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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (1878)"

California jSlnlr Jriltrnru. 



Hate received 



No. 




^630.*' 

/s 



From an Art prewtfihui Utiles far the Gorcrumeul af the State Library, 
panned March 8th, ISO 7. 

Section 11. The Librarian shall caii^i' (*■ be kept a roister of 
all books issued ;in«l returned; and all luniks taken by the members 
of tin- Legislature, or it* officers, shall 1m- returned at the. close of 
the session. If any person injure or fail to return any book taken 
Bnm the Library, he shall forfeit ami pay to the Librarian, for the 
benefit of the Library, three times the value thereof; and before 
the Controller shall issue his warrant in favor of any member or 
officer of the Legislature, or of this State, for Ml per diem, allow- 
ance, or salary, he shall be satisfied that such member or officer 
has returned all hooks taken out of the Library by him. and has 
settled all accounts for injuring such books or otherwise. 

Sec. lo. Books may be taken froiifthe Library by the members 
of the Legislature and its officers during the session of the same, 
and at any time by the Governor and the officers of the Executive 
Department of this State, who are required to keep their offices ut 
the seat of Government, the Justices of the Supreme Court, the 
Attoruey-Genoral, and the Trustees of the Library. 



4 



I 



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Systems of Wheat Growing. 

Although there can be no discount on the 
advantage of thorough culture as a conserver of 
moisture, if practiced at a proper season, there 
is really much doubt whether, so far as the 
requirements of the wheat plant, abstractly 
considered, are concerned, there is any good 
effect from working the soil into a loose and 
mellow condition. It is plain from experience 
frequently cited that in certain locations sum- 
mer fallow, deep plowing, etc., are of great 
advantage in storing up moisture and prevent- 
ing surface evaporation and in restoring a worn 
surface by bringing up a rich layer from below. 
As these are facts, the abundant preaching of 
more thorough culture is desirable and the pre- 
cepts are applicable iu such a preponderance of 
localities that the generalization which is gener- 
ally made is admis- 
sable. As a matter, 
however, of interest, 
we note the fact that 
some wheat growers 
in England are tak- 
ing ground that the 
best condition of soil 
for wheat is not pro- 
duced by much 
working. Iu fact, 
the system of culti- 
vation which some 
of them advocate, 
resembles very much 
the stubble burning 
and scratching in 
process, which has 
largely prevailed in 
this .State, with this 
important exception, 
that they believe in 
restoring fertility by 
top dressing and sur- 
face manuring, while 
our growers have 
omitted this item al- 
together. It is true 
that conditions here 
and in England are 
almost diametrically 
opposed, as their 
greatest trouble of 
late has been an ex- 
cess of water and 
ours the reverse. It 
is somewhat singular 
then that they 
should be drifting 
into something like 
a system of wheat 
growing which we 
give credit for de- 
stroying the produc- 
tive power of our fields, while we are gradually 
introducing a system of thorough culture in 
which England has led the world, both in 
theory and practice. This we advance as an 
interesting fact, whether it be found to have any 
practical bearings or not. 

The experience upon which we base the 
above remarks we find in the latest issue of the 
Agricultural Economiit of London. Mr. Mechi, 
who is one of the best known of English farm- 
ers, because of his tendency to experiment and 
expound, states that from long observation and 
experience, he is more and more convinced that 
a loose friable bed for wheat is a mistake and 
that compression or solidity is essential to the 
well-doing and non-root falling of the crop. 
After relating his own experience in the matter, 
he quotes thatof Mr. Piper, of Colne, who "never 
plowed or dug his field, which grew his thick- 
set wheat year after year, and still he grew 
marvelous crops, as I frequently witnessed. 
After harvest the stubble and any weeds were 
hoed up and burned and the wheat was then 
dibbled in. I said, ' Piper, you should try a 
piece of it dug or plowed, for you probably then 
get even a better crop.' He cheerfully did so 
and the result was a very inferior crop, both of 

frain and straw, on the cultivated portion, 
"his was instructive and conclusive in his case 
He used to top-dress his land with soot and 
other manures. His balance-sheet was a very 
profitable one, despite the amount of human 



labor employed." Mr. Mechi also goes in 
strongly for thin sowing — " I will venture to 
assert that it is impossible to obtain from a 
sound wheat kernel, having room for develop- 
ment, so small a return as even a single ear, 
which will probably give 30 or 40 or more for 
one. When I dibbled my one peck per acre 
of wheat (one kernel in every dibble-hole 
at about four and a half or five inches intervals), 
there were usually several ears from each ker- 
nel, often 10 to 25, and I know of a case recently 
in Kelvedon, where a single kernel produced 
108 stems and heads, but then it had no com- 
petitors. It grew on a parsley bed. Liebig 
truly says that the greatest enemy to a wheat 
plant is another proximate wheat plant. From 
what I hear, the thin sowing light is dawning 

fradually on British agriculture, so that I hope 
shall no longer be told ' We always sow three 
bushels of wheat per acre.'" 

This testimony in favor of thin seeding and 
favoring the tendency of the wheat plant to 



The Sierra Flume and Lumber Company. 

We have on several different occasions pre- 
sented views of the works and mills of the 
Sierra Flume and Lumber Company, and here- 
with give one of their Champion mill, which 
has a capacity of sawing 40,000 feet per day. 
We have previously given our readers a pretty 
full account of this company and the work it is 
accomplishing. The undertaking is the largest 
of the kind in California, employing over 500 
men in the various departments. They cut last 
year upwards of 50,000,000 feet of lumber and 
brought it to their yards for sale. The property 
of the company is worth $170,000, a portion of 
which came from their earnings. There are 
over 150 miles of V flume operated by the com- 
pany, 157 miles of telegraph lines, and 11 miles 
of tramways for logs. There are 10 fully equip- 
ped saw mills, three planing mills, and one sash 




THE " CHAMPION : ' MILL OF THE SIERRA FLUME AND LUMBER COMPANY. 



"stooling" is one which is also gaining the 
adherence of some of our workers of high- 
priced land. We have heard them freely assert 
their belief in their ability to use the rich and 
highly valued land near the bay to advantage 
by growing wheat something after the usual 
practice with Indian corn, planting in hills and 
cultivating during growth. This system has 
won adherents in some other parts of our State, 
as we have described in former issues. We 
should like V see some of our farmers who have 
time and money to experiment give this system 
a thorough trial for the benefit of those who 
cannot afford to indulge in the luxury of experi- 
ments, and see how great yield they can get per 
acre and at how great cost. 



Telephone and Deafness. — The American 
Manufacturer, of Pittsburg, Pa., says: A new 
discovery in relation to the telephone has just 
been made in this city. A gentleman, who is 
deaf in the left ear, so that he cannot hear 
through it ordinary speech, finds that on apply- 
ing the telephone close against that ear he can 
hear even a whisj>er with perfect distinctness. 
We may soon see deaf persons with telephones 
fastened to their heads, instead of carrying ear 
trumpets. 



The five cent fare system was inaugurated on 
our street car lines on New Year's day. 



and door factory. The mills are run by steam 
and water. 

This company have probably the best system 
of V flumes in California, everything being 
built substantially and in the best possible man- 
ner. They have tapped the numerous springs 
and creeks in the vicinity of the flumes, and 
collected all the available water to furnish as 
large a supply as possible to the flumes. The 
engineering difficulties in the way of building 
these flumes are even greater than on railroads, 
and when it is recollected that they are all in a 
mountainous region, the task accomplished is 
appreciated. 

Thoroiwiibred Bees. —Apiarian literature is 
becoming fervul. We notice that one writer 
proposes that queens be pedigreed and that a 
queen herd book be established, and another 
writer declares that the author of such a prop- 
osition should be hived in a lunatic asylum. 
This comment upon the proposition may seem 
rather severe, but it is to the point. 

Personal. — An honor has been bestowed 
upon our correspondent H. J. Smith, of Phila- 
delpia, which is enjoyed by only two other 
Americans, namely, an election to membership 
of the Royal Agricultural Society of Sweden. 
This distinction will join with EL J's. other pe- 
culiar honors to raise him above the monotony 
of a somewhat generic namo. Ho deserves it. 



Notes on California Raisins. 

We have seen several samples of California 
raisins during the week which justify our pre- 
diction made in October that this year's crop 
would show a quality which would do much to 
win a way for our fruit in the market every- 
where. The aggregate production will proba- 
bly show a falling off because of the drouth, 
but those grapes which matured were unusually 
fine, and progress has been made in curing and 
packing so that the general quality will rank 
much higher than heretofore. 

In our issue of December loth, our Sacra- 
mento correspondent described at length his 
visit to the vineyard of Mr. James Rutter, at 
Florin. Since then we have received samples 
of Mr. Rutter's raisins both from the producer, 
and from M. T. Brewer & Co., of Sacramento 
one of the leading 
firms of fruit dealers 
in our State. These 
raisins are strictly 
first-class, the berries 
are large and even, 
the color excellent, 
the skin tender and 
the flavor full and 
yet delicate and 
aromatic. The style 
of packing is unex- 
ceptionable, the pa- 
per being neatly 
folded and hand- 
somely ornamented 
with the name and 
residence of the prr. 
ducer. Thereis also 
an inset of a neatly 
printed sheet bearing 
the name M. T. 
Brewer & Co., as 
wholesale dealers. 
This lies beneath the 
folds of the wrapper 
and serves as an ad- 
ditional protection to 
the fruit. We un- 
derstand that Messrs. 
Brewer h Co. have a 
large quantity of 
those raisins to place 
upon the market this 
year and we doubt 
not that their push 
and enterprise will 
do much to develop 
markets for Califor- 
uian raisins every- 
where. 

We also receive 
Jfrom this firm sam- 
ples of tvAvpound 
packages in pasteboard, filled with the loose 
raisins, and they are just the thing for small 
consumers to carry home with them. These 
latter raisins are the product of the Natoma 
Water Company, of Folsom, and are of very 
satisfactory quality. 

As an example of what can be done in raisin 
making with a smaller sized vineyard, we are 
pleased to notice the product of Mr. George 
Clark, of "Wildwood," near Glenellen, in So- 
noma county. The mass of Mr. Clark's grapes 
go to the wine press, but he turns a few of his 
choice varieties into raisins. They are dried 
without special treatment or appliances. 

It seems that our friends in the southern part 
of the State arc "keeping up their end" well in 
raisin production. A friend in Riverside, San 
Bernardino county, sends us the following clip- 
ping from a local paper: "On November 10th, 
when the Pacific Rural Press quoted Califor- 
nia raisins at $1 to §2 per box, some raisins from 
Riverside were in the hands of San Francisco 
commission merchants, who have since made 
returns of sales averaging §1.91 per box, being 
considerably above the average price, it will be 
seen, and pretty near the highest price, show- 
ing, as far as the sales referred to are concerned, 
that Riverside is making a successful effort in 
the production of raisins." 

This is good. We shall be glad to know that 
all parts of our State are stepping forward in 
this most commendable industry. 



2 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January 5, 1878. 



Correspondence. 



It is the desire of the editors of this journal to be lib- 
eral toward all correspondents, and therefore statements 
and opinions are frequently published, on the authority 
of the writers, for which we do not assume responsibility. 



Report of the Entomological Commission. 

Editors Press:— The U. S. Entomological 
Commission, which was organized and placed 
under the auspices of Prof. Hayden's Geological 
Survey, for the purpose of investigating and re- 
porting the entire subject of insect ravages 
throughout the western regions of our conti- 
nent have completed their field labors for the 
present season. 

The members of the Commission have been 
busily engaged in the preparation of the several 
parts of their annual Report, and will soon meet 
in Washington, where they will have a pro- 
tracted sitting to get everything ready for the 
printer. This Report is looked for with much 
interest by the farmers of the West, and the 
character of the Commissioners is a guarantee 
that it will be creditable from the scientific, 
and valuable from the practical standpoint. 
The Report will contain 16 chapters, under the 
following heads: Introduction, Riley; Chrono- 
logical History, Packard; Statistics of Losses, 
Thomas; Classification and Nomenclature, 
Thomas; Geographical Distribution, Thomas 
and Packard; Migrations and Meteorology, 
Packard and Thomas; Original Permanent 
Breeding Grounds, Riley, Packard and Thomas; 
Habits and Natural History, Riley; Embry- 
ology, Packard; Metamorphoses, Riley and 
Packard; Invertebrate Enemies, Riley; Verte- 
brate Enemies, Thomas; Remedies and De- 
vices for Destruction, Riley; Prairie Fires vs. 
Locust Injury, Riley; Agricultural Bearings of 
the Subject, Thomas; Ravages of other Locusts, 
Parkard and Riley; Locust Ravages in other 
Countries. 

These chapters will embrace many sub-chap- 
ters, and the Report will be as exhaustive as the 
limited time for its preparation will permit. 

In chapter four, the western extension and 
the northern and eastern limit of the species 
range are fully given. 

In chapter five, the laws governing locust 
migrations are for the first time defined. A 
very large number of data have been collected 
in reference to the subjects of this chapter. Not 
only are the general laws governing the move- 
ments of the insect now defined, showing a reg- 
ular migration southward and return migration 
northward, which may be counted on and fore- 
seen; but many important and highly enterest- 
ing facts in reference to their local Mights are 
brought to fight, which will henceforward form 
a part of the history of the insect. 

In chapter seven, several other laws govern- 
ing the species are also adduced; and the im- 
portance of the discovery of the laws which 
regulate the doings and movements of the pest, 
cannot be overestimated. In said chapter 
seven many new facts will for the first time ap- 
pear, and all that is definite and accurate be 
made known. 

Locust Destroyers. 

In chapter 10 many new discoveries will be 
recorded, some of them of great scientific inter- 
est and importance. Of these may be men- 
tioned the transformation of the silky mite 
(Trombidium nerieeum). This is an eight- 
legged creature, which preys on the locust eggs. 
It is proved to be the mature form of the little 
six-legged mite (Astoma yryllaria), which is 
parasitif on the locust. Insects described un- 
der different genera are thus proved to be 
specifically identical. The life history of the 
blister beetles will also be given, their larvie 
feeding upon locust eggs and undergoing sim- 
ilar changes called hypermetamorphoses. The 
interest attaching to this discovery among ento- 
mologists as weli as among farmors, is best ap- 
preciated when it is considered that absolutely 
nothing has heretofore been known of the lar- 
val habits of these blister beetles, notwith- 
standing the fact that for half a century much 
attention has been given to the subject by sci- 
entific men, on account of the commercial value 
of cantharis or Spanish fly, and of the great in- 
jury to potatoes and other plants committed by 
several of our American species. 

In chapter 1 1 are given the locust feeding 
habits of many western animals not heretofore 
known to have that habit, and the good offices 
of birds are especially made manifest, examina- 
tions of the stomachs of over 90 species and 630 
specimens having been made with special refer- 
ence to their locust eating habits. The record 
in reference to these examinations is very full, 
giving the date, the locality, the common and 
scientific names of the species, and the number 
of locusts and other insects found in each. The 
value heretofore placed on these aids by ento- 
mologists is fully sustained by this record. 

