south. A little snow is observable on the 
top of the mountains west of here. Most of the 
wheat is looking well yet, but the ground is 
very dry. 

Martinez, Contra Costa Co.— About 8 
o'clock this morning a light rain set in, which 
has continued with slight intervals to the pres- 
ent time. Tlic wind is now slowly changing to 
the southwest and south, and the prospects are 
favorable for considerable rain. 

Merced, Meried Co. — The weather^as been 
cloudy for the last three days, with every indi- 
cation of rain; wind southwest. 

Ukiah, Mendocino Co.— The weather is 
cloudy, wind changing for several days. It 
commenced raining last night at 1 o'clock, and 
rained hard to-day. At 12 it is still showery. 

Saunas, Monterey Co. — It commenced rain- 
ing here at 11:30 this morning; been raining 
most of the time since. South wind to-night; 
barometer falling slowly; at 6 o'clock this even- 
ing it stood at 30:90. 

Napa, Napa Co. — It began raining about 5 
o'clock this morning, and rias been showery all 
day, which has brightened the prospects for 
farmers greatly. What rain has fallen to-day 
will make the crops all right for »oine time to 
come; but there are strong indications that the 
storm will continue. 

Grass Vallev, Nevada Co.— It commenced 
raining at 7 :30 a. m. Eighty-three-one -hun- 
dredths of an inch fell up to that time, and 
some hail and snow at intervals during the day. 
It is still very cloudy. The wind is blowing 
from the southeast and barometer falling; ther- 
mometer, 41°. Indications favorable for an 
average crop. 

Auburn, Pl.^cer Co. — No rain has fallen 
here since 5 p. m. ; mild south wind, very heavy 
clouds, and every appearance of more rain. 
Thermometer, A6'. ^\ ith sufficient rainfall now 
crops in this vicinity will be fully an average 
with previous years. 

Colfax, Placer Co. — It commenced raining 
this morning alx)ut 7 o'cleck, increasing in force 
about 10 o clock, and continuing steadily until 
about 4 o'clock this afternoon. The indications 
are that it will continue during the night. The 
h>pe8 of the miners and the public generally 
are looking up, 

Sacramento, Sacramento Co. — At mid- 
night on Monday the wind changed from north- 
erly to southeast. At daylight to-day it blew 
from the southeast, shifting by sunrise to the 
south. The sky was heavily overcast, and all 
day, between sunrise and two o'clock P. m., a 
sprinkle now and then, but barely perceptilile. 
At 4 p. M. the sky cleared, the wind died away, 
and at 1 1 P. M. the sky is all clear and wind 
about gone. The thermometer is down to freez- 
ing, and no rain signs apparent. It rained at 
Elk Grove and Florin, a few miles southeast of 
the city, to- lay quite sliarply. 

Guadalupe, Santa Barbara Co. — Clouded 
up at four p. M., with heavy south wind. Com- 
menced at five o'clock; still continues, with 
good indications for a week's supply. 

San Jo.se, Santa Clara Co. — The long ex- 
pected rain is here at last. The wind changed 
to the southwest this morning, and soon after 
daylight tlie drops descended in a light shower. 
It again cleared off until about noon, since 
which time it has showered at intervals, and at 
present the stars are obscured, and the indica- 
tions are that it will rain throughout the night. 
The rainfall to-day is twelve-hundredths inches. 

Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Co. — It com- 
menced raining early this morning. It is a cold, 
piercing rain. 

Stockton, San Joaquin Co. — It commenced 
raining here at 2:25 P. M. Now, at 3 p. m., it 
is raining quite hard. Wind southwest. 

AviLA, San Luis Oblspo Co. — Very cloudy. 
Wind southeast. Been raining since three p. m. ; 
jslow but sure. Everything is favorable for a 
rainy spell. 

Redding, Shasta Co. — It commenced to rain 
here this morning and sprinkled at intervals all 
day. There wiis quite a shower this evening, 
and there is snow all around us on the hills. 
There are good prospects for a storm. It is 
reported that snow fell heavily in the moun- 
tains all day. The grain is looking well. 

V.\cAViLLE, Solano Co. — A light rain com- 
menced at 4 A. M., with cold wind from the 
southeast, which continued until 11 \. m., when 
the sun came out bright and clear, the wind 
changing to the north and west. It commencfed 
clouding towards evening and the wind changed 
again to the southeast. No appearance of rain 
to night. The prospects for a crop are fair. 
Barometer 31. 

Benicia, Solano Co. — It commenced raining 
here at 10 o'clock this morning, continuing at 
intervals all day, with strong indications of a 
heavy storm. Wind very strong from the south- 
west, from which it has not changed during the 



day. The prospects for crops in this locality are 
very good, with considerable yet to be sown. 

Su.mmit Valley, Sierra Co.— It began snow- 
ing at 7 o'clock this morning. At 2 p. m. four 
inches had fallen, and the storm is still ragtag 
fearfully. 

Petaluma, Sonoma Co.— We had light 
showers here during the forenoon to-day, but it 
cleared up at al)out 1 p. m. We have had several 
showers this evening again, and it now looks aa 
though it would be showery during the night. 
Wind southwest and quite cooL Crops look 
finely in this vicinity. 

Cloverdale, Sonoma Co. — We have had 
considerable rain during the day by showers, 
enough to make the roads muddy. At 6 p. m. 
the rain is still falling: weather cold, cloudy 
and dark; indications of a general rain storm. 

Modesto, Stanislaus Co. —Indications very 
favorable for rain. The wind is blowing a gale 
from the southwest; cloudy; thermometer 60. 

Red Bluff, Tehama.— Rain commenced fall- 
ing at an early hour this morning, but lasted 
only a short time. There are indications now 
of a heavy storm. The crops are in a good con- 
dition. 

Cambria, Ventura Co. — It commenced rain- 
ing at one o'clock this afternoon, and has con- 
tinued with short intermissions since that time. 
Half an inch is already down, and Grangers 
ofter to bet on a foot before it lets up. ^ ery 
cloudy; wind southwest. 

Woodland, Yolo Co.— Weather was dark 
and cloudy to-day until noon, after which there 
was a slight sprinkling of rain for about an hour. 
The rest of the day continued bright and clear. 
The grain crops m this section of the country 
look promising and we only need rain to secure 
a bountiful harvest. 

Marysville, Yuba Co. —The weather has been 
windy and cloudy all day, with a slight rain at 
noon ; it is clear to-night The crops bid fair 
for a good average. 

Oregon. 

Albany. — Commended raining about 10 a. m. 
yesterday, and has been raining with inter- 
missions since. The prospects for an abundant 
yield of farm protlucts are very flattering. 

Portland. — The weather is stormy; a heavy 
rain fell last night. Warm and cloudy with 
wind south to-day. The prospects for a large 
yield of cereals was never better. 

RosEBURO. — It commenced raining last night 
about 10 o'clock, and has continued through 
the day with scarcely any intermission. The 
prospects for crops are regarded as good by the 
farmers, and a larger amount of grain has been 
sown than usual, on account of ha>'ing so much 
pleasant weather this winter. 

Wa8hingt')n Territary. 

Vancou^"ER. — It has been raining here at in- 
tervals the last day or two, but not cold. The 
thermometer marked 50 degrees at noon to-day. 
Fall sown wheat is doing nicely, and the pros- 
pects for a heavy crop are flattering. 

New Tacoma. — Yesterday was stormy all 
day, with strong southerly wind rising to a 
gale. At 3 o'clock p. m. the barometer stood 
at 29:50 ; this morning at 29:45. Cloudy and 
strong south wind this afternoon. Seven 
o'clock p. M. — calm and clear. Thermometer 
45. 

0lympi.\. — The wind is south and southwest. 
Rain, with an occasional flood of sunshine. 
Thermometer, 40. Crop prospects good. 

A SEVERE northerly gale was felt all over the 
State on Friday last. Little damage was done 
iu this harbor. 



The fires iu the mines at Lykens, Pa., are 
gradually diminishing. The loss will be smaller 
than was at first supposed. 

Great damage was done by the ice breaks in 
the Ohio river this week. 



'r A TENTS AND ^NVENTIONS. 

A Weekly List of U. S. Patents Issued 
to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

(Froji OrricuL Reports for thr Mimso and Sci8.vnnc 

Prrsb, DEWEY A CO., Pi-blishkrh asd U. a 

AMD Forbion Patent Aoents. 

For Wek« Esdiso Ja.marv 2d, 1877. _ 

Ore Roastixo Firnace.— William K. Aldersley, Coluaa, 
Cat. 

For Week Esniso Ja.^iart 9th, 1877. 
WvT Valveh -Garrett D. Hopper and William H. 

Laufkotter. Sacramento. Cal. 
I.vci'BATORS.— Walter MasterUjn, Stockton Cal. 

Trademark. 
Canned and FREaEHvr.D Frcits and Veoetables.— Stevens 
A Groom, Han Jose, Cal 



Foolishly spent—monev paid for children's shoe* not 
protected by SILVER TIPS. Two weeks is about the 
time it takes a smart, active child to ventilate the toe o( 
a shoe. SILVER TIPS the only preventive. 

Also try Wire Quilted Soles. 



Woodward's Gardk.v8 embraces ao Aquarium, Museum, 
Art Oaller>', Conscrvaturies, Tropical Houses, Heoagerle, 
Seal Ponds and SkatingJRink. 



IIVIPORTANTI 



Notice to Farmers in want of labor ! The well-known 
Employment Agency of ZEEHANDELAAR A CO., for- 
merly the "Free California Labor Exchan^," baa re- 
moved to fl<M Clay Street, (up-atalrs) San Fraucisoo 



January 20, 1877.] 



45 



Ej r\Ef©^T. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

8as Feaxcisco, Wednesday, Jan. 17, 1877. 

The rainfall is the prevailing topic of conversation in 
all trade circles. The streets are running with water and 
heavy with mud, and the difficulty of dry communication 
makes the streets empty and immediate trade lags. There 
is, however, a most cheerful tone pervading all lines, and 
the feeling is that better times in trade are just at hand. 

During the week the Liverpool Wheat market has 
shown some tendency to fluctuation and the closing quo- 
tation is a point below the mark of a week ago. To-day, 
private advices report a stronger market abroad. The 
local trade has been quiet and within former rates. 
Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been 
as recorded in the following table: 



Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Satur'day 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday . 



Cal. Averaoe. 



10s Ud@lls 
10s lld@lls 
109 Udc^lls 
10s lldOJlls 
10s lld@ll9 
10s lOdffllls 



Id 



Clib. 



lis 2d@ll9 7d 

lis 2d@ll3 6d 

lis ld@lls 4d 

lis ld@ll3 4d 

lis ld@lls 4d 

lis Idcails 5d 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
oompare with same date in former years as follows; 

Average. Club. 

1875 9s 4d@ 9s 8d 9s ld@103 3d 

1876 lOs 4d@10s 6d 10s 9d@lls 3d 

1877 lOs lOdiails — lis Idcg'lls 5d 

The Foreigm Review. 

London, .January 15th.— The Mark Lane Express says: 
The submersion of the lowland districts has entirely 
stopped all agricultural labor, while the continual rain- 
fall has seriously alTected the condition of all home-grown 
grain. The heavy snow .storms in Scotland have proved 
very disastrous to stock farmers, many sheep having per- 
ished. The Wheat plant, where not submerged, is look- 
ing fair. English Wheat is in good condition but rare, 
both in the ci>untry and Mark Lane, and a ready sale has 
been found at late" rates. The impossibility of working 
many mills in the country has caused trade to assume 
narrow dimensions, and supplies to London have been 
meager. In grain there appears little probability of 
much improvement, as farmers are unwilling to thresh in 
the present weather. The arrivals from New York have 
been a little over 2,000 quarters. Barley has advanced 
one shilling per quarter for fine qualities There has 
been less activity in Maize, which has somewhat depreci- 
ated in value. Oats have been dull and unaltered, despite 
the limited arrivals. The scarcity of Com has supported 
full prices. Cargoes which arrived at the beginning of 
the week are held with great tenacity. Business is 
limited, but a slight advance has been realized for 
Wheat and Maize. 

Freights and Charters. 

The freight market, says the Post, continues stagnant. 
Engagements of Wheat tonnage to load for a direct port 
have been made during the week, on a basis of ,£2@ 
£2 2s 6d. according to vessel. There are said to be orders 
for rising 10,000 tons of tonnage to load at the Peruvian 
guano deposits, in the hands of agents in San Francisco. 
Vessels are eagerly seeking outside business, and it is 
probable that the above opportunity will soon be ex- 
nausted. Other miscellaneous business continues to be 
rather flat. We have now in port 25,760 tons of ton- 
nage secured for Wheat. The tonnage engaged for mis- 
cellaneous purposes aggregates 12,448 tons, while the list 
of disengaged tonnage foots up 34,779 tons. Following 
are the engagements of the week: Br ship Trevely.an, 
1,042 tons. Wheat to Liverpool at £2 2s 6d, Cork, V. K. , 
£2 5s; Br ships Buckinghamshire and Thirlmere and ship 
Humboldt, a? wheat to Liverpool at current rates: ship 
Highland Light, 1,315 tons, Wheat to Liverpool at £2; 
Cork, £2 2s 6d; Continent, £2 78 (jd. 

Flour and Grain on Hand January 1st. 

The following is the report of Flour and Grain in the 
State of Calitoniia, .January 1st, 1877, as taken by the 
San Fran«isco Produce Exchange, furnished to the Kiral 
Press by W. H. Walker, Secretary; 

Wheat. Barley. 

San Francisco and Oakland, ctls 681,500 416,000 

North coast, Russian river and Pet'a. . 34,200 15,900 

Napa Vallev and Cal. Pac. R. R 831,700 37,000 

Sacramento vallev and river 662,000 182,000 

Lower Sacramento, etc 149,500 37,000 

S. F. B;>y Landing, east sides 106,200 185,500 

San Leandro to Livermore 142,400 100,400 

Stockton and San Joaquin valley 767,900 75,700 

Redwood to Hollister 312,900 143,600 

Salinas and Pajaro valley 35,500 193,200 

Southern coast 16,900 72,300 



Totals 3,640,700 1,4.58,600 

Stock January Ist, 1876 2,822,000 832,400 

The stocks of Flour and minor Grain compares as fol- 
lows with that a year ago; 
January Ist. 1876. 1877. 

Flour, bbls 57,800 58,800 

Oate, centals 52,000 80,700 

Com, sacks 60,000 142,700 

Rye, sacks 5,700 14,000 

The stock of Flour on the 1st embraced 36,000 bbls at 
San Francisco, Oakland and afloat in the harbor, and'lO,- 
600 bbls in Sonoma and Napa counties. Of the Oats, 62,- 
200 ctls, and of the Rye, 7,800 sks are credited to San 
Francisco. Of the Corn, 113,800 bags is still at the places 
of growth on the Southern coast, 12,500 sks at San Fran- 
cisco and 10,000 sks at the landings on the East side of the 
Bay. 

New York Grain Market. 

Nrw York, January 14th.— The Grain trade continues 
dull, and prices show little change. Early in the week 
Wheat sola at rather better prices, but the improvement 
was not sustained, the conditions of trade being against 
exporters. Graded Spring Wheat has sold at SI. 33 to 81.48, 
and Winter $1.40 to 81.55. Corn, Rye and Barley have 
been steady, with a cargo of the latter sold for England at 
55c for feeding. With the rate of freight at 6s 3d, snipping 
Flour is scarce and firm, with little to be had bel(*w SO, 
prices being relatively higher at the sources of supply 
than in this market. 

Chicago Grain Market. 

CmcAOO, January 14th.— Breadstuflfs have been firm and 
Wheat strong and higher during nearly the entire week, 
closing with considerable excitement. The strength of 
the market has astonished the bears, and the bulls are 
more than surprised. Receipts for the week— Wheat, 
175,000 bushels; Corn, 809,000; O.its, 1:«,000; same week 
last vear. Wheat, 247,000; Corn, 344,000; Oats, 76,000. 
Shipments— Wheat, 83,000 bushels; Corn, 317,000; Oats, 
94,000; last year. Wheat, 75,000; Corn, 149,000; Oats, 550,- 
000. Wheat closed at 31.29>, Corn 44c, Oats 35c, Rye 72c, 
Barley Oljc — a large decline in the latter, in spite of the 
news from California that the Wheat and Barley markets 
there were much excited about the drouth. Provisions 
have been very active, and closed nearly a dollar lower for 
Pork, and 25c lower than last week. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

N»w TpKK, January 14th.— The Wool market has ruled 



dull all through the week, and prices have declined on all 
descriptions of Domestic, excepting XX Ohio. This is 
chiefly due to the large supply of short inferior Wools on 
hand, such as Fall California and Texas, and to the ab- 
sence of new and fine grades at the moment. Fine Ohio 
is required in the manufacture of all good grades, as a 
long and strong staple is needed for the warp. Unless an 
improved demand for goods sets in, nothing of a favora- 
ble nature may be looked for in the market for raw mate- 
rial. The sales for the week are 38,000 lbs Spring Califor- 
nia at 24@31c; 5,000 lbs scoured Fall, do, 53c: 90,000 lbs 
Western Texas. 21(a26c; 10,000 lbs Eastern do, 30c; 13,000 
lbs low do, 22ia24c; 65,000 tbs X and XX Ohio, 45@47c; 
and 5,000 lt)S medium unwashed Indiana, 30,000 lbs do 
State, 29 and 114 bales Donskol, 100 bags Colorado, 2,000 
tbs do, pulled, 7,000 lbs combing Ohio, 6,000 lbs low do, 
1,500 lbs Black do, 5,000 lbs unwashed Michigan, 5,000 
Missouri, 50 bales X pulled, 31 do super do, aud 11 do 
No. 1, on private terms. 

Philadelphia, January 16th.— Wool is in good demand. 
Fine grades are scarce and higher; mediums firm, and 
light supply; coarse grades are dull and weak. Colorado 
washed, 18(a22c, unwashed, 16@17ic; Extra and Merino 
pulled, 35((538c; No. 1 and super pulled, 33@38c; Texas 
fine and medium, 20@25c; coarse, 16@20c; California fine 
and medium, 17@28c; coarse, 15@25c. i 

Boston, January 17th. — In Wool, prices are steady and 
firm, with no indications of any pressure to sell desirable 
lots at reduced prices. Fine fleeces are in fair demand at 
from 45 to 49c for X and XX Ohio and Pennsylvania; 43@ 
45c for medium and No. 1, and 40(g42c for Michigan, Wis- 
consin and New York. Combing and Delaine in fair de- 
mand; sales at 45(a,53c for washed; super and X pulled in 
fair demand at 34@45c; very choice super, at 47@50c; Fall 
California moves slowly at 14(a20c, as to quality. 

Domestic Produce. 
The following table shows the S. F. receipts of Domes- 
tic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, as com- 
pared with the receipts of previous weeks: 



Articles. 



Week Week 
Dec. 27. Jan. 3. 



Flour, quarter sacks . 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, sacks 

Corn, centals 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales 



27,612 

104,432 

22,220 

1,383 

5,072 

3,119 

13,529 

1,200 

98 

46 

1,195 



Week Week 
Jan. 10. Jan. 17. 



56,257 

273,023 

6,788 

1,084 

4,936 

3,687 

14,349 

802 

124 

32 

724 



75,076 

132,827 

13,788 

401 

5,326 

1,345 

11,338 

588 

162 

66 

1,042 



Com — Com has advanced to .?1.42J for the best large 
Yellow and White. We note sales of 300 sks White and 
large Yellow at -41.42}, silver. 

Dairy Produce- -Butter is still in excess; only the 
best fancy brands can be sold for 32^c by the single box. 
Other good lots sell at 27i@30c. Cheese is unchanged. 

Eggs- Eggs are dull and weak at 30C?31c. 

Fruit -There is but little change in the Fruit market 
Some of the best Pears have sold as high as i?3 |)er box, 
and Limes, owing to the poor quality, have sold as low as 
$2.50 per M. Full prices may be found in our tables. 

Feed— Com Meal has advanced to 832.50^35 per ton. 
Hay has also advanced to S20 per ton for the best. We 
note sales as follows: 62 tons, two cargoes, fair stock, S14; 
45 do coarse Wheat, $16; 32 tons good Wheat and Oat, 
817; 40 do Wheat, Oat and BaHey, S18. 

Hops— The steamer City of New York for .\ustralia on 
the 4th inst, carried 10,076 lbs for New Zealand and 8,933 
lbs for Australia, most of which was of medium quality 
sales previously reported. Prices now offered in this mar- 
ket are very low. We hear of no sales. Emmet Wells 
reports the New York market, for the week ending January 
5th, as follows: 

Tlie clearance for export to London of over 3,000 bales 
this week has given ■ a better tone to the market, and 
caused an advance of 2 cents per tb on choice New York 
and California Hops. Low and medium grades continue 
to be offered at late rates, and as stocks are large of this 
class, holders are always glad to sell whenever an oppor- 
tunity offers. The shiimient of 2,000 to 3,O0G bales a week 
of our choice Hops will produce a very salutary effect 
upon the market, and perhaps result in higher prices than 
have yet ruled this season. Germany is entirely out of 
the market for our Hops, and only in the event of a Hop 
famine in that cou!itry need we expect any more orders of 
importance from there. Quotations — New Yorks, good 
to choice, 20 to 27c; New Yorks, low to fair, 13 to 18c; 
Eastern, 18 to 23c; Wisconsins, 12 to 17c; Yearlings, 10 to 
15c; Olds, all growths, 4 to 8c; Californians, 23 to 27c; Ore- 
gon, 23 to 27c. 

Rye — Rye is now quoted at $2. We note a sale of 2,000 
ctls from warehouse at this figure. 

* Vegetables A few changes maybe found in the 

tables below. 

Wheat— Sales have been made within former ranges. 
We note sales: 3,000 sks choice Milling, S2.20; 10,000 ctls 
Shipping and Mining, $2,20, and 3,000 ctls Shipping at 
.?2. 15; 400 sks choice Milling, 82.25; 300 tons, 82,15; and 
some p.\rcels of dioice Milling at S2,20@2,25, 

Wool— We have nothing new in Wool except the re- 
ports of the Eastern markets, which appear in another col- 
umn. In the local trade there has been nothing but a 
few sales to local manufacturers at quotations below. 



LUMBER. 



Wednesday, m,, Jan. 17, 1877, 



CARCIO PRICES OF 
BEDWOOD. 

Rough, M S18 00 

Refuse 14 00 

Clear 30 00 

Clear Refuse 20 00 

Rustic 32 50 

Refuse 22 50 

Surfaced 30 00 

Refuse 20 00 

Flooring 28 Oil 

Refuse 18 00 

Beaded Flooring 30 00 

Refuse 20 00 

Half-mch Siding 20 00 

Refuse IB 00 

HaU-inch Surfaced 25 00 

Refuse 20 OO 

Halt-inch Battens 20 50l 

Pickets, Rough 1 OOi 

Rough, Pointed 13 OO! 

Fancy, Pointed 26 OU 

Shingles 35 OOi 



PUGET SOUND PI.\E. 

retail price. 

