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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (1877)"

California ^blij Jfiliran|. 




ED07 lS5b3bE 2 

Presentl " caWornla state Library 



Date received 

fcQ>30,5 

NO. ^(J 6> /V P/ 

Vram a» Art pre»cr&imj Itulf* /or the Gorernmnnl of the State Library, 
pnMed March Sth, ISO I. 

Section 11. The Lilmiriaii shall cause to be kept a register of 
all books iseucfl and returned; and all InMike taken by the membeni 
of the Legislature, or ita r>ffici'rs, shall be returned at the close of 
the session. If any person injure or fail to return any lioiik taken 
from the I/ibrar)', he sliall forfeit and pay to the Libmrinn, for the 
benefit of the Library, three times the valtte thereof; and before 
the Controller shall issue his wammt in frtV(>r of any member or 
officer of the Legislature, or of this State, for his per diem, allow- 
ance, or salarj-, he shall bo satisfied that such member or officer 
haa returned all books taken out of the Library by him, and has 
settled all accounts for injuring sncli books or otherwise. 

Sec. 1."i. Books may he taken from'thi' Library by th<' members 
of the Legislature and its oflieers during the session of the same, 
and at any time by the Governor and the offirers of the E."£eeutive 
Department of this State, who are required to keep their offices at 
the aeat of Government, the Justices of the Supreme Court, the 
Attorney-General, and the Trustees of the Library. 



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Volume XIV.J 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 7, 1877. 



[Number 



The Grizzly Bear. 

This animal has ever been represented by the 
trappers and mountaineers of the American con- 
tinent as the most formidable and ferocious of 
wild beasts. His home is among the solitary- 
fastnesses of the mountain, and whenever the 
footsteps of the hunter has invaded it, it has 
been at the peril of his life. Who has not 
heard of the hair-breadth escapes, the severe 
■Wdunds, and often fatal results Of siicli rencoun- 
ters in the Rocky 
mountains f And of- 
ten, in the early history 
of mountain adventure 
in California, after the 
discovery of gold, has 
the pioneer miner, 
with rifle and pickaxe, 
his blankets and pan, 
encountered this stern 
tenant of the forest, 
while in search of the 
precious metals. To 
the farmers of our 
State the grizzly has 
sometimes been an un- 
weleome visitor, com- 
ing upon them un- 
awares and ruling the 
ranch during his stay. 
He has emigrated to 
the unfrSqllHnted and 
solitary mountain for 
ests, where undis- 
turbed he can sleep 
through the winter, 
and at early spring find 
the young clover and 
roots upon which he 
niay feed at leisure, or 
look out for an occa- 
sional victim among 
the young and timid 
deer; and when sum- 
mer opens to give its 
wild fruit for his sus- 
tenance, be content 
with what he can get. 
These animals grow 
to an astonishing size, 
some having been 
kiOed in this State 
that weighed 1,800 
pounds. Their average 
life is about 15 or 16 
years. They generally 
have three at a birth, 
and are well and ten- 
derly cared for by the 
mother. 

Although very wild, 
many of these animals 
have been thoroughly 
tamed, so as to have 
nearly as strong an at- 
tachment for man as a 
dog. Mr. Adams, a 
gentleman who resided 
in the upper portion of 
Tuolumne county, had 
80 thoroughly tamed a 
young grizzly that it 
followed him wherever 
he went, and would 
moan in disappoint- 
ment and distress 
whenever he took his 
rifle down for a hunting 

excursion and showed any signs of leaving him 
behind. On one occasion, when engaged in his 
favorite occupation — that of hunting — he had 
wounded a grizzly, and being unable to escape 
from his vengeance was about falling a victim — 
for the bear had wounded him badly in the head 
— his dog and the young tamed bear set upon him 
from behind, when he immediately turned to 
give them battle; in the meanwhile Mr. Adams 
had regained his feet, got possession of his rifle, 
and from a shelter behind a tree kept flring un- 
til the bear was killed, but not before his de- 
voted animals were severely wounded. He 
now says, with pride and pleasure, "that bear 
once saved my life. " 

RiCHAKD Wagner is coming to America. 



The Honey Season.— The fact that the 
Southern honey regions will give but little to 
the markets this year has l>een clearly shown 
in previous issues of the P«ESt4, and several 
items to the same effect may be foritnd in this 
issue. We should like to know how the bees 
in otlier parts of the State are coming on with 
their summer work. AVill not our readers give 
us reports, that we may see whether we are to 
have anything in the markets this fall? We 
have a note at hand from Mr. Pryal of Temes- 
cal, Alameda county, in which he .says: "In 



The As.sessmbnt of Growing Crops. --The 
progress which has been made during the last 
two weeks in the discussion of this subject has 
strengthened farmers in their beliefs of right. 
The advantage of making protest before the 
county Boards of Equalization is urged. All 
those who protested against paying taxes on 
mortgages got their money back when the Su- 
preme Cofiirt decided that "money secured by 
mortgage was not property," while those who 
failed to protest got nothing. Another legal 
opinion on the matter is that of Hon. Creed 




THE CALIFORNIA GRIZZLY-URSUS HORRIBILIS. 



tliis locality, bees are storing but very little 
surplus. In short, honey is a failure here. One 
advantage we have over our southern coast 
friends is that there will be enough flowers 
through the year to keep the bees from starv- 
ing. Neither have we had any swarms this 

year." 

LAK(iE Radish. — A reader of the Rural, 
who did not favor us with his name, left on our 
table a black radish grown about five miles from 
Haywood, which, when first taken from the 
ground, weighed nearly five pounds. It is a 
fine specimen. 

On Tuesday the Oceanic took out 28 head of 
liorses and cattle, purchased by the Jajianese 
Commissioners for their government. 



Haymond, of Sacramento. He ijublishes a let- 
ter in the Sacramento Bee, in which he takes 
the position that there is no law directing or 
authorizing the assessment of growing crops. 
Inasmuch as such assessments have been made 
in many counties, Mr. Haymond suggests that 
the easiest way to remedy the dilHculty is for 
all county Hoards of Equalization to reduce all 
such assessments to a nominal sum — say one 
dollar, or even less — as they certainly have the 
power to do, though they have not tlic power to 
strike the entire assessment from tlie list, as it 
was ordered by the State Board of E(iualization. 



Agriculture at the Mechanics' Fair. 

Are any of our farmers, or farmers' societies, 
or corporations living upon farmers' patronage, 
thinking of the advantage of making a display 
of their productions at the fair of the Mechanics' 
Institute, which wiU open in the city August 
7th? If not, we would remind them that the 
Oregonians are moving for a display, on the 
claim that the Califomians have always boaste<l 
of their superiority, and done injustice to Ore- 
gon. Therefore, the 
northern men propose 
to bring upon our own 
ground material which 
will teach us some- 
thing about Oregon, 
and operate well upon 
the hundreds of im- 
migrants who will 
come to the fair to 
see what the coast can 
do. The bold way in 
which they express 
their belief can be read 
in the following ex- 
tracts from a circular 
issued in Oregon by 
Mr. P. Schultze, land 
agent for the Oregon 
and California Kail- 
road Company: "You 
are no doubt aware of 
the fact that our 
neighbors in Califor- 
nia are doing much 
injury to our State by 
impressing upon in- 
tending Oregon immi- 
grants their erroneous 
ideas of the resources 
and climate of Oregon, 
thus deterring them 
from commg here. 
To meet these unreas- 
onable prejudices, it 
seems to us there 
will be nothing more 
effective than to place 
before the people of 
California a complete 
collection of the var- 
ied products of our 
State, and show that 
they are unequaled 
any wliere. Should 
this meet your views, 
I would 1 1 -jioctfully 
request you to send 
us specimens of grains 
and grasses in sheaf, 
vegetables, flax, fruits, 
wool, timber, and .ar- 
ticles manufactured 
from them.'' The 
challenge is so plain 
that comments are 
unnecessary. T h e 
way to meet it is by 
making a better show. 
^Vho will undeitike 
it? 

As is sliown in an 
article on another page 
of this week's RunAi-, 
the ])rospccts are 
bright for a flnc fair. 
Tlie nuxnagers offer 
2)rcmiums for excel- 
lence, and exhibits will Ije carefully judged. 
Workers in several dop.irtmcnts of industry, 
mining, manufacturing .nnd commercial, are 
preparing their displays. It would make a fair 
more true to the whole State if agriculture, our 
leading industry, sliould exhibit its i)raiscwor- 
thy deeds. 



The reduction of interest charge on the pub- 
lic dejjt since July 1st, 1876, is $1,94.S,G25, 
which is the result of the funding operation. 



Kkturnki) from .Japan. — TheYolo Bmiocml 
announces that Dr. Clark, of the Amherst 
Agricultural College, has returned from 
Japan. Our readers will remember that he 
went out about a year ago to found an agricul- 
iKiral college for the .lapanese. We have heard 
that his work had progressed finely during the 
year, and high hopes were had of Japanese ag- 
ricultural progress. 



[July 7, 1877 J 



t| 



tt^ORRESPONDENCE. 



Notes on the Way to Oregon. 

Editors Prks.s:— ^>ince my l;ist tlescription 
of .Scott Valley, or "What I Know about Siski- 
you County," It has beou my fortune or mis- 
fortune, I hardly know yet which, to receive a 
sudden call to the laud of the "Web-foot" or 
Oregon, and now it is "What I Know about 
Oregon" instead of Salmon river, California, as 
promised in my last. Mr. J. 0. Welsh, the 
genial photograph artist, and I started from 
Fort .fones on Thursd.iy, the Uth mat., at 9:1.5 
A. M.. behind the Nunnally roan team, the 
writer acting as Jehu, passed the celebrated 
Forest house and orchard, arriving at Yreka, 
our county seat, at 1'2:.S0, where we met a num- 
ber of those who h.andle the birch and "teach 
the young idea how to shoot," etc. The Teach- 
ers' Institute being held here this week I sup- 
pose makes things a little livelier. After grasp- 
ing the hand of my friend .las. W. Davidson, 
Deputy Clerk at present, 1 called on Mr. Bird, 
editor of the ^'reka Union, the representative 
of the Democratic party; also on Robert Xixon, 
of the JownirtZ-Piepublican in politics. Then 
on Mr. Hanscom, photograph artist; then on 
Dr. Helner, dentist and assayer, where we were 
well entertained for an hour, adiniringthe beau- 
ties and wonders of his cabinet of minerals and 
curiosities. The Doctor is clever, sociable and 
well versed in mineralogy; as well as being a 
first-class dentist, as an assayer he hasfewequals 
I'm informed. He has specimens of all the va- 
rious mines and different kinds of rock. Has a 
medal made from a cannon captured from the 
Mexicans while he was serving his country. I 
hope to have the pleasure of spending an hour 
with the Doctor and his cabinet again. 

Lea\'ing Yreka at ."):30 we travel northward 
by (iasville, over the Shasta river, over a rather 
dry, gravelly country. We took the new road, 
five miles shorter to Cottonwood, crossed the 
Klamath on a ferry, for which we paid .^1 . We 
sped on across the hills to Cottonwood, K! or 21 
miles from "S'reka, where we arrived at S:30, 
Friday, June 1.5th. We find this town to be 
somewhat the worse for wear and age. ( )ne 
store, hotel, blacksmith shop, saloon anil quite 
a number of private residences. 

After leaving Cottonwood our road winds 
around, up and down hill. After climbing the 
Siskiyou mountains and arriving on the sum- 
mit, we stopped to take a farewell view of 
California. We could not see very much, .as 
our view was somewhat limited by surroundii\g 
liills and mountains. We look ahead and see a 
portion of Oregon, travel down a steep hill, pay 
$1.25 toll for the privilege, and discover that 
the road workers failed to remove all the loose 
stones. We pass a mill, etc We pass or- 
chards, gardens and grain fields, with an abun- 
dance of grass. Occasionally we see an emi- 
grant team, bound to or from California. Wt 
reach Ashland at 1:1.5, where we get a good 
tlinner, then take a look at the pbice. This ib 
a manufacturing town, making clothing, woolen 
mill^, tannery, etc. It is also the proud posses- 
sor of the Asliland academy, so well and favor- 
ably knov.-n. Mr. Leak, of whom I made men- 
tion in my last as being sick at Oro Fino, i? 
now well and teaching I am told. Asldand is 
well supplied with (lowers and fruits. I saw a 
number of new baildingi and other improve 
ments going u]i. Tiie bu.siuess men seem to b. 
doing well, while the merchants are carrying' 
heavy stocks. On the whole, it is a nice plj*;e. 
The surrounding lands are generally good. 

At 4:30 we started on ou:" way again, and af- 
ter passing some nice grain fields and tlie towi. 
of Plienix, whic'i is now considerably tlie worst 
for ajj. we reach J.icksonville at 7. Herf 
I had the pleasure of grasping the hand of 
Frank Abell, Mr. AVelsh's partner in the pho- 
tographic and mining business. He passed 
most of the winter in Ashland, I believe, and is 
to start to-morrow at 3 A. m. for Koseburg, the 
county seat of Douglas county, Oregon. 

.Tack8on\-ille is the county seat of Jackson 
county, and I think does a very large b\isi- 
n-iss. At 10:30 v. M. we start for Canyonville, 
I'.isiant 72 miles. We pxssed Kock point and 
crossed the Hogue river here, .50 cents toll. 
Near Wool^^■ille I had the pleasure of meeting 
J. C. ' Williams, an old Lake county friend. 
He likes this neighborhood, says he can purchase 
land and improvements for what the improve- 
ments alone cost. Passing a saw mill, <> rant's 
pass and a stage station, we arrive at (1:30 at 
Mr. Sexton's, where we rest for the night: here 
I received the first reduction in my horse feed, 
lodging etc. : ?2..'>0 instead of .S3.o0. Have seen 
notices on fences etc., along, "hay 25 cents; 
oata do," and learn that meals at farmhouses 
are generally 2;5 cents. Starting at 7 we travel 
over a rough road up the Grave Creek mount- 
ain to Grave Creek station in Josephine county. 
This place received its name in this wise: a 
gocpd many years ago a number of immigrants 
were massacred oy the Indians, and all 
buried in one grave on the bank of the creek. 
One woman fought heroically and when at last 
she did fall the Indians cut her in small pieces. 
This is the story told me. A store, stage sta- 
tion, and a few dwelling houses constitute the 
city. 

After traveling up hill and down, now nice 
»nd smooth, now rough, up a hill and down 



creek, we finally reach Canyon\ille at 6:30. 
Hero Mr. Welsh leaves us. He will take pic- 
tures here for awhile, then move elsewhere. 
After passing the best grain fields (two of them) 
I've yet seen, we arrive at the Overland house. 
Myrtle creek, where we are well taken care of 
uutil morning; then start for Roseburg, distant 
18 miles. Passing a station, some one yelled 
out to us to stop. Complying with this request, 
I found it to be Xewton .s'litli, formerly of Lake 
county, Cal. A few minutes' conversation and 
we drove on, reaching Roseburg at 1 ; 30, having 
left Myrtle creek at 9 : 30. Roseburg is the 
county seat of Douglas county, also the termi- 
nus of the railroad. I see some lands very 
cheap in this vicinity. Only a mile away is a 
tract of over 1,000 acres, the whole, or part, at 
5fl4.0O per acre, several hundred acres good 
grain land, orchards, liouses, all fenced, title 
perfect, oats on it now will go 30 to 50 bushels 
per acre, good wood and water, wood enougli 
on it to pay for half the land. Wood in Rose- 
burg is worth $4 per cord. In my next I will 
describe things more minutely. Being free now 
to go where! choose, I expect to see some of 
Oregon ere I return, about the midiile of July. 
R. D. NCSS.VLLY. 
Roseburg, Douglas Co., Oregon. 




Why Ahnond Trees Drop Their Fruit. 

Editors Press: — It is generally believed that 
the almond requires but very little moisture, 
particularly from the soil. Hence the theory of 
planting upon high and dry ground. Now the 
almond, like the quince, requires a great ileal 
of salt, consequently they do much better near 
the sea; and I have no doubt that if Mr. Two- 
good would apply a liberal dressing of salt to 
his trees next fall, the following season would 
bring him a fair harvest of nuts; though 1 
doubt very much if he will ever succeed in rais- 
ing them to profit at Riverside. 

1 agree w-ith Mr. Clough in regard to irrigat- 
ing trees in the snmmor linio: for. to apply 
water aitiliii.vily out ot season, is very iiijiiii ms 
to trees of any kind, ami to fiood the ground 
during the summer months, while the atmos- 
phere is dry and hot, and the leaves are parched 
and void of juice, would perhaps cause the sap 
to flow so rapidly through the branches as to 
force the fruit to expand beyond its capal)ilities, 
and tiius, on the reaction, after the first effects 
of the moisture is gone, cause it to wither and 
fall. While, on the other hand, if applied in 
the winter season, when the atmosphere is full 
of moisture, so that the leaves and branches 
could absorb their proportion with the roots, 
it would then not only »nf be injurious to the 
trees, Init would, perhaps, be of great benefit, in 
the interior, though along the coast irrigation is 
rtholly unnecessary, as the almond absorbs 
sufficient moisture from the salty atmosphere of 
the sea. 

As to the almond requiring but very little 
moisture, my observations here show that it 
does, particularly from the atmosphere. Ton 
•nucli dry lieat produces the curled leaf. 1 
therefore believe that the interior of California 
is too hot aud too dry for the almond to suc- 
ceed. 

Now, when I go into an .almond orch.ard 
(danted close to the sea, I find large, strong, 
thiil'ty-growing trees, bearing early, l>earin^ 
large nuts, yielding large crops, and with l.u^ 
few instances of the curled leaf, while tile frni 
nangs well, although, this season biing so verv 
Iry, it is dropping some. One thing I notic. 
.'ery particularly u that, with scarcely any ex 
•eptioii, all the branches seem to l>e re.auhiu; 
out towards the sea, evidently searching for^all 
and moisture; while all other trees, except tin 
quince, were stretching their branches in tin, 
oj)posite direction. 

1 now go back upon the foothills and examine 
the trees there: they are the same age as those 
below, very healthy, and will, perhaps, lie 
longer-lived, but they are somewhat of a stunted 
growth, only about two-thirds the size of the 
former, bearing smaller nuts and \ery much 
lighter crops, as the greater portion drops from 
the trees while yet in their infancy. Here the 
atmosphere and the soil is mucli drier than down 
by the sea shore, as the fogs rarely rise to so 
great an altitude. The branches also seem to 
have the same tendency to search for moisture 
by reaching out towards the sea. 

I infer from these facts that the almond does 
reipiire considerable moisture, and that it gath- 
ers the greater portion of its nutriment and 
moisture from the atmosphere. Hence the 
cause of their doing so much better near the 
sea. Chas. a. Reed. 

Siinta Barbara, CaL 



Notes on Refrigerators. 

As many of our agricultural interests may be 
served by successful refrigeration and preserva- 
tion of produce, we propose to keep our readers 
posted on the news concerning contrivances' of 
this kind. We read in the Call that on the 8th 
instant the first car-load of California fniit 
shipped overland this season, was started by I. 
Allegretti for New York. "The car contained 
34!t boxes peaches, 295 boxes apricots and a 
quantity of cherries and cherry plums. 



twenty days on the road, and yet turn out the 
fruit in perfect order. The car is fitted with 
the Allegretti p.atent refrigerator, which has 
been m successful use for conveying perishable 
goods between various points in the United 
States for two years past. The inventor came 
to California last autumn, and at that time 
shipped two car-loads of grapes to New Y'ork 
by slow freight, and although nineteen days on 
the way, both arrived in good condition and re- 
turned a large profit on the venture. Mr. Alle- 
gretti at that time made himself acquainted with 
the unbounded fruit resources of the State, ami 
became convinced that California offered a field 
of operation for his refrigerator uneipialed anj-- 
where else in the country. He is now having 
constructed at Philadelphia a large number of 
cars, with which an extensive trade .across the 
continent will be in.augurated this season. He 
believes that California grapes can be shipped 
to New Y'ork and other Eastern cities by slow- 
trains, thus getting the advantage of the lowest 
freight rates, and be laid down in those markets 
at prices that will admit of their being retailed 
<at 122(al.5c per pound, .at which figures, he 
thinks, three or four car-loads per day can be 
disposed of in New Y'ork alone. The ability to 
preserve perishable fruit for almost anj' length 
of time has been demiuistated in this city by ex- 
periments with a small refrigerator erected in 
the store of Onesti & Co. Tomatoes and apri- 
cots have been kept for four and six weeks, in 
perfect condition, while clierries, which had re- 
mained in the refrigerator for two weeks, could 
not be distinguished from those received fresh 
from the orchard. The refrigerators will be 
used for the transportation of perishable fruit 
only, as it has been found that pears and some 
other of the better keeping varieties require no 
such means of preservation." 

Since the above hopeful paragraph was writ- 
ten, the news has come th.at the car was 
opene<l on arrival in Chicago, and the fruit was 
spoiling so rapidly that it was taken out and 
sold for what it would bring. The Call says 
the loss to the shipjier will be great, and there 
will probably be no further experiment with 
this kind of fruit this season. 

A Southern Experiment. 

It seems that New Orleans is reaching out 
for the great markets of the North-east. The 
Bailirdji Aije says: We have had the pleasure 
of examining a shipment of fruits and garden 
[iroduce, consisting, in part, of new potatoes, 
green corn, summer S(piash, egg plant, toma- 
toes, bananas, peaches, watermelons, and 
muskmelons which were shipped from New- 
Orleans, on the (ith, in one of Ayer's rutiber re- 
frigerator cars. The car arrived in Chicago on 
the 1 1th, and when opened the contents were 
found to be as fresh, sweet .and cool after their 
six days' trip as if they had just been brought 
from the garden— a very practical and gratify- 
ing evidence of the success which h.as attended 
Mr. Ayer's efforts to construct a car that w-ill 
safely transport perishable articles long distjinces 
in hot weather. The temperature at New Or- 
leans when the car left was well up toward one 
hundred. A quantity of dressed mutton .arriv- 
ed from Kansas City in one of these cars a few 
ilays ago, and after being in the car seven days 
in all, the meat was removed and delivered to 
purchasers in a satisfactory condition. This is 
.1 very good showing for the rubber car, as 
mutton is one of the most perishable of meats. 
The efforts being made by various inventors in 
the direction of securing perfect refrigerator 
oars are very commendable, and the results 
have been in many cases remarkable. 



^i\bqf\iciJlxUf^e. 



„ . . . , ^ , The 

on the other side, by a mill, down Canyon I car goes by freight train and is expected t« be 



Bananas and Pine-Apples. 

Among the California growers of these plants 
Is James Huntington ot Los Angeles county, 
ind he gives the notes of his movements to the 
>aiita Ana .\Vic.< as follow.-: Last year, about 
lune, he |iut out 2,40 t bananas fro;n the .Sand- 
•vich i-il.inds, consisting of two kiml-i, vi^: the 
Dwarf and the Mountain Sprouts. 'I'lic i.itter 
variety is so called because it grows on the 
high-lands of the islands. Ihe frost injures tlie 
Dwarfs but has no appreciable effect on the 
-Mountain Sprouts. Before setting out the 
above number of bananas, he tried a few stalks, 
one of which Vwre a nice bunch of bananas De- 
cember before last. The fruit was pnmounced 
excellent by Los Angeles and S.an Francisco 
dealers. The stalks that bore were Dwarfs. 
He has had no fruit from the Mountain Sprouts 
yet. There are some Florida bananas growing 
on the place. They grow well, are not bitten 
by frost, but the fruit does not ripen; at least it 
has not done so yet, although it has been on the 
st.alks for months. On the whole Mr. Hunting- 
ton thinks there is not much doubt about ba- 
nanas if they are planted in the warmest parts 
of the county where the frosts are least severe. 
Pine-apples. 
Mr. Huntington procured about a thousand 
pine-apple bulbs from the Sandwich islands at 
the same time that he procured the liananas. 
They were put out last June. Several formed 
apples last year, but as the land became very 
dry and as water coidd not be obtained at the 
right time, the fruit did not come to m.aturity. 
The bulbs have grown well and were not hurt 
by the frosts that came last December. As the 
pine-apple grow s on the deserts of hot countries, 
it can bear an incredible amount of heat and 
drouth without suffering injury. About 7,000 
pine-apple bulbs are set out on an acre. Each 
one ought to bear one apple. The plant is 
small and ought to bear soon after planting. 
The apples oring from 50 cts. to a dollar 
I apiece in San Francisco. 



Tree Planting Controversy. 

Editors Pkk.ss: — I see by the Rural of June 
9th that Prof. Sanders has favored the commu- 
nity with some more instructions in regard to 
setting orange and blue gum trees. Had he not 
used my name in an unkind manner, I would 
not have noticed his present communication, or 
the former one of his striker, the Fresno liejmb- 
/lean. His last essay, like his lecture, is very 
vague in regard to numbers. He says he is 
setting several dozen orange trees this spring, 
and that some of them had growni a foot a week 
ago. He covered part of his trees with white 
cotton cloth, and all of the trees so covered did 
finely, and made an unheard-of growth (a foot 
in three weeks), while of those he did not 
cover one-third of them died, and none of them 
have grown at all. We are sorry the Professor 
was not more definite in regard to the number 
of trees lie set with cloth, so we could know 
the extent of his success; a few more such ex- 
periments, and white cotton cloth will knock 
blue glass entirely out of the market. 

The Professor gives rules which he claims are 
drawn from his experience, but which are 
at variance w-ith the experience of older orchard- 
ists. He sajs: 

1st. "Set W'hen the ground is warm." In his 
lecture last winter he said February was the 
time to send for orange trees, see Ri'ral Press, 
January 20th. 

2d. "If the roots are not covered with earth 
from the nursery dip them in a b.atter of thin 
mud, and set them out with as much mud as 
possible adhering to them. " 

Now, Mr. Editor, if you will take two orange 
trees, when ready to be placed in the ground, 
and dip the roots of one in a b.atter of mud, and 
dip the roots of the other in clean water, and 
then hold both trees up together and take a 
good look at them, you will require no further 
pro<jf of the fallacy of puddling the roots of 
trees immediately before setting them in the 
ground. All the small fibrous rootlets (and 
those are the principal feeders and life of the 
tree) will have disappeared by the puddling as 
effectually as if they had been shorn off with 
shears, for the fine roots will all be pasted tight 
to the large ones. A tree set in this manner 
may live, but it will not make a healthy growth 
until new rootlets have grown. On the other 
hand, every root and fiber of the other tree, 
when taken from the water, will show out in 
its n.atural position. If then you take some 
fine, rich soil and sift over the roots (this 
should be done after placing the tree in the 
hole where it is to sft) and see how it will coat 
every root and rootlet without drawing them 
from their natural position. If after this you 
believe those mud-bound roots will besta<lvanco 
the growth of the tree, why try the experiment, 
and be convinced as I w-as. .Sonie of our best 
nurserymen puddle the roots of trees before 
packing them to send a long distance, and in 
such cases it is certainly a benefit, for the roots 
will retain moisture longer when gathered in a 
bunch than singly, but they will not grfiw 
better. In January of 1873 I received from 
Mr. tJarey, of Los Angeles, 40 peach trees of 
choice variety. The roots h:.d been well puddled 
before packing; one of the men who assisted me 
in setting the trees thought they should be set 
in the ground with the mud coating on the 
roots as they came from the nursery. In order 
to test the matter and ascertain the best method, 
I set one row of ten trees alternately, five trees 
with the paste on as they came from the nur- 
sery, and five with the roots well soaked and 
clean. All my trees lived, but the five that 
were not placed in water did not start so soon 
as the 35 that were. 

.3d. I'rofessor Sanders's next rule is more inju- 
rious than the last. He says, "thoroughly satu- 
rate the ground where you are going to set your 
tree, and keep it moist around your tree until 
it starts into growth after transplanting. " We 
do not advocate planting trees (or any- 
thing else) in dry ground. The land should be 
properly prepared, by irrigating, if reijuired, 
and then, when sufficiently dry to work, well 
plowed, harrowed, and smoothed before a hole 
is dug for a tree. But the idea of soaking the 
ground full of water, digging holes in the mud, 
and pasting your trees in their places with mor- 
tar, is too ridiculous to be commented on. Men 
without any experience in the use of water on 
land, often lose their time and money by inno- 
cently ffdlowing b.ad advice. 

4th. The next rule is: "If the leaves blow off, 
or curl up, so as to expose the body and 
branches to the direct rays of the sun, shorten 
in the branches by pruning, then cover the 
entire tree with light cloth till it starts into 
vigorous growth." With wh.at a smile of 
amusement those old pioneers, who h.ave Iwen 
engiiged in raising orange trees in California for 
the last twenty years, read the above 4th rule 
of the Professor's. It is sad to think of the 
millions of orange trees now growing and bear- 
ing in California that never received the Iwiiefit 
of garments made of white cotton cloth. What 
a comical appearance the 100 .acre orange field of 
Bhanchard & Co. would present with its 10,000 
trees clothed in white and standing in rows like 
Turkish sentinels. Were they a little more 
compact, those 10,000 orange trees in full cos- 
tume might well represent a detachment of the 



/ 



July 7, 1877.] 



army of the Sultan. And what a nice little sum 
it would cost to purchase those 10,000 dresses 
and hire them made and put on. My neighbor, 
Mr. F. S. Buckman, set out ."(OO orange trees last 
July, and only lost two trees out of the whole 
number. If any of his trees shed their leaves 
he let them have all the sun they could get to 
aid them in growing new ones. He did not 
cover any of his trees with cloth, or anything 
else ; he gavethem plenty of water and let them 
grow. 

The fifth rule, to transplant trees when they 
are dormant, rathec than when they are in 
active growth, has been known and practiced 
by every orchardist in the world for the last 
300 years. The orange tree has several distinct 
periods of growth and dormancy during the year, 
and how can the orchardist know when to send 
for trees ? Their period of dormancy this year 
may be their period of active growth next year. 

I have adopted the following plan, with suc- 
cess : I select the trees in the nursery eight or 
ten days previous to removing them, and prune 
them in proper shape to set in the orchard. A 
tree so pruned will cease all outward growth 
for a week or ten days. The wounds received 
by pruning will heal more rapidly in the nur- 
sery than after it is transplanted to the orchard. 

The Piofessor gives very elaborate rules for 
handling the blue gum. The only difficulty 
met with in the propagation of the gum tree is 
jn sprouting the seed, and our seed venders 
have instructed us in the way to do that. A 
blue gum tree six inches high is as easily trans- 
planted as a cabbage plant. We know that in 
nearly every county in Ualifornia there are great 
forests of this valuable tree set for wood, wind 
breaks, etc. Years ago, these trees towered up 
taller than the tallest oak. Some of our farm- 
ers set as many as 20, 000 in a spring. They set 
them from four to six feet apart, each way, and 
after the fourth year, thin them out for wood 
and fencing. Now, wouldn't it be a nice little 
job keeping wet barley sacks over 20,000 little 
gum trees m the summer time ? Particularly if 
there happened to come a big norther about 
shading time. It would require two boys to 
each plant — one to hold the sack on the sloping 
stakes, and the other to pack water and dampen 
down. 

There are plenty of men in California who 
will furnish the trees, set them out on suitable 
prepared land, and warrant the trees to grow or 
replace those that do not, for from $2 to .?.3 per 
hundred, and the Professor's sloping stakes and 
barley sacks would cost double that amount 
besides labor. 

Now, Mr. Editor, if you believe the farmers 
can derive benefit from the publication of rules 
which are so imisracticable as the lecture and 
rules of Prof. Sanders, please tell us in what 
way, for I fail to see it. Phere is so much genu- 
ine good information to be derived from the 
many experienced correspondents of the Rural 
Press that perhaps we should not grumble, but 
by silence we would seem to endorse what we 
know is incorrect. 

The Professor complains of what he calls n>y 
unjust criticism of his lecture. 1 would be truly 
sorry to say one unjust word aVjout Prof. San- 
ders or anybody else. I believe in doing the 
most good to the greatest number, and which 
is best, that fallacious methods should receive a 
well-merited rebuke, or that hundreds of men 
and their families, who are building homes in 
our midst to dwell with us, should meet dis- 
appointment and lose their money by being 
wrongly advised ? Was it unjust to warn the 
new comer against plowing and then flooding 
land, and leave it to bleach, bake and crack in 
the sun? Was it unjust to mention the incon- 
sistency of digging a square hole 18 inches deep 
for a round tree with roots 30 inches long ' Was 
it unjust to proclaim against setting a tree four 
inches deeper than it should be ? W'as it unjust 
to say that a three-year old orange tree wouW 
not bear 20" of freezing, when we see thcni 
repeatedly cut down at less than eight degrees 
below freezing '! And yet these are the rules 
which the Professor desires us to adopt. 

And then his theory of training a tree into a 
second nature, and of producing seedlings like 
the parent tree, is even yet more preposterous 
than his rules for the setting of trees. He says 
Linn;eus established this theory 150 years ago. 
We know and you know to the contrary, for it 
is repudiated to-day by every nurseryman in the 
State. They all bud or graft from the varieties 
they wish to perpetuate. Plant six seeils from 
one apple and you will iirobably get six varie- 
ties of apples; but the same wood will jjroduce 
the same fruit every time. The Professor says 
I camiot tell by the looks of an egg what the 
variety of poultry will be. No sir; but 1 can 
tell when the chick has grown to maturity. 
And so when a tree has not borne fruit. I can- 
not tell by the blossom what kind of fruit it 
will bear, but I can after the fruit is ripe. The 
Professor boldly asserts that hybridizing att'ects 
the seed only, and does not show in the fruit. 
Had the Professor ever spent one summer on a 
farm he would know better than to make such 
an assertion, for plant field corn, sweet corn 
and pop-corn side by side, and you will find all 
three varieties on the same ear of corn. I'lant 
different varieties of melons in the same v]>atch, 
and you will find the fruit has mixed when you 
cut them. Anything that is hybridized from 
the bloom or tassel will show in the fruit. 

The lecture and rules of Prof. Sanders are 
denounced by every farmer I have heard speak 
of them as altogether wrong, and whether these 
farmers know their business or not they are 
successful at it, and we believe are acquainted 
with the successful practice. My knowledge of 
farming has been gained by 27 years of personal 



experience and close observation of others on 
this coast, and by seeing and reading the actual 
experiments of others. The Fresno Rejmhlican, 
which makes an acrimonious attack on my well 
meant comments upon the Professor's former 
lecture, says Prof. Sanders is an unostentatious 
botanist, who has traveled in F^uro^e and 
America. Well, did he farm it while traveling? 
I know nothing about the Professor's ostenta- 
tion, his botany, or his travels, but I do know 
that his rules for tree and vine culture are 
wrong, and if this long communication is the 
means of saving a tree to any one I shall feel 
repaid for my time in pehning it. 

Ventura, .lune 23d. Kobt. Lyon. 



T8|e Oi^iF^Y- 



Cold Storage of Dairy Produce. 

The dairy merchants of San Francisco have 
no such stretches of heat to contend with as 
those in New York. The spell of weather 
which a few weeks ago spread consternation in 
the Front street dairy stores would only be con- 
sidered a very common thing in a New York 
summer. New Yorkers have plenty of heat 
and plenty of cheap ice, both of which are 
scarce in San Francisco. And yet cold storage 
is a thing which our merchants would find ex- 
ceedingly useful sometimes, both for dairy 
goods and for fruits, vegetables and meats. As 
a matter of interest then, we propose to describe 
the latest and largest venture for cold storage 
which has been realized in New York city. 

The Butter, Cheese and Eijg Reporter in its 
last issue says: Messrs. Mackenzie, Newman & 
Co. leased the entire building. No. 02 Warren 
street, from May 1st, and at once fitted up the 
three upper lofts with a refrigerator, which is 
practically one room, the floors being sihiply 
slatted, and the walls being fitted up continu- 
ously from the roof to the floor of the first loft. 
The interior measurement of the rooms is (J5x22 
feet, with ante-rooms on the first and second 
lofts. The top loft is used for the ice, and con- 
tains layers to the hight of four feet two inches, 
covering the eutire surface between walls. 
About liiOtous are now in the room, though it 
is constructed with a capacity of 300 tons. The 
side walls from the roof down to the first floor 
are cased with matched pine boards, back of 
which a space of eight inches to the brick 
walls is filled with sawdust. On the ends 
a thickness of 14 inches of sawdust is used. 
The roof and first floor are ceiled in the same 
manner. 

In constructing the refrigerator 1,900 barrels 
of sawdust were used. The two ante-rooms 
are intended chiefly for showing goods, and are 
kept at higher temperature than the storage 
rooms, in order to make them comfortable to 
customers and salesmen, but if necessary, they 
can l)e kept at as low a temperature as the 
other rooms, and used for storage. The capac- 
ity of the two storage rooms is 10,000 packages. 
There is an abundance of daylight in each room 
to admit of the inspection of goods. 

The temperature is kept at from 40 to 42, 
and there is a fine circulation of dry air in every 
part of the rooms. The ice rests on a rack just 
above the beams of the top floor, and free con- 
tact of the air with the ice, and at the same 
time perfect drainage, is secured by roofing the 
floor beams with galvanized iron projecting into 
a gutter of the same material between the 
beams. As the ends overlap but do not come 
in contact, there is no hindrance to the circula- 
tion of the air. 

The drippings from the ice fall into the gut- 
ters, which are slightly inclined toward the cen- 
ter, and then empty into a conducting pipe 
which passes down through the building, and 
finally leads into the sewer-pipe. There is no 
opening at any point into the open air. The 
principle upon which the refrigerator works 
depends upon the gravity of cold and heated 
air, and as the ice covers every inch of surface, 
it will be seen that there must necessarily be a 
constant and uniform circulation from the floor 
to the ice, and downward. The cost of the re- 
frigerator is between SG,000 and $7,000. A 
steam elevator is being erected to perform the 
heavy work, and also to connect with the cellar 
and sub-cellar of the store, which are used by 
-Messrs. McKenzie, Newman & Co. for their 
flour and egg trade, and are both well lighted 
and well ventilated rooms. 

Old and Sticky Butter. 

I'rof. L. B. Arnold, Secretary of the Ameri- 
can I >airymen"s Association writes to tlie New 
^'o^k TriliiLue as follows: Of the great mass of 
butter which finds its way to the general mar- 
ket and is reckoned as "good," the first and 
most obvious defect is an old taste, derived, 
probably, from too much or too long exposure of 
the cream to the air before churning. Every- 
body understands the fact that butter exposed 
to the air soon acquires an old and disagreeable 
taste; but everybody does not seem to appreci- 
ate the fact that cream deteriorates the same as 
butter by standing open to the air. But it cer- 
tainly does so, and very much more rapidly than 
butter, and especiallj' if exposed to air which is 
warm, or which contains any bad odors or va- 
pors. Owing to the nitrogenous matter mingled 
with cream, it is very susceptible to change. 
Exposed to warm and damp air, cream will de- 
cay about as much in one day as butter would 
in a week in the same situation. It is, there 



fore, very easy, and certainly very common, for 
butter to ac(juire an old taste by too much ex- 
posure of the cream before churning. The sur- 
face of cream which is exposed to the atmos- 
phere, especially to a faulty atmosphere, is all 
the time changing and working toward decay 
while standing for the slower particles to get 
up and ready for the skimmer. The longer 
this exposure continues the greater the change 
and the more is the flavor of the resulting but- 
ter aft'ected. It is one of the striking advan- 
tages of the more modern modes of raising 
cream that they bring it to the surface quickly 
and improve the butter by shortening the ex- 
posure of the cream to atmospheric influences. 
The cleanest- flavored butter, that which has the 
fullest, freshest and most delicious taste, and 
the best keeping quality, is now made by heat- 
ing the milk to expel objectionable odors, and 
then, under an air-tight covering, lowering the 
temperature to hasten the ascent of the cream. 
If cream must be exposed to the air while ris- 
ing, it will do very much toward avoiding the 
old taste, so often found in butter, to have the 
air in contact with the cream as cool as possible. 
Cold retards change, and the cooler the surface 
is kept the less progress toward decay. The 
cooler air now sought in modem creameries 
makes a marked improvement in their butter 
over those who have used cold water but warm 
air in their rooms for setting milk. 

Another defect is indicated by the word 
"sticky." This is occasioned by over-churning 
or over-working, and the grain becomes consid- 
erably injured. Butter is composed principally 
of three fats: olein, margarin and stearin. 
These fats exist in the milk in very minute glob- 
ules, one-two-thousandth of an inch in diame- 
ter, not each fat in a separate speck by itself, 
l)ut all combined in one atom of cream. 

When the little grains are unmashed the but- 
ter breaks short and with a distinct fracture; 
but when they have been mashed or broken the 
butter appears sticky and handles more like lard. 
Its flavor becomes at once changed, and it loses 
greatly in keeping quality. It is difficult to 
work butter without mashing some of its grains 
of fat, but the less it is worked the less of this 
tliere is done. The mode of working, too, has 
much to do in producing this objectiouable con- 
dition; a sliding or drawing stroke of the lever 
or ladle injures the grain most. In the most 
improved processes of butter-making the butter- 
milk is got out and the salt mixed in without 
working the butter at all. The first step in ac- 
complishing this is to cool the butter in the 
churn, just before it is ready to gather, down to 
about 55°, and then churn very slowly until it 
forms into minute lumps or grains, as it will 
soon do at that low degree, and the lumps so 
formed will be perfectly solid butter, with not a 
particle of buttermilk inside of them. Tliese 
lumjjs are then washed in cold water or brine, 
and the buttermilk all washed off of them, 
wliich can readily be done without having the 
granules of butter stick together. After taking 
the granulated butter from the rinsing water it 
is laid on an inclined table and drained and salt 
stirred in, which is easily done with perfect 
evenness. By leaving it upon the table till it 
warms up to about fiO', the lumps or grains are 
pressed togetlier with the lever or ladle, and a 
solid mass of butter, evenly 8alte<l and with a 
perfect grain is the result, without a particle of 
working. 




A New Patent Bee-Hive.; 

One of the recent patents granted to Pacific 
coast inventors through Dewey & Co. was one 
for a bee-hive devised by Thomas A. Atkinson, 
of Merced, Cal. Many excellencies are claimed 
for the hive, and we expect soon to give an 
illustration of it, that apiarians may form their 
own judgment of it. One of the particular 
claims of the inventor is for an effectual moth 
trap and protector. Mr. Atkinson has written 
us at length concerning his hive, and all he ex- 
pects to accomplish with it. ^^'e shall print a 
few paragraphs at this time, and more, giving a 
description, when tlie engraving of the hive is 
prepared : 

The different features of my hive combine in 
a perfect system which insures the most satis- 
factory results to the bee-keeper, and is easily 
understood, being very simple. 'I'he adapta- 
tion of my hive to preventing the motli fly from 
entering, and for trapping the motli worm be- 
fore turning to the fly, is complete. It was dc- 
visecl with a thorough knowledge of the nature 
and habits of the moth. This we conceive to 
be the only possible principle upon which any 
device can be developed ^hich will answer the 
end to be attained. 

The bee moth is the great plague of the api- 
ary. Thousands of bee-keepers liave been 
driven by disgust to abandon the pleasing, and 
but for this formidable foe of the bee, proflta))le 
industry of bee-keeping. The bee moth in its 
adult state is a winged moth or miller, measur- 
ing from the head to the tip of the closed wings 
from five-eighths to three-quarters of an inch in 
length, and its wings expand from one inch and 
1-lOth to one inch and 4-lOths. The fore wings 
shut together flatly on the top of tin li;ick, slope 
steeply downward at the sides, and are turned 
up at the end somewhat like tlie tail of a fowl. 
The female is larger than the male, and may be 
distinguished from him by being of a darker 
color and having a nose or tongue resembling a 
beak, while that of the male is very short. ' 



There are two broods of these insects the 

course of the year. 

A few winged moths of the first brood begin 
to appear towards the end of April or early in 
May, earlier or later according to climate and 
season. Those of the second brood arc most 
abundant in August; there may appear a few 
between these times. The fly is perfectly 
harmless; it is the worms which do the depre- 
dation, as they subsist entirely upon wax and 
web a passage as a protection from the bees. 
By this they destroy many bees, where there 
are many, because tlie combs become mutilated 
and the young bees fastened by the web and 
prevented from hatching. Besides this, an of- 
fensive odor pervades all parts of the hive, 
sickening and paralyzing the energies of the in- 
mates, so that they offer but poor resistance 
against their ravages and frequently abandon 
the hive. 

While bee-hives stored with combs and 
honey are seldom entirely exempt from th» 
moth, yet there are comparatively few in the 
spring, so few, indeed, that they never destroy 
bees at this season. This is, however, the most 
propitious time in which to wage against them 
the war of extermination, as one dispatched at 
this season will be more advantageous than the 
destruction of two or three hundred in July 
and August, and these than the destruction of 
two thousand in September, when the second 
or third brood of worms hatch. By reflection 
it can be easily determined why the moth is so 
destructive in the fall of the year. In the 
early part of the year, as the genial warmth of 
the sun stirs up the latent energies of the bees, 
and as they begin operations and enlarge their 
circumference on the combs, the moths begin 
to hatch from the warmth generated by the 
bees, but they only hatch a few at a time, and 
as they reach the proper stage of maturity they 
slip from their silken galleries in the comb 
where they have been perfectly protected from 
the bees, and suspend themselves by a web, by 
which they lower themselves to the bottom of 
the hive, in search of a crevice or hiding place. 
When such a place is found, they quickly enter 
it and as a rule crawl a« far from the bees as 
circumstances will admit. When they get into 
the trap they find it so convenient and warm 
that if they could get back they would not; but 
if they desired to get out of the trap it would 
be impossible, as they cannot crawl up on tin. 
They therefore become an easy prey to the bee- 
keeper. When it is discovered that worms are 
in the hive, it is important that the blocks be 
removed, the grooves underneath scraped out 
smooth, the tin tubes cleared of all obstructions 
and then the blocks replaced. It is important 
that the trap be taken out once a week if the 
moths are bad; often hundreds will be found in 
it. I once caught more than a thousand in a lit- 
tle over a week. I remove the trap several times 
during the week. If you have a hive which is 
badly infested, the trap might be removed twice 
a week. It is a good plan to remove the en- 
trance blocks occasionally when there are many 
moths in the hive, as they sometimes stop in 
the grooves. Unless there are signs of moths 
in the hive the blocks need not be removed. 

To determine whether moths are in the hive 
it is only necessary to inspect closely the mate- 
rial which is thrown from the body of the hive 
on the alighting board or at the base of the bot- 
tom board; if particles resembling in size and 
color coarse gunpowder be found it is conclu- 
sive evidence of the presence of moth. The 
number of moths may be pretty accurately de- 
termined by the quantity of the excrement 
found under the hive. Another indication is, 
when young bees are thrown from the hive to 
the bottom; these young bees are dislodged 
from the combs by the bees in endeavoring to 
tear the moths aiul their galleries from the comb. 
When these indications are apparent it is high 
time the apiarian was at his post. 

TiioM.As A. Atkinson. 



The Trade in Human Hair. — The trade in 
human hair continues to increase at Marseilles, 
and has now become a staple article of com- 
merce in that city. Six or seven years ago the 
annual quantity imported did not exceed 16 
tons, but it had increased in 1873 to 50, in 1875 
to 80, and in 187() to 92 tons. Formerly all the 
hair imported into Marseilles came from Italy, 
but that country has been unable to meet the 
increasing demand, and a brisk trade h;is been 
opened with the extreme East. Thus, of the 
92 tons imported last year, 43 came from Italy, 
while China supjilicd 3G, Turkey 5, and .Japan 
3 tons, the remainder being made up of impor- 
tations from Egy])t, India, iiermany, Belgium, 
Sjjain and Algeria. The total quantity of hair 
imported into France last year is estimated at 
122 tons, value §900,000, so that Marseilles, 
with 92 tons, has three-fourths of the trade in 
her own hands. 



Asp.VRAOUs Paper. — A man of science, 
writing to the Palrie, explains what is the prin- 
cipal use to which the bundlen of white stalks 
of asparagus, from which the tips have been 
bitten, may be put. They may lie made into pa- 
per, and that not ordinary brown })apcr, or even 
foolscap, but letter paper of the finest descrip- 
tion. It appears that m a few favored places 
there are manufactories where the asparagus 
ends are used in this way, and where the care- 
ful housekeeper hoards up the scraps with a dil- 
ligence unknown elsewhere. But the work of 
collecting them is an up-hill task as yet, arid it 
will be years before, in the natural order of 
things, the practice of saving them and packing 
them off to such factories • for sale is at all gen- 
erally adopted. 



':© ^"il^^iiv!)^ 



[July 7, 1877. 




Corresiionilcnce cordially iuvited from all Patrons for this 
depart lueut. 



THE HEADQUARTERS "f the Califoniia State 
Grange are in tliu Oruui,'i;rs' Building-, ii'irtheast corner of 
California and Davis Streets, ov,r tliu rangers' Bank of 
California and California Fanners' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Association. Master, J. V. Webster; Secretary, Amos 
Adams. . . . 

The Grangers' Business Association of California is m 
Dans Street, northeast comer of Califoniia. 



Worthy Lecturer's Visits. 

Editors Press: — Our last communication 

left us at Grangeville, June 18th, in the kind 

care and keeping of that live <Jrange and good 

Bro. Morton (Master of Franklin lirange), who 

could not let us go from him till he had taken 

us to 

Lemoore 

In his own conveyance, notwithstanding he was 
in the midst of his large harvest, and taking the 
time to visit, on our way, many of the brothers 
with their families, and to show us what he 
could of the Mussel slough country, which a 
few years ago, occupied only by stock men, was 
set down as not worth the time of the settler to 
look at, for nothing could be grown in this salt 
grass and alkali country. But the settler, more 
far-seeing, would not be thus put off, but des- 
pite all the reports to the contrary and the con- 
tinued opposition of the stock men, determined 
here to plant themselves with their families, 
and with the abundance of water afforded by 
nature from Kings river and surrounding sloughs 
and lakes, determine the ijuestion of irriga- 
tion; the result of which is, poor as they then 
were, by their determined energy alone and 
labor, canals and irrigating ditches are cut in 
every direction, and the once condemned-to-be- 
worthless Mussel slough lands are made to 
blossom as the rose witli every kind of vegetable 
and cereal product. The salt grass has given 
way to thousands of acres of alfalfa, which can 
be cut three times a year, and in this unpropi- 
tious year, when the plains all outside of them 
are barren as a desert, this, in large growing 
crops of barley, wheat, potatoes, and every 
needed product of the farmer, is giving to the 
undaunted farmers a rich harvest. Here, too, 
fruit trees of every kind grow luxuriantly, the 
peach, ])lum, apricot, fig and grape bearing 
abundantly in one year from setting out, and 
even the apple (where it was said it could not 
be made to grow at all) in two years from set- 
ting out loaded with the precious fruit, as if 
determined to bless the earnest and indefatigable 
pioneers for their industry and self-sacrifice. 
They can, after taking off a large crop of grain, 
put in a crop of corn or potatoes, and reap a,s 
luxuriantly of these. Indeed, we cannot speak 
too well of this .Mussel slough country, for noth- 
ing is liere needed but a cheajier carriage to 
market to make these lands worth any reason- 
able price they may wish to ask. 

But to our lecture field again. We were at 
Bro. Sandert's, dined and made ready for the 
meeting to be held at Lemoore at 2 p. .M., in a 
large warehouse just being finished by a good 
Granger to take care of the large crops now in 
process of being harvested. At the appointed 
nour we were on hand and met Bro. Ilewey, 
Master of Lemoc -e Grange, Bro. Underwood, 
Past blaster and • leijuty of Mussel Slough dis- 
trict, and so nian> )jrothers and sisters that we 
have not space to .;ive them attention here. 
Bro. Hewey acted as chairman cf the meeting 
and intro luced us in happy style, when we ad- 
dressed tliem our usual time on the sjjecial 
(irauge topics of the hour, the (f range work of 
this day, and after ventilating what it had al- 
ready done, what was its future mission — to 
which mission the audience, one and all, said 
amen. So pleased was this Lemoore audience 
with our efforts here that we could not be dis- 
missed without promising to again address them 
at the same place at early candle lighting, when 
they promised to double our audience. On this 
condition, fatigued as we were from heat, 
travel and (! range talk, we were got away with 
(as the ( Vlifornian says) and meeting, as was 
promised, at night a more than doubled audience 
and being refreshed with the kind hospitality of 
Bro. Underwood and his good Grange wife, and 
after comfortable and well relished evening 
meal, we held forth again for one ami a half hours 
on the necessities of the hour for the farmer to 
take into his own hands tlic work of reforming 
legislation so as to bring aljout etjual taxatifm, 
a system of industrial education and a better 
system of finance, such a one as would put in- 
terest at a low per cent, per annum, instead of 
this ruinous one furnished us by the class legis- 
lators of to-day, who legislate away from us our 
lands, sacredly given us for school purposes; 
who impose upon us enormous interest and thus 
cripple not only the efforts of the farmer but all 
the industrial elements of the State and nation, 
etc. We were, upon closiug our address, con- 
gratulated by each and all and promised that 
the (! range eflbrts of Lemoore should tje 
thoroughly revived and a new energy and life 
put into it. We were then taken home by Bro. 
Ewing and most comfortably cared for for the 
night, and next morning by 7 :30 placed on the 
cars for our next appointment at Hanford. At 

Hanford, 
June 19th, we were met at the cars by Bro. 
Coffee, and at once made comfortable at the 



Freeman house, where we were soon called upon 
by Bro. Axtell, Master of Keystone Grange, 
who, with other brothers, were made to feel 
at home. The meeting being set for 2 o'clock 
p. M. (near by), in a new warehouse, where had 
been provided sitting room for all. AVe were 
here introduced to the audience, by request of 
Worthy Master Bro. Axtel, by Bro. Morton, 
Master of (irangeville Grange, who has at- 
tended thus far the meetings at Kingsburg, 
(irangeviile and Lemoore, both day and night, 
and again at Hanford, and yet promised to be 
with us in our closed meeting to-night. We 
want more of such Grangers as Bro. Morton. 
The audience, though not large, was a very ap- 
jireciative one and gave good evidence of good 
Grange qualities. In no place have we felt 
more at home, nor that we have left a better 
impression of our great object than liere. The 
night meeting was well attended by Deputies, 
Masters and Past Masters, and brothers and 
sisters from four different (i ranges. The session 
lasted till midnight, and was a most earnest and 
we hope profitable one. So goes on the work, 
and leaving our Hanford brethren with many 
expressions of the most earnest good will to 
both the Lecturer and our glorious work, with 
determinations that it shall go prosperously on, 
we stole away for a few hours' rest, when we 
must, at 7 :.30 a. m. , leave again for our next ap- 
pointment at Visalia. We reached 

Vlsalia 
On the morning of the 20th about 9:30 o'clock, 
and being directed to the Palace hotel, were 
3 5on comfortably provided for. After getting 
our mail and answering the same we were called 
upon by Bro. (iraves. Master of Visalia Grange, 
and by him introduced to many others. Posters 
were got out at once announcing the lecture to 
come off in the city hall at early candle liglit, which 
left us the greater portion of the day to make 
the further acquaintance of the capital of Tulare 
county. We called upon Mr. Dewey, the editor 
of the Delta, and from him got many items of 
interest. We also called upon Mr. Ward at 
the Grange store, and found it doing a good and 
sa\ang business to all its patrons. This Grange 
store needs to become wholly on a cash basis, 
like the San Jose store, and then it can and will 
servo the farmer and citizen tnily, and become 
the regulator for the whole to'wn. We were 
introduced to a large number of prominent 
citizens in Vis.xli-i, with wlmi]) we disru>i.«i/d thc> 
^reat interests of their county. All :i','iee that 
they are crippled for want of facilities to get 
their products cheaply and quickly to market, 
and all agree that irrigation is the saNnng clause 
to the farm element to render them indepen- 
dent of these unfavorable and dry seasons, 
which, as soon as accomplished, will be to \'\- 
salia and vicinity what it has already proved to 
well-irrigated Mussel slough country. 

At the appointed time the jneeting was called 
to order by Worthy Master Graves and the 
Lecturer most happily introduced. The audi- 
ence, on account of so many other meetings be- 
ing belli on the same night, and for want of 
further time to circulate the word, was small 
in numbers, yet a very intelligent and appre- 
ciative one, and we hi>pe thoughts were left with 
them that will be made practical. 

On the following day, Thursday, .June 21st, 
we were taken in charge by the Worthy Master 
of Farmersville Grange, Bro. Pennebecker, and 
behind two noble roadsters convej-ed, first to 
his house, to receive the hospitality there so 
munificently bestowed, and at 4 p. .m., intro- 
duced to the various members of the Grange at 

Farmersville, 
Also many visiting brothers and sisters from 
Tulare and other Granges. We first met tliis 
( irange in closed meeting, which was a short but 
very profitable session to all present, and at 
early candle lighting, in accordance with previ- 
ous announcement, being duly introduced liy 
Worthy Master Bro. Pennebecker, we ad- 
dressed, for one hour and a quarter, a very at- 
tentive and appreciative audience of Grangers 
and farmers on the important questions of taxa- 
tion and the necessary firange work incident 
thereto. We leave a determined expression 
everywhere on the part of not only Grangers 
but farmers, and all interested, to no longer be 
governed by party politics, but to select, inde- 
pendent of party, their best men from among 
the farm element to represent them in all, both 
county and State offices. So the good work 
goes on. 

After the meeting at Farmersville we were 
again taken in charge liy our good Bro. Penne- 
becker, and with other brothers most hospitably 
entertained at his home until the next morning, 
when we were provided for by Worthy Master 
Duncan, of Mt. Whitney (irange, with carriage, 
to his gem of a home between the North and 
Middle 'I'ule rivers, 40 miles distant, but again 
in time to fill our next appointment at 
Soda Springs. 

We found this Grange in readiness to give us 
a most hearty welcome, and to listen to our 
words fif instruction on the new Grange work 
with eagerness and to at once endorse fully all 
we had to say and to insure us fully that even 
here in the very heart of the Sierras they were 
fully alive to our new work. We were con- 
gratulated as heartily by citizens not Graftgers 
as by fanners and Grangers. Bro. Duncan has 
a beautiful home of about 240 acres of tillable 
land, bedded like a perfect gem as it is, in the 
forks of the two Tule rivers, and witli facilities 
for irrigation shows no signs of drouth, but 
with a splendid orcliard full of every variety of 
fruit, anil equally flourishing vineyard and al- 
falfa and barley and wheat fields, yielding 
plentifully, and a natural soda spring at his 



very door, surrounded by mountain scenery be- 
yond description most romantic, is a most desir- 
able place for a summer's recreation, or for 
the chronic invalid to again find health. Why, 
oh why, ^^'orthy State Secretarj', did you not 
halt the State Lecturer here for a week to rest 
and recuperate his voice and body, worn out 
with nearly a month's hard work in this most 
of the time excessivelj' hot season'/ But no, 
there is no time to lose; the work of the (irange 
is jiressing and further on Granges and (J rang- 
ers are awaiting our visit to tell to them also 
the good tidings of our glorious Order. \\"ith 
that promptness ever afforded the .State Lec- 
turer, a good team and light spring wagon was 
again in waiting, sent out by the 
Tulare Grange, 
Under the care of good Bro. Hunt, Sec'y of 
Tulare (irange, not only to meet us here, but to 
on the next day bring us back some 4.') miles to 
Tulare, to meet our appointment on Saturday, 
the 23d inst. We were halted by Bro. Hunt 
some seven miles distant from Tulare City, to 
be dined at Bro. Cioodwin's and by them to be 
conveyed to the Tulare (irange, where at five 
p. M. we had a profitable closed (irange meeting 
and at early candle-lighting a full house, such 
as would bring out all the enthusiasm that was 
in any speaker. To enliven and make more 
cheerful and interesting the whole proceeding, 
the Tulare (irange choir gave us a number of 
their soul-stirring (irange songs, with a musical 
efficiency that a San Francisco audience could 
even enjoy. Here is a small V>ut live (irange. 
Here are a live people, and with irrigation, 
which will soon be att'orded in a good supply, 
this now almost barren county will be made to 
become the richest and finest grain and alfalfa 
growing country in this valley of Tulare. 

Introduced to this large and attentive and 
most appreciative audience as we were by 
the Worthy Master of Tulare (irange, Bro. 
Merrit, we addressed them on (irange history, 
(irange work, past, present and to come, in 
such a strain as to call out continued rounds of 
applause and a call for a Sunday night meeting, 
learning as they did that we did not leave their 
beautiful little city of the plains till Monday 
morning, the 2.')th inst., which meeting was if 
possible better attended than the one on the 
previous Saturday evening, and most thor- 
oughly did one and all show their appreciation 
of the .State Lecturer's \\i\t — all joining in the 
cx|>res.siiiii of the good it would do their imme- 
diate vicinity. So with many thanks to the 
Tulare tirangers and citizens, and especially the 
kind hospitalities of Bro. Wilson and his noble 
and good mother-in-law, Mrs. Wright, we next 
speed on our way to Glennville. 

B. PiLKiNciTON, State Lecturer. 

Tulare, June 25th, 1877. 

The Future of the Order. 

Much has been said and written of the social, 
moral and intellectual features of our Order, 
and with reason, for they have enabled us to 
receive many lessons of wisdom from inter- 
change of opinion, manj' asperities of farm life 
have been rounded off by the social intercourse 
of the (irange; morality has been inculcated 
and our race and age have been advanced by 
our honest endeavors; but like the poor knight 
in the "Arabian Nights," who was compelled to 
forever move around a brazen circle, without 
rest and without food, our Order requires 
something more substantial on which to subsist. 
Although tlie moralist may write and the sage 
may lecture of the glory of moral and intellect- 
ual culture, and the beauties of holiness, never- 
theless something else is required to sustain 
life. Utilitarianism may be a vulgar word- 
one not in harmony with refined ears — neverthe- 
less our necessities compel us to use it, and he 
who does not regard it will live and die with his 
nose to the grindstone. Life is a living real- 
ity — especially among farmers, and "he who 
does not make hay while the sun shines," will 
have no hay at all. In order that it may pros- 
per, the (irauge of the future must infuse more 
practical life into its workings than the Grange 
of the past. Consequently the future strength 
and usefulness of the (irange will dejiend greatly 
on the concentrated efforts of its members in 
the direction of utilitarianism. 

Individual Granges have, in some cases, been 
disappointed in not reaping direct benefits 
from their labors. Whatever successes worthy 
of note we have attained as an organization in 
the past, have been attained by the united ac- 
tion of large communities of Patrons acting in 
concert, and tlie tendency of the Order is in the 
direction of larger and more direct association, 
for mutual protection and advancement. The 
secret of most of our failures in the past has 
been our undertaking to accomjilish too much — 
we need not expect to revolutionize the world 
in a year, nor in a single decade. Indomitable 
energy and perseverance is the mother of all 
progress. Let us consider well every subject 
which re(iuires our action, doing nothing hasty, 
and when we are agreed upon a proposition, 
whether local or general in its nature, let us 
join hearts and hands and go to work and pull 
together, and our every effort will be crowned 
with success. 



The State Lecturer is doing zealous work on 
his way south through the extremely ilry and 
crop suffering portion of our State. The Granges 
in that direction are well entitled to the encour- 
agement they are thus receiving from headquar- 
ters. 



Open Grange Meetings 

For San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura, 
Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Mon- 
terey and San Benito Counties. 

Bro. I'ilkington, Worthy Lecturer of the State 

Grange, will hold open meetings at the places 

and time indicated below: 

Hiverside, San Bernardino County. . Thursday, July 12th. 
San Bernardino, San Bernardino Co. .Saturday, July 14th. 

San Luis Key. San DieRo County Tuesday, July 17th. 

I'oway, .San IJieKO County Thursday, July l»th. 

.San I'asiiual, San Uiego County Saturday, July 2l8t. 

Bear \alley, San Diejjo County Monday, July -EiA. 

National City, San Diejro County Thursday, July 2eth. 

Saticoy, Ventura County Monday, July 30th. 

Nordhoff, Ventura County Tuesday, July 31st. 

Cariiinteria, Santa Barbara County. .Tliursday, Au^'ust 2d 
Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co. . .Saturday, AU(fU8t4th' 

Loinixic, Santa Barbara County Tuesday. Auifust 7th' 

Santa Maria, Santa Barbara Co Thursday, August 9th' 

Cuadalupe, Santa Barbara Co Saturday, August 11th' 

San Luis Obisin), S. L. Obispo Co ..Tuesday, August 14th' 
Morro, San Luis Obispo County. . Thursday, August Kith' 

Cambria, San Luis Obispo Co Saturday, August ISth' 

Salinas, Monterey County Tuesday, August 2l9t' 

San Benito, San Benito County Thursday, August 23d' 

Appointments for Santa Barbara, Ventura, 
San Luis Obispo and Monterey will be made in 
a few days. 

Bro. Pilkington is an able and interesting 
speaker, and no farmer or friend of the farmers 
should fail to attend his meetings. 

Amos Adams, Sec'y State Grange. 

July 3d, 1877. 



The Worthy Lecturer ix the San Joa- 
quin Valley. — Bro. Pilkington gives in his 
regular report of visitations in these columns 
much information of general Grange interest. 
In order to show how sincere is his personal 
interest in the work and how active his zeal, 
we take the liberty of quoting from a persona^ 
letter from him the following stirring sentences: 
'The (i rangers of the great San Joaquin are 
not only live (irangers, (what there are left of 
them, ) but tnily a brave, cheerful, hopeful and 
most indomitable people. Such men and fami- 
lies can never be conquered. Witli half a 
chance from the .State by wise legislation in 
their favor (instead of in favor of the land grab- 
bers around them) they would make these now 
but desert lands blossom as the rose. If only 
cut up into sections for farms instead as now 
into thousands of acres to each man to farm, 
this valley would soon become with irrigation 
the garden wheat fields of the world. The 
next .State meeting of the State (irange must 
take some action in favor of this now waste and 
dreary country visited just now by intense heat 
as if to make it more unendurable. Hard as is 
my ])resent work and arduous and trying to my 
health as are my varied appointments, my cour- 
age fails me not to meet them, for in no quar- 
ter of the State am I so much needed nor more 
hospitably anil enthusiastically received. May 
I have strength to get through with my ap- 
pointments." 

In Memoriam. 



SONOJIA grange, p. of H., No. 5.5, adopted the fol- 
lowing resolutions at its flrst regular meeting after the 
death of Brother Harding: 

WiiERKAs, For the first time since the organization of 
this Grange death has entered our ranks and we arc 
called upon to mourn the loss of one of our numbers, as 
it hath pleased the groat Master of the universe to remove 
our Worthy Overseer, Brother ISA.tc Hardi.vo, from his 
field of labor with us, to that field where they toil not, 
but the weary are at rest; Therefore be it 

Ilivolred, That in the death of Brother Harding the 
bereaved family lose a kind and loving husband and 
father, the comnmnity a valuable and estucined citizen, 
and this Crange one of its most active and trustworthy 
members, f>ronipt and faithful in his duties, cheerful and 
courtefius in his interctnirse, leaving a blank in our 
broken columns difficult to fill. 

J!eK'i[ri:i1, That the Grange fraternally extends its 
wannest sympathy to Worthy Pomona Sister Harding in 
her deep affliction; and we do most fervently invoke the 
blessings of our Divine Mister to comfort and cheer her 
and to brighten her pathway through the gloom of her 
sad bereavement. 

liPKoUvii, That the Secretary ent«rthese proceed-nga on 
the records of this Grange and send a cojiy to Sister Hard- 
ing, and also furnish a copy to the Pacific Uikal I'rkss 
for |)ublication. Committee; Wm. McPherson Hill, A. S. 
Edwards, D. C. Young. 

SAN JOSECiRANliE, Santa Clara County, June 'i'W. 

Whereas, It has pleased the Cireat Master above to re- 
move from our fJrange circle our beloved and Worthy 
Brother, .loiix Powkll, to rest from his earthly labors, 
be it therefore 

Jiemtrvil, That we recognize in this se|>aration the loss 
of a genial friend and brother, and an earnest worker in 
the Order. 

Jiemilintl, That we extend to the family of the deceased 
brother our heartfelt symiiathy in their bereavement. 

liexiihed, Tiiat our charter be draped in mourning, that 
these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of the 
(irange, and a copy sent to the San Jose MTCiirti and the 
KtRAL Press for publication.— Committee: C. T. Settle, 
W. L. .Manly, Mrs. .M. llaie, H. G. Kecsling. 

COMPTON CHANGE, N<j. 37, Los Angeles Co., June 
17th. 

WiiERBAS. It has pleased kind Providence to remove 
one of our members by the hand of Death, a dear sister; 
in view of the loss we have sustained by the decease of 
our friend and associate, Mrs. Kemi rise, and of the still 
heavier loss sustained by those who were nearest and 
dearest to her, therefore be it 

JifKnlriui, That it is but a just tribute to the niemor>- of 
the departed to say that, regretting her removal from our 
midst, we mourn for one who was in every way w(>rthy of 
our respect and regard. 

HegiiUed, That we sincerely condole with the family of 
deceased on the dispensation with which it has pleased 
Divine Providence to afflict them, and commend them for 
consolation to him who orders all things for the best, and 
whose chastisements are meant in mercy. 

Jtenolmd, That this heartfelt testimonial of our 8>Tniia- 
thy and sorrow be forwarded to the RrRAL Press for pub- 
lication, also one copy to the family of our dei>arted friend 
b.\ the Committee apiniinted to do so.— A. M. Pock, Mm. 
E. L. Hazen, Mrs. Twoinbley. 



July 7, 1877.] 



6»I© WLWl 



\q^^lc4LJ4^J{L fI©7Es. 



California. 

ALAMEDA. 

Farm Sold. — Oakland Transcript, July 1 : 
On Friday Messrs Craig & Bowley sold at public 
auction the "Alderney farm" of 180 acres, sit- 
uated one mile north from Mills Seminary, and 
about five miles from Broadway and Seventli 
street railroad station. The ranch was knocked 
down to P. A. Finnigan for .f.37,000. Horse- 
flesh did not seem to be in very urgent demand, 
the highest price for stallions being $400, for 
"Lothair,"a jet black four-year-old. "Lady 
Hamilton " was sold to Mark Hopkins for $315. 
"Diana" and "Clytie" to General Williams for 
$355 and .$430, respectively. The Jersey cows 
brought the best prices, averaging about $225 
for fourteen. "Belle of Jersey" was sold to Mr. 
Reading for .$600, and "(Grapevine," a yearling 
heifer, was sold to the same party for $300i 
This stock was imported by Mi-. Low from the 
Isle of Jersey. The sale was by an order of the 
executors of the estate of 0. L. Low, deceased, 
to whom the "Alderney farm" belonged. The 
Contra Costa Gazette says : "fieneral D. D. 
Colton, of the Central and Southern Paciiic 
railroad companies, who now owns the so-called 
"Railroad ranch," formerly the Huntingtonand 
Ivory farm, in Green valley, was the purchaser 
of a number of the finest brood mares and 
Jersey cattle for transfer to the Green Valley 
farm. The old stock on this farm has all been 
removed since General Colton became the owner, 
and he is restocking it with horses and cattle of 
the finest blood and breeds." 

Crops in the Valley. — Washington Indepen- 
dent, June 30 : The farmers are busy gather- 
ing in what they can from their fields, but the 
show is a poor one. One gentleman at Harris- 
burg has just gathered 150 tons of hay from his 
field, where he would, in ordinary seasons, have 
not less than 1,000 tons. And so it is in a ma- 
jority of instances in that neighljorhood and in 
other neighborhoods of our county. 
BUTTE. 

A New Fruit-Drying Factory. — Chico 
Enterprise. : General Bidwell has got pretty well 
under way a large and commodious building, to 
be designated the llancho Chico Fruit-Drying 
Factory. The building is two-story and base- 
ment 48xC4, and is to contain two furnaces of 
the largest size, with an engine to drive the 
blower. By this apparatus the lieat can be 
regulated as well as the current, and when in 
full operation can turn out a car-load of peaches, 
apples or pears per day. The engine and ma- 
chinery are on the way from New York, and in 
about three weeks the whole thing is e.\pected 
to be in operation, when we will be able to 
speak more definitely of the project. The 
enterpri.se of General Bidwell in this respect is 
highly commendable, and we hope that the 
enterprise will not be confined to tlie drying 
alone, but that canning both fruit and vegeta- 
bles will form a department in the factoiy. 
COLUSA. 

Farm Fires. — Sun, June .30: Last Sunday 
morning, P. K. Singleton's liarn, on Grand island, 
caught fire and was entirely destroyed. There 
was a man by the name of Mattliew Sinnott, 
and a boy, sleeping in the barn at the time. 
Tlie latter got out and called to the other to 
jump out at the window, but he said he would 
get out tlie other way; but he did not, and was 
burned to death. , Mr. Singleton lost a fine jack 
and a horse. His loss is about .$3,000 — unin- 
sured. No clue to the cause of the fire could 
be obtained. It is thought that perliaps the 
deceased lit a match for the purpose of lighting 
his pipe. Last Sunday morning, about eight 
o'clock, an old granary occupied as a lodging 
house by some hands on Mrs. Peter Burns's farm, 
about three miles above Colusa, took fire, and 
from it two barns filled with hay cauglit, and 
were entirely destroyed. Mrs. Burns's loss is 
about .$2,000. The fire spread in the stubble, 
and two wheat stacks on Gus. Laux's place 
were burned. These stacks were estimated to 
contain about 500 bushels of wheat. Some 
three-quarters of a mile of fence belonging to 
Mrs. Burns and Mr. Laux was also burned. It 
is thought that tlie fire caught from matches 
left in the old granary. A. Markoni, a German 
farmer of South Buttes, Sutter county, was 
burned to death in his barn on Tuesday morn- 
ing. As he was alone, there is no telling how 
the accident occurred. 

Big Blow-Up. — M. J. Rouke, while thresh- 
ing at Geo. F. Abie's, last Monday morning, 
had his Ames straw burning boiler to explode. 
There were some 22 men working around it at 
the time, but no one was hurt. The engineer 
was on top of it. As it was a bad blow-up — 
some of the pieces being thrown over half a mile 
— this escape is almost a miracle. A piece of 
the boiler struck the separator, injuring it some- 
what. One of the stacks of wheat took fire, 
but the prompt action of the crew extinguished 
it before any damage was done. Rouke's loss 
is some .$1,.500, With characteristic energy Mr. 
Rouke went for another engine, and on the 
28th was again at work. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Disaster to Beekeepers. — Los Angeles 
Herakl, June 30 : For the past few days we 
have been gathering information from every reli- 
able source possible with reference to the api- 
culture interests in Southern California, and 
find them anything but encouraging for this sea- 
son. Never since the introduction of bees upon 
the Pacific coast has there been so disastrous a 



season to apicultural interests as the present. 
All the leading honey plants that have blos- 
sonied have secreted little or no nectar, not 
sufficient in many places to save the bees from 
starvation. Facts, we think, will warrant us in 
saying at this time about one-half of the bees 
are dead, and not more than one-half of tlie 
remainder will survive the season. The wither- 
ing blast that has swept over Southern Cali- 
fornia, while it deprives us of our bees and 
honey, will be a blessing in some respects. 
There are many sections of country where tlie 
foul brood exists and is continually spreading 
its deadly effects. Colonies thus affected will 
be most certain to die from disease and starva- 
tion. This will effectually wipe out the dreaded 
disease, and when beekeepers start again they 
should be careful to select healthy stocks. The 
inexperienced beekeeper, especially, will now 
learn the great importance of strong colonies, 
and not to divide too closely, nor to extract too 
much honey late in the season, leaving an 
abundant supply until the return of the working 
season. Bees usually earn tlieir living through 
the winter, but the past has taught us that such 
is not always the case. The great mortality 
among bees this season will undoubtedly en- 
hance the value of those that are carried 
through. Those who can feed should do so, as 
it will not be very expensive with the little that 
the bees may be able to obtain until the fall 
rains set in, when flowers will soon make their 
appearance. Some beekeepers have sown buck- 
wheat on ground that can be irrigated. This is 
a move in the right direction, and we see no 
good reason why it will not be successful. 

Plenty of Corn and Hay. —Express, June 
.30 : A gentleman who is well posted in the 
agricultural condition of this county, assures us 
that the crops will be far more voluminous than 
many of us anticipate. He has just made a 
tour of the Los Nietos corn region, and as a 
result of his observations he found that a much 
wider area of corn had been planted than ever 
before. With the high prices that will be real- 
ized this season, the corn farmer will have a 
plethora of money about harvest time. The 
crop looks very fine, and the ears are filling up 
splendidly. The smaller grains will not be 
very largely grown, but there will probably be 
enough to meet home consumption. The fear 
that the hay crop would be sliort is not well 
founded. Our informant says that there will 
be a great abundance of hay cut this season, 
and this, added to the stock on hand, will prob- 
ably assist us in tiding over our work cattle at 
reasonable cost. 

MONTEREY. 

Indian Valley Barley. — Index, June .30: 
Mr. (ileo. Thompson, of Indian Valley, sends 
us by Mr. J. A. Riley some specimen heads of 
the finest looking barley that we ha\"e seen for 
many a day. He has a large field of the same 
sort growing on his ranch. Mr. Riley also in- 
forms us that C. R. Montgomery, of the same 
place, has a large field of barley that will yield 
over 60 bushels to the acre. 

SACRAMENTO. 

Grain Yield. — Record-Union, June 30: As 
threshing advances wheat is turning out even 
better than was expected in the central and 
northern portions of the Stati.. The farmers 
in Yolo and Solano counties will make more net 
money from their wheat crops this y«ar than 
they have for several years past. There will of 
course be exceptions where wheat was put in 
late and on winter sown ground, but we speak 
of the counties as a whole. We this week saw 
a farmer from Elmira, Solano county, who says 
that in a radius of 20 miles about that place 
the wheat was never better. From Buckeye, 
Yolo county, we have seen a man who is run- 
ning a threshing machine there. He says 
while there is short straw the heads turn out 
amazingly. The piles of sacks are larger than 
the piles of straw. We have good reports from 
threshing in all directions — Yuba, Butte, Sut- 
ter, Placer and all the central counties. The 
crops in the coast counties are very large, as 
they always are in dry seasons. It is safe to 
say that the northern half of the State has 
really suffered very little if any at all from the 
drouth. Of corn and late barley the acreage is 
much greater this season tlian common, and as 
a general thing the promise is for larger crops. 

SANTA BARBARA. 

Australian Lemon. — Advertiser, June 30: 
W. W. Stowe is planting a large number of 
Australian lemon trees on his ranch near Go- 
leta. The Australian lemon is undoubtedly 
superior to the lemon of Sicily; being large, of 
an equally fine Havor, and nearly seedless. If, 
when they fruit, it is found that the Australian 
lemon retains the characteristics which recom- 
mend it in its native soU, it will be of great 
advantage to California. We trust that Mr. 
Stowe's experiment will prove successful. 

SAN BENITO. 

Fruit. — Advance, June 28: The young trees 
of the orchards about town and tlie suburbs are 
growing thriftily. The foliage is not scanty 
upon the limbs as in many other districts. We 
expect to have a fair fruit crop. 

SAN DIEGO. 

The Honey Yield. — Eds. Press: — Our honey 
crop will be almost an entire failure, as not one 
pound of surplus honey has been stored up to 
this date, and large numbers of bees have died 
already, or deserted their hives. We have, 
however, as yet the sumac and some grease- 
wood to fall back on, and should the beea not 
fill up on these great numbers must perish. 
— Henry C. Hicks, San Pasqual, 



SAN JOAQUIN. 

The Wheat Crop. — Stockton Independent, 
June 30: Farmers who have harvested and 
threshed their wheat inform us that the yield 
is generally satisfactory, many getting more 
than was expected. The quality of the wlieat 
is good, and notwithstanding the extreme 
drouth, San Joaquin county will have consider- 
able for export. The yield upon thoroughly 
cultivated summer-fallowed land is a full 
average crop, while a little will be gathered from 
the winter sown grain. There will also be con- 
siderable wheat harvested on the tule lands 
and altogether will aggregate a much larger 
crop than was expected two months ago. 
SOLANO. 

Harve.st Notes. — Dixon Tribune, June 30: 
Since last week the work of harvesting has been 
progressing vigorously witli farmers who had 
not already finished that work, and now there 
is little standing grain left in this vicinity. Not 
many farmers have yet threshed, and fioni 
those who have the reports in regard to yield 
are about the same as others of whom we spoke 
last week. Mr. John Brinkerhoff has a field 
near Batavia which we are told turned out 
about 35 bushels to the acre — decidedly the best 
wheat we have heard of in this vicinity. The 
warehouses at this point are filling slowly. At 
Eppinger's and the Grangers' warehouses the 
receipts of both wheat and barley amount to 
about 150 tons. At Hill's warehouse the receipts 
of the last week have been still smaller. Among 
the farmers who are storing either wheat or 
barley are H. Timm, O'Niel, Holman, S. Viau, 
H. Keisker and others. We have heard of only 
one transaction in wheat within the past week. 
The price paid in this case was $2.05, the grain 
being rather above the average in quality. Tlie 
wheat receipts at Vacaville for the past week 
were 200 tons; at Winters, 263 tons; Davisville, 
none. Mr. S. Viau has been hauling some bar- 
ley to the warehouse that weighs 120 pounds to 
the sack, which is unusually good. 
SONOMA. 

A Bonded Warehouse. — Democrat, June 
30: On Monday the Hon. A. L. Frost, Collector 
of Internal Revenue, visited Santa Rosa, with 
the view of establishing a Government bonded 
warehouse here; if, after examination into the 
'acts, he was satisfied such a step would be for 
the best interest of the Government and the 
grape growers of this section of the country. 
Mr. Frost was here for the first time. He was 
surprised at the size of the place, and after 
careful examination of the statistics of produc- 
tion, was satisfied that a bonded warehouse 
should be established, and will so recommend 
to the Department at Washington. He exam- 
ined also the building and pronounced it first- 
class for the purpose. The recommendation of 
Mr. Frost will be seconded by Senator Sargent 
and Mr. Ijuttrell. Under these circumstances 
there is but little doubt about final success. 
The papers are now being put into proper shape, 
with the facts and figures upon which the ap- 
l)lication is based, and all will be forwarded 
within the next three days to head(juarters, 
when the 'application will be formally acted 
upon. There is a very large grape interest in 
this and the adjoining townships on the north 
an<l west, which will be greatly relieved by the 
action of Collector Frost; and we hope to see as 
one of the results a material advance in the price 
of grapes this fall, which last year brought 
from $8 to $10 a ton only. 

Valley Ford. — Petaluma Ariju.% June 29: 
.J. E. Fowler, of Valley Ford, was in town 
Tuesday. He gives a favorable report of affairs 
generally in his locality. Farmers have finished 
cutting their hay and are now harvesting their 
grain. The yield, he says, will be about an av- 
erage. In illustration of the vast timber re- 
sources on Russian river, near the crossing of 
the North Pacific Coast railroad, Mr. Fowler 
says that James English has lately felled a red- 
wood tree from whicli he has made 250,000 
shingles, 6,000 shakes, 1,000 fence posts, and 
there is timber left for 300,000 shakes and a 
quantity of firewood. 

Stock Sale. — The executor's sale of stock of 
the Seneca Daniels estate, took place at the 
Fashion stables, in this city, on Saturday last. 
There was quite a large attendance, and the 
auctioneers were Messrs. Crego & Bowley, of 
San Francisco. The celebrated stallion "(General 
McClellan," was purchased by George Faitli for 
$1,020. The colts and cattle all sold well. 
Several San Francisco capitalists were present, 
and the bidding was lively and spirited. 



STANISLAUS. 

Thorou<;h Cultivation. — News, June 30: 
Several farmers living in the vicinity of the 
Stanislaus river, have this year tested the ex- 
periment of summer-fallowing and double plow- 
ing lands. In every instance in the locality 
named, the experiment has certainly proved 
satisfactory. We know of no case in that sec- 
tion where the ground has been twice plowed, 
the first being summer-fallow, but what the 
yield in wheat has gone from 10 to 25 bushels 
to the acre. In every such instance, however, 
tlie soil has been thoroughly cultivated and 
properly seeded. In the same locality where 
these tests have been made, fields treated or 
cultivated under ordinary process have proven 
a total failure, and that, too, where there is no 
difference in the soil. The difference in yield 
is from ten to twenty-five bushels as against 
nothing. It would, however, be still more sat- 
isfactory if we could show the difference be- 
tween this system of thorough tillage and poor, 
on average good crop season. The difference 
may not Tie so gre-at in other years of average 



crop producing seasons, still the many 

practical farmers who believe it wu, suffi- 

cient to justify them in adopting the system as a 
rule, without deviation. Those who follow the 
plan can only cultivate one-half their lands 
each year, wliilst the other half will have to 
lay over as summer-fallow. They will also 
have to plow their lands twice instead of once. 
Still, if it pays, it is better and more pleasant 
to cultivate only half the farm each year than 
the whole. There is, however, one section of 
the county where summer-fallowed lands twice 
plowed have this year proven a failure. And 
singular to say, it is in a locality where crops 
have never before proven a complete failure. 
We allude to the upper Dry Creek country in 
the foothills east of this place. We have wit- 
nessed the harvesting of nine crops in this 
county. In this section we have had three fail- 
ures and one or two liglit crop seasons. The 
upper Dry Creek valley, however, has never be- 
fore failed. As a general rule the winters have 
been too wet for that section. The soil is gen- 
erally of a heavy black adobe, unsuitable for 
handling only when comparatively dry. Hence 
farmers in that section are generally compelled 
to summer-fallow their lands. This year their 
growing grain failed much sooner than it did on 
the line of the railroad, notwithstanding their 
more thorough tillage. Still we do not believe 
the rainfall in the adobe land section named was 
as great as in the central part of the county. 
This year the rule appears to have been reversed 
as to the rainfall, especially when applicable to 
that immediate section. Our farmers on the 
plains had rain this year, that those in the sec- 
tion named did not. 

TULARE. 

In the Mountains.— /^/i-n, June 30: Hog 
men who have driven their herds to the moun- 
tains this season find that they have been pre- 
ceded by bands of sheep, which have comjjletely 
destroyed the range for other stock. Disap- 
pointed and without means to sustain the swine, 
some of the owners have been forced to sell for 
what they could get. Those who were forced 
to sell early were in better luck than they 
thought, for the price has now fallen a cent or 
two below the prices they got. 

Sheep are dying in large numbers in the 
mountains, at the rate of 50 a day in large 
bands, from the effect of poisonous feed of 
some kind, as is supposed. They are taken 
with trembling and spasms, and often die in 
less time tlian if they had their throats cut. 

YOLO. 

Wheat Burned. — Mail, June 30: Noble 
Clark, living west of Knight's Landing, informs 
us that on Sunday last a fire broke out in one 
of his wheat fields which was partly headed, 
and burned over a large tract of land and de- 
stroyed about a half-mile of fence. He does 
not know just how much wheat was burned, 
but thinks there were between two and five 
acres. He is satisfied that the fire originated 
from a match or cigar, as there were some men 
who had been working a few days with the 
lieader, sitting at the place where it commenced 
burning. It was stopped in its progress by 
plowing the ground at a place where the wheat 
had been cut for hay, and but for this there is 
no telling the damage that may have been done 
in the adjoinng wheat fields. Men cannot be 
too careful in handling matches and cigars 
where there is dry grass, straw or other dry 
material ready to ignite from a mere spark. 

" Old Charlie." — Democrat, June 30: This 
was the name of a true old horse owned by our 
friend R. E. Moore, and which died last Tues- 
day at Mr. Moore's rai.oh, at the ripe age of 
thirty years. Charley was presented to Mr. 
Moore in 1855, having been pircliascd in Texas 
the year previous, and brougli^ iicross the]ilains 
by Mr. (r. W. Grayson in 1854. Could the 
story of old Charley be related from his colt- 
hood to his death, no doubt it would be an in- 
teresting history — how in his romantic youtli he 
left his native prairies to take the long strange 
journey to the golden slope, and then to arrive 
here in the glory of the "flush" times, when 
the glamour of the sunset skies cast their magi- 
cal radiance over the land, when all was gilded 
with the glittering, golden beauty of the sweet 
infiuenccs of active and hopeful imagination, 
must have had its influence upon even old 
Charley, horse as he was. Nearly every one in 
the community knew the noble old fellow, and 
something like a pang of regret at the an- 
nouncement of his death will be felt by the 
numerous persons acquainted with the horse 
and his history. 



Colorado. 

Crops. — Fanner, June 28: Our growing 
crops are coming on splendidly; in many neigh- 
borhoods they will be fit to cut the first week 
in July, and the barley and wheat harvest will 
follow immediately thereafter. Wheat every- 
where promises a heavy yiehl. liyc and barley 
very good. Oats but little sown and ordinary. 
Corn nothing extra, but better and a larger 
growing crop tlian usual. Hailstorms have 
l)adly hurt some localities, but they have been 
of very limited area. Garden vegetables are 
abundant and promise to be cheap. Tlie hay 
crop will be the largest ever cut in the State, 
and the grass everywhere is extraordinarily 
good, insuring fat cattle and mutton. Grasa- 
hojipers are undoubtedly destroying the crops 
of the farmers of the mountain ranches. We 
have conversed with a number of farmers from 
those elevated locations, and they all say the 
'hoppers are very thick. We certainly sympa- 
thize with them. 



*& *aa!wJ*Js JlW J^ P Jfcii ^Jaj *U» Jt Jaj Ji> o o • 



[July 7, 1877. 




The Old and the New. 



The world stood still for a thousand years 

And crept for a thousand more, 
Tliis wonderful world with winK's for ears, 

Like the Messenger god of yore— 
And Miii^'ed feet and winged wand. 
And a wing on its either hand. 

And more than Mercury wore. 

It bridles and rides a furnace's foal 

With iron and hammer fur sire. 
Great clouds of white from their nostrils roll. 

And it feeds its horses fire ! 
Thev are bloofifd stock, the engines swift. 
Beneath their heels the distances drift 

Like snows from the Arctic Pole '. 

They rattle across meridian lines 

Aiid down the i>arallels play. 
They marry together the palms and pines, 

A thousand miles in a day ! 
The world has trained a wonderful wire, 
A nerve of a loutc tor articulate fire. 

And taught the lightnings to say: 
"Dear .Mary, be mine l"-~"Carload of swine" - 

"One ton of cheese" — **Maria dead" — 
"Joy ! It's a hoy I "—"I'm coming to dine"- 

".Send soaj)" -'"She's married to Fred." 
The humblest of words like angels fly 
A thousand miles in the flash of an eye, 

You hear before they are said I 

Wha' happened at ten you know at nine. 

And you away in the West, 
They distance a'loiig the lightning line 

Tl'ie sun in his golden vest 
They talk to-day m (tudihle Umc, 
The telegraph turns the telephone 

And parted lovers are blest I 

Think of a girl in a lonely hour. 

No beau in a forty miles. 
She sits by the tube of talking power, 

She thinks a ntinute and smiles. 
'•I'll call my .lohn," you fancy her to say, 
"He Mvcs but a hundred miles away. 

And banish the weiiry whiles." 

Behold them at the ends of the line. 

'This .lohn and his black eyed boon. 
His he;wl and hers to the wire incline 

And she sings him "Bfniny Do'>n." 
He sighs for the onl) thing amiss. 
He has a voice but tl^en he can't —kiss ! 

He might as well be in the roiKin '. 
for emptier than an ?'ast wind's laugh 
Is a lover's kiss by telegraph 1 

Tlie old world rocked the harvest* to sleep 

And cradled the drowsy wheat. 
The scythes that went with a rasping sweep 

As they mowed their narrow street. 
And the new-moon knife they used to reap ■ 
Sickle and cradle and scythe anil all 
Are hid in the garret's raftered ball 

With craillc for twins when they dared re|>cat - 

Hid with the bonnet." "f Leghorn Hare 

And the distatf's head of tow, 
Tlie old foot -stove and the rush-wn^ught chair. 
And bell-crowned hats of the ancient wear. 
The warming-pan and the little wheel. 
The dusty ghost of a clock-tick reel 

And the trundle bed so low. 

It hid by day 'neath the /ninilii bed, 

A chicken under a hen '. 
I love the WTccks of the days long dead. 

The times of the home-spun men; 
I love to think of the hearthstone fire 
That opene<i its heart like a large desire. 

And room at table for ten. 

The swift world reaps with a tireless thing 

And mows with a hundred kni\es. 
Of the golden year legitimate king, 

And the strength of a himdred lives 1 
They rout the viheat and they wreck the grass. 
Like whirlwinds come, like whirlwinds pass, 
Thev hurl the grain like creatures of wrath 
And hustle the harvests out of their path, 

A slash, a toss and a fling ! 

Torrents of grain ami tempests of chaff ; 

The thresher comes in its might, 
Craunches the straw with a grate of a laugh, 

Clouds like the thick of a fight 
A thovisand-man power, it t*kes its rank 
With presses that smite the world in Hank, 
With type-shod thoughts in splendid lino 
That niarch abreast 10 music divine 

For day that never comes night I 

A century after Christ was born. 

The brooks ran idle as the wind. 
And women ground creation's corn 

For the (noLirs of mankind; 
Five thousand years no wheel for a mill 
E'er foamed a flume or ruftled a rill. 

But women ground and they pined 

'Till lordly men had all dined 1 

Thl» world declared for a cycle or two 
The best of things were the old. 

Did as its grandfathers used to do- 
About as Adam was told ! 

And thought those sewing machines the hert, 

[And so would / were I to bo pressed,) 

In clouded hose and calico dres-sed 
And hearts far richer than gold 

So husbands wore out a couple of lives 
That stitched their shrouds as they wrought. 

Ordered a slab for each of their wives. 
And tw > willows to weep they bought. 

And wondered xvhat the "providence"' meant. 

That seamstresses sad grew wearj' and went 
And set their comfort at nought. 

They threshed a few oats with a flail 

To club grief out of their heart. 
Pulled down the sweep to get at the pail, 

Its hoops all ready to start. 
Tugged at a ton for the sake of a pound, 
Wished for a well on top of the ground. 

And locked the barn with a rail. 

Ah, had they married a "Singer" or "Howe," 

"Remington," "Grover and Baker," 
"Wilson," "Wheeler," "Domestic," they now, 
Should the creatures not suit them to sew, 

Might buy direct from the maker 
An attachment without any heart. 
That if broke could be mended by art. 
That would sing to the needle's go-come. 
Hum, ever bum '. "There's no place like" hum. 
No widower's sorrowful brow ! 



Ah, had they married a sewing machine 

And given some woman the doubt. 
Not a man of them all would have been 

Two graves and two monuments out ! 
They plov* to-day with a wooden crook 

Where Orient emi>ires rule. 
They drive a team with a Jerieii look. 

A niother-in-law and a nuile I 

They sickle the grain about their knees. 
They fan the chaff with a Northern hrocio 

-\nd sconi the use of a tool. 
The ugly crook yet elbows the earth 

.\s Imd boys nudge at school. 
We find at last what teaching is worth 

With nothing to learn but a fool. 

Where they shingle sheds «ith old i>ea straw 
And it rains between the showers, 

We sent a plow, according to law 
Curved like the statutes of powers. 

"Here is a god," the savages said. 

They set it on end and painted it red, 
And crowned it with garlanded flowers. 
— Brnjatnin F 



Taiilo 



Take Time to Be Happy. 



A lady writes for the Home Journal some 
pointed truths on the observance of whicli we 
believe many may find happiness. She says: 
It is the failing of many of the busy " Marthas" 
of the day that they do not take time enough 
to make themselves happy. In the hurry and 
rush of every-day duties, they are laborious and 
pains-taking for everybody's benefit except their 
pwn. Now this is a great error, and works a 
great mischief. They wear out too soon. They 
break down physically and mentally, and life 
becomes a bundle of intirmities, when it ought 
to be only in its noon-day prime. 

Now happiness can be made to turn on very 
little hinges. The world is full of small 
pleasures which skillful gleaners can pick up 
if they'll but keep their eyes open to obsen'e 
them. Of course our tastes vary, and what is 
pleasing to one might be a matter of utter in- 
ditt'erence to another. You might care nothing 
for this tiny spray of "spring beauties" which 
lie on the i)aper as I write, but to me they are 
like an open page in the pleasant book of my 
childhood's history. I will take a moment's time 
to rejoice in them, to look at the delicate tracing 
of pink on their pearl-white petals, and to re- 
call the old delight I used to feel in every vein 
when the April woods were all carpeted with 
their blossoms. I shall be the happier all day 
for this small boiKjuet my little girl has brought 
me. And 1 believe, too, that people are better 
for being happier. It is so hard for unhappy 
people to be good or to make others good witli 
whom they associate. The worry gets into the 
voice and the ■words, and they sound siiappisli 
and rasping, and we all know how that alf'ects 
us. Did j'ou never pass by a house and hear 
a mother scolding her child ? Did it make you 
any happier or better '/ What do you suppose 
the ertect was upon the child's nature? 

Another mistake, is to keep the best rooms 
shut up in gloomy state for chance guests, while 
you conclude that any room is good enough for 
your every day use, provided it is tolerably 
"handy."' Don't do it. Nobody deserves the 
large, airy front chamber so much as you — no- 
body needs it so much. Make it as cheery and 
inviting as you can. Make it cool and shady, 
and sweet with Howers all the summer time, 
and warm with a nice stove in the winter. We 
all of us need seclu.sion at times. It makes us 
better and happier to rest alone for a little 
breathing si)ace, when one can take up a book 
or paper maybe, and have no curious eyes glanc- 
ing in upon us. We can many of us "plan work' 
twice as well when "all by ourselves."' Have 
your one room, the best you can afford, and as 
pleasant as you can make it. Let it be your 
kingdom, where you rule supreme, and take up 
your apples to pare there, if you like it better 
than the hot kitchen, and ask nobody's leave 
either. Take time to be happy and to make 
yourself comfortable. 

The Responsibility of Americans. 

This lovely and this glorious liberty, these 
benign institutions, the dear purchase of our 
fathers, are ours; ours to enjoy, ours to j)re 
serve, ours to transmit, (ienerations past and 
generations to come hold us responsible for this 
sacred tiust. Our fathers admonish us with 
their anxious paternal voices; posterity calls out 
to us from the bosom of the future; the world 
turns hither its solicitous eyes — all conjure us 
to act wisely and faithfully in the relation which 
we sustain. We can never, indeed, pay the 
debt which is upon us; but by virtue, by mor- 
ality, by religion, by the cultivation of every 
good principle and every good habit, we may 
hope to enjoy the blessing through our day, and 
to leave it unimpaired to our children. Let us 
feel deeply how much of what we are and of 
what we possess we owe to this liberty and 
these institutions of government. Nature has, 
indeed, given us a soil which yields bounteously 
to the hands of industry; the mighty and faith- 
ful ocean is before us, and the skies over our 
heads shed health and vigor. But what are 
lands and skies and seas to ci^-ilized man with- 
out society, without morals, without religions 
culture; and how can these be enjoyed in all 
their extent and all their excellence but under 
the protection of wise institutions and a free 
government? There is not one of us who does 
not at this moment and at every moment, expe- 
rience in his own condition and in the condition 
of those most near and dear to him, the influ- 
ence and benefit of this liberty and these insti- 
tutions. Let us then acknowledge the blessing; 
let us feel it deeply and powerfully; let us cher- 
ish a strong affection for it, and resolve to main- 
tain and perpetuate it. — Daniel Wtbater. 



Women's Influence. 

There are many kinds of influences, and we 
do not believe titat those which are most clearly 
perceived and most loudly proclaimed are o' 
necessity the most potent. However, it is 
interesting to rea<l of the outer influence. We 
quote a few suggestive paragraphs from Mrs. 
Livermore's recent address: "If there is any- 
thing which honorably distinguishes our age 
from the preceding ages, it is the number and 
magnitude of its philanthropies ; the genius of 
modern civilization is humane. If disasters fall 
upon any portion of the earth by fire, flood, or 
famine, the rest of the world rises up to send 
help as never before in its history. Nothing 
has been so marked in history as the change in 
the estimation in which woman is held and the 
advance in the advantages offered to her. 
Thirty years ago we had in all New England 
for the higher education of woman only Mount 
Holyoke Seminary. Now we have Boston 
L'^niversity, giving women superb advantages. 
Then we have Smith College, with the very 
highest standard of scholarship, Wellesley Col- 
lege, and other institutions for women only. 
But, outside of New England, we have the Uni- 
versity of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Cornell, and 
in almost all the Western States colleges, pro- 
fessional schools are opened. Theologians still 
call woman's presence in the pulpit a sacrilege, 
but in every church we already hud great bands 
of women stimulating tiie church societies to 
action. The Methodist AVomen's Hoard of Mis- 
sions sends missionaries to the remotest comers 
of the earth. Women are carrying on these 
conservative movements on a scale exceedingly 
grand. 

"Temperance women are already widely organ- 
ized — outside of politics, yet in direct contact. 
The Woman's Temperance Union, in this city, 
numbering 1"2,0(X) members, is one of 27 in the 
Union, all of which are banded together in one 
great Nati<mal Temperance L'nion, whose mem- 
bership in the aggregate is 200,000. The 
amount of mental training, of political informa- 
tion, of social training, is immense. These 
women are students of legislation, interested in 
the success or defeat of public measures, and all 
this is the growtli of a dozen years. The power 
of Miss ^ViOard, at the Tabernacle, is an illus- 
tration of the work women can do. 

"Yes, woman ha^ become a powerl Look at 
our grand women in such varied fields of useful- 
ness: Maria Mitchell, of X'assar College, wel- 
comed by the leading astronomers all over the 
world as a peer in science, wields her influence 
in behalf of woman suffrage. Look at Amia C. 
Brackett, the principal of the flrst school for 
latlies in New York city, who openly speaks of 
the old prejudices as nonsense; » Dr. Mary 
Putnam .Jacobi, who won the Boylston prize 
from Harvard physicians for the best treatise on 
Dr. E. H. Clarke's own sjiecialty. These 
physicians did not in their invitation to com- 
petitors exclude women, and when thej' had 
unanimously awarded the prize, ignorant of its 
authorship, and the envelope was opened, which 
revealed the name of the author, lol it was a 
woman. In the law, Miss Alta Hulett, of 
Chicago, The legal profession of that city 
passed a resolution — one of eulogy — upon her 
character and career, which was no empty com- 
pliment, but only a recognition of ability and 
worth which, wliile she lived, they had been 
glad to help and encourage. Going west from 
the Missouri river, the traveler sees little indi- 
cation of any Sunday, in the New England 
sense. In San Francisco you know it only by 
the louder noise of revelry, the larger attend- 
ance at public amusements. But at Laramie 
City they have a New England Sunday, and it 
is almost the only place in the far ^Vest of 
which this can be said. Tlie right to vote was 
forced upon the women of Wyoming, precisely 
as it was forced upon the negroes of the South. 
There they were at once drafted upon the grand 
jury. They said, 'Our city is cursed witli 
liijuor saloons, wliich make even the Sabbath 
hideous. There is a Sunday law, which orders 
them closed. Let us enforce it.' The 'gentle- 
men of the jury' said, 'better not, the men will 
disfranchise you if you do.' They replied: 'We 
never asked for the ballot, and we will do our 
duty. An ordinance has been passed by the 
men compelling the liquor saloons to close on 
Sundaj'. We will eriforce it.' They did so, 
and the women stand by it still. 

"Let me say before I close that if every ad- 
vance made by woman is a gain for man — 
everything we can do for the elevation of wo- 
man reacts for that of man with tenfold force. 
Like the divine bird in the Persian fable, which 
was originally male and female, the two natures 
separated, it cannot fly; combine the two and 
they become one; together they cleave the sky 
and soar united to the sun. That bird is hu- 
manity. " 

Do little helpful things and speak helpful 
words whenever you can. They are better than 
pearls or diamonds to strew along the roadside of 
life. They will yield a far more valuable har- 
vest, as you will And after many days. 

Good thoughts (though God accept them) yet 
toward men are little better than good dreams, 
except they be put in act. — Bacon. 

A Wall street man wants to know what is the 
difference between the day-rate of gold and the 
nitrate of silver. 



Our Country's Origin. 

Our fathers came hither from a land to which 
they were never to return. Hither they had 
brought, and here they were to fix their hopes, 
their attachments and their objects. Some 
natural tears they shed as they left the pleasant 
abodes of their fathers, and some emotions they 
suppressed when the white cliffs of their native 
country grew dim in their sight. 

A new existence awaited them here; and 
when they saw tlieso shores, rough, cold, bar- 
barous and barren, as they then were, they be- 
held their country. Before they reached the 
shore they had established the elements of a 
social system, and at a much earlier period had 
settled their forms of religious worship. At the 
moment of their landing, therefore, they pos- 
sessed institutions of government and institu- 
tions of religion. The morning that beamed on 
the first night of their repose, saw the pilgrims 
already established in their country. There 
were political institutions, and civil liberty, and 
religious worship. Poetry has fancied nothing in 
tlie wanderings of heroes so distinct and char- 
acteristic. Here was man, indeed, unprotected 
and unprovided for on the shore of a rude and 
fearful wilderness; but it was politic, intelligent 
and educated man. Everything was civilized 
but the physical world. Institutions contain- 
ing in substance all that ages had done for hu- 
man government were established in a forest. 
Cultivated mind was to act on uncultivated 
nature; and, more than all, a government and a 
country were to commence with the first foun- 
dations laid under the divine light of the Chris- 
tian religion. Happy auspices of a happy futu- 
rity! Who would wish that his country's ex- 
istence had otherwise begun? Who would de- 
sire the power of going back to the ages of 
fable? W ho would wish for other emblazoning 
of his country's heraldry, or other ornaments 
of her genealogy, than to be able to say 
that her first existence was with intelligence; 
her first breath the inspirations of liberty; her 
first principle the truth of tlivine religion. 

The Sister.— N» household is complete with- 
out a sister. She gives the finish to the family. 
A sisters love, a sister's influence; what can be 
more hallowed ? A sister's M-atchful care; can 
anything l)e more tender? A sister's kindness; 
does the world show us anything purer? 
Who would live without a sister ? A sister is a 
sort of guardian angel in the home circle. Her 
presence condemns vice. She is the (juickener 
of good resolutions; the sunshine in the path- 
way of home. To every brother she is light 
.and life. Her heart is the treasure-house of 
confidence. In her he finds a safe adviser, a 
charitable, forgiving, tender, though often 
severe frientl. In her he finds a ready com- 
panion. Her sympathy is open as day and 
sweet as the fragrance of flowers. AVe pity the 
brother who has no sister, no sister's love. We 
feel sorry for the home which is not enlivened 
by a sister's presence. A sister's office is a 
noble and gentle one. It is hers to persuade to 
virtue, to win to wisdom's w.iys; gently to lead 
where duty calls; to guard the citadel of home 
with the sleepless vigilance of virtue; to gather 
graces and strew flowers around the home altar. 
To be a sister is to hold a sweet place in the 
heart of home. It is to minister in a holy 
ortice. 

TuE Truth-Teller. — It is worth while now 
and then to have what is called the truth told 
you about yourself. There are times when such 
truth-telling is of great and immediate service. 
But I have noticed that persons who plume 
themselves upon speaking the truth to their 
neighbors are persons who really have no spe- 
cial devotion to truth, but who have, on the 
other hand, a passion for making people uncom- 
fortable. They do not love their neighbors ; 
they hate them. With them so-calletl truth- 
telling is merely a form of self-indulgence. How 
would it do, the next time the village truth- 
teller comes around, for you to tell the truth to 
to him ? "Kind friend, I thank thee for telling 
me that my daughter's manners are rude, and 
that my uncle, the parson, should be spoken to 
about his method of public prayer, and that my 
Sunday -best-go-to-meeting stove-pipe hat is two 
seasons behind the times ; but let me recipro- 
cate thy kindness by informing thee that thou 
art a selfish old gossip, without enough brains 
to perceive the whole truth about any situation, 
but only a silly half-truth, or a miserable dis- 
torteil truth, which, from the best of motives, 
I advise thee to keep to thyself." — S<-ribner for 
Jiihj. 

New Mfsic. — Among the very seasonable 
lyrics recently published by Oliver Ditson & 
Co. are: '-'Cow Bells in the Lane," by W. S. 
Hays. Music and words are good, and the 
picture title is a charming country scene. Then 
comes a song of the ocean, "Nancy Lee," with 
a jolly " yeo ho!" in it; and a brave songby 
Miss Lindsay, " My Laddie far away." The 
piano music also has a seaside flavor, being, 
first, "Sailor Chorus," from Wagner's Flying 
Dutchman, and second, "Beautiful Hudson 
waltz," by Nelson, after which we have for con- 
trast, " Little Jennie march," with a sweet air 
in it and a good deal of brilliancy. 

None are too wise to be mistaken, but few 
are so wisely just as to acknowledge and cor- 
rect their mistakes; and especially the mistakes 
of prejudice, — Barrow. 



1877.] 




The "finda" in the rag bag and the rubbish 
heap are sometimes not a little curious. A mis- 
tress allows Betty, the maid, to keep a rag bag, 
and occasionally Betty yields'to the temptation 
of putting into that bag articles which are cer- 
tainly not rags. But apart from any suspicion 
of dishonesty, valuables find themselves in very 
odd places, through inadvertency or forgetful- 
ness. We need not say much about such small 
creatures as insects, spiders or lizards, that are 
found by the paper makers in bundles of es- 
parto; they are unwelcome intrasions rather 
than finds. A patent lock was once found 
among the contents of a family rag bag; and as 
it was worth five shillings, the buyer was well 
content. An old Latin prayer-book, bought 
as waste paper, had a bundle of nails, curiously 
linked together, packed inside it. Half-sover- 
eigns and other coins are found in cast-off pock- 
ets, in the heels of old stockings, and inside 
the linings of dresses. An old coat, purchased 
by a London dealer, revealed the fact — a joy- 
ful fact to the buyer — that the buttons consist- 
ed of sovereigns covered with cloth. Three 
pounds sterling, in German paper money, found 
their way into a bundle of German rags that 
reached a paper maker. The London rag-bri- 
gade boys once found a bank check -book, and 
on another occasion six pairs of new stockings, 
in waste paper and rags which they had 
bought; these unexpected articles were, to the 
honor of the brigade, at once returned. A rare 
find once occurred in the Houndsditch region. 
A dealer — of the gentle sex, we are told — gave 
sevenpeuce and a pint of beer for a pair of old 
breeches; while the bargain was being ratified at 
a public house, the buyer began to rip up the 
garment, when out rolled eleven golden guineas 
wrapped up in a thirty-pound bank note. We 
rather think that in strictness of the law the 
guineas of this treasure-trove belonged to the 
crown; but most likely the elated buyer and the 
mortified seller made men-y over the windfall. 
Many people, in the days when banking was 
little understood, had a habit of concealing 
their spare money al)out their persons; thus, an 
old waist-coat, bought for a trifle, was found 
lined with bank notes. But of all the finds, 
what shall we think of a baby? A jjaper man- 
ufacturer assures us that in a bag of rags 
brought from Leghorn, and opened at an Edin- 
burgh paper-mill, a tiny baby was found, press- 
ed almost flat. — Chambers's Journal. 



Valor. — A few miles north of Tecumseh, 
Mich., there is a brick school-house, wherein 
reigns a muscular young schoolmistress. She 
induced the trustees to brighten the dingy walls 
with new paper, and warned the subjects of her 
little realm that they must not deface it. One 
young lady willfully and repeatedly ornament- 
ed the new wall-paper with splashes of ink and 
inartistic penmanship. The school was dismiss- 
ed,- the culprit detained, the door locked, and 
the ferule brandished. The pupil struck back, 
and a hand-to-hand conflict raged. A brother 
and sister of the young rebel ran home and 
summoned two indignant parents to the scene 
of war. The door was uidocked, the father 
breathed out tlireatenings and slaughter; the 
mother rolled up her sleeves, seized the arm of 
the schoolmistress, and was on the point of 
beating and biting her, when lo! a champion 
of the oppressed entered. It was a beautiful 
young gentlemen who had driven up in a sleigh 
to invite the teacher to go with him to a con- 
cert in the village that evening. He separated 
the combatants, glared at the father, put the 
schoolmistress in the "cutter," and drove away 
over the hills and dales. After the concert he 
gave her a seven-shooter, and bade her defend 
herself in future like a man. 



A Woman's Friendship. — It is a wondrous 
advantage to man, in every pursuit or vocation, 
to secure an adviser in a sensible woman. In 
woman there is at once a subtle delicacy of tact 
and a plain soundness of judgment which are 
rarely combined to an equal degree in man. 
A woman, if she be really your friend, will 
have a sensible regard for your character, honor 
and repute. She will seldom counsel you to do 
a shabby thing, for a woman friend always de- 
sires to be proud of you. At the same time, her 
constitutional timidity makes her more cau- 
tious than your male friend. She, therefore, 
seldom counsels you to do an imprudent thing. 
A man's best female friend is a wife of good 
, sense and heart. 



A Mother's Fight with ah Eagle. — Re- 
cently a child was attacked on Grosse Tete by 
a large eagle. Upon hearing the screams of the 
child its mother ran into the yard, and when 
she discovered the eagle endeavoring to carry 
off' her child she made a desperate attack upon 
the intruder. During the fight between the 
eagle and the mother the child crawled under 
the house, and finally the mother was forced to 
retire, as the eagle fought with unusual desper- 
ation. Several persons were attracted to the 
spot by the screams of both mother and child, 
and after firing several shots at the eagle he was 
finally killed. The eagle was very large. 

Josh Billings says : "The mewl is a larger 
bird than the guse or turkey. It has two legs 
to walk with and two more to kick with, and 
wears its wings on the side of its hed." 

"What comes after T?" said a school teacher 
to a small pupil who was learning the alphabet. 
He received the bewildering reply, "You do — 
to see Liza." 



Letters to Boys and Girls. 

[Written for the Rural Prkss by' Jennie E, Jameson. ] 
My Dear Young Friends : — Do any of you 
read and admire Whittier's poems ? Has one 
of your number stood upon the platform in the 
school room, and, with fear and trembling, re- 
peated, "Maud Muller, on a summer's day, 
raked the meadow, sweet with hay," etc? 
Does Whittier's "Barefoot Boy " hang upon 
your walls in a chromo, or lie upon your table 
in a poem ? 

If you have been interested, as so many have, 
in his fine poetry, perhaps you would like to 
take a peep at Whittier's birthplace. A few 
days since, as I was riding with two young 
ladies, one proposed visiting that noted place. 

"Oh, yes," cried Miss E , "I have lived in 

Haverhill twenty years, and have never been 
there. I should be delighted to go ; indeed, I 
feel it my duty, for when I am away from 
home, people want me to tell them about it, and 
seem surprised when I confess I have never been 
there. One gentlemen said 'I went 38 miles 
out of my way that I might visit that spot. 

Why, Miss E , I think you are a Itfothen .'' " 

This settled the question, and the horse was 
turned toward Amesburg. All went well till 
we neared Lake Kenosa, a beautiful sheet of 
water about two miles from the city. We were 
admiring a grand, stately, stone castle, (built 
by a wealthy man of Haverhill, who has sf)ent 
some time in foreign countries) upon a hill above 
the lake. As it loomed up above the beautiful 
green of the trees, it looked so precisely like 
the grand old fortresses that we read about in 
stories of life in England and other far-away 
lands, that we were almost inclined to think we 
were not in New England — when our peaceful 
meditations were brought to an untimely end 
by the jerk of the carriage, as the horse jumped 
one side, almost into the ditch, in a very undig- 
nified manner. He then elevated his fore-feet 
towards the beautiful blue above us, which so 

frightened Miss L , who was driving, that 

she could only call "whoa !" The horse turned 
short upon the left of the carriage, and prepared 
for a good square run — all because of a white 
stone by the road-side. The wheels began to 
rise, a crash seemed inevitable, and I thought 
nothing but Providence could save us, when I 

perceived Miss L was pulling the left line, 

and helping the insane animal to turn. I caught 
the right line and succeeded in checking the horse 
enough so that we escajsed going out as the car- 
riage turned. Do I hear some of the boys who 
know all about driving (of course they do) say, 
' 'Well, there ! I'd have done better than that ! 
I'd like to see a horse turn and run with vie in 
that style !" Well, my dear Yoimg America, if 
you have presence of mind in time of danger, 
you must remember it was given to you by One 
who will withhold no needed good from those 
who, trusting in Him, walk uprightly. There 
are times in our lives when a seemingly slight 
accident might end them, or sadden all our 
days; but, sometimes more than once during a 
day, we are saved from painful trial and sad- 
ness liy our kind Father in Heaven. We are 
too apt to murmur when trials come, and are 
not ajit to be thankful enough when they are 
kept fi-om us. 

A gentleman, who was not far away, stopped 
our horse, and turuing, led him past the cause of 
his fright. We soon passed the bridge, and 
"the apple tree's shade," where the Judge 
received the sun-browned hand of Maud Muller, 
and stood before the old wood-colored house. 
I considered it my duty to strike an attitude 
and expatiate upon the beauty of the sur- 
roundings, when Miss E rather took the 

romance out of the situation by exclaiming, 
' 'There, there ! this may be the wrong place — I 
rather think it is. You had better find out. It 
would be such a joke if it wasn't." I turned to 
a gray-haired man, who sat by an open window, 
and said, "This is the old Whittier homestead, is 
it not?" "Y-a-s, y-a-s," he replied. "I do want 

to go inside," whispered Miss E . I would 

do almost anything for that dearest of all 
patient, sufi'ering mortals, for her life has been 
full of trials, which she bears with wonderful 
fortitude; so I said to the rather gruff old man, 
"I suppose you often find those who wish to 
view the old house, and perhaps it may prove 
something of an inconvenience ?" "Y-a-s, y-a-s, 
he returned, evidently not intending to ask us 
to come in. Just at this moment a pretty 
young lady came to the door and invited us in. 
We had seen pictures of the house, which is 
two stories high, and looks very well in a picture. 
But we are nearly always disappointed in such 
places, and as the homestead has been sold to 
strangers who have not cared to keep it looking 
well, it has degenerated very rapidly. The out- 
side of the buildings has a tumbled-down, dis- 
couraged apijearance, and the inside is worse 
still. There is a large open fire-place in the 
kitchen, whose enormous mouth has allowed 
the smoke of many an ancient log to rise to the 
ceiling, which has become as black as your boot. 
The other rooms are not quite so dingy, and as 
these people who have just moved into the 
house have a taste for "fixing up," it will soon 
look better. We were shown the "corner 
room," where the poet, of whom we are justly 
proud, used to do most of his writing. The 
ceiling was low, with dingy beams running 
across, but the view from the window was 
pleasant. My friend was unromantio enough to 



feel more attraction for the pans of new milk 
upon the kitchen table than for black ceilings 
and gaping fire-places. But I must close. 
This letter is to the older boys and girls, but I 
haven't forgotten the "wee mites." They shall 
have one soon. 

Haverhill, Mass, June 4th. 



Q@©o t^Eil^LY^|. 



Danger in Self Dosiag. 

There is a host of people who seem to have 
little else to do but to consider their physical 
condition and to administer doses for its im- 
provement; people who are positively dissipated 
and intemperate in their use of medicines, and 
appear to think this world not so much a vale 
of tears as a vale of drugs; jjeople to wliom a 
new prescription affords a delight only equaled 
by that which a savant would experience from 
the possession of a bone of the extinct megathe- 
rium. 

If they are in the least under the weather it 
never occurs to them to allow Nature to work 
out her own salvation, but they take her affairs 
into their own hands, and having small acquaint- 
ance with her jjrocesses, the result resembles 
that of a novice attempting the tasks of a siT^eri- 
or, and making them more difficult for that su- 
perior to accomplish. One of the peculiar pleas- 
ures of such persons consists in persuading oth- 
ers to try their methods of cure. The most deli- 
cate compliment you can pay them is to swallow 
some nauseating mixture upon their recommend- 
ation, which all the while bears a strong fami- 
ly likeness to that of those who, with bad com- 
plexions, assure you that soap is wholesome for 
the skin, or of bald people who extol the virtues 
of certain washes they have employed. 