In chapter 12, which will be one of the most 
extended and most important practically, it is 
•learly shown that the young locusts may be 



controlled, and by what means; while the way 
is pointed out how to better control the winged 
insects. Many valuable devices for destruction 
will be illustrated, among them one invented by 
Prof. Riley, which gave great satisfaction and 
will, it is believed, suuersede all others as a 
cheap and practicable remedy, applicable at any 
season, whether the plants or the insects be 
small or large. 

Losses by Locusts. 

In chapters two and four are given statistics 
showing the immense losses inflicted on our 
western agriculturists by the locust. These 
chapters also show what crops are most liable 
to injury, and what are most easily protected — 
also the best methods of cropping in order to 
reduce the injury to a minimum. A chemical 
analysis of the dead locusts has been made and 
is unusually interesting. The insects furnish a 
new oil, which will be christened "caloptine," 
and a very large percentage of pure formic acid. 
Though this acid exists in the ant and some 
other insects, it is with difficulty obtained in 
large quantities, whereas by the action of sul- 
phuric acid upon the locust juices it passes off 
with great readiness and in remarkable quantity 
and gravity. The various uses of this acid, 
whether as a therapeutic agent or as a labora- 
tory reagents, etc., are capable of great and 
valuable extension, when it once can be ob- 
tained so readily and in such quantity. 

The Report is expected to make about 500 
pages, and will, it is hoped, be published in 
February or March. Although the Commis- 
sioners have divided the labor among them, the 
Report will form one complete whole, as the 
work of each will be discussed and revised by 
the Commission as a whole. 

The annual Report, which is intended more 
particularly for the practical farming public, 
will be followed by memoirs of a more purely 
scientific nature — one by Dr. Packard on Anat- 
omy and Embryology; one by Prof. Riley on the 
Natural History of other Locusts; and one by 
Prof. Thomas on the Classification of the Ac- 
rtdUlcp. 

While it has been the object of the Com- 
mission to cover as much ground as possible, so 
as to make the annual Report as full and valu- 
able as the time would permit, there yet re- 
mains several important subjects that it has so 
far been impossible to properly and exhaustively 
study. The territory affected is so vast, em- 
bracing over 1,000,000 square miles, that much 
of it was imperfectly explored, especially in the 
northwest. Mr. Riley had to cut short his 
investigations in British America, both for want 
of time and want of funds. For similar reasons, 
and on account of Indian troubles, Montana, 
Wyoming and Dakota have been but superfi- 
cially explored. 

Items of the Work. 

The year 1877 was an abnormal year, i. the 
insect had, the previous year, overrun a large 
section of country in which it is not indigenous, 
hatched in such country in the spring. This 
was most fortunate for many reasons, as it 
enabled the Commission to carefully study the 
insects in this their unnatural condition, and to 
carry on experiments with a view of learning 
how to control them. Much of the work of the 
Commission was with these young insects. The 
losses sustained through the devastation of the 
pest by young •and struggling frontier popula- 
tions, ill able to bear them, was immense; and 
there was so much discouragement that hun- 
dreds and thousands of persons were on the 
point of abandoning their new homes last spring. 
At this juncture the Commission went into the 
field, and by its encouraging predictions (which 
were all verified) and recommendations imbued 
the people with hope and confidence, and drew 
westward again the emigration that had almost 
stopped. All this work, however, interfered 
with needed investigations into the proper range, 
the native home and breeding grounds, the 
source of swarms, and many other important 
questions which can only be properly studied 
during, a normal year. It is, therefore, very 
important that the investigations be continued 
until every question is settled that human in- 
vestigation can settle. 

For the proper settlement of some of the 
questions, the co-operation of the Dominion 
Government is desirable, and lias been promised 
by the Canadian authorities, if the work of the 
Commission should continue. 

It will be unwise to stop the work of the 
Commission before completed. The work should 
be made so thorough as to obviate any necessity 
in future years of creating another Commission 
for the same purpose. After careful estimates, 
it is concluded that the work can be satisfac- 
torily completed only with two more years' 
investigation and experiment. The Commission 
therefore ask for a continuance of the appropri- 
ation of §"25,000 asked for a year ago. 

There are various other injurious insects of 
national importance of which much has yet to 
be learned, and in addition to completing the 
locust investigation, the Commission contem- 
plate, during the coming two years, studying 
and reporting on some of these worst enemies to 
our agriculture. 

Much has yet to be done in giving practical 
form to the conclusions arrived at and plans 
proposed by the Commission to enable the work 
already done to bear proper fruit. To bring 
about the needed co-operation of the two gov- 
ernments, to cause proper laws to be enacted in 
all the States interested, and to enforce the 
truths that alone will make man master of the 
situation, is largely the work of the future. 

R. J. S. 

Washington, D. C, Dec. 22d, 1877. 



Valuable Plants Worth Testing in Cal- 
ifornia, 

Eiiitobs Press: — There are so many plants 
valuable for the dyes extracted from them that 
are not cultivated in California, and yet Tyhich 
might prove profitable, that I venture to call 
attention to some of them, copying freely from 
"Carpenter's Vegetable Physiology." The 
coloring secretion most universally diffused 
through plants is that termed Chromule, on 
which the color of all green parts depends. It 
is found in little grains, which adhere to the 
inside of the cells beneath the cuticle, and the 
formation of it is due to the influence of light 
in fixing carbon from the atmosphere. The 
brightness of this green color soon disappears 
after the death of the part and the hue is some- 
times altered to yellow, red, etc. This altera- 
tion is due to an increased absorption of oxygen, 
which is no longer given out by day. Perhaps 
it is to this fact that the color of flowers is due, 
the leafy parts of which have the same general 
structure as leaves and often differ very little 
from them. The coloring matter of rapidly 
growing parts has seldom sufficient permanence 
to render it valuable, and the substances used 
are chiefly obtained from the heart-wood, roots 
or bark, though sometimes from the leaves and 
fruit. 

Indigo used to be grown in the Carolinas. It 
is obtained from the juices of several different 
species of plants, raised from seed, and which 
are of very rapid growth, being ready for cut- 
ting at the end of two mouths. A subsequent 
growth from the same roots is again ready for 
the sickle in six or eight weeks and more may 
be subsequently obtained. (For further de- 
scription see "Carpenter's Vegetable Physiol- 
ogy," Sec. 388). 

Woad is a dye known to the ancient Briton, 
and was the principal blue dye till the introduc- 
tion of blue indigo and is now commonly used 
in union with that and other dyes. Woad 
(halts saliva) is cultivated in many parts of 
Europe, ami is ground into a paste and after- 
wards subjected to several processes. 

The principal red dye obtained from the veg- 
etable kingdom is " madder," the produce of the 
Bubia tinctoria, a plant which grows with suc- 
cess in the south of Europe. 

"Weld," or "wold'" grows spontaneously in 
many parts of England, on cultivated wastes, 
and is a very hardy plant. From it is produced 
a yellow dye, which is said to be the most im- 
portant of all those used in Great Britain. It 
is nearly allied to the mignonette, comes to 
maturity in two years and is gathered whilst 
the seed is ripening. The plants are dried and 
the color is extracted by boiling. 

Fustic is extracted from the species of mul- 
berry tree that grows spontaneously in the 
West Indies. 

"Annatto," or arnotto, is another dye of a 
reddish yellow, obtained from the crimson pulp 
lying between the husk and seeds of the annotta 
tree ( Hixa Orellanna), which is a native of 
both the East and West Indies. 

"Saffron " is the produce of a kind of crocus, 
which is cultivated in England, as well as in 
France and Spain. The flowers, which bloom 
in October, are gathered even before they are 
full blown. The stigmata, or points of the pis- 
tils of these flowers, are then picked oft", and 
these little bodies, constituting the saffron, are 
next very carefully dried and pressed between 
paper. 

"Tumeric " produces a very bright color. It 
is procured from the roots of the Curcuma longa, 
an East Indian plant, which has been cultivated 
with success in the West Indies. 

" Citric acid " has many important uses, being 
largely employed by calico printers, and prepara- 
tion should be made in the southern counties of 
the State for its production from the unsalable 
fruit of the numerous lemon orchards. Orange 
marmalade, too, may prove to be a valuable 
resource for putting the orange crop in a con- 
dition to export. 

"Gum arabic" is obtained from a species of 
acacia, which flourishes in almost every part of 
Arabia and middle Africa. "Cum Senegal " is 
similar to gum arabic, being obtained from a 
kind of acacia differing very little from that 
which yields the latter, but it is of inferior 
quality. These plants preiiare no more of their 
valuable gums in cold climates than they require 
for their own support and only possess a super- 
fluity under the influence of a warm climate, 
and perhaps it is only in the hottest regions 
that the gum is produced in much abundance. 

"Gum tragacanth," which is obtained from a 
low, prickly shrub, growing in the Levant, is in 
some respects different from the foregoing. It 
does not dissolve freely in water, but forms a 
thick mucilage with a certain definite propor- 
tion of it. The plant would be very likely to 
nourish in your State. Such enterprising col- 
onies as Riverside and our friends at National 
City should make it their business to establish 
experimental gardens, and these, if under State 
supervision, should have .State aid. The impor- 
tant results which may flow to the State from 
such efforts can hardly be estimated and the 
agriculturists are certainly as much entitled to 
such recognition as other classes. However, 
self-help is the best resource and the most nat- 
ural and suitable for an American, who should 
not seek, as do the Europeans to a much larger 
extent than we, to be coddled and suckled by 
the State. Yet the advantages procured to 
Europe by the protective policy adopted by 



Napoleon, when he desired to prevent England 
from selling her sugar, are a grand illustration 
of the merit of that system, for the culture of 
beet sugar ha* been an inestimable boon to the 
agriculturists of France. Horace J. Smith. 
George's Hill, Phila., Dec. 5th, 1877. 



TlfE Sjock Y^ - 



Hornless Cattle. 

Editors Press: — Several weeks ago I received 
a copy of the Pacific Rcral Press containing 
a cut representing Taber's mulley cattle, and an 
article in relation to hornless cattle, referring, I 
suppose, in one paragraph, to myself. Indulge 
me in a few words in relation to hornless cattle. 

I am of the opinion that the time is coming 
when cattle will be generally bred without 
horns. Not that any new breed will be intro- 
duced, but that the horns will be bred off from 
all the various breeds. The herd bred by me 
was bred from horned cows and hornless bulls. 
The superior milking qualities and general char- 
acter of the cows were preserved in their prog- 
eny, but the horns were left off. 

I expect domestic cattle will, at some future 
time all be reared without horns, for the reason 
that it is to the interest of cattle raisers to so 
rear them. That it is for their interests is 
shown by the following statements, viz. : 

1. Horns were given to cattle to be used in 
fighting — to enable them to defend themselves 
against dangerous enemies. For this purpose 
they are of value upon wild cattle. Domestic 
cattle have no valuable use for them. 

'2. The horns upon domestic cattle are used 
mostly in goring and injuring each other. All 
injuries to animals are paid for in their dimin- 
ished growth, or diminished flesh, or increased 
amount of food consumed. 

3. The expense of growing the horns is equal 
to the expense of a like weight in meat, and they 
are good for nothing. 

4. Horns are a mere dead u eight upon the 
heads of the cattle, and the expense of carry- 
ing them about, and warming and supplying 
their waste, is paid for in the food consumed or 
the diminished weight of the animal. 

5. Iujuries are continually inflicted by cattle 
by the use of their horns upon other animals as 
well as upon the human race. 

Persons who desire the food consumed by 
cattle to be appropriated to putting on flesh, or 
producing milk, will desire that they shall be 
without horns. Persons who desire their cattle 
to be employed in fighting each other, and es- 
pecially those who enjoy a "bull fight," will 
hold the horns in high esteem. 

Some claim that cattle are made to appear 
more beautiful by the horns. This arises en- 
tirely from habit. To those who are in the 
habit of seeing hornless cattle, the "mulleys" 
appear more beautiful than horned cattle. 
» It is claimed that hornless cows are better 
milkers than horned ones. There is probably 
something in this, but not much. If a portion 
of the food of the animal which would have 
gone to the production of milk is appropriated 
to the support of the horns, the cow, of course, 
produces as much less milk. Wm. Clark. 

Denver, Colorado, December 21st. 

[It was Mr. Clark to whom we alluded as 
building up a herd of hornless cattle in Wayne 
county, New York, and we are glad to have 
this expression of his views on a subject which 
is certainly worthy of consideration. Since our 
publication of the engraving to which Mr. 
Clark alludes several readers have told us of 
their interest in hornless cattle, and thiB expo- 
sition of their claims will be gladly read. We 
shall be pleased to hear from Mr. Clark again 
on this or other agricultural topics. — Eds. 
_________ 

Olive Oil is Spain. — The British Vice 
Consul at Malaga gives the following reason 
why Spanish olive oil ranks low in the market: 
Very large tracts are dedicated to the 
cultivation of the olive tree. Its produce is a 
source of material wealth to Spain, and con- 
stitutes one of her principal exports. This 
item alone, however, serves to demonstrate the 
degree of indifference and short sightcdness of 
the Spanish cultivator. Whilst the oil which 
his trees yield, when properly treated, bears 
advantageous comparison with the best Lucca 
or Florence oils, he is contented to see it quoted 
in foreign markets at the bottom of the list, and 
at the lowest rates, condemned and sneered at 
as green and rank; whilst a little energy, aided 
by the line machinery used in other countries, 
might raise its character and price to its proper 
position, to say nothing of its improvement for 
home consumption, which is so large — al- 
though, perhaps, such improvement would not 
suit the taste of the Spaniards, who, as a rule, 
might deem it tame and insipid were it de- 
prived of the sting and smack which so invari- 
ably accompany it. The olives are gathered 
carelessly. They are beaten off the trees 
whilst yet green, and heaped up in yards, where 
they are allowed to heat and ferment for 
months, so that when they are ground and 
pressed they more resemble masses of manure 
than any other substance. Then the applica- 
tion of scalding water to the paste whilst press- 
ing assists in the extracting of all the foul 
| and putrid essences. 



January 5, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



3 



Ensilage, Corn Fodder, Mangolds and 
Comfrey. 

Editors Press: — During the last 12 months 
the ensilage system of preserving corn fodder 
by fermentation has been described and urged 
Ln most of the leading agricultural journals in 
the United States, and I was glad to see the 
subject brought forward in the Press of Nov. 
17th. I am not going to deny that as you say: 
"There are points in the system which may be 
of particular value in this State," but I would 
like to show you and "the large dairy farmer" 
who spoke of trying ensilage, that there are 
other ways of keeping up the flow of milk when 
the pastures become dry, and while the grass is 
making its early growth equally as good and 
less expensive than the laborious system of 
preserving food by fermentation. 

The system is very valuable to those who 
have the rigors of a real winter to contend 
against; but I cannot help thinking that to 
practice it here would be to ignore at least one 
of the many advantages we have in our milder 
climate. 