Rough, M ;,S22 50 

Fencing 22 50 

Flooring and Step 32 50 

Narrow 35 00 

2d quality 25 OU 

Laths 3 50 

I^urring, lineal ft i 

KEinvoon. 

retail frke. 
Rough, M 822 50 

Refuse 18 00 

Pickets, Rough 18 00 

Pointed 20 00 

Fancy 30 00 

.Siding 25 00 

Surfaced & Long Beaded 37 50 
Flooring 35 00 

Refuse 25 00 

Half-inched Surfaced, . , 32 50 

Kustic, No, 1 40 00 

Battens, lineal ft i 

iShinglcs, M 3 



Qold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutko & Co.) 

San Francisco, Jan, 17, 3 r, m, 

Leoal Tendkbs In 8, F,, 11 a, m,, 94<Se94}, Silver, 
6J(-*7, 

Gold In New York. 1068 

Gold Bars, 880(a890, Silver Bars, 7@10 ^ cent, dis- 
count. 

Exchange on New Yort 50(rt'55-100 ^ cent, premium for 
gold; on Loudon bankers, 49^; Commercial, 49]; Paris, five 
francs ^ dollar; Mijxican doLars. 98, 

London Consols, SdJ: Bonds, 102i, 

QuicesiLVEB in S, F„ by the fiask. $ lb, SOo. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

[WHOLESALE,] 



Wednesdat, m,, Jan. 17, 1877, 



-I 
12J^ 



15 



BEANS. 

B»yo, ctl 2 75 (ff3 00 

Butter 1 50 (otl 75 

Pea 1 80 (§2 00 

Red 2 75 W — 

Pink 2 62i(52 75 

Sm'l White 1 50 (» — 

Lima 2 75 ((r2 87J 

BBOOin COBN. 

Common, lb 2@ 2J 

Choice 3@ 4 

C'OTTO.V. 

Cotton, lb 15 @ 18 

DAIRY PBODrCE, ETC. 

butter. 
Cal. Fresh Roll, tb 27!@ 321 

Point Reyes 32ka — 

Pickle Roll 27m 30 

Firkin 22i(^ 27J 

Western Reserve,, 16 @ 25 
New York — @ — • 

cheese. 
Cheese, Cal, lb,.,. 

Old 

Eastern 

N, Y, State 19' 

EOOS. 

Cal. fresh, doz 30 (» 31 

Ducks' 32J(S — 

Oregon 25 @ — 

Eastern — <S? — 

FEED. 

Bran, ton 22 50 (* 

Com Meal 33 50 C*35 00 

Hay 16 00 mO 00 

Middlings 32 50 (fi 

Oil Cake Meal,,. 37 50 (a; 

Straw, bale 70 (g 75 

FLOI^R. 

Extra, bbl 6 50 (ril 25 

Superfine 4 75 <n5 50 

Graham 5 50 (&6 00 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qualy, lb 4i(a 

Second Ziirr 

Thud 3 (<e 

Mutton 4 ftc 

Pork, undressed , ", 6 («f 

Dressed 8 (ft 

Veal 5iW 

Milk Calves 7 <<e 

CRAIN. ETC. 
Bariey, feed. ctl,,,l 25 (rfl 45 

Brewuig 1 35 (ffl 50 

Chevalier 1 25 vtl 50 

Cora. White 1 30 I'tl 42), 

Yellow,,.,, 1 30 «il iH 

Oats 2 00 («2 40 

Milling 2 45'i'' - 

R.ve 2 00 "T -- 

Wheat, shipping,, 2 10 («'2 25 

MilUng 2 20 (02 25 

HIDES. 
Hides, dry 20 (S 21 

Wet salted 7 (A 8i 

HO:VEY, ET<'. 

Beeswax, th 25 (<* 27! 

Honey ir comb 10 («> 12} 

Stramed 6 (cc 8 

HOPS. 

New Crop 20 (ft 

NliTS-.lobbliig.' 
Almonds, hd shl lb 7 (« 

Soft sh'l 15 (ft 

Brazil 14 (* 

Cal. Wahiuts 8 (& 



11 a 

17 (* 



16 



25 



Chile Wahiuta 

Pecans 

Peanuts 8 (ft- 

Filberts 15M 

ONIONS. 
Union City, ctl....l 00 (31 25 

Stockton 1 00 (rtl 25 

POTATOES. 

Petaluma, ctl 85 c^l 00 

Salt Lake 1 50 (fi> — 

Humboldt 85 Ml 00 

Cuffey Cove 1 00 (gl 10 

Early Rose, new , , 93 ((fl 00 

Sweet 75 W 87* 

POULTRY Jt GAME. 

Hens, doz 7 00 (88 25 

Roosters 6 00 (g? 00 

Broilers 5 00 (a5 50 

Ducks, tame 9 50 (rtlO 50 

Geese, pair 2 25 (02 75 

Wild Gray 2 50 (g — 

White 1 00 § — 

Tiu-keys. Live, lb , . 18 (tf — 

Dressed 18 (a — 

Quail, doz,., 1 00 tol 25 

Snipe, Eng 2 50 (S — 

Doves 50 (t? 57 

Rabbits 1 25 §1 50 

Hare 2 00 (» — 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, L't, lb 14 (.d 15 

Medium ISJctr 14 

Heavy 13)i((r — 

Lard 12jtn) 14 

Cal. Smoked Beef 10 (« lOJ 

Eastern — (ct — 

Eastern Shoulders — (^ 

Hams, Cal 14 (^ 

Armour IBK* 

Worster's 15|ctf 

Dupee's 17 (4 

Davis Bros' 17 toe 

SEED.S. 
Alfalfa. Chile, lb.. 8 (« 

California 16 ^ 

Canai-y 10 (ct 

Clover, Red 22 (.«• 

White 50 tfi 

Cotton 6 (of 

Flaxseed 3ij(( 

Hemp 5 (rt 

Italian Rye Grass 23 (re 

Perennial 20 »t 

Millet 10 (a 

■Mustard. White,,, 10 (* 

Brown 3iCcc 

Rape 3 (oj 

Ky. Blue Grass,.,, 30 (a 

2d quality 29 (cb 

Sweet V Glass 75 (^ 

Orchard 30 (a 

Red Top 25(0? 

Hungarian 8 (o? 

Lawn 50 ('5^ 

Mezquite 20 cr 

Timothy 10 (ft 

TALLOW. 

Crude, lb 6 (fc 

Refined '. . . . 8 (r* 

WOOL, ET«'. 

FALL, 

Free 12 {* 

Choice 14 (A 

Northern 17 (* 

Burry 10 (ft 

Oregon, Eastern,,, 20 (tf 

Valley 25 (ft 



m 



LEATHER. 

[WHOLESALE,] 

Wednesdat, m,, .Jan. 17, 1877. 

•Sole Leather, heavy, lb ? 26 (;? 29 

Light 22 (gt 24 

Jodot, 8 Kil., doz 48 00 («50 00 

11 tolSKil 68 00 (mo 00 

14 to 19 Kil 82 00 (nOi 00 

Second Choice, 11 to 16 Kil 57 OO ('^74 00 

Coraellian, 12 to 16 Kil 57 00 («67 00 

Females, 12 to 13 Kil 63 00 («fi7 00 

14 to 16 Kil 71 00 ("76 60 

Simon Ullmo, Females, 12 to 13 Kil 58 00 (f»(;2 00 

14 to 15 Kil 66 00 «/70 00 

16 to 17 Kil 72 00 (fV74 00 

Simon, 18 Kil 61 00 (iie3 00 

20 Kil 65 00 («67 00 

24 Kil 72 00 (rtli 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00 vrW 00 

Kips, French, lb 1 00 c* 1 35 

Cal. doz 40 00 ('V60 00 

French Sheep, all colors 8 00 (rtl5 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs, lb 1 00 (ff 1 25 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, doz 9 00 ('il3 00 

For Linings 5 50 (rtlO 50 

Cal. Russet .Sheep Linings. .^ 1 75 (o 4 50 

Boot Legs, French Calf, pair 4 00 (ft— — 

Good French Calf 4 00 ((« 4 75 

Best Jodot Calf 5 00 (rf 5 25 

Leather, Harness, lb 2i (ft 32 

Fair Bridle, doz 48 00 ("72 00 

Skirting, tb 33 ^ 374 

Welt, doz 30 00 (a50 00 

Buff, ft 18 (* 19 

WaxSide 17(0* 18 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

[WHOLESALE.] 



FRUIT MARKET. 

Oranges, Mex, 

M 30 00 (S35 

Tahiti (ft— 

Cal 10 00 (.<30 

Limes 2 50 (<tlO 

Lemons, Cal,,,, 10 00 ('rl5 

Sicily, bx 9 00 (ft— 

Bananas, buch,, 2 00 (* 3 
Cocoanuts, 100, , 5 00 («• 6 
Pineapples, doz 6 00 (rti 8 

Apples, bx 40 (* 1 

Crab, lb 2 ('' 

Figs, lb i (rf 

Pomegranates,,, (ft> — 

Pears, bx 1 00 (* 3 

DRIED FRUIT. 

Apples, lb 4i(^ 

Apricots 10 (* 

Pears 7 (* 

Peaches 7 CT 

Plums 3 @ 

Pitted 12 @ 



Wrpnesdat, m,, Jan, 17, 1877, 

Kaisins, Cal, bx 1 50 @ 2 50 

Malaga 3 00 (* — 

00 Figs. Black, tb,. 4 (S 6 

\VTiite 10 @ 

00 Pnmes 12J% 17 

00 Citron 28 (n) 30 

00 Zante Currants., 9(1^' 10 

- VEGETABLES. 

50 Asparagus, lb,,. (ft 

00 Beets, ctl 60 (o5 

00 Cabbage, 100 lbs 65 (» 75 

75 Carrots 50 f* 62J 

3 Cauliflower, doz 75 (A 

5 Celery 75 (ff 

— Garlic, tb 2 (oe 2i 

00 Squash, Marrow- 
fat, tn 15 00 (a20 00 

6 Artichokes, doz (ft 

12i Parsnips, tb 1 @ U 

8 Lettuce, doz 10 ^ 

9 Turnips, ctl 60 C<» 75 

4 Wbite 1 00 @ 

14 Mushi'ooms (ft 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 



Wbdnbsdav, M, , Jan, 17, 1877, 



Butter, California 

Choice, lb 

Cheese 

Eastern 

Lard, Cal 

Eastern 

Flour, ex, fam, bbl7 

Com Meal, tb 

Sugar, wb, crslid 

Light Brown 

Coffee. Green 

Tea, Fine Black.,, 

Finest .Japan,,,, 
Candles, Admfe,. 

Soap, Cal 

Rice 

Yeast Pwdr, doz,,l 



35 ^ 
18 (t 
25 (ft 
18 (it 
20 (ff' 
00 (CS 

2i(<t 
12!i(.r 

8 (ft 
23 (If 
50 «tl 
55 (erl 
15 (ft 

7 (^ 

8 (ft 
50 (fti 



Bowen Bro, Irge 

can, doz ,,5 

Small 2 

Bowen's Cream 

Tai-tar, tb 

Can'd Oysters doz2 
Syrup, S F Goldn 
Dried A])ples, lb , . 

Ger. Prunes 

Figs. Cal 

Peaches 

Oils. Kerosene 

Wines, Old l'Oit,,,3 
French Claiet 1 

Cal, doz bot 3 

Whisky, O K, gal.,3 
French Brandy — 4 



00 @ - 
50 (* - 

75 (S - 

00 ("3 50 

75 (ttl 00 

10 (« 12 
12J(tf 14 

9 (tf 10 

11 t<r 154 
40 (ft 50 
60 (."5 00 
00 C"2 50 
00 te4 50 
50 W5 00 
00 ^8 



£8 00 



[WHOLESALE,] 



Wednesday, m, , 



BAGS— JobbiDK. 

Eng Standard Wheat, »J(3 9 
Neville & Co's 
Hand Sewed, 22x36., 82(a 9 

24x36 9j(<tl0 

23x40 10 («10.i 

Machine Swd, 22x36. 9 (ft — 
Flour Sacks, halves., . . 9 (ftU 

tJuarters <o (ft 7 

Eighths 45(S 5 

Hessian, 60 inch 11 (ftl2 

45 inch 8J('< 9 

40 inch 7J(<f 8 

Wool Sacks, 34 lb 50 (fi— 

4 lb 55 @— 

Standard Gmmits UK^^IS 

Bean Bags 7 (!* 8 

CANDLES. 

Grant's 16 @16i 

Mitchell's 18 ftj20 

CANNED GOODS. 
Assorted Pie Fruits, 

24 lb cans 2 75 (93 00 

Table do 3 75 (rt4 25 

.Jams and Jellies, ,4 25 (ft — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 50(5 _ 

Sardines, qr box , , 1 65 (« 1 90 

Hf Boxes 3 00 (ft — 

COAL-.lobbi]i|:. 
Australian, ton,, 8 00 (« 8 25 

Coos Bay 8 00 (« 9 00 

Bellingham Bay 8 00 «< 

Seattle 9 00 (It 

Cumberland 14 00 (ftn 00 

Mt Diablo 5 75 (« 7 75 

Lehigh 22 00 (ft 

Liverpool 8 50 W 9 OU 

West Hartley, , ,14 00 (a' 

Scotch S 50 (ft 9 00 

Scranton 13 00 («16 00 

Vancouver Id, , ,10 60 C'*12 00 

Charcoal, sack,, , 75 (ft 

Coke, bbl 60 (ft 

COFFEE. 

Sandwich Id, lb, 214(8 

Costa Rica 21 (ft 

Guatemala 204(a9 21) 

Java 23 (ft 

Manila 20 (rf 21 

Ground, in cs, , , 25 (ft 

Chiccory 27 (ff 

FISH. 
Sao'to Dry Cod,, 5 (ft 7i 

Boneliiss 84(w 10 

Eastern Cod 8 vV 8' 

Salmon, bbls,,,, 6 60 (A 7 25 

Hf bbls 3 75 (« 4 00 

2 tb cans 2 65 (ft- 

1 lb cans 1 80 (tt 

Col Riv, hf bbl 4 25 (et 

Pkid Cod, bbls, ,22 00 (ft 

Hf bbls 11 00 (ft 

Mackerel, No, 1, 

Hf BdIs 11 00 (ft 

Extra 12 00 (fi 

In Kits 1 25 (nj 2 60 

Ex Mess, hf bll2 00 (ft 

I'kld Herring, bx 3 00 (« 3 50 
Boston Smkd H'g iO (fi 50 

LIHE, Etc. 
Lime, Sta Cru^, 

bbl 2 00 C? 2 25 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 75 (ce 3 50 

Portland 4 75 (g 5 60 

Plaster, Golden 

Gate Mills,,., 3 00 (3 3 25 
Land Plaster, tn 10 00 (itl2 50 

NAILS. 
Ass'ted sizes, keg 3 25 (<* 4 00 



Jan, 17, 1877, 
OILS. 

Pacific Glue Co's 

Neatstoot, No 1.1 00 @ 

Castor. No 1 1 25 (rf 

Baker's A A 1 25 ("1 

Olive, Plagniol 6 25 (Hi 

Possel 4 75 iir, 

Palm, tb 9 («> 

Linseed, Raw 75 (ff 

Boiled 80 (ff 

Cocoanut 80 (3? 

China nut, cs 70 (gp 

Sperm 1 60 ^1 

Coast Whales 60 Cf« 

Polar, refined 62j((« 

Lard 1 10 (al 

Oleophiue it (fh 

Devoe's Bril't 44 ((C 

Nonpariel 60 (of 

Eureka 32i(ff 

Barrel kerosene . . . 32l(it 

Downer Ker 45 (S 

■ ", (ff 



om 

ISCff 



4 (g 5 



Elaine 

PAIXTS 

Pure White Lead, 

Wliiting 

Putty 

Chalk 

Paris White 

Ochre . ^ 

Venetian Red 3j(ff 

Averill Chemical 

Paint, gal. 

Whites tints,.. 2 00 @2 

Green. Blue & 
Ch Yellow,.,, 3 00 (ftZ 

Light Red 3 00 (fi3 

Metallic Roof,, ,1 30 (ffl 

RICE. 
.TiinaNo, 1, lb,,„ 5J@ 

lawaiian 7 (a 

Carolina 10 (S 

SALT. 
^^al. Bay, ton,,,. 16 00 (ft IS 

Common 5 00 (« 7 

Jannen Id 16 00 ((f 18 

Liverpool fine. . .25 00 (ff— 
SOAP. 

Castile, tb 10 (ft 

Common brands . . 44('': 

Fancy brands 7 (ft 

SPICES. 

Gloves, lb 45 @ 

Cassia 224(* 

Nutmegs 85 (A 

Pepper Grain 15 (ff 

Pimento 15 ^ 

Mustard, Cal, 

i lb glass 1 50 (ff 

.XUGAR, ETC' 

Cal. Cube, lb 13:(@i 

Circle A crushed,, 13i(ff 

Powdered 13J(ff 

Fine crushed 13i(ft 

Granulated I25(fO 

Golden C lOkff 

Hawaiian 10 (it- 

Cal. Syrup, kgs..., 724(ff 
Hawaiian Molasses 25 (ff 

TEA. 
Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 35 @ 

Country pckd Gim- 

powder & Im- 
perial 50 ((i 

Hyson 30 (ff 

Foo-ChowO 35 (A 

Japan, 1st quality 40 (^ 

2dquaUty 25 @ 



METALS. 

[wholesale,] 

THUR.SDAY, M,, Jan, 13, 1877, 

Iron,— 

American Pig, ton 30 00 (ft 

Scotch Pig, ton 29 00 @30 00 

White Pig, ton 30 00 @ 

Oregon Pig. ton OT 

Refined Bar 41M 

BoUer, lto4 6J(3 9} 

Plate, 5 to 9 5J(^ 8J 

Sheet, 10 to 14 (ff 

Sheet, 16 to 20 54(ff 

.Sheet. 22to24 6 (« 

Sheet. 26to28 64(ff 

Horse Shoes, keg 6 00 (ff 

Nail Rod OJC , 

Norway 8«ff 9J 

Rolled 74(£S 9 

Copper,— 

Copper Tinned 37 @ 40 

Sheathing, lb 37^ 40 

Sheathing, Yellow 21 @ 225 

Sheathing. Old Yellow 10 (» U 

Composition Nails 21 (« 

Composition Bolts 24 (ff 

,Steel,— 

English Cast, lb 14 (| 25 

Anderson & Woods, ordinary sizes 16 (ff 

Drill ^^'^ Z. 

FlatB.-vr 15 (? 20 

Plow Steel 84(ff 124 

Tin PLATK.S, - 

10.^14 10 Charcoal 10 60 @ 

BancaTin 24 m- — 

Austrahan 18 (ff 184 

Zinc— .. ^ 

By tho Cask U @ 

Zinc. Sheet 7x3 ft, 7 to 10, lb U (ff 

7x3 ft, 11 to 14 114@ 

8x4 ft, 8 to 10 124(ff 

8x4 ft, 11 to 10 12 ® 

Nails,-- 
Assorted sizes 3 50 @ 

Quicksilver,— 
By the lb 50 @ 



^ACIFIC ^URAL ^RESS, 

A first-cKafls 16-page Agricultural Home Journal, filled 

with fresh, valuable and interesting reading. Every 

farmer and runilist should take it. It is im- 

nienselv popular. Subscription, 84 a year. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers. _ 

No. 224 Sansome Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 



Newspaper Fileholders. 

Dewey's new elastic fileholders (black walnutj, size of 
the Pkehs, hlarper's Weekbj and Scientitic Atnerican, for 
50 cents. Larger sizes to suit any newspaper, 75 
cents, liy mail, postpaid, 10 cents extra. Cash with all 
orders. Patent allowed. Address, Dewey fi Co., Pub- 
lishers, San Francisco. 



Santa Claka, Cal., April 6th, 1876. 
Messrs. Dewey & Co.— Ocn<«.— We have just received 
Patent No. 1«0,535, for J. T. Watkins & Co's Mammoth 
Road Griuler, which was patented through your Agency. 
It is the neatest and best that we have ever received. Wo 
feci i)rond of it and thankful to you for the care and at- 
tention that you have given it, and when we have any- 
thing to do in that line of business, we will surely give you 
a call Verj' respectfully, J. T WATKINS Jit CO. 

Paso Rouleh, Cal., October 18th, 1875. 
Dewev & Co. — (i'fHrt.— The letters patent for the Tiro 
llpsettcr have tome to hand. For the prompt manner 
with which you have brought the matter to a successful 
issue, please accept mv thaidts. Yours rcsucctf ully, 

JOHN H. MEBTZ. 



46 



¥^m^m iix3^a>&t* PBSS8. 



[January 20, 1877. 



Nurserymen. 



RARE AND VALUABLE 

PLANTS AND TREES. 

STRAWBERRIES.— Ever-bearing French Bu»h Straw 
berries, willi and withoul runners; tlie best of all in 
flavor and taste. Plants without runners make flue 
borders. Prices: With runners, 1,000 plants, *10; 100, 
*1.00; 12, 25c. Without runners, 1,000 plants, ii'iO; 100, 
«5:12, 50c. ,, , , 

TREES.— The real Paulowuia Imperialis, 50c. Two dol- 
lars ach tor trees from two to nine feet high. Wal- 
nuts, paper shell, the best of all, one year old, 50c. each. 
Walnuts bearint; three years from the seed. Kour 
kinds of the finest Krcnch Chestnuts, just received from 
France, one and two years old, 50 and 75c. Twelve 
thousand Plants and Trees just received from France, 
includini; many new varii.'ties. 
For sale by 

J. GRELCK, Lo3 Angeles. 
P. O. Box 233. 



FRUIT, EVERGREEN, NEW ANO RARE 
TREES. 

BRIGGS' RED MAY PEACH, 
THE EARLIEST PEACH I.V THE WORLD. 

CALIFORNA FAN PALM, 

(Prichardia Filifera.) 

THE FASTE.ST GROWER AND MOST HARDY OF 

ALL PALMS. 

FLOWERINR PLANTS AND FLOWERING BULBS. 

For a Complete Lisl send for a Catalogue. Ail- 
dross 

JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal- 

STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

Establislaecl in 1852, 

W, B. WEST, Proprietor, 

FRUIT AND 0RNAME:4TAL TREES, 

EVERGREENS, 
SHRUBS AND GREENHOUSE PLANTS, 

Comprising everything,' NliW and UAIIE in my line. 
SPECIALTIES; 

Raisin Grapes, Figs, Oranges, Lemons, 

And Other Tropical Fruits. 
I have imported superior Fv^ and Raisin Grape** di- 
rect from the place of their nativity in Europe, and hav- 
ing propagrated larjje quantities, can now offer them to the 
trade and the public on the 

Most Reasonable Tenns. 

200,000 

Australian Gum Trees For Sale, 

- XT- 

STRATTON'S GUM TREE FOREST NURSERY, 

HAYWARDS, ALAMEDA CO., CAL. 



These trees arc from five to twelve inches high, 
transplanted regularlv into boxes 30x20 inches square 
weiffhinj; 150 pouncis. 150 or 500 in each box, in 
splendid condition for transplaniintf to their pemiantnt 
location. Price, $6 to $12 per 1,000. Will con- 
tract to plant the trees, or furnish su[>erintendeuce, on 
low terms. Casli must accompany orders for less than 
8>0, or if greater than thvt amount, city reference must 
be given. Address, 

JAS. T STRATTON, 
Ea.st Oakland, .-Alameda County, Cal. 