This art of dosing does not interfere, however, 
with the usefulness of the family physician, but 
rather supplies him with practice by laying the 
foundation for positive disease. The stomach 
which has been unrighteously corrected rebels at 
length; the nerves that have been too often arti- 
ficially soothed finally refuse to acknowledge 
the power of the charmer; the strength engen- 
dered by stimulants proves but a broken reed; 
appetites fortified by frequent tonics surrender 
some day without reserve. 

If the science of medicine itself is as yet only 
experimental, must not amateur dosing, beyond 
question, belong to the most objectionable class 
of empiricisms? — Dr. Holbrook. 

Wedding Journeys. 

When a young man and woman marry, they 
generally think they must take a wedding trip, 
of greater or less extent, according as their 
purses are long or short. The idea is well 
enough in its place, if carried out in accordance 
with the laws of hygiene ; but this is not 
always the case. We have just received a 
notice of the death of a friend, a beautiful and 
noble young lady. The cause was a cold caught 
on her wedding tour. Such cases are not rare: 
but even when death does not result, injuries 
wliich last for life may be received. It would 
be far better to give up the wedding trip than 
to injure the constitution by it. Tliere is never 
a time more unsiiited to journeys tlian just 
after marriage. The feellng-i are then at their 
higliest pitch, and they advertise the fact by 
e^'ery Liok and movement, so that they are 
recognized wherever they go as a newly married 
couple. There ought to be a reform iu this 
matter of wedding tours. Physiologists and 
hygienists should set the example. Let them 
be couducted strictly in accordance with the 
laws of hygiene, or given up altogether. It is 
said that the daughter of Dr. Hammond, 
recently married to an Italian marquis, has set 
a good example in this respect. The fatlier, an 
eminent physician, stamped the idea of a wed- 
ding journey as something barbarous and un- 
physiological, and so, after the marriage, by 
his advice, the couple were left in quiet at their 
own home. If this is so it is an example well 
worth imitating. At any rate, let no newly 
married couple violate every pliysiological law 
by a wedding journey that may injure the 
health past all recovery. — Herald of Health. 

A Surfeit. — A surfeit in man is called foun- 
der in a horse, and is over-eating, eating more 
than the stomach can possibly convert into 
healthful blood. Wise men and careful men 
will sometimes inadvertently eat too much, 
known by a feeling of fullness, of unrest, of a 
discomfort which pervades the whole man. Un- 
der such circumstances, we want to do some- 
thing for relief; some eat a pickle, others swal- 
low a little vinegar, a large number drink 
brandy. We have swallowed too much, the 
system is oppressed, and nature rebels, instinct 
comes to the rescue and takes away all appe- 
tite, to prevent our adding to the burden by a 
morsel or a drop. The very safest, surest, and 
least hurtful remedy, is to walk briskly in the 
open air, rain or shine, sun, hail, or hurricane, 
until there is a very slight moisture on the 
skin, then regulate the gait, so as to keep the 
perspiration at that point imtil entire relief is 
afforded, indicated by a general abatement of 
the discomfort; but as a violence has been 
offered to the stomach, and it has been wearied 
with the extra burden imposed upon it, the 
next regular meal should be omitted altogether. 
Such a course will prevent many a sick hour, 
many a cramp, colic, many a fatal diarrhea, -f- 
Hall's Journal. 



ESYIC Ec©tv 



The Science of Floor Scrubbing. 

' 'Top-dust" can be washed off without great 
labor. Have the water only moderately warm, 
especially when the floor is of soft wood, 
because hot water sinks in so rapidly, and occu- 
pies so much more time in drying, than cool 
water upon wood. Drain the mop pretty well 
before putting it upon the floor, thus wetting 
the floor but little. The object is to wipe up 
the dust as thoroughly as possible, rinsing it off 
from the mop into the water, and changing the 
water for cleaner verj' often. If you put much 
water upon a very dusty floor, you have a big 
troublesome mud-puddle to sop up or rinse 
away. Experiment has convinced me that a 
floor of pine or basswood looks best after 
cleaning, if a small amount of water has been 
put on each portion of it. Use as much water 
as you please on the whole floor, the more the 
better, if you wash and wipe only a small por- 
tion at a time, and then throw out the dirty 
water, and begin the next division witli clean 
water. The sooner a soft wood floor dries, the 
better it looks. I have seen women work very 
hard to scnib a pine or basswood floor white, 
and the result has been quite disappointing. 
They would put a great deal of water upon the 
floor and then scrub with a broom hard and 
long; after this would sweep all of the dirty 
water out, and rinse the floor with as many 
waters as they could afford. When at last the 
well-soaked floor was dry, it was undoubtedly 
clean, but itjlooked dark and somewhat weather- 
beaten, in consequence of remaining wet so 
long. It is a question of health with me, in 
winter, to have a floor dry as soon as possible. 
A little lye in the water has an excellent effect 
upon floors. It may be poured directly upon 
decided greasy spots, but the whole floor is 
whitened with very little hard rubl)ing, if a 
small amount of lye is mixed with the water. 
Too much makes the boards yellow. How 
much should be used depends upon its strength. 
Never put lye into the water with which you 
wash a painted floor, else you gradually but 
steadily remove the paint with each cleaning. 
If you let an unexperienced hired girl have her 
own way with a painted floor, she will probab- 
ly use her boiling suds upon it, and soon re- 
move nearly all of the best paint. Clean warm 
water is best for painted floors. If you have 
a nice hard-wood floor, be thankful, especially 
if it be of white ash, but never let its spotless- 
ness become dearer to your heart than the fami- 
ly peace. You learn by experiment how much 
nicer one of these hard floors looks, when wash- 
ed with clean suds, than when washed with the 
boiling suds of Monday. 

Let those who like get down upon their knees, 
and scrub their floors with brushes and floor- 
cloths — such work is not for me nor mine, and 
I consider it pitiful business for any one. I 
hear of long-handled scrubbing-brushes, and 
doubtless these are suitable for human beings 
in the work of floor-cleaning. What I most 
want is a cheap and easy mop wringer, for I 
dislike extremely to put my hand into the mop- 
ping water. Of such a wringer I have heard, 
but have had no experience of its mex'its. — A. 
.Scrubber In Exchanje. 



Danger in Vinegar. 

There are more kinds of so-called vinegar in 
the market than brands of family flour. The 
New York Tribune thus alludes to one of them: 
The Board of Health of the District of Colum- 
bia has condemned five car loads of vinegar 
sent there from Chicago, on the ground that it 
is not a genuine article, and is injurious to 
health. An analysis of the so-called vinegar 
has been made. It apitears, according to the 
report of the Board of Health, that the vinegar 
contains 54 54-100 grains per gallon of anhy- 
drous sulphuric acid, combined with lime to 
form a sulphate of lime equivalent to 117 26- 
100 grains of gypsum per gallon, and besides 
that, five grains of free sidphuric acid per gal- 
lon. The Board also report that this sample 
was taken from an invoice of more than 1,000 
barrels brought tlierc to be sold as vinegar, and 
that it is likely to lind a ready sale on account of 
its low price. The report concludes as follows: 
"When we think that oil of vitrol (sulphuric 
acid) can be bought at five cents })er pound, 
and that a pound of said .acid would render a 
barrel of fluid as acid as the strongest vinegar, 
the wonder wUl cease that it is sold cheap. 
This, therefore, is a fraud upon commerce, and 
a dangerous substitute for vmegar. " The fraud 
and danger arc more general than the gi-eat 
mass of people will readily believe. It is as- 
serted that probably one-half the vinegar sold at 
city groceries is a rank poison, with either sul- 
))huric or other objectionable acids for its base, 
from which the acetic principle is evolved, the 
same as in the manufacture of aromatic vinegar 
or the acetates used in calico printing. Acetic 
acid is present in all vinegars, although they 
seldom contain more than five per cent, of the 
absolute acid. Their color, flavor and value 
depend materially upon the ingredients from 
which they are made. In England, honest vin- 
egars are usually made of malt; in France, of 
grapes; in Germany, of grapes, beetroot or pota- 
toes; in this country, of apples .and grapes. 




^^ammWmW 3^W^ife«i*»il^ 3P3f(.ISs^ 



[July 7, 1877. 



A. T. DEWEY, W. B. EWEB, 

Publishers. 

Office, S24 Sansome St., S. E. Cor. California St. 



Subscriptions, payable in advance: For one year, 84; 
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Perline 25 .80 $2.00 8 5.00 

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Our latest forms go to press ]Vednexday evening. 

No Quack Advertisements inserted in these 
Columns. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 7, 1877. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS. The Grizzly Bear; 

The Honey .Seas(.n; The A-s-scisnient of Growinj; (.'rops; 
Agriculture at the Mechanics' Fair, 1. The Week; 
.\dulteration of Honcv; Dried Fruits and \'egetables; 
Header and Thresher' Combined, 8. The Wandering 
Flocks and Herds; An Hawaiian Hiiliilay; The Wheat 
Market, 9. The Twelfth Indu.strial Kxhibition; Notices 
iif Recent Patents; Iron Banded Wooden I'ljies, 12. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. The California Grizzly, 1. .Surf 
Itidiny- ill the Sandwich Island.s; Morinff Cattle to New 
Pastures 9 .Mechanics' Institute Medal for 1877, 12. 

CORRESPONDENCE. Ni.tes on the way to Ure- 
f,'"n, 2. 

HORTICULTURE.— Why Almond Trees Dro). Their 
Fruit; Notes on Refri!,'erators; Bananas and Piiie- 
Applcs. 2. 

ARBORICULTURE.- Tree Planting Controversy, 3. 

THE DAIRY. -CmUI Storage of Dairy Produce; Old 
and Stick\ Itutter, 3. 

THE APIARY. .V .New Patent Bee-Hive, 3. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. -Worthy Lectu- 
rer's \isits; The Future of the Order; Amendments to 
the National Graiifjc Constitution; Ojien Grange Meet- 
ing's; In Meinnriain. 12. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties in Califoniia and Colorado, 5. 

HOME CIRCLE.— The Old and the New, (Poetry!; 
T.ike Time to be Happy; The Responsibility of Ameri- 
cans; Women's Influence; Our Country's Origfin; New 
Music, 6. What's in the Rag Bag? Valor; A Woman's 
Friendship; A Mother's Fight with an Eagle, 7. 

YOUNG POLKS' COLUMN.— Letters to B.iys ami 
(Jirls. 7. 

GOOD HEALTH.-Danger in Self Dosing; Wedding 
Jouriic\s; A Surfeit, 7- 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -The Science of Flo<.r 
Scrubhiiig; Danger in Viiicg:ir, 7. 

GENERAL NEWS ITEMS on page 12 and other 
pages. 

THE STOCK YARD. - Binich Grass of Montana, 10. 

MISCELLANEOUS. -Deep Sea Life; California at 
the Philadelphia Kxposition; Longevity of the Israelites; 
(Aittiin Seed as Boiler Felting; To Counteract the Damp- 
ness of Walls; (5un Cotton; Effect of Irrigation on 
Onions; Nortli Carolina Department of Agriculture; 
Oregon Hop Glowers; To Avoid Sleeplessness, 10. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

For Sale, Wine and Brandy Factory, C, E. Sexey, .\ssignee, 
Marysville, Cal . ; Edwin Aldeii's Advertising Agency, 
174 Elm Street, Cin. O. ; Brahma Cocks, M. Eyre, Napa, 
Cal.; Pullman Palatial Hotel Cars; Fancy Mixed Cards. 
J. B. llusted, N.assau, Reiiss. Co., N. Y. 



The Week. 



As we write it is the eve of the national holi- 
day. The streets are being decked with the 
triple colors. There are lines of flags and fes- 
toons of flags; flags nailed fast and flags flying. 
The scene is a faint reminder of the July days 
a year ago. The Centennial spirit is, how- 
ever, sleeping; nor will there be noise to awaken 
it this year. There will be parade and decora- 
tion enough to bear witness that the people are 
not unmindful of the day, but the sweet and 
luimeasured gush of patriotic feeling and ex- 
pression which turned our city last year into a 
grand bazar of decorative art, and an audi- 
torium of patriotic sounds, will not appear on 
this flrst step into the new century. 

The city will not be without attractions to- 
morrow; as we described last week, there will 
be parade, eloquence, poetry, song and the 
sound of instruments of music. Even these, 
those who can, will fly from. This year the 
great desire of the city people seems to be a 
ceaseless longing for the mild air and the genial 
sunlight of the country. Along the lines of our 
more picturesque thoroughfares the camps of 
the escaped city prisoners lie thick as the tents 
in the dream of (iideon. As the canyons open to 
the bay, or shrink away from the railway which 
runs across their feet, they but illy conceal the 
white roofs of the camp and cannot imprison 
the welcoming songs and shouts which hail tlie 
advent of the morning sun. Thus mankind 
longs for nature. Not until the city closes on 
the man does he know how happy was his 
country home. 

We have had day& best fitted for the trying 
work of harvest time. The days are still warm 
in grain fields, but the tired laborer will bless 
the cooling breeze which fans his cheek as he 
curls up to sleep beneath the starry blanket, 
with the whole valley as his bed chamber. 



On Pile.— "The Fruit Trees," 0. N. C; 
"Poultry Notes," M. E., Jr.; W. L. Visits. B. 
P.; "Women in the Grange," S. J. 



Adulteration of Honey. 

Editors Press:— On page 81, volume III, Beekeepers' 
Magazine, I noticed in the report of the N. E. Beekeep- 
ers' Association that Mr, Wickson (now of the Pacific 
RiRAI, Press,) denounced the way unscrupulous honey 
dealers in New York adulterate the genuine article. I 
was much interested in that part of the report, for I be- 
lieve some of our San Francisco "honey canncrs" are put- 
ting a poor article on the market, and the bee men being 
at the other end of the State cannot i)Iace their pure 
honev on the market in cans and jars as do (■?, the preserve 
packers of San Francisco and other places around the 
bay. I think the matter needs investigating. W. A. 
Pkyal, North Temescal, Cal. 

We remember very well the meeting to which 
our querist alludes. It was held in Utica, New 
York, in January, 1875, and there was much 
e.xcitenient because some of the beekeepers had 
learned that great quantities of glucose, made 
from starch and sulphuric acid, was being put 
upon the market as extracted honej'. Before 
the meeting, the late Mr. Quinby came to our 
office with three samples of honey. One was 
from his own apiary, the other two -were bought 
in one of the city stores. There was very 
great diflerence in the samples. One of the 
purchased cans was particularly devoid of fra- 
grance and flavor; the other was passable in 
these respects, while Mr. Quinby's was a choice 
sample, rich and rare. It was upon such evi- 
dence as this, coupled with some statements 
that honey canners had made otters for large 
quantities of empty comb, so that they might 
put a little piece into each can and thus mislead 
people who did not know that bees \mt honey 
into comb, and not comb into honey. It was 
also explained that glucose could be produced 
in unlimited (juantities at an almost nominal 
price. The meeting denounced the wrfing of 
bringing such a substance into competition with 
lawful honey. In the ad<lresses which were 
made the difficulty was pointed out of detect- 
ing the adulterated article, because the glucose, 
with which the a<lulteration was thought to be 
made, was identical in composition, chemically, 
with the sugar in honey. It is true that honey 
contains, besides glucose, some gum mucilage 
and other substances in small amount, but the 
introduction of artificially made glucose could 
be accomplislicd with liut little fear of detec- 
tion except that the flavor and odor would be 
weakened according to the amount of adultera- 
tion. Then, when it is considered how different 
are these qualities of taste and smell in honey 
derived from different plants, the problem of 
detecting an adulterated article becomes more 
complex. The micro scope has been called in to 
advantage in the examination of honey, and 
Hassall, the great English detector of food 
adulteration, uses this instrument to detect the 
crystals of cane sugar which might be intro- 
duced. There is also a possibility of finding 
pollen grains in honey with the microscope. 
But when honey is simply diluted with glucose 
prepared from other substances, the only test 
we know of is the detection of lime in the mix- 
ture; as lime is used in clarifying the syrup 
made from starch and other vegetable sub- 
stance, it is generally found that traces of the 
lime remain in the product. 

We mention these facts to show the difficulty 
which the Northeastern beekeepers found in 
taking steps for ascertaining for a surety 
whether they were being wronged or not, and 
in securing evidence which would enable them 
to get a special penalty pronounced against 
adulterating honey. The same difficulty would 
have to be met anywhere unless testimony of 
the act of adulteration can be obtained. Since 
we came to this .State we have found the price 
of the pure article of honey so cheap that we 
had not thought anyone would look for profit in 
adulterating it. There may be, however, and 
we are glad that our querist has brought the 
subject up. It is very timely, because if the 
adulterator has been at work while honey was 
plenty he will gloat and bloat now that the sup- 
ply for the next year, at least, will be greatly 
reduced and the price advanced. If producers 
of false honey are at work in this city they will 
rob the legitimate producer of his needed reward 
in the coining high prices. We would thank all 
reailers who have fear or facts that honey is be- 
ing adulterated before it passes to consumers in 
this city, if they would give us the reason for 
belief or knowledge which they have. The 
evil should certainly be loudly exposed if it 
exists. 

The Blue-stoned PoTA-roES. — We find the 
following in the Watsomrille I'ajaronian con- 
cerning the growth of the potatoes which were 
soaked with blue-stone before planting: "The 
potatoes planted some weeks ago by Mr. Ther- 
watcher of this valley, immersed in a prepara- 
tion of blue vitrol, of which we matie mention, 
are up and growing finely. They were ten days 
longer in sprouting than the balance of the 
field planted with seed not prepared in tlie 
above manner, but are looking stronger, and 
more promising every way. The Rural 
Pre.ss expressed doubt as to the utility of ap- 
plying the vitriol, fearing that the seed would 
be destroyed. But it has lieen demonstrated 
that the preparation does not injure the germ, 
and when they are dug we will report as to 
quality, compared with potatoes planted in the 
usual way." We are glad to know that our 
fears were not realized. It will be valuable to 
know the results which are promised. The 
treatment does not yet remove itself from the 
line of the hazardous, but the retarded germin- 
ation of these potatoes shows that care must be 
had not to make the preparation too strong nor 
the exposure to its action too long. The proof 
of the matter is yet to come in the behavior of 
the tubers as to rot as compared with those not 
treated with the mineral. 



Dried Fruits and Vegetables. 

We find in our exchanges this week several 
notes on the prospect for dried fruits and veg- 
etaVdes, both as to (luantity and demand. 
They are of interest to all. The CaU has ad- 
vices to May 30th from Bordeaux which report 
the prospect for prunes as follows: "The blos- 
soming of the prune tree has been magnificent, 
and gave rea.son for the brightest hopes. Un- 
fortunately tlie fructification, impeded by a long 
series of rains and fogs, has been accomplished 
under difficulties. The promises of the opening 
have vanished, and we now hope only for a di- 
minished crop. All the country is affected, and 
more particularly the hillsides have been seri- 
ously damaged. The low plains only are com- 
paratively spared. If the weather at last 
should become fine, we may yet hope for a small 
crop, but if the rains continue, which is to be 
feared, we would be exposed to have only a 
very small crop of prunes. According to all 
probability, the trees not being heavily loaded, 
the fruit will be large, well nourished, and will 
admit of the execution of orders for fine fruit 
at fair prices. It is, therefore, to the superior 
(jualities that I call your particular attention. 
The plum trees being hardier and less delicate 
than the prune trees, have resisted better the 
bad weather, and promise yet a pretty good 
crop. " 

The prospect of a moderate yield in France, 
together with the inevitable decrease in pro- 
duction in the Turkish provinces from the effects 
of the war, would seem to point to unusually 
high prices the coining season. As a scarcity 
of prunes in the United States stimulates the 
demand for other dried fruits, there is good 
reason to expect that the California producer 
will get well paid this season for any (juantity 
that he may have to .spare. 

We read in the Alto that several of the Al- 
deu drying-houses, for lack of fruit to work cui, 
will buy vegetables. An experiment is to be 
made in drying sugar-l>eets, with the idea 
that there may be a profit in .shipping the dried 
material to Europe. The Scieutijir A)iicririiii 
says: " Europe is taking surprising quantities 
of American fruit. The purchases have 
amounted, according to the New ^'ork Trihime 
of recent date, to over §1,500, (KK) worth since 
■June, ISTG, compared with SGOO.OOO in the 
same period the year before. Dried apples fig- 
tire largely in this movement. This country 
has exported over 12,000,000 pounds of them 
.since last June, as compared with 5'2'2,0OO 
pounds the previous year." This is certainly a 
very encouraging exhibit, says the Alia, and will 
tend to stimulate this growing industry in Cali- 
fornia, where all the conditions are favorable for 
the production of every variety of fruits and 
vegetables in great perfection, and at small cost. 
We predict that, before the lapse of many years, 
the growing of fruits and vegetables, and their 
preservation by drying, for exportation, will be 
a leading and most profitable pursuit in Cali- 
fornia. Tiie drying of vegetables is rapidly 
growing into an important business. The Al- 
lien factory at Anaheim is being enlarged, and 
will turn out several hundred tons of dried 
onions, jiotatoes, corn, peas, etc., this season. 
Tliese evaporated articles can be shipped to 
Europe, in our wheat ships, as top freight, at 
about .f 10 per ton, and there is no danger of 
overstocking that market. According to some 
figures, cited by Mr. Joly, before the Central 
Horticultural Society of France, and taken from 
the records of the Custom House, the total 
quantity of dried fruits exported to England, 
Belgium and (iermany, amounted in 1874 to 
nearly 80,000 tons; of dried vegetables, (mostly 
potatoes), the enormous quantity of nearly 
200,000 tons. In the light of these figures, 
which are not exaggerated, there is no room to 
doubt the vast proportions which this new in- 
dustry is destined to reach in a very few years. 



Header and Thresher Combined. 

We hope that all we read about the success 
of a machine which combines the header and 
thresher will be ijroved true in actual and con- 
tinued work. We heard about this machine 
last year, and the fact that it comes up again as 
soon as there is ripe grain to test it on is evi- 
dence that the men who have it in charge do not 
propose to give it up until they fully succeed. 
The principle of combination has proved grandly 
successful in many of our agricultural tools and 
machines. It is not long since the reaper grew 
on to the mower or the fanning mill worked 
itself into the vitals of the thresher. It is 
within easy memory that the clover seed liuller 
was married to the clover seed thresher, and it 
is quite as fresh in memory that it cost a good 
father of ours $1,000 for not knowng that the 
combination was patented. And yet we are 
a friend of combined machines, and are glad 
when a practical and valuable union of two ma- 
chines is accomplished. The latest news which 
we have in this connection is from the Stanislaus 
Neici, and it relates to the combined header 
and thresher which Mr. Rice, a farmer and me- 
chanic of Stanislaus county, has been working 
with the help of associates for a long time. 
During the past year Mr. Rice has been asso- 
ciated with Mr. Holt, a mechanic of Stockton. 
The success which they have achieved is de- 
scribed by the Keirs as follows: 

"From Mr. Rice we learned that two machines, 
one cutting a 12-foot swath and the other IG 



have been at work near Farmington, in San 
Joaquin county, the present season, ever since 
grain became ripe enough to cut. The larger 
machine is at work on David Young's farm, 
cutting a field of 640 acres. It is drawn, or 
rather pushed, by 14 horses. It requires but 
four men to manage it, the sack -sewer having 
the heaviest task of any of the attachees. The 
grain now being cut by this larger machine 
yields from 20 to 30 bushels per acre. Thus 
far the machine and crew have averaged the 
cutting of 40 acres per day. Another man and 
team picks up the sacks and hauls the grain to 
the barn as fast as it is cut, thus completing the 
work at once. The separator is so situated 
that where the farmer desires, he can furnish 
wagons, and secure the straw, after it is 
threshed, and not retard the progress of the 
cutting in the least. By this means no straw 
need be lost. The machine has been in opera- 
tion during the calmest as well as the most 
windy weather of the present changeable sea- 
son, and in all conditions its work has been 
well performed. The sample of the work 
shown us is certainly well done. The grain is 
clean and no kernels are cracked. A committee 
of a dozen, from among the best farmers who 
have had considerable experience in harvesting 
on an extensive scale in this valley, visited and 
witnessed the working of these machines last 
Monday. They all, with one accord, pronounce 
them a decided success, many of whom be- 
lieve that the system of harvesting now in 
vogue will soon be revolutionized. These re- 
markable machines are now cutting, theshing 
and sacking grain at .$1.75 an acre, and are 
making a fair profit at that price. Mr. Rice 
informs us that he is in hopes of being able to 
place one of his machines on exhibition at the 
State fair in Sacramento. If so, we suggest to 
the managers of the society the necessity of 
securing from five to 10 acres of grain, of easy 
access to the city of Sacramento, to be left 
standing, so that farmers, mechanics and others 
who take an interest in the matter may witness 
its performance. The perfecting of harvesting 
apparatus and the lessening of the cost of sav- 
ing the farmer's crop after it has been matured, 
is certainly of more interest to the farmers of 
this State than the speeding of Norfolk, Lodi 
or Occident anjund the race track. We should, 
however, have previously stated that in response 
to an incpiiry the inventor gives it as his opinion 
that tlie price of his machine need not exceed 
from .*;i,000 to .§1,500, according to size. 

"The smaller sized machine alluded to by ua 
is also at work doing good service, cutting from 
2.5 to 30 acres per day." 




Marketing Sumac. 

Editors Prf.ss:— I have growing around mc iinmeuse 
quantities of sumac. Can you inform me what it would 
sell for in San Francisco, and also in the Eastern cities? 
and what city would be the .best market for it':' 1 aui 
iMiw prejiaring a small quantity to send to JVof. Hilirerd, 
State rni\crsity, for analysis. What is his P. O. t Could 
>-ou not prepare an article for Ri'Ral Pbkss, giving full 
particulars in regard to its pre)>arationand manipulation, 
and in what fonn and shape it is best for market 'i 

The tanners here are using it, and I have seen excellent 
leather tanned in from two to three days with il; and one 
of uur tanners told me that he had tanned deer skins with 
it in 10 hcmrs.- Hesrv C. Hicks, San l*as<|Ual, San Di- 
ego County, Cal. 

The answers to most of our querist's inquiries 
are yet to be ileterinined. California sumac is a 
new idea to the trade and must work its way for- 
ward just as other new articles do. Its quality 
must be tested not only by a few and found 
good, but each large consumer of sumac must 
have an opportunity to test it for himself in his 
tannery, because he will not throw out the arti- 
cle which he now finds satisfactory until he can 
prove superior advantages in the new supplies. 
For this reason we must caution our readers not 
to expect too much in a single season, but to 
take initiatory steps at once, and the future will 
bring the reward. There is now no sale for 
California sumac in this market for the reason 
we have stated. Our tanners have not formed 
an opinion of it. The lot of the prepared arti- 
cle which came from Messrs. Anderson, as no- 
ticed in a recent issue of the Rural Fresh, 
was handled with due diligence by Littlefield, 
Webb & Co. , but no price could be put upon it. 
Some local tanners took some of it on trial and 
promised reports, which are not yet received. 
Some of the sample was sent to New York, 
and dealers there said it looked well, but be- 
fore they could sell it the tanners must have a 
chance to try it. For these reasons it is impos- 
sible to tell where will he the best market for 
ur sumac. The experience of the future mus^ 
determine this point. 

The market prices for sumac in New York are 
as follows: Sicily, low grade, $55 and $60 per 
ton; high grade, $110 and $115 per ton; Vir- 
ginia, $65 per ton. 

Our correspondent will be wise to avail him- 
self of Prof. Ililgard's offer to make an analy- 
sis of the sumac. This will be the best thing 
as a starting point and if the analysis shows a 
high per cent, of tannin, it will be an excellent 
item to catch the attention of consumers with. 
Prof. Hilgard's address is Berkeley, Alameda 
county, Cal. 

In an article in the Rural of May 26th some 
of the leading points in the preparation of 
sumac for the market were given. Those who 
are interested may find a fuller account, with 
illustrations of mills for grinding up the sumac, 
in the report of the Department of Agriculture 
for 1869. 



• 



July 7, 1877.] 



Our Wandering Flocks and Herds. 

Many of the cattle and sheep from some coun- 
ties of our State have already outdone the wan- 
dering of the flocks of the Israelites. Tlie time 
of their trampings has been short, but in point 
of distance they have compassed journeys which 
would encircle the desert of Sinai. Great has 
been the hardship, both to men and animals. 
Many have gone from plain to mountain, and 
returned thence to plain and tule. High lands, 
which usually have furnished abundance, have 
failed, or have been cropped close long ago by 
early comers. Some men have lost the great 
part of their capital, either in dead animals or 
else in measures to preserve their lives ; others, 
less aflHicted, have sacrificed all the profits 
which the season had yielded from produce 
sold. These are grievous things, but the suffer- 
ers are brave and hopeful, and look to the 
future to return what the present takes without 
the asking. 

This, our readers know, is not the condition 
of affairs throughout the State, but only in parts 
of it. In the higher counties of our State there 
has been a supply of feed which could be im- 
proved. This abundance in one part of the 
State and scarcity in another has led to the 
movement of the cattle to which we have 
alluded. Nearly all the roads leading toward 
the north have been beaten into dust by the 
millions of passing hoofs. The wind has filled 
the air with the blinding powder, and hard has 
been the journeying on the horseman, as they 
have driven the cattle through heat and dust 
until at length rest has been found in the rich 
pastures of the favored counties, or in the flush 
succulence of the tules. 

The engraving on this page represents a little 
scene which has been common in the interior 
during the spring and summer months. It is a 
scene which is still visible. We read as follows 
in the Antioch Lexhjer of last week: "The 
Antioch and ('ollinsville ferry-boat is kept 
busily employed making regulai trips between 
the above named points, and transjiorting stock 
to the numerous islands in the delta of the rivers. 
Several hundred head of Spanish cattle were 
taken to Winter's island, opposite Pittsburg 
landing, Tuesday. When poor, tired and hun- 
gry, the Spanish cow or steer often exhibits the 
total depravity of its race, and to tlie looker-on 
it is somewhat amusing to ol)serve the skillful 
vaquero bring in a refractory beast which 
attempts to break away from the band. The 
faithful mustang is trained to the business and 
seems to know exactly what is expected of him. 
The riatta is thrown with unerring certainty 
and if the animal refuses to return, the ropes 
are properly adjusted and the enraged beast is 
dragged to the boat." 

These eveats will make this year memorable 
to many of our stock-breeders and dairymen. 
The rains will come before many months now, 
and the wandering flocks and herds will be driven 
back to their old liomes. Among the times of 
fullness which are coming, let not the facts of 
this dry year be without wholesome lessons to 
all. Let not another season like this, should it 
ever come, find our animals without good sub- 
stitutes for the natural feed of the pastures. It 
may be thought that it will not be profitable to 
put forth the labor which will ensure the sus- 
tenance of the stock, and yet, which would 
■cost the more, the loss and expense of moving 
and hiring pastures 
in other counties 
t)r of bringing ( n 
tlie water and 
growing' fodder at 
home ? Which 
would cost the 
more, the completr 
sacrifice of thr 
stock or the effort 
to grow something 
which will make 
their life and 
growth assured. 
One cannot look 
upon the clouded 
scene in our en- 
graving without 
feeling deeply that 

■uch must be the trade-mark of our in- 
dustry until wiser policies and greater fore- 
thought and economy characterize our general 
agricultural methods. 

The Chkrrvmoyer.— The item we recently 
made of the cherrymoyer has been widely 
copied by our exchanges, and it appears that 
there are more of the trees in this State than we 
had suijposed. The Santa Barbara Adm-ther 
says : There is a cherrymoyer tree now fruiting 
on the grounds of A. Packard, Esq., of this city. 
Last year Dr. Dimmick planted several seeds 
from fruit gathered from it. The doctor suc- 
ceeded in raising a number, several of which are 
growing on his grounds on De la Yina, street, 
and two of the trees are doing nicely on the 
ranch of Mr. W. A. Boyce, in Mission canyon. 

The Russian government having ordered the 
purchase of .30,000 horses, Germany will issue 
a decree prohibiting the export of horses from 
that empire. It is semi-oflicially stated that 
this measure will be solely on the ground of in- 
ternal economy, and not for political reasons. 



An Hawaiian Holiday. 

Now that the lines of progress on the Sand- 
wich islands are drawing them nearer to us in 
trade and international comity, it is interesting 
to take a look occasionally at their life, at their 
industries and their amusements. They had 
last month a sort of national holiday which they 
call " Kamehameha day," and they had differ- 
ways of celebrating it. The sports were chiefly 
athletic, and in this way we must own were 
vastly superior to some of the insane customs 
we Americans have of observing our holidays. 
The Hawaiian Gazette sa.ys: " The sports were 
altogether native, and illustrated in a striking 
manner to the observation of foreigners, the 
ancient skill and prowess of Hawaiians." 

Kamehameha day was celebrated on the 11th 
of June last. Among the sports were swim- 
ming, racing, pole climbing and surf riding. 
We select the last for illustration on this page, 
as it is something which does not come within 
the list of our sports in the way the Sand- 
wich Islanders practice it. The OnrMte 
gives the following spirited description: "The 
surf riding, the pre-eminent Hawaiian sport, 
attracted an earnest attention, as the dignified 



The Wheat Market. 

A light rainfall on one of the days of the last 
week gave the headers and threshers a brief 
respite. We do not hear that much injury was 
done. Otherwise the harvest work has pro- 
gressed favorably. Reports still come of yields 
fairly satisfactory where little was expected. 
In the city trade but little has been accom- 
plished. Prices have maintained themselves, 
and there is still a margin between buyers' and 
sellers' views. There seems no pressure to sell 
and holders are firm. The foreign market, as 
telegraphed from Liverpool, is now lis lOd and 
12s Id for average California; 12s 2d and 12s 8d 
for club. Tliis is a slight reduction from last 
week's prices. The equivalent in this market 
for the above quotations, at present rates of 
freights, etc., is .f2.20 to .$2.27 for average (Cali- 
fornia, and .$2.30 and $2.40 for club. 

The week has closed the harvest year of 
1876-7. A summary of the amounts of wheat 
and flour exported may be found in our market 
columns. The record of the year has been 
princely; greatest in amount and in aggregate 
valuation thit has ever left our State. This one 
cereal has brought into our State, during last 



Friedlander's 



Opinion 
Trade. 



on the 



at 




RIDING 



(iovenior Moehonua had his chair planted, like 
King Canute, in order to observe more closely 
by the .sea marge, where tlie far-lapping tide 
came to wet his feet. Poepoe, the champion 
sur' rider of Hawaii, took part in this contest, 
and there was a murmur among the spectators 
as this splendid athlete appeared on the beach 
witli his board that the judge of the games 
might as well give him the prize at once. But 
tliere was another, and very snecial mat- 
ter of interest in this contest; a woman was 
to contend with men in this daring and 
dangerous pastime. Though past her youth, 
yet tliis woman was of comely form, which 
was but slightly concealed by the scant pa-u. 
Her long flowing liair, and well rounded limbs 
glistened pleasingly through the green translu 



SANDWICH ISLANDS 



year, the comfortable sum of .'if2 1,000, 000. Of 
course we expect marked reduction in the 
figures for the present harvest year, but there is 
no doubt but that the valuation will approach 
the high figures nearer than the amount in 
centals, because of the lietter prices wliich will 
be obtained this year. 

Our advices by mail of conditions in the 
English markets are expressive of nothing save 
the extreme reduction in the supply of home 
grown wheat. The market is bare. The Lon- 
don Farmer of June 11th says: "English wheat 
is so unniistaka1)ly scarce that the 'balance of 
power' must remain in farmers' hands, be the 
weather never so fine. Millers do not want to 
buy much corn, but they cannot always get 
even the scanty quantities which for the satis 



cent white-crested combers, through which she I faction of immediate consumptive wants they 




MOVING THE CATTLE TO NEW^ PASTURES. 



lightly made her way seaward, along with three 
stalwart male companions, till they reached the 
outer line of surf swell. This surf is grand at 
times at Lahaina; and the old gods wanted the 
old capital to have a treat this day. The tow- 
ering, combing waves rushed and thundered 
like an avalanche upon the beach. There were 
alternations of greater and lesser waves. Now 
those bold navigators on their tiny craft are 
waiting for a great swell. Here it comes — up- 
ward, the swelling long licjuid ridge arises. It 
towers aloft and rushes onward to engulf the 
shore. And onward came the children of old 
ocean — coming — sliding, and dancing on her 
crests. Poepoe with outstretched arms like an 
ancient warrior about to hurl a spear, conies 
erect on his swift flying keel, but where is 
Nakooko, the woman? — Keeping her tiny craft 
well aslant the insurging tide, she shoots like a 
flying fish through the whitening foam, and as 
though Thetis would favor her daughter, she 
jostles the champion on his wonted plank of 
victory, and so the flowing hair and tlie rounded 
form came in foremost amid the out-cries of a 
delighted multitude glad that the woman had 
won." 



really require. They believe themselves in the 
strength of the situation, and liakers have as 
much difficulty in getting flour from them as 
they have ditticulty in getting English wheat 
from the farmers. At the same time foreign 
stocks are no more than moderate, and the 
supply on mssage is 1,000,000 (quarters only, 
against 1,.'}00,000 quarters last year. Tlie buyer 
has a good (Opportunity, which may go from 
him at a moment's notice. A weather change, 
a telegram announcing a great battle in the 
East, a word let fall in Parliament as to the 
Ministry's reply to the new Russian note — any 
of these things may cause an immediate rally, 
if not a renewal, of recent excitement." 



Careful comparison of the Clearing House 
returns of the 1 1 leading cities of the United 
States shows a gradual decline in business frf)m 
last year, even at Boston, which has heretofore 
held its own. At Baltimore the decline 
was remarkably large last week. The only en- 
couraging feature is a steady improvement at 
Pittsburg and Louisville. Tliere are small gains 
at New York and New Orleans. 



Mr. Friedlander has issued his annual circu- 
lar giving his views of the wheat trade and 
probable surplus, together with an analysis of 
the mistakes of the last harvest year. As is 
our custom, we reproduce a part of this circular 
for the information of our readers. It is essen- 
tial to the formation of conclusions that the 
matters should be looked at from all sides. 
After reviewing the fluctuations which have 
occurred in the grain marts of the world during 
the past year, Mr. Friedlander remarks of the 
English market: 

It was not until war was declared, and the 
troops actually in motion, that the trade awoke 
to the realities of their position and found 
themselves with short stocks, bare markets 
abroad, and one of the great sources of supply 
cut off'. At once an active demand set in for 
all descriptions of breadstuff's, and prices rose 
rapidly until 70s per quarter was reached for 
home-grown wheat — the highest point touched 
since 1868. From this point it gradually re- 
ceded as it became more evident that the war 
would be localized, and with fine weather and a 
brilliant crop prospect, the trade now shows 
great indiff'erence about buying, and the market 
is going along from hand to mouth. It is now, 
however, liable to sudden revulsions from many 
extraneous causes, and it would not be at all a 
matter of surprise to see a jump of from Ss to 
10s a quarter at any time before the gathering 
of the new harvest. Certainly a fortnight of 
such weather as prevailed in England in August, 
1875, would bring such a change about very 
easily, and even without any such desperate 
causes it is hard to see how some advance can 
be avoided before the new grain becomes avail- 
able. 

Of the grave errors which were made early 
last season in estimating the probable yield, the 
] circular says: 

The impression was quite general that a sur- 
plus of 1,000,000 tons would be reached; that 
we would export 800,000 was though probable 
by very conservative people, while hardly any 
one imagined that we could fall short of 750,000 
tons. We shipped 607,000 and here the great 
mistake of the season commenced. The price 
of wheat was disturbed by this supposed sur- 
plus, and for weeks and weeks buyers could not 
make up their minds to pay the prices now 
known to have been fairly demanded by grow- 
ers. On the other hand, the price of ships and 
freights was disarranged most ' seriously, the 
opinion prevailing that we were short of ton- 
nage, when in reality we were abundantly sup- 
plied. Between the two mistakes the trade lost 
a magnificent opportunity, and, unfortunately, 
it passed without profit to any one. During the 
year 315 vessels, entirely or in part wheat-laden, 
left San Francisco. Of these 304, carrying 
10,422,401 centals, went to Europe. 

Prospects of the present crop are summed up 
as follows: 

We are now entering upon a new crop, and it 
may not be out of order, while giving our best 
judgment as to its amount and quality, to take a 
glance at the probable future of the market. 
The planting season was a most unpropitious 
one, very few districts of the State having been 
favored with sufficient moisture to enable the 
farmers to get their crops properly in the ground, 
whUe in many — and those some of the most ex- 
tensive — not enough rain fell all through the 
winter to admit of plowing at all. F]ven in the 
most favored districts, the amount that fell was 
barely sufficient to 
make the crop, and 
ill these only the 
best cultivated 
fields gave a full 
yield. In many 
parts volunteer 
and V i iter-sown 
grain was an entire 
tai!uro, and all 
tliruugh the south- 
mi part of the 
State the fields 
were bare, except 
in a few spots 
where irrigation 
was practiced. 
A sort of mildew, 
too, overtook the 
crop during tlie spring, attacking the best of the 
grain, and although the dam.ige proved less 
than was at one time feared, there is no doubt 
that it shortened the crop in a measure. The 
estimates of yield are, of course, very much 
varied, some pl.acing our surplus for export as 
high as 350,000 to 400,000 tons of 2,000 lbs. 
This is, however, almost universally ccmsidered 
too liigh, but many believe we will have 250,000 
to 300,000 tons. We, ourselves, look on tlie 
first of these as extreme, and are not disposed 
to put it even at 200,000 tons. The ipiality of 
the grain promises to be fully up to the average, 
and as tlie l)ulk of the crop will be grown in 
tlie northern part of the State, the proportion 
of strictly white wheat will be larger than 
usual. 

The Oregon wheat crop of 187t>-77 was on tlie 
whole not up to the average in yield nor in the 
quality of the grain; but the one now ripening 
will undoubtedly be the largest ever liarvested 
in that State, and from what we can learn there 
is no reason to doubt that it will be a superior 
one in every respect. It is difficult to say what 
the surplus for export will be, but we shall not 
be surprised if it reaches 190,000 to 200, 000 tons. 



10 



vm 



[July 7, 1877. 



T^E SjQCk 



Bunch Grass of Montana. 

The Bocki/ Mountain Hufbandman, iiiau arti- 
cle on buuch grass, says: There are several dif- 
ferent varieties of tliis grass, two of whicli are 
the most popular and generally known; one with 
a blade that resembles blue grass and stems 
which nm up in a cluster and bear seed mucli 
in the same manner that blue grass does, except 
that it does not form a tuft but grows in 
bunches, and is found upon the liigh, rolling 
bench lands, parks and mountains. The other 
kind grows more frequently upon the first bench. 
The blade is sharp, the heads all turn to one 
side, and from the broad boot on the seed stalk 
it is often called "flag grass." As to (inantity 

f)er acre, there is but little or no difference. The 
atter is usually preferable for cattle, but tlie 
former is thought to be Ijest for sheep, yet either 
is very tine. 

These grasses start forth in early spring and 
grow very rapidly. If there have been heavy 
snows during the winter and the ground is well 
saturated witli water, if there are frecjuent rain 
or snow storms as the spring opens, the crop of 
bunch grass is very large. In ordinary springs 
the grass is headed out by the first of June, and 
our boundless prairies and hills are beautiful as 
a waWng field of grain. The hight of the gras.s 
is usually from 12 to 18 inches, with blades from 
eight to 12 inches long, yet under very favor- 
able circumstances it grows much taller. We 
have seen miles and miles of bencli lands along 
our mountain slopes which were one vast sea of 
bunch grass fully 30 inches high and thick 
enough to mow; in fact, we have seen large 
ricks of hay of this grass, but the grass is so tine 
that the labor of making liay is too tedious for 
most persons to engage in. By the last of June 
the lieads ripen and in ordinary seasons tlie 
blades are all cured by the middle of July, and 
the whole landscape is brown as a field of grain 
ready for the sickle and would burn if set on 
fire. In exceptional seasons, such as tlie last, 
the blades of the grass remain green and con- 
tinue to grow until September. Tliere is, how- 
ever, no advantage in its remaining green, as 
there seems to l>e no perceptible ditt'erence in 
the fattening of stock. In fact, we are inclined 
to the opinion that the early cured is the best. 
There is no time of the year in which stock take 
on fat faster than in the latter part of summer 
and early fall. 

The cured grass retains its nutriment all win- 
ter, from the fact that we have no drenclung 
rains in the fall to bleach it, tlic light snows 
which come in early winter and melt off soon 
only serving to moisten it and make it more 
palatable. When we have late summer rains, 
and the grass remains green until fall, should 
frost come early it is injured, and stock do not 
seem to keep in good condition during the win- 
ter as when it dries up early, as is generally the 
case. During the winter the low lands an<l 
sharp foothills are for the most part free from 
snow. Usually the snow is chased away by the 
wind, except that which is driven into the thick 
clusters of grass and lies bedded among the old 
dead V)Iadcs of other years. In grazing, the 
stock gather up more or less snow, which serves 
in a great measure as a substitute for water. 
When the snow departs in the spring stock go 
to the foothills, following up the rece<ling snow; 
the grass whicli lies covered all winter is rel- 
ished best; besides the young crop starts first 
and grows fastest among the sliarp hills. In 
the States, green grass in early spring appears 
to have a weakening effect upon stock, but here 
it comes forth among the old crop, and is so 
well mixed that there is scarcely any difference 
between it and dry feed. 

Bunch grass will not yield an acreage equal to 
other grasses, but it does not require near the 
([uantity of this to sustain stock and keep them 
in a flourishing condition as is required of coarser 
and less nutritious food; it approaches nearer 
to grain than anything of which we have any 
knowledge. A poor horse, turned out here, 
seems to thrive and get in serviceable condition 
quicker than if corn fed in the stables. 



DEF.r .Sea Life. — The mystery of deep sea 
life lies in the fact tliat there are multitudes of 
representatives of the animal world which, in 
virtue of their animality, are incapable of nour- 
ishing themselves upon inorganic matter, yet 
which are living miles below the limit at which 
vegetable life ceases. Some of tlie organisms 
found in deep sea soundings are undoubtedly of 
a vegetaVde nature; but these are surface-living 
diatoms, or other forms, wliich sink when they 
die. This animal life at the sea bottom is 
capable of appropriating as food the organic 
matter lield dissolved in the ocean water, as 
well as the inorganic substances necessary for 
the formation of its skeleton and the gases re- 
<juired for respiration. For life at the bottom 
of the sea is essentially like all other animal 
life; it requires food to eat, air to breatlie, and 
minerals from which to elaborate its frame- 
work. Careful experiment lias solved the dif- 
ficulty: the surface-living nutriment descends 
after death; slowly and laboriously the life- 
sustaining oxygen makes its way from the sur- 
face to the depths where cold and darkness 
reign, and as slowly the poisonous carbonic 
acid — the result alike of life and death — makes 
its way to the surface. Thus, just such life as 
<an exist under the difficult conditions there 
present, does exist in enormous extent. — Scrib- 
ner. 



California at the Philadelphia Exposi- 
tion. 

We find in the Philadelphia Preas the follow- 
ing paragraphs: One of the noticeable attrac- 
tions of the exhibition is the California pavilion, 
wliich is situated near the musical platform and 
in front of the Log Cabin. It is made of un- 
barked cedar; the roof is thatched with moss 
from Monterey, and a spire of cones extends far 
up into the rotunda of the main building; its 
rustic posts are ornamented with flowers, cones, 
vines and feathery pampas grass, and its entire 
arrangement is indicative of the artistic skill of 
its proprietor, Mr. J. E. Begg, who is well ac- 
quainted with the productions of the (Golden 
.State, having Vieen a florist there for many 
years. Ho exhibits a fine collection of Lan- 
guedoc almonds, Malaga, (ienoa and .Sicily 
lemons, and Mexican limes, all raised by Mrs. 
(ieo. C. Swan, in Paradise valley, San Diego 
county, California, and if the flavor and taste of 
these fruits partake of their native soil, their 
birtliplace must be a paradisiacal valley indeed. 
Magnificent pine-applea, dates, oranges and 
bananas are also exhibited and for sale at this 
pavilion. .Suspended from the roof is an enor- 
mous Pumolo orange, which measures 23J by 
24t inches, and was grown by Mrs. Brewster, 
of Paradise valley, Cal. It is really a prodigy 
of nature, but whether it is as good and luscious 
as the other fruits from the same place remains 
to be found out, for no Kve as yet has pressed 
it to her rosy lips. 

Another novelty is rock soap, a natural pro- 
duction, which is dug out of the earth in south- 
ern California, and without any preparation is 
excellent for scrubbing up things in general, 
l)ut particularly for polishing silverware. Any 
one having a bed of this useful mineral on his 
farm need have no excuse for dirty hands. 

There is also to be seen here a specimen of 
the Yucca breriafolia, which is found in large 
(juantities in the dry, sterile sand of the Mo- 
liave desert, where nothing else will grow. It 
is valuable as a paper-producing plant, and 
there is now a company organized in California 
for the purpose of supplying the newspapers of 
the world M'ith pulp, which they are quite able 
to do. ^Ir. Begg has on hand pretty little card 
Ijaskets and fancy articles made out of walnuts, 
which are cleaned, sawed, varnislied and curi- 
ously wrought together; also a large variety of 
canes, boxes, sleeve buttons. Centennial bells, 
goblots, etc., manufactured from the celebrated 
Big Tree. These articles are sold at moderate 
rates, and are very desirable as mementoes of 
the exhibition and our beautiful sister State ly- 
ing along the Pacific. 

Everybody has heard of the wonderful Big 
Trees, and it is a fact that if some of the fallen 
trees in the Calaveras groves were burned out a 
man could ride on horseback — ride for 200 feet, 
and come out at a knot-liole in the side. Their 
liark is 23 inches thick, and, when crumbled up, 
makes excellent material for stufling pin-cush- 
ions. An olive tree, in bearing condition, is 
now on its M'.ay from California, and will be 
added to the display next week, wliile fresh 
fruits will arrive from time to time during the 
summer. 

Mr. Begg is a man of large experience and ex- 
tensive information, and tlie many visitors who 
daily call at the Pavilion, find his conversation 
as attractive to their mental appetites as the 
rich tropical fruits are to their palates. 



C'oTTON Sef.d a.-< Boiler Fei.tiko. — A Florida 
paper mentions a new use to which cotton seed 
has recently being put that is of no little im- 
port. It is in the shape of a non-conducting 
cover for steam boilers, and is described thus; 
"It is the cortical part of the seed with the lit- 
tle fuzz attached that is used. A layer of these 
cotton seed hulls is put around the boiler with 
the aid of slats, and then the whole is covered 
with a layer of plastering. With 25 pounds of 
steam on tlie surface of this casing it Wivs barely 
warm; and we are assured tliat both in the en- 
gine and fire-rooms the temperature has been 
greatly reduced, so as to be much less oppres- 
sive, since the casing was put on. This seems 
to be something entirely new, and though 'in 
the present instance it is highly satisfactory, 
the party who tried it thinks he can suggest 
some improvement so as to render the non-con- 
ducting of heat still more perfect. 



Longevity of the Isr.\elites. — Dr. B. W. 
Richardson, of London, has recently investi- 
gated tliis subject. The result of his research 
lias shown that, both on the continent and in 
England, .lews possess a higher vitality than do 
the general community by whom they are sur- 
rounded. Tracing the causes for tliis greater 
longevity, lie s.iys he cannot attach too much 
importance to the sanitary laws that obtain 
among the .Tews, instancing tliose in regard to 
diet, cleanliness and abstinence from strong 
drink. In fact, the Decalogue from beginning 
to end is ime sanitary lesson, teaching them to 
subdue the pcassions which torment the brain 
and distress the body. 



TyESl.\. -l>r. Leidy, of Philadelphia, at a 
recent meeting of the Academy of Science, ex- 
liibited a specimen of tape-worm said to have 
been taken from the inside of a large cucumber. 
This was the first time he had heard of one of 
these worms having been found in a vegetable. 
The specimen has all the characteristics of a 
tape-worm, but belongs apparently to an un- 
known species. 



To Co0NTEKAfT THE DaMI'SES.^ OF WaLL.1. — 

The Oeirerhe-BUtU (as translated by the Poli/- 
terlinlc Revivir,) gives a recipe for a solution 
said to prevent the action of moist atmosphere 
upon walls. A wall exposed to cold and moist- 
ure should be, it says, coated with a comptnind 
of three-quarters of a pound of soap dissolved 
in ten pounds of boiling water, care being taken 
in applying it to avoid the formation of bub- 
bles. A little alcohol assists in dissolving the 
froth, and causes the solution to i>enetrate 
deeper into the wall. A second coating is add- 
eil after twenty-four hours, composed of a solu- 
tion of sulphate of alumina, about half a pound 
in 30 pounds of water. The coating obtained 
is, it is adde<l, impermeable. If tlie first coat 
is not dry and hard in twenty-four hours it 
must be left a longer time. The action relied 
upon here is the formation of an insoluble alu- 
mina soap. ( 



Ik'N Cotton. — The following instructions 
have lately been issued for dressing compressed 
gun cotton: — (1) When time permits, the sim- 
plest way of drj'ing gun cotton is to expose it 
to the air of a dry room until it ceases to lose 
weight, or to place it in the open air during dry 
weather in situations where it will be exposed 
to sun or wind. With a dry atmosphere gun 
cotton may be dried by exposure to open air, 
even without sun, in about five days. (2) 
When it is desired to dry gun cotton quickly 
steam heat should be used, an<l a special appa- 
ratus has been constructed for use in the field 
and at stations for carrying out this operation 
safely and expeditiously. This apparatus con- 
sists of a boiler and a drying-chamber, wliich 
are placed, when required for use, with an in- 
terval of about (i feet between them, and are 
connected by means of an india-rubber tube. 



Effect of Irriuation on Onions. — We 
lately had an inquiry on growing onions by irri- 
gation and asked our readers for experience on 
this point. We note that Mr. Burke, of lx)S 
Angeles county, gives the Exprem the result of 
an experiment which he made in 18f)4: He had 
pl.anted out a bed of onions which were grow- 
ing very well. But it came to his turn to liave 
water from the ditch, and he thought lie would 
irrigate his onion bed. It so happened, how- 
ever, that the water gave out when he had irri- 
gated one-half tlie bed. No more water was 
used. The onions that liad been irrigated grew 
poorly, while those that liad escaped the flooil 
came out very fine. They were larger by half 
tlian the irrigated ones, and better in flavor. 
Mr. Burke is fixed in the belief that land pos- 
sessing sub-moisture is injured by surface irri- 
gation. 

North Carolina Department of Aorici-l- 
TURE. — The recent legislature of North Caro- 
lina established a Board of Agriculture, Immi- 
gration and .Statistics by an act approved April 
I2th, 1877. Tlie department was organized by 
the choice of L. L. Polk, Esq. , as Commissioner, 
and his office is located at Raleigh, the capital 
of the .State. He has kindly furnished us with 
a copy of the act. He is ready to answer any 
inquiries in regard to the resources of tlie .State 
and its advantages as a residence. From some 
circulars which we have received from the Com- 
missioner it is plain that the new de))artment 
has begun earnest work with the analysis of the 
commercial fertilizers which are offered for sale 
in the State. If the department is managed 
throughout with the zeal which marks its be- 
ginning, it will be of inestimable service to the 
agriculture of the .State. 



Oreoos Hop (Jrowkks. — We notice by the 
WiUamHte Fiirmer that the hop growers of Lane 
county have organized an association, the object 
of which shall be to promote the general and 
mutual interest of those engaged in raising, cur- 
ing and putting hops in proper shape and condi- 
tion for market. Articles of association were 
adopted and officers elected. It was decided to 
have a uniform size of bales for hops, four feet 
long, 18 inches wide and two feet deep. The 
price for picking this year will be 37i cents per 
1m>x; boxes same size as heretofore: length, three 
feet; depth, two feet; width, 18 inches. The 
Secretary of the society is .T. H. Brown, Eugene 
City, Oregon, and he gives notice that the soci- 
ety will gladly receive communications from 
hop growers' associations, hop growers, dealers 
in hops, or commission agencies. 



To Avoid Sleeplessne.ss. — If you wish to 
sleep well, eat sparingly of late suppers. Avoid 
all arguments or contested subjects near niglit, 
as these are likely to have a bad effect upon one 
who is troubled with sleeplessness at night. 
Avoid having too much company. Many per- 
sons become so excited with the meeting of 
friends that sleep departs for a time. There is 
probably nothing better, after cultivating a 
tran((uil mind, than exercise in the open air. 
By observing these simple rules, sleeplessness, 
in the majority of instances, may he cured. 



Personal. — Wm. J. Lawrie (or his alias). 
Description — American, probably of Irish pa- 
rentage; age, 25 or 26; hight, about five feet 
six inches; weight, about 130 pounds; complex- 
ion dark; hair black and small dark mustache. 
His agency for this paper expired last December. 
Was in Marin and Sonoma counties last Febru- 
ary. Information of his whereabouts wanted 
by Dewey & Co., San Francisco. 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents 

OKFICE, 224 SANSOME STREET, S. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent Reissues taken out 
Assignments made and recorded in legal form; 
Copies of Patents and Assignments procured; 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; Examinations niaile of Assign- 
ments recorded in \\'.Tahington; Examinations 
ordered and reported by Telegraph; Rejected 
cases taken up and Patents obtained: Inter- 
ferences Prosecuted; Opinions rendered re- 
garding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Patent 
Agency Business promptly and thoroughly 
conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inven- 
tions of this coast, and long practice in patent 
business, enable us to abundantly satisfy our 
patrons; and our success and business are 
constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, wlio fully ajipreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

horeign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, B;ulen, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, Rritisli 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Denmark, 
Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemburg, New Zealand, New .South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
(:r.ana(.la, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European countries, 
but the drawings and specifications should be 
prepared witn thoroughness, by able pereons 
who are familiar with the requirements and 
changes of foreign patent laws^agents who 
are reliable and permanently established. 

Our schedule price for obtaining foreign patents, 
in all cases, will always lie as low, and in 
some instances lower, than those of any other 
responsible agencj'. 

We can and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific .States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country) 
.sooner than any other agents. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. ^Ve are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more correctly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions jdiscov- 
ered here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern .States. Valuable i)atents may be 
lost by extra time consumed in transmitting 
specifications from Eastern agencies back to 
this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

Confidential. 

W» take great pains to preserve secrecy in 
all c0ufidenti.1l matters, and applicants for 
patents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free. 

Heme Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing to them the same 
tiling alrea<ly covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applicant^ 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We invite the acquaintauce of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in <loubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short call 
at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Ooveniment, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money, but 
their inventions also, from this cause and con- 
sequent delay. We hold ourselves responsible 
for all fees entrusted to our agency. 

Engravings. 

We have suj>erior artists in our own office, and 
all facilities for producing tine and satisfactory 
illustrations of inventions and machiuerj', for 
newspaper, book, circular and other printed il- 
lustrations, and are always ready to assist 
patrons in bringing tlieir valuable discoveries 
into practical and protitable use. 

DEWEY & CO. 

United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scientific Press and the 
Pacific Rural Press, 224 Sansome St., S. F. 



July 7, 1877.] 



11 



CENTRAL CALIFORNIA COLONY. 




BEWARE OF DRY SEASONS I 

Cultivate Irrigated Land and Get Two 
Crops a Year. No Failure. 

Irrigated Land for sale in quantities to suit, on the in- 
stallment plan: four years' credit, no intere-st charged. 
NO CHARGE FOR WATER FOR IRRIGATION. On 
railroad, only nine hours from San Francisco. Adapted 
to tlie groxvth of oranges, lemons, figs, prunes, raisins, 
almonds, etc, , and all vegetable |)roductions. 

THE BEST ALFALFA Li\ND IN CALIFORNIA. 

Contracts made to plant trees and vines and take care 
of the same at small cost per annum until purchasers de- 
sire to take possession. 

The Most Successful Colony In California. 

Also, land for colonies, for investment, for sheep ranches, 
for cattle ranches, for wheat fanns, etc., for sale at low 
prices and on easy terms of pajinent. 

WANTED. 

Active agents in every town and village in the United 
States to form colonies to come to California. Liberal in- 
<lucements offered. Correspondence solicited. 
Send iov maps and circuKtrs to 

M. THEO. KEARNEY, Manager. 
306 Pine Street, San Francisco. 



CALIFORNIA 





MILITARY ACADEMY 

For circulars, "address 

Rev. DAVID McCLURE, Principal. 
OAKLAND, CAL. 



BUSINE ?S 
COLLECt 

iNo. 24Post Street 

SAN FBANOISCO, CAU 



The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pujiils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad, culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
struction is given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modern Languages .are practically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, and its system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurjiassed. 

Ladiks' Dep.vrt.mknt.— Ladies will be admitted for in- 
stniction in all the Departments of the College. 

Telkoraphic Dei'art.mknt.— In this Department young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 



Use no more Metal Trusses! No 
more suffering from iron hoops •r 
steel springs ! The Patent Magnetic 
Elastic Truss is worn with ease and 
comfort NIGHT AND BAY and will 
jierform radical cures when all 
others fail. Reader, if ruptured, 
\\ try one of our comfortable Elastic 
Appliances. You will never regret it. gStSe\ni for Illus- 
trated Book and Price List. MAGNETIC ELASTIC 
TRUSS COMPANY, (>09 Sacramento Street, San Fran- 
cisco. 




MONEY TO LOAN 

UPON CHOICE RANCH PROPERTY. 

JNO. D. HOOKER, 

302 Montgomery Street, San Francisco 

LANDSCAPE GARDENING. 

CHAS. A. REED, 
Experienced Landscape Gardener, 

SANTA BARBARA, CAL, 
Correspondence solicited. 

E. GROTKASS, 

COLIMA, MEXICO. 

DEALER IN REAL ESTATE. 
Information given free of charge. Lands procured for 
sale or for rents on easy terms. 

TO FISH RAISERS. , 

I am now ready to sell "Carp" which were imported 
from Germany in 1872, in lots to suit, 

Addrcsi J. A. POPPE, Sononin.Cal. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION. 

Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 



DANIEL INMAN, (Preside.vt). 
A. D. LOGAN,(VicK President). 
AMOS ADAMS, (Secretart). 



OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 

JOHN LEWELLING, (Trkabirf.r), 
G. W COLBY. 
I C. STEELE. 

THOS. FLINT 



W. L. OVERHISER. 
A. T. HATCH. 
O. HUBBELL. 



\V. W. GRAY. 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION HOUSE, 



Grangers' Building, 



106 Davis Street, S. F 



Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairj- Products, Fruit, Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and 

Advances made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandise, 

Farm Implements, Wagons, etc., solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictl.v Commission Business, and place our rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis that will 
en.able the country at large to transact business thr<;ugh us to their entire satisfaction^ 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Association, San Francisco." Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 

DANIEL INMAN, Manager. 



H. W. JOHNS' PATENT 

ASBESTOS ROOFING AND ASBESTOS PAINTS, 

ASBESTOS CEMENT FOR LEAKY ROOFS 

Asbestos Roof Paints for Leaky Roofs, 
ASBESTOS BOILER AND PIPE COVERINGS 




?OR SALE BY ALL COUNTRY MERCHANTS. 

Thompson & Upson, 5 First Street, near Market, S. F., 

EXCLUSIVE IMPORTERS FOR THE PACIFIC COAST. 



/« co7isequcnce of spurioiis vnttatio7is of 

LEA AND PERKINS' SAUCE, 

zv/n'ch are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Pcrrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 

tJius, 

which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ask for L EA &> PERKINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
^Vholesate and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester ; Crosse afid Blackwell, London, 
&'c., dfc. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San Francisco. 



JOHN H. GOVE'S 

CENTENNIAL HAY PRESS. ^ 

Fanners and Hay Pressers will find it to their advantage to examine this Press before buying any other. It is 
built compact, combining lightness for moving with the greatest power and durability in its working parts, capable 
of making the average 2.10 pouud bale, more or less, baling 10 to 15 tons per day, with three men and a pair of horses, 
they traveling only 36 feet to operate it. No excavations required for this press. This is the original Gove Press 
improved, after an experience of building Presses in the States the past 15 years, where they gave the best of sat- 
isfaction. Price, No. 1, $250. 

Manufactured and for sale, or built to order, at the Eureka Grain Storage Warehouse, by 

JOHN H. GOVE or ANDREW J. GOVE, Box 1122. 

Also, for sale by DAVID N. HAWLBY, Agricultural Warehouse, 211 Market Street. 



STA-TISTIOI^ISr. 



MONTHLY. 

t^ai'li issue of the Monthly contains matter revised to 
the day of publication, regarding Distances, Modes of 
Travel, Rates of Fare, and Telegraphic Tariff of the Pa- 
cific Coast; Postal Uegidations, Hates of Domestic and 
Foreign Postage; List of Post Olticcs; Prices, Assessments 
and Dividends on Mining Stocks, and new matter per- 
taining to general information, and the questions of the 
times. 

RATES OF SUBSCRIPTION. 

One (topy, one year ?2 BO 

One Copy, six months 1 iJO 

Three Copies, one year 6 00 

Sinifle Copy .25 cents. 



ANNUAL. 

Each issue of the Annual contains all matter pre- 
viou.sly included in the Monthly, and presents infor- 
mation of a general and statistical nature in a convenient 
form for reference and revised to the day of publicjition. 
Accuracy in compiling, c;ire in revising, system 
in arrangement, and freedom fr«m prejudice in selecting, 
are faithfully observed in the compilation of this periotii- 
cal, which is offered to the public as a reliable ci>ltome of 
general information. 

RATES OP SUBSCRIPTION. 

One Copy S4 00 

One Copy Annual, and Monthly one year 6 00 



P. 0. Box 2272. 



Annual tor 1877 now Rcadj- for Delivery. 

L. P. Mccarty, Publisher, 423 Washington St., S. F. 



[EEBEi^S Ot^iCXQ 



Purchasers ok Stock wai. find i.s- this Directory th8 
Names of some of the Most Reliable Breeders. 

Oi'R Rates.— Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 




CATTLE. 



A. MAILLIARD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.), Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



R. G. SNEATH, San Bruno, Cal., breeder of Jersey 

cattle. Has .Jersey bulls for sale— various ages— at 840 
to $100. 



P. STANTON, Sacramento, Cal., breeder of choice 
Jerse y Cattle. Bulls, Cows and Calves for sale. 



W. L. OVERHISER, Stockton, Cal. Breeder of 
Durham Cattle, S|ianish Merino Sheep and Berkshire 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



B. P. WATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thorough- 
bred Spanish ilerino Sheep. 



M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep, Rams and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, §20 each; 
Lamhs, $15 each. 



LANDRUM & RODGERS, Watsonville, Cal. 
porters and breeders of Pure Breed Angora Goats. 



Im- 



POULTRY. 



J. M. KERLINGER, Ellis, San Joaquin Co. 
Selected Pure Bred Brown Leghorns and Pekin Ducks 

and Eggs. Write for reduced price list. 



M. FALLON, corner Seventh and Oak streets, Oak- 
land Bronze Turkeys. Choice Eggs for Hatching 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 



MRS. L. J. WATKINS, Santa Clara, Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls. White and Brown Leghorns, S. S. Ham- 
burgs, L. Brahmas and U. B. Red (iame Bantams. Also 
Eggs. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., 

Cal., Hreedtr of Imi)rovod Berkshire Swine. 



PETER SAXE & SON, linp.irters and Breed-rs of 
English-Kentucky lierkshires, all ages. Perfect pedi- 
grees. Cor. 9th and Howard Sts., San Francisco, Cal. 
N. B. --Largest Importers and Breeders in the U. S. 



G-rangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Authorized Capital - $5,000,000. 

OFFICERS: 

President and Manaoer. . . .C. J. CRESSEY. 

Vi(;e-Pre.sii)ent JOHN LEWELLING. 

Treasurer J. V. WEBSTER. 

Cashier ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 

Secretary FRANK A. CRESSEY 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pro- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
the best market rate^. 



Buy the Best. 

Before purchasing an American 
Watch, examine the different styles 
manufactured by the NEW YORK 
WATCH COMPANY, at Springfield, 
Mass. They are the latest and 
best improved manufacture. You 
can depend upon them for fine finish, 
durability and perfect time. They 
are sold at favorable prices— In 
fact, no higher than many of the 
Inferior styles. Examine into the 
merits of this Watch before you 
buy any other. Our word for it, 
you will not regret it. 

DEWEY & JORDAN, Agents, 
433 Montgmery St., S. F. 



roUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mi.\ed Cards for 
. Ten CentB. STEVENS BROS., Northford, Conn. 



12 



^AOlffl 



[July 7. 1877. 



The Twelfth Industrial Exhibition. 

We give herewith an engraving of the medal 
to be awarded to exhibitors at the coming exhi- 
bition. This medal was designed by Messrs. 
Mayers & Stott, jewelers in this city, and is 
handsome and appropriate. Trade and com- 
merce, art and science are effectively symbol- 
ized on the obverse. A female figure, crowned 
by accessories indicative of the llolden .State, 
is represented as bestowing a laurel wreath on 
a kneeling mechanic. Her left arm rests on 
a shield, bearing the arms of the city, and in 
her left hand is the Caduceus of Mercury. Her 
head-dress is that of a Bacchante, and at her feet 
are the offerings of Pomona. A manufactory 
with smoking chimneys, a locomotive, a Corin- 
thian column, an anvil, an atlas, a plow, a 
toothed wheel, a sheaf of grain, and a few open 
books fill np the space around the figures. In 
the background is the (iolden Gate, througli 
which a merchantman, indicative of conmierce, 
is passing. Alxive is the .Star of ?^inpire, and a 
bear's head is introduced beneath the general 
design, to typify the .State of California. The 
reverse of the medal contains a wreath with 
suitable lettering. This medal is very hand- 
some, as any one can see by the engraving, and 
reflects credit on the taste of the designers. 
Mr. Stott, an experienced and skillful engraver, 
is now at work on the die. These medals will 
be struck olF by the designers, and will be in 
bronze. Probably a few will be made in gold 
and silver. This nied.-il is probably the largest 
one ever struck off in the United .States, being 
of the size of our engraving, a little over three 
inches in diameter. 

Active measures are being taken by the 
Board of Managers to make the Twelfth Indus- 
trial Kxhibition under the auspices of the 
Mechanics' Institute, which opens on the 7th 
of August, a perfect success in every particular. 
Already more applications for space have been 
received than ever before at so early a date, 
showing that the exhibitors are anxious to co- 
operated heartily witli tlie managers and make 
the exhibition a success. 

The building in which this fair is held is the 
largest one on the coast, and is the same in 
which the last one was held. The building is 
200 feet wide, 5.50 feet long, and 100 feet high 
with a gallery around the inside, beside a prom- 
enade sixteen feet wide an<l 1,000 feet in length, 
from which an obstructed view of the interior 
is obtained. In addition to the above space 
there is an exotic garden, 70 by 200 feet, for the 
display of the fruits and flowers of the coast — 
a department which is specially attractive to 
the ladies, and which is always a specially pleas- 
ant feature of these exliibitions. The niecliani- 
cal annex, for the disjilay of special machinery, 
is .")0 by 200 feet. Tlie main line of shafting is 
500 feet in Icngtli, with sufficient pulleys for all 
requirements. Tlie art gallery is 400 feet long 
»nd .50 feet wiilo, well lighted by skylights dur- 
ing the day and by the most improved reflect- 
ors at night. Tliis department is also always 
made very attractive, ami forms a complete ex- 
hibition by itself. Over 6,000 gas lights are 
used to illuminate the building during the even- 
ing. The musical feature of these exhibitions 
is excellent, as a grand instrumental concert is 
given each afternoon and evening by a selected 
orchestra under the leadership of an experi- 
enced director. A large and powerful engine 
will furnish the motive power for all machinery 
required to be in motion, while steam and water 
will be supplied in ample (piantities to such ma- 
chines and appliances as recjuire them. 

The importance of these exhibitions to San 
Francisco and the Pacific coast can scarcely be 
calculated. They arrest the attention of ad- 
jacent nations and visitors therefrom and o{)en 
new avenues of trade and industrial commerce. 
There can be no lietter way for a manufacturer 
to place himself before the public than by means 
of these exhibitions, as there the buyers have 
an opportunity to examine in person the .%rticles 
of manufacture which they are likely to want. 
Many practical benefits accrue, not only to citi- 
zens pf this and adjoining States, but to the 
world of science, industry and art. l'',very new 
manufacturing industry establislied here is of 
direct value in dollars and cents to the Pacific 
coast, and these exhibitions give such manufac- 
turers an opportunity to show the people exactly 
what can be done here and call tlieir attention 
to the fact that particular articles are manufac- 
tured among us. The large and continued at- 
tendance at these exhibitions of all classes of 
our citizens, and the interest manifested in tlie 
display, gives the exhiVntors assurance of good 
audiences while the fair is open; and tlie 
promptness with which applications for spai^e 
have come forward show that this important 
point is duly appreciated by our manufacturers 
Last year no prizes or premiums were 
awarded to any class of exhibits ; this year the 
managers have concluded to ofter a liberal list, 
for the _firnl order of merit only, on articles in 
the respective classes. No second-class pre- 
miums will be given, and each article must 
stand on its own merit. It wOl be understood 
that while one class may be considered inferior 
in merit to another class, yet the awards will 
be for the best in that class to which the article 
receiving the award belongs. Elaborate experi- 
mental tests will be m.ade whenever practicable, 
and the result embodied in a formal report. In 
caies where cash constitutes the premium, as in 
the horticultural department, the awards will 
vary in accordance with the value of the exhibit. 

As a matter of interest to intending exhibi- 
tors we append a list of the managers of the 



twelfth industrial exhibition, and the standing 
committees. 

Board of Managers. 
A. S. Hallidik, Pros't. P. U. Cornwall, V. Proa't. 

Henbv L. Davis, Treas. ?:rsekt L. Kansomk, Ciir. Sec. 

Gborok SfAiLDixo. Asa K. Wklls. 

Hbxkv S. Smith. A. L. Fisii. 

Jambs SjriKRM. .Iamkk Drirv. 

CoLiMBra Watbrttoisk. .Tambk Difft. 
.(. B. Stktho.n. H. F. Hi tchlsson. 

Committees. 

Ai'DiTixo.— C. WaterliDUse, .1. B. Stetson, .lames Drury. 

BiiLDi.vo. —James Drtirj, A. L. Fish, A. K. Wells. 

CiRciLARH AND CLASSIFICATION. —Jamcs Duff.v, James 
Spiers, C. Waterhouse. 

Printing and Advbrtisixo.— Geo. Spaulding, James 
Duff.v, K. L. Itaiisomc. 

PowKR Axi) Maciiinkrv. -James Spiers, A. L. Fish, H. 
S. Smith. 

Ri'LBs. Rboil.itioxs and AWARD.S.— p. B. Cornwall, Geo. 
Spauldinjf, H. L. Davis. 

Tickets and Admissions.— Asa R. Wells, E. L. Kansome, 
H. L. Hutchinson. 

Mrsic AND Decoration.- Henry L. Davis, H. L. Huteh- 
inson, P. B. Cornwall. 

Privileges. —A. L. Fish, P. B. Cornwall, H. h. Davis. 

Location.— K. L. Kansumc, James Spiers, H. S. Smith. 

Police.— J. B. Stetson, James Drury, C. Waterhousc. 

HORTItl LTIRAL GARDEN.— H. L. HutchillSOIl, A. R. 

Wells, (ieo. Spaulding;. 

Gas and Water.— H. L. Smith, James Drurj-, J. B. 
Stetson. 

Mr. J. H. Gilmore is Superintendent, and Mr. J. U. Cul- 

cr, .Secretary. 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co. 's Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are worthy 
of mention: 

CoMPREs.sED Coffee. — Frank Silver, S. F. 
This invention differs from other preparations 
in which a combination of coffee and sugar is 
used in this: that the inventor does not employ 
the sugar for the purpose of utilizing its sweet 
principle; but he puts it through a preparatory 
treatment which destroys the sweet jirinciple 



Iron-Banded Wooden Pipes. 

In looking for pipes suitable for conducting 
water on the farm and in mines, we have been 
favorably impressed with the wooden pipes 
which are made by improved methods. 

In the older States it is common to see water 
carried from a spring to a farm-house or barn- 
yard through rough logs bored out by hand. 
These form a cheap and very durable conduit. 
Tlie salt works at Salina, near Syracuse, New 
York, use large quantities of wooden pipes, as 
the water would soon destroy iron ones. We 
seen an orange orchard in San Diego countj- 
where the irrigation pipes were of wood, the 
owner having substituted this material for iron 
after a fair trial, as he found that there were 
fewer leaks and no trouble from rusting. 

Wooden ni.-iins of the old Manliattan Water 
Works Company have been dug up after more 
than 75 years' use, and found to be still strong 
and serviceable. Only the bark and sap-wood 
decayed. 

Col. P. T. Dickinson, general manager of the 
American Pipe Company, 22 California street, 
has given us some interesting particulars of the 
method by which they manufacture the 

Wyckoff Pipe 
At Tumwater, near Olympia, Puget'] sound, 
Washington Territory. 

This pipe has been made to some extent in 
this State for about seven years past, but the 
present company was incorporated on the 20th 
of March last, with the following strong Board 
of Directors: Robert G. Byxl)ee, of H. B. 
Tichenor k Co. ; John E. Chalfant, of Mendo- 
cino; John F. Byxbee, of Duncan's Mills; Col, 
P. T. Dickinson, San Francisco; Calvert Meade, 
of Oakland. 

Tlie timber used is what is known to the trade 




MECHANICS' INSTITUTE MEDAL FOR 1877 



and imparts to it a ipiality very nearly resem- 
blinK coffee botli in color and taste. Ground 
coftee soon loses its flavor, and as it is very in- 
convenient in many oases for persons to roast 
and grind coffee, as fast only as it is rc({uired 
for use, any process which will supply the mar- 
ket with a coffee fit for immediate use, and one 
which will not lose its flavor or deteriorate with 
age, will be of value, especially to travelers 
and persons living at a distance from market. 
Ground coffee can be easily preserved by lieing 
consolidated into blocks or cakes, if a suitable 
ingredient is employed to cement or conglomer- 
ate tlie grains together, and at the same time 
not affect the decoction after it is prepared for 
drinking. Melted sugar has been usetl for this 
purpose, but the deliquescent quality of such 
sugar caused the blocks or cakes to liipiify and 
melt down. This invention overcomes this 
difficulty, by making the preparation of burnt 
sugar and coffee mixed in a certain manner and 
compressed in cakes or blocks. 

Cube Suoar Machine. — Francis Westerman 
and Otto Mursch, S. F. The object of this 
invention is to provide an improvement in that 
class of apparatus which is designed for the 
conversion of granular sugar into solid cubes for 
market, and it consists in the employment of 
molds which have a reciprocating motion, alter- 
nately beneath a hopper containing the loose 
sugar, and beneath a series of stationary 
punches. At the end of each movement these 
molds are forced upwards, first into a mass of 
sugar, whicli has been cut off from the main 
hopper by a slide, so that the molds are filled, 
and then beneath the stationary punches, which 
thus extract the .sugar from tlie molds and leave 
it upon a surface for removal. These operations 
are carried out by means of suitable cams and 
levers. Tliese molds can be easily removed 
bodily for cleaning and others sulistituted with- 
out delaying the work and the molds are easily 
washed ready for replacement, thus avoiding 
one of the most troublesome features of cylin- 
drical or other shaped machines where the 
molds are stationary and the punches movable; 
or where springs are used, as all the parts be- 
come speedily gummed up and rendered useless 
unless they can be easily cleaned without stop- 
ping the operation for any great length of time. 



as Puget Sound pine, and of this the young 
thrifty growth is selected, like that used for 
piles. The pipe is in eight-foot lengths. It is 
bored while green and turned to a uniform 
thickness, and all of the sa^j-wood removed. 
The next process is to steam for 'X hours, hast- 
ening the seasoning and lessening the danger of 
cracking, and of giving a disagreeable taste to 
water. One end of each piece has a tenon of 
alxmt three and one-half inches, and the other 
is mortised to fit it closely. The swelling of 
this tenon when wet makes a tight joint. 

At this stage the pipe is brought to this city, 
and we visited the finishing mill on Channel 
street, to see the modim ojienuitli. First, the 
pipe is mounted in a sort of lathe and wound 
with a spiral band of hoop iron from end to 
end. The iron is secured at its ends by wrought 
iron boat nails, and passes over a roller which 
coats the side next to the wood with paint to 
guard against rust. 

The next step is to coat the pipe with hot 
coal tar, which is done in a trough with revolv- 
ing bars to support a length, so that it gets just 
the right quantity of the liquid. While the 
tar is soft the pipe is rolled in sawdust or sand 
to give a clean finish for convenience in hand- 
ling. If intended for gas, the pipe is entirely 
immersed, so as to give a coat of tar on the in- 
side also. 

Manner of Layingr the Pipe. 

A plug of wood called a tompion is used in the 
mortise end, driven by a maul. Two men will 
lay 2,500 feet in a day, of ordinary sizes, 
the pipe being conveniently distributed along 
the line of the trench. To tap this pipe any- 
where, it is only necessary to use an ordinary 
auger. 

The company show many testimonials from 
parties using this pipe for water or gas on the 
other side of the continent. In this State they 
can refer to such names as the .Santa ('ruz 
Water Company, Col. Mendell, engineer; Claus 
Spreckels, of the Cal. Sugar Refinery; the 
Central Pacific R. R. Co. and others who have 
miles of it in use. 

Col. Dickinson will make the pipe to suit any 
situation and pressure that may oe put upon it, 
and warrant it to stand the test. He claims 
that it is the cheapest good pipe that is made, ] 



and suitable for any use where pipes are 
wanted outside of buildings. The smallest size 
of this pipe made is one and one-half inches, 
and the largest eight inches inside measure, but 
they will soon be able to turn out 20-inch pipe. 
VVhen desired, T crosses and angles are fur- 
nished. The simplicity of the pipe, which en- 
ables any intelligent man to lay it and make 
connections and repairs, is certainly a very 
imjxirtant point where skilled mechanics are 
out of reach. The method of boring these pipes 
is a wonder in the way of mechanical skill and 
economy of material. The augers are hollow like 
the diamond drill, and the solid cores from the 
large sizes are rebored to make the smaller 
pipes, so that the actual waste of timber is very 
small. 



General Ne'ws Items. 

Gekeraus Sherman, Pope and Bacon have 
gone to the Yellowstone to inspect the frontier 
forts. 

A NEw.sBoy.s" Union is likely to be formed in 
this city, on the model of those in New York 
and St. Louis. 

A TERRIBLY destructive storm raged through- 
out the Northern States last week, doing great 
damage in every direction. 

The steamship v4nrAorw, from New York, 
on .Saturday took out 52,070 packages of butter, 
which is the largest shipment ever made to 
Great Britain from this countrj' in one vessel. 

The London Alhencfum says: It is understood 
that the Copyright Commission has adopted a 
series of resolutions as the basis of its report, 
which w U recommend very considerable changes 
in the law of copyright. 

Coinage reports from all the mints in the 
United States, except Carson City, state that 
the aggregate coinage for the fiscal year is ^1,- 
000,000, showing an increase over the last fiscal 
year of $14,000,000. 

Silk Worms at Larce.— The Rev. Mr. 
Brier, of Centerville, informs us that he lately 
saw between San Jose and Santa Clara, large 
quantities of silk worms at large. They are 
understood to be from the old stock of M. Pro- 
vost. They multiplied on the poplar trees and 
then attacked the fruit trees, so that a fi-uit 
grower near by was forced to dose them with 
kerosene to save his fruit. Mr. Brier said that 
when he was in the neighborhood the worms 
were gathering on the warm side of a brick 
building and spinning thousan<ls of cocoons. It 
would SLcm from this that we are likely to have 
an acclimated silk worm, if nothing more. 



I 



ATENTSAND INVENTIONS. 



A Weekly List of U. S. Patents Issued 
to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

[From Official Reports fur the Mining axd Sciintific 
I Press, DEWKY i CO., Pi blihiiers a.nb U. S. 
AND FoKZioN Patent Aok.nt». 



192, (Hi2. 
I92,0U:i. 
1112,0Slt. 
1!12,OUO. 
192,124. 

192,149. 



192,152. 
192,18,'i. 



192.1S2. 
192,191. 



Week EndinoJune 19tii, 1S77. 

HvDRA.NT — W. T. Garratt, S. F. 

Si'ARK Arrester. — J. Gales. Portland, Ogii. 

Saw Teeth.— N. W. Spauldinjf, S. F. 

Saw Tkbtii.— N. W. Spaulding, S. F. 

Fastening Device for Mail Baos.— J. Metz and 
E. Hinnian, Denver, Colo. 

Cojii'Oi'ND FOR TUB .Manifacti're of Porce- 
lain for Dental Plates, Teeth, etc.— A. B. 
Cady, Kenton, Ug^. 

For.NTAi.v. -W. J. and W. H. Clark, Salem, Ogn. 

Compound Steam Boiler.— R. R. Hind, Ilohins, 
Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands. 

Dkmlioiin Case.— C. Newman, S. F. 

Ore Separator. - -J. Kichard.s, Buttle Mountain, 
Nev. 

Car Propeller. M A. Wheaton, S. F. 



Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

Week Ending July 3, 1877. . 

niOIIKST AND lowest BAROMETER. 

June 27 1 June 28 June 29 1 June 30 Julyl July 2 July 3 



30.03 
30.02 



30.16 
:i0.08 



;to.i5 

MM 



30.04 
29.00 



80.01 
29.90 



29.91 
29.8.') 



MlNIMl'M AXD MAXIMUM THBRMOMBTER. 



OS 

53 



U9 
&3 



(!3 

54 



MEAN DAILY ni'MlDITY. 

69 I 72 1 «9 I 70 I 71 I 77 I - 

PKEVAILINO WIND. 

WSW 1 W 1 W I W I W I SW I -- 

WIKD— MILES TRAVELED. 

201 1 289 I 239 I 393 | 234 | 374 | — 

STATE OF WBATtlER. 

Cl'dy. I Clear. | Clear i CTear. | Clear. | aear | 

RAINFALL I.N TWESn'-POL R HOl'RS. 

.01 I I I I I I 

Total rain during the season, from July 1, 1876, 11.04 in. 



S. F. Meteorological Report for June 

Reported by X3. S. Signal Service. 

Uisrhest barometer 30.162 Prevailinif wind W^SW 



Lowest barometer 29. 762 

llan^'e 400 

Mean barometer 29.9.'>0 

Hij^hcst temperature 92' 

Lowest temperature 51' 

Kan^e of temperature. . . .41" 
Mean temperature 60° 



Greatest veloelty of wind, 

28 miles jter hour 

No. of clear davB 17 

No. of citmdy days 4 

No. of fair days 1 

Total rainfall 01 



Woodward's Gardens has the following new attractions: 
The buffalo chase; large whale skeleton; new niUBeum; 
improvements in the zoological de|>artment, besides the 
other features which have ma<le it |x>pular. 



July 7, 1877.] 



13 



S. p. PJi^^KEJ R^ip©P[Y. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, Tuesday, ,Tuly 3d, 1877. 

The coming of the great holiday breaks the week's 
trade, and the time which is not occupied in making the 
customary inventories, etc. , for the half year, is devoted 
to gossip and decoration. Transactions are generally de- 
ferred "until after the Fourth." 

Notwithstanding this character of the week, there are 
some notes to make of fluctuations. Wool has made a 
spurt and there is activity and improvement all along the 
line, East and West. The press reports of the Eastern 
Wool markets show this, and so do our local quotations 
Barley has shown a rising disiJosition on some days of the 
week. Wheat has generally been stationary. The Liv- 
pool market has lost a point or two during the week. 
Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverjiool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been I 
as recorded in the following tabic: 



Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday . . . . 
Tuesday . . . . 
Wednesday . 



Cal. Averaoe. 



12s — @12s 
lis 10d@12s 
lis 10df»12s 
lis 10di<S12s 
lis 10d@12s 
Holiday. 



Club. 



123 5d@12s lOd 
123 21@12s 8d 
12s 2d(ai23 8d 
123 2d@12s 8d 
123 2d(<«123 8d 
Holiday. 



latter price to 50c for combing and delaine parcels. The 
sales for the week are; 23,000 lbs Mexican at 16@17c; 245,- 
000 do spring California, 2-K*25c; 220,000 do Western 
Texas, 17@20c for interior and 20@27c for improved; 41,- 
000 do Eastern do, 24(*30c; 3,000 do super pulled, 38c; 
3,000 do unwashed XX Ohio, 42c; 4,000 do combing do, 
50@58c; 1,200 do fine delaine, fat sheep's, 36ic; 1,500 do 
washed New Jersey combing, 46c; 7,500 do washed do, 
52u; and 56 bales Cordova, 100 do Trieste, 2,000 lbs Aus- 
tralian, 7,000 do spring California, 10,000 do fall do, 36,- 
000 do Oregon, 40,000 do Utah, 4,000 do black Colorado, 
134 bales super pulled, 50 do lamb's Wool do combing, 4 
do No. 1, 125,000 lbs unwashed Indiana, 200,000 do Con- 
necticut and State, 4,000 do Western tub-washed, 10,- 
000 do burry Louisiana, and 20,000 do foreign noils, on 
private terms. 

Boston, June 29th.— Wool is in active demand. Sales 
of the week amount to 2,780,000 lbs. All available lots 
continue to be taken at full and generally advancing 
prices. New fleeces are arriving freely, but there is not 
much of any assortment offering. Some 6,000,000 lbs new 
sold during the week at prices ranging from 42J@18c. 
Quotations for the most part are nominal. XX could not 
be purchased under 50@52;Jc; No. 1 and X, 45@47c. Mich- 
igan and Wisconsin ranged from 43@45c; combing and 
delaine are in good demand, with sales of 140,000 lbs at 
50@55c, mostly 52^0. Texas is in demand; sales of 173, - 

000 lbs at 30@37c. Pulled is firm and sold up close; sales 
of 349,000 lbs at 35(,oe50c, the latter figure for very choice 
super— the bulk of the sales within a range of 40@45c. 
California spring is in demand; sales of 1,044,000 lbs at 
21@37c, principally at 30@35c. The market is firm for 
all desirable lots; sales of 90,000 lbs fall at 18(a21c. 

PniLADKLriiiA, July 3d.— Wool active and higher. It 
is arriving more freely, and selling fast as graded at out- 
side quotations. Colorado washed, 22@30c; Colorado un- 
washed, :318(a30c; extra and Merino pulled, 35(<*40'5; No. 

1 and super pulled, 35@.37c; California fine and medium, 
30@33c; California coarse, 25(cc'i0u. 

S. P. Produce Receipts for the Half Year, 

The receipts of California produce at this port since 
January 1st, have been as follows: 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date in former years as follows: j 

Average. Club. j 

1875 8s 10d@ 93 Id 9a 2d@ 9s 6d 

1876 93 8d(ffll0s — 93 lOdOlOs 5d 

1877 lis 10d@12s Id 123 2d(ai23 8d 

The Porelen Review. I 

London, July 3d. — The Mark Lane Express says: Re- 
ports of the growing Wheat plant, generally speaking, I 
are favorable, but an early harvest seems improbable 
despite the present improvement in the weather, consid- 
ering the fact that the plant has come into ear some ten 
days later than the average time. Reports from the 
northern and midland counties are to the effect that al- 
though sunshine has done much to promote the devel- 
opment of the cereal crops, there are still some districts 
where the bad effects of the severe spring are plainly seen 
in the thinness and spiry character of the Wheat plant. 
Advices as to the appearance of Spring Corn are somewhat 
contradictory, but on the whole the prospects are satis- 
factory. The yield of Barley and Oats is dubious, the 
former plant having in certain localities been much thin- 
ned by the wire-worm. Hay-raaking has been interrupted 
by rain,, but in those districts where cutting had not com- 
menced farmers will reap an advantage in a heavier crop. 
The probable harvest of 1877 will not prove so disappoint- 
ing as that of 1876, as far as yield is concerned, but it is 
very doubtful whether it will be equally satisfactory in 
point of quality. The quantity of English Wheat remain- 
ing in farmers' hands is very trifling, and a firmer tone 
which has characterized the trade, both at Mark Lane and 
in the country markets, has further strengthened hold- 
ers' views. Imports into London continue liberal, owing 
chiefly to the extensive exportation which has been going 
on from Northern Russia, arrivals up to Friday, 
amounting to nearly 53,000 quarters. However, a fairly 
brisk demand has been experienced, at an improvement of 
one shilling per quarter on the week. The steadiness 
with which the advance has been maintained, seems to in- 
dicate that the turning point has been reached, and prices 
may be expected to improve if Russian sui)plies diminish. 
This is more likely, as the very limited slocks of English 
in farmers' hands will necessitate an increased drain upon 
foreign supplies for the next two or three months; and 
with the visible supply in America less than one-half 
what it was at this time last year, there appears little 
probability of any important outward movement from 
that country. At the present rate of importation, our 
wants are being supplied, and for the moment the weather 
remains the most important factor in the trade. 
Fjastem Grain Markets. 

New York, June 30th.— The Grain trade continues dull, 
with values tending downward, which is partially due to 
the fine crop prospects, the Wheat harvest now being in 
progress in the border States. The chances are that we 
shall have the largest yield on the Atlantic slope on rec- 
ord. Crops in Canada are also promising, while reports 
from Euro])e are, on the whole, quite assuring. The 
chances, then, seem to be in favor of cheap bread during 
the year to come. A small lot of new Delaware Wheat has 
been received and sold to the miller at .$2.25, the sample 
weighing nearly 64 pounds to the bushel. Old spring 
Wheat has sold at 81.57@.S1. 65. Corn has sold at 5.5@.59c. 
There has been an increase in receipts at tide water since 
the commencement of navigation of 3,750,000 bushels, 
compared with the same time last year, while receipts of 
Corn have increased 2,000,000. 

Chicago, June 30tb.— The grain markets have been re- 
markable for their dullness in the early part of the week, 
and the excitement and decline during the last two days. 
This is fine growing weather, and despite reported rava- 
ges by storms, it is believed that the sun will soon dispel 
the fears of fiood, rust and destruction which were foi a 
few days entertained. Whe.at has sold at from .'51.34^ to 
$1.44}; the former price was reached to-day and the latter 
was obtained on Monday. Corn sold at 44c to-day; the 
)test price on Monday was 47Jc. Oats sold at 33ta35Jc. 
Provisions have skipped about with considerable alacrity, 
and have given the speculators, who are doing the greater 
part of the trade, a fine opportunity. Pork has sold at 
from .$12.7.5(«313.20. Lard has been rather steadier, but 
has sold at pretty low figures. At the close sales were at 
the rate of .$S.57i@S9. In the above prices all quotations 
are for July option, and only include sales on the Regular 
board or Call board. Some sales were made outside, prin- 
cipally below these figures. Receipts for the week : Wheat, 
93,000 bushels; Corn, 744,000; Oats, 315,000. Shipments: 
Wheat, 175,000 bushels; Corn, 1,035,000; Oats, 327,000. 
Receipts the same time last year: Wheat, 318.000 bushels; 
Corn, 4,317,000; Oats, 426,000. Shipments: Wheat, 232,- 
000 bushels; Corn, 1,429,000; Oats, 380,000. Closing prices 
to-day for cash were: Wheat, 81.41; Corn, 46c; Oats, 'i?,\c; 
Rye, 62c. ; Barley, 60®65c; Pork, S13; Lard, $8.62i. Busi- 
ness of all kinds, outside of Grain and Provisions,' is dull, 
with no immediate prospect of bettering. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, June :i0th. -The Wool market has exhibited 
considerable activity during the week, the demand hav- 
ing consumed about all the best lots in first hands. 
Western fleeces are slow to arrive, and in their absence 
California and Texas arc eagerly taken at full, and in 
many cases at advanced prices. The London sales closed 
on the 26th inst., and the cable reports an advance of a 
penny on the opening rates for superior. The conditinn 
of the market to-day is exceedingly favorable to the hold- 
ing interests, and the probability is that prices will go 
higher before lower. In Ohio, and in fact throughout all 
portions of the West, farmers are having everything their 
own way. Eastern buyers go crazy, as usual, and are 
paying prices that the times hardly warrant. Should the 
present demand for the manufactured article suddcidy 
cease, many would find themselves in a trap that it would 
be hard to extricate themselves from. The ruling prices 
in Ohio to-day are 42@45c for ordinary lots, and from the 



Wheat, ctls 2,531,092 

Flour, bbls 247,871 

Bariey, ctls 245,295 



Hay, bis. 

Oats, ctls 

Wool, bis 

Bran, etc , sks. 
Potatoes, sks . . . 
Onions, sks. . . . 
Beans, sks 



207,817 
43,009 
80,594 
132,044 
313,208 
21,241 
30,899 



Hides, No 

■Salt, ctls 

Quicksilver, flasks. 
Copper Ore, ctls . . . 

Corn, sks 

Straw, bis 

Rye, sks 

Hops, bis 

Mustard, sks 

Buckwheat, sks.. . 



76,994 

86,740 

36,201 

13,031 

76,782 

15,933 

5,421 

750 

342 

400 



Report of the Agricultural Bureau. 

Washington, June 29th.— The Department of Agricul- 
ture reports Oats in superior condition in New England 
and in most of the Southern States, the Missouri valley 
and Oregon, and in fair to high condition in all of the 
remainder except California. The indications are favora- 
ble for a good Barley crop, though decreased areas are 
reported in the Western .States. The condition is highest 
west of the Mississippi. There is an increase of clover, 
esjjecially in the South, and the increase is very marked 
in Texas. Spring pasture has been abundant in northern 
New England, in West Virginia, Texas, and in Oregon. 
It has been injured in southern New England and in the 
Middle States, prior to recent rains, by dry weather. The 
drouth has reduced the condition in portions of the South. 
The injury from this cause has been great in California. 
Pasturage has been generally good in the Territories. An 
investigation into the losses of Sheep during the past year 
shows that millions of Sheep and Lambs were destroyed 
by dogs and wolves and various diseases, and of an aggre- 
gate money value of nearly $8,000,000. The average per- 
centage of loss is nearly eight per cent. The proportion 
is highest respectively in North Carolina, Florida and 
Louisiana, and ranges from 17V' in the former State to 
three and seven-tenths per cent, in Nebraska. The rate is 
highest in the South, and lowest in those States having 
dog laws. 
Wheat and Flour Exports for the Season. 

The export trade in Breadstuffs for the harvest year 
1876-77 is closed. During the year 307 vessels have been 
loaded, in whole or in part, with Wheat and Flour. Fol- 
lowing are the monthly exports of Wheat, as compiled by 
the Call: 

1876-77 Cargoes. 

July 20 

August 28 

September 62 

October 58 

November 44 

December 30 

January 19 

February 22 

March 14 

April 9 

May 

June 5 

Totals 301 

1875-76 166 

1874-75 264 

1873-74 235 

1872-73 343 

During the year the exports of FIouraggregated'520,700 
barrels, valued at $2,907,600. Reducing the Flour to 
Wheat and we have the following total exports of Bread- 
stuffs: 

Cent,als. Value. 

Wheat 10,521,300 $18,427,500 

Flour in Wheat I,.'i62,100 2,907,600 



Centals. 


Value. 


645,800 


$1,010,400 


949,900 


1,470,600 


1,644,200 


2,546,700 


2,090,500 


3,166,900 


1,578,200 


2,732,700 


1,130,600 


2,216,200 


739,100 


1,561,900 


809,100 


1,681,800 


552,200 


1,145,500 


237,400 


537,000 


2,000 


6,000 


142,300 


.351,800 


10,521,300 


.?18,427,.50O 


6,132,800 


12,367,600 


8,773,700 


13,964,400 


7,278,000 


15,494,300 


9,841,500 


lV,772,.'i00 



Totals 12,083,400 §21,335,100 

Domestic Produce. 

The following table shows the S. F. receipts of Domes- 
tic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, as com- 
pared with the receipts of previous weeks: 



Articles. 


Week. 
June 13, 


Flour, quarter sacks . . 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 


21,321 
34,714 
5,411 
677 
6,725 
1,428 
7,008 
609 
3,780 




Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 




Hay, bales." 


1,209 



45,951 

29,020 

4,243 

439 

],032 

7,739 

10,641 

578 

3,494 

42 

1,355 



32,430 
21,223 
11,141 
1,007 
1,154 
1,588 
14,851 
1,075 
3,407 



2,.Sfll 



26,395 

8,126 

12,394 

56 

1,132 

2,135 

8,040 

950 

3,232 



1,328 



Bags— Our quotations for Bags show a decline for 
nearly all descri|)tions. Grain Bags lead to the downfall. 
The decline is accouiited for by rumor as follows: The 
combination among holders of Bags, to which we have 
alluded, had in their possession about 18,000,000 Bags 
They bound themselves to lay away one-half for the next 
year's tnule, putting them in the hands of a couple of 
bankers to hold in trust. This left 9,000,000 Bags to be 
sold this year. As each dealer was at liberty to sell, and 
as the remaining 9,000,000 was more than the apparent 
needs of the season, t'herc has been an unseemly rush to 
unload among the members of the combination, and hence 
the goods can be bought for cash at lower rates than pre- 
vailed a week ago. Thus those who combine to rule the 
market are the first to wreck their own hopes. Thus 
should it always be with such combinations. A shiri from 
Calcutta has arrived with a cargo of jiotato gunnies, but 
as they were bought to arrive the supply is all covered 
and prices are hpld up. 



Barley— Barley has sold at a slight advance. During 
the closing days of last week the demand was particularly 
strong. The market is now firm: 700 sks good Coast 
Feed at $1.62i, an advance; 300 sks poor Brewing at 
:81.62i; 800 sks good new at $1.60. 

Beans— Receipts are very light. Prices do not 
change. 

Buckvrheat— The price is still quotable at S1.65@ 
$1 75, We see some very good samples standing in front 
of produce stores. There is now some disposition to put 
in Buckwheat in the southern counties to save the bees. 

Corn— Corn returns to the up track and advances 10 
@15c ¥ ctl : 100 sks Small Bay, $1.80; 50 do Large Yellow, 
$1.85 t,l ctl. 

Dairy Produce— The market is still fully supplied 
and prices ore the same as last week. There may be a 
little better feeling noted, but nothing very different from 
last report. 

Eggs — Eggs are doing a little better, and strictly 
choice are in brisk demand. Our quotations are advanced 
to meet the new trade. 

Peed— Bran goes up $1 per ton. Other ground feeds 
are unchanged. Hay has come in in large quantities, but 
prices are maintained. We note Hay sales as follows: 27 
tons of ordinary stock at $15.50; 12 do Alfalfa, $16.75; 25 
do fair Wlieat, §19; 23 do good do, $22 \i ton. 

Prult — Better peaches are now coming forward in good 
amount. The first of the Early Crawford are reported; 
also the first Bartlett Pears. There are several important 
changes in our price list of fruit. Figs have fallen off in 
quantity, and multiplied in price. Sicily Lemons are 
scarce and held high. 

Hops — We note sale of 40 bales at 18c by a conmiis- 
sion merchant to a dealer. The trade is without new 
features. An item of gossip given by Mr. Mowell in his 
Prices Current is that '*A Hop Exchange in this city is 
talked of, and arrangements looking to that end are now 
actively being pushed to completion." Emmet Wells, in 
his review of the New York market for the week ending 
June 23d, says: 

The market continues dull and unsettled. Prices 
though not quotably lower are weak, especially on the 
medium and lower grades. There don't seem to be much 
disposition to force business, holders feeling that prices 
can't go much lower, no matter what turn the new croj) 
may take. It is hoped that growers will not lose courage 
by the present depressed state of trade and low prices and 
neglect their yards. Poor culture, bad picking and im- 
proper curing last season injured the sale of our Hops 
abroad; the result is, as everybody knows, we shall carry 
over into the new season many thousands of bales that 
otherwise would have found a ready market in Germany. 
It will take a long time to overcome the prejudice Ger- 
man brewers and dealers have shown against the use of 
American Hops, and it stands our growers in hand to try 
and remove some of these prejudices. The time to begin 
is now. Extra care in culture, clean picking and proper 
curing; these are the three essentials necessary to brin,g 
our Hops on an equal footing with the best foreign pro- 
duction. Quotations — New Yorks, choice to fancy, 13 to 
15c; New Yorks, conmion to prime, 8 to 12c; Eastern, 8 to 
12c; Wisconsin, 8 to 12c; Yearlings, 6 to 10c; Olds, all 
growths, 4 to 6c; Californians, nominal, 10 to 15c; Oregon, 
nominal, 10 to 15c. 

Oats— Oats are inclined to advance a little. We note 
sales: 125 sks ordinary to good Feed at $1.75@$2.05; 500 
do choice Oregon Feed at $2.20 ^ ctl. 

Onions — Onions have declined. Union City Onioni 
are now ruling at $1 ^ ctl and Stockton at 75@90c. 

Potatoes— There is now nothing visible in the mar- 
ket but new Potatoes. Prices for these have improved a 
little during the week. Supplies are now at hand from 
Half Moon Bay and Lighthouse. 

Poultry and Game— Poultry took a severe tumble 
just after .our last report, and ruled very low during the 
last three days of the week. To-day there has been a 
tendency to advance, and our prices to-day do not show 
the lowest which has been reached during the week. 

Provisions — Fresh Meats are abundant and un- 
changed in price. The market for Cured Meats, etc. , is 
more active and prices unchanged since our last report. 
Eastern Hams continue to arrive freely, and the market is 
BO well supplied that some carloads have been warehoused. 

Vegetables— Asparagus is apparently out of the 
market. Cabbage an.l Cauliflower have advanced; Cu- 
cumbers, Okra, Peas, Squash and String Beans decline. 
There is now coming in Green Corn from around the bay, 
which leads the market in price. 

Wheat— The week has brought in but little Wheat. 
Quotations are somewhat nominal. We note a few trans- 
actions: 130 tons Shipping, $2.15; 100 tops choice Milling, 
.•$2.20, delivered at Vallejo, and 2,500 sks clioice Milling, 
$2. 25. 

Wool — As noted above, the Wool market shows grat- 
ifying activity at all points, and prices here are advanced 
considerably. Our table below shows the rates which are 
quotable to-day. It is too soon after the rise to report 
many sales at the ne'w prices, but one house reports to us 
160,000 ttis sold within the range noted in our list. The 
reports of the Eastern markets are interesting reading 
this week. 

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



-WHOLESALE.] 



Tuesday m., July 3. 1877. 



I RIIIT IHAKKET. 

Apples, box 60 @ 1 

Apricots bx 1 50 (a) 2 

Bananas, bnch.. 2 50 @ 3 

Blackberries 10 (* 

Cherries, blk, lb. o (ffi 

do. Bed, lb.... 5® 

Cocoanuts, 100.. 5 00 @— 

Currants, drwr, . 60 @ 

Figs, box , 1 25 (» 1 

Grapes 75 (* 1 

Limes, Mex 20 00 @-- 

Lemons, Cal M.25 00 C'«35 

Sicily, bx — @18 

Oranges, Mex, 

M @— 

Tahiti 20 00 @25 

Cal 20 00 mb 

Peache.s, box 75 ('« 1 

Pears, box 75 {<t 1 

Pineapples, doz 6 00 (3) 8 

Plums, box 1 25 (<* 1 

Ra3p>)erriea 8 (co 

Strawhor'ea.ch'st 5 00 (* 8 
l»RIKI» FKIIIT. 

Apples, lb 54OT 

Apncota 10 («: 

Citron 28 (a 

Fig9, Black 5 # 

White 6 (3 

Peaches 8 @ 



Pears 9 @ 

Plums 3 C* 

Pitted Vim 

Prunes 125c* 

Raisins, Cal, bx 1 60 @ 
3 00 @ 



Malajfa, 

Zante Currants.. 9 @ 

ve<;ktablk»>. 

Asparagus, bx... -- @ — 

Beets, ctl 75 («- 

Cabbage, 100 lbs 1 00 (fc— 

Carrots 75 (* 

Cauliflower, doz 75 C<* 

Corn, doz 12J(fi) 

do Bay 225c* 

Cuctmibers. doz. 8 (<* 

Garlic. New, tb. . IJ® 

Okra, lb 8 (« - 

Peas, Sweet 2i(* 

Lettuce, doz 10 (i*— 

Parsnips, lb 1 <f6~ 

Peppers 5 (« 

Rhubarb 2 (a 

Horseradish 6 @ — 

Squash, Marrow- 
fat, tn 35 00 @— 

Summer, do bx 40 (S 

.String Beans 4 ^ 

Toi"at's, bi30lb. 30 (d 

TamipB, ctl 50 @— 

White 75 (S— 

Wax Beang 4 @— 



10 
4 

14 

17 

2 50 



10 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

fWHOLESALE.] 



25 @ 
30 <ih 
30 @ 
27J(^ 
16 (<« 
20 @ 

13 @ 
12 (g 



24 @ 



BE.INS. 

Bayo, ctl 4 50 (94 75 

Butter 2 00 O — 

Pea 3 25 m — 

Red 4 00 (fi — 

Pink 4 00 Hi — 

Sni'l White 2 75 rn3 00 

Lima 3 00 (.«3 25 

BKOO1II CORN. 

Common, lb 2 @ 2J 

Choice 3 @ 4 

CIIICCORV, 

California 4@ 4i 

German 6i(t« 7 

tOTTOK. 

Cotton, tb 15 (a 18 

DAIRY PRODUCE. ET<:. 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, lb 

Point Reyes 

Pickle Roll 

Firkin 

Western Reserve.. 
New York 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal., lb.... 

Old 

Eastern 

N.Y. State 

EQOS. 

Cal. fresh, doz _ 

Ducks' 20 @ 

Oregon 20 @ 22J 

Eastern 18 (» 20 

FEED. 

Bran, ton 22 00 (* 

Corn Meal 37 50 @40 00 

Hay 15 00 @23 00 

Middhngs 30 00 (ffi 

Oil Cake Meal. .,40 00 @ 

Straw, bale 75 CsS 82: 

FLOIFR. 

Extra, bbl 7 25 (obi 50 

Superfine 6 25 M 75 

Graham 7 50 (a — 

ERESH MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y, lb 5i@ 6 

Second 4 @ 5; 

Third 2 @ 3; 

Mutton 3@ 4 

Spring Lamb 4@ 5: 

Pork, undressed... 4|(^ 5, 

Dressed 7J(a) 8 

Veal 6 C* 7 

Milk Calves 5iia 6 

GRAIN. ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl...l 50 @1 62 i 

Brewing 1 65 ®1 70 

Chevalier 1 70 @ — 

Buckwheat 1 60 @ — 

Com. White 1 70 @l 85 

Yellow 1 70 @1 85 

Small Round.. ..1 90 @ — 

Oats 1 70 -82 20 

Milling 2 25 C« — 

Rye 1 95 (a — 

Wheat, shipping.. 2 20 (a2 25 

Milling 2 25 @2 30 

HIDES. 

Hides, dry 18 @ 18) 

Wet salted 75@ 9 

HOiVEV, ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 25 (3 27! 

Honey in corab.. .. 15 @ ~ 

do, No2.\ 12Ka) — 

Dark 10 (m - 

Strained 7 (<* 9 

HOPS. 
California 15 @ 20 



TUKSDAY M.. July 3, 1877. 

NUTS— Jobbing. 

Cal. Walnuts 9 @ 

Almonds, hd shl lb 7 

Softsh'l 15 @ 

Brazil 14 

Pecans 17 

Peanuts 4 

Filberts 15 (g 

ANIONS. 
Union City, ctl....l 00 ® - 

Stockton 75 O 90 

POTATOES. 

Petalunia, ctl — @ — 

Humboldt — @ — 

Cuff ey Cove — @ — 

Early Rose, new. 75 <ai 12J 
Halt Moon Bay... 75 @1 50 

Lighthouse 1 00 (*1 25 

Sweet — (<S — 

_ OIILTRI & «AME. 

Hens, doz 5 50 (rt? 00 

Roosters 5 00 («7 50 

Broilers 2 50 (a4 60 

Ducks, tame 5 00 @6 50 

Geese, pair 1 50 @2 25 

Wild Gray 1 50 (a2 00 

White 75 .a 1 00 

Turkeys 18 @ 22 

Snipe, Eng 2 50 @ — 

do. Common 1 00 @ — 

Rabbits 1 00 (gl 25 

Hare 1 50 @2 00 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, L't, lb 14 @ 14i 

Medium 13 @ lb* 

Heavy 12.i(a 13 

Lard 12 @ U 

Cal. Smoked Beef 10 @ 11 

Eastern — & — 

Eastern Shoulders 10 @ — 

Hams, Cal 12J@ 13 

Armour 13i@ 14 

Dupee's 14S@ 15, 

Davis Bros' 14 J@ 1 '^ 

Magnolia 15 @ ii 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 22J@ 25 

Canary 10 @ 12J 

Clover, Bed 25 @ — 

White 50 @ 55 

Cotton 6 @ 10 

Flaxseed 3J@ — 

Hemp 5 @ 

Italian Rye Grass 35 @ — 

Perennial 35 @ — 

.Millet 10® 12 

Mustard, White... 30 @ — 

Brown 3}@ 4 

Rape 3@ 4 

Ky. Blue Grass.... 30 (a — 

2d quality 29 (» — 

Sweet V Grass 75 @ — 

Orchard 30 @ 35 

Red Top 25 <a — 

Hungarian 8 <a 12 

Lawn 50@ — 

Mezquite 20 @ 25 

Timothy 10 @ lOJ 

TAILOW. 

Crude, tb 6} (<* 7 

Refined 8J @ 9 

WOOL, ETC. 

SPRING. 

Short Free, dusty.. 13 @ 15 

Good Southern.... 15^ 18t 

Choice Northern.. 28 @ 32 

Burry 12 ® 16 

do, Northern.... 18 C* 25 

f)regon, East 25 @ 28 

do Valley 30 (JS 32 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



es — 3 tu'ii 

5%@ 64 

4!® 4J 

131®— 



BACtS— Jobblniz. 

Eng Standard Wheat. 9 (* 9J 
Neville & Go's 
Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 9 9} 

24x36 10S(a— 

23x40 11 @— 

Machine Swd, 22x36. 9 (a 9} 
Flour Sacks, halves — 9 @11 

Quarters 

Eighths 

Hessian, 60 inch 

45 inch 75(3 8i 

40 inch 7i@ 8 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 3), lb.. 50 @— 

Machine Sewed 45 @— 

41b 55 (a- 

Standard Gunnies 14 @15 

Bean Bags 7 (a 8 

CANDLES. 

Crystal Wax 19 @20 

Eagle 125(a— 

Patent Sperm 28 (a30 

CANNED nOODS. 
Assorted Pie Fruits. 

2itbcan3 2 75 @3 00 

Table do 3 75 @4 25 

Jams and Jellies.. 4 25 (a — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 50 C* — 

Sardines, qv box..l 65 @1 90 

Hf Boxes 3 00 (a — 

COAL Jobbing. 
Australian, ton.. 9 00 O 9 25 

Coos Bay 8 00 @ 

Bellingham Bay. 8 00 @ 

Seattle 8 00 (a 9 00 

Cumberland 14 00 (rtl7 00 

Mt Diablo 5 75 @ 7 75 

Lehigh 22 00 iW 

Liverpool 8 50 @ 9 00 

West Hartley. . .14 00 @ 

Scotch 7 50 @ 8 00 

Scranton 13 00 @16 00 

Vancouver Id. . .10 50 @12 00 

Charcoal, sack... 75 @ 

Coke, bbl 60 (a 

COFFEE. 

Sandwich Id, tb. 21J(a 

Costa Rica 18 (» 20 

Guatemala 18 (a 20 

Java 24S(a- 

Manila 19 @ 

Ground, in cs... 25 (a- 

FlSIi. 
Sac'to Dry Cod.. 5@ 6 

Boneless 8i(a in 

Eastern Cod.... 7i(a 8 
Salmon, bbls.... 8 50 (a 9 60 

Hf bbls 4 60 (a 5 00 

2 lb cans 3 00 (« 

Pkld Cod, bbls. .22 00 (a 

Ilf bbls 11 00 @ 

Mackerel, No. 1, 

Hf Bbls 14 00 @I5 00 

In Kits 3 00 (a 3 25 

Ex Mess.... 3 50 (a 4 00 
Pkld Herring, bx 3 00 (A 3 .TO 
Boston Snikd H'g 40 @ 50 

LIME, Etc. 
Lime, Sta Cruz, 

bbl 2 00 (a 2 25 

Cement, Kosen- 

dale 2 75 (?* 3 50 

Portland 4 75 (a 5 50 

Plaster, Golden 

Gate Mills... 3 00 (» 3 25 
Land Plaster, tn 10 00 (al2 50 

NAILS. 
Ass'ted sizes, keg 3 25 @ 4 00 



fWHOLSSALK.l 

Tuesday m., July 3, 1377. 
OILS. 

Pacific Glue Go's 

Neatsfoot, Nol.l 00 @ 90 
Castor. No 1 1 05 @ — 

do, No, 2 1 05 (f^ - 

Baker's A A 1 25 (»1 30 

OUve, Plagniol....5 25 (a5 75 

Possel 4 75 @5 25 

Palm, lb 9 @ — 

Linseed, Raw, bbl. 80 @ — 

Boiled 85 (a - 

Cocoauut 80 @ - 

China nut, CB 68 ^ 70 

.Sperm 1 60 fal 65 

Coast ■Whales 60 @ 65 

Polar, refined 60 @ — 

Lard 1 10 @1 15 

Oleophine 35^ — 

Devoe's Bril't 30 <a 31 

Photolite 29 @ — 

Nonpariel 50 @ — 

Eureka 22J@ 25 

Ban-el kerosene... 30 @ — 

Downer Ker 47i@ 50 

Elaine 50 @ — 

PAINTS. 
Piu-e ■Wliite Lead. 9f@ lOJ 

Whiting lf@ — 

Putty 4 (a 6 

Chalk 



191 



Paris 'WTiite 25® — 

Ochre 3J@ — 

Venetian Red 3J@ — 

Averill Mixed 

Paint. gal. 

White & tmts. . .2 00 @2 40 
Green, Blue & 

Ch Yellow.... 3 00 (93 50 

Light Red 3 »0 @3 50 

Metallic Roof... 1 30 @1 60 

RICE. 

China No. 1, lb.... 6}(a 6J 

Hawaiian 43(a 6 

SALT. 

CaL Bay, ton.... 13 00 (ai4 00 

Common 6 00 (a 8 00 

Carmen Id 13 00 (tpU 00 

Liverpool fine.. .17 50 <al8 OO 
SOAP. 

Castile, tb 10 (^ lOJ 

Common brands.. 4^* 6 

Fancy brands 7@ 8 

SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 45 (a 50 

Cassia 22J@ 25 

Nutmegs 85 @ 90 

Pepper Grain 16 @ 17 

Pimento 16 ® 16 

Mustard, Cat., 

i tb glass 1 .50 ® — 

SIIUAR, ETC. 

Cal. Cube, tb 14 @ - 

Circle A crushed.. 13 C* — 

Powdered 14}@ — 

Fine crushed 14 (^ — 

Granulated 135(a — 

(ioldenC IIJW 12} 

Hawaiian 10 W 11 

Cal. Syrup, kgs... 75 (» - 

Hawaiian Mot'sscs 26 @ 30 

TEA. 
Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 35 @ 50 

Country pckd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 50 (a 60 

Hyson 30 (a 35 

Fooo-ChowO 35 (a 60 

Japan, 1st quality 40 (a 60 

2d quality 25 (<? 35 



"Cash Paid Pkomptly.'- May Bros., Galesburg, II . 
want to hire agents for their late improved Windmill, the 
cheapest, strongest and best in use. Retail price, $50. 
Write for tcnus. 



14 



^^M^\^XWW\3 3iv^^«£v> J*»X> ^jEujEoo, 



[July 7, 1877. 



Agricultural Articles. 