In this part of California it can hardly be 
said that we have any genuine winter weather 
to contend against; at any rate our acquaint- 
ance with Jack Frost is so slight, that during a 
residence of 16 years in these parts I have never 
known him to injure the feeding qualities of 
any roots or vegetables left growing in the Held 
for the use of our cattle "while the grass is 
making its early growth. " 

There are, I believe, few if any parts of the 
State where dairy farming is carried on to any 
extent, in which the several varieties of beets 
will not thrive and do well under a judicious 
system of cultivation, notwithstanding our long 
dry season, provided the ground gets thorough- 
ly wet during the rainy season. Therefore I 
would suggest to those who are so favorably 
situated in regard to both soil and climate as to 
be able to grow corn fodder to advantage, to 
consider whether the crop of fodder cannot be 
supplemented by a crop of mangolds, grown to 
use after the corn has been used. 

For those who can practice this system it 
will be advisable to find out how late corn can 
be sowed in order to produce a remunerative 
crop for fodder, and thus by successive sowings 
carry it as far into the dry season as possible. 
There can be no doubt but corn and sorghum 
are the best crops we can grow for the purpose 
of using as green fodder for dairy cows, not 
only for the immense bulk of fodder they yield 
per acre, but also for its superior quality. 

I have called ensilage a laborious system, of 
course I mean comparatively. Labor costs 
money and there is more labor required in car- 
rying out the system than is really necessary in 
the handling of food for cattle in this State. 
The corn must be hauled to the feed cutter, the 
horse power or the steam engine must be used 
to cut it up into short lengths, after which it is 
stored away and covered up in pits or trenches 
especially prepared for the purpose, and finally, 
when the time comes for feeding it out, it will 
be at least as much work as it would be to feed 
it direct from the Held. 

If corn fodder is cut whilst young and juicy 
the cattle will eat it all without the labor of 
putting it through the feed cutter. In October 
and November last I used three acres, scattered 
directly from the wagon on the pasture field, 
and there was not a stump or a stalk wasted. 
In the same way I use my mangolds, hardly 
ever finding it necessary to store any, beyond a 
few days' supply occasionally in an unusually 
wet time. 

But I have heard some people argue that 
good butter could not be made from cows fed 
with mangolds; if they cannot it is only because 
they feed them too exclusively of other food. 
Perhaps the men who argue thus would not care 
about sitting down every day to a dinner of 
potatoes without either meat or gravy, to say 
nothing of the pudding, and it is pretty much 
the same with the cows. The mangolds, or 
other roots, supply the same place in their bill 
of fare as vegetables are expected to do in our 
dinners. Whilst using corn fodder my cows 
bad one load of that per day, and one of man- 
golds. Since the fodder was all used, they 
have had two loads of [mangolds per day — one 
in the morning and the other at night — being 
about two tons a day to 55 cows. Besides the 
milk I sell I have been making nearly 100 
pounds of butter per week, concerning which I 
will let the price speak for the quality : Sep- 
tember 26th to November 15th (inclusive of 
both dates), 60 cents per pound; November 
22d, 57$ cents; 29th, 50 cents; December 7th, 
45 cents; 12th, 40 cents. 

The above prices were received from one man 
for all I had to sell — free from commission. Let 
those .who look dubiously upon the butter mak- 
ing qualities of mangolds compare the above 
prices with the market quotations — and be 
satisfied. 

Cabbage is also an excellent thing for cows if 
fed before there are any decayed leaves about it. 
It has this advantage, that it can be grown to 
perfection in a short time where rich land, or 
plenty of manure and moisture, can be had to 
force the crop forward. If properly managed 
a crop can be grown fit for use in less th'an four 
months from the time of setting out the plants. 



There is another fodder plant which has at- 
tracted a good deal of attention latterly; I 
mean the 

Prickly Comfrey, 
Of which I have had some growing for the last 
nine months, not long enough, however, for me 
to speak positively as to its adaptability to this 
climate. As I am in frequent receipt of letters 
of inquiry about it, perhaps it may not be out of 
place to state briefly my ideas about it: I would 
say, first of all, to those who feel enchanted by 
the reports of the enormous yields per acre we 
have heard about it, try it for yourselves by all 
means, but don't give it a half trial by planting 
and then neglecting it, for a plant that is a large 
producer must of necessity be a large feeder, con- 
sequently the proper plant food must always be 
abundantly supplied in the shape of good stable 
manure. This, coupled with thorough cultiva- 
tion, and a fair amount of moisture in the soil 
will, I have no doubt, make the plant yield a 
large amount of fodder, for, like all broad-leaved 
plants, it obtains a large portion of nourish- 
ment from the air. I think the plants ought to 
be four feet apart each way, instead of two feet 
each way, as I have seen it stated they should 
be. 

However, the sum of the whole matter ap- 
pears to me something like this: Use green fod- 
der corn if you prefer it to anything else, as 
long and as far into the dry season as you can 
use it green. Then use mangolds for the re- 
mainder of the season, till the young grass has 
got a good start. Robert Ashburner. 

Baden Farm, San Mateo Co., Dec. 21st, 1877. 



Cultivation and Rainfall. — No. 3. 

Editors Press: — In this article I propose to 
consider the grounds on which is based the as- 
sumption that the few trees which man takes 
off the earth or man restores materially affects 
our annual rainfall. In the previous article I 
have shown that trees exhaust iroisture, more 
rapidly than the cereals and root crops; that 
nothing is like the ridged and furrowed field to 
catch the rainfall, and nothing will hold the 
water so long as fine agricultural tilth, and a 
blanket of pulverized soil; that great rain 
clouds come from afar and distribute moisture 
on a scale which makes utterly insignificant the 
moiety of vapor given off by our trees at the 
period when the autumnal rains commence. 
But it is said: "The facts are against you." 
Let U3 see: 

It is said: " When primeval man dwelt in the 
primeval forest, long before the historic period, 
there were no deluges and no drouths," etc. 
Indeed, who knows that? If geology don't 
show, if the strata don't reveal far greater and 
more rapidly occurring changes and variations 
in rainfall in those early days than now, then 
I have read the science in vain. . Think of a 
"glacial period " in France and a tropical cli- 
mate in northern Russia, hard on toward the 
Polar circle, where the tropical elephant could 
live and thrive. Does that look as if all 
nature, including her annual rainfall, etc., had 
been wonderfully quiet until man rudely broke 
up her slumbers? Bosh! The world knew of 
drouth and deluge long before man began to 
hew down her forests. 

It is alleged that Persia, Armenia, Arabia, 
Asia Minor and North Africa have all been 
nearly ruined and turned into deserts through 
man's assaults upon nature in cutting down her 
forests. To this I reply : 1. Oppression ruins any 
country and turns an Eden into a howling "wil- 
derness. If oppression -can ruin any country it 
ought to have ruined these. 2. Bad culture, al- 
ways taking from the soil and returning noth- 
ing, will do the same. That has been done in 
those countries for 5,000 years. 3. Armenia is 
yet quite a fertile country, considering its short 
summer and long winter. Arabia always had a 
poor soil, and deserts of salt sands which the 
continually blowing winds have spread over a 
large part of the country, yet it to-day sus- 
tains a population of some 12 to a square mile. 
North Africa always had a vast desert of mov- 
ing sands on the south, which has been yearly 
crowding the area of arable land nearer and 
nearer to the Mediterranean. In the case of 
Northern Africa I contend that not the axe has 
diminished its fertility, but bad culture, bad 
government, and the eternally encroaching sands 
of the great southern desert. Palestine and 
Asia Minor are still rich in spots, and sustain 
quite a population despite bad culture, unutter- 
able laziness, and the all-devouring tax-gath- 
erer. 

But stop now, let us consider some facts on 
the other side. Let us go east from the birth- 
place of man. Hindostan, with a population 
of 175,000,000, has denuded the land of almost 
every forest, where a grain of wheat or rico 
can be grown. Yet, to this day, it supports a 
population of 125 to the square mile, and has an 
annual rainfall of over 50 inches. 

On from India our race went to China and 
peopled its vast area, mowing down the forest 
everywhere as they went. Did this vandalism 
produce sterility ? Far from it. For 4,000 years 
they have enjoyed a fair average rainfall, and now 
that vast and almost treeless empire, extend- 



ing from north to south 2,000 miles, and twice 
as big as the United States, contains an average 
of 250 persons to the square mile. Where is 
the theory here ? 

France and Germany, and Austria and Italy 
have long since been denuded of their ancient 
forests, which once covered nearly all these 
countries. Their trees to the square mile average 
a much smaller number than in any part of the 
United States. Are their rivers drying 
up, and are their annual rainfalls diminishing ? 
The vast oaken forests of England and Ire- 
land have long since disappeared, but the rain 
still falls and the average production per acre 
yearly increases. 

" But in New England the rainfall is decreas- 
ing." I dispute it. Prove it if you can. 1 
am a Yankee of the Yankees, Connecticut born 
and bred. That its naturally very poor soil is 
growing poorer I admit. Ditching the swamps 
and draining natural ponds lets the water pass 
off at once instead of taking all summer to do 
so; hence the brooks and rivers run lower at 
midsummer than formerly, and the people raise 
less bullfrogs and more grass. But the rainfall 
is not perceptibly diminished. If you say it is, 
give me the statistics. 

Drouths and famines have been in all ages, 
and quite as frequently among the ancients as 
among moderns. So axeman hew down the for- 
est when the call for timber or land requires — 
let in the light, plow deep, cultivate carefully, 
raise grain and fruits, and don't fear that for so 
doing the rains will be withheld or the earth be- 
come barren. S. Bristol. 

San Buenaventura, Dec, 1877. 

Trees in California. 

We have no interest to serve save the deter- 
mination of the truth, either iu our own writing 
or that of our correspondents, and welcome 
honest criticism. A writer in the Alia thinks 
Mr. Purnell has written beyond the proof con- 
cerning the cutting of forests and drying of 
streams in southern California. He says: "No 
forest has been felled near Santa Barbara; there 
was no 'tropical life and luxuriance for hun- 
dred of miles, ' now occupied by 'a parched and 
wretched region;' no abounding perennial streams 
have disappeared anywhere, save in the imagin- 
ation of a writer who is more liberal with his 
assertions than his authorities. It is a matter 
of notoriety that the Indians and Spaniards did 
not fell forests, and that when the Americans 
took California there were no forests near Santa 
Barbara to be felled. 

"Nobody knows what the average condition 
of the pasture and streams near the Tejon Pass 
was 50 years ago, and the opinion of any living 
witness who rode through there about 1830, in 
what was perhaps an exceptional season, if it 
were obtainable, and we do not suppose it is, 
would be worth nothing; and there is no reason 
for presuming that there was then more grass or 
water there than now. 

"So far as the tree question is concerned, 
there is no cause for alarm; the State is gaining 
more trees every year than it loses. I he de- 
struction of old trees is rapid in Mendocino, 
Humboldt, Santa Cruz, western Sonoma, and 
the shores of Lake Tahoe, but the young trees 
are growing up, and the forests are in no dan- 
ger of decreasing in area, unless in Santa Cruz, 
and we believe not there; while in the valleys 
the planting of fruit, timber and ornamental 
trees is making gratifying progress. The irri- 
gation ditches and reclamation dykes are ex- 
tending every year, and trees will go with them ; 
and we expect that in 50 years the economy of 
water will have made sucn advances that the 
Sacramento, San Joaquin and Salinas valleys 
will be as thickly settled with dwellings em- 
bowered among trees as are Napa, Sonoma and 
Petaluma now, and the changes made for the 
better there within the last quarter of a cen- 
tury are little short of the marvelous." 



California Delphiniums. 

Editors Press: — The delphinium class of 
plants have long enjoyed great popularity 
among floral people, and not without reason, 
for they are of easy culture, prolific in bloom- 
ing, and of many shades of color; the color in 
all varieties being soft and gentle, in no wise 
gaudy or overpowering tints, which character- 
ize many flowers. 

To our own State, which has given to the 
world so many of their finest jewels is reserved 
the pleasure of presenting to Flora's devotees 
the finest and richest of the Delphinium. 
Within tho last two years several of our native 
varieties have been introduced into Eastern gar- 
dens, without a single exception they at once 
bore the palm away from all Other varieties, 
over which years of toil had been spent in im- 
proving. 

So far as explored there have been found in 
California eleven distinct varieties, these are of 
various shades of carmine, blue, purple, violet 
and white. Time and space forbid at present 
a complete description of all the varieties. 
The four varieties which I believe will be found 
the most worthy of cultivation are as follows: 

Delphinium cardinal?, a handsome and strik- 
ing variety, which grows to the bight of two to 
four feet. The flowers are from one and a 
Quarter to one and three quarter inches in 
length, including the straight spur, in diameter 



the flowers are from three quarters to an in, 
In color the flowers are the richest carmine, 
with a brilliant yellow center. They are borne 
in long racemes of 10 to 50 florets each. This 
variety is found in San Diego and Los Angeles 
in great abundance. 

D. Niulicaule is a supurb variety, growing 
from one to two feet high; the flowers are a 
light scarlet color, from one to one and a quar- 
ter inches in length, and about three quarters 
in diameter. 

D. Cali/ornicitm grows two feet and upwards 
in bight. The flowers are a brilliant blue, 
from one-half to one and a quarter inches in di- 
ameter. Flowers iu long close racemes. 

D. Varigatum is the finest of all the blue 
larkspurs, it grows two feet high, the flowers 
are a rich blue in color, when the sun shines on 
them they have a metallic tinge, one inch in di- 
ameter. Borne on long pedicle racemes, I have 
often used them for bouquets for which they 
are fine. Wm. C. L. Drew. 

El Dorado, Cal. 



Rose Culture. 

Editors Press: — I presume many readers of 
the Press who have not had much experience 
in rose culture would be glad to know the very 
best varieties to get, for constant blooming, fine 
color and handsome buds. I would have been 
very happy three years ago to know what I now 
do, as it would have saved me much anxiety, 
time and money. For white buds, I find 
"Niphetos" the loveliest of all, then "Madame 
Bravy," "Eliza Savage" and "Devoniensis" all 
low-growing, compact plants. There is none 
better than "Lamarque" for a climbing white 
rose, although it is not a steady bloomer. I 
wish people would use the Lamarque in ceme- 
teries for adorning the last resting place of dear 
ones. Instead of a marble slab, a slender shaft 
of glossy green leaves and lovely half-open white 
buds would be something far better than a soul- 
less, staring marble. 

You will find that florists disagree as to names 
of roses. Some on this coast call one of the 
deep, golden roses "Eliza Savage," but accord- 
ing to English florists' catalogues it is a mistake. 
In the lovely golden roses you will find two of 
the finest climbers of all the Noisettes roses — 
"Mareschal Npil" and "Chromatella, " or "Cloth 
of Gold." There are also two very fine ones, a 
mixture of pale gold color and pink — "Glorie do 
Dijon" and "Celine Forrester," all differing in 
color, size and shape, and all desirable. 

For bush roses of gold color, "Safrano," and 
one that some florists on this coast call "Eliza 
.Savage" are desirable. They also disagree about 
our loveliest pink tea-rose. Some call it "Paul- 
ine Lebonte," others call it "Duchess de Bra- 
bant." I have plants of each name, differing in 
color, but of same size and shape, and both 
lovely; but the one we call Pauline is the best 
bloomer, most fragrant, and every way the most 
perfect rose I ever saw. "Hermosa," "Bou- 
gere," Triumph de Luxemburg," "Emperor 
Russia," and "Bon Silene," are all extra fine for 
buds. "Compte de Ure" and "Aggrippina" 
are the only good red roses I have, but there 
are many very fine ones to be obtained now. 
As I have not tested them, I will not praise 
them. 