HANNAY BROS.' NURSERY, 

SAN JOSE. CAL. 

FRUIT, SHADE AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, APPLE, 

PEAR, PLUM, CHERRY, PEACH, APRIC<»T, 

ALMOND, (^riNCE, OLIVE, FIG, 

GRAPEVINES, AND SMALL 

FRCirs. 

El'CALYPTCS, CYPRESS, PINE, ACACIA, PEPPER, 

ELM, POPLAR, ETC., ETC. 

Our Trees we well grown and healthy, and those wishing 
to plant largely will study their own interests by giving 
us a call betore purcha^iii;,' olsewlu-re 

HANNAY BROTHERS. 

p. O. Box S2. 



SANTA BARBARA NURSERY, 

Located seven miles wt-st of Santa B:irl;ara, Cal. 
DelKit, ('or. Moutecito and Castillo Streets. 
JOSEPH SEXTON, - . . - l-roprietor 

CULTIVATOR OK 

Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Trees. Also, 
Orange, Lemon, Lime and Palm Trees, 
Pot Plants, and Hardy Ever- 
green Shrubbery. 



PETALUMA NURStKIEi. 



Established 



1860. 



We offer this sciihoii a liir^i- iiiul wi'll-selectfil «tock of 
Fruit Trees. Fruit Bu»hfs. Vines. Shade Trtes and a general 
aasortmeiit of Eveigi-ei'ii Vtkk s an<l Slirubw. We hav^- 1.000,- 
000 <»umB from .*5 pt^r M up. accuiding to Kize. Wp have also 
an over-stnck ot I'iiiUf* lusi^'iius. Monteruy Cypre««, Pun.' 
Whitt: Pampas Plantti. lart{f pluuu^ti. Large Amucaria Kx- 
cftlsa. Aiuericau Elm. Black Walnut* and Blackberry Root*, 
at very htw rate». Price List «ent on application, AddreHH. 
WM .SKXTUN. Petalun.a. Cal 

TPAOC Pla life Bulbs. Fall Price Listand Bulb 
I CC/Of nail 19) Catalogiic CJkatis, Addrew, F. 
K l^IiCilNlX, Blouiuinnton Nursery, 111 



PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

SAN FRANCISCO, 

Manufacturers of Linseed and Castor Oils, Oilcake and Meal. 

Hi|,'hest priee paid fur Flax Seed and Castor lj«ans delivered at our works. Contracts made and Seed 
furnished for Flax Seed and Cft*tor Bean Crt»p of 1877. For particulars, inquire at the office. 
BEWARE OF ADULTERATED LINSEED OIL. 

I^irchascrs of our Oil, hoileil or raw, in barrels, toould be particular to notice that our trade mark, p,isted over 
the buiii.'s. has not been tampered with The trade mark is Just put on to Becure its purity, ami prevent aiukerations 
with fish oil.s or other cheap oils, barrels havinj; our br.md have been purchased and flllcil with adultcr.ited oil, and 
sold as our own nuke. This we cannot entirciv pre^ent, but we fully guarantee the purity of all oils taken directly 
from our works. 

Tile attention of the trade is particularly called to our New and very Superior brand, I>iamond Cast<ir Oil, «hicli 
for its Purity and Brilliancy cannot be surp^isscd by any Castor Oil ever offered in this market, as our tcslinionials 
from all the i)rincipal dealers will show. Purchasers and consumers of the Diauiond Castor Oil are requested to 
purchase in ori(;in:d packat^es. and see that our trade mark and brand is on each packat;e. 

For sale in lots to suit at 

PACFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS; Office, Corner California and Front Streets. 

KITTLE & CO., Agents. 



Jh coiscijiicme of spiinotis iuiitalioiis oj 

LEA AND PERKINS' SAUCE, 

\vJiicli arc calculated lo deceive tlie Public, Lea ami Pcnin:i 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 

thus, 

■which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
. SA UCE, and tvithout which none is genuine. 

Ask for L F.A &' PER HISS' Sauce, and see Name on IVrapper, Label. BoUlc ami .^topper. 
IVh'olesaU and for Jixf,ort by the Proprietors, H'oreester ; Crosse and B.'aekwell, London, 
^'c, fy^c. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San Francisco. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES 

ESTIBLTHIIED IS IS.'lS. 

Tlio largest and most complete stock of Fruit Trees 

north of San Francisco liay, also, a general 

assortment of Shade Trees, Evcr;,'reen Trees 

and .Shrubs, Green House I'lants, etc. 

Eucalyptus in varietv Ih-ices low. 

dialogues and "list of priirus furnished on application. 

Address, W. H. PEPPER, Petalunja, Cal 



Seedsmen. 



SEEDS. 



TREES. 



SEEDS. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRKSH KENTUCKY 
IJLL'E GRASS, RED TOI" ri-MoTIlY, SWEET 
VERNAL, XIEZVUITE and other Grasses. 
RED CLOVER, FRENCH WHITE 
CLOVER. CHOKE CALIFOK- 
NLV ALFALFA, Etc. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLL^^ND FLOW- 
ERING BULBS, ,IAi'AN LILlEiS, FRESH AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE GU.M, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEED; tfigethcr with all kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNA.MENTAL TREES, 
and evcrvthin^' in the Seed line, 
.it the lilil Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Inipirtcr and Dealer in Seeds, 

425 Washington Street, - San Francisco. 




My annual Cataloi;iii: of \'< -■ t.il>k- nnd Flower Seed for 
1877' will be ready by January, and sent FREE to all who 
a ply. (Customers of last season need not write for it. 
I offer one of the lai-geirt ooUectionsof Ve);etablcKeed ever 
sent out by any seed house in America, a larife portion 
of which were ^Vown on my six seed farms. Printed di- 
rections for cultivation on every package. All seed sold 
fri»m my establishment warranted to be both fresh and 
true to name; so far, that should it prove <»therwise I 
will refill the order jrratis. As the oritfinal iiitHKluccr 
of the Hubbard and Marblehcad Scpiashes, the .Marblehead 
('abba(,'es, and a score of other new vegetables, 1 invite 
the patronajTe of all who are anxious to have their seed 
fresh, true, and of the very best strain. AVir Vegctahhi' 
u yjti'cialtt/. 

JAMES J. H. GREGORY, 

Marblehead, Mass. 



h' 






Thi 



ill b.- 

i I e (I 

to all appli- 

tlltS I'll ic- 

pt of ajsctB. 

s is one of llic 

birtl'stClTlLOOCIS 

ublished, contaiuH 

lit 2.>il pages, over 

•dO fine engraviiies, two 

K-eani coloit'd plates, and 

!■ fiilldesc I iptions, prices 

diii-cti'.i.s l„i pl..iiliiii; 

v.T 1200 v«li'-li''« of Vi'Kctublu 

I Flower .>iLiHl>. ItcddiiiK Plants, 

H«. ,Vc., and is iiivaluabUi to 

Karuier, Gardener A I'L.ri^l. .\ildie68, 

D.M. FEEEY & CO., Detroit, Mieh. 



ffl 



Oor AbridseJ Priced Catalogue FREE to all Apiilicaols. 



S SEEDS. SEEDS. SEEDS. S 

E ^'V C VT.M.O'H K nl-- E 

E Field, Flower and Garden Seeds, Etc., E 
D For l-iT", will be mailud free to all a|iplic4ints. D 
S WILLI.\M RE.NNIE, - - - Toko.nto, Canada. S 



SPANISH CHUFA 
SEED FOR SALE. 



Address 

L. L. BEtiUETTE, 

Downey City, Los Angeles 

('ountv, Cal. 



Agricultural Articles. 




The Famous "Enterprise" 

(PERKIN.S* PATENT) 
Self Regulatin), Farm 
Pumping, Railroad 
and Power 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures, 

Have been in use on the 
Pacillc Coast in the towns 
and farmini; districts for 
over four years, and wher- 
ever they have been sold 
(and there arc thousands of 
them out) they are doing 
their work as well as when 
put up. A careful pi;rusal 
of our Circulars gives a fair 
representation of them and 
sIkiws their simplicity. 

We are prepared to fill orcer* ,, .rom a 

PUMPING .MILL lo a 24-foot POWER .MILL for runniinf 
Machinery, as well as doini,' the pumping. 

The 'ENTERPRISE" FEED MILL 

(PACKER'S PATENT), 
FOR GRINDING BARLEY. ETC., 

l-;ipially a.s commciidahle, has now 
been tested to entire satisfaction 
of all, and meets the demand for 
an article of that kind that has 
not been supplied on the Pacific 
Coast heretoiorc. 

CHEAP AND RELIABLE. 

All Goods Warranted. 

Send for Illustrated Cirttilars 
and information Ut 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

Managers tor Call ornia and Pacific Coast, 

(Jeiieral ollicc ami Supplies, 
LIVBRMORB, ALAMEDA COUNTY, CAL. 




OAKLAND 

Spring Balance 

Gang Plow. 




Patented and manufactured by H. N. Dallon, 'at tlie 
Pachcco .\gTicultural Implement Works, Pacheco, Cal. 
r. : .^ i lied in 185S Send for Circular aud Price List. 



IfiON SECTIONAL HARROW, 



kC'^^ 



"^— 




This Harrow was Awarded the First 

Prerr iunf) at the California 

State Fair in 1875. 

Tlie undersigned, having purchased the patent rijht of 
this Harrow for California, are now manufacturing them 
in RosevUlc, Placer County, and would call the attention 
of Farmers to the superior merits of this Harrow over all 
others iiuw in use. 

.V» its name indicates, it is made in sections of about 
three feel in width, each section having four bars, in 
which the teeth are inserted, and by connecting the BCC- 
iions with links, the Harrow is foniied. 

Should a farmer re()uire a Harrow ui)H>n his farm to do 
all kinds i»f work, he slit>uld purchase six sections, which 
viould be suitable for four horses, and would cut 18 feet 
in width; by disconnecting two sections he will have a two 
or tlircehorse Harrow, cutting about IS feet One sec- 
tion .alone is comjilete in itself, and suitable for garden 
work, with one horse. The Harrows are made of the tiest 
quality of iron, and with teeth warranted to be steel. 

We give a few tif the many reasons why we claim suiie- 
riority (or these Harrows over all others in use on this 
Coast: 

First— By the lightness of the draft, taking into considera- 
tion the amount of work it does. 
.Second -liy working uneven vr rolling ground Just a« 

well and a.s evenly as if it was entirely level. 
Third Tlii^ are made of Iron and Steel, and therefore 
are not affected at all by sun or rain, or by heat and 
cold; they arc ahv.iys tight, and rcidy for use; they are 
also durable. .\ fanner j)urchasiiig one has a Harrow 
that will last a life time. 
Fourth The teeth being fastened with a nut and screw 
into the cross bars, should one break, another can be 
inserted in a moment. We arc making three sizes, all 
belli" the same in width, but difterent in depth aud 
weiglit only. 

Prices, from •$IJ..'iO to 915.00 per s<ictiotu 

All orders sent to 

BREWSTER & CO., 

Roseville, Placer County., 
Will be promptly attended to, and satisfaction guaran- 
teed in all caaes. 

oautIon. 

It has come to our notice that ccr.ain parties ar« now 
making this Harrow ill this State, and that several of 
them have been .sent here from the Ea«L Now this is to 
raution all persons ag.iinst m:Uiing. selling or buying 
theiii, so made and offered for sale, as wc shall enforce our 
rights in relation to the matter, aud would call the atten- 
tion of all persons infringing upon our p.ttent, to the laxr 
ill regard to it. 

BREWSTER & CO. 

Roseville, July 16th, 187«. 




THE SLUTHOUR PUMP 

HAS NO EyUAL FOR 

IRRIGATION. 

Send Your Orders to 
J. M. KEELER & CO., Agents, 



330 Sansome Street, 



San Francisco. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
hi Slockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is tliorouijhly made by practiial men who 
have been lonvr in the business and know what is required 
in the construction of Oaiig Plows. It is i|uickly adjusted. 
Sufficient play is given so thai the ttjiiguc will pa.s» over 
cradle knolls without changing the working iKwition of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels tlienisclves 
govern the action of the Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied \x\n>n as the best 
and most desirable' Oaiig Plow in the world Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLLA.MSON, 

Stockton, Cal. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

75 Warren St., New York, 

Commission Merchants in Cal'a Produce 

Refer LNcE.— Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; Ell- 
waiigcr a: iiarry, Rochester, N. Y'. ; C W. Reed, Sacrs- 
ineiiUi, Cal. ; A. Lusk fc Co. , San Krauciseo, Cal. 



January 20, 1877.] 



47 



A Book For All That Have a Garden. 

FRAGARICULTURE, 

OR THE 

CULTURE of the STRAWBERRY, 

A Practical Treatise on the 

Culture, Propagation, Management and 

Marketing of Strawberries. 

ILLUSTRATED with PHOTOGRAPHS representing the 
average size of best varieties, esjiecially adapted to the 
family jjarden; by FELIX OILLET, Nevada City, Oal. 

PRICE OF TREATISE— Illustrated with two pho- 
tographs, 50 cts. ; with five photographs, 75 cts.; with eight 
photographs, 81,00; with 12 photographs, SI. 2.5. Twelve 
different varieties represented, including I'rineess Dagmar, 
The Lady, Col. Cheney, Exhibition, Gov, Booth, .lucunda, 
Cocksconib, etc. It is the best and most complete, prac- 
tical, interesting treatise on strawberry culture ever pub- 
lished in the United States. Will be sent by mail, prepaid, 
at the above prices after receipt of money. 

For sale, at moderate prices, plants of 48 different vari- 
eties of the nicest and largest sorts of Strawberries (Eng- 
lish, French, American and Californian). Ever bearing 
Raspberry (three crops a year). Cions for grafting of 
French Chestnut, (Marron de Lyon and Marroii Conibale). 
Best varieties of Pear, Cherry, etc. 

i^"Send for full descriptive and jirice list. 

FELIX GILLET, Nevada City, Cal. 



CAUjnON. 

To Farmers and all others who put Barbs 
upon Wire Fences, Malting a Barbed 
Wire Pence, and to all Manufac- 
turers and Dealers in Fence 
Barbs and Barbed 
Fence Wire. 

You are hereby notified, that in putting barbs upon 
wire, making a bivrbed wire fence, or ni using or dealing 
in barbs or barbed fence wire, not made under license 
from us, you are infringing upon our patents, and we 
shall hold'you strictly accountable for damages for all in- 
fringements of Letters Patent, Nos. 06,182, 67,117, 74,370, 
84,062, 153,965, 157,124, 157,508, 164,181, 173,667: reissues, 
Nos. 7,130, 6,976, 6,902, 7,035, 7,036, 6,913, 6,914, .and 
other patents. Copies of our claims can be obtained of 
our attorneys, Coburn and Thacher. Chicago, 111., or of 
our counsel," Thos. H. Dodge, Worcester, Miiss. 

WASHBITRN & MOEN MANUF'G CO., 

Worcester, Mass. 

I. L. ELLWOOD & CO., 

De Kalb, 111,, 

Sole owners and mairafacturers, to whom orders for 
Barb Fence »r for Loose Barbs should be addressed. 

SANBORN & BYRNES, 

DO 




Mechanics' Mills, Mission Street, 
Bet. First and Fremont, ,San Francisco. Orders from 
the country promptly attended to. All kinds of Stair 
Material furnished to order. Wood and Ivory Turn- 
ers. Billiard Balls and and Ten Pins, Fancy Newels and 
Bahisters. 






miH0 



TULt LANDS. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION. 

Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 

DANIEL INMAN, (President). 
It. C. HAILE, (Vice Puesiden: 
JOHN LEWELLING, (TREASURkR). 



O. HUBBELL. 

SHIPPING AND 
Grangers' Building', 



AMOS ADAMS, (Secretary). 
THOS. UPTON. 
I. C. STEELE. 

D. CAMPBELL, 



TIIOS. FLINT, 

O. P. KELLOGG, 

W, L, OVEKHISER. 



COMMISSION 



HOUSE, 
106 Davis Street, S. F. 



Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairy Products, Fruit, Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and 
Advances made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandise, 
Farm Implements, Wagons, etc., solicited and promptly attended to. • 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our rates of Conunission upon a fair legitimate basis that will 
enable the country at large to transact business through us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Association, San Francisco," Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application, 

DANIEL INMAN, Manager. 



FOR SALE OR TO LEASE, ABUNDANCE OF PAS- 
TURE ON THEM, Address, 

MERCER & McAFEE, 
426 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

BERKSHIRES. 

r am breeding PURE ENGLISH BERKSHIRE PIGS 
and have them constantly on hand. Also, fifteen two and 
three-year-old Sows, several of them with Pig, These are 
all from Pigs I imported from Kentucky, 

PETER SAXE, Importer. 
Commercial Hotel, San Francisco, 




LOOKI 

ALBERT E, BURBANK, impott- 
cr and breeder of Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Babbits, Dogs, Birds, Etc, 
Eggs for hatching from the finest of 
imported stock. Eggs and Fowls 
at reduced prices. Send stami) for 
Price List, 

ALBERT E, BURBANK, 
43 and 44 California Market, S, F, 



INTERNATIONAL HOTEL, 

ALL NKWLV ErRMBFlEn, 

824 & 826 Kearny Street, - San Francisco. 

$1.50 and $2.00 per day, % Free Coach to the Housu, 
H. C. PATRIDGE, Proprietor. 



Winchester Repeating Rifle. 



MODEL 1873. 




The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, ,,,,,^ „^,,,„,,,^ ,,„., <,.„„., ,„ ,,^ 

get to center pf each shot, 3'2 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, '"SsbttTfiofi'Xs"' 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting, 

Defense, or Target Shooting. 

The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied witli all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 

Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inch-— blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch--blued. Octagon barrel, set, 

24, 26, 2«, SO inch — blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 2t>, 28, 30 inch — blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 

25, 28, 30 extra finished, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set e.xtra heavy, 24, 2f5, 28, 30 inch- 
extra finished- C, H, & C, S, Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, ,30 inch- beautifully finished-C. H. & C, S,, 
known as "One of One Thousand," Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated, Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, nuiskets and carbines, 
model 1866, RELOADING TOOLS, PRIMER.S AND PARTS OF ARMS, 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 

JOHN SKINKER. No. 108 Battery Street, San Francisco, 

SOLE AGZNT FOR THE PACIFIC COAST. 



After Nearly Three Years' Test, the STEEL BARBED FENCE WIRE, Patented by 

J. F, 6LIDDEN, Stands Head and S'loulders Above all Competitors, and 

is More in Demand than all Other Barb Fences Put Together. 




OVER 300,000,.POUNDS SOLD IN CALIFORNIA jTHE FIHST SEASf)N OF ITS INTRODUCTION, THE GLID- 
DEN PATENT BARB WIRE HAS BEEN TESTED BY THOUSANDS OF PRACTICAL FARMERS, WHO 
UNIVERSALLY RECOMMEND IT, AND IS SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS FOR THE FOLLOWINCJ REASONS: 

1, Tlie wire is manufactured entirely from steel, which has a relative strength of 50 per cent, greater than of 
any common iron wire, 2, The only steel wire barb, 3, The only barb that catmot be disjilaced with thumb 
and fiiiger or cattle's horns, 4, The only barb with prongs projecting from between the twisted wire and cannot 
be bent, broken or rubbed off, and never needs replacing, 5. The only coiled barb with broad base on main wire, 
which renders it immovable. 6. The only barb wire during process of manufacture its strength is tested 
equal to that of two-horse power. The only barb put on witli machinery. It is not pounded on with hammer 
and indented in main wire to hold it in place, 8, The only barb wire you can lay 80 rods or more on gro\nid and 
drag with team and not injure or displace the barbs, 0, The only barb wire that gives universal satisfaction and b.as 
greater sale than all •.thers put together. 



CALIFORNIA FARMERS' MUTUA 

Fire Insurance Association. 

No. 38 California Street, 

(GRANGERS' BUILDING,) 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 



CAPITAL, ... - $200,000 00 
ASSETS, OCT. 19, 1876, - 268,716 00 

MUTUAL PLAN. 

,\MOI NT, 1>KEMIUMH 

Risks written to Oct, 1, '76. . ,S.'),1S1,5'.)1 00 «I114,445,.57 
Less Amount Canceled 300,644. 00 6,297, 50 

Amount in force, Oct, 1, '76, ,,.'<4,880,947.00 $108,148,07 
Losses paid i<7,2.'>1.00 

CASH PLAN. 

AMOU.NT. PRK.VIH;MB. 

Risks written to Oct. 1, '76 .«2,.'J85,914. 19 S.'>l,606.9a 

Less Canceled and Expired 976,908.00 19,538,16 

.\mount in force, Oct, 1,76 .?1,609,006,19 §32,068,80 

Losses paid $10,153.71 

OFFICERS. 

.1, D, BLANCHAR President 

I, G, GARDNER Vice-Preside.nt 

G, P. KELLOGG Tkeasi'Kek, 

A, W. THOMPSON Attorney 

FERD, K, RULE Secretary 

TRUSTEES. 

J, D, Blanchar i ...-. .i... .'.,... Sau Francigco 

G, P, Kellogg Salinas 

I, G, Gardner San Fi-ancisco 

Chas, Laird Salinas 

Uriah Wood San Benito 

A, B, Nally Santa Rosa 

A, W. Thompson San Francisco 

A, I), L(]gan Colusa 

1, C, Steele San Mateo 

G, W Colby Butte County 

A, Wolf Stockton 

C, .1, Cressey Oakland 

.T, C, Merryfleld Dixon 

E, W, Steele San Luis Obispo 

C, S, Abbott Monterey 

Dr, T, Flint Hollister 

Farm property insured at actual oost on the Mutual 
Plan, Other desirable property insured, and rated accord- 
ing to merit. 



JONES, GIVENS & CO., Pacific Coast General Agents, . 



Sacramento, Cal. 



Manufactured by Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Company. 



^^M^^ 




CALVERT'S CARBOLIC 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 Per Gallon. 

After di))i)ing the Sheep, is use- 
ful for Preserving Wet Hides, De- 
stroying the Vine Pest, and f(»r 
Disinfecting Purposes, Etc. 

T. W. JACKSON, S, F,, Sole 
At;ent for California and Nevada. 



AL.L SiioiLD Have It, — The last Rurai, Press is worth 
the subscription for a year. Every farmer should have it. 
-Soutltern CaUfornian, March Hiiil. 



WANTED AND FOR SALE. 

1 HAVE AT THE 

Bull's Head Live & Let Live Stock Yards, 

Cor. 9th, 10th and Howard .Streets, 
SAN FHANCISCO, 
Two llioroughbred Short-Horn Bulls, imported fiom 
Kentucky, and two years old: RED, and fme pedigrees. 
As I have quit importing I will sell one of the above at 
If.'i.W (has cost me over S900,) ami take it in fresh Milch 
C<iws or good hay, at the market price, A good chance to 
get a fine bull che;ip, 

ROLLIN P. SAXE, Proprietor, 
Bull's Head Live and Let Live Stock Yards 



Grrangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Authorized Capital - $5,000,000. 



OFFICERS: 

President GILBERT W. COLBY. 

Managing Director C. J. CRESSEY. 

Cashier ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 

Secretary F. A. CRESSEY. 