HEAD & SOHEMOITH'S 

STRAW-BURNING ENGINES 




BiAt the Vienna Exhibition of 1S73, the Diploma of 
Honor, the Hijrhest Award, was given] to Kansomes 
Sims & Head, Orwell Works, Ipswich, Knjfland, Engi- 
neers and Manufactur rs of A^'riciiltural Machinery, for 
tlieir Engine, and since tliat time more than four hun- 
^Ired of these Enfjines have been manufactured and ex- 
ported to Russia, Roumania, Italy, Huntjarv, Egypt, 
India, Brazil, etc , and have in every instance worked 
with the most perfect success. This is the ONLY Fire- 
Box .Straw-Burning Engine, and is without doubt the 
BEST PORTABLE ENGINE ON THE COAST. Extra 
Government Safety Valve; Boiler Felted; Extra Bars to 
bum wood or coal. 

ERNEST L. RAN80ME, Agent, 

10 Bush Street, S. F. 

The Famous " Enterprise '' 

(PBBKINS' PATENT) 

Self Regulating Farm 

Pumping. RRllroad 

and Power 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures, 

Have been in use on the 
Pacific Coast in the towns 
and fanning distrietfl for 
liver four years, and wher- 
T;ver they haxt; been sold 
(and there art thousands of 
*hem out) thfey are doing 
Vhcir worti as well as when 
\i\it, «J> A careful perusal 
vvf 0«r Circulars gives a fair 
Vej^t'^tsentation of them and 
•HOws their simplicity. 

We are prepared to Nil orders _. o.o„», irom a 

PUMPING .MIL!, to a 24-foot I'oWER. MILL for running 
Machinery, as well as doing the pumping. 

All warranted. Address, 

HORTON &. KENNEDY, 

Managers for California and Pacifi>: Coast, 

AL.Sfi MKnT KEEL" .MILLS FuH SALE. 

General otiice and Supplies, 

UVERMORB, ALAMEDA COUNTY, CAL. 




TO FRUIT MEN. 
LILLIES' FRUiT FITTER, 

Pr tented March 7th, 1876. 

This machine pits all 
the different kinds of 
stoned fruits, (cling- 
stones included ) both 
rapidlv and well, and 
wichout waste, and w.th 
entire satisfaction to all 
who have used it. 

It is a perfect suc- 
cess, and It docs not 
depend upi*n pres- 
sure upon the llesh of 
the fruit til extract the 
pit. It will pit an av- 
erage of :(.000 pounds 
of fruit per day, and is 
not liable to get out of 
order. This is the only 
machine that will pit 
cherries successfully. 

For further particu- 
lars and tenns, aildress 

H. JONl^S, Sole Agent for California, 

419 and 421 Sansome Street,, S. F. 




MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
in Stockton, ui 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and linow what is required 
in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quir.kly adjusted. 
SulBcient play is given so that the t^mg-uo will pass over 
cradle knolls without changing the working positicm of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow corrcctl.v. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON St WILLIAMSON, 

STOCKTON, CAU 



Winchester Repeating Rifle 



MODEL 1873. 




The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, ^,. . , . , . 

' 3 ' string measunug Irom center of tar- 

get to center of each shot, 32 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, '".'^'LhStTfiM "nXs °' 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting 

Defense, or Target Shooting. 

The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 

Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inch — blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch -blued. Octagon barrel, set 
24, 20, 28, 30 inch- blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch -blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 
26, 28, 30— extra flnished, case hardened and check stocks. OcLigon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— 
extra finished— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch beautifully finished- C. 11. & C. S., 
Icuowni as "One, of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver ami nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbines, 
model 1866. RELOADING TOOLS, PRLMERS AND PARTS OF ARMS. 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 

JOHN SKINKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco, 

SOLE AGENT FOR THE PACIFIC COAST. 



The Rice Straw-Burner Engine. 




HOADLEY'S 

THRESHING ENGINES. 

PRICES. 

12-Hor8e Power $1250 

15-Horse Power $1450. 



The only reliable Straw-Burjn .mufactured 

Parties are cautioned against bu.\iM_.,' ;iM_\ otlier make of 
Engines, with Return Flue Uoilers. The I'nited States 
Court has decided that Rice has a valid patent, and all in- 
fringcnientiii are liable. 

MARCUS C. HAWLEY & CO. 

SOLE AtiEJiTS FOR 

Buckeye Mowers and Reapers, Haines's 
Headers Gear, Scott & Co.'s Thresher Engines 
and Separators, Rice's Straw^-Bumer En- 
gines, Deere's Gang Plows, The "Regulator' 
Windmills, Schuttler Wagons, "Perpetual 
Hay Presses, Etc. 

301, 303, 305, 307 & 309 Market St. 

SAN FRAM'ISCO. 

43, 45 & 47 i Street, 

SACRAMFJJTO. 




We ha\e a few of these Engii.^ \hich we can 

offer at the abiivc 

VERY LOW PRICES. 

Tliey arc the latest style, anil warranted t<i give the power 
re}treKentcd. C-nU or address, 

BERRY & PLACE, 

San Francisco 



CAUTION. 

To Farmers and all others who put barbs 
upon vrire fences, making a barbed 
wire fence, and to all manufactu- 
rers and dealers in fence barbs 
and barbed fence wire. 



You are hereby notified, that in putting )>arb8 upon 
« ire, making a barbed wire fence, or in uanig or dealing 
in barbs for wire or barbed fence wire, not made tuider 
license from us, you are infringing upon our patents, and 
we shall hold you strictly accountable for damages for all 
infringements of Letters Patent Nos. 66,182, 67,117, 74,- 
37i), 84,062, 1.S3.965, 157,124, l.i7,.S08, 184,181, 165,061 
172,760. 173.4in, 173,667, 180,351, 181,433. 186,380. 187,126, 
187,172; re-issue, Nos. 7,136, 6,976. «,U02, 7,03.S, 7,036, 
(i.»l:!, 6,914. 

Copies of our claims can be obtained of our attorneys 
(•OBUKN & THATCHER. Chicago, 111., or of our counsel' 
THOS H. DODGE, Worcester, M:i8s 

WASHBURN & MOEN MANUF'G CO.. 

Worcester, Mass. 

I. L. ELLWOOD & CO., DeKalb, 111. 



Fraud! Fraud!! 



COLLINS & GO'S 

CAST, CAST STEEL PLOWS. 

FARMER-S are cautioned against inferior coun- 
terfeit plow s and points w hicli are lieini? sold as 
genuine ca.st, ca.st steel. The Qenuiuo Steels are 
stamped with <uir trade itmrk: 

COLLINS & CO.. HARTFORD. 

Look for llii.s slump liefiiri' buying plows or 
shares, and secure the geimine. Full imrticulars 
of new and improved pl.'ws wnt In nnv iiildres.'s. 

COLLINS & CO., 
2 1 2 Water Street, Nev/ York. 



Seedsmen. 



SEEDS. TREES. 



SEEDS. 



Continually arriving, NLW .ind FRESH KENTUCKY 
IJLUK fiKASS, RKl) TOP TIMOTHY, SWKKT 
VERNAL, MKZtjriTK and other (;ras»e8. 
KEU CLOVER, KRENCIl WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Etc. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERING RULIW, .lAPAN LIL1E.S, FRE.SH AUS- 
TRr\LIAN ULUE GIM, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEED; together with all kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 

426 Washington Street, - San Francisco 





(Zr\ MI.VED CARDS, with name, for 10c. and stamp. 
OU One i)ack (20 styles) Acquaintance Cards, 10c. Sam- 
plee for 3c. stamp. M. DOWD & CO., Bristol, Ct. 



riLISSS iLl.l STU.VTF.U ( liHDl.N r.lt« .\l.M4SA<- .V N P 

A HK I no Ell Catai.ocile 128 i)age». Embraces a monthly 
calendar of oiierations. and a price-list of all the leading 
Ganlcn. Klelil anil Flowtr Seeds, profusely illustrated, with 
brief directions for tlieir culture. Mailed yREE to all an 
plicanta. B K. BLISS & SONS, 31 Barclay Street New 
Vork P O Boi. No. 5712. 

SPANISTCHUFA , , Addre«, 

L. L. BEQUETTE, 

SEED FOR SALE. '^'^"•'coumy, 'SS.''"*''"" 

TrAP« Plants- Spring LisU free F. K. Pho- 
1 1 «3CJ^, jiix, Bloomington Nursery, Illinois. 



Nurserymen. 



SANTA BARBARA NURSERY, 

Located seven miles west of Santa BarViara, Cal. 
Dejiot, Cor. Moiitecito and Castillo Streets. 
JOSEPH SEXTON, - ... Proprietor 

CfLTlVATOR OF 

Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Trees. Also, 
Orange, Lemon, Lime anti Palm Trees, 
Pot Plants, and Hardy Ever- 
green Shrubbery. 

HENRY SHAW. 

VENTURA, VENTURA COUNTY, r.^L., 

Wholesale Grower of 

ORANGE, LEMON and LIME TREES 

Geo. F Silvester, Seedsman, ai7 Washington Street, 
San Francisco, has samples and will till orders. Trees 
sackiKl and bo.vcd eo as to be safely transplanted at an.\ 
season. Sinnmer months the Ix'st ior removal. 



Poultry. 



SAVE MONEY. 
$10 PER PAIR, $15 PER TRIO. 
All tTtickn ordered during Jon*; and July will 1m 
Buld at the abuvtj juices. 

Call si-are Brown Lcghunitt, .Silver Spangle'l 
HfimhurgR, Huff Cochius, Ulttck Hreasttd Ktd 
Caiiii'S. (iaiiio iiantums and Hniini PuckR Aftor 
.lul,\ ri,y prii.cs willbti changtd and thono wishing to purchase 
FiK^iT-< i.A?-s bti'ck at low tifurefi .shouhl writf to uicatonce. 
Kviiiything warranted as rt yrcwentt d and strictly pnrt- hrtMl. 
Enclose stamp and address I. 1*. L<»RT). Kltio, Nevada. 
it*7 No ordiT hooked imlcss accompanieil >iy the rash. 




POLAND CHINA PIGS. 




A. J. TWObOOD. Riverside, Cal., 

Has on hand and <iflVrs for sale a few pur»: lildodutl Vign o 
tliic variety of Swine. I'artiis desiring first -class stock arc 
invit^-d to i'Xiiiuiiie my herd or actdreiis me as ahuve. 

A. J. TWor.«X)D 




R. S. THOMPSON, 

IMPORTER AXn BRKKnKH Or 

PURE BERKSHIRE SWINE, 
NAPA, CAL. 

DAVIS & SUTTON, 

75 Warren St., New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal'a. Produce 

Rkfbrence.— Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ;E11- 
wangcr & Barry-, Kochegtor, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed, Sacre- 
mento, Cal.; A. Lusk & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 



i 



July 7, 1877.] 



MUSIC BOOKS. 



Mrs. Van Cott'S PRAISE BOOK.— (in Press.) 
35 cts. Will be the hrig-litest thing out. For Camp 
Meetings, Praise Meetings, Noon Meetings, Tabernacle 
Meetings, and the Murphy Temperance meetings. Be 
ready for it ! 

SHINING RIVER, 35c. GOOD NEWS, 35c. 
CHORAL PRAISE, 25c. —Three shining Sabbath 
School Song books. Those who don't use them will 
miss a great deal. The last is for EjMscopal Schools. 

THE SCHOOL SONG BOOK, 60c. THE 
HIGH SCHOOL CHOIR, $1. THE ENCORE 
75c. — For High Schools, Academies, Seminaries, Col- 
leges. First-class books. The last is also for .Singing 
Schools, and the first is for female voices. 

Stainer & Barrett's DICTIONARY OF MU- 
SICAL TERMS.— This magnificent encyclopedia 
daily increases in favor. Best book of reference pub- 
lished. Price, $6.00. 
Either book mailed, post free, for retail price. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 



C. H. DITSON & CO., 
848 Broadway, New York. 



I .1. E. DITSON & CO., 
I Successors to Lee & Walker, 
I Philadelphia. 



To Wine Manufacturers. 

GRAPE CRUSHER AND STEMMER 

We would call youi' attentio%to the machine patented by 
C. WadhaniR. It has capacity— accord iug to size— to crush 
and stem grapes for from 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of wine m 
ten hours. It can he worked by auy motive power. It stems 
the grapes better than by hand, saving the labor of thi-ee 
men for every 1,000 gallons of wine, and does not crush or 
bruise the stems, from which so much deleterious matter 
comes. It causes the juice to fall through the air like rain, 
so as to absorbe all the air in it that can be desired, increas- 
ing the temperature, and insuring a rapid and effective fer- 
mentation. It does not bruise or crush the seeds, nor does 
it even loosen the envelope of the seeds, which is astringent 
and greasy. It produces five per cent, more wine than by 
any other mode, because the grapes are crushed so com- 
pletely that the liquid easily separates from the solid parts. 
In making rtd wine, the color of the skin dissolves much 
quicker, and the fennentation is perfected before the new 
wine has time to become too astringent Vjy a prolonged con- 
tact with the marc. It crushes all the grapes evenly, the 
small and tough berries as well as the large and fresh ones, 
The machine cannot easily get out of repair, being made 
strong and durable. 

The above reasons were given by M. Keller, Los Angeles, 
after having made 200.000 gallons of wine with one machine, 
thoroughly tpsting its merits. In making 75,000 gallons it 
will save enough to pay for the machine and a horse power to 
run it, saying nothing of the five per cent, more wine saved 

WM. G. WENDELL & CO., 

No. 321 California Street, San Francisco. 

THE ALDEN PROCESS. 



We have added many improvements lately, greatly in- 
creasing the capacity, and at the same time simi)lifying 
and cheapening our apparatus, which we now offer at 
greatly reduced prices and upon the most liberal terms 

Our No. 4 Evaporator, for family use, will be furnished 
coniiilete, including all the wood-work, at S300. Its ca- 
])acity is nearly equal to those erected three years ago. 
for which we received from $1,000 to §1,500 each, without 
the wood-work. The prices for the larger sizes have been 
reduced correspondingly, and we have determined that the 
charge of high prices shall no longer deter jsersons from 
availing themselves of the advantages of the Alden Pro- 
cess, wliich is the oldest, best and cheapest. 

THE ALDEN FRUIT PRESERVING CO., 

OF CALIFORNIA, 

No. 426 Montg-omery Street. 



H. Ha Ha 

HORSE MEDICINE, 

D. D. T.-I868, 

Is gaining a wide-spread notoriety. Testimonials from 
all parts of the coast show it to be a companion in every 
family. It quickly removes Wind Galls, Spavins, Callous 
Lumps, Sweeny, and all blemishes of the horse, while 
the family finds it indispensable for Sprains, Bruises, 
Aches, Pains, and wherever a good liniment is required. 

WILLIAiWS & MOORE, Prop's, 
Stockton, Cal. 



O 
O 

a 

< 
m 




A^illage Hook a.iid Ladder Triaok. 

We manufacture three sizes of this truck, which is so equipped as to furnish a complete fire de- 
partment for villages, or an excellent auxiliary to a city fire departnient. For further information, 

Address PARKE <&, LACY, 417 Market Street. 



ElJk 



AND 



Excavating IVEacliiiiery. 

Constantly on Hand and for Sale 

Tlie well known PRICE or PETALUMA HAY PRESS, the standard msvchine of 
its class and the fastest baling press known; over 500 in use on this Coast. Price $450 

The IMPROVED ECLIPSE POWER PRESS, the simplest and best presa ever made 
for the price, which is $300 

The IMPROVED ECLIPSE HAND-POWER PRESS, very compact and pow- 
erful • $200 

The PRICE PRESS, (extra heavy ,Tfor baling hay for shipment in box cars. Will pu- 
from nine to twelve tons in a box car. A very strong and powerful machine, fully warrant 
ted as to strength and capacity $600 

MADE TO ORDER. 

Hide Presses for baling dry hides for shiisment to the East $500 

Presses for Hair, Wool, Rags, Hops, Moss, Broom Corn, etc., at reasonable prices. 

PRICE'S BOX EXCAVATOR or SELF-LOADING GRADING CART, 

the most remarkable labor saving machine that has been invented for years. Will move 
earth any distance, from 50 to 2,000 feet at one- fourth the cost of the ordinary way. The 
large size, using four horses and carrving over one and a half yards at a load is worth .... $650 

The same machine, carrying three-quarters of a yard and using two horses $500 

Price's Draper Excavator, for making ditches from 10 to 20 feet wide $650 

There are conditions connected with the sale of excavators which will be explained upon appli- 
cation by letter or otherwise. Address 



J. TRUMAN, San Francisco, 



J. PRICE, San Leandro. 




LS 



..,..s tor Uesidi'iices, I'liliii,- (^ 
Ccmetcrios, or 



"!.t 



^a 



FarmH, From 50c to $50 Per Rotl. 

NELUS' O. H. H. H. FOKK, with Nellis' Patent method 
for mowing and sta<:king hay or straw without extra charge 
to the fanner. A^tl. steel finished ajid tempered by Nellis' 
process to suit ail kinds s.)il. Medal awards on all our goods 
exliibited at tile (Jeuteuiiial. Information free. 

A. J. NELLIS & CO., Pittsburg-, Pa. 




HEADQUARTERS 



PACIFIC COAST 

or TIIK 

lU. S.Camp Lounge 

COMPANY. 
Price of Folding Cot, $10, Lounge $6 and $8. 

AGENTS WANTED.— A liberal discount to the trade. 
Sent C. O. D, to any part of the coast. Also, rubber hose 
in variety and lengths to suit. 

C. H. MOSBLEY, Agt., 415 Sansome Street, S. F. 



Office, With BAKER & HAMILTON. 



No. 17 Front Street, 



San Francisco 



After Nearly Three Years' Test, the STEEL BARBED FENCE WIRE, Patented by 

J. F. GLIDDEN, Stands Head and Shoulders Above all Competitors, and 

is More in Demand than all Other Barb Fences Put Together. 



fm USE FOR AIMY ANIMAL 
[ TO T RY 

: .THE GLIDDEN FENCE 
UCANT GET THROUGH 




4^ "r^i^ 



VER 300,000 POUNDS SOLD IN CALIFORNIA lilt, tUWT SEASON OF ITS INTRODUCTION. THE GLID- 
DEN PATENT BARB WIRE HAS BEEN TESTED BY THOUSANDS OF PRACTICAL FARMERS, WHO 
UNIVERSALLY RECOMMEND IT, AND IS SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS: 
1 Tlie wire is manufactured entirely from steel, which has a relative strength of 50 per cent, greater than of 
anv common iron wire 2 The only steel wire barb. S. The only barb that cannot be displaced with tluinih 
and fino-er or cattle's horns 4. The only barb with prongs projecting from between the twisted wire and cannot 
be bent broken or rubbed off, and never needs replacing. 5. The only coiled barb with broad base on main wire, 
which renders it immovable C. The only barb wire during process of manufacture its strength is tested 
eouil to that of two-horse power. The only barb put on witli machinery. It is not pounded on with hamnicr 
and'indentedin main wire toholdit in place. 8. The only barb wire you can lay 80 rods or more on ground and 
drag with team and not injure or displace the barbs. 9. The only barb wire that gives universal satisfaction and Ims 
greater sale than all others put together. 

JONES, GIVENS & CO., Pacific Coast General Agents, - Sacramento, Cal. 

Manufactured by Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Company. 



WEBBER LAKE HOTEL ! 

DAVID G. WEBBER, M. D.. - - PROPRIETOR. 

A. J. ANDERSON, Manager. 

Post Office Address, Truckee, Cal. 

Hotel Open for Visitors From May 20th 
Until November Ist. 

WEBBER'S STAGE 

Leaves Truckee Tuesdays &. Fridays, 
FARE, $3.00. 

BOATS, PISHING TACKLE, SADDLE 
HORSES AND WAGONS Fur- 
nished to Guests Free. 



Webber Lake is 6,025 feet above sea level, is well stocked 
with Silve- Trout, and 24 miles from Truckee, on the 
Henness Pass Road, surrounded by the highest peaks of 
the Sierra Nevada mountains. As a resort for families 
and lovers of rare scenery, excellent fishing and fine 
drives, this hotel excels all others. 

LAND PLASTER. 



{Si'LPHATE OK Lime.) 

THIS FERTILIZER IS ESPECIALLY WELL ADAPTED 
TO CALIFORNIA LANDS AND CLIMATE, AND 
IS DESTINED TO BE USED TO IM- 
MENSE ADVANTAGE. 

PRICES GREATLY REDUCED. 

In Bulk, $10 per ton; in Barrels, $12.50. 

GOLDEN GATE PLASTER MILLS, 
LUCAS & CO., 

No3. 215 and 217 Main Street, San Francisco. 

A FARM FOR SALE IN NAPA 
COUNTY. 

Tlie undersig:ned offers his lands in Foss Valley for sale, 
yituated ten miles north of Napa City, containing 1,960 
acree; 300 choice grain land, well watered, having a stream 
of water running'' through the tract; also, has numerous 
flowing springs distributed over the same, has a good 
Dwelling House, Barn, Granary, Sheds and other out- 
houses, a good orchard, a small vineyard and a choice 
vegetahle g:irdcn; has a great ([uantity of timber, enougli 
to pay for tlu: whole place. Auy person wanting a choice 
stock and grain farm and a pleasant home with a splendid 
climate, will do well to call and see for himself. I will sell 
the same at cheap rates and ansy terms. I will suhdivide 
and sell the following tracts to wit: one tract of 1,020 
acres, 100 grain and the balance good jiasture land, at 
$7.fiO per acre; one tract of 400 acres, 50 tillable, also one 
tract of 100 acres, 40 acres tillable, at §10 per acre, either 
of which will make a good home. Apply to the under- 
signed on the premises. WILLIAM CLARKE. 

Napa Co., Cal. P. O. Napa City, Box 61 



^Sk^^/r 




CALVERFS CARBOLIC 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 Per Gallon. 
After dipping the Sheep, is use- 
ful for Preserving Wet Hides, De- 
stroying the Vine Pest, and for 
Disinfecting Purposes, Etc. 

T. W. JACKSON, S. F., Sole 
Agent for the Pacific Coast. 



ANTIOOH FERRY. 

I^otice to Stockmen and the iiublic in general that a good 
Ferry Roat has been put on iietweon Antioch and Collins- 
ville by the California Transfer Co., and are prepared to 
move stock in lots to .suit, as a largo barge is comiected with 
the boat. Ff>r particulars apply to the Company's office, at 

519 East Street, San Francisco. 

W. K. FIRMAN, Antioch. WM. HARKIN8, CoUlnsTiU* 



Dutcher's Lightning Fly-Killer. 
Butcher's Dead-Shot for Bed-Bugs. 
Try them, and Sleep in Peace. 



YOUR NAME PRINTED on 40 Mixed,Card8'for 10 otntg. 
CLINTON BROS., Clintonville, Ct. 



16 



[July 7, 1877. 



Sansome Street. 

Dewey & Co.'s Patent Ok- 
FiCES, Mining and Scientific 
Press and Pacific Rural Press 
newspaper otfices,and the Scien- 
tific Press Engraving establish- 
ment will be found at the above 
place, (No. 202 Sansome Street, 
N. E. Corner of Pine, opposite 
the Pacific Bank), after July 4th, 
1877, Just three-fourths of a 
block south of our old location. 




aU^oinejout^^ 



Some Reasons for Subscribing] or it. 

Because it is a permanent, first-class, conscientious 
able, and well conducted jminial. 

Because it is the larjrcst and iiest ajfricultural weekl) 
west "f the Rocky Mountains. 

That more fanners' wives and children in their isolated 
homes may he cheered hy its weekly visits, laden with its 
pleasing yet moral readinj,', and sound instruction 

That a more extended interchanife of views and opin- 
ions may be had amonjf fanners, upon all the jfreat ques- 
tions touching their mutual interests and progress. 

That the agricultural resources of the Pacific States may 
be more wisely, speedily and thoroughly developed by an 
open and free discussion in its columns. 

That all the honest industries of our State may be a<i- 
vanced in connection with that of agriculture, its col- 
unms being ever open to the discussion of the merits of 
all progressive improvements. 

That the Riral, after having been read and iK)ndered 
over by the home circle, can be filed away for future use- 
ful reference, or forwarded to the old Eastern fireside of 
the Atlantic border, in aid of an increasing immigration to 
our sunny clime. 

Send for sample copies. 



DEAVEY 



& CO., Ihibllshera, 
224 Sansome St., S. F. 



Designing 

and 
Engraving 

ai 
This Office. 

We are prepared to <lo fine Wood Kngra\Tng 
for illustrating Landscape .Scenery, Buildings, 
Machinerj', Works of Art, Manufactured Arti- 
cles, Tra<le Marks, .Seal.s. etc. We have a 
first-class 

Machine for Engraving 

a portion of the work, which can be finished 
thereby more perfectly than V>y the eye and 
hand alone. Our patrons can depend upon 
first-class work always, and at reasonable prices. 
■Samples can be seen at our oiSce. 

DEWEY & CO. 

Contents of Pamphlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S. Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 

Map of California and Nevada; The Public 
liands; Tlie L;ind Districts; Table of Rainfall in Califor- 
nia; Counties and Their IVoduets; Statistics of the State 
at Large. 

Instructions of the U. S. Land Commis- 
sioners.— DiiTcrent Classes of Public Lands; How Lands 
may be Acquired; Fees of I>and Office at Location; Agri- 
cultunti College Scrip; Pre-emptions; f^xtending tlie 
Homestead Privilege; But One HonicsteaiJ Allowed; Proof 
of Actual Settlement Necessary; .\djoining Fann Home- 
steads; I>and6 for Soldiers and Sailors; Lands for Indians; 
Fees of I>and Office and Commissions; Laws to l*romote 
Timber Culture; Concerning Appeals; Returns of the Reg- 
ister and Receiver; Concerning Mining Claims; Second 
Pre-emption Benefit. 

Abstract Prom the U. S. Statutes. The Law 
Conceniing Pre-emption; Concerning Homesteads; .Amend- 
atory Act Concerning Timber; .Miscellaneous Provisions; 
Additional Surveys Land for Pre-emption, List of Cali- 
fornia Post Offices. Price, post paid, :')0 cts. 

Published and sold by DEWEY & CO.. S. F 



The Pacific Rcral Press, the best agricultural weekly 
in California, has traveling agents and correspondents in 
different iKirtions of the Stale who consitantly furnish it 
with fresh corres]>ondence, full of practical value and in- 
teresting descriittions. Mr. C. N. West will represent the 
PRK88 in .Santa Cniz and Monterey counties.— C«»?rociW« 
Argue, June .'d. 



RUPTURE! RUPTURE!! RUPTURE!!! 



Use no more Metal Trusses! Ni> 
more suffering from irmi hoops, 
or steel springs ! The imtcnt 
Magrnotic Elastic Truss 
Is now superseding all (tthcrs, 
being adoptcil everywhere by the 
leading physi.-ians and surgeons 
all over the land All cases of 
reducible Hernia are |termanently 
relieved by it. without regaril to 
the age of the patient, or the du- 
ration "f the injury. 

Kxperience shows that all tem- 
])ered spring Trusses no'css-irily 
press upon and often disease 
parts of the body that before were 
in a" perfectly healthy condition. 
Lumbag"" and other equally dis- 
tressing ailments are not unfrequentlj the "Utgrowtli of such pressure, 
of decided consequence to avoid like calamities, if possible. 

iiff Beware of worthless imitations! Our trusses are not left witi 
htreliy given that all persons who infringe on this p.itent will be dealt 
article send direct to the 




There an- no springs in the 

Magnetic Elastic Truss 

To (ircss upon and in.pire the 
bark. It can be worn with p>'r- 
feet ease while riding horseback 
a.' the pressure is the same » hili 
in any positinn. It will perform 
radical cures when all others 
fail, ami is wurn with case and 
comfort 

Night and Day, 
Which cannot be said truthfully 

_ of any metal truss whatever. 

and in viewof this fact it becomes a matter 

1 Agents, or Druggist* for sale, and notice is 
with iis the law provides. For the genuine 



MAGNETIC ELASTIC TRUSS COMPANY. 



Illustrated, Bo..k and Price List F"ree. 



609 Sacramento Street, San Francisco 



SUPERIOR PIANOS AT POPULAR CASH PRICES. 



More than TEN THOU- 
SAND prosperous families 
on this Coast need Ten Thou- 
sand GOLDEN PL'\NOS to 
make TEN THOUSAND 
HOMES MORE PLEAS- 
ANT AND ATTRACT- 
IVE. 

Prices of good Pianos 
have long been too high. 
Our ]jeoi)le could not afford 
to buy them. But many will 
find it not only pleasant but 
profitable to purchase 
The Brilliant and Durable 

QoLDEN Piano 

Which we now offer the 
readers of this paper 

At Greatly Reduced Pop- 
ular Cash Prices. 

We Guarantee them to be 
as represented, of superior 
tone, finish and durability. 

Samples can be seen by 
calling at this office. We 
keep no expensive sales- 



rooms and attendants. 

We shall sell none but 
superior and desirable instru- 
ments, but give our custom- 
ers the benefit of prices far 
below any before offered on 
this side of the Continent. 

Prices of the Golden Piano: 

The Install Our Keduc- 

mcnt Plan Prices, ed Cash Price 

The Golden Piano, $500 $350 

(UPRIGHT C.) 

The Golden Piano, $375 $300 

(SQUARE No. 1.) 

The Golden Piano, $500 $350 

(SQUARE -No. 2.) 

The Go den Piano, $600 $400 

(SQUARE No. 3.) 

The Golden Piano, $800 $450 

(SQUARE No. 4.) 

We invite our readers who 
wish to look at Pianos ior 
themselves or friends, tor 
immediate or future pur- 
chase, to call and examine 
our samples. 

Those who cannot call 
will be given further infor- 
mation by consulting our 
agents or sending to this 
office. 



OUR AGENTS. 

Ora Friknds can do much in aid o( our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

J. L. TiiARP- San Francisco. 

B. W. Crowell Amador, Placer, Calaveras and Tuol- 
unme counties. 

O. W. McOrew United States. 

\. C. K.NOX— Plumas, Sierra, Lassen, Placer and Ne- 
vada counties. 

C. N. Wkst -Santa Cruz, Monterey and San Benito 
counties. 

A. C. CUiMPION- Sonoma, Marin and Mendocino ooun 
ties. 

A. U. Stbo.no— Lake, Napa and Solano counties. 

Ed. T. Plank- Dakota Territorj- (Black Hills.) 

Joseph Dim.mick. Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte 
ounties. 

W. I). White- San Bernardino and Ix)8 Angeles coun- 
ties. 



Another Compiiment. 



Los Anofi.ks, .Mav 21st, 1877. 
Messrs. Dewkv i Co., Patent Agents, S. F.~ Gentle- 
men:- I have just received my letters patent on machine 
for opening oyster shells, and compliment you ujion your 
success, i shall not only contribute t<i you my own bus- 
iness, but also that of friends. Thanking you, gentlemen, 
for your promptness and the very thurough manner in 
which you have prosecuted this matter, I am, yours 
truly. T. W. TEMPLE. 



SITUATION WANTED 

A^ Mananpr of a sheep Farm or with a 
n» IfiaiiayCI dealer in cattle or sheep. Refer- 



ences aa to ability and reliability 
teenth Street, Kichmond, Va 



.\ddresa F. 22 Kif 



GOLDEN GATE ACADEMY, 

Oakland, Cal. 

NEXT TERM BEGINS AUGUST I, 1877. 

D. P. Sackett, \. M., Prni. .Josun Kkki', .\ M , Ass't. 

Classical I>ep.artinent; Scientific and English I>c|Tartment: 
Conmiercial Department; Prepanitory Department; De- 
partment of Physical Culture. 

Superior training in every dciiartnient. The fitting of 
young men and women for college a specialty. 

Military drill and gymna^jtic exercises required daily 
solely for physical exercise, development and health. 

Situation most commanding, beautiful and heidthfni. 
Send for Circular. 



WASHINGTON COLLEGE, Washington, Ala- 
meda County, Cal. For young men and young women. 
Full corps of able and experienced instructors. Address 
Rev. S. S. Harmon, Principal. New year will begin 
July 2«th. Send for Catalogues. 



FOR SALE. 

AT S40.00 PER ACRE. 

The .Alfalfa Hanch, nine miles from the city of Los An- 
geles, bounded and fenced for one mile on the north by 
the Anaheim I*ailroad; cast by San (Jabriel (old) river, 
containing about 300 acres of larid, all set with good grass, 
BO acres alfalfa. Abundant water for irrigation and willow 
for fuel. Inquire on the ranch or hy mail at Los Angeles. 
IRA CARPENTER. 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



IMPORTED. 



Crosby'B Extra Early -^ 
Marblebead Mammoth I 
Sto'wreU's Evergreen i 
Mexican Sweet, New^ ' 



Sweet Corn. 



Snuttonr Yellow Flint Corn 

Lotig' fted Mangel WurtBel'j 



Beet Seed. 



Yellow Globe 
White Sugat- 

ALSO, EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY OF VEGETA- 
BLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, GRASS AND 
CLOVER SEEDS, ETC., OFFERED AT 
WHOLESALE OR RETAIL. 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

No. 317 Washing-ton Street, San Francisco 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer in 




FLOWERIN(i PLANTS AND BULBS, FRUITS AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE 
0)mplnsing Ihe Mt>st Complete Stock 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Prices Unusually Low. 
OTTrade Price List on application. 
".•My "Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden 
will soon be ready, and will he sent PRBK to all Ci'STO- 
MKKs. It will contain instructions on the culture of 
Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental Tree Seeds, Tobacco 
Alfalfa, etc. 

R. J. TRUMBULL. 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 



50 



FINE CARDS, Damask, Repp, Etc., with name on 
13 cento. CLINTON BROS., Clintonville, Conn. 



FOR^ALE. 

THE BESTAKRAXCED 

WINE AND BRANDY FACTORY 

In tlic St^itc, C.ip^il I. "f 

Working 1,000 Tons of Grapes, and with 

a small outlay can be Increased to 

1,600 Tons Per Season. 

It consists of a building 30x11)0 feet, two stories highi 
and a third story 30x40 feet, with sheds on one side and 
end, and a boiler 14 feet long, .'iO inches in diameter, with 
40 2j-inch tubes; engine, 10-inch cylinder, 20-inch stroke, 
water and wine pumjis, etc 

The graiws are hoisted by the engine t<i the third story, 
where they are pressed thro\igh a Johnston * Johnston 
(Jrape Crasher, capable of crushing and stemming 8 t" IS 
t<ms |>er hour. The imlji falls into a tub from which the 
must runs by hose to fermenting tubs, and the skins are 
carried bv car on a track to tubs on the second floor. 

The copper still |i8 Johnston's patent, with eai>acity to 
work 2,.tO0 gallons of wine in 12 hnurs; all the racking is 
done with hose and steam pumps. There are 23 ferment- 
ing tubs of 4,000 gallons each, hose, cocks, coojierage, and 
everything necessary and in good order. This proiwrty is 
situated at Marysville, in a grape growing country, and in- 
side of the levee and alongside of the Oregon and Oroville 
Railroa<l. The above described property will be sold at 
public auction on Wednesday. August Ist, 1877, 
at 11 A. .M., at the .Marysville Distillery 

C. E. SE.\EY', Assignee. 

AT $3.00 EACH. 

BRAHMA COCKS. 

Between 1 and 2 Years Old. 

,\B FINE A LOT OF LARGK AND 

WELL MARKED COCKS, 

Vigorous and equal to any in the State 
Also, a few hens of same ago. 

None hut Leghorn Eggs ($4 jier doicn 

now,) sold during the hot weather. 

Send stamp for Price-List. Pamphlet on the caro of 

fowls hatching, feeding, diseases and their cure, etc., 

adapted cs|)ecially to the Pacific coast; price 10c. Address, 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 
Also, Thoroughbred SouthdoTvn Sheep. 




Pullman Palatial Hotel Cars. 

These i'>!lebrated Hotel Dining Cars arc now running 
regularly between Chicago and Omaha, im the California 
Express Trains of the Chicago and NorthWe-stem Rail- 
way West-bound, they leave Chicago daily ,^;vce|>tjiiii. 



day, land on every third Sunday) from the WellsSt., ile|Ki t 
nt 111 :vt \. M . and nrrivc at Omaha next ni'Tiiing. E'tst 



bnuiiil. they leave the Tr.insfcr dep.it. ..ppo<llc i>lnaha. at 
!<:i:> y. M-, daily, except Satunlay. (and every t liinl Sat - 
urday) and reach Chicagn the next afternoon. 

.\,.ntli..r r..a.l w.'st i.f Chiiag.. nlii- tli""- i-el-l.t-.t. rt 



Pullman Ibitel Cars or any form of Hotel Cars. 



EDWIN \LDENQ 
ad\eriising/\ACENCy3 
174 elm street. 

CINCIISrJ!«ATI. OHIO. 

Advertisements inserted in any paper. 
Before advertising Bend for my catalogae. 

FANCY MI.XED CARDS, new styles, with name, 
loc. ; or l.T Connc Phottis or Actresses, lOe; or 20 
Fine Scroll Cards, 20 styles, no name, 10c, post- 
paid. J. B. HU8TED, Nassau, Reniis. &• , N. Y 



25 




Volume XIV.J 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 14, 1877. 



[Number 2. 



Echo Farm, Connecticut. 

We are pleased to give our readers on this 
page another glimpse at Centennial premium 
animals. The bull which we show is "Litch- 
field," who stands at the head of the fine Jersey 
herd of F. Ratchford Starr, Esq., of Echo farm, 
Litchfield, Conn. Mr. Starr is one of that hon- 
orable class of men who have devoted time and 
money to the elevation of agriculture and the 
improvement of farm animals. Col. Weld, 
writing for the Country Gentleman, gives the 
following account of the uprising of Echo farm: 
"Echo farm is about one mile eastward of 
Litchfield, and with its group of neat buildings 
and patriotic flag-staff crowns a hill some 60 feet 
higher than the ridge upon which the village is 
situated, making it nearly 1,300 feet above the 
sea level. Mr. Starr, having impaired his 
health by too close confinement to business, 



inch and a half long admirably placed. Withal, 
his head is small, his muzzle, eyes and horns 
admirable — the latter yellow in color and waxy 
in luster — and when we consider that he is of a 
tawny, dappled dun color, quite solid, with full 
black points, it is not to be wondered at that he 
won the valuable distinction wliich was 
awarded him. The accompanying portrait was 
drawn with accuracy, and is said to be a strik- 
ing likeness. The heifers of "Litchfield's" get 
are proving excellent milkers. They are large, 
handsome, well-shaped cows. We expect at 
another time to give a little description of Mr. 
Starr's dairy barns, with an interior view of one 
of them. 

The Jersey Cross. — We have had testimony 
from time to time of the advantages which 
breeders think they have gained by the use of 
thoroughbred Jersey bulls upon milch cows of 
other breeds. Mr. Sneath told us the other 
day of a cross he had made with one of his 
Jersey bulls and a Short Horn cow. The ofF- 



after spending some time in traveling, both in -, spring of the cross had just come in milk, and 
this country and Europe, 
was attracted to this spot 
on account of its salubri- 
ousness and its proximity 
to the pleasant village above 
described. His onginal 
purchase of 66 acres was 
made in 1869, merely with 
a view of securing a sum- 
mer residence, and without 
the most remote idea of ever 
engaging in farming or stock 
raising. The land around 
the house needed to be 
cleared and laid out, natural 
features of beauty and inter- 
est were to be preserved and 
improved, and this gave 
him pleasant employment. 
The work grew in interest 
and importance under his — — _ 
hands, and finally so absorb- 
ed his attention that he may 
almost be said to have be- 
come infatuated with love 
of it. 

"It is hardly to be sup- 
posed that an active busi- 
ness man, having both cap- 
ital and enthusiasm to ap- 
ply to farming, could find 
employment for his facul- 
ties on a grass farm of 66 
acres. Field after field was 
cleared of stone, new walls 
were laid, old ones remov- 
ed, and very soon the work 
done made it obvious that 
soon there would be little 
more to do. Therefore ad- 
joining properties were purchased and added 
to the farm, so that now "Echo farm" contains 
nearly 400 acres, which lie mostly in one com- 
pact body. A great part of this is already 
under thorough tillage, and that which is not 
even now laid down to grass, both for mowing 
and pasture, is rapidly being prepared for these 
uses. Miles of massive stone walls enclosing 
lawn-like meadows, pastures thoroughly cleared 
of stone, and laid off in great regularity, define 
its boundaries, while its rolling and cultivated 
surface is diversified by patches of woodland." 

While getting his farm into this commendable 
form, Mr. Starr devoted attention also to the 
building up of his dairy herd. In tliis he has 
so well succeeded that his butter sells for fancy 
prices in New York, Brooklyn, Boston and else- 
■where. He relies upon the Jersey stock to 
give him this profitable eminence in the market. 
At the Centennial Mr. Starr took a leading 
position in the display. The bull "Litclifield," 
674, whose portrait we have upon this page, 
took both the Centennial award for the best 
bull and won the special premium of $250, of- 
fered by the American Jersey Cattle Club. He 
is an animal of extraordinary quality and vigor, 
deep bodied and very robust, but fine in bone — 
at least as fine as is consistent with his weight. 
He is long, tolerably well ribbed back, very Su(1ar Beets in the East. — There is just 
deep in the flank, broad in the loin and between now renewed interest in the question of beet 
the hips, long from hips to rump, level above sugar production in the East. The subject is 
and below, mellow-hided, soft-coated and yel- being agitated in Massachusetts, and we learn 
low-skinned — with a broad escutcheon, running from a personal letter that a company is being 
well up, and rudimentary teats an inch to an organized for experiment in Philadelphia, 



AU the World Akin. 

A remark by a correspondent in another col- 
umn that perchance the peculiar behavior which 
we notice in this year's orchard and garden 
growth "is not local but cosmical, " is a happy 
one. The account which he gives of the new 
departure in plant growth in England is indeed 
closely analagous to that we note in this State. 
Nor is this the only indication that all the world 
is akin in the aflliction. The drouth which 
burns our fields found a balance in the parched 
fields of the Eastern States, and their terrible 
forest fires far surpassed our field conflagrations 
in depth of loss and hardship. The East also 
suffers from tornado and hurricane this summer 
most grievously. One morning brought news of 
destruction both of life and property in Wiscon- 
sin and Massachusetts — so wide was the swath 
which the dread demon mowed. Surely we 




•^.^^ ^ yuT^'^. 



CENTENNIAL PREMIUM JERSEY BULL "LITCHFIELD," OWNED BY F 



RATCHFORD STARR, 



gave five gallons a day. She showed many 
marks of her Jersey sire and was small in size. 
Mr. Sneath was surprised at the amt>unt of 
milk from so small a cow. She borrows the 
Jersey characteristics in color and quality of 
milk to a great extent. This result is quite 
gratifying to Mr. Sneath, because he is breed- 
ing all his dairy to Jersey bulls, and much of 
his future success will depend upon the value 
of the cross. 



Holstein Cattle. — A subscriber wants to 
know, as a matter of interest, if there are any 
thoroughlired Holstein cattle in this State. We 
believe there are, but we are unable to tell who 
are the breeders. If our readers who have the 
stock will favor us with their names, and their 
notes of experience with the stock, we should 
be pleased to have them do so. There is very 
little said about the Holstein in our agricultural 
writing, and yet we know them to be among 
the very best of the dairy breeds. Who will 
give us the local points on the stock, and we 
will make a few remarks upon the breed in gen- 
eral ? 



are happy in our land with its few faults and 
hardships. 

The latest item of the balance of att'airs East 
and West is seen in the experience of the straw- 
berry growers. Our growers have met with 
some hardships and have done their best to 
overcome tliem. The price has sunk low in the 
markets at some times, in spite of all eff'orts to 
regulate it. But nothing here will compare to 
the evil which the New York growers have had 
to endure this year. We read in an exchange 
that the strawberry crop on the Hudson this 
season has been a failure to the growers, princi- 
])ally on account of the early ripening of the 
fruit. When the Southern crop was at its bight 
the Jersey berries began to flood the New York 
market, and they were immediately followed by 
heavy consignments from growers on the Hud- 
son and in the interior of the State. The prices 
realized have been from one to tliree cents a cup 
for extra fine river fruit, though in a great many 
instances smaller prices have been received. 
One shipper of 1,800 cups, after paying 7.5 cents 
freight per 100 quarts, 75 cents for picking, and 
10/ commission, received a check for only IjilS, 
and many producers of first class berries got 
even less. Heretofore it has been the custom 
to pay $1 per 100 cups for picking, l)ut only 75 
cents has been paid this year. In some in- 
stances better prices have been obtained, but 
the greater part of the berry growers will be ut- 
terly ruined unless peaohes and grapes bring 
nigher prices and are very abundant when their 
season comes. 



Cost of Moving Wheat. 

Ships are lying at rest in our harbor, because 
the grain is not coming forward in any amount. 
In New York bay steam vessels are running 
light of wheat and corn because there is little 
to come forward before the new crop comes in. 
At this time of rest we have thought a few 
moments might be profitably employed in look- 
ing up the rates which our Eastern prairie 
friends have to pay for moving their grain to 
Europe, and comparing this cost with that 
which our crop has to bear. Between Chicago 
and Liverpool, rates for grain have been lower 
than for a long time. The following is a state- 
ment of the freighting between these two points: 
There never has been a time when the cost 
of carrying from the Northwest to Liverpool 
was so low. Aside from the elevator charges 
at Buffalo and other port charges at New York, 
16^ cents per bushel covered 
the whole expense between 
Chicago and Liverpool. One 
and three-fourth cents for 
corn from Chicago to Buf- 
falo, four and one-half by 
canal from Buffalo to New 
York, and five pence from 
New York to Liverpool 
being recent rates. Last 
year, when lake rates were 
equally low and canal rates 
a cent or more higher, the 
ocean rates were nearly 
twice as high. These low 
prices were not caused by 
low prices of grain, requir- 
ing low freight rates to 
cause it to move, as is some- 
times the case, but by an 
absolute want of grain to 
forward. Prices are quite 
Miivi satisfactory, but the crops 
have been pretty nearly 
marketed, and the ship- 
~ ments from the Northwest 
and the arrivals at the sea- 
board are exceptionally 
light, not half as great as 
^^ last year (when the move- 
- ment was extraordinary 
^ heavy, however), and as 
light as the very light move- 
ment of 187.5. Probably no 
advance need be anticipated 
untU after harvest. If 
there is a heavy crop, of 
which there is a fair pros- 
pect, and prices continue 
high, then a heavy move- 
ment may set in next September, which will 
be likely to cause quite an advance in freights. 
At this port the rate of ocean freight to Liver- 
pool is quite nominal, from the lack of business 
doing. The list of disengaged vessels is increas- 
ing slowly. There is, however, a strong feel- 
ing from the expectation that the wheat will 
soon begin to move, and ships will be in de- 
mand. Taking the latest charter of which we 
arc advised, £2 7s, and it would make the rates 
per pound'of wheat about one-half cent. This 
is exclusive of port charges, commissions, etc. 
The rate per pound for the corn from Chicago 
as noted above would be one-fourth cent per 
pound, exclusive of local charges for handling 
on the way. Tlius it would appear that the 
prairie producers have the advantage of us of 
one-fourth cent in the cost of putting a pound 
of grain on the English market as prices are 
now running. When it is remembered that 
California wheat is now quotable from 6d. io 
lOd. higlier per cental than the Western wheat, 
it is discovered that our wheat can nearly stand 
the increased charges and thus kill the distance 
which exists between us and our market. 



OF LITCHFIELD, CONN. 



A Permanent Institution. — The San Fran- 
cisco IJuRAL Press just closed its l.'Uh half- 
yearly volume. The Press is now one of the 
permanent institutions of the country, and it is 
a paper no farmer should be without. Our 
farmers ought to read more, ought to inter- 
change views, and the Press furnishes them an 
excellent medium for this purpose. — Colusa Sun. 



18 



[July 14, 1877. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Alkaline Soils. 

Editors Press: — In my article on alkaline 
soils it was not my desire or intention to get 
into a controversy with Prof. Hilgard, because 
he is doing just what has long been needed, to 
enable us to more thoroughly reclaim them, by 
tfiving us an analysis of tho components which 
at present prevent the growth of desirable 
crops. I am satisfied that the specimens sent 
to him did not contain an average quantity of 
the caustic or alkaline salts contained in the 
alkaline spots which disfigure some of the most 
fruitful fields of Westminster colony, which 
fields having already produced a heavy crop of 
barley, are now growing a luxuriant croj) of 
corn. These spots are low, undrained ponds, 
which are now covered with an incrustation of 
a reddish, white alkali, of from one-fourth of 
an inch to an inch thick, which crackles under 
the foot like hoar frost. 1 have forwarded to 
Prof. HUgard what I consider an average spec- 
imen of alkalinesoil, which I think will be found 
on analysis to contain a much greater percent- 
age of the objectionable salts. 

It was hardly fair to ask him for an opinion 
regarding the treatment of these soils without 
his having a full understanding of the country 
and its peculiarities; this I propose to furnish 
in this paper. 

The Santa Ana Valley, 
\\Tiich extends from the hills to the sea coast, 
is mostly enclosed in a block of aliout 20 miles 
square, with an average fall of 13 feet to the 
mile from northeast to the southwest. The 
whole of this plain or valley has been formed 
from the deposits of the Santa Ana river, 
which has flowed over all parts of it; the evi- 
dences of this is found in numerous sand ridges 
or old channels which cross the valley in a 
southwesterly direction from the canyon 
through wliich the Santa Ana river pas.ses be- 
fore flowing out on the jilain. As all tlie 
heavy material brought down by the stream 
was deposited in its oed, these beds or chan- 
nels were raised into ridges from one to three 
or four feet above the swales which intervened 
between them. In time of Hoods or fresiiets 
these streams overflowed and deposited in the 
swales the rich mud wljich the water held in 
suspension, and in this m^ner t!ie stratum of 
rich soil of from four to eight feet in depth, 
which is found on the surface of these swales, 
was deposited. Below the soil is quicksand, in 
which the surface M'ater is found, and below 
that again is a heavy bed of pipe clay, from five 
to 100 feet thick, with the same seaward slope 
as the surface, ujion which the surface stratum 
of water Hows on its way to the sea. 

The sandy ridges when comjjosed of hne sand 
are productive, if of coarse sand are of little 
value; but the land immediately adjoining them 
in tho higher and better drained parts of the 
swales is very productive. The alkali land, if 
any is found in the lowest and worst drained 
part of the swales, where tiie water is not more 
than three to four feet from the surface at any 
time, and where in heavy rains the water 
stands on the surface in low spots until it is 
evaporated, and in this way is adding yearly 
to the large stock of alkali already accumulated. 
As these swales have an average fall of 13 feet 
to the mile, drainage is the obvious remedy, 
not by pipes or underdrains, but by open 
ditches, which cost but little to make. Farm- 
ers can afi'oril to supply labor in the way of 
drainage, because they generally have plenty to 
spare, and in Westminster colony they have 
plenty of water. With drainage and water 
they can wash out tho excess of alkali on the 
worst piece of land that they have in three 
months. The main trouble is the difficulty of 
adopting a general system of drainage; there are 
so many people who are always obstructives 
and like to play the role of "dog in the man- 
ger," won't do anything themselves, and do 
their utmost to prevent others from doing it. 
Tlieir public spirit is an "infinitessimal quan- 
tity." 

On lauds where the proportion (5f alkali is 
small. Prof. Hilgard's remedy of plaster is 
likely to be quite successful, as after one or 
two crops have been raised upon such lands the 
amount removed by each crop is sufficient to 
reclaim the land. Speaking of plaster or gyp- 
sum, 1 will state that we have considerable 
quantities of it in the hills on the north side of 
the valley, but it has never been utilized. 
Fruits. 

Our apple, pear, plum and cherry trees are 
out in bloom and leaf, and looking as hand- 
somely as I ever saw them. Peaches are also 
coming out, but show little or no sign of bloom. 
Some of the pears fruited early in the spring, 
and thus will Ijear two crops; and, speaking of 
double crops, I will state that there are four 
apple trees in an orchard in Anaheim which 
bear three crops of apples each year. When the 
first crop are half grown the tree blooms, and 
the second crop sets, and when the sec- 
ond crop is half grown the tree blooms 
again for the third crop, which ripens 



perfectly. The variety of apple I do not know, 
l)ut it is a round, deep red, and of medium size; 
this year they will raise only two crops, as they 
have missed the first one. This is not the only 
instance, as double crops are not unfrequent. 

The present prospect is that Los Angeles 
county will raise the largest com crop that she 
has ever produced, but nothing to what will be 
done in the future, when her resources for irri- 
gation have been developed. We want popula- 
tion—not more than 20% of our valley is farmed 
at all, and but little of that is farmed as it 
ouglit to be. With our great resources for the 
production fif alfalfa, corn, etc., this is the best 
stock and dairy county in the State. Our val- 
ley could easily sustain all the dairy cows in 
the State, and with our abundance of green 
feed they would make 40% more cheese and 
butter than they do on the lialf-dry pastures of 
the northern part of the State. Land is cheap 
and terms are easy. The rents paid for lands 
at the north will in four years buy land here. 
For transportation we have railroad and steam- 
ers competing with each other, and a pleasant, 
temperate climate, well known to be the health- 
iest in the world. Wm. R. Olden. 

Anaheim, Los Angeles Co., Cal. 



Taxation — Anothei View. 

Editoks Press: — When we reflect that odious 
taxation was the instigating motive to Colonial 
rebellion, and that nothing tends more than 
this to cool patriotic ardor and to induce alien 
feelings, our watchful concern should be to 
guard and forewarn against the perverting, rev- 
olutionary tendency of departure from known 
conservative principles. With this view I beg 
leave to present other aspects of this suljject and 
hope that my homiletic inferences may be re- 
garded as no more inappropriate than the horta- 
tory conclusion of the preacher's homily to its 
textual basis. Thus, all property values come 
under the definition of the intrinsic and the ex- 
trinsic, or the real, essential, inherent, in con- 
trast with the outward, extraneous. Thus all 
money or circulating mediums of value, or 
promises Im p.iy or l.i do aic of cxliiuni^j vjKic; 
('. e., the intrinsic value of gold and silver per- 
tains not to tho necessaries of life or to its men- 
tal or physical enjoyments, but to the sumptu- 
ous gratification of wealth and royal magnifi- 
cence and its glitter and pomp; and the bank 
note, note of hand and all record of promised 
obligation are only the intrinsic supplement to 
the match that lights your fire. The cowrie or 
shell money of Asia and Africa becomes of in- 
trinsic value by tlie process of the lime kiln. 
Again, labor and money in their legitimate func- 
tions are synonymous or equivalent terms. The 
waiting lal)or in the market and the lender's 
money perform the same function — have the 
same relation to the extrinsic and the intrinsic. 
Thus "time is money." So labor with time may 
take the long lever and patiently perform its 
quest. But money, with its multijilying and 
magnifying power, quickly, as with a short 
lever, performs the long lever task of labor and 
time. 

The laborer without employ and the money 
without investment perform tlie same extrinsic 
function, and for the time being are worth noth- 
ing. Then, suppose we invoke the power of the 
fabled genii, to transform our gold and silver 
coins and all their paper substitutes into work- 
ing fairies, standing for hire with human work- 
ers in the market— the employment office. 
Now note: all the intrinsic properties, which 
man's wit and labor produce, all of wliich we 
can have any knowledge or use in this life, are 
the result, directly or indirectly, of this human 
and fairy labor— its investment in all the mer- 
chantsells, in all the mechanic makes and ImLlds, 
in all the artificial productions of the earth, all 
that intelligence invents and demonstrates, in 
in all that man's wants must have or that am- 
bition or desire craves. It would seem that 
the unwarped conclusion would he that all the 
intrinsic investments of these laboring, produc- 
ing or inventing powers should be the j)roper 
subjects of taxation. None with money-mak- 
ing intent, private, individual or incorporate, 
should be exempt and none overburdened. 

We have county and State tax on ad valorem 
of real and personal property and on trading 
license. Second, on ad raloreni value of im- 
ports by the Federal Government. Third, in- 
come tax — a resort of war and other exigence. 
The income tax was the subject of odium and 
was discontinued. Hut our extremists recur to 
the income principle or something worse, in 
their tax on crops and the debtor's mortgage. 
The true principle of taxation is to favor and 
induce tlie emergence of untaxed powers into 
taxable values. But taxed crops fed to taxable 
stock and on money invested and the invest- 
ment is merging the taxable into the taxable — 
a double taxing, certainly. 

The pay of this investing human and fairy 
labor, as to high or low interest or wages, on 
credit or for cash, note, mortgage or unwritten 
pledge of honor, are all extraneous to this 
intrinsic investment — its taxable production. 
This is something curious. I may live on the 
rent of my farm, and pay the taxes thereon, 
not as an exceptional prerogative. But if 1 sell 
my farm on credit, with mortgaged security, 
and get no more in interest than by rent, I seem 



to excite the envy of some, and also the greed 
of the tax-gatherer — that is, the purchaser pays 
tax as I did, and I must also pay on his promise 
to me. If I had sold for cash my loan thereof 
would place the borrower and his security in 
the same category of the purchaser and his 
mortgage. The borrower may invest in land, or 
create personal taxables, or enhance taxable 
value on assessment of real estate. If mort- 
gages and promissory notes took par value with 
gold and silver, as mcmey medium, their rela- 
tion to extrinsic values would be somewhat 
changed, /. e., the accruing interest thereon 
would be the equivalent of the invested prof- 
its of the coin in prospect. 

Tax on money may be called a "dead-head" 
process, may be regarded as a punishment to 
the hoarder for his non-investment. It would 
be a decadent source of revenue that had its 
basis in uninvested money. Hoarding justifies 
itself, by expectant high rates of interest, or 
by evading the Assessor's scrutiny, or by the 
secreting resorts of the miser. The taxing 
power should encourage the investment of 
money and labor, though not by taxing and 
irritating their creating processes. Taxes on 
crops and promises to pay is as taxing the 
chickens yet under incubating contingencies. 

Money is truly said to be a "power," and so 
it is. But with the world and man as he is, its 
investing power is more to do wrong in corrupt- 
ing self-gratification and avaricious intent than 
to conserve the principles of liberty and the 
right, and as such should be more under re- 
straint of law than now obtains, and in this re- 
spect we have departed from the conservation 
of past principles; its maxim by the fathers is: 
"To preserve the blessings of liberty it is neces- 
sary to recur frequently to fundamental prin- 
ciples. " But to this we are averse. No money 
in slavery would have advocated any war about 
it. Money — wealth — its power tends not to 
conservation. Our committal to its acquisition, 
with all its patent office facilities and help from 
prophetic increase of knowledge, may intluce 
the need of some chastening destiny more re- 
formatory in its eflTect than was the late civil 
war. 

Though there can be no benefit in a hostile 
contest between capital or money and labor, as 
money employs labor and labor invests capital, 
yet we find that the present rate of interest 
here, say 12 ' per annum, is far more than labor, 
with rare exceptions, can and does realize in 
agricultural investment or the diverse process 
of bread-making. Thus 12 / on land and all 
the needful investments and appliances of pro- 
duction, with taxes, will reduce profits or clear 
gain from 6% down to nothing. Money only 
pays its 10% and 12% to the merchant and the 
established mechanic. The lender's motive is 
not the outside pressure of the "balance of 
trade," but the "last feather to the camel," or 
all the laboring borrower in obviation of greater 
evil can afford to give. They heed more the 
cry of the horse-leach's two daughters, give, 
give, than the beneficent whisper of mercy to 
do to others as we would they should do to us. 
Scarcity of money is more a want of confidence 
than a want of coin. It is the revulsion of 
commercial panic. In alarm the snail draws in 
his horns. So with the money lender. Mercy 
is not an attribute of Mammon, nor is his ser- 
vice discouraged by the transformation of three 
billions of national debt into banking and trad- 
ing stock, and this magnified bj' that abundance 
of gold and silver that proposes demonetizingly 
to degrade silver into the category of bar and 
pig iron. C. M. 

Petaluma, Cal. 

Hay Yield in Suisun Valley. 

Editors Press: — I promised you a correct 
report of the yield of hay from a certain 40-acre 
field in Suisun valley, the property of Lewis 
Pierce. Here it is: 145 tons were baled and 
weighed, less only a few pounds, and, as nearly 
as could lie estimated without weighing, 20 tons 
of loose hay was taken to the barn. Now, it 
may be of interest to your readers how it was 
possible to raise such a crop of hay this dry 
year, without irrigation. It was in this 
way: Four years ago this coming fall, Mr. 
Pierce took off of it 80 tons of large yellow corn. 
That fall it was sown with chevalier barley, 
put in same as on summer fallow. The result 
that season was 80 tons of barley. The next 
year 50 tons of barley was taken from it, a vol- 
unteer crop without any expense of seeding, 
cultivating, or harrowing — only pasturing, 
which was carried on (juite extensively also 
last spring. After such treatment, came the 
lt)5 tons of barley hay this season, which is con- 
sidered pretty good for a dry season, although 
some others of the wheat and barley fields in this 
valley will compare favorably, and some proba- 
bly excel, what I tell you of this field of hay. 
Now, how about this "abnormal condition of 
fruit trees ?" A. T. H.\tlh. 

Cordelia, Solano County, Cal. \ 



Weather AND Macnetism.— Father Secchi, 
writing to a friend in Belgium, alludes in strik- 
ing terms to the remarkable connection be- 
tween the magnetism of the earth and the 
changes of the weather. He says that the va- 
riations shown by the magnetic instruments are 
themselves sufficient to indicate the state of the 
sky. Even where there is no great movement 
of the barometer, following such magnetic dis- 
turbances, there are, especially in summer, 
changes of the wind and sometimes storms. 



Hoi\TicdLTJ»\E. 



The Fruit Tree Phenomena. 

Editors Pbess: — As we all have our theories 
concerning the failure of many of our fruit trees 
ia southern California to start leaves and blos- 
soms in their seasons, I will maintain mine 
untU convinced to the contrary by what I con- 
sider sound reasoning. For some 20 years the 
raising of fruit and fruit trees has been my 
business. Somewhat over eight years I have been 
here, and I know that the apple, pear, peach 
and plum do not come out as promptly any 
year as they do in the more northern counties, 
but in wet seasons here our trees start more 
freely than in dry ones. 

Since the foggy weather commenced the 
trees are beginning to grow, and now there are 
more blooms on the apple and plum trees than 
at any other time. Some of the peach trees I 
think are dead and past recovery. Some say 
it was the hot weather that made the trees start. 
V)ut I contend the moisture on the trees is just 
as necessary as to have the roots kept wet. The 
dry weather we have had nearly all of the time 
during the ^-inter and spring, could do little 
more than keep the bark and buds so dry that 
the sap coidd not flow. 

Some think that seedling trees are exempt 
from such "puU-backs," but I contend not, as 
I have had much experience in that line and 
now have several hundred of seedling trees 
growing and some of them are even more stub- 
born than the grafte<l varieties. I will admit 
that the old seedling peach of southern Cali- 
fornia may be an exception, as I consider it one 
of the hardiest of our fruit trees and different in 
variety from any I ever saw in more northern 
latitudes, but of very inferior quality generally. 

I brought peach seeds of best varieties from 
I>ake county in 1869, from which I raised some 
of the most promising looking seedlings I ever 
saw, and I transplanted the most promising, 
thinking I would get some new varieties which 
would excel, but a large part of them refused 
to start in season and I was compelled to dig 
most of them up or bud them over to varieties 
that would grow. I saved one tree which came 
out more promptly than the rest, and which 
proved to be the best peach of its season I have, 
and not excelled by any I know. I also have 
some fine varieties of seedling apples. With 
few exceptions my seedling trees are no earlier 
in starting than the grafted. 

Some varieties of the grafted apple trees 
come out more promptly and among them the 
Yellow BellHower is about the first to start, and 
one of the best for this region. None of our 
deciduous fruit trees, except the fig, are in full 
foliage this season, and on some trees there are 
more specimens of fruit than leaves; but in 
such cases the fruit is inferior. No season since 
living here have I seen all of the trees so full 
of leaves and evenly distributed as further 
north, but we have had good fruit and the trees 
thrifty. 80 we will await the result. 

O. N. C A DWELL. 

Carpinteria, Cal., June 27th. 

The Trees in Solano County. 

Editors Pp.e.ss: — One hundred Columbia 
plum trees were well supplied with fruit 
buds for a crop this season. They produced a 
blossom now and then and a few leaves, most 
of the branches remaining nude as in winter 
time. Now those branches are beginning to 
blossom and leave; some are quite full of 
bloom. The most singular fact of it is this: 
some of the Columbia grafts were put in the 
branches, and some branches of the original 
grafted fruit allowed^to grow; such branches are 
in full leaf and laden with plums of proper size 
for their kinds at this time of year. Some 
wise man will tell you all about why this is 
thus; may be Bob IngersoU. All the data 
I can give them for a starter amounts to this: 
no irrigation; no scarcity of water; no late 
frosts; some warm, early rains; much early 
frost after early rains and swelling 
buds; the wood and bark in an apparently 
healthy condition; good cultivation and plenty 
of it. A. T. Hatch. 

Cordelia. Solano County, Cal. 



Freak of Nature. 



Editors Press: — I send you a clipping from 
an English paper, which will show you that the 
peculiar proceedings of fruit trees in California 
this season are possibly due to influences that 
are cosmical rather that local. If we are suffer- 
iug from drouth, no one would characterize as 
"dry" the winter weather so graphically de" 
scribed in your paper lately by Mr. Sheldon, of 
Ashbourne, Derbyshire, England. As I said in 
my last letter to you, we suff'er so much from 
ignorance. We are surrounded by influences, 
such, for example, as magnetism, which, though 
at present occult, are forces that will no doubt 
some day be as fuUy understood and controlled 
as the various forms of water-power now are. 1 
have no fear now for the lives of my fruit trees. 
Some plum trees are now in full blow; apples 
and cherry in bloom, aud with fruit in almost 
all stages; pears full of fruit and thriving; 
peaches, fruit as large as large walnuts, and 
leaf buda just opening. The domuutt buds in 



July 14, 1877.] 



19 



peach trees budded last year, that I had given 
up for lost, are now shooting vigorously. 

Edw. Berwick. 

Carmel V alley, July 5th. 

The English Phenomena. 

The foUovifing is the extract to which Mr- 
Berwick alludes ; The Gardeners'' Chronicle 
gives a dismal account of the present "spring." 
The growing shoots of such things as common 
laurels, aucubas, are in many places near Lon- 
don blackened and destroyed. The ripe berries 
of the aucuba have changed their gay livery of 
brilliant red for the mournful black. Roses 
show crippled and curled leaves; many of which 
conceal a worm in the bud. The beautiful 
Diebjtra spectabilk, usually a model of grace 
and elegance, sends up its spindly flower-stems 
— a mere mockery of its usual state. Mijosotis 
dissitiflora — a plant which generally excites the 
enthusiasm, not only of floral scribes, but of 
those who have less experience and weaker 
appreciation of spring flowers — was this year 
blasted in its beauty by frosts. Tender-leaved 
limes, Norway maples, and some of the choicer 
acers, such as Schweidleri, have had their young 
leaves torn to shreds. The prudent ash has 
scarcely opened its buds this year, long behind 
the tardiest oak, at least in the district from 
which we write; Robinia j^seud-acaeia is even 
later — its buds have only now begun to move; 
and the same may be said of those of Ailantiis 
glandulosa. Euonymus Japonica is not much 
hurt, but Elceaynus Japonica is sorely crippled. 
The species of Philadelphu.i are unhurt, and the 
beautiful Nepalese Biiddleia. rjlobom is fortu- 
nately unharmed. The common Mahonia has 
not suffered, but the lovely Berberis utenopliylla 
has been hardly the ghost of its usual self. 
Lilacs and laburnums have offered mere sugges- 
tions of their usual beauty, while the blossoms 
of the horse chestnut are small- and have an 
unusually starved appearance. Pear blossoms lie 
scattered on the ground, withered, blackened, 
dead. Cherries are not much better. Plums 
have made a better stand. Peach blossoms are 
nowhere, and their leaves are shriveled and 
screwed up in some places, and swollen and 
reddened in others, as if they had rheumatic 
gout; but no, it is only peach blister in an 
aggravated form; so that, though there will be 
plenty of blister, there will be no peaches. 
Gooseberries and currants are not hurt, and 
strawberries promise fairly. Of early peas and 
potatoes, the less said the better; indeed, there 
is not much left to be spoken of. From various 
parts of the country we get similar unfavorable 
reports. 

Notes on Oranges and Lemons. 

Where the orange first grew is not certainly 
known. Some classic commentators suppose 
the golden apples of the Hesperides were oran- 
ges. Sir Walter Raleigh brought the first or- 
ange tree to England. At Hampton Court 
there are said to be some 300 years old. At 
Cordova, in Spain, the seat of the ancient 
Moorish grandeur, there are orange trees (JOO 
or 700 years old. 

"Mr. E. H. Hart, of Federal Point, "says the 
Florida Atp-iciiltiiriM, "has a variety of oranges 
that does not begin to ripen until April, at 
which time the crop has all been disposed of. 
The fruit is of a medium size, firm, and juicy, 
an excellent shipping orange. We already have 
a species of orange that ripen.s in August, and 
it is only necessary to get others to till up the 
gaps and we will have this delicious fruit all 
the year round." 

The Loudon Farmer has note of the contin- 
ued disaster which overhangs the Sicily groves. 
It says: "For nearly ten years pa.st the orange 
and lemon plantations of Italy, and more es]ie- 
cially of Sicily, have been ravaged by a disease 
known as the 'mal de gomme' or the 'cagna,' 
and the losses occasioned by it have recently 
become so serious as to cause considerable anx- 
iety to the growers, and even to the Italian 
government. The trade in these fruits is one 
of great importance to the country, tlie annual 
exports for some years having averaged more 
than 800,000 cwt., and the constantly increas- 
ing depredations of the disease are naturally 
viewed with much alarm. A commission of 
botanists, chemists, and agriculturists was ap- 
pointed by the government in 1868 to inquire 
into the cause of the disease, and to suggest a 
means of exterminating it, but their combined 
labors have failed to discover the one or the 
other. Help from any quarter on these points 
will be gladly welcomed and is cordially invit- 
ed, while a royal decree has just been publish- 
ed, offering a prize of 2.5,000 livres to the in- 
ventor of any practical and effectual method of 
preventing the further spread of the disease, 
and treating the plantations already attacked." 



l^E B\i^X' 



Dairy Rooms. 

We have received from the publishers. Porter 
& Coates, of 822 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, 
a neat pamphlet entitled "Butter and Butter- 
Making," by Willis P. Hazard, President of the 
Chadd's Ford Farmers' Club. It is published 
at the nominal price of 25 cents, and is certainly 
worth the money. It gives the method pursued 
by those butter makers who supply the Phila- 
delphia market with the "print butter" which 
reaches the high prices. Although written for 
Eastern dairymen and fitted to Eastern condi- 



tions there are many suggestive points for but- 
ter makers eveiywhere. We quote a few para- 
graphs on the care and fitting up of dairy 
rooms : 

Everything must be removed that will impart 
impure odors or taint the atmosphere of the 
dairy room, and thus injure the butter. The 
shoes of the dairyman should be removed when 
coming from the barnyard, and exchanged out- 
side the spring-house door for another pair kept 
there for the purpose. Otherwise it would be 
impossible to prevent carrying in sufficient filth 
to tamt the atmosphere and communicate it to 
the milk. Another source of injury to the taste 
of butter is the imperceptible odor from kero- 
sene lamps, which have often to be used in the 
dairy house. This can be obviated by having 
the lamps set in sockets, and a pipe leading out- 
side placed over the top of the chimney, which 
will carry off the odors. Or a box containing 
the lamp and reflectors can be so constructed, 
either built in the wall with glass front on the 
inside of the house and opened only from the 
outside, or arranged in the window. It should 
project on the outside iu either case, so as to be 
readily reached from the outside, and should 
have a pipe for the exit of the smoke. It is 
most important to have pure air, and that the 
milk room be clean, cool, dry, airy and well 
ventilated. The temjserature should range 
about 60 to 65 degrees, never higher than the 
latter and not lower than 55 degrees, as cream 
separates best in a cool place. Milk set and 
kept at a temperature of 40 degrees, will not 
sour, and the cream will become bitter before it 
is fit to skim. If the milk is set to rise in a hot 
room at a temperature of 7U to 72 degrees, it 
will very soou become sour and thick, will not 
yield so much cream, and will make soft, oily 
butter, which will soon become rancid. The 
dairy should front the north, and be shaded by 
trees, so as to admit the light and air, as light 
is necessary to develop color in cream, but ex- 
clude the sunshine and the heat. Evergreens 
are the best for this purpose, as they cool the 
atmosphere in summer and warm it in winter. 

In many of the Western States where the 
ground is not so rolling and hilly as some more 
favored regions with 8])rings, a good spring- 
house can be made near a well, which will be 
very convenient and nearer the house than the 
spring might happen to be. The ground may 
be excavated about four feet, by some 12 feet 
scjuare, and a solid stone wall two feet thick 
laid in cement, and four feet high. The floor 
inside is laid in cement at the bottom of tlie 
excavation, slightly inclining to one corner, for 
complete drainage and washing. The wall is 
built up full width, four feet, and then an oSset 
of 18 inches is made to the rear, or outside, 
where the wall is carried up two feet higher, 
but only six inches thick, to form the founda- 
tion of the frame superstructure; on this is 
built a balloon frame with eight-feet posts, 
boarded outside and in, and the wall made as 
tight as jjossible. Upon the ledge created by 
the offset, a narrow wall, about four inches high 
and wide, is made on tlie front edge of this 
ledge, by wliich, being well plastered with the 
cement, a gutter or vat is made some four inches 
deep, and ot course .32 inches wide, with a 
slight descent to the corner opposite to that 
where tlie water is introduced. luto this vat 
the fresh milk is set while warm, and cold 
water conducted to it from the well. The milk 
cools rapidly and a low temperature is main- 
tained through the night. At each milking the 
pans are removed to the shelves or on the ce- 
ment floor ill the center, to make room for the 
fresh milk. The water can be pumped into a 
trough wliich will carry the water to the dairy 
house any distance it may be placed from the 
house; but the nearer the better, so tliat the 
water shall not warm in its passage. If it is. in- 
troduced in the center of one side, the gutter 
should slope both ways to the corners, and 
following the sides, be allowed to escape at 
either far corner through a pipe built in the ce- 
ment. These escapes should be furnished with 
plugs to hold the water, so as to allow it to be 
changed once or twice daily. 




Food for Milch Cows. 

The Superintendent of the New Hampshire 
Agricultural College, says the Western Rm-al, 
has completed some interesting and important 
experiments on food for cows, in which it was 
ascertained that in feeding bran to cows in lot 
No. 1, and corn-meal to cows in lot No. 2, the 
cows fed with corn-meal gave the most milk, or 
the greater increase, and decidedly more and 
better butter; also that they were kept in bet- 
ter condition, as shown by the scales. 

The food was reversed for March. The cows 
tliat had corn-meal for February were fed on 
bran for March. Lot 1 on corn-meal and lot 2 
on bran. 

Yield of lot 1 for March, 36 11-31 pounds milk 
per day. 

Yield of lot 2 for March, 31 16-31 pounds'mdk 
per day. 

[jot 2 lost .05 more than lot 1. 

Lot 1 made from 175 5-16 pounds milk, 6j 
j)ounds butter. 

Lot 2 made from 17H| pounds of milk, 5^ 
pounds butter. 

Weight lot 1, April .3d, 2,0.56. 

Weight lot 2, April 3d, 2,1 17. 

AVeiglit lot 1, March .3d, 1,900. 

Weiglit lot 2, March 1st, 2,024. 

That the comparative effect of the two foods 
on the butter product may be seen, he gives the 
amount of milk required under the changes to 
make one ounce of butter. 



Lot 1 for February, on bran, required 33.2 
ounces milk to make one ounce butter. 

Lot 1 for March, on meal, required 28.5 ounces 
milk to make one ounce butter. 

Lot 2 for February, on meal, required 29.2 
ounces milk to make one ounce butter. 

Lot 2 for March, on bran, required 32.4 ounces 
milk to make one ounce butter. 

The Superintendent has also been testing the 
yield of cream, and with two lots of 112 quarts 
each of milk, set under like circumstances, as 
regards temperature and quality of milk, the 
milk being mixed and divided, one-half after the 
old method, in shallow, open pans, the other in 
Hardin's deep and closed pans, the milk being 
strained into the cans at once, warm, and the 
cans closed. 

One hundred and twelve quarts milk in open 
pans gave 8 pounds and 10 4-10 ounces but- 
ter. 

One hundred and twelve quarts of milk in 
deep cans closed, gave 8 pounds and 13 ounces 
butter. 



M. Etre, Jr., Napa, Cal., Corresponding Editor of this 
Department, 



Tobacco as a Chicken Medicine. 

Editors Pres.s: — Have any of your readers 
ever tried tobacco as a cure for sick chickens ? 
I tried it, having seen it recommended in the 
poultry department of a book, entitled "Pur- 
don's Veterinary Hand Book." It runs as 
follows: 

"A coiTCSpondent to the Gardeners' Chronicle, 
February 15th, 1861), gave the following account 
of his experience regarding the effects of tobacco 
as a remedy for ailments in poultry. We may 
mention that his statements as to the curative 
effects of tobacco were subsequently corrobo- 
rated by other correspondents of that journal. 
Speaking to the wife of a working bailiff, who 
had been a successful raiser of fowls, I asked 
what plan she adopted when tliey were sickly. 
She quickly made answer: ' I give them a quid 
of tobacco.' She further stated, 'I have 
adopted tlie plan with success for 10 years.' I 
then inquired why she gave it and the quantity 
administered, to which she replied: 'I had 
noticed that when my husband was mopish and 
out of sorts, that if he took a large ' quid ' of 
tobacco, he soon came round, and the thought 
occurred to me that it might relieve my fowls, 
which it always does; so, whenever I see any 
of them out of sorts, I give them a piece of 
tobacco as large as from the end of my thumb 
to the first joint.' Y^ou can judge my surprise 
as a medical man, when I state that I have 
seen a like quantity destroy life in a human 
being. Now for the sequel. In the autumn of 
last year I purchased some prize fowls, and one 
of them a month since became sickly. I gave 
the old woman's remedy — a piece of tobacco the 
size of the first joint of my thumb (/. c, .30 
grains). It had a most speedy and singular 
effect upon it. In two minutes there was a 
little staggering, accompanied by a peculiar 
twitching of the tail, which gradually became 
straight with the back and ultimately trailed 
on the ground. In 20 minutes the fowl appeared 
quite well and has continued so. This morn- 
ing my man, as usual, let out the fowls aud 
gave tliem some barley, but tlie cock bird 
appeared very sickly and disinclined to eat. 
He stood with his mouth slightly opened and 
wings hanging down. He refused to eat bread 
or anything. As this state had lasted three or 
four hours, I looked down his throat, which 
appeared healthy, and he had nothing in his 
crop. I then gave him the " quid " of tobacco 
(/. e. , 30 grains. ) In two or three minutes he 
appeared weak and his tail began to drop 
slightly. He than sat down under a tree and 
remained quiet about five minutes. I then 
walked to him, when he got up and in a few 
minutes commenced pecking some corn, and in 
a quarter of an hour from the first taking of the 
tobacco, he appeared quite well and began to 
crow most lustily, although he had not made 
the slightest effort before during the morning, 
which was very unusual, as he frequently 
crows when well. To see him now, 24 hours 
after the dose of tobacco, performing his accus- 
tomed duties, no one would scarcely believe he 
had taken so potent a remedy. I do not pro- 
fess to give the modus operandi, but, as it acts 
like a charm, it is worth knowing." 

Having read the above, I resolved to try it 
on the first opportunity offered. A young cock, 
about six months old, fell ill. His head turned 
black, his feathers all ruffled up and he appeared 
blind and stupid, and seemed to wish to push 
his beak along in front of him on tlie ground. 
When I picked him up, he was under the 
horse's feet and was in imminent danger of 
being trodden on, but he did not seem to see 
them or inc. I gave him about as nearly as 
possilile the dose recommended, and then laid 
him down, as it liappened, but not intentionally, 
near a water puddle. I went off and left him. 
In about five minutes I passed that way again 
and found him lying on his side and drinking 
vigorously, but .apparently he wa.s still blind, 
for if he did not happen to drop his head into 
the water, he would suck at the damji ground 
as if his beak were in Vater. About 10 minutes 
later he got up and retired to the chicken 
house, and I thought no more of it until I hap- 



pened to meet him walking about ab. ,0 

hours later in perfect health and in company 
with other fowls. In due course of time he 
came to the table as fat and healthy a bird as 
any of his mates. Let others try this and 
report their experience. Cirencester. 



^F^BOI\ICyLTJB^E. 



The Catalpa Tree as a Wind Break. 

Editors Press:— The vicinity of Philadelphia 
is to-day made beautiful by the catalpa, which 
is in full bloom, the trees being covered by one 
mass of elegant flowers. A Mr. Isaac Burk has 
been doing excellent service by a series of papers 
on the plants of our grand park, in whose area 
of 3,000 acres, diversified by various altitudes, 
exposure, and conditions of soil, a great variety 
of plants find congenial habitat. 'These botani- 
cal papers, published in our most popular local 
paper, the Public Ledger, are doing a good 
work in educating our people, and the park is a 
charming school for Mr. Burk's pupils. 

I subjoin Mr. Burk's notice of the catalpa, 
and urge Californians to secure the seed and 
plant it, for it is a very rapid grower, its wood is 
very lasting, (I had a gate-post on my farm 
which had been planted 30 years, and was sound 
when I took it up to change the location) and 
propagates itself very freely. The seed can be 
had cheaply of Mr. Thos. Meehan, German- 
town, Philadelphia, or Messrs. D. Landreth & 
Sons, Philadelphia. The following is the article 
referred to: 

"Every one who visits the park at this season 
of tlie year must admire the showy flowers of 
the catalpa tree, Catalpa Bignonioides. This 
appears to be a native of the South, where it is 
abundant, but it is thoroughly naturalized in 
this neighborhood, principally along the rivers 
and streams where the soil is rocky. It belongs 
to the natural order Bignoniacea-, (the trumpet 
flowers) and was named by Linn*us Bignonia 
catalpa, but the flowers, instead of being trum- 
pet-shaped, are somewhat bell-shaped, with a 
very irregular border, and it was afterwards 
made a separate genus. The flowers are white, 
beautifully blotched with yellow and purple, 
and have but two perfect stamens, two others 
being smaller and without stamens. The fruit 
is in the form of a bean, long and nearly cylin- 
drical, and contains numerous small winged 
seeds. The order is principally tropical, where 
the species are very numerous and showy, and 
but few are found in the United States." 

Horace J. Smith. 

St. George's Hill, Philadelphia. 

Insects Eating Oak Buds. 

A writer for the Modesto Herald gives an in- 
teresting item concerning the oak buds of Stan- 
islaus county, but we do not think there is 
ground for the analogy he draws between these 
facts and the fruit tree troubles. He writes: 
In the Rural Press of June 16th is a com- 
plaint of the "Fruit Trees of Santa Barbara" 
as to general behavior, aud the writer asked for 
the causes of their behavior, viz. : a lack of 
leaves, of fruit and of downcast buds. Now, 
in this vicinity there is to some extent the same 
complaint. Apricots were slow and but few 
upon the trees, and there is complaint of the 
plum crop. Also, there is complaint of the al- 
monds. But these apparently similar showings 
are not what induces me to drop you these lines, 
but that upon the oaks at the foothills I have no- 
ticed that the leaves upon one class of trees, 
mostly those that assimilate to the white oak 
of the East, had a backset just as the tree went 
injo blossom. The buds opened and put out 
that soft and tender green that always rejoices 
the eye at the promise of the coming verdure 
and the flowering hillsides. But here they 
stopped, and in a few days it was evident that 
the leaves were dying or drying up, while the 
weather was not hot and the grass beneath was 
green and growing. Now, as to the cause for 
all this, upon close examination it was seen 
that a species of caterpillar common to the oak 
was literally devouring the fresh buds off the 
trees. As far as the drouth has extended I 
hear of this jiest. The yellow oak or brash, 
crooked-limbed variety, did not fare so badly, 
as most every one of these has a swarm or 
ne.st of ants within, without aud all about them. 
Between these hal)itants and the caterpillars 
there was a vigorous war, and possibly they 
protected their homesteads; if so, they ought 
to have a patent. 

These oaks, like the Santa Barbara trees, are 
slowly recovering and putting out new leaves 
continually, ahd by the f.all will have recovered. 
It may be that upon examination an insect will 
be found in the body or bark of the trees com- 
plained of. They may be imiierceptible to the 
naked eye. Many in this vicinity did not no- 
tice that the trees were swarmed with the cat- 
erpillar until told of it. 



A New Phylloxera Remedy. -Proto- 
chloride of sulphur will convert an ordinary 
drying oil into an clastic solid. A volatile 
liquid added to the oil at the same time as the 
protochloride, will be inclosed in the resulting 
solid, from which it can escape only very 
slowly. Mr. Mercier has confined in this way 
as much as 70% of bisulphide of carbon, and he 
proposes to employ this ingenious device in 
checking the ravages of the phylloxera. 



20 



[July 14, 1877. 




Correspondence cordially invited from all Patrons for this 
department. 



THE HEADQUARTEBS of the California State 
Grange are in the Grangers' liuildinjj, northeast comer of 
Califoniia and Da\ is Streets, over the Grangers' Bank of 
California and California Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Association. Master, J. V. Webster; Secretarj-, Amos 
Adams. . . 

The Grangers' Business Association of California is m 
Davis Street, northeast corner of California. 



Worthy Lecturer's Visits. 

Editors Press: — On the morning of the 25th 
of June we left Tulare City by stage for Glen" 
ville, 60 miles distant. Our road lay across the 
most desert looking plains of Tulare county 
until reaching Tule river, at Porterville, 25 
miles from Tulare, over what is called the Hog 
Wallow country. We can see no redemption 
for t.his section but in irrigation, and most 
unfortunately there are not streams of water 
enough to irrigate one-fourth of it. The stock 
men of this country, over-anxious to get rich, 
for some years past have so far overstocked 
these plains with sheep that not a vestige of 
pasture is left, and in seeking pasture elsewhere 
they must of necessity lose by far the greater 
portion of them, so that the business of herding 
on these plains must die out and give way to 
farming by the settlers or farmers who have the 
courage to stay in the country. About Porter- 
ville there is considerable irrigation, and crops 
look well, but from Porterville to the Kern 
county line, at White river, nothing grows, and 
not a vestige is left of pasturage. We arrived 
at White river about .5 o'clock r. m., when, 
there being no stage further, we rode with a 
farmer eight miles into the Kern county hills, 
and there met a Granger on horseback, who 
most hospitably invited us to his home, three 
miles distant, over a narrow and rocky trail; 
but nothing daunted, we accepted the ofi'er, and 
riding partly and walking the balance of the 
way, we made the home of Bro. Woodey, of 

Linn's Valley Grange, 
Whence after a comfortable night's rest, we next 
day, in company in Bro. Woodey, reached Glen- 
ville af 10 a. m. There being a large assembly 
present, we addressed the open meeting in the 
school-house for about an hour, and a more 
attentive or interested audience it has not been 
our fortune to find. We then adjourned to 
Grange hall, a building built and owned by 
Linn's Valley Grange, where a feast of every 
good thing was prepared, after which we again 
repaired to the said school-house and we ad- 
dressed them for one hour and a (juarter 
longer on the vital Grange questions of this 
hour and day. We received congratulations 
from everybody present, and were taken care of 
by Bro. Pascoe, and after partaking of his hos- 
pitality till the next morning, we were provided 
with a span of horses and a light wagon, and in 
charge of Bro. Lindsay, were taken acro.<is the 
Kern county hills and plains to Bakerstield, 40 
miles distant. It was a most interesting ride, 
but through the very desert hills of Kern 
county, to cross which we had to take both 
food and water. Ujjon arriving at Bakerstield, 
we came upon the great irrigation works of 
Kern river, and there was a great contrast be- 
tween them and the desert we had just passed 
over. Bakerstield is situated upon the Kern 
plains, which plains, though called desert lands, 
are made to blossom with every production 
known to a semi-tropical climate, by virtue of 
the large irrigation scheme of the Kem mver 
irrigation companies. It would be more of a 
task than we can undertake to describe the 
magnitude and success of these companies, who 
have 80 far redeemed these desert lands that 
were worthless without water, to be worth from 
$25 to .flOO per acre; but to realize this fact all 
wishing to know what can be done here must 
visit for tliemselves and be their own judges of 
the same. 

Here we found the Granges in 
Bakersfield 
And vicinity, not dead but in a Rip VanWinkle 
sleep; so we took the trouble to ride round and 
visit enough of the sleeping Grangers to get up 
a meeting, which consisted in, first, a fine lunch 
at one o'clock r. m. — lecture at two o'clock r. m. 
and a Grange meeting at four o'clock r. m. , with 
such a revival as to cause seven additions by 
card and three by application, with called meet- 
ings for election of oflicers and promises of 20 
or more new candidates at the next meeting. 
Our discouragement was turned into joy, and 
our faith in the new Grange work more fully 
confirmed, and going with Brother Jewett to 
his most comfortable home we were most hos- 
pitably entertained. At four o'clock next morn- 
ing we were again taken in a carriage to Sum- 
ner, and there in time to take the cars for 

Tehichlpa, 
Bid our kind brother and Bakersfield adieu, to 
again meet our published appointments. Leav- 
ing Sumner we pass over the orange plains of 
Kem county and soon begin our ascent of the 
Sierras to reach the summit of the Tehichipa 
pass, to ascend which we jjass over what is 
called the "cork-screw," a magnificent feat of 
civil engineering, where to effect an easy grade 
the track makes a helix of nine miles to make 



one mile in distance, but thereby reaches an 
altitude proportioned to the distance run. Thus 
for 20 miles or more does the road-bed circle up 
the mountains, crossing in one place its own 
track but at a much greater altitude, until it 
reaches the Tehichipa summit, at an altitude of 
4,000 feet above tide water. Here is the Te- 
hichipa station, where hacks from the two ho- 
tels carry one to the little farming and mining 
town of the same name and three miles distant 
from the railroad station, nestled in the midst 
of a beautiful valley. Here is a climate unsur- 
passed for comfort and health, being no place 
for jihysicians to emigrate to, and here is our 
appointment for Saturday, June .30th, to talk to 
the two Granges located in this beautiful mount- 
ain home. Here, as at Bakersfield, being still 
more remote from Grange headquarters, and 
there not having ever been sent to them any 
State officer to visit them, we found them like 
ISIioawber, waiting for some new Grange inter- 
est to arrive and wake them to new life and 
vigor. Kemembering their zeal of former days, 
a meeting house was at once obtained, a tiirie 
set for meeting, and all other meetings giving 
way for the Grange cause, we were soon found 
addressing not only (Grangers but citizens of all 
classes, on the novel objects, aims and purposes 
of this great reform, both socially, materially, 
legislatively and financially, with an effect that 
our (irange talk can only produce — leaving this 
beautiful settlement not only waked up but 
ready to go to work on our new issues with a 
redoubled vigor — and such must be the case 
with every farmer who becomes acquainted with 
the present practical work of the new Grange 
movement, especially so when he sees so much 
to be accomplished thereby, not only for his own 
personal benefit, but for the farm and labor el- 
ement of the State. 

B. PiLKiNOTON, State Lecturer. 
Tehichipa, June .SOth, 1877. 



Women in the Grange. 

Editors Press: — Stray thoughts have been 
floating through my brain for some time, but 
extreme heat, incapacitating for any mental or 
physical labor and household cares, have hith- 
erto prevented my trying to shape them into 
words. Then, too. I feel that my 0} inions can 
be of litUc i.iip,.! tauce on grave qucotioiis. 
Still, freedom to express and compare our views 
is not only a pleasure, but should be a means 
of advancing the truth. Much as I would like 
to hear the weighty argiunents Flora Kimball 
could no doubt present could I assume a nega- 
tive position, I can but express my most can- 
did convictions, and believe the issue between 
us to be more apparent than real, my views 
on woman's rights and true position probably 
differing but little from her own. When I ven- 
ture the prophecy that woman will seldom fill 
the most responsible positions in the Grange, I 
simply infer that man, on account of liis greater 
size and strength, as well as his greater free- 
dom from domestic care, will in the future, as 
in all ages past, continue to occupy the most 
prominent position in the world's affairs. Nor 
do I think equality was proclaimed in the 
Grange for any unworthy end. Simply that the 
Grange ritual was made by men who, desiring 
to be both just and generous, were so uncon- 
sciously biased by long prejudice they could 
think of no oflice suited to woman's capacity ex- 
cept those I consider purely complimentary. 
Why was not an ofiice created to be filled by a 
Matron entitled by virtue of that office to be a 
member of the State (i range? That would have 
been a new departure; as it is, the very com- 
mon sentiment is expressed that we shine by 
borrowed light. 

I am well convinced no class of men in the 
world are as ready to welcome women to new 
fields of usefulness and dignity, as are our 
worthy fanner husbands and brothers. 1 be- 
lieve, too, none others do as nearly accord her 
her rightful position. No class of people share 
more equally life's burdens and joys, or have 
more unity of aims and interests than the 
farmer and his family. As the farmer rises in 
the scale of social and political infiueuce, so will 
the farmer's wife, until she may reach an eleva- 
tion from which she can lend a helping hand to 
her sisters, still toiling slaves of fashion and 
that false public sentiment that judges wo- 
man's worth by lier outward attraction, youth, 
beauty and costly array. Am 1 mistaken in 
believing this a very common feeling'^ I find it 
so forcibly expressed by a New York corre- 
spondent in a late paper lying beside me, 1 can- 
not forbear repeating a few lines. Speaking of 
the meeting of the National Woman's Iliglits 
Association, lately held in New York, he says: 
"Ten years ago these same women were petted 
and made much off, and they don't understand 
why they are not now. They are better de- 
veloped, intellectually, than they were, and 
better fitted to 'grapple' with grave questions. 
The poor old girls don't seem to understand that 
this is precisely what is not wanted. Men 
don't want women who can 'grapple' with ques- 
tions great or small, or have any especial 
amount of intellectuality; and then they must 
remember a pretty little essay read by an intel- 
lectual woman, with round figure, nice hair and 
bright eyes, is quite another thing from a 
learned speech delivered by an angular female 
with no hair to speak of, and with eyes behind 
severe glasses. They must remember they are 
older than they were ten years ago. If the 
sulfragists expect to again get the public ear, 
they must take it through the eye and put 
pretty young women on the platform. " 



Can anything be more odious or unjust, and 
yet would P. V. Nasby have penned them had 
he not believed he was expressing a popular 
sentiment ? Reverse it if you please, are not 
our public men older, too ? and should not they 
retire to some obscure corner with their gray 
hair and glasses and put fresh young men on 
the platform to attract through the eye ? What 
but the conviction that display is one of the 
chief aims in woman's life, prompts an utter- 
ance like that quoted in the Rural Pre.ss of 
June 16th, where the reporter, describing the 
West Side celebration at (Jrayson, says: "Many 
of the ladies were handsomely dressed, showing 
both cost and style." Whose fault is it when 
women are afraid to appear intellectual, and 
strive by every art to attract through the eye, 
and by great sacrifice deserv'e the honoiable 
mention, "handsomely dressed, showing both 
cost and style," and sacrifice it surely would 
have been had all received it this dry year. 

I am not prepared to assert that woman is 
the intellectual equal of man. If men are uni- 
versally willing to accord her positions of re- 
sponsibility where talent exists, the compara- 
tively inferior position she has always occupied 
would indicate that she is not. But the ques- 
tion of rights is not one of capacity. All re- 
sponsible beings have a right to the full devel- 
opment and exercise of everj* faculty, and 
should be judged by a standard of intellectual 
and moral worth. I formerly united with a 
large majority of women in belie%'ing those who 
advocated woman's suffrage extreme and unwise 
in their views, but I am more and more inclined 
to think it is called for, not only by simple jus- 
tice, but as a means of elevating woman above 
the unworthy aims that occupy so much of her 
time, and I have yet to hear the first good ar- 
gument against it. As coming events cast their 
shadows before, it is undoubtedly coming. The 
day may yet be far distant, but we should pre- 
pare ourselves to act an intelligent part as citi- 
zens of a great commonwealth, that by every 
possible means we may bring a moral force to 
bear against the injustice and legal dishonesty 
of the day. 

1 own it would be a privilege to cast a vote 
against every man who tried to win popularity 
by the social glass or support his cause by any 
questionable means, and to stamp him an un- 
worthy representative, who was found consent- 
ing to one dishonest or unjust measure. 

A! others, there is an unlimited field of in- 
fiuence whose doors are wide open to us. The 
future law makers, be they men or women, are 
in our hands. Let us so deeply impress upon 
their minds lessons of honesty — not legal hon- 
esty — but true justice between man and man be- 
fore God, that no after-contact with a selfish, 
scheming world will ever be able to efface it 
from their memory. San Joaquinek. 



What the Grange is Doing. 

From a stirring lecture by Bro. E. S. Big- 
elow. Worthy Lecturer of Potter ^' alley Grange, 
we quote the following paragraphs, which 
should prove incentive to effort to all: 

There is a principle involved in (i range work 
that demands the attention of every true 
Patron, and that is that all should unite with 
one accord to advance the interests of the 
Order. Let it be ever so little, that little 
would have its influence in some way. This is 
dem(mstrated quite forcibly by our little efforts 
to have the mortgage tax question brought up 
for agitation. Although no decisive action has 
yet been taken, it has been the means of caus- 
ing some of our moneyed men no little uneas- 
iness from a morbid fear that we would yet 
succeed in defeating them through the proper 
channels. Our resolutions on the taxation of 
growing crops was also a slight effort on our 
part, giving the outside world to understand 
that such a usurpation of authority was abom- 
inable in our estimation, and we now behold 
endless comments in almost every newspaper 
we pick up, to say nothing of the great number 
of resolutions from the different Granges 
throughout the State. Such matters did not 
seem to many hardly worthy an effort at first, 
and the beauty of it is that it all comes from a 
slight effort on our part to obtain the justice we 
had so long been without. At any rate we can 
rest fully assured that by combined effort and 
united strength we will yet be able to accom- 
plish something worth while. We, as an indi- 
vidual Grange, may not be able to accomplish 
any great results, but we can contribute to the 
movements of other Granges by approving and 
concurring in resolutions calculated to advance 
the interests of the Order and of the country at 
large. This is of itself but a very slight effort 
on our part, but it will stimulate those taking 
a more active part in our welfare to move 
onward the car of progress to the great goal of 
our ambition, viz. , equal justice to all. There are 
many members of this and other Granges in this 
State that have not yet awakened to tlie impor- 
tance of the problems that we, as an Order, 
are expected to solve. There are still others 
tliat have been members, who, because they 
could not see any direct and immediate pecu- 
niary benefits to accrue, became discouraged 
and withdrew from its folds. Again, there are 
and were others who, because they could not 
rule, became disgusted, and were either expelled 
or withdrew. It should not be expected that 
we, as one individual branch of the Order, could 
be of any direct or immediate benefit to each 
other's pockets, but should be looked upon as a 
great and grand movement towards cpntributing 



to the public welfare by making ourselves 
heard and our wishes known. All other trades 
and professions have their societies for their 
mutual benefit and protection from fraud and 
corruption, and it is no more than right that 
the farmer should have his. Every thing seems 
to have been so manipulated by our political 
sharks that it is almost useless to attempt a 
reform. Still it is never too late to make an 
effort. That effort once made in the right 
direction will soon be seconded by others, until 
it becomes a subject of such great importance 
that our heads of Government are compelled 
through sheer.force to succumb to our demands. 
We, who constitute the great majority of the 
voting and tax -paying portion of the popula- 
tion of the country, have a better right to be 
heard than the great moneyed nabobs who are 
ever flaunting in our faces, "You have no 
money, you can't help yourselves, we will do as 
we please," etc. We propose to show them 
that we can help ourselves, although they have 
stolen their money from us by loading us down 
with oppression. We will also show them that 
they can't do entirely as they please because 
they have plenty of money to bribe our officers 
or agents that we have elected to represent us 
in the legislative halls or courts of justice. It 
does not seem at first glance that we have been 
deriving much benefit from the Order, and 
members who have not given the subject much 
thought are not altogether to blame in enter- 
taining such ideas. But such as have studied 
our history from the time of organization to the 
present, will readily perceive that we have 
accomplished more than most persons are will- 
ing to give us credit for. We have been beset 
almost from the very outset with troubles of 
one kind or another. We have got rid of a 
considerable portion of the disagreeable elements 
tliat contaminated our meetings heretofore. 
We have been the direct means of causing our 
merchants to recognize our rights more than 
they ever did before our organization. Many 
of you doubtless remember the panic-stricken 
countenances of our mercantile men a few short 
years since and the eagerness displayed by 
them in soliciting our trade and favors. Was 
ever such a state of affairs in existence before ? 
Most assuredly not. We have certainly reaped 
a very satisfactory harvest, all things, of course, 
considered, from our efforts. 



Amendments to the National Grange Con- 
stitation. 

Hon. John T. Jones, Master of the National 
Grange, has just issued proclamations announc- 
ing the ratification of the following amendments 
to the constitution of the National Grange: 

Amend article VII, section 2, of the Consti- 
tution, by substituting therefor the following: 
"The Secretary of each Subordinate Grange 
shall report quarterly to the Secretary of his 
State (irange the number of persons initiated 
since his last report, and also the number who, 
by death, expulsion, removal, or otherwise, 
have ceased to be members within the same 
time; and shall pay to the Secretary of the 
State Grange such a proportion of the fees which 
have been received and of the dues which have 
been collected as the State Grange may de- 
termine. " 

Amend article I, section 4. "There shall be 
an Executive Committee of the National Grange 
consisting of three members, whose term of 
oflice shall be two years. Tlie Master of the 
National (irange shall be, ex-officio, a member 
of the Executive C'ommittee, but shall not be 
entitled to vote except in case of a tie." 

Amend article I, section 2, by iusering after 
the word "ballot" the following words: "Any 
fourth degree member, in good standing, shall 
be eligible to office, or to receive the degrees, in 
the County, District, State or National Grange, 
within whose jurisdiction such member may 
reside, but shall not be entitled to vote. " 

Open Grange Meetings 

For San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura, 
San a Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Mon- 
terey and San Benito Counties. 

Bro. Filkington, Worthy Lecturer of the State 
Grange, will hold open meetings at the places 
and time indicated below: 

Riverside, San Bernardino County. . .Thursday, July 12th. 
San Bernardino. San Bernardino Co. Saturday, July 14th. 

San Luis Key, San Diego County Tuesday, July 17th. 

I'oway, San Diego County Thursday, July 19th. 

San Pas(|ual, San Diego County Saturday, July 2181. 

Bear \'alley, San Diego County Monday, July 23d. 

National City, San Diego County Thursday, July 26th. 

Saticoy, Ventura County Monday, July 30th. 

Nordhoff, Ventura County Tuesday, July 3Ut. 

Cari'interia, Santa Barbara County. Tliursday, August 2d. 
Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara Co. . .Saturday, August 4th. 

Lompoc. Santa Barbara County Tuesday, August 7th. 

Santa Maria, Santa Barbara Co. . . .Thursday, Augusl 9th. 

Guadalupe, Santa Barbara Co Saturday, August llth. 

San Luis Obispo, S. L. Obispo Co. .Tuesday, August 14th. 
Morro, San Luis Obisjio County. . .Thursday, August 16th. 

Cambria, San Luis Obispo Co Saturday, August 18th. 

Salinas, Monterey County Tuesday, August 2l8t. 

Ban Benito, San Benito County Thursday, August 23d 

Bro. Filkington is an able and interesting 
speaker, and no farmer or friend of the farmers 
should fail to attend his meetings. 

Amos Adams, Sec'y State Grange. 

July 3d, 1877. 

The Granoe Conventions. — As we go to 
press on Wednesday afternoon, the convention 
called to consider topics for legislation is still in 
session, and no report can be had until next 
week. The meetings are well attended and 
representatives are present from many counties 
and all parts of the State. 



July 14. 1877.] 



^qi^icdLYiJp^i^L |^©TES. 



California. 

ALAMEDA. 

SuNOL. — Cor. Independent: Hay cutting is 
nearly completed in this vicinity. No crop, 
however, can begin to compare with that of 
Hadsell & Millard on the irrigated land owned 
by the former. A casual glance at the huge 
cocks as they loom up in the distance would 
lead one to think that they covered the ground 
completely, and this first impression is not far 
from the facts in the case. This shows what 
irrigation will do, and it is to be hoped that our 
ranchers generally will endeavor to apply this 
lesson, and turn every drop of water on their 
land that can be secured for that purpose. The 
first cost is of course the greatest, and after 
that the blessings are never failing. Even in 
years when there is an average rainfall, it is a 
good thing to have a reserve of water to use at 
critical periods. 
BUTTE. 

A PoBM IN A Paragraph. — Record, June 
30: Parties who were present at the burning of 
the grain fields below Nelson on Saturday, re- 
port some very lively work in the endeavor to 
prevent the fire from spreading. It was useless 
to attempt to check its advance in a direct line 
with the wind. When the fire started Mr. 
McCarger took four horses from the wagons and 
started for the nearest house to find a plow. 
There was no plow at hand, but a cultivator 
was found and a set of double-trees, but no 
chains. Cutting a rope from a cow that was 
tied out to graze, he made the double-trees fast 
to the cultivator and had sufficient left to at- 
tach to the lead bars. This improvised attach- 
ment was quickly made, and mounting one of 
the wheel horses while another man took a 
seat on one of the leaders, the horses flew to 
their work with the speed of a "Longfellow." 
Down the west side of the line of the fire and 
around stacks of grain flew the cultivator, 
sometimes doing good work and sometimes 10 
feet in the air and threatening to light on the 
backs of the horses; it opened a way to check 
the spreading fire on the west side and made a 
circuit around stacks of grain that enabled the 
men to check the fire within a few feet of the 
stacks. When the accumulated straw gathered 
by the cultivator would take fire it was dragged 
to the burnt ground and allowed to burn out. 
But for such lively work the fire would have 
taken a more westerly course and destroyed a 
much larger quantity of grain in stack. In 
some spots the line of the fire was confined to 
narrow limits, but a change in the wind would 
cause it to widen out, and its track is a large 
black streak some three miles in length. 

CONTRA COSTA. 

Lessons OF the Drouth. — Antioch Ledger, 
June 30: We are credibly informed that 400 
tons of wheat have been raised at Point of 
Timber this season. The rainfall was less than 
four inches and of this amount one inch came 
early in the season and was of no benefit. We 
were happily surprised a few days since to ob- 
serve the numerous stacks of grain and the 
thought naturally suggests itself why adjoining 
fields of equally fertile soil are brown and bare. 
The conclusion is plain that had the adjacent 
field been summer-fallowed and cross-plowed it 
must have produced similar results. The fact 
has been demonstrated, and it is one that is of 
more than passing notice to the farmer, that 
during a season of most remarkable drouth, and 
in a section which ten years ago was regarded 
as being unsuited to wheat culture, by thorough 
cultivation and pulverization of the soil, fallow- 
ing and cross-plowing, a large yield of wheat 
is now being harvested, for we are told that one 
field will yield a ton to the acre. These are 
facts which to us seem astonishing, and which 
we had scarcely believed were it not for the 
fact that we have seen the grain and the land 
on which it grew. 

EL DORADO. 

Items. — Republican: The hay crop of this 
county is simply immense this season. Many 
who have opportunities of knowing, place the 
yield at double that of any former season, while 
the grain crop is in about the same ratio. On 
Thursday night of last week we had a light fall 
of rain, which laid the dust nicely. Higher up 
in the mountains, we learn that it rained hard 
all night, greatly benefiting feed upon the stock 
ranges, and raising the river to almost a flood 
stage. Both for a week before, and since, the 
weather has been remarkably cool for the 
season. 
FRESNO. 

Colony ItEU^.—Expositor, July 4: The 
Central California Colony Association holds its 
first pic-nic to-day, at the Gould farm. Wagons 
start from corner of Elm and Ninth avenues at 
8 o'clock A. M. As t)ie colonists generally are 
invited, it is expected that there will be a large 
turnout. This association is but about three 
months old, but is doing a "power" of good. 
Its objects are to protect its members, by legal 
or other means, against monopolies of all kinds; 
to assist its members in the shipment and sale 
of their products; to purchase, at wholesale 
prices, by the quantity, the various commodi- 
ties, machinery, etc., necessary for their sup- 
port and for the cultivation of their tracts; and 
last, though not least, for the dissemination of 
useful information. The association comprises 
some 30 members, and is constantly adding to 
its numbers. Any lot owner or person in- 




'^l 



terested in the welfare of the colony is eligible 
for membership. Its officers are: George H. 
Stebbins, President; T. W, Bartholf, Vice- 
President; D. D. Hudson, Secretary; F. E. 
Pratt, Treasurer; Messrs. Ritchie, Hartin, 
Balding, Fresh and Byington, Executive Com- 
mittee. At the last meeting of tlie association 
the subjects for discussion were the planting 
and culture of trees, and the successful propaga- 
tion of corn. A committee was appointed to 
obtain an abstract of title of the lands embrac- 
ing the colony tract. The next meeting of the 
association will be held on Monday evening, 
July '2ZA. The subject announced for discus- 
sion is "How to make the 20-acre tracts the 
most profitable. " This society cannot help but 
exert a great influence for good, besides protect- 
ing its members from extortion and monopoly. 
Ralph W. Cummings, D. D. Hudson and G. H. 
Stebbins were elected Trustees of Orange Cen- 
ter school district last Saturday. 

HUMBOLDT. 

Sumac Experiment. — Eureka Standard, June 
9: The method of relying solely upon tlie sin- 
gle crop of potatoes has been a disastrous one, 
and our farmers have learned a lesson by a 
severe experience. They have, this year, diver- 
sified their crops to an extent which gives to po- 
tatoes about one-third the area cultivated in that 
crop formerly. More than two years ago this 
matter was under some discussion, the cause 
being a failure of the potato crop, and we took 
some pains to inquire into the market values of 
possible productions for our county. Among 
other productions that showed favorable figures 
was that of sumac. There are many acres of 
land which are unavailable for any other crop, 
that could easily be put in shape for the growth 
of this article, and as the experiment would not 
be expensive, we accordingly sent to Virginia 
and Maryland and obtained seed of two varie- 
ties, both of which make a good marketable 
article. For some reason we did nothing more 
with the matter until a few weeks ago, when 
we mentioned it to a gentleman of this city, and 
at his request, gave him a portion of the seed, 
a few days ago he informed us that the seed 
had germinated and was growing finely, and he 
fully intends making the experiment — cultivat- 
ing sumac for the market. 

Editors Press:— From present indications 
the grain crop in Humboldt will be unusually 
large. There was a much larger amount of 
grain sown this season than in former years. 
The principal crop heretofore has been potatoes, 
and we learn that the crop this year will not 
amount to one-eighth of that of last year, or the 
year previous. The price of potatoes was so 
low that all the farmers lost money on their last 
year's crop and the portion of the old crop which 
remains on hand is now beihg sold at 10 cents 
per sack, and a large amount of the potatoes 
were dumped into the bay to save the sacks. 
The recent rains had a damaging effect on the 
grain crop, as it caused the heavy grain to fall; 
it is feared that it will cause it to rust. Hum- 
boldt and Mendocino counties have completed 
one of the finest mountain roads in the State. 
It is from Cahto to Hydesvile, a distance of 120 
miles. The grade is easy; the only drawback is 
the road is rather narrow and some of the turns 
are rather short. The Humboldt & Mendocino 
Stage Company have a daily line of stages from 
Eureka to Cloverdale, connecting at Cloverdale 
with the railroad from San Francisco — making 
the through trip in four days. Upon this route 
is found some of the finest scenery, hunting and 
fishing that there is in California. Eureka is 
the largest town in the county and contains 
some 2,500 inhabitants. There are four papers 
published in the place and three have daily 
editions. In Ferndale we find one of the most 
flourishing Granges in the iState, with a mem- 
bership of 150. They also have a Grange store 
with a capital stock of $20,000, and are doing a 
good business. The farms in this portion of the 
county are usually small and the land good. 
Good brush land is held at §25 to §30 per acre; 
cleared land will bring from $90 to $100 per 
acre. This is one day destined to be one of the 
best counties of the State. — Joseph Dimmick, 
Ferndale, Cal., July 5th. 
LASSEN. 

Notes. — Cor. Butte Record: Hay and grain 
crops are expected in abundance. There are beef 
cattle passing daily for Reno, as it is the near- 
est shipping point for this country. This is an 
excellent sheep country; there is but one draw- 
back to it, however, and that is water is very 
scarce. We have some as fine dairies as the 
State can afford. Thousands of pounds of but- 
ter is shipped yearly in this county. Willow 
Creek valley is a beautiful place, aud its inhab- 
itants are good, accommodating people. I did 
not know that it could afford such facilities to 
the people in the way of farming and stock 
raising as it does. The people of the sage brush 
country will be happy yet. 
MONTEREY. 

Items. — Democrat, July 7: The taxation of 
growing crops has been pretty generally dis- 
cussed in the State, the almost unanimous 
sentiment being that such would be unjust and 
impracticable. Our Assessor has taken that 
view of the subject and governed himself ac- 
cordingly. Mr. Lynn, on the tract he bought 
of Laird & Kellogg, has 800 acres in wheat. 
He is about to harvest it and thinks himself 
certain of 4,000 centals for market. The grain 
is good quality. Mr. L. is also laying several 
thousand feet of pipe to bring water into the 
field so as to make the stubble available. 

NAPA. 
Grain and Grapes.— St. Helena Star, July 



6 : Mr. Allison had baled 425 tons of hay, up to 
the 4th, and expects to bale 200 tons more. He 
says the crop is not quite so large as that of 
former seasons, but is better— being heavier in 
proportion to its bulk. He has bales that weigh 
385 pounds, while about 225 is the usual weight. 
The first new wheat was brought into town 
Monday, July 2d, by Henry Thomann and 
Robert Hastie, to D. B. C^arver and D. Galew- 
sky, respectively. Mr. Galewsky informs us 
that in the 13 years he has been doing business 
here he has never known any new wheat brought 
in before until August. Mr. Kohler tells us that 
he intends shipping grapes East pretty exten- 
sively this season. It has paid very well to 
those engaged in it so far, and Mr. K. , having 
unusual advantages of disposing of them East, 
will enter into it quite largely. He will also 
try wine shipment. Mr. Groezinger, also, we 
are told, is preparing to ship largely of his 
grape crop this year. It looks as though Napa 
fruit would be pretty well represented in the 
East. 
SAN DIEGO. 

Bright Spots.— f/mow, July 7: Charley 
Mansir, of Tia Juana, is doing well with his 
bees. They are making honey from the buck- 
wheat greasewood. He has obtained 700 pounds 
of fine white honey from 15 stand of bees. 
Some samples brought us are of extra superior 
quality. Mr. Fred Hubon came in yesterday af- 
ter a week's trip into the country, bringing with 
iiim samples of wheat taken from Mr. Gedney's 
place at Mesa Grande. He reports Mr. Gedney 
has sixty acres of wheat all standing nearly six 
feet in bight, and which it is believed will 
average seventy bushels to the acre. Fruit trees, 
especially peaches, are actually breaking down 
so overloaded are they with fruit, while bees in 
the same vicinity are doing well and storing 
honey. 
SAN JOAQUIN. 

Irrigation. — Independent, July 9: We un- 
derstand that the Mokelumne River Irrigation 
Company are busily engaged securing the right 
of way for their canal, and contemplate the 
commencement of construction this season. 
When the water has reached its lowest stage in 
the fall will be the most favorable time for 
building the dam, if it be completed before the 
winter rains set in. The canal when built will 
be a highly important one to the prosperity of 
the county, as it will irrigate about 150,000 
acres of rich land, making a dozen spears of 
grass grow where one grew before, and making 
it possible to sustain a population of thrifty and 
prosperous tillers of the soil, many times greater 
in number than have heretofore been supported 
from it. 

Fire. — One day last week, a large barn be- 
longing to George McClellan, of Millerton, 
formerly a resident of this county, was 'des- 
troyed by fire, together with a large lot of hay, 
wagons, harness, three good horses, farming 
tools, etc. The hay was part of the crop of 
1876, Mr. McClellan's crop the present year be- 
ing a total failure. The loss is a most serious 
one, leaving the gentleman nothing but one 
horse on his farm. He thinks the fire was the 
work of an incendiary. 

SANTA BARBARA. 

LoMPoc Valley. — Editors Press: — On my 
return from a trip East, I read in San Francisco 
a terrible telegram from the region of my home, 
Lompoc temperance colony. It spoke of Mr. 
Rochin losing all his grass, and 150 head of 
cattle by tire, and of Messrs. Young Bros, being 
obliged to slaughter all their cattle (dairy stock) 
because all their grass was burnt. I have just 
been where the fire done so much damage, and 
while it is pitiful indeed, to see such good graz- 
ing burnt up in this season, when so much 
needed and so profitable, I am glad to find that 
Mr. Rochin did not lose much, if anj', stock by 
fire. He has rented considerable stubble and is 
grazing his cattle thereon with what grass he 
saved. I learn also that Messrs. Young Bros, 
have not lost near all their grazing, and will be 
able to keep, or more profitably dispose of, their 
stock than by butchering them. Much thick 
brush and weeds is burnt off, and, I regret to 
say, a great deal of oak timber. The grazing on 
the burnt portions may be better and cleaner 
next year, though that may be small consola- 
tion to the losers just now. Our hay crop turns 
out much better than many feared. I heard 
from one of the hay presses now at work in the 
valley, and it has 500 tons yet to bale, that they 
know of. There will be a good deal of corn 
fodder, and some little corn; it is difticult to 
estimate how much will ear — not a large quan- 
tity. Many patches of potatoes look quite 
promising. Last week I saw as heavy a yield 
of large plump wheat being harvested as you 
often see — no rust or smut. We are beginning 
to believe this may be as good a wheat valley as 
Salinas, especially in the foot-hills. Major 
Jackson is successfully irrigating by steam 
power. That we are growing in numbers, de- 
spite the dry season, you may know from the 
fact that 116 votes were polled at the Republi- 
can primary — Democrats to be heard from 
next Saturday. A fine large store and a num- 
ber of dwelling houses are nearing completion. 
Messrs. Hollister & Dibblee promise us a new 
wharf in a sheltered place and easily accessible 
from town, next season. The one we have 
stands and is used often. — J. W. Webb. 
SONOMA. 

Items. — Argus, July 7: Threshing is going 
on actively in this vicinity. The yield of grain 
is generally good, and the quality fully up to 
the average. The first new barley brought to 
Petaluma this year was raised on V. Morretta's 



ranch, near town, and was purchased Jun. 
by McCune Bros., at $1.50 per cental. The 
first wheat of this year's growth was received 
in Petaluma last week, and was purchased at 
$2.04 per cental. It was raised on the farm of 
I. W. Harvey, in Sonoma valley, and yielded 
.32 bushels per acre. Hay is coming into town 
in considerable quantities daily, but not so fast 
as a short time ago, many of the farmers being 
busy harvesting their grain. Large shipments 
to San Francisco have been made recently. 
The price here is from $12 to $16 per ton, and 
the cost of transportation from $1..50 to $2. 

The Crop Prospect. — Democrat, July 7: 
Early sown grain is being harvested and late 
grain is sufficiently advanced to show pretty 
well what it vitII yield. From all we can learn 
from those capable of judging and who are 
posted as to the crops generally in the county, 
we think a full average crop will be harvested. 
We hear favorable reports from the corn crop 
in all parts of the county, and we think that 
crop may be set down as fully equal to former 
years. With the fine prices being paid and 
likely to continue for some time to come, our 
farmers may congratulate themselves on a sea- 
son of more than usual prosperity. 

STANISLAUS. 