Sometimes the best of plants will produce 
poor colored flowers if not fed well. They are 
as punctual for their meals as a laboring man, 
and will not do any better without them. I 
feed mine liquid hen manure every three months, 
and water them thoroughly every month in dry 
weather, and prune out the old hard wood as 
fast as it shows poor flowers. Thus I always 
have high-colored, firm, finely formed budB 
every month in the year. 

One beautiful climbing red rose I neglected 
to name among the Noisettes, and that seems to 
be little known, is of very fine form and fra- 
grance. It is "Souvenir de Anselme." If nny 
one knows of other desirable roses, let us hear 
from them. Mrs. Childs. 

Santa Barbara, California. 



Tkstini; the Infm'ence of Forests. — To- 
wards the close of last month, says the London 
Fanner, a series of preliminary experiments 
upon the meteorological influences of forests 
were commenced at tho Botanical (1 aniens at- 
tached to the late School of Forestry at Maria- 
brunn, a special form of apparatus contrived for 
this purpose by Prof. Schwackhofer being em- 
ployed in conducting them. The apparatus 
consists of a captive balloon furnished with an 
arrangement for the direct volumetric estima- 
tion of tho watery vapor present in the atmos- 
phere, which balloon can be quickly inflated 
w hen its ascent is desired, by means of a com- 
pact portable apparatus for making hydrogen 
gas that is attached to it. In its ascent the 
balloon is made to carry up a contrivance for 
the absorption of air at whatever altitude it 
may be allowed t<> come to rest, and in this 
manner material will be obtained for tho analy- 
sis of the atmospheric strata immediately abovo 
the crowns of forests, and in similar inaccessi- 
ble places. The preliminary experiments have 
given every satisfaction as to tho feasibility of 
the scheme, and in the spring of next year a 
regularly organized system of observations will 
be undertaken at various meteorological sta- 
tions iu tho country. 



4 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January 5, 1878. 




Correspondence cordially invited from all Patrons for this 
department. 



Removal. 

Until further notice the office of the Secretary of the 
State Grange will be at lOti Davis street, in the Btore of 
the Grangers" Business Association. Correspondents will 
continue to send their communications to No. 40 Califor- 
nia street, as heretofore. 



Co-operation. 

Editors Press:— "Of what use is it?" "How 
will it benefit me?" and similar expressions are 
used by the majority of human beings when any- 
thing new is presented. The thing under con- 
sideration, giving no encouragment to the ad- 
vancement of me or mine, is discarded as some- 
thing not worthy of thought, until, at least, 
nothing to do makes room for charitable work. 
Those who act so, if not already actuated by 
selfish motives, are at least on the high road to 
that country whose despotic ruler is me. But 
we are all governed to a certain extent by self- 
ishness, and from that standpoint I propose to 
show that we may all be benefited by co-ope- 
ration in the Orange, in the State and nation, 
and in our social affairs. 

A man cast away upon an island with none 
but the lower animals for companions, sees but 
little enjoyment. True, lie may have moun- 
tains of iron and gold, broad forests of trees 
bearing all the fruits known to man, food and 
raiment sufficient for a hundred years; all 
the beautiful flowers of the tropics in broad ex- 
panse before him; all, everything we seek for, 
as contributing towards our happiness, except 
one thing, a fellow equal, and having it not will 
always and must, necessarily, be not satisfied. 
Place the same man among his fellow-men, and 
he seeks not to regain his former power and 
wealth at the expense of associates. 

We all need and must have friends, neighbors 
and companions. Give a man all the wealth 
and power of the world, despotic and life-long, 
make him know assuredly that the life of every 
being, man and beast, is in his hands, give him 
what C:esar, Napoleon and others sought for, 
and then imagine if you can, just how unsatis- 
fied and lonely he must be. 

And so it must always be. The more com- 
pletely selfish we are so much the less are we 
capable of enjoying what we have. Our good 
thoughts must not be kept to ourselves, must 
not be imprisoned within the cell that holds the 
thinking apparatus, must not be started forth 
upon an errand of mercy and then turned upon 
itself, strangling not only its own life but de- 
stroying the desire and power of many like 
future thoughts. 

Take a sweet-smelling rose, envelop its life 
power within itself, cause it to drink up its own 
sweet perfume, inhale that which it has exhaled, 
and a more pitiful death could be scarcely im- 
agined, killed by what was intended for life and 
beauty. 

The very conditions upon which we live are 
that we give life, health and happiness to others. 
Without a desire on our part to please others, 
we cannot utilize the efforts of our friends to do 
us good. Without his feelings are reciprocated, 
a lover's love is a consuming fire to soul and 
body. If we would be benefited truly and 
nobly, it must be that we throw off a part of 
our being, that we may be enabled to gather in 
the experiences and thoughts of others. Unless 
we are willing that our fellow-men should enjoy 
the experience we gain through life, we are in a 
sorry plight to ask that our friends' knowledge 
be given us free and without price. In order 
to be thoroughly contented, we must be willing 
to return an equivalent for everything gained. 

Nay, that is only justice, we must be desirous 
of fulfilling all the laws of nature to be 
thoroughly satisfied, and her laws are that we 
give of our store, and by thus giving are we 
the better enabled to receive. 

Those who are struggling to gain the neces- 
sities of life find a fellow-feeling in his neigh- 
bors of like circumstances. To them we can say, 
work together for the interest of all. As you 
advance your neighbor so are you assisted in 
the work. By co-operation are you much 
stronger, and the battle is not often to the 
weak. By working together you can help each 
other without lessening your home work. If 
the people of the Grange to-day were resolved 
to act together for the good of the whole people 
how soon many of the abuses of power, State 
and national, would be checked. If the people 
of the nation were determined to work together 
for the good of all, how happy we all might be 
No one's happiness lessened, and thousands in- 
creased. J. S. Churchill. 

Sespe, OaL 



Personal.— In the list of those who have 
lately received "life diplomas," as published 
in the seventh biennial report of the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, we notice the 
name of Vital E. Bangs, our correspondent at 
Modesto, Stanislaus county. We believe the 
distinction is well placed in this case. 



Election of Officers.* 

Bl NO HAMPTON GRANGE, No, 174, SoLANO Co. 

—Election Dec. 1st, 1877: A. Bennett, M.; J. 
Tuck, O. ; B. V. L. Bennett, L ; Chas. Plumer, 
S. ; A. Mangers, A. S. ; Sherman Brown, C. ; 
O. A. Brown, T.; Win. Gay, Sec'y; J. B. 
Jameson, G. K. ; Mrs. M. Gay, Ceres; Mrs. E. 
Tuck, Flora; Mrs. E. L. Brown, Pomona; Mrs. 
Plummer, L. A. S. ; J. F. Brown, Trustee; A. 
Bennett, J. Tuck, Delegates to Pomona Grange. 

Cekes Grange, Stanislaus Co. — M. B. Kit- 
trelle, M. ; R. K. Whitmore, 0. ; U. G. Munger, 
L. ; George Riche, S. ; R. Whitmore, A. S. ; 
Mrs. R. Whitmore, C. ; E. Hatch, T. ; Mrs. L. 
J. Brouse, S.; M. M. Williams, G. K. ; Mrs. U. 
G. Munger, Ceres; Mrs. George Reich, Pomona; 
Mrs. E. Hatch, Flora; Mrs. John Service, L. 

A. S. ; Mrs. D. Whitmore, Trustee, for three 
years. Installation the fourth Saturday in Jan- 
uary. 

Danville Grange, No. 85, Contra Costa 
Co. — Election Dec. 15: Chas. Wood, M. ; J. 
Stone, O.; D. N. Shuburn, L.J M. W. Hall, S.; 
L. Wood, A. S. ; W. Hownin, C. ; R. O. Bald- 
win, T.; C. E. Howard, Sec'y; G. Wood, G. K.; 
Mrs. Fanny Wood, Ceres; Miss M. Preston, 
Pomona; Miss N. Glass, Flora; Miss Olive 
Labaree, L. A. S. 

Lompoc Grange, No. 248, Santa Barbara 
Co., Cal. — Election, Dec. 22: H. Summers, 
M.; E. H. Elkins, 0.;G. W. Richards, L.; 
C. W. Irwin, S.; F. H. Rainey, A. S.; J 01 in- 
ger, C. ; B. Summers, T. ; A. Lausdell, Sec'y. ; 
M. Nicohles, G. K.; Mrs. C. Pierce, Ceres; 
Mrs. M. Summers, Pomona; Mrs. Heacock, 
Flora; Susa Parker, L. A. S. ; H. W. Fabing, 
Trustee. 

Mussel Slough Grange, No. 243, Tulare 
County. — Election, Dec. 22d: T. W. Standart, 
M. ; Sanford Underwood, O. ; Wesley Under- 
wood, L. ; A. Hutton, S. ; D. Young, A. S. ; 
F. F. Wilson, C; Thos. Stortin, T.; H. 
Nysounger, Sec'y; John W. Wilson, G. K.; 
Mrs. T. W. Standart, Ceres; Mrs. F. H. Wil- 
son, Pomona; Mrs. Wesley Underwood, Flora; 
Mrs. Sanford Underwood, L A. S. Intallation 
on the fourth Saturday in January.with a 
Grange feast. 

National Ranch Grange, San Diego Co. — 
Election, Dec. 26th: Flora M. Kimball. M. ; 

F. A. Kimball, O. ; E. T. Blackmer, L. ; Theo. 
Parsons, S.; N. P. Ronland, A. S.;J. Todd, 0.; 
W. C. Kimball, T.; Sarah C. Kimball, Sec'y; 
L. Roberts, G. K. ; Mrs. A. M. Field, Ceres; 
Mrs. Ix>uise Boyd, Pomona: Mrs. L. Roberts, 
Flora; Mrs. Josephine Walker, L. A. S. In- 
stallation of officers January 9th. 

Newcastle Granke, No. 241, Placer Co. — 
Election, Dec. 8th: R. M. Nixon, M.; J. T. 
Woods, O. ; B. P. Tabor, L. ; I. F. Tabor, S. ; 
W. J. Wilson, S.; J. H. Mitchell, C,; G. W. 
Threlkel, T,; G. S. Nixon, Sec'y.; G. Perkins, 

G. K.; Mrs. Griffith, Ceres; Mrs. Threlkel, Po- 
mona; Maggie A. Greeley, Flora; Isabella 
Boggs, L. A. S. Installation, January 12th. 

Plumas Grange, No. 245, Plumas County.— 

B. F. Bobo, M.; W. E. McNeil, 0.; 0. Mc- 
Elroy, L. ; A. J. Spoon, S. ; M. C. Bringham, A. 
S.; J. L. Crow, T.; T. Black, Sec'y; G. W. 
Cramer, G. K. ; Mrs. G. W. Mapes, Ceres; 
Mrs. M. C. Hinds, Pomona; Miss R. Sigler, 
Flora; Mrs. M. E. Bringham, L. A. S. 

Plymouth Grange, No. 232, Amador Co. — 
Election, Dec. 8th: Reuben M. Ford, M. ; Jas. 
F. Gregg, O. ; Isaac W. Whitacre, L. ; Jonathan 
Sallee, S. ; John Sharp, A. S. ; Eleazer S. Pot- 
ter, T. ; Stephen C. Wheeler, Sec'y; Simpson B. 
Newman, G. K. ; Harding Vanderpool, C; 
Sister Ford, Ceres; Sister Potter, Pomona; Sis- 
ter Whitacre, Flora; Sister Forbes, L. A. S. 
Installation, January 1st. 

• Officors of Granges are requested to sen ! list of offi- 
cers elect, date of election and day set for installation, to 
this ottico direct. 



Resolutions of American River Grange. 

At a regular meeting of American River 
Grange, held December 22d, 1877, the follow- 
ing preamble and resolution was adopted with- 
out a dissenting vote: 

Whereas, Bros. J. VV. A. Wright and B. Pilkington, in 
lectures delivered before Sacramento Grange P. of H., 
De;ember 8th, 1877, expressed sentiments often repeated 
by good citizens, Patrons anil non-Patrons; and 

Whereas, Grangers should not be too hasty in drawing 
conclusions, or misled by misrepresentations, as our Sister 
Grange at Stockton doubtless was, for thorough ventila- 
tion is one of the principles of our Order; and 

Whkkkas, There is a spirit abroad among a certain class 
to put down anything in the form of independent action, 
or any departure from the worn-out methods of political 
procedure, attempted by the workingmen or the farmer, 
in its incipiency, as evinced by the course pursued by the 
Sacramento Record- Union, an exponent of capital and 
monopolies. Therefore be it 

Resolved, That American River Grange deems it a duty 
that it owes to the Order anil its acknowledged leaders to 
endorse the lecture of Bro. J. W. A. Wright as a whole 
and in detail. E. G. Morton, Jr., 

Sec. pro. tern. 

Routiers, Dec. 22d, "77. 

We received, too late for publication this 
week, a letter from Bro. Wright upon the action 
of Stockton Grange with reference to his Sacra- 
mento lecture. 



Installation Notice.— The installation of 
officers for 1878, in Golden Gate Grange, San 
Francisco, is hereby postponed until the fourth 
Tuesday in January, the 22d inst., at which 
time a full attendance of members is urgently 
requested. Visiting members are cordially in- 
vited.— Mrs. J. R. Read, Sec'y. 



Grange Meetings. 

By request of the Committee on Installation, 
the officers of the Temescal Grange will be in- 
stalled on Saturday, Jan. 12th, instead of the 
day first proposed. This will enable members 
to accept the invitation to attend the joint 
meeting and installation at Walnut Creek (Sat- 
urday, Jan. 5th), of the Granges of that place, 
Pacheco and Danville. Dr. Dio Lewis will ad- 
dress the farmers and their wives (at Walnut 
Creek,) at 11 a. m. Harvest Feast at 12:30 
will be followed by the installation services, 
conducted by Worthy Past State Master, J. V. 
Webster. All Grangers should be on hand, 
as an interesting ana instructive time is ex- 
pected. 

Worthy Secretary Adams, of the State 
Grange, has been invited to install the officers 
of Temescal Grange. Worthy Deputy Master 
Nathaniel Jones, of Contra Costa county, and 
other speakers are expected to be present at the 
New Year's Harvest Festival of Temescal 
Grange. The meeting will commence at one 
o'clock. All Patrons are urged to be present. 

Selling Wheat C. 0. D. 

Editors Press:— By order of the Danville 
Grange, No. 85, P. of H., I forward you a copy 
of resolutions adopted December 15th, 1877: 

WnWS, The custom of selling produce, especially the 
chief production, wheat, to dealers whose responsibility is 
unknown to the farming community, and waiting pay- 
ment therefor, after delivery, until some future time con- 
veniently called steamer or collection day, often results in 
serious loss to the farmers; and 

Whereas, From the nature of the business of said 
dealers, it is impossible to ascertain their solvency, and 
whenever failures or suspensions occur among them, it is 
never the fanner creditors but usually the city creditors 
who are partially or wholly secured; therefore, being com- 
pelled thereto for self protection, and feeling conscious 
that there can be no injustice or hardship to anyone in 
the adoption of the resolution, be it 

Resolved, That the members of the Danville Grange 
will, in every instance of sale of their productions, de- 
mand payment therefor on delivery, and hereby bind and 
pledge themselves to adhere strictly to the rule, even, if 
to enforce it, they have to submit to a discount from the 
market rates. 