The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 



HOjOj - 



HEALII'S 



BUSINE 5S 
COLLECIL 

No. 24 Post Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAIi. 



The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of yotmg men in the State, It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping .and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorongh in- 
struction is given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modern Languages are i)ractically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, and its system of .4ctual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladies' Df.I'Artsikxt- Ladies will be admitted for in- 
struction in all the Deyjartments of the Clollege, 

TKLE(n{.\i inc DKi'AitTMKNT - In this Dei>artment young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, botli by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the ('ollege, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco. Cal. 



The Patron's Almanac for 1877. 

Second year of issue. Greatly enlarged and improved. 
Contains 7'2 pages of useful matter; The Constitution and 
By-laws of the Order; Rules for Suiiordinate (Jrangcs; 
Decisions of the National Body; Deelaratioi\ of Purposes; 
Rules of Order in the Orange; Origin and object of the 
Orange, etc. Also, many useful and eon-ect rules, tables, 
etc., for weighing, nieasnring and calculating' the contents 
of timber, lumber, land, boxes, cribs, etc. , tiesides accu- 
rate calendar pages for all parts of the Union. In short, 
it is an indispensable companion for every Patron or 
farmer in the Pacific as well as in the Atlantic States. 
Price, by mail, postpaid: Single copies, 10 cents; 12 copies, 
'?, cents'; IS copies for *1.00; 24 copies, *1.2.5; 100 copies, 
.if.'). 00, Address, 

S. HOWARD WILSON, |/ 
Medianicsville, Bucks Co., PH., 



r OUR NAME PRINTED on 40 Mixed Card^ for 10 csnts. 
CLINTON BROS,, Clinlonvillc, Ct, 



48 



[January 20, 1877. 



TWENTY-FIVE TONS CHILE ALFALFA SEED 

IN LOTS TO SUIT, AT FROM $8 TO $13 PER 100 POUNDS. 

THIS SEED IS BEING SOWTST BY THE LARGEST STOCK-RAISERS ON THE PACIFIC COAST. I ALSO HAVE 

SO TONS G^EINTUINE PERUVIAN GTJ^NO, 

IN LOTS TO SUIT, AT $3 PER 100 POUNDS. OR $50 PER TON. 

VEGETABLE AND FLOWER SEEDS AT EASTERN PRICES. SEND FOR CATALOGUE. 



R. J. TRUMBULL. 419 and 421 Sansome Street, 



San Francisco. 



MUSIC BOOKS 



Schools, Academies & Seminaries. 



THE HIGH SCHOOL CHOIR, («1, or S9 pi"^ 
doz. ) is already a "i.nivcil ami prized' book in a mul- 
titude of schcMils. and has siin«-9 in 2, 3 and 4 [arts, by 
Emerson & Tildes. 

Equally good are the older HOUR OF SINGING. (?!,) by 
EsiEKsox \ Tildes, CHOICE TUIOS. (*!,) for 3 female 
voices, b) \V. S. Tildes, and DEEM'.-i SOLFEGGI, (75 
cents) which has exercises in Italian style. 

TH3 ENCORE, (75 cents, or .<7..M) per doz.)so suc- 
cessful as a Sin;,'ini,' School book, is also a practic-ally 
Kood class b..ok f..r Ili-h Sell... .Is. 

THE WHIPPOORWILL, (-'.O cents) by W. O. Pek- 
Kiss, (aullL.r of the "G.ilden Robin,") is filled with 
(tenial, plca-siiig sonifs for Common Schools. 

AMERICAN SCHOOL ML'SIC READER-S, Book I, (35 
cents), IkKik II (.'.0 cents). Book III (."iO cents), are well- 
made mdcd note readers, by Emerson & Tildes. 
As collections of cheerful sacred snnjfs. such as now 

enter so gracefully into School Life, we commend three 

books of uncommon beauty, our Sabbath School Song 

Books, RIVEK OF LIFE, (35 cents,) SHINING RIVER, 

(35 c nts.) GOOD NEWS, (35 cents.) 

Either buok mailed, i>.>st-free, for ReUil Price. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 



CALIFORNIA YEAST CAKES, 



MANLFACTLKEl) BY 



C. H. DiTSON ii Co., 
711 Broadway, New York. 



.J. E. DiTsox & Co., 

Successors to Lee & Walker, 
Philadelphia. 



THOROUGHBRED FOWLS, 

BRONZE TURKEYS, 
Pekin Ducks, Embden Geese, 



SAFE ARRIVAL 

or FOWLS 

6UARANTEED 




Eggs Shipped to 
,\ny part of the 
Coast to Hatch Af- 
ter Arrival. 



Send stamp for Price-List. Pamphlet on the care of 
Jowls— hatching, feeding, dise:ises and their cure, etc., 
adapted especially to the Pacific coast; price 10c. Address, 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 

Also, Thoroughbred Southdown Sheep. 



NEW VI.MELAND TEMPERAN E COLONY. 

Incorpyorated November 0th, 1876. 

One hundred square miles of Valuable Farm and Graz- 
ing Lands to be sold to actual settlers at a small advance 
on first cost, on eight years' time, interest at seven per 
cent, per annum. Valuable lands for fruits, vegetables, 
and cereals, and requiring no irrig.atioii. None but 
stockholders to be purchasers of the lands. In subscrib- 
ing for stock, ten per cent, is required at time of sub- 
scribing, 8100 on each share of stock of the par value of 
SI, 000. All percentages paid in on stock are received on 
first payment for lands. Ample provision is made for 
Schools, Library. Churches, etc The manufacture and 
sale of intoxicating liquors will not be all<jwed on the 
lands of the colony. These lands are located in Santa 
Barbara County, Cal. , near the Lomjxjc Temperance Col- 
ony, and situated for twelve miles on the Santa Vnez 
River. Full particulars, containwi in the regular Pros- 
pectus, will be mailed to all persons addressing the officers 
of the company at Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, Cal. 
JAMES W. AVEBB, President. 

Charles Maltby, Secretary. 

LABOR. 



Who wants to employ good labur of any description? 
or mechanics ? Send your orders (free of charge) to 
ZEEHANDELAAR, (»6 Clay Street, San Francisco. He 
has furnished our interior with over 200,000 farmers and 
other help during the last nine years, as Secretary of the 
Free Labor Exchange and ai a private employment 
a^ent. 



John Saul's Catalogue of New, Rare and 

Beautiful Plants, will be ready in February, with a 

colored plate of the New Striped Rose, 

BEAUTY OF GLAZENWOOD. 
"A rose of golden-yellow, striped and flaked with scarlet 
vermilion. Sounds like a dream or a fairy tale; it is nev- 
eitheless a reality."—!/. Curlit, in the Gardener. Cata^ 
alogues free to all my customers; to others, price 10 cents, 
or a plain copy free. JOHN SAVl., Washingtou, 1>. C. 



nn SWISS MOTTO cards, 200 stjles, with name, 20c.; 
^\J '25 Fancy cards. 15 styles, » i'.h name, 10c. ; 30 Ma- 
sonic or Odd-Fellow's Cards, with name, 2Uc., postpaid. 
,1. B. UVSTEU, Nassau, N. V. 



F. M. LEEF &. CO.. 



o 



o 
>- 



TK.VDK MARK. 

B. B. SCOTT, General Agent, 

References— Wholesale Grocers : 
Messrs. Tillman i Bendul, San Francisco, A. P. Whitney . Petaluma. 

Taber, Harker & Co., San Francisco, Luther .S: Schroeder, San Jose, 

Newton Bros. & Co., San Francisco, Chas. Jones, Oakland, 

J. A. Folger & Co., San F'rancisco, J. H. Sejnnour, Los Angeles, 



S/ftDRAMENTO, GAL. 




Sacramento, Cal- 



.\dams, McNeil Si Co., Sacramento. 
T. M. Lindley Ji Co. , Sacramento. 
Booth & Co. . Sacramento, 
H. S. Sargent, Stockton. 




— o — 

UACHINERy, BUILDINGS, PORTRAITS, LANDSCAPES, TRADE-MARKS, LABELS, SEALS, MONOGRAMS, etc 

«3 — --^ -.-v.* 

IN THE H.QHeST STYL_E OF THE AKT. 

E. SCHULTZE, DE-WEY A CO., 

MANAGER. Publishers and Pa'.rnt Agents. 




Vittv jiages 300" Illustrations,"' with Descriptions of 
thousands of the best Flowers and Vegetables in the 
world, and tlie trail tn i/rotr them .all for a two cext jxist- 
age stamp. Printed iii fJemian and English. 

■Vick's Floral Guide, Quarterly, -ir. cents a year. 

■Vick'8 Floral and Vegetable Garden, 60 cents 
in mpcr; in elegant cloth covers, -Sl.rtO. 

Address, JAMES VICE. Rochester. N. Y. 



TREES, 
'TREES AND PLANTS, 




OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, AT THE CAPITAL NURS- 
ERIES. SACRAMENTO. A FULL ASSORT- 
MENT OF EVERYTHING IN THE NURS- 
ERY LINK. liiiTH WHOLESALE 
AND RETAIL, AT LOWEST 
MARKET RA-ps. 
ALSO, A VERY LARGE AND COMPLETE ASSORT- 
MENT OF FIELD, GARDEN. LAWN AND TREE 
SEEDS, WHICH WE OFFER AT VERY LOW 
RATES. BOTH TO THE TRADE AND 
PLANTER IN LARGE OR SMALL 
LOTS. 
Catalogues, Price-Lists, and Printed Directions free 
on applic-ation. Address, 

W. R. STRONG & CO., 

No8. 6, 8 and lO J Street, Sacramento. 



B. B. RED GAMES 

A Siiecialty. Bred from imported st.iek of Henry ISeldeu 
and John Douglas strain. 1 have three yards of the above 
breed, some of them winners of first prizes in the East. 
Young stock always on hand. Send f.tr a circular. 
J. G. ANNEAR, 
Oeres, Stanislaus County, Cal. 




M. FALLON, 



Cor. Seventh & Oak Sts. , 



OAKLAND, CAL. 

Light anil Dark Brahinas, 
Huff, White and Par- 
tridge Cochins, _ 
Sjiangled, Golden and Silver Polish, 

.Spangled, (iolden ami .Silver Hamburgs, 
Pure White-faocd Black Sjianish, 
White and Brf)vm Leghorns, 

Silver Orey Dorkings, 
Houdans, Silkies, Black-Hcd Canies, 
Bronze Turkeys, Kouen and AylesburyiDucks, 
All from Premium Stock of Best Strains. 

Fowls of the aljove varieties for sale; also. Chicks in 
their season. Egifs packed with care and sent in rotation 
as orders are received. 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



FRU T AND ORNAMENTAL 

TREES, 

Evergreens and G.een-house Plants, 

Comprising Everything- New and Rare. 

Our stock of Orange and Lemon trees arc far suiwrior 
to anything of the knul ever offered in this market. Two 
and three jears old. Grafted of choice varieties. 
FRUIT TREES of all larielies in large quantity ut re- 
duced prices. Also, Monterey C>i)res8, Monterey Pines, 
Blue (;um8. Magnolias, Ac-aci:LS. Roses, etc. Those laying 
out new grounds » ill find it to their advantage to caU 
and examine our slock before purchasing elsewhere. 
THOS. MEHERIN, 

516 Battery Street, 
P. O. Box 722. Opposite Postotticc, San Francisco, 

Agent for the Nurseries of B. S. Fox, San Jose. Send 
for Price Catalofj^e. 



IMPORTED. 



Crosby's Extra Early . 
Marblehead Mammoth f 
Stowell's Evergreen ,' 
Mexican Sweet, Ne^w ' 



Sweet Corn. 



Early Canada) -tt n tii' ^ n 

Early Dutton T lellOW fllllt Com. 



Long Red Mangel Wurtzel i 
Yellow Globe ■ 

White Sugar ) 



Beet Seed. 



ALSO, EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY OF VEGETA- 
BLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, GRASS AND 
CLOVER SEEDS, ETC , OFFERED AT 
WHOLESALE Olt RETAIL. 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

No. 317 Washington Street, San F'rancisco. 



R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer in 




FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS, rRUITS AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 
Comprising the Most Complete Stock 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 
Prices rnusually Low. 

OTrade Price List on a|>plication. 
".'My "Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden" 
will soim be ready, and will be sent frek to all Custo- 
mers. It will contain instructions on the culture o( 
Fruit, Nut, and Onuuncntal Tree Seeds, Tobacco, 
Alfalfa, etc. 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 
419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. P. 

OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland. 

Constantly on hand and for sale, choice 
specimens of the following va- 
rieties of Fowls: 

Dark and Light Brahmas, Buft 

White and Partridge 

Cochins, White 

and Brovm 

Leghorns. Dorkings, 

Polish Hamburgs, Game 

and Sebright Bantams, 

Aylesbury and Bouen Ducks 

EGGS FOR SALE AtTER JANUARY FIR.ST. 

NO INFEi^lO^ FOWLS SOLD AT ANY PRICE. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 

For further information send stamp for Illustrated Cir- 
cular, to 

GEO. B. BATLBT, 

P O. Box 069, San Francisco, Cal. 




Rupture. 



IMeUI Trusses, being rigid and unyielding, I 
are often displaced from tneir position by the \ 
motions of the body, in consequence of which ' 
:they E.SL.4K0E rupture instead of healing it. 
L "Their pressure is often wrought upon jiarts ol j 
I the body which ore healthy, thereby causing 1 
■ lumbago and other diseases of a daiigerous na- 
Iture. Call on the MAGNETK; ELASTIC TRUSS 1 
• CO., OOSI SacnuncnU. Street, S. F. 



WANTED. 

HELP IN THE BEE-KEEPING BUSINESS. 
Address, R. WILItIN, Sau Buenaventura, Cal 




Volume XIII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 27, 1877. 



[Number 4. 



Ichneumon Files. 

Editors Press; — Please find inclosed specimen of sliell 
containing small flies. There are a great many of those 
shells on my apple trees, all filled as you will find this, 
with a small fly, some full grown, whilst others are very 
small. I do not know whether this is something strange 
to you or not, but I have never seen anything like it until 
this fall. I find them on no other tree but the apjile. I 
have watehed those flies come out and go b.ick into the 
shell when it is wanu, but if they are disturbed they fly 
away. — M. F. Tyler, Kanchito, Los Angeles county. 

The "shell" which Mr. Tyler sends is a 
chrysalis of a butterfly. Mr. Edwards recog- 
nizes it a.s the chrysalis of the Popilio rnttthis, 
or "yellow swallow-tail butterfly." The chrys- 
alis IS probably formed by a greenish, spotted 
grub. It is this grtib which does the mischief 
on the apple trees. 

The little flies, to which Mr. Tyler calls espe- 
cial attention, are his best friends. The eggs 
from which they come are laid in the "shell," 
or chrysalis. They hatch quickly, and the mag- 
gots begin at once to feed upon the large grub 
in the chrysalis, and they destroy it before it 
can come out. If it were not for these flies, a 
large butterfly would emerge from each of the 
numerous " shells " which Mr. Tyler finds on 
his trees, and each butterfly would lay a bunch 
of eggs, from which would hatch huncbeds of 
grubs, which would devour the apple leaves 
greedily. The little flies see to it that this but- 
terfly never appears, and thus they are an illus- 
tration of the wise provision in nature which 
aids the husbandmen in their warfare with nox- 
ious insects. 

As these flies are such true friends of the 
farmer, we will quote from a book by Prof. 
Morse a few interesting facts concerning them; 
"The ichneumon flies are a group of insects 
which deposit their eggs directly in the bodies 
of the larvas and pupaj of other insects. These 
insects have on the hinder part of the body a 
sharp, piercing sting, and with this organ the 
necessary hole is made through which the egg is 
deposited. A caterjiillar soon hatches from the 
egg thus deposited by the ichneumon fly, and 
feeds upon the fatty portions of the body of the 
larva in which it has been so placed. But this 
larva containing the ichneumon caterpillar, 
meanwhile, completes its growth and changes 
into a chrysalis, when the inclosed ichneumon 
larva devours the entire contents of the chrysa- 
lis, and then changing into the pupa state, soon 
emerges as an ichneumon fly, to go in quest of 
caterpillars, in which to deposit its eggs. Thus 
it will often happen that a number of cocoons 
have been collected, from which ought to appear 
a certain kind of a butterfly, for example, but 
from many of them a brown ichneumon fly will 
emerge^a sight quite as startling, to one not 
familiar with insects, as if a robin should be 
seen to hatch from a hen's egg. If pupils will 
collect a large number of the chrysalides of the 
common yellow cabbage butterfly, and keep 
them in a box, with a piece of glass for a cover, 
they will observe that while a butterfly comes 
from many, from others, which have already 
changed to a lighter color, little black flies will 
appear, crawling out of a hole in the side of the 
cnrysalis, which had been made by some of the 
imprisoned ichneumons. Nearly every species 
of insect is infested with one or more species of 
ichneumons, which deposit their eggs either 
within the pupae, larvte, or the eggs themselves. 
There are some species of icimeumons which de- 
posit their eggs within the eggs of the canker- 
worm moth, and, as tiny as these eggs are, they 
are still large enough to furnish nourishment 
and room for the complete development of the 
insect feeding within.' 



The Str.\w Burner Trial. -— The suit 
brought by Mr. H. W. Rice against John L. 
Heald for alleged infringement on his patent for 
straw burning attachment to tlireshing engines, 
which was recently tried in this city, was 
■watched with interest by manufacturers and 
users of steara threshing machinery. The issue 
was tried in the United States Circuit Court, 
before Judge Lorenzo Sawyer. It has been pend- 
ing just a year, and after a long contest, lasting 
througli eight days, was decided on the 1st in- 
stant in favor of the plaintifl', Mr. Rice. The 
result is an attirmation of Mr. Rice's right to 
the combination of the straw feeding attach- 
ment to return-flue boilers, and manufacturers 
must now accord him this right or contest the 
point further in the liigher courts. 



California Flowe-s. 



The rains have msured a harvest both of 
worth and beauty. While our earnest workers 
will rejoice over the weight of grain and fruit, 
many also will give thanks that the wealth of 
bloom will cover our rural landscapes. Califor- 
nia is famous for her wild flowers. In their 
season one can ride for miles, yes, for days, 
through a sea of blossoms such as can be found 
nowhere else in the world. Poets and prose 
writers have both exhausted their resources of 
fine words in attempts to describe the infinite 
variety of forms and exquisite mingling of 
shades which may be found in our vast wild 
flower gardens. The valley in bloom, the hills 
in blossom and the mountains aglow with the 
rich flowering — these are scenes which every 
Californian may enjoy. 

We give upon this page an engraving of a 
cluster of California flowers as drawn by our 
able botanist and enthusiastic flower-lover, T)r. 
A. Kellogg. Dr. Kellogg has done much with 
his pen and pencil to bring our native flowering 
plants to the attention of the admiring world. 



noticed in the descriptions. A very common 
bulbous jjlant of California. The single radicle 
fleshy leaf, as large as the palm of one's hand, 
is absent when flowering. 

No. 4, Qinothera aratata (Kellogg.) Sickle- 
leaf primrose. 

No. 5, Anemopsis Californica. A beautiful 
scarlet flower, found in wet places. 

No. 6, Downing's beauty — Dotoningia pnl- 
chella. In honor of the late A. J. Downing, 
well known to horticidtural and rural fame. 

No. 7, Specuhtria, a species of Venus's look- 
ing-glass. 

A New Movement in Wool Selling. — We 
may state as a matter of information to wool- 
growers that Faulkner, Bell & Co., of this city, 
propose something new in the handling of woo' 
in this market. Their plan is outlined in the 
following circular which we have received: We 
have arranged to add to our business a wool- 
growers' agency, and from and after the 1st 
of January 1877, we shall be prepared to re- 
ceive consignments of wool, and attend to any 
business with which wool-growers may intrust 




CALIFORNIA WILD FLOWERS. 



The group which we give this week could be 
multiplied many times and yet the great wealth 
of our resources of bloom would be but entered 
upon. We trust, however, that the little illus- 
tration may aid some of our readers in recog- 
nizing the plants which will shoot up this spring 
by their pathways and induce many to study 
the flowers and take in the delightful pastime 
of sketching from nature in this line of nature's 
beauties. 

In the beautiful group. No. 1, represents the 
largest and most common iris of this coast — 
Iris lonijipefala; the flowers pale blue, or whit- 
ish, with deep blue veins. There are many 
species of the Fleur de Lis found here, some of 
which may prove to be new. 

No. 2 is the Western or Pacific (false) honey- 
suckle. Azalea occkltntalis. The flowers arc 
perfectly white, except the lower division of its 
border, which is creamy, or ochcrous yellowish. 
Some specimens wc have seen with pink flowers; 
others of a lieautiful yellow color. These plants 
vary much in form; but, when properly studied, 
we are satisfied that several distinct species may 
be identified. 

No. 3, the rice root of the miners, wild 
guinea hen flower, checkered lily, etc., 
Frit'dlaria muticn. A dark brown or purplish 
checkered, nodding liliaceous flower; plant 
about two feet in hight, with four to eight, or 
even as liigh as twenty flowers. The glandular 
and beautifully crenulatec;! piargins are not 



us. Mr. Thomas Mitchell, who has had an ex- 
perience of 20 years in the wool trade, will act 
as our stapler. We shall be prepared to make 
advances on consignments of wool, in transit 
or in warehouse, at current rates of interest. 
Believing that it will conduce to the best inter- 
est of buyers and sellers of wool to hold peri- 
odical auction sales, thereby assuring the sale of 
each parcel of wool on its own merits, we have 
arranged with Messrs. H. M. Newhall & Co. to 
act for us as auctioneers, and we intend, later 
on, to give notice of our first sale under this sys- 
tem, hoping tliat wool -growers will give us such 
encouragement as will lead to these sales becom- 
ing regular and jjermanent. 



The Mining Debris Trial. — The' trial of 
this important issue, which has been in progress 
in Sacramento for the p:ist three week.?, is now 
apju'oaching its termination. The testimony 
on both sides is all in, and the summing up of 
tlie lawyers will occupy the remainder of this 
week. Perhaps in next week's Press we shall 
be able to give the result of the trial, with some 
of the main points in the evidence. 

The Senate railroad committee have amend- 
ed (Gordon's bill so as to require the Pacific 
railroad companies to establish a sinking fund 
at once, with ij;l, 000,000 paid in and not less 
than .$750,000 annually, until the whole amount 
is paid, with interest at six per cent. 



Manihot Carthagensis. 