Working of the Header and Thresher. — 
News, July 6: We went to the farm of Mr. 
David Young. Mr. Young is also the owner of 
one of the combined header and thresher ma- 
chines. It is the last one built, is the largest 
and most complete and thoroughly equipped 
machine of the kind yet built. He is also, we 
believe, in some manner interested in them. 
His land is 25lain, or second bottom lands, free 
from timber, with indentations, consisting of 
small gullies and swales. There are 640 acres 
in his field. The wheat is of the Provo variety, 
stands well, and yields from 20 to 35 bushels to 
the acre. The machine cutting a 16-foot swath, 
contains a 34-inch cylinder. Over 400 acres had 
already been cut. Its gleaning or cutting, as 
shown by the stubble, proved that it did its 
work admirably. All spoke with delight of the 
manner in which the heading of the grain in 
that field had been accomplished. The machine 
is propelled by 14 heavy, well trained mules. 
It is manned by four men. One stands in front 
of the separator, aud by a lever mans the sickle, 
lowering or raising it as the condition of the 
ground or grain requires. Another handles the 
steering apparatus, which is constructed much 
on the same plan as that of a vessel. His seat 
is on the separator, and the wheel immediately 
in front. The sack-sewer has a small platform 
and plank by which he shoots the grain when 
sacked outside of the last line of horses. The 
team is attached as in a common header. On 
the end of the beam is seated the driver, who 
has nothing to do but to attend to his team. 
The machine is completely a combined header 
and thresher. The grain is headed and passed 
by means of a draper into the separator, where it 
feeds itself with great regularity. This machine 
is cutting from 30 to 40 acres each day. It is 
undoubtedly, however, in good hands and well 
managed. Its cutting and threshing was pro- 
nounced by all to be the best they had ever 
witnessed. It is visited daily by farmers and 
others who take an interest in such matters, and 
all go away well satisfied. The inventor is Mr. 
W. B. Rice, of this place. To Mr. J. C. Holt, 
however, is due great credit for improving and 
constructing the machines. The patent has, we 
believe, been issued to Messrs. Rice and Holt. 

TEH A.MA. 

Prospects. — Tocsin, July 6: The prospects 
for grain in this county are very fair, consider- 
ing the dry season we have had, and over a 
two-thirds crop is expected. It is reported that 
George Hoag will have over $500,000 worth 
of grain on the Glenn ranch this year. The 
prospects are much better now than they were 
a few months ago, when several of the farmers 
thought they would not raise enough grain for 
seed and wanted to contract for it from other 
parties. 

TULARE. 

Quick Work. — Delta, .July 7: A crowd of 
about 60 persons from lower Kings river made 
their appearance at the land office in this city 
last Monday to locate claims to a portion of the 
Laguna de Tache grant, lying on the west side 
of the stream. The lands were liberated from 
the claims of the railroad company a couple of 
weeks ago by an order from the Department of 
the Interior. Some of the land is reported to 
be first-class, and aU of it susceptible of easy 
irrigation. 

YOLO. 

Winters. — Democrat, July 5: Our ware- 
houses are now receiving from 20 to 30 tons of 
grain daily, which mostly goes in storage for 
the season, farmers being unwilling to sell at 
present prices. Owing to the scarcity of 
threshers, not one-half of the grain finds its way 
here for storage that would had we a sufficient 
amount of threshing force. A lively competi- 
tion is going on between the warehouses. 
Storage for the season has been reduced to 40 
to 50 cents per ton. From 7 to 10 o'clock A. M. 
our streets present quite a lively appearance 
with vegetable and fruit wagons strung out in 
line taking their position m unloading their 
products for shipment on the cars to San Fran- 
cisco. Heading in this vicinity is done; thresh- 
ing is mid- way; grain is coming in to a limited 
extent; price, $2.20 per cental. Fanners, with 
few exceptions, in this vicinity will realize 
more money for what grain they raise this sea- 
son than they did last year. 



22 



[July 14, 1877. 




Willy's Wife. 



The road is long and rougrh, you »ce, 

Far stretchinj,' o'er the prairie; 
And if his father went -why, I 

iUi»t Htay and niind the dairy. 
Perhaps an idle tear I dropjted 

To sec him mount the filly. 
To go alone to lilesn the banns 

Of our dear buy, our Willy I. 

A week of days is passed since then, 

Kach longer than the other, 
So strange it is to think he's wed 

And I not there— his mother ! 
So strange, when he, a toddling thing. 

Got all my care so freely; 
Well, care and kisses wait to-day 

For Willy's wife and Willy. 

What's that you say 1 That I've not seen. 

And so I may not love her ! 
Not If>ve his wife ! Why. troops of girU 

Might lift their heads above her. 
Ay, all the girls might fairer be 

In hhjom of rose and lily; 
But dearer than the best to me 

Would be the wife of Willy. 

Tie true, he's young. 'Twere well, perhajw 

He'd waited just a little; 
A lover's knot too early tied 

May prove, alas I but brittle. 
Yet old folks often make mistakes 

in thinking yotuig folks silly; 
And what's the use to question now, 

She's wife of my boy, Willy. 

Oh, ay, he sure, some other might 

Have lined with gold his pocket; 
But 1 have seen full many a stick 

Come down from costly rocket. 
And yet— I hinted to the boj 

His own short purse; and still he 
But scorned the hint. Well, love's enough 

To dower the wife of Wlllv ! 

For Willy, let me tell you now, 

Is not the one to falter 
In doing whtit an honest man 

Has promised at the altar; 
'Twill be no fault of idle ways. 

If later times prove chilly; 
No need, I wis, for aught but love 

With this young wife of Willy. 

And that a wife brings love, I'm sure 

Should make a mother kindly; 
The mother, if she's wise at all, 

Will scan a httle blindly; 
For smooth the ruts .as smo<tth we may. 

Life's pa h will yet be hilly; 
There's many a flint to jirick the feet 

Of e'en the wife of Willy ! 

So keep your doubts, no longer jest 

Because I'm an.xious waiting 
To clasp my darlings to my breast 

And bless their early mating. 
I sjiake full loud to sta.v the match ; 

But now my finger stilly 
Is placed upon my lip— since she 

1b mine, the wife of Willy. 

She's Willy's wife, and 90 she's mine. 

My own dear darling daughter; 
If they're one rtcsh, they're but one blood, 

And blooil is more than water. 
Then hold your peace about the charms 

Of Susan or of .Milly; 
I tell you, friend, she's best of all. 

Tills wife of my boy, Willy. 

Lo ! here they are, the blessed pair ! 

My precious boy, my rover— 
And with him, one to crown his days; 

Look ! who could help but love her? 
Come, father, shut the kitchen door. 

The winds without blow shrilly; 
But what care we, beside the fire. 

With Willy's wife and Willy ! 

The bread is white upon the board, 

The kettle bravely simmers. 
The red flame dances up the wall 

Where shining pewter shimmers; 
The neighbors come and bring 

In welcome, will he, nil he; 
hapiiy day that lights the home 

With Willy's wife and Willy ! 

-Manj B. Dndge, in Chrittian at Wnrk. 



The First Shirt-Button. 

Young Charley Overblower married ahout a 
month ago, and when he came home from liia 
■wedding tour, he and his pretty little wife 
Emma took pos.se8sion of a charming flat up 
town. Flarly cue evening, after they were 
fairly settled, and the last of Emma's sisters 
had been induced to conchule her visit, Charley 
proposed to Emma tliat they should go to the 
theater. The woman assented, and both began 
to amend their toilets. In a few moments 
(Charley said ; "Darling, I am sorry to trouble 
you; but really I think I shall be obliged 
to have to ask you to sew a button on 
this shirt." 

"Of course; why not?" said Emma, de- 
lighted at a chance to show her skill. She 
took the garment, seateil herself, and said: "I 
can't remember for the life of me where I put 
those buttons. Charley, look in that box and 
see if you can find one." 

Charley looked in the box, which was a case 
of perfume bottles, and not hnding the desired 
article, concluded he would not bother Emma 
for further information, so he pulled a button 
from another shirt. 

"Now, Charley," said Emma, "look in the 
top bureau-drawer and get me a paper of 
needles and a spool of white cotton — be sure to 
got the white cotton." 

Charlay found in tha top borean-dniwer a 



copy of Tennyson — he remembered it well, and 
picked it up and looked at the marginal marks 
and comments, dear afTectionate little girl tliat 
she was I — and more perfume bottles, and a 
pattern of a Flor de Fumer overskirt, and the 
beginning of a sofa-cusliion and various other 
tilings, but no needle or cotton. Then he re- 
membered that he had a fancy "housewife" 
that he had bought from a girl at a fair, and he 
got needles and cotton out of that. 

"Thank you, dear," said Emma, and she 
began to stitch vigorously, humming a dreamy 
Italian air. Presently she said: " Oh, Charley, 
won't you bring me the scissors? I think 
they're in my writing-desk. I had them there 
to-day cutting a poem out of a paper. 

The scissors were not in tlic writing-desk, 
nor on the mantel, nor in the top bureau- 
drawer, nor in the case of perfume-bottles, nor 
even in the receiver; so Cliarley drew on his 
" housewife " again. Emma took the scissors, 
snipped the thread, and exclaimed, "There, 
darling I And now make haste, or we shall be 
late. 

Charley wriggled into the garment, and then 
put up his hands to button the band at the 
back, but no button was tliere. 

"Why, Em," he cried, "where in thunder 
did you sew on that button ? " 

"Oh, Charley, ain't you ashamed 1 '' exclaimed 
his wife. " Where are your eyes ? " 

"If they were in the back of my head," 
answered Charley, ' ' perh.aps I could see that 
button." 

Emma raised herself on her tiptoes and looked 
at the band. 

"Why, that's strange I " said she. "Take 
it off and let me look at it." 

The shirt was inspected thoroughly, and the 
button was found neatly and deftly sewed on 
just beneath the tag of the shirt bosom, so as to 
button to that appendage in a most elegant 
manner, 

" Well, by Jove," exclaimed Charley, " if I 
didn't know any more about sewing on a button 
than that, I wouldn't get mar — I'd learn how." 
" You were going to say you wouldn't have 
got married," cried his wife, putting on her hat 
hastily and bursting into tears. 

" Where are you going? " demanded Charley 
savagely. 

"I'm going home, and I'll get a separation 
from you and your old shirts; that's where I'm 
going," blubbered Emma. "I thought you 
wanted tiie button there to fasten to your 
what-you-call-'ems. " 

It took Charley an hour to persuade Emma 
tliat if she went home there would't be straw- 
berries and cream enough to go around, and 
she could get all she wanted at Delmonico's, 
and he'd pay for it. — .^V. Y. Paper. 

The Freedom of Science in America. 

The quick and keen sense of self interest that 
gives such sagacity and gnergy to the business 
operations of this country, is equally propitious 
to the success of every art, every discovery, in- 
vention, undertaking and science, that involves 
in it any amount of practical imjirovement or 
power. Hence whatever of theoretical science, 
inventive skill, ingenious speculation or reason- 
ing eloquence can be made to tell upon any of 
the multitudinous afiairs njaking up the busi- 
ness of life, or to minister in any way to the 
increased power and enjoyment of man, will 
soon lind ready attention for their claims. 
Here no prejudices in favor of time-honored 
usages are strong enough long to resist the ad- 
vance of scientific improvement or wise innova- 
tion. Society is not divided into castes, each 
one of them watching with jealous vigilance 
against any encroachment of their several ex- 
clusive walks by any rude intruder from another 
class, themselves clinging to the settled usages 
and old forms of their own clan, with the 
steady pertinacity of men whose unexamined 
prejudices are interwoven with their earliest 
habits and tlioir most valuable personal interest. 
If science, descendhig from her starry shrine in 
the heavens, light the student to any discovery 
or invention in any manner applicalile to the 
wants of his fellow creatures, if genius prompt 
the lofty thought, if love of ( Jod or of man in- 
spire the generous design, no matter how the 
novelty may astonish for the moment, no mat- 
ter what prejudices may be shocked, no matter 
what interests may be alarmed and band them- 
selves against the innovator, let him go on un- 
dismayed; he advances to certain victory. 

A New Rule Coxcebning Pardons.— Few 
people have the hard-heartedness to withhold 
their signatures from a petition for a pardon, 
particularly when it is presented by influential 
persons, who at the same time make plausible 
excuses for some unfortunate condemned man. 
They often sign against their convictions of 
right, but as there has Ijeen no publicity given 
to their names, they avoid public resiransibility 
for the act. Governor Cullom, of Illinois, well 
aware of the "dodge" practiced in many cases, 
is determined not to be misled. He has, there- 
fore, adopted the rule of publishing the names 
of all signers to these petitions before exercising 
clemency, so that those who might be inclined 
afterwards to assert that they signed from a 
misapprehension of the facts, will have oppor- 
tunity to make explanations. It is observed 
that since this rule went into operation, the ap- 
plications for pardon are not near so numerous 
aa formerly, nor the list of signatures attached 
•o lengthy by one-half. 



"The Nation's Gardener." 

The American nation is like a vast garden; it 
occupies a large extent of land; it has had a 
vast deal of work expended on it, and it re- 
quires still an untold amount of labor to develop 
its resources. " The nation's gardener " has no 
easy post to fill, requiring to know, as he does, 
that all the land is being utilized and econ- 
omized. He may well have the consideration 
and sympathy of every class and of every per- 
son for whom he is engaged to cater and to care; 
and one cannot be surprised if his mind is 
troubled at times by "haze," and if he longs 
for an easier life, for a freer, lighter air. It is 
a responsible and serious thing merely to have 
to "appoint" the under-gardeners and secure 
their fidelity to duty and persevering diligence. 
President (irant told his friend, Charles Dudley 
Warner, that his wa.s the first garden he had 
been in where the talk was not of "appoint- 
ments. " \\'hen ^Varner offered him a cigar, lie 
declined, saying, he "didn't like a weed in a 
garden." \\'liat a deal of hoeing I'resident 
Hayes will have to do before he gets all the 
weeds out of the national garden. It appears 
that he and Mrs. Hayes are each willing, even 
somewhat desirous to go hoeing and weed out 
all the whisky drinkers from the nation. This 
is undoubtedly a mighty and perplexing task. 
If the whisky drinkers gave their time to im- 
prove the garden, what an immense deal of 
irrigation might be carried on this dry year, 
and many meals might be supplied to hungry, 
vacuous stomachs. What a hungry void is felt 
this year, as men are sighing for next season, 
as Dickens said the waiters did at the seaside 
hotels in the winter, "looking out of the 
windows for next season." President Hayes is 
of the same mind as Warner, who says lie 
"doesn't like to be seen in a garden with the 
dead-beets.'' Even these the President de- 
signs to utilize. It seems to us that all the 
under-gardeners may engage themselves from 
time to time hoeing up the "weeds " and pre- 
paring the ground for new and nutritive pro- 
ductions. Much space is required for the 
young shoots to be planted, and the rising gen- 
eration undoubtedly deserves a fair chance for 
planting and developing. President Hayes 
cares greatly that the young be carefully nur 
tured, educated and started in life. Warner 
tells us he would like to have a part of the 
"Ten ('ommandments " in large letters in his 
garden and some traps also. 'Phieves troubled 
him, and he could well sympathize with Pres- 
ident Hayes in his irrepressible desire to banish 
from or convert all thieves in the national 
garden. It is to be hoped that the President 
will be able to refresh himself during these hot 
summer d.tys with fruits out of his garden. It 
should be the care of every individual voter to 
send to the national ('ongress such men as will 
be able to relieve the hands and the mind and 
the nerves of the President. Warner tells us 
" by your fruits you will know who your friends 
are," and we must hope the ripe things the 
President has to give away will go to true 
friends and lovers of their country. 

Charle.^ Berwick. 
Monterey, Cal. 

PurrrNO m.s Hor-'je to Bed. — The grooms 
were bedding up their horses. I walked up to 
mine, and commenced by patting him on the 
neck, and talking to him in soft, low tones. He 
began pawing first with one forefoot, then with 
the other, and evidently knew me and my 
voice. Taking a snaftle bridle I put it on, 
pulled him gently l>ack into the stall, rubbed 
my hand up and down on his knees, and then, 
putting my mouth to his ear, whispered into it 
as if talking to him. He began immediately to 
move, and, bending his knees, slowly let him- 
self down on his near side, I at the same time 
keeping well clear of him, while I still patted 
him on the neck. When I took the bridle oft", 
he settled for the niglit. "Now," said I, "he's 
safe, and will sleep all night. Come away. " 
They were astonished. — From Major Charles 
Lo/fug's Bool: 



The Spirit of Self-Sacrifice. — The spirit 
of self-sacrifice is one of the great beauties of holi- 
ness. Husband yielding to wife, wife to husband; 
brother to brother, sister to sister; friend to 
friend; in great things; but in small especi.illy. 
First and foremost, see that the spirit is witlt 
you at home; then carry it abroad into the 
world. It is a spirit that will sweeten happi- 
ness and lighten troubles; and when tlie soul is 
ready to wing its flight to its eternal home, it 
will have the unspeakable consolation of know- 
ing that it has not lived to itself; that it has 
left the world happier and better in some 
degree than it found it; that it lias been faith- 
ful to its earthly mission. So will it listen 
with unutterable bliss to the sentence: "Well 
done, thou good and faithful servant; enter 
thou into the joy of thy lord! " — Argosy. 

The Sea. — The sea is the largest of all ceme- 
teries, and its numbers sleep without monu- 
ments. All other graveyards, in other lauds, 
show some distinction between the great and 
the small, the ricli and the poor, but in the 
great ocean cemetery the king and clown, the 
prince and peasant, are alike undistinguished. 
The same waves roll over all; the same requiem 
by minstrels of the ocean is sung to their honor. 
Over their remains the same storms beat, and 
the same sun shines, and there, unmarked, the 
weak and the powerful, the plumed and the 
unhonorsd, will sleep on forevar. [ 



Some Gentleman Farmers. 

It has been of late proposed to raise by public 
suliscription enough to enable Mr. Evarts to 
hold the office of Secretary of State without 
damage to his private interest. One of the best 
features in any such measure would be to abol- 
ish his Vermont farm, which is said to exhaust 
the best part of his income. He has 70 head of 
cattle, "200 sheep, Ki horses and 25 swine. The 
extent of land is 800 acres. Last year '200 tons 
of hay were cut, costing the proprietor not 
much more than double the market price. 
More than 2,000 bushels of com were raised at 
an estimated loss of 50 cents a bushel, and there- 
fore ought to be of good quality. His pork is 
estimated at 20 cents a pound, and chickens $3 
a pair. As long as he h.as to sujiport this estab- 
lisliment Mr. Evarts will not be able to serve 
the nation as Secretary of State without a liberal 
subscription. 

Beecher last year raised about 15,000 bushels 
of onions on his Peekskill farm. They cost him 
$1.50 a bushel, according to estimate, and as the 
market in the city was $1, any one can see how 
inuch he made. Beecher can send beef to New 
York market at 50 cents a pound, and can raise 
oats at as low a market as .?2 a bushel. His 
butter is reckoned at 3^1.25 a ponnil and his eggs 
at 75 cents a dozen. Beecher will not libel his 
animals. He cleared §40,000 by lecturing last 
winter, and if he maintains such an income he 
will be able to continue farming. 

Oough lectured ti^•e times a week, his fee being 
$"200. He has a farm at AVorcester, which at 
one time contained 175 acres. He has no child- 
ren, but his expenses are very heavy, and to 
bring matters in a snug shajie he sold a part of 
his land and reduced the farm to 125 acres, 
which is as extensive as his income will admit. 
A few years ago his wife, who was a Yankee 
girl, undertook to raise fancy fowls, which some 
say are -very profitable. She got up a very nice 
variety, and at a rather reasonable expense, for 
the .Shanghais did not cost more than $75 a pair. 
The Cochin Chinas were a little cheaper, and 
bantams could be rated at from $25 to $40. 
After stocking the place with these rare birds, 
(iough, as is said, found that if they were to be 
kept up he would "be obliged" to lecture on 
Sundays as well as on week days to make a liv- 
ing. When it costs $15 to winter a chicken a 
man needs a good income. The system was, 
therefore, changed; the fowls were abolished, 
and regular crops were tried with decided suc- 
cess. As long as Cough's rye does not cost 
more than $5 per bushel, and other crops are 
kept at an equally reduced rate, his present in- 
come will enable him to live in a very decent 
manner. There is nothing like a farming life 
for men who have plenty of money. — Jv. }''. 
Letter to the Bochester Democrat. 



Women in India. — Lady Anna Gore-Lang- 
ton, who had recently returned from India, 
where she had been residing with her brother, 
the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, (Jov- 
ernor of Madras, recently delivered an interest- 
ing and instructive address on "The Social 
Condition of Women in Southern India." She 
saiil that Indian children were married at eight 
years of age. Native fathers considered it a 
ihsgrace to have single girls in the family and 
endeavored to get them married in childhood, 
but then they did not always go at once to their 
husband's homes. Although but little money 
was expended in clothes or education, the mar- 
riages were very expensive, as there was a great 
deal of feasting, and many families had been for 
years impoverished by the expense of marriages. 
Infanticide was not so prevalent as was the case 
a few years ago, and the Government had done 
a good deal to put it down. The marriages 
were generally arranged by the old women, who 
went from family to family to find suitable 
matches. The men in India were to a great ex- 
tent ruled by the women, who were very con- 
servative and had a great objection to any im- 
provement in their customs. The lowei^class 
women worked very hard, pulling stone rollers, 
cutting grass, and helping their husbands in 
bricklaying. The natives treat widows very 
badly; their clothes and jewels were taken 
from them and they were made as miserable as 
jjossible. Nothing was more painful than tlie 
vacant, hopeless, melancholy faces of the adult 
women, and nothing was more wanted than 
lady doctors, who might save Indian women 
much suffering. Sir .Salar Jung had exerted 
himself to get a lady doctor, but he had to send 
to America for one, who has now a large prac- 
tice among the native women. 

Fashionable Dinner. — There can be little 
doubt that the very late dinner hour patronized 
by modern society is highly unnatural, undesir- 
alJe, and pernicious. The fatigues undergone 
by fashionable folks during the day do not tend 
to ■whet appetite — rather they serve to blunt its 
cravings — besides, the stomach of such is unfit- 
ted from properly fulfilling its functions. Of 
course tempting viands are presented on the din- 
ing-table, prepared by practised and skillful 
cooks, while the pleasures of love, friendship, 
and social converse become added as incentives. 
All the more dangerous, we should say. It is 
possible to cloy the stomach, and yet derive no 
benefit therefrom, but contrariwise. Better be 
in the condition of the Cambridge students of 
yore, and "diet upon fasting every day " than 
cause the human system to receive more than 
it can digest. " I restrained myself," observe* 
Bacon, "to so regular a diet as to eat flesh but 
once a day, and a little at a time, without salt 
or vinegar." 



July 14, 1^77.] 



What He Did for ffis Calf. 

We know that some of our lady readers have 
husbanda who are so engrossed in thoughts oi 
the care and safety of the fine stock they 
are breeding that they sometimes forget other 
important things. To these our advice is to 
read to their husbands the following "very 
amusing occurrence," which the Toronto Olohe 
says happened on board the Cumberlarul, on the 
occasion of her striking the rock near Bruce 
Mines: "Among the passengers was a farmer, 
who had with him his wife and family. In 
order to be able to stock his farm in Goshen 
with a superior lot of animals, he, before start- 
ing on his journey, bought a 'first-class' calf, 
for which he paid $200. When the steamer 
struck the rock, the crash which followed was, 
to our farmer's ears, like the 'crash of doom;' 
forgetful of her whom he had promised to love 
and protect, and the 'olive branches' of the 
family, he thought only of 'that calf, ' and grasp- 
ing two life-preservers, he ran to the place 
where it was tied, and putting oue of them 
around the calf, he buckled the other round 
himself, and prepared to fight the waves for 
the life of himself and his dear calf, totally un- 
mindful of the danger which menaced his 'old 
woman' and children. When the danger was 
passed, those who witnessed his anxiety for the 
safety of his calf, proposed presenting him with 
a pair of life-preservers for their special service 
in case of future mishaps." 

A Mother's Sacrifice. — I do not think the 
community knows how really good and self-sac- 
rificing the majority of our public school-teach- 
ers are. How, in winter, they gather clothing 
and shoes for many of the poorer pupils. How 
often they feed and help them, and visit them 
in sickness, at their homes. Often but poorly 
paid themselves, they share the little that they 
have with those so much worse off. After all, 
how touchingly sad are the struggles of the poor 
for education! What sacrifices a destitute 
widow will make to send her little ones to 
school! One day a woman who worked for me 
came without her shoes. I asked her where 
they were. She told me that ' ' Johnny had 
none to go to school in, and as she did not like 
to have him go barefooted, she gave him hers." 
Oh, boys, will you ever realize what women 
have done for you? How, at every step, you 
have been nourished on their tears, on their 
life? How, from the cradle to the grave, wo- 
man has been your best dependence, your most 
faithful friend? Think of it, aud uncover your 
heads with reverence, even when the oldest, 
the poorest and ugliest of the sex pass by. — 
Philadelphia Sunday Times. 

A Warning. — He who champions the cause 
of the workingman, falls far short of his duty if 
he fails to warn him against one terrible com- 
mon enemy, the liquor saloon. If you are not 
a temperance man, there is all the more reason 
why you should look this subject fair in the 
face. The saloon is not an industrial concern. 
It neither feeds nor clothes you. It adds 
neither to your comforts nor enjoyments. It 
is a trap placed upon nearly every corner, to 
catch your money without giving a profitable 
return. It absorbs a portion of your earnings, 
and leaves you none the better for it, but very 
likely much the worse in morals, health, pocket 
and self-respect. You know that this is so if 
you stop to think. The seeds of numberless 
evils and none whatever of good to mankind 
grow in these hot-beds of corruption. We beg 
our friends, the workingmen, to avoid liquor 
saloons. If you can find no other society nor 
place of resort, you are indeed unfortunate; but 
better none than such as thus lowers your man- 
hood and your purse. — Cal. Agriculturist. 

Electric Plant. — The Gazette Horticole de 
Nicaragua publishes some information respect- 
ing a plant of the family of pkytolaccas, which 
grows in that country and which possesses 
electro -magnetic properties. When a branch 
is cut off, the hand holding it experiences an 
electric sensation similar to that from a Ruhm- 
korfi" battery, and the electrical influence of the 
plant has been observed several paces from the 
plant by the deviation of the needle of a small 
compass. When the compass was placed by the 
experimenter close to the plants, the needle 
turned completely round. The soil is said by 
the Moniteur Industriel to contain no trace of 
iron or other magnetic metal, so that the prop- 
erty is inherent in the plant itself. The inten- 
sity of the phenomenon varies with the hour of 
the day — at night it is almost nil, and most in- 
tense during the two midday hours or in a 
wind; during rain it was weak. No birds or 
insects have been seen to rest upon the Phyto- 
lacca electrica. 




Decline In 



Silver. 



Q©0D f^E^Lf^. 



Esjic Ecoflofsy. 



Y®iJe*Q poLks^ GonJf^M. 



Willie-Wee's Grace. 



He wasn't two years old, you see; 

He couldn't utter well 
A single word,— this Willie- Wee, 

Of whom I'm going to tell. 

Yet if you gave him something good. 

He always tried to say 
His "thank you, ma'am," as best he could, 

In pretty, baby way. 

And, kneeling by his little bed, 

In gown of dainty white, 
He shut his great blue eyes and said 

"Our Father," every night. 

One morning when the bell for prayers 

Had summoned all the house, 
He glided down the nursery stairs 

As softly as a mouse. 

"HI, honey ! wha' ye gwine widout 
You' hy'ar been smooven down ?" 
His mammy* cried: "Tlie chile's about 
Some mischief, I'll be boun'." 

"Come back dis miiiit, till I put 
You' shoes and stockin's on !" 
She shouted down the passage; but 
Tlie runaway was gone. 

And to himself she heard him say. 

As, muttering, on he went, — 
"Papa away ! papa away !" 

And wondered what he meant. 

Into the breakfast room he pressed, 

Mounted his father's chair. 
And gravely waited till the rest 

Came in from morning prayer. 

And when mamma, and sisters three 

Had taken, each, her place. 
And paused a moment, quietly, 

To say their silent "grace," — ; 

His head our Willie-Wee low bowed, 

And, folding palm to palm. 
Shut close his eyes, and said aloud, 
"Our Fader, —Tank yov, ma'am I" 

— M. J. Preston, in Wide Airake. 
*The invariable name for nurse, with all Virginia children ■ 



The Poppy and the Bee. 



Sun-stroke. 

Sun-stroke is rare on this coast, although last 
year and this a few cases liave been reported. 
The heat is liable to return for brief intervals, 
and it would be well to know how to guard 
against prostration, or how to treat it if it comes. 
The Board of Health of New York city has col- 
lected some information upon this subject, in 
the form of a circular. Copies have been 
printed in English and German, which tlie Trili- 
une says are to be circulated through the city 
very soon, especially among the laboring classes. 
The following is the principal part of the report: 
Sun-stroke is caused by excessive heat, aud 
especially if the woatlier is "muggy." It i.s 
more apt to occur ou the second, third and 
fourth days of a heated term than on the first. 
Loss of sleep, worry, excitement, close .sleeping 
room, debility, abuse of stimulants, predispose 
to it. It is more apt to attack those working 
in the sun, and especially between the hours of 
1 1 o'clock in the forenoon and four o'clock in 
the afternoon. On hot days wear thin clothing. 
Have as cool sleeping rooms as possible. Avoid 
loss of sleep and all unnecessary fatigue. If 
working indoors, and where there is artificial 
heat — laundries, etc. — see that the room is well 
ventilated. 

If working in the sun, wear a light hat (not 
black, as it absorbs the heat,) straw, etc., and 
put inside of it on the head a wet cloth or a 
large green leaf; frequently lift the hat from 
the head and see that the cloth is wet. Do not 
check perspiration, but drink what water you 
need to keep it up, as perspiration prevents the 
body from being overheated. Have, whenever 
possible, an additional shade, as a thin um- 
brella, when walking, a canvas or board cover 
when working in the sun. When much fatigued 
do not go to work, especially after 1 1 o'clock in 
the morning on very hot days, if the work is in 
the sun. If a feeling of fatigue, dizziness, head- 
ache or exhaustion occurs, cease work immedi- 
ately. Lie down in a shady and cool place; ap- 
ply cool cloths to and pour cold water over head 
and neck. If any one is overcome by the heat 
send immediately for the nearest good physician. 
While waiting for the physician give the person 
cool drinks of water, or cold black tea or cold 
coffee, if able to swallow. If the skin is hot 
and dry, sponge with, or pour cold water over 
the body and limbs, and apply to the head 
pounded ice, wrapped in a towel or other cloth. 
If there is no ice at hand keep a cold cloth on 
the head and pour cold water on it as on the 
body. If the person is pale, very faint and 
j)ulse feeble, let liim inhale ammonia for a few 
seconds. 



Strawberry Shortcake. — To a quart of 
flour (enough for two cakes) put three heaping 
spoonfuls of baking-powder (Taylor's). Sift to- 
gether thoroughly aud rub iu one ounce of but- 
ter. Wet with a pint of sweet milk, using a 
.spoon. The mixture will be somewhat softer 
than common i)ie-crust. Do not try to mold 
or roll out the dough. Spread it on tin pie- 
plates by patting with the hand. It should be 
about an inch in thickness. Bake slowly at 
first till the cakes have had time to rise; then 
increase the heat, and expect them to be done 
within twenty-five minutes. Split tlie cake 
hot from the oven; spread the lialves with but- 
ter (liberally if good), and cover them with the 
fruit previously sweetened. Place one on the 
other (the upper half is reversed of course), or 
each on a plate by itself. It is a good rule to 
sugar your strawberries before you begin to 
make your cake, and if they are large, or not 
ripe, it is best to cut them in two, or mash 
them a little. Don't calculate for these cakes 
standing on the stove hearth a minute. They 
should be served like griddle-cakes — no time 
lost between the oven and the table. Observe 
these rules and you will have a dish as dainty as 
Izaak Walton's baked fish, of which he said, 
" Itis too good for any but very honest people." 
When strawberries are gone, red raspberries 
(Glark's or Philadelphia) are very nice in their 
place. White currants are also very much liked 
as a substitute, and peach shortcake is hardly 
surpassed by the strawberry itself, if the 
peaches are first-rate. All these fruits should 
be prepared by sweetening an hour or two be- 
fore wanted. 



A Fraud. — The Bural New Yorker says: 
The old gardener who sella plants of the wild 
green or cat briar (Smilax rotundifoUa), which 
he digs up about the old fields in the suburbs of 
Jersey City and Hoboken, and then calls Cali- 
fornia climbing-roses, is again about town. 
We met him yesterday with a good supply in 
his arms. 

Kingship is a profession which has produced 
few among the most illustrious, many among 
the most despicable of the human race. As in 
our days they are educated and treated, he is 
deserving of no alight commendation who rises, 
in moral worth, to the level of his lowest sub- 
ject; so manifold and so great are the imped- 
imenti. — Landor, 



A wild bee, which had flown far without hav- 
ing breakfasted, at length entered a garden, the 
first he had seen. "What a paradisel" he cried. 
The first thing that attracted his attention 
was a full-blown poppy; but, accustomed only 
to mint, wild thyme and such like fare, he 
approached the gaudy beauty with diffidence. 

"A little pollen, please," he at length ven- 
tured to say, in the humblest manner. 

"Be off! be off!" was the ill-natured reply. 
The poor bee was almost fainting with hun- 
ger and fatigue, and asked leave to rest himself. 
"Be off!" returned the haughty flower; "I 
don't encourage idle vagrants like you. Stay 
at home, and you will not have to complain of 
being tired; sit upon your own stalk, and you 
won't have to support yourself by begging. Be 
off." 

Did the silly poppy imagine that butterflies, 
bees and such-like creatures, were nothing else 
than wandering blossoms? However this may 
be, it was overheard one day talking to itself 
after this fashion: 

"What is a flower born for, I should like to 
know, but to see and be seen and admired? 
These pansies, with all their pretensions, are 
such a set of flats! so low-born and ill-bred." 

With the gardener, the great judge of plants 
and the arbiter of their fortunes, the pansies 
were especial favorites; and he took great pains 
and no small pleasure in rearing them. 

It so happened that he passed just as the 
poppy was exclaiming her last "Be off!" and 
scornfully shaking her glowing petals after the 
retreating bee. 

Looking angrily at the flower, he said: 
"What is sweeter than honey? and how should 
we have honey without bees? and how should 
bees live if all the flowers were as vain and 
empty-headed as you?" 

So saying, he picked it up by the root and 
threw it over the garden wall. 

The bee cheerfully resumed its flight and 
soon alighted in the midst of a pot of mig- 
nonette, where it was regaled with the sweetest 
nectar. 

A Good Word for the "Rural." 

Editors Press: — It is with heart-telt pleasure that wo 
receive the weekly visits of the Kuk.^l Prkhs. It is a per- 
fect gem in its way. We have taken it since last Novem- 
l)er, and we don't see now how we ever got along with- 
out it. It is a source of pleasure to every one about the 
house, from the father of the household to the little girl 
who can just read the stories in the child's column. So 
wishing you a long and prosperous life, I will close by 
saying you may e.xpect to hear from me again some time 
in the near future.— May Myrtlk. 

[Good. We like to please young readers as 
well as old, and like to hear from them, too. 
We hope May Myrtle will write soon, and that 
all our young folks will follow her example. 
— Eds. P.rbss.] 



Disinfectants. 

The commission appointed by the Academy 
of Medicine of St. Petersburg, to study the 
effect of the different antiseptic substances and 
disinfectants so-called, came to the following 
conclusions, which are printed in the Aiinales 
du Genie Civil: 

1. Carbonic acid is most efficacious in pre- 
venting the formation of ammonia, and the de- 
velopment of inferior organisms by the decom- 
position of organic matter; itis, in consequence, 
the best antiseptic. 

2. Oil of vitriol, the salts of zinc, and char- 
coal are the most active for neutralizing the 
foul odors originating from putrid matter. 

3. The powders of Prof. Kittary, together 
with the properties which they possess in com- 
mon with other carbonated disinfectants, at- 
tracted attention by reason of their isolating the 
phenol and the quick-lime which enter into 
their composition. These absorb moisture, as 
well as the gases which are formed by decompo- 
sition. 

4. Chloride of lime and permanganate of 
potassa act promptly in destroying the inferior 
organisms found in putrid liquids. 

5. These disinfectants retard, in a measure, 
the development of putrefaction in organic mat- 
ter, but their influence is but momentary. As 
regards the purification of apartments, their in- 
fluence is but feeble, if not totally ineffectual, 
by reason of the small degree of concentration 
of their elements, and are also little emi)loyed 
on account of their influence on the health of 
the occupants. 

6. For buildings not inhabited, chlorine and 
nitrous acid are the best disinfectants that can 
be employed. 

Near-siohtedness from Studv. — The result 
of trials made at Breslau, Vienna, Lucerne, St. 
Petersburg and other points would seem to in- 
dicate that near-sightedness is not congenital, 
as has been usually supposed, but is caused by, 
and increases steadily under the pressure of 
study. Recent examinations in the United 
State would seem to point to the same result, or 
at least coincide closely with European investi- 
gations to this end. A careful examination of 
the eyes of the freshman classes at Harvanl, 
Amherst, I'.rooklyn Polytechnic and New York 
colleges shows the percentage of near-sighted- 
ness to bo the same for each, or '29.5 Other ex- 
aminations by experts are said to show the 
eyesof young cliildren to be natural, but between 
the ages of six and 18, the percentage rapidly in- 
creases. From this Dr. Home, of Buffalo, 
reaches the conclusion that the tendency is in- 
creased by study, ai'..l that one pupil out of 
every four who is a graduate at a high school ia 
made near-sighted for life. 



The French Pot-au-Feu. — The pot-au-feu 
is the most important feature of the cuisine of 
the common people of France,»and is remarkable 
for its economy and its nutritive value. The 
following recipe is interesting as coming from 
Careme, one of the most celebrated of French 
cooks: 'The good housewife puts her meat into an 
earthen pot, and pours cold water on it, in the 
proportion of two (juarts to three pounds of the 
beef. She sets it at the side of the fire. The 
pot grows gradually hot, and as the water heats 
it dilates the muscular fibers of the flesh by dis- 
solving the gelatinous matter which covers them, 
and allows the albumen to detach itself easily 
and rise to the surface of the water in light foam 
or scum, while the savory juice of the meat, 
dissolving little by little, adds flavor to the 
broth. By this simple proceeding of slow cook- 
ing, the housewife obtains a savory and nourish- 
ing broth, and tender boiled meat with a good 
flavor. But by placing the pot-au-ftu on too 
hot a fire it boils too soon; the albumen coagu- 
lates and the fiber hardens: the sad result is 
that you have only a hard piece of boiled meat 
and a broth without flavor or goodness. A little 
fresh water poured into the pot at intervals, 
helps the scum to rise more abundantly. 

Boiled Lettuce. — The London Garden says! 
This is a delicious vegetable, resembling aspara- 
gus or sea kale, and yet not quite like either. 
Lettuces may be simply boiled and eaten as 
other greens, or they can be boiled and served 
as entremets in a variety of ways. Have ready 
some neatly cut pieces of toast of a pale brown 
color, lay them on a dish, a hot one; let each 
piece be of a size to hold the lettuce and one 
poached egg; pour over the toast a little of the 
water and some good gravy; if the latter be not 
handy, a little fresh butter should be spread on 
the toast previous to pouring the water from the 
lettuce; place on each piece of toast enough of 
the boiled lettuce to form a flat layer; neatly 
trim the edges of the vegetable, and place a 
poached egg on the top. To prejjare the lettuces 
for boiling, they should be well cleansed, and 
the top of the leaves, if they have the slightest 
appearance of fading, should ))e cut ott'; leave as 
much of the stalk as possible, cutting ofl' the 
strong outer skin. 

Fruit Jellies. — Is the fruit jelly seen so 
often on the hotel table, used so frequently for 
dessert, and sold so abundantly by the grocer, 
healthful? Genuine fruit jelly is a wholesome 
dessert, and makes a pleasant drink wlicn dilu- 
ted with water, but most of the so-called fruit 
jelly put up so neatly in glass jars, so prettily 
colored, is not jelly at all, but a preparation 
from tlic feet and legs and bones of dead ani- 
mals, that should find their way to the bone- 
boiler or the manufacturer of bone dust for the 
farmer. It is very cheap wlien compared with 
the true fruit jelly, and is made to resemble it 
by the color so easily given by the chemist. 
Chemistry is an art which has done much for 
civilization, Init it has also done a great deal 
for dishonest dealers, and a great deal to de- 
stroy the health of the people. Vet strange to 
say, most of them are too thoughtless to use 
their brains to protect themselves. 

Oranoh Fritteus. — Peel and slice three 
oranges and lay tliem in powdered sugar. Mix 
to a smooth batter four ounces of flour, a salt- 
spoonful of salt, tlic yolk of a raw egg, and 
about a gill of milk, according to the amount of 
gluten in the flour. When ready to use the 
batter, add to it one teasjioonful of olive oil or 
melted butter, and the white of an egg beaten 
to a froth. Dip the slices of orange mto the 
batter, lift them out flat with a fork, and put 
them into smoking hot fat to fry light brown. 
Lay them for a moment on a napkin, to absorb 
all fat; sprinkle them with powdered sugar, 
and serve thom hot. 



24 



[July 14, 1877. 




A. T. DEWET, W. B. EWER, 

Publishers. 

Office, 334 Samome St., S. E. Cor. California St. 



Subscriptions, payable in advance: For one year, $4; 
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registered letters or P. O. orders at our risk. 
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Perliiie 25 .80 $2.00 $6.00 

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One inch.. 2.00 5.00 14.00 40.00 

Ivarge advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, lejral advertisements, notices api>earing 
in extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
inserted at special rates. 

Four insertions are rated in a month. 

DEAViQY &, CO. 



A. T. DKWKT. 



W. B. EWER. O. U. STRO.NO. 



The Original Articles in this paper are mostly set in 
solid type, giving in our columns one-third more reading 
than is contained in ordinar>' leaded matter. 

Address all letters to the firm, and not to individual 
members, or others, who may at any time be absent. 



Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

No Quack Advertisements inserted in these 
Columns. 

SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 14, 1877. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



GENERAL EDITORIALS.— Echo Farm, Connec- 
ticut; All the WorliJ Akin; Cost of Moving Wheat, 17. 
The Assessment of Crowing Crops; An Improved Culti- 
vator; An Indian Fishery; I'ransixjrtation of Fruit, 25. 
National Immigration ikireau; Liberia Coffee; Notices of 
Recent Patents; Patents and inventions, 28. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. — Centennial Premium Jersey 
Hull, "Liiclilield," 17. Holly and Magoou'a Improved 
Cultivator; Indians Fishing in Walker Kiver, 25. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.-The Crapevine Black- 
Knot in the Foothills; Milk and Honey, 24. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Alkaline Soils; Taxation 
Another \ lew; H;u' Vield in Suisun \'alley, 18. 

HORTICULTURE. -The Fruit Tree Phenomena; 
The Trees in Sokino County; Freak of Nature; Notes on 
Oranges and Lemons, 18. 

THE DAIRY - Uairy Rooms; Food for Milch Cows, 19. 

POULTRY YARD.— Tobacco as a Chicken .Medi- 
cine, 19 

ARBORICULTURE. The CaUlpa Tree as a Wind 
Break; Insects Eating Oak Buds, 19. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. Worthy Lectu- 
rer's Visits; Women in the Orange; What the Grange is 
Doing; .Amendments to the National Grange Constitu- 
tion; Ojieii Orange .Meetings, 20. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties in California, 21. 

HOME CIRCLE.— Willys Wife, (Poetry); The First 
Shirt Button; The Freedom of Science in America; A 
New Rule Concerning Pardons; "The Nation's Gard- 
ener;" Putting his Horse to Bed; The Spirit of Self- 
Saerifice; The Sea; .Some Gentleman Farmers; Women 
in India; Fashionable Dinner; What he did for His 
Calf; .\ Alother's Sacrifice; .\ Warning; Electric Plant; 
A Fraud, 23. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.-Willie-Wee's Grace, 
(Poetry); The I'oppy and the Bee; A Good Word for the 
"Rura'l," 23. 

GOOD HEALTH. -Sun-Stroke; Disinfectants; Near- 
sightedness From Study, 23. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.-- Strawberry Short Cake; 
The French Pot-au-Feu; Boiled L'^ttuee; Fruit -lellies; 
Orange Fritters, 23. 

SHEEP AND WOOL. -P.%eific Coast Wools; Sheep 
Interests in Fresno County, 26. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 'I'reatinent for Lead and Mer- 
curv Poisoning; Tests lor Beeswax, 26. 

GENERAL NEWS ITEMS on page 28 and other 
pages. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Saxe's stock Yards, Uollin P. Saxe, Proprietor, S. F. ,Cal.; 
Music Books, Oliver Ditson A: Co., Boston; Garden, Field 
and Flower Seeds, B. K. Bliss & Sons, 34 Bowery St , 
N. Y. ; Coffee Seed, Edward S. Morris & Co., 120 South 
fYont St., Philadelphia, Pa, ; Tarrant's Seltzer A|)erient. 



The Week. 



What a blessing is this quiet, warm air. 
Under its favorable auspices the harvest grows 
apace; the trees are ripening their fruits; the 
vine leaves droop a little as though to protect 
the grapes from too fervent heat. The fresh 
breeze from the sea and the pure mountain air 
bring joy to those who have days for liolidays. 
The still heat of the valleys and the liillsides 
promotes growth which brings reward to the 
productive eU'ort. Thus the days are pleasant 
to all. The peerless charms of our clime cause 
the dweller here to give thanks for each day's 
coming and to bid each day a cheerful, hopeful 
farewell at nightfall, knowing that each to- 
morrow is but as to-day. 

Thoughts of our lovely climate are brought 
vividly to mind by the accounts which come of 
the cruel tornados which have swooped down 
upon the Eastern States and have been reckless 
both of life and livelihood. Dark was the 
onslaught of that breatli of destruction which 
struck the Wisconsin town, Pensaukee, swept 
through it as the impatient broom sweeps 
shavings, and left six dead, 10 wounded and a 
town destroyed in two minutes' time. And 
this was but one of others less ruinous which 
one day brought in other parts. It is happy to 
be free from such as these. We wcjuld have no 
vainglory in our words, for none is in our heart, 
and yet the thought of ills which we are free 
from, calls for loyal tributes to the glories of 
our clime and prompts to new tones of honor 
and affection as we give voice to tlie sweet 
•ounding cadenca — Callforuia. 



Wheat. 

The times are lively enough in the country. 
Harvest work is progressing under the most fa- 
vorable skies, and the long, fine days are giving 
the husbandmen every possible opportunity to 
get the fullest richness which their fields can 
yield. In the largest districts the heading is 
being finished and the threshing is being pushed 
rapidly. There is still reason to be very thank- 
ful for the measure of success which the result 
declares. 

The warehouses are still receiving the best 
favors of the harvest fields. The receipts in 
the city give no indication of a harvest. Firm 
feeling that the year's events warrant the ex- 
pectation of a price of unusual profit, leads pro- 
ducers to hold on and store their wheat for the 
future. Wliile this is so, the sails Hap idly in 
the harbor and the barges hug the river banks. 

For the purpose of throwing as much light as 
possible on tlie situation in wheat abroad, we 
consult our advices by mail. London pajjers 
bring the official record of imports of grain into 
Great Britain for the five months ending .June 
Ist, 1877, as compared with the same months of 
the previous year. We select the table show- 
ing the wheat imports and the sources whence 
they were derived: 

Wheat, 1.S76. 1877. 

Ctt*t8 Cwts 

Russia 3,072.873 2,«03,743 

Denmark 2:tn,.'?72 2,844 

Germany 1,.';72,235 l,8n.''i,.'i44 

France 199,470 !K)5,<Mi.'t 

Turkey, Wallachia & Moldavia. . CiKI,312 «0,873 

Egypt". 854,946 375,097 

L'nited States— 

On the .\tlantic 4,797,916 2.1.i3,823 

On the Pacific 4,0.18,163 (i,570,«I9 

Chile 228,649 13,931 

British India 884,l>04 1,620,116 

\u.stralia 603,4'>3 88,448 

British North America 70,084 (■^.731 

Other countries 624,264 244,059 



Total 17,90,5,611 



17,143,.V.I6 



Thus it appears that the receipts from all 
sources are aliout 750,000 centals less than dur- 
ing the first five months of 187(). The London 
Agricultural (lazette gives what seems to be 
both sides of the present condition in the mar- 
ket. We quote: "There is now a belief ex- 
tending that the markets, under ordinary sum- 
mer weather, must keep on receding from the 
high point of value at which wheat still remains, 
6.33., for it is considered that even an average 
of .'i.'is. must be reckoned an adequate price, 
sufficient to attract all necessary .supplies to the 
United Kingdom. Opposed to this feeling, 
holders of home-grown wheat know their power 
in having but small stocks, all of which will be 
wanted to mix with foreign supplies, and 
accordingly the majority of them remain con- 
fident of getting their price close to the present 
level, and will only market their samples when 
convenient. 

"In most of the southern and home counties, 
wheat is coming into ear, and stems and Hags 
seem strong enough to feed a good ear, as the 
plant is growing out of that yellowness close to 
the ground which was observed in May. As to 
the broad principles of pre-harvest supplies, 
they arc scarcely changed; if the last six weeks' 
imports have been good, they were expected to 
be so, from the large bulk on passage during 
winter and spring. But with three months 
remaining to be supplied, the present quantity 
of foreign grain on passage, and the weekly 
supply brought to market by farmers, leaves 
consumption short by 50,000 to 100,000 qr. per 
week, and this difference has to be drawn from 
the diminished granary and mill stocks. In 
conclusion, famers have before them prospects 
of fair crops, and yet fairly good prices. 

"Harvest has commenced in Spain, and is 
drawing to a close in Algeria, crops being good 
in both countries. The wheat is flowering sat- 
isfactorily in Southern France, and thus Mar- 
seilles is dull, since there is little demand from 
the interior. In Hollaml, Germany, Austria, 
Hungary and Italy, the general harvest pros- 
pects are reported favoralne." 

The feeling in this market and in the interior 
of the State has undergone considerable im- 
provement during the week. In our own mar- 
ket review it will be seen that the Mark Lane 
advices by cable speak of stronger tone and 
higher price. This is all that is needed to con- 
finn the already firm views of our growers. The 
disposition in Stockton and the advances of that 
admirable market locality in the wheat trade 
may be seen by the following from the Indejiin- 
dent of Tuesday: "As the new wheat crop be- 
gins to come in more rapidly the market apj)ears 
to be improving. Choice lots of new wheat 
sold yesterday as high as •?'2.27i and the ruling 
price of the day was from .S2.20(S,2.25, a marked 
advance from the quotations of last week. 
Twenty car-loads of wheat arrived yesterday 
from different portions of this county, two from 
Butte county and two from Sacramento county, 
all of which was stored in the Eureka ware- 
houses. The Farmers' Union already has over 
2,000 tons in store, a large amount for this 
early stage of the season. The other ware- 
houses are also filling up rapidly." 

On File.— "Ferns, etc.," J. N.; "Bee Notes 
in Napa," J. D. E. ; "Jottings in San Benito 
Co.," C. N. W.; "Desert Land Law," E. K.; 
"Setting Orange Trees," W. A. S. ; "Resolu- 
tions," lone Valley Grange; "Lecturer's 
VisiU," B. P. 



Distinguished Botanists Coming. 

Editors Press;— You kindly request botanical notes 
from me this season. Here is one. A letter just received 
from Dr. Griiy, at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. , 
anninmces: I have just read your articles in the Prbss, 
"Honorary Names in Science" and " W'ehber Lake." 
Many thanks. I can now tell you something that will 
pleaj*e you. Dr. Hooker — now Sir Joseph Hooker, but 
none the better for that— is expected here about the 9th 
of July. We are going to Colorado and the Rocky Moun- 
tains together for a summer vacation, and may, late in 
August, get over to Californi.a. If so. we will come over 
from Truckec and see you and |)Ut up at the Webber 
hotel," etc. It may not be known to all your readers 
that Sir Joseph Hooker is the curator of tile botanical 
gardens at Kew, Eng. , the most extensive known; that he 
is the President of the Koyal Society of England and the 
most renowned botanist in the world; also that Dr. Asa 
Gray is in charge of the botanical gardens at Cambridge, 
Mass., the most extensive in America, and that he is the 
most renowned botanist in the new world. These dis- 
tinguished personages will perhaps be joined at St. Eouis 
by Dr. Geo. Engehnanii, the .\merican auth(trity on forest 
trees and several obscure genera; and at Uaveni>ort, 
Iowa, by the genial and sharp-eyed little Dr. C. C. Parry, 
the same who last season explored anew Southern Califor- 
nia and made a Hying visit to Webber lake and the Sierra 
valley, in the high Sierra. J. G. Le.umu.N'. 

Sierraville, Cal., July 7th, 1877. 

We are glad to hear that these lights of science 
are coming. We have no doubt that this coast 
will please them and that our peojile will give 
them a cordial welcome. Not only in the 
romantic recesses of the high Sierra will they 
find fraternal spirits. Our city men of science 
are preparing to welcome the visitors and to 
hear the sound of their voices before our Acad- 
emy of Sciences. In addition to the tidings 
which Prof. Lemmon sends us of the prospective 
arrival, we have fuller details in the associated 
press telegrams of the present week. A dis- 
patch from Washington, dated July 8th, says: 
Dr. J. D. Hooker, President of the Royal Soci- 
ety of London, director o' the Kew botanical 
gardens, etc., ami Lieut. -Gen. Strachey, of the 
Royal Bengal Engineers, and a member of the 
Council for India, have made arrangements 
through friends in Washington and elsewhere 
for a tour of scientific research this summer in 
Colorado, Utah and California, in company 
with Asa (iray, of Cambridge, the distinguished 
botanist, and Prof. Joseph Leidy, of Philadel- 
pliia, an eminent comparative anatomist, the 
result of which will be communicated in the 
form of reports to our Government. Dr. 
Hooker's position as President of the Royal 
Society has for a number of years made him 
the cliief adviser of the crown in all scientific 
matters pertaining to the govemient, and on 
the (Queen's last birthday he was knighted in 
consideration of his eminent scientific services. 
He is also corresponding member of the Insti- 
tute of France. ( ien. Strachey has been for 
many years a prominent member of the Royal 
(Geographical Society, and is now President of 
the geographical section of the British Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science. He is 
author of several books of travel and has a 
world-wide reputation as a geographer. Mrs. 
Hooker and .Mrs. Strachey will accompany their 
husbands. The former was the widow of Sir 
Wm. .Jorden, an eminent naturalist, and Mrs. 
Strachey is the daughter of Sir J. R. Grant, 
formerly (iovernor of Bengal, and at a later 
period Governor of Jamaica. The party were 
to leave England about the 2Sth ult., with the 
expectation of proceeding ilirectly to Boston. 
The results of this extended scientific tour, 
which has been thus arranged, will, it is be- 
lieved, be of great interest and value, and these 
will be attained entirely at the private expense 
of the distinguislied gentlemen who compose 
the expedition. 




Protests Against Desert Making. 

While we are laboring to irrigate and reclaim, 
it appears that there is still a class of men at 
work endeavoring to make parts of our State 
into deserts. The Desert Land Law, of which 
we have had frequent mention, in spite of the 
assurance of some newspapers that it is as far 
above suspicion as Ciesar's wife, is still looked 
upon as an exceeding great evil by some of our 
readers who find their favorite valleys being 
threatened by tlie desert makers. We read in 
the Fresno Re/Mihlican that a meeting of the 
fanners of the vicinity of Kingsburg was held 
on Kings river near the pic-nic grounds, July 
4th, 1877. J. H. Say was chosen Chairman and 
W. A. Sanders, Sec'y. The object of the meet- 
ing was stated to be to prevent unscrupulous 
men from buying up the valley, "the garden 
spot of our .State, ' as desert land. W. A. Sand- 
ers, J. S. Harp and Marion Sides were ap- 
pointed as a committee to confer with the lead- 
ing land attorneys of Washington, D. C, and 
ascertain terms on which they will undertake to 
secure a title from the liovernment to settlers 
on the land against "desert buyers," the R. li. 
Co. or any other monoiwly. C. P. Traber, I. 
N. Parlier and Rev. Thomas Garner were ap- 
pointed as a committee to confer with the 
United States Marshal for the District, rela- 
tive to fraudulent entries of desert land. W. 
J. Berry, E. Kauntze and John Hansen, were 
appointed to collect facts to show the falsity of 
the allegations as to the desert characteristics 
of our land of the valley. On motion of Mr. 
Otis, .J. H. Say was added to the committee. 
The meeting adjourned to meet at the Mendo- 
cino school-house at 2 o'clock on Saturday, 
July 2l8t, to hear the reports of the above com- 
mittees; at which meeting the attendance of 
every farmer along Kings river, who has not 
obtained a perfect title to his land, is earnestly 
requestad. 



The Grapevine Black-Knot in the Foot- 
hills. 

Editors Pres.s: — I have for some time had 
under examination and observation, some speci- 
mens of "black-knot" from vineyards in the 
foothills, where this disease, unusual on the 
vine, is beginning to produce alarm in some 
localities. The specimens were furnished me 
by Mr. J. W. A. Wright, with request to re- 
port results in the Press. 

The knot is a brownish, somewhat spongy, 
light mass of, apparently, gnarled woody tissue, 
the cur\'ed and interlacing fibers being readily 
observable with the naked eye. The mass is 
quite brittle, so that it takes a sharp knife to 
cut a section from a dry specimen without pul- 
verizing the chip. On soaking in water it be- 
comes rather soft and spongj*. On dry sections, 
or in those recently soaked, it is difficult to ob- 
serve, even under the microscope, anything 
more than the very peculiar ladder-shaped 
tissue which fonns the main mass. On the sur- 
face of cracks in the interior, this abnormal 
vine-tissue may sometimes be seen resolved 
into its elements; viz: long spindle-shaped, and 
usually somewhat spirally cun-ed, vascular 
cells, looking not unlike the "ladder-shaped 
ducts" of ferns. Attached to these, and some- 
times enwrapi>ing them, api)ear occasionally 
long fungus fibrils. But the multitude of these 
latter is not appreciated until, after a few min- 
utes' soaking, they detach their ends from the 
wood cells and finallj' project from the latter in 
large numbers, fonniug short-jointed stems or 
fibrils of nearly uniform diameter. From the 
joints of the longer fibrils there project one or 
two (inverted) tlask-shaped bodies, apparently 
the buds of new branches; and in a few cases I 
saw them terminated by a yellowish head, about 
three times the diameter of the fibrils — evi- 
dently a kind of "seed vessel." 

When the soaking is continued for an hour or 
so, the long projecting fibrils disappear, having 
apparently resolved themselves into a multitude 
of sliort, acutely egg-shaped cells, which pos- 
sess a slight vibratile motion. The farther de- 
velopment of these I have not as yet been able 
to follow up, but cannot doubt that each one of 
the many cells so formed, would continue the 
species under appropriate conditions. It would 
thus seem that the winter rains must carry the 
infection with them all over the vine. 

Whether this is the same "black-knot fun- 
gus" lately mentioned by Dr. Harkness, I do 
not undertake to determine. Evidently its life- 
history must be studied on the mother vine. 
Perhaps this may be done by some one in the 
region concerned; but I hope specimens at- 
tached to a piece of the vine, so packed that 
the latter may be treated as a cutting, •will be 
transmitted to Dr. Harkness, whose practiced 
eye is not suffering under the physical disability 
which has so long delayed my examination of 
the specimens in hand. 

Now, as to the possible remedy, I conjecture 
that in this, as in all other fungous diseases, a 
more or less abnormal condition of the organ- 
ism precedes the attack; although, when the 
trouble has once gathered overwhelming head- 
way, it may attack even healthy jjlants. I 
would ask the vine growers in infestetl localities 
to observe carefully all circumstances of soil, 
location, drainage, etc., that may possibly in- 
fluence the health of the ^^ne; note the charac- 
ter of exempt localities, and try a few experi- 
ments in manuring (say with stable manure, 
ashes and lime, each on a different plot of vine- 
yard), underdraining, etc. As for the cure of 
the vines already attacked, it will be necessary 
to examine the depth to which the fungous fibrils 
penetrate the tissue of the vine stem proper, to 
deteniiine whether all of the diseased part can 
safely be cut out. I would suggest experiments 
as to the effect of coal tar, both on the excres- 
cence as a whole, then on the wound left after 
breaking it off as close as may be, and finally 
on the wound left after cutting out all appar- 
ently diseased wood, if that can safely be done. 
In the absence of all definite information on 
the exact mode and extent of occurrence, which 
I hope will now be given as fully as possible, I 
refrain from further comments at the present 
time. E. W. Hiloard. 

University of California, July 7th, 1877. 

Milk and. Honey. 
Editors Press:— If the honey bee is not the Bole manu- 
facturer of hotuy, who is ? It is very curious that man, 
in his wisdom, has not discovered the secret of where 
honey is found. I don't learn that chemists find it; nor 
any person, except in cell stores, laid by as the net earn- 
ings of the different species of the humble and honey bee 
insects. If your sage and orange blossoms produce 
honey by the tons or car-loads, of the verj- best quality, 
let our mge opponents prove by gathering it themselves, 
and not task these inferior little spirits in the body, to do 
the work for them. 

Milk is produced in part from vegetable foods, in con- 
junction with the air we breathe, which is seen through 
the chemical laboratory and distilleries of man and other 
animals. Milk and honey cannot be called "vegetable*," 
but I will give them a name, viz.: Aiiimovfgetabilit.— 
Solomon W. Jewett, Shepherd Home, Vt. 

Even from our querist's side of the question 
of whether honey is simply gathered or manu- 
factured, we see no reason for compromise in 
name. Milk is certainly a straightforward 
animal product, if there is such a thing. It is 
just as easy to trace similarities between the 
composition of fat and muscle, and different 
kinds of vegetable foods, as it is between these 
foods and milk. We should say that both milk 
and honey were animal products, and let the 
matter rast there. 



July 14, 1877.] 



25 



The Assessment of Growing Crops. 

The agitation of this important subject con- 
tinues. In several counties the assessors are 
throwing out the item on the belief that the as- 
sessment is not constitutional. In others the 
plan recommended by Hon, Mr. Raymond is 
being put in practice. We notice that the Co- 
lusa Sun takes firm ground against the legal 
soundness of Mr. Raymond's position. It is, 
however, being given practical application in 
Butte county, for we read in the Oroville Mer- 
i-ury, as follows: "On Monday last, when the 
Board of Supervisors met as a Board of Equal- 
ization, J. C. Gray asked to be heard a few 
minutes upon the question of reduction of as- 
sessment upon growing crops. Permission be- 
ing given, he stated that he had been applied to 
by a number of farmers to examine into the 
matter and see if they could not be relieved 
from this extra burden placed upon them by 
order of the State Board of Equalization. He 
cited the letter of Hon. Creed Haymond to 
show that it was the opinion of that gentlemen, 
who had had the most to do with getting up 
our revenue laws, that the Board of Equaliza- 
tion had no warrant in law for ordering the 
County Assessors to assess growing crojjs. He 
also referred to the fact tliat only a few counties 
in the State had complied with that order; that 
while Butte, Colusa, Tehama, Mendocino and 
San Joaquin were assessed, Sutter, Sacramento, 
Solano, Sonoma and a large number of others — 
all grain-producing — had not been assessed. 
He, therefore, had drawn up a complaint in the 
form of a petition, setting forth that .John Doe 

had been assessed in tlie sum of $ upon a 

lot of growing grain; that at the time of said 
;asses3ment the said lot of grain had no actual 
value; that the assessment upon the land in- 
cluded the value of the land and all things 
thereon; and that the said assessment is con- 
trary to law. Wherefore your petitioner prays 
that the said assessment may be equalized by 
reducing the amount thereof to one dollar (this 
to be the entire assessment upon the growing 
crop), the same being the actual cash value at 
the time of assessment over and above the as- 
sessment upon the land. This petition is sworn 
to and presented by Mr. Gray, as the attorney 
or agent of the farmer. The Board, after look- 
ing into the matter, decided that the petition 
was sufficient, and that the farmer could sign 
or .swear to this statement of facts, and need 
not appear himself. It is hoped that now the 
door is open, every farmer will avail himself of 
the privilege of getting rid of the payment of 
Irtiis odious tax." 

There is now being general attention called 
to the fact that one of the questions to be sub- 
mitted to the people at the coming election 
will be the advisability of holding a convention 
for the revision of the Constitution of the State. 
At farmers' meeetings in Colusa and Danville, 
action was had recommending affirmative votes 
.soji this question, and this is pointed out as the 
-only way by which existing errors can be over- 
..some and taxation made equal, as the Constitu- 
tion itself intends to provide. 

Oeegon CKor.s. — The Oregonian of July 7th 
■says: jSo far as we are able to gather from our ex- 
changes and from parties who have traveled 
■.tbrjughthe country during the pa3t(]fortnight, 
•the excellent prospects noticed a month ago, 
€or the most abundant wheat harvest which Or- 
■egon ever had, are still seen in all sections of 
the Willamette valley. In most cases where 
•we have received any estimate of the probable 
yield, it is given at from 25 to 30 bushels to the 
acre as the lowest, while some judges place it 
much higher, and there is no doubt that many 
lields will furnish a harvest of 50 bushels to 
every acre. All reports agree that the acreage 
planted is much larger than ever before, and 
the excess in this direction cannot be less than 
25 per cent, and will probably be greater. All 
things considered, it is felt safe to presume that 
the quantity of wheat to be shipped out of the 
Columbia river during the coming harvest year 
will not fall short of 6,000,000 bushels. 



An Improved Cultivator. 

We illustrate on this page a California in- 
vention, which seems worthy of the attention 
of users of agricultural implements. It is an 
improved cultivator, for which letters patent 
have been obtained by John Jones, of Stony 
Point, Sonoma county, through Dewey & Co. 's 
Agency. Mr. Jones has disposed of the con- 
trolling share in his invention to Messrs. Sidney 

B. Holly and William H. Magoon, of Stony 
Point, and these gentlemen are engaged in 
bringing the cultivator to the attention of the 
farmer. The cultivators may be seen at Marcus 

C. Hawley & Co.'s store on Market street. Our 
engraving gives a good view of the implement. 
As may be seen, Mr. Jones's invention is an 
improvement which consists in a novel combi- 
nation of levers for enabling the driver to raise 
and lower the frame and plows or teeth without 
leaving his seat, all as hereinafter described. 

In the engraving, A and B represent the two 



opposite direction, thus lifting both the frame 
and plows out of and above the ground. 

This arrangement of levers is very simple and 
convenient, and the power of the driver is ap- 
plied at the best possible advantage. 

Thus the teeth may be drawn up and a cor- 
ner turned with perfect ease, while in the old 
machines the frame was racked with the side 
draft, and the cultivator apt to turn over at the 
corners. 

These implements have had a year's trial both 
in sandy and adobe soils and the inventors are 
full of assurance of their value. The soil is per- 
fectly worked by them. There are three sizes 
made for threee, four and six horses. 



An Indian Fishery. 

Our illustration shows the style of fishing 
practiced some years ago by the Piute Indians 
in Nevada. A tourist of a score of years ago 
gives the following account: As we rounded a 
little knoll we^discoveredj^the entire rancheria 



Meeting of Hop Growers. — A call has been 
issued, says the Record- Union, for a meeting of 
Sacramento hop growers, at the Pavilion, on 
Saturday, the 14th instant, for the discussion of 
matters of importance to all engaged in the bus- 
iness. Hop men from all sections of the State 
are invited to be present, or to send communi- 
cations conveying hints upon the subject of 
picking, curing, and marketing the crop. At 
the meeting there will be discussed, among other 
things, the advisability of forming an organiza- 
tion, so that the business can be conducted on 
a common understanding; and it is also desired 
that action be taken relative to the price to be 
paid for picking the crop, and likewise concern- 
ing the mode of picking. 



The Fall Races.— The following dates have 
been decided on for holding the Pacific Coast 
Racing Circuit races: Chico, September .3d to 
8th, inclusive; Marysville, September lOth to 
15th, inclusive; Sacramento, September 17th 
to 22d, inclusive; Stockton, September 25th to 
29th, inclusive; San Jose, October 1st to 6th, 
inclusive; Oakland, October 8th to l.Sth, inclu- 
sive; Reno, October loth to 20th, inclusive; San 
Francisco, October 22d to 27th; Los Angeles, 
November 5th to 12th, inclusive. 

The Rural Press came out with some very 
beautiful illustrations last week. It is a well 
.conducted paper. — Ht. Helena Star, Jnly Cth. 




INDIANS FISHING IN WALKER RIVEE. 



diverging timbers or beams of a V-shai>ed plow 
or cultivator. The plows or cultivator teeth, 
C C C, are secured to the standards d d d, 
while the upper ends of the standards are 
secured to the beams in the ordinary way. The 
rear ends of the beams are supported upon an 
axle, IJ, which is cranked at both ends, and 
upon the journal formed by each crank is a 
bearing-wheel, E. 

A strong beam, F, has its rear end firmly 
secured between the two forward ends of the 
timbers A B, so that it will project forward a 
short distance in advance of the frame and front 
plow, similar to the beam of a single plow. A 
hole is made through this beam, through which 
the vertical spindle g of the front or swivel 
wheel H passes. The forward end of this 



of Indians in a bend of the river making prep- 
arations to catch fish, and we at once rode down 
to witness the sport, which proved to be a novel 
scene. Stretching nearly across the stream was 
a rocky bar, over which a very little of the 
water rijipled, while the main body of it made 
a sudden bend around, keeping close to the op- 
posite 1)ank. Just above the bar was a deep 
eddy, and above this the stream was broad, 
shallow and rapid, and skirted on each side 
with a thick growth of low, withy willow. 
Here of this willow the Indians made a drag 
about two feet in diameter and in length suffi- 
cient to reach across the stream. On the 
bar they had built a slight wall of the small 
rock in the form of a half circle, at the lower 




HOLLY & MAGOON'S IMPROVED CULTIVATOR. 



beam or short pole is turned upward, so as to 
form a standard, /, and is provided with holes 
for the attachment of the clevis or whiffle- 
trees, as represented. To provide for raising 
and lowering the frame and plows, the angle of 
a bent lever is attached to the upj^er end of the 
standard /. The short arm, O, of this lever 
extends upward, and its extremity is connected 
with the extremity of an arm, K, which pro- 
jects from the rear axle, D, at a right angle to 
the cranks upon which the wheels are carried 
by means of a connecting rod, /, which passes 
back over the frame and under the driver's 
seat. The long arm j> of the bent lever extends 
directly back tlirough a rack, I, near the dri- 
ver's seat, so that it can be easily grasped by 
the driver. The upper end of tlie vertical 
spindle g of the steering wheel is connected 
with the long arm p of the lever near the ful- 
crum by means of a link, m, so that the move- 
ment of said lever operates to rotate the rear 
axle about its cranks and raises or lowers the 
beam F on the spindle g. 

When the frame is to be lowered, the driver 
frees the lever arm p from the rack and raises 
it, thus dropping the beam F on tlie spindle, 
and, through tlie arms O K and rod J, turns 
the crank axle ao as to lower the rear end cor- 
respondingly. A reverse or downward motion 
of the lever transfers the fulcrum of the lever 
arm p from the standard / to the upper end of 
the spindle <j, and rotates the crank axle in an 



side of which was a willow fish-trap, the water 
being only a few inches or a foot deep inside the 
circle. When all was ready they swung the 
drag out across the stream and let it sweep 
down to the eddy when they all gathered in 
above it and keeping it near the bottom swept 
it through to the shallow bar, bringing the two 
ends to join the wall, when they had all the fish 
"corraled" within the circle, then pressing 
their knees upon the drag to keep it firmly to 
the bottom, they commenced the exciting sport 
of pulling out the fish, which as a matter of 
course tried to find a place of egress at the up- 
per side. The suckers, which constituted a 
greater portion of the fish, were easily taken in 
this way; but the trout, more wily, flipped 
lightly over the drag and away up stream again. 
The scene they presented as they knelt over the 
drag, men and squaws, old and young mixed up 
indiscriminately, and carried the fish to their 
mouths as they caught them to bite their heads, 
frequently holding them in their teeth for some 
minutes, the poor suckers twisting themselves 
spasmodically in their death agonies, was truly 
ludicrous and amusing. A few of the fish en- 
tered the trap, and at the last, one ))ig fellow 
seemed to have got an idea of the danger that 
awaited him on either hand, and flipped about 
in the center of the pool, foiling for a long time 
all their eff'orts to catch him, they in the mean- 
time getting highly excited, but finally a squaw 
pounced upon him and held him up in triumph. 



Transportation of Fruit. 

A very important matter in connection with 
the fruit growing interests of this State, which, 
though already large, are daily increasing, is 
that of proper and perfect means of transporta- 
tion for the products. The home market is 
comparatively limited, while that of the East- 
ern States offers excellent advantages, both in 
prices realized and almost unlimited demand. 
When Californians think of the great quantity 
of fruit which is here fed to the hogs, or left to 
rot for want of a market, even those not famil- 
iar with the business will recognize the necessity 
and advantage of appliances to carry the fruit, 
in a fresh condition, to distant markets. 

A number of refrigerator cars have been 
invented for this special purpose, but the diffi- 
culty has been to keep the fruit dry enough in 
the presence of the ice to preserve it for any 
length of time. The absence of moisture is an 
essential feature, and has been found to be 
indispensable— a fact which has not received 
the attention it deserved. We mentioned in 
our last issue the case of the recent loss of a 
valuable car-load of fruit wliich was sent on 
from here and spoiled by the time it got to 
Chicago. 

We saw this week at the Central Pacific rail- 
road depot, a refrigerator car belonging to the 
Western Refrigerator Company, of San Fran- 
cisco, which was designed to overcome the dif- 
ficulties attending the shipment of fruit, and 
is now being loaded with fruit for New York. 
The car has made two trips from here with 
fruit and was found to be successful in preserv- 
ing the fruit. The expense attendant on draw- 
ing these cars with the passenger trains is so 
great as to materially reduce the profits, and 
therefore this car is intended to be taken by the 
freight trains, although the trip consumes twice 
the time. This car is constructed with passen« 
ger trucks and Miller platform, and on top is 
fitted with doors to charge the proper receptacle 
with ice. The sides of the cars are provided 
with doors for the preserving chamber for pack- 
ing and loading purposes. When building the 
car the inventor sets apart a six inch space sur- 
rounding the top, bottom and sides, .is also the 
top and side doors, which he packs with a light 
and effective non-conductor (charcoal), impervi- 
ous to the extreme heat of summer and the cold 
of winter, and the car is lined with No. 28 gal- 
vanized iron. Each of the top and side doors 
have triple closing edges like those of an iron 
safe, fitted with rubber weather strips, so that 
when the doors are closed and the patent screw 
cap on the outside is applied to tJie thread of 
the longitudinal latch-bar on the inside, it draws 
the door and the jam so closely and firmly to- 
gether that no particle of air can enter the pre- 
serving chamber of the car, unless it is permit- 
ted to enter through the ventilator, which is 
only opened at the will of the consignee of a 
load of perishable matter and under his instruc- 
tions or orders. 

Inside of the car and attached to the top is 
properly secured an air-tight, V-shaped, galvan- 
ized iron receptacle or trough, which holds 
about one ton of ice. This receptacle, owing to 
its gutter form, prevents the water from the 
melting ice coming in contact with the sound 
ice, and as it melts, the water being facilitated 
by the gutter form of the lower part of the re- 
ceptacle, passes out through an iron pipe ex- 
tending through the bottom of the car, this cup 
being trapped at the lower end to prevent the 
admission of air. 

The small gutter which runs below the V- 
shaped receptacle carries off the moisture which 
may be contained in the provision chamber and 
condenses on the surface of the ice box. What- 
ever hot air there may be has no chance to 
come in contact with the ice and melt it, so 
that economy in the use of ice is obtained. In 
other cars which we saw at the depot the ice 
was exposed to the contents of the cars in such 
a manner that it was liable to melt very rapidly 
and also added to the moisture in the car, in- 
stead of condensing it as in this case, which 
has been proved very injurious to fruit. 

Last fall a car of this pattern was built at 
the Central Pacific works at Sacramento and 
left Sacramento for St. Louis on the 27th of 
October, loaded with California grapes, chiefly 
of the Muscat and Tokay varieties. The car 
also contained a few boxes of strawberries, 
pears and several boxes of tomatoes, celery and 
other vegetables for a test in this line. The 
St. Louis Jfe/iiiblknn of the 5th of December 
said: "On Oct. 27th this car, lo.aded with fine 
California grapes, etc., in boxes, left S.acramento 
by passenger train and arrived here a week 
later. Since that time it has been kept iced up 
and the preserving chamber opened daily for 
the removal of fruit for .sale, and to-day the 
grapes are as sound as the day they were picked. 
The company owning this car have established 
an oflice over the (i rangers' Bank, No. 40 Cali- 
fornia street, .and are now purchasing fruit for 
shipment to the East. It is their intention to 
continue this business and they now have seven 
cars employed. The success which has atten- 
ded the experiment so far encourages them in 
the belief that they have solved the difficult 
(juestion of fruit transportation for lon^ distanc- 
es, and the fact that they have embarked in 
the business themselves shows their fa'th in 
the results. 



26 



[July 14, 1877. 



S^EEp \H0 WqQL. 



Pacific Coast Wools. 

The following is the wool report of E. Griaar 
& Co., of the S. F. Wool Exchange, for the six 
months ending July 1st, 1877: 

The opening of tliis year had a most dis- 
couraging outlook for California wool growers; 
at home on the one hand they had every reason 
to dread a very scanty rainfall, from which 
must result severe loss among tlieir sheep, while 
on the other hand, to add to this, the Eastern 
markets were overstocked with fall wools, 
which could only be disposed of at prices lower 
than had ever been taken in late years. There 
was also an exceptionally large supply in this 
market. During the month of January tlie 
stock here was partially reduced by shipments 
on owners' account, and in February and March 
a demand sprung up, which had the efl'ect of 
clearing oil' most of the wools; at the same time 
the supply in the Eastern markets went rap- 
idly into consumption. 

Contrary to general expectations, the mar- 
ket for spring wools opened at high rates com- 
pared with prices ruling the preceding yeai ; 
and with an active demand whicli has continued 
without cessation, the whole clip has nearly 
been marketed. To-day stocks are smaller than 
they have ever been at this season, and are 
small for any time of the year. Manufacturers 
up to the tirst of June were the chief support 
of the market, having taken an unusually large 
amount. 

Spring wools, whose condition has been better 
than was expected, began to arrive in March, 
which was two or three weeks earlier than 
usual, and coming forward rapidly, there is 
now very little to place on tlie market. From 
the middle and southern counties the wools con- 
tained less grease than usual, but were generally 
unsightlj' on account of the preponderance of 
dust. The staple lias been strong, and the 
quantity of very short wool less than was an- 
ticipated. Long stapled wools were better tlian 
last year, both in soundness of staple and 
shrinkage, as they were freer from tags, which 
were really excessive in last season's wools of 
this description. Northern wools have never 
been received in such excellent condition and of 
so good staple. 

Opening prices were 18 to 20 cents for aver- 
age staple free wools in good condition; 19 to 20 
cents for long staple in fair condition; IG to 18 
cents for long stapled tine wools containing l)ur3, 
and 1.5 to Hi cents for ordinary southern wools. 
For average staple parcels in fair condition 15 
to 17 cents was paid. Northern wools opened 
at 2.5 cents, but rapidly advanced to 27i cents; 
they afterwards dropped to 2() to 26i cents, but 
have since recovered the decline; choice lots 
realized 28 cents, but have since brought 32 
cents. 

Southern wools were for a time neglected, 
and long stapled parcels were sold at 16 to 17 
ftents, but when a demand arose they advanced 
to 18 to 19 cents, and ordinary lots to 16' to 17 
cents. The market lias )>een good; tine w'ools 
have been eagerly sought for, and low grades 
comparatively neglected; except at short inter- 
vals tlie demand has been constant and large. 
W'ools have come to market in good order, con- 
taining fewer tags and locks than for several 
years. 

No decrease in the spring clip has to be noted 
so far, as the increase of lambs in 1876 has so 
far compensated for the deaths. The middle 
and especially the southern counties have suf- 
fered from a droutli almost unparalleled in tlie 
history of the State, and, as a result, large 
numbers of sheep have been slaughtered or died 
from actual starvation. Of those remaining, 
many have been driven into the northern coun- 
ties and neighboring States and Territories. 
The losses as j'et do not appear, except in di- 
minishing the product to the extent of the natural 
increase; but in the coming fall and spring there 
must be a great deficiency from the amount 
shorn during tlie past year or two. If next 
winter is favorable many Hocks will probably 
return to the State, but several years must 
elapse before the clip can ever reach the propor- 
tion of 187C. This diminished production, how- 
ever, we may reasonably expect to be partly 
compensated for in the improved quality of the 
wool, owing to the death of the poorer condi- 
tioned sheep. 

Oregon wools are arriving earlier than usual, 
and meeting with reatly sale. The condition of 
receipts is decidedly superior to that of former 
years, especially of the eastern wools. They 
are liner and contain less alkali. Ojiening rates 
were 23 to 24 cents, and 28 cents has since been 
paid. Very few valley wools have arrived; 
prices range from 2S to 32 cents. Arizona has 
sent forward better m'ooIs than formerly. They 
are longer, stronger and less eaten by alkali. 
By the extension of the railroad to the Colorado 
river, they can be brought liere in marketable 
condition. Some good staple clips have brouijht 
18 to 20 cents. 

Sailing vessels have carried more wool than 
usual. Early shipments were of fall wool. 
The state of the Eastern markets for this was 
such that buyers preferring the arrival of their 
purchases delayed, took advantage of the low- 
rate of freight by this route. The rate of 
freight overland having been raised April 1st 
from two to two and one-half cents currency, 
per pound, manufacturers thought it better to 
ship by sail at one-half to three-fourths cents, 
currency, per pound, and accordingly most of 



their purchases went by water. The reduction 
of overland freight to two cents per pound, di- 
verted some wools which would have otherwise 
gone by sail; but this route seems the favorite 
with manufacturers. Very little wool has gone 
by water for speculators" account. 

During the season the experiment has been 
trieil of selling wools by auction instead of at 
private sale. Four sales have been held, com- 
prising ofi'erings in all of about 5,000 bags. 
Part of the wools were offered graded, and the 
balance in original packages. Buyers do not 
yet seem to like the system, and have preferred 
continuing to buy their wools as they have been 
accustomed. 

Wool Production. 

Receipts at San Francisco: 

January 540 bajf». 

Fcbruan- 338 " 

JIarcli 8.948 " 

.\pril 34,386 " 

May 30.523 " 

June 11,924 " 



86,5.')9 " weighing: 25,997.700 pounds 
Shipped exclusive of above 2,291,940 " 

Total 28,289,640 " 

On hand January Ist, about 3,500,000 '• 



Total 31,789,640 

Oregon, 3,254 bags 770,250 

Foreign, 784 " 301,000 



(Jranil Total 32,800,890 " 

Comparison with Former Years. 

1S77, California Fleece 28,289,640 pounds. 

1876 " •• 27,895,314 •' 

1875 " " , 23,842,880 " 

1874 " •• 19,355,682 " 

1873 " " 14,658.497 " 

1S72 •' " 12,607,280 " 

1S71 " " 13,381,390 •• 

Exports. 
Puring the six months endiii); June 30th, 1877: 

J.in Kith, Steamship "Colima" 12.099 [wunds. 

Railroad from S. F 778,728 " 

Feb Railroad " " 1,284,396 " 

.Mar. inth, Ship "Twilight" 673,6.33 " 

Railroad from S. F 2,171,918 " 

.\pr. If.th, Steamship 'Citv of S. F.". 26,005 •' 

•' :iOlh, Railroad from S. F 5,022,790 " 

Mav 2d, Ship "Seminole" 1,267,144 " 

"" 22d, Ship "Black Hawk" I,071,9it9 " 

" :flst. Railroad from S.F 5,674,480 " 

June 12Ui, Ship "Ilaunttess" 1.130,559 " 

" llith, Ship "Prima Uonna" 1,475,427 

Railroad from S. F 0,424,080 " 

27,563,268 " 
.Shippedfroinix)int«nut«ideS. F.,rail.. 2,291,940 " 

29, 865,198 " 
On hand July 1st, about 2,000 bags, partially 

sold. 

The weights of receipts and exports are gross. 

The usual tare of bags recived is about three 

pounds each; on pressed bales shipped, 14 to I G 

pounds each. 

Sheep Interests in Fresno County. 

The fact cannot be disguised that the sheep 
business in this county is undergoing a radical 
and peiTOanent change. A few years ago, when 
range was free, wool high and the demand for 
sheep at high prices full greater than the sup- 
ply, nearly every man in the business made 
money, and some became wealthy. The busi- 
ness liecame overdone; free range was scarce 
and in the end generally more exjiensive than 
rented range; wool went down, and for sheep 
there was no sale; by being fed close year after 
year the natural ranges became poorer and 
more acres to the siieep became necessary; the 
foothills became tilled with small farmers and 
hog and cattle men, and the road to the mount- 
ains became more ditiicult of travel. Supple- 
menting all this comes a terrible drouth. The 
plains are almost as bare as a desert; thousands 
upon thousands of sheep are driven in from the 
coast and the lower counties, escaping inevitable 
death there to be decimated, if not entirely de- 
stroyed, here. Our own permanently located 
sheep owners found their ranges on the )ilains 
overrun by roving bands, and before the snow- 
was half gone souglit their accustomed ranges 
in the mountains only to find every blade of 
grass and every green leaf that could be reached 
eaten up and the mountains overflowing with 
thousands of straggling, starving, unowned 
sheep. For two months everything has been 
chaos and destruction. Scarcely a band tliat 
has not had large actual losses, and all have 
been scattered almost beyond recovery. Many 
bands have been abandoned entirely, both 
herders and owners giving up in disgust. One 
band of 7,000 was so abandoned, the owner 
leaving for San Francisco, and numerous 
smaller bands have ceased to exist. For the 
past four weeks the more experienced sheep 
owners have been trying to rodeo or gather up 
the strays into large bands, from which each 
owner selects his own according to their marks. 
They have been partially successful, but still 
tens of thousands of stray sheep roam through 
the mountains, and eventually most of tliem 
will perish. The snow is now nearly all melted, 
and far back on the summit the feed is becom- 
iug good, and those acquainted with the ranges 
are getting settled for the summer. Some are 
already slowly making their way over into Ne- 
vada to winter on the sage brush; others are 
waiting to shear before going over, and still 
others are securing uncut grain fields or salt 
marshes on the low lands upon which to come 
in the fall. One fact becomes apparent — one 
year destroys no less than two-thirds of all the 
sheep in the southern half of California. Our 
county suffers with the rest, and we must be- 
gin anew, and it is to be hoped in a surer and 
better way. The day of great sheep and cattle 
ranches has gone by. The irrigation canal pass- 
ing down across the plains changes everything. 



Communities are springing up, dry plains 
are being dotted with green alfalfa patches, 
and the miserable hut of the sheep herder 
must give place to the more substantial 
home of the man who owns some land, some 
water and some sheep. We must have smaller 
bands of better sheep, and every man must have 
something to rely upon in case of emergency 
besides the natural grass of the plain. The 
sheep business will not be destroyed, nor all of 
those engaged in it broken up, but those who 
live through this year will learn a lesson that 
will prove valuable in the future. Smaller flocks 
better cared for; a combination of agriculture 
and stock interests, and a mutual reliance up- 
on each other, and mutual protection of inter- 
ests that will enable all to reap the fullest 
profits possible — these must be the aims of the 
sheep owners, and these will be the results of 
this dry year. — Fresno Hepublican. 



Treatment for Lead and Mercury Poi- 
soning. 

Our workers in lead and quicksilver will be 
interested in the following, from Iron: To a 
Belgian professor, M. Melsens, the Paris Acad- 
emy of Sciences awarded, last April, the prize 
of £100 founded bj' M. Anget de Montyon to 
encourage the invention of processes for dimin- 
ishing the risks of unwholesome trades. This 
prize was decreed to M. Melsens for his method 
of curing and preventing lead and mercurial 
poisoning. The report of the committee 
appointed to examine into M. Melseu's process 
is as follows: 

Thirty years ago Prof. Melsens pointed out 
iodide of potassium as a means for successfully 
combating the ill efTects of lead or mercury on 
the human body. Experiments undertaken in 
conjunction with Prof. (Juillot confirmed the 
results first obtained by M. Melsens, who has 
since for a long period been pursuing his inves- 
tigations and experiments. 

Considering saturnine or mercurial afTections 
as being due to the presence of metal in the 
organs which are the seats of those affections, 
M. Melsens administers graduated doses of 
iodide of potassium. The noxious metals are, 
by the action of this drug, carried away in the 
urine in the form of double soluble iodides. M. 
Melsens also advises the use of the iodide of 
potassium as a preventive in cases where men 
are exposed to the effects of lead-dust or mer- 
curial emanations. 

Numerous experiments in the course of 30 
years have proved the practical value of this 
system of treatment. Workmen affected with 
lead paralysis have been cured; others, who 
were unable to follow their calling from their 
liability to saturnine colic, have been enabled 
to take it up again, fortified by a regimen of 
which a dose of iodide of potassium fonned 
part. The result of the observations made at 
Brussels and Lille, and the letters and certifi- 
cates sent to the Academy, leave no doubt on 
the point. 

AVitli regard to mercurial aflfections the obser- 
vation made by M. Melsens in person have 
been confirmed by those made at the mercury 
mines at Idria. The workmen engaged in the 
manii)ulation of mercury and mercurial pro- 
ducts at the Idria mines liave been made the 
subject of various methods of treatment, cur- 
ative or preventive, and the good effects of the 
iodide are no longer doubted of. 

At a special hospital in Vienna, ample occa- 
sion has been furnished to watch the action of 
the itnlide in freeing the body from the presence 
of fixed mercury and preventing its fixation. It 
has been found that in presence of the dnig the 
symptoms characteristic of the mercury are 
removed or diminished, or prevented from de- 
claring themselves. 

The action of the iodide of potassium, accord- 
ing to M. Melsens's idea, is a purely chemical 
one. It consists in determining the metal 
rendered insoluble by the formation of some 
albuminous compound to take on a soluble form 
by the creation of a double iodide removable 
per viam iiriiiariam. Whether this is the case 
or whether its action consists in determining by 
destruction the evacuation of the morbid tis- 
sues containing the fixed metal, it is not the 
part of the committee to determine. It is suf- 
ficient that the author of this ])rocess has fully 
succeeded in diminishing the danger of certain 
mining and manufacturing operations. 

Tf.-'^ts fob Bke.swax. — At a recent meeting 
of a German chemical society, Herr C. Schmidt, 
after hax-ing called the attention of the society 
to the frequent adulteration of beeswax with 
resin, described a modification of the so-called 
Donath's method of detecting the presence of 
such adulterating compounds, viz: Five grains 
of the beeswax to be examined is placed in a 
vessel with five times its bulk of nitric acid 
(sp. gr. 1..32 to 1.33) and heated to a boiling 
point, and permitted to remain at this temjier- 
ature for a moment; an equal volume of cold 
water and sufficient ammonia to give it a 
marked ammoniacal odor is then added. If 
this alkaline solution contans but pure wax, it 
will be of a yellow color; while if resin be pres- 
ent it will, on account of the nitrogen com- 
pounds formed, be of a more or less intense 
reddisli -brown color. Since this test is a 
colorometric one, it is well to prepare a solution 
with chemicaUy pure wax to be kept as a stand- 
ard. 



Woodward's Gardens has the following new attractions: 
The buffalo cha.se; large whale skeleton; new museum; 
improvements in the zoological department, besides the 
other fsatures which hav« made it popular. 



Mining and Scientific 
Press Patent Agency. 

The Mining and Scientific 
Press Patent Agency was estab- 
lished in i860 — tlie first west of 
the Rocky Mountains. It has 
kept step with the rapid march 
of mechanical improvements. 
The records in its archives, its 
constantly increasing library, the 
accumulation of information of 
special importance to our home 
inventors, and the experience of 
its propriet6rs in an extensive and 
long continued personal practice 
in patent business, affords them 
combined advantages greater 
than any other agents can possi- 
bly offer to Pacific Coast invent- 
ors. Circulars of advice, free. 
Address, 

DEWEY & CO., 

No. 224 Sansome St., S. F. 

OUR AGENTS. 

OCR Frilndb can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledj^c and science, by asaistin); 
Aicents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
inHuence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

J. L. TiiARP— San Francisco. 

B. W. Crowkll— Amador, Placer, Calaveras and Tuol- 
umne counties. 

G. W. McOrbw— United States. 

A. C. K!!ox— Plumas, Sierra, Lasrcn, Placer and Ne- 
vada counties. 

C. N. Wist— Santa Cnii, Monterey and San Benito 
counties. 

A. C. OiiAHPiOR — Sonoma, Marin and Mendocino coun 
ties. 

A. U. Strono — Lake, Napa and Solano counties. 

Ed. T. Plask— Dakota Territorj- (Black Hills.) 

Joseph UiviiiCK.— Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte 
•unties. 

W. D. WuiTB— San Bernardino and Los Angeles coun- 
ties. 



HEALD'S 



BUSINE ?S 
COLLECC 

No. 24 Post Street 

tXH FHANCISCO, CAI. 



The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are omipctcnt and cxf)erienced. Its jiupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Anlhmetic merely, but give* 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
struction is given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modem Languages are practically taught The 
discipline is excellent, ana its system of Actual BusineM 
Practice is unsurp^tssed. 

Ladies' UKrARTMEsr. —Ladies will be admitted for in- 
struction in all the Departments of the College. 

Tklborai'HIc Dkpartmext. -In this Der>artment young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further jiarticulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 



i^ms 



Use ni, more Metal Trusses! No 
more suffering from iron hcxjps or 
steel springs! The Patent Magnetic 
Elastic Truss is worn with ease and 
comfort NIGHT AND DAY and will 
perfonu radical cures when all 
•"i-'"^!/^^^''-. others fail. Reader, if ruptured. 
^ ^^ W try one of our comfortable Elastic 
Appliances. You will never regret it. i^Send for Illus- 
trated Book and Price List. MAGNETIC ELASTIC 
TKl'SS COMPANY, 609 Sacramento Street, San Fran- 
cisco. 



SAVE MONEY. 
$10 PER PAIR, $15 PER TRIO. 
All Chicks ordered during June and July will be 
sold at the above prices. 



Can spare Brown Leghorns, Silver Spangled 
■ ■ — • - • It^ 



Uamburga. Buff Cochins. Black Breasted : 
Gauiea. Game Bantams and Kouen Ducks. After 

July my prices vrill be changed and those wishing to purchase 

FiRKT-cLAHH stuck at low figures should write to me at once. 

Everything warranted aa represented and strictly pure bred. 

KncloseHtamp and address I. P. LORD. Reno. Nerada. 
^*rNo order booked unless accompanied by the caah. 



MONEY TO LOAN 

UPON CHOICE RANCH PROPERTY. 

JNO. D. HOOKER, 

302 Montgromery Street, San Francisco 

Pacific Sural ^ress, 



A flrst-claas 16-page Illustrated Agricultural Weekly, filled 
with fresh, valuable and interesting reading. Every 
fanner and ruralist should take it. It is im- 
mensely popular. Send for a sample copy. 

DEWEY Si CO., PubUshere. 8. F. 



BofifD VoiCMRS of the PACinc Rcral Prkss, from Vol- 
ume One, are for sale at tliis office; price, $6 per volume 
for single volumes; unbound $3. There are two volume* 
I per year. 



July 14, 1877.] 



W 



27 



ie^iEDEf^s' Dt^ECJO^y. 



Pdrchaserb ok Stock will find in this Directory the 
Names of some of tiif. Most Reliable Breeders. 

Our Rates. — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



A.. MAILLIARD, San Rafael, Maria Co., 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 



Cal. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.), Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



R. Q. SNBATH, San Bnnio, Cal., breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bulls for sale— various ages — at §40 
to SIOO. 



P. STANTON, Sacramento, Cal., breeder of choice 
Jersey Cattle. Bulls, Cows and Calves for sale. • 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 

B. F. WATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thorough- 
bred Spanish Merino Sheep. 

M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep. Rams and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $20 each; 
Lambs, $15 each. 



Winchester Repeating Rifle 



MODEL 1873. 




"W"^- 



The Strength of All Its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, 



string measuring from center of tar- 
get to center of each shot, 32 
inches. Average distance of 
each shot, 1 9-100 inches. 



LANDRUM & RODGERS, Watsonville, Cal. 
porters and breeders of Pure Breed Angora Goats. 



Im- 



POULTRY. 



J. M. KERLINGER, Ellis, San Joaquin Co. 
Selected Pure Bred Brown Leghorns and Pekin Ducks 
and E{,'gs. Write for reduced price list. 

M. FALLON, corner Seventh and Oak streets, Oak- 
land. Bronze Turkeys. Choice Eggs for Hatching 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 



MRS. L. J. WATKINS, Santa Clara, Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, S. S. Ham- 
burgs, L. Brahmas and B. B. Red Game Bantams. Also 
Eggs. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, BoUota, San Joaquin Co., 
Cal., Breeder of Improved Berkshire Swine. 



PETER SAXE & SON, Importers and Breeders i,f 
English-Kentucky Herkshire.s, all ages. Perfect pedi- 
grees. Cor. nth and Howard Sts. , San Francisco, Cal. 
N. B. — Largest Importers and Breeders in the U. S. 



FOR^ALE. 

THE BEST ARRANGED 

WINE AND BRANDY FACTORY 

In the .State, Cajiable of 

Working 1,000 Tons of Grapes, and with 

a small outlay can be Increased to 

1,500 Tons Per Season. 

It consists of a building ;JOxl(iO foet, two stories high, 
and a third story 30x40 teet, with sheds on one side and 
en<l, and a boiler 14 feet long, .OO inchos in diameter, with 
40 2A-)nch tubes; engine, 10-iiich cylinder, 20-inch stroke, 
water and wine pumps, etc. 

The grapes are hoisted by the engine to the third story, 
where they are pressed through a Johnston & Johnston 
Grape Crusher, capable of crushing and stemming 8 to 12 
tons per hour. The pulp falls into a tub from which the 
must runs by hose to fermenting tubs, and the skins are 
carried by car on a track to tubs on the second floor. 

The copper still [is Johnston's patent, with capacity to 
work 2, .'(00 gallons of wine in 12 hours; all the racking is 
done with hose and steam pumps. There are 23 ferment- 
ing tubs of 4,000 gallons each, hose, cocks, cooperage, and 
everything necessary and in good order. This property is 
situated at Marysville, in a grape growing country, and in- 
side of the levee and alongside of the Oregon and Oroville 
Railroad. The above described property will be sold at 
public auction on Wednesday, August 1st, 1877, 
at 11 A. M., at the Marysville Distillery. 

C. E. SEXEY, Assignee. 



C-HiRIVIANN,i 



SAJJiFHANCISCa. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

75 Warren St., New York, 

Commission Merchants in Cal'a. Produce 

Refrrence.— Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; Ell- 
wanger & liirry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed, Sacra- 
mento, Cal. ; A. Lusk & Co. , San Francisco, Cal. 

I^DWIN \LDENQ 

^ 174 ELM^^STREET. C 
GINCINJNATI. OHIO. 

Advertisements inserted ia any paper, 
Before advertising send for my catalogue. 

LANDSCAPE GARDENING. 

CHAS. A. REED. 
Experienced Landscape Gardener, 

SANTA BARBARA, CAL. 
CorreBpoud«nc« s«liclt«d. 



The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, 

Commend it to the attention of all "wrho use a Rifle, either for Hunting 

Defense, or Target Shooting. 

The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 

Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inch — blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch — blued. Octagon barrel, set 
24, 26, 28, 30 inch — blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 2G, 28, 30 inch — blued. Octagon baiTel, set, 24, 
26, 28, 30 — extra finished, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch- 
extra finished— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— beautifully finished— C. H. i C. S., 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbines, 
model 1866. RELOADING TOOLS, PRIMERS AND PARTS OF ARMS. 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 

JOHN SKINKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco, 

SOLE AGENT FOR THE PACIFIC COAST. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION 

Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 



DANIEL INMAN, (Prksidknt). 
A. D. LOGAN, (ViCR President). 
AMOS ADAMS, (Secrbtary). 



OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 

JOHN LEWELLING, (Treasurer). 
G. W COLBY. 
I C. STEELE. 

THOS. FLINT 



W. L. OVERHISER. 
A. T. HATCH. 
O. HUBBELL. 



W. W. GRAY. 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION HOUSE, 



Grangers* Building', 



106 Davis Street, S. P 



Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairy Products, Fruit, Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and 

Advances made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandise, 

Farm Implements, Wagons, etc., solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis that will 
enable the country at large to transact business through us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consigiunents to be marked "Grangers' Business Association, San Francisco." Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 

DANIEL INMAN, Manager. 



Ill consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERKINS' SAUCE, 

ivhicli arc calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrius 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 

thus, 

•which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and -without which none is genuine. 

Ask for L EA d-' PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
'^Vholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
&'€., &-'c. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San Francisco. 



JOHN H. GOVE'S 

CENTENNIAL HAY PRESS. 

Fanners and Hay Pressers will find it to their advantage to examine this Press before buying any other. It is 
built compact, combining lightness for moving with the greatest power and durability in its working parts, capable 
of making the average 2,';o pound bale, more or less, baling 10 to 15 tons per day, with three men and a pair of horses, 
they traveling only 36 feet to operate it. No excavations required for this press. This is the original Gove Pres.4 
improved, after an experience of building Presses in the States the past 15 years, where they gave the best of sat- 
'sfactiou. Price, No. 1, $250. 

Manufactured and for sale, or built to order, at the Eureka Grain Storage Warehouse, by 

JOHN H. GOVE or ANDREW J. GOVE, Box 1122. 

Also, for sale by DAVID N. HAWLEY, Agricultural Warehouse, 211 Market Street. 




CALVERT'S CARBOLIC 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 Per Gallon. 

After dipping the Shee|), is use- 
ful for Preserving Wet Hides, De- 
stroying the Vine Pest, and for 
Disinfecting Purposes, Etc. 

T. W. JACKSON, 8. F., Sole 
Ati»ni for the Pacific C*aat, 



FOR SALE. 

AT $40.00 PER ACRE. 

The Alfalfa Ranch, nine miles from the city of Los An- 
geles, bounded and fenced for one mile on the north by 
the Anaheim Railroad; east by San Gabriel (old) river, 
containing about 300 acres of land, all set with goud grass, 
60 acres alfalfa. Abundant water for irrigation and willow 
for fuel. Inquire on the rar^h or by mail at Los Angeles. 
IRA CARPENTER. 



GOLDEN GATE ACADEMY, 

Oakland, Cal. 

NEXT TERM BEGINS AUGUST I, 1877. 

D. P. Sackett, A.m., Pnn. JosiAii Keei', A. M., Ass't. 

Classical Department; Scientific and English Department; 
Commercial Department; Preparatory Department; De- 
partment of Physical Culture. 

Sui)erior training in every department. The fitting of 
young men and women for college a specialty. 

Military drill and gymnastic exercises required daily — 
solely for physical exercise, development and health. 

Situation most commanding, beautiful and healthful. 
Send for Circular. 



WASHINGTON COLLEGE, Washington, Ala- 
meda Ciiunty, Cal. For young men and young women. 
F>ill corps of able and experienced instructors. Address 
Rev. S. S. Harmon, Principal. New year will begin 
July 2fith. Send for Catalogues. 



(jrangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Authorized Capital - $5,000,000. 

OFFICERS: 

President and ManacxER C. J. CRESSEY. 

Vice-President JOHN LEWELLING. 

Treasurer ,L V. WEBSTER. 

Cashier ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 

SECRETARy FRANK A. CRESSEY 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
the best market rates. 



Buy the Best. 

Before purchasing an American 
Watch, examine the different styles 
manufactured by the NEW YORK 
WATCH COMPANY, at Springfield, 
Mass. They are the latest and 
best improved manufacture. You 
can depend upon them for fine finish, 
durability and perfect time. They 
are sold at favorable prices— in 
fact, no higher than many of the 
inferior styles. Examine into the 
merits of this Watch before you 
buy any other. Our word for it, 
you will not regret it. 

DEWEY & JORDAN, Agents, 
433 Montgomery St., S. F. 



LEVI STRAUSS & CO., 



Patent Rlyetea 
Clothing, 

14 & 16 Battery St., 

San Francisco. 



These goods ore specially 
adapted foi the use of 
FARMERS. MECnANIOS, 
MINERS, and WORKING 
MEN In general. They 
arc manuf.actured of the 
Dcst Material, and In a 
Superior Manner. A trial 
w.ll convlueo everybody of 
this fact. 
Patented May 12. ISl.S. 

trSE NO OTHER, AND INQUIRE FOR THESE 
GOODS ONLY. 




rrr\ mixed cards, with name, for 10c. and stamp. 
OU One pack (20 stylus) Acquaintance Cards, lOc. Sani- 
ples for 3c. stamp. M. DOWD & CO., Bristol, Ct. 



rOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
. Ten C«uti. STEVENS BROS., Nortbford, Cuun. 



28 



^^eiiri© miffm<^i& 



[July 14, 1877. 



National Immigration Bureau. 

The Fairmouut Park Commissioners, who rep- 
resent the city of Philadelphia, have given to 
Mr. Lee Craudall the use of Machinery hall, in 
Fairmouut park — a building which covers over 
14 acres — for the establishment of a National 
Immigration Bureau. 

In this building there will be exhibited, free 
of charge, all contributions the different States 
and Territories may see tit to make. These are 
expected to embrace specimens of minerals, veg- 
etable products, manufactures, works of art; 
the laws, statistics and rates of taxation of the 
diflferent States; maps, charts and full descrip- 
tions of lands for sale, together with an abstract 
of titles, and specimens of all kinds that will 
represent the resources of each .State and Ter- 
ritory, so as to enable the Manager of the bureau 
to answer any question emigrants may want to 
ask. Everything contributed will Ije thorough- 
ly exhibited, free of charge, and without par- 
tiality or favoritism. 

The object of this bureau is to foster and en- 
courage immigration in all the States and Terri- 
tories that desire it. Hence they should all be 
represented. Specimens of their resources 
should be on exhibition for the enlightenment 
of emigrants who are selecting new homes. 

Every route by sea and by land, to ami from 
all the States, individually and collectively', will 
here be jiresented to view as fast as received, 
and the rates of fare and otlier particulars given 
when required. 

Parties having inducements to offer immi- 
grants, should be full and explicit in their de- 
scriptions, so as to be readily comprehended. 
Those who have lands to offer cannot be too 
particular in giving locations, descriptions, ti- 
tles, prices, character of soil, &c. 

The authorities in all the States and Terri- 
tories will readily see the importance of being 
represented in this Bureau, and of placing on 
exhibition specimens of their resources. There 
is abundant room for all exhibits, and all will be 
shown to the best advantage. Newspapers and 
periodicals, when received, are carefully filed 
for inspection. 



General News Items. 

The famine district in British India is daily 
doing Vjetter. Rain has fallen plentifully and 
sowing has Vjegun. The position in Madras is 
still grave, and over 1,000,000 persons are fed by 
the relief works. 

Advices from Peru state that in consequence 
of the attack by the British war vessels Shah 
and Ametliyst on the Peruvian ram Hnascur, 
the President has issued a proclamation, in 
which he declares that he will exact from Great 
Britain explanation and satisfaction, consequent 
on such wanton outrage on a friendly power. 

The Secretary of the Treasury gives notice 
that 87,000,000 coupons of ,5-20 bonds, under 
the Act of March 3d, 186,'), and consols of 186.'), 
will be paid at the United States Treasury on 
and after October .5th, when interest ceases; 
also $.3,000,000 registered bonds of the same is- 
sue. 

The President is so well satisfied that there 
is no further need for troops in the South, that 
he will shortly direct the issuing of orders to 
withdraw all troops from that section except 
such as may be necessary for garrison duty. The 
troops so withdrawn will either be transferred 
to service in the West or be sent to the Pio 
Grande. The order already issued transferring 
the Second Infantry from Atlanta to the Pacific 
coast is in pursuance of this determination. 

The sectional dry dock at the Navy Yard 
broke down last week while trying to take out 
the French man-of-war /Am'ter. The docks are 
old and have been out of repair for the past 
three or four years. There was no damage (lone 
to the ship. It will require many thousand 
doUars to repair the dock. The Department at 
Washington has been repeatedly asked for 
money to repair the sections, and such .an acci- 
dent as has happened has been predicted by the 
yard authorities. 



Sanitary Home. 

Those who are on the outlook for some gentle 
spot where nature makes her loveliest advances 
to win the sick or weary to life and strength, 
would do well to make note of the sanitary 
home which Dr. Barlow J. Smith has estab- 
lished in Napa county. We read the following 
inviting item in the Napa Rejxirter: "As pre- 
\-iously announced in the Reporter, Dr. Barlow 
J. Smith has purchased the Mineral Spring 
farm, containing 500 acres, of W. C. Watson, 
Esq., near Rutherford, where he purposes to 
establish a watering place and sanitary home. 
A \nsit to the place within the past week ena- 
bles us to give the reader a description of this 
charming spot. It is about 15 miles from Napa 
City and three-fourths of a mile west of Ruther- 
ford station, from which last place there is an 
elegant road, smooth and easy, without a rut or 
a rough spot. 

"The buildings nestle in the woods at the 
mouth of a canyon, with vineyard and valley, 
hill and dale in front, and the rugged, steep, 
wooded mountains rearing up in the back- 
ground to the west. The view is simply ex- 
(juisite, up or down or across the valley. You 
look out upon green fields, dotted with cottages 
and dwellings in all directions, with rock- 
ribbed mountains as a background. Up the 
valley a sharper point is given to the high ridges 
by the pines and redwo.ids growing on the sum- 
mits, while below the round cones are shaded 
off by that peculiar soft and beautiful light 
which no painter can imitate. 

"The situation is 15 miles up the valley from 
Najja I'ity, hence the harsh bay winds never 
reach the spot with their chilling cold, but come 
as balmy zephyrs, grateful and pleasant. In 
winter the climate is as good as the winter 
climate of California in the most favored locali- 
ties, while in summer it is beyond description. 
It is the same climate the thousands of ISan 
Franciscans seek every year to thaw out in, 
and get a new lease of life against fog and cold. 
It is the same they delight to bask in and sun 
themselves. But it is not to be described, it 
must be enjoyed to be appreciated." 



Liberia Cokfee.— We recently had an arti- 
cle on the famous prices which the seed of the 
Liberia coffee was bringing in Ceylon, and 
mentioned the fact that some of it had been 
planted in this State. The other day we re- 
ceived a letter from Horace J. Smith, of Phil- 
adelphia, informing us that a fresh lot of the 
unhulled berries had been received in that city 
from Liberia. A day or two later we received 
the announcement concerning it which appears 
in our advertising columns. Messrs. Morris & 
Co. write that the berry seems full of life, and 
they think it right for seed. It is just like that 
which they send to Ceylon. Those who would 
like to try the Liberia tree, either for ornament 
or for the test of the commercial side of the 
culture, we would recommend to write to 
Messrs. Morris & Co., as per advertisement. 

"The Veuetable Garden."— This is the title 
of a neat little book of about 140 pages, written 
by James Hogg and published by Dick & Fitz- 
gerald, of New York. It is full of useful 
points, but they must be read in the light of 
California conditions and experience, or they 
may prove illusive. For facts, apart from 
special cultures, the book is concise and perti- 
nent. For sale for 50 cents, by A. Roman & 
Co., .San Francisco, 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Pre.ss American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are worthy 
of mention: 

Bee-Hive. — Thos. A. Atkinson, Merced, Mer- 
ced Co. This invention relates to an improve- 
ment in bee-hives, which is more especially use- 
ful in preventing the ravages of the bee-moth, and 
which the inventor calls the moth exterminator 
or trap. It is a well-known fact that this moth 
can go wherever the bee can go and a moth- 
proof bee-hive is an impossil)ility. They may, 
however, be trapped and destroyed by the apiari- 
an, and this this invention is designed to effect, 
by providing artificial hiding places into which 
the worms will pass at the proper season for 
the purpose of forming their cocoons and enter- 
ing the chrysalis state and they may easily be 
collected and destroyed from these receptacles. 
The worms which may be concealed in the hive 
early in the spring are comparatively harmless, 
but if left to themselves thus will enter the 
cocoon, emerge as moths and lay thousands of 
eggs, which are hatched nearly simultaneously, 
so that before the bee owner is aware of it the 
bees are destroyed. It is the habit of the 
worms found in the hives in the early spring to 
let themselves down from the combs and after 
reaching the floor to seek cracks and hiding 
places, both to escape the bees and in order to 
enter the chrysalis state. It will therefore be 
seen that when they reach the inclined floor of 
this hive they will find no place to hide until 
they reach certain grooves in the entrance 
blocks. Into these grooves they pass at once 
and thence down tubes provide<l for the pur- 
pose, into a trough from which they cannot 
escape, but may be removed and destroyed. 
This hive is economical and easy of access. 

Door- Lock. —C. H. Covell, Stockton. This 
invention relates to such door-locks as are 
secured to doors by being fitted in a recess in 
the side J of the door stile, and principally on 
the inside of the door. These locks as hereto- 
fore constructed require the recess to extend 
from the edge of the door stile, next to the cas- 
ing, almost entirely across the stile, and this 
recess must be deep enough to admit the full 
thickness of the lock so that its outer face will 
be flush with the side of the stile. Only a narrow 
thickness of wood was left between the lock 
and the opposite side of the door, almost cutting 
the stile in two, and materially weakening the 
door at that point. And, again, the screws 
which fastened the lock in the recess were 
screwed into this narrow thickness of wood, 
which furnished a slight hold, so that the con- 
stant jamming to which the lock was subjected 
soon rendered it useless. This invention pro- 
vides such a construction ot the lock, that a 
portion of the wood next to the casing is left to 
Its full thickness, and the screws which fasten 
the lock in place are screwed into the stile 
where it has the full thickness of the wood to 
enter. Other improvements also provided re- 
lating to a keyhole guard. 



Saw-Teeth.— N. W. Spaulding, S. F. The 
object of this improvement is to prevent the 
waste of lumber occasioned by the use of broad 
pointed saw-teeth, and to accomplish this Mr. 
Spaulding has devised a novel bit or point 
which, although but slightly broader than the 
thickness of the saw-blade, will clear both itself 
and the saw-blade as they pass through the 
wood, and at the same time allow the saw to 
saw much easier than any other form of tooth 
point. The front or cutting edge stands at an 
angle to a radial line drawn from the center of 
the saw-blade, the upper part of the cutting 
point projpcting beyond and in advance of the 
lower part. The top of the tooth near the 
tooth-point is made convex for a short distance 
back of the point. The underside of the tooth 
is then mafle concave by forming a semi-circular 
groove commencing at the upper part, and en- 
tirely down and backward towards the throat, 
thus forming an inverted U-shaped or curved 
cutting point, the edge of which stands at an 
angle, so that the upper or convex part of the 
cutting point is in advance of the side bits, 
while the cutting points of the side bits gradu- 
ally recede so as to form inclined side bits, 
which enter and pass through the wood with a 
drawing cut. A great advantage of this form 
of cutting point is the great facility with which 
it can be sharpened when it becomes dulled, as 
a small emery wheel with a convex rim can be 
applied to the concavity on the underside of 
the point, and in a very short time the cutting 
edge can be perfectly restored. 

Saw Teeth. — N. W. Spaulding, S. F. This 
invention relates to an improved method of up. 
setting and spreading the points of that class of 
saw teeth in which the cutting points of the 
teeth are made concave. In constructing this 
improved saw tooth its front edge is provided 
with two distinct angles. One of these angles 
commences at the top of the cutting point and 
extends downward from an eighth to a quarter 
of an inch and is slightly inclined towards the 
back of the tooth. At this point the angle 
changes and pitches directly towards the throat 
of the tooth. The upper angle the inventor 
calls the cutting face and the lower angle the 
neck of the tooth. The groove or semi-circular 
channel which converts the cutting face of the 
tooth into a convex cutting point or bonnet, ex- 
tends fotn the top of the tooth down to about 
the middle of the neck. It is this upper angle 
or cutting face which tlie inventor spreads in 
the manner described. 

Endlf^s Chain Elevator. — John A. Wood- 
ward, S. F. This patent covers certain im- 
provements in endless chain elevators, such as 
are used in hoisting, carrying and delivering 
coal, grain, lumber and other substances into 
and out of the holds of ships. The mechanism 
is so arranged that there is a flexible frame for 
the endless belt to travel over. The belt is 
made with slats so as to form a continuous slat 
belt, which can be easily lengthened or short- 
ened. On the inside of each section is a ledge 
or rail upon which the ends of the slats will 
bear when the belt is at work and thus be pre- 
vented from sagging. When this elevator is 
used for hoisting and carrying coal and like 
substances, buckets can be secured to the belt 
in the ordinary way. 



From Field to Breakfast. — According to 
the Chico Enterprise, they have been doing 
some quick harvesting in Butte county. The 
time made was not nearly so fast as that 
reported from Kansas or Missouri last year, but 
it was fast enough for all practical purposes. 
The Enterjiriie says: On Tuesday a feat in har- 
vesting was successfully carried out at the 
Rancho Chico. At a quarter to five o'clock, 
the usual time for commencing work, the hands 
were on the ground, about two miles and a half 
from town, and at five minutes to five the first 
header wagon brought a load to the machine, 
which was put through and sacked. The first 
two sacks were put into Mr. Abram Bidwell's 
buggy and carried to the Chico mill, where it 
was put through the cleaning process and made 
into flour. At half past six o'clock we received 
a portion of the flour, and at a quarter before 
seven we sat down to our breakfast to eat nice 
biscuits made from the flour. 



A Good Heart. — Exclaims the .Salinas Imlex: 
"Time flies. In less than four months hence, 
rain! Then, hurrah, boys, for putting in another 
crop. " 



Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

Week Ending July 10. 1877. 





HIOIIESr AND LOWKST BAROMKTKR. 




July 4 


July r. 


July 6 


July 7 
29.95 


July 8 


July|9 


July 10 


28.98 


30.02 


30.00 


29.99 


30.00 


29,97 


29.90 


29,06 


29.91 


29.91 


29.94 


29.91 


29,87 




UINIUl'M AND MAXIMl'M TIIKRM03 


lETER. 




« 1 


&■} 


67 1 66 1 63 


1 63 


1 66 


64 1 


54 


53 1 54 1 53 

MEAN DAILY nCMtDrrT. 


1 .13 


1 53 


-* 1 


74 


73 1 80 1 85 

PRKVAILINO WIND. 


81 


! 73 


,WSW 1 


S\V 


1 W 1 SW 1 wsw 

WIND— MILES TRAVELED, 


1 WSW 


1 w 


367 1 


288 


1 326 1 277 1 344 

STATE OP WZATBER. 


359 


839 


Fair. 1 


Fair. 


Clear, | Clear, | Fair, 


1 Fair. 


Clear, 




RAINFALL IS TWRNTT-RODB HO 


JRS. 




Total r» 


in duri 


nji: the w 


>»ion, fr< 


)m July 


1, 1877, 


0,00 in. 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents 

OFFICE, 224 SANSOME STREET, .S. F, 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent Reissues taken out 
Assignments made and recorded in legal form; 
Copies of Patents and Assignments procured; 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; Examinations made of Assign- 
ments recorded in Washington; Examinations 
ordered and reported by Telegraph; Rejected 
cases taken up and Patents obtained; Inter- 
ferences Prosecuted; Opinions rendered re- 
garding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Patent 
Agency Business promptly and thoroughly 
conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inven- 
tions of this coast, and long practice in patent 
business, enable us to abuiulantly satisfy our 
patrons; and our success and business are 
constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steatlfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals— 
thereby facilitating their intnxluction, sale 
and popularity. 

horeign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussiji, Austria, Batlen, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Denmark, 
Italy, Portugal, Cul>a, Roman States, 
Wurtemburg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Granada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 
No models are required in European countries, 
but the drawings and specifications should be 
prepared with thoroughness, by able persons 
who are familiar with the requirements and 
changes of foreign patent laws — agents who 
are reliable and permanently established. 
Our schedule price for obtaining foreign patents, 
in all cases, will always be as low, and in 
some instances lower, than those of any other 
responsible agency. 
We can and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country) 
.sooxer than any other agents. 
The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more correctly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions jdiscov- 
ered here than any other agents. 
Situated so remote from the seat of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast tnan to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by extra time consumed in transmitting 
specifications from Eastern agencies back to 
this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

Confidential. 