Rtsolvcd, That the co-operation of sister Granges be 
asked to crystallize into a businest custom, this safe and 
equitable rule. C. E. Howard, Sec'y. 



In Memoriam. 

SAN .JOSE GRANGE, Santa Clara County, December 
28th, 1877. 

Whereas. It has pleased the Great Master above to re- 
move from our Grange circle our beloved and worthy Lec- 
turer, Sister E. P. Bickxell, to rest from her earthly la- 
bors, he it therefore 

Resolved, That in the death of Sister Bicknell the be- 
reaved family lose a kind and loving wife and mother, the 
community a valuable and esteemed friend, and this 
Grange one of its most active and trustworthy members 
prompt and faithful in her duties, cheerful and courteous 
in her intercourse leaving a blank in our broken columns 
difficult to fill. 

Resolved, That we extend to the family of our deceased 
Sister our heartfelt sympathy in their bereavement. 

Resolved, That ourchartcf bediaped in mourning; that 
these resolutions be spread u|>on the minutes of the 
Grange, and a copy sent to the San Jose Mereuri/ and to 
the Rural Press for publication. — [Committee: Mrs. W. 
L Manly, Mrs. H. S. McClay, Wm. Erkson, EL G. Kees- 
ling, Josie Settle. 

ELM IRA GRANGE, No. 16, P. of II., Elmira, Cal., 
Decomber 31st, 1877. 

Whereas, It has pleased the Great Master of the uni- 
verse to remove from our midst our beloved sister, Mrs. 
Mary Black, to the better land, therefore be it 

Jiesotved, That we offer our sincere regrets to the hus- 
band and family of Sister Black, and condole with them 
in their great affliction. 

^Resolved, That we cause our charter to be draped in 
mourning for the space of 30 days. 

Resolved, That theso resolutions be sent to the Pacific 
Rural Press, to the family of our deceased sister and be 
spread on the minutes of this Grange - -[Committee: O. 
\V. Frazer, Sister Jas. A. Clark, Sister McCrory. 

ENTERPRISE GRANGE, No. 129, Sacramento county, 
December 15th, 1877. 

Whereas, It has pleased the Great Ruler of the uni- 
verse to call from our midst our beloved and respected 
sister, Lucy A. Fitch, therefore be it 

Jtetolved, That in the death of Sister Fitch, our Grange 
has lost a quiet, peaceful member, one ever willing to do 
her part in an unpretentious manner, and her husband a 
true and devoted wife. 

Resolved, That while we bow with humble submission 
to Heaven's high will, we deeply mourn the loss of one 
who four years has met with us with a kind, gentle face, 
which memory will ever keep in mind. 

llfsolved. That the Grange tender the bereft husband 
and relatives our earnest and heartfelt sympathies. 

Resolved, That our charter be draped in mourning for 
30 days, that a copy of these resolutions be sent the 
bereaved husband, also that they appear on the minutes 
of this Grange and a copy be sent the Pacific Rural 
Press and California Patron for publication. — [Com- 
mittee: Mrs. M. C. Nordyke, Mrs. M. W. Parker, S. A. 
Green. 



Aerial Telegraphy. — The scheme for tele- 
graphing without wires, by means of aerial 
currents of electricity, has been revived by 
Prof. Loomis. He has met with success in 
using kites for tins purpose, a copper wire being 
substituted for the usual kite string. Signals 
were transmitted thus between kites 10 miles 
apart. His new experiments are made in the 
mountainous regions of West Virginia, between 
lofty peaks. Continuous aerial currents are 
found at these altitudes, which will serve the 
purposes of the telegraph, except when rarely 
interrupted by violent disturbances of the at- 
mosphere. A scheme is now on foot to test the 
merits of aerial telegraphy in the Alps. The 
cheapness of the apparatus, as no wire is re- 
quired between the stations, is greatly in favor 
of the method, and may counterbalance its lia- 
bility to occasional interruption. 

A movement is on foot in Oakland to estab- 
lish an Mechanic Arts' school where boys may 
learn trades. Col. John Scott has made a lib- 
eral donation, and the plan is now under dis- 
cussion. 



The Indian Prize for a Ramie Machine. 

Inasmuch as several Pacific coast inventors 
are now practically engaged in the honorable 
contest for the Indian award for a ramie clean- 
ing machine, we give some facts from the cir- 
cular which has been issued from the India 
office in London, on the subject. What is re- 
quired is a machine or process capable of pro- 
ducing, by animal, water or steam power, a ton 
of dressed fiber of a quality which shall average 
in value not less than £45 per ton in the English 
market, at a total cost, including all processes 
of preparation and all needful allowance for 
wear and tear, of not more than £15 per ton, 
laid down at any port of shipment in India, 
and £30 in England, after payment of all the 
charges usual in trade before goods reach the 
hands of the manufacturer. The processes of 
preparation are to be understood to include all 
the operations required subsequent to the cut- 
ting of the stems from the plants in the field 
until the fiber is in a condition fit to be packed 
for conveyance to the market. The machinery 
employed must be simple, strong, durable and 
inexpensive and should be suited for erection in 
the plantations where the rheea is grown. It 
must be adapted for treatment of the fresh 
stems, as cut from the plant. The treatment 
of dried stems offers certain difficulties, and the 
fiber prepared for them must, moreover, always 
be much more costly than the fiber produced 
from green stems. It is, therefore, desirable 
that the attention of inventors should be given 
to the discovery of a process for the treatment 
of the green stems. 

The trials will be held at Saharanpur, in the 
Northwestern Provinces', in the months of 
August and September, 1879. Machines entered 
for competition should be ready for trial not 
later than August 15th, the competition com- 
mencing the next day. The judges will be 
appointed by the government, and they will 
watch the whole of the trials. But the ma- 
chines are to be worked and adjusted by the 
competitors themselves. The government will 
provide accommodation and motive power at 
Saharanpur for all competing machines, and 
will also pay for the transport from the sea- 
coast to Saharanpur of all machines up to the 
limit of one ton each, the freight on excess 
weight to be defrayed by the owners. The 
owner or owners of the successful machine or 
machines shall not be entitled to receive the 
reward offered, except on the following condi- 
tions, viz. : That a complete technical descrip- 
tion of the machine, illustrated by plans drawn 
to scale, shall l>e prepared and published (gov- 
ernment paying the cost) for the information of 
the public, and that after the expiration of 
three years from date of award, the public 
shall have the right of manufacturing similar 
machines, on payment to the owner of a royalty 
of 10% on the cost of each machine so manufac- 
tured. All persons desiring to compete are 
requested to make known their intentions not 
later than December, 1878, giving their name, 
residence, profession and a brief description of 
each machine entered for competition. They 
must also declare themselves bound to conform 
to all rules which may be prescribed by the 
judges appointed to conduct the trials. All 
notices of intention to compete and applications 
for information should be addressed to the Sec- 
retary to the Government of India, Department 
of Revenue, Agriculture and Commerce, Cal- 
cutta. 



Illuminated Numbers. — The Telegraphic 
Journal says that a contrivance for rendering 
the numbers of houses visible by night is be- 
coming general in Paris. It consists of a hol- 
low triangular prism nine inches long, two of 
whose side are formed of panes of blue glass, 
on which the number of the house is picked out 
in white. This prism-shaped lamp glass rests 
against the front of the house, so that the two 
sides with the numbers on them can be plainly 
seen by the passers-by. In the interior of the 
prism is a gas jet, fed by a pipe from the house. 
Householders on the Avenue de l'Opera have 
been obliged to supply this mode of numbering 
at their own expense on the houses they are 
building, and the municipal authorities have 
introduced it on some 450 of the municipal es- 
tablishments, schools, police offices, fire brigade 
offices, etc. 



New Sewing Machine Motor. — We read 
in Eastern exchanges of a new sewing machine 
motor, which is said to be "so cheap and so 
simple that it seems as if it would at once 
come into very general use. The motor con- 
sists of a tubular boiler 18 inches high, incased 
in cabinet work, through which steam is engen- 
dered by a small parlor lamp being placed un- 
derneath it. The apparatus which connects it 
with the sewing machine is very simple, and 
consists of only three pieces. It takes only a 
few minutes to get up steam, and the speed is 
regulated by a little spring. The invention is 
compact, neat and clean, a great savior of health 
and strength, and in appearance resembles a lit- 
tle parlor stove incased in cabinet work. The 
inventor of the machine is Mr. Thomas T. 
Wood, of Newark, N. J." 



Straightening Tools. — The Polytechnic says: 
It is not generally known that steel tools sprung 
in hardening can be straightened in tempering. 
Hardened steel, when not enough to change the 
color to straw color or purple, is about as plia- 
ble as annealed steel when cold. So pieces 
warped in hardening can, while hot, be straight- 
ened with a hammer, or, better, with a screw- 
press, without danger of breaking. 



January 5, 1878.] 



California. 

BUTTE. 

Egyptian Corn Meal. — Record, Dec. 29: 
We are indebted to Gen. Bidwell for a package 
of Egyptian corn meal from the Chico mills, the 
first of the season. As a substitute for buck- 
wheat it makes an excellent article of diet. 
In point of fact, it is far preferable to buck- 
wheat, and will, we think, soon come into 
general use. Those desiring an excellent hot 
cake for breakfast should procure a sack and 
give it a trial. 
EL DORADO. 

Rain and Snow. — Republican, Dec. 27: We 
had a glorious rain on Sunday, and at the same 
time a good fall of snow higher in the moun- 
tains, reaching down almost to the city limits. 
FRESNO. 

Rain and Irrigation. — Expositor, Dec. 26: 
On last Sunday this valley received a holiday 
present in the shape of a splendid rain storm. 
During Saturday night a strong south wind 
sprang up, and early Sunday morning the pre- 
cious drops began to fall. We learn that the 
Emigrant Ditch company are now clearing out 
and improving the company's canal. As soon 
as the repairs are completed the water will be 
turned in and the farmers living on it will be- 
gin irrigating and cultivating their land. 
LAKE. 

Our Poor Lands. — Democrat, Dec. 22: 
Lake county has a good deal of hill land, some 
brushy and some clear, all of which we believe 
to be susceptible of the highest cultivation if 
treated at the right season and understand- 
ingly. We are certain that grapes can be 
grown on these lands at a profit and also that 
fruit trees will flourish and bear promptly 
thereon. During the week Mr. James Martin, 
who owns a farm near the hills back of town, 
brought us in some cotton balls raised on the 
so-called "poor lands." The specimen was the 
Sea island variety, had matured perfectly and 
the staple was strong and long. In fact, we 
have seen worse looking cotton in Mexico. 
Mr. Martin also informs us that on the same 
land he has Spanish radishes growing, some of 
which pulled the scales at nine pounds each, 
and were just as fine and solid inside as spring 
radishes, and are so brittle that they have to 
be dug with a spade. 

A California Scenf. — Bee, Dec. 29: The 
view that greeted the people of Lakeport Mon- 
day morning after the sun had risen above the 
mountain tops toward the east, was charming 
indeed. The hills and valleys for miles around, 
clad in richest verdure, looked greener and 
fresher than usual from the genial influence of 
the recent rain, and the mountains beyond the 
lake and far as the vision could reach were 
covered with a heavy mantle of snow. Spring 
was with us with newly-grown grass, its bloom- 
ing flowers and its feathered songsters chirp- 
ing from every tree top, and yet winter, clad in 
all its snowy habiliments, was plainly in 
view. It was a vision of rare beauty and such 
a one as our friends in the East can hardly 
realize. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Los Nietos. — Editors Press: — Some time 
since I penned for the Rural a communication 
concerning the situation of affairs in general in 
this "New Italy," and the fact was too doleful to 
go to print. So I concluded to desist until 
Providence should favor us with a change. The 
change is here. Rain has come, but, just as 
usual, more rain has fallen near our local editor's 
sanctum window than on the land I plow. The 
mortality amongst the sheep folds was great 
during our rain, which, by the way, was quite 
gentle for the amount of water that fell. Sheep 
that are now alive are all 0. K. Business has 
tried to revive since the rain, but it ha° called 
for cash, and the man cash don't respond. Cash 
can scarcely be obtained. I have 50 heavy corn- 
fat hogs that I have been trying to sell for six 
weeks, and cannot sell enough to pay my taxes. 
Well, this is business, action — then a reaction. 
Who ever saw the exception to an infallible 
rule? Yesterday I bought a span of horses 
that three years since would have brought $150 
readily, and paid for them (not cash), 850 pounds 
of pig, live weight — equivalent to $35. My 
word for it, 'tis the making of this over-adver- 
tised country. Men and business will finally 
get leveled down to a proper basis, and after 
this equilibrium is brought about, and when 
this gambling in homes is over, and the people 
learn how to manage this irrigating facility that 
they are possessed of, this country will be all 
O. K. But, my kindly reader of the Rural, 
don't forget the advice I gave three years since, 
on my arrival in Los Nietos, "if you have a 
home, and are making a living, dig in. Stay 
there." — Geo. Kay Miller. 

Rain and Snow. — Express, Dec. 29: Mr. 
W. W. Robinson, who came in from White- 
water to-day, informs us that it rained very 
hard at that place last evening. In coming 
through San Gorgonio pass this morning, the 
railroad track was covered with snow for two 
or three miles. The snow is very low down on 
the mountains this season, even the Arrow- 
head, back of San Bernardino, being covered. 
The farmers from the country report that the 
grass is growing finely and that there is no fear 
that we shall not have good crops. 
MARIN. 

Rain.— San Rafael Journal, Dec. 27: Since 
our last we have had 1.30 inches of rain, giving 



THE PACIFIC 



a total fall this season, to date, of 5.83 inches. 
The public anxiety is entirely dissipated rela- 
tive to drouth. The ground is in good condi- 
tion for all purposes, and feed and crops are 
usually good. 
MONTEREY. 

Castroville.— Argus, Dec. 29: A consider- 
able parcel of land in the southern part of 
town, on the edge of the Tembladera, has been 
cleared of tules, plowed, sowed and harrowed. 
People are just opening their eyes to the value 
of tule land. Those of our farmers who had 
not their grain sowed prior to the storm of the 
first of the week, are now busy as bees plowing 
and seeding, having given up all ideas of a dry 
season. 

The Season.— Democrat, Dec. 29: Since our 
last issue, rain has fallen in abundance upon the 
farming and grazing lands of this county. 
Pasture is considered assured, the summer fal- 
lowed lands are covered by the sprouting grain, 
which has a vigorous start, and the farmers 
will have no difficulty now in plowing and seed- 
ing reserved lands to whatever extent their cir- 
cumstances make advisable. As to the temper 
of the community, confidence takes the place of 
despondency previously existing and all regard 
the coming season as full of promise. We have 
goodl reports from stock-growers. Charley 
Romie tells us there is plenty of grass for sheep 
on the Arroyo Seco. John Cook, of San An- 
tonia country, is making his way homewards, 
from stubble fields north of San Jose, with a 
large band of sheep which have got through the 
dry season without loss. From one of the 
Smith brothers, who have their sheep on the 
Tularcitos rancho, we hear that grass is forward 
on their range and, altogether, the understand- 
ing is that the stock interest is now in as prom- 
ising condition as could have been hoped for 
after such a season as it has passed through. 
SACRAMENTO. 