A reader of the Rural Press, at Jackson- 
ville, Florida, Mr. A. F. Styles, sent us recently 
a little package of seeds which he had grown. 
Among them were a few seeds of the Jntropho, 
manihot, of which he says: "It is a rapid-grow- 
ing deciduous tree, having handsome foliage. 
It does not grow tall — from 20 to 30 feet — but 
branches regularly, and is somewhat umbrella- 
shaped. It will sometimes bear seed the first 
year. Whether the tree is of any value, except 
as an ornamental tree, I cannot say. It con- 
tinues in bloom a long time, and is thronged 
with honey bees every morning, but I do not 
know whether they find honey or some other 
material. " 

We shall plant the seeds, and if anything de- 
sirable results we shall be pleased to place it at 
the disposal of our readers. To trace the char- 
acteristics of the tree further we gave the sub- 
ject to one of our botanical friends, who returns 
us these paragraphs: The Spurgevort family, 
or Euphorhiacea, is very extensive, containing 
not less than 3,000 species, widely distributed 
over the earth. In temperate countries they 
are chiefly herbs. In soiith and eastern Africa 
they have succulent stems, while in tropical 
America they are large leafy trees. The family 
includes Manihot tttilissima, and M. aipi, ex- 
tensively cultivated in tropical America and the 
West Indies for their large fleshy roots, from 
which cassava, a much valued article of food, is 
made. The castor oil, croton oil, ;tallow 
tree, candle nut, Siphonia elastica, from which 
large quantities of caoutchouc, or india rubber is 
obtained, and many other useful trees and 
plants belong to the family. 

The Manihot Carthagensis, the species seeds 
of which were received from Mr. Styles, is 
sparsely scattered along the Gulf coast from 
Texas to southern Mississippi, and is known by 
most people as the olive, though it bears no re- 
semblance whatever to the true olive, Olea 
Europea. The Rural Carolinian describes it as 
follows: "We have growing in our grounds a 
new ornamental tree, the seeds of which wore 
originally brought from Mexico. It came to us 
without a name, but proves to be, according to 
good botanical authority, Manihot Carthagensis, 
(Muller. ) It is a deciduous tree of exceedingly 
rapid growth, with spreadmg and somewhat 
pendulous branches, divjded regularly and con- 
tinuously into threes, bearing at the axles of the 
branches umbels of greenish yellow, and reddish 
spotted flowers, followed by clusters of nut-like, 
three-sided capsules, of the size of a cherry. 
But the principal beauty of the tree, aside from 
its regular and graceful form, lies in its foliage, 
which is not exceeded in elegance by that of 
any species, native or exotic, known to us. The 
leaves are what botanists call pedate, with 
deep, narrow sinuses, resembling somewhat 
those of the Palrna Christi, though not so large 
and more delicately cut. They are borne on 
long petioles, and are of a bright green color. 
The tree will not grow or prove hardy much 
farther north than Charleston; we think bearing 
about the same degree of cold as the orange. It 
grows readily from seed or cuttings." 

Mr. A. F. Styles, of Jacksonville, has one of 
the trees upon his grounds, from which these 
seeds were gathered. A tree of the same kind 
grows in the West Indies under the local name 
of physic nut, the seeds of which have medic- 
inal properties and are very purgative. 



Lime for Phylloxera. — M. Pignede found 
an cftective remedy for phylloxera in digging, 
during March and April, a trench four inches 
deep .around his infested vines, and throwing \n 
500 grammes ( 1 .1025 pounds) of burnt linie. He 
tlicn whitewashed the vine after having re- 
moved its bark. This operation, he declares, 
destroyed the greater part of the insects and 
tlieir eggs, and arrested the hatching of the eggs 
already deposited upon the vino. The first 
year afterward the vines ^avo out vigorous 
shoots, and the second year Ime grapes in large 
quantities. Lime, applied to healthy vinos, pro- 
serves them from the attacks of thephylloxera. 



50 



January 27, 1877. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Do Not Buy a Farm That Has Been 
Skinned. 

EuiTOKS Press: — Wishing to enjoy the de- 
lights of eouutrj- life, the writer purchased 100 
aores of land adjoining one of the small interior 
cities of Ohio, several years ago. For g«nera- 
tions the place had been hard run l>y owners and 
tenants. The soil, naturally good, no longer 
produced paying crops. Fences and buildings, 
long neglected, needed costly repairs before the 
place would be habitable. 

I jiaid a little over .'510,000 down for it — we 
will say .§10,000. At first the novelty of living 
in the country was exhilarating. But wife and 
the girls sometimes rebelled on encountering the 
discomforts. However, my boy and I, aided by 
a man of .all work, "went in on our muscle," 
and reset •worm fences, and cleared off brier 
patches, and trimmed up trees, and pulled 
down rickety outhouses, and rebuilt others; so 
that, at tlie end of the first year, we had re- 
modeled the whole concern. The wagon yard 
and watering place no longer occupied the 
beautiful grove in front of the dwelling. An 
unsightly barn, that intercepted the view from 
the house towards towu, was reniove<l a quarter 
of a mile and jilaced in the rear. A .spring 
1,500 feet distaTit, was piped down hill to the 
house and barn, and supplied a fountain in the 
lawn. The old lane leading .at right angles 
from the highway, past the orchard to the 
dwelling, was obliterated, and a graveled drive 
was constructed along the route nature m.ade 
for it, in a hollow with gently wimling curves, 
to the door. Trees were planted, and the old, 
leaky roof was replaced with one of slate. So 
much for the first year. Indejendent of our 
Labor, aliout §3,000 h<vd been invested in im- 
provements. 

Then the iO-acre meadow needed reconstruc- 
tion-the modern term for it bemg "bull-doz- 
ing," I believe. .\t any rate it had lain in 
grass time out of mind, .ami was fairly run out. 
We tried to coax it with a tnji dressing of ashes 
and manure, hut so poor was the yield that in 
places where ukjss and wild strawberry vines 
were thickest, h.ardlv a show of hay could be 
gathered after the mower. Having read rdiout 
"draining for profit," I thought we would take 
the bull by the horns and begin at the begin- 
ning. 

The field, though by no means a wet one, 
showed signs of the need of uuderdraining. 
Little bunches of wire gi-,ass grew here and 
there; craw-tish made holes and threw up little 
piles of black dirt, and the soil cracked open in 
dry weather. It only produced three-c^uarters 
of a ton of hay per acre. I borrowed an en- 
gineer's level and proceeded to make a survey 
of the ground, in order to determine the loca- 
tion of the drains. Being an engineer, the 
work gave little tremble, and we soon had 20 
Irishmen cutting the drains for TOO rods of tile. 
Each ditch went down 42 inches, and the tiles 
were carefully laid as fast as they could be 
liauled from the depot. The work was done in 
the green sod of November. The ditches were 
filled in before freezing, and commenced dis- 
charging clear water, and continued all winter. 
The next spring the sod was turned under for 
a crop of corn. In plowing, it w.os shown that 
the parts formerly the M'ettest had become as 
dry as an ash heap, while an elevated clay knoll, 
not underdrained, in the middle of the field, 
was wet and stickey. The next season we cured 
that by extending the underdrains through it. 
Portions of the field, with six plowings, yielded 
50 bushels of com per acre — the untlrained part 
only 30. 

The year succeeiliug the corn crop we hauloil 
.30 loads of manure on each acre, and raised 40 
bushels of oats; or 800 on the tract. The 
stubble was plowed under in August, well har- 
rowed, and by the 1 0th of .September it was 
sowed down with a peck of clear timothy per 
acre. The grass came on very well, and we 
then sowed 300 loads of fine rotted manure on 
it, with a machine invented by .McOinniss. This 
top-dressing carried it through a severe winter, 
and made a crop of 30 tons. The next year the 
meadow was cut by the party to whom we sold. 
This man wrote me that it w.as the won<ler and 
admiration of all the neighbors, and yielded im- 
mensely. I only regret it was not weighed. 

The original investment in this 20 acres, the 
cost of uuderdraining, new fences, manure, etc. , 
amounted to quite enough to purchase a good, 
large Western farm with pure virgin soil. To 
be sure, the result was a triumph, but at what 
a cost! The residue of the farm l)eing i>astnre 
and woods, and an old orch.ard, made a poor 
showing as to profits. The orcliard blos.somed 
profusely every spring, but the fruit regularly 
fell off long before it matured. .Sometimes a 
few lop-sided .apjiles ripened, with knots on tlie 
surf.ace .ind worms in the core. Still, tlie hills 
with their fringe of forest, the sloping p.astures, 
and the undulating land made a good frame- 
work for landscape gardening. With some skill 
and time very striking effects were produced, 
one especi.illy to be noted, the sinking of another 
flO.OIH) in fixing up the old ]>lace which others 
had skinned. As to fruit, we consoled ourselves 
by purchasing apples in Michigan, while our 
aew orchard, planted now 10 years ago, might 



be ejcpected to bear sometime towards the close 
of the present century, if let alone by codling 
moth and curculio. But the run-down farm was 
transposed into a place of some attraction, and 
one day a city gent came along and otTered me, 
cash, !jl 7,000 for it. He got it, and at once began 
to "improve" by teaiing oft' the new slate roof, 
and building another story to the house. Moral: 
Do as the writer did itof, at first, come to ('ali- 
fomia if struck M'ith agricultural or horticul- 
tural longings, where there is a kindly soil and 
climate. But do not, even here, purchase a run- 
down f.arm. .J. B. Akmstrom;. 

Agricultural Notes from Montana. 

" Homeward the plowman plods his weary way." 

EniTOKs Press: — Although in mid-winter 
when the best .agricultural portions of f Jallatin, 
Meagher .and other counties were passed, but lit- 
tle ploM'ing had been done, the farmers being 
too busy in harvesting and threshing either to 
put in much grain or prepare the ground for tlie 
coming season. The most of this kind of work 
is done in the spring. 

(iallatin county is more highly favored by jia- 
ture than any other county in the Territory. 
Besides possessing a very large area of tillable 
Land, with a soil deep, rich and mellow, it is 
well watered by the .Jefferson, Madison and (.ial- 
latin rivers and their numerous tributaries, the 
former uniting and forming tlie Missouri at 
the northern extremity of the county, near 
where Lewis .and Clarke once encamped, for the 
winter, as the remains of their old stockade may 
still be seen on the spot. 

The Grasshoppers. 

The crop of Ciallatin v.alley is said to have 
been not so large as usual the past season, from 
the fact that less grain was put in for fear of be- 
ing destroyed by the young grasshoppers, as the 
eggs had been dejiosited tlie jirevious year. 

By the w.ay, contrary to the views of most 
political economists, this so-called grasshopper 
pest is looked upon by many intelligent farmers 
as a blessing in disguise. It has the tendency to 
check the supply. California and the older 
States have the world for a market. Montana 
has no outlet for her surplus produce. Tlie 
home market is eiisily glutteil. l.abor is com- 
paratively high and as a consei{ueiice, an abun- 
dant yield from year to year would so reiluce 
the price of grain as not to p.ay for the raising. 
Such is the argument. To .say the least, it looks 
plausible. Such questions may well be left to 
some Adam .Smitli or J. Stuart Mill for solu- 
tion. 

The Yield of Produce. 

^Vhe^ever the land of this valley wa.s under 
cultivation handsome returns were received, 
particularly in the neighborhood of Bozeman, 
both on the creek above and also on the East 
(iallatin for many miles below. Some choice 
spots on Bozeman creek produced about 9tl 
bushels of oats. Mr. -Menefee had 3()0 acres in 
wheat, barley and oats, which gave an average of 
(!."> bushels to the acre, some of the oats meas- 
uring .as high as 87 bushels. The aver.age oats 
crop of the Ivist iJallatin was estimated at tiO 
bushels to the acre. The soil in both these 
neighborhoods is a black lo.am, with sufficient 
sand to make it easily cultivated. Mr. .1. W. 
Nelson, four miles below Bozeman, purchased 
his farm the year before, and jiaid for it with the 
product of the first cr(ii>, leaving him a nice lit- 
tle margin besides for living and seeding the en- 
suing season, reminding us of similar occurrences 
in the early history of California. 

Grain is bringing a good round price here at 
present, probably averaging, for wheat, oats and 
bailey, three cents per pound, (iood improved 
farms can be obtained in (iallatin county and in 
other jiortions of the Territory, from S1,(KXI to 
!ir3,000, and any amount of unimproved land 
suit.al)le for farniiiig or grazing at tiovemment 
and railroad prices. Hay is found generally in 
abundance, anil sells from $10 to $1') per ton. 
Mr. T. Heese, of Iteese creek, has often cut as 
high as three tons to the acre. It is a native 
gr.ass, mixed with timothy. .Some .attentiim h.as 
been given by Mr. Tliarpe, and also by Mr. 
Pease, on the West Gallatin, as also by many 
others throughout the Territory, to the im]>rove- 
ment of cattle, the Vjreed introduced being 
mostly the Short Horn. 

.Some fine ranches were seen on the banks of 
the Missouri in Meagher county, .and .also in 
Prickly Pear valley, in Lewis and (.'larke 
county, in the vicinity of Helena, the capital 
of the Territory. Indian corn, although not 
usually looked upon as a profitable crop, is 
raised in sulficient quantity to sujiply meal for 
family use. .Mr. .1. P. Barnes, of Lewis and 
Clarke county, produced last year as much .as 
.30 bushels to the acre, most of which was fed 
to hogs and turned into excellent bacon. Peas 
are said to be a profitable crop and are rarely 
disturbed by the grasshopper. I'hey make good 
food in some form or other for poultry, horses, 
hogs and cattle. 

Four hundred bushels of potatoes were grown 
to the .acre by Mr. Millegan in Prickly Pear 
valley, near Helena, the past season. Inst.ances 
are reported where as many .as 20 tons had been 
produced. Unions turn out at nearly the same 
rate. Mr. Turner on the Fast (i.allatin h.ad a 
yield of 24,000 pounds from a single acre. As 
the crops here are often damaged to a greater or 
less extent by the grasshoppers, or by hail 
storms, it would be advisable for farmers not to 



confine themselves to small grain, or to some 
particular kind, such as oats or wheat, as is 
sometimes the case, but to sow a variety of 
these as well as of vegetables, in this way being 
almost sure of having something that will bring 
a good price in the market. 

A Great Stock Growing Country. 

In giving first impressions of Montana, in a 
letter from Madison county, its advantages as a 
stock-growing country were highly commended. 
Further ob8er%-ation and inquiry have only 
tended to deepen the conviction as to the im- 
mense value and extent of its resources in this 
respect. Bunch grass takes the ])lace of the 
sagebrush of Nevada, and in found everywhere, 
tm high table lands or broad valleys, in deep 
ravines, on the mountain sides, and m.ay often 
be seen peeiiing up from the snow on the loftiest 
summit. Bands of fat horses, cattle and sheep 
are encountered, go where you will, ranging 
from 500 head to 3,000. 

iSome fiooks of sheep have come in recently 
from California, wliich seem to be doing well. 
There are at present not less than 10,0()0 head 
each in the counties of Deer Lodge and Lewis 
and Clarke, and not far from 2.i,0(X) head in 
Meagher county and leaving a wide range for 
many thousand more. In fact, such is the na- 
ture of the grass that it soon recuperates after 
being eaten <lown. ' It grows from the roots and 
not from the seed. As far as can be observetl 
or learned, the apparent rigor of the climate 
seems to be no serious drawback to the suc- 
cessful rearing of sheep, while the wool is clean 
and pure, being entirely free from the dirt and 
burs so often met with in much of the Califor- 
nia clip. 

Chaice f jr a Ra Iroad. 

It must be evident that this Territory is, in 
many resjiects, aninvitingfield for the immigrant. 
Its greatest need is a railroad. It is too much 
isolated and too far from market.' If .San Fran- 
cisco should be the first to open communication 
she would at once secure a large amount of trade 
tliat now goes east by way of the Missouri 
river. A wider market could be found for the 
limes, lemons and oranges of your southern 
counties, for the various green and dried 
fruits of Centr.al California, for your wines, 
braixlies, your honey and your hops, for tea, 
coffee, rice and other groceries, for the products 
of your woolen mills .and speci.al kimls of cloth- 
ing, and more particularly for the ijuartz ma- 
chinery from your foundries, .and a large class of 
agricultural implements, both of which are be- 
lieved to be superior to anything of the kind 
inanuf.actured in the older States. 

A word to the wise is sufficient. A good, easy 
grade can be found into the very heart of the 
Territory. The sooner the work is commenced 
the better. A. C. K. 



Modoc and Lassen Counties. 

Editors Press:^ — Having received a few let- 
ters of inquiry concerning this country, I have 
selected the Ki'R.^L Pke.ss as the best medium 
through which to convey the desired informa- 
tion. 

There are yet several hundred thousand acres 
of good agricultural Government land open for 
settlement in Modoc and Lassen counties. Irri- 
gation is generally practiced. We have, how- 
ever, considerable land which requires no irriga- 
tion, even in the dryest season. This class of 
land and some of the other, easily irrigated, 
embraces the settled portion of this country. 
Large tracts of land, equally .as good ami less 
liable to frost, Wcause of their elevation above 
damp bottoms, can be irrigated at a trifiing 
cost. .Some irrigate their Jjrain and some do 
not, owing, I snjipose, to the moist or dry 
nature of the land. The few who practice 
summer fallowing are well repaid, receiving 35 
and 40 bushels of wheat to the acre. But it is 
only a few in this thinly and newly settled 
country who are yet prepared to conduct fann- 
ing hiUf-way right. Most of our settlers are 
men of small means, many of whom have not 
even jiloweil uj) a potato jiatch. 

t)ur tillable land is mostly what is teiined 
level, and some rolling. It is destitute of 
timber, covered, in some localities, with bunch 
grass and weeds, .and in others with grass, 
weeils and broom, sage and similar brush. Some 
of our laud is covereil with wihl rye. All the 
moist land along the small streams and springs 
is more or less covered with a growth of choke- 
cherries, ])lunis, poplars and willows, which, 
when cleared, will make the best garden 
land in the world. It is a black mold. .Some 
of our land has a base composed of clay, which 
is enriched by decomposed vegetation. A kind 
of wild sunriower grows upon this land, together 
with wide-leafed weeds, grass, roots and scat- 
tering bunches of brush. This is splendid land. 
The largest portion of our land is composed of 
dec(miposed rock, washed from the hills, and 
decayeil vegetation. There is no marl or lime- 
stone to speak of two very important ingredi- 
ents for certain vegetables. 

We have abundance of timber handy for 
nearly all uses. Yellow pine, some sug.ar pine, 
cedar, fir, juniper and .some black o.ak ami 
ni(puutain mahogany constitute our timber. 
Sawmills are adjacent to nearly every settle- 
ment and good lumber is sold at i}\0 per M. 
There are llouring mills at all the leading jioints. 

Ked Blufi' is the market for .all the Pit river 
and Goose lake country, and Keno for Honey 
Lake valley and surroundings. All freight is 



hauled by teams to and from those points, at 
from two to four cents, according to distance. 
Large (|uantitie8 of wool and butter are shipped 
from this county, besides hides, pelts, furs, etc. 
.Many thousands of beef cattle are yearly driven 
down. 

The question so often asked, " What are the 
chances for a man of Init little means ? " can 
only be answered thus: First, what is the 
amount of his means ? and, second, has he the 
habits of industry and frugality, united with the 
pluck which "dies game." With the latter 
qualifications ami only a few dollars a man is 
certain to succeed here or in most any other 
place. Some start in here with a capital of 
5400 or $500, and manage to do first-rate. 
Others with twice the capital have failed, sold 
their places for h<alf jirice and set off for Texas. 
Just such opportunities are now offered for men 
of a few hundred, who desire to find good 
homes in the healthiest of countries. 

Most of our settlers have familes. Our soci- 
ety, although mostly of the "back-woods" 
style, is enjoyable for all of that. Dances and 
soci.al gatherings are common. It is noticeable 
that, in newly settled countries, people appre- 
ciate the social qualities of one another, more so 
th.an in thickly settled countries. We have 
very good schools considering population. 
Churches and preachers are scarce. I have not 
heard a sermon since my two years' residence in 
Modoc. Let it not be understood we are behind 
the van of civilization. (Jood books, papers and 
magazines are to be found in nearly every 
household. I meet occasion.ally with the Rural 
PRE.SS. It is the paper for this country, and I 
hojie to see it take deep root among our people. 
H. W. HrLBERT. 

Canby, Cal., Jan. 9th, 1877. 



T^E Sjock Y\^°' 



Mad Itch in Tulare County. 

Recently we quoted from the Visalia Dflln 
concerning the loss of some cattle with "mad 
itch." We now find in the same journal a letter 
from the owner of the cattle, Mr. C. H. Robin- 
son, giving full particuliirs of the misfortune: 

About the 21st of November I put five head 
of cattle, viz: Two three year-old steers, one 
two-year-old heifer, one yearling heifer, and one 
yearling steer, into a large yard containing about 
12 steck hogs. My object was to fatten a por- 
tion of the steers for beef. I commenced feed- 
ing the throe largest all the pumpkins they 
would eat, cut up in Ijoxes, and at tlie same time 
Commenced feeding cut-up com fodder (com and 
all), thrown into the yard. The whole seemed 
to bo doing well, both hogs and cattle. 1 con- 
tinued feeding this until about the 15th of De- 
cember, when my pumpkins were exhausted, 
and I fed the com more freely. 

First Symptoms of Dheaie. 

On the morning of the 21st I found the year- 
ling steer dead in the corral, and being in a 
hurry to go from home, I made no examination, 
thinking it had got choked. I was about three 
miles from home at work, and at about 10 
o'clock A. M. a neighbor came and told me that 
my yearling heifer was choked, and my presence 
at home was needed. I immediately went, and 
soon ascertained she was not choked, but was 
coughing a little, frothing at the mouth, and 
seemed to be trying to chew some imaginary- 
cud. She was in great distress, and had a cold 
Eerspiration. She seemed anxious to scratch 
er head and neck ; her eyes were very much in- 
flamed, and one side of her head was very much 
swollen. I then went to the neighbors for in- 
formation, and found one man who said he saw a 
cow near (irangeville the week before that 
seemed to be similarly affected, and died in great 
distress during the first night after she was 
taken sick, and the owner called it 

Mad Itch, 
And proceeded to burn the carcass for fear his 
other stock should take the disease. 1 immedi- 
ately started home to remove the remainder of 
the cattle for fear it w.os contagious. On my 
w.ay 1 met another neighbor who said he had 
heard of the disease, antl ha<l "Navin's Explan- 
atory Stock Doctor," which iKiok gave a descrip- 
tion of the ilisease called "ma<l itch.'' I at 
once ])rocured the book, anil found that the 
sympt<ims and descriptiim could not be 
mistaken, and he .says: "This dise.a8e is a most 
fearful and fat;il disease of cattle, caused almost 
if not quite exclusively by their eating the dry 
j)ortion8 of corn stalks which had been chewed 
aikI spit out by hogs. Physicking and jxiuring 
large (puantities of lard into the stomach to 
sooth the irritation, is all that can be done, but 
the hope of cure is very remote." I immedi- 
ately returned home and removed the other 
stock from the yard. I now foun<l the heifer 
very much worse, and scratching and rubbing 
the head and neck at a fearful rate, and had 
spells when she seemed to be nearly mad— trj-- 
ing to tear the skin from her head and neck. 
She continued thus until about three o'clock 
p. .M. , when she became exhausted and die<l in 
great distress. 

Post-Mortem Examination 

1 now made as good an examination as I 
could, and found that the lungs and gullet were 
apparently all right, also the first and second 
stomachs, except that the first stomach or 
rumen seemed to be rather fuller than common, 
and its contents somewhat dry. On reaching 



January 27, 1877.] 



p^oum 



51 



the third stomach, or "manifold," sometimes so 
chilled, I found it completely packed, and solid 
with dry, ruminated corn fodder — so dry that it 
was impossible for it to pass off. I also found 
it greatly inflamed; also the muscles of the 
necK and along the side of the head; eyes red 
and glaring, and when dead seemed to be blood- 
shot. I afterwards examined others that died, 
with exactly the same results, except that in 
one case the creature bloated so much that I 
punctured her first stomach, or "paunch," and 
let out the gas, but it gave no relief. 