We take great pains to preserve secrecy in 
all confidential matters, and applicants for 
patents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing to them the same 
thing already covered oy a patent. We are 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applicants 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We in^nte the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short call 
at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the (jovernment, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not only lost their money, but 
tlieir inventions also, from this cause and con- 
sequent delay. We hold ourselves responsible 
for all fees entrusted to our agency. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in our own oflBce, and 
all facilities for producing fine and satisfactory 
illustrations of inventions and machinery, for 
newspaper, book, circular and other printed U- 
lustrations, and are always ready to assist 
patrons in bringing their valuable discoveries 
into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO. 

United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scientific Press and the 
Pacific Rural Press, 224 Sanaome St., 8. F. 



July 14, 1877.] 



s. p. 



ET 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. ETC. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, July 11th, 1877. 

The passage of the holidays has brought men to soberer 
mind and more earnest thought. The advance which has 
been made in Wheat and Barley has spread anticipation 
of renewed trade in all lines. The present situation is 
one of extreme idleness, because holders' and buyers 
views were so far apart. On a rising market there may 
be more spirit and more sales as holding ponits are 
reached. 

As may be seen below, the Liverpool market has made 
gratifying advances since a week ago. 

Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been 
as recorded in the following table: 



Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday — 

Monday 

Tuesday . . . . 
Wednesday . 



Cal, Averaok. 



lis 10d@128 Id 

12s — @128 3d 

12s — rail2e 3d 

12s — (*12s 3d 

12s 2dC(»123 5d 

12s 2(I@12s 5d 



Club. 



123 2d(ai2s 8d 

12s 4d@12s lOd 

123 4d@12s lOd 

12s 4d@12s lOd 

12s 5d®133 — 

12s 5d@13s — 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date in former years as follows: 

Average. Club. 

1875 93 2d(a 93 5d 9s 4d(a 93 9d 

1876 9s 8d(»103 — 9* 10d(aiOs 4d 

1877 12s 2d(*128 5d 129 5d@13s — 

The Forelgm Review. 

London, July 10th. —The Mark Lane Express, in its 
weekly review of the British Corn trade, says: Heavy 
rains the past week have tended to promote the growth 
of straw and has filled out the Wheat ears. Hops, too, 
are benefited, but the root crop has made very slow prog- 
ress, owing to cold nights. Haymaking has been hind- 
ered by the weather, but a large proportion of the crop is 
now gathered in good order, the yield being almost every- 
where good. Reports from the country somewhat vary 
as to the aspect of the Wheat plant. While in some lo- 
calities it is said to give promise of an average crop, in 
others it appears thin and dwarfed, having never got over 
the effects of the wet, cold spring. Nor are a<lvices more 
favorable regarding Barley and Oats. Judging by some 
fields in home counties it does not appear likely that Bar- 
ley will yield much more than half a crop. Beans and 
Peas promise perhaps the best of all. Cereals, on the 
whole, do not offer such a fair prospect to the agricultur- 
ist here as on the Continent, where appearances at pres- 
ent point to a full average yield. Harvest prospects in 
Russia are very favorable. Our season having so far ad- 
vanced, the chances of damage from stormy weather are 
considerably lessened; but even should climatic influences 
prove favorable between this and harvest, an average 
Wheat crop is all that can be exi)ected. The insignifi- 
cant supplies of home-grown Wheat, both at Mark Lane 
and country markets, indicate how nearly stocks are ex- 
hausted. It may be stated that little or nothing will be 
left over of last year's crop. In spite of the flrniness 
with which growers have stood by their remaining stocks, 
it has been diflicult to sell English Wheat, as the fine 
weather has depressed trade and previous prices have 
been obtained with ditficulty. Imports of foreign Wheat 
into London continue to be large, and although arrivals 
from Northern Russia are less active, Germany and India 
have prevented the weekly return from indicating any 
decrease of importations. The estimated stock of \Vheat 
in London on the 30th of June is 300,000 quarters, against 
about 180,000 quarters the 31st of March, and for the 
same period stocks of Flour and Oats show also a slight 
increase, while Barley has decreased some 20,000 quar- 
ters. The estimated stock of Wheat in the principal 
ports does not, however, indicate any marked alteration 
since the end of last year, but shows a diminution of over 
half a million quarters on the stocks in June, 1870. At 
the close of the last week less favorable reports were cir- 
culated respecting French crops. A sharp advance in 
values has taken place both in Paris and Marseilles. This, 
coupled with the broken weather, has had a hardening 
effect upon our market, and should Continent buyers put 
in an appearance, we may shortly expect to see higher 
prices. 

Prel(7hts and Charters. 

The stagnation in freights, says the Commercial Ncim, 
continues. Under the circumstances it is impossible to 
give any quotations. The last charter was at £2 7s to 
Cork, U. K., for a small Norw ship, but this could not be 
obtained at present. Outside business is inactive, the 
only ih»rters offering being for lumber to the West coast 
from Northern mill ports. Our disengaged list has in- 
creased somewhat, and we now have 55,308 tons in port 
disengaged, 4,917 miscellaneous and 6,023 charted for 
Wheat. 

Rastem Grain Markets. 

New York, July 8th. — The diminishing supply of 
Breadstuffs has led to a firmer market for Flour, Wheat 
and Corn, at home and abroad, and prices have advanced 
to «1.60(!tl.7O for No. 2 spring Wheat, with more business 
for export. New winter Wheat is arriving in small quan- 
tities from the border Slates, where the harvest is about 
over and the result satisfactory. New Amb*^r Tennessee 
brought 32. Except in Minnesota, there is every pros- 
pect of a full crop of spring Wheat, though present esti- 
mates may be considerably modified by bad weather dur- 
ing the next few weeks. The harvest is backward, both 
here and in England. 

Corn has about held its own, the receipts having de- 
creased a little. Barley is nominal. The winter crop is 
said to be satisfactory in quantity, but deficient in 
quality. 

Chicaoo, July 7th.— This week, having had two dies 
ncn, has been one of less business and excitement on 
'Change than is usual. Prices have fluctuated only mod- 
erately. The business has been largely s|)eeulative, and 
the movement of Grain limited, in spite of the great in- 
ducements for shipping. Wheat sold from $1.35} to 
81.45i; Corn from 4^0 to 48ic; Oats, 3'2o to 34c; Pork, 
«12.82i@S13.20; Lard, $S.57KaS8.90. All these prices be- 
ing for the July option. Firmer rates prevailed at the 
close of the week, and despite of the good growing 
weather and favorable prospects for grain, the outlook is 
bright for fair prites. Winter Wheat in southern Illinois 
is already harvested, and besides being a heavy crop is in 
remarkably good condition in almost every section which 
has sent in reports. Corn is also growing rapidlv, and at 
present is troubled by neither drouth nor Hood. "Receipts 
for the week have been: Wheat, 81,000 bushels; Corn, 
729,000; Oats, 242,000. Shipments - Wheat, 117,000 bush- 
els; Corn, 1,348,000; Oats, 185,000. Receipts for the same 
time last year— Wheat, 351,000 bushels; Corn, 847,000; 
Oats, 349,000. Shipments— Wheat, 191,000 bushels; Corn, 
994,000; Oats, 415,000. The closing prices are, for cash: 
Wheat, 81.4.1; Corn, 48(^49c; Oats, 33c; Kye, 62c; Barley, 
60@65c; Pork, $13.20; L.ird, 88.90. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, July 8th —The excitement attending the op- 
ening of the season for new Wool has in a measure subsided; 
but there yet remains considerable stock in the interior 
unsold, for which farmers and local dealers demand exor- 
bitant rates. Buyers are coming to view the market with 
more coolness, and already not a few are looking to obtain 



prices sufficient to cover cost and expenses. There is no 
doubt but that the limit has been reached, for foreign 
stock. Australian particularly, can be laid down here at 
prices below the figures demanded by growers in the 
West; and with another sale of Colonial, amounting to 
350,000 bales, to open at London in August, the probabil- 
ity is that a reaction will soon set in. California Spring 
continues active, and no stock is permitted to accumulate; 
prices are very firm, no w'eakness being visible. Western 
Texas continues to arrive in large quantities, and meets 
with ready sales at full prices; Eastern, however, comes 
along slowly, and is generjilly held out for advanced 
prices. Foreign clothing stocks are but liltle inquired 
for; but holders, in view of high prices ruliTig for domestic, 
are confident of obtaining full prices. Sales for the week 
are: 347 bales Spring California at 18@30c, for fair to 
choice; 285 do Fall do, 20(a51c; 40,000 lbs Eastern Texas, 
24i@29c; 100,000 llis Western do, 17^25c; 2,000 lbs Utah, 
32c; 97,000 It.s X and XX Ohio, 47(«'50c; 10,000 lbs fine un- 
washed Indiana, 33c; and 20,000 ItJs Utah, 25 bags Colo- 
rado, 40,000 lbs Georgia, 60,000 fts Western Texas, 15,000 
lbs Eastern do, 30 bags Canada lambs pulled, 83 do X do, 
.50,000 lbs unwashed Indiana, 50,000 lbs combing do, 16,000 
lbs Ohio, 5,000 lbs tub washed, 10,000 llis foreign noils, 
5,000 Itis domestic do, and 5,000 lbs camel hair to arrive, 
on private terms. 

Boston, July 7th. — The excitement in the market con- 
tinues with little or no abatement. The demand is active 
and full prices are obtained for all desirable lots. Re- 
ceipts are about 4,000,000 pounds. Sales of 224,000 
pounds Ohio, including common to choice, XX and above. 
Picklock, Ohio and Pennsylvania is quoted at 55@58c; 
XX and above, 50@52Jc; medium and No. 1 at 46@48ie; 
Sales of 230,000 lbs Michigan, at 43@45c. The mar- 
ket is firm at these prices. Combing and delaine are in 
active demand. Sales of 519,000 lbs at 50(3 55c for washed 
and 35(rf40c for unwashed. Pulled is in fair demand, and 
steady and firm. Sales of 200,000 lbs at 32i(S)46c, includ- 
ing low supers at 32i@35c, but mostly in the range of 40c 
to 45c. The stock sold up ckise. Texas is sought after at 
full prices. Sales of 105,000 ftis at 26@37ie. California 
si)ring is less active, but desirable lots are held at full 
prices. Sales of 473,000 lbs spring at 23(*375c; 60,000 lbs 
fall at 18@21c. 

Domestic Produce. 

The following table shows the S. F. receipts of Domes- 
tic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, as com- 
pared with the receipts of previous weeks: 



Articles. 



Flour, quarter sacks 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, sacks 

Com, centals 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales 



Week. Week. Week. Week. 
June 20. June 26. July 3. July 11. 



45,951 

29,020 

4,243 

439 

1,032 

7,739 

10,641 

578 

3,494 

42 

1,355 



.32,4.30 

21,223 

11,141 

1,007 

1,154 

1,588 

14,851 

1,075 

3,407 



2,391 



26,395 
8,126 
12,394 
56 
1,132 
2,135 
8,040 
950 
3,232 



1,328 



15,604 

38,.311 

10,470 

1,.365 

1.313 

1,417 

12,340 

1,398 

4,400 

72 

1,792 



Bags— The Bag speculators have made another rush 
at the market. We are told of a concentration of stock 
in which three banks and four large dealers unite to hold 
the Bags unless their views are met in price. Outside 
dealers have more respect for this combination, because 
they say the parties are more responsible and have plenty 
of money to work with. The new combination went at 
work at once, and bought up all the Bags which weak 
members of the old ring wanted to sell, and thus concen- 
trated the stock in their own hands. This movement has 
resulted in an advance in the market price of Bags. The 
future of the market will apparently depend upon the 
strength of the combination to hold what they have, for 
it is believed that they have stock enough .secured to give 
them mastery of the situation. This Bag trade is more 
at the mercy of speculators and gaming ojierators than 
any other specialty of farm supplies. There should be 
some relief, and the trade be permitted to take its legiti- 
mate course. 

Barley — Barley has scored quite an important advance 
and the trade has been brisk and prices firm. We note 
sales: 880 sks choice New at $1.62i; 400 sks Bay Feed, 
$1.70; 350 sks New Feed at $1.67i; and 300 sks dark Coast 
at $1.70 ¥ ctl, gold; 1,000 sks good Bay Brewing at.'?1.72J; 
400 do fair Feed, $1.62J; 1,200 sks Bay Brewing at .$1,724 
qp ctl, and 1,000 do Feed at S1.62i@$1.67J; 100 sks Coast 
Brewing, $1.75; 300 sks good Coast Feed, $1.67.J; 700 do 
do S1.67i; 100 do New, $1.65 1? ctl. 

Corn— Corn is unchanged. We note sales: 300 sks 
Small Bay at $1.82J; 185 sks Small Yellow, $1.85; 100 sks 
Small Bay, broken, S1.82i; 100 sks do good do, $1.85 ^ 
ctl. 

Dairy Produce— Complaint of the poor quality of 
much of the fresh Butter is continued. A lower range is 
quoted by merchants to meet the quality. Our prices for 
Point Reyes arc for single box sales and the same rate 
may be reached by z. few other fancy brands. Old Cali- 
fornia Cheese is now nearly out of the market and the 
remnant can be bought cheap. The importation of East- 
ern Cheese has begun and much of it is said to be on the 
way. Prices in the Eastern markets are now very 
low. 

Eggs— Prime lots of fresh Eggs have been sought for 
and are quotable as high as 30(a32c. Second grades are 
unchanged. 

Feed— Ground Feeds have all advanced, and present 
prices may be foundjn^our table below. The following 
is the amount of advance during the week: Bran, $.3; 
Middlings, $2.50; Oil Cake Meal, $2.50. Corn Meal drops 
its lower price and now rules at $40 per ton. Hay has 
sold well up to quotations. We note sales: 13 tons choice 
new Wheat at $23; 36 do Wheat and Oat, $18.50; 20 tons 
choice new Wheat at $23; 52 tons good Barley at $17; 16 
do good Tame Oat, $17.50; 26 do good Wild Oat, $18.50. 
40 tons Alfalfa, .$16.50; 27 do coarse Wheat, $21.50; 18 do 
fair Barley, $16; 19 do choice Wheat, $23, and a few bales 
do do, $24 per ton; 18 tons good Barley at $17.25; 44 do 
poor Volunteer, $15. 

Fruit— Some few changes in price comprise all there 
is notable in the market. Apricots have arrived freely 
and become cheap again. Figs have also receded. Black- 
berries are becoming more plentiful. Full prices for 
Fruits may he found in our table below. 

Hops- There have been 72 bales of old Hops received 
during the week. Stocks are now very small. There are 
some better lots held at 25c, which is above the ]>resent 
market rates. A Hop growers' meeting has been called 
to meet in Sacramento, July 14th. 

Emmet Wells reports the New York market, for the 
week ending June 30th, as follows: Under the influence 
of continued favorable crop news, our market this week 
has exhibited increased depression, and so anxious have 



holders been to unload, that the price has given away 2c 
^t lb on all descriptions of old and new hops. Prices now 
are considerably lower than a year ago, notwithstanding 
our shipments to Europe for the season nearly equal that 
of last year. Stocks, however, are largely in excess of 
last year, both here and in the country. This alone, 
coupled with the fact that we shall grow even a larger 
crop than last year, is in itself surticient cause for the 
present depressed state of trade. Quotations: New 
Yorks, choice to fancy, llt*13e; New Yorks, common to 
prime, 6(!Sl0c; Eastern, 6@8c; Wisconsins, 6(gl0c; Year- 
lings, 4@8c; Olds, all growths, 2@4c; Californians, nom- 
inal, 8@13c; Oregon, nominal, 8@13c. 

Oats— The Market is quiet and without change. We 
quote sales: 425 sks choice Oregon for Australia at,§2.30. 
gold; 200 do Bay Feed, $2.15, silver; Coast sells down to 
SI. 80; 200 sks good Coast Feed sold from warehouse at 
$2.15, silver. 

Onions— The supply of Onions is ample. Prices are 
without change. 

Potatoes— Potatoes have manifested considerable 
spirit during the week, and are quotable to-day at a good 
advance over last week. Prices for different kinds are 
given below. Receipts included 17 boxes new Sweet, which 
brought 5c ¥ lb. 

Poultry and Game — A few small changes in fine 
are noted, but the general trade is unchanged. 

Provisions— The market is quiet. Dealers expect 
better trade next month. Mutton and Beef are in good 
supply, and there is plenty of poor stock in the market. 
The better grades of Beef have sold at improved rates. 
Spring Lamb is also higher. 

Vegetables -There is still a littleJAsparagus arriv- 
ing from San Jose. Cabbage is abundant and cheaper 
Rhubarb is a drug and sells for l@lic W lb. Tomatoes 
are of wide range in quality and price. 

Wheat— Several comments upon the state of the 
Wheat harvest and market may be found in other col- 
unuis of this issue. There have been few sales noted, ag 
follows: 400 sks good Milling, $2.25; 500 tons good .Ship- 
ping, in several lots, $2.20, delivered at Vallejo; 600 sks 
Oregon, a little smutty, $2.17}; 1,300 sks choice Proper, 
to a miller, $2,271. 

Wool— The Wool market continues good. Oregon 
Wool will stand Ic better quotation than a week ago. We 
note sales of 12,000 Humboldt at 32c; 13,000 Southern, 
slightly burry, lOJc; 70,000 California, 17@32c; 70,000 
northern California and Oregon, the latter at 28(g33c. 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

[wholesale. 1 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

[wholesale.] 



BEAAS. 




Bayo, ctl 


. .4 00 m 


25 


Butter 


. .2 00 @ 





Pea 


. .2 75 (* 





Red 


..4 00 (* 
..375 # 





Pink 





Sm'l White 


...2 00 'ff2 50 


Lima 


...3 00 ml 25 


KKOOH CORK. 




Common, lb 


.. 2 (rt 


•M 


Choice 


.. 3 @ 


4 


CIIICCURY. 




California 


.. 4 @ 


44 


German 


.. 6!(r* 


7 


«'OTTON. 




Cotton, lb 


.. 15 (9 


18 


DAIRY PRODITt'E. ETC. 


BUTTER. 




Cal. Fresh Roll, 


lb 22i@ 


30 




.. 30 {.<* 


■(.;j 


Pickle Roll 


.. 30 (* 


.32; 


Firkin 


... 2lito 


30 


Western Reserve.. 16 (<i 


'.iO 


New York 


... - @ 


— 


CHEESE. 




Cheese, Cal., tb 


... 13 @ 


16 


Eastern 


.. 14 (PB 


16 


N. Y. State.... 


... - 


— 


EGOS. 




Cal. fresh, doz. 


.. 30 @ 


32i 


Ducks' 


.. 20 (ft 


22 


Oregon 


... 20 (« 


■22* 


Eastern 


. . 18 «? 


•20 


fEED. 




Bran, ton 


25 00 at— 


— 


Corn Meal 


40 00 ig- 


— 


Hay 


15 00 @23 00 


Middlings 


32 50 (rti- 


— 


Oil Cake Meal.. 


42 50 (tt- 


— 


Straw, bale 


75 M 


m 


FLOUR. 




Extra, bbl 


...7 25 m 50 


Supertine 


...6 25 CCS 75 




..7 50 (It 





FRESH MEAT. 




Beef, 1st qual'y, 


lb 6 @ 


7^ 


Second 


.. 5 @ 


hi. 


Third 


... 2 (cC 


3« 


Mutton 


."." 5 b 


4 


.Spring Lamb. . . 


6 


Pork, undressed 


.. 7!® 


58 


Dressed 


8 


Veal 


... 6 (a) 


V 


Milk Calves.... 


.. 55>a 


6i 


URAIiX 


ETC. 




Barley, feed, ctl 


...1 65 @1 70 


Brewinit 


...1 70 (nil 80 


Chevalier 


...1 !0 (ft 


— 


Buckwheat 


...1 60 (ct 


— 


Com. White... 


..1 70 (rtl 


85 


Yellow 


..1 70 C*l 


85 


Small Round. 


...1 82J(3>1 


85 


Oats 


...1 70 W2 20 


Milling 


. ..2 25 lit 


— 


Rye 


..1 95 (ct 


— 


Wheat, shipping 


..2 20 Vt2 25 


Milling 


...2 30 W2 


35 


HIDES. 




Hides, dry 


... 18 @ 


18i 


Wet salted... 


.. 7i(a 


9 


HOIVEY 


ETC. 




Beeswax, tb — 


.. 25@ 


27) 


Honey in comb. 


... 15 §i 




do. No 2 


.. 12J("' 





Dark 


.. 10 «» 





Strained 


... 7 @ 


9 


HOPS. 




California 


.. 15 @ 


20 



Wednesday m.. July 11, 1877. 

NIITS-Jobblns. 

Cal. Walnuts 9 (cc 1( 

Almonds, hd Ehl lb 7 (ft 

Softsb'l 15 (ft 

Brazil 14 (« 

Pecans 17 @ 

Peanuts i (ft 

Filberts 15 (ct 

0.\IOKS. 
Union City, ctl....l CO @ 

Stockton 75 (3 

rOTATOE.S. 

Petaluma, ctl — @ 

Humboldt — @ 

Cuff ey Cove — («> 

Early Rose, new. 1 00 («1 
Half Moon Bay...l 25 ('(1 

Lighthouse 1 50 C"l 

Sweet —fed 

POULTRY A «A.nE 

Hens, doz 6 00 (g7 

Roosters 4 50 i«7 

Broilers.. 2 50 (24 

Ducks, tame 5 00 (a6 

Geese, pair 1 50 (tt2 

Wild Gray 1 50 (»2 

White 75 .gl 

Turkeys 18 (g 

Snipe, Eng 2 50 (<* 

do. Common .... 1 00 ('?' 

Rabbits 1 00 #1 

Hare 1 50 (rt2 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, L't, lb 14 (ci 

Meilium 13 (<j 

Heavy 12i(* 

Lard 12 (« 

Cal. Smoked Beef 10 @ 

Eastern — 

Eastern Shoulders 10 @ 

Hams, Cal 124(g 

Armour 135(j* 

Dupee's 14*(* 

Davis Bros' 14i(^ 

MaguoUa 15 (ffi 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 22l,@ 

Canary 10 (fp 

Clover, Red 25 @ 

White 50 @ 

Cotton 6 (a 

Flaxseed 3i((t 

Hemp 5 (j* 

Italian Rye Grass 35 (ft 

Perennial 35 (ft 

Millet 10 (a 

.Mustard, White... 10 (S 

Brown 3i@ 

Rape 3 @ 

Ky. Blue Grass.... 30 @ 

2d quality 29 (a 

Iweet V Grass 75 (S 

Orchard 30 (fi 

Red Top 25 (« 

Hungarian S (ft 

Lawu 50 (rt 

Mezquite 20 (ft 

Timothy 10 (* 

TALLOW. 

Crude, tb 6} (9 

Refined 8j (a 

WOOL, ETC. 

SPRING. 

Short Free, dusty.. 13 @ 

Good Soutliorn 15 (ft 

Choice Nortliem. . 28 (^ 

BuiTy 12 C<* 

do. Northern.... 18 (A 

Oregon, East 26 (ft 

do Valley 30 (* 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 



Wednesday m. , July U, 1877. 



Butter, Callfomia 

Choice, lb 35 @ 

Cheese IS (ft 

Eastern 25 (* 

Lard, Cal 18 (<t 

Eastern 20 (ft 

Flour, ex. fam, bbl7 00 (ftS I 

Corn Meal, lb 2i(ft 

Sugar, wh. crshd I2l(ft 

Light Brown B (ft 

Cofteu, Green 23 (ft 

Tea, Fine Black... 50 («1 

Finest Janan — 55 (ftl ( 

Candles, Aomt'o.. 15 (ft 

Soap, Cal 7 (tt 





Rice 


. 8 (a i2i 


40 


Yeast Pwdr. doz. 


.1 BO (rt'2 00 


30 


Can'd Oysters doz2 00 (<t3 60 


30 


Syrup, S F Gold' 
Dried Apples, lb. 


n 75 (<tl 02 


— 


. 10 (* 14 


25 


Ger. I'rimes. . . 


. 12k«t 10 


(K) 


Figs, Cal 


. 9 (ft 15 


3 


IVaches 


. 11 (ft 10 


13*1 


Oils, Kerosene.. . 


. 50 (ft GO 


91 


Wines, Old Port. 


.3 50 (!t5 00 


.35 


French Claret... 


.1 00 ¥2 50 


f^i 


Cal, doz hot . . . 


.3 00 («4 50 


00 


Whisky, K, gal 


..3 bOiftD 00 


25 


French Brandy.. 


.4 00 (^8 00 


lU 







Wednesday m 

BA«S-Jnbblne. 

Eng Standard Wheat. OS'S— 
Neville & Go's 

Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 9J(»— 

24x3« -c<*— 

23x40 — (*— 

Machine Swd, 22x36. OJC*— 
Flour Sacks, halves 9 (Su 

(Juarters 53@) 6J 

Eighths i](g il 

Hessian, 60 inch 13k(*— 

45 inch 7«rt 8J 

40 inch 72(3> 8 

Wool Sacks, 

Hand Sewed, 3 J lb..47i'S50 

Machine Sewed 45 @— 

4tb 55 @— 

Standard Gunnies 14 @15 

Bean Bags 7 (» 8 

CANDLES. 

Crystal Wax 19 (cf20 

Eagle 12i((r — 

Patent Sperm 28 (g30 

CANNED «OODS. 

Assorted Pie Fruits, 

2J lb cans 2 75 @3 00 

Table do 3 75 (g4 25 

Jams and Jellies. .4 25 (<^ — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 50 @ — 

Sardines, qr box . . 1 65 C*l 90 

Hf Boxes 3 00 (a — 

COAL-.IobbliiK. 
Australian, ton.. 9 00 @ 9 25 

Coos Bay 8 00 (« 

Belllngham Bay. 8 00 (01 

Seattle 8 00 C* 9 00 

Cumberland 14 00 #17 00 

Mt Diablo 5 75 (S 7 75 

Lehigh 22 00 (a 

Liverpool 8 50 C* 9 00 

West Hartley.. .14 00 (ft 

Scotch 7 50 (* 8 00 

.Scranton 13 00 («!16 00 

Vancouver Id. . .10 50 (*12 00 

Charcoal, sack.. . 75 (* 

Coke, bbl 60 (a 

COFFEE. 

Sandwich Id. tb. 21J(a 

Costa Rica 18 (S 20 

Guatemala 18 (^ 20 

Java 24i(* 

Manila 19 (« 19; 

Ground, in cs... 25 (ft 

FISH. 

5 ^ 6 



July 11, 1877. 
OILS. 

Pacific Glue Cos 

Neatsfoot, No 1.1 00 ® 90 
Castor. No 1 1 05 @ — 

do, No. 2 1 05 (« _ 

Baker's A A 1 25 @1 30 

Olive, Plagniol....5 25 («5 75 

Possel 4 75 (g5 25 

Palm, lb 9 ift — 

Linseed, Raw, bbl . SO (0 — 

Boiled 85 (a - 



31 



101 



Sac'to Dry Cod. 
Boneless.. 

Eastern Cod _ 

Salmon, bbls.... 8 50 (* 9 50 

Hf bbls 4 50 @ 5 00 

2 tb cans 3 00 @ 

Pkld Cod, bbls.. 22 00 (» 

Hf bbls 11 00 @ 

Mackerel, No. 1, 

Hf Bbls 14 00 @15 00 

In Kits 3 00 (* 3 25 

Ex Mess.... 3 50 (ct 4 00 

Pkld Herring, bx 3 00 # 3 50 

Boston Smkd H'g iO (ft 50 
LIiUE, Etc. 

Lime, Sta Cruz, 
bbl 2 00 @ 2 25 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 75 @ 3 50 

Portland 4 75 (a 5 50 

Plaster, Golden 
Gate Mills.... 3 00 (S 3 25 

Land Plaster, tn 10 00 (<f 12 50 
NAILS. 

Ass'ted sizes, keg 3 25 @ 4 00 



Cocoanut 80 

China nut, 08 68(3) 70 

Sperm 1 60 (Si 6B 

Coast Whales 60 @ 85 

Polar, refined 60 W — 

Lard 1 10 §1 15 

Oleophine 35 (ft 

Devoe's Bril't 30 @ 

Photolite 29 @ 

Nonpariel 50 C* 

Eureka 22J(§ 

Barrel kerosene. . , 30 ^ 

Downer Ker i7i@ 

Elaine EO @ 

PAINTS. 
Piure White Lead. 93(3 

Wliiting iJS 

Putty 4@ 6 

Chalk 1J@ — 

Paris White 2J@ — 

Ochre 3J@ — 

Venetian Red 3i@ — 

Averill Mixed 

Paint, gal. 

White & tints. . .2 00 (82 40 

Green, Blue A 
Ch Yellow.,.. 3 00 (a3 50 

Light Red 3 00 @3 60 

MetalUcRoof...l 30 (gl 60 

RICE. 

China No. 1, tb.... 6|@ 6i 

Hawaiian il(ct 5 

SALT. 
Cab Bay, ton.... 13 00 ®U 00 

Common 6 00 (S 8 00 

Carmen Id 13 00 (rtl4 00 

Liverpool fine. . .17 50 («18 00 
SOAP. 

Castile, lb 10(3 

Common brands.. 4i@ 

Fancy brands 7 @ 

SPICES. 

Cloves, tt) **^ @ 

Cassia 22i0> 

Nutmegs 85 @ 

Pepper Grain 1*^ @ 

Pimento 15 @ 

Mustard, Cal, 

i lb glass 1 50 @ 

SIIVAR, ETC. 

Cal Cube, tb 13*@ 

Powdered ^^|@ 

Fine crushed 13i^ 

Granulated 13 (ft 

Golden C 10}@ 

Hawaiian 10 (ct 

Cal. Syrup, kgs... 75 (ft 

Hawaiian Mofeses 26 @ 

TEA. 
Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 35 

Country pckd Gun 
powder & Im- 
perial 50 @ 

Hyson 30 @ 

Fooo-ChowO 35 & 

Japan, 1st quality 40 @ 

2d quality 25 (ft 



lOi 



i @ 60 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



wholesale.. 



FRriT MARKET. 

Apples, box 60 (* 1 

Apricots bx 50 frP 1 

Bananas, bnch.. 2 50 (ct 3 
Blackberries, ch. 8 00 (<tl2 

Cherries 6 (ct- 

Cocoanuts. 100. . 5 00 (rt— 

Figs, box , 1 00 (a 

Grapes 60 (i* 1 

Limes. Mex 20 00 (fi— 

Lemons, Cal M.25 00 (a 36 

Sicily, bx — (3 18 

Oranges, Mex, 

M (a— 

Tahiti 25 00 @— 

Cal 20 00 (ft35 

Peaches, box 75 Cf? 1 

Pears, box 75 (ct 1 

Pineapples, doz 6 00 C* 8 

Plums, box 1 25 # 1 

Raspberries 10 (ch 

Strawber'es,eh'st 5 00 @ 5 
DRIED FRUIT. 

Apples, lb 5i@ 

Apricots 10 (^ 



Wndnesday m.. July 11, 1877. 

Pitted 124<a 14 

50 Prunes 12m 17 

00 Raisins, Cal, bx 1 50 @ 2 60 

50 Malaga 3 00 (ft 

00 /^ante Cun-ants.. 9 ^ 10 

15 VEUETARLES. 

— Asparagus, bx... 1 50 @ 2 00 

— Jeets, ctl 75 @ 

25 Cabbage, 100 lbs 75 Si 

— Carrots 75 O 

00 (.'aulidower, doz 75 @ 

00 (Join, doz 12i(ft 20 

do Bay 22|(f 30 

— Cucumbers, box, 15 (ft 1 OO 

— I'.arlic, New, lb. , 
00 Okra, tti. 



Citron. 
Figs, Black.. 

Wliite 

Peaches 

Pears 

Plums 



(It 

5 (ct 

6 (a 

8 (a 

9 @ 

3@ 



Peas, Sweet 

Lettuce, doz 

Parsnips, lb 

Peppers 

Potatoes. Sweet. 

Rhubarb 

Horseradish 

•Squash, Marrow- 
fat, tn 30 00 I 

Summer, do bx 40 @ 50 

String Beans — 4@ 6 

Tomat's, bx30tb. 1 00 § 1 25 
do, Sacram'to. 1 76 (S 2 00 

Tuniips, ctl 60 (g 

White 75^ 

Wax Beans 4 @ 




LEATHER. 

[wholesale. I 
Wednesday m., July 11, 

Sole Leather, heavy, lb 26 ( 

Light 22 ( 

Jodot, 8 Kit., doz 48 00 1 

11 to 13 Kit 68 00 ( 

14 to 19 Kit 82 00 I 

Second Choice, 11 to 16 Kil 67 00 ( 

Coruellian. 12 to 16 Kil 57 00 1 

Females, 12 to 13 Kil 63 00 ( 

14 to 16 Kil 71 00 I 

.Simon Ullmo, Females, 12 to 13 Kil 58 00 1 

14 to 15 Kil 66 00 I 

16 to 17 Kil 72 00 ( 

Simon, 18 Kil 61 00 ( 

20 Kil 65 00 ( 

24 Kil 72 00 1 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 KU 35 OO ( 

Kins. French, lb 1 00 1 

Oil. doz 40 00 ( 

French Sheep, all colors 8 00 ( 

Eastern Calf for Backs, lb 1 00 ( 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colore, dor 9 00 ( 

For Linings 5 60 ( 

Cal. Russet Sheep Linings 1 76 ( 

Boot Legs, French Calf, pah- 4 00 ( 

Good French Calf 4 00 ( 

Best Jodot Calf 8 00 ( 

Leather, H.irness, lb 35 < 

Fair RriilUi, doz 48 00 ( 

Skirting, 1h 33 ( 

Wcit, doz 30 00 ( 

Buff, ft 18 ( 

Wax Side 17 ( 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro & Co,] 

San Francisco, .July 11. 3 p. M. 

Leoal Tenders In 8. F., 11 A. M., 95J. Silver, 4@4i. 

Gold in New York, 1058. 

Gold Bars, 880@890. SILVER Bars, 10@15 ^ cent, dis- 
count. 

KxciiANOf: nn Nrw Y.i'-k. 50055-100 ¥ cent, premium for 
gold; on Lou'|..ii 1 ....U<- ,^. 13J; Commercial 49J; Paris, five 
francs t) dollar; Mexican dollars, 94(<$95. 

London Consols, 941; Bonds, 1071. 

QuioEsiLVER in S. F.. by the flask, $ lb, 42(g42ia 



30 



[July 14, 1877. 



Agricultural Articles. 



The Famous " Enterprise '' 

(PERKINS- PATENT* 

Self Regulating Farm 

Pumping. Railroad 

and Power 

WINDMILLS. 

Pumps & Fixtures, 

Have been in use on the 
Pacific Coast in the towns 
and farminij districts for 
over four years, and wher- 
ever tl>ey have been sold 
(and there arc tliousands of 
them out) they are doin;; 
their work as well as when 
put up. A careful perusal 
of our Circulars i,'ive9 a fair 
representation of tlicni and 
shows their simplicity. 

We are prepared to fill orders .■>. .^1 oi^ts, 
PUMPING MILL to a 24foot I'UWEll MILL for 
Machinery, as well as duinj; the puniiiiiiK-. 

All warranted, .\ddrus.s, 

NORTON &. KENNEDY, 
Managers for California and Pacific Coast. 

ALSO BKST FEKD Jlll.LS FoU SAl.K 

General Office and Supplies, 

LIVERMORE. ALAMEDA COUNTY. CAL. 




from « 
running 



HOADLEY'S 

THRESHING ENGINES. 



PRICES. 
12-Horse Power 
15-Hor3e Power 




We have a few of these Engines on hand, w hich we can 
offer at the above 

VERY LOW PRICES. 

They are the latest style, and warranted to give the jHtwer 
represented. Call or addresi^, 

BERRY &. PLACE, 

San Francisco. 



CAUTION. 

To Farmers and all others who put barbs 
upon wire fences, making' a barbed 
wire fence, and to all manufactu- 
rers and dealers in fence barbs 
and barbed fence wire. 



You are hereby notified, that in ]>uttin^ barbs upon 
wire, making; a barbed wire fence, or in tising or dealing 
in barbs for wire or barbed fence wire, not made under 
license from us, you are infrinfin^' upon our patents, and 
we shall hold you strictly accoinitable for dama:;e8 for all 
iufrinsfenients of Letters Patent N09. 06,182, 87,117, 74,- 
379, M,Uti2. loS.tXia, 157,124, 157,508, 1(>4,181. 165,(i<Jl, 
172.760, 17a 431, 17»,6»7, 180,351, 181,433, 186,389. 187,126, 
187,172; re-isjue. Nos. 7.13«, 6,976, 6,902, 7,035, 7,036, 
6,913, 6,t)14. 

Copies ot our clahns c:in be obtained of our attorneys, 
COBVRN & THATCIIEU. Chicaj.'o, III., or of our counsel, 
THOS. H. DODGE, Worcester, Mass. 

WASHBURN & MOEN MANUF'G CO., 

Worcester. Mass. 

I. L. ELL WOOD & CO., DeKalb, 111. 



TO FRUIT MEN. 
LILLIES' FRUiT FITTER, 

Patented March 7th, 1876. 

This machine pits all 
the different kinds of 
stoned fruits, (cling- 
stones included,) both 
rapidly and well, and 
without w,iste, and w;th 
entire satisfaction to all 
who have used it. 

It is a perfect suc- 
cess, and it does not 
depend upon p r e s - 
sure upon the flesh of 
the fruit to extract the 
pit. It will pit an av- 
(Tave of s,o<w pounils 
of fruit per day, and is 
not liable to get out oi 
order. This is the only 
machine that will pit 
cherries successfully. 

For further particu- 
lars anil tenus, address 

H. JONES. Sole Agent for California. 

419 and 421 Sansome Street,. S. F. 

Choose a^ good companion 
only — one of Dewey & Jordan's 
"New York watches." 






AND 

Excavating: IVTacliiiiery. 

Constantly on Hand and for Sale 

Tlie well known PRICE or PETALUMA HAY PRESS, the gtandard machine of 
ifs class and the faste.st baling press known; over 500 in use on this Coast. Price $450 

The IMPROVED ECLIPSE POWER PRESS, the simplest and best press ever made 

for the price, which is $300 

The IMPROVED ECLIPSE HAND-POWER PRESS, very compact and pow- 
erful $200 

The PRICE PRESS, (extra heavy,) for baling hay for shipment in box cars. Will pu- 
from nine to twelve tons in a box car. A very strong and powerful machine, fully warrant 
teil as to strength and capacity $600 

MADE TO ORDER. 

Hide Presses for baling dry hides for shipment to the East $500 

Presses for Hair, Wool, Bags, Hops, Moss, Broom Com, etc., at reasonable prices. 

PRICE'S BOX EXCAVATOR or SELF-LOADING GRADING CART, 
the most remarkable labor saving machine that has been invented for years. Will move 
earth any distance, from 50 to 2,000 feet at one-fourth the cost of the ordinary way. The 
large size, using four horses and carrying over one and a half yards at a load is worth .... S650 



The same machine, carrying three-quarters of a yard and using two horses . 
Price's Draper Excavator, for making ditches from 10 to 20 feet wide 



$500 
$650 

There are conditions connected with the sale of excavators which will be explained upon appli- 
cation by letter or otherwise. Address 

I. J. TRUMAN, San Francisco, - - J. PRICE, San Leandro. 

Office, With BAKER & HAMILTON, 



No. 17 Front Street. 



San Francisco. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




-y^as^,-,. ^^^^^ ^_ . 



Took the Premium over all at the great plowing &Iatch 
in Stockton, in lb70. 

This Plow is thoroufrhly made by practical men who 
have been lonij in the business and know what is required 
in the construction of Oan^' Plows It is quickly adjusted. 
Sufficient play is piven BO that the ton^e will pass over 
cnuile knolls without changing the workinj,' position of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON Ht WILLIAMSON, 

STOCKTON, C.VU 



Fraud! Fraud!! 



COLLINS & GO'S 

CAST, CAST STEEL PLOWS. 

FAKMKKS are cauli'meil ii^ninst inferior roun- 
t<*rfeit jilciws and jKiints which an* buiiif: sold as 
frenuint' east, east steel. The Genuine Kteeis aro 
stamped with <nir trade mark; 

COLLINS & CO.. HARTFORD. 

Look for this stamp before buying plows or 
shares, ami secure the genuino. Full partii'ulnrs 
of new anil improved plows sent to nny nildrcss. 

COLLINS & CO., 
2 1 2 Water Street, New York. 




HEADQUARTERS 

ytu: TUK 

PACIFIC COAST 

ot 11 IK 

U. S. Camp Lounge 

I'OMIWNY. 

Price ol Folding Cot, $10, Lounge $6 and $8. 

Ar.ENTS WANTED. -.\ liberal discount to the trade. 
Sent ('. O. I), to any part of the coast. Also, rubber hose 
in variety and Jengths to suit. 

C. H. MOSELEY, Agt., 415 Sansome Street, 8. F. 

SITUATION WANTED 

Aft Mananop of a Sheep Farm or with a 
"* ma lioyci Uealer in cattle or sheep. Refer- 



ences as to ability and reliability, 
teentli Street, Richmond, Va. 



sheep. 
Address F, 



SNOOK'S PATENT TANK FILTER. 




It is Rrlf-rfpilatinp. will l:ist iii;iny years without renew- 
ing tiiteriiig material. Is siinplt-, (Uirable, easily cleaned, and 
not Habit- to get out of order. A sure prevt-ntivt.- against 
snakes, wonns. hugs and all otlier imimrities in the water. 
It will tilter all the water requireil for any dwelling house, 
and is not exptnsive. Tht-se lilturs are exiircsuly disignrii to 
use iu i»lace of a tank. May he conuectL*<l to any 
tank aud through the usual \n\t*n supply all the house, or the 
water may W use«l direct from the ttltt-r. where no tank is re- 
fpiire*! for other purposes. Kvery house shi>uld be provided 
with one and thus avoid ouc* of the most fruitful sources 
disease. Full satisfictiou guaranteed and tiUurs kept 
repair freu of expense For sale by 

G. & W. SNOOK. 427 Pine Street, S. P. 

LAND PLASTER. 

(SlLPIIATE or LiMK. ) 

THIS FERTILIZER IS ESPECIALLY WELL APArreU 
TO CALIFORNIA LANDS AM) CLIMATE, AND 
IS DESIINED TO BE USED TO IM- 
MENSE ADVANTAGE. 

PRICES GREATLY REDUCED. 

In Bulk, $10 per ton; in Barrels, $12 50. 

GOLDEN GATE PLASTER MILLS, 

LUCAS Si CO., 

N08. 215 and 217 Main Street, San Francisco. 



ANTIOCH FERRY. 

Notice to Stockmen and tlie public in general that a pood 
Forry Boat has heeu nut on betwoun Autioch and Ooriins- 
vllle by the California Transportation Co., aud are prepared to 
move stock in lots to suit, as a large barge is connected with 
the boat. Fur particulars apply tu the Company's office, at 

519 East Street, San Francisco. 

W. K, FIRMAN, Antioch. WM. UARKINS, CsUinsriU* 



Seedsmen. 



SEEDS. TREES. 



SEEDS. 



Continually arrivini,', NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
BLUE GRASS, RED TOP TIMOTHY, SWEET 
VERNAL, MKZtJUITE and other Gnwses. 
RED CLOVER, FRENCH WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA. Etc 
Also, a Complete Assortment of H0L1.^ND FLOW- 
ERING BULBS, JAPAN LILIES, FRESH AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE C.U.M, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEED; together with all kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and even-thing in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Importer and Dealer iu Seeds, 
425 Washington Street, - San Francisco 



SPANISH CHUFA 
SEED FOR SALE. 



Address 

h. h. BEQUETTE, 

Dowuey City, Los Angeles 

County, CaL 



T^PAPa Plants. Spring I 
X I CCS, XIX, Bloomington Ni 



Lists free. F. K. Pbos- 
ursery, Illinois. 



Nurserymen. 



^L SANTA BARBARA NURSERY, 

■JB^ Located seven miles west of .Santa Biirtiara, Cal. 
.mL. pepot. Cor. Montecito and Castillo Streeta. 
JOSEPH SEXTON, - ... Proprietor 

Cn.TlVATOR OF 

Fruit, Nut and Ornamental Trees. Also, 
Orange, Lemon, Lime and Palm Trees, 
Pot Plants, and Hardy Ever- 
green Shrubbery. 

HENRY SHA'W, 

VENTURA, VENTURA COUNTY, CAL., 

Wholesale Grower of 

ORANGE, LEMON and LIME TREES 

Geo. F. Sil\estcr, Seedsman, 317 Washington Street, 
San Francisco, has samples and will fill orders. Trees 
sacked and boxed so as to be safely transplanted at any 
season. Summer months the best for removal. 



WATER! WATER! 

For Irrigation, For Mines, For Cities 
and Towns, For Houses, Fac- 
tories, For any Purpose. 

Tlie Cheapest and the best Pipe in the World. Easily 
laid, easily tapped— practically im|>erishable. Anybody 
and everybody wanting the only roall^v common sense 

WATER PIPE MANUFACTURED, 

SEND To 

AMERICAN PIPE CO., 

No 22 California Street, San Francisco, 

For Descriptive Book and Price List. 




THE OLDEST, ■* 

i; AND MOST WIDELY CIRCULATED 

Religious Journal 

ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Sub«rrlptlon, 94. OO a Tcur. 
C. A. KLOSE, Pubfis 

3 i 508 Clay St., San Francisco, ^i. 





London Assurance Corporation, 

OF LONDON, ENGLAND. 

Established in 1720. 
Cash Assets - - $14,993,466 

Western Assurance "Company, 

OF TORONTO, CANADA. 

Incorporated 1851. 

Cash Assets - - - $1,576,307 

CROSS & CO., Gen. Agents, San Francisco. 



E. GROTKASS, 

COLIMA, MEXICO. 

DEALER IN REAL ESTATE. 
Information given free ot charve. Lands procured for 
sale or (or rents on easy terms. 



July 14, 1877.] 



'^1 





Was awarded the Highest 




rv 



MEDAL AND DIPLOMA 

AT THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION FOR A READY MIXED PAINT 

THIS CELEBRATED PAINT IS MANUFACTURED BY THE 



THIS PAINT IS MIXED READY FOR USE. 

THE PUREST WHITE, AND OF ANY DESIRED SHADE OR COLOR. 

It will not peel, crack, nor chalk off, and will last twice as long as the best white lead, prepared in the ordinary 

way. Is cheaper, handsomer, more durable and elastic than the best of any other paint. 

Extract From the REPORT OF THE CENTENNIAL COMMISSIONERS. 

"This Paint is quite different from paints in general use. * * * Work which has been done with it, some of it exposed for 
years to the moist atmosphere of the sea-shore, establishes its great durability. * * * It is mixed ready for use, easily applied, 
of great beauty, and economical." 

Extract From the REPORT OF THE FRENCH (CENTENNIAL) COMMISSION. 

"It possesses merits unattainable by the old method of combining paint. * * * It can be applied with great facility and per- 
fect regularity ; dries with a rich, glossy surface, and will not chalk or crack off. * * * It never separates, is always ready for use, 
and will not spoil when exposed to the air. * * * It can be applied by any one whether a practical painter or not." 

For Sample Cards and Circulars, Address CALIFORNIA PAINT COMPANY, 37 Stevenson Street, S. F. 



WEBBER LAKE HOTEL ! 

DAVID G. WEBBER, M. D., ■ - PROPRIETOR. 

A. J. ANDBRSON, Manager. 
Post Office Address, Truckee, Cal. 

Hotel Open for Visitors From May 20th 
Until November 1st. 

WEBBER'S STAGE 

Leaves Truckee Tuesdays &. Fridays, 
FARE, $3.00. 

BOATS. FISHING TACKLE, SADDLE 
HORSES AND WAGONS Fur- 
nished to Guests Free. 



Webber Lake is 6,925 feet above sea level, is well stocked 
with Silve"" Trout, and 24 miles from TYuckee, on the 
Henness Pass Road, surrounded by the highest peaks of 
the Sierra Nevada mountains. As a resort for families 
and lovers of rare scenery, excellent fishing and fine 
drives, this hotel excels all others. 



To Wine Manufacturers. 

GRAPE CRUSHER AND STEMMER 

We would call your attention to the machine patented by 
C. Wadhams. It haa capacity— according to size—to crush 
and stem grapes for from 5.000 to 10,000 gallons of wine in 
ten hours. It can be worked by any motive power. It stems 
the grapes better than by hand, saving the labor of three 
men for every 1.000 gallons of wine, and does not crush or 
bruise the stems, from which so much deleterious matter 
comes. It causes the juice to fall through the air like rain, 
BO as to absorbe all the air in it that can be desired, increas- 
ing the teniperature, and insuring a rapid and effective fer- 
mentation. It does not bruise or crush the seeds, nor doc-a 
It even loosen the envelope of the seeds, which is astringent 
and greasy. It produces five per cent, more wine than by 
any other mode, because the grapes are crushed so com- 

fletely that the liquid easily separates from the solid parts. 
n making red wine, the color of the skin dissolves much 
quicker, and the fermentation is perfected before the new 
wine has time to become too astringent by a prolonged con- 
tact with the marc. It crushes all the grapes eveidy, the 
small and tough berries as well as the large and fresh ones. 
The machine cannot easily get out of repair, being niatle 
strong and durable. 

The above reasons were given by M. Keller, Los Angeles, 
after having made 200.000 gallons of wine with one machine, 
thoroughly testing its merits. In 'making 75.000 gallons it 
will save enough to i)ay for the machine and a horse power to 
run it, saying nothing of the five per cent, more wine saved 
Address 

WM. G. WENDELL & CO., 

No. 321 California Street, San Francisco. 



O 
O 

o 
m 

< 

o 

h 




H 

3" 
<D 

> 

n 
o 
o 
o 



A^illage Hook a^nd. Laclcler Truck. 

We manufacture three sizes of this truck, which is so equipped as to furnish a complete fire de- 
partment for villages, or an excellent auxiliary to a city fire department. For further information, 

Address PARKE & LACY, 417 Market Street. 



After Nearly Three Years' Test, the STEEL BARBED FENCE WIRE, Patented by 

J. F. GLIDDEN, Stands Head and Shoulders Above all Competitors, and 

is More in Demand than all Other Barb Fences Put Together, 




TO FISH RAISERS. 

I am now ready to sell "Carp" which were imported 
from Germany in 1872, in lota to Huit. 

Address J. A. POPPE, Sonoma, Cal. 



VER 300,000 POUNDS SOLD IN CALIFORNIA THE FIRST SEASON OF ITS INTRODUCTION. THE GLID- 
DEN PATENT BARB WIRE HAS BEEN TESTED BY THOUSANDS OF PRACTICAL FARMERS, WHO 
UNIVERSALLY RECOMMEND IT, AND IS SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS: 
1 The wire is manufactured entirely from steel, which has a relative streiij^th of 50 per cent, greater than of 
any common iron wire. 2. The only steel wire barb. 3. The only barb that cannot be displaced with thumb 
andfinircror cattle's horns. 4. The only barb with pronRS im>jectin(f from between the twisted wire and cannot 
be bent, broken or nibbed off, and never needs rcplacinjf. 5. The only coiled barb with broad biv.se on main wire, 
which renders it immovable. 6. The only barb wire durinf,' process of manufaiaure its streng-th i.s tested 
equal to that of two-horse power. The onlv barb put on with machinery. It is not pounded on with hammer 
and indented in main wire to hold it in place. 8. The only barb wire you can lay 80 rods or more on ground and 
drag with team and not injure or displace the barbs. 9. The only barb wire that gives universal 8ati8fa«tlon and has 
greater sale than all others put together. 



JONES, GIVENS & CO., Pacific Coast General Agents, 



Sacramento, Cal. 



Manufactured by Washburn & Moen Manufacturing: Company. 



Dewey & Co. {sanfo^est} Patent Ag'ts. i 50 n 



FINE CARDS, Damask, Repp, Etc., with name on 
cents. CLINTON BEOS., Clintonville, Conn. 



Ha H. Hi 

HORSE MEDICINE, 

D. D. T.-I868, 

Is gainini; a widespread notoriety. Testimonials from 
all ]);irts (>f the iMast show it to be a companion in every 
family It i|nickly removes Wind Galls, Spavins. Callous 
Linnps, Sweeny, and all blemishes of the horse, while 
the family finds it indispensable for Sprains, Hruiscs, 
Aches, Pains, and wherever a good liniment is re(|uircd. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's, 
Stockton, Cal. 

A FARM FOR SALE IN NAPA 
COUNTY. 

The undersigned (jfTers his lands in Koss Valley for sale, 
situated ten miles north of Napa City, containing 1,960 
acres; :!00 choice grain land, well watered, having a stream 
of water miming llironf;h the triict; also, has numerous 
flowing springs distributed over the same, has a good 
Dwelling House, Barn, Granary, Sheds and other out- 
houses, a good orchard, a small vineyard and a choice 
vegetable garden; has a great quantity of timber, cnouifh 
to pay for the whole place. Any person wanting a choice 
stock and grain fann and a pleasant home with a sgilendld 
climate, will do well to call and sec for himself. I will sell 
the same at cheap rates and easy terms. I will subdivide 
and sell the following tracts to wit: one tract of 1,020 
acres, 100 grain and the balance good pasture land, at 
37.!>0 per acrp; one trnct of 400 acres, i>0 tillable, also on« 
tract of ItW ..ri\:.. JoaiNi^ tillable, at *I0 per acre, cither 
of which will make a (food home. Apply to the under- 
signed on the premises. WILLIAM CLARKE. 

Napa Co., Cat P. O. Napa City, Box 61 



32 



[July 14, 1877. 



A 



A^I^DS 



Ninth, Howard and Tenth Streets, - - - . 

IMPOKTANT AMOUNCEMENT. 



San Francisco, Cal. 



Having just shipped to Japan some 70 head of fine Horses, Sheep, Cattle, Jacks, etc., I desire to say I have 
made arrangements with parties in Japan to fill orders and ship, from time to time, such as they desire. 

In September and October some $60,000 will be spent in the purchase of the above 

kinds of Stock, 

Also High Grade Milch Cow3 in Calf, by Thoroughbred Bulls, any Breed. 



I desire to learn prices, ages and full particulars of parties owning above, and solicit shipments — of all but milch cows — at any time. 

The present home demand is for business horses, 1,000 to 1,300 pounds, ranging in prices from $100 to $200 each, and I shall 
be pleased to receive such consignments. Commissions on common stock 5 per cent., and double on blooded stock. Charges, 50 
cents, 75 cents and $1 per day for care of and feeding stock. 

You will find my yards the finest, largest and cleanest west of Chicago, and a good place to sell or purchase. Plenty of stalls 
and corral room. 

ROLLIN P. SAXE, Proprietor. 



Sansome Street. 

Dewev & Co.'s Patent Of- 
fices, Mining and Scientific 
Press and Pacific Rural Press 
newspaper offices, and the Scien- 
tific Press Engraving establish- 
ment will be found at the above 
place, (No. 202 Sansome Street, 
N. E. Corner of Pine, opposite 
the Pacific Bank), after July 14th, 
1877. Just three-fourths of a 
block south of our old location. 



Questions of the Times. 

Which are the most reliable watches? 

Amerioiin watches, they are driviiij; those of foreign 
make out of the market. 
Which is the best American watch ? 

The New York watch, made at Springfield, Mass. 

Why Is it the best watch ? 

Because it is substantial in all its parts, constnicted on 
the best principles and embodies those improvements 
which experience has shown to be the most desirable. 
Why Is the New York Watch so popular? 

BeGiuse in buying one yf>u are sure of getting a guod 
time-keciHir. While jiurchasing a watch of most other 
makes is like investing in a lottery a great many blanks 
to one prize 

Which Is the cheapest watch? 

The most ccononiical is the New York watch. For yt»u 
can get one of the.se excellent time-keepers for less than it 
costs in a short time to patch up a poor watch, which ben- 
efits no one but the repairer. 

Where can I get a New York Watch? 

By addressing the long established, practical Watch- 
makers and Jewelers, DEWEY & JDRUAN, 4.i3 Mont- 
gomery St. , San Francisco, who will send you a descriptive 
price list, including the following styles of movements; 
*'John Hancock," Geo. Sam. Rice," "Chas. E. Hayward," 
"Aaron Bagg," "Theo. E. Studley," "Chester Wool'worth," 
"Frederick Billings," "Railway," "John L. Kuig." "E. 
W. Bond." 



Another Compliment. 



Los A.NOELKs, May 21sl, 1877. 
Messrs. Dewey & Co., Patent Agents, S. V. ^Gentle- 
men: I have just received my letters patent on machine 
for ofiening oyster shells, and compliment you u|K)n your 
success. I shall not only contribute to you my own bus- 
iness, but also that of friends. Thanking'you, gentlemen, 
for your promptness and the very thorough manner in 
which you haie prosecuted this matter, I am, yours 
truly. T. W. TEMPLE. 



Santa Clara, Cal., April 6th, 1875. 
Messrs. Dewkv k Co. Gents:— Vi'e have just received 
Patent No. 160,535, for J. T. Watkins & Co.'s Mammoth 
Road Grader, which was patented throngh your Agency. 
It is the neatest and best that we have ever received. We 
feel proud of it and thankful to you for the care and at- 
tention that you have given it, and when we have any- 
thing to do in that line of business, we will surely give you 
, ™il Very respectfully, J. T. WATKINS i CO. 



a call. 



Campo, Sax Dieoo Co., Cal., July 3d, 1874. 
Messrs. Dewev J; Co.- «cn»«»i«n: To-day I received 
the patent and other papers of my animal trap, that you 
•o successfully worked through the patent ottice for me, 
for which please accept my best wishes. The chances are 
that I will have another applii-ation for you to make for 
me before long. I am well satisfied with your manner of 
doing business, and I think inventors of this coast stand 
in their own light when they do not put their business 
into your hands. 1 remain yours truly, 

A. M. GASS. 

All Should Have It. —The last Rural Press is worth 
the subscription for a year. Every farmer should liavc it 
—Southtrn Califumian, March iSd. 




Some Reasons for Subscribing] or it. 

Because it is a peniiaiiunt, first-class, conscientious 
able, and well conducted journal. 

Bt cause it is the Iar;;^est and best agricultural weekly 
west of the Rocky Moiiiituins. 

Tliat more fanners' wives and children in their isolated 
homes may be cheered by its weekly visits, laden with its 
pleasing- yet moral rea<lin;^, and sound instruction. 

Tliat a more extended intcrch»ni,^e of views and opin- 
ions may be had anionj; fanners, upon all the (freat ques- 
tions touching their nnitual interests and pr()ffres8. 

That the ajn^cultuni! resources of the Pacific Slates may 
be more wisely, speedily and thoroughly developed by an 
open and free discussion in its columns. 

That all the honest industries of our SU'itc may be ad- 
vanced in connection with that of ag^riculture, its col- 
umns beinjjf ever oi>eii to the discussion of the merits of 
all progressive improvements. 

That the Rir.^l, after having' been rea<i and pondered 
over by the home circle, can be filed away for future use- 
ful reference, or forwarded to the old Eastern fireside of 
the Atlantic border, in aid of an increasing immigration to 
our sunny clime. 

Send for sample cojties. 

DE^WEY & CO., Publishers, 

224 Sansome St. S. F. 



MUSIC BOOKS! MUSIC BOOKS! 

Do not forget to carry with you to the seashore or the 
nuiuntains, 

THE WORLD OF SONG. 

This magnificent collection is enriched with the best 
compositions of our most distinguished song composers. 
Each song is a gem. 250 pages, each of full sheet music 
size, and well filled. Price, 82..'i0 in Bds.-, 8:1.00 in Cloth. 

GEMS OF THE DANCE. 

This book is (piitc equal to thu very popular "Oems of 
Strauss," which i»recfded it, and. in addition to the newer 
Strauss compositions, which fill one-third of the volnnie, 
has brilliant nuisic by Gungl, Lamothe, Zikt)fF, Kaiist. 
Godfrey and others, thus giving great variety. Pages full 
sheet music size. $2.50 in Boards; $'i.00 in Cloth. 

PIANO AT HOME. 

A very attractive lioiik, with nearly all the best and 
most popular piariofiirte duets, or four hand pieces. $2.50 
in Boards; S3, 0(t in Cloth. 

Any book sent by mail, post-free, on receipt of price. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., BOSTON. 

McCURRIE, WEBER & CO, 
San Francisco. 



Designing 

and 
Engraving 

ai 
This Office. 

We are prepared to do fine Wood Engraving 
for illustrating Landscape Scenery, Buildings, 
Machinery, Works of Art, Manufactured Arti- 
cles, Trade Marks, Seals, etc. We have a 
first-class 

Machine for Engraving 

A portion of the work, which can be finished 
thereby more perfectly than by the eye and 
hand alone. Our patrons can depend upon 
first-class work always, and at reasonable prices. 
Samples can be seen at our office. 

DEWEY & CO. 




EvEBT new subscriber who does not re- 
ceive the paper and every old subscriber 
not credited on the label within two 
weeks after paying for this paper, should 
write personally to the publishers without 
delay, to secure proper credit. This is 
necessarv to protect us against the acts 
and mistakes of others. 



Farmers, write for your paper. 




SELTZER 




RtdlnilollH Idoiu are entei-tiiincd about purgatives. It 
iii daiiKeruufl to scniirge the stoniacli. to rasp the bowels, to 
pro.stiate the neivous system with furious tvacuants. Nature 
has givtii a saniple. in the fammin Seltzer Spring, of what the 
bihuua. constipiited. ur dyspeptic system needs for its 
res. oration, autl in 

Tarrant'3 Effervescent Seltzer Aperient 

Science has improved on nattu-e by comhiuing all the valua 
ble ingredients of the (iennan Kountain in a portable form. 
and omitting those which have no medicinal virtues Tliis 
agreeaVple and potent saline alt. rative changes the condition 
of the blood and purifies all the fluids of the bod}'. i:)old by 
all druggists. 



B. K. BLISS & SONS, 

Importers, Growers anil Uualers in Garden, Field and 
Flower .Seeds, Dutch liiilbouji Koots, Suninier Flowering 
Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description. Cata- 
loffues mailed to all applicants Address 

B. K. BLISS & .SON8, 34 Barcla.v Street, N. V. 



Contents of Pamphlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 

Map of California and Nevada; The Pnhlic 
Lands; Tiic I.:incl Districts; Talilc of Kainfall in Califor- 
nia; Counties and Tlicir Proilucts; St;itistics of tlie State 
at Larpe. 

Instructions of the U. S. Land Commis- 
sioners. Different classes of Public Lands; How Lands 
may be Acquired; Fees of Land Office at Location; Agri- 
cultural College Scrip; Pre-emptions; Extending the 
Homestead Privilege; Hut t)nc Homestead Allowed; Proof 
of .\ctual Settlement Necessary; .\djoiniiig Fanii Home- 
steads; Lands for Soldiers and Sailors; I>ands for Indians; 
IcLs .if Land Office and Commissions; I.a»s to Promote 
Timber Culture; Concerning Apjieals; Returns of the Reg- 
ister and Receiver; Concerning Mining Claims; Second 
I're-emiition Benefit. 

Abstract From the U. S. Statutes.— Tlie Law 
Concerning I*re-emption; ('oncerning llomeKtcuds; Amend- 
atory Act Concerning Timber; Miscellaneous Provisions; 
Adililioiial Surveys Land for Pre-emption, List of Cali- 
fornia Post OHiccs. Price, jiost paid, 50 cts. 

Published and sold by DEWEY & CO.. S. F 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



IMPORTED. 



Sweet Corn. 



Crosby's Extra Early -, 
Marblehead Mammoth I 
Stowell's Evergreen i 
Mexican Sweet, Nov? J 

ESout^nr Yellow Flint Corn 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzel^ 

Yellovsr Globe . ^eCt Secd. 

White Sugar ) 

ALSO, EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY OF VEGETA- 
BLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, GRASS AND 
CLOVER SEEDS, ETC., OFFERED AT • 
WHOLE.SALE OR RETAIL. 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

No. 317 Washington Street. San Francisco 



R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer in 




FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS, FRUITS AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 
Comprising the Most Complete Stock 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Prices Unusually Low. 
tS^r&de Price List on application. 
*.'My "Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden 
will soon be ready, and will be sent krek to all Citsto- 
MKRH. It will eontuin instructions on the culture of 
Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental Tre« Seeds, Tobacco 
Alfalfa, etc. 

R. J. TRUMBULL. 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 
AT $3.00 BACH. 

BRAHMA COCKS. 

Between 1 and 2 Years Old. 

AS FINE A LOT OF LARGE AND 

WELL MARKED COCKS, 

Vig<irous and equal to any in the State, 

AIsi>, a few hens of same age. 

Sj None but Leghorn Eggs ($4 per dozen 

now,) sold during the hot weather. 

Send stamp for Price-List. Pamphlet on the care of 

fowls hatching, feeding, diseases and their cure, etc., 

ailajited esiiccially to the Pacific coast; price 10c. Addreu, 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 
Also, Thoroughbred Southdown Sheep. 



COFFEE SEED. 



Liberia Collee. A freah sup|>ly of this strong variety 
just received from St. Paul's river, Liberia. For 
sale by 

EDWARD S. MORRIS & CO , 

No. 129 South Front St , Philadelphia, Pa. 

This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South 10th 
St., Philadelphia, & 59 Gold St., Cor. Ann,N. Y 





Volume XIV.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 21, 1877. 



[Number 3, 



Tlie Snowy Owl. 

The splendid owl which our illustration shows 
this week is not a native of the United States, 
but he is so prone to come within our bounda- 
ries on excursions, that his form is doubtless 
known to many readers. Coming from the 
frozen zone, he has been seen as far south as 
Geor£;ia, and is sometimes met with in Ohio and 
Kentucky, but is most often seen at the East in 
the Middle States and New England. On this 
coast he is also a visitor. He is a bird clad in 
the most cold-proof plumage and he comes into 
the lower latitudes during the months from No- 
vember to February. These, the coldest of our 
months, are probably the warmest he can stand 
with any enjoyment. The coming of this owj 
is inconstant as far as numbers go, for he comes 
sometimes singly and sometimes in multitudes. 
Within the last two years there has been a mi- 
gration which a New England writer in the 
Popular Science Monthly thinks will cause No- 
vember, 1876, to go down in ornithological his- 
tory as the time of the famous southward raid 
of the snowy owls. Clad as they are to resist 
the Arctic cold, and such excellent hunters — 
whether by day or by night— it would seem 
that want of food must have started these birds 
on their journey. Could the severe Arctic win- 
ter, so disastrous to Captain Nares's expedition, 
have made this scarcity? It was during a 
pleasant autumn that these birds came upon us. 
There must have been some 60 shot in my own 
vicinity. A string of 13 hung by a store in 
New York; there were many in the markets. 
One taxidermist, it is said, had 60 left with him 
to be stuffed, Another in Philadelphia had 
about as many. As early as September flocks 
of 10 to 15 were seen in different places in Mas- 
sachusetts. A number were shot in the city of 
Boston, and others were seen perched on the 
churches and housetops. For several days they 
were common in the city and vicinity of Port- 
land, Me., where not less than 150 were shot. 
A worthy farmer near my home was taking his 
family to church. A snowy owl sat on a fence 
by the road, caring nothing for the passing 
wagon. The good man fretted, "If it wasn't 
Sunday I'd bag that chap." Probably the fel- 
low in Washington Territory was less conscien- 
tious, for he tilled two barrels with those noble 
birds. Almost everywhere the village taxider- 
mists in the Eastern and Middle States had a 
harvest of employment. Says Ruthven Deane : 
"Many of the specimens were in exceedingly 
poor condition. Of some 200 examined by me, 
nearly all were in very dark plumage, and noue 
wore that almost spotless dress which we occa- 
sionally see." One of these was brought by a 
pupil to my lecture-room in November. It was 
a fine fellow but was badly hurt by the shot. 
It was given in charge of a young friend, who, 
as a bird artist, knew the worth of hisprize. He 
kept it in his room, which served for studio and 
sleep. The bird had the freedom of the room 
and became quite gentle, permitting- itself to be 
fondled. One night it persisted in getting on 
its master's bed. This the jealousy of thehunt- 
ing dog couJd not stand, and every time the 
bird flew on the bed the dog jumped on and 
fought it off. At last the young man told the 
dog to keep quiet, when the bird came back 
again, and squatting by the side of its owner, 
kept still for the whole night. It was a great 
feeder. A weasel which the youth had meant 
to mount was stolen and devoured by the bird. 
Musk-rats, rabbits and birds all went the same 
way, and to see him dine was a droll sight. He 
would open wide his great brassy optics, then 
insert his beak into his prey, then, shutting liis 
eyes excruciatingly tight, would lift his head 
high and gulp down whatever he had detached 
—all of which would be executed in the most 
grotesque batrachian style; for who ever saw a 
frog swallow an insect but that he went it blind? 
Occasionally it was let out upon the snow. Tliis 
was indeed a luxury, it was so like home, and 
the bird would swallow the snow in mouthfuls. 
A fine owl is this Arctic bird. It will smite 
ducks and grouse on the wing like a falcon; will 
swoop upon a hare on the ground and dart at a 
tish in the shallows, and it do'es most of its 
hunting by day. 



Hop Growers' Meeting. — A meeting of hop 
growers for the discussion of all matters con- 
nected with the industry was held in Sacramen- 
to on Saturday, July 14th. The meeting was 
organized by the election of Mr. Johnson as 
Chairman and E. R. Edwards Secretary. A 
communication was read from A. T. Eilliot, a 
hop dealer of San Francisco, stating that at 
some future time he would be pleased to meet 



The Beauty of the Eucalyptus. — Some of 
the eucalypti have beauty as well as fragrance. 
The annual report of the Director of the Mel- 
bourne botanic garden, in referring to improve- 
ments in portions of the grounds, says that sev- 
eral specimens of the gorgeous scarlet-flowering 
Eucalyptus ficifolia are there planted, and then 
adds: "This magnificent plant, from Brokenin- 
let, Western Australia, produces its flowers at a 




Snowy Owl, Nyctea nivea. Gray 



the growers of Sacramento and have an inter- 
change of views pertaining to hops. Mr. Ebert, 
also a dealer from San Francisco, was present, 
and made some pertinent remarks upon the sub- 
ject under consideration. After a pretty gen- 
eral expre.s8ion of opinion on the part of the 
others present, the meeting adjourned until the 
28th instant, prior to which time the Secretary 
will communicate with numerous hop dealers of 
San Francisco and elsewhere, and invite them 
to be present. 

It is reported that growing crops in Europe do 
not promise as well as a short time ago. In tlie 
East the Turk haft turned the Russian advance 
in Asia, and meets the Russian onset in Europe 
with considerable vigor. 



I much earlier stage of growth than any otlier 
sjjecies of the genus with which I am acquaint- 
ed. Its bloom resembles a ball of fire more 
than anything else to which I could compare it. 
I have seen the flame tree of Illawarra, and the 
brilliant scarlet masses of Erytlirina laurifoUa 
on the banks of Rcwa in Fiji, but neither sur- 
passes the effect produced by the floral display 
of this eucaljrptus. " 

Judge Dwinei.i.e has decided tlie famous 
San Pablo ranch case, which has been in litiga- 
tion some 20 years. The ranch is in Contra 
Costa county, and is valued at about .$3,000,- 
000. The Alvarado title was sustained in the 
decision, and the property is to be partitioned 
equally. I 



The Clover Dodder in England. 

Our alfalfa growers who find their plants 
hugged to death by the ursine dodder parasite, 
are sometimes at a loss to determine whence 
comes the grievous pest. Our English cousins 
find it very destructive to their clover fields, 
and they have apparently concluded that the 
seed which they import is pretty freely dod- 
dered. On this subject, Messrs. Carter, seeds- 
men of London, write in their newly issued 
catalogue: "We have devoted considerable 
attention to this important fjubject, and last 
spring conducted the following experiment: 
Having obtained a quantity of dodder seed 
from a dirty sample of foreign broad red clover 
(and it is only in the' foreign clovers that dod- 
der abounds, only to be detected by a keen pro- 
fessional eye) we sowed it afterwards, trans- 
planting the fleshy threads amongst a batch of 
machine-cleaned seeds, and the process of the 
destruction of the crop was soon completed." 
It may not be generally known that dodder 
does not show itself in the first stages of growth 
of the clover crop, and very many fields, con- 
sidered to be splendid leas in the autumn, are 
speedily choked and destroyed the following 
spring. 

' 'This detestable pest waits for the clover plant 
to develop into luxuriance, and then winding 
its web-like leafless tendrils around the base of 
the stem (into whiclx it inserts its roots and 
saps away the very life of the clover), it winds 
round and round the upper portion of the plant 
to strangle and destroy it. The seeds of dodder 
are sometimes conveyed into the land, and 
either from being buried too deep to induce 
germination, or from tlie fact that the growing 
crop is not sufficiently congenial to the habit of 
the dodder, the latter remains dormant only too 
surely to develop itself when the land is again 
cropped with clover." 

It seems all important that alfalfa growers 
should put in nothing but clean seed. This 
fact they can determine by examining what 
they buy with a magnifying glass, after first 
acquainting themselves with the appearance of 
the dodder seed. We have no doubt that in 
most cases it will be found economical to buy 
the best samples of seed which are offered, as it 
is in low priced bulks that the weeds are most 
frequently found in quantities seriously inimical 
to good farming. Of all the weeds in clover, 
the clover dodder is the most serious enemy, 
inasmuch that when once infested with this 
pest, a more or less destruction of the crop is 
inevitable. 



California Insect Powder.— We had note 
last fall of the enterprise of G. N. Milco, of 
Stockton, in the growth of Pyrethruin carneum 
(Persian insect powder plant.) We read now 
in the Independent that he has 23 acres, and in- 
tends to push the business still farther. It is 
also announced that George White, of Jackson, 
Amador county, has in five acres and is going 
forward with the production. We know from 
experience that the Persian powder is effective 
in the route and carnage of the persisent flea. 
We are not aware to what extent the powder 
can be turned to account in the destruction of 
insects which prey upon plants. Mr. Milco 
has this use of it as one of his ideals, and ho 
has arranged a way of making the application. 
This he sent to the U. S. Entomological Com- 
mission. We would like to know whether 
they made any experiments with it. The mat- 
ter should be thoroughly tested. For if we can 
grow a harmless plant which will prove a dead- 
shot for some of the injurious insects which are 
coming upon us we shall put to flight a lot of 
poisons and dirty washes which now are our 
remedies. We should like to see the matter 
thoroughly tested. 

Thk Telephone. — The telephone, as elabo- 
rated by Prof. Bell, is in this city and has been 
operated satisfactorily in the presence of repre- 
sentatives of the press. As the novel and in- 
teresting instrument has been introduced 
among us, we have in preparation an engraving 
which, with a description, will make it intelligi- 
ble to every reader. The engraving wiU soon 
appear. 



34 



PB^SE, 



[July 21, 1877. 



vORRESPONDENCE. 



Jottings in San Benito County. 

Editors Prkss: — San Benito county lies in 
its whole length on the north side of the county 
of Monterey, from which it was severed March, 
1874. It contains about 1,300 square miles and 
about 832,000 acres of land. Its popidation is 
about 7,000 and value of property ^4,000,000. 
Possessing much tine agricultural land, its larger 
portion is grazing land, consisting of hills 
and low mountain ranges, covered with nutri- 
tious grasses. Tlie county in width being from 
10 to 20 miles, lies between the Gabilan range 
of mountains, by which it is separated on the 
south from Monterey, and the Mount Diablo 
range, which, extending the whole length of the 
southern side of the San .Joaquin valley, forms 
the northern boundary of the county. Begin- 
ning at the Pajaro river on the west, its length 
extends up the San Benito river (from which 
the county takes its name), some 80 miles to 
where the Diablo range, sweeping to the south, 
divides the waters flowing into this river 
from those which empty themselves into the 
valley of the San .Joaquin. 

The valleys of San .Juan, HoUister and San 
Felipe occupy all of its lower or western end 
and contain the largest connected bodies of ag- 
ricultural land in tlie county. Its other valleys 
are separated, liigher and in most cases less fer- 
tile than those named. As we propose jottings 
extending over the entire county, we shall de- 
fer all descriptions of the valleys and of par- 
ticular localities until we approach them in our 
regular course. 

There are two principal routes into this 
county, the one from the Santa Clara valley bj' 
way of Gilroy and the other from the coast 
through Watsonville up the Pajaro valley and 
entering the county through San .'uan. It was 
by the latter route we entered the county and 
with it we will begin our jottings. The route 
is known as the 
Watsonville, San Juaxi and HoUister Road 

Leaving Watsonville you cross tlie Pajaro 
river, forming the boundary between Santa Cruz 
and Monterey counties, the latter being the 
county which you have just entered. Turning 
almost directly east the way runs between well- 
cultivated farms, well-fenced and dotted with 
well-built, and in many instances, tastefully or- 
namented farm-houses and barns. Ofttimes a 
cultivated rural taste is seen displayed in the 
arborial and ttoral ornamentation of the grounds 
around the houses and in the planting of trees 
along and bordering the highway. After pass- 
ing some six miles, all in the valley of the Pa- 
jaro, you approach the hills or bluffs which 
bound the eastern portion of this celetirated 
valley. At this point the road ascends the hill, 
and gradually rising some 200 feet in altitude, 
you reach the rim of this vast basin, and now 
resting, if you turn your eyes backward you 
will have a magnificent view of the entire Pa- 
jaro valley, excepting that portion lying to the 
extreme left and comprising the mouth of the 
Pajaro river and the contiguous shores of Mon- 
terey bay. 

Running the whole breadth of the valley to 
the left, from a deep sand cut through the blutts 
to the right, can be seen the track of the S. P. 
R. R. , cutting and crossing the highway which 
you have just now already traveled. In front 
of you and beyond at a distance of two miles, 
after cutting for its channel a deep canyon 
through the high mountains whicli separates 
the .Santa Clara from this valley, may be seen 
the Pajaro river, pursuing its lazy course be- 
tween willow-fringed banks towards the sea, in 
whose restless waters-it will soon be lost. Be- 
yond, stretching far to the westward, the Pajaro 
valley terminates in the low hills of the Aptos, 
over whose tops in tlie far distance can be seen 
the San Lorenzo mo\iutains with their towerin" 
forests of redwood, and at whose base and under 
whose very shade nestles the little city of Santa 
Cruz, over 20 miles away. 

All over this valley, spread out like a map at 
our feet, are cultivated (ields, checkered and 
colored like the squares of an immense chess- 
board — some of deep emerald green, and others 
golden, with the ripening grain all waving with 
the gentle sea Ijreeze, passnig on its cooling mis- 
sion to the arid plains of the State's interior. 
Green groves and orcliards dot the valley every- 
where, while peeping from the green foliage of 
their surroundings and overhanging branches, 
may be seen the glistening white of the farm- 
house and barn and lofty windmill, whose swift 
revolving fans, while indicating the mutual de- 
light of both wheel and moving wind, also sug- 
gests to the beholder the pleasing thought that 
contentment and joy dwells in the hearts of the 
inhabitants of these beautiful scenes beneath. 

Tlie picturesque character of the scene before 
us, as well as the real beauty of the valley, is 
enhanced by the lofty mountains rising on its 
right. These mountains, extending northward 
to and lost in Mount Bache's towering form, 
begin at a point where the Pajaro river, under- 
taking the contract of forming the Pajaro val- 
ley, completed the work by washing the rugged 
mountain sides, until dissolved from summit to 
base it bore their rich alluvial treasures and 
spread them upon the forming plains below, the 
river ever since retaining the excavation for its 
own unobstructed channel through the moun- 



tain. These mountains rise by smooth suc- 
cessive undulations from base to summit, and 
arc covered with fields of grain, pastures and in- 
terspersed groves of oak, their tops crowned by 
scattering redwood whose dark forms stand in 
clear relief against the deep blue sky. In front 
and beneath this mountain, lying upon the 
bosom of the valley, are five beautiful lakes, 
whose clear waters, ri])pling and sparkling in 
the sunlight, look in the distance like gems set 
in a beautiful piece of mosaic. 

Turning now ag.ain to pursue our way, we 
pass over gentle undulating hills until we reach 
a small stream whose valley, with its diversified 
surface, is called the "Carnari.'i. " All along 
this valley, some three or four miles by our 
roadside, are farms and farm-houses. The soil 
of this little valley seems to be a rich, sandy 
loam, and produces good crops of cereals and 
even of vegetables in most ordinary years. The 
hills rising on either side are dotted with ever- 
green oaks, and in some instances with an un- 
dergrowth of shrubs, among which are prom- 
inently seen tlie indomitable buckeye, with its 
dark -green leaves and ' 'cockaded " dowers. 

After leaving the "Carnaris" proper and di- 
verging more to the left and east, the road 
crosses the line separating the counties of Mon- 
terey and San Benito. Now entering the lat- 
ter county we soon pass into a narrow and pic- 
turesque canyon, the entrance to which is 
walled on both sides with immense smooth 
boulders of sandstone. One of the boulders ex- 
tending some 50 feet in length and 25 in hight, 
lies isolated and alone between the little creek 
and the road. The rock-lined surfaces of the 
canyon on either side at this point show no in- 
dications that this boulder was cleft from their 
smooth sides, and we are driven to the conclu- 
sion that by some tremendous unknown force 
it has, from above where the hills are broken, 
been moved adown the canyon to its present po- 
sition. As you approach this rock from the <li- 
rection of .San .Juan, it has the appearance of a 
walrus or mon 5ter seal, reclining with its head 
raised, looking down the canyon where it spreads 
into the valley. 

At this point is really the passage and the 
only passage IhroiKjh the (iabilan mountains, 
which here are depressed and broken into ranges 
of hills, that converge and begin to rise to the 
dignity of a mountain niv." in the vieini'y of 
San .liinii. Tin- r..:iii. altir k-iiviiig i1m> nirlir 
point and passage, passes on and up a narrow 
valley with high picturesque hills on its right, 
with a little stream of water and a low range of 
hills, extending to the San .Juan valley, on the 
left. Continuing on some three mUes we pass 
the farms of Doherty & Donnelly, occupying the 
table-lands formed by the spreading hills be- 
fore you reach San .Juan. Ytorti these hills is a 
beautiful view of the valleys of San Juan and 
HoUister, extending far out to the Diablo or 
Coast range, which separates all these valleys 
from that of the San .Joaquin. All these hill 
lands are good for pasturage and a large portion 
of them are good for grain. Under an improved 
system of tillage, these hills, as well as other 
extensive tracts now uncultivated in this county, 
will produce large crops of grain. Agriculture 
here, whatever it may be elsewhere, is undoubt- 
edly in its infancy. It requires an enlarged and 
enlightened agricultural culture, just such as 
the Rural Pkess is engaged in promoting, to 
properly and thoroughly develop the resources 
of this region. Industry, aided by a small cap- 
ital and directed by intelligence, will work won- 
ders in this direction. 

The famous mission and town of San Juan 
Bautista is before us and must be reserved for 
our next article. C. N. W. 

W.'itsonvdle, July 9th, 1877. 



Notes on Education. 

Kditoks Press:— Having given earnest atten- 
tion to _the subject of education, and having 
taught in different States in the East, and in 
almost every class and grade of school in Cali- 
fornia, I would like to occupy a little space in 
your valuable and widely-circulated paper. 

I have felt the failure in the workings of our 
system as keenly as any one of the (Jrangers' 
Committee. But I agree with Dr. Anderson, 
that "-we have at present a very good school 
law ♦ • » * giving plenty of room for many 
changes and imjjrovements in the workings of 
our common school system.'' 

We have a course of study prescribed 'by the 
State Board of Education, elastic enough to ad- 
mit of a vast improvement in the direction 
pointed out by tlie Committee, ^\'hat we need 
is County Superintendents who know something 
of schools, and teachers capable of using our 
excellent laws and " course of study," and of 
adapting their methods to the wants of the age. 

Too many of our County Superintendents 
are mere sticks, placed in office by their po- 
litical friends. They have no special qualifica- 
tions for this office and do but the routine work 
as the law compels them, but are capable of 
doing little or nothing beyond. 

Too many of our teachers are mere book- 
w urns. They are always on a strain to get the 
jjeri;entage needed to keep or renew their cer- 
tilicates. They have not mind or energy enough 
to round out their own culture beyond what is 
absolutely demanded by the Board of Examina- 
tion. They are confined too much to the text 
books, and do not use the liberty given them to 
teach orally and by observaticm. 

I wish no great change in our present school 
laws. I earnestly deprecate the tendency of 



our age to run everything into politics and to 
demand special legislation on every subject. 

Instead of saying with the committee, "Noth- 
ing can be done by way of improvement of the 
educational system of the State without chang- 
ing the laws which control it,'" I would say, 
everything can be done by taking the schools 
out of the hands of mere political hacks and 
giving them over to earnest, progressive edu- 
cators. 

Give us 50 thorough' and progressive educa- 
tors as county superintendents, with our pres- 
ent laws and course of study, and we will soon 
have a set of teachers independent of old grooves 
and ruts. 

Our present course of study makes liberal 
provision for "oral teaching" and "object 
teaching," but most of the teachers are illy 
prepared to use the liberty given them and 
most of our superintendents are powerless be- 
cause incapable of helping them. 

Therefore let working people combine. 
Granges and mechanics' unions, and demand 
practical and experienced educators for this 
office and see that incumbents give their time 
to this great work. 

Let this most important office never again be 

given to young men as a stepping-stone to some 

other profession, but to men who have shown a 

disposition to make education their life work. 

Jeiou Akrh. 



A Desert Land Question. 

EiiiTOKS Press: — Our little village will be 
notorious in spite of herself. Not long ago we 
engagetl your attention and that of your readers 
as humble aspirants to public notice, and now 
we are compelled to come up again in print, 
asking for the adNnce and sympathy of yourself 
and our fellow farmers. We are in a difficulty, 
but to what extent we cannot say. In short, 
our stronghold has been invaded by enemies and 
our peace of mind, in consequence, disturbed. 
The besieging army has unfurled a flag and on 
it we trace the words "Land Grabbing under 
the Law— The Desert Act." The position of 
our besieged had scarcely been realized when 
m: jiad recourse to a file of the Rur.^l, knowmg 
that tlie •"desert" subject bad already been dis- 
cussed there. The information we found was 
conclusive as far as it went, but it does not 
exactly meet our exigency. Learning, however, 
that you have already studied the act, and 
more still, ascertained the rendering of its oc- 
cult reading by the authorities in the Land Of- 
fice of the city, we turn to you for an applica- 
tion of its meaning to our own particular case. 
Speaking for myself, and here 1 am no doubt 
expressing the sentiments of others, I am inter- 
ested in keeping tlie "laud grabber" out, for two 
reasons more especiallj'; the first is because I 
have just lieen informed of my appointment as 
a member of a committee whose object will be 
to resent lawfully all land monopoly; the sec- 
ond is because 1 wish to see all (Government 
Inad in this country occupied by bona JiiU set- 
tlers. In the latter of these objects I know I 
am not alon?, and though I say it without au- 
thority, I may safely venture on the assertion 
that in assisting, you will not only assist the 
many but may probably anticipate, by your ad- 
vice, troubles which may yet overtake other lo- 
calities. 1 shall now state briefly the circum- 
stances of our position. The accuracy of the 
details which led to our difficulties I cannot 
vouch for, but the position of the invading force 
is a well-established fact and this is sufficient 
for our purpose. 

A large tract of land in the immediate vicin- 
ity of this town will shortly, we are told, be 
thrown open to private entry under the home- 
stead and pre-emption law. This land was con- 
sidereil part of an extensive grant called the 
Laguna de Tache. While the question of own- 
ership was pending decision, the land was 
treated as ordinary lands in the neighborhood, 
thus the odd sections came to be claimed by the 
railroad company under their charter, and were 
occupied as railroad lands. It has just been de- 
cided that the lands belong to the State and 
that the railroad's claim to any of it is unten- 
able. Before this intelligence had left the lim- 
its of our town, a crowd of applications had 
been tendered in the Visalia I^nd Office, some 
by members of our community, I regret to say, 
claiming whole sections of this land under the 
Desert act. The Land Office authorities not 
having received orders on the suljject, the ap- 
plications were returned with a simple endorse- 
ment to the effect that the land is "claimed by 
the raUroad company." But acting under le- 
gal (?) advice, this was all our land grabbers 
wanted. Instructed by one who had volun- 
teered his services to act as attorney, the ten- 
dering of these applications are considered as 
conferring priority of claim. The attorney I 
allude to has a reputation for extraordinary 
"cuteness" in such matters, and has held out 
no inconsiderable hopes that for a sinnll con- 
sideration, to be noticed hereafter, he will see 
that it "comes out all right." Our would-be 
land grabbers have promised their agent only a 
dollar an acre for all lands he proves to be des- 
ert lands, or the equivalent of the cash in broad 
acres of the howling wilderness. In other 
words, for every 40 acres made over to a land 
grabber his agent will consider himself reim- 
bursed for his trouble by obtaining a deed for 
320 acres only of the barren waste. Thus a 



philanthropic band has sprung up having this 
praiseworthy object in view, viz: making the 
desert to blossom like a rose by conducting wa- 
ter to it — the desert, not the rose— ^within three 
years, even, as some say, if the water has to be 
transported to the land in a barrel, and thug 
they will still fulfil the law. 

The common sense reading of the act (Sec. II.) 
seems to leave no doubt in the minds of those 
acquainted with the capabilities of this Kings 
river country, that the Desert law cannot ap- 
ply to it, but yet the experience of our neigh- 
bors in Kem county, points to a probability of 
some distortion of the text by which land specu- 
lation will be as rife here as it is amongst them 
at present. The law reads thus (Sec. II) : "That 
all lands, exclusive of timber lauds or mineral 
lands, which will not, without irrigation, pro- 
duce some agricultural crop, shall be deemed 
desert lands within the meaning of this act." 
Now we have abundance of evidence to prove 
that wheat, barley and rye have yielded well 
of an ordinary year, and that on lands worked 
in a most slovenly way. And further, we can 
prove that even with such an exceptionably dry 
season as the last, ordinarily plowed and sum- 
mer-fallowed lands have produced a small crop. 

The question with most of our land grabbers 
seems to be : first, what is an " agricultural 
crop? " and second, what do the words "some 
agricultural crop " in the act mean ? Under 
the first head, we think it unquestionable, that 
as far as we are concerned, forty bushels of bar- 
ley and fifteen to twenty bushels of wheat per 
acre is an agricultural crop which, if properly 
dealt with, can be ma<le remunerative. This is 
a yield our lands have returned, and I can pro- 
duce certificates from our farmers who have 
harvested such crops. And they will tell you 
further that their fields had not received near 
the preparation which they would have liked to 
have given them. We read frequently, I may 
say daily, of crops raised during unfavorable 
seasons, such as our last, (on deeply plowed and 
summer-fallowed land ; has this been tried here ? 
I know it has not, and yet, we have had crops 
always, excepting during this last very excep- 
tionsj drouth. 

The second question at issue seems to be a 
very farfetched rendering of the words, "some 
agricultural crop. " It is contended by the men 
who would own deserts, that the law requires 
us in the opposition, to prove not only that 
grain grows on these plains without irrigation, 
but that the crops thus raised pay the farmer. 
Thus you see that "some agricultural crop," 
is understood to signify a "paying agricultural 
crop," in spite of Webster, or any other stand- 
ard lexicographer, to say nothing of the context 
in the act itself. Though such rendering seems 
to us on the face of it, an absurd construction 
of the text, yet a word under this head may 
be seasonable. Two or three weeks ago, I was 
talking to one of our most intelligent farm- 
ers on this much vexed question of this neigh- 
borhood, whether raising small grain here would 
pay. He clearly showed by facts and figures 
that it would, provided the harvesting was con- 
ducted under, we will call it, legitimate condi- 
tions. It Mall not do to go into debt to pay your 
headers and threshers, for contracting debt is 
ruinous anywhere, and doubly, nay triply so in 
a country such as this, where money commands 
such exorbitant interest. Again, you must be 
in a position to hold your crops until the mar- 
ket admits of your converting them profitably 
into money. It will not pay to have your credi- 
tors clamorous over your stacks, forcing you to 
get rid of them at any price. Debt is the great 
obstacle to success, and where every dollar is 
borrowed in anticipation of harvest, farming 
small grain or anything else will never pay. If 
" some agricultural crop" in the act, means a 
paying crop, thousands of acres of our best farm- 
ing lands could be classed as desert lands, for 
how many of the farmers in this .State have 
over-reached themselves and are now struggling 
with a heavy incubus of debt, because, as they 
will tell you, farming does not pay. 

I have heard it stated in support of Desert 
Land pretensions, that even if a man with some 
means were supplied with horses, land and seed, 
he would starve in his attempts to farm without 
water. Now, such a statement I would at 
present receive with caution, for 1 know of some 
within a few miles of this place, who are very 
far from starving and put in large fields of grain 
every year and they have not a water ditcn on 
their farms. Again, I know of others surrounded 
with irrigating facilities who will undoubtedly 
find irrigation won't pay, if they don't bestir 
themselves. The man who will star^ve at farm- 
ing when provided with the means of starting 
fairly, will, I think, starve anywhere and under 
any circumstances, for the climate will not agree 
with him. 

With these ^.^mbIing thoughts before you, I 
conclude with expressing a sincere wish that a 
further elucidation of the desert (juestion from 
your able pen may be the means of converting 
a few to look not so much or so exclusively to 
personal aggrandizement, as to the good of the 
community, which always reflects the welfare of 
the individuals composing it. Allow the capi- 
talist to come in, under shelter of this Desert 
law, and the hard working farmer must suflFer. 
Independence even with a bare subsistence is 
preferable to surveillance purchased by riches. 
And it should be the endeavor of our conven- 
tions to preach and protect the former while 
it deprecates and averts the latter. 

Edward Kauxtze. 

Kingsburg, Fresno Co. , July 7th. 

Some comments upon the points made by our 
correspondent may be found in our editorial 
columns. — Eds. Press. 



July 21, 1877.] 



Riverside, San Bernardino County. 

EDrroRS Press: — Since my last Riverside has 
not been at a standstill. Over 20,000 trees of 
the citrus family have been transferred from the 
nursery to the many small farms, and many de. 
ciduous trees have been transplanted. 

Our settlement is divided into three sections. 
Riverside proper includes the village and sur- 
rounding space of about two miles. On the 
south it is bounded by "Sunnyside," a tract of 
2,000 acres of unsurveyed Government land. 
All of this area, which is capable of being irri- 
gated, is already settled. None of the farms 
exceed 80 acres. The greater number are only 
10 and 20-acre lots. Sunnyside is one mile in 
width and on the south adjoins Arlington, 
formerly known as the "Hartshorne tract." 
Arlington has improved amazingly during the 
past few months. The greater part of the 20,- 
000 trees, already referred to, have been planted 
within its limits. Our avenue will be the won- 
der of the world in a few years. Already it is 
graded to the site of the future city, Sayward, 
six miles from Riverside, and three miles of its 
length is 132 feet wide and planted with a row 
of eucalyptus trees on either side and pepper 
trees in the center, and six magnolias at each 
intersecting street , every half mile. 
Irrigation. 
The great desideratum in southern California 
is abundance of water, and here we scarcely feel 
the efi'ects of this being a "dry year." This 
6th day of July about 3,000 inches of water How 
through our two canals, afifording twice over the 
quantity necessary. How much is going past 
the mouth of ditches I cannot say, but the sup- 
ply seems quite extensive. The entire river 
bed from "Agua Mansa" crossing, near Colton, 
to head of lower ditch is saturated with water 
on the east side, and the supply seems very 
large, even after so great a drouth. From an 
article in the Los Angeles Herald I quote: 
"The day is coming when every single drop of 
water will be seen to have a commercial value, 
and when none of it will be wasted." Here in 
Riverside we have not yet learned but the rudi- 
ments of irrigation. Three times as much water 
is annually wasted as is necessary to the 
thorough cultivation of the soil. Mr. P. S. 
Russell, an experienced nurseryman in this 
place, in a recent communication to the Riverside 
News, remarks: 

"I can see no reason why 100 acres of trees 
may not be irrigated every 30 days with 10 
inches of water, when judiciously used. In 
proof, I would state that I have 20 acres 
planted to orange trees, with nursery trees be- 
tween the rows. Now tliese 20 acres equal at 
least 60 acres in orchard alone. With 10 
inches of water we irrigate the whole place in- 
side of two weeks, and let the water run one day 
and night in the same place. * * * * 'pjjg 
smaller the stream that can be made to run 
across the field, the deeper it will wet the 
ground, because it will not fill up the pores of 
the soil like a large stream; it will not wash the 
soil so much, and it will not take one-half the 
water to do the same good, nor will it take one- 
half the labor to attend to it." It might be 
profitable to quote further, as Mr. Russell has 
had 14 years' experience with irrigation, but the 
above is sufficient for your space. Another 
illustration on this point: Mr. George Crawford 
emigrated to Arlington about two years ago 
from Ontario. Since March 1st he has planted 
13 acres in fruit trees — 800 lemon, lime and 
orange, and 200 of deciduous varieties. He 
has five rows of Hubbard squash the entire 
length of his orchard, quite an extensive flower 
and vegetable garden, raises quite a quantity of 
corn, any of which requires more water than a 
row of orange trees. He has prepared the 
ground by flooding, planted his trees, 1,000 in 
all, irrigated them to date, irrigated his flower 
and vegetable gardens, watered three horses, 
three cows and six pigs, and used all that was 
necessary for family purposes, and how mucli 
water do you think he used in all? .Just two 
and one-half inches! Not one more drop did 
he use than his constantly flowing two and one 
half inch stream afforded. He says he has had 
abundance, and his trees testify to the fact. 
The cost of this water supply is only three dol- 
lars per month, or $36 per annum. People wlio 
do not know are constantly saying, "I would 
like to go to Riverside, but I could never pay 
the water tax. " A few words more from Mr. 
Crawford and I think all such will be answered. 
"I have an alfalfa patch of about two and one- 
half acres. After taking oft' and cutting I order 
50 inches of water for 10 hours to flood it. I 
average eight cuttings of five tons each, worth 
on the ground $35 (.$7 per ton). For this I pay 
the company §1.25 each time, or $10 for water 
to produce $280 worth of choice hay. It seems 
to me that the whole water question can be re- 
solved into this: the company offer me a pre- 
mium of $.35 for $1.25." His entire water tax 
is only $40 per annum, and could you see his 
beautiful place you would better appreciate the 
fact that a small quantity of water judiciously 
used is better than a greater quantity wasted 
and worse than wasted. 

WeUs. 
Surface wells of delicious, cool, soft water are 
found in Arlington at an average of 50 feet, so 
that at small cost our citizens are freed from the 
necessity of drinking "canal water." I have no 
doubtjbut artesian wells can be found, but so 
far no experiments have been made in this di- 
rection. Indeed, I doubt the business propriety 
of spending money sinking for artesian water 
when so small a quantity is necessary and it is 



furnished at such reasonable rates by the com- 
pany. 

Artesian weUs near the coast vary in depth 
from 60 feet to 350 feet. A 50-foot well costs 
$75; a 100-foot well, $150; a 150-foot well, .$250; 
and a 200-foot well, $375, and so on in same 
ratio. One gentleman sunk a well 332 feet a 
few days ago at a cost of $800, and no water. 
The same man has now spent over .$2,000 look- 
ing for water and only one small well to reward 
his toil, not more than sufficient for household 
use and to water his stock. This is in one of 
the colonies on the coast. If $45 or $50 per an- 
num is sufficient for a 20-acre farm, why spend 
•$300 or $500 to get an artesian and, until 
the money is gone, you know not but it is all 
spent in "prospecting." 

I repeat the idea of my already too long let- 
ter — water is abundant in Riverside — water is 
cheap if you choose to use and not waste it. In 
my next I will give you a few notes by the way 
from Orange, Santa Ana, Gospel Swamp, West- 
minster and Anaheim, and I will give what in- 
formation I could gather on this water question. 
D. W. McLeod. 

Riverside, July 6th, 1877. 




Setting Orange Trees. 

Kditok.s Press:— In my lecture in the Rural 
of January 20th, I used this language: "Ever- 
green trees should be set out when the ground 
is warm. In this general class of evergreens I 
include all the trees of the orange family. " I 
said, "Order your trees in February," (you 
know my lecture was a local matter, addressed 
to my neighbors a dozen miles from my farm, ) 
because we had to order through an agent (we 
bought mostly in Los Angeles), and by ordering 
then, we would get our trees so as to set in 
March or as soon as the ground would become 
sufficiently warm. I set my trees in April. 

With regard to covering orange trees with 
white cloth, the 10,000 trees spoken of by Mr. 
Lyon, who ever counseled such a thing? I 
never did. I said that where an orange tree 
shed its leaves after transplanting (and not even 
five per cent, here in our hot valley, when prop- 
erly set, will shed their leaves), "Top prune 
and cover with white cotton cloth, is the best 
means to save the life of the tree and cause it to 
quickly start into vigorous growth." Hundreds 
of trees may be set out and not one lose its 
leaves so as to expose its bare trunk or branches 
to the burning rays of the sun; but when valu- 
able trees do shed their leaves, what then? I've 
given my way of saving them. If not protected 
they are liable to be killed by our extreme heat. 
If I lived in Ventura or any other place with 
less extreme heat (113" Fah. in shade to-day) I 
would not cover naked trees, they would'nt 
need it; but they need it here, Mr. Lyon to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

Blue Gums, Etc. 
I have been setting blue gums on this very 
hot day, as I have for many other days this 
summer. They are all growing nicely. The 
covers are made out of worn-out barley sacks; 
each sack makes from four to six covers. The 
stakes are split from pieces of board; are from 
12 to 20 inches long and twice the size of a lead 
pencil. I can set and cover 500 trees per day. 
The warmth and moisture start them at once 
into active growth. 1 tried some the other day 
without covering them. The next diiy it was 
114° Fall, in tlie shade. They all burned up. 
Anybody can make blue gums grow in the 
spring or fall without this trouble, but I find it 
a matter of great value to be able to improve 
the long summer days in this work when there 
is nothing else crowding on the farm; besides 
it enables us to set out trees among corn, beans 
and other growing crops, and secure a season's 
growth on them, instead of waiting till the crops 
are taken ofl', and to reset the many destroyed 
by gopliers. I am setting 30 acres of tliem. 
Cabbages can be raised in this valley only by 
setting them so that they'll make their growtli 
in autumn and winter, say some time the last of 
August, and this is the only way I've succeeded 
in setting them at that time. I've succeeded 
in setting late sweet potatoes only by the same 
method, viz., set the plant in moist earth as 
usual; then set a small sloping stake with its 
top two inches above the plant; throw over 
this a piece of wet barley sack. It will soon 
dry, but from being wet will be shaped to the 
stake so that it will not blow ofl'. Leave it for 
two or tliree days, as a shade to the plant, tiU 
growth begins. 

My blue gums, set in this way, have made a 
most vigorous growth. I have, with one of my 
neighbors, just measured one, set out 81 days 
ago, at that time a tiny sprout less tliiin six 
inches long; it now measures, including the 
length of trunk and all the branches, over 19 
feet. 

Fairness in Discussion. 
Mr. Lyon asks, "was it unjust to warn the new 
comer .against plowing and then flooding land, 
and leave it to bleach, bake and crack in the 
sun?" I answer, my lecture was delivered 
hei-e, and was meant especially for this locality. 
I practice just what I tliere tauglit. It would 
not do in Ventura, nor in any of the coast 
counties, (I've lived in two of them,) but 'tis 
imperatively necessary here. The land sinks 
into holes here, when irrigated, and the only 
remedy is flooding before setting the trees. My 
land does not bake, bleach nor crack after 



flooding. I flood and as soon as dry enough 
level up the surface of the ground and set my 
trees; others here succeed best by proceeding in 
like manner. "Was it unjust to mention the 
inconsistency of digging a square hole 18 in- 
ches deep for a round tree with roots 30 inches 
long?" I never recommended anything so 
ridiculous. I said that the holes should be dug 
nt least two and a half feet square and 18 in- 
ches deep. This was the least size, common 
sense would dictate to dig them larger when 
necessary. "VVas it unjust to proclaim against 
setting a tree four inches deeper than it should 
be?" No! certainly not! But who is the judge 
how deep to set? I've succeeded best here by 
setting trees from "two to four" inches deeper 
than they were in the nursery, partly on ac- 
count of our very light, porous soil, partly be- 
cause setting the tree in wet dirt packs the earth 
under and around it, and when the unmoved 
earth around becomes equally packed, the col- 
let will be at the surface. If set there at first 
'twill be too high after working and irrigating 
the land around. This is a matter, however, 
that varies with the soil. In heavy soils I 
would not practice it. His next question with 
regard to orange trees enduring 20° below the 
freezing point, I may be wrong about. My state- 
ment was founded only in part on my own ob- 
servation. I had it partly from reliable, observ- 
ing men. I then believed it true, I now be- 
lieve it true. I've, for one fact, been at the 
"Gluckauf" orange tree in Oroville, when the 
snow around it was half way to my boot tops, 
yet 'twas then loaded with the finest oranges. 
I also drove by it early on one of the coldest 
•nornings, when the soft mud in the road was 
frozen so that it bore up my horse and buggy. 
The tree endured this and continued to grow 
and bear fruit. I have many similar facts of 
my own knowledge, but nothing positive of a 
more definite character. Mr. Lyon's next 
statement is entirely incorrect, I don't ask him 
to adopt any of our local rules. My lecture was 
delivered here, and adapted to the local pecu- 
liarities of our soil and climate. It was given 
at the solicitation of, and to men living wholly 
within a score of miles of my farm, and was 
published by the Rural and a number of other 
papers, I suppose, because they thought it 
suited to their readers similarly situated as 
ourselves. 

Now, Mr. Lyon, a word to you: You live 
beyond a range of mountains from us, in a 
region, physically, very diff'erent from our local- 
ity. Some things, imperatively necessary here, 
would be absurd, nay, even injurious in your 
region. You observed these in my lecture, 
and assumed to give a "well-merited rebuke;" 
to dictate what I ought to have said to my 
neighbors here (for the publishing of the lecture 
was through no eSort of mihe; I only gave 
copies for publication when requested to do so). 
You, from your experience on the coast, have 
assumed to dictate what we ought to practice 
here in the \alley. You have drawn me into a 
controversy which I regret, but, being the 
challenged party, must accept and choose my 
weapons, and I choose truth and fairness, con- 
veyed in the language and expressions of gentle- 
men, not when I find it necessary here to cover 
an orange tree, for you to make it 10,000 and 
call in the "armies of the Sultan," also to 
assist; not when I fully explained the mixing of 
corn in my lecture, to call up the same thing 
without giving an additional fact, and add, 
"Had the Professor spent one summer on a 
farm, etc." I have lived on a farm over 30 
summers. Not when I say, plant orange trees 
wlien the ground is warm, to say that I said 
plant them in February; not when a friend of 
mine writes a courteous article in defense of 
what he knows to be true for our locality, to 
refer to him, as you did to the able and gentle- 
manly editor of our excellent county paper, as 
my "striker." Not to make "blue glass" (of 
which I know nothing) do service over again in 
an article where the only object should be to 
develop and promulgate truths. Not to dispute 
an established truth of science and make it a 
matter of personal controversy. But enough of 
this. No, let us try to make the Rural a 
companion, as pleasant as it is proiit<able, for 
both of us. I would ask you that you join me 
in a request to Prof. Hilgard, of the State 
University, or Dr. Kellogg, of the Academy of 
Sciences, to prepare drawings to be engraved 
for tlie Rural to illustrate the fertilizing .and 
hybridizing of fruits and flowers. It is a vast 
subject and one from which we can all learn 
something of importance and value, and, for 
our own contributions, let us give facts. When 
we see in its columns what would not be true, 
as applied to our own locality, let us promptly 
give a corresponding truth of our own region, 
without personal allusions. Personalities are 
not acceptable to most readers; facts are alw.ays 
welcome; and the intelligent thousands wlio 
read the Ruhal, can determine what truths are 
of practical use to them and what are not. The 
publishers of the Rural will bear witness that 
in all the years I've contributed to tlieir paper, 
that I've never before had a personal contro- 
versy, and I hope never to have another one. 
W. A. Sanders. 
Kingsburg, July lOtli, 1877. 
[We will close the controversy between our 
two friends at this point, as each side has 
expressed itself. We say, we close it us a con- 
trorersy, although tlie elements of practice 
involved still remain subjects for. discussing and 
light-shedding. Hereafter, }Jc us discuss hor- 
ticultural points for their own inherent truth or 
falsity. In this way only are they of general 
interest. — Eds. Press.] 



D. 



The American Short Horn Record. 

Editors Press:— A short time ago we re- 
ceived the 6th volume of the above-named 
work, containing about 600 pages. The paper 
and the printing are .all that could be desired, 
which, added to the strong binding, make it the 
best got-up herd-book we ever had the pleasure 
of handling — either English or American. So 
far as we have had time to examine the work, 
we find it comparatively but not entirely free 
from errors; but as the present volume contains 
an errata for errors discovered ' in former vol- 
umes, so may we expect the errors of the pres- 
ent volume to be corrected by the same plan 
hereafter. We have to find one or two faults 
with the work; one being in the rather extraor- 
dinary large addenda, which contains the ped- 
igrees of no less than 1.35 bulls, a fair propor- 
tion ot them, however, being ancestors of cows 
entered further on in the work. Probably 
there is no one in this State who makes more 
use of the Herd-book than we do ourselves, and 
in tracing out pedigrees in this work we have 
often overlooked pedigrees (afterwards discov- 
ered to be in the addenda), by expecting to find 
all the bulls alph,abetically arranged, and thus 
be able to find a pedigree without the trouble of 
referring to the index. 

One of the best rules governing this work is 
that all pedigrees must trace to imported stock, 
in all their lines. Another is, that no female 
can be recorded till she has produced a living 
calf, excepting as produce under her dam, fol- 
lowing the rules of the English Herd-book in 
this respect; and very properly, we think, as in 
the produce under dam is given date when 
calved, color, sire of calf and breeder's name. 

We are sorry to see that the last rule is not 
strictly adhered to, for we find no less than 39 
cows without any produce recorded under them, 
the real produce being explained away by such 
notes as "Regular breeder." "Has had calves" 
— in one case, "Has had six calves." "Produce 
dead." "Calf died," and so on. Now we con- 
tend that such pedigrees do no good in a herd- 
book, any further than to say who bred and who 
owns such and such a cow. If they are im- 
ported cows their pedigrees, with produce, will 
in due time appear in the English Herd-book, 
and if they are cows that have been bred in this 
country, their produce, even if dead, should be 
put in the usu.al form under the dam — the real 
object of which is to show what calves a cow 
has had and when, for future reference. Our 
object, however, in writing this, is not to find 
fault, but rather to help to make the work 
better known to those of our California breed- 
ers who may not have seen or appreciated the 
work in its true light. 

The idea of getting up such a work first origi- 
nated, we believe, with the late R. A. Alexan- 
der, but the undertaking not being carried out 
in his day, was afterwards put into shape by 
his brother, the present proprietor of the Wood- 
burn estates, assisted by H. Evans, who still 
continues its able and careful editor. From 
the preface of the first volume we make the fol- 
lowing extracts, which explain the object of 
starting such a work. 

" Having- long felt the great want to the Short Horn 
breeders of America, of some proper record, or Herd-book, 
wherein the pedigrees of all pure-bred .Short Horns might 
be recorded for preservation, which at the same time 
should give, in full, all the known pedigree of each ani- 
mal entered in it, I have undertaken to supply this want. 

* '^ ^ ' " " Should, however, another volume of 

the work be published and other breeders 

wish to register the pedigrees of their herds, 1 shall be 
glad to have their co-operation, under rules, requisite to 
make the work complete within itself." 

"Complete within itself." Herein lies the 
great value of such a work to American breed- 
ers, in enabling tliem to trace out the pedigree 
of each animal to its very foundation, so far as 
is known, from all sources whatever. 

Now, in order to give some slight idea of the 
labor of such an undertaking and the work 
involved in tracing out a pedigree to its foun- 
dation — to those who are unitiated in such 
work — we will take, for example, the well- 
known bull, 58, "Belvedere" (1,706), who is 
recorded as an ancestor, of course, in the first 
volume of the work, and in whose pedigree 
tliere are 1 1 sires, all of whose pedigrees are 
entered in full in the same work. 

Now these 1 1 sires' pedigrees contain 50 other 
sires, all of whose pedigrees must be examined 
and recorded, with all their sires, grandsires 
and so on to the end of the chapter, as one 
might s.ay, before the work can be called " com- 
plete within itself." Of course, many of the 
bulls in the same pedigree trace to the same 
foundation, as in the case of " Belvedere," who 
had the noted bull, " Waterloo, " for his sire 
.and "Young Wynyard " for his crandsire. 
Now tlio dam of the last-named bull wag 
" Princess," from whom also was descended the 
two former bulls through her gr.andaughter, 
"Angelina," who was the dam of " Waterloo " 
and tlie granddam of " Belvedere," so that below 
" Princess, " or the bottom of the pedigree, as 
it is called, is the same in all the ancestors. 

In consequence of the very large number of 
ancestors to be recorded, we find that out of the 
635 bulls in the first volume, less than 20 were 
Ured in America, and all the cows in both the 
first and second volumes were either bred or 
owned in Kentucky, whilst amongst the bulls of 



Continued on pagre 42. 



86 



!PJi,t^IF3:© HWiaJr3^ PBUSS* 



[July 21, 1877. 




Correspondence oorilially invited from all ratrons for this 
department. 



THE HEADQUARTERS of the California State 
Orange are in the Gnmircis" liuildin;,', northeast corner of 
California and Davia Streets, over the Granffcrs" Bank of 
California and California Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Association. Master, J. V. Webstkr; Secretarj', Amos 

The Grangers' P.usiness Association of California is in 
Davis Street, northeast comer of California. 



Wheat Convention. 

The convention of wlioat-growers, caJlerl liy 
the Executive Committee of the State Grange, 
met in Grange Hall, San Francisco, July 12th. 
A large number of delegates from the chief 
wheat counties attended. Numerous questions 
of interest wore discussed, and explanations 
given as regards the facilities of the Grange 
associations for handling the present wheat 
crop. 

The following resolutions were unanimously 
ado^jtod : 

Whkreas, The sale of products through an 
association run in the interests of farmers best 
enables producers to exercise a proper control of 
markets, and to secure the highest market 
prices for what they produce. 

Resolved, That, in the sense of this conven- 
tion, it is to the best interests of the Patrons 
and farmers of California to dispose of their 
wheat througli tlic Grangers' Business Associa- 
tion. 

Resolved, That we earnestly recommend to 
Grange members especially the importance of 
placing their surplus wheat under the control of 
said association.— J. Earl, A. T>. Nel.sos, .T. 
M. FowLEK, Committee. 

These resolutions were ordered printed for 
the information of P atrons and farmers, and are 
a correct abstract from tlie minutes of the con- 
vention. H. M. L.\Ri'E, Chairman. 

J. W. A. Wright, Secretary. 



was called for, and was responded by the Chair- 
man by reading an a\)le atid interesting paper 
on that subject. It recommends the extension 
of sectional lines over unsurvoyed lands not 
owned by the (iovernnient, and a more uniform 
assessment. 

The convention reijuested the Chairman to 
hand the report to the press for publication. 

The convention met and adjourned from time 
to time through three entire daj's and evenings, 
and after full debate and mature deliberation, 
the foregoing measures were adopted and rec- 
ommended as being necessary for the public 
good, and now the convention asks the press of 
the >;tate to place the same before their readers 
In carrying out these measures we confiilently 
expect the support of the agricultural and in- 
dustrial classes, and do most cordially invite 
the support of all good and true men, regardless 
of party ties, business occupation or merely 
local interest. 



Grangers' Convention on Legislation. 

A convention of Grangers, held pursuant to a 
call of the Executive Committee of the State 
Grange, conveue<l at the Grange hall, in San 
Francisco, on Tuesday, Julj' lOth, 1877, at one 
o'clock p. M. 

J. V. Webster, Master of the State Grange, 
was called to the Chair, and Amos Adams was 
elected Secretary. 

The following preamble and resolutions were 
presented, and after being fully discussed were 
adopted : 

Whereas, Under the present State Consti- 
tution taxation is unequal, and an imdue part 
of the burden of supporting the State Govern- 
ment falls upon those least able to bear it; 
and 

Whereas, The evil complained of can be 
remedied only by such changes in the Constitu- 
tion as can be best and most speedily effected 
by a constitutional convention; therefore 

Resolved, That we will vote for and use our 
influence to induce others to vote for a consti- 
tutional convention. 

Resolved, Tliat the different parties having 
tickets printed for the September election are 
hereby requested to have only the words: "For 
a Constitutional Convention, Yes," printed on 
each ticket. 

Resolved, That the law which authorizes or 
is supposed to authorize the taxing of growing 
crops should be repealed. 

Jitsotved, That if within the scope of legisla- 
tion we recommend taxing of the shares of 
National banks. 

Resolvi-d, That all State and National legisla- 
tion which depreciates any kind of circulating 
medium issued or coined by the United States 
should be repealed, for we hold that all our cur- 
rencies should be made of one measure of value 
and one purchasing power. 

Resolved, That a more stringent law should 
be passed, requiring assessors to fix the same 
amount of assessment on uncultivated as upon 
cultivated land of equal agricultural capacity. 
Re-mlvtil, That the law governing the county 
boards of equalization be so amended as to 
compel them to equalize the assessments on 
lands of the same quality upon complaint and 
proper showing of any person feeling aggrieved. 
Resolved, That we are in favor of such legis- 
lation as will restrict charges for fares and 
freights by railroail and other corporations and 
individuals engaged in public transportation to 
a fair compensation for the capital employed. 

Resolved, That we favor such legislation as 
will prevent discrimination in favor of or 
against persons and places by railroad corpora- 
tions and other companies and individuals en- 
gaged as common carriers. 

The report of a Committee on Education was 
called for, the Chairman of which read the re- 
port on public education heretofore published, 
which was endorsed by the convention. No 
further action was taken on the question of ed- 
ucation, for the reason, the Committee had al- 
ready been instructed to draw tip a bill embody- 
ing the views expressed in the report. 

The report from the Committee on Taxation 



Worthy Lecturer's Visits. 

Editors Press: — My last notes were from 
Old Tehichipa, 4,000 feet above tide water, once 
a flourishiugtown supported by mining and agri- 
culture, furnishing as it then did, hay and 
grain for the Owens river country, but now of 
little or no account, this year especially, from 
the severe droutli which has quieted both indus- 
tries. From this town to the railroad station 
of the same name, we were taken by hack to 
take the eight o'clock a. m. train for 

Los Angeles, 
Which was the place of our next appointment 
for July 2d. Our route lay across the Mohave 
desert some 40 miles or more, where nothing 
greeted the eye but the cactus, the spongy scrub 
pine and sago brush, forming, tliough, a royal 
passage from the noble Sierras to the Coast 
range, until reaching the great .San Fernando 
tunnel, some three and three-fourths miles in 
length, brought us out into the great open ba- 
sin, once a swamp, but within the memory of 
men yet living, made by the slide of the moun- 
tain a complete sink for all the drainage of the 
Los Angeles valley. Down this open and very 
extensive w.ash we rolled .ilnng till we reached 
the city of Los An;;elcs, at two p. M., and put 
up at the .St. Charles hotel. After a comforta- 
ble lunch we hunted up the postotJice to Hud 
our extensive correspondence awaiting us, which 
no sooner obtained than we set about clearing 
out all obligations to each and all, by answering 
each as we read their welcome letters. Finding 
this took us to supper time, we had little chance 
to survey the city or visit the orange groves, so 
we slid away to No. 14 to j)en these few items 
before they passed from our memory. 