The Valley Crops.— Record-Union, Dec. 25: 
Steamboatmen, ranchmen and others who have 
had opportunity of observing the condition of 
things along the upper Sacramento, report that 
crops never looked better in* that section, and 
all the residents are sanguine that the coming 
season will be unusually prosperous. In the 
vicinity of Sacramento everything looks very 
favorable in which farmers and orchardists are 
interested, and the prospects could scarcely be 
improved upon. 
SAN DIEGO. 

Rain and Effects. — News, Dec. 22: The 
good effects of the rains are seen and heard 
from in all quarters. I« the country, where the 
rain has been much heavier than here on the 
coast, farmers are busy preparing to put in more 
grain as fast as possible. The grain that is up 
is reported as looking elegantly well. In 
town the alfalfa and other grasses are making 
their appearance rapidly, and on the sidehillg 
a little green begins to be seen. In the Cajon, 
they claim over two and one-half inches; and at 
Campo, one and three-fourths inches. A note 
from San Luis Rey advises us that the people 
of that valley are in joyous spirits over the 
rains that have visited our county so gener- 
ously. Our correspondent, writing on the 
18th, says: "Hardest rain last nigho we have 
had for years." 

SAN MATEO. 

The Season. — Times a>id Gazette, Dec. 29: 
During the last week a remarkable change has 
come over the face of nature by the growth of 
grain. Fields that a week ago showed nothing 
but bare furrows, are now clothed in robes of 
reen. Bee keepers hereabouts report that 
ees have done nothing during the past year 
and many hives are dying for want of food. 
Reports from the mountains in the neighbor- 
hood of Ischenbacker's, Langley's and Hamm's, 
represent prospects for farmers there as very 
fine. The rain has been all that is necessary 
thus far in the season. Volunteer has attained 
a good growth and is doing well, while new 
grain is being rapidly sown, the earlier fields 
already coming up. Grass also is still growing 
fast, and is now far enough advanced to afford 
considerable feed for stock. 

SANTA BARBARA. 

Items. — Lompoc Record, Dec. 22: There is 
no further doubt about a sufficient rainfall. To 
date, more than the average has fallen for a 
good year, and the warm weather will soon bring 
grass forth in abundance. The Santa Rita set- 
tlers are making every effort to get in a large 
amount of wheat and barley this year. It is 
unfortunate that seed is so high priced and so 
scarce. The summer crops will be varied and 
extensive the coming season in consequence of 
the high price of small grain. 
SANTA CLARA. 

The Rains, — San Jose Mercury, Dec. 28: 
The soil of this valley is now in first-class con- 
dition for plowing and sowing and the farmers 
generally have begun in earnest. But little 
doubt of the outcome is felt, the prevailing 
opinion being that the season will be a prosper- 
ous one and that plenty of rain will fall during 
the spring months to answer all requirements. 
The rule has been in this section that heavy 
rains in the early part of the season havo been 
followed by light and insufficient showers in 
the spring. It is during the latter |period that 
the greater moisture is needed. Therefore if 
the experiences of the past are any criterion, 
the farmers have good reason to feel hopeful. 
A few heavy showers in February and March 
and one or more in the interior will fetch us out 
all right. 

Orange. — An orange measuring 19J inches in 
circumference, and weighing '2 pounds and 13 



BUBAL FBESS. 



ounces, is one of the semi-tropical monstrosities, 
on exhibition at Billy Owens' fruit store in San 
Jose. It is from Dr. Beach's orchard, Los An- 
geles. 
SOLANO. 

Our Welcome Visitor. — Dixon Tribune, 
Dec. 29: The rain came at last on Saturday 
night, the 22d, in a heavy but not violent 
shower. The following night there was an- 
other gentle shower, and the quantity for the 
two was measured at .65 of an inch, making a 
total for the season of 2. 65 inches. The ground 
is now in a condition to make plowing possible, 
though a little more soaking would do no harm. 
In most places the moisture penetrated to a 
depth of four inches on pasture land and five 
inches on summer-fallowed ground, by Monday 
morning, and afterwards it soaked another inch 
deep. Wednesday morning a good many farm- 
ers began plowing. Last year at this date 
there had been more rain, though it all fell in 
October and November, and none in December. 
SONOMA. 

Prune Drying.— Russian River Flag, Dec. 
27: We learn from Mr. Adam Barth, of Wind- 
sor, who has had a considerable experience in 
his former home on the Rhine (one of the best 
prune districts in Germany), that there the 
prunes are placed ia wicker baskets, or trays of 
one foot in width, about four in length and three 
or four in depth, and set in the oven (the brick 
oven, which is universal in that country) after 
bread-baking, that is, when there is moderate 
heat. They are generally left over night, and 
then taken out and placed in the sun for two or 
three days. After being again subjected to a 
few hours of moderate heat of the oven they 
are ready to pack for market. Over-heating is 
carefully avoided, as it over-dries the fruit and 
spoils it. They are never pitted. Boxes with 
the bottoms made of slats would probably an- 
swer as well in this country, where the baskets 
would be an item of considerable expense. It 
is customary to make only one layer, although 
Mr. Barth states that he has frequently placed 
them in two with no appreciable difference in 
the result. But, above all, they must be dried 
slowly. An oven which should be especially 
adapted to fruit drying might be fitted with 
rests for a large number of trays, and can be 
built at a slight expense. 

Fatal Result of Close Pruning. — Russian 
River Flag: From E. Catlin we learn that near 
the town of Sonoma some of the oldest vine- 
yards, containing many acres, have either been 
abandonded or were being reset with new vines, 
and upon examination he found that the death 
of the vines was caused by to close pruning. 
The constantly growing trunk of the main stalk 
had closed in around the places pruned, encas- 
ing insects and debris until it had become 
wormy and diseased. One of the vineyards 
now being grubbed out contains not less than 
160 acres. Mr. Catlin is an experienced vin- 
iculturist. 

Alfalfa. — A prominent farmer near Healds- 
burg advises the late pasturing of alfalfa, in 
order that the dead stalks may not interfere 
with the new shoots in the spring. When the 
first sowing fails to catch well, he feeds the 
grass off short in the fall and harrows the 
ground, in order to mellow the surface and Sl- 
low the new seeds to take root. In this way 
a good stand is secured the second year, and 
the harrow does not injure the grass in the 
least. 

STANISLAUS. 

Rain in the Foothills. — News, Dec. 27: 
Our foothill friends, east of this place, were not 
slighted during the last storm. From reports, 
the amount of rainfall at Knight's Ferry was 
double what it was at this point. The ground 
in that section is said to be thoroughly satu- 
rated. 
TULARE. 

The Rain. — Delta, Dec. 29: The storm last 
Saturday night measured little less than half an 
inch in Visalia, but it has had a wonderful ef- 
fect in starting vegetation. Should it be suc- 
ceeded by another within a week or two, fol- 
lowed by occasional showers in the spring 
months, we shall have a prosperous season. We 
hear that some parts of the county got less rain 
than Visalia, and other parts more. 

TUOLUMNE. 

Editors Press:— Crops are good so far. We 
have had good rains, but doubtful of having a 
very large supply this winter. Stock of all 
kinds suffer and die — sheep by the hundred; I 
might say thousand. It is pitiful to see the 
dumb brutes tottering on their feet, and when 
they fall few ever riso to renew a lease of life. 
A few more weeks and feed will have strength 
to keep those left alive. — John Taylor. 
YOLO. 

Ramie Experiment. — Yolo Mail, Dec. 27: 
H. M. Jennings has' secured a number of roots 
of the ramie and planted them in two acres of 
ground near Woodland. It is not yet known 
to what degree the soil of this locality is adapted 
to the propagation of this new textile, but it is 
thought that it will grow and do well. Should 
this prove to be the case the present number of 
roots will serve to produce plants for a larger 
area of ground, and in time, will produce suffi- 
cient to test its merits in the manufacture of 
fine fabrics. It is said to be a better fabric 
than cotton and a cheaper one than silk, and 
supplies both requisites in one staple. The 
small capital required to cultivate the ramie 
and the few expenses incurred during its 
growth, its little need tt labor and its largo 
yield, the certainty of the crop, the beauty of 
the fiber, with the high price offered for it in 



5 



the European markets are strong inducements 
to planters. Mr. Jennings has planted his near 
the irrigating ditch, and it has already sprouted 
and is growing finely. The plants now in the 
ground will produce a supply for planting 100 
acres next year, which will make a good start 
for a nice little crop two years hence. It is 
harvested three times each year, and will aver- 
age yearly about one ton of fiber to the acre. 
In preparing the fiber for market it loses about 
one-third in weight and acquires a value of 
from two to three dollars per pound. The fiber 
when prepared for the spinner, is beautifully 
white, soft and glossy, closely resembling silk 
in appearance. It is much stronger than the 
best flax, and readily receives the most difficult 
dyes without injury to its strength or luster. 
In our valley it should be irrigated immediately 
after being harvested each time, and conse- 
quently should be planted where it can be 
reached by the water through the ditches. 

Arizona. 

Rain. — Miner, Dec. 21: Much to the satis- 
faction of the farmer and miner, as well as the 
rest of mankind, the long "dry spell" has at last 
been broken, and we have been visited by a 
rainfall of something over an inch and a quarter 
within the last week. Sufficient rain has al- 
ready fallen to make the streets of Florence 
decidedly muddy in places. Among the grati- 
fying results following the recent showers may 
be noted a "rise" in green wheat and barley 
throughout our valley, and a mild inflation of 
the volume of water in the Gila. 

Oregon. 

Stock at the Dallas.— Mouniainter, Dec. 
20: The weather so far this winter has been 
exceedingly mild— the thermometer during the 
day on Monday and Tuesday last indicated 46 
degrees in the shade. Our stock men are de- 
lighted and likewise everybody else, for upon 
the mildness of our climate this winter much 
depends. Should the winter prove mild we 
may expect a very large immigration next year; 
if severe, and destructive of live stock, the in- 
crease of our population will be light. How- 
ever, the outlook at present is very promising; 
yet, it is hard to tell what a day may bring 
forth, and especially is this so in regard to the 
weather. We hope for the best and prepare for 
the worst. 

Washington. 

Condensed Potatoes.— Seattle Intelligencer: 
We inspected the display of condensed fruit by 
the Plummer process. There are pears, plums, 
apples, raspberries and cherries, all in a perfect 
state of preservation, but greatly reduced in 
bulk. The greatest profit, however, is derived 
from condensing potatoes for the use of ships 
on long voyages and for export to England. 
On 2,240 pounds (56 cans) shipped to Liverpool 
on the bark Dovenvy, last year, and sold for 
£40, the charges against which were £7, the 
net profit was £32, 19s. lid., equal to $159.18 
on the entire shipment. This is the most 
profitable way of working up the dryers so far, 
and would, if entered into by White river 
farmers, make potatoes worth from 90 cents to 
$1 per bushel. 



Poison in Enameled Cloth. — It seems that 
the shiny covering of our baby wagons is some- 
times a means of lead poisoning. The Journal 
of Materia Medica says: In Germany, where 
this enameled or "leather-cloth" is largely used, 
this suspicion has been confirmed by the occur- 
rence of numerous cases of sickness among chil- 
dren who have been carried about in children's 
wagons which are covered with this cloth. The 
symptoms were invariably those of lead-poison- 
ing. An investigation was recently undertaken 
at the instance of the Imperial health office, 
and the different specimens of the cloth, both of 
German and foreign make, the enormous quan- 
tity of 45.7 per cent, of metallic lead was 
formed; from a piece of cloth weighing 10 
grammes, a mass of lead weighing 4.25 gram- 
mes fcould be obtained. The cloth burned 
readily, and drops of lead reduced to the me- 
tallic form could be seen running off, even when 
only a small piece of it was ignited. When ex- 
posed to direct sun-light, the varnish cracked 
and began to peel off. The board of health, 
consequently, earnestly warns the public to be- 
ware of this wagon-covering, "in the sanitary 
interest of the children." 



Tattooing a Contagious Disease. — One of 
the most curious cases of spreading a disease of 
offensive and contagious character has lately 
been brought to light by Dr. Maury, of the 
Philadelphia hospital. The Polytechnic, Review 
says: Attention was attracted to the case some 
time ago by the large number of persons who 
were admitted to the hospital suffering from 
this disease, and who had been inoculated with 
it through the process of tattooing. Shortly 
thereafter it was ascertained that at Reading, 
Pa., some 200 or 300 persons had been similarly 
inoculated, and that it was the work of a 
notorious vagabond, who practiced tattooing as 
a trade. Through the efforts of the police 
authorities this person was shortly thereafter 
arrested at the instance of the health officers of 
the two cities. Medical examination revealed 
the fact that he was afflicted with the disease, 
and it transpired that in performing the opera- 
tion of tattooing, ho was in the habit of moist- 
ening his needles, before charging with paint, 
by placing them in his mouth, which was filled 
with sores. 



6 




The Honest Farmer. 

Happy I count the fanner's life, 

Its various rounds of wholesome toil; 
An honest man with loving wife, 
• All offspring native to the soil. 

Thrice happy, surc'v !— in his breast 
Plain wisdom anil the trust in Ood; 
His path more straight from east to west 
Than politician ever trod. 

His gains no loss to other men; 

His stalwart blows inflict no wound; 
Not busy with his tongue or pen, 

He questions truthful sky and ground 

Partner with seasons and the sun, 
Nature's co-worker; all his skill, 

Obedience, cT'n as waters run. 

Winds blow, herb, beast their laws fulfill. 

A vigorous youthhond, clean and bold; 

A manly manhood; cheerful age; 
His comely children proudly hold 

Their parentage best heritage. 

Unhealthy work, false mirth, chicane; 

Guilt, — needless woe, and useless strife,— 
cities, vain, insane, insane J 

How happy is the farmer's life ! 

— Fraser's Magazine, 



Book Clubs for Rural Readers. 

[Written for the Press by Mary A. Sheldon. J 
To persons fon<l of reading a country life has 
a serious drawback, unless their means are 
ample and they can afford to buy new books 
and subscribe for the best books and magazines. 
A good library in the country, especially among 
fanners, is almost a thing unknown. There is 
no greater luxury to an intelligent person than 
reading the productions of the great minds of 
tho age, keeping one's self posted in all the 
great discoveries of science, in all the events 
that are daily transpiring in every part of the 
globe, for steam and the telegraph have brought 
within our grasp and laid open to our inspec- 
tion regions that were terra incognita to our 
grandparents and made us neighbors to those 
antipodean to us. Independent of the pleasure 
we have while reading and thus communing 
with other miuds who have more wisdom than 
ourselves, we are laying up stores of knowledge 
that may yield us in the future more solid 
enjoyment than many of our hard-earned dol- 
lars, that are often more difficult; to keep than 
to get. I have long had the idea that what I 
stored away in my brains was a better invest- 
ment than bank, railroad or mining stocks. In 
these investments my earnings are in the keep- 
ing of men whose honesty and integrity of char- 
acter have not been proved, and who, when the 
hour of trial comes, are "weighed in the bal- 
ance and found wanting," and they slope to 
foreign countries and leave their creditors and 
defrauded neighbors to look in vain for their 
money. How many curse the day they trusted 
a smooth-tongued rascal of a broker and put 
their dollars in a hole in the ground they never 
saw and probably had no bottom to it, as they 
are never recovered. 