The Rest of the Stock Affected. 

At 9 o'clock p. M., on the same day, I found 
no signs of the remaining three being affected. 
At 1 1 P. M. I again went to the stock and found 
the two-year-old heifer standing, and observed 
that once in every few minutes she would sliake 
her head, and seemed to be a little troubled, 
and was not chewing her cud (or ruminating). I 
also found one of the three-year-old steers lying 
down, and occasionally rubbing his head very 
slightly on the ground. I immediately procured 
help and gave each of these two nearly one 
quart of castor oil, in the hope that it might re- 
lieve them. On the next morning, the 2'2d, 
they botli seemed much worse, and continued 
getting worse, when one died about 10 A. 
M., and the other about 3 p. M. the^ame day. 
One thing I had noticed, that the animals had 
not been ruminating during the day previous. 
The other three-year-old steer seemed all right, 
and was running at large with access to the corn 
fodder (but no hogs); was ruminating properly, 
and continued to do so until the 25th, at 12 
o'clock M. , when he was taken sick, and died at 
5 P. M., the same day. 

Conclusions Drawn. 

Thus you see that all I had in the yard died; 
and I am forced to the following conclusions ; 
First, that the stock was diseased by eating corn 
fodder; second, that as long as they had a sup])ly 
of pumpkins the fodder passed from the system, 
but as soon as T ceased to feed them the stomacli 
, became clogged, causing inflammation, etc. ; 
third, that it was not the hogs entirely, or the 
last one would not have died; and lastly, tliat 
when a creatui-e shows signs of mad itch there 
is no remedy. 



StfEEf 



Wool Product of the World. 



,i.-,i.' 



In the last report of tiie Commissioner of Ag- 
riculture, we find an elaborate and highly inter- 
esting and useful paper on "The iSheep and 
Wool of the World." It is from the pen of the 
Department statistician, Mr. J. R. Dodge, who 
has bestowed upon the subject a great deal of 
pams-taking labor. We make the following ex- 
tracts from it, whicli are of esjjecial interest to 
wool-growers and flock masters in this country: 

It is a suggestive and gratifying fact, tliat 
while the value of our manufactures is about 
four times as great as in 18.50, the average of 
imports of woolens of the past five years (•123,- 
797,l)'.)8) exceeds but little that of tlie entire 
period of 55 years, (121,191,674,) beginning with 
the very infancy of this beneficent industry, it 
is particularly noteworthy that our imports 
since 1870 are less by several millions annually 
than for the period between 1850 and ISUO, not- 
withstanding the immense increase in the con- 
sumption of woolen goods. 

The necessities of the government for revenue, 
and the happy agreement of producers of wool 
and makers of cloth, have conspired to give a 
stability to customs-legislation for a period com- 
paratively long, and a j^rofit to both manufac- 
turers and wool growers, and at the same time 
lower prices to consumers of woolen goods than 
could be possible in the cloth famine resulting 
from consumption without production in the 
United States. If now tlie interest of mere car- 
riers, who desire larger profits for handling 
goods than manufacturers expect for ..laking 
them, are not again made paramount, the future 
of the woolen manufacture will soon be secure; 
new triiimphs of invention will be gained, every 
variety of fabric will be produced in this coun- 
try, and all classes will thrive equally, except 
that importers of woolens will fail to realize 
their thousands with greater ease than the wool 
grower now obtains his hard earned dollars. 

It is not proposed to enter into details of wool 
growing in this country, to describe its breeds, 
report the progress of improvement, or indicate 
the probable direction of future efforts of sheep 
breeders. It is suflicient here to say that the 
American Merino is still the sheep of the coun- 
try, with a distinctive character of its own, and 
a higher value for our uses than its most noted 
congene s abroad; that sheep husbandry is in- 
creasing, not east of the Missouri, but mani- 
festly iu the continental area of nutritious pas- 
turage beyond, and that the production of early 
lambs and fat mutton, with the increase of the 
numbers of easily fattening breeds, is making 
slow but sure progress in the more populous and 
highly cultivated districts. 

In conclusion, I will attempt to give, from ex- 
amination of official records of wool production, 
and from comparison of estimates of experts 
where no official data are found, or where such 
records are several years in arrears, an approxi- 
mate idea of the amount of wool produced in the 
world, and also the numbers of sheep of all 
kinds that are domesticated and kept for the 
production of wool. In this investigation the 
incompleteness and tardiness of official enumera- 
tions, and the evident lack of public aj)precia- 



tion of the value of statistics, is painfully ap- 
parent; and yet the enumeration of domestic 
animals is among the simplest and most practi- 
cable of accomplishment of all census work. In 
the more advanced and intelligent communities, 
these records are nearest complete. The official 
returns of sheep rarely if ever exceed the true 
numbers; it is often the case that they imderes- 
timate them. It is believed that in this coun- 
try the census aggregates approximate closely 
the real numbers, except in Texas, California, 
and in some border States, in which large flocks 
are kept in situations remote from the view of 
assessors. The census of Great Britain is prob- 
ably quite accurate, and that of the central 
countries of Europe measurably so. The latest 
available official publications of the number of 
sheep in Eiiropean countries, some of them eight 
to ten years in arrears of the present date, are 
given as follows: 

Countries. Date. Sheep and Lambs. 

Great Britain 1874 30,318,014 

Ireland 1874 4,437.613 

Russia 1870 48,132,000 

Sweden 1872 l,659,(i44 

Norway 1865 1,710,000 

Denmark 1871 1,842,481 

Prussia 1873 19,624,758 

Wurtemburg 1873 577,290 

Bavaria 1873 1,342,100 

.Saxony 1867 304,087 

Holland 1872 855,265 

Belgium 1866 586,097 

France 1872 24,589,647 

Portugal 1870 2,706,777 

Spain 1865 22,054,967 

Italy 1867 11,040,339 

Austria (proper) 1871 5,026,398 

Hungary 1871 15,076,997 

Switzerland 1866 447,001 

Greece 1867 2,539,538 

Total 194,867,003 

Next to the European flocks in numbers and 
in alliance of blood and proprietary interest are 
those of Australia, wiiich here includes all 
British colonies in that antipodal region. Tlie 
increase of sheep lias been marvelous. The im- 
ports of Great Britain from tliat quarter were 
only 10,000,000 pounds of wool in 1840; they 
were 39,000,000 in 1850; 53,000,000 iu 1859; 
158,000,000 in 18G9; and 238,000,000 in 1874. 
Since 18G8 all these colonies, except Queensland 
and Tasmania, have increased their flocks, some 
of them very heavily, averaging in the table be- 
low about 17%, notwithstanding the decrease in 
the two named. It is really more, probably at 
least 20%, as tlie latest New Zealand figures are 
those of 1871, some of the others of 1873 and 
some of 1874. The returns are as follows, being 
the latest extant at the respective dates of pub- 
lication, 18()8 and 1874: 

Colonies. 1868. 1874. 

New South Wales , ,,. . .13,909,574 19,928,590 

Victoria 9,532,811 11,323,080 

South Australia 4,477,445 5,617,419 

West Australia 599,7,5(> 748,,536 

(Queensland 8,921,784 6,687,907 

Tasmania 1,742,914 1,490,740 

New Zealand ,. 8,409,919 9,700,629 

Total 47,604,203 55,496,907 

In Asia the investigation rests necessarily 
upon more obscure data, and the more moderate 
estimates are accepted. The estimate, 350,- 
000,000 pounds, covers the entire area of Asia, 
consisting mainly of the wool of Asiatic Kussia, 
Turkey, Persia and India, as large portions of 
(."hina and .Japan are said to be substantially 
non-producing. It is less by 30'"' chan some 
current estimates, and believed to he more con- 
sistent with a conservative and judicious view 
of the probabilities. 

There has been a recent increase in the pro- 
duction of the Cape of Good Hope, and the esti- 
mate is certainly not too high, iu fact scarcely 
more than the actual shipments for the past two 
or three years. As to South America, it is dif- 
ficult to find in any markets, or in home con- 
sumption, the quantity sometimes attributed to 
this quarter of the globe. 



E. 



When to Plant Blue Gum Trees. 

Editors Press: — I wish it distinctly under- 
stood by all, I have an axe to grind, (thanks to 
Mr. Berwick's candid statement of his incredu- 
lity, yet his marked success in late planting), 
and the implement is a massive and peculiar 
one, and I feel confident there are scores of 
readers of the Rural who will assist in the me- 
chanical operation. It somewhat resembles a 
tomahawk and yet, critically speaking, it may 
prove a grade or a thoroughbred in the absence 
of a pedigree (a rose will smell as sweet by any 
other name), and I may be induced in the near 
future to treat the readers of the Press with 
an interesting description of it. Axes have 
ever been a peculiar implement of warfare, and 
the ancient Britons and Romans, for want of 
bombshells, did good execution with them. 
Society at the present day is deeply indebted to 
them, as a valuable auxiliary in the advancement 
of civilization in primitive times when their 
sphere of usefulness was more valued than at 
the present day. Since then they have been de- 
graded to the base purpose of decaj)itatiiig pu- 
gilistic roosters. Therefore I trust my candid 
acknowledgement at this time, of my intentions 
for the present and future, will be accepted as 
due atonement for all appearances of selfishness 
in the past. I advise all to believe nothing, but 
first to investigate. 

It may appear a useless labor of love to some 
to further discuss the planting of our eucalyptus; 
yet who is perfect? The accepted theorems of 



yesterday are set aside by the investigations of 
to-day, and thus we go on, step by step, exper- 
imenting and learning, each year simplifying 
our knowledge and labor, and thus preparing us 
for the grand triumph of success in the near fu- 
ture. The original plantations of these trees 
were made in early fall on general principles 
alone, and have been accepted Vjy the masses as 
correct. The principle involved in late spring 
planting is one of unusual interest to the horti- 
culturist from the fact that less labor is required 
for the first year's growth, a healthier growth 
is gained and there is a decrease of loss over fall 
planting and a more perfect root formation. 
The only exceptions are in localities with a 
southern exposure, or soils of that gravelly, por- 
ous nature, that no water will remain on the 
surface immediately after heavy rainfalls, and 
even in these excepted localities we cannot 
plant deep with safety in early fall or winter, 
liecause we imperil the surface roots, being lia- 
ble to decay from excessive moisture and cold. 
The principle of spring planting is simply to 
plant deep, no matter what the nature of the soils, 
whether adobe or sandy, by placing the roots 
of the young trees deep down in semi-permanent 
moisture, working the soil gradually up to and 
around the tree as warm weather approaches. 
Then care and labor are lessened, and we find in 
adobe soils, their continued growth during the 
summer and fall months fully as remarkable as 
in the more favorable sandy loams. But it must 
not be forgotten that the quality of the young 
tree is important. In adobe soils those grown in 
boxes alone are suitable (unless the convenience 
of obtaining sand or loam is near), when they 
are worked out so that they may be cut out with 
a square ball of earth, say three inches. For 
trees 12 inches high the box should be not less 
than four inches deep; but I am opposed to the 
princijile of box-grown trees. My experience 
and all the heavy planters in our adjoining 
counties coincides with me, and in proof, none 
of them will plant anything but good healthy 
trees from the open ground, when they can get 
them. This subject of box-grown trees will be 
referred to again in a future article, and I shall 
also consider their root growth, showing by il- 
lustration the deforming of roots by box cul- 
ture. W. A. T. Strattok. 
Petaluma, Jan. 14th, 1877. 



Tt|E VlUE' 



Sulphur and Mildew. 

The late issue of the Report of the Department 
of Agriculture makes the following points on the 
action of sulphur in destroying the mildew on 
grapevines: .Sulphur ha.s generally been relied 
on as an antidote to mildew, and is commonly 
suppf)sed to be an antiferment. Whatever its 
curative properties may be in relation to the 
grajievine, sulphur is not an antiferment as 
chemically considered; and it cannot be classed 
as either an antiseptic or as a disinfectant, but 
it may have the power to foster a healthy growth 
of the living plant to which it is applied. 

The following experiment will throw some 
light on this subject: To a pint of pure water I 
added half an ounce of the flowers of .sulphur, 
and immersed in the solution two leaves of a 
foreign grapevine. The liquid was exposed to a 
temperature of about 70" Fahrenheit. On the 
third day, fermentation was in full force. On 
the sixth, the odor of sulphureted hydrogen was 
very strong, bacteria and mycelium of fungi 
covered the whole surface of the water, and 
the vine leaves were decayed. I have fre- 
quently tried this experiment, using various 
kinds of foliage, and have always obtained the 
same results. 

Some of the compounds of sulphur, as sul- 
phurous acid, dilute sulphuric acid, and combi- 
nations of sulphur with the alkalies, are of an 
antifungoid character; liut these difl'er so es- 
sentially from the flowers of sulphur in their 
chemical characters tliat they cannot necessarily 
be classed with that substance. Sulphurous 
acid has a great affinity for oxygen at ordinary 
temperatures, and is easily decomposed, while 
pure sulphur remains unchanged when exposed 
to the air only. When sulphur is boiled with 
caustic potash, soda, or lime, sulphides are 
formed, and such compounds are antiferments; 
but the caustic alkalies mentioned are them- 
selves antiferments, and the addition of suljihur 
will not render them more so. Sulphur in a 
soluble condition may be absorbed by plants as 
food; and, since it is a well-established fact that 
albumen of both vegetables and animals is never 
free from sulphur, it may be that the applica- 
tion of sulphur in a soluble state may indirectly 
destroy fungoid growths by building up the 
organic structure of the diseased jilants, and 
thus eiial)ling them to resist decay by fermen- 
tation, which is generally, if not always, the 
result of cryptoganiic plants growing on them. 

The Brighton Grape. 

Last year we gave an illustration of a new 
grajie called the "Brighton." We now read in 
the Frnit Recordrr some notes of the deeds of the 
grape last season. H. E. Hooker, of Rochester, 
(N. Y. ) writes: "I believe we may now claim 
to have secured an early grape which should be 
in every garden; I mean tlie Brighton, of which 1 
shall say but little, because I have done a good 
deal to introduce, and propagate, and sell it, 
and may be prejudiced and overestimate it, 
but will say that this season's experience satis- 
fies me that this grai)e (v, iiich ripens one week 



before the Delaware) will supply a grea' 
sity in grape growing, namely, a va 
rapid, vigorous growth (which the Dela\ 
not), very hardy vine, which ripens handsouie 
fruit of the highest excellence here, on the 5th 
to 12th of September, and thus furnishes the 
householder with its superb fruit long before 
frost comes, and which will be enjoyed and 
praised, and probably all consumed before the 
Concord, the lona, the Eumelan, or the Isabella 
are ripe, and excelling them all in quality. I 
do not desire to see and do not look for all the 
excellencies in any one sort, but among early 
grapes I look to see the Brighton in the first 
rank. " 

Upon tlie above the editor of the JRecorSer 
comments as follows: "Our friend Hooker is 
very modest in his statement about the Brighton. 
His indorsement of the grape, and the fact of 
his paying |500 for the orginal vine three years 
ago, is sufficient to .show its great value. For 
tenderness of flesh and skin, as an out-door 
grape it has no superior, if an equal, iu our 
judgment. The skin is so thin, tender »nd pal- 
atable that one invariably swallows it with the 
pulp, instead of spitting it out, as is the case 
with most other grapes. It is in flavor similar 
to the finest hot-house grapes, while its harde- 
iness fo vine, great productivenes, and is shown 
by the drawings we give, makes it one of the 
best, if not the best, dark colored out-door 
grapes yet introduced. 



4©f^YIClJL7lIf\E. 



Bones and How to Use Them. 

The value of bones as a fertilizer is generally 
known, but the knowledge of easy ways of 
making them available is not so widespread. 
The practice of turning the material to profit 
in the orchard, field and garden is even less prev- 
alent. The following excellent article, written 
for the Journal atid Farmer, will, we trust, 
lead to a gathering of the scattered bones and 
a gift of their rich substance to the soil: 

Bones are too good a fertilizer to be lost. 
They are about two-thirds phosphate of lime, 
nearly one-third gelatine, or glue, and a little 
carbonate of lime, the same as common lime- 
stone. The latter being but trifling in quantity 
and cheaply attainable in other forms, as of 
stone or shell lime, is of course worth but little. 
The gelatine, constituting as it does nearly one- 
third of fresh bones, and being a nitrogenous, 
ammonia-forming substance, is worth more. The 
pliosphate of lime constituting two-tliirds of re- 
cent bones, and a still larger proportion of 
tliose that are old and dry, is by far the most 
valuable ingredient. Applied in an immediately 
available form, it is wortii at least two cents a 
pound. Three hundred pounds of bones then 
would give 200 ttis. of phosphate of lime, or 
more, wortli four dollars or upwards, and this 
exclusive of considerable value attached to the 
gelatine, and a trifle belonging to the carbonate 
of lime. The value of the ammonia in the gela- 
tine, as we purchase that article in the shape of 
Peruvian guano, could not be less than one dol- 
lar for 300 ttis. of bones, making the whole 
value five dollars or more. The farmer, there- 
fore, might as well throw away his $5 bills as his 
bones; or he might as well lock up his bills for 
a future generation, as to let his bones be about 
his premises till some future occupant shall 
learn their use. The bills, safely stowed away, 
would be less a nuisance, and the loss of inter- 
est would be no greater in one case than the 
other. 

On many premises, which we have seen, there 
are at least 300 ttis. of bones. There would 
have been three times that amount had they not 
been wasted. But there are 300 lbs. as it is, and 
they are worth .'J.5. If put into the most avail- 
able form, and properly applied, they would re- 
turn more than !ti>5 in a few months. But it is not 
very convenient for the fanner to put them into 
such a form; what then sliall be done with them? 

1. If he would bury them unbroken under 
and about fruit trees that he is transplanting, or 
in the vicinity of older fruit trees, or even in liis 
garden or fiehls, below the reach of the plow, a 
considerable part of their value would be sure to 
come out sooner or later, but it might be a long 
time first, a half century probably, perhaps a 
whole century before the ingredients would be 
entirely given up. 

2. If he would break them up with an axe 
head or sledge hammer, into pieces of from one 
to three inches long, and throw them over his 
fields to mingle with the surface soil, where the 
air and the heat of the sun would reach them, 
tlie process of decomjK)sition would be somewhat 
hastened, but would still be slow, more bene- 
ficial perhaps to the next than to the present 
generation. It would be too much like hoard- 
ing money instead of using it. 

3. If we were to burn the bones with a quan- 
tity of refuse wood and chips, letting the wliole 
smother down into ashes and then apply tlie 
ashes to his fields, he would save about two- 
thirds of the value of the bones. The gelatine 
would in this case be dissijjated, hut the phos- 
phate of lime would remain, and woulil act 
more promptly than in the last case, but being 
a piiosjihate (not a super-phosphate), and but 
slowly soluble, several years would jiass, pos- 
sibly as many as eight or ten, before its ingre- 
ilients would be wholly given up to plants. 
The trouble of thus disposing of bones could 



Continued on page £8. 



52 



*fcr^<s@J Wit^S litoW ttv* I4) Jtu^sSii^sJLj^ sE^ itu «G» Q O* 



January 27, 1877. 



U'^xm 0^ pB^ipiii. 



THE HEADQUARTERS of the California SUte 
Grange arc in the Orangers' Building, norlhcast corner of 
California and Davis Streets, over the Ciranpers' Bank of 
California and California Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Association. Master, J. V. Webster; Secretarj-, Amos 
Adams. 

Ttie Grangers' Business Association of California is in 
Davis Street, northeast comer of CalifornitL 



Graxoe Pirectobt. —A full list of Subordinate Granges, 
Masters and SecreUrics of California and Nevada, is pub- 
lished .as often as once a quarter in this department. Sec 
issue of Sept. 23d for latest insertion. 



The Worthy Lecturer at Stackton. 

At the risk of repetition iu some point* we 
print another report of the visit of the Worthy 
Lecturer at Stockton Grange in the following 
stirring letter: 

Editoks Press: — January Gth was appointed 
for the installation of officers of Stockton Grange, 
a harvest feast and a lecture by Bro. Pilkington, 
W. L. The installation was set for 1 1 o'clock, 
and the ball began to roll promptly. Bro. An- 
drew Wolf, P. M. , officiated, assisted by Dep- 
uty W. L. Overhiser. The promptness of man- 
ner with which the services were perfonned 
made it a fact patent that we were in a live 
Grange. They were assisted by music, vocal 
and instrumental, which was in keeping with 
the rest. After the W. },!. , Dr. Grattan, was led 
to the chair, W. M. Phelps gave his retiring ad- 
dress, in which lie expressed thanks for the fra- 
ternal feelings manifested by the members of 
the Grange during his term of office. After the 
last officer had been conducted to her position, 
the audience were invited to the banquet hail, 
to which they responded, marching around the 
Grange hall to martial music. The feast spread 
before us showed that matters here had been 
arranged w itli as much precision as iu the for- 
mer ceremonies, and the company, nearly 200 
in number, in their earnest apjireciation of the 
merits of the good things spread before them, 
seemed to rival the attention exhibited at the 
other ceremonies. 

But one's appetite while being gratified fades 
from him as a dream or the morning dew; and 
though we lingered at the tables in pleasant con- 
verse and social interchange, the good things 
provided were too many, and many a fowl and 
delicacy in pastry was left untouched. 

AVe found ourselves in our lothness to leave 
the social board encroaching uj)on the time set 
for the Worthy Lecturer. Down came the Mas- 
ter's gavel and we were in\ited back to the lec- 
ture room. If the feast to the bodj- was sump- 
tuous and bountiful, the feast to tne mind and 
soul which we now enjoyed was the crowning 
glory of the day's exercises. We hear from our 
enemies that we are dead; that at a stated time 
we shall be buried. Were thtre any tendency 
to decay in this Grange that lecture would dis- 
pel it; but such is not the case at Stockton 
Grange. They are not dead, neither do they 
sleep. They are quiet and calm, but solid as 
our everlasting rocks. We listened to the Wor- 
thy Lecturer one and a half hours, when he in- 
vited questions, Vjut he was so true and clear in 
his ideas and s tatements that he was not cross- 
examinetl. 

The newly installed Master made a few re- 
marks as to the future. They were short, terse 
and to the point, showing that although he is 
gentle, he has also the iron of a man in him; 
that when assailed from without he can face the 
storm! We were then dismissed with an iii\-i- 
tation to join in a social dance, which was in- 
dulged in for a short time bj' those who wished. 
The Lecturer was besieged with expressions of 
pleasure and endorsement. We were loth to 
part, until the sinking sun admonished all that 
we must do so. 