The next morning, July 2d, being the day 
for our appointment at Los Angeles, we staii;ed 
out as early as six o'clock on foot two miles dis- 
tant to find Bro. Garey, to know from him 
what preparations had been made for our lec- 
ture, but to our surprise found Bro. Garey away 
from home and no arrangements whatever for a 
lecture at tliis point. Here obtaining a horse 
we went on two miles farther to see Bro. Stan- 
ley, the former Secretaryof Los Angeles Grange, 
and from him learnt that Enterprise Grange, 
seven miles distant, was expecting a call from 
us, and after a liospitable cup of cofTee we were 
accompanied by Bro. Stanley to find the Worthy 
Master of)Enterprise Grange, who, when found, 
received us most kindly and leaving all work, 
though very busily engaged, took us in a buggy 
and visited several members of his Grange, 
who severallj' started out to inform the rest 
that a lecture would be delivered by us to the 
Enterprise (rrange and surrounding citizens at 
eight o'clock P. M. In the meantime we were 
taken by Bro. Clark, the Worthy Master of 
Enterprise Grange, and showii over the city of 
Los Angeles; also the greater portion of the 
valley, and from the bights brought in full view 
of both the city and valley from the mountains 
to the ocean, and a most beatiful sight it was; 
in perfect contrast with the barren country we 
had passed over for the past 500 or more miles. 
Truly, this is a great country; rich in alfalfa 
fields, yielding from the various cuttings per 
year some six to eight tons per acre; rich in 
grain for hay; rich in all and every kind of tem- 
perate and semi-tropical fruit, with lands selling 
at from .5100 to .$.300 per acre. What a contrast 
water or moisture makes ! Such is T>os Angeles 
valley. Keturning to 

Enterprise Grange Hall, 
Near which we were kindly entertained by 
Past Master Bro. Alexander and his good 
Grange wife, by eight o'clock as appoint- 
ed, we found the hall not only full, but 
crowded, with members from Enterprise, Los 
Angeles, and other Granges; also farmers and 
citizens (not Grangers) from the near vicinity. 
We were so richly repaid with a full audience 
that our Grange talk lasted nearly two hours, 
and never were we more enthusiastically appre- 
ciated. All felt that a good work was done, 
and if a (irange could not live in Los Angeles, 
the very best kind of a one could live seven 
miles distant, and Enterprise Grange was fully 
alive enough to save the city (like Sodom and 
(iomorrah) from ruin. Lecture over, we met 
with so many congratulations and invitations to 
partake of their hospitalities that we were em- 
barrassed here as much to refuse as we were in 
the morning to find a live Granger, but ac- 
cepted the kind offer of the Overseer of Enter- 
prise Grange, and were by him and his good 
Grange wife cared for most comfortably till the 



next morning, when by C o'clock a, m. , as soon 
as breakfast, who should appear but Bro. Clark 
again, with a comfortable carriage drawn by a 
good span of roadsters, to take us 12 miles far- 
ther, to 

Compton, 
To meet our appointment to-day, the 3d inst. 
t\'e w'ere at once on our way, passing through 
a most beautiful and fruitful country, visiting 
on our way several (lowing wells (artesian) that 
gave to the lands and farms around them the 
look of a most plenteous harvest. Arriving at 
Compton between 9 and 10 a. .m., we were left 
with Brother and .Sister Edd}-, members of 
Compton Grange, to await the time of meeting, 
(2 p. M.) with whom we enjoyed a good social 
time. According to appointment, at 2 p. m. 
the Christian church was well filled with Grang- 
ers and citizens of Compton and vicinity, to 
meet the State Lecturer, and hear from him the 
account he had to give of the Grange work, 
both State and National. We spoke for near 
two hours, after which, by previous arrange- 
ment, a closed meeting of Compton Grange was 
announced for 8 o'clock r. M., to again meet the 
State Lecturer and discuss such matters of im- 
portance as the occasion demanded. The meet- 
ing was a full and most interesting one, and 
great good was declared to be the result of the 
State Lecturer's visit. 

Anaheim. 

Los Angeles county is not dead in the Grange 
work, as Los Angeles city is; so far from it, 
they are truly revived and earnestly alive to 
the present calls of the Grange upon them, and 
we doubt not the coming election will show 
their work in good earnest. After night meet- 
ing, which lasted till 1 1 o'clock, we were taken 
charge of again by the efticient and good Grange 
Master of Compton Grange, Bro. Cothrin, and 
provided for most hospitaldy at his elegant 
Grange house till the next morning, when again, 
foregoing all his previous plans of enjoying the 
Fourth, he, with Past Master Bro. Morton 
and Worthy Lecturer Bro. West, accompanied 
us to Anaheim, 22 miles distant, where we 
arrived just in time, 11 o'clock, A. .M. , to fill 
our appointment. It was at a public picnic — 
Fourth of .luly celebration — in a most beautiful 
grove of poplars near the town, and being hon- 
ored with the position of orator of the day, held 
forth for one hour in a suitable speech for the 
d,iv and th<! duty of Grangers to make the day 
and tiiiic. legislation of the .State and nation, 
what a Fourth of .July is supposed to celebrate 
and commemorate. Our effort was received 
with great enthusiasm by all, and after the 
exercises were over, we and our fi range friends 
were taken care of by the Worthy Deputy, 
Bro. Edward Evey, and Worthy Master, Bro. 
David Evey, ami a host of others that were 
anxious to make us welcome to their picnic 
feast, as also to talk over with us our Grange 
work. Here, also, we met many old friends 
and acquaintances, among them Alpine friends 
of our former mining days, as if to add to our 
joy and genuine enjoyment of this most oppor- 
tune occasion. B. Pii.kisgton, 

State Lecturer. 

Anaheim, July 4th. 

The State Grange. 

In his rejiort for the quarter ending June 30, 
to the Executive Committee, Secretary Adams 
says: 

Since your last meeting two new Granges 
have been organized ; one, the American Val- 
jey Grange, located at Quincy, Plumas Co., or- 
ganized April 7th, 1877, by G. W. Boyden, Dis- 
trict Deijuty. D. R. Cate was elected Master, 
and J. A. Wildeu Secretary. Second, the 
Northeast Grange, located at Camp Bidwell, 
Modoc Co., organized June 1st, 1877, by C. S. 
Sullivan, District Deputy. Officers for 1877 
are : .1. A. Dunham, Master, and E. P. Session, 
.Secretary. 

There has been one Pomona Grange organ- 
ized during the quarter at Eureka, Humboldt 
Co., by T. H. Merry, General Deputy. It is 
known as the Humboldt Co. Pomona Grange. 
The officers elect are : Theo. Meyer, Master 
and A. J. Knapp, Secretary. 

Since the last meeting of the State Grange nine 
months ago, eleven new (! ranges, have been or- 
ganized. During the same period of time nine 
Granges have surrendered their charters. Six 
of them were located in the southern part of 
the State, several of them in sjjarsely settled 
districts, many of whose members had to travel 
15 to "25 miles to meet with their Granges. The 
drouth of the past winter had much to do 
with the work of disorganization, compelling 
many members of the Order to abandon their 
homes, some permanently, others temporarily, 
in search of employment for themselves and 
food for their stock. Most of these Granges 
will undoubted be reorganized in the near fu- 
ture. 

An Invitation for the W. L. 

i;i)iTOR.s Press;— Our Grange would be 
pleased to have the Worthy State Lecturer fa- 
vor us with a call, while ho is entertaining the 
Patrons along the coast. Our Grange is about 
four miles from the Paso Eobles springs, which 
is on the stage route from San Luis Obispo to 
Salinas. After further announcements arrange- 
ments can be made for the meeting. 

Secretary, Paso Roblks Gkanoe. 

July 12th, 1877. 



Humboldt County Pomona Grange. 

Bro. T. H. Merry tells in the Patron how he 
instituted a Pomona Grange, June 21st, at Elk 
River (irange Hall, at Bucksport, Humboldt 
county: At 10 o'clock A. M. the assembled Patrons 
were called to order and the work proceeded. 
The Subordinate (iranges were represented as 
follows: Kiwellatah Grange, Areata, Mr. and 
Mrs. H. W. Arbogast, Mr. and Mrs. G. B. 
Kneeland, Mr. and Mrs. 1). D. Averill, Mr. 
and Mrs. Joseph Nellist, James Sinclair and M. 
J. Falor. Table Bluff Grange, Mr. and Mrs. 
E. B. Long, Mr. and Mrs. B. H. C. Pollard, 
Mr. and ^lr8. Wm. Perrott, Jackson Sawyer, 
M. Fitzsimmons. Ferndale Grangi;, Mr. and 
Mrs. J. C. Dungan, Mr. and Mrs. .^mes Smith, 
G. C. Barber. Elk River Grange, Mr. and Mrs. 
Theodore Meyer, Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Stewart, 
Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Knapp, (i. H. Shaw, S. B. 
ZaJie. Mattole Grange, Lucien Wright, Jacob 
Minor. Each was examined and none allowed 
to join except those actually engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits. However none were rejected, as 
all were of that class. After having signed the 
petition for the charter, the election of officers 
took place. Bro. Theodore Meyer, one of the 
most earnest, devoted and intelligent Patrons of 
the State, was chosen Master. The list of offi- 
cers will be found in another column. A recess 
was declared for dinner, which had been gen- 
erously provided by Elk River Grange. All the 
good things were in the most lavish abundance. 

Jackson Valley Grange. 

Editor,s Pre.ss:— At a meeting of Jackson 
Valley Grange, Amador county, held July 7th, 
1877, the following preamble and resolutions 
were unanimously adopted: 

WuERE.^8, Serious defects and evils exist in our State 
and c<juuty government growing out of excessive taxation, 
that has retarded prosperity, paralyzed the energies and 
crippled the industries of the people; Therefore be it 

RcxoUed, That we are unutterably and etemallj op- 
posed to a further increase of taxation, State or county, 
for any puriM)se whatever, but demand a S7>eedv reduc- 
tion of the present rate to the lowest possible point with- 
in the limits of necessity. 

That the decision of the Supreme Court exempting th« 
property of the rich from taxation, we regard as subver- 
sive of good government, unjust, tyrannical and oppres- 
sive. 

That the taxation of growing crops meets our unquali- 
fied condemnation. 

That we are in favor of granting to every child the ben- 
efit of a common school education and no more; but pro- 
test ag-ainst bein;,' Uixed to support State universities and 
kindred institutions, where a few only arc benefited at 
the exiKjnsc of many, and every dollar so expended wc 
regard as a wanton waste of the people's money. 

That the custom always in vogue by the Legislature of 
adjourning for a number of days and drawing |iay for the 
same cmnot be too severely condemned; and to the plea 
that adjournment is necessary in order to consult with 
their constituents, we should reply, a man that has lived 
from 10 to 20 years in a county and does not know what 
his constituents want, without putting the State to ^2.- 
000 expense for him to find out, had bettor stay at home. 

That we most respectfully urge upon our members thai 
may be elected to the Legislature a reduction of the sink- 
ing fund tax of .\mador county in proi^^rtion as the debt 
has been reduced. 

That no goixi reason ex"sts why the man or woman who 
works for tiio public sh(iuld be paid from three to five 
times as much as those who work for individuals, but all 
fees and salaries should he reduced to a lower standard. 

That we hereby pledge ourselves to support no man for 
office who will not favor and work for these reforms, re- 
gardless of party. 

Secretary. 

Open Grange Meetings 

For San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura, 
Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Mon- 
terey and San Benito Counties. 

Bro. Pilkington, Worthy Lecturer of the State 

Grange, will hold open meetings at the places 

and time indicated below: 

San Pa9<iual, San Diego County Saturday, July 21st. 

Bear Valley, San Die{,'o County Monday, July '.23d. 

National City, San Dicgo County Thursday, July 26th. 

Saticoy, Ventura County Monday, July 30th. 

Nordhoff, Ventura County Tuesday, July Slst. 

Car]>interia, Santa Barbara County. .Thursday, August 2d. 
Sanui Barbara, Santa Barbara Co. . .Saturday, August 4th. 

Lompoc, Santa Barbara County Tuesday, August 7th. 

Santa Maria. Santa Barbara Co Thursday, Angus 9th. 

tiuadalupe, Santa Barbara Co Saturday, August lltb. 

San Luis Obispo, S. L. Obispo Co. Tuesday, August 14th 
Morru, San Luis Oliispo County. . Thursday, August 16th_ 

Cambria, San Luis l)bispo Co Saturday, August 18th' 

Salinas, Monterey County Tuesday. August Zlst. 

San Benito, San Benito County Thursday, August 23d. 

Bro. Pilkington is an able and interesting 
speaker, and no fanner or friend of the fanners 
should fail to attend his meetings. 

Amos Adams, Sec'y State Grange. 

July 3d, 1877. 

Election of Officers. 

Humboldt County Pomona Grange was duly 
organized by T. H. Merry, State Deputy P. of 
H. The following officers were also duly elected 
and installed: Theodore .Meyer, M. ; H. W. Ar- 
bogast, O. ; James Smith, L.; J. C. Dungan, 
S. ; Jacob Minor, A. S. ; S. B. Zane, C. ; Mrs. 

F. L. Meyer, T. ; A. J. Knapp, .Sec'y; Joseph 
Nellist, G. K.; Mrs. Jane Smith, Ceres; Mrs. 
M. E. Nellist, Pomona; Mrs. Hannah Pollard, 
Flora; Mrs. E. J. Arbogast, L. A. S. 

Compton Grange. — C. W. Coltrin, M. ; A. 
Eddy, 0. ; J. P. West, L. ; A. M. Peck, C. ; J. 

G. Hathorn, S. ; H. Rodgers, A. S. ; J. J. Mor- 
ton, T. ; J. J. West, Sec'y; Fidel Schmidt, G. 
K. ; Emma Hazin, Ceres; B. H. Tombley, Po- 
mona; J. G. Hathorn, Flora; A. Eddy, L. A. S. 

N.^TioNAL Grange. — The Executive Commit- 
tee have selected Cincinnati as the place of hold- 
ing the next session of the National Grange, 
which meete Nov. Slst, 1877. 



July 21, iSyjr.] 



OJES. 



California. 

ALAMEDA. 

Destroying Thistles. — Transcript, July 14: 
The clerk of the Board of Supervisors some 
weeks ago was directed by that body to notify 
all road overseers in Alameda county that they 
must see to it that no Canada or Scotch 
thistles were allowed to grow and mature on 
any public highway within their respective road 
districts, and the clerk at once forwarded to 
each overseer a copy of the thistle law, and it 
was supposed that all would see to it that the 
law requiring their destruction would be rigidly 
enforced. It seems that but little attention has 
been paid to the notice, and that but one over- 
seer 80 far as heard from has complied with the 
law and the order of the Board of Supervisors 
— the solitary overseer who has performed that 
duty being E. D. Brown, of Redwood road dis- 
trict. We had supposed that the overseers of 
the county would take a mutual and combined 
interest in enforcing the provisions of the law, 
but it seems that we have been mistaken. It 
ought to be as compulsory upon overseers to en- 
force the thistle law as to repair and build roads, 
and it is to be hoped they will soon see it in 
that light and enforce it. 

Fruit Trees in Bloom. — Washington Imle- 
pendent, July 14: In different parts of our 
county plum trees and cherry trees are now in 
full bloom. Novel as is the sight at this season, 
we saw some cherry trees at San Leandro this 
week in Mr. G. Smith's orchard filled with blos- 
soms as white as snow. The extraordinary 
weather last winter started the sap no doubt, 
then the cold weather stopped its flow, and last 
the excessive hot spell this summer started the 
current again, the result of which we now see 
as above stated. 

SuNOL. — The streams in this vicinity were 
never as dry at this season of the year as now. 
Most of them have no water whatever, and it 
requires quite a stretch of imagination to call 
them "creeks," while those that are alive 
contain just water enough to propagate the 
largest size mosquitoes, who aie ever ready to 
present their little bills for immediate settle- 
ment. It has been truly remarked that they 
are the most religious of insects, for they first 
sing over their victims and then i»'ey on them. 
Our dairymen continue to make some butter, 
but the feed is daily becoming scarcer and they 
will soon have to suspend operations. 

FBESNO. 

Sub-Irrigation. — Cor. Expositor, July 1 1 : It 
is a remarkable fact that the land in this locality 
which was thought to be fit only for surface 
irrigation, is now thoroughly demonstrating the 
fact that it is well adapted to sub-irrigation. It 
must be borne in mind that the locality I refer 
to is embraced within a radius of six miles, 
taking Centerville as a center, and more es- 
pecially to the farms of E. Jacobs and Harvey 
Akers. Mr. Jacobs's ranch is situated on the 
Kings river and Fresno irrigating canal, near 
its mouth. The water from said canal irrigates 
a strip on both sides, through the entire length 
of his ranch, varying in width from 400 to 600 
yards. Akers & Co. had this land rented dur- 
ing the present year, and raised as good grain, 
if not better, than we have seen raised by sur- 
face-irrigation. The canal at this point is on a 
grade of from two and one-half to four feet, yet 
the only obstacle Mr. Akers encountered was 
the land was so wet that he with difficulty 
headed about one-half of it. In order to get 
the other half he was compelled to "cradle" it. 
I noticed some scattering alfalfa upon this 
ranch.l and upon inquiry learned that it had 
been sown by a former owner before the canal 
was excavated, and was given up with the idea 
that it had died out, and that the land was worth- 
less so far as rearing alfalfa was concerned, but 
after this sub-irrigation commenced the few 
small roots that were left sucked vitality and 
revived. Mr. Akers's ranch is similarly situated 
on the same caual. He has 320 acres of land in 
a body, and there are five ditches that thread 
their way through it, carrying their supply of 
water to the thirsty land. Mr. Akers will have 
about 1,200 bushels of barley from this year's 
crop, the greater portion of which is the result 
of sub-irrigation. Mr. Burns's crop stands first, 
however, in the number of bushels of grain, his 
crop aggregating 2,500 bushels, partly the result 
of sub-irrigation, but mostly the reward of sur- 
face irrigation. The Kingsburg and Centerville 
ditch will afford further means for sub-irriga- 
tion, for I believe there is no land within the 
radius mentioned but will be subjuct to this kind 
of irrigation. Almost anything in the line of veg- 
etation will grow in our county if it has water, 
then why should the farmer be discouraged ? 

HUMBOLDT. 

T. H. Merry in California Patron. — 
At 2 p. M., June 9th, we landed at Eureka, 
and were taken by the hand by D. E. Gordon, 
Esq., our editorial friend of the Went Coast 
Signal. We were much pleased to note the 
many substantial improvements and extensive 
growth of that ambitious little city since our 
last visit three years ago. Its future prospects 
are indeed bright, and no better index to the 
character of its enterprising and progressive 
people can be given than the fact that in the 
city and surrounding country are maintained 
four newspapers, three of which issue daily and 
weekly editions. Leaving Eureka we traveled 
south four miles to Elk river, and there, from 



the beautiful residence of Theodore Meyer, Esq. , 
which is located on a piece of table land 150 feet 
above tide water, we beheld a scene of such 
surpassing loveliness as we never beheld before. 
On the day following we were kindly taken 
by Mr. Meyer to Eel River island, where 
we spent several days visiting friends and en- 
joying the country, which we found much im. 
proved since our previous visit. A great scope 
of and has been cleared and put under culti- 
vation, new houses and barns erected, and 
everything and everywhere wore an air of 
thrift and improvement. A new town named 
Port Kenyon has been started; it is located on 
the south bank of Salt river, where a very sub- 
stantial wharf and warehouse have been built. 
Areata has not improved much. A few good 
buildings replace the old ones burned down. 
But the surrounding country presented a very 
beautiful appearance, being nearly all cultivated 
in grain, and with excellent prospects for a very 
heavy crop. We congratulate the farmers of 
Humboldt upon their prospects for large crops 
and remunerative prices. We very much en- 
joyed a visit to the redwood forests of Mad 
river. The busy hiun of industry, the shrill 
steam whistle, and the woodman's axe were 
heard everywhere. Thousands of logs were be- 
ing cut, sawed, and either hauled or rolled to 
the river bed, to be floated to the milb at the 
bay. A railroad connects Vance's mill with 
tide water, upon which are transported saw- 
logs and lumber already sawed. 

We wish to warn our friends in Eureka and 
Humboldt Bay that if they hope and wish to 
continue the prosperity which they now enjoy, 
they must take prompt steps to arrest the fill- 
ing up of the channel in the bay and the lower- 
ing the water on the bar at its entrance. It is 
the history of all the bays on this coast, that 
the land is continually making encroachments 
on the sea. We have seen this along the whole 
length of our coast. To our mind, the turning 
of Mad river, and diverting its waters from the 
bay to the ocean, thus preventing the large vol- 
ume of water in that stream in winter from 
washing away the accumulation of sand on the 
bar during the summer, will have a very injuri- 
ous effect. The people of Humboldt sliould 
make an earnest appeal to Congress to protect 
their harbor. Two hundred thousand dollars, 
properly spent thei'e, would be of inestimable 
value in preventing one of the best harbors on 
this coast from being forever ruined. We have 
so few good harbors on this coast, that we can- 
not afi'ord to have Humboldt bay closed up by 
the neglect of the General Government. Better 
far to spend the money of the people in protect- 
ing the property and promoting the interests of 
commerce and of the people, than ti have it 
stolen by dishonest politicians, or frittered away 
in useless expenditures. Emigrants seeking 
homes and who have either the money or the in- 
dustry to make them such, will find Humboldt 
county, with its healthy, equable climate, its 
wealth of fertile lands, rich pastures, and un- 
limited timber, to otter opportunities not found 
elsewhere on this coast. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Passion FRurr. — Herald, July 14. We re- 
ceived yesterday from Mr. Grelck, nurseryman, 
near the Washington gardens, a sjiecimen of the 
fruit of the jjassion vine, known as the Passi- 
Jiora ediiJis. This variety is a native of Brazil, 
and, in addition to a much handsomer flower 
than the common variety, bears a delicious 
fruit, egg-shaped and of a purple color, much 
prized for its refreshing and nutritive qualities. 
Mr. Grelck has in his gardens another variety 
of the passion flower called the Pasx'ijlora jp-aii- 
ndilla, a native of Peru, which also bears a 
fruit said to be much more delicate and in every 
way superior to the Brazilian. In such estima- 
tion are those fruits held in their native coun- 
tries, that a single passion vine fruit will sell 
for as much as a dozen oranges. 

Tree Transplanter. — We were shown yes- 
terday an admirable small tree transplanter by 
the inventor, Mr. II. H. Kimball. It consists 
of a pointed square tube, attached to a handle, 
within which is a second movable tube. The 
latter is used to lift the tree or shoot with a 
sufficiency of earth to keep the air from the 
roots and is then placed in the outer casing. 
This is then plunged into theground by placing 
the foot on a cup-shaped flange that surrounds 
the casing at a proper distance from the point. 
When the instrument has been sunk to a suffi- 
cient depth the point is opened by means of a 
second handle which operates it as a lever, and 
the tree, with the original earth still surround- 
ing it, passes through and the transplanter is 
drawn up, leaving the young tree in its new posi- 
tion without the root having been disturbed. 
Mr. Kimball, who has filed a caveat on his in- 
vention, claims that, by means of this machine, 
supplied with a number of the inner tubes or 
cases, in ground properly prepared, a man and 
boy can transplant several thousand trees a day. 

MONTEREY. 

Crops and Threshers.— Castroville Argus, 
July 14: It is estimated that Monterey county 
will produce this year, at the most, 50,000 sacks 
of grain — about one-fifth wheat, the remainder 
barley, principally, and some oats. For the 
next season's seeding at least 100,000 sacks of 
wheat alone being required, there will be a 
large deficiency— putting the wheat now in 
store at 10,000 sacks, and the new crop at the 
same figures, it will be necessary to import 
about 80,000 sacks of this cereal. Of barley, 
after reserving for seed, there will be a small 
surplus. Last year the grain yield in the 
county ftmountad (in round uumbsrs) to half a 



million sacks, or ten times the estimated yield 
this season. The steam thresher of Messrs. 
Wood & Eastman is being put in order for the 
season's work, which, we understand, will com- 
mence next week. It is believed that this ma- 
chine and that of Mr. Bardin, the latter to be 
operated chiefly in the Blanco and Bardin dis- 
tricts, will each find about four weeks' work in 
tliis portion of the valley, no other machines 
competing; otherwise the work of threshing 
will be so divided as to yield little or no profit 
to any. In good seasons what is known as the 
Castroville district usually affords steady em- 
ployment to three or four threshing machines 
for three months or more. 

Game Ordinance. — Index: The Supervisors 
order as follows: That every person who, be- 
tween the 1st day of November and the 10th 
day of July in each year, takes, kills or destroys 
any elk, deer, mountain sheep or antelope, is 
guilty of a misdemeanor; and any person who 
shall take, kill or destroy any of the animals 
herein mentioned at any time, unless the car- 
cass of such animal is used or preserve<l by the 
person slaying it, or is sold for food, is guilty of 
a misdemeanor. This ordinance shall take ef- 
fect from and after its passage. Passed July 
9th, 1877. 



NAPA. 

The Harvest. — Register, July 14: Farmers 
throughout the valley are just now busy har- 
vesting. In some districts the wheat is found 
considerably shrunk, owing to the heated term 
of a few weeks ago; yet, with the good prices 
farmers will be able to realize on their grain 
this season, crops will pay well in Napa valley. 

The Grape Crop. — St. Helena Star, July 13; 
A prominent vineyardist tells us that the grape 
crop is looking well and promises to be a full 
crop. It is also a little earlier than last year, 
and wine making will probalily begin in the 
latter part of August. Tlie cellars are in about 
an average condition of fullness for this time of 
year, and our infonnant thinks that the chances 
of selling grapes and price realized will be 
about the same this year as last. Last year 
wine making began August 2Gth. Tlie total 
quantity made in the 20 diff'erent cellars in the 
immediate vicinity of St. Helena was 848,350 
gallons, and then there was not a full crop of 
gi'apes. This year there is a full crop, and it is 
expected that the wine product will be nearly 
or quite a million gallons. The vines are per- 
fectly healthy, and show no signs of the various 
insects that have been reported from other 
places. 

SACRAMENTO. 

The Third Crop. — Record- Union, July 14: 
All the farmers who have alfalfa meadows on 
the Sacramento river have already cut two crops 
of hay, averaging from a ton and a half to two 
tons per acre at each cutting, and some of them 
are now engaged in cutting the third, which is 
equally heavy. Those who cut the third now 
will cut another crop of hay, or let the fourth 
crop stand and cut it for seed. Some will let 
the third crop go to seed. In cutting a crop of 
alfalfa for seed there is obtained two crops at 
the same cutting — one of seed and one of seed 
straw. This seed straw is not good hay, but it 
does to feed young cattle or dry cows on. There 
is no juice and consequently but little milk in 
it. The yield of these alfalfa meadows will be 
much greater this year than last, and as the hay 
is worth now from §12 to .if 14 per ton, the profits 
of their owners will be very satisfactory. Say 
four crops making five tons to the acre, .$60 per 
acre gross receipts. Say it costs $6 per ton to 
cut, bale and market, there is still left ijfSO per 
acre as net income. There are but few acres on 
the river named that will not yield a net in- 
come this year of more than .fSO. Many acres 
will go above .f50 per acre net income. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Large Yield. — Independent, July 12: We 
are informed that Frank Davis, a farmer living 
on the Calaveras, adjoining Mr. Shippee's great 
farm, has just finished cutting and threshing 
his grain, aljout 80 acres. It yielded lieavily, 
producing an average of 53 bushels to the acre. 
The land was summer-fallowed and a portion of 
it had been irrigated. Particular attention was 
paid to thorougii cultivation, which was bounti- 
fully rewarded. It is the largest yield we have 
heard of this year, although Mr. Shippee is con- 
fident that his grain will, when threshed, yield 
fully as well. It is a conspicuous example of the 
value of summer-fallowing land. 

SANTA CLARA. 

Strawberry Growers' Association. — San 
Jose Mercury, July 14: The Strawberry Grow- 
ers' Association met yesterday evening at their 
rooms, in City market hall, wlicre the following 
business was transacted: A committee of three 
was appointed, consisting of Messrs. McGirr, 
Fenton and Cowan, to consult as to the advis- 
ability of establishing an agency at San Fran- 
cisco for the sale of fruit raised by members of 
the association. This committee are to rcfjort 
their views on the 28th of July, to which time 
the as.sociation adjourned. Nothing was done 
concerning the establishment of a canning fac- 
tory at Alviao, the committee appointed having 
not yet reported. 

Patent Drying Hou.se. — Lusk & Co., of 
San Francisco, have erected a patent Walters 
drying house at tlieir fruit agency, near the 
San Jose depot. It is not a large structure, 
but the process by which the fruit is dried and 
the short tune required in drying, enables the 
company to save a vast amount of fruit, which 
would otherwise go to waste. The Walters 
proeuss is what in tarmad tU« hot-air proesHs, 



the air being heated by the furnace and kept in 
the drying house, none being allowed to escape 
through the chimney or any outlet from th« 
building. The company can easily dry 6,000 
pounds of fruit per day. This year their dry- 
ing will consist jirincipally of pears, apples and 
raisin grapes. There is but one other dry- 
ing liouse of this patent in the vicinity, which 
is of about half the capacity of this, one which 
Lusk & Co. have erected. 
SONOMA. 

Grain and Threshing. — Russian River Flag, 
July 12: The heading of grain is progressing in 
Alexander valley; five machines have been cut- 
ting grain over there at difl'ercnt times, owned 
as follows: Leander Ellis, Wni. Harmon, L. J. 
Hall, Mr. Carmichael, John Bidwell. Hassett 
& Cummings's steam thresher will operate on 
Geo. Jacob's grain. The threshers speak of 
meeting with shrunken grain in some places, 
though for the most part it is fine and plump 
and turns out well. The shrinking was gener- 
ally caused by the hot sun; in some cases by 
rust, aggravated by the heat. Twelve hundred 
bushels of barley in 12 hours is a pretty good 
day's work for a 10-horse thresher. But this 
is the amount run through by Gordon, Hoffman 
and Williams, this season, on the Hendricks 
place, Upper Dry creek. From Geo. Benjamin, 
of Alexander valley, we learn that the White 
Club wlieat stands the drouth and hot weather 
the best this year, being shrunken but very 
little. Heading in the valley will be finished 
in about two weeks. 

The Assessment of Sheep. — Times, July 7: 
It is agreed between the Assessor and the 
Supervisors that no assessment for wool clipped 
this year from sheep shall appear on the assess- 
ment books. All owners of sheep are assessed 
the same, whether with or without the wool. 
Ordinary or common sheep are assessed at .^l 
per head, and graded sheep according to value, 
none higher than $5 per head. Sheep owners 
will therefore be relieved from the necessity of 
coming to look to their interests, as by this 
course a general equalization is made, and the 
number of sheep rated at over f 1 is very small. 



SUTTER. 

Our Farms and Products. — Banner, July 14: 
We took a couple of trips through portions of 
the county during the early part of the week, 
and found that, although much wheat has been 
already threshed and hauled into storage points, 
it is but a small portion of the entire crop of 
the county, for scattered all over the portions 
seen by us are large stacks of unthreshed grain, 
waiting the arrival of the thresher. The proba- 
bilities are that it will be weeks yet before the 
fields begin to look clean. And what is true of 
the grain product can also be said of our fruits. 
Trees and vines were never more loaded, and a 
very full crop of all kinds is to be gathered. 
Surely, our Sutter county ranchers have great 
reason to congratulate themselves upon their 
fortune this year. 

Grain Receipts. — The receipts of grain dur- 
ing the week at the warehouse of the Farmers' 
Union, have averaged 175 tons daily. There 
are now about 2,000 tons stored, which is but a 
small proportion of what is to come. The 
warehouse now begins to present the appear- 
ance of having something in it. A thousand 
tons stored away inside of its capacious walls 
is hardly noticed, as it can be stored away in 
one corner, but the receij^ts of this week, added 
to that already in, begins to make a show. 
Beside that received at this wareliouse, consid- 
erable grain has been stored at Wilcoxon's 
warehouse, an addition having been made to 
its storing capacity. Huge wagons drawn by 
10, 12 and 14-horsc teams, have idsobeen deliv- 
ering grain to Marysville dealers and the Buck- 
eye mill. Altogether, the grain received dur- 
ing the week at this point, including the lots 
taken over the river, may be set down as over 
2,000 tons. 
VENTURA. 

A Banana in Bearing. — Signal, July 14: In 
the garden of the editor of the Signal, in this 
place, is a banana tree two years old which is 
now beginning to bear. The bud when it first 
comes out is like an ear of corn. As the fruit 
swells and matures tlie heavy outer leaves of 
the buds roll up, exposing the tender and lus- 
cious fruit to the air and sun. Our experience 
warrants us in believing that tlie banana can be 
grown with profit in this part of the country 
where an abundance of water can be had. This 
tree in bearing has had, from the time it was 
planted, underground irrigation. 

YOLO. 

Wheat Items. — Winters Advocate, July 7: 
We asked from three farmers on Tuesday last 
their several estimates of the yield per aero of 
summer-fallowed wheat. No. 1 answered 30 
bushels wheat. No. 2, 20 bushels, and No. 3, 
25 bushels. The receipts of wheat at the ware- 
houses at Winters last week, up to Friday, have 
been as follows: Grangers' warehouse, 1,200 
tons ; Hill Brothers' warehouse, 700 tons. 
■There have been in addition CO tons shipped 
from Grangers' Yard. 
YUBA. 

Stacks of Grain. — Appeal, July 14: All 
who take a seat in a buggy and drive to Wheat- 
land and back, going by the west road and re- 
turning by the east, will be astonished at the 
immense stacks of unthreslied grain in the fields. 
They will also see another good thing— thousands 
and tliousands of acres of summer fallowed 
ground. The farmers in the southern part of 
Yuba have good lauds, and th»y know how to 
uue th«m. 



38 





Down Into the Dust. 

Is it worth while that we jostle a brother, 
Bearing his load on the rough road of life 't 

Is it worth while that we jeer at each other 
In the blackness of heart '(—that wo war to the knife? 
God pity us all in our pitiful strife. 

God pity us all as we jostle each other; 

God pardon us all for the triumph we feel 
When a fellow goes down 'neath his load on that heather, 

Pierced to the heart; words are keener than steel, 

And mightier far for woe or for weal. 

Were it not well, in this brief little joumay 
On over the isthmus, down into the tide, 

We give him a fish instead of a sen>ent, 
Kre folding the hands to be and abide 
Forever and aye in the dust by his side! 

Look at the roses saluting each other; 

Look at the herds all at peace on the plain- 
Man and man only makes war on his brother. 

And laughs in his heart at his peril and pain; 

.Shamed by the beasts that go down on the plain. 

Is it worth while that we battle to humble 
Some poor fellow soldier down into the dust ". 

God pity us all! Time eft soon will tumble 
All of us together like leaves in a gust, 
Humbled indeed down into the dust. 

— Joaquin Millfr. 



Measures. 

1 have a dainty cup of gla-ss; 

It is not graven by a line; 
Its beauty is its fragileness; 

A baby's hand might crush it fine. 

I gave a man to drink from it. 

One day, a draft of water cold. 
He took it like a woman's hand. 

In reverent, loving, lingering hold. 

He held it up in keen delight. 
Gazed on its texture rare and flue: 
".Such glass as this," he rapturous said, 
"Gives water all the grace of wine." 

Another day, another man 
Sat eating, drinking at my hoard; 

Into the dainty peerless g!as,s, 
A peerless wine for him I poured. 

He drank it at a swallow downi : 

With smothered wrath I well-nigh burst; 
Nor wine nor glass was aught to him, 

So that he quenched his boorish thirst. 

"Ah me!" I said, "to him that hath, 

All things on earth their tribute bring; 
From him that hath not, earth takes back, 
And leaves him beggared, though a king." 
— //. //. in Scribner. 



Farm House Chat. 

[Written for the Prbmb by .M.vrt Moixtai.v. ] 
We all like to talk about self occasionally, 
and I was greatly interested when an unknown 
friend asked what had become of me. 

Could I possibly respond in time for next 
week's paper? Yes, yes, it must be done; and 
the subject, so fresh and original, was also in- 
spiring and doubtless made itself felt in the 
household ways, which] were just then blocked 
with an unusual amount of work to be done. 
City vacations were at hand and the latch- 
string must be hung out. 

Alas, for the Modern Latch-String! 
No longer a simple leather string shaped by 
the careless jack-knife, but a complicated coil, 
and once caught among its tangles, how is a 
woman to give account of herself ? 

And the moment pen and paper came to- 
gether I knew how fatally tame my answer 
must be; exactly the same response that would 
come from 10,000 busy women all over the laud 
who perform double duty as mistress and maid, 
with an eternal sense of failure, because there 
is not time enough to do everything well and 
enjoy life besides. Also, there is no exactly 
well-detined leisure for that pleasant duty of 
writing for the papers! 

Breakfasts and Dinners and Suppers, 
With all that those words imply of endless 
routine; washing, ironing, sweeping, making 
beds, cleaning windows aud doors and shelves 
and all tlio rest of the house; cutting and mak- 
ing new garments, altering and patching the 
old ones, darning the stockings, feeding the 
chickens, and last, but not least, "having com- 
pany," and does not the pinch come here? for 
now one would like to throw off the 

Harness of Care 
And prance around free for a good time; but in- 
stead it must be buckled on a little closer and 
earlier and later than usual, so that in hospi- 
tality's name there may be no failure in that 
Sisyphus task — the inexorable round of cooking 
and eating. 

All this is what has become of me and the 
other 10,000, of whom a fair percentage would 
joyfully brim over with good and worthy "cor- 
respondence for home circles;" only, strange to 
Bay, they really cannot find time for it. 

Days and nights too short, months and yeara 



too short for even the busy hands of the house- 
mother to accomplish all the good works her 
brain may plan. 

How often the very best thoughts and turns 
of thought will come when we are in the thick 
of those tasks that cannot possibly wait for the 
catching of truant fancies; and if you imagine 
they may be as easily caught and fastened by- 
and-by, you will certainly be disappointed un- 
less your brain children are more vital and per- 
sistent thau the "common run." 

When the afternoon or evening hour for rest 
has come, mind and body are tired alike aud 
the utmost effort can no more than outline a 
poor dead ghost of the theme that was all alive 
with force aud sparkle in the morning. 

Of course that is discouraging, for we know 
tliat a live paper must have — not once, but all 
the time — the freshest brain- work; no warmed- 
over messes or languid fragments of a weary 
day can help much to build up the literary vigor 
that must go "from conquering to conquer,'' un- 
til it shall capture and hold a sure place in all 
the best homes of the State. 

A friend was telling me recently of a sermon 
she had heard about Martha and Mary. These 
two women, of whom we have such a brief his- 
torical glimpse, have been much quoted and 
preached for the edification of all classes, and 
this recent effort was in the approved style — 
gravely reproachful of Martha — sweetly praise- 
ful of Mary. 

So my friend — long trained to patience — was 
able to sit quietly to the final amen; but when 
the placid preacher came down among the 
troubled Marthas of hi« flock, she turned upon 
him in comical wrath and asked — 

"How About the Dinner— 
If Martha had acted like Mary ?" The blame 
and the praise have been all wrong from the 
very beginning ! Don't you suppose Martha 
would have been just as glad as anybody to 
have nothing to do but sit still and listen to the 
talk? Of coiirKc she was "cumbered about 
much serving," as every poor woman is who 
has unexpected company to entertain and all 
the work to do herself. 

She asked the Lord to bid the lazy sister help 
her, so that the work might be done and both 
have time to enjoy the visit. Perhaps she was 
a little spunky about it, and had a perfect right 
to be ; but because she was reproved, and lazy 
Mary praised, we all have to bear the taunt ; 
and yet what xrouH become of this world full of 
helpless men and httle children if we should all 
follow the example of Mary ? 

The Preacher's Reply' 
I cannot imagine what he would say, as the 
truth flashed upon his mind, that the Marthas 
of to-day sometimes keep the church itself from 
stagnation, and hasten the steps of reform by 
being also "careful and troubled about many 
things." But keeping within the domestic in- 
terests that started the original text, there 
might be a sermon from the Martha point of 
view that would lift the burden of reproach 
from many a tired sister who toils alone, while 
the careless and easy-going take their rest. 

Please let the sermon start from the 40th 
verse of the 10th chapter of Luke : 

"But Martha was cumbered about much 
serving, and came to him and said : ' Lord, dost 
thou not care that my sister hath left me to 
serve alone ? bid her therefore that she help me. ' " 
The two verses that follow this have made up 
heretofore the fashionable text, and would jus- 
tify among all Christian women a dislike of those 
household tasks that brought upon Martha such 
severe and unexpected rebuke. 

Is it not much nicer and easier to sit »till and 
listen to all the good talk, and be praised for it ? 
We would thus gather mental food which could 
never be taken away from us ; while the soups 
and roasts, the good bread and butter prepared 
by toiling Martha, are all "done for " and gone 
in a day. 

Now, who will preach us this sermon and set 
our hearts at rest ? 

A man can hardly do it, for he will be sure to 
fly the track and tell us to hire a Chinaman and 
thus be forever free to "choose the part that 
Mary chose." 

A tranquil, complacent " Mary" is hardly 
equal to the amount of hard work needed for 
such business; and a "careful Martha" will 
never get time enough to put her thoughts 
through the inkstand and spread them out to 
dry before the public eye. 

We must wait for the "coming woman" to 
make this crookedness straight and justify those 
who must even do the " cumbering" whether 
they like it or not. 

Meauwhile we can all endorse the poet who 
has said: " Learn to labor and to wait." 

My busy unknown friend has to wait until 
" some day" for her "model rag-bag," and this 
reminds me to tell her that I, too, have been 
greatly interested in " W^oodside Papers" and 
ought to be, for they come from the baby of our 
family Hook, and it has been a continual surprise 
that little sister Jennie — dimpling along in the 
shallows of single blessedness — has met with 
sucli wide and deep 

Household Experiences. 
When in the near future she steps into a home 
of her own, I suspect she will out-" Payson" 
us all, and will indeed be blessed among women 
if she can brighten and straighten the crooked 
paths of her neighbors and still keep them her 
friends. 

It is a wonderful gift — this tact that dare lay 

hold of the weeds we are sure to see choking the 

human crop all around us and in us (?) and 

what eminent social-culturists we might be if 

' only the neighbors would, " in a spirit of meek- 



ness, let us inquire." But, my " Mrs. Townes," 
as a general rule, don't take it that way at all. 
Have I not merely glanced at their weeds, 
pretending not to see them at all, and then 
masking my approach by the nicest quotations 
from the Rural Pke.ss, etc.; have I ever been 
able to touch one little folly, or even begin to 
" pull it up by the roots," that they would not 
b'e ready to defend it and show me that their 
" weeds" were as good as mine any day ? 

Couldn't I tell some good stories about it if 
I only had time ? But this, my kind unknown, 
is just what has become of me — I have not 
time. 



Overland Tales. — We receive from A. 
Roman & Co., of San Francisco, a copy of Mrs. 
Josephine Clifford's "Overland Tales." The 
book is made up of short tales and sketches of 
life on this coast, and is as fresh in its descrip- 
tions, true in its character portrayals and de- 
lightful in style of composition as a critic could 
desire. The chapters hold the interest of the 
reader from end to end. We know of no recent 
publication which would be a more entertaining 
compauion on a journey or during leisure hours 
at home. We have no space for long extracts, 
but we take a single paragraph which shows the 
skillful use of language and the almost weird 
fancy which gives life to the breaks in narrative 
which are generally the shallow water in story 
writing. The following is seen when "Crossing 
the Arizona Deserts:" "In the mountain around 
which we had passed on the last day's journey 
from Gila bend, is to be seen, plainly and dis- 
tinctly, the face of a man, reclining, with his 
eyes closed as though in sleep. Among the 
most beautiful of all the legends told here, is 
that concerning this face. It is Montezuma's 
face, so the Indians believe, (even those in 
Mexico, who have never seen the image,) and 
he will awaken from his long sleep some day, 
will gather all the brave and the faithful around 
him, raise and uplift his down-trodden people, 
and restore to his kingdom the old power and 
the old glory — as it was before the Hidalgos in- 
vaded it. So strong is this belief in some parts 
of Mexico, that people who passed through that 
country years ago tell me of some localities 
where fires were kept constantly burning, in 
anticipation of Montezuma's early coming. It 
looks as though the stern face up there was just 
a little softened in its expression by the deep 
slumber that holds the eyelids over the com- 
manding eye; and all nature seems hushed into 
death-like stillness. Day .after day, year after 
year, century after century, slumbers the man 
up there on the hight, and life and vegetation 
sleep on the arid plains below — a slumber never 
disturbed — a sleep never broken; for the battle- 
cry of Yuma, Pima, and Maricopa that once 
rang at the foot of the mountain, did not reach 
Montezuma's ear; and the dying shrieks of the 
children of those who came far over the seas to 
rob him of his scepter and crown, fall unlieeded 
on the rocks and the deserts that guard his 
sleep." 

Respectability of Agriculture. — A clergy- 
man once said to me, "Will farming ever be 
considered more resjjcctable than now?" My an- 
swer was, no. Farming is highly honored, 
when we consider that from it flow all the calls 
for artisans of every name to supply the real or 
imaginary wants of all mankind. Heaven, as a 
state, whether it relates to the present or the 
hereafter, consists mainly in the beautiful. 
Adam was to dress the garden, which meant to 
make it look well, and at the same time it 
would be useful. How is it to-day? A beau- 
tiful garden attracts visitors from all the sur- 
rounding country. No less does an extensive 
farm, made beautifid by the diligent hand. 
By the products of the farm man and beast sur- 
vive. AH other callings are supported by it; 
but to the question, ' 'Is it more respectable than 
formerly, or wiU it be?'' I answer, it always has 
had the precedence in respectability. God and 
good men, in former times, looked with pleasure 
and delight on seedtime and harvest; so in this 
age, professional men extol the beauties of agri- 
culture, and especially every one who is looking 
for a lucrative office from the people, will shake 
a friendly hand with the honest yeoman, as 
much as to say, your calling is respectable. — 
Robert Manifidd, in N. E. Farmer. 



An Exciting Incident. — A very exciting in- 
cident occurred not long since at the village of 
Soudan, in France. In consequence of the 
weathercock at the top of the church steeple 
getting rusty and no longer turning as it should 
do, it was determined to take it down. A man 
climbed up the steeple, but just before he reached 
the weathercock he lost his balance and slid 
down seventy feet, then rebounded on the roof 
of the church, and rolling thence was precipitated 
to the ground. He was not much hurt, but 
being much shaken by the fall, he was replaced 
by a man named Chevalier. In aVjout half an 
hour Clievalier made the most gallant effort to 
haul himself up by means of a rope, but at last 
his hand slipped, and he fell backward. His 
foot caught in the rope, as luck would have it, 
and there he remained, one hundred and twenty 
feet from tiie ground, with his head down, beat- 
ing the air with his hands, struggling to recover 
himself. A spectator went to his rescue, slipped 
a rope around his body, aud cutting that which 
held his foot, freed him from the fearful posi- 
tion in which he had remained for three hours. 



Agricultural Newspapers. 

In a recent number of the Boston Journal, a 
correspondent, "Young Farmer," says the fol- 
lowing very truthful and appropriate words 
about the agricultural papers : One word now 
about the agricultural papers. Some of them 
have improved very much, as I look at matters. 
Thirty years ago very few actual farmers, whose 
hands were familiar with the plow, hoe, or 
milk pail, could be found to write for such a 
paper, even upon such subjects as they hatl 
made their daily avocations for years. They 
were not used to the pen or familiar with spell- 
ing book or rules of grammar. They spoke 
their minds freely to their neighbors, but cared 
not to invite criticism upon points where they 
felt that they might fail. The minister, the 
schoolmaster, storekeeper, or doctor, who em- 
ployed the time not devoted to their business in 
the cultivation of little plots of land, would 
write out their theories and ideas, and from 
such men we gained much knowledge. All 
honor to them. But among thtir wheat was 
much chaff. They h.vl not always experimented 
carefully enough, or observed carefully enough 
the conditions under which their experiments 
were made, to be taken as safe pilots in a chan- 
nel in which they had only sailed upon short 
pleasure trips, and which abounded in rocks and 
shoals which they had not seen. In a word, 
their advice was not always practical, nor appli- 
cable, as tliey thought it to be, to all farms and 
localities. 

To-day, farmers are studying and experiment- 
ing, who make "farming for profit" a business, 
and who are fitted by study, as well as by prac- 
tical experience, to experiment scientifically and 
to report the result in plain language, if not in 
flowery style. It is the writing of such men 
that fills the columns of our leading agricultural 
papers ; and the time may come when they will 
occupy the time at the meetings of our agricul- 
tural societies and boards of agrictiltu re. A few 
of them have done so to the satisfaction of their 
audience of farmers, and others might. This is 
the history of nearly all progressive movements. 
Thinking men have started strange theories — 
bold adventurers have tested them, as Columbus 
did the theories of those who believed in a west- 
ern world before his day ; and when the discov- 
eries are made, then comes the practical man to 
utilize them. 



Large Nose.s. — Dr. Cid, an inventive sur- 
geon of Paris, noticed that elderly people, who 
for a long time have worn eye-glasses supported 
on the nose by a spring, are apt to have this or- 
gan long and thin. This he attributes to the 
compression which the spring exerts on the 
arteries by which the nose is nourished. The 
idea occurred to him that the hint could be 
made useful. Not long afterward a young lady 
of 1 5 consulted him, to see if he could restore to 
moderate dimensions her nose, which was large, 
fleshy and unsightly. The trait he found was 
hereditary in her family, as her mother and sis- 
ter were similarly affected. This was discour- 
aging, as hereditary peculiarities are particu- 
larly obstinate. But the doctor determined to 
try his method. He took exact measurement, 
and constructed for her a "lunelle jiince-nez" — 
a spring and pad for compressing the artery, 
which she wore at night and whenever she con- 
veniently could in the daytime. In three weeks 
a consolatory diminution was evident, and in 
three months the young lady was quite satisfied 
with the improvement in her features. 



The farmer should sow his P's, keep his U's 

warm, hive his B's, kill off the J's, remember 

what he C's, take care of his V's, pay what he 

t O'i, teach his wife not to T's, and take his E's. 



Public Squares. — If money enough can be 
provided to do the work thoroughly well from 
its very foundation, then, of course, nothing 
more is needed than that its direction be placed 
in accomplished hands; but, unless this is fully 
assured, if, as is nearly always the case, econ- 
omy is the first thing to be considered, then the 
rule of action is fully stated in two worfls, sim- 
plicity and thoroughness. Avoid all fantastic 
ornamentation and all decoration of every sort, 
that would be appropriate only to work of a 
more complete and substantial character. Let 
whatever is done be done in the most thorough 
way. If the ability is only enough to secure 
good grass, then do everything that is necessary 
to furnish the best conditions for the growth of 
grass; make suitable provision for its care and 
attempt nothing furth-^r. Good lawn-like grass 
surfaces, crossed only by foot-worn pathways 
over the turf, will be more beautiful and more 
satisfactory than will poor grass, and cheaply- 
made and ill-kept walks.— Co/. Waring, in 
Scribner. 

A Family Likene.ss. — Some soldiers who 
were quartered in a country village, when they 
met at the roll-call, were asking one another 
what kind of quarters tliey had got; one of them 
said he had very good quarters, but the 
strangest landlady ever he saw — she always 
took him off. A comrade said he would go 
along with him, aud would take her off. He 
went, and oflered to shake hands with her, say- 
ing, "How are you, Elspa?'' "Indeed, sir," 
said she, "ye hae the better o' me; I dinna ken 
ye." "Dear me, Elspa," replied the soldier, 
"d'ye no ken me? I'm the devil's sister's son." 
"Dear save us!" quoth the old wife, looking 
him broadly in the face; "od, man, but ye're 
like your uncle!" 

"K.\tb, I understand you have accepted a sit- 
uation as governess. Rather than that, I 
would marry a widower with six children." 
"Yes, dear Sophie, and so would I; but where 
is the widower?" 



July ^i, 1877.] 



39 




The fidelity and affectionate intimacy of mar- 
ried bird life appears most conspicuously in 
pairs of the grosbeak family and in small par- 
rots. Here is perfect harmony of will and deed. 
The two sweethearts appear unwilling to leave 
one another's company for a moment all their 
life; they do everything together — eating and 
drinking, bathing and dressing of feathers, 
sleeping and waking. Various degrees of af- 
fection and harmony are discernible on close ob- 
servation. Among the small grosbeaks, pairs 
of which sit together, the intimate relation is 
never disturbed; even over the feeding cup 
there is no quarreling. They stand highest in 
this respect among birds. Love tokens are ex- 
changed by pressing of beaks together — a verit- 
able kissing, accompanied by loving gestures. 
They are also more sociable, and even at nest- 
ing time more peaceable than other birds. In 
the case of other grosbeaks, when the male 
bird sits by the female in the nest there are va- 
rious demonstrations of affection, but also slight 
occasional disputes, especially about feeding 
time. Next in order come the small parrots, 
which also appear almost inseparable. The 
male bird feeds his companion with seeds from 
the crop. This goes on quite regularly during 
the hatching, and until the young are some- 
what grown. During all this time the hen bird, 
which broods alone, never leaves the nest but 
for a few minutes, and the cock shows such af- 
fectionate care that the whole day he seems to 
do nothing but take food and give it again. 
Yet even this loving union is marred from time 
to time, even during the hatching time, with 
quarrels that even come to blows. Again, the 
male bird of a pair of chaffinches only occasion- 
ally sits on the eggs or young, but he watches 
the nest very carefully, singing to his mate the 
while, accompanies the hen in flight and helps 
her in feeding the young. — Chambers's Journal. 

Russians and Turk.s. — Scientific societies 
are turning their thoughts to war topics. At a 
recent meeting of the English Statistical Soci- 
ety, Mr. Ravenstein read an elaborate paper on 
"The Population of Russia and Turkey." The 
former of these empires has 84,584,482 inhabi- 
tants, the latter only 25, 986, 868, or, including 
Egypt, Tripoli, and Tunis, 43,408,900. The 
population of Roumania is 4,850,000; of Servia, 
1,352,500. The population of Russia increases 
at the rate of 1.1% per annum, the increase 
amongst the Jews being at least double what it 
is amongst the Christians. With respect to 
Turkey, there exists no data for calculating the 
increase, though it is most probable that the 
dominant race does not increase at all, a fact 
accounted for by vicious practices prevailing 
amonst the women, and by the sacrifices de- 
manded from it for the defense of the empire. 
Some curious facts were communicated with 
respect to the proportions between males and 
females. Throughout Asiatic Russia and in a 
considerable portion of European Russia the 
male sex preponderates. The same fact has 
been noted in Roumania, in Greece, and in 
other parts of Europe. The author tlnis 
summed up the results of his investigations: — 
In the Russian empire there are 100 Russians to 
every 50 members of other nationalities, and 
100 Christians to every 16 Mohammedans and 
Pagans. In Turkey, on the other hand, 100 
Turks have opposed to them 197 members of 
other nations, and 100 Mohammedans to 47 
Christians. The advantage, in both these re- 
spects, is therefore entirely on the side of Rus- 
sia, and the position of Turkey must appear in 
a still less favorable light if we look at the de- 
tails of the geographical distribution of the 
dominant race and religion, and bear in mind 
the interest existing amongst Slavs and Greeks 
on behalf of some of the races dwelling within 
the limits of that empire. 



What a Man Carries Up-stairp . —In the 
course of an article on elevators the Pohjtedaiic 
Review remarks; Few consider that stair-climb- 
ing necessitates an actual lifting of the whole 
weight through a vertical distance equal to the 
hight of the stairs. A man weighing 160 pounds 
in walking up a flight of 16 steps, each with an 
eight-inch rise (corresponding to a 12-foot ceil- 
ing), in a time of 20 seconds has lifted 1,920 
pounds a foot high in that time — nearly a ton 
weight. To climb to the top of a four-story 
building — say 52 feet vertically to the fourth 
floor — in 90 seconds represents the lifting of 
8,300 pounds a foot high in that time. Re- 
duced to minute foot-pounds, this equals 5,533 
pounds lifted a foot high in a minute, or one- 
sixth horse-power. 

A FACETIOUS physician, an old bachelor, said 
lately to a single lady: "How can you with a 
clear conscience answer St. Peter when you 
shall reach heaven's gate, for your heartless- 
ness in refusing so many marriage offers?" The 
lady archly replied, "I shall tell the apostle 
that Dr. did not ask me."' 



A YOUNO woman from the rural districts en- 
tered a dry goods store the other day, and 
asked for a pair of stockings. The clerk polite- 
ly asked her what number she wore. "Why, 
two, you fool I Do you think I am a centipede, 
or that I have a wooden leg?" 

Laughter. — A good laugh occasionally is 
better than a whole apothecary's shop of med- 
icine. It is an act of wisdom; it shakes the 
cobwebs out of a man's brains and hypochondria 
from his ribs far more effectually than either 
champagne or blue pills, 



The King and the Stable Boy. 

During the visit of George III to the royal 
stables, a boy belonging to one of the grooms 
took his attention. There is no accounting for 
fancies; but there was something about the boy 
that won his royal master's favor, and the king 
treated him kindly in many ways. But a time 
of temptatidn came, and the poor lad fell into 
disgrace; he had stolen some oats from the royal 
bins, and, being detected, the head groom dis- 
charged him. The fact that he was noticed by 
the king may have aroused the envy and dis- 
like of others, and it may be that the occasion 
was gladly seized by the groom to have him 
turned away. There seemed to be no idea of 
speaking to the poor lad about the wickedness 
of taking the oats, and abusing the confidence 
of his master, but only a determination to treat 
him as he deserved. Who knows what a kind 
word might have done for an erring boy, who 
gave way to wrong-doing in a moment of 
temptation? But sirch was not the case; he 
was turned adrift with a stain upon his charac- 
ter, to the great grief of his parents. 

Not long afterwards, when the king again 
visited his stables, he observed the absence of 
the boy, and asked one of the grooms what had 
become of him. The man, fearing to tell the 
truth, yet not liking to tell a falsehood, said he 
had left. His majesty was not satisfied with 
the groom's answer, and suspecting wrong, 
called the head groom to him, and made the 
inquiry again. "I have discharged the boy, 
sire, " answered he. 

"For what reason ?" asked the king. 

"He was discovered stealing the oats from 
one of the bins, ' was the reply, "and I sent 
him away." 

The king felt sorry for the poor boy who had 
disgraced himself thus, but determined not to 
give him up, and ordered him to be sent for 
immediately. The order was obeyed, and with- 
out loss of time the boy was brought to the 
king. What a scene was tliat — face to face 
with the king of England stood the boy, a con- 
victed thief ! 

"Well, my boy," said his majesty, when the 
poor lad, trembling and looking very pale, stood 
before him, not knowing what awaited him; "is 
this true that I hear of you ?" 

The lad could not look up into the king's 
face, but with his head bent down, his only 
answer to the kind inquiry was a flood of tears. 
He had not a word to say for himself; his 
mouth was stopped, for he knew he was guilty; 
he had not a word of excuse. The king, seeing 
tlie poor boy was sorry on account of his sin, 
spoke to him of the evil — how he had not only 
taken what was not his own, but abused the 
confidence reposed in him. "Well, my lad," 
said his majesty, putting his hand kindly upon 
the boy's head, "I forgive you." Then, turn- 
ing to the head groom, said, "Let the boy have 
his former place, and let him be cared for." 

What a thrill of joy did the lad's heart feel 
as the king uttered those three words, "I for- 
give you." Instead of being ordered off to 
prison and punished and disgraced, he was re- 
stored to favor, and restored to the place he 
had lost. Wliat gladness this gave the boy's 
heart ! It seemed almost too good to be true. 
But who could dispute it ? The king himself 
had forgiven him, and then the highest judge 
in the land had not a word to say against it; he 
was a guilty one, but now was forgiven, and 
that by the king himself. Will our young 
readers learn the beautiful lesson contained in 
this story ? — Christian Guardian. 



Diving. — The fun of a good dive is fun in- 
deed. I have often "fetched bottom" at 15 
feet, and brought up a big stone to prove to my 
comrades that I had been "clean down." But 
once, in water like crystal, in the Upper Lakes, 
where the pebbles could be seen at the bottom, 
I came rushing up with my head cracking, and 
saw an old fellow grinning at me. I hung 
breathless to a wharf-pile, and he casually in- 
formed me that the water was 26 feet deep, 
"thar or tharabouts." Jumping from a hight is 
a doubtful job. Recollect that in everything 
connected with swimming you are top-heavy, 
and that water is incompressible. If you get 
oS" your balance while dropping, and fall on your 
side, either you will bo drowned or your mother 
will need, next day, all the cold cream in the 
neighborhood. I have painful recollections on 
that subject. Two days in bed and a maternal 
lecture of the same length were too much to pay 
for that one dizzy, sidewise rush through the 
air. If I had taken my leaden head for a 
plummet, I should have been spared the blis- 
ters on my body. I ought to have dived. — St. 
Nicholas for July. 



The Difference. — "What will you give me 
for this dog-skin, sir ?" 

"My boy," the man replied, "was your dog 
fat?" 

"Yes, sir ! So very fat 1 Indeed he were I 
If ever dog were fleshy, he were that." 

"Well then, my son, I'm sorry, for the fur of 
such fat dogs is valueless." 

Thereat the boy exclaimed, "Now that I do 
recall that dog, he wasn't so blamed fat after 
all !" — Se.ribner for July. 



Q00O 1-|e^lxI|. 



Gare of the Eyes. 

Do not read or write before sun-up or after 
sun-down. Let the light fall upon the page from 
behind. Never read while lying down. Those 
whose eyes are weak should never read or sew 
by candle or gas light, nor by twilight. Suffer 
nothing to be applied to them unless by the 
special advice of an experienced physician. If 
the lids stick together in the morning on waking 
up, moisten them with the saliva, it softens and 
dissolves the matter sooner than any liquid 
known. The best and safest treatment for most 
affections of the eyes is rest, especially if weak 
or inflamed, rest from reading, writing or sew- 
ing, from every use of them which refiuire.s 
close observation, spending a large portion (if 
the time out of doors, as then, large objects are 
mostly viewed. Persevere in this for weeks 
and months if necessary, and if not then re- 
lieved, consult a physician. 

Avoid reading on horseback or in rail cars or 
any wlieeled vehicle while in motion. Many 
persons will find that in reading before break- 
fast an effort is required to keep the sight clear, 
but after breakfast no such difficulty is expe- 
rienced; the reason is, the eye under such cir- 
cumstances is more or less inflamed, that is, has 
too much blood about it, but nature calls that 
excess of blood away to the stomach after eat- 
ing, to enable it to perform its work more tho- 
roughly. Therefore, persons with weak eyes 
should not read or write or do fine sewing on an 
empty stomach. Our preceptor, Professor Dud- 
ley, who is among the very first of living sur- 
geons, used often say, "Young gentleman, never 
let anyth ng touch the eye or ear stronger than 
luke-warm water. " We have but one sight to 
lose, its preservation merits all our care, and it 
is unwise to tamper with, or experiment upon 
an organ so indispensable to our comfort, happi- 
ness and usefulness. — llalCs Journal. 



What IS Fever? — Dr. H. F. A. Goodridge, 
in a very interesting sketch in the British Medi- 
cal Journal, of fever pathology, sums up our 
positive knowledge as follows: The cliaracteris- 
tic elevation of temperature of the body in fever 
is mainly due to increased production of heat. 
Besides the increased production of heat there 
is a disorder of nutrition, an abi or nal disinte- 
gration of the body, and partitul irly of the 
muscular tissue, evinced, on the one hand, by 
increased excretion of urea and potash sahs, of 
carbonic acid, and perhaps also by water; and 
on the otlier by progressive loss of body weight. 
The increased production of heat occurring at a 
time when a principal source of normal 
beat production, viz. : the food ingested, 
is all but comjiletely cut off', must liave its origin 
in tiie abnormal disintegration of tissue. The 
converse may also liold good to a greater or less 
extent, there being thus action and re-action. 
However jirobable may be the hypothesis of tl'e 
intervention of the nervous system, the con- 
necting link between the entrance into the or- 
ganism of the fever excitant, the pyrogenic 
matter (be this contatjium viriim, or what it may 
be,) and the onset of the characteristic phenom- 
ena, have not yet been demonstrated. 

Mother.s, Study Hygiene. — ^V'rites Mrs. 
Diaz in her charming little volume of "A Do- 
mestic Problem:" "Will not you who know 
the inevitable influence of the mother upon her 
children — will you see to it that some portion of 
the time devoted to her education is spent in 
preparing for her life-work? Suppose the young 
women of 30 years ago had been thoroughly in- 
structed in hygienic laws, would not the effects 
of such instruction be perceptible in our present 
health rates and death rates? Let us begin now 
to affect the health rates and death rates of 30 
years hence, and it will do no harm to instruct 
young men in these matters. Even now there 
comes to me a report from the State Board of 
Health, in which it is shown, by facts and fig- 
ures, how our deatli rates are affected by igno- 
rance — ignorance as exhibited in the locating, 
building and ventilating of dwelling-houses, 
drainage, situation of wells, planting of trees, 
choice of food and cooking of the same, as well 
as the management of children. Can any sub- 
jects compare in importance with these? For 
humanity's sake, let our young people take time 
enough from their Latin dictionaries to learn 
how to keep themselves alive." 



Death from Poison Oak. — A young man 
named George Kelley died yesterday under pe- 
culiar circumstances. On Sunday last he drove 
a party out to Alum Rock, and while there it is 
said drank two or tliree glasses of beer and wan- 
dered around for some time at the Rock. The 
next day he complained of soreness of the face, 
and Mrs. Sikes, the wife of the hackman, in 
whose family he was employed as hostler gave 
him some ammonia to apply upon it. Becom- 
ing worse physicians were called, though he 
soon became insensible an<l continued to fail un- 
til yesterday, wlien death ensued. Deceased 
was about eighteen years old, and bore a good 
reputation. The funeral will take place from 
the residence of his father, James Kelley, on 
the Alameda, at 2 r. m. to-day. The case is 
spoken of Ijy physicians as an extraordinary one, 
poison oak seldom causing more than a few 
days' inconvenience. However, some are more 
susceptible to its influence than others. It is 
thought Kelley's syscem was out of order else 
the poison would not have resulted fatally. -- 
San .lose Mercury. 



ES71C EcoHofdy. 



Economizing Steps. 

A large part of the weariness of housework, 
says a lady writing for the N. Y. Tribune, 
comes from the number of steps required of this 
housekeeper while performing it. The going 
up and down stairs, the vibration between thfe 
kitchen, dining-room, cellar, and other parts of 
the house, wear out the strength quite as much 
as all other tasks combined. Hence such con- 
centration of resources as will give the house- 
keeper the advantage of position, and the easy 
command of every point to be covered, is of the 
utmost ini])ortance. If she can find in her 
laundry everything necessary for washing and 
ironing, the work is comparatively easy. If she 
can find in her pantry every requisite for com- 
pounding bread, pastry, cake, and have no oc- 
casion to run here and there to get things to- 
gether and put them away again, her task will 
seem light, If in her sewing-room she can put 
her hand on everything required by the seam- 
stress, without the perplexity and trouble of 
hunting up linings, thread, buttons, braid, that 
task will be robbed of half its weariness. But 
comparatively few houses have been planned 
with reference to this saving of steps. The ma- 
jority of families have no special room fitted up 
as a laundry, no pantry spacious enough to 
contain everything a pantry should contain, no 
sewing-room set apart for that sole purpose, and 
articles needed in these various industries are 
necessarily scattered and kept where it is most 
convenient to keep them. The washing utensils 
are usually kept in the cellar and must be 
brought to the kitchen and carried back again. 
The sewing machine stands not far from the 
cook stove, so the woman v?ho does her own 
work can have an oversight of the cooking 
while busy at the machine, but her materials for 
sewing cannot all be within reach. Yet by us- 
ing her brains as much as she does her feet she 
may save the latter many an unnecessary trip. 
If she must go down cellar for anything, let her 
pause a moment before starting and see if there 
is not something to be carried down, or if there 
is any errand there that may be attended to 
other than the special one she goes on. If she 
lias occasion to go up stairs, let her consider how 
much that is to be done she can accomplish 
with once going there, and so of everything 
else. A great deal can be done by planning 
work to make it easy. She who has arnmged in 
her mind a little programme of her work and 
goes at it systematically will accomplish with 
half the fatigue what taken at random might be 
entirely beyond her -strength. Children can be 
trained so as to save their mother's steps, and 
liy setting and clearing away tables, putting 
tlieir own toys and belongiuga in place, do very 
much to lighten the toils of their mothers. 



China Soy. — Mr. F. B. Thurber, a member 
of a well-known wholesale grocery firm in New 
York, has been enlightening the trade, through 
tlic medium of one of its journals, as to the na- 
ture and production of certain Cliinese sweet- 
meats and condiments. Concerning soy he 
writes: "It lias always been a mystery to me, 
as I fancy it has been to most other people who 
have dealt in or used it. Being at Canton I 
was therefore anxious to see a soy factor)', and 
taking a boat one day we proceeded two or 
three miles up the river to wliere one was in 
operation. I found that the principal ingre- 
dient or base is a white bean known as 'pak- 
toli,' which, so far as I could judge, is very like 
any other small bean. These are boiled, heavily 
salted, and put into big earthen jars, holding, 
perhaps half a barrel each, where they are al- 
lowed to remain for about ten days, during 
which period fermentation takes place. They 
are tlien mashed up with a species of olive, 
which is picked and boiled, and this mixture is 
placed in neat cloth bags, into which water is 
jioured, and allowed to filter through. The 
li(piid is then taken out, placed in clean jars, 
and thickened with a heavy-bodied Chinese mo- 
lasses, and this is soy. Thinned do^vn with 
water, the Chinese use it as a sauce, and al- 
though when thick it is rather disagreeable 
than otherwise, when thin it has certainly a 
toothsome flavor, and gives a zest and relish to 
meat, fish, etc. Most of the soy manufactured 
is shijiped to England, where it is used in large 
([uantities as a base for the manufacture of 
sauces." 



Burning Kitchen Refuse. — In the city 
where the dweller is dependent upon the dila- 
tory swill carrier to come for the refuse, it is 
better to burn the refuse in the kitchen stove 
or range than to allow it to lie around the area 
a source of pests and pestilence. We have for 
.some time practiced burning, and find much 
trutli in tlie following from the Sanitarian: 
"Among the internal rules and regulations of 
our kitchen, one of the most peremptory is the 
absolute prohibition of s'cill tuba and sivill gath- 
erers, and instead thereof, daibj burning all pea- 
shucks, corn-cobs, potato-peelings, fruit-parings 
and the like, together with all greasy table and 
kitchen scraps, which render the mixture read- 
ily coml)U3tible. The odors are all carried oflf 
witli the smoke up the chimney, and with or- 
dinary care for a (jood fire in the range, and 
duilii combustion — so as never to have large ac- 
cumulations - oxAc^t only are the convenient re- 
liult. 



40 



^A©»I'I 



[July 21, 1877. 




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The Original Articles in this paper are mostly set in 
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Address all letters to the firm, and not to individual 
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SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 21, 1877. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS.— The Clover Dodder in 

England; The Snowy Owl, 33; The Fresno Desert Makers; 

The Week, 40; Growing Crops and the Revenue; A 

New Corn-Sheller; Questions for California Botanists, 

41; VVhat Becomes of the Wheat; Notices of Recent 

Pat«ntSj 44. 
ILLUSTR ATIONS.-Snowy Owl,33; "Little Speedy" 

Com .Sheller, 41. 
CORRESPONDENCE.— Jottings in San Benito Co ; 

Notes on tducalion; A Desert Land Question, 34; 

Riverside, San Bernardino County, 35. 
ARBORICULTURE.— Setting Orange Trees, 35. 
THE STOCK YARD.— The American Short Horn 

Keo'.nl, 35. 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. -Wheat Conven- 

veution; WortViy Lecturer's Visits; The State Grange; 

An Invitation fur the W. L. ; Humboldt Pomona Grange; 

Jackson Valley Grange; Open Grange Meetings; Elec- 
tion of Oflicers, 36. 
AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties in California, 37- 
HOME CIRCLE.— Down Into the Dust (Poetry); 

Measures, (Poetry); Farm House Chat; Overland Tales; 

Re^pectabiUty of Agriculture; An Exciting Incideni; 

Agricultural Newspapers; Large Noses; Public Squares; 

A Family Likeness, 38; Affection in Bird Life; Russians 

and Turks; VVhat n JUn Carries Up-Stairs, 39. 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.-Tlie King and the 

Stable Bov; Diving; The Difference, 39. 
GOOD HEALTH.— Care of the Eyes; What is Fever; 

Mothers, Studv Hygiene; Death from Poison Oak, 39. 
DOMESTIC "ECONOMY. — Economizing Sie;is; 

China Sov; Burning Kitchen Refuse, 39- 
QUERIES AND REPLIES.-Wart on a Horse's 

Eye-Lid; Ferns f<>r Name; Plows Wanted; Points on 

Swine; Tide Culture, 40. 
HORTICULTURE —The Almond Trees, 42. 
THE API.\KY — Bees in Napa County, 42. 
THE STABLE.— Success in Horse breeding, 42. 
GENERAL NEWS ITEMS on page 44 and other 

pages. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Holly & Magoon's Cultivator, Holly J: Magoon, Proprie 
tors, Stony Point, Sonoma Co, Cal.; Agricultural Im" 
plements, David N. Hawlcy, S. F. ; University of Cal. ' 
Lloyd's Now Mips, G. W, Lang.in, S. F. ; Poland China 
Pigs, A. J. Twogood, Riverside, Cal. ; Blooded Merino 
Shoe;!, S. Brown, Bingham, itin, Cal. ; Situation Wanted; 
Plymouth Rock Spring Chicks, J. L. Skinner, Piacer- 
ville, Cal.; Mi.\ed Cards, M. Dowd k, Co., Bristol, Conn.; 
Seedling Peaches, H. M. Engle la Son, Marietta, Pa. 



The Week. 

Ascendat triticum vidgare ad asira ! The 
week is indeed about as good as it could be for 
the wiieat grower. Since we wrote a week ago 
three round silvery dimes have perched upon 
every cental of wheat in the State, and widened 
the margin of profit just by these pleasant 
little fractions of a dollar. This advance puts 
wheat fully §1 per cental higher than it was a 
year ago, and tlie elevation comes just at the 
right time. Very little wheat has been sold, 
aaid the producers will have the benefit of the 
new demand. Last year it was not so. After the 
farmers had transferred most of their grain at 
prices ranging about §1.40 per cental, there 
came a rush to $i, and met the wheat upon the 
ocean. Now the advance comes while yet 
threshers are in the field, and cargoes must be 
filled upon the new basis. This is a very grati- 
fying fact to all; indeed it does seem as though 
every possible atonement was being made to 
our fanners for the indications of hardship 
which the earlier parts of the season depressed 
them with. 

It is impossible to tell how much of upward 
ability still remains in the future of the wheat 
market, but there is no reason to mistrust the 
future which has all along promised so well. But 
while the outlook is good the late advance 
will meet some holders' views, and thus some 
trade will be begun. It is better generally that 
there should be some movement of the crop 
when the market is brisk for it. Letting a 
portion go forward sometimes prepares the way 
tor the balance and keeps trade healthier and 
more vigorous. 



The Fresno Desert Makers. 

A communication in our Correspondence col- 
umns brings up again a topic to whieh we al- 
luded briefly last week, namely, the efforts to 
apply the desert land law to parts of Fresno 
county. We cannot assure our readers that 
there is no danger from those who are trying to 
Sahara-ize Fresno, and yet we are quite assured 
that with fair endeavor on the part of the citi- 
zens' organization, which has already been ef- 
fected, any wrong effort may be made fruitless. 
There is a decided disposition in the Land Oflice 
at Washington that the law shall not be abused 
if possible to prevent it, and all orders so far 
issued to local offices have had a tenor of firm 
adherence to the evident spirit as well as the 
wording of the law. In our San Francisco office 
there is a similar feeling in favor of careful and 
strict dealings under the law, both as regards 
intention of locator and exact condition of the 
lands claimed. This office is not, however, em- 
ployed in much of this business. Whether 
desert makers do not like the material which 
can be had at this office, or abstain for other 
reasons, W'e do not know. The fact is that but 
few issues have been yet raised here, and there- 
fore exact decisions which are very important, 
have not yet been determined. We have been 
on the lookout for points of tins kind ever 
since our former articles were written, but have 
not yet secured readings of the vexed parts of 
the law, for the reasons we have named. Wliat 
has been done in the other land offices of tlie 
State and what policies prevail among registers 
and receivers we do not know. We should like 
to be informed of any decisions which they have 
made or obtained from the Department at 
Washington. 

We can answer one point which our querist 
makes, very definitely, and satisfactorily we 
think. It is with reference to the hona file 
work of any claimant of desert land as to ac- 
tually bringing on the water as the law requires. 
It will not do, as some tell Mr. Kauntze "' To 
bring water to the land in a barrel. " This mat- 
ter of actual work and honest intent is fully 
provided for by some instructions of which we 
have just received a copy from the land office in 
this city: 

Register and Receiver, San Francisco, Cat, Gents:— I 
have received your letter of the 16th inst., in wliich you 
desire instructions as to whether in cases of applications 
under the act to provide for the sale of desert lands, 
approved JIarch 31st, 1877. you have the right, in order 
to satisfy j'ourself of the good faith of applicants, to 
require proof that the land is capable of being irrigated 
and that the applicant has made an appropriation of water 
that can he used for the purpose. In reply, you are 
advised that it is your right and duty to require full 
proof from applicants, showing in every particular that 
they are in good faith endeavoring to aeqtiire title in 
accordance with the provisions of said act. — J. A. 
Williamson, Commissioner, Washington, June 25th, 1S77. 

As to what constitutes "some agricultural 
crop," we do not know that there is an official 
decision as yet. In our own mind it seems clear 
that the law, when it says "desert," should be 
held to mean desert; desert where the rainfall 
is not merely uncertain but almost wholly 
wanting; land which will not merely deny a 
crop once in a few years, but which will not and 
cannot ever produce one without the artificial 
application of water. Whether the crop is 
profitable or not, it seems to us, has nothing 
whatever to do with the question. That is a 
question of industrial practice and success, not 
of climatic and meteorological conditions. As 
our correspondent intimates, man's poor prac- 
tice has nothing to do with the determination 
of the bare fact of plant growth as indicated in 
the Desert Land law. It never was hard until 
now to tell what is meant by the term desert. 
Dr. Wozencraft has a magnificent scheme under 
consideration for the reclamation of the Colo- 
rado desert. That is one fact. There are 
farms in New England which have become so 
worn out by continued cropping without fertili- 
zation, in short by poor agricultural practice, 
that they can be bought for the cost of the 
stone walls which surround them. That is 
another fact. Have these two statements such 
relation to each other that Dr. Wozencraft 
would be justified in locating a branch of his 
enterprise in New England? By no means. 
Neither, so far as we can see, does the term 
"desert" in the new law warrant the claim to 
lands which fail of profit through occasional 
drouth or because of ineffective cultivation. 

Another point is this: Our coi respondent 
says that the claimants declare that those who 
oppose the location under the law must prove 
not only that grain grows without irrigation 
but that it is a profitable crop. This statement 
is altogether incorrect. The burden of proof 
lies with the one who claims the land, and the 
law requires that this proof should be unequivo- 
cal. The instructions of the Commissioner 
strengthen the law in this regard. In fact, 
there is such general distrust of the law that 
the Department seems determined to get all the 
good there is in it clearly developed, and to 
make the law itself its own remedy so far as 
possible. This is fortunate for those who feel 
constrained to take steps to see that their 
neighborhood is not wronged by it. We be- 
lieve that if due effort is made to file contrary 
truthful evidence when the witnesses to the 
desert character of the land are brought in, it 
will be absolutely impossible to secure title to 
the land. The language of the law on this 
point is clear and the determination of the land 
officsri ii firm. Therefore if « claimant'i -wit- 



nesses are truly disputed on the ground of the 
quality of the land or the boncljide character of 
his operations, we think all wrong schemes will 
be thwarted. As we have said before, we be- 
lieve the Department is alert on this matter. 
How the remedy which we have mentioned, or 
other remedies, can be best applied it is for a 
prefessional lawyer to advise. 

We write upon this subject as one of general 
application. The local issues in Fresno we 
know nothing of except as our correspondent 
describes them, but we shall look for further 
information, as the contest develops it, with 
much interest. 



Death to Grasshoppers. 

Poor little hungry grasshoppers; we little 
thought as w^ used to come crying to our 
mother's knees to drink the dreadful castorade, 
that the rock upon which we were broken 
would at length grind you to powder. And yet 
thus it is. One of the foremost fruit growers of 
Los Angeles county caught the secret of your 
suicidal appetite while you lingered in his neigh- 
bor's fruit trees, and now your destruction 
seems simple. 

Mr. J. De Earth Shorb writes to the Los 
Angeles Herald an account of his observations 
of the effect of the leaves of the castor bean 
plant upon the grasshopper. He promises to 
follow the subject farther, with careful experi- 
ments and the subject will be worth watching: 
He writes: "My attention was called by Mr. 
Townsend, (one of the recent settlers on the San 
Pasqual tract), to the effects of placing a few 
leaves of the castor oil plant under some trees 
that were being destroyed by the grasshoppers. 
So remarkable was the result, tliat I requested 
him to count the number killed under one tree, 
and this count showed 498 dead ones, and about 
•20 mori! in a dying condition. Only a very 
small portion of the leaves was eaten; and, 
judging from the effects of the small portion 
consumed, I believe there was sufficient mate- 
rial left to have killed ten times as many. The 
poison works very rapidly. As soon as 
the grasshopper eats the leaf he becomes 
stupefied, and when he attempts to fly, falls on 
hia head or back and remains prostrate until he 
dies. I propose to experiment further with the 
leaf of the castor bean, and obtain reliable data 
as to its destructive powers and cost of distribut- 
ing the leaf over an area, say of .50 acres, and 
publish the results of my investigations from 
time to tint". From the results already ob- 
tained, 1 Vielieve a very small load of leaves will 
destroy all the grasshoppers on a 80-acre tract. 
If such is the case, then the coat, on a large 
scale, would be trifling; and 1 believe applica- 
tions of leaves would soon exterminate this 
pest from any one section. In the Northwest, 
where the castor bean flourishes well they could 
plant hedges or rows of the plant, which would 
serve either as a barrier against the further 
march of the grasshopper, or to furnish leaves 
for general distribution, as already suggested. 
Although I may be over sanguine, I believe we 
have in the castor bean the means of extermi- 
nating this grasshopper plague in a very 
limited time, and thus restoring the product- 
iveness of a very large area of our common 
country, and relieving the distresses of many 
thousands of our fellow beings." 



Railroads Must Comply with the Law. — 
We read a decision by Judge McKee to the ef- 
fect that the railroads must comply with the 
request of the railway commission, created 
two years ago, and furnish them with correct 
reports of their business, so that the reports may 
be laid before the Legislature and serve as a 
basis for whatever legislation the facts may 
seem to warrant. This is one more link in the 
chain which will bring the railways to a realiza- 
tion that they are creatures of the State and 
cannot rise higher than their Creator. Judge 
McKee decides wisely that because the State 
wants this information there is no reason to in- 
fer it means to use it unconstitutionally. The 
people are decided that they will know more 
about the management of railroads and how it is 
that peerless fortunes can be built up by indi- 
viduals and yet the railroads be pronounced 
unprofitable. 

Voraciousness of Squirrels. — We have had 
instances before of the large quantity of grain a 
single squirrel can carry in his chops; but we do 
not remember an amount greater than that found 
by a workman on the ranch of Mr. Geo. D. Morse 
in Oakland, Alameda county. We receive from 
Mr. Morse 678 kernels of barley which were 
found in the mouth of a single squirrel, and his 
man says he has seen them carrying larger 
quantities. Mr. Morse keeps this man em- 
ployed exclusively in squirrel killing, and he 
kills from two to three dozen a day. This 
makes the tax for squirrel killing rather expen- 
sive. Mr. Morse will give liberally toward any 
enterprise which will develop uses for the 
squirrel skin and carcass, and thus, by making 
the animal desirable, lead to its extermination. 



Signal service reports from Arizona indicate 
unusually hot weather on the Colorado desert. 
Several deaths are reported, caused by the in- 
tense heat. 



O.N- File.— "Poultry Items," M. K., Jr.; 
"Propagation," C. H. S.; Potter Valley, E. S. 
B.; "PublicatioM of N. G.," J. W. A. W. 



Wart on a Horse's Eye-Lid. 

Editors Press :— I have a young horse that has a wart 
on his eye-lid. 1 have tried ev«ry simple remedy that I 
know of, but with no effect. Will you tell nte what will 
remove the wart without injuring the eye? It is a wart 
that bleeds when it is rubbed.— Oliver P. PouLSox, Mid- 
dletown. Lake coounty. 

The agents used with good results in the re- 
moval of Marts are the knife and causti; sub- 
stances. In many cases the knife is altogether 
the better agent, but in a case like that of our 
querist, recourse must be had to burning the 
wart with a caustic substance, and this sub- 
stance must be both carefully applied and not 
too severe in its action, because the eye is a 
very tender and sensitive organ. The harsh 
and quick caustics which are so frequently used 
in ^terinary practice could only be employed 
in such tender spots by a skilled veterinary. 
We can give our querist a milder caustic, which, 
if he has patience to persevere with its use, we 
fully believe will accomplish the result he de- 
sires, unless the warts should have made too 
great progress. Recently, on a visit to Robert 
Ashbumer, of Baden farm, San Mateo county, 
we found him engaged in treating a wart on the 
eye-lid of one of his Short Horn bulls. The wart 
was at that time yielding to the treatment, and 
since that time Mr. Ashbumer has informed us 
that it came off entirely, and gives no sign of 
reappearance. The following is Mr. Ashburner's 
method of treatment: He takes a one oz. 
bottle, fills it three-fourths full of carbolic acid, 
(crystal) and then holds the bottle in a dipper 
of hot water until the substance in the bottle 
melts into liquid. He then nearly fills the 
bottle with glycerine, and this keeps the car- 
bolic acid from solidifying again. The prescrip- 
tion is then three parts of carbolic and one part 
of glycerine; in cold weather, however, it will 
be necessary to increase the amount of glycerine 
a little. He makes a little swab, by tying a 
small piece of sponge on the end of a lit- 
tle stick, and dipping this in the bottle, 
wets the surface of the wart once a day very 
carefully, so as not to get the liquid into the 
eye. The action of this remedy is quite slow, 
and all the better for that, for there is less dan- 
ger of hurting the eye. Mr. Ashburner some- 
times works two months at the cure of an 
obstinate wart, but it finally yields, and is 
effectually cured. We shall be pleased to hear 
what success our querist meets with this rem- 
edy, which another reader has found so satisfac- 
tory in its oi)eration. 

Ferns for Name. 
Editors Press:— I send by mail three ferns. Please give 
names. No. 1 is in color and general appearance at a dis- 
tance much like Pellcea viu cro7} a ta , bnt the leaflets are 
all round the stem and not flat like Peltcea mveranata. 
Is this different or dwarfed by altitude ! It is from Emi- 
grant Gap. No. 2. I send two samples from Emigrant 
Gap. No. 3, I send one sample from Alta.— J. Rooms, 
.\uburn, Cal. 

Dr. A. Kellogg, from a casual examination, 
savs No. 1 is different from Pellcea mucronata. 
It'looks like P. Ctevelandii {?). No. 2 is Cheit- 
anilies Fenderi, possibly C. gracilis. No. 3 is 
Pellaa densa. 

Plows Wanted. 
Editors Press:— I have been looking through your 
imper for a cut of some of the best plows. Could you in- 
form me how I may get them?— J. N. Wbiib, Madison, 
Yolo county, Cal. 

This is good. Already the sounds of a com- 
ing season of active cultiv^ation and seedtime 
greet the ear. The season to satisfy a demand 
for plows is beginning, and those who have 
plows to sell should put their implements into 
well displayed advertisements to catch the 
early active trade. We have no doubt our sell- 
ing and manufacturing readers will favor Mr. 
White with their illustrated circulars. Thus 
he may see what the market affords. 
Points on Swrine. 

F^DiTORS Press:— I should feel much obliged if any of 
your readers would give me some Information on the fol- 
lowing points ; What number of hogs of the improved 
Berkshire can be yearly bred and fattened, say up to 2.^ 
|>ounds, on 160 acres of fairly good land, the requisite 
number of breeding sows being always kept up? I sup- 
pose the case of a ranch where no roast or tule swamp is 
available. 2. When the store bogs are kept on alfalfa, 
what feed is considered the most nourishiog and econom- 
ical to supplement it?— J. E. 

Will some of our swine-growing readers give 
their experience on these points? 
Tule Culttire. 

Editors Press:- I have 100 acres of tule land on one of 
the islands of the San Joaquin river It is securely 
leveed, but nothing has been done to it except to pasture 
the tule growth. How shall I proceed to bring it into 
cultivation ?— Re.^der. 

Tule culture is a problem which we have not 
mastered, although we have general knowledge 
of some of the processes. Will some reader 
who can speak from practice and experiment 
do us the favor to write a letter on this impor- 
tant subject ? 



Reclamatiok OF Land in China. — There is 
no country in the world where a little money 
appropriated in reclaiming valuable land will do 
so much as in China. Mr. Unthank thinks 
th!it an outlay of $1,000,000, in draining the 
lake caused by the Grand canal at Yellow river, 
would reclaim rice lands to the value of $50, - 
000,000. The Chinese do not dredge their 
canal, but build the banks higher as the sedi- 
ment in the bottom raises the water, and the 
consequence is the surface of the water is in 
many places 15 or 20 feet above the land on 
either side. The canal is 800 miles long, and 
from 75 to 100 feet wide. The depth, accord- 
ing to Mr. Unthank's measurements, varies 
from 7 to 20 feet 



July 21, 1877.] 



Growing Crops and the Revenue. 

The literature of the question of assessing 
and taxing growing crops is becoming quite ex- 
tensive. We have able articles on the subject 
in several of our exclianges. We have also an 
official communication on the subject by the 
State Board of Equalization in answer to an in- 
quiry made by the Assessor of Butte county. 
Even this official statement and argument does 
not stand a day but is overhauled and over- 
turned with apparent ease. To give in full all 
the details of the issue and the controversy 
would be to impose upon our readers something 
which they would have neither time nor pa- 
tience to read in this busy season of the year. 
Rather let us summarize the different points 
made, so that all may quickly get at the present 
standing of the issue. 

Tlie status of the assessment question is dif- 
ferent in different counties. lu three or four 
the Assessors decided upon their own responsi- 
bility not to assess the growing crops separate 
from the land. In one county at least we read 
the Assessor made his tour at a time when crops 
looked their very worst, and therefore could 
find no prospective value to assess. In some 
other counties the County Board of Equaliza- 
tion, taking Mr. Haymond's advice, have 
" equalized" the assessment down to a nominal 
amount. In others, as for instance, San Joa- 
quin, the assessment has been regularly made, 
and in these counties we presume, if nothing 
interferes, the tax will be paid under protest. 
So much for the topographical features of tlie 
matter. 

The official communication from the State 
Board of Equalization, of which Board Gov- 
ernor Irwin, Controller Brown and Attorney- 
General Hamilton are the members, is an elab- 
orate argument to prove that growing crops are 
looked upon as proj^erty in the eyes of the law 
and the decisions of the Courts, and more than 
this, that, as the law now stands, they are 
classed as personal jjroperty and must thus be 
assessed. From this conclusion they reply to 
the County Assessor of Butte county, that the 
County Board has no more right to remove this 
assessment of growing crops than they have to 
remove the assessment of any other kind of 
personal property. The State Board also take 
occasion to show that they have done nothing 
unprecedented in ordering the Assessors to list 
the growing crops apart from the realty, for 
this was done before. In 1872-4, and earlier 
still, by inference, in 18G8-70, because a law 
was passed in 1870 changing the existing cus- 
tom of assessment and putting the growing 
crops in with the realty. These points, to- 
gether with the statement that the Board is in no 
way responsible for the law, but so long as it 
exists is charged with its execution, comprise 
the points made by the State Board of Equali- 
zation in their long communication. 

It will be seen that the State Board throws 
aside entirely the real and vital issues in the 
discussion of this question. They say it is not 
for them to discuss the right or wrong of the 
law, either as regards tlie assessment or the tax, 
and they confine themselves to a strict pro 
forma decision. We suppose the Board has a 
right to do this if it wishes to, but those who 
are looking for some farther elucidation of the 
points involved will derive but little satisfac- 
tion from the stalking in of the legal and for- 
mal skeleton which the Board have put to- 
gether. 

As this communication of the State Board 
was sent forth in answer to a question concern- 
ing the legality of action in accordance with 
the suggestion of Hon. Creed Haymond, of 
Sacramento, this gentleman has taken occasion 
to reply. He says; "I understand the objec- 
tion of farmers to be to a separate assessment of 
growing crops. They claim that when tlie land 
is assessed at its full cash value on the day of 
assessment, that such assessment docs neces- 
sarily include the growing crops, and that a 
further and separate assessment of growing 
crops is double taxation, and therefore un- 
authorized by law. You will perceive at once 
that the elaborate argument of the State Board 
of Equalization does not touch the question at 
issue. That the Board only attempts to prove 
what no one denies, that all property must he 
taxed. 

"In Butte county the issue is squarely and 
fairly presented. B, a farmer, comes before 
the Board of Equalization and jiresents his affi- 
davit, showing that an assessment as follows 
has been made against him: One hundred and 
sixty acres of land, valued at $8,000; improve- 
ments thereon, .?5,000; growing crops thereon, 
$4,000; total, $17,000; and further that |8,000 
was the full cash value of the land as it stood, 
including the crop on the first Monday in 
March, 1877. That §5,000 was the full cash 
value of the improvements, or in other words, 
that at that date the actual cash value of the 
farm as it stood was $13,000, and that by a 
separace assessment of growing crops the whole 
premises had for the purposes of taxation been 
valued at .$17,000. I understand that all affi- 
davits presented to the Butte county Board of 
Eijualizatiou show a state of facts correspond- 
ing to the above illustration. Then the ques- 
tion is fairly presented. Can the County Board 
reduce the valuation placed upon the property to 
its actual cash value, or must the farmer pay 
taxes not only upon the actual cash value but 
upon $4,000 besides? I maintain that under 
the provisions of sections 3,673-4-5, Politi- 



cal Code, the Board not only may, but is bound 
to reduce the valuation to the actual cash value 
of the property. There is not a word in the 
letter of the State Board that militates against 
this position. True the Board do say that it 
would be an abuse of power for the County 
Boards to reduce the assessments, yet it is very 
evidejit that the State Board does not even 
approach the question at issue. 

"In the counties of Sacramento, Yolo and 
Solano, whenever the Assessor assessed the 
laud and improvements at their full cash value 
as they stood, they concluded, and very prop- 
erly coucluded, that they had assessed all the 
property, but if the State Board had decided 
the question at issue and there had been a sep- 
arate assessment of the growing crops, it must 
follow that the assessment is not complete, and 
that it is the duty of the State Board to order 
the assessment to be completed or to proceed 
against the Assessors to collect the tax lost by 
their non-action. It cannot, however, be possi- 
ble that the State Board intend to maintain that 
in Sacramento an assessment made for the 
actual value of the premises on the first Mon- 
day in March, 1877, is a good assessment, and 
that in Butte the Assessor may add to the 
actual value another sum, and yet the assess- 
ment be good and the taxpayers without 
remedy. " 

Extension of the Signal Service. — The 
Eastern people are calling for the extension of 
the signal service. And no wonder, for this is 



A New Com-Sheller. 

Any one who has stood on a chilly morning 
crushing two ears of corn together to get off 
something to satisfy the hungry brood of fowls 
which are jostling each other about his feet, 
knows that a corn-sheller is a blessing. We 
well remember that we thought so highly of a 
corn-sheller that we used to shoulder a sack of 
corn and pack it over to the neighbors for the 
purpose of enjoying the benefits of the machine. 
That was one of those heavy machines that 
could not fall over without breaking a calf's 
neck or its own fly-wheel, and which was so 
top-heavy that the least push would put it iu 
shape to go to the niachiue shop for repairs. 
Tliey say that now great improvements have been 
made over the old machine which we remember. 
We have on this page an engraving which fully 
describes one of the latest corn-shelling devices. 
It certainly has a handy air about it, and if it 
can do the work which the inventor promises, 
it will be of wide usefulness. We suppose the 
inventor relies upon putting the force just at the 
right point, and consequently can use a small, light 
device, instead of the ohl ponderous one. This 
idea will seem practical enough to any one who 
knows that it is not very difficult to make the 
corn fly from the cob if he knows just how to 
twist it, and just where to apply the pressure. 

The following is tlie description of the appa- 




THB "LITTLE SPEEDY" CORN-SHELLER. 



what a local paper says was done in a Pennsyl- 
vania town: "A man was blown two miles; a 
cow was carried 200 yards and dashed to death; 
the roof of a barn wound like a cord around a 
tree a quarter of a mile distant; osage hedges 
torn up; a tree two feet in diameter cut off as 
though it had been sawed; a heavy axle torn 
from a wagon and shot like an arrow through 
an adjoining house, and a number of other 
freaks were performed almost as startling." 
The paper from which we quote draws from 
these frightful instances the conclusion that the 
signal service of the country should be so ex- 
tended that we would be able to announce the 
hurricane hours beforehand, so that people 
could anchor things down. It says: Signal 
stations should be increased, more scientific 
men should be employed, and by Government 
expense, the conclusions reached by these 
savants be daily telegraphed to the press. In 
nothing is the steady adv.ance of this age better 
exemplified than in this matter of deciding 
from the atmospheric conditions surrounding a 
district what is going on in other districts, and 
what may be expected in the near future. It 
partakes of the marvelous, if not of the infinite, 
when man has reached conclusions in science 
which enable him to look out upon a clear sky 
and say with certainty: "A hurricane is on the 
march; it is yet a thousand miles away, but it 
will be here to-morrow at noon, accompanied 
with rain and hail and measureless destruc- 
tion." Such a triumph of science should be held 
as divine, as something given in mercy to man- 
kind, and the governments of the earth should 
build to it temples on every mountain top and 
on every ocean's shore. 



ratus and the engraving: The machine is called 
the "Little Speedy," and was patented by 
Curtis Goddard, of Alliance, Stark Co. , Ohio. It 
is strongly constructed of metal, is not liable to 
get out of order, and is easily attached to the 
grain receptacle, be it box, barrel, or tub, with 
screws, or by inserting a wedge, as shown in the 
perspective view. Fig. 1. The working parts 
of the machine are represented in plan Figs. 2 
and 3, and in Sec. Fig. 4. The machine consists 
mainly of two parts. The upper portion {B) is 
rotated horizontally by the bevel gearing and 
crank shown, upon the lower part, which is 
stationary. Each part has a casing, to the inside 
of which are hinged four swinging arms, which 
are held to the cob by springs, and in adjusting 
theinselvevs to the taper and different size of 
cobs, are made to move simultaneously by means 
of pivoted ties from one to another of said arms, 
as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Fig. 2 shows the 
device in the stationary part of the macliino, 
consisting of springs, ties and the vibrating 
arms bearing the edged wheels, C C, (an eleva- 
tion of one of the said arms and wheels is shown 
in tlie lower part of Fig. 4) that roll lengthwise 
of the cob and hold it from turning while the 
grain is being stripped from it by the shelling 
spurs on the vibrating arms in the revolving 
part(/^),and each of said arms has on the part that 
comes against the cob a concave, inclined edge, 
that being revolved around the cob and pressed 
to it by the springs, acts like a screw in draw- 
ing the car down, thus making it self-feeding. 
In operating, turn the crank with the right 
hand; with the left hand insert the ear above 
and hohl from turning until the cob enters the 
holding device, when th*", left hand is free to 
feed in the cars as fast as may be. In using 



this sheller the power is not wasted in rolling 
the ear around, crushing the corn into the cOb 
and the cob to pieces, as in the rasping ma- 
chines, nor in turning extra gearing to hold 
and draw down the cob, but works regularly 
from one ear to another, neither breaking the 
cob or the corn, and as the shellers work on the 
small circle of the cob, adapting themselves to 
large or small ears, detaching the corn as it 
comes to them, it turns \'ery easy. A man or 
boy with it can shell from 10 to 12 bushels of 
ears per hour, and it is so simple that a child 
can use it. It is readily detached and put out 
of the way, not encumbering room all the year 
wanted for other purposes. It weighs only 
eight pounds, and is in good shape to handle by 
agents or others, can be put up and ready to use 
in a moment, then it tells its own story, shell- 
ing corn that is (ji-fen or dnj, ears that are long, 
short, or crooked, speedily and clean. It is the 
decided testimony of all who have operated with 
it most that it grows iu favor by use. For fur- 
ther particulars, address the patentee, as above. 



Questions for California Botanists. 

Dr. Asa Gray writes to the American Journal 
of Science and Arts a brief communication to 
describe a peculiar structure which Megarrluza 
Calif ornica exhibits in germination, and to call 
for observations upon other species, at the time 
of germination, in the hope of thereby extend- 
ing our present imperfect knowledge of this 
genus of big-rooted Cucurbitacea: of our Pacific 
coast. For the extraordinary peculiarity in 
question, being one which, in other cases, is 
known to exhibit itself in certain species of a 
genus (as in Anemone and Delphinium), and not 
in others, so it may in the present genus give 
aid in distinguishing the five species which have 
been characterized upon more or less incomplete 
or scanty materials. 

After reviewing the points in the known his- 
tory of the plant, as recorded by other observ- 
ers, Dr. Gray writes as follows: The M. Cali- 
fornica had been raised in the botanic garden of 
Harvard University many years ago, but I had 
not seen the germination; and we were never 
able to bring the plant into blossom, as it in- 
variably died down to the ground soon after 
making a moderate growth. On germinating 
some fresh seeds early this spring, I was some- 
what surprised to find that they came up in the 
manner of beans. Instead of remaining hypo- 
gaaous, as from the great thickness of the coty- 
ledons would have been expected, the body of 
the seed in its shell was raised well out of the 
soil upon what seemed to be a well developed 
radicle, like that of Echinochi/.ftis. If the coty- 
ledons had expanded, though remaining fleshy, 
in the manner of Phafieoli<.f, the difference be- 
tween this and EcliinoojMi.'i, with cotyledons 
truly foliaceous in germination, would be much 
less than hail been supposed. I waited long to 
see if this would occur; I also waited in vain for 
the expected development of the plumule from 
between the bases of the fleshy cotyledons. 
After the lapse of about a fortnight, the plum- 
ule in all three of my germinating plantlets 
came separately out of the soil of the pot. 
That is, the plumule came forth from the base 
of what appeared to be an elongated radicle (of 
two or three inches in length); and below this 
the thickening of the root, which acquires enor- 
mous dimensions in old plants, had already 
commenced. A large amount of the nourishing 
matter stored in the cotyledons had been car- 
ried down to the root and used in its growth as 
well as that of the plumule. The latter came 
from a cleft at the very base of the seeming rad- 
icle, which otherwise appeared to be solid. But 
on cutting it across toward the base this was 
found to be tubular; and later, when more spent 
and beginning to wither, this stalk was separ- 
able from above downward into two parts. ■ 

This, therefore, is a case in which long pet- 
ioles to the cotyledons (of which there is no ap- 
pearance in the seed), connate into one body, 
are developed and greatly lengtliened in place 
of the radicle, which is thus simulated. It is 
the same as in Delphinium niidicaiile of Califor- 
nia and some other species; only in that genus 
the cotyledons expand iind become foliaceous. 

Botanists on the Pacific coast are earnestly 
requested to examine the germination of all the 
species of Merjarrhiza, and to compare with 
them the descriptions which are here given. 
At least three species should be met with near 
San Francisco, and iu neighboring parts of Cal- 
ifornia. According to the characters assigned 
by Mr. Watson in the "Botany of California," 
M. Californica, should be known by its obovoid 
seeds, of less than an inch iu length, with a 
small hilum at the narrow base; M. Marah, by 
its numerous seeds horizontally imposed in a 
large fruit (of four inches in length), each seed 
roundish and deiuusscd, flattened an inch in 
diameter and about half as thick, with a prom- 
inent lateral hilum. J/, miiricnln, by a nearly 
naked fruit only an inch in diameter, contain- 
ing only two globose seeds of half an inch in 
diameter. M. Urerjana, which is known to oc- 
cur from the Columbia river to the north of 
California, appears to have seeds resembling 
those of M. Marah, but rather smaller; but they 
are not well known. The remaining one, M. 
Oiiadalupeniiis, of Guadalupe island, off Lower 
California, is much out of ordinary reach, uuless 
it should be found in the southern part of the 
State. Mature fruits and seeds of all ■^ e spe- 
cies are much desired. 



i2 



[July 21, 1877. 



Continued from Page 35 



the latter volume there are comparatively few 
original entries, the greater part being the ped- 
igrees of ancestors, taken from the American or 
Knglish herd-books — most from the latter 
work. 

This being the case, the cost of recording in 
the first few volumes was rather expensive to 
those who made use of the work. The charge 
for each pedigree was f 1 ; ancestors, not already 
in the book, 50 cents each. 

In the fourth volume, if we remember rightly, 
the charge for ancestors was reduced to twenty- 
five cents each, and for the fifth volume it was 
announced that only ancestors then living would 
be charged for, and with the circular giving notice 
for the issuance of the sixth volume comes the 
final announcement of — pedigrees one dollar 
each, ancestors free. It will be seen that it is 
now no more expensive to record in this book 
than in the American Herd Book, (for those 
who have cattle eligible for entry therein, the 
inexorable rule being that pedigrees must trace 
in all their lines to importe<l dams. 

We have already said that the first and second 
volumes contained original entries only of the 
pedigrees of animals bred or owned in Kentucky. 
In the tliird volume, however, we find herds 
owned in several other States represented in the 
work, our own State not being behind hand in 
the matter, for there are several entries from 
the Baden farm herd, whose owner, we presume, 
is ever on the alert on all matters appertaining to 
Short Horns and their pedigrees. In the fourth 
volume we find entries from the herds of Messrs. 
J. D. Carr, S. B. Emerson, Chas. Clark and the 
estate of Thos. S. Page, and we hope hereafter to 
see the work patronized by others of our State 
who have Short Horns eligible for entry accord- 
ing to the rules governing the work, hoping that 
it will prove to all other subscribers interest- 
ing and instructive in pedigree matters, as it 
has ever been to a 

California Breeder. 



Hos^jicdLfdf^E. 



The Almond Trees. 

Editor.s Press: — I do not often throw my 
views and experience before the public and give 
them what I know and don't know about farm- 
ing; but there are writers in your paper fre- 
quently that make it hard for a farmer to keep 
quiet and let such remarks pass unquestioned. 
The object of my letter on this occasion is to an- 
swer Mr. Reed's remarks about the almond. 

Mr. Reed says he agrees with somebody else 
that almonds need no irrigation when all is dry 
in the summer, and I must certainly add that 
they nerer need any, if this is true, for all must 
know that they do not need it in the wet of 
winter, for there is always enough falls during 
the winter months to need no irrigation. 

Almonds may need salt, but I do not think 
80. The almonds in and around Santa Cruz 
near the sea and for two miles back do no good, 
and I attribute it chiefiy to the salt air. Five, 
six or more miles in the hills they do well, and 
at my place, which has an elevation of 1,200 feet 
above the sea, and is 10 miles distant from it, 
they simply do excellently. Three-year-old 
trees bear, and they have never dropped their 
nuts for the past 12 years; even this year tlie 
nuts are on them. I say this: that if you will 
keep the ground thoroughly pulverized all 
through summer that you need not fear the in- 
terior for almonds, and for my part I would 
much prefer it. Stirring the ground frequently 
is the next thing to irrigation, because the in- 
terior of the ground we know has always per- 
petual moisture and it will rise to the surface 
if the ground is loose so as not to interfere or 
interpose obstacles to its rising. I would not 
let a person or company irrigate any trees or 
put salt on them in summer or in winter. The 
limbs grow uniformly without even hinting at 
the direction of the sea. (i. M. Jakvis. 

Santa Cruz, July 12th, 1877. 

We hope no rea«lers of the Presss will let 
pass any statements which are contradicted by 
his experience and observation. There must l)e 
margin allowed to correspondents for the ex- 
pression of opinions and judgments formed un- 
der their own conditions, and thus the material 
will be contributed for the deduction of general 
truths, if all facts, apparently contradictory, 
are brought forward. Let no one hesitate to 
express a judgment or experience which he be- 
lieves to be true and let no one hesitate to ex- 
press contrary views with similar belief con- 
cerning them. We want all the facts and all 
the experiences. From these each can learn 
wi.idom. 

Although our correspondent may be so situ- 
ated that his rainfall is always sufiicient to 
thoroughly saturate the ground in winter, 
other readers are not so fortunate, and to them 
is the need of l)ringing on the water artificially 
at the time when the tree is best fitted to re- 
ceive the gift which Nature sometimes denies. 
Mr. .larvis'a testimony of the success of his 
trees at an elevation will be good news to some 
of- our readers who have grown almonds in val- 
leys with uncertain success and now are trying 
the higher lands. — Ei>.s. Pkkss. 



The Cherimover.— We are under obliga- 
tions to several readers who point out an error 
into which we fell in joining the names " cheri" 
moyer"and "cashew" in an item descriptive 
of the latter tree in our paper of .June 23d. The 
trees are entirely diff'erent, and the names 
should not have been associated. The Santa 
Barbara Advertiser says that a cherimoyer is 
now fruiting on the grounds of Mr. Packard, 
and answers to the following description from 
Rhind"s History of the Vegetable Kingdom : 
The cherimoyer (Anona Cheremolki) is a native 
of the continent of America ; and in Peru it is 
accounted one of the best fruits they have. 
Humboldt spoke of it with high praise. The 
tree which produces this fruit has a trunk about 
ten feet high ; the leaves are oval, and |)ointed 
at botli ends ; the flowers are solitary, very fra- 
grant, and of a greenish color ; the fruit of con- 
siderable size, somewhat heart shaped, rough 
on the outside, and grayish brown, is even 
nearly black, wlien ripe. The flesh, in which 
tlie seeds are contained, is soft, sweet and pleas- 
ant. It has been introduce<l into Kurope for 
about a century. In the south of Spain it is 
occasionally found in gardens, where it bears fruit 
as an orchard tree. 



TJ|e Ap^flY- 



Bees in Napa County. 

Editors Press; — I give you an idea of the 
situation here, hoping to learn througli the 
Pr.ESS how bee folks are doing throughout the 
State generally. The idea is, that bees are 
doing very well to get along without being fed. 
When the season commenced the prospect 
looked favorable, |brood increased fast, and 
honey of good (juality was coming in, at the 
time of poison oak bloom, lively. I had just 
commenced to use the extractor on the center 
brood-combs to give the queen room, and put 
on surplus boxes. The bees had got fairly at 
work in them, (I had kept down swarming,) 
and had comb built and honey nearly ready 
to seal up, when reports came through the 
IUrai, that in the lower counties bees were 
starving, and on examination I found that the 
surplus lioney had disappeared from the boxes 
and got in tlie brood department. At that 
time I had both closed-end Quiiiby and the 
l^ngstroth hives. I kept one swarm for raising 
queen cells, and had got one nucleus started 
and laying queen, and on looking for more 
queen cells found the liees ha<l cut them all 
out (there were six or eight only a few days be- 
fore.) I had prepared liives for them and had 
to undo them again. I have had no natural 
swarms, but managed to make three swarms. 

I sent early this season for Italian queens to 
some of the most noted breeilers in the East, 
but they came so late that I shall think it a 
piece of extra luck if I can introduce them, as 
bees take to a strange queen better when honey 
comes in lively. 1 had two from (ieorgia last 
month, shall have three this week from Illinois, 
and almost in despair have sent for an imported 
queen with good stock of bees and brood. If 
I save one pure swarm in the present state of 
tilings shall be satisfied, as I can then commence 
in the spring to Italianize. All bees about here 
that I have seen are blacks, and mixed some 
with Italian. I am feeding with crushed sugar 
syrup. Stocks are very light and apt to rob; I 
have had to carry some at a distance to prevent 
robbing. 

The flowers seem to have no juices in them. 
Last year at this time the hawberry would be 
covered witli bees, but tliis year hardly a bee 
is to be seen on it. Bees do not seem to be 
bringing in pollen, and ([ueens do not seem to 
be raising brotid. I started with five good, 
full swarms, bought two, and one bee-tree had 
l(j nuclei. I now have 11; shall double up, and 
probably shall close the season with about the 
same as I started with, and have a good lot of 
comb in frames for next season. 

The hot spell was severe on the combs. A 
good many in the closed-end Quiiiby melted 
down with the weight of honey, and bees kept 
me busy in straightening and securing them in 
frames. I keep out the motli by putting them 
in a large empty box and lirimstoniiig them 
occasionally. I find the mountain liouey full as 
good as Los Angeles honey, though perhaps not 
so plenty, though 'one cannot judge in one 
season. J. 1). Esos. 

Napa, Cal. 

TtfE Sj^BLE. 

Success in Horse Breeding. 

The following remarks are extracted from a 
paper by Hark Comstock, wliich appeared in 
WaUacf'H MoiilhJij: Many breeders have plans 
to start with, but either forget them at the crit- 
ical moment, or change them so often that their 
selections point to no clearly defined method. 
This is nearly always the experience of the nov- 
ice. He is eilucated only by experience and 
gains his knowledge only by the mistakes he 
finds he has inaile at the start. Hence we find 
many places with a few choice animals and a 
large number of ordinary ones that it would be 
desirable to dispose of could a purchaser be 



found, but which are generally held because the 
owners dislike to face the necessary sacrifice. 
The first loss is generally the best in such cases, 
and the fact is coming to be generally under- 
stood with tlie present depression in the selling 
value of even choice animals. Where the lack 
of means dictates selections, it would not ap- 
pear so strange that animals wanting in sotne es- 
sential ({u&lities for breeding should be chanced 
in the hope that the deficiency may be counter- 
balanced by other superior features, and over- 
come in a proper cross; but with ample means 
at command, many young breeders make their 
purchases at random, completely squandering 
their advantages. Sooner or later most of them 
better their condition by selling out entirely, 
or weeding out their stock and re-purchasing. 
The writer has noticed, in an extended 
obser\-ation of some years past, that frequently 
the poorest beginners have afterwards become 
breeders of excellent judgment. Experience 
is an expensive but very eft'ectual teacher, pro- 
vided the recipient of the lesson is capable of 
learning. But there is now and then a clear 
business mind that takes up this subject of 
breeding and makes a study of it before vent- 
uring to put its deductions into practice. Such 
men determine what they want before they buy 
at all, and then keep their aims clearly in mind 
while selecting. They go straight by their 
chart at first, and usually accomplish some- 
thing to show for it. They do not all follow 
the same path nor do they all aim to accomplish 
precisely the same object; but having thought 
far enough to create an idea which they hope to 
imitate, it generally possesses sutticient merit 
to be of value when approximated, and hence 
they succeed as breeders. 

It is frequently asserted that there is no 
definable way of breeding that will bring suc- 
cess, and the whole system is one of chance, 
great results coming when least expected, and 
disappointment following the most logically con- 
ceived plans. There is a greater measure of 
truth in this claim than even the most ardent 
enthusiast on the subject can set aside, if the 
object sought l)e profit in the investment, and 
no other aim in the breeding problem than the 
bare question of trotting speed and bottom. 
The most successful breeders in this country 
produce too many blanks to their number of 
prizes to keep the V^alance sheet right, unless 
the blauk.s possess a value independently of the 
question of speed; and with the blanks in the 
ratio in which thej' appear on many stud farms, 
it is a (luestion whether their disposal is not a 
matter of far greater moment in a financial sense 
than tliat of tlie prizes. It is the common ex- 
perience of breeding on any considerable scale, 
that after a few years' trial it is found desirable 
to reduce the mares in number to the few for 
which a direct nick has been found, and dispose 
of the others, no matter with what care and judg- 
ment they were originally selected. This has 
been the experience at Thorndale, Stony Ford, 
and other noted establishments — must continue 
to be so. Therefore every point which tends to 
produce a foal salable for other puqxises than 
speed, that can be compassed without sacrificing 
the chances of that most valuable element, 
should receive due business consideration in se- 
lecting breeding animals, in order that the pro- 
duce may yet oring the breeder out without 
loss. 



Value of the Eucalvptu.s. — We learn from 
the Meteorolo'jkdl Maijazine that, at the Easter 
reunion at the Sorbonne, some information was 
given by Dr. de Pietra Santra, a delegate from 
the Climatological Society of Algiers, as to the 
results of an investigation made in Algeria to 
ascertain the importance and value of the 
Enrnh/jitiii iilobiiliii in relation to public health. 
It appears that reports were received from 50 
localities where the aggregate number of blue 
gum trees is nearly 1,000,000, and from these 
reports the following conclusions have been 
drawn: 1. It is incontestably proved that the 
eucalyptus possesses sanitary influence; for 2, 
wherever it has been cultivated intermittent 
fever has considerably decreased both in intens- 
ity and in frecjuency; and 3, marshy and uncul- 
tivated lands have thus been rendered healthy 
and quite transformed. Similar results have 
been obtaine<l in Corsica, where it is computed 
that in the present year there will be upwards 
of 600,000 plants of eucalyptus in full growth. 

A Smokers' Disease. — M. Manriac, Surgeon 
of the Hospital du Midi, has just added another 
to the special diseases of smokers. He has des- 
cribed, under the title of plaqtif den fiimenrH, a 
morbid change of mucous membrane of the 
tongue and mouth, a special psoriasis. This le- 
sion may degenerate into epithelioma; and ac- 
cording to M. Mauriac, cancer of the lips and 
tongue has often no other origin than this. 
Both are common among men, and vei-y rare, 
as might be supposed, among women. 

To Remove Rust. — To extract rust from 
steel, immerse the article to be cleaned in a 
solution of one-half ounce cyanide of potassium 
to a wine glass full of water until the rust and 
dirt disappear. Then clean by means of a tooth 
brush with a paste composed of cyanide of 
potassium, castile soap, whitening, and water. 
Users of this recipe must remember that cyanide 
of potassium is a most virulent poison. 



The bridge now building over the river Tay, 
in Scotland, will be, it is said, the longest 
bridge yet built over a running stream. In 
form it is not unlike the letter S. It is to be 
10,321 feet in length; and the estimated cost is 
£229,000. 



^I^x SsiENTiFic Press 







Office— 224 Sansome St , San Francisco. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats flied expeditiousl.v; 
Patent re-iDsuea UKen nut; Assiipinieiilfi made and re- 
corded in le^l form; Copies of Stents and Assignmentu 
procured; Examinations of Pat«nbi made here and at 
Waijhint^n; Examinations made of Asai^ments re- 
corded in WaahinL'ton ; Examinations ordered and re- 
ported by Tele;,T".ipn; Rejected cases taken up and Pat- 
ents obtained; Interferences Prosecuted; Opinions ren 
dered regardinK the validity of Pateiita anu Awtign 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Ihitent Solicitinj; 
Business promptly and thoroughly' conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the vanons inventions of thi- 
coast, and long practice in {latent busineas, enable ua to 
abundantly satisfy our patrons, and our success and 
businesi^ are constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced inventors are found 
among our most Btea<lfa«t friends and |)atrons, who fully 
appreciate our advantages in bringing valuable inven- 
tions to the notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulatcnl, flrst-class journals— thereby facil- 
itating their introduction, sale and |)ni)ularity. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 

San Francisco, 1877. 



OUR AGENTS. 