A mind well stored with useful knowledge is 
a well-spring of pleasure that never "goes dry. " 
It's a bank whose dividends are paid promptly 
and never dishonors your drafts, and as you are 
president and cashier, there is no fear of being 
forced into liquidation. It's a railroad in which 
you are the "first mortgage bondholder," over 
which you ride free as long as you live. It's a 
mine that is well developed, not subject to the 
manipulation of dishonest directors and superin- 
tendent, and whose lodes, dips, angles, inclines 
and developments you are perfectly familiar 
with, and, if well worked, "will pay dividends 
right along. " 

There is no place where a person of limited 
reading feels so ill at ease as in the company of 
those who are conversant with all the topics of 
the day, with the latest discoveries in all the 
sciences and conversation takes a turn where 
you feel yourself de trop, as the French would 
say. You are not interested, for you do not 
more than half comprehend what they are talk- 
ing about, they are beyond your depth and you 
feel as uncomfortable as a solitary frog in Lake 
Erie. 

Next to a well ordered, pleasant home, 1 
believe intellectual culture is of vital impor- 
tance in building up good society, in training 
boys to take an interest in something besides 
horse racing, billiards or ball playing, cards 
and dice, and the money that nine-tenths of 
young men waste in tobacco and treating in 
those dirty saloons, would keep them well sup- 
plied with the best of reading matter and go a 
long ways towards starting them in a lucrative 
business and is abo useful in training girls to 
better ideas of life and its responsibilities. 
They will pay less attention to foolish fashions, 
novel reading, gossip and the number of beaux 
they succeed in drawing into their nets and 
make better wives and mothers, more useful 
members of society. 

It's few farmors (especially in dry years like 



THE PACIFIC 



1877,) who can afford to buy many new books, 
or subscribe for more than two or three papers, 
but they really enjoy reading or hearing their 
children read after the hours of toil are over, 
and they gather around the fireside the news- 
papers or some good book and talk over with 
their family the information they have gleaned 
in this way; and there is no estimating the ad- 
vantage to children, who find home the pleas- 
antest spot, in keeping them from contracting 
bail habits, and storing their minds with some- 
thing that will elevate and not degrade them. 

1 am making a lengthy introduction to a sub- 
ject I have long thought of presenting to the 
readers of the .Rural Press, as my plan for 
neighborhood libraries. While living in 
a small village in New York, I belonged for 
two years to a literary society called a "book 
club." This club represented 20 families, who 
subscribed each two dollars yearly. With this 
money we purchased 20 books, the best selec- 
tions a committee selected from the members 
could make, and they were bought at nearly 
wholesale prices. In the front of each book 
was pasted a slip of paper with the name and 
number of each book, and underneath the 
names of all the members, also numbered, and 
the books were all covered with strong paper. 
The lirst meeting after the books were ready, 
eacli member took the book with his number 
ou it, and could keep the book two weeks. At 
the next meeting each passed his book to the 
member whose name was next on the list, the 
last one passing his book to the one at the 
head of the list, so all the books were con- 
stantly in circulation, and during the year you 
had an opportunity of reading all those 26 
books — more books than one farmer in a thou- 
sand thinks of buying in a year. At the meet- 
ings, after exchanging books, we had literary 
exercises, sometimes one thing, sometimes 
another. Some of the meetings were not very 
literary, but calculated to inspire good feeling 
and make all anxious to come again — something 
to cheer their heart and leave it glowing with 
pleasure. We met once in two weeks at seven 
o'clock, and all were requested to par- 
ticipate in the literary exercises in some 
way, and there were many pleasant surprises 
during the long winter evenings. Some would 
repeat short poems, others anecdotes or some 
paragraph culled from the papers, or some his- 
torical fact; another would be prepared with an 
essay. Good singers Mould contribute their 
share by giving us their newest songs, and the 
evening passed so pleasantly that nine o'clock 
came before we were aware of it. The club, of 
which I was a member, was composed exclu- 
sively of ladies, but the husbands or brothers of 
the members came in at eight o'clock and re- 
mained till the close; they seemed to think the 
ladies' club was rather an agreeable institution 
to patronize; certainly its influence was better 
than most of the amusements men seek after in 
country places, where a billiard room, nine-pin 
alley, or something of that order, are the only 
places young men find open for their amuse- 
ment. 

Most men, no matter what their private pre- 
dilections may be, will readily admit that a 
similar club to the one I have already described, 
is a ^uich better place for a youilg man to be 
induced to attend than to Bpend their time be- 
hind the blinds of a dirty saloon, throwing dice 
for drinks or sitting around a card table with a 
cfgar in their month. 

A similar club to the one I have already de- 
scribed, might be organized in almost every 
neighborhood. At the end of the year let them 
at the annual meeting to elect new officers, 
put up the old books at auction and sell them 
to the highest bidder, the money to be added 
to the new year's money and buy, if wished, 
more expensive books, or it could be used in 
subscribing for some of the best magazines or 
reviews. 

1 bethink me now of few books which would 
be suitable for such a club, as all cheap yellow 
covered novels of "Female Pirate Captain" 
stripe, or Beadle's dime novels should be dis- 
carded. I will mention "A Farmer's Vacation," 
by Col. Waring; "Farm Yard Club of Gotham, " 
by Loring; "Adirondack Tales," by Rev. W. 
H. H. Murray; "Homes Without Hands," by 
Rev. J. Wood; and an interesting work on 
Turkey by an Englishman, whose name I can- 
not recall. I could enlarge this list consider- 
ably, but if tho fanners' wives would take hold 
of this matter, appoint a committee to select 
the books, they could doubtless be purchased of 
the wholesale dealer in large orders at two- 
thirds the retail price. The women would 
doubtless want a sprinkling of romance and al- 
though I i\o not pretend to be posted in this de- 
partment of literature, I would recommend 
"Seveu Oaks" and "Nicholas Miuturn" by Hol- 
land, originally published as serials in the 
Scrihner, as having a good moral tone and cal- 
culated to please old and young. "Daniel De- 
ronda" is also highly recommended; but by 
reading history, travels, biographies, essays and 
scientific works for years I have lost that rabid 
love of fiction I hail in my youthful days, and 
confess I am not competent to say what novels 
are the best. Taste dill'er so much in these mat- 
ters. 

I know an old lady in my native town who 
said she "loved to read the Chenango Union, be- 
cause it contained so many good murders and 
interertintj accident-*." Who can doubt her love 
of the horrible? I think I enjoy reading now 
much more, as I read a better class of books, 
and 1 recollect more of what I read than when 
racing through an exciting novel, eager to know 
how the story "came out," as we used to say. 
I would find it difficult now to squeeze out a 



RURAL PRESS. 



tear over a love-lorn heroine or heart-broken 
lackadaisical damsel, or the frost-bitten affec- 
tions of some interesting young man; but from 
12 to 18 years of age, I think my nose was a 
conductor for at least a bucketful of tears that 
met the pages of such novels as "Alonzo and 
Melissa, " "Children of the Abbey," "Scottish 
Chief," "Thaddeus of Warsaw," Scott's and 
Bulwer's novels, etc. 

I got my first taste for good reading at about 
10, when my father was appointed librarian of 
a large school district library and made his girls 
attend to his duties in loaning the books. 
There were over 200 volumes. They were 
nearly all standard works. I was an omnivo- 
rous reader, nothing came amiss, but if I had 
read more slowly and made notes I would have 
derived ten times the benefit. I do not despise 
all novel reading, for many times when body 
and mind are weary, it's difficult to keep your 
mind, up to the mark and follow closely an author 
if it's a work of some depth, and then a well 
written novel will interest us while the body is 
resting, and a riue poem will woo sleep to wake- 
ful eyelids. Sancho Pauza said, ' 'blessed be the 
man that invented sleep!" I would add, 
blessed be the man that invented printing! 
Blessed be the boy that first learned to stick 
type! Blessed be those who write good books! 
Blessed be those who edit good papers! Blessed 
be those means of every kind that help to cul- 
tivate our intellects, for without them ("as with- 
out charity") we are nothing. 



Evils of GOSSIP, — We have known a country 
society which withered away to nothing under 
the dry rot of gossip only. Friendships, once 
as firm as granite, dissolved to jelly, and then 
ran away to water only, because of this; love 
that promised a future as enduring and as sta- 
ble as truth, evaporated into a mist that turned 
to a day's long tears, only because of this; a 
father and a son were set foot to foot with the 
fiery breath of an anger that would never cool 
again between them; and a husband and a young 
wi'e, each straining at the hated lash which in 
the beginning had 060% the promise of a God- 
blessed love, sat mournfully by the side of the 
grave where all their love and all their joy lay 
buried, and all because of this. We have seen 
faith transformed to mean doubt, joy give place 
to grim despair, and charity take ou itself the 
features of black malevolence, all because of the 
fell words of scandal and the magic mutterings 
of gossip. Great crimes work great wrongs, 
and the deeper tragedies of human life spring 
from the largest passions; but woeful and most 
mournful are the uncatalogued tragedies that 
issue from gossip and detraction; mournful the 
shipwreck often made of noble creatures and 
lovely lives by the bitter winds and dead salt- 
waters of slander. So easy to say, yet so hard 
to disprove — throwing on the innocent all the 
burden and the strain of demonstrating their 
innocence, and punishing them as guilty if una- 
ble to pluck out the strange stings they never 
see, and to silence words they never hear— 
gossip and slander arc the deadliest and cruelest 
weapons man has ever forged for his brother's 
heart. — All the Year Round. 



Bkauty of Nature. — I am never more con- 
vinced of the progress of mankind than when I 
think of the sentiment developed in us by our in- 
tercourse with nature, and mark how it augments 
and refines with our moral culture, and also 
(although this is not so generally admitted) with 
our scientific knowledge. We learn from age to 
age to se« the beauty of the world; or what 
comes to the same thing, this beautiful creation 
of the sentiment of beauty is developing itself 
in us. Only rcHoct what regions lovely as Par- 
adise there are over all Asia and Europe, and in 
every quarter of the globe, waiting to receive 
their fitting inhabitants — their counterparts in 
the conscious creature. The men who are now 
living there do not see the Edon that surrounds 
them. They lack the moral and intellectual 
vision. It is not too bold a thing to say that, 
the mind of man once cultivated he will see 
around him the paradise he laments that he has 
lost. For one " Paradise Lost," he will sing of 
a thousand he has gained. How every tender 
as well as every grand sentiment comes reflected 
back to us from the beautiful objects of nature! 
Therein lies their very power to enchant us. 
Nature is full of our own human heart. That 
rose — has not gentle woman leant over it, and 
left the reflection of her own blush upon the 
leaves and llowers ? To the old man there is 
childhood in every bud. No hand so rude but 
that it gathers with the liower more and other 
beauty than what the dews of heaven have nour- 
ished in it. — William •Smith. 



The Blessint, of a Cheerful Wife. — What 
a blessing to a household is a merry, cheerful 
woman — one whose spirits are not affected by 
wet days, or little disappointments, or whoje 
milk of human kindness does not sour in the 
sunshine of prosperity. Such a woman in the 
darkest hours brightens the house like a little 
piece of sunshiny weather. The magnetism of 
her smiles and electrical brightness of her looks 
and movements infect every one. The children 
go to school with a sense of something great to 
be achieved ; her husband goes into the world in 
a conqueror's spirit. No matter how people an- 
noy and worry him all day, far off her presence 
shines, and he whispers to himself, "At home I 
shall find rest." So day by day she literally 
renews his strength and energy, and if you 
know a man with a beaming face, a kind heart 
and a prosperous business, in nine cases out of 
ten you will find he has a wife of this kind. 



[January 5, 1878. 



Domestic Love. 

Michelet, in his work on "Love," gives this 
little picture, painted with a pen and not with 
a pencil, which might be labeled "An Interior." 
Every man of letters must have experienced its 
fidelity to what has occurred under his own 
roof. It is a charming "bit of domesticity" — a 
poem or a picture, as the reader may choose to 
view it. But it has all the truth of beauty, 
and the beauty of truth: 

A charming thing to observe, which I have 
often remarked with pleasure among my more 
studious friends, is the infinite delicacy of the 
young wife, who in a restricted space comes and 
goes, and moves round the Btudent, without in 
the least disturbing him. Any other person 
would have put him out; but "she" he says, "is 
nobody." In fact, she is himself, his second 
and his better soul. 

She holds her breath, and steps on tip-toe. 
She glides along the floor. She has such re- 
spect for work ! In this you can see what a gen- 
tle and quick-sighted creature woman is; above 
all things affectionate, and feeling in constant 
need of the beloved object. If he allows her, 
she will remain in the room, sewing or embroid- 
ering. If not, a thousand occasions or a thou- 
sand necessities will occur to her as pretexts to 
come into the room. "What is he doing now? 
How far has he got? Perhaps he is working too 
hard. He will make himself sick!" All this 
passes through her mind. 

There are many studies to which unwittingly 
she imparts more than she can take away. Do 
you think that the charming electricity she com- 
municates in passing you, lightly touching you 
with her dress, goes for nothing with the artist 
and the author, if with our tiresome and uncon- 
genial work is opportunely mingled that per- 
fume of the flower of love which revives every- 
thing? So in old Italian pictures do we see in 
a death's head a hundred-leaved rose, and death 
himself seems to enjoy it. 

And how happy he is to feel that she is there. 
He pretends not to see her. He remains bent 
over his work, as if absorbed in it. But his 
heart gains the upper hand, and he exclaims: 

"My darling do not muffle your steps. Your 
movements are harmony, your voice a melody 
which enchants my ear. Your presence sheds 
its influence upon my work; it will be adorned 
with your grace, and glow with the flame of my 
palpitating heart. 

"Without seeing you, I guessed you were 
here, by the increased ardor of my work, by the 
light which overspread my spirit." 

A thousand years from now they will say: 
"His is yet a live book, all warmth and affec- 
tion. " And the reason of it all — she was beside 
you when you wrote it. 

A Load from Her Heart.— A lovely kind of 
beatific happiness played for a moment like sun- 
shine on her lips and then she whispered: "Oh, 
George, I like to hear you talk like that, you 
have been so good to me! You have given me 
a diamond locket and a gold watch and chain, 
and rings that an angel might wear outside her 
gloves and not be ashamed: and if I thought 
that one day you'd be sorry you'd given me 
these nice things, and want them back again, I 
should break my heart!" He held her gently 
against his manly breast, and answered with 
quivering voice: "Oh, my darling, there is noth- 
ing on earth that can happen that would make 
me repent giving you a few tokens of my love, 
or make me want them back again." She 
sprang from his arms like a joyous deer, she 
shook back her sunny curls, and, with a whole 
poem in her hazel eyes, exclaimed: "Oh, George, 
you've taken a load from my heart! I've come 
to say that I can't marry you after all, because 
I have seen somebody I like better, and I 
thought you'd want your presents back again." 