Bro. Overhiser secured the Worthy Lecturer 
as his guest, whose guests we also were. With 
such a host and hostess as Brother and Sister 
Overhiser, whose hospitality is simply perfect, 
we enjoyed a season of tinalloyed pleasure. I 
should feel remiss if I did not mention a few of 
the interesting points on Bro. Overhiser's farm. 
The first, and noteworthy for this State or the 
United States, is a dairy of thoroughbred Short 
Horn Durhams, of about twenty-five in number, 
which, by choice selection and breeding, have 
been brought up to a high standard iu butter 
and milk qualities, both as to quantity and 
quality. We have not seen any Short Horn 
herd which showed so much abilitj'. His 
Berkshires and Merinos also show that he is 
carrying out practically the idea that it costs no 
more to rear a good than a poor animal. In our 
rambles over the place, Bro. (irattan was in 
company with us by in^-itation of our host, and 
we passed over the line into his fields and to his 
stables to see his Blackhawks and Hamble- 
tonians. The Doctor has achieved high honor in 
the horse line. 1 will mention only one: a two- 
year-old colt, a Hambletonian, which is a 
' 'thing of beauty, etc. " We think the Doctor has 
nearly reached perfection. But these remarks 
are not intended for praise, but for truth. 

What of the Grangers' Union? Well, the 
San Joaquin valley for its field of traffic, the 
San Joaquin ^Grangers as its supporters and 
bulwark, it is, as it should be, in time, the 
1 bulwark of the fanners of San Joarjuin. There 
is no flurry about it, no boasting. Its strides 
are measured and strong. The load is moving 



and it is sure to go to the top of the hill, and 
when it arrives at the top let those who have 
stood in its path stand aside or they in turn will 
be ground to powder as others have been. But 
time flies, and we must say "good by" to our 
kind friends, for home is sixty miles away; so 
away we whirl homeward, gratified beyond 
telling, inspired with hope and courage, and 
hoping many times to meet again. G. W. H, 

Reunion at Valleja Grange. 

Editors Press: — A very pleasant and note- 
worthy day was last Saturday in the annals of 
Vallejo Grange, notwithstanding an untoward 
circumstance or two during the afternoon meet- 
ing. Learning that their olBcers M-ould be in- 
stalled that day, that Bro. Pilkington would be 
with them in performance of his duties as State 
Lecturer, and that a zest was to be given to all 
the duties of the day by one of those Grange 
dinners which the skillful hands of our sisters 
and the genuine sociability of our Order in- 
variably make a most enjoyable occasion, 
I determined that I would go and share 
the reunion with our fellow-Patrons of that 
stanch Grange, after my long absence. So 
Bro. Earl and I took the early boat across the 
bay and reached the handsome Masonic lodge- 
room — in which their Grange has long held its 
meetings — soon after the first arrival of its 
members. Two years ago this month it was my 
pleasant duty to install their officers in the 
same hall. I was glad to find the Grange quite 
as strong and thriving now as then. Your 
humble servant expected to be j)resent as a list- 
ener, but after Bro. Pilkington arrived he in- 
sisted on my attending to the installation cere- 
mony. 

After a brief Grange meeting, the officers, 
whose election the Ri'K.\i. has already an- 
nounced, were publicly installed. Soon after 1 
V. M. we adjourned to a lower room, where a 
really sumptuous feast was enjoyed in company 
with outside friends. 

About .'J r. .M. the chief feature of the day be- 
gan — the 1-ccture by Bro. Pilkington. It is with 
no common interest that I listened to the words 
of the worthy brother, my successor in thi.s 
work. He certainly handled with great ability 
and much originality the questions of labor 
combinations, the necessity for purity in all 
good governments, reform in finance and other 
respects, the Kochdale system of co-operation 
as a sure remedy, when properly man- 
aged, for numerous evils which hinder the 
prosperity of our industrial classes. His very 
forcible, instructive lecture was followed by re- 
quest with the off-hand remarks of visiting 
members. Meanwhile Bro. Pilkington having 
been fraternally informed in private that some 
of his scathing invective against political cor- 
ruption had given offence to several members, 
who looked upon some of his sweeping, pointed 
sentences as having a partisan aUusion, and 
hence being inappropriate in a Grange address, 
lie explained and disclaimed altogether having 
the slightest intention to be personal or par- 
tisan in any allusions. This led to one of the 
8_>iciefet 1 ttle del>ates, for about "20 minutes, that 
It ever fell to the lot of the writer to hear. 
Even in fraternities, when people get terribly in 
earnest, sometimes, you know, we will be de- 
cidedly spicy. The whole thing reminded nie 
of little incidents I have witnessed in State 
Grauges, in the National Grange, even in the Go- 
operative Congress of Great Britain, where 
members usually staid and quiet got excite<l 
and for a few minutes just "went for eacli 
other," and fairly "made the fur fly," but when 
they came to think about it, talk it over and 
remember they were supposed to be brothers in 
the same good cause, good humor would finally 
prevail, they would mutually explain, smooth 
the fur down, and soon all would be going on 
with the work as if nothing had happened— the 
cause sometimes stronger than before the small 
earthquake settled it down. So it was at Val- 
lejo, last Saturday. After it was all over, 
there was among our members as fine an exhi- 
bition of the power of true fraternity, to heal 
discord and weld our strength together, as is 
ever seen in any brotherhood. So may it 
ahvaj's be— "In essentials, unity; in non-essen- 
tials, liberty; in all things, chariU'. 

J. W. A. W. 

S. F., Jan. 24th, 1877. 



Worthy Lecturer's Vi.sits. — We have hafl 
the pleasure of taking Bro. Pilkington by the 
hand upon his return from his arduous cam- 
paign among the Subordinate Granges of the in- 
terior. He reports that he has everywhere re- 
ceived a most kindly and fraternal greeting and 
rejoices to see the life and spirit of earnest 
work which pervades the members. Our Worthy 
Lecturer has given himself almost wholly to his 
work during the last three months, and in spite 
of the good care which the brothers and sisters 
have tak^ of him, he bears marks of the 
fatigue or talk and travel. He now goes to his 
home in Santa Cruz to set the wlieels of his 
business atl'airs in motion. Bro. Pilkington left 
us a stirring letter, descriptive of his many 
visits, which we reserve for next week, because 
we wish to present it in its entirety. It is a 
cheering narrative, and readers may confidently 
look forward to refreshing columns in this de- 
partment next week. 



From the Granges. 

Sonora Grange. 

Editor.^ Press:— The officers-elect of Sonora 
Grange were duly installed on last Saturday by 
Bro. Soulsby, P. M. The meeting was very in- 
teresting and hannonious. Many of the officers 
were re-elected. Our retiring chief, George I. 
Soulsby, has filled the Master's office for two 
years. The Grange.'fully appreciating his ser- 
vices, unanimously passed a vote of thanks for 
the impartial and courteous manner he had 
filled the chair. It is gratifying to the recipient 
as well as to the brothers and sist«rs to partici- 
pate in these social amei i;ies. It is pleasant 
to giver and receiver; a flower is planted in the 
heart which yields its fragrance for all coming 
time. How much better is it to receive the 
commeadations of our associates while trjing to 
elevate the condition of the husbandman, than 
to give M-ay to petty malice or fancied grievance, 
leaving the Order with a burst of indignation, 
exi>ecting to see the structure demolished in 
your wake. Charity, forbearance and persever- 
ance should be our motto, no matter what the 
provocation. If our desire is for the welfare of 
humanity at large, and our loved Grange in par- 
ticular, soon will the responsive vote be placed 
on heart and record, "Well done, good and 
faithful servant." But those who turn back, 
having once put their hands to the plow, will 
soon find themselves in the gloom of obscurity. 

Music is one of our inspiring forces. Sister 
Florence Kelly, by her devotion to the melo- 
deon, and those assisting in giving us sweet 
vocal music, deservedly came in for a vote of 
thanks and expressions of gratification for 
pleasures derived from united effort in the per- 
formance of the Grange melodies. 

My own remarks — as Lecturer— were in ac- 
cordance with the duties of the day— taking a 
retrospective view of the past and present, and 
jieering into the future from "cause and effect." 
We cannot tell the future of the Grange move- 
ment except from its past progress and its own 
inherent capabilities for the dissemination of 
good principles ami protection from grasping 
monopoly. If the present j'ear only j)rove as 
prosperous as the past, the friends of the cause 
will have reason to be thankful. We have only 
to jdant the seed, heaven will water it, so that 
it will germinate in garlands of beauty to adorn 
the home of our second existance. If man's 
career were ended with this life, much that is 
done might as well be left undone. But man is 
gifte<l with immortality — a life endless as time 
itself. It behooves us to see that our whole 
duty is faithfully performed, to ourselves and 
families first, and all that is possible to suffering 
humanity. John Taylor. 

Mt. Pleasant, J.an. 18th. 

Santa Rosa Grange. 

EnrroBs Press: — Santa Ro.sa Grange is not 
dead, nor is it sleeping; but one might think 
there is no such organization as a Grange here, 
were the report in the Pre.ss the only guide. 
The fact is, our people are over modest, and do 
not like to see themselves in print very often. 
And we hope the editors and readers of the 
Press won't think we are losing our modesty if 
we tell them a little of the truth concerning the 
(Jrange and its work hereabout. During the 
fall, and so far into the winter, our Grange 
meetings have been well attended. The interest 
of the members is still increasing, and the last 
two meetings have been the most pleasant and 
profitable ones of the year. The newly-made 
officers have begun to work in real earnest. 
Tlie yearly report of officers showeil our 
finances in good condition. A splendid sur|)lus 
on hand, which the Board of Trustees of the 
Grange were authorized by the Grange to loan, 
invest or dispose of, as the Board think best. 
The membership is increasing. We elected two 
new members at the last meeting and we hear 
of some others about to come forward to help 
and be helped by the Grange. 

At the last meeting a decided improvement in 
the music was noticeable. We have the use of 
a fine organ, and we have succeeded in getting 
a tine performer (a' sister) to preside. Noth- 
ing does more to make the meetings attractive, 
pleasant and successful than good music. Let 
other Granges try it and see if they do not agree 
with our opinion. D. Art. 

Santa Rosa, January 22d, 1877. 

Sacramento Grange. 
Editobs Press: — Sacramento Grange had a 
pleasant gathering 'at the opening of the new 
'year and the installation of the new officers. 
We intend to have essaj's and questions of in- 
terest on Grange and farm matters, and perhajjs 
the sisters will conduct a monthly paper on do- 
mestic and household affairs. What we need is 
more life and interest in general affairs. I look 
for better opening in the future. 

George Rich. 

Georgfana Granse. 

Editors PRE.s.s:~-Last Saturday was our 
regular meeting. The fourth degree was con- 
fered on a class of one sister and five brothers, 
after which the members of the Grange and 
their friends assembled around the table spraad 
with a beautiful hars'est feast, where a good 
social time was had; every one seeming well 
pleased with their day's amusement. 

Isleton, Jan. 15th. P. H. G. 



Keystone Grange. 

Editors Pre.ss:— Worthy Bro. W. L. Mor- 
ton installed our officers to-day. After the in- 
stallation a repast was spread by our good sis- 
ters, to which all present were invited most cor- 
dially. General good feeling prevailed. 

Amos Child, Sec'y Keystone Grange. 

I..akeside, Tulare Co. 

CollegevHIe Grange. 

Editors Press:— Regular monthly meetings 
of our Grange are held the second Wednesday 
in each month, at which there is usually a 
harvest feast and debate. 

L. R. Chalmers, Sec'y. 

Election of Officers. 

American River Grange, No. 172, Sacra- 
mento Co.— E. G. Morton, Sr. M; J. A. Evans, 
O; W. W. Kilgore, L; C. Boye, S; H. Bryan, 
C; W. Bryan, T; Mir» Kileore, Sec'y; W. 
Thomasson, G. K.; Mrs. \V. Bryan, Ceres; 
Miss Kitty Studarus, Pomona; Miss M. Cris- 
well. Flora, and Miss Jennie Morton, L. A. 8.. 
J. T. Wight, Trustee for three years; D. W. 
Taylor, one year. 

Cache Creek Orange, No. 82, Yolo Co. — 
S. B. Holten, M. ; D. B. Hurlburt, 0; J. C. 
Padlock, L. ; James Gra/ton, S. ; W. L. Pad- 
lock, A. S. ; John Gillman, C. ; D. Q. Adams, 
T. ; J. G. Fredericks, Sec'y; J. J. Stephens, G. 
K. ; Sister E. Holten, Ceres; Sister D. B. Hurl- 
burt, Pomona; Sister Billie Butter, Flora; Sister 

A. E. Keller, L. A. S. 

Clakksville Grange, No. 149, El Dorado 
Co. — William Woodward, M. ; Samuel Kyburz, 
O. ; A T. Leachman, L. ; Charles Chapman, S. ; 
J. R Barret, A. S. ; J. F. York, C; George 
Carsten, T. ; Isaac Maltby, Sec'y; C. P. Win- 
chell, (i. K. ; Mrs. Emma Wt)od ward, Ceres; 
Mrs. R. S. Kyburz,. Pomona; Mrs. E. F. Maltby, 
Flora; Mrs. Mary E. Porter, L. A. S. 

Collegeville Grange, No. 184, San Joaqcin 
Co.— W. H. Snow, M.; ({. W. Brown, O.; P. 
P. Ward, S.; M. W. Woodward, L.; A. S. 
Woodbridge, A. S. ; A. May1)erry, C. ; A. M. 

D. Mcintosh, T. ; L. R. Chalmers, Sec'y; D. C. 
Mcintosh, G. K.; Mrs. Ward, Ceres; Mrs. M. 
Mcintosh, Pomona; Mrs. Snow, Flora; Mrs. M. 
Garwood, L. A. S. 

Enterprise Grange, No. 129, Sacramento 
Co.— Hection, Dec. 2d: A. M. Plummer, M. ; 
Wm. Baker, 0. ; Samuel Green, S. ; Monroe 
Miller, A. S. ; P. S. Lowell, L. ; H. Cronkite. 
C; J. M. Bell, T.; A A. Nordyke, Sec'y; F. 

B. Fitch, G. K.; Mrs. G. Beckley, Ceres; Mrs. 

C. Toomey, Pomona; Mrs. P. S. Lowell, Flora; 
Miss Mary .Shaver, L. A. S. 

Georgiana Grange, No. 122, Sacramento 
County.— H. F. Smith, M.; F. M. Kittrell, O. ; 

E. B. Sparks, L. ; J. P. Norman, S. ; J. B. 
Allington. A. .S.; J. W. Ferguson, C; M. M. 
Wheeler, T. ; P. H. Gardiner, Sec'y; S. C. 
Mare, G. K. ; Angle Davis, Ceres; Sarah Pool, 
Pomona; Mary Pool, Flora; Annie Allington, 
L. A. .S. 

Keystone Grange, No. 244, Tulare Co. — 
Election, Jan. 13th: E. Axtel, M. ; W. N. Bar- 
ker, O.; W. L. Prior, L.; I. Coffey, S.; M. E. 
Griffis, A. S. ; A. I. Burdy, C. ; J. J. Cole, T. ; 
A. Child, Sec'y; N. R. Goldin, G. K. ; Sister 
N. Axtel, Ceres; Sister N. Prior, Flora; Sister 
A. Daggs, Pomona; Sister M. E. Coffey, L. A. S. 

ToMALEs Grange, No. 153, Marin Co. — 
Ejection, Dec. 30: 0. Hubbell, M. ; J. L. Blake, 
0.; A. Gericke, L. ; F. A. Plank, S.; F. W. 
Bemis, A. S. ; Mrs. 0. Hubbell, C. ; Thos. Car- 
mthers, T.; R. H. Prince, Sec'y; A. S. Mar- 
shall, G. K. ; Mrs. C. Stump, Ceres; Miss Alice 
Bailey, Pomona; Mrs. T. M. Johnson, Flora; 
Mrs. L. A. Plank, L. A. S.; Miss Mary E. 
Bailey, Organist. 

Westminster Grange, No. 127, Los An- 
GELE.s Co.— Election, January 6th: Geo. C. 
Mack, M. ; John Anderson, O. ; A. G. Cook, L. ; 
J. D. Bowley, T.; A. T. Taylor, Sec'y; Geo. 
Danskin, C. ; F. H. Porter, S. ; C. Howe, A. S. ; 
George Crittenden, G. K. ; Sister S. A. Mack, 
Ceres; Sister V. C. Anderson, Pomona; Sister 
Flora Bowley, Flora; Sister Porter, L. A. S. 



The Grangers' Business Association. 

Amos Adams, Secretary, prints elsewhere 
this week, as required by law, the list of stock- 
holders in the Grangers' Business Association 
who have not paid the recent assessment upon 
their stock. This publication should advise all 
the friends of the association that they should 
arrange at once to meet the engagement. The 
association is doing a good business, its di- 
rectors and manager are well known to the 
Order, and its cause has been approved by the 
committee of the State Grange. To enable the 
association to proceed in its good work the 
assessment was le\'ied, and it seems to ns that 
til is aid should be freely given by the stock- 
holders. 



Grange Directory. — We return thanks to 
those who have favored us with reports of the 
elections in the Subordinate (i ranges. We de- 
sire to prepare our corrected Grange directory 
for printing in the first February issue of the 
PRES.S, and we request all Granges which have 
not sent us their new list to do so as soon as 
convenient, so that the directory may be accu- 
rate. 



January 27, 1877.] 



58 



ES. 



California. 

ALAMEDA. 

Stolen Cattle Recovered. — Independent, 
Jan. 20; Some time since about 70 head of 
thoroughbred cattle were stolen from William 
Rice, of Contra Costa county. He failed to 
get any clue to them in hia neighborhood, and 
went to San Jose and put the matter into the 
hands of Sheriff Harrf^f and about a week ago 
that oflScer left there in search of the property, 
taking with him Mr. Rice and a couple of other 
associates. He soon got on the track of the 
missing cattle, and traced them to a gorge in 
the mountains about 35 miles east of there, 
where 14 of them were found corraled. The 
place was very difficult of approach. The ears 
of those recovered were found to be mutilated 
in defacing the marks, and they had recently 
been branded with a Spanish brand. It is sup- 
posed that the greater portion of the herd had 
been butchered. The sheriff and party suffered 
severely with the cold during the trip. Since 
the above the sheriff has caught the thieves, 
Antone Wilson and Pio Ocho, in Livermore 
valley. 
COLUSA. 

C.\REOF Work Hor.ses. — Sun, Jan. 20: Some 
of the farmers who have a good many teams, 
employ one man whose duty it is to feed them all 
and see that they have plenty of good fresh 
water to drink. This has been found by those 
who have tried it to work well, and the man, if 
a good careful one, will save his wages in the 
feed, besides having the teams in good condition 
all the time. More teams suffer from want of 
care than from over-work; and it may appear 
strange, but we are convinced that more horses 
suffer from the want of the clieap article of 
water than from the more costly one of barley. 
Too many farmers allow irresponsible men to 
take care of the teams, and think if they 
stand all the while to plenty of feed it is all 
right, and never think to see that the men let 
them have a chance to drink all the water they 
want. And then it is trouble to let a team 
stand a while after putting up before watering, 
and too many neglect that precaution. Teams 
well watered and well cared for will keep fat on 
straw and a small quantity of barley, while 
those neglected in those particulars will fall off 
on good hay and plenty of barley. As to 
whether whole or ground feed is best for work 
horses, is a question on which the best farmers 
are divided. Abram Clark, one of the most 
systematic and successful farmers in the county, 
feeds ground barley mixed with cut hay or 
straw, and he keeps his teams in good condition, 
while L. S. Wakefield and J. S. Gibson, who 
have made the care of horses a special study, 
are inclined to favor whole barley and chopped 
hay or straw. All these get a great deal of 
work out of teams, and have them fat all the 
while. Wakefield says that horses or mules fed 
ground barley are apt to have colic. This is a 
subject of much importance to farmers, and we 
shall be pleased to hear from some of them 
on it. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

A Good Raik. — Gazette, Jan. 20: Although 
the measure of the rainfall is not great, every 
atom has been taken in and stored by the earth, 
and the spell of the drouth having been broken 
we may not only expect more from present ap- 
pearances before a clear-up, but recurring rains 
through the remainder of the season. Had this 
rain come with beating force to pack the surface 
of the ground, half or more of it would have run 
off and been carried away to the ocean; but it 
has fallen in gentle showers of brief duration, 
between which there has been ample time for 
the water to settle down into the light-lying soil 
of both plowed and pasture lands. We do not, 
indeed, remember as long a term of rainy 
weather when the fall and the condition of the 
soil was so favorable for its entire absorption 
and storage. The larger portion of our grain 
land is already sown, or ready for sowing, and 
much of it in well forward growth, while, as a 
rule, in past seasons but a small portion of the 
land has been in seed at this date, and not more 
than half of it even plowed until a later date, 
and we have now certainly a fair chance of good 
crops. 
FRESNO. 

Alfalfa Seed.— i?e/3M6Zicaji, Jan. 20: J. D. 
Forthcamp, superintendent of the Weihe or 
Henrietta ranch, recently purchased by W. S. 
Chapman, has received from San Francisco 40,- 
000 lbs. of alfalfa seed. It is proposed to sow 
2,000 acres of this ranch to alfalfa, as also a 
large part of the Easterby place. The ditch, 
farming and colony enterprises of Mr. Chap- 
man in this vicinity are of greater magnitude 
than ever before conducted in this valley. 

Grain Sown. — The amount of grain sown in 
the immediate vicinity of Fresno is very large 
for a locality so recently settled. On the 
Weihe place, 900 acres; Esterby place, 2,000 
acres; Eggers place, 1,800 acres; Gould place, 
200 acres; Voorman place, 2, 100 acres. Much 
of the grain was sprouted by the early rains and 
will now grow rapidly, while all of it will soon 
be up and growing. 
KERN. 

Exaoobration. — Courier, Jan. 20: A letter 
from John G. Dawes, who was reported to have 
lost all his sheep, denies the report, and says he 
arrived at his destination with a loss of only 20 
head. The report was brought to Mr. G. Saen- 
ger, a prominent citizen and »tock owner here, 



and he gave entire credence to it. The report 
was brought also by a traveler to Judge Dixon, 
near Buena Vista, who gave it to us with full 
faith in the truth of the statement. We now 
learn that some Basques were driving some sheep 
north at the same time, and lost their band of 
200 rams from their drinking alkali water. They 
had cost them $25 a head. Mr. Dawes was in 
advance, and his friends will rejoice in the 
denial we are able to give. 
LOS ANGELES. 

Castor Bean Loss. — Los Nietos Courier, 
Jan. 13: The castor bean crop did not turn out 
so well last year as the year previous, on ac- 
count of the havoc made by souirrels. These 
pests cut down the plants when about ten inches 
high. If tliis wholesale destruction could be 
avoided the raising of the castor bean would 
prove highly remunerative. Last year but little 
more than 24,000 pounds were shipped from 
this depot, while during the year 1875 the 
shipments of castor beans amounted to 60,754 
pounds. 

Results of Rain. — HeraUl, Jan. 20: We are 
now reasonably certain of good grass, and no 
crop except barley will suffer. We can support 
this the more readily because barley has never 
proved a remunerative crop in Los Angeles 
county when all our farmers took a hand in rais- 
ing it. A stinted barley crop this year, with 
the hay and grain which remains over from the 
superabundant yield of the last season, will 
really result in more money than a full crop 
would. 

Coffee. — Coffee growing is now being tried 
on the Puente rancho, Los Angeles county, by 
the Vandillo Brothers, a South American firm. 
It is said that they purchased one-half of this 
tract for the purpose, at an outlay of .f42,000. 
A good number of coffee plants are now growing 
on the rancho, and will probably mature should 
the rain be sufficient. The projectors of the 
enterprise propose to make themselves independ- 
ent in this matter, however, and will bore for 
artesian water. 
MENDOCINO. 