Oi'R Friknds can do much in aid of our paper and the 
^use of practical knowledge and science, by aaaiatlng 
Agents in their labors of canvaMiiig, by leiiding their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

J. L. Tharp — San Francisco. 

B. \V. Crowkll — Amador, Placer, Calaveras and Tuol- 
umne counties. 

G. W. McGRKW—United States. 

A. C. Knox— Plumas, Sierra, Lassen, Placer and Ne- 
vada counties. 

C. N. West— Santa Cruz, Monterey and San Benito 
counties. 

A. C. CHAHPio.t — Sonoma, Marin and Mendocino coun 
ties. 

A. U. STRo.ie — Lake, Napa and Solano counties. 

Ed. T. Plank— DakoU Territory (Black Hills.) 

J08F.PI1 DiMMicK. -Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte 
ounties. 

W. D. WniTB— San Bernardino and Los Angeles coun- 
ties. 



ScrENTinc Prbss.— As the old year is drawing to a close 
and the new la rapidly approaching, all our mining 
friends should subscribe for this scieiitiflc journal, espe- 
cially devoted to their interests. It is a California enter- 
l>rise, and compares favonibly with similar organs of 
years more ex jierience and age in the old eountrie*. — 
Col/ax Jinterpriee, 



mm 



BUSINE 53 
COLLECl 

No. 24 Post Street 

(AN rSANCnCO, CAU 



The largest and best Business College In America. It* 
teachers are competent and experient^. Its pupils are 
from the best claa* of young men in the State. It make* 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
conHncd to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough ta- 
Btruction is given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modem Languages are practically taught The 
disciiiline is excellent, and its system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladies' Dkpartjiknt.— Ladies will t>e admitted for in- 
struction in all the Uepartmentu of the College. 

TELEaRAPiiic De1'ART.mkst. -In this Department yuuDf 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and |<aper. 

For further particulars ciill at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HHIALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 



MONEY TO LOAN 

UPON CHOICE RANCH PROPERTY. 

JNO. D. HOOKER, 

302 Montgromery Street, San Francisco 

Evert new subscriber who does not re- 
ceive the pitper and every old subscriber 
not credited on the label within two 
weeks after paying for this paper, should 
write personally to the publishers without 
deley, to secure proper credit. This is 
necessarv to protect us aRainst the acta 
and mistakes of others. 



July 21, 1877.] 



Bf^iiOEI^S^ Di^ECja^y. 



Purchasers of Stock will find in this Directory the 
Names of some of the Most Reliable Breeders. 

Our Rates. — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



A. MAILLIARD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal. 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 



PAGE BBOTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.), Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



R. G. SNEATH, San Bruno, Cal., breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bulls for sale— various ages — at IJIO 
to SIOO. 

P. STANTON, Sacramento, Cal., breeder 01 choice 
Jersey Cattle. Bulls, Cows and Calves for sale. 

SHEEP AND GOATS. 

L. V. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 

B. P. WATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thorough- 
bred Spanish Merino Sheep. 

M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thorouglibred Southdown 
Sheep. Rams and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, 820 each; 
Lambs, §15 each. 

LANDBUM & RODGERS, Watsonville, CaJ. Im- 
porters and breeders of Pure Breed Angora Goats. 



Winchester Repeating Rifle 



MODEL 1873. 



POULTRY. 



J. M. KERLINGER, Ellis, San Joaquin Co. 
Selected Pure Bred Broviu Leghorns and Pekin Ducks 

and Ej^gs. Write for reduced price list. 

M. FALLON, corner Seventh and Oak streets, Oak- 
land. Bronze Turkeys. Choice Eggs for Hatching 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 



MRS. L. J. WATKINS, Santa Clara, Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, S. S. Ham- 
burga, L. Brahmas and B. B. Red Game Bantams. Also 



SW//\/E, 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co. 
Cal., Breeder of Ini]>roved BerkHhire Swine. 



PETER SAXE & SON, Importers and Brced.Ts of 
English-Kentucky Berkshire.'*, all ages. Perfect pedi- 
grees. Cor. !)th and Howard Sts. , .San Francisco, Cal. 
N. B. — Largest Importers and Breeders in the U. S. 

To Wine Manufacturers. 

GR\PE CRUSHER AND STEMMER 

We would call your attention to tlie machine pafcentt'd by 
C. Wadhanis. It has capacity— a ccordiug to size—to cnish 
and stem grapes for from 5.000 to 10,000 gallons of wine in 
ten liours. It can be worked by any motive power. It stems 
the grapes b^'tter than by hand, saving the labor of three 
men for every 1,000 gallons of wine, and does not crush or 
bruise the stems, from which so nmeb deleterioua matter 
oonus. It causes the juice to fall through the air like rain, 
BO as to absorbe all the air in it that can be desired, increas- 
ing the temperature, and insuring a rapid and effective fer- 
mentation. It doi.8 not bruise or crush the seti<ls, nor do.s 
it even loosen the envelope of tlie sufiU, whicJi is astringent 
and greasy. It producs five per c-iit. more vine than by 
any other mode, because the grapes are crushed sc^, com- 
pletely that the liquid easily separates from the solid parts. 
in making rtd wine, the color of the skin dissolves much 
quicker, and the fermentation is perfected before the new 
wine has time to becon\e too astringent by a prolonged con- 
tact with the marc. It cruslies all the grapes evenly, the 
small and tough berries aa well as the large and fresh ones. 
The machine cannot easily get out of repair, being made 
strong and durable. 

The above reasons were given by M. Keller, Los Angeles, 
after having made 200,000 gallons of wine with one machine, 
thoroughly tpsting its merits. In making 75,000 gallons it 
will save enough to pay for the machine and a horse power to 
run it, saying notliing of the five per cent, more wine saved. 
Address 

WM. G. WENDELL & CO., 

No. 321 California Street, San Francisco. 




R. S. THOMPSON, 

IMPORTKR .\ND BKKEnKR OK 

PURE BERKSHIRE SWINE, 
NAPA, CAL. 



^K^fr 




CALVERT'S CARBOLIC 

SHEEP WASH, 

$2 Per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, la use- 
ful for Preserv ing Wet Hides, De- 
stroying the Vine Pest, and for 
Disinfecting Purposes, Etc. 

T. W. JACKSON, S. F., Sole 
Agent for the Pacific Coait. 



FOR SALE. 

AT S40.00 PER ACRE. 

The Alfalfa Ranch, nine milts from the city of Loa An- 
geles, bounded and fen(;ed fcir one mile on the north by 
the Anaheim Railroad; east by San Gabriel (old) river, 
eontaininj,' about :iOO acres of land, all set with good grass, 
(iO acres alfalfa. Abundant water for irrigation and willow 
for fuel. Incpiire on the ranch or by mail at Los Angeles. 
IRA CARPENTER. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

75 Warren St., New York, 

Commission Merchants in Cal'a. Produce 

RiFERBNCB. —Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; EIl- 
waiiger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed, Sacra- 
mento, Cal.; A. Lusk & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 





The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, ., . , , 

•* " ' Strmg meaaunng Irom center of tai- 

get to center of each shot. 32 

The impossibility of Accident in Loading, '^l^cLhttTfloolnXl"' 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting 

Defense, or Target Shooting. 

The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufaotured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 

Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch -blued. Octagtm barrel, set 
24, 26, 28, 30 inch—blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 
26, 28, 30 — extra finished, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch- 
extra finished — C. H. ts. C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— beautifully finished— C.«H. & C. S., 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbines, 
model 1866. RELOADING TOOLS, PRIMERS AND PARTS OF ARMS. 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and PIstuls, constantly on hand and warranted the bestin themarkeL 

JOHN SKIKKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco, 

SOLE AGENT FOR THE PACIFIC COAST, 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION 

Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 



DANIEL INMAN, (Pkeside.nt). 
A. D. LOGAN, (VicK Pkksident). 
AMOS ADAMS, (Skcretary). 



\V. W. GRAY. 



JOHN LEWELLINO, (Treasirer). 
G. W COLBY. 
I C. STEELE. 

THOS. FLINT 



W. L. OVERHISER. 
A. T. HAICH. 
O. HUBBELL. 



SHIPPING AND COMMISSION HOUSE, 



Grangers' Building, 



106 Davis Street, S. F 



Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairj' Products, Fruit, Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and 

Advances made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandise, 

Fann Implements, Wagons, etc., solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis that will 
enable the country at large to transact business through us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Association, San Francisco." Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 

DANIEL INMAN, Manager. 



JOHN H. GOVE'S 

CEE^TEI^NIAL HAY PRESS. 

Farmers and Hay Pressers will find it to their advantage to examine this Press before buying any other. It is 
built compact, combining lightness for moving with the greatest power and durability in its working parts, capable 
of making the average 2.50 pound bale, more or less, baling 10 to 15 tons per day, with three men and a pair of horses, 
they traveling only 36 feet to operate it. No excavations required for this press. This is the original Gove Press 
improved, after an experience of building Presses in the States the past 15 years, where they gave the best of sat- 
isfaction. Price, No. 1, $250. 

.Manufactured and for sale, or built to order, at the Eureka Grain Storage Warehouse, by 

JOHN H. GOVE or ANDREW J. GOVE, Box 1122. 

Also, for sale by DAVID N. HAWLEY, Agricultural Warehouse, 211 Market Street. 



p.HEpMANK 



EDWIN \LDENQ 
iBVERlISING/VACENCY^ 
^ 174 ELM STREJET. t 
GINCINJ^ATI. OHIO. I 

Advertisementa inserted in any paper, 
Before advertising Bend for my catalogue. 



Bound Volumes of the 1'acihc Uukal Press, from Vol- 
ume One, are for sale at this otiice; price, S5 per volume 
for single volume*; mibouiid $a. There arc two volumes 
per year. ... 



FOR^ALE. 

THE BEST ARRANGED 

WINE AND BRANDY FACTORY 

In the State, Capable of 

Working l.OOO Tons of Grapes, and with 

a small outlay can be Increaaed to 

1,500 Tons Per Season. 

It consists of a building ;i0.\lU(t feet, two stories high, 
and a third story ;iOx40 feet, with sheds on one side and 
end, and a boiler 14 feet long, 50 inches in diameter, with 
40 2A-inch tubes; engine, 10-inch cylinder, 20-inch stroke, 
waier and wine pnmiw, etc. 

The grapes are hoisted by the engine to the third story, 
where they arc pressed through a Johnston & Johnston 
Grape Crusher, capable of crushing and stemming 8 to 12 
tons per hour. The pulp falls into a tub from which the 
nnist runs by hose to fermenting tubs, and the skins are 
carried by car on a track to tubs on the second floor. 

The copper still is Johnston's jiatent, with capacity to 
work 2, .500 gallons of wine in 12 hours; all the racking is 
done with hose and steam p\imps. There are 23 fcruicnl- 
ing tubs of 4,000 gallons each, hose, cocks, coojierage, and 
everything necessary and in good order. This property is 
situated at Marysville, in a grape growing country, and in- 
side of the levee and alongside of the Oregon and OrovjUe 
Railroad. The above described projierty will be sold at 
public auction on Wednesday, August Ist, 1877, 
at U A. M., at the Marysville Distillery. 

C K. St..\KV, Assignee. 



TO FISH RAISERS. 

I am now ready to sell "Carp" which were imparted 
from Germany in 1872, in lots to suit. 

Address J. A. POPPE, Sonoma, CkI. 



loiJc^JtOfl^L. 



GOLDEN GATE ACADEMY, 

Oakland, Cal. 

NEXT TERM BEGINS AUGUST I, 1877. 

D. P. Sackrtt, a. M., Prm. Josiah Keep, A. M., Ass't. 

Classical Department; Scientific and English Department; 
Connnercial Department; Preparatory Department; De- 
partment of Physical Culture. 

U|)erior training in every department. The fitting of 
ynung men and women for college a specialty. 

Military drill and gymnastic exercises required daily— 
s.ilelj- for physical exercise, development and health. 

Situation most commanding, beautiful and healthful. 
Send for Circular. 



WASHINGTON COLLEGE, Washington, Ala- 
meda (Jouiity, (Jill. For young men and young women. 
Full cori)s ot able and experienced instructors. Address 
Rev. S. S. Harmon, Principal. New vear will begin 
July 2(jth. Send for Catalogues. 



Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Authorized Capital - $5,000,000. 

OFFICERS: 

President and Manager C. J. CRESSEY. 

Vick-Pre.sident JOHN LEWELLING. 

Treasurer J. V. WEBSTER, 

Cashier ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 

Secretary FRANK A. CRESSEY 

Tlie Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pro- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
the boat market rates. 



LAND PLASTER. 

(Sulphate of Limp,.) 

THIS FERTILIZER IS ESPECIALLY WELL ADAPTED 

TO CALIFORNIA LANDS AND CLIMATE, AND 

IS DESTINED TO BE USED TO IM- 

.MENSE ADVANTAGE. 

PRICES GREATLY REDQCBD. 

In Bulk, $10 per ton; in Barrels, $12.50. 

GOLDEN GATE PLASTER MILLS, 
LUCAS & CO., 

Nos. 215 and 217 Main Street, San Francisco. 




HEADQUARTERS 



PACIFIC COAST 

OF TlIK 

U. S. Camp Lounge 

COMPANY. 
Price of Folding Cot, $10, Lounge $6 and $8. 

AGENTS WANTED.— A liberal discount to the trade. 
Sent C. O. D, to any part of the cnast. Also, rubber hose 
in variety and lengths to suit. 

C. H. MOSELEY, Agt., 41.5 Saiisome Street, S. F. 



SAVE MONEY. 

$10 PER PAIR, $15 PER TRIO. 

AU Chicks ordered during June and .luly will be 

sold at the above prices. 
C'an spare Brown Leghorns. Silver Spangled 

Haiuburgs, Buff Cochins, Black Breasted Red 

Games. Game Bantams and Rouen Ducks. After 
July my prices will be changed ami those wishing to purchase 
FmsT-cLASS stock at low figures should write to meat once. 
Everything warranted as rcurescnted and strictly pure bred. 
Enclose stamp and address I. P. LORD, Reno, Nevada. 
iC^ No order Ijooked uuless accompanied by the cosh. 




■:^0* 



Use no more Metal TrussesI No 
11' ire suffering from iron hoops or 
I eel springsl The Patent Magnetic 
IClastio Truss is worn with ease and 
comfort NIGHT AND DAY and will 
perform radical cures when all 
■■ others fail. Reader, if ruptured, 
U; ^*^\'\ try one of our comfortable Elastic 
Appliances. You will never regret it. ^?"Scnd for Illus- 
trated Book and Price List. MA(;NETIC ELASTIC 
TRUSS COMPANY, GOB Sacramento Street, San Fran- 
cisco. 




^ACIFIC ^URAL ^RESS. 

A flrst-class Ki-page Illustrated Agricultural Weekly, filled 
with fresh, valuable and interesting reading. Every 
farmer .and ruralist sliouhl take it. It is im- 
mensely popular. Send for a sample copy. 

DEWEY & CO.. Publishers, S. F. 

landscape-gardening! 

CHAS A. REED, 
Experienced Landscape Gardener, 

SANTA BARBARA, CAL. 
Corr«spondonc9 solicited. 



YOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
Ten Cants. STKVENS BROB., Northford, Conn. 



44 



^d^QjE^^IQ «ELy^«^>d^^ ^^^Bo« 



[July 2i, 1877. 



What Becomes of the Wheat. 

Although Liverpool is the destination of a 
great part of California's wheat and the point 
at which tlie price is made, a very considerable 
part of the crop is used in our own State, and 
much that is sold elsewhere is manufactured 
before shipping. In tracing up our local indus- 
tries in this line, we lately visited the factory 
of the California Cracker Company, of which 
Mr. A Weskie is President and Mr. James Dunn 
Superintendent. 

Every facility was given for a thorough in- 
spection, and explanation made of the various 
l)roces8es witnessed. We were surprised to see 
the extent of the business and the perfection to 
which the macliinery used has been brought. 
The works occupy three stories and basement of 
a large brick building, corner of Battery and 
Broadway streets. Tlie varied kinds of dough 
are mixed by machinery on the secon<l floor, 
thence sent down a shute to the floor below, 
where they are received in suitable bins. As it 
is needed, a portion of this dough is brought 
to the proper consistency by passing it back 
and forth butween the rollers of the brake. Then 
great slabs of it are fed to the cake or cracker 
machine, which rolls it into a thin sheet, and 
by means of an endless strip of canvas carries it 
umler cutters and on to the end of the machine, 
where tlie cakes or crackers are left on sheet- 
iron pans, readj' for baking. 

There are two large English traveling ovens, 
one of which is used for sweet cakes and the 
other for small plain and fancy crackers of 
various kinds. Each of these ovens is 44 feet 
by seven feet nine inches, inside measurement. 
By a sort of endless-chain movement, the pans 
are carried slowly from one end to the other in 
just the right time required to bake their con- 
tents. As they pass from the oven, they are 
placed on shelves to cool for a time, and then 
emptied into large baskets, which are elevated 
to the third story, where the packing is done. 
A large reel oven is running all the time on 
pilot bread and discharges it at the rate of 800 
pounds per hour. This kind of bread, or 
cracker, is made with nothing but flour, water 
and salt. The company supply large i|uanti- 
ties of it to the army and navy, as well as to 
private parties. They have just tilled an order 
from the army for a supply to be sent to the 
scene of the Indian outbreak. 

Another reel oven is devoted to large crack- 
ers — soda, Boston, etc. We have not space to 
explain the mechanism of these reel ovens, but 
some idea of their capacity will be given when 
we say that we saw sotla crackers turned off at 
the rate of 456, weighing about 30 povinds, 
every 65 or 70 seconds. A pan, containing that 
number, appears at the mouth of the oven; the 
baked crackers are raked off by one man and a 
fresh lot put on by another in tlie space of time 
mentioned. An elevator catches the crackers 
as they come from the oven and carries them to 
the packing room above. Smaller ovens are 
used for the finer kinds of fancy crackers. 

About .SO kinds of plain crackers are made 
here, varying from hard-tack to oyster crackers, 
and 20 kinds of sweet cakes, Jenny Linds, 
ginger snaps, etc. Their graham crackers have 
been improved of late, and are especially recom- 
mended for persons who suffer from indigestion. 
Superintendent Dunn says that California 
(lour is not only the best made on this coast but 
the best in the world. This company consumes 
daily about the following quantities of raw 
materials: Flour, 125 to 1150 barrels; sugar, one 
ton; lard, one ton; butter, 500 pounds; milk, 
200 gallons; syrup, spices, essences, etc., as 
needed. The tinislied daily product is about 
28,000 pounds— of all sorts. 

These goods are sold all over the Pacific coast 
and as far east as Salt I^ake city. A consider- 
able trade is also kept up with Mexico, ('entral 
and South America, the islands of the Pacific, 
China and Japan. 

Boxes, containing an assortment of several 
kinds, are put up for family use, and goods 
which are to go to the tropics or on long sea 
voyages are, to a large extent, sealed in tin. 
The number of men and boys employed in the 
estalilishment is about 85, all white, and the 
wages paid are fair, ranging from §1 to f4 per 
day. About 10 hours' work is 4one in the day, 
and, although machines are so largely used, 
experience and dexterity are required in most 
of the employees. 

Improvements.— Mr. Daniel Inman, Presi- 
dent and Manager of the (Jrange Business Asso- 
ciation of San Francisco, has lately erected at 
his residence place in Alameda county, an En- 
terprise-Perkins patent windmill, pump and 
large tank ; laid pipes throughout the grounds 
for irrigating purjioses. A beautifying and pay 
ing investment, worthy of imitation. We are 
pleased to note that Messrs. Horton& Kennedy, 
of Liverniore, Alameda county, who advertise 
with us, are general agents for this coast for 
these excellent windmills and pumps, of which 
so many have been sold during the past five or 
six years. This firm and their goods are re- 
liable. 



General News Items. 

The rinderpest has broken out at Bethnal 
Green, England. 

Gen. McDowell has telegraphed the War 
Department a strong defense of Gen. Kautz 
against the reports of the Arizona agents of the 
Indian Office. 

N1COPOLI8 has surrendered to the Russian 
army. The Cossacks have succeeded in crossing 
the Balkans and getting within 200 miles of 
Constantinople. 

An effort is being made to obtain money in 
England at a low rate of interest for rebuilding 
St. Johns, New Brunswick. Two millions are 
wanted. 

The State Department has ordered a thor- 
ough investigation of the reported Spanish nut- 
rage on the schooner Jii-niiig Sun, with a view to 
obtain full reparation, should the published 
statements be verified. 

Secretakv McCk.\rv is reported as saying 
that, in case Mexico alleges the fact of invasion 
and protests or demands reparation, she has al- 
ready furnished us a precedent, and therefore 
we have equal cause of complaint. 

The training ship Jamf-stotrn went to sea 
Monday morning. The ship will proceed to 
Hilo, where the boys will be given an oppor- 
tunity to visit the volcanos. Manna Loa and 
Mauna Kea, and will not return to port till 
November. 

The Choctaw and Chickasaw Indian nations 
have brought suit against the Missouri, Kansas 
and Texas railroad on a claim of §700,000 for 
ties, timbtr, masonry, coal, etc., used in 
the construction of that road. Plaintiffs claim 
that the property belongs to the nations in com- 
mon, and not to individuals, who have no right 
to dispose of it in any way. 

The Treasury Department has issued the 51st 
call for the redemption of 5-20 bonds of 1865 
and consols of 1865. The call is for 510,000,- 
000, of which $7,000,000 are coupon and $3,- 
000,000 registered bonds. Principal and inter- 
est will be paid at the Treasury Department on 
and after the 16th of October next and interest 
will cease on that day. 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are worthy 
of mention: 

Washing Machine. — Raoul Chartery, S. F. 
This invention relates to certain improvement, 
in that class of steam power laundry machines 
on which dashers are rotated alternately in one 
direction and then in another, inside of a case, 
and in wliich the alternate motion of the dash- 
ers is produced by an automatic belt shifting 
device, which is attached to the side of the case. 
Heretofore the boxes or bearings in which the 
moving parts of this shifting device were sup- 
ported were made in separate pieces, and these 
pieces we attached separately to the side of the 
case in their proper relative positions with ref- 
erence to each other. This arrangement was 
defective, because any shrinking or swelling of 
the case disarranged the bearing so that tlie 
mechanism would bind and cause trouble. This 
defect this inventor remedies. The driving and 
loose pulleys were also mounted upon a driving 
shaft, separate from and independent of the 
shaft which operated the belt shifter. In this 
invention they are mounted upon the same 
sliaft, and the machine is otherwise simplified 
and improved. 

Engine Valves. — Eugene O'Neill, San Fran- 
cisco. The invention relates to certain im- 
provement, in valves for engines and pumps, 
and it consists in a novel construction of valve 
having upper and lower seats in pairs and pro- 
vided with inner and outer steam and water 
passages for eacli jiair of seats, so that by a 
small lift of the valve a large area for the 
admission of steam or water is exposed. 



Apric()T.'< in California. — "Apricots have 
been the special pride of the Golden State, but 
for some reason are said to lie very scarce tliere 
this year. It would be interesting to know 
whether the ciirculio has found its way there 
yet. We suppose it will get there one of these 
days." Thus says the Onnleners' Monthly. 
We have not heard of the presence of the cur- 
culio in this State as yet, nor have we seen any 
indications of its work. The short crop of apri- 
cots was due to local peculiarities of the season 
and not to insect ravages. 



Captain J. L. Skinner is having good suc- 
cess with the Plymouth Rock fowls he brought 
from Massachusetts last winter. He now offers 
for sale a few spring chicks from his prize 
stock. His address is Placerville, El Dorado 
county, Cal. , as will be seen by his advertise- 
ment, 



Valuable and Deserving. — Mr. Davis, 
assistant foreman of the Rural Prf.ss com- 
posing rooms, aired himself up this way this 
week, and favored us with a call. We are glad 
to hear from him that the Press is prospering 
and extending in its sphere of usefulness. It 
is a valuable paper and deserves to. — St. Helena 
Stni; Jul;/ VUh. 



New War Map. — We have just received 
from Rand, McNally & Co. , of Chicago, a copy 
of their new war maps, one of Turkey in Eu- 
rope, and the other shows the whole field of the 
operations of the contending armies, embracing 
the liattle fields in Asia. The maps are large 
and handsomely colored, printed on one ilieet 
and are sent for 25 cents, post paid. 



The Shell Mounds. 

Various theories have been suggested to 
furnish a key to the design and motiV'd which 
led to the building of the shell mounds which 
are abundant on this coast. The latest raiton 
d'etre is described by Mr. C. Mason Kinne, 
Secretary of the San Francisco Microscopical 
Society, who has given much thought and in- 
quiry to the subject. He writes: A vast deal 
of theorizing has been entered into for years 
past regarding these shell-inounds; as to how 
they were built, for what purpose and by whom. 
The last is by common consent conceded to the 
aboriginal races of red men, and perhaps the 
process and purpose can be made clear by 
observing what is going on to-day among the 
tribes of Indians in the Northwestern country 
and along Puget sound. 

I have given the matter some attention and, 
wlienever opportunity has permitted, have 
made inquiries regarding the habits of the ex- 
isting aborigines. From reli.able parties long 
resident in that neighborhood, notably of whom 
is Mr. Edward Miller, a gentleman who is a 
close observer of nature, I learn that it is the 
custom of the native dwellers of the forest to 
pitch tlieir wigwams, built in the shape of a 
wooden structure some hundreds of feet in 
length and proportionately wide, formed of 
shakes or slabs 30 feet long, three to four inches 
wide and about two inches thick, which they 
split out of trees straight grained and clean 
riven — near to some spot where they find a bed 
of shell-fish and other conveniences. Some- 
times as many as 100 occui)aiits live in a single 
wdgwaiii, which is divided into stalls or small 
rooms. Here they live year after year, throw- 
ing out of the doors and openings for windows 
their refuse in the shape of fish-bones, stones 
for heating water and the shells of clams, mus- 
sels and oysters. When the heap outside 
becomes so great that a rampart, so to speak, 
is formed about them that becomes troublesome 
to surmount, they level off a spot and move 
their dwelling, filling up the depression with 
the same debris, and so go on, year after year. 
When a chief dies, they bury him in the mound, 
which is at once a monument to their appetites 
and his sepulcher, and migrate to a spot miles 
away and do not return for 10 years. When 
other members of the chief's family die, they 
are sometimes buried with them. The chief 
usually lives to a ripe old age, which accounts 
for the fact that the teeth are most always 
found worn down to the gums. A skeleton 
recently uneartlied from a mound near a new 
mill at West Berkeley, by Mr. Schussler, was 
provided with a large jaw-bone and teeth worn 
down in a similar manner to the one taken from 
the mound near Fillmore street, and now in the 
Alta office in San Francisco. 

The supposition that these mounds were 
raised for some religious rites or purposes seems 
hardly tenable, reasoning from the fact of the 
known Laziness of the primeval man, and the 
theory that the shells were brought from a 
great distance to where we now find the mounds 
is not necessary to account for their inland 
position any more than it would be to claim 
that the round boulders and sedimentary de- 
posits of lakes and oceans which have long 
since sought other levels from the upheavals of 
their beds, were carted to their present geolog- 
ical position by some Titanic nation of the past. 



The World's Fair of 1878. 

The latest notes of the progress of the Paris 
universal exposition of 1878 we find in the 
Polj/technir /{f vie it; translated from a French 
paper: While the East is aflame with the furies 
of war, France steadily continues in preparing 
the pacific work which is intended to render 
illustrious the year 1878. The work of the ex- 
position advances with rapid strides. The Tro- 
cadero, despite the delay caused by too lightly 
conceived plans, has risen alxive the first story; 
in six weeks the general commissioner, whose 
energy has repaired the errors of his lieutenants, 
will have all the floor timbers and rafters in 
position; the iron framing has been accorded to 
the house of Joly, of Argenteuil. 

In the Champ de Mars, the great work of the 
four pavilions at the angles is finished; the 
same is true of the palace of fine arts, which is 
to occupy the center position. The construct- 
ors charged with the metallic covering, the 
house of Cail, Creuzot, the factory of Fives- 
Lille, MM. Eiffel et Cie. have erected their 
trestle work and their rolling scaffolds. These 
four houses are superintending the construction 
of the four great galleries which unite two and 
two the pavilions at the angles; their framing 
and jilatiorm are mounted on wheels and placed 
on car tracks so that they can be readily moved 
along as the work progresses. Besides this 
work, all the underground water and gas pipes, 
ventilating flues, etc., are in position. 

The question of the bridge of Jena has been 
settled very simply by an enlargement obtained 
l)y the help of metallic brackets; the execution 
of this work is intrusted to the house of Joly, 
as is also the construction of the bridges at the 
Billy and Ors.ay wharves. The greatest anima- 
tion reigns in the timber yard, and it is well 
that it is so, for it is absolutely necessary that 
the work should be pushed forward as rapidly 
as possible, for it is already feared that the 
buildings now under way will be insufficient to 
accommodate all requirements. For group six 
(implements and products of the mechanic in- 



dustries) a covered annex of 25,000 meters in 
length has been constructed on Bourdonnais 
avenue on the bank of the Seine, and on the 
Billy wharf. These constructions should effect- 
ually silence those who have been constantly 
predicting the non-completion of the buildings 
in time for the opening of the exhibition. The 
people have responded most enthusiastically to 
the appeal of the government. The demand 
for space, in the French section, not comprising 
the line arts and agriculture, exceeds 26,000, 
and ill group six, before referred to, exceeds 
112,000 meters, of which the administration can 
supply but .%,000, which will be filled with the 
most choice of the national industries. 



Santa Barbara "Press." — The Santa Bar- 
bara Pres/i has just issued a special edition of 
55 columns, devoted especially to the growth 
and advantages of the city and county which it 
represents. As we began to read it we intend- 
ed to clip out a few paragraphs concerning agri- 
culturists, fruit-growers, etc., and print them, 
but after we had marked out three or four 
whole pages, we threw away the paper. If any 
one wants a paper with so much in it, they 
must buy it. 

Cheap Tools.— It is.worth the attention of 
purch.tsers of agricultural implements that 
David N. Hawley, at 211 Market street, San 
Francisco, has some of the stock of the bankrupt 
firm of Linforth, Kellogg & Co., which he 
offers at very low prices. An advertisement in 
another column furnishes farther information 
on this point. 

Signal Service Meteorological Report 

Week Endingr July 17. 1877. 





HIOIIKST A5D I/OWKST BAROUKTBR. 




July 11 


July 12 


July 13 


July 14 July 15 


July 16 

29.98 
29.82 


July 17 


29.89 
29.83 


29.93 
29.86 


29.96 
29.89 


29.84 1 29.79 
29,73 1 29.75 


80.8S 
80.00 




MINIMUU AND MAXna'M TIISRMOMETBR. 




7S 
63 


78 1 
6- 


7& 1 68 1 68 
69 1 59 1 57 
UEAN dailt nrUIDITT. 


1 " 
i 62 


1 eg 

1 M 


63 


04 1 


71 1 78 1 76 

FRKVAILIKO WI.SD. 


74 


1 69 


SW 


1 SW 


1 SW 1 SW 1 SW 

WI.SD— MILES TRAVRLRD. 


1 SW 


1 w 


2.'>2 


1 220 


203 1 247 1 331 

STATE OX WEATHKR. 


1 2«5 


1 255 


Clear. 


1 Clear. 


Gear. | Fair. 1 Fair. 


1 Kaiii. 


iOear. 




RAIKFALL IX ■ITfENTY-POl'R llOrRS. 






1 


1 1 


1 0.02 


1 


ToUl rain during the season, from July 


1, 1877, 


0.02 in. 



Woodward's Gardens has the following new attractiona: 
Tlic buffalo chase; large whale skeleton; new niuaeum; 
improvements in the zoological department, besides the 
other features which have made it popular. 



Stockton, July 2, 1877. 
Messrs Dewkt & Co. —GentlemfH:—iiy letters patent 
were received indue time. Thanking you for faithful ser- 
vice, promptness in replying to my letters, etc., I am 
moMt respectfully, your obedient servant, 

C H. COVELL. 



Sansome Street. 

Dewey & Co.'s Patent Of- 
fices, Mining and Scientific 
Press and Pacific Rural Press 
newspaper offices, and the Scien- 
tific Press Engraving establish- 
ment will be found at the above 
place, (No. 202 Sansome Street, 
N. E. Corner of Pine, opposite 
the Pacific Bank), after July 21st, 
1877. Just three-fourths of a 
block south of our old location. 

MUSIC BOOKS! MUSIC BOOKS! 

Do not torget to carry with you to the seashore or tlie 
niountains, 

THE WORLD OF SONG. 

This magnificent collection is enriched with the best 
compositions of our most distinguished song composers. 
F.ach song is a gem. 250 pages, each of full sheet music 
size, and well filled. Price, «2 50 in Bds ; ?3.00 in CTotli. 

GEMS OF THE DANCE. 

Tliis book is quite equal to the very j»opular "Gems of 
Strauss," which preceded it, and, in addition to the newer 
Strauss compositions, which fill one-third of the volume, 
has brilliant music by Ouugl, Lamothe, Zikoff, Faust, 
Godfrey and others, thus giving great variety. I'agos full 
sheet music size. S2 50 in Ito.'krds; ^.00 in Cloth. 

PIANO AT HOME. 

A verj' attractive book, with nearly all the best and 
most popular pianoforte duets, or four hand piece*. $2.50 
in Boaiils; 83.00 in Cloth. 

Any book sent by mall, post-free, on ret^ipt of price. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., BOSTON. 

McCURRIE, WEBER & CO , 
San FYanclsco. 



65 



LARGE MIXED CARDS, with name lOe. 

and 3 ct stamp. 25 styles Fun Cards, 10c. Sam- 
ples 6c U. DOWB & CO , Bristol, Conn 



July 21, 1877.] 



SFI^^i 



S. F- P^^KEX R^ifo^T- 



Note. — Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each weeit (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the marltet on Sate 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Framoisco, Wednesday, July 18th, 1877. 

The adv'ance in Wheat and the syrapatlietic iini)rove- 
ment in Barley gives more point to the talk in Grain cir- 
cles and transactions are more frequent. Wheat does not 
yet come forward any more freely, nor have the full ef- 
fects of the rise been manifested. 

The prices now quoted in this market correspond more 
nearly to the Liverpool equivalent, as per cable, than for 
some time. For example, the cable quotation for average 
California to-day is 12s 6d(*123 lOd, and Club, 123 lld(A 
13s 5d. The equivalent of these rates in this market, al- 
lowing for freights, etc., are $2. 37(a$2 43 for average Cali- 
omia, andS2.45@82.60forClub. 

Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 
The course of the Liver|>ool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been 
as recorded in the following table: 



Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday 

Monday . . . . 

Tuesday 

Wednesday . 



Gal. Avkrage. 



12s 2d@12s 5d 

128 4d(ocl2g 7d 

123 4d(a)12e 7d 

12s 7d(*123 lid 

123 6d@12s lOd 

12s fld@12s lOd 



Club. 



12s 5d(*13s — 

123 7d(3Sl33 2d 

12s 7d(3133 2d 

123 9d(3'133 3d 

123 lld((il3s 5d 

12s 11(1@138 5d 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
oompaje with same date in former years as follows: 

Average. Club. 

1875 9s lOdcaiOs 2d 98 lld@109 4d 

1876 9s 3d@ 93 6d 9s 6d@10s — 

1877 12s 6d@12s lOd 12s lld@13s 5d 

The Foreigm Review. 

LoNT)0S, July 17th.— The Mark Lane Express, in its 
weekly review of the British Corn trade, says; Al- 
though reports are somewhat contradictory, the general 
opinion seems to point to more favorable cereal crops than 
were it one time thought likely. Wheat ears have filled 
out under the influence of increased moisture, and the 
prospects seem to jiromise a fair harvest. However, it is 
not likely that the home crop of 1877 will come up to 
the full average, although it will probably exceed the 
short crop of last year. Reports are still contradictory 
regarding the condition of cereal crops. On the Continent 
advices are not so favorable as a few weeks since. Con- 
siderable damage has been done by the recent storm, 
which laid flat the growing Wheat. After a period of 
dullness and apathy following the recent decline in prices, 
a decided reaction has taken place in the Wheat trade, 
and values advanced two shillings per quarter .at Mark 
Lane and country markets. With Ihe somewhat unsettled 
weather and small arrivals at ports of call, the trade for 
arrival cargoes of Wheat has ruled firm during the past 
week and prices have improved Is to 2s per quarter, ac- 
cording to quality. For cargoes on passage and for ship- 
ment there has been an active demand and an improve- 
ment of 28 per quarter has beeu established. In .Maize 
there is an advance of 8d to 9d per quarter. Barley is 
firm. 

Freights and Charters. 

The advance in Wheat freshens the outlook for freigl * 
business. We do not hear any material change in rate^, 
as yet. At the close of last week there were 5,7(i7 tons in 
port loading Wheat, 6,621 tons miscellaneous and 54,116 
tons disengaged. The following charter is reported; 
Thurland Castle (iron), 1,250 tons, Wheat to Cork for or- 
ders for United Kingdom, £2 7s 6d per ton. 

TJastem Grain Markets. 

New York, July ICth.— New winter Wheat is coming 
forward iu increased quantity, and the quality was rarely 
better. The crop of this kind is harvested, and is above 
the average in yield. The spring Wheat harvest is pro- 
gressing favorably, the weather in the West this week 
having neen good. Considerable contracts of new spring 
and winter Wheat have been made to arrive, and prices 
have been reduced both on the spot and for forward de- 
livery. The closing spot sales of No. 2 spring were $1.55 
@1.70 for September delivery. Prices of spring are down 
to $1.30 for standard No. 2. The supply of old Wheat is 
BO slight that prices are likely to keep up until the new 
begins to arrive freely. Corn is a shade firmer, the avail- 
able supply being light and the demand for export active. 
Prime shipping is worth 58@'U0c. 

CmcAOO, July 14th. — The markets on 'Change have 
been pretty steady, especially for Grain. Provisions have 
been continually firmer. Tne most extravagant stories 
come from some sections, chicHy in Iowa, of the vast 

3uantities of Produce that will be raised there. Sales of 
uly options during the week have been as follows; 
Wheat, .'81.37 to SI. 4:i — the lower prices prevailed during 
the middle of the week; Corn, 47i((»49c; Oats, 31J-@33c; 
Pork, $13.20 to. «13.75; Lard, $8.92 to 9.20. Closing prices 
were- Wheat, 14i(ai5 CO ; Corn, 49c; Oats, 31ic; Rye, 64c; 
Barley, 60 to fl.5c; Pork. 13'; Lard, S9.1.5. Receipts for 
the week— Wheat, 76,000 bushels; Corn, 1,055,000; Oats, 
178,000. Shipments— Wheat, 177,000; Corn, 1,879,000; 
Oats, 199,000. Receipts same time last year— Wheat, 
354,000; Corn, 803,000; Oats, 349,000. This shows a con- 
siderable falling off in everything but Corn, of which the 
granaries are still full. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 
Nkw York, July 14th. — The season is now fairly opened 
for new Fleece Wool, and the receipts are sufficiently 
large to supply the present active demand. Manufactur- 
ers, however, show some reluctance about meeting 
holders at prevailing rates, but their objections are gen- 
erally removed and the resiilt is sales at full market rates. 
The London sales closed on the 2f>th ult. , and during the 
series there was placed some 300.000 bales, 5,000 of which 
are known to have been i>urchased for the United States. 
During the coming month, however, another sale of a 
like amount will ojjen, and the prospects are that lower 
prices will rule; and should (juotations of domestic 
remain in the position they occupy to-day, there is no 
good reason to doubt but that large parcels of foreign 
will be brought here in competition. Port Phillip can be 
laid down here to-day at from H(n48c currency, while X 
and above Ohio is held at 48c*52c. It is true that there is 
some difference in shrinkage in favor of Ohio, but the 
difference in i)rice will about make that up. There is an 
abundant supply of California and Texas now in this 
vicinity, but prices, in sympathy with better grades, rule 
high and strong. The receipts here of Texas this season 
have been chiefly of the coarser grades, though a fair 
quantity of Eastern has been received, the major part of 
the clip this year having been shipped to Boston. 
Georgia has come forward in good condition, but the 
prices demanded, 33@33c, have rather checked purchases. 
The sales for the week were 10,000 lbs pulled Cal- 
ifornia, 68,000 lbs fall California and 150,000 lbs 
spring California, on private terms; 30,000 lbs fall do, 
16c; 78 bales do, 21c; 5,000 lbs do, 17c; 38,000 lbs spring 
California, 23@29c; 50 bales do, 28Jc; 160,000 lbs spring 



do, 25®28c; 14,000 lbs do, 66,000 lbs Utah aud 50 bales 
Australian, on private terms. 

Boston, July 14th. — In the Wool market the demand 
during the past week has been active. The re'ieipts were 
the largest ever recorded, amounting to 6,500,000 Itis of 
domestic and 1,000,000 lbs of foreign. Sales of Ohio, 
240,000 lbs medium and X at 46@48c; choice lots of No. 1 
at 49(S50c; XX, 50c; XXX, 51c. Michigan attracts con- 
siderable attention; sales of 476,000 lbs. Prices ranged 
princiijally from 43@45c for choice X and No. 1 selling as 
high as 46c; 42ig4Cc is considered a fair range of prices 
for all grades. A lot of 15,000 lbs of selected Wisconsin 
sold at 47c, and 37,000 lbs at an average of 43c. Sales of 
New llamjishire aggregated 10,000 lbs, at 44trt45c. Comb- 
ing and delaine are in demand, and all available lots are 
taken at full prices. Some large mills contracted for all 
they could obtain for some time ahead. Transactions 
have been: 457,000 lbs washed at 51(a'o5c; unwashed, 36^ 
@42c. Pulled has not been sold to any extent; sales, 
139,000 tbs at 35(*45c for super and X. The market is 
finu. Te.xas attracts considerable attention; sales of 
175,000 lbs, a large part of which was sold at a range of 
32i@37c The demand for California has been active, 
and the spring clip is rapidly disappearing. Sales of 
spring, 887,000 lbs at 23@38c, mostly in the range of 30@ 
38c. Sales of fall, 114,000 lbs, at 16@20c, One small lot 
of 14,000 lbs sold at 25c. 

Domestic Produce. 

The followuig table shows the 8. F. receipts of Domes- 
tic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, as com- 
pared with the receipts of previous weeks: 



Articlbs. 



Flour, quarter sacks . 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, sacks 

Corn, centals 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

H.ay, bales 



Week. Week. Week. Week. 
June 26. July 3. July 11. July 18. 



,32,430 
21,223 
11,141 
1,007 
1,154 
1,588 
14,851 
1.075 
3,407 



2,391 



26,395 
8,120 
12,.391 
56 
1,132 
2,135 
8,040 
950 
3,232 



1,328 



15,604 
;)S,311 
10,470 
1,365 
1.313 
1,417 
12,340 
1,398 
4,400 
72 
1,792 



According to all reports, the Bag ringers and 
concentrators have carried their schemes along to a 
firmer position than a week ago and have now the appar- 
ent nmstery in the market. The ring has been buying 
all small lots which stood outside the circle and have put 
them away. The result is to-day an advance of lo in the 
jobbing sale for grain Bags and a corresponding advance 
in Hessians. What the market will go to, either up or 
down, is, of course, uncertain, but the prospect is that 
for a time at least the ring will he able to hold the price. 

Beans — We note no change in current rates. Receipts 
are small.. 

Barley — There has been a further advance in Barley, 
and the trade has been quite spirited. We note sales; 300 
sks Bay Feed, $1.70; 700 do do, $1.72^, and 6,500 do Bay 
Brewing, $1.85; 600 do Coast Feed, $1.67* ; 1,320 do new 
Bay Feed, in two lots, $1.70; 610 do Brewing, $1.75; 600 
dodo, $1.77J; .300 do good new, $1.70; 700do do, $1.72J; 
530 do old Coast Feed, .•S1.72S; 506 do new Bay, $1.70, and 
800 ctls Chevalier, $1.75; 380 sks new Feed, $1.72J; 400 do 
do, $1.70; 1,700 do old do, $1.75; 4,700 choice Bay Brew- 
i.ig, .$1.85 per ctl. 

Corn — Corn holds its own and gains a point on inside 
price. We note sales: 100 sks small Yellow, broken, 
$1.85; 200 do large do, $1.93; 60 do do, $1.92i; 1,000 do 
c loice large Yellow, $1.90; 150 do small Bay, broken, 
$1.85; '200 sks good large Yellow, $1.90; 400 do large Yel- 
low, $1.87J per ctl. 

Dairy Produce -Fresh Butter is a little better in 
tone, although prices are not yet affected. There have 
been large lots of ])Oor Butter held along in hope of pur- 
chasers, and these lots have encumbered the new. There 
has now been accomplished a considerable clearance of the 
poor stock by s.ale to bakers and other large consumers. 
This makes an opening for the better fresh rolls. In 
Cheese there is a slight falling off in feeling. The make 
of California Cheese is quite as restricted as was supjiosed, 
but the incoming of large lots of Eastern Cheese, which 
dealers acknowledge to us can be laid down here for 
not much more than 8c. per o. , ruins the trade in Call, 
fornia. It is a fair question how far our commission mer- 
chants who have handling of California Cheese for the 
makers, do right by joining in the importation of Eastern 
Cheese and thus decreasing their patrons' profits. This is 
a matter which will bear discussion and consideration by 
producers. 

Bggps — The best fresh Eggs hold the advance gained a 
week ago, and during the last week the poor qualities and 
imported stock have advanced proportionately. 

Peed — Corn Meal advances $'2.50(^5 per ton and Mid- 
dlings $2.50 over last week's prices. Straw advances 
about 10c per bale. Other Feeds are unchanged. We 
note sales of Hay as follows; 17 tons fair Tame Oat, $17; 
62 do good Wheat, in two lots, $22.50; 100 tons Alfalfa, 
three cargoes, $16.50; 27 do ordinary, 16; 26 do good Wild 
Oat, $19.25; 14 do choice Wheat, 2:150; 39 tons Wild and 
Tame Oat, $18.50; 22 do Wheat, Barley and Oat, $20.50; 
•23 do good Wild Oat and Wheat, $21; 48 do good Wheat, 
$23; 20 do choice do, $2:5.50, and a small lot at $24; 20 
t.ms inferior Oat, $14; 19 do fair Wild 0;it, $18..50; 72 do 
ordinary stock and fair Wheat, in two lots, at $15@20 per 
ton. The receipts of Hay have been heavy during the 
week and the wharves well filled, but prices have been 
maintained. 

Fruit— Peaches have reached their greatest abund- 
ance and prices are low. On Monday, says the Calh 
10, '200 baskets Peaches were received from the Sacra- 
mento, besides large quantities from other points. The 
first Rose of Peru Grapes were received Saturday morn- 
ing, and brought 12Jc. The Oregon steamer brought 481 
boxes Cherries, mostly in bad order, ipiotable at 5cn'8c. 
Strawberries are received largely and, owing to alnmd- 
ance of other fruits, are neglected. Sales have been made 
as low as $;) per crate. Full jirices of Fruit may be found 
in our tabic below. 

Hops— Nothing but a nominal price can bo quoted in 
absence of transactions of any amount. Dealers report 
nothing doing. The New York market, for the week end- 
ing July 6th, is reported by Emmet Wells as follows: 

Shippers have bought more freely under last week's de- 
cline, but, in the face of glowing crop reports, holders ex- 
hibit a good deal of uneasiness, and are quite ready to 
sell whenever an opportunity offers. Tlie dealings have 
been principally in medium grades, such as command 8 
and 10 cents, the better descriptions being, in most in- 
stances, held above the price that shippers are willing to 



pay. On the whole we think the market is in anything 
but a healthy state, the uncertainties attending the new 
crop rendering speculation entirely out of the question, 
we really have no relief except that afforded by the ex- 
port movement. Quotations — New Yorks, choice to 
fancy, 11 to 13c; New Yorks, common to prime, 6 to 10c; 
Eastern, 6 to 10c; Wisconsins, 6 to lOc; Yearlings, 4 to 8c; 
Olds, all growths, 2 to 4c; Californians, nominal, 8 to 13c; 
Oregon, nominal, 8 to 13c. 

Oats— Oats do not change. The market is steady at 
former prices. 

Onions- Onions are plenty, and for Union City there 
is this week an inside price of 87ic ^ ctl, the best still 
bringing .'?1. 

Potatoes-Potatoes ha\ improved. Early Rose and 
Half Moon Bay are selling a little better. Sweet Potatoes 
now in are poor and are only worth about $3 W ctl. 

Poultry— A few important changes, all through in 
the way of improvement, are all that the market gives the 
reporter. 

Provisions- The Provision trade is much the samp 
as last week, with perhaps an improving tendency. Th*^ 
fresh meat market is filled with poor sttick. Sheep, Lambs 
and Beef. Grain Hogs are coming in slowly, but are still 
rather soft. Cured Meats are without change. 

Vegetables Our price list has been materially 
changed, for nearly all items have fluctuated. One of the 
chief features of the trade has been a glut in String Beans. 
They have come in all quantities and have run down to 
nothing. We note a sale of 20 sks at $1 per sack. 

Wheat— The advance iu Wheat during the week has 
been noted elsewhere. We note sales to this market for 
the past week; 1,000 sks good milling, .$2 42,5; 1,600 do 
choice $2.50; 250 tons fair milling at $2.40, delivered at 
Vallejo; 200 tons choice milling at $251 V, and 200 ctls do 
al $2.55 ; 950 tons shipping at .?2.37i ; 60 tons choice mill- 
ing at $2.52}, and 700 ctls extra Australia at $2,60, resold 
at $2.62J ; 200 sks good milling, $2..50 ; 2,000 sks Salt Lake 
milling at $2,32} ; 2,200 do choice Proper at $2,32* ; 2,000 
sks choice milling $'2,37} : 1,000 do $2.40. 

Wool —Wool is reported to-day as a little weaker and 
a shade lower on the qutside prices. We note sales during 
the week of 250,000 lbs North California and Oregon, 
28@3'2c. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

rWHOLKSALE. 1 

WEo.vr.sDAY M.. July 17, 1S77. 

NirTS-Jobbing. 

Cal. Walnuts D ut 10 

Almonds, hd shl lb 7 («' — 

Softsh'l 15 (§ 17 

Brazil 14 @ 16 

Pecans 17 (* 18 

Peanuts 4 (W 6 

Filberts 15 OS" 16 

ONIONS. 
Union City, etl.... 87i gl 00 

Stockton 7b Vt 90 

POTATOES. 

Petaluma. ctl — (9i — 

Humboldt — @ — 

Cuff ey Cove ~ (u — 

Early Rose, new. 1 25 v«l 62i 
Half Moon Bay. . .1 .50 (.al 6.5 

LiBhthouse 1 60 C<«1 62 

Sweet 3 00 W — 

roiLTKV Jk <;a.iik. 

Hena. doz 5 50 m7 50 

Roosters 4 50 («7 50 

Broilers 3 50 (J?4 50 

Ducks, tame 5 00 (ff6 60 

Geese, pair 1 50 iff'2 25 

Wild Gray 1 60 «i2 00 

Wliite 75 al 00 

Turkeys 18 @ 23 

Snipe, Eng 2 50 0* — 

do. Common 1 00 (« — 

Rabbits 1 00 (al 25 

Hare 1 50 (S2 00 

FKOVISIO.VS. 
Cal. Bacon, L't, lb 14 (» 14} 

Medium 13 («' 13j 

Heavy 12S(* 13 

Lard 12 (f? 14 

Cal. Smoked Beef 10 (g 11 

Eastern — ^ "^ 

Eastern Shoulders 10 @ — 

Hams, Cal 12!(a 13 

Armour 13s(g) 14 

Dupee's 14J((« 15 

Davis Bros' HJ'.te 15 

Magnolia 15 c« 15J 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa — # 

Canary 10 (^e 12i 

Clover, Red 26 ^ - 

White 60 (£» 55 

Cotton 6 (oi 10 

Flaxseed 3K<« — 

Kemp 5 @ 

Italian Rye Grass 35 ^ — 

Perennial « 36 (rt — 

Millet 10(01 12 

.Mustard. White... 10 ^ — 

Brown 3J^ 4 

Rape 3 (ft 4 

Ky. Blue Grass.... 30 <ai — 

2d quality 29 (ft — 

'<weetV Grass 76 @ — 

Orchard 30 & 35 

Red Top 25 (fi - 

Hungarian & (^ 12 

Lawn 60 C** -- 

Mezquite 20 (po 25 

Timothy 10 (* 10^ 

TAtLOW. 

Cnide, lb 6 J (a) 7 

Refined 8i,' m '.' 

WOOL. ETC. 

SI'KINO. 

Short Free dusty.. 13 (» 15 

Good Southern.... 15 (« ISf, 

Choice Northera . . 28 (<* 30 

Biu-ry 12 C* 16 

9 do. Northern.... 18 {<>• 21 

Oregon. East 26 (re 28 

20 do Valley 30 (f — 



BEANS. 

Bayo, ctl 4 00 @4 

Butter 2 00 (* 

Pea 2 76 (« 

Red 4 00 (0 

Pink 3 75 (a( 

Sm'l 'White 2 00 it2 

Lima 3 00 (f«3 

BROOM CORN. 

Comn'.ou, lb 2 (<* 

Choice 3 ^ 

CHICCORY. 

California 4 Cf? 

German 6i(a 

l^OTTON. 

Cotton, lb 15 (ft 

DAIRY rKODIIt'E, El 

BUTTEK. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, tb 22 1 (a 

Point Reyes 30 («) 

Pickle Roll 30 (fi 

Firkin 2dK* 

Western Reserve.. 16 (i? 

New York — (^ 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal., lb.... 13 @ 

Eastern 14 @ 

N. Y. State — @ 

Eoas. 
Cal. fresh, doz. . . . 30 @ 

Ducks' 25 (!j 

Oregon 25 @ 

Eastern 20 (g 

fEEI». 

Bran, ton 25 00 (cc— 

Corn Meal 12 50 i!?45 

Hay 15 00 ;g23 

Middlings 35 00 igi- 

Oil Cake Meal. .42 .50 (if— 

Straw, bale &5 •^ 

FLOUR. 

Extra, bbl 7 50 m 

Superfine 6 75 w7 

Graham 8 00 (ff 

FRESU MEAT. 
Beef. 1st qual'y, tb 6 @ 

Second ^@ 

Thud 2 ifi 

Mutton 3 1^ 

Spring Lamb 5 (** 

Pork, undressed... 4|(<« 

Dressed 7j(a 

Veal 5i (S 

Milk Calves bi<§ 

URAIN, ET4\ 
Barley, feed, ctl...l 70 @1 

Brewing 1 80 (ctl 

Chevalier 1 80 <»1 

Buckwheat 1 60 ig 

Com. White 1 70 @I 

Yellow 1 80 m 

Small Round....! 85 (Oil 

Oats 1 70 ■32 

Milling 2 25 w 

Rye 1 95 (& 

Wlieat, shipping.. 2 40 (A2 

MilUng 2 50 (ce2 

HIDES. 

Hides, dry 18 @> 

Wet salted 7i@ 

HONEY, ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 25 (ft 

Honey in comb 15 (ct 

do. No 2 12i(a 

Dark W (ft 

Strained 7 & 

HOPS. 
Oalifomia 15 @ 



LUMBER. 



CARCO PRICES 
REDWOOD. 

Rough, M 14 00 

Refuse 10 00 

Clear 24 00 

Clear Refuse 14 00 

Rustic 27 .50 

Refuse 20 On 

Surfaced 24 00 

Refuse 14 .TO 

Flooring 26 00 

Refuse 14 00 

Bea<led Flooring 26 00 

Refuse 14 00 

Half-inch Siding 20 00 

Refuse 16 00 



Wednesday m,. Julj' 17 
OF 



1877. 
PIJUET SOUND PINE. 

RETAIL PRIOE. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Fencing 18 00 

Flooring and Step 28 00 

Nairow 30 00 

2d quality 25 OO 

Laths 3 60 

Fiuring, lineal ft I 

REi>WOOD. 

RETAIL PRICE. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Refuse 15 00 

Pickets, Rough 18 OO 

Pointed 20 00 

Fancy 25 00 

Siding 22 60 



Half-inch Siu-faced 20 00 Surfaced & Long Bea<led30 00 

Refuse 15 00 Flooring 32 50 

Half-inch Battens 18 0'' Refuse 22 50 

Pickets Rough 12 OOiHalf-inch Surfaced 32 50 

I^JUgh, Pointed 14 OOl Rustic, No. 1 32 50 

Fancy Pointed 18 OOlBattcns, lineal ft J 

Shingles 2 OOlShingle*, M 2 26 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



fWIlOLKSALB.l 

Wednesday m 
BAtiS-.lobMnn. 

Eng Standard Wheat. lOi'qE- 
Nevillo & Co's 

Hand Sewed, 22x35.. lOi®— 

21x36 -»- 

23x40 -@- 

Machiue Swd, 22x36. 10(»— 
Floiu- Sacks, halves.... 9 (ofll 

Quarters 



July 17. 1877. 
OILS. 

Pacific Glue Co's 
Neatsfoot, No 1.1 00 @ 90 

Castor. No 1 1 05 (* 

j do. No. 2 1 05 (ri 

lBaker'8 A A 1 25 (Si 30 

lOlive, Plagniol....5 26 (45 75 

I Possel 4 75 (S5 25 

■9 (S — 



Eighths 4](<t 4jiLinBcod. Raw, bbl. 80 @ 

Hessian, 60 inch 13itn— | Boiled 85 (a - 

45 inch 8j(rf iCocoanut 80 (^' — 

40 inch 7j(2. SJIChina nut, c3 68 (» 70 

Wool Sacks, ' Sperm 1 60 (5,1 65 

Hand Sewed. 3J lb. .47S«60 'Coast Whales 60 (« 65 

Machine Sewed 46^— i Polar, refined 60 (* - 

4 lb 65 (A- [Lard 1 10 (Jl 15 

Standard Gunnies 14 (rtl5 iOleophine 35 (ft 

Bean Bags 7 (* 8 Devoo's Bril't 30 (j 

«'ANDLES. Photolite 29 or 

Crystal Wax 19 ("20 Noniiariel 50 (^ 

Eagle 12.^1(1 - |Eureka 22j(<e 

Patent Sperm 28 ("30 iBarrel kerosene. . . 30 ^ 

CANNED GOODS. .Downer Ker 47iC« 

Assorted Pie Fruits, > Elaine 50 0* 

2i H. cans 2 75 (»3 00 i PAINTS. 

Table do 3 75 @4 25 Pure ^Vhite Lead. 93(3 

Jams and Jellies. .4 25 (cC — j\Vljiting 1, 



Pickles, hf gal 3 50 (<» 

.Sardini:s. qr box..l 65 (flsl 90 

Hf Boxes 3 00 (fi — 

<OAL-.lol>i>iiig. 
Australian, ton.. 9 00 (* 9 25 

Coos Bay 8 00 (* 

Bellingham Bay. 8 00 (*- — 

Seattle 8 00 (a 9 00 

Cumberland 14 00 (rtl7 00 

Mt Diablo 5 75 (<r. 7 75 

Lehigh 22 00 i/t 

Liverpool 8 50 (S- 9 00 

West Hartley... 14 00 (<r 

Scotch 7 50 (A 8 00 

Scranton 13 00 (n>l6 00 

Vancouver Id. . .10 50 W12 00 

Charcoal, sack... 75 @ 

Coke, bbl 60 (3 

COFFEE. 

Sandwich Id, lb . 2U(» 

Costa Rica — 
Guatemala. . . 

.lava 

Manila 

Ground, in cs 




FISH, 

Sac'to Dry Cod.. 
Boneless 

Eastern Cod 

Salraou. bbls J 

Hf bbls 4 50 

2 lb cans 3 00 

Pkld Cod, bbls. .22 00 
Hf bbls 11 00 

MiickereL No. 1, 

Hf Bbls 14 00 @15 00 

In Kits 3 00 (* 3 25 

Ex Mess. ... 3 SO (" 4 00 

Pkld Herring, hx 3 00 (ff 3 50 

Boston Smkd H'g 40 ((? 50 
LIME, Etc. 

Lime, Sta Cruz, 
bbl 2 00 @ 2 25 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 76 (» 3 50 

Portland 4 75 @ 5 60 

Plaster. Golden 
Gate Mills 3 00 (ffl 3 25 

Land Plaster, tn 10 00 (^12 60 
NAILS. 

Ass'ted sizes, keg 3 25 @ 4 00 



31 



10} 



Putty..'. 4'(S 5 

(Aalk ;1J^ - 

Paris Wliite 25('^ — 

Ochre 3M — 

Venetian Red SK* — 

Averill Mixed 

Paint, gal. 

White & tints. . .2 00 @2 40 

Green, Blue & 
Ch Yellow.... 3 00 (fi-S 50 

Light Red 3 00 (a3 .50 

Metallic Roof..,l 30 (a 1 60 

RICE. 

China No. 1, Uj.... 5J(rt 6i 

^aiian il(t£ 5 

SALT. 
CaL Bay, ton... 13 00 <ai4 00 

Conunon 6 00 (ft 8 00 

Carmen Id 13 00 (liU 00 

Liverpool fine. . .17 60 (al8 00 
SOAP. 

Castile, lb 10 (* lOi 

Common brands.. 4i(* 6 

Fancy brands 7 (^ 8 

SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 45 (a .50 

Ca».sia 22i(* 25 

Nutmegs 85 W 90 

Pepper Grain 15 (<« 17 

Pimento 15 c^ 16 

Mustard, Cal., 
i lb glass 1 50 @ - 

SVCiAR, ETC. 

Cal. Cube, lb 13m - 

Powdered 13j^ — 

Fine crushed. 135('* — 

Granulated 13 (* — 

Golden C 10}i* 11; 

Hawaiian 10 (a 11 

Cal. Syrup, kgs... 75 @ 

Hawaiian Mol'sses 26 (^ 

TEA. 
Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 35 @ 50 

Country pckd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 50 (!» 60 

Hyson 30 (06 35 

Fooo-(31iowO 35 @ 60 

Japan, 1st quality 40 @ 60 

2d riuaUty 26 @ 35 



30 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



FRUIT MARKET, 

Apples, box 75 (* 1 75 

Apricots bx 75 (« 1 50 

Bananas, bnch.. 2 50 (f* 3 50 
Blackberries, ch. 4 50 (A 8 00 

Cherries 6 ({£ — 15 

Cocoanuts. 100.. 6 00 @ 

Figs, box I 00 (a 1 50 

Grapes, box 1 00 («: 2 00 

Limes. Mex 20 00 (cf 

Lemons, Cal M.26 00 (a35 00 

Sicily, bx — @18 00 

Oranges, Mex, 

M @ 

Tahiti 25 00 @ 

Cal 20 00 ^135 00 

Peaches, box EO (« 1 25 

do Basket 3(1 (« 75 

Pears, box 75 (* 1 00 

Pineapples, doz 6 00 (« 8 00 

Plums, box 1 00 (rf 1 50 

Raspberries 10 (« I2i 

Strawber'es.ch'st 3 00 (rt 7 00 
DRIED FRUIT. 

Apples, lb 5J(i* 8 

Apricots 10 (A 12J 

Citron 28 (* 



(WHOLESALE.] 

Wndnesday m., July 17, 1877. 



Raisins, Cal, bx 1 00 @ 2 00 



Malaga 3 00 _ 

Eante Currants.. 9 ^ 



10 



Figs, Black.. 

Wliite. , 
Peaches. . 

Pears 

Plums. . . 

Pitted. 



5 (a 

6 r<* 

8 (1* 

9 @ 
3 <a> 
121(<* 



VEGETABLES. 

Vsparagus. bx... 1 50 ^ 2 00 

ieets. ctl 60 (S 

Jabbagc. 100 lbs 87i(» 1 00 

Jainits 75 (f^ 

laulidower, doz 75 (ds 

Coin, doz 8 (T 15 

do Bay 20 (ft 25 

Cucumbers, box. 50 (w 75 
ariic. New. lb.. 1J(* 2 

Okra, lb e (rt 

feas. Sweet 31(5! 4 

Lettuce, doz 10^ — 

Parsnips, lb 

Peppers 

Potatoes, Swtet. 

Rhubarb 

Horseradish 

Sciuash. Marrow- 
fat, tn 30 00 C* 

Summer, do bx 40^ 50 

.String Beans 1 ^ 4 

Tomat's. bx 30 lb. 60 (ft- - 
do. Sacrain'to. 1 25 @ 1 50 

Turnips, ctl 1 00 @ 

White 1 00 m 

Wax Beana 3 @ 



LEATHER. 



(WHOLESALE. I 

Wednesday m,, .luiy 17. 1877 

Sole Leather, heavy, lb 26(1* 29 

Light 22 (ft 24 

Jodot, 8 Kil., doz 48 00 (ftSO 00 

11 to 13 Kil 68 00 (ft79 00 

14 to 19 Kil 82 00 (((94 00 

Second Choice, 11 to 16 Kil 57 00 (ft74 00 

Coruellian, 12 to 16 Kil 67 00 (ft67 00 

Females, 12 to 13 Kil 63 00 (ft67 00 

14 to 16 Kil 71 00 (rt76 50 

Simon UUmo, Females, 12 to 13 Kil 68 00 (ff62 00 

14 to 15 Kil 66 00 (rf70 00 

16 to 17 Kil 72 00 (*74 00 

Simon. 18 Kil 61 00 (ft63 00 

20 Kil 65 00 (ft67 00 

24 Kil 72 00 (a74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 36 00 ftf40 00 

Kins. French, lb I 00 @ 1 36 

C.U, doz 40 00 ^ 00 

French Sheep, all colors 8 00 (<rl6 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs, lb 1 00 (■* 1 25 

.Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, doz 9 00 0*13 00 

For Linings 5 50 (ftlO 5 

Cal, Russet Sheep Linings 1 75 (<« 4 50 

Boot Legs, French Calf, pair 4 00 (<* 

Good French Calf 4 00 (* 4 75 

Best Jodot Calf 6 00 (rt 5 25 

Leather. HarneBS. lb 35 (ffl 38 

Fair Bridle, doz 48 00 (ft72 00 

Skirting, lb 33 ^« 37 

Welt, doz 30 00 C'*50 00 

Huff, ft 18® 20 

WaxSide 17® 18 

Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro & Co. ] 

San FjiANCiHOO, July 11, 3 p. H. 

Leoal Tenders In 8. P., 11a. m., 95J. Silvbr, 5!<3& 
Gold in New Ytjrk. 1051 

Gold Bars, 880(»890. Silver Bars, 10@15 W cent, dia 
count. 

KxcnANOK on New York, 50(Be5S 100 W cent, premium for 
gold; on Lonilon bankers, 48^; Commercial, 49i; Paris, five 
francs V dollar; Mexican dollars. 94(ftU5. 

London Consols, 94|; Bonds, 1071. 

Quicksilver in S. V.. Ijy the flask. *> lb. 42@424c. 



"Cash Paid Pro.mptlv.' — May Bros., Qalesburg, 111 . 
want to hire agents for their late improved Windmill, the 
cheapest, strongest .uid best in usck Retail price, 950. 
Writ« for temui. 



[July 21, 1877. 



Agricultural Articles. 

The Famous '' Enterprise 

(PERKINS' PATENT) 

Self Regulating Farm 

Pumping. Railroad 

and Power 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures, 

Have been in use on the 
Pacific Coast in the towns 
and farming districts for 
ever four years, and wher- 
ever they have been sold 
(and there are thousands of 
them out) they are doing 
their work as well as when 
put up. A careful perusal 
of our Circulars gives a fair 
representation of them and 
shows their simplicity. 

We are prepared "to fill orders w o.^^s, Ironi a 

PU.MPING MILL to a 24-foot POVVKR MILL for ruiniini! 
Machinery, as well as doinf the pumping. 

All warranted. Address, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

Managers for California and Pacific Coast. 

ALSO BE.ST FliEU MILLS KOR SALE. 

General Office and Supplies, 

LIVERMOBB, ALAMEDA COUNTY, CAL. 




HOADLEY'S 

THRESHING ENGINES. 

PRICES. 

12-Hor8e Power $1250 

IS-Horse Power $1450. 




We have a few of these Kii^niL-.-s un luintl, which we can 
offer at the above 

VERY LOW PRICES. 

They are the latest style, and warranted t-t yive the power 
represented. Call or address, 

BERRY & PLACE, 

San Francisco. 



CAUTION. 



To Farmers and all others who put barba 
upon wire fences, making a barbed 
^re fence, and to all manufactu- 
rers and dealers in fence barbs 
and barbed fence w^ire. 



You are hereby notified, that in putting trarbs upon 
wire, making a barbed wire fence, or in usnig or dealinj; 
in barbs for wire or barbed fence wire, not made under 
license from us. you arc infrinf,'in;f upon our pjients, and 
we shall hold you strictly accountable for damages for all 
infringements of Letters Patent Nos. 6(5,1S2, «7,117 74 - 
379, S4,06-2, 15:!,!l«.5, 157.124, 157,508, 164,181, 1(55 601 
172,71)0, 17:(.4'.ll, 173,667, 180,3.51, 181,433, 186,389, 187,126, 
187.172; re-issue, Nos. 7,138, 6,976, 6,902, 7,035, 7,036 
6,913, 6,911. 

Copies 01 our claims can be obtained of our attorneys 
COBURN Jt THATCHER. Chicago, 111., or of our couns-el, 
THOS. H. DOUGE, Worcester, Mass. 

WASHBURN & MOEN MANUF'G CO., 

Worcester, Mass. 

I. L. ELLWOOD & CO., DeKalb, 111. 



TO FRUIT MEN. 
LILLIES' FRUIT FITTER, 

Pn^''''te'l March 7th, 1876. 

This machine [lits all 
the different kinds of 
stoned fruits, (cling- 
stones included) both 
rapidly and well, and 
without waste, and wjth 
entire satisfaction to all 
who have used it. 

It is a perfect suc- 
cess, and it does not 
depend upon i)res- 
snre upon the flesh of 
the fruit to extract the 
pit. It will pit an av- 
erase of 3,000 pounds 
of fruit per day. and is 
not liable to get out of 
order. This is the only 
Miichine that will pit 
licrrics successfully. 

Eor further par'ticu- 

rs anil terms, address 

H. JuNtS, bole Agent for Califtrnia, 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 

Choose a good companion 
only — one of Dewey & Jordan's 
"New York watches." 





iHAY&rWOOU 



AND 



Excava^ting IVTacliiiiery. 

Constantly on Hand and for Sale 

Tlie well known PRICE or PETALUMA HAY PRESS, the standard machine of 
its class ami the fastest tialing press known; over 500 in nse on this Coast. Price $450 

The IMPROVED ECLIPSE POWER PRESS, the simplest and best press ever made 
for the price, which is $300 

The IMPROVED ECLIPSE HAND-POWER PRESS, very compact and pow- 
erful $200 

The PRICE PRESS, (extra heavy,) for baling hay for shipment in box cars. Will pu- 
from nine to twelve tons in a bo.\ car. A very strong and powerful machine, fully warrant 
ted as to strength and capacity $600 

IV ADE TO ORDER. 

Hide Presses for baling dry hides for shipment to the Kast S500 

Presses for Hair, Wool, Rags, Hops, Moss, Broom Corn, etc., at reasonable ])rices. 

PRICE'S BOX EXCAVATOR or SELF-LOADING GRADING CART, 

the most remarkable labor saving machine that has been invented for years. Will move 
earth *,ny distance, from 50 to 2,000 feet at one-fourth the cost of the ordinary way. The 
large size, using four horses and carrying over one and a half yar<l.s at a load is worth .... $650 



The same machine, carrj'ing three-quarters of a yard and using two horses. 
Price's Draper Excavator, for making ditches from 10 to 20 feet wide 



$500 
$650 

There are conditions connected with the sale of excavators which will be explained upon appli- 
cation by letter or otherwise. Address 

I. J. TRUMAN, San Francisco. - - J. PRICE, San Leandro. 

Office, With BAKER & HAMILTON, 
No. 17 Front Street, San Francisco. 



H. W. JOHNS' PATENT 

ASBESTOS ROOFING AND ASBESTOS PAINTS, 

ASBESTOS CEMENT FOR LEAKY ROOFS 

Asbestos Eoof Paints for Leaky Roofs, 
ASBESTOS BOILER AND PIPE COVERINGS 




?OR SALE BY ALL COUNTRY MERCHANTS. 

Thompson & Upson, 5 First Street, n ar Market, S. F., 

EXCLUSIVE IMPORTERS FOR THE PACIFIC COA.ST. 



In conseiiiicitcc of spurious iuulalions uj 

LEA AND PERKINS' SAUCE, 

ivkich are calculaled to deceive ilie Public, Lea and Pcrrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 

thus. 



J6€. 



ivkich is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA L'CE, and 7vithout which none is genuine. 

Ask for LEA 6^ PERRIX'S' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label. BoUlc and Stopper. 
WllpUsale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester ; Crosse and B^ackwell, London, 
dfc, dr'c. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the IVorld. 

To be obtained cf CROSS & CO., San Francisco. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 







n 



o 



Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
in Stockton, in 1870. 

Tlii.s Plow is thoronsrhly made by practical men who 
nave been long in tlie business and know what is required 
in the construction of Ganff Plows. It is quickly adjusted. 
Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will' pass over 
cradle knolls without changing the working position of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wlieels themselves 
govern the action of the Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 
STOCKTON. CAL. 



Fraud! Fraud!! 

COLLINS & GO'S 

CAST, CAST STEEL PLOWS. 

FARMKRS nri- ciiutioneil against inferior coun- 
terfeit plows and i)oints which are bi/ing sold as 
genuine cast, cast steel. The Oenuiue St«eU are 
stamped with otir trade mark; 

COLUNS & CO. HARTFORD. 

I-ook for this Rtani]) liefore buying plows or 
shares, and secure the genuine. FuU particulars 
of new and improved plows sent to any address. 

COLLINS & CO., 
2 1 2 Water Street, New York. 



Seedsmen. 



SEEDS. TREES. 



SEEDS. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
ISLUE GRAS.S, RED TOP TlMuTHY, SWEET 
VERNAL, MKZUUITE and oilier Grasses. 
RED CLOVtU, FRKNCIl WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CAi^lFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Eu:. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERING BULBS, JAPAN LILIES. FRt.Mf AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE GUM, or "FtXER TREE" 
SEED; together with all kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 
425 Washington Street, - San Francisco 




B. K. BLISS & SONS, 

Importers, Growers and Dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flower Seeds, Dutch Bulbous Roots. Summer Flowering 
Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description. Cata- 
logues mailed to all applicants Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 34 Barclay Street, N. V. 



COFFEE SEED. 



Liberia Coffee. A fresh supply of this strong >-ariety 
just received from St. Paul's river, Liberia. For 
sale by 

EDWARD S. MORRIS & CO.. 

No 129 South Front St, Philadelphia, Pa. 



SPANISH CHUFA 
SEED FOR SALE. 



Address 

L. L. BEQUETTE, 

Downey City, Los Angeles 

County, Cal. 



TrAPfi Plants. Spring Lists free. 
I I ceo, XIX, Bloomington Nursery, Illinois. 



F. K. PHffi. 




^k SANTA BARBARA NURSERY, 

wfK^ Located seven miles west of .Santa Barbara, Cal. 
^Jto>. Depot, Cor. Montecito and Castillo Streets. 
JOSEPH SEXTON,* - ... Proprietor 

• CILTIVATOR or 

Fnilt, Nut and Ornamental Trees. Also, 
Orange, Lemon, Lime and Palm Trees, 
Pot Plants, and Hardy Ever- 
green Shrubbery. 



HENRY SHAW, 

VENTURA, VENTURA COUNTY, CAL., 

Wholesale Grower of 

ORANGE, LEMON and LIME TREES 

Geo. F. Silvester, Seedsman, 317 Washington Street, 
San Francisco, has samples and will fill orders. Trees 
sacked and bo.vcd so as to be safely transplanted at any 
season. Summer months the best for removal. 



E. GROTKASS, 

OOLIMA, MEXICO. 

DEALER IN REAL ESTATE. 
Information given free of charge. Lauds proc\u*ed for 
sale or for rents on easy terms. 



July 21, 1877.] 





Was awarded the Highest 




•x*. 



MEDAL AND DIPLOMA 

AT THE CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION FOR A READY MIXED PAINT 

THIS CELEBRATED PAINT IS MANUFACTURED BY THE 



THIS PRINT IS MIXED READY FOR USE. 

THE PUREST WHITE, AND OF ANY DESIRED SHADE OR COLOR. 

It will not peel, crack, nor chalk off, and will last twice as long as the best white lead, prepared in the ordinary 

way. Is cheaper, handsomer, more durable and elastic than the best of any other paint. 

Extract From the REPORT OF THE CENTENNIAL COMIVIISSIONERS. 

"This Paint is quite different from paints in general usp. * * * Work which has been done with it, some of it exposed for 
years to the moist atmosphere of the sea-shore, estabhshes its great durability. * * * It is mixed ready for use, easily applied, 
of great beauty, and economical." 

Extract From the REPORT OF THE FRENCH (CENTENNIAL) COM MISSION. 

"It possesses merits unattainable by the old method of combining paint. * * * It can be applied with great facility and per- 
fect regularity; dries with a rich, glossy surface, and will not chalk or crack off. * * * It never separates, is always ready for use, 
and will not spoil when exposed to the air. * * * It can be applied by any one whether a practical painter or not." 

For Sample Cards and Circulars, Address CALIFORNIA PAINT COMPANY, 27 Stevenson Street, S. F. 



WEBBER LAKE HOTEL ! 

DAVID G. WEBBER, M. D., - - PROPRIETOR. 

A. J. ANDERSON, Manager. 
Post Offlce Address, Tnickee, Cal. 

Hotel Open for Visitors From May 20th 
Until November 1st. 

WEBBER'S STAGE 

Leaves Truckee Tuesdays & Fridays, 

FARE, $3.00. 

BOATS. FISHING TACKLE, SADDLE 
HORSES AND WAGONS Fur- 
nished to Guests Free. 



Webber Lake is 6,825 feet above sea level, is well stocked 
with Silve' Trout, and 24 miles from Truckee, on the 
Henness Pass Itoad, surrounded by the highest peaks of 
the Sierra Nevada mountains. As a resort for families 
and lovers of rare scenery, excellent fishing and fine 
drives, this hotel excels all others. 



WATER! 



WATER! 



For Irrigation, For Mines, For Cities 
and Towns, For Houses, Fac- 
tories, For any Purpose. 

• 

The Cheapest and the best Pipe in the World. Easilj 
laid, easily tapped— practically imperishable. Anybody 
and everybody wanting the only really common sense 

WATER PIPE MANUFACTURED, 

• SEND TO 

AMERICAN PIPE CO., 

No. 22 California Street, San Francisco, 

For Descriptive Book and Price List. 



ANTIOCH FERRY. 

Kotice to Stockmen and the public in general that a good 
Forry Boat has bucn put on betwcL-u Antioch and CoUins- 
Tiile by tbe California Transportation Co-, and are prepared to 
move stock in lots to suit, as a large barge is connected with 
the boat. For particulars apply to tbe Company's office, at 

519 East Street, San Francisco. 

W. R« FIRMAN. Antiocb. WM. HARKIXS, ColUnsvill« 



o 
o 
a 

m 

< 
m 




H 

3P 

n 

> 

D 
O 

o 
o 



tillage Hook and. Ladder Truck. 

We manufacture three sizes of this truck, which is so equipped as to furnish a complete fire de- 
partment for villages, or an excellent auxiliary to a city fire department. For further information, 

Address PARKE & LACY, 417 Market Street- 



After Nearly Three Years' Test, the STEEL BARBED FENCE WIRE, Patented by 

J. F. GLIDDEN, Stands Head and Shoulders Above all Competitors, and 

Is More in Demand than all Other Barb Fences Put Together, 



§85^ 




VER 300,000 POUNDS SOLD IN CALIFORNIA THE FIRST SEASON OF ITS INTRODUCTION. THE (JLID- 
DEN PATENT BARB WIRE HAS BEEN TESTED BY THOUSANDS OF PRACTICAL FARMERS, WHO 
UNIVERSALLY RECOMMEND IT, AND IS SUPERIOR TO ALL OTHERS FOR THE FOLLOWING REASONS 

1, The wire is manufactured entirely from steel, which lias a relative Htreiig-tli of 50 per cent, jrreater than of 
any common iron wire. 2. The only steel wire barb. 3. Tlie only barb that cainiot be disiilaced with thumb 
and finger or cattle's horns. 4 The only barb with prongs projecting from between the twisted wire and cannot 
be bent, broken or rubbed off, and never needs replacing. 5. Tlie only coiled barb with broad base on main wire, 
which renders it immovable. 6. Tlic only barb wire during process of manufacture its strength is tested 
equal to that of two-horse power. The only barb put on with machinery. It is not pounded on with hammer 
and indented in main wire to hold it in place, 's. The only barb wire you can lay 80 rods or more on ground and 
drag with team and not injure or displace the barbs. 9. The only barb wire that gives universal satisfaction and has 
greater sale than all others put together. 



JONES, GIVENS & CO., Pacific Coast General Agents, 



Sacramento, Cal. 



Manufactured by Washburn & Moen Manufacturlngr Company. 



natuau A Pn/ 224 IPotontAn'tC Cfi ^'^E CARDS, Damask, Repp, Etc., with name on 
UOWey W vO. I Sansome St / raieni Hy IS. I OU 1» cent*. CLINTON BROS., Clintonvillc, Coim. 



H. H. H. 

HORSE MEDICINE, 

D. D. T.-I868, 

Is gaining a wide-spread notoriety. Testimonials from 
all parts of the coast show it to be a companion in every 
family. It quickly removes Wind Calls, Sjiavins. Callous 
Lumi»s, Sweeny, and all blemishes of the horse, while 
the family finds it indispensable for Sprains, Bruises, 
Aches, Pains, and wherever a gipod liniment is required. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's, 
Stockton, Cal. 



FARM FOR SALE 
COUNTY. 



IN NAPA 



The undersigned offers his lands in Foss Valley for sale, 
situated ten miles nortb of Napa City, containing 1,000 
acres; liOO choice grain land, well watered, having a stream 
of water ruiniing through the tract; also, has numerous 
flowing springs distributed over the same, has a good 
Dwelling House, Barn, Granary, Sheds and other out- 
houses, a good orchard, a small vineyard and a choice 
vegetable garden; has a great quantity of timber, enough 
to pay for the whole jilace. Any |>er8on wanting a choice 
stock and grain farm and a )>leasant home with a splendid 
climate, will do well to call and sec for himself. I will sell 
the same at cheap rates and easy tonus. I will subdivide 
aixl sell the following tracts to wit: one tract of 1,020 
acres, 100 grain and the balance good pasture land, at 
^T.^O i)er acre; ori- trncf "f 400 acres, .'JO tillable, also one 
tract of 100 HIT. - Ir. „i ■ t 'lable, at .410 per acre, either 
of which will ii.akc u ^...^^ ..onie. Ai)ply to the under- 
signed on the premises. WILLIAM CLARKE. 

Napa Co., Cal. P. O. Napa City, B«x 61 




48 



^Ssm^:^m nirm^x spbeib. 



[July 21, 1877. 



TWELFTH INDUSTI^IAL EXHIBITION, 



UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE 




INSTITUTE, SAN FRANCISCO, AUGUST Tth, 1877. 



'J'he Boartl of Managers have the honor to annouuce that the TWELFTH KXHIBITIOX will be opeiietl to the public 
TL'KSDA'S', AUGUST Tth, 1877, and continue open for at least 30 days thereafter. The Kxlntaitiou' will be held in 



Market, Eighth and Mission Streets, and easily accessible by six lines of City cars. 

THE EXHIBITION BUILDING-EXOTIC GARDEN-MECHANICAL ANNEX. 

The BUILDTN'C; is 200 feet wide, 550 feet long, ami 100 feet iiigh, with a gallery around the inside 50 feet wide, l)eside a 
promenade Hi feet «'ide and 1,000 feet in lengtli, from which an unob-itnicted view of the interior is obtained. 

Ina<lditiori to the above ai>ace tliere will be an K.KOTIC (iARI)KX, 70 by -JJO feet, for the display of the Fruits and Flow- 
ers of tliis Coast. Also, A MKCHANICAI, AXNK.\, 200 by ,50 feet, for the ilisplay of special Machinery. 

A large and powerfid engine will furnish the motive power for all machinery required to be in motion, while steam and water 
will be supplied in ample ((uantities to sucli machines or appliances as require them. The main line of shafting is 500 feet in 
length, with suliicieut pulleys for all recjuiremeute. 



THE ^I^/T O^LLEIE^IT 



reflectors. 



Is 400 feet in length and 50 feet wi<le, well lighted by skyliglits during the day and at night by the most improved reflectoi 
It will be made specially attractive, lioth in Pictures and Statuary. Many noted works of art are already promised, and it 
coutidently expected this deijartnient will e.xeel anytliing ever before seen on this coast. a a e 

Over 6,000 gas lights will be used to illuminate the liuilding during the evening. Four thousand seats will be provided tor 
visitors. Also, a first-class restaurant, wliere refreshments of all kinds can be obtained at moderate prices. 



A GRAND INSTRUMENTAL CONCERT 

Will be given each afternoon ami e\ening by an orchestra composed of the best musical talent on 
this coast, and under the leadership of an experieiioed and popular conductor. 

IPIE^EIMIIUnVCS. 

In accordance with the general request of exhibitors, the management have decided to offer 
liberal premiums at this Kxhibition, consisting of medals and cash, all to be for the first degree 
of merit only. The medals will be of a new design, three and one-half inches in diameter, and 
similar to those awarded at the late Ccnteunial exhibition. 

A carefully prepared classified list of premiums will shortly be published. 

Articles may be entered for competition or for exhibition only; if for the former they must 
be so designated when placed in position. 

It is important that all parties intending to contribute to this Exhibition should give early 
notice of the amount and kind of space required. 



A copy of the premium list, blank applications for space, rules and regulations, and any 
informatior* reganlnig the Kxhibition will promptly be given or sent by addressing the Secretary 
of the Twelfth Industrial Exhibition, San Francisco, L'al. 



BOARD OF MANAGERS: 



A. S. HALLIDIE, 
HEXRY L. DAVIS, 
ASA R. WELLS, 
JAMES SPIERS, 

H. L. HUTCHINSON, 

J. H. GILMORE, Sup't. 



.JAMES DKURY, E. L. RANSOME, 

JAMES DUFFY, GEORGE SPAULDING, 

A. L. FISH, H. S. SMITH, 

P. B. CORNWALL, J. B. STETSUN, 

C. WATER HOUSE. 

J. H. CULVER, Sec'y, 27 Post St. 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



IMPORTED. 
Crosby's Extra Early , 
Maxblehead Mammoth I Cj-rrmni- Hn-wm 
StoweU's Evergreen f OWecl UOm. 
Mexican Sweet, New ; 

SrDuttorj- Yellow Flint Corn 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzer. 

YeUow Globe . ggg^ Sesd. 

White Sugar ) 

ALSO, EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY OF VEGETA- 
BLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, GRASS AND 

CLOVER SEEDS, ETC , OFFERED AT 
WHOLESALE OR RETAIL. 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

No. 317 Washington Street, San Francisco 



SHERMAN BROWN, 




BINGHAMPTON, 
Five miles east ut Elniim, ; 
Station, bruedrr of I'un; 
and Ram< .in hninl and f.>r 



Solano Co., 

Old five miles soutli •>{ Dixon 
liloodcd MiTino Slieep. Kwcs 
Sale. S. liROW.S. 



HOLLY & MAGOON'S CULTIVATOR: 
Invented and Thorou.hly and SuccesJul y Tested in Ca ifornia. 



(Jones's Patent, May 
29th, 1877.] 




Tills cultivator \h made by practical men, after years of experience, and better meets tlie wants of Calitornia fanner 
tliim anvthini; before offered. .Made of the be.st material (with wood or iron frame), and warranted in everv respect 
PRICES REASONABLE. For full information, address 

HOLLY &. MAGOON, Stony Point, Sonoma Co., 

Or M. C. HAWLEY & CO., Agents, 301 Market St , San Francisco. 



THE BANKRUPT STOCK 

OF 

Liisr foi^th:, ;ECEijiLOoa- cSc co. 

For Sale Cheap, Consisting of 

Wagons, Gang Plow, Cast Steel Plows, Cultivators, Harrows, Seed Sowers, 

MOWERS, REAPERS AND HEADERS. 

Crape Crushers, Sugar Mills, Corn Planters, Fan Mills, Hay Cutters, Etc. 
CALL AND SEE BEFORE PURCHASING. 

DAVID N. HA"WLBY, Agent. - 211 Market Street, San Francisco. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, 1877. 

Colleges of Agriculture, Chemistry, Civil 

Engineering, Mechanics. Mining 

and Lietters. 



Examinations for adniis^i 
Term cummcDces Tlmr.sday 
all residents of California." 

.MAUTI.N KiCLLOGG, Dean of Faculty 



I. Au{,nit>t 8th, 0th, and lOtb. 
.\U'.rust 9ih. Tuition free to 



WANTED. 

By a Scotchman and Wife A Situa- 
tion to take ehari,'e of a ranch. The man thoroug-hly 
understands farmiii),', the cure of a vineyard, stock rai.finjj, 
or any work appertaining to a well-eondueled farm. The 
woman is a thorough cook and housckeei)er. The best of 
references will be given. Address office of Rceal Press. 



POLAND CHINA PIGS. 




A. J TWuGOOD. Riverside, CI., 

Has on hand and offers for Siile a lew pure blomled Pigs of 
this variet\' of Swine. Parties desiriiij,' tirstclitss stock 
are invited to examine my herd, or adcli'e.*» me as aboie. 
.\. .?. TUOliKOU. 



AGENTS WANTED 



In all Parts of the State, to Sell 



LLOYD'S NEW MAPS ! 



Especially Adapted far the use of Schools. 

G. W. LANGAN, 612 Clay Street. 



THE NEW SEEDLING PEACHES 

>V ihler. Saunders and Downing. Centennial award granted. 
Earliest exhibited. Trees and buds for sale. 

H. M. ENGLE i SON, Marietl*, Pa. 



S-Ml'A 



SELTZEE 




RIfllrnloiift IiIphh are t:iitertHiue<l a)>out nurgatlvee. It 
in "laiiKtTou.s lo HCwurge the stomach, to rasp the Ixtwols. to 
pruHtiute th ' nervous syRtein with furiotu ivacuants. Nature 
has givcn a sample, iu the lamous Seltzer Spriog, of what the 
biliuus. couKtipatcd. or dyspeptic flystcm netds for it« 
res.oratiou. and in 

Tarrant's Effervescent Seltzer Aperient 

SclencL- hLis improved on nature by combining all the valua 
Mf ingredients of th.- Gernmu Fountain in a portable form, 
and omitting those which have no m.-diclnal virtues Thici 
agreeabl ; and potent suline alt rative chauges the condition 
of the hlood and purilies all the fluids of the body. Sold i>y 
all druggJBtB. 



R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealer in 



FLOWERING PL-VNTS AND Bt'LBS, FRUITS AND 
ORNAJIENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 
Comprising the Most Complete Stock 
E\fpR OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Prices Unusually Low. 
^^Trade Price List on application. 
■,"My "Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden 
will soon be ready, anil will be sent frkk to aul CfSTO- 
MBRs. It will contain instructions on the culture of 
Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental Tree Seeds, Tobacco 
Alfalfa, etc. 

R. J. TRUMBUIA,, 

419 and 421 Sansome Street. S. F. 



Plymouth Rocks a Specialty. 

Prize stock, thoroughbred Plymouth Rock Spring 
Chicks now for sale. "The Plymouth R')ck combines 
ni'ire good qualities than any other fowl." Is being suc- 
cessfully introiluced in California, and is proving to be 
just the fowl for this climate. Now is the time to secure 
the best bargains in Spring Chicks. .\lso for sale, Eggs 
for hatching. C^ll on or addrcfis 

J. L. SKINNER, Pl«cer^^lle, El Dorado Co., Cal. 



This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South 10th 
St.. Philadelphia, & 59 Gold St., Cor. Anii.N. Y. 




Volume 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 



A Famous Trotting Stallion. 

Some months ago we gave an engraving show- 
ing the leading characteristics of the Norman 
horse. This week we show a thoroughbred 
trotting horse, which is a type of a race of ani- 
mals largely used for the improvement of the 
common horses of the country. This is the in" 
terest which we have in trotting animals. 
Speed is a very valuable characteristic in the 
horses which are bred for general purposes, and 
from the thoroughbred trotting stallions this 
element of speed must 
come. The nobilities 
of the horse are not 
bedimmed by the 
abuses of the race 
track. The horse is 
"Administrator," and 
he is owned by Col. 
Stevens, of Pough- 
keepsie, one of the 
leading New York 
horse breeders. We 
have never seen the 
animal, but the like- 
ness is pronounced 
faithful and lifelike. 
"Administrator" was 
sired by Rysdyk's 
"Hambletonian," his 
first dam, a fast trot- 
ting mare, by ' 'Mam- 
brino Chief," his sec- 
ond dam by ' 'Arabian 
Tartar," third dam by 
"Duroc Messenger," 
and, in addition, noth- 
ing more need be said 
of bis breeding as an 
impressive trotting 
sire than to refer to 
the fact that he is the 
nearest possible com- 
bination of the blood 
of the two great trot- 
ting families of Rys- 
dyk's "Hambltto- 
aian" and "Mambrino 
Chief," that have pro- 
duced themselves, and 
through their sons and 
daughters, over l'2'i 
performers that have 
made a record of 2:30 
or better. This horse 
is described by Mr. 
"H. T. H.," in his 
work on trotting stal- 
lions, as follows, viz. : 
"He is a large and 
compact horse, in color 
a rich glossy brown 
— almost black — and 
late in the season 
shows a very rich dis- 
play of bay or wine 
color about the muzzle 
and flank. He stands 
fully 16 hands high, 
but has not the ap- 
pexrauce of a tall 
horse. His head is 
clean, bony and well- 



is noticeably large and prominent; but the great 
excellence of his conformation of hind quarters 
lies in the distribution of the muscular com- 
bination from the hip to the croup all the way 
down to the quarters and thighs, and the ab- 
sence of massing of muscle above the second 
thigh at the expense of other portions of his 
near framework. In trotting he shows his feet 
well out in front, and bends his knees admir- 
ably, but without lifting them too high, and his 
hind feet extend well backward, but the steady 
and powerful stroke with which they are 
brought up under his body and sent forward, 



Feeding Rusty Hay and Straw. 

As our readers know, there was considerable 
rusty straw in our grain fields a month or so ago, 
and some grain was cut for hay in the thought 
that else the fungus would make it worthless. 
It has always been known that there was a cer- 
tain amount of danger involved in feeding such 
hay or straw to stock, especially to cows carrying 
calves. We will remind our readers of this 
fact that they may keep their pregnant animals 



gives him the momentum of a very powerful | from such risk. The London Atjriculturnl Qa- 




TROTTING STALLION "ADMINISTRATOR." OWNED BY COL. F. 



POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y. 



OU or Otto of Lemon. 

As one of the possibilities in the way of using 
our present and prospective lemon crops, it is 
well to remember the oil of lemon. If we begin 
the enterprise of extracting citric acid from the 
pulp, it ■\vill be of advantage to luiow how to 
turn the skin to account also. The lemon is 
grown for its essential oil or otto chiefly in Sic- 
ily and Calabria. The lemons are t;athered in 
November and December, before tully ripe, the 
small or irregular fruit being selected for the 
extraction of the otto. 
The process of oltain- 
ing it is described as 
foUows, from personal 
observation by Han- 
bury, in the Pharma- 
cographia: 

The workman first 
cuts oft' the peel in 
three longitudinal 
slices, leaving the cen- 
tral pulp of a three- 
cornered shape, with a 
little peel at either 
end. This central 
pulp " he cuts trans- 
versely in the middle, 
throwing it on one 
side and the pieces of 
peel on the other. 
The latter are allowed 
to remain until the 
next day, and are then 
treated thus: The 
workman, seated, 
holds in the palm of 
his left hand a flattish 
piece of sponge, wrap- 
ping it round his fore- 
ringer. With the 
other he places on the 
sponge one of the slices 
of peel, the outer sur- 
face downwards, and 
then' presses the zest 
side (which is upper- 
most) so as to give it 
for the moment a con- 
vex instead of a con- 
cave form. Tlie vesi- 
cles are thus ruptured, 
and the oil (otto) 
which issues from 
them is received in the 
sponge with which 
they are in contact. 
Four or live squeezes 
are all the workman 
gives to each slice of 
peel, which done he 
throws it aside. 
Though each bit of 
peel has attached to it 
a small portion of 
pulp, the workman 
contrives to avoid 
pressing the latter. 
As the sponge gets 
saturated, the work- 
man wrings it forcibly, 
receiving its contents 
in a coarse earthen 



shaped, not like that of "Hambletonian," and 
havmg only a slight resemblance to tliat of the 
"Mambrino Chief" family, from which his dam 
came. His head, as well as his body and limbs, 
has no element of coarseness, but showing strong 
and positive outlines. It has the width of fore- 
head, depth of brain, and clear, prominent eye, 
that marks the family of "Abdallali." His jaw 
and throat are as fine and clear as could be asked, 
and his ear is thin and well set on, and his neck 
of handsome length, carrying his head at a 
proper angle, gives him as fine a forward ap- 
pearance as could be desired by the most fas- 
tidious. His shoulders and body are as good, 
strong and evenly formed, for a horse of such 
great compactness, as can be found anywhere. 
His hind leg is a little straighter, but other- 
wise not unlike that of "Hambletonian;" and 
the thigh is noticeably long and very powerful; 
quarters very heavy, and the great muscle com- 
ing down within 12 inches of the hock. His 
outer muscle on the second thigh or gaskin 



trotter, but for all this, his way of going be- 
tokens the greatest ease. The muscles of the 
body and of the limbs and quarters work in 
such perfect harmony as to secure this easy and 
steady appearance in his trotting action. His 
hocks cannot be surpassed in strength, form or 
soundness, and in all I have seen of his produce 
of full age, two-year-olds, yearlings and young 
foals, I have not seen or heard of an unsound, 
defective or ill-formed hock among them. His 
body is evenly formed throughout, and of the 
most muscular pattern." Mr. Helm closes his 
I complimentary description of this horse as fol- 
lows, viz: "If we look for great excellence in 
any line of breeding, there is certainly much to 
commend to our favorable consideration a large 
and powerful animal, so perfect and faultless as 
the subject of the present sketch, when he is 
also the best and most perfect combination and 
union of the two families that have given to 
this country, respectively, a 'Lady Thome' and 
a 'Goldsmith \Iaid. ' 



STEVENS. 
zette says: " The fact th.at the straw of ordi- 1 bowl, i)rovided with a spout, 



narily mildewed grain has often the same inju- 
rious action upon pregnant anini.als is, however, 
by no means generally recognized. Many ap- 
parently insignificant vegetable parasites arc 
possessed of this dangerous property in a 
greater or less degree, and the fungus known as 
Pitecinia i/ramiiiin ('red rust,') is especially 
active. Instances are just recorded in the dis- 
districts of Husum and Rendsburg, in Schles- 
wig-Holstein, of general abortion throughout 
the stud of brood mares, caused by the use of 
straw contaminated by this fungus. " 

Smut is more generally recognized as a dan- 
gerous substance to enter the animal system and 
yet our prairie friends forget it in their jjrac- 
tice. A veterinary surgeon writes to the /nter- 
Ocmii : The cornfields were extensively affected 
with smut last season, and we are constantly 
in receipt of complaints from all parts of the 
West of cattle dying after being turned out to 
feed on the cornstalks. 



In this rude ves- 
sel which is capable of holding at least three 
])ints, the oil sei)aratos from the watery luiuid 
which accompanies it, and is then decanted. 

In France, according to the same authority, 
the process is conducted in a different way. A 
vessel called an ernelle a pii/ner is there em- 
ployed for the separation of the otto. This ves- 
sel is a pewter, funnel-shaped dish, armed on 
the inside of the bottom with a number of stout, 
sharp brass pins half an inch long. Tlie work- 
man, taking the lemon in his hand, rubs it over 
the i)iiis, turning it around so that it may be 
punctured over the entire surface, and the ott o 
thus liberated flows down into a short tube be- 
low the pins, which as it becomes full is emp- 
tied into another vessel to settle. The lemon 
peels, after expression, are distilled; yielding an 
additional quantity of otto, which is, however, 
of very inferior fragrance. 

Lemon otto, obtained by expression, is a 
light yellow liquid of delightful odor. 



50 



^^Qmm aioriu^s muu». 



[July 28, 1877. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Valley Pictures and Mountain Views. 

(Written for the Riral Trkss by M m i,ik Srii n>Kii. 1 

It was early morning in July. The very name 
July smacks of firecrackers, American flags, 
patriotism, oppressive heat, dust, and all the 
glorious associations that cluster around our 
national anniversary. But in tliis instance the 
glorious Fourth had passed. It was the sixth, 
and the smoke from the patriotic guns had 
rolled away, business had again settled down in 
its old channel, ami in a comfortable vehicle 
with my "gooder half" we left our home in the 
picturesiiue little valley of Berryessa — our desti- 
nation being Grand island, Colusa county. 
Down the canyon, which is the natural outlet 
of the valley, we wended our way; the morning 
being balmy and pleasant, the air laden with 
the delicious perfume of wild grape blooms, wild 
roses and the odor of the flashing waters of the 
crystal stream of Putah. On either side the 
mountains, grand and imposing, reared their 
peak-like battlements. .\ ride of a few miles 
brought us to 

•'The Devil's Gate," 
A romantic mass of large boulders, between 
which the old road of Putah canyon formerly ran. 
A suljihur spring in the vicinity, from which 
we drank freely and wliich we coupled with 
the Satanic title of tlie gate, was strongly sug- 
gestive of brimstone ami things not at all pleas- 
ant to contemplate. Here is the clividing line 
of Napa and Yolo counties. It is written in 
large white letters on the black face of the rock, 
and at the right corner of Solano county juts 
out a huge mass of mountainous rock. A few 
miles further on we jiass the vegetablo farms in 
the vicinity of the renowned 

Pleasant Valley. 
Here grow the earliest vegetables that are 
brought to the San Francisco market. Acres 
and acres of tomatoes, beans, siiuash, etc., with 
bands of Chinese gathering them were seen. 
But tiie recent "hot spell" prfived very disas- 
trous to these farmers, as many vegetables were 
badly burned. Turning a point we sw-eep over 
undulating hills and tiud ourselves in full view 
of a young city of the plain- -Winters, a town 
of some two or three years' growth, but of 
several hundred inhabitants and considerable 
activity, being for two seasons the terminus of 
the Vai:a Valley railroad. Passing thence our 
course lies nortiiward, and snon we are on the 
broad, o])en plain of the .Sacramento valley, 
devoiil of tree or slirub, but one vast endless 
grain tield, and judging from the stacks of 
wheat and tlie straw in the summer- fallowed 
fields, the yield has been good. The eye rests 
on many substantial farm houses, with culti- 
vated orchards and vineyards; others arc mere 
tenant houses, small and dark and dreary-look- 
ing, and all glinting and glowing in the hot rays 
of a July suu. But bovond and far what do we 
behold! 

A Crystal Lake 
Of clear transparent water, in wliich the reflec- 
tions of gram stacks and houses were plainly 
visil)le. We urge our steeds onward; let us 
bathe the hot eyes and cool the burning brow 
in the limpid waters of the beautiful lake. Tlie 
vision fades, it is only the mir,%ge of the plains. 
Years .ago, tired and thirsty, how oft we saw 
the same thing on the Colorado deserts, where, 
in the limitless expanse of sand and sky it lured 
the thirsty traveler on a very ijthw r'atuus. 
With the mirage of the plains and a liot north 
wind to face, we are not sorry to halt for a brief 
rest and refreshment at the infant village of 
Madison, the terminus of the Vaca Valley rail- 
road. Resuming our journey we soon reached 
Langville, Capay valley, a village sheltered from 
the ]>lains and hugged close to the foot of the 
mountains. Crossing Cache creek, here we 
are again on the broad plains; our next place of 
interest being the Hungry Hollow hills, an un- 
varying roll of hills with the pitiless sun beam- 
ing down upon us. Ere long we enjoy a more 
pleasant feature of country. Over the hill, tops 
of trees are seen, and soon we are in a beautiful 
belt of forest land, and hail with pleasure tlie 
inviting shades and sweet wiiuls tliat sweep 
through the woods. Such droves of rabbits and 
hare, scampering and galloping in every direc- 
tion ! and the air is vocal with the songs of 
birds. 

A Night Under the Sky 
But darkness is closing around us as we 
emerge from the woods. We must get to some 
place for the night to water and feed our horses; 
for ourselves ample provision has been made— a 
roll of blankets and a vi%\\ HUed lunch box being 
gutticient for the night's comfort. The god of 
day had disappeared between the dim rim of 
land and sky before we halted at a farm house 
for the night's re.-it. Here our wants were sup- 
plied and the kinil liostess invited us to enter, 
but preferring to "camp out," we made a lire, 
boiled a ])ot of delicious coffee, fried some steak, 
and in the sweet, cool wind enjoyed supper by 
the light of the camp lire. Our blankets were 
spread on the friendly side of a hay stack, and 
we were glad to rest. The line of light in the 
western horizon is fading, far off we hear the 
lonesome too whitl too whoo! of an owl; the 



sound of the horses munching their hay, the 
sleepy note of some drowsy bird borne on the 
invigorating night wind, greet the ear. Above 
are the stars, tranquil and beautiful, our only 
canopy. There is a short prayer breathed for 
the loved ones at home, a thought of the dear 
old friends at the end of our journey, a dim 
gleam of the wonders of God's creation with 
the wonls "the heavens declare the glory of 
God and the tirmament showeth His handi- 
work.'' Then sense and sound is lost and we 
drop into forgetfulness. The gray dawn of 
morning was just breaking as the clarion notes 
of the morning bird roused us from a long rest- 
ful sleep. How strangely, brightly beautiful 
the stsrs .shone down over the darkijosom of the 
slumbering earth! How cool and sweet came 
the morning wind, bearing in its low whispers 
the variable noises of awakening nature. Break- 
fast was soon prepared and we resumed our 
journey. The broad Sacramento valley was be- 
fore and arouiKl us. In the distance a timbered 
line of (lark green trees 8h(>wed us where the 
noble river run. Beyond were the "Butt es," 
bold, rocky, and awe inspiring, and in the back- 
ground, dim, and almost undetinable, we saw 
the faint outline of the beloved Sierras; my Hist 
view of them for many, many years. Entranced 
by the beauty and lost in the pleasant recollec- 
tions of the by-gone times, we scarcely heeded 
the time till the pretty little village of 

College City 
Was in sight, with its handsome church sjure 
and neat i)rivate residences. The land in this 
vicinity was formerly a large sheep pasture and 
owned by a gentleman, Mr. Pierce. Dying, he 
left the proceeds of liis property for the purpose 
of erecting a Christian church and college, 
known as Pierce Christian college, which is a 
flourishing institution, and for its age and loca- 
tion, one of the finest institutions of learning in 
the country. We passed the handsome little 
church, in the grounds of which repose the re- 
mains of this friend of humanity. There is a 
modest marble monument over the grave, but 
the work planned l)y his brain an<l dictated l>y 
his heart will live long after the marble has per- 
ished; its influence for good will be felt through 
generations. Northward and tow.ards the bluff's 
we directed our course from here. 
The StovaU Ranch 
Being the desired haven. About nooii, weary 
and dusty we arrived there, and the hearty 
welcome, given by beloved friends, more than 
compensated for the journey. The ranch is a 
tract of 10,0(K) acres, owned by J. C. Stovall & 
Co., liut farmed by A. filark &■ Sons, of Na])a 
county fame. They cultivate something like 
10,000 acres. The grain in the summer-fallowed 
fields was rtne. ^^'e found them running five 
beailers and one thresher. It was the hour of 
noon, and as the " hands" turned out for dinner 
and flled towards the house, a distance of two 
or three miles, men and horses resembled an 
army of soldiery. Here, weary, we found wel- 
come and rest, and the next day a visit to the 
home of J. C. Stovall was an additional charm 
to our journey. Embowered by tree and vine, 
this valley is a very oasis in a desert, a green- 
spot in the wilderness, and not the least charm- 
ing feature of it is the accomplished dark-eyed 
dau'diter, whose deft care and patient love for 
an invalid mother goes far towards making 
home a paradise. 

Two days later we find ourseltes with a 
party of friends en route for 

Grand Island. 

Wc pass the town of Willamg, or Centralia, 
a place iif thrift and activity, and now the 
terminus of the railroad from Woodland. 
In the center of a rich and vast farming section, 
it is destined to become a place of considerable 
importance. It is now suffering from the 
effects of the late fire, but will soon rise anew 
from the ruins. But the day is growing warm 
and we have yet several miles to travel. A 
grand sweep of open country, with the bold 
Buttes iu front and the dark line of trees mar- 
gining the river growing nearer. We go through 
grain fields, pass corn patches and cosy little 
houses, nestled deep among gigantic sycamore 
and oak trees, ere we reach the slough, on the 
otl^er side of which dwell those old companions 
of our early years. The bridge is crossed and 
the gate opened, and though nearly 18 years 
have passetl since we stood f<ice to face, the 
cordial grasp of the hand and words of hearty 
welcome assure ua that time has not so com- 
pletely wrecked our once youthful looks but 
tliat the resemV>lancc can be traced. We find 
here Mr. and Mrs. Burlis, the brothers .\I. and 
G. Stinchfield, and Wni. Wright, old Nevada 
miners of "JO years ago, who were many years 
our old-time friends and companions. Time 
has dealt kindly with them, and though there 
are a few gray hairs and lines of care on the 
brow that were not there 20 years ago, the hearts 
are still young and true to old friendships. 
Truly " there is naught on earth more beauti- 
ful or excellent or fair than the face of a friend," 
and a friendship that survives the wrecks and 
disasters and misfortunes of two decades is 
"better than diamonds." Here we spent a 
day under the generous shade of the sycamore, 
recounting old scenes and memories, rambling 
iu the beautiful woods, where we cut our names 
on the liark of a grand old tree, unmindful, 
meanwhile, that our ages were counting up 
among the 40'8, 5()'s and even the tjO's, and 
that our Iwys and girls were grown men and 
women. Hut time sped away, and with many 
a kind good-bye and promise to meet again, the 
morning suu found us homeward bound. 
Monticello, Napa county, July 17th, 1877. 



^E\aQE\lcJLXdf^E. 



The Almond Tree. 

Editors Prf-is:— I am a constant reader o( your paper, 
from which ) derive much valuable Information, and I 
have waited some time in hope of fliidinjj a'>aio reference 
to the preparation of almonds. I have given some atten- 
tion to jjrowinK this fruit in the Coast range, my trees 
producing well, but the fruit becomes discolored from 
some cause, and, although in no manner injuriug the 
tiavor, it gives the nut a dark appearance, and I would 
like to know how this can be remedied. Would it be ad- 
visable to pick the fruit before the husk drops off ? In 
what manner should the fruit be treated bo as to give the 
nuts the same bright color as the imported article. 
— CosBTA.sT Header, S. F. 

Editors Press:— I see by various queries 
from subscribers of the Press tbat a great deal 
of trouble is experienced by them in raising 
almonds, while in the southern part of the 
State there is a general" complaint about the 
strange behavior of both almond, peach and 
plum trees, all very naturally looking to you 
for a remedy to check the increasing evil. As 
you ask me'whe"tlier I could throw some light 
on this peculiar condition of fruit trees, I will, 
therefore, do my best iu enlightening your 
reatlers on these questions of much importance 
to them. 

Some of your querists seem to think that the 
trouble concerning almond trees is confined to 
this State. This is a big mistake, for in Lan- 
guedoc and Provence, where moat soft-shell 
almonds are raised, for years the trees have 
been so little productive that the people there 
have almost given up their culture in large 
orchards. The almond tree, in fact, used to 
bloom in February, and the natural result was 
a yearly large crop of almonds; but now it 
blooms a great deal earlier — in January — and 
although there are no late frosts to do the trees 
any harm, the blossoms produce but little fruit, 
which is due to the dry and cold wind blowing 
from the northwest in that month anil at the 
very time the blossoms are shaping themselves 
into fruit. I should not be siirjirised that on 
the (.'oast range and that jxirtiou of California 
exposed to the dry and cold wind from the 
north or that from the sea, right when the trees 
are in full bloom or almonds alreaily shaped 
but tender, the fruit is affected iu the very 
sime manner. 

The almond tree will generally thrive and 
produce better in light, sandy, even rocky but 
w^arm soil, on dry and barren hills, and apart 
from the late frosts to which the almond tree is 
subjected in the foothills of the Sierr^. I have 
no doubt that in the latter it would grow ami 
bear better than anywhere else through the 
State. They bear immense crops up here 
every time tlie late frosts spare them, which is 
one year iu three, for they seem to be at home 
in the red loam of our mountains. 

One of your querists complains that with him 
the fruit becomes discolored, and although it 
does not change in any manner the llavor, it 
gives the nut a dark appearance. As I under- 
stand it, it is the shell that is darker than that 
of the imported article. I suppose it is due 
only to the variety kept by your correspondent; 
let him try another one. "Then, says he, would 
it lie advisable to pick the fruit before the husk 
drops off? It is not necessary in California, 
thanks to our very dry climate; but be sure to 
have them picked before the fall rains. The 
nuts that drop naturally from the tree are al- 
waj^ the largest and finest ones, so that two 
separate lots might lie made; such nuts, too, are 
the best ones for obtaining seedlings for the nur- 
sery or new varieties. 

1 cannot but too much recommend our nur- 
serymen to experiment on almond seedlings, 
and in that way originate new varieties. The 
almond very seldom reproduces itself exactly 
from the seed, and this is the reason why it is 
generally budded. What is said here of the al- 
mond tree applies a.<* well to any otlier fruit 
tree. We ought in California pay more atten- 
tion to seedlings, regenerate old varieties, orig- 
inate new ones, which all might be better 
adapted to our noil and peculiar climate. This 
is a hint which I hope your nu>re intelligent 
readers will act upon. 

As to the dropping off of almonds after being 
half grown, I do not believe that the dryness of 
the soil has precisely anything to do with it, 
the almond tree, having a tap root, being able 
to stand the drouth as well as any other tree 
that I know. The nuts, iu this case, must have 
been affected either by previous dry north 
winds or frost. 1 have planted almond trees in 
places which in summer are as dry and hot as 
any in southern California; even among the pine 
trees they ilid thrive very well without any 
irrigating whatever. But I planted them in 
large, deep holes, and in the manner I have de- 
scribed at length iu the Pbes.s a year or two 
ago. At this time of writing such trees are as 
green as those irrigated; the only difference is 
111 the former having the terminal buds already 
formed, while the latter are still growing out. 

Another important item about the almond 
tree and which, I expect, many of your readers 
are not aware of, is that its leaves constitute an 
excellent food for cattle, more particularly 
goats and sheep; it would be, therefore, very 
desirable that the culture of that tree be carried 
on a large scale in our southern counties, where 
feed for cattle and sheep runs so short in cer- 
tain years. Then in productive years a large 
crop of almonds miglit be so obtained almost as 
a volunteer crop. 

Last, I will here state that the wood of the 
almond tree is hard, much used by cabinet- 



makers and in manufacturing all kinds of 
handles. 

I will now say a few words on 

The Fruit Tree Pbenomena 

In the last numtiers of the Prfs.s I have read 
letters from Messrs. Berwick, Cadwell, Hatch, 
Sexton, Hall and others on the strange be- 
havior of fruit trees in southern California. 
Here I never witne88e<l such a thing, so that I 
cannot speak of it by direct observation; how- 
ever 1 am led to believe, like Mr. Cadwell, of 
Carpinteria, that the unusual dry and open 
winter of last year had more to do with this 
phenomena than any other thing yet advanced. 
The way it looked, the autumn for those bloom- 
less and leafless trees lasted six mouths instea<l 
of two, keeping the sap stationary during that 
length of time. But I am surprised that none 
of your correspondents, at the time their trees 
generally leaf out, didn't have the idea of look- 
ing anyhow at the roots; dig out a hole close 
by the trees and examine in what condition soil 
and roots were at a depth of two feet. I should 
not be surprised that in most cases the planting 
of fruit trees in that part of the State was totally 
defective, holes not being dug oat deep and 
large enough. I have tried for trees and grape- 
vines small and large, shallow and deep noles, 
some without anything thrown iu the bottom, in 
others using ashes, compost, plantdebris, manure. 
I found out that without irrigating the small 
and shallow holes did not do well, losing even 
part of the vines; in <leep holes well stuffed, 
vines and trees look as luxuriant as if watered. 
In my idea the drier is a soil and climate, the 
deeper must the holes be, so as to make the 
roots plunge into the bottom, hunting down 
after the little moisture held in the ground at 
a depth of several feet. In years past 1 have 
so examined the condition of tlie soil and roots 
in the middle of summer. At six inches from 
the surface I ftmnd the soil as dry and wann as 
on the surface, at 1 S inches it was equally au 
dry, but cooler, and the roots were looking 
fresh and sound, imliedded, as they were, in 
that hard, yellow loam of our mountains; push- 
ing my investigation to the bottom of the hole, 
two good feet deep, I found that the roots had 
been drawn to that bottom by the stuff I always 
throw in my holes, they catching below that 
enough moisture to make them thrive well 
during our hot, rainless summer. 

Felix Gillet. 
Nevada City, .luly liHh, 1877. 
While we do not doubt that our valued con- 
tributor is practically correct concerning the 
feeding of almond leaves to cattle, we should 
like to have him state whether there is any dif- 
ference between the leaves of different varieties. 
We read in the -American Encyclopedia that 
" The leaves of all the varieties of iimyijtlaU'i 
contain hydrocyanic acid and are often danger- 
ous. '' The prussic acid in bitter almonds is ap- 
parent, though not in the fruit in sufficient 
amount to be dangerous. The same aci<l in 
peach leaves is detecteil by taste. Does the 
encycloj)edia exaggerate the amount in the 
leaves, or are there some varieties not danger- 
ous?— -Ens. PKEiiS. 



Arizona Trees. 

As much interest is now manifested in Ari- 
zona, both in our State and in the East, it will 
be valuable to know some of its timlter re- 
sources. One of the editors of the San Luis 
Obispo Tribune has lately returned from a visit 
to the Territory and writes as follows of Ari. 
zona trees: 

The Mezquite 
This is the most common and useful tree in the 
country, growingalmost everywhere where there 
is a reasonable amount of soil. Its botanical 
name is Prosopii glandulosa, being the a/yoro6t<J 
of the Mexicans. It belongs to the family of 
mimosa, and has leaves similar to the delicate 
Mimona sensUiva, whose nerves are so delicate 
that with every breath of wind or touch from 
another object they shrink together as though 
stricken by the hand of death. The folia,, e is 
both sparse and delicate, giving the tree a some- 
what ragged appearance. It has broad, low 
spreading tops, the limbs often reaching down 
to the ground. The wood is hard and brittle 
when old, but when young and thrifty, as the 
second growth invarii.bly is, resembles the black 
locust in grain, texture and durability. It is 
seldom found, however, of a quality fit for other 
use than fuel, for which it can hardly be ex- 
celled. It bears long pods filled with small 
beans and a sweet pulp, of which the Indians 
and animals are exceeilingly fond. There are 
two other varieties of the mezquite known as 
the "screw bean," from its screw-shaped pods 
and "cat's claw" from the innumerable claw 
shaped prickers which line the branches. The 
whole family are a tliorny tribe and keep intru- 
ders at a reasonable distance. From the hard- 
ness of the wood, the dry branches are best pre- 
pared for fuel by use of a sledge hammer, from 
which fact has arisen the saying in Arizona, 
"we chop wood with a sledge hammer and cut 
hay with a hoe," all of which is literally true. 
Another anomaly and almost as great a curiosity 
as the tree cactus is the 

Ochotea. 
This grows almost everywhere and is oxceedin|jly 
useful We have been unable to learn ita 
botanical name, but fancy it is either a euphor- 
lia, or nearly allied thoreta It grows in 
bunches of from a dozen to 20 stalks, all radia- 



July 28, 1877.] 



ting from one crown above the surface of the 
ground. It attains a hight of 10 to 15 feet, 
each pole gracefully curving outward from the 
center of the cluster, thus forming a large circle 
at the top. When each individual stalk is ter- 
minated with its long spike of bright red flow- 
ers they are beautiful objects. The plant is de- 
void of leaves for nine-tenths of the year, and 
when showing any they are small and unat- 
tractive. The thorns — for what is there in this 
hot-bed of desert sands and volcanic mountains 
that is not covered with thorns and prickers — 
are arranged around the stalks in screw-like 
form. They are an inch and upwards in length 
but not .so sharp and hurtful as those of the 
cactus family. The bark is a waxy green, horn- 
like substance, so hard that a pocket knife will 
make no impression upon it. It flowers in 
April and May, and where found in forests, as 
far as the eye can see, is a gorgeous sight. It 
is used in roofing houses and making corrals. 
For the latter, it is planted in a trench, so close 
together that the thornstouch each other and left 
standing from four and a half to five feet above 
the ground. They soon take root and make a 
live fence through which nothing will attempt 
to go. 