Editors Press: — Up to the present date we 
have had 2.09 inches of rain the past 10 days, 
and still cloudy and warm. Grain never looked 
better than now, and a large area has been 
sown. Grass is good, sheep fat, farmers jubi- 
lant, but lumbermen despondent, as the streams 
have not yet risen at all. In this neighborhood 
many of the creeks are not yet running. All our 
rain has been gentle and warm, and soaked in 
the ground as fast as it fell. The season has 
yielded thus far 8§ inches of rain. With a con- 
tinuance of the season as propitious as begun, 
Mendocino will show a better crop than ever 
before.— C, Ukiah, Jan. 23d. 
MERCED. 

Safe. — Express, Ja,n. 20: We have no doubt 
sufficient rain has fallen, at the present writing, 
within the two days above mentioned, to render 
farmers and stock-raisers safe. Of course, with- 
out more rain later in the season farmers would 
do nothing more than raise hay; but it is not to 
be expected that no more rain will come; for 
the past liistory of rains in California warrants 
the belief among the very oldest settlers that 
more will follow and that shortly. However 
tills may be, we have had enough at present to 
bring grass up and cause it to grow, if not lux- 
uriantly, at least sufficient to sustain alive all 
the stock at present in tlie country. Tliis of 
itself is far more than the most sanguine among 
our farmers and stockmen expected a week ago, 
and is a source of gratulation. For the next 
ten days sheep, and especially ewes and their 
lambs, must needs suffer unless great care is 
taken to provide feed, other than grass, for 
them. All sheep-raisers should endeavor to 
procure hay for their sheep, while the young 
grass is coming on. There is plenty of good 
wheat straw within easy reach of every flock of 
sheep in the county, which can be bought, no 
doubt, at a very low price, and to sheep men 
we say, lose no time in purcliasing this straw; 
feed it to your sheep, and by this means pre- 
serve their lives. 

MONTEREY. 

Feed. ^Democrat, Jan. 20: We noticed yes- 
terday morning a great flock of sheep passing 
through town. It came from stubble on the 
Spence ranch, belongs to S. B. Gordon and was 
heading for its range on the Tularcitos ranclio. 
In this connection, we mention that the rainfall 
of the week has been exceptionably heavy in 
the Corral de Tierra, Tularcitos and Carmelo 
districts, and that "feed" is assured in that 
quarter. 

Work. — The rain is sufficient to start the 
plows and cheerfulness and confidence, through 
its benign effect, has taken the place of 
despondency with workers everywhere. With 
regard to the good effects of this most season- 
able visitation, we understand that a large pro- 
portion of the lands from Soledad to Chualar 
have already been plowed and seeded. In this 
vicinity and hence to the sea, there is little so 
prepared — it may be presumed there will not be 
much time lost now — but that in the opinion of 
the farmers makes no difference, inasmuch as 
they have a much longer growing season to 
count upon. 

Dry Sowing. — Cor. San Jose Mercury: There 
has been much dry plowing this season. Thou- 
sands upon thousands of acres have been 
skimmed over and seeded to grain, which we 
sincerely hope will repay the farmer for the 
labor incurred. As last year was the first 
experiment of our farmers in raising wheat and 
barley near Soledad, the desiccating winds that 
blow in this locality hitherto deterred otkers 



from running any risk, but our pioneer merchant, 
ex-Mayor Vanderhurst, sowed both barley and 
wheat on the 15th of February, and realized 
therefrom about 20 sacks of barley and 12 sacks 
of wheat to the acre, of the best quality; also 
Ladd, Goodrich, Mitchell, Kilburn and McKee, 
between Soledad and Gonzalez, realized about 
3,500 tons of wheat, pronounced by Mayhew, 
Earnest & Co., and Messrs. Starr & Co., to be 
of a superior quality for milling, being strong 
and free from any glutinous substance. Un- 
doubtedly, from last year's experience and the 
heavy rains we are now having up to Tliursday 
morning, a good yield of cereals may be safely 
calculated on. 
NAPA. 

Editors Press: — We have, after about three 
months' drouth, had about two inches of rain, 
which fell between the 17th and 19th inst. It 
came gently, with snow on the mountains 
around, so that none was wasted, the thirsty 
ground taking it as fast as it fell. We have 
frequently had grain in a more forward condi- 
tion at this season, but I have never seen a 
better prospect in this county for a large yield 
on all classes of land. In this, Berryessa, 
valley, we have farmers who go to each extreme 
in the plowing line. One man merely scratches 
the ground, while another neighbor puts on 
eight heavy mules, and turns out a furrow from 
10 to 13 inches in depth. In due time you may 
look for a comparison of the result from an im- 
partial witness. — J. T. I., Monticello, Cal. 

Pruning. — St. Helena Star: Pruning is pro- 
gressing rapidly, many vineyardists being about 
througli. The opinion is expressed by old vint- 
ners that it is better to prune this early, after 
the time for danger of gum exuding has passed, 
and before the sap flows. Tlien, if necessary, 
they can be set back a little in the spring by 
cutting off a small piece more, for which allow- 
ance is left. 

Fine Wheat. — Register, Jan. 20: We are told 
by up-valley people that Mr. Thomas Hopper 
has 300 acres of the finest looking wheat in the 
valley. It is on corn ground, is up about six 
inches high, and looks as green and vigorous as 
any producer could desire. Mr. Hojjper is a 
thorough farmer, and knows how to get the 
biggest yield from the smallest tract. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Editors Press: — A general rejoicing com- 
eth up from the "valley of the plains' as tlie 
sea of clouds moistened mother earth. Although 
not suffering, this clears from the mind all 
doubts of short crops here — the outlook is prom- 
ising. The low as well as the uplands will 
doubtless be cultivated, and if no heavy rains or 
floods in spring, every foot of arable land wUl 
bring forth its increase. — G. R. 

Editors Press:— The farmers here all feel 
much encouraged over the prospects of crops 
for the coming year. They have tlieir land in 
good order, and can get along here m the tules 
witli a small amount of rain. The town of 
Isleton is in a flourishing condition, several 
new dwellings having gone up this fall. — G., 
Isleton. 
SAN JOAQUIN. 

Emcouragino.— Independent, Jan. 19: The 
rainfall for the last three days has been sufficient 
to bring forward the wheat already sown, and 
will also start the feed so as to furnish abundant 
pasturage for stock. With seasonable rains, 
such as may be confidently expected during the 
months of February and March, the outlook 
for the farmers is again very encouraging and 
a a;eneral revival of all kinds of business may 
be expected. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

Enough. — Courier, Jan. 19: Thursday morn- 
ing a heavy rain fell, accompanied by heavy 
peals of thunder and vivid flashes of lightning. 
There is now sufficient moisture in the ground 
to enable the farmers to plow and sow. 
SONOMA. 

Editors Press: — Yesterday I accepted the 
invitation of a friend to go to the head of Blu- 
cher valley, in the direction of Petaluma. All 
the grain along the route of IG miles seemed to 
be doing well, so much better than I expected 
to see, that I returned well satisfied with the 
prospects of Sonoma county. Had the farmers 
harrowed in their early grain as they do later 
in the season, we would not have felt the least 
alarm about the drouth. It is customary here 
to harrow early-sown grain but very little, just 
enough to cover the seed, leaving the land as 
rough as possible, as it will stand the long- 
continued rains better than if smoothed down 
level, but this season has been so very dry as to 
require better cultivation. All the late-sown 
grain has received better cultivation, and is now 
perfectly moist and coming up well. Yesterday 
the long-continued bright and cloudless skies 
were clianged to wind and clouds. The rain be- 
gan to fall in gentle showers throughout the day 
and night. One-tenth of an inch has fallen and 
the wind is fair for plenty more to-night. — T. S., 
Santa Rosa, Jan. 17th. 

The Frost Line. — Demotcrat, Jan. 20: In 
the mountains in this county and perhaps gen- 
erally in the State, there is a bolt somewhere in 
the neighborhood of 1,000 feet above the level 
of the sea that is almost entirely exempt from 
frost. The extent of this belt wo do not know, 
but we know gentlemen residing in it in differ- 
ent portions of the county and they assure us 
tliat no killing frost lias visited their places tliis 
winter. As a proof of this fact, if any further 
proof than their assertions were needed, tomato 
vines are yet untouched and in full bloom and 
bearing, and all kinds of flowers are blooming 
in open and unprotected rlaces. All over the 



valleys there has been an unusual nuni 
heavy frosts this winter, and also on thi 
mountain tops, but this belt has enjoyed aL 
time real vernal weather. It seems to us that 
this fact is not generally known and appreciated 
by our people, and we would be glad to hear 
from some one who is posted and obtain full in- 
formation on the subject. 

The Wine Company. — A satisfactory meet- 
ing of the directors of the Santa Rosa Wine 
Manufacturing Company was held at the office 
of the savings bank last week. Reports of the 
secretary and treasurer were read, which showed 
a healthy condition of affairs. The company 
have on hand about 125,000 gallons of wine. Its 
liabilities, including partly the first expendi- 
tures for building, cooperage, apparatus, etc., 
are about $14,000 and its assets about $30,000. 
A brandy still will shortly be put up in connection 
with the winery. J. R. Myers is president of 
the company; John Taylor, secretary and super- 
intendent, and .1. F. Boyce, treasurer. About 
$6,000 was paid by them for grapes last fall 
STANISLAUS. 

Slaughter of the Innocents. — News, Jan. 
19: The period commonly known as the lamb 
ing season is fully upon many of our sheep 
raisers. The scarcity of pasturage and fear of a 
prolonged drouth has caused orders to be 
issued, by many owners, for their herders to 
slaughter the young lambs as fast as they make 
their appearance. This has been done to save 
the dams of the fold. The ewes would require 
all of their strength to sustain themselves during 
the trying ordeal of short feed. Under such 
orders thousands of lambs must have been 
slaughtered. The recent rain, and more favor- 
able prospects for grass, will, no doubt, cause 
such work to be stopped. 
SUTTER. 

The Mining Debris Cases. — Banner, Jan. 
20: The suit of Keyes against the Nevada and 
Placer county 'mining companies, first brought 
in the District Court of vSutter county, has been 
removed to the United States Circuit ('ourt, and 
will now be tried in San Francisco. We have 
anticipated such a result, and have no doubt 
that taking this course in the early stages of the 
case will facilitate a settlement. Whatever 
might have been the result in our State courts, 
there was a certainty that the case would finally 
have been carried to the highest Federal Court 
for adjudication, and a saving of time and 
trouble will be effected by making the transfer 
now, instead of at a later date. The case pend- 
ing in the Sacramento court is still on trial, and 
seems to be receiving a thorough examination. 
To enable the jury to decide intelligently as to 
the damage caused, they were instructed to visit 
the scene of action and view the land. The 
earnestness with which this case, a compara- 
tively unimportant one when compared with the 
Keyes suit, if prosecuted, is an indication that 
the farming community is awake to the magni- 
tude of the question, and that it is determined 
to protect its interests. 

TEHAMA. 

Poultry Raising. — Tocsin, J aa. 18: Tehama 
county stands first and foremost in the ranks of 
fowl-breeding, and it is a pleasure combined 
with profit. "Tliere's millions in it," if sys- 
tematically conducted, and they are ornaments 
to the yard. It is pleasant to uoticvi the inter- 
est manifested by many of our townspeople in 
this business, and early and late care and atten- 
tion is bestowed upon them with all the pride 
imaginable. They compare in beauty with bud- 
ding flowers and creeping vines, and give lif« 
and tone to the dismal surroundings of a barn- 
yard. It is a luxury enjoyed by many, and 
ought to be sought after and engaged in by all. 
Give the matter a trial. Get the best breed, 
and — our word for it — you will be happy. 

TUOLUMNE. 

Editors Press :^You will be deluged by 
rain articles, as I suppose our storm is general 
throughout the State. The heart of man is 
made to rejoice. Obedient to the general rejoic- 
ing vegetation will spring forth with renewed 
life, to give its life forces to sustain the life of 
man and beast. How dependent we are upon 
Nature's wise arrangements. Forgetful we 
might be if we had no reminder, such as we 
have passed through. The rich care little for 
these natural convulsions, but the dependent 
poor scan the sky with tearful forebodings. To 
them a drouth is tantamount to a famine, but 
the Great Dispen.scr of every good gift sends 
the refreshing shower, just when despair had 
found an entrance into many a heart. — J. Tay- 
lor. 

Oregon. 

Farming VveAiK—Oregonian, Jan. 13; Wo 
arc told that the new gra^s in the John Day 
country is from six to eight inches in hight. A 
farmer living on the Toucliot, who has no special 
facilities for raising stock, realized last year 
$2,100 from the sale of hogs alone. S. Marks 
& Co., Canyonvillc, kill and convert into bacon 
only 1,400 hogs this season. They have already 
killed 1,000, and will kill the remaining 400 
next week. The Mountaineer says the live stock 
shipment made from tho Dalles to the markets 
below for the year just passed was 10,000 head 
of mutton sheep, and 6,000 head of beef cattle, 
besides about 1,000 head of hogs. From all 
parts of tho State come favorable reports of the 
condition of the crops. Better weather was 
never experienced for ajjricultural purposes, and 
a larger area of ground has been seeded this 
fall and winter than has been known before in 
the history of the Slate. 



54 



w&Qrtwm mMMMM 



[January 27, 1877. 




A Very Old Song. 

"Tomorrow, ma, I'm sweet sixteen, 

And Billy tirimes, the drover, 
Has popped the question to me, ma. 

And wants to be my lover; 
To-morrow morn, he says, mamma. 

He's coming here quite early. 
To take a pleasant walk with me, 

Across the field of barley." 

"■Vou must not go, my gentle dear. 

There's no use now a-talking; 
You shall not go across the field 

With Billy Grimes a-walking. 
To think of his presumption, too! 

The dirty, ugly drover 
I wonder where your pride has gone. 

To think of such a lover!" 

"Old Grimes is dead, you know, mannna, 

And Billy is so lonely ! 
Besides, they say, to Grimes' estate 

That Billy' is the only 
Surviving heir to all that's left; 

And that, they say, is neiirly 
A good ten thousand dollars, ma - 

And full six hundred yearly ! " 

"I did not hear, my daughter dear. 

Your last remark quite clearly, 
But Billy is a clever lad 

And no doubt Io\cs you dearly; 
Kcmember, then, tomorrow morn, 

■To be U)) bright and early. 
To take a pleasant walk with him 

Across the field of barley ! " 

—St. Louis Times. 



Scenes in Sicily. 

(Written for the Rirai. Pkkss by Mrs. M. R. Moore. 1 

Perhaps a few lines from tliis far-away land 
may not be unacceptable to your many readers. 
A summer of unremitting work, though spent 
in this climate, so like California, with its blue 
skies and sunny days, yet made me feel that 
reit was needful. Tired brain and nerves 
needed relaxation, and an old Califoniian friend 
just then making his appearance, it was pro- 
posed that the right thing to do was to take a 
little trip to "fre.sh fields and pastures new." 
Sicily seemed so near from Capri, where the 
snnuner had been spent, so available, and, more- 
over, had the charm of novelty to recommend 
it, being out of the ordinary route of travel, that 
at once we decided to see 

The Famous Orange and Lemon Groves, 
Whose fruit we had eaten when children. A 
part of an afternoon and one night on the 
steamer brought us to Messina, sitting placidly 
at the base of Etna. The town is like all other 
Italian towns, with nothing in particular to rec- 
ommend a long stay, so after a couple of hours 
we took the train for Catania; then followed 
Taormina and the ascent of Etna. A ride of 
seven hours through the olive orchards, the 
orange and lemon groves, heavy with green fruit, 
and so luxuriant, brought us to .Syracuse. It was 
late when we arrived, and we had but a confused 
glimpse of high walls, big guns mounted on 
them and flashing lights glancing across the 
dark waters of the harbor. The next morning 
was bright and sunny, in fact too warm for any 
active exertion, so we concluded to visit the 
famous papyru.'? plants on the river Anapo. We 
found our way through the narrow, crooked 
streets and outside the walls to the quay — a tine 
one it is, too, built of th« best cut stone — where 
we hired a little boat with an awning and two 
oarsmen, and started across the placid harbor. 
A row of perhaps 20 minutes brought us to the 
mouth of the creek, called here 
The River Anapo. 
Every stream here bigger than the muzzle of a 
garden hose is called a river, for this is a dry 
country, at least half the year — the streams 
which are raging torrents in winter drying up 
completely in the summer, when rain seldom 
falls. Tliis so-called river proved to be a rather 
deep, clear creek with a strong current. As we 
rowed up the stream, which flows througli a Hat 
plain at the base of the remains of the ancient 
wall of Syracuse, we saw, standing half way up 
to their knees in the water, dozens of women 
washing. Tlieir petticoats were tucked np in 
the most reckless manner, and they rubbed 
away on a rough. Hat stone, sometimes pounding 
the garments with a wooden paddle, then sous- 
ing them in the water, and chattering in such a 
vociferous manner that one not used to this 
country would have thought them quarrelling. 
As we passed they looked, nodded and laughecl, 
showing most beautiful teeth. Little children 
climbing on donkeys no bigger than dogs, others 
hanging on to the tail of the patient beast, and 
having an immense amount of fun; herds of 
goats browsing on the banks, followed about by 
a boy dressed in sheepskin with the wool side 
out, looking very happy and lazy, varied the 
rather monotonous banlu, which are here low 
and not beautiful just near the mouth. Aa we 



got further on, however, the scene changed; the 
country was still Hat, but the stream wound 
around in the most bewildering manner, tall 
reeds took tlie place of the low trailing grasses, 
cane-like "flags," which the natives use for 
baskets, rose straight up from the banks, and 
breaking down and bent over by their own 
weight, swept the sides of our boat with a rush- 
ing, rustling sound. The water, so pure and 
limpid, Ijecame filled with water plants swing- 
ing along with an undulatory motion in the 
rapid but quiet current, big and little frogs 
winked at us from these floating gardens, or 
plumped into the water with a si)lasli as they 
caught sight of us, slender water snakes slipped 
away in the wet grasses, myriads of brilliant 
dragon-flies dashed through the air, swarms of 
gay butterflies chased each other in the sun- 
sliinc, the day grew hotter an<l we almost dozed 
under the grateful shade of the awning. The 
stream narrowed, the floating plants became 
more bright in color aud denser, so dense our 
oars could scarcely be used. Masses of the most 
vivid green were seen sjireading over the Ixit- 
tom whenever a vacant bit of water allowed us 
a glimpse into the depths, and we pushed our 
way along in the shelter of 

The Tall Papyrus Plants, 

AVhich now began to tower far above our heads 
and take the place of the canes and reeds. The 
papyrus on this little river has a history. It 
was brought here a thousand years ago, at the 
time the Saracens liad jios^essiou of the country, 
from the banks of the Nile, where 1 am told 
there are now no traces of tlie plant to be found. 
Its new home has proved a most acceptable one, 
judging from its luxuriant growth, averaging a 
bight of 20 feet. It is a most beautiful plant, 
dark green in color, and when in flower with a 
heafl not unlike a date palm in shape, but more 
graceful .<iiid feathery, a long, flexible, reed-like 
stem, thickening suddenly towards the root, 
where it averages two inches in diameter. Our 
boatmen cut some of the stalks, ami taking 
about six iiiclies nearest the root, split it into 
layers nearly as thin as paper, to show us 
How the Ancients Made Paper of It. 
These little narrow strips are placed under a 
press until dry, then placed side by side, lap- 
ping slightly, and gummed togetlier, making a 
tough, flexible pai)er of a whitey-brown color, 
which takes ink reatlily and is not bad to write 
on. Our boat was now in the midst of thickets 
of this lovely plant. The shade was most wel- 
come, but navigation hatl become almost impos- 
sible, so our men put up a tall, stout mast at 
one end of the boat, attached a rope; one 

i'umped ashore and tuggeil us along. Sometimes 
le would run tlie nose of the boat into the rank 
growth, take the tugger and rope aboard, then 
slide around and deposit him on the opposite 
side to renew the tugging process. 

We met a party of English people coming 
down stream, who looked what they generally 
are — bored. They gave us tlie usual cordial 
English salutation, a grunt, a stare and at last 
a short nod. Everything was hushetl in the 
heat of the summer afternoon; the whiz of the 
wings of the water-fowl we scared up, and the 
rustling sound of our boat sliding over tlie cling- 
ing water weeds alone broke the stillness. As 
we looked over and peered into the dark cool 
depths so rich in color, we seemed to be floating 
ill mid-air over the gardens of the Sirens, and 
would not have been much surprised to have 
discovered one preparing for her tra<litionary 
pranks by doing up her oack hair in the dark 
green, shadowy waters. 

The Stories of the Old Mythology 
('ame unbidden to our memories, and we talked 
of the legend which says that the source of this 
most lovely stream, an "azure spring, "was once 
a nymph, Cyane, who was metamorphosed into 
this spring for interfering with Pluto when he 
was performing his celebrated ProserijinoaUluc- 
tion act. As we floated and talked we came 
near the ruins of an olil temple of Zeus Olym- 
pius, which one might easily pa.ss without no- 
tice, if our most obliging guide book had not 
called attention to it. They looked like hun- 
dreds of other piles of ruins one continuaUy 
finds in this old world, without fonn or sem- 
blance of building. When one first comes 
abroad it is hard, when moving around these 
often noble relics of a dead-and-gone religion, to 
realize that this, which is mythologj- to us, was 
once the living faith of a people who feared and 
loved these to us heathen gods, who burnt sac- 
rifices, built splendid temples for worship, and 
offered not only there the grateful incense of 
praise and thanksgiving, but who found in the 
woods, fields and streams, nymplis, dryads, 
satyrs and fauns, of like passions and frailties 
as themselves. The thought and question 
came: is there a time in the far-distant future 
when our faith, our religion and our churches 
will be dead and in ruins, and another faith, an- 
other worship as different from ours as ours is 
from that of the old Pagans, will take its place? 
So talking and dreaming and pushing our way 
over this lovely aquatic garden, we drifted 
down the stream agahi to our landing place, and 
our trip up the Anapo seemed like a lovely 
tro])ical dreami 

Syracuse, Sicily, 1876. 

A Fatal Mistake. — A man may drink mod- 
erately but steadily all his life, with no appar- 
ent harm to himself, but his daughters become 
nervous wrecks, his sons epileptics, libertines 
or drunkards, the hereditary tendency to crime 
having its pathology and unvaried laws, pre- 
cisely as scrofula, consumption, or any other 
purely physical disease. These are stale truths 



to medical men, but the majority of parents, 
even those of average intelligence, are either 
ignorant or wickedly regardless of them. There 
will be a chance of ridding our jails and alms- 
houses of half their tenants when our people are 
brought to treat drunkenness as a disease of 
the stomach and the blood as well as of the 
soul, to meet it with common sense and a 
physician, as well as with threats of punish- 
ment, and to remove the gin shops and gin 
sellers for the same reason that they would 
stagnant ponds or unclean sewers. 



A Lady of the Olden Time. 

Now that reports are prevalent of the hollow- 
ness of Washington society, it will be pleasing 
to remember that tliere were once n