Olneya Tesota. 
This is another tree of thorns, but less plenti- 
ful than meaquite. Its local name is "iron 
wood" from the hardness of the fiber. It has 
little foliage and that little neither ornamental 
nor useful. It is a dark grained wood a trifle 
harder if possible than the mezquite. Its scar- 
city prevents its utilization for domestic pur- 
poses. Another useless but quite ornamental 
shrub is the 

Desert Willo'w, 

Which is believed to be Pentslemon linarioides. 
This is a graceful willowy shrub, growing from 
ten to fifteen feet high, with lance shaped leaves 
eight to ten inches long and about three-eighths 
wide, of a pale green color, distributed at long 
intervals along the branches. The flowers are 
borne in long terminal spikes, upon every 
barnch. . They are balsam shaped, of a pale pur- 
ple, blotched in the center with darker spots of 
the same color. They exhale a sweet perfume 
upon the desert air, thus reminding one by 
sight and smell of fairer lands, where nature, 
more profuse in her gifts, has prepared a fitting 
habitation for her lord and master, man. The 
finest specimens of this shi'ub, which we saw, 
were invariably found growing along the sandy 
washes between mountain chains and where it 
would appear the roots could never find moist- 
ure short of the antipodes. We brought seeds 
home with us and now have a fine crop of seed- 
lings, which we hope to grow to maturity. 
Along the few streams we saw in our travels, 
we found the 

Cottonwood, Willow and Sycamore, 

But seldom in quantities sufficient for domes- 
tic purposes. In the mountains, high up and 
inaccessible, we saw yellow pine, cedar, fir, 
white oak, live oak and black walnut, the lat- 
ter of a small stunted gi'owth. Then in there el- 
evated regions there is the inevitable manzanita, 
scrub oak and mountain mahogany. Unfortun- 
ately in no part of the Territory we visited did 
we see any timber that can be used for building 
purposes, thus throwing the people back upon 
the stores of mud and straw, which, combined 
by experienced men, are worked into adobe 
houses, comfortable at least, and occasionally 
spacious and home-like. This lack of timber is 
a drawback tiiat not even the most fertile land 
in the world can entirely overcome, but taken 
in connection with sterility vast, and by nature 
complete, it works a hardship of no usual mag- 
nitude. 



The Coming Grape Crop. 

The grape crop, says the San Francisco Bul- 
k/in, promises to be the largest and best ever 
produced in California. It is the one crop 
which is not affected by drouth, except to make 
it more perfect. The vines are remarkably 
vigorous and everywhere have a healtliy look, 
Besides, there is a considerable area of vines 
which have come into bearing this year. These 
were set three years ago, and are now in their 
early prime. How is the grape crop to be 
turned to any profitable account? That is a 
f(uestion of the utmost importance to grape 
growers. We have talked with some of the 
leading vintners in this city, and they agree 
upon some of the main points which we here 
present. Mr. Kobler, of Kohler & Frohling, 
representing one of the large wine houses here, 
makes the following suggestions: 

There is a strong probability that more 
grapes will be produced this year than can be 
sold for wine. On account of the business dull- 
ness in the Eastern and Western States, the 
sales of domestic wines last year were small, 
and the same stagnation in business on the 
other side of the country will probably aft'ect 
sales this year. If all the grapes this year 
were converted into wine, there would not be 
casks enough procurable at reasonable prices to 
hold the wnie, nor would there be any ready 
sale for a considerable part of the wine, as the 
\'intners in this city have an inmiense stock on 
hand; or, to use the expressive phrase of one of 
them: " We have full cellars and empty pock- 
ets." The amount of grapes consumed in 
domestic use or sent over the mountains in cars, 
will make no impression on the crop this 



year. The bulk of it wUl remain to be dis- 
posed of in some other way. 

The new brandy law, an amendment pro- 
cured at the last session of Congress, promises 
some substantial relief. By the term of that 
law, brandy produced from grapes grown here 
can be placed in bonded warehouses three 
years, without paying the tax of 90 cents on the 
gallon. At the end, say of 18 months, it will 
be in a saleable condition. It can also be ex- 
ported without paying the tax. Now, five gal- 
lons of wine are required to make one gallon of 
brandy, and were the bulk of our wine com- 
pressed in this way. an abundance of casks 
could be procured to hold it. These casks can 
now be procured in advance of the crop at, say, 
from five to six cents a gallon. The smaller 
brandy stills, suitable for three or four adjacent 
vine growers, can be .set up at a cost ranging 
from $400 to .$500. The redwood tanks, for 
fermentation, can be procui'ed at a moderate 
cost. 

The vintners in this city, with their preseTit 
stock on hand, cannot possibly handle the in- 
coming crop if it is turned into raw wine, and 
the wine growers ought to be appi'ized of this 
fact in season. What is needed is a reduction 
of this bulk, its withdrawal from the wine 
market, which at present is overstocked with 
domestic wines, and the consequent saving on 
packages, so that one gallon will stand in the 
place of five. Not only would there be a very 
large saving in cooperage, but the product 
would sell for an enhanced price. All the poor 
wine of last year, all that has a ground taste or 
any peculiarity which makes it unsalable, 
could be turned into brandy with the certainty 
of ultimate sale at a fair price, or say 14 to 15 
cents for wine so converted, against about 10 or 
11 cents for good raw wine. 

These points are worthy of consideration. 
An immense grape crop is now m.aturing, and 
some of the earlier sorts are now finding their 
way to market. Some of the best sorts will be 
turned into raisins; probably more will be 
made than ever before. But the raisins man- 
ufactured will make no impression on the bulk 
i)f the crop. A few grape growers will ship 
their grapes to good advantage; but with so 
hirge a crop the price paid on delivery in the 
field or at the depots will be comparatively low. 
It is a season of drouth and short crops — the 
grape crop only excepted. The vineyard men 
are anxious to turn this crop to the best ac- 
count. There are only three or four ways of 
disposing of the crop — domestic consumption, 
shipment to the Eastern States in refrigerating 
cars, conversion into wine and then into brandy. 

Probably tlie grape crop of this year, after 
deducting all which will go to tiie account of 
domestic consumption, shipment and raisin 
making, would produce not far from 8,000,000 
gallons of wine, which, if put up in bulk, would 
cost the wine-growers about $400,000 for pack- 
ages, with the prospect of a dull sale or none at 
present for new wines. But if the crop were 
compressed into brandy, the packages would 
only cost about $80,000. These are some of 
tlic points which are of vital interest to grape 
growers just now. What is to be done with 
the grape crop? How shall it be turned to 
profitable account ? Is grape-growing on a 
large scale to bo attended with loss hereafter or 
is money to be made in the business ? To 
answer' these questions favorably, it is certain 
that every possible resource for exhau"^ting the 
crop in a profitable way must be employed. 



Raisin Statistics. 

We have just received, says the • Morning 
Call, from Major A. M. Hancock, for 16 years 
United States Consul at Malaga, and now resi- 
dent partner at New York of the well known 
Malaga house of Cooke Bros. & Co., valuable 
statistics of the production and exports of rai- 
sins. During the year 1870, the shipments 
from Malaga to the United States were as fol- 
lows: 

WhDios. Hfs. Qrs. 8ths, 

Uj-ers 4SV,848 153,52,') 152,056 17,809 

Loose 426,555 3,825 14,187 819 

London and fine fruit... 130,120 29,631 72,674 13,271 

Total 994,523 186,981 238,917 31,809 

Also 2G,32() frails. It wiU be noticed in the 
above statement that the exports of the finer 
'I'lalities of fruit to this country are compara- 
vively small. A statement of the exports to the 
United States from vintage to vintage, also the 
total product for each of a series of years, is 
also given, from which we summarize as fol- 
lows: 

Exports 
CYop. to the V. S. 

V'ears. Boxes. Boxes. 

mil 1,670,000 920,380 

1868 1,950,000 9:56,311 

rS09 1,350,000 1,040,437 

1870 2,200,000 7.56,434 

1871 1,920,000 l,;j78,795 

1872 2,.500,000 1,048.347 

1873 2,160,000 1,321,532 

1874 1,700,000 1,412,531 

1875 1.593,000 997,277 

1S76 2,800,000 (to .Iiily I) 1,400,000 

The United States consumes more raisins 
than any other country in the world, taking, 
as is seen by the above, moi-e than one-half of 
the entire Spanish crop. 



SuouJES.sFUL Men. — The man who is too busy 
with his hands to devote any time to reading, 
thinking, planning or investigating rarely 
achieves success. A single thought developed 
l)y contact with other minds through the me- 
dium of tlie press or the club may save days of 
muscular force. A well digested plan is the 
first element of victory. 



P@yLT^y Y^Fio. 



M. EvRK, Jr., Napa, Cal., Corresponding Editor of this 
Department. 

Egg Testers. 

It is a great convenience and saving to be able 
to tell the fertile eggs after a hen has been set- 
ting a week. If three or more hens be set at 
the same time and there be many unfertile eggs, 
they can be removed and the remainder of tlie 
sittings consolidated. 

There are several different patented articles 
for this purpose, all of which answer the pur- 
pose for which they are made. But why pay 
50 cents for that which can be made at home 
at little or no cost? 




Fig. 1 illustrates a simple arrangement which 
may be made out of a small cigar box or a stiff 
paper box of similar size. On the bottom of 
the box place a piece of looking-glass of nearly 
or quite that size; remove a strip from one end 
or the top, about an inch wide, and replace it 
at an angle of 45°, as shown in the engraving. 
Then cut one or more holes in the remaining 
portion of the top, about 
one and a half inches in 
diameter. The entire top 
(or else one end) should be 
loose, so as to get at the 
glass when it becomes 
soiled or dusty. To u.se it, 
put the eggs over the holes, 
and with the top of the box 
under a strong light, look 
into the opening, shielding 
the eyes by the strip set 
at light angles. The eggs 
will be reflected in the >-, 
glass, and' will appear clear >«■ 
or clouded, as the case r« 
may be. 

Fig. 2 represents a still 
simpler egg tester. It is 
made of a stiff piece of 
paper(dark color preferred), 
five inches long, six inches 
wide at one end and four 
and one-quarter at the 
other. This is rolled and 
joined together with a lap 
of half an inch, by either 
paste or a needle and 
thread, as shown in the 
cut. With this simple instrument the eggs can 
be examined at any time of day, and under 
any ordinary light. It is not necessary to have 
a very stror>g light as is required by other 
methods. We regard it as much the best article 
for the purjiose we have yet seen. Its use is 
like a telescope; apply the smaller end to the 
eye, and hold the egg at or in the larger. 

A perfectly fresh egg examined by the tester 
will appear clear and light; a stale egg is opaque 
and dark. An egg that has been sat on for 
five days, if fertile, should show a small dark 
spot on one side near the large end; at seven 
days the spot should be as large as a five cent 
nickel, quite dark at the center, and shading 
ofi' lighter toward the edges. If, after being 
eight days under heat,' the egg is still clear, it 
may be set aside as not fertile. 




Drinking Fountains. 

Fresh and pure water being an indispensable 
adjunct in the successful re;iring of poultry, all 
appliances and inventions which conduce to that 
end deserve at least a passing notice. That 




A Drinking Fountain, 
there are fountains (so called) of numerous pat- 
terns and shapes, is well known to our readers, 
who also know, from actual experience, the 
difficulty of cleansing the intei-ior when they 
get foul; Ihc small orifice through which the 
vessel is filled, or discharges its contents, not 
allowing the jjassage of a brush or stick to dis- 
lodge the coating of sediment or scum wliich 
collects on the inside. A rinsing, which is 



about all it ever gets, in nine out of 10 cases, 
does not fully remove the loose particles of dirt, 
and the deposit continues to accumulate, until 
it gets so thick that an hour's confinement in 
the fountain is sufficient to impregnate the 
water with the foul and unhealthy effluvium of 
the sediflient. 

The device which is illustrated in connection 
with this article, has been used by the writer 
for six or eight years and given excellent satis- 
faction. It is made of stone or earthen ware 
and is in two pieces, the upper part a reservoir 
and the lower a saucer. It is much like an 
inverted flower-pot, with a projecting rim of 
about two inches irr width, to pi-event dirt or 
other undesirable substances from dropping into 
the water. The hight of the reservoir, holding 
one gallon of water', is about 10 inches. When 
empty, it is easily and thoroughly cleaned in a 
few seconds, and, after filling, the saucer is 
turned over it and the whole quickly inverted; 
a small notch (seen in the cut) allowing the 
water to rise in the saucer to the depth of about 
three-fourths of an inch. Stone ware is the 
best substance, but they can be made of earthen, 
and with care will last many seasons. The cost 
is quite moderate, the gallon size only costing 
(from the manufacturers) about 50 cents com- 
plete. 

Ake the Postm.\.sters to Blame ? — I have 
answered several letters containing questions 
through the mail, not deeming the matters of 
sufficient general interest for these columns. 
Three such letters have lately been returned to 
me as uncalled for. To-day (May 21st,) arrives 
a letter from Compton, Los Angeles county — 
March 17th — in answer to a letter from Mr. 
A. H. Breul. I sent him my pamphlet, price 
list etc.. May 5th. I received a note from him 
complaining because he had not received the 
pamphlet for which he had sent in March. I 
wrote him on that date. Now comes back my 
letter "returned to writer" as per request on 
corner of envelope, because it had lain in Comp- 
ton postoffice uncalled for from May 7th to 
19th. 

Every poultry inquiry sent to me (direct ot 
through Dewey & Co. , ) is answered either in the 
Press or by mad, and those who do not receive 
their answers must blame neither the Press nor 
me. In many instances are postmasters to 
blame or the inquirers themselfes. M. EyRE. 



Drinkino Vessels for Chicks. — Make air- 
tight a fruit or oyster-can. On one side, half 
an inch from the bottom, punch three holes, 
each one-quarter of an inch in diameter. Before 
these holes solder to the can a piece of tin to 
form a trough one inch deep. Upon the side 
opposite, at the top, solder also a ring by which 
to hang the can to the side of the coop. Fill it 
by immersing it for a few moments in a pail of 
water. The secret is in the air-holes being in 
the trough, so that water can escape only when 
they are uncovered. So long as the trough is 
clean, the water \vill be pure. Chicks must be 
kept supplied with water, and it must be in 
vessels not deep enough to drown them. 



icyt 



Southern California Horticultural So- 
ciety. 

The July session of this society was held in 
Los Angeles last week, the President, J. De- 
Barth Shorb, in the chair. The Secretary, L. 
M. Holt, read the minutes of the last meeting 
and the list of membership, and showed the 
enterprise to be well founded. From the Sec- 
retary's report of the meeting we extract par- 
agraphs of general interest to growers of semi- 
tropical fruit. 

The Banana. 

Banana growing was introduced in an essay 
by Ilev. H. H. Messenger, of Orange, who is 
well known for his effor-ts with tliis fruit. Mr. 
Messenger treated his subject thoroughly. The 
principal points concerning culture, etc., have 
already been printed in the I{ur.\l Press, (see 
issue of Aprir7th, 1877), in an article written 
by Mr. Messenger. We find tlic following ad- 
ditioiral points made at the meeting. Mr. Mes- 
senger said: Bulbs are expensive now, as the 
freight from Florida is so great. Mine cost me 
$1. ,30 each. Many had dried out or rotted on 
the long journey, so there was only a black 
mass, with perhajis a crack where the white 
gernr could be seen inside. The whole bulb is 
about the size of a good sized onion. Fresh 
and vigorcnrs bulbs obtained here will come on 
lively. I planted one on the 22d of May, leav- 
ing the tip just at the top of the ground, which 
is now :M) inches high. I am going to test this 
one by the best of care, to see if 1 can get 150 
bananas in one bunch from it. Such a bunch 
would now sell for .'H. It is i)lain to be seen 
that where the frost is not severe enough to in- 
jure the fruit, banana raising will be very profit- 
able. But here is where the doubt will come 
into the minds of people living in different lo- 
calities. To all living where but little ice is 
formed, 1 can say there is little fear-, as the 
Florida banana will stand (piite heavy frosts 
and still fruit. I think I could ])ick out 100,- 
000 acres in Los Angeles county (juite well 
adapted to the growth of this variety, and 
nearly every one has some sheltered places on 



Continued on page 58. 






52 



#ACXF3:o s^i^mjj^ 



[July 28, 1877. 




Correspondence cordially invited from all Patrous for tliis 
department. 



THE HEADQUARTERS of the California State 
GranKe are in the (inmgers' Biiildint;, northeast corner of 
California and Davis Streets, over the tiranirers' Hank of 
California and California Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Association. Ma«tcr, J. V. Webster; Sceretarj, Amos 

AUAMS. ,., ... 

The Oraneers' Business Association of California is in 
Uavis StTieet, northeast comer of California. 



Worthy Lecturers Visits. 

Editors Pkess:— After the cclebnition at 
Anaheim, of wliich I spoke in my last letter, 
we were taken charge of by Bro. Kvey, and 
with his good Orange wife and large family, 
made to feel perfectly at home, and, becoming 
at once his guest, we were not only most hospi- 
tably and comfortably provided for, but in 
company with liis brother David, the Worthy 
Master of Anaheim (i range, conveyed in their 
own carriage the next day to 

Westminster, 
Where we met with the (Jrauge at tliat point 
in time for their closed meeting at 1 : SO I'. .M., 
and their open meeting, following at 3 r. .m. 
Both of these meetings were well but not 
largely attended, on account of so many Ijeing 
absent, spending the Fourth, but leaving here 
a deep interest in the present and future of our 
(Grange work and receiving expressions of 
thankfulness for our much needed visit, we 
again, on tlie evening of this same day, .luly 
5th, were taken back by our good Brothers 
Evey, to be by them further entertained and 
started on our way the next morning by 
7 o'clock train for Ixis Angeles, from there to 
take train to Kl Monte afJ: 2.') f'. m. At K1 
Monte, we were met by Bro. Thompson, of 
Azusa, who was in waiting for iis to at once 
convey us to 

Azusa 

.Settlement, some eight to 12 miles distant, 
where we arrived about six l: 51., and beiim 
proviiled for by 'good Bro. Thomjison and his 
good (Jraiige sister, were by them taken four 
miles fartlier the next morning to the uiiper 
schooHiouse of the settlement, where not only 
had an open (!range meeting been called, but 
preparations made for a genuine good time for 
the whole settlement to turn out to a picnic, 
and so well attended was it that when tliey 
were called together to hear tlie lecture at 1 1 
o'clock A. M., there was not found room for all 
to either sit or stand, so the windows were also 
crowded outside with listeners to our (irange 
talk, which lasted for about one and one-half 
hours, after which the picnic taldes were spread 
with every good thing this Azura settlement 
abounded in, and a most social and joyous 
time indulged in. After picnic a request so 
general was made for the Lecturer to continue 
his remarks that we again addressed them for 
one hour longer. After this a closed (irauge 
meeting was called for, and we spent the bal- 
ance of the day till about six o'clock p. m. in 
giving such instructions as this meeting called 
for. The time coming for partins;, we were 
most lieartily and cordially thanke<l for our 
visit, and taken charge of by Brotlier and .Sister 
Doherty till Monday morning, when Pa.st Mas- 
ter Bro. Thompson had provided for our trans- 
portation to the next place of appointment, at 
llincon, some '2.") miles <listant, where we were 
advertised to speak on Tuesday, July 10th. 

This Azusa valley or settlement is a sedimental 
formation from the wash of the main .Sierras, 
which rise up at once out of this wonderful 
depository valley. Here frost is scarcely 
known, and here with water for irrigation, the 
soil, lieing a rich sand and sedimentary deposit, 
will raise anything from a potato to the orange 
and semi-tropical fruits; the finest looking corn 
is grown here 1 ever saw, in many instances it 
being six or seven feet to the ears, and the 
stalk running up from nine to 1 1 feet. This 
settlement is yet comparatively new to the 
California farmer, but an old settlement to the 
California Spaniard. Titles are becoming set- 
tled, and the farmers getting out tine orchards 
and soon will grow into comfortable homes and 
improvements with a well regulated system of 
irrigation. .Such is this portion of I^os Angeles 
county, which we now leave for San Bernardino 
county. Our work in this southern part of the 
State is not only well received but most entliu- 
siastically improved upon, and tlie Grange cause 
greatly enlivened and benefited. Let no one 
say our cause is dead; so far from this, could 
but a Lecturer visit every (irange twice a year 
we should grow to mammoth proportions. 

B. Pir.KINlJTOS, 

Azusa, July 0th, 1877. State Lecturer. 

The members of Healdsburg Grange having 
successfully established their Grange store, are 
now erecting, and have nearly compl«ted. a tire- 
proof warehouse on their lots along the railroad, 
which will be capable of storing 4,000 tons of 
grain. This m archouse will be a blessing to the 
farmers of the Russian Kivor valley, a.s it will 
break up the monopoly which has existed tliere 
for years, in the storage and handling of tlie 
wheat crop. We congratulate our sisters and 
brothers of that live and wide-awake Grange, 
and hope that their new undertaking may be 
ecuuiarily and every way a success. 



Taxation. 

Editors Prkss:— Will you kindly oblige me, 
if it is within your power to puldish in your 
paper the amount or valuation of property as- 
sessable for revenue purposes in this State; also, 
if possible, the approximate amount of non- 
taxable property, such as mortgages, notes, etc? 
It woulil be of great interest to me, as well as 
many of the Brotherhood. 

I iiave taken the trouble Lately of correspond- 
ing with the Stiite Secretaries in eacli State, re- 
questing them to favor me with a short sketch 
of their respective systems of taxation, and I 
hoyie when I get them all together to have some- 
thing quite interesting, /. c, if they are olilig- 
ing ennugli to favor me with the information I 
ask fur. I projjose in the event of my meeting 
with the desired success, to send copies to your 
paper for publication. There is a great desire 
on the part of the industrial classes of this 
State to have some plan tlevised to bring about 
a more equitable system of taxation than the 
one we have now, and I thought a knowledge of 
the systems in difl'erent States would be of great 
value in assisting us to attain such desires. Our 
present system in this State is so entirely at va- 
riance with the principles of justice that we 
»*lio represent the industrial element must be 
up and doing if we expect to realize any of the 
benefits of government. 

It is, however, of but little use to hope for 
any change for thejbctter until we elect more of 
our own class and less of professionals to run 
the machinery of government. The idea of 
concentrating the atl'airs of our State Govern- 
ment in the hands of those who represent the 
interests of the money power is beginning to 
show its evil very forcibly to the industrial ele- 
ments and they are nearly ready to drop the 
question of politics and go as one man for such 
reform measures as will bring about the desired 
results. K. S. Bioelow. 

Potter Valley, Cal. 

[By the last report of the Surveyor-General 
(1875), the amount of taxable property in this 
State was ^55,0.'iii,'2So; three counties not re- 
ported. As to the non-taxable property, we 
have nothing but agcncr,al estimate, placing the 
amount at .s.">0,0UO,(X)0.- Ki.s. Pke.ss. | 



State Grange Constitnnal Amendments. 

At the recent meeting of the Executive Com- 
mittee, the following amendments to the State 
Grange Constitution were proposed by Bros. W. 
S. Manlove and B. Pilkington : 

Amend Sec. IH, Art. Ill, so as to read as fol- 
lows : 

.Sec. 3. There sliall l)e an Executive Commit- 
tee of the State (irange, consisting of three 
members, whose tenn of office shall be one 
year, and until their successors are elected ; 
provided that the first election under this sec- 
tion as amended shall take place at the annual 
meeting of the State Grange in the year 1877. 

Amend .Sec. 3, Art. Ill, so as to read as fol- 
lows : 

.Sec. 3. There shall be an Executive Commit- 
tee of the State (irange, consisting of three 
members, and the Master of the State Grange, 
who shall be Chairman. The term of office 
of the Executive Committee shall Ije one year. 
Amendments to By-La-ws of S ate Grange. 

Amend Sec. 3, Art. II, so .is to read as fol- 
lows : 

.Sec. 3. The Executive ( 'oinmittee shall have 
authority to act on all matters of interest to the 
(Irder, when the State Grange is not in session ; 
shall provide for the welfare of tlie Order in 
business matters, and shall report their acts in 
detail to the State Grange on the first day of its 
annual meeting. They shall also make sucli 
report, at special meetings of the .State (< range, 
as the good of the Order m.ay demand. 

Amend Sec. 4, Art. II, so as to reatl as fol- 
lows : 

Sec. 4. The Executive Committee shall hold 
its regular meetings as follows : The first meet- 
ing immediately after the adjournment of the 
State (irange at its annual meeting ; the second, 
on the first Thursday next preceding the annual 
meeting of the State Grange ; and at such other 
times as the Master of the State Grange, or two 
of the Executive Committee, may designate. 

Amend Art. XV of the Constitution so as to 
read as follows : 

Art. XV. This Constitution may be amended 
at any regular meeting of the .State (irange, 
provided that any proposed amendments shall 
have been presented to the Cliairman of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee, who shall report the same 
to the Masters of the .Subordinate Granges one 
month previous to the meeting of the State 
Grange. 

Amend Sec. 3, Art. Ill, of .State Grange Con- 
stitution, so as to read as follows : 

Sec. .3. There shall be an Executive Commit- 
tee of the State Grange, consisting of three 
members, whose term of office shall be one year, 
and until their successors are elected, and the 
Master of the .State (irange, who shall be Chair- 
man ; proviiled the election for Executive Com- 
mittee shall take place at each annual meeting 
of the .State Grange. 

Amend Sec. 4, Art. II, State (irange By-laws, 
so as t^i read <is follows : 

Sec. 4. The Executive Committee shall hold 
its regular meetings on the first Monday in 
April and October. 



Late Publications of the National Grange. 

Editors Pres.s: — Perhaps no organization 
was ever more materially aided by the printing 
Dress in its growth and maintenance than the 
Grange has l)een. Not only have the mass of 
agricultural and other papers advanced its 
interests, but from its establishment the 
National (irange has h.ad a large amount of 
printingdone — reports, pamphlets, etc. — for free 
distribution among its members. In fact, the 
bulk of expenses in the national body has been 
its printing bills. Our friends, the English 
co-operators, also do a large amount of printing 
--tracts, etc. — by way of propagandism, but 
they make their printing department self-sus- 
taining by charging for their publications the 
actual cost. The income of the National 
Grange being now much smaller than while the 
organization was going on rapidly, its Execu- 
tive Committee have wisely adopted the jilan 
of issuing printed matter for the information of 
our members at cost prices — and very low rates 
they are. 

Twelve tracts on co-operation, a reprint from 
the Enjflish, have been issued at heailquarters 
within the Last month. Every one who wishes 
full -r information on this question, which so 
interests our members at present throughout 
the United States, shoulil read them. 

I have just received an official letter from 
Bro. O. H. Keliey, National Secretary, and beg 
leave to insert the following, for the informa- 
tion of all concerned. His address is 9'J Mam 
street, Louisville, Ky. His letter says: 

The accompanying tracts on co-operation are 
now ready for delivery. The prices annexetl 
are to cover the cost per hundred of printing 
and postage. Orders should be a<ldressed to 
the .Secretary of the National (irange, lyoiiis- 
viUe, Ky. : 
The Distinction between Joint-stockism and Oo- 

o|>eration t 35 

Experiences as Co-operators ;<5 

riic Principle of Unity the I.ifc of Co-operation. . .. 60 
Live and Let Live- the Shopkeeper and Co-operator.. W 

The Co-operator and the Sliop-kecper again rto 

Workitij; Together and Helping One Another 3i 

Co-operation a Cure for Poverty 15 

How Hob became a Co-oi>erator 25 

The Ucli^^on of C-o-opcratioii *iO 

What is the (Jood of It ■.' :i5 

Some of tlie Weaknesses of Co-operatioii (\0 

\*illaf^e Co operative Stores 1 15 

All orders must be accompanied with the 
money. 

Bro. Kellcy also informs me that the valua- 
ble Digest, which has been most carefully pre- 
pared, and is needed by every Master at least, 
will soon be reaily for distribution at "2.5 cents a 
copy. Among National Cirange publications we 
must not forget tlie 6' ;•<(«;/« Ittrord, a neat little 
paper, issued ((uarterly by the National Execu- 
tive, at '2') cents j)er year. It should be read by 
every Master, Lecturer and Secretary; indeed 
by every Patron. J. W. A. W. 

July 18th, 1877. 

Open Grange Meetings 

For San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura, 
Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Mon- 
terey and San Benito Counties 

Bro. Pilkington, Worthy Lecturer of the State 

Grange, will hold open meetings at the places 

and time indicated below: 

San Pasipial, San Diego County Saturday, July ilst 

Bear \alley, San Die(fo County Monday, July 'ffld 

National City, San Diefo County Thursday, ,Iuly 2«th 

Saticoy, Ventura County Mouday, July 30th. 

Nordhoff, Ventura County Tuesday, July ;ilst 

Carpiiiteria, Santa Barbara County . .Tliursday, Aujfust 'id. 
Santa Barbara. Santa Barbara Co. . .Saturday, .\iieust4th. 

Lompoe. .Santa Barbara County Tuesday, Auj^isl 7th. 

Santa .Maria, Santa Barbara Co Thursday, Aujcust 0th. 

Guadalupe, Santa Barbara Co Saturday, August 1 1th. 

San Luis ()bis)Mi, S. L. fibispo Co. .Tuesday, August 14th 
Morro, San Luis Obispo County. . .Thursday, August 18th- 

Cambria, San Luis Obispo Co Saturday, August ISth 

Salinas, Monterey County Tuesday, August 21st 

San Benito, San Benito County Thursday, August 23d 

Bro. Pilkington is an able and interesting 
speaker, and no farmer or friend of the farmers 
should fail to attend his meetings. 

Amos Adams, Sec'y State Grange. 

July 3d, 1877. 



Bro. Pilkincton at Riverside. — Editors 
Press: — The State Grange Lecturer gave aji 
address at Riverside, July I'Jth, to a not very 
crowded but attentive audience. The main 
feature of his lecture — the necessity of the 
farmer being represented in the State Legisla 
ture-must have produced in the minds of his 
hearers a determination to use their influence in 
subseipient i)olitical meetings and elections in 
reducing that large preponderance of lawyers 
among our representatives, to which may be 
traced so much extravagance and corruption in 
our government. His reference to the (irange 
must have favorably impressed the audience 
with the necessity and importance of such a 
combination of farmers at this time. His sta- 
tistics were startling and suggestive. — Secre 

TARY. 



New (Irance Halls. — We le.arn that several 
(iranges in the State are engaged in the build- 
ing of new (irange halls. I)uring our visit to 
Humboldt county we were pleased to see the 
tine building erected by Table Blutl' Grange. 
Mattole (irange has also its own hall. Nothing 
so much tends to make a (irange a permanent 
success as to own its hall; then the members 
feel that they have a permanent home and show 
their appreciation by ijunctual attendance. 



The State Grange. 

The year is passing so rapidly that, before we 
are fully prepared for it, the period of our 
annual meeting will have arrived. In our hurry 
to get ahead of time and everybody else let us 
not forget the first Tuesday in October. There 
is a very considerable work to be done at our 
next State Orange, and by mature consideration 
we should be jirepared for it. There are a 
number of proposed constitutional amendments 
to be acted on, and many other matters of inter- 
est to the Order. Our work has arrived at that 
point where the strictest economy is essential 
to complete success. We took occasion in our 
annual address, read before the last State 
Grange, to point out cases of prodigality and 
useless expenditure, but after consideration 
there was nothing done in the way of retrench- 
ment. There will be more urgent demand for it 
at our next session. At the beginning of our 
term of office the indebtedness of the .State 
Grange was about $1,.500. Add to this $500 
jiaid accountants for re-copying, posting and 
balancing the books of the Secretary and Treas- 
urer, and we had, at that time, a debt of about 
.§2,000. This amount we have been endeavoring 
to pay off for the last year and a half, and with 
a degree of success, but owing to the revenue 
of the .State (irange ha^^ng been very much 
reduced in consequence of very few new mem- 
bers having been initiated during the last two 
years, the (piarterly due of six cents from each 
member is about all the revenue we have, 
amounting in the aggregate to less than ?1,000 
per quarter. 

The ([Uarterly cost of the Secretary's office, 
stationery and salary, is al)0ut $600. The cost 
of the quarterly sessions of the Executive Com- 
mittee has been, on an average, about ?200, so 
that from .$100 to S200 per quarter is all that 
we have had to apply to the principal and inter- 
est of our debt. If the incoming State (irange 
is so disposed, the quarterly exi)enRes of run- 
ning its machinery can be reduced to $.500 with- 
out any detriment to the Order. We think the 
stringency of the times and well-being of our 
Order demand this reduction. We hope that 
every legal delegate will make it a point to 
attend our next meeting in person. Let every 
one come prepared to oBer something of inter- 
est to the Order — bringing also a box of tine 
fruit for our Feast of Pomona. — Patron. 



In Memoriam. 

ELMIKA (;RANCiE, .No. 15, Elmira, Cal . July 14th. 

WiiKRKA.s, For the first time since the orgauization of 
this (irange, death has entered our ranks, and we are 
called uiH)ii to mourn the loss of one of our members. 

Whereas, It has pleased the Great Master of the 
universe to remove a dear sister from her field of labor 
with us to that field where they " toll not but the wear; 
are at r^ist." 

WiiEiiK.vs, In view of the loss we have sustained by the 
decease of our friend and associate, Sister H. A. Rai s- 
CHERT, and o( the still greater loss sustihied by those 
who were nearest and dearest to her, therefore be it 

lictolrnl. That as a just tribute to the memory of the 
departed, to say that regretting her removal from our 
midst, we mourn for one who was in every way worthy of 
our respect and regard. 

Jiendlred, That we sincerely condole with the family of 
the deceased on the dispensation with which it ha« 
)>leased Divine Providence to afflict them, and we com- 
mend them for c-onsolation to Him who orders all things 
for the best and whose chastisements are meant in mercy. 

Jtrtolteil, That this heartfelt testimonial of our sympa- 
thy and sorrow he sent to the Pacific Ri ral Press for 
publication, also one copy to the family of our departed 
sister, also that these resolutions be spread upon the 
minutes of this Grange. 

Urmlved, Tliat a committee of three be appointed to 
send a copy of these resolutions to the family of our 
deceased sister (Committee: G. W. Frazer, Mrs. M. E 
P. Smith, Jas. McCrory. 

DIXON GRANGE, No. 19, Solano Co , July 19th, 1877. 

Whereas, In view of the loss we have sustained by the 
decease of our brothers, E. C. Cmirch and B. R. Newell, 
and of the still heavier loss sustained by those that were 
nearest and dearest to them, therefore, be it 

Reeohrd, That it is but a just tribute to the memory 
of the departed to say that by the death of Brothers 
Church and Newell, Dixon Grange is deiirived of very 
worthy members, and in regretting their removal from 
our midst, we mourn for those who were in every way 
worthy of our resjiect and regard. 

Resolved. That we sincerely condole with the family of 
the deceased on the dispensation with which it has pleased 
Divine Providence to afflict them, and commend them for 
consolation to Him who orders all things for the beat and 
whose chastisements are meant in mercy. 

lieeolved. That a copy of this heartfelt testimonial of 
our sjniiiMithy and sorrow be sent to the bereaved family 
and to the Ki RAL Press for publication— (Committee: 
B. K Kelly, J. M. Dudley, S. G. Little. 

PAR.\DISE (iKANGE, Paradise Valley., Nev, July 9th. 

WiiERE.ts, The All-Wise Ruler of the universe has 
removed from among us our beloved and esteemed sister. 
Ln.LiE E. H. HiNKEV, 

Uimlred, That in the death of Sister Hinkey, our 
Grange has lost a most worthy and esteemed member, 
Sister Laiiiance a loving and dutiful daughter, Bro. 
Ilinkcy an affectionate, devoted wife and society a worthy, 
cxcniplarv member. 

RcKnlre'd. That we will cherish her memory and in- 
scribe her name U|>on our roll of honor. 

Resoleed, That we deeply synuialhize w ith the bereaved 
husband and mother in their aflfiction. 

Remlred. Tha* these resolutions be spread npoii the 
minutes of this Grange and a copy sent to the afflicted 
husband and mother, also one sent to the RiBAL Press 
and Sih-i-r !^t(tte for publication.— [Committee; J. B. CJasc. 
Lizzie Case, Hattie Nichols. 

.SANTA CLARA ORANtJE. July Ibth, 1877. 

Whereas, our late esteemed bnHher, Larhie Willett, 
of Santa Clara Grange, P. of H., ba.s been removeil fn.in 
our circle by death, whereby the Grange has hwt a most 
worthy meiiilwr and the community ouc of its boat citi- 
zens, therefore 

HrKitlved, That this Grange tender to the liereaved wlfo 
and family ""r w annest symiathies. Further, that a cwpy 
of these proceedings be spread on the minutes, and a copy 
also bo sent to the Rt kal Preess, to the SauU Oara Echo 
and the Sun Jose ilereuni for publieatii>n.— Cmimitteu 
L. A. Wilcox, A. B. Hunter, A. R. Wwdlmms 



July 28, 1877.] 



53 



^qi^icilLTdE\i^L |^©XEs. 



California. 

ALAMEDA. 

Mrs. Blacow's "Colchis." — Tranncript : 
Mr. T. H. Thompson, of the firm of Thompson 
& West, map publishers, called here yesterday 
morning and exhibited a crayon portrait of the 
French Merino ram "Colchis," owned by Mrs. 
Blacow, of Centerville, in this county. Mrs. 
Blacow has already found quite a good market 
for her stock in Australia and the Sandwich 
islands, and the picture was taken with a view 
of exhibiting it in those places and increasing 
her business. The animal is a prodigy — his 
weight being 282 pounds, and his fleece, re- 
cently sheared, weighing 52^ pounds. He has 
on two occasions been awarded the first pre- 
mium over all other breeds. He probably has 
no superior anywhere. If anybody in this or 
any other county has a sheep that can go him 
some better, just let him be trotted out. 
COLUSA. 

The County Board of Equalization and 
Growino Crops. — 8>in, July 21: It was the 
idea of the Board, when it first met, that tlie 
whole tax on growing crops might be stricken 
off the list, and petitions were printed and sent 
out for that purpose, but after the last letter of 
the State Board, which our local Board took to 
be conclusive of the law, and very correctly, 
too, we think, the Board concluded that it had 
no power to disturb the assessment except the 
showing required in section 3,()74 of the Polit- 
ical Code was made. Notices were printed and 
distributed through the county. This is the 
best the Board could do, but it leaves a very 
short time in which to appear and make the 
showing. There will be but few cases of hard- 
ships, however, as after the first few assess- 
ments, nothing but the best looking summer- 
fallow was listed at all by the Assessor, and 
that put in very gingerly. The whole amount 
of tax on growing crops in the county will not 
greatly exceed $1,000, even if nothing is taken 
off by the Board. The Assessor could not liave 
done less than he has, and the Board could do 
no more than it has, and if there is any fault 
anywhere, it is with the law as expounded by 
the courts. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

The Taxpayers. — Oazette, July 21: A call 
has been posted for a mass convention at Wal- 
nut Creek, on Saturday, July 28th, of the tax- 
payers of Contra Costa county, "opposed to the 
present law for taxation of growing crops; to 
the construction of the West Side irrigation 
ditch in its present odious form; to the Squirrel 
Abatement law as at present framed and ad- 
ministered, and in favor of holding county offi- 
cials to strict accountability for public money 
in their hands." 

Good Turn Out. — We mentioned some five 
or six weeks since having received a fine sample 
from a field of Proper wheat belonging to Mr. 
R. O. Baldwin, of San Ramon valley, and sub- 
sequently mentioned, about three weeks ago, 
having heard that it had been threshed, yield- 
ing 25 centals per acre. We are now informed, 
without chance of any mistake in the matter, 
that this wheat was not threshed until Monday 
last, when the yield was at the rate of 27 cen- 
tals, or 45 bushels per acre, which is the best 
we have so far heard of this season in our 
county. 
FRESNO. 

Conflict. — Reptihlican, July 21: Report 
comes of a serious encounter between sheep and 
cattle men in the mountains near the line of 
Fresno and Mariposa counties. One man was 
killed outright, and several seriously hurt. We 
were unable to learn names or full particulars. 
KERN. 

Grazing.— CoMrJer, July 21: We have just 
learned that the fall feed on the Jewett & 
Anderson ranch has been rented for $4,500. 
This lease allows Messrs. Jewett & Anderson to 
cut alfalfa thereon until the middle of Septem- 
ber, and what is left until spring, or rather dur- 
ing the fall months, is all tliat is rented for the 
$4,500. This shows that alfalfa is a bonanza 
this year. As one of the tests of the abundant 
resources of Kern island, there has been, under 
the management of Dr. Thornton, for Haggin & 
Carr, grazed on the island, in addition to a 
large number of cattle, about 20,000 head of 
sheep, which have been kept without being fed, 
on alfalfa, and with a loss of not quite seven 
per cent. This is an excellent showing for a 
year of drouth all over the State. 
MENDOCINO. 

Editors Press: — Harvesting is now in full 
blast here; crops very good; threshing will be- 
gin to-morrow — 12th. Hay selling at from $12 
to $15 per ton baled; offering for wheat (new 
crop), at Ukiah, buyer furnishing sacks, •'(i!1.25; 
barley, $1.25; beef cattle four to four and one- 
half cents; mutton sheep, $1.50 to $2, sales 
small; hogs, no sales, none ready for market; 
bacon scarce at 16 to 18 cents and a probal)ility 
that we will be obliged to order some from be- 
low to supply the trade. This is a ])eculiar fea- 
ture of California farming. Selling off all our 
hogs to San Francisco and shipping back bacon, 
when we can make the same article here cheaper 
than it can be done there. If we would study 
economy in these branches as much as we do 
the mortgage tax problem, we would be better 
off, but we are a queer people. Trusting we 
yre may all see better times soon, I remain 
yours.— E. S. Bigelow, Potter Valley, Cal. 



NAPA. 

Pine Station.— St. Helena Star, July 21: 
Captain Peterson is building a syrup manufac- 
tory, and contemplates working up his own 
Mission grapes in that way this year. The 
corn crop is doing well, with few exceptions. 
The hot days of the past week have been hard 
on some portions of the gravelly ground, from 
which the corn on it has wilted and will prob- 
ably shrink. The wheat harvest is rapidly ap- 
proaching completion, a large portion being in 
sack and trains laden with it and barley passing 
every day to Napa, for storage and a market. 
The wheat crop is not turning out fully up to 
expectations. 

Turkey Rai.'<in(! appears to be a large busi- 
ness with some of our friends. Henry Mc- 
Cormick, on the mountains, lias, we are told, 
some 1,500. C. Rucker, of Snell valley, in- 
forms us that he lias 800, and expects to raise a 
couple of thousand another season. 'He says he 
would as soon have them as so many slieep. 
They are worth about the same, bringing from 
$1 to .f2.50 apiece, and are always salable. 
They are very little trouble to rai.se, requiring 
only a little attention while young. 
SACRAMENTO. 

The Hay Supply. — Rerord- Union, July 21: 
San Francisco and her immediate surroundings 
consume each year an immense quantity of hay. 
Heretofore a very large sliare of this supply has 
come from the San .foaquin valley and the val- 
leys of the tributaries of the San .loaquin river. 
The supply is almost entirely cut off this year, 
that section of the State not furnishing anything 
like enough for home consumption. Sonoma, 
Marin, Napa and Mendocino, and some of the 
bay counties, have also been drawn upon in the 
past and have furnished the balance of the hay 
consumed in that city. Their supply this year, 
though not much below the usual amount, will 
fall far short of the demand. San Francisco 
must therefore look to new quarters for con- 
siderable over half the hay she will consume 
between this and next haying time. There is 
no other direction than tlie north. Some may 
be shipped from Oregon and the north coast 
counties of California, but the largest portion of 
the deficit will have to come from the Sacra- 
mento valley. Already San Francisco hay and 
feed dealers have their agents traveling through 
this section securing all the hay that can be 
found. They have already bouglitup the larger 
half of the surplus hay on the Sacramento river 
above Sacramento, and before many days will 
have engaged every large and desirable crop 
that can be found. They have been buying 
within five and six miles of the city above, and 
paying from $12 to .ifl5 baled and delivered on 
the bank of the river. Barges are moored along 
the banks receiving this hay at this time. The 
question naturally arises, where will Sacra- 
mento get her supply? She would have none 
too much if all raised within her vicinity were 
to come to her market, but if San Francisco 
gets this, where will Sacramento look for her 
hay? The crops of alfalfa hay on the Sacra- 
mento river were never better than this year, 
and most of the meadows will be cut four times, 
but they cannot supply the extra demands of 
San Francisco and still have enough left for 
Sacramento. The farmers in this section may 
take a hint, from the fact that San Francisco 
has her hay dealers among them so early in the 
season, and we should not blame them if they 
should demand pretty liberal prices. They 
need such prices to reimburse them for last 
year's defect in crops, consequent on high water 
and breakages in levees. 
SAN DIEGO. 

The Honey Lack. — News, July 21 r Parson 
Cox, who was in town to-day, tells us that his 
bees are doing something, but that the work is 
still in the main frames. He believes that lit- 
tle or no honey will be made for market as, up 
to this time, little or nothing has been done in 
the section boxes. It is a bad outlook for honey, 
this year, certainly, so far as this county is con- 
cerned. 
SAN JOAQUIN. 

Separ.\tor. — Independent, July 21: Seed 
wheat must necessarily be very clean and free 
from broken kernels, oats, or other grain. The 
process of threshing in this climate, where the 
wheat is very dry, unavoidably splits more or 
less of the wheat, rendering it useless for seed. 
To clean the wheat of all these defects Mr. J. 
C. Bowden has invented and put into success- 
ful use a separator which does the work to 
perfection. We have recently been shown 
samples of the wheat so cleaned, with specimens 
of the split kernels taken out, and cannot but 
believe that the Golden (Jate separator is an in- 
valuable and indispeu.sable assistance to the 
fanner. 
SAN MATEO. 

Threshing. — Oazette, July 21: Mr. Bell's 
thresher has begun work on the San CJregorio. 
Two hundred sacks of barley were threshed 
from one of his six-acre lots. Threshing grain 
on the coast, near Pescadero, lias begun. The 
yield will be fully as good as expected, tho' fall- 
ing short of a good crop. Oats are of a good 
quality. 
SANTA CLARA. 

Mr. Enricht's Engines. — Mercury , .Iwly 'll: 
Among the many industries of San Jose we take 
pleasure in mentioning the engine factory and 
foundry of Joseph Enright, located on the 
southeast corner of First and William streets, 
and through which we were recently permitted 
to make a tour of inspection, which proved 
most gratifying. When we consider the history 
of the proprietor, and his indomitable energy — 



entering the scientific field of mechanism at an 
early age, as an humble apprentice, he has stead- 
ily and diligently pursued his way to the posi- 
tion of a master mechanic, being the inventor 
of many improvements in the construction of 
engines, whereby straw, shavings, etc., are 
utilized in generating steam, for threshing, etc.. 
and others, which our lack of knowledge of 
machinery prevents our enumerating. His rep- 
utation as an expert machinist has become 
broadcast; during the present season he has 
effected the sale of 17 new engines, and now he 
has orders for the construction of all that his 
present force can accomplish by the beginning 
of the next harvest. 
SOLANO. 

Threshing Notes. — Dixon Tril)iine, July 21 : 
Bond & Scully report that tlieir machine 
threshed out, on the place of K. T. Baker last 
week, 2,70.3 sacks of grain in two days and 
three-quarters. One day the run was 1,050 
sacks. This is claimed to be the best threshing 
done the present season. The average estimate 
of tlie amount of grain which will come to 
Dixon for shipment this year is from 3,000 to 
.3,500 tons. About the same quantity will 
probably be received at Batavia. J. M. Dudley 
threshed out John Mayes's wheat this week. 
One piece of 38 acres of winter-sown near Mr. 
Mayes's house gave the best yield that we have 
heard of this season for any but summer-fal- 
lowed wheat. There were 429 sacks, averaging 
134 pounds to the sack, which would be at the 
rate of about 25 bushels to the acre. Tliis land 
bore a crop of V'olunteer last year, which was 
mowed and hogs turned on. A part of the 
same field which was cut for grain last year 
was not worth cutting at all this year. 
SONOMA. 

Cultivation OK the Peach. —<'i?».«.!>v'a« River 
Flag: In answer to your question; "What is 
your mode of cultivation of the peach ?" I 
would say that my peach orchards are on light, 
sandy and somewhat gravelly soil, and I planted 
what are called "dormant-budded trees," in the 
month of January. Tlie ground was prepared 
by plowing deep, liarrowmg and thoroughly 
pulverizing the soil. In setting the trees 1 dig 
a good sized hole so as not to bend or cramp the 
roots, and place the tree a little deeper in the 
ground tlian it grew in the nursery, with the 
bud to the north. My reasons for planting dor- 
mant budded trees were, that, when a top giew, 
I could train it as I wished, and form low heads. 
One foot to 18 inches I consider the best liight 
for the trunk of the tree, then the branches 
completely protect the body from injury by the 
rays of the sun, and the fruit is much more 
easily gathered, and not so much injured by 
bruises when falling to the ground. Thinning 
out the branches, and cutting back, should be 
carefully attended to each year in the rainy sea- 
son; also a thorough cultivation of the soil, 
leaving the same well pulverized and smooth, 
and from time to time in early summer I go 
over the orchard with harrow and hoe and erad- 
icate the weeds. I have not a tree the trunk 
of which is the least injured by the sun. The 
peach known as Hale's Early, with the mode of 
cultivation above described, attains a size of 
eight to 10 inches in circumference. Many of 
my trees four years old from dormant buds, 
will produce this year 1.30 pounds to the tree. 
I consider the peacli one of our most profitable 
varieties of fruit, and it can be successfully 
grown on light, sandy soil that will not produce 
a profitable crop of grain. — W. N. (J. 
STANISLAUS. 

Thorou(;h Tillage. — News, July 20: Mr. 
W. C Dale has just completed the harvesting 
of his crop of wheat. He informs us that it 
yielded him 25 busliels to the acre. His farm 
is situated near Salida, in this county, and the 
soil does not differ materially from that of tlio 
average farms around it. As a general rule the 
crops in that locality, as well as most others in 
the county, are a complete failure. From Mr. 
Dale we learn that the great secret of his suc- 
cess the present season is that he summer- 
fallowed his land, plowing it twice before sow- 
ing. There are a few neighbors in the same 
vicinity who followed the plan of summer- 
fallowing and replowing their lands, and in 
every instance a fair crop has been secured, tlie 
lowest, we believe, yielding 17 bushels to the 
acre. When we consider tliat 15 bushels is 
more than a full average of the winter-sown 
grain in that section, in seasons of heavy rain- 
fall, we can begin to realize the benefits to be 
derived from thorougli tillage of the soil. 
Wliilst on this subject, we may as well call at- 
tention to a fact that some of our Granger 
friends have probably not forgotten. The 
Salida (irange, P. of H., is located in tlie neigli- 
borliood aljovc alluded to. Last winter we 
called attention to a subject under discussion 
by the members of that Grange. Tlie subject 
wa.s one favoring a more thorough cultivation. 
Mr. J. D. Reyburn was leader of the athriii- 
ative side, and he insisted that if double the 
labor was intelligently ajipiied in the cultiva- 
tion of tlieir wlieat iicUis, that they wouKl re- 
ceive as a recoiiqiense dou))le the average yield 
ingrain. The final discu.ssion of the question was 
postponed until a thorougli test could be made, 
Mr. Reyburn himself volunteering to make the 
experiment. He li id then an 80acre tract of 
summer-fallowed land. This he replowed, 
making double the labor, and sowed to grain. 
Another 80-acre tract, adjoining and fully ecjual 
in richness to the other, was winter plowed and 
sown as usual. The *:ist' 80 acres, on which 
double the labor was expended, has produced 
him 17 bushels of wheat per acre. Krom the 
other he realizes nothing whatever. Thus it 



will be seen that Mr. Reyburn not only wins 
the question in debate, but besides pockets a 
good round sum for his faith in thorough tillage. 
SUTTER. 

Farmers' VmoTH.— Banner, Jtily 21: At the 
meeting of the Directors of the Farmers' Union, 
held on Saturday last, Messrs. George Ohleyer, 
Henry Elmer and G. W. Carpenter were ap- 
pointed a committee to prepare the ground, se- 
lect the lumber and make the other necessary 
arrangements for the building of an additional 
warehouse. The new house will be erected on 
the vacant lot of the Union, will be built of 
wood, and its dimensions to start with will be 
50 by 100 feet, to be enlarged if found neces- 
sary, as the committee were instructed to pro- 
vide storage room for all the grain that offered. 
Work will be begun at once. 
TULARE. 

Notes.— i^e^/rt, July 21: A rancher from the 
Settler's ditch country informs us tliat the grain 
product of that section will be greater this year 
than last. This is not owing to an increased 
yield per acre, but to a larger acreage. The 
harvesting is now progressing finely. We be- 
lieve that of all the counties in this valley, 
Tulare is this yeat the most highly favored. 
1'he only thing that gets away with our crop is 
a pest called the "ring-bug." Mr. Clark, of 
Lakeside, who returned from the mountains the 
first of this week, informs us that the sheep on 
this side of the Sierras are doing well, the 
greater majority of them being in good condi- 
tion. He estimates that in another month what 
feed there is now will be cleaned up, and parties 
are now rodeoing, preparatory to a departure 
for the other side of the mountains. Mr. Clark 
was not informed as to the feed the other side 
of the summit, but thinks it cannot be worse 
than on this side, where the ground is begin- 
ning to get bare as the jdains, and to bake. 
YOLO. 

Results of Irrigation. — Mail, July 14: Mr. 
D. A. Jackson, for the purpose of showing us 
the beneficial results of judicious irrigation, 
drove us to his ranch near town, to his brother 
Frank's, and to Mr. R. B. Blowers's. They have 
the irrigating ditch running through all three 
of these small farms, and use the water two or 
three times each year— always once in the win- 
ter time to assist the rains in thorouglily satu- 
rating the earth. This winter-wetting is as 
much for the purpose of destroying insects as 
anything else, which it does thoroughly. We 
made an inspection first of Mr. D. A. Jackson's 
clover field, containing 20 acres. This piece of 
clover was watered once during the winter, and 
pastured until the 20th of March. It was cut 
for hay on the 8th of May, yielding four tons 
to the acre. On the 8th of June it was again 
irrigated, and after pasturing one month the 
stock was taken off. It uow standsas thick as it 
can and grow well — in fact it looks like a perfect 
mat. There are no bare spots in it, and not a 
weed visible. The stalk is very slim, and he 
says it will yield about the same as the first 
cutting — four tons to the acie. The cost of ir- 
rigating this land this year was -f 5 1.50, and the 
cost of cutting and stacking the hay •'J71.50, 
making a total of .ifl23. He tells us that after 
paying all expenses, this 20 acres will pay him 
.*1,000. South of D. A. Jackson's, his brother, 
T. F. Jackson, has 40 acres. One year ago last 
spring, he planted 1,750 almond trees, budded 
to the peach stem. By judicious irrigation 
these trees have grown until they are now six 
or seven feet high and about three inches in 
thickness of stock at the top of the ground. 
Passing on the grape and fruit ranch of Mr. 
Blowers, we were shown about 15 acres of 
ground which was set in grapes last year from 
the cuttiugs. They have been twice irrigated 
this year, and will be in bearing next season. 
They are of the most choice varieties for raisins. 
A field of clover laying east of the vineyard 
contains 32 acres. He has on it in pasture 225 
head of bucks, four cattle and six horses. It 
has been pastured for six weeks since cutting 
the first crop, and he is now cutting it again 
and securing a reasonable good crop of hay. 

Arizona. 

Native Grasses. — Cor. San Luis Tribune: 
Tliese are few in number, but sweet and nutri- 
tious, thus making amends for lack of variety. 
They are perennial and mostly of large growth, 
thus affording an abundance of forage wlierever 
found. There are many miles in a stretch 
where none are found, which makes the pro- 
ductive localities much more valuable. The 
one most common along the routes of travel is 
the giata grass, a shrubby .sort of stuff, looking 
as forbidding as the sage brush of Nevada. It 
grows in large bunches from 18 inches to two 
feet high, and is grayish-white in color, being 
covered with a cotton-like fuzz. The leaves are 
short and stiff. It is the hay-producing grass 
of the Territory, and is cut with a hoe. Animals 
eat it with a relish and do well upon it. The 
other valuable grasses arc tlie black and white 
gramma, buH'alo and bunch gras.s. These are 
looked upon with more favor than the giata, 
but, excejit in the mountains, are more sparse 
and delicate. In the mountains around the 
]<\)ur Peaks and 011 the mesas of tlie Tonto 
Basin, the biiiKli grass is jiredominant and will 
afford an abundance of forage for immense 
lierds of cattle and horses that are to be. In 
Sunflower valley, alfilerilla and burr clover begin 
to put in an appearance and seem to be as much 
at home as in California. Tlie soil, however, 
jiccounts for this, for it is a rich, deep, black 
sanily loam, good for alfalfa or almost any 
other crop that may oe planted upon it. 



54 



[July 28, 1877. 




"Summer Breezes.'* 
5 — 

It 16 u sultry day; the sun has drunk 
The dew that laj- upon the morning- grass. 
There is un nistlin^; in the lofty dm 
That cRiiDiiies m\ dwellin;r. and its shade 
Siarce onols me. All is silent save the taint 
And interrupted munnur of the hee, 
Settling on the sick flowers, and then asrain 
lastantly on the wins;. The pl.xnts around] 
Feel the too potent fervors; the tall maize 
Kolls up its lonfr ttreen leaves; the elover droops 
Its tender folia>;e. and dedines its hlmims. 
But far in the fierce sunshine tower the hills. 
With all their (frowth of woods, silent and stem, 
As if the scorching heat and dazzling light 
Were hut an element they loved. Bright clouds. 
Motionless i>illars of the brazen heaven - 
Their ba-«es on the mountains- -their white tops 
Shining in the far ether— fire the air 
VVith a reflected radiance, and make turn 
T\\t gazer's eye away. For nic, 1 lie 
Languidly in the shaile. where the thick turf. 
Yet virgin from the kisses of the sun, 
lietains some freshness, and I woo the wind 
That still delays its coming. Why so slow, 
(Jentlo and voluble spirit of the air? 
O come and breathe \ipon the fainiing earth 
Coolness and life. Is it that in his caves 
He hears me ? See, on yonder woody ridge 
TJio pine is bending his proud top, and now. 
Among the nearer groves, chestnut and oak 
Are tossing their green houghs about. He comes ! 
Lo, where th" grassy meadow runs in waves ! 
Tlic deep, distressful silence of the scene 
Breaks up with mingling of minumbered sounds 
And universal motion. He is come, 
Shaking a shower of blossoms from the shnibs 
And hearing on their fragrance; and he brings 
Music of birds, and rustling of young boughs, 
And sound of swaying branches, and the voice 
Of distant waterfalls. All the green herbs 
Are stirring in his breaih; a thousand flowers. 
By the road-side and the borders of the brook. 
Nod gayly to each other; glossy leaves 
Are twinkling in the sun, as if the dew 
Were on them yet, and silver waters break 
Into small waves and sjmrkle as he comes. 

— llniant. 



A Kiss at the Door. 

We were standing in the doorway— 

My little wife and I; 
The gulden sun ui>on her hair 

Fell down so silently. 
A small white hand upon my ann — 

What coiild I ask for more 
Than the kindly glance of loving eyes 

As she kissed me at the door? 

\Mio cares for wealth, or land, or gold, 

Or fame, or matchless power? 
It does not give the happiness 

Of just one little hour 
With one who loves me as her life — 

And says she loves me more. 
And I thought she did this morning 

As she kissed me at the door. 



Woodside Papers.— No. 12. 

(Written for the Riral Pkkhh by Jennie E. .Iamkso.v.] 
Mrs. Payson was not idle during the clays 
that followed her conversation with Mrs. Leslie 
in regard to forming a society for the relief of 
the poor widow, Mrs. Hobhs. The ladies in 
the neighborhood were consulted, and, fortu- 
nately, all thought the plan an excellent one. 
In fact, Mis. Paysou's neighbors usually as' 
sented to her propositions, as they were pretty 
sure to be good ones. When the apjiointed 
time came the pleasant sitting-room of the 
Woodside cottage w.os well filled, and no one 
came with empty hands. Many garments of 
various sizes and colors were Jieaped upon the 
spacious extension table, and the latlies were 
soon busy ripping them and planning for eat- 
ing and making over. Wliile hands were busy 
of course tongues were not idle. After a sub- 
dued buzzing around the extension table for a 
few moments, one of the ladies called out to 
Mrs. Payson, who was in another room: " How 
is this, Mrs. Payson? They toll me that you are 
not going to let us exercise our tongues only 
upon a few selected subjects." Another cried. 
"I call upon Mrs. Payson to make a speech, 
and explain this strange idea." Others echoed, 
"A speech! a speech!" and Mrs. Payson ap- 
peared in the doorway, making an attractive 
picture, as the sunlight sifted through the wav- 
ing leaves of the trees outside, and the soft 
lights and shadows played over her Hushed 
cheeks, waving hair and neatly fitting dress. 
"0, ladies," said she, " I believe you are trying 
to frighten me; I am not a speech-maker, do not 
think I ever mounted a stump in my life. 1 
have not been guilty of laying down any rules 
and regulations that shall be as unalterable as 
the laws of the Medes and Persians, but, know- 
ing that the tendency of some people's tongues 
is to wag, and that continually (begging your 
pardon, ladies, I must say that I hardly think 
there is a tongue here that can move faster than 
the one owned by your humble servant) I pro- 
08«d to some of your numl>er that we hava 



stated subjects for conversation, for instance; 
liealtli or economy, and Mrs. Ivcslie 8uggc8te<l 
cooking. In this way we can be adding new, 
and, without doubt, brilliant ideas to our own 
stock; and we younger liousekeepers can have a 
chance to profit by the experience of those who 
are ohler. So we shall be helping ourselves, 
while we are helping others in a different direc- 
tion. I think, if we like tliis work, we shall 
find considerable to do, for I have already heard 
of two other destitute families who need help. 
In order tliat the tax upon the time of those 
who entertain us may be as light as possible, 
and also that our practice may correspond with 
the preaching which we expect to do, I hope 
that only one kind of food beside bread, butter, 
sauce and cheese (if one chooses), be allowed 
upon the tea- table. As I repeat this list it seems 
to me to be ample, but you well know that 
many housekeepers think they must have two 
or throe kinds of cake, and perhaps pie and 
doughnuts, when they have company or they 
would not be treating their guests well. " 

"I guess the plan is a good one" said Mrs. 
Jones, "but I am very anxious to know what 
will happen to us poor mortals if our tongues, 
being i nruly members, are found running on 
forbidden subjects." "Oh, of course we sliall 
have some terrible punishment," said Mrs. 
Johnson in her merry way. "If you want some 
methods which would be new and interesting in 
these days, I would respectfully suggest some of 
the delectable modes adopted, or perhaps I 
might say, invented by our big school-master 
when I was a child an<l my young ideas were 
learning to shoot. .Some offenders were obliged 
to hold down some of the nail-heads in 
the floor, for half an hour; some were hung 
upon tlie wooden pegs which adorn the smoke- 
stained walls, with toes l)arely touching; others 
held heavy books at arms' length, and — " 
"There! Mrs. Johnson, stop your joking," 
said Mrs. Leslie, "Of course, as Mrs. Pay- 
son said, the rules are not to be unalterable, 
and perliaps, in time, we can discuss many good 
subjects. I am not sure but it would be a good 
plan to have a fine if any one was found speak- 
ing evil of another. I noticed some of the 
ladies looked dismayed when Mrs. Payson 
spoke of the number of kinds of food to be al- 
lowed upon the tea-table. I think it was a 
grand idea. .Some have reformed in this re- 
spect, and I think it is time the reform was 
general. We might as well set the frightful ex- 
ample. ' "We'll forgive that quotation," said 
Mrs. Payson, because we know you mean the 
good example. I believe it is useless to cook 
so many kimls. I have eaten with people in 
moderate circumstances, and have counted 14 
kinds of food upon the table. Some very 
wealthy people go as far in an opposite direc- 
tion and have but two or three kinds and not 
enough of them, though the table may fairly 
groan l)eneath the weight of silver." "1 like to 
cook, but not well enough to sjjend most of my 
time preparing different dishes for the table," 
quoth Mrs. Leslie, cutting vigorously upon 
some thick cloth. "Time was, (and not so very 
long ago either), when we would not tliink we 
were treating company decent if we did not 
leave them to their fate some time l)efore tea 
and make up a roaring fire, if it was in August, 
that we might have hot biscuit for tea. 1 for 
one have learned better." "Go in ladies, I ad- 
mire your spunk. As for me and my house, 
though we know better, I am sorry to say we 
do not mend our ways because we have not the 
courage. We have a great deal of company 
from large places, and my husband always 
thinks we must have a grand display of food to 
set before them." So spake Mrs. Lee, whom 
one would think would have indeiiendence 
enough to "health reform" as much as she 
pleased. Mrs. .Johnson took up the subject 
with considerable energy. "That's ju.st it. In 
eight eases out of ten, husban<ls think altogether 
too much of having a great variety on the table 
and want a woman to cook and cook — " "Look 
out, Mrs. Johnson," interrupted Mrs. Leslie, 
"Mrs. Payson will think your tongue has taken 
the war-path in pursuit of inconsiderate hus- 
bands." 

' 'I think the subject of health may well come 
in here," said Mrs. Payson, "for many physi- 
cians say that a large variety of food is injurious 
to health." 

"Yes, health and economy, too," continued 
Mrs. Leslie; "for it is quite an economy of time 
to cook more of one or two kinds, instead of 
preparing a half a dozen different dishes. " 

"I suppose you would condemn us to livin' on 
graham bread and oatmeal mush," said Mrs. 
Towne, with a meek, resigned air, as she 
stitched patiently away upon a ])air of small 
pants, designed for James Hobbs, Jr. 

"(iraham is better than fine wheat, if well 
made," returned Mrs. Payson; "and it is not 
hard to make. " 

"I make mine ^-ith a part of the yeast raised 
for white bread," said Mrs. Leslie; "for I have 
to make the latter because a part of my house- 
hold think they must have it. I am willing to 
make it, for it is good to the taste, esi)ecially 
when we have new butter made from milk set 
in the new large pans. By the way, I liope 
tvery one who can will economize time and 
labor by having these most excellent pans. It 
is just fun to wash them after having lifted 
around great loads of common ones for years; 
and now you can get them made by any tinman 
without the patent arrangement for running 
water underneath . them. Mine are large 
enough for 10 cows and only cost 512. They 
are worth many times that to me." 

"I have them," said Mrs. Payson, "and 
would not part with them for any money. How I 



much easier we can do our work than could our 
mothers and grandmothers. When my mother 
was a little girl she had to skim and empty the 
heavy earthen pans then in use. Some people 
used to set the milk in the cellar, and have 
those heavy pans to carry up and down stairs. 
I have one of the relics of these dark ages. 
Perhaps you would like to see it. " 

Most of the company said they had never seen 
one, and Mrs. Payson brought from the pantry 
the weighty red curiosity, saying: 

"I never could blame the woman whose hus- 
band would not mend the cellar stairs, which 
were so badly broken that they could not be 
used. She told him that she could not carry 
the milk down unless they were mended. 'All 
right,' said he, 'get it down the next best way.' 
This she did, and the next he knew the nicely 
swept dirt tloor of the cellar was white with the 
milk she -had thrown down. Of course the 
stairs wer» mended before the next milking 
time. I believe it was the same man who did 
not jjrovide wood for his wife to use. It is a 
great economy of time, of course, to have the 
wood brought, cut and piled in some sheltered 
place, when farm-work is not driving; but he 
was what oldfa»hione<l jieople would call 'lazy,' 
and wlicn the hunyiug time came, he said he 
couldn't afford to stop to cut wood. 'But you 
want a boiled dish for dinner,' said his wife. 
'Pray tell me how I am going to cook it?' 'Oh, 
cook it in tlie sun, for aught 1 care,' replied tiie 
enterpri.sing lord of creation. At noon, several 
very hungry men came from the field feeling as 
thougli they could devour as much as a small 
regiment. The dinner table was nicely set, the 
'gude wife' sat by an open window peacefully 
plying her neetlle, the ilowers bloomed, the 
birds twittered and all was as calm as a May 
morning. 'Come wile, where's that biled dish, 
we're as hungry as bears.' 'Boiled dish?' said 
his wife, 'Oh, won't you just see if it's done? 
You'll find it right in the yard where the sun 
shines the hottest.' The hungry men-folks 
peered into the big iron kettle and found meat, 
jiotatoes. beets, carrots, cabb.age, etc., all pre- 
pared for the table, only as raw as uncooked 
food can be. It is needless to say that that 
woman had wood enough after that. " 

"Pretty gooil, pretty good!" said one of the 
ladies, "i think he must have got the wood too 
when lie could best sitend time for that work. 
I fear the lazy folks have not all 'scuttled off 
this mortal coil,' (as your Aunt Keziah would 
sa^ ), for I have been past houses in this town 
and seen no wood-pile, but a log with an ax re- 
clining suggestively at its side. We seldom see 
that, however." 

"Speaking of those pans reminded me of the 
dasher churns our grandmothers used to use. 
I think some were made of stone. I have a 
wooden one kept for curiosity. The young 
folks had it the other evening in the tableau, 
'the spruce young gentleman and the dashing 
young lady.' When tlie curtain was drawn, 
there appeared a young man standing very 
straight, covered with spruce lx)ughs, and a 
younglady dressed in print, just ready to churn.'' 

At this moment tea was announced, and the 
ladies found that a supper of fine wheat or gra- 
ham bread, sauce and fresh, light cake, accom- 
panied by good butter and cheese, was, to say 
the least, very palatable. The ladies all <le- 
clared that they had had a splendid time, and 
several garments were ready lo be carried to 
the little house under the hill. 

NoTK.— In "Woodside Papers, No. 11," those who are 
acijuainted with the habits of hens must have been sur- 
prised to find that one meal a day wasi enough for a hen. 
It should ha\c been for a lion. 



The Juvenile Batuer. — At noon yesterday 
a policeman found a boy bathing in a slip near 
the foot of Pandolph street, and he called to 
the lad to come out and be arrested like a man 
for breaking the ordinance. 

"Is it agin the orjunance for a boy to fall 
into the river?" queried the bather. 

"No sir, but you are naked." 

' 'Does the law say that a boy has got to have 
his clothes on when ho falls in?" 

"The ordinance ]irohibits bathing here, and 
now you come out." 

"Is it bathing when a feller cuts his foot on a 
piece of tin, knocks his head agin a beam and 
swallows four catfish and a gob of mud?" 

"I want you," called the officer. 

"What for?" called the boy. 

"I command you to come out." 

"1 can't come." sorrowfully answered the 
bather. "The real truth is, I jumped in hereto 
rescue a drowning female, but her hair pulled 
off and she's at the bottom. As I have no wit- 
ness, I dasu't go to trial." 

"I'll bring you out!" growled the officer, as 
he made for a boat, but the boy disappeared an<l 
was seen no more. While the officer was look- 
ing under the wharf, the half of a good-sized 
sand pile slid down the back of his neck and 
into his boots, and a musical, familiar voice was 
heard saying: 

"My shirt's on hind side afore, breeches 
turned around, and this vest is wrong end up, 
but I feel as clean as a new stamp from the 
post office, and lor! what an appetite I've got 
for pop-corji balls." 

Farm Literati'ke. — Agricultural books and 
papers are designed to meet the wants of those 
destitute of information, and should be more 
widelj' circulated than they are. In this age 
one might as well think of studying figures 
without an arithmetic, as farming without agri- 
cultural information. It always has been a loss 
to the agricultural interest that so many enter 
upon its duties with no knowledge of what it 
coniiits. — Antioch Ltdgtr. I 



Lncretia Mott 

There is another woman of tiio first century, 
writes Pho'be Hannaford, still lingering on the 
shores of time to bless those who are around her, 
as she has blessed the world for 80 years — 
Lucretia Mott, the philanthropic woman, as well 
as the (Quaker preacher. She is a native of the 
island of Kantucket, of the Coffins and Macys 
on the father's side, and of the Folgers on the 
mother's; through them related to Dr. Frank- 
lin. Bom in 179.'^; brought up to be useful in 
the family; in 1S04 removed to Boston, and 
studied in the public and private schools there. 
Afterward studied in the Friends' boarding 
school, in Dutchess county, N. Y., and then 
became a teacher there, though but the age of 
15 years of age. At the eariy age of 18 she 
married James Mott, of New York and removed 
to Philadelphia, where she has since resided, 
dwelling now in a lovely suburban retreat, 
whicli she adorn.s and makes attractive to visi- 
tors from many lands. Mrs. Caroline Soulo 
writes thus of a recent visit: "I went where 1 
lung have wanted to go — to the roof-tree that 
shelters the venerable Lucretia Mott. It is a 
lovely home, standing in a lawn of spotless 
beauty. Part of the house is ohl and of Quaker 
simplicity; and part of it modern, and, tliough 
corresponiiing with the older part, yet tastefully 
elegant. We count it a great privilege to have 
seen friend Mott in her own home, queen of 
the household, as she has long been queeu of 
the platform. She received us very kindly, 
and gave an inimitable description of Abel 
Thomas, tlie grandfather of the Rev. A. C. 
Thomas, who was a celebrated Quaker preacher 
when Lucretia was a very young girl; and she 
showed a surprising familiarity with all the 
topics of the day, demonstrating that assertion 
we sometimes make, that because people grow 
old they need not necessarily grow rusty. She 
is really a wonderful woman, brilliant in intel- 
lect, tender in heart, guileless in soul. Thoitgh 
past 80, she is one of the most industrious 
women of the period. She spends several hours 
every day in reading and writing in the cozy 
little library which she showed us, saying asshe 
did 80, 'I keep a wood fire on the hearth, and I 
V)uild it myself, by choice, every morning.' Nor 
does she fold her hands when her hours for 
study are over. She showed us 20 yards of 
beautiful rag carpet which she has made since she 
was SO, and brought out her tiny work-basket, 
with the rags cut by herself, an unfinished ball 
lying in the midst, and beside it her skeins of 
raveliugs, for she maintains that raveliugs are 
better to sew carpet with than thread. 'But 
don't they break too easily ?' M-e queried. 'On 
the contrary, I find them too strong sometimes. ' 
I looked at her dainty fingers, and it seemed to 
me a spider's thread would be strong enough to 
sew with. Yet the carpet when done is sub- 
stantial and likewise really beautiful; the rags 
are cut with such precision, and the colors so 
fairly blended. We — and I should have said 
before that the venerable Elizabeth Peabody 
was also a caller— each begged a yard or two 
from an unfinished ball; and as she placed the 
-trips in my hand, I was prouder tlian if Victo- 
ria had given me a 'garter ribbon.' Birth made 
Victoria a queen, but her own pure, sweet life 
makes Lucretia Mott a queen in the realm of 
humanity. If ever any woman inherited tho 
earth it is this blessed Quaker woman."'" Lu- 
cretia Mott early engaged in the temperance 
work, but she has been especially known in 
connection with the anti-slavery efi'ort, and the 
movement advocating universal suffrage. Her 
sister, Martha Coffin Wright, herself a philau- 
thnipist and reformer, said of her: The striking 
traits of Lucrctia's character are remarkable en- 
ergy, that defies even time, unswernng consci- 
entiousness, and all those ch.ar.acteristics that 
are summed up in the few words, "love to God 
and love to man." Although more than 80 
years old. Miss Mott made an address on the 
"Centennial Fourth" at the woman's meeting 
in Pliila<lelphia, and a few weeks later addressed 
the Woman's Congress. 



A LaHV .SPEAKINO FOR ElOUT HouRB. — 
Westminster hall and the lobbies of the House of 
Commons have been resounding, says a London 
correspondent, with the praise of ISlrs. Besant 
for the remarkable ability with which she has 
defended herself in the trial now proceeding in 
the Queen's Bench. An old barrister, who has 
heard her speech throughout, told me that he 
did not believe there was a single man at the 
bar who could have made a more eloquent and 
successful defence than this good lady has done. 
She must have talked between eiglit and nine 
hours altogether. Her self-possession never de- 
serted her, while the grace and elegance of 
her manner won the a<l miration of all who 
listened to her. It is a question of arrange- 
ment, but I should have thought it would have 
been better to allow Mrs. Besant to conclude 
the trial, for the efi'ect of her peroration both 
on the court and jury was manifest. Mrs. 
Besant is charged, in company with Mr. Brad- 
laugh, with circulating an indecent book, en- 
titled "Fruits of Philosophy," which advocates 
checks on over-population. She is the wife of 
a Yorkshire clergyman, but voluntarily sep- 
arated herself from her husband in order that 
she might be enabled to appear as a teacher of 
those views which have cume to be known by 
the term secularism. — A>/r. Advertiser. 

Dilapid.\tions. — Architect, who has come 
down about the "restoration:" "Good deal of 
dry rot about here." Garrulous pew opener: 
"Oh sir, it ain't nothing to what there is in th« 
pulpit. " — Punch. 



July 128, 1877.] 




A Vicious Plaster.— A gentlenleil -W^ho had 
cin acute pain in his side, yesterday, put a mus- 
tard plaster of powerful drawing capacity over 
the affected region, tied it on with a bandage, 
and started for his place of business. When 
upon Main Cross he was horrified to find that 
the plaster had become loose, dropped many de- 
grees below its original position, and had com- 
menced chewing the solid itieat Of his ham. 
He thrust his hand into his pocket to remedy 
the evil, but could not choke the plaster off; 
It had established a residence there, and he 
could feel the skin rising into a blubber under 
its powerful sucJtion. He rushed into a busi- 
ness house to retire up -stairs or somewhere 
where he dould fix things differently, but just 
as he entered he met a number of lady friends 
who all seemed delighted to see him. They 
had some kind of enterprise on hand and 
Wanted him to contribute. He said he'd see 
them again, and they said it was an old dodge, 
and that he couldn't play it that way. Then 
they went on to explain and he writhed in agony. 
The plaster Was getting at its work- — ^pumping the 
Water from his system at every pore; and when 
he finally darted out of the store and flew down 
an alley with his hair standing on end, those 
ladies raised their hands and said, "Did you 

ever I Who would have thought that Mr. 

would have been so penurious." — Madison 
Courier. 



The Old Bachelor's Latter End. — Let 
us glance at the latter scenes. Even he has his 
day. When people find that he will not marry 
and that he is getting on in years, they grad- 
ually "drop him." He ceases to be asked to 
parties, and haughty beauties turn up their 
noses when he supplicates for their favor. He 
may not lose caste at the same time the bloom 
of youth is robbed from him, but when he be- 
gins to enter upon the regions of the sere and 
yellow leaf, his flatterers drop away. He sees 
younger rivals upon his heels, and has to make 
room for them. The old ties that rendered life 
dear to him snap, one by one, and none form to 
take their place. Not being engaged in any 
work of u.sefulness, he has to fly to his club for 
companionship, and he has no difficulty in dis- 
covering that the "friends" whom he makes 
there do not care a straw about him. People 
feel that he is, in some respects, a social failure, 
and they feel, further, that it is his own fault. 
They laugh at him because he is vain and 
selfish and continues to hanker after admira- 
tion; they hold his little foibles up to ridicule; 
they use him when it suits them and forsake 
him when it suits them. Perhaps there is no 
man so hopelessly alone in the world as the 
gallant old bachelor who has outlived the 
pleasures of youth and turned 50. — Howe 
Journal. 



A Mortgage. — In the whole range of sacred 
and profound literature, perhaps there is notli- 
ing recorded which has such staying properties 
as a good healthy mortgage. A mortgage can 
be depended upon to stick closer than a brother. 
It has a mission to perform which never lets up. 
Day after day it is right there, nor does the 
slightest tendency to slumber impair its vigor 
in the night. Night and day, on the .Sabbath, 
and at holiday times, without a moment's time 
for rest and recreation, the biting offspring of 
its existence, interest, goes on. The seasons 
may change, days run into weeks, weeks into 
months and mouths be swallowed up into the 
gray man of advancing years, but that mort- 
gage stands up in sleepful vigilance, with the 
interest, a perennial stream, ceaselessly running 
on. Like a hugh nightmare eating out the 
sleep of some restless slumberer, the unpaid 
mortgage rears up its gaunt front in perpetual 
torment to the miserable wight who is held 
within its pitiless clutch. It holds the poor 
victims with the relentless grasp of a giant; not 
one hour of recreation; not a moment's evasion 
of its hideous presence. A genial savage of 
mollifying aspect while the interest is paid; a 
very devil of hopeless desti-uction when the pay- 
ments fail. 



The Question of Low Neck. — It lias sud- 
denly dawned upon the Lords of the Admiralty 
that the present uniform of the British tar is 
too decollete, and that too much of his manly 
bosom is exposed to the winds of heaven. Con- 
sequently orders have been issued that, for the 
future, the flannels of seamen shall be cut 
square across the breast and close up to the 
neck. It is true that, by this substitution of 
high-dress for low, the tattoo marks, of which 
.lack is so proud, will no longer be visible to 
the casual observer; but no doubt he will soon 
admit that this loss is compensated by the 
increased modesty of his appearance. Might 
not Her Majesty, however, who is thus tenderly 
thoughtful of the chests of her seamen, look 
nearer home at the " necks" of her court ladies ? 
The unhappy ladies, who are forced to api)ear 
at drawing-rooms, no matter what the weather 
may be like, in the lowest of low dresses, would, 
we are sure, hail with delight an edict which 
should confer on them a boon which is not 
denied to the hardy seamen of Her Majesty's 
navy. — JComing Eventn. 



Is there a prouder moment for the ruralist 
than when he first discovers a big ripe straw- 
berry among his rows of new varieties? ' 'Our 
sentiments exactly," chorused a group of robins 
from an evergreen bough as we read over aloud 
the foregoing paragraph. — Christiafi Union. 



The Baby at School. 

The baby has gone to school, ah, me ! 

What win the mother do, 
With never a call to button, or pin, 

Or tie one little .shoe? 
How can .she keep herself busy all day 
With her little "Iiindering-thing" away V 

Another basket to fill with lunch, 

Another "good-bye'' to say, 
-\nd the mother stands at the door to see 

Her baby march away; 
And turns with a sigh that is half relief, 
And half a something- akin to grief. 

She thinks of a possible fu'ure morn 

When the children, one by one. 
Will go from their home out inw) the world 

To battle with life alone. 
And not even the baby be left to cheer 
The desolate home of the future year. 

.She picks up garments here and there. 

Thrown down in careless haste; 
.\nd tries to think how it would seem 

If nothing were displaced; 
It the house wa.3 alway.s still as this. 
How could_she bear its loneliness '! 

But mothers have no time to dream 

Of future griefs or joy.s; 
She's very sure that night will bring 

Some hungry girls and boys; 
So, casting useless fears away. 
She labors cheerfully all the day. 

— Mary A. Simpnon. 



Rumor. 

[Written for the Press by CoMcs Canopus.] 
There is one thing, boys and girls, which all 
of you ought to avoid, and that is the indis- 
criminate repetition of what you have heard. 
All of you have read a good deal, I dare say, of 
the bad influence, the almost dreadful results 
of gossip among grown people. Well, among 
yourselves, to repeat what you have only heard 
to another, adding to your little tale some un- 
important particulars, soon draws you into tell- 
ing falsehoods; one lie must be supported by an- 
other; and then pretty soon you will have lost 
entirely tlie esteem and respect of your play- 
mates. Where they were before glad to be 
with you, you are now held in contempt by 
them. 

When you relate what you have heard from 
some one else, always mention tlie fact; it will 
save you much annoyance, if what you were 
told turns out to be different from your version; 
and, even if it is true, you wUl be spared the 
suspicion of assummg too much. If you are 
yourself aware that what you are telling is true, 
tell it truthfully, and then you can claim to 
know you are right. Avid above all things 
exaggerating, and you will be caused no unhap- 
piness on that account. You may tell a friend 
a story, and, to please him, (and it may please 
you to be able to astonish him with its narra- 
tion, ) exaggerate its truth. Very likely he does 
not believe you, but he does not tell you so. 
By the time you see him again he has found out 
that you made yourself ridiculous by exaggerat- 
ing your tale into all improbability, and you 
are soon the laughing stock, not alone of the 
companion you tried to deceive, but of all his 
friends, too. I remember reading a popular 
story, in verse, some years ago, illustrating how 
rumor travels, and assumes, sometimes, such ri- 
diculous proportions. I can only faintly re- 
member the context of the story: Mr. .Tones 
told Mr. White that Mr. Smith had swallowed 
three live, black crows. "Why, no," said Mr. 
White to .Jones, "he swallowed three crows. 
They were black, but not alire ! " So the story 
went, as it came, degree by degree, until it 
came out that Mr. Smith had swallowed three 
pills as black as crows ! My boy and girl read- 
ers who have heard the story and can remember 
it better than 1, will pardon me if I have fallen 
into some errors in repeating it. Mr. .fones, by 
the way, must have felt very ridiculous when 
he heard the real facts. But the above is a 
mythical case, I don't doubt. Here is one that 
is true: 

A number of years ago — in 1870 — when 1 was 
but nine years old, I was in Talcahuano, a 
small sea-port of Chile, South America. A ru- 
mor came to us that on the preceding April '23d, 
Telegraph hill, at San Francisco, had fallen in 
by the shock of an earthcpiake ! I was too 
young and inconsiderate to reflect that if the 
hill was destroyed — toppled over — by an eartli- 
quake, the city itself must have been destroyed. 
I afterwards found that on this April 23d, 
"Blossom rock" was removed from the bay by 
being blown up with 23 tons of gunpowder, 
whicli probably gave rise to the i-umor. 



Heart Disease. 

At a late scientific congress at .Strasburg, it 
was reported, that of 66 persons who had sud- 
denly died, an immediate and faithful post mor- 
tem showed that only two persons had any 
heart affection whatever; one sudden death 
only, in 33, from disease of the heart. Nine 
out of the 66 died of apoplexy, one out of ev- 
ery seven, while 46, more tlian two out of three, 
died of lung affections, half of them of "con- 
gestion of the lungs, "that is, the lungs were so 
full of l)lood they could not work, there was 
not room for air enough to get in to support 
life. 

It is then of considerable practical interest, 
says HalPs Jonriml, to know some of the com- 
mon every-day causes of this "congestion of 
the lungs," a disease which, the figures above 
being true, kills three times as many persons at 
short warning, as apoplexy and heart disease to- 
gether. Cold feet; tight shoes; tight clothing; 
costive bowels; sitting still until chilled through 
after liaving been warmed up by labor or a 
long or hasty walk; going too suddenly from a 
close heated room, as a lounger or listener or 
speaker, while the body is weakened by contin- 
ued application or abstinence, or heated by the 
effort of a long address; these are the fruitful, 
the very fruitful causes of sudden death in the 
form of "congestion of the lungs;" but which 
being falsely reported as "disease of the heart," 
and regarded as an inevitable event, throws 
people off their guard, instead of pointing them 
plainly to the true causes, all of which are 
avoidable, and very easUy so, as a general rule, 
when the mind has been once intelligently 
drawn to the subject. 



Phosphatic Food. 

The Mani'/acturer has the following plea for 
special feeding of the brain: Man is being per- 
petually renewed; the old and used-up particles 
are removed from the system and their place is 
supplied with the same element newly pre- 
sented to the organism. Motion destroys a 
portion of the integrity of a muscle, sight a 
something from the retina of the eye, and 
" thoughts which breathe and words which 
burn," literally burn and change into another 
chemical formula a certain portion of the phos- 
phorus of the brain. Hence arises the neces- 
sity of supplying the system with an element 
on which the mental functions depend more 
than on any other inorganic ingredient. E.Kperi- 
ence shows that highly phosphatic and easily 
digested food, such as soft-boiled eggs, boiled 
fish, the flesh of fowls, oysters and kale food 
(phosphorized more than most other grains and 
vegetables), is especially suitable to persons 
whose minds are overtaxed by intellectual 
duties, and in purely nervous affections it is 
re ommended by physicians who understand 
their business. Very recommendable for this 
purpose is the liquid acid phospliate, because it 
contains the phosphorus in a condition in which 
it is most easily assimilated. The idea of par- 
taking of particular kinds of food or beverages 
to nourish the nervous system is rapidly gain- 
ing ground or theoretically accepted .as correct. 
Said a physiciait lately to us, with wh<un we 
conversed on this subject: " What a fool M'as I 
in my ignorance to laugh at the idea of brain;il 
food. Why, sir, it is the most valuable one I 
ever put in practice. I thank you chemists for 
it." 



Keep Cisterns Clean. — At a recent meeting 
of the Royal Society of Arts, in Edinburgh, 
Dr. Stevenson Macadam read a paper on ".Sedi- 
ments in Domestic Water Cisterns," in wliich 
he expressed the conviction that in many cases 
the evil effects of impure water supply were di- 
rectly traceable to the contamination of the 
water by its being retained in cisterns contain- 
ing deposits lying there for lengthened periods. 
The analyses of a number of sediments taken 
from cisterns in different parts of Edinburgh 
and Portobello proved that the deposits were 
intermingled with minute particles of carbonate 
of lead, due to the action of tlie water upon 
the lead of the cistern, as well as of organic 
matter, derived in part from the ordinary street 
or house dust, and in part from insects, etc. 
Analyses of the water supplied to the city be- 
fore entering tlie house cisterns, and of the 
water which had stood for a week over the de- 
posits or sediments from cisterns, showed that 
the water had suffered serious contamination. 
The only way to obvi:ite this is by the periodic 
cleansing of the cistern; and this should be 
done at least every three months. 



Stimulants U.sed by the Race. — The Qmr- 
terhi Joiirnnl of Tnebriety says: It is estimated 
that coffee, both beans and leaves, is drunk by 
60,000,000 of the human family. Tea of all 
kinds is used by .WO, 000,000 and opium by 400, - 
000, 000; alcohol, in its various forms, by .500, 000,- 
000 of the Imman race. Tobacco is probably 
used by 700,000,000 or 800,000,000. These 
startling facts indicate a large proportion of the 
race using .some substances that are either stim- 
ulants or narcotics. Tne work of the physiol- 
ogist, in the future, will be to determine the 
true place in nature of these substances and 
indicate where their use ends and abuse beginn. 



Summer Drinks. 

The M arm days which are now frequent make 
cooling and refreshing drinks a blessing. For 
the aid of our readers who do not know how to 
make these we transcribe a few recipes from 
the Prairie Farmer: 

Ginger Beee;— A harmless drink and excellent 
for use in the harvest field is made as follows: 
To 3 gallons of water put 3 ounces of powdered 
ginger and 5 pounds of loaf sugar; boil all for 
one hour; add the beaten whites of two eggs and 
skim well. Strain the liquor into a stone jar and 
let it stand to cool; then add the strained juice 
of 5 lemons and the peel cut very thin; pour a 
quarter of a teacupful of yeast on » slice of 
toasted bread; jmt this in a jar, cover with a 
thick cloth and let stand for two or three days. 
Strain it again through a thick cloth and bottle. 
It will be ready for use in four days after bot- 
tling. More ginger can be added if desirable 

Lemon Beer.— Slice a lemon, carefully re- 
moving the seeds and thick white part of the 
skin; add to the yellow part of the rind and the 
pulp, 1 ounce of tartaric acid, 1 ounce of bruised 
ginger root, and 2 pounds of white sugar. 
Four upon these ingredients 2 gallons of boiling 
water and let stand until lukewarm; then add 
1 teacupful of home-made yeaat and let it stand 
where it will keep of the same temperature for 
several hours. Bottle and cork tightly; it can 
be used in two days after. 

Lemonade. — Allow 3 or 4 lemons, according 
to their size and juiciness, to each quart of wa- 
ter, and about 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar to each 
lemon. Poll tlie lemons until soft, then slice 
them upon the sugar and mix all well together, 
pressing the lemon so as to extract the juicej 
add a very little water and let stand for twenty 
minutes. Add the remainder of the water; ice 
well; stir thoroughly and pour out. Oranges 
substituted for a portion of the lemons give a 
delightful flavor; in tliis case lesson the quan- 
tity of sugar. 

Str.\wberky Sherbet.— Mash a quart of ripe 
strawberries until they are a smooth paste; add 
to them the, //(ice of 1 lemon and 3 pints of wa- 
ter. Let all stand for three hours; then strain 
it through a cloth upon three-fourths of a 
pound of powdered sugar; stir well and set 
it in the ice fort wo or three hours; or, add 
pounded ice and drink at once. The juice of red 
raapberriess ubstituted for strawberries makes 
a delicious drink. 

RA.SPBERRY ViNEG.iR. —Bruise a quart of ripe 
raspberries and pour over them a quart of best 
cider vinegar; let them stand twenty-four hours; 
then strain the liquor over a quart of fresh ber- 
ries, well bruised. On the following day do the 
same, but do not squeeze the berries while 
straining, as that would cause fermentation to 
take place. Wet a canvas bag in the liquor, 
then strain the juice through it into a porcelain 
kettle. Allow a pound of white sugar to each 
pint of juice; place on the stove; stir well, and 
let simmer for fifteen minutes; then skim, and 
when cold, bottle it. Two teaspoonfuls of this 
syrup to a glass of water makes a wliolesome and 
very pleasant drink. Currant or blackberry 
vinegar can be made in the same manner. 

.Blackberry Cordial. — To a quart of black- 
berry juice add a pound of white sugar. In a 
thin muslin bag put a teaspoonful each of pow- 
dered cloves and allspice, 2 teaspoonfuls of 
ground cinnamon, and a like quantity of grated 
nutmeg. Boil the spices — tied in the bag — 
with the juice and sugar for fifteen minutes, 
aiul skim thoroughly. Cover and set away, 
an 1 when partly cool add 1 pint of good brandy. 
When cold take out the spices, bottle the cor- 
dial and seal the corks. This is a most excel- 
lent remedy to be given to children for the 
complaints to which they are subject during 
the summer months, the dose being one-half to 
a tablespoonfnl, as occasion may require. 



Preser\t5d Persimmons. — The Kentucky 
Home ./ournal has the following: I notice 
what is said under the caption, " Diospyros Ka- 
ki," and it reminds me of the delicious dish of 
preserved persimmons of which I ate yesterday, 
at the house of Mr. Daniel Lewis, a model far- 
mer of this county. The persimmons were not 
large like those described in the article referred 
to, l)ut of the ordinary size common in this 
country. Mr. Lewis said there were several 
varieties, dilToring in size and color, but I pre- 
sume tliey all may be preserved according to 
his plan, which is commendable because of its 
simplicity, and, in the end, economy. Take a 
jar of any size to suit your purpose, and put a 
layer of sugar first, and then a layer of persim- 
mons, after being cleaned and liaving the stems 
removed; then alternately a layer of sugar and 
of persimmons — ripe, of course, but not cooked. 
Cover with paper or cloth, and seal with wax. 
In the dish referred to, the sugar was converted 
into syrup of tlie most delicious flavor. The 
persimmon was tasted cautiously, expecting n 
powerful astringent effect, not unlike that pro- 
duced by the fruit when taken immediately 
from the tree; but to our great surprise the a»- 
tringency was displaced by a most inviting and 
peculiar aromatic taste, that can scarcely be ex- 
celled by any similar preparation. 



Ironino Hint. — Put beeswax between pieces 
of paper or cloth and keep on a table close by 
the flatiron stand. If the irons get coated with 
scorclied starch, rub them over the paper that 
holds the wax and it will all oouia eti'. 



[July 28, 1877. 




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SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 28, 1877. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS —A Famous Trotting 
Stallion; Feeding Rusty Hay and Straw; Oil or Otto of 
I.emon, 49. The Week; Trouble in tne Churn; Can 
Squirrels be Made r.<eful, 56. The Labor Season; The 
Telephone; Illinois Industrial University, 57. The 
Kingsburg Anti-liesert Land Convention; Patents and 
Inventions, 60- 

ILLUSTRATIONS.-Fiuuous Trotting Stallion "Ad. 
iniiiistrator," 49. Prof. Graham Bell's Telephone, 57- 

CORRESPONDENCB.-- Valley Picture.-s and Moun- 
tain Views, 50. 

ARBORICULTURE -The Almond Tree; Arizona 
Trees, 50 

THE VINEYARD.— The Coining Grape Crop; Raisin 
Statistics, 51. 

POULTRY YARD —Egg Testers; Drinking Foun- 
tains; .\re the Postmasters t*i Blame V Drinking Vessels 
for Chicks, 51. 

HORTICULTURE. -Southern California Horticultu- 
ral Society, 51-58. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.- Worthy Lectu- 
rer's Visits; Ta-xation; State Grange Constitutional 
Amendments; Late Publirations of the National Grange: 
Open Grange Meetings; Bro. Pilkington at Riverside; 
New Grange Halls; The State Grange; In Memoriain, 52 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties in California and Arizona, 53. 

HOME CIRCLE •Summer Breezes," (Poetry); A 
Kiss at the Door, (Poetry); Woodside Papers. — No. 12; 
The Juvenile Bather; Farm Literature; Lucretia Mott; 
A Lady Speaking for Eight Hours; Dilapidations, 54. 
A A'ieious Plaster; The old Bachelor's Latter End; .\ 
Mortgage; The (Question of L(tw Neck, 55. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN— The Baby at School, 
(Poetry); Rumor, 55. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Heart Disease; Phosphatic Food; 
Keep Cisterns Clean; Stimulants Used by the Race, 55 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Summer Drinks; Pre- 
ser\'ed Persinnnons; Ironing Hint, 55. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES -Gooseberries; Onions 
by Irrigation; Ayrshire Cattle, 56. 

GENERAL NJBWS ITEMS on page 60 and other 
pages. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Tile "Bergncr" Apple Parer, Corer and Cutter Combined, 
Littlefteld, Webb & Co., S. F.; Ditson & Co.'s .Musical 
Monthly, Oliver Ditson & Co. , Bo.ston ; Life Insurance 
Claims, jas. Munsell, Jr, S. F. ; Tarrant's Seltzer Ape- 
rient. .._ 



The Week. 

The notes of the past week have been harsh 
because of the riot and turmoil which have 
prevailed in several Eastern cities. Mobs such 
as have never been known before in this coun- 
try in extent of their operations, have com- 
pletely defied the power of the existing author- 
ities, and overcome the military and police 
forces which have been sent to restore order. 
Twice or thrice has the President of the United 
Statjs issue! proclamations against such law- 
less deeds, and the (ioveruors of half a dozen 
■States have formally ordered the rioters to dis- 
perse, and called upon all good citizens to com- 
bine to preserve order. The uprising began 
among the employees of the Baltimore and 
Ohio railroad, and Baltimore and Pittsburg 
were the first scenes of conflict. Millions of 
property were destroyed and citizens and riot- 
ers killed. Military forces were quickly im- 
prisoned and powerless. Riot niled in Pitts- 
burg. Thence the trouble spread along differ- 
ent lines of railway westward to Chicago and 
eastward to Albany, New York. Flach morn- 
ing for the last four days the newspapers have 
had three and four columns a day of details of 
the tumults and evil deeds. As we write to- 
day (Wednesday), there is no sign of the end, 
but the power of the mob is extending itself. 
Where there has been reduction of wages by 
the managers of transportation companies, 
there are/springing up strikes, some peaceful 
and careful of property, others exceedingly de- 
structive. What the end will be cannot now 
be foreseen as regards the points at issue be- 
tween the workmen and their masters, but it is 
to be believed that the right mind of the people 
will assert its strength; order will triumph and 
. }ife and property be assured of safety. 



Trouble in the Churn. 

Editors Press:— I am In search of information and 
know of no way to obtain it as well as through the Press. 
I will commence churning with cream at 60"; the cream 
will thicken up in a short time, as if the butter was com- 
ing right away, but instead, it will get as thin almost as 
milk; then, after a long time, the butter will come, but 
will not gather readily and comes quite soft. Can any 
one tell me tlie cause and give me a remedy.— A Constam 
Rr.\der, \'acaville, Cal. 

The trouble which our (luerist describes ha?, 
we are quite sure, been experienced by other 
butter makers. It may be the same general 
trouble, and yet the manifestations of it be 
somewhat different in different cases. It is a 
fact, that during a month or six weeks just 
passed, there has been an unusual amount of 
poor butter received in this city. Dairies, 
which are generally uniformly tirst-class, have, 
this summer, sent to market butter of nearly 
all descriptions from goqjl to bad. The general 
difficulty has doubtless been the peculiar season, 
with its lack of water and short feed in many 
parts. Wlien one tries to narrow down the 
difficulty so as to assign special and definite 
causes for particular behavior in messes of 
cream, there is not much hope of success unless 
we know all the conditions which rule the case 
in point. The truth is that when cream 
acts in an unusual way, it is indication 
that it is not handled properly or that 
something has exerted an evil intiuence 
on the cream itself. As cream is the product 
of the cow it is liable to be changed in compo- 
sition by influences which aft'ect the cow. Thus 
foul feed, rank and ill-flavored weeds and all 
vegetable refuse which cows will eat when bet- 
ter grazing is scant, will affect the quality of 
both cream and butter, though the e\il from 
this source lies chiefly in flavor. Other hard- 
ships, such as lack of water or poor water, may 
induce a condition of unhealth in the cow which 
will result in milk and cream from which it is 
impossible to make a good product. After all 
these come the errors which may creep into 
handling the cream before it comes to the churn. 
Hon. X. A. Willard, in his recent "Practical 
Butter Book,'' gives a good summary of the 
causes which may lead to difficulty in butter 
making. The following, in addition to the 
causes leading to sticky butter" mentioned in 
the Rural Pre.S!< of July 7th, will doubtless be 
suggestive to readers who have had trouble in 
their dairy work; 

The milk may have been kept at uneven tem- 
peratures and the cream may have been held too 
long from souring. .Sour and sweet cream may 
have been mixed and not properly stirred, so as 
to be of the same condition as to acidity through- 
out. 

The cream from farrow cows may have been 
mixed with cream from those that are not far- 
row. The milk may have stood too long be- 
fore skimming. The cream may not have been 
sufficiently warmed, or the cows may have 
lacked salt while being fed on dry food. One 
or more cows may have been indisposed and the 
milk in consequence been imperfect or feverish. 
Some of tlie cows may be near the point of dry- 
ing off and the milk is not good and should not 
have been saved, and especially should not have 
been added to the milk of others which is good. 
Poor keep, neglect and cruel treatment of cows 
also have their influence on the quality of cream 
and affect its churning. 

In the first place, milk, when set aside for 
cream, should be kept at a pretty uniform tem- 
perature, say at about GO' Fahr. If milk be 
constantly changing from one -temperature to 
another, according to the variable change of 
tlie atmosphere, or if cream be raised on one 
portion of the milk at one temperature and on 
another portion of the milk at a different tem- 
perature, the churning is liable to be more or 
less affected. Cream that goes to the churn too 
cold or too hot will not readily be converted 
into butter, and when the Ijutter does come it 
will, from too long churning, be of inferior qual- 
ity. Again, if cream is allowed to get too sour 
there is liable to be trouble in churning. If the 
cream be taken off from milk at different times, 
or several messes added together to make a 
churning, the cream should be well stirred in 
the cream pot at every addition, in order to 
mingle the messes thoroughly. Then, when 
the mass has acquired a slight acid condition, it 
should go to the churn. 

Cream is sometimes refractory in churning on 
account of the bad condition of water with 
which the cows are supplied. This is apt to oc- 
cur in hot weather, when water is scanty and 
cows are compelled to slake thirst from stagnant 
pools and mud holes, where the water is filthy. 
1 have known cases to occur where great diffi- 
culty was had in making butter on account of 
bad water, but which was removed by changing 
the pasture or giving them a range where good, 
sweet running water was obtained. 

I have seen cases where the cream would not 
readily churn when the cows were raced from 
the pasture and over-driven by dogs during hot 
weatlier. The milk at such times becomes 
feverish, and the cream undergoes a change 
which is prejudicial to the butter forming prop- 
erly. 



The New Commis.sio.nkr of Agriculture. 
— President Hayes has appointed Gen. Leduc, 
of Wisconsin, Commissioner of Agriculture at 
Washington. Ws have no knowledge of the 
gentleman's agricultural qualifications. We 
notice the most of our Eastern contemporaries 
say he hasn't any. This is rather a premature 
judgment. Let us see what he will do. 



Can Squirrels be Made Useful? 

Editors Press:— Will you be so kind as to in- 
form me through the columns of your worthy paper, 
whether or not squirrel skins are used in the manufacture 
of gloves, buggy-robes or anything else profitably; and 
what they arc worth; also where they are bought?— A 
SfBsCRiBER, Springbrook Ranch, Cal. 

This destruction of squirrels is a subject in 
which we take a keen interest, because we 
know what a pest the varmints are and what a 
great expense they annually force upon our 
farmers and gardeners. We have repeatedly 
declared our determination to help our friends 
to overcome this scourge of squirrels, and this 
we will do in every way we can. As we have 
said before, one of our ideas of destruction is to 
discover some means in which the squirrel can 
be turned to such account that it will pay men 
to hunt them. If this can be done the squir- 
rels will soon be as scarce as other desirable 
game which is constantly hunted and trapped. 
Another way in which the farmers can aid 
themselves is to secure the passage of a good 
and effective squirrel law this winter by our 
State Legislature. Fonner laws have not been 
found equal to the need. The subject of a new 
law is being discussed in the counties most af- 
fected, and we trust that some body of farmers 
will draft a bill early, in order that all may 
have an opportunity to discuss it before it is 
brought before the law-makers, and then it 
may be so amended as to meet the case as fully 
as the wisdom of all can encompass it. 

But to return to the aspect of the question 
as presented by our querist. We do not know 
where squirrel skins are used in the way in 
which he mentions or in any other way; nor do 
we know of any market for them. We have 
an idea that they can l)e used to good advan- 
tage in some of the fine French manufactures if 
not in our own. We have asked our readers to 
interest themselves with us in effort to find out 
for surety on this matter. A few weeks ago 
the following proposition appeared in the Ru- 
ral Pre.ss: 

"We have stated before our belief that the 
squirrel nuisance may be greatly abated if we 
can discover some profitable use to which their 
skins and carcasses can be turned. We pro- 
pose to keep the subject up until full and com- 
plete trial is made of the materials which can 
be furnished. If some of our readers will send 
us a dozen or so of squirrel skins, properly 
stretched and dried, we will put them on exhi- 
bition at the Meclianics' Fair in this city, then 
send them to the Paris exhibition of 1878 and 
try to call the attention of foreign manufactur- 
ers to the cheap price at which they can be ob- 
tained in endless quantity. Parties who will 
aid us in making an exhibition of this kind will 
please send the skins by mail, prepaying the 
postage at the rate of one cent per ounce, and 
not cause us to pay express rates, which are 
much higher. We should like farmers to state 
at what price they can furnish them by the 
hundred if wanted. We trust our readers will 
help us in this matter, that the subject may be 
fully tested." 

\\'e received no replies to this proposition, 
although it seems to us that the chances of 
finding a manufacturer who can use such mate- 
rial would be very great at fairs where all 
the leading manufacturers of the world will be 
present either in person or by their representa- 
tives. It would cost some of our readers only 
half a day's leisure to prepare us a batch of good 
skins. We can secure the right to display them 
at tlie fairs we have mentioned, and if there be 
added to them a placard that such skins can be 
furnished by the million in California at very 
low prices, we think it will not be long be- 
fore some sharp Frenchman at the Paris exhibi- 
tion gets the hint to set his wits at work in the 
utilization of such cheap material, and thus a 
demand will spring up here that will make 
squirrels profitable shooting and trapping. Of 
course wo do not know that such a desirable re- 
sult will follow from an exhibition of the skins, 
but where it costs nothing to make the trial we 
think it is certainly worth the cost. 

We are not well enough up in the squirrel 
anatomy in this State to know just at what 
time of the year their coats are in best condition 
and their hides toughest. Of course this 
should be taken into consideration and samples 
produced when the skins are in best condition. 
Now, who will take hold with us in this side of 
the question, so that we can determine whether 
there is anything in it':* 

North Americ.\s Alg.e, — We find in the 
American Journal o/ .S'cJfHcc the announcement 
of the appearance of " Alga." Exsiccatie Ainer- 
ice Borealis; Curantibus W. G. Farlow, C. L. 
Anderson, I). C. Eaton, Edita-. Fasciculus I. 
Boston, 1877." Two editors of the volume are 
of Harvard and Yale and Dr. Anderson will be 
rocognized as a resident of Santa Cruz and a con- 
tributor to the PRE.S.S. The specimens of Alga> 
which are thus presented to the puldic are fifty 
in number and Dr. (iray pronounces them "all 
of real interest and many of them new or next 
to new, at least in collections. " Alga" from Cal- 
ifornia have beeen unattainable until the pres- 
ent effort made them available. 



On File. — "Tea Table Chat, etc.," 
N.; "Shin of Beef Valor, etc.," E. B. 



C. H. I. 

"Notes 



from Los Nietos," G. K. M. ; "Visit to Springs," 

Foothill 



M. M. ; "Pruning Vines," C. F. B, 
Notes," H. ; "Onions by Irrigation 
"W. L.'» Visits," B. P. 



I. A. W. 



Ef\IE8 i^ND ^E^LiES. 



Gooseberries. 

Editors Prrsb:— I send you a few specimens of Roe'a 
seedling. During the present season, when nearly every- 
thing has mildewed in our locality, this variety lias auf- 
fered very little, and the only bushes that were affected 
stood on a high dry knoll, where, by mismanagement, 
their roots were disturbed in cuhivation during the hot 
period of drouth in May. Hot, dry ground around the 
bushes is the chief cause of mildew (see Gardenert' 
ifonthly for June), and where these unfavorable condi- 
tions were absent, there was no rust worth naming. 'Tliis 
is the first instance for 16 years that it has shown any 
such tendency, but in accordance with my rule to atate 
the truth and the whole truth about my fruits, I frankly 
say tliat two or three quarts out of a large yield have 
been touched with mildew. At the same time I must 
also say that the Downing gooseberry, on my place, has 
suffered more, losing, in some instan-ies, its foliage, and 
foreign gooseberries in this locality are covered with rust. 
The large nid bushes, in its original home at Newburg, 
were loaded down with fruit and not a trace of mildew. 
I do not think there is an American variety that will 
suffer less, except perhaps the Boughton, but that is too 
small to be of much value. In regard to size and appear- 
ance, the inclosed specimens speak for themselves. In 
productiveness it is unsurpassed.— E. P. Ror, Newburg, 
N. Y. 

The sample of gooseberries which our querist 
sends escaped the mildew only to fall into the 
arms of another fungus — mold. It is not yet 
demonstrated that small fruit can be sent 
safely across the continent without refriger- 
ation, and the New York gooseberries almost 
needed a label to tell their name when the lit- 
tle box was opened. Of course they were in no 
condition to warrant an opinion of value. We 
know Rev. Mr. Roe, however, very well by 
general reputation. We have no doubt of the 
truth of his statements, and thank him for his 
disposition to show us a good thing. 

Onions by Irrlgration. 

Editors Press: — Some time ago I saw an 
inquiry asking information about raising onions 
with irrigation. Mr. Burk failed to rai«e 
onions with water. I have used water 24 years 
to raise vegetables and trees. I have never 
failed to raise anything when I used judgment 
and industrj'. I have onions now three and 
three-quarter inches in diameter and crowing 
fast on dry land. I soak the ground well, then 
as soon as it gets dry enough to work, I stir it 
and loosen it up. If you let the ground get 
hard, you will certainly fail. Some of my cus- 
tomers will say to me that they watered their 
trees well and they are dying. If I am near 
their orchards, I will always go and see how 
they have managed. I am nearly certain to 
find the ground as hard as a sun-dried brick. 
That is the cause of failure. I agree with Mr. 
Burk that sub-moisture is, if not best, at least 
the easiest. — E. B. Bole, Uncle Sam, Lake Co., 
CaL 

We receive, too late for publication in this 
issue, a very interesting article on this subject 
from Mr. I. A. Wilcox, of Santa Clara. It will 
appear next week. 

Ayrshire Cattle. 
Editors Press:— Would you please inform a subscriber 
in your ne.Yt issue whether any Ayrshire cattle have been 
imported into California, and if so, who are the breeders? 
—A Si'BSCKiBER, Searsville, Cal. 

We believe so, but we do not know the breed- 
ers. Will those having thoroughbred Ayrshire* 
please send us their names for publication. We 
have received no reply as yet to our inquiry for 
Holsteins. We should like to have all know 
just what fine stock there is in the State, if onr 
readers will give us the information. 



The Honey Trade. 

The prospect of certain exceeding shortness, if 
not general absence of honey receipts in tbiv 
city during this season, is giving increased firm- 
ness to holders of honey and elevating prices. 
J. G. CJorey, of Ventura, whom we hare already 
introduced to our readers as a contributor on 
bee topics, gave us a call on Monday. He con- 
firmed the reports we have already had of the 
famine among the bees and the need of artificial 
feeding. Mr. Corey had been looking through 
the city for cheap honey to ship to Ventura as 
feed for his bees, and he found that prices of 
low grade honey had materially advanced. He 
bought a lot of badly candied honey at seven 
cents a pound; such as he sold for four cents a 
a pound a year ago. 

We remarked to Mr. Corey, and we repeat 
the suggestion in case any one may think it 
worth trial, that the grape syrup which can be 
made in large quantities from the Mission grape 
may be utibzed to feed the thousands of swarms 
of bees which are now being fed with sugar, 
etc. This would open a market for the syrup 
and save the bees, if the substance be found 
proper. Judging theoretically from its close re- 
semblance to the composition of honey it would 
seem that grape syrup would serve excellently 
as a bee food. Grape syrup was made largely 
last season at St. Helena, Napa county, by Mr. 
.1. C. Weinberger and by Bruce & Gilliam. 
We doubt not that they could furnish the syrup 
on trial to beekeepers as soon as the grapes 
ripen so that they can make it, and if the synip 
suits the bees, it could probably be furnished 
at a cheaper rate than cane sugar. It is quite 
possible that the syrup may contain something 
not desirable in bee food, but still it is worth 
trying, that its value or worthlessness may be 
demonstrated. If any of our readers feel in- 
terested in making the trial we should be 
pleased to hear the result. 






July 28, 1877.] 



The Labor Season. 

An itinerant day laborer writes a letter to the 
Colusa Svn, which is of no little interest, as it 
lets outsiders a little way into the life of a 
strolling laborer during this year's harvest 
time. The following is a paragraph from the 
narrative; " 1 pushed on towards Chico. Wages 
in this section very low. I need not detail the 
wandering of the next 10 days. I traveled on 
an average 20 miles a day, inquiring for work 
at every possible place; but I had to return 
home without success. Twenty-three and a 
half days' work is all I have been able to put in 
this harvest, as against 58 days last harvest. 
Hundreds of men in California will not have 
worked 20 days this harvest, and yet upon the 
wages of that short period very, very many of 
them will have to depend mainly for support 
during the greater part of the year. And yet 
men can be found to say that the great want of 
California is an abundance of labor! It is true 
that they qualify the expression by the word 
' cheap. ' ' Plenty of cheap labor, ' say they, 
' will make California the finest country in the 
world. ' Now, excepting the period of harvest, 
seeing that any quantity of able-bodied men 
can be employed at from $20 to $30 a month, 
and hundreds of good men would take consid- 
erably less during the depth of dull winters, if 
it was only offered to them, while thousands of 
others are tramping the country, offering to 
work for their food, it seems to me that this 
cry for increased labor is absolutely unreason- 
able and cruel." 

It seems to us that this but illustrates the 
position which we recently took upon this sub- 
ject, and that is, that the success of the laborer 
will lie in the change of his policy with regard 
to his employer. How wretched indeed will 
be this year to those men who have but twenty 
days of honest earnings, and must beg or steal 
daring the balance of the year. What a hope- 
less condition; absolutely devoid of all thought 
and ambition of progress and ultimate indepen- 
dence. 

How different would be the result if the 
men should hire out for the year even at five 
dollars a month and board, for then their money 
receipts would be as great, and their respect 
and manhood a hundred times more. How 
different it would be if they should hire out by 
the year at ten dollars a month and board, for 
then they would double their money receipts 
and their manhood at the same time. We are 
not saying that these wages are as high as a 
laboring man should receive, but we thus show 
how abominably low a man really works who 
loafs five-sixths or eleven-twelfths of the year, 
simply because he can double his dollar a day 
on the remaining one-twelfth. 

The writer to the Sun says that any quantity 
of men would work by the year at $20 to $30 
per month, and even for less in the dead of 
winter. This would not be low enough to enable 
the general farmer to employ largely for the pur- 
pose of improving and developing his property 
or embarking in new productive enterprises. 
In fact, these wages are almost double the prices 1 
which are paid by the year on Eastern farms, 
where the men have their board and shelter 
furnished them. Our farmers have many pro- 
jects which they would like to make trial of 
and many permanent improvements which they 
would like to introduce upon their farms, but 
while prices of produce generally have fallen 
away one-half or more they cannot afford to hire 
help at nearly the same wages which prevailed 
■when produce commanded twice as much money 
as at present. 



PROFES.SOR Sheldon. — We notice by the En- 
glish papers that our contributor, Mr. J. P. 
Sheldon, has been elected to the professorship 
of agriculture at Cirencester, lately held by 
Prof. Wrightson. We are sincerely glad that 
Mr. Sheldon has assumed this position, for we 
know from long acquaintance with his spirit 
and methods, that he is just the one to lead in 
the application of truly progressive steps to the 
agricultural policy and practice of the country. 
We can fully approve the testimonial which the 
London Agricultural Gazette awards the new 
professor: "We learn with great interest that 
the professorship of agriculture at the Royal 
Agricultural College has been undertaken by 
Mr. J. P. Sheldon, of Sheen, Ashbourne, Derby- 
shire. Mr. Sheldon has been a valued corre- 
spondent of the Agricultural Gazette for some 
years. He has taken a leading part in his own 
county in such measures as seemed necessary 
for the improvement of its characteristic de- 
partment of agriculture — the cheese dairy. He 
has seen something of the agriculture of other 
countries, and he brings not ordy good practical 
knowledge and intelligence, but youth and en- 
ergy and impulse, ready speech and hearty good- 
nature — all of them most valuable aids, if they 
be not essential to the discharge of nnaccus- 
tomed duties." 



The Riot. — The Eastern riot presents another 
phase of the railroad question which must en- 
ter into the account when the whole problem 
shall be solved. These poor, wretched rioters, 
have in some cases had their wages reduced to 
the limit of starvation of their families on the 
claim that the railway business is running light. 
This may be shown by reports, and yet the 
poor laborer wonders as he looks upon princely 
palaces built by railroad profits, whether re- 
ports be true. The future must solve the doubt. 



The Telephone. 

One of the inventor's triumphs which will 
ever be associated with the coming of the Cen- 
tennial year, is the transmission of sound by 
means of electricity. Long ' ago the telegraph 
learned to print and afterwards to indicate let- 
ters, words and id