Noble Illustration. — Lord Canarvon, in 
addressing the people of Birmingham, used the 
following illustration: " Travelers tell us that 
in some of the Eastern seas, where those won- 
derful coral islands exist, the insects that form 
the coral within the reefs, where they are un- 
der the shelter of protecting rocks, out of the 
reach of wind and wave, work quicker, and 
their work is apparently sound and good. But 
on the other hand, those little workers who 
work outside those reefs, in the foam and dash 
of waves, are fortified and hardened, and their 
work is firmer and more enduring. And so I 
believe it is with men. The more their minds 
are braced up by conflict, by the necessity of 
forming opinions upon difficult subjects, the 
better they will be qualified to go through the 
hard wear and tear of the world, the better 
they will be able to hold their own in that con- 
flict of opinion which after all it is man's duty 
to meet." 



Removing a Wreck with Hercules Pow- 
der. — A Cleveland paper tells of the venture 
now being made to remove the hull of the 
steamer Great Republic, from the river at St. 
Louis. The stern lies in about 40 feet of water 
and the bow on shore. Divers go down into 
the hull and scrape the mud from off the bot- 
tom planks and then place a row of cartridges 
of Hercules powder entirely r across the inside 
of the hull, cover them with mud, and explode 
them with an electric battery. The result of 
this is to cut off a section entirely across the 
hull which is easily hauled out into the river 
and disposed of. About 12 feet-sections are to 
be taken at a time, and by the valuable services 
of "Old Hercules" (the explosive in use) the re- 
mains of the once grand steamer are quickly, 
but not quietly, disappearing from sight. 




Ice Water at the Bottom of the Sea. 

At the last meeting of the Liverpool Geologi- 
cal Society, Mr. T. Mellard Reade, read a pa- 
per in which he pointed out the geological bear- 
ings of the information gathered by the Chal- 
lenger expedition by deep-sea soundings and 
dredgings. As is well known from these phys- 
ical observations, the basins of the great oceans 
are occupied in their lower depths with ice- 
cold water extending over the whole northern 
and southern latitudes, and consequently under 
the equator. This, Mr. Reade considered to be 
a remarkable physical fact, and proved that the 
secular cooling of the earth must be exceed- 
ingly slow, as the heat of the earth, apparently, 
did not influence the temperature of these vast 
ocean tracks, which are fed with cold water 
from the poles. It was also pointed out that 
the temperature of the ocean, decreasing with 
the depth, was the opposite to that of the solid 
earth, in which observations in mines and wells 
prove a general but varying increase of temper- 
ature downwards, so that at a zone 3,000 
fathoms from the surface the temperature of 
the water is at freezing point; while on the 
land, in cases where the increase is 1° per 00 
feet, on the same zone the temperature would 
be considerable above that of boiling water. 
Not the least interesting of the discoveries an- 
nounced is that of the ocean bottoms below 
2,000 fathoms being occupied generally — nay, 
almost universally — with a deposit of red clay 
containing pieces of pumice and nodules of 
peroxide of manganese, together with sharks' 
teeth and ear and other bones of whales; while 
the depths not exceeding 2,000 fathoms are 
largely occupied with foraminiferal ooze. 
These facts, it was considered, truly inferred a 
very great age for the present oceans as, from a 
calculation which cannot be detailed here, Mr. 
Reade considers it will take a minimum of 20,- 
000 years for a deposit of foraminiferal ooze of 
an average depth of one foot to accumulate 
over the the whole of the area occupied by it; 
while the red clay, the result of the decompo- 
sition of volcanic products, must be an exceed- 
ingly slow accumulation, probably not at the 
rate of one-tenth that of the ooze, but this 
rate is at present difficult to calculate. 



How to Dress. — It is idle to assert in the 
presence of girls that the way in which they 
dress is of no consequence. It is really of great 
consequence. A woman's dress is the outward 
expression of her inward life. If she be coarse, 
vulgar, fond of display and bent on low, mate- 
rial ends, her dress, though extravagant, will 
be an unconscious revelation of her character. 
If she be modest, self-reliant and cultivated in 
the best direction, the style of her ordinary 
apparel will befit her as the leaves befit the 
flower. But in America young girls are too 
often overdressed. The rounded cheeks, the 
bright eyes, the waving hair of a girl in her 
teens need only the simplest setting. Rich 
fabrics and sumptuous adornings are more for 
the matron, her dress gaining in ample fold and 
graceful sweep as she puts on the dignity of 
years. The seasons teach us something here, 
if we go to nature for an object lesson. How 
different her charm from the deep, maturing 
summer, when the hues are decided and the air 
is loaded with perfume from a thousand censers. 
The school girl is only on the threshold of sum- 
mer. She has not crossed it yet. Let her 
copy the sweet grace of the spring on her grad- 
uation day. 



The Book of Job. — I call the book of Job, 
apart from all theories about it, one of the 
grandest things ever written with a pen. One 
feels, indeed, as if it were not Hebrew — such a 
noole universality, different from noble patriot- 
ism or sectaranism, reigns in it. A noble 
book! All men's book! It is our first, oldest 
statement of the never-ending problem, man's 
destiny and God's ways with him her^ on this 
earth. And all in such free, flowing outlines; 
grand in its simplicity, and its epic melody, 
and repose of reconcilement. There is the see- 
ing eye, the mildy understanding heart. So 
true every way; true eyesight and vision for all 
things, material things no less than spiritual; 
the horse — "hast thou clothed his neck with 
thunder?" Such living likenesses were never 
drawn. Sublime sorrow, sublime reconcilation ; 
oldest choral melody as of the heart of man- 
kind; so soft and great; as the summer night, 
as the world with its seas and stars! There is 
nothing written, I think, in the Bible or out of 
it, of equal literary merit. — Thomas Carlyle. 

Mr. Cheerybles asked his wife, the other 
morning: "What is the difference, dear, be- 
tween bribing a man with a ten-dollar bill to 
keep his mouth shut and a mixture of Indian 
meal and water?" He almost took her breath 
away when he answered : "Why, you see one 
is hush-money and the other is mush, honey. " 



A man, praising porter, said it was so excel- 
lent a beverage that, though taken in large 
quantities, it always made him fat. "I have 
seen the time," said another, "when it made 
you lean." "When, I should like to know?" 
inquired the eulogist. "Why, no longer ago 
than last night — against a wall." 



A Western man has invented something that 
beats the telephone. He proposes to station a 
line of women 50 steps apart, and commit the 
news to the first as a secret. No doubt a very 
musical instrument. 



Y©#q pOLks' CoLdpii. 



Curious Cats. 

As they closed up their baby shows in New 
York city a grand cat show followed, and we 
know our young readers will be pleased to read 
of the queer pusseys. About 100 cats lie curled 
up in the darkest corners of their cages, and 
blink their green eyes sleepily at the visitors. 
They are so amiable or so well-fed that they 
will not allow themselves to be poked up to any 
feline demonstrations. There are black cats, 
white cats, pie bald cats, gray cats, Maltese cats, 
tortoise-shell cats; cats with one eye blue and 
one eye red, or one eye green and one eye gold- 
en, and a cat born without a tail. But they are 
all quiet and dignified. There are no garden 
concerts, no chimney-top serenades, no backs 
are arched, and no fur flies. Their tails are 
quiescent and of normal size. 

There is a black cat that has never been 
known to refuse milk. Another, born in Ger- 
many, is double-toed and web-fovted. Pedra 
S. Fletcher is a sleek, gray creature, that can 
play tag, hide-and-seek, and when in perfect 
health can skip the rope. His master wants to 
bet §5,000 that the cat can talk in his own 
language. 

A black Danish cat, with a melancholy air, is 
called Hamlet. Although 17 years of age, 
Hamlet looks as if he were yet good for any 
number of rats behind the arras. Another 
black fellow was born and lives without teeth. 
The card attached declares that he eats like a 
monkey and drinks tea like an old maid. Jacob 
Pulman is white and gray, and very intelligent. 
Formerly Jacob belonged to the Brooklyn tire 
department, and rode to all the fires on an en- 
gine. Being now 15 years old, he has retired 
from active service. Close by is Ralph, a re- 
formed tramp, that was found in a hatchway a 
year ago, and that has since then been a re- 
spected member of the museum. The nautical 
cat is tailed "sailor." He is of the tortoise- 
shell variety, and although only fonr years old, 
has crossed the ocean 16 times. He has a hoarse 
cry which sounds like "avast there," he looks 
as if he were profane, and he rolls across his 
cage as if he had on his sea legs. "Mother 
Puss," an emaciated black and white tabby, is 
17 years old, and the mother of 173 kittens. 
Her possible grandchildren even the Lightning 
Calculator cannot compute. "Joe" is a per- 
forming cat, that sits in a cage with some 
canary birds. His master pulls him out of the 
cage by the nap of the neck, and then "Joe," 
with a protesting mew, touches off a cannon 
without blinking. Then the canaries lie on 
their backs on the top of a pole, and shake 
their little claws in the air. They, likewise, 
touch off a cannon, retire to the cage on a tight 
rope. Teca recently came from Cairo, Egypt, 
but has already picked up a few English words 
like "scat" and "milk." It weighs just four 
ounces. Nigger will be over from Jersey City. 
He weighs 19 pounds. 



Slippers should be felt, not heard — in the 
sick-room. But naughty little boys prefer that 
they should be heard rather than felt — in the 
nursery. 



How to make a cat-fish — leave her alone in a 
room with an aquarium. 



A press of business the printing press. 



A if'ood for Infants. 

Suitable food for infants which are deprived 
of their natural pabulum is an important matter 
and has received the attention of the most em- 
inent physicians. The German chemist Liebig 
devised a soup or pap for this purpose, being' 
led to the task from the fact that one of his 
grandchildren could not be nursed by its 
mother. The folowing is Liebig's recipe and 
his description of the ingredients employed: 

Half an ounce of wheaten meal, half an ounce 
of malt flour, and seven and a half grains of 
bicarbonate of potash, are weighed, mixed first 
with one another, and afterwards with an ounce 
of water, and lastly with five ounces of milk. 
The mixture is then heated with constant stir- 
ring, over a very gentle fire, until it begins to 
grow thickish; the vessels are now removed 
from the fire, and its contents are stirred for 
five minutes; these are then heated once more 
and again removed, when a new thickening oc- 
curs; lastly, the whole is brought to a boil. 
After the separation of the bran from the milk 
through a fine sieve the soup is ready for use. 

Wheaten Meal. — For this ordinary new meal 
is chosen, not the finest or the first shot meal, 
which is richer in starch than the whole meal. 

Malt. — Barley malt can easily be procured 
from any brewer. In Germany, or rather in 
Munich, the malt is so much dried that the 
starch of many grains appears to be half-roasted. 
This malt employed in making the soup gives 
to the latter a taste of bread, which is not un- 
pleasant; usually the malt contains an admix- 
ture of many seeds of weeds, which must be 
picked out with the hand. An ordinary coffee- 
mill answers for preparing the malt flour, the 
latter must likewise be separated by means of 
a hair sieve, not too fine, from the chaff. Malt 
prepared from barley is to be preferred to that 
from oats, wheat, or rye. 

Carbonate of Potash. — For the preparation of 
the solution the ordinary alkali salt, carbonas 
depurata of the pharmacies, answers very well; 
two ounces of the salt are dissolved in 16 of 
water. If spring water be used, there is gen- 
erally a precipitate of some carbonate of lime; 
after an hour the fluid becomes quite clear and 
bright. The carbonate of potash must not be 
greasy or damp. The bicarbonate of potash is 
the ordinary crystallized salt. 

In order to avoid the rather troublesome 
weighing of the flour, we may observe that a 
heaped tablespoonful of wheaten meal weighs 
nearly half an ounce; a heaped tablespoonful of 
malt flour, wiped off at one-half with a card, 
likewise weighs half an ounce. For measuring 
the solution of potash an ordinary thimble an- 
swers; this when filled holds nearly three gram- 
mes (45 grains, 2.8 cubic centimeters) of solu- 
tion of potash. 

For the milk and the water two ounces are 
weighed in an ordinary tumbler, then live 
ounces of water, and the hights at which both 
quantities of fluid stand are marked on the out- 
side of the glass by attaching pieces of paper. 

When the soup is prepared it is sweet as milk, 
and the further addition of sugar is unnecessary; 
it possessed double the concentration of woman's 
milk, and can, which is not unimportant for 
sucklings, be given in the nursing bottle. If it 
has been heated to the boiling point, it keeps 
good for 24 hours; if this has not been done it 
turns sour and coagulates like milk; if the ad- 
dition of potash be neglected, it cannot, in gen- 
eral, be heated to the boiling point without 
coagulating. In the absence of the potash the 
soup is difficult of digestion like ordinary milk- 
pap. 



7 



Do|VlESJIC EcQfiOplY' 



Bread from Potato Sponge. 

Clara Francis gives the Prairie Farmer her 
method of the making bread with potatoes. 
She says: Peel four potatoes; boil them in 
just enough water to cover, and when done 
mash them through the colander, adding the 
water in which they were boiled, and a table- 
spoonful of lard. Put in enough cold milk or 
water to make a quart in all, then proceed as 
for plain sponge. This amount will make five 
small loaves of bread and a large pan of roUs. 
For a family of six the quantity should be 
doubled— unless they bake ofteuer than semi- 
weekly. The length of time the sponge should 
stand depends on the kind of yeast used, and 
the temperature of the weather. If the batter 
begins to fall it has stood too long, and a little 
soda mixed with warm water must be added, 
or the bread will be sour. Care should be 
taken to avoid this necessity. When the 
sponge is increased to at least double its orig- 
inal quantity, and looks very light and bubbly, 
do not let is stand a moment longer. Do not 
stir the sponge down, but just loosen it with a 
knife blade, from the edges of the bowl, and 
sift a couple of quarts of flour— or less, accord- 
ing to the stiffness of the sponge— over the top; 
on this sprinkle a tablespoonful of salt, and half 
as much white sugar, both of them free from 
lumps. With both hands work in the flour, 
tossing it up instead of working in down; in 
this manner the dough is more easily got into 
shape for kneading. This should be thoroughly 
done, and flour added by degrees until the 
dough will stick to neither the hands nor the 
molding board; if worked too stiff the bread 
will be hard and dry, and take longer to ri«e; 
if too soft the bread will be gummy, and the 
loaves run out of shape in baking. It is impos- 
sible to give the proper amount of flour, as dif- 
ferent brands vary in strength, and one's judg- 
ment alone can dictate the quantity requisite. 
When the dough is worked into a smooth elas- 
tic ball, place it in the bowl, and rub the sur- 
face lightly with a little lard, which will pre- 
vent a crust from forming. Put a cloth over 
the bowl and set it in a warm place; let no cold 
draughts or blasts of heated air blow on it. 
When the dough has increased to three times 
its original bulk, it will be ready to make into 
loaves. The second kneading should be vigor- 
ous, but need occupy much less time than the 
first. Use as little flour as possible; takeout 
a portion for rolls, and divide the balance into 
as many parts as you wish to make loaves. 
We would especially advise the making of 
small loaves; they bake better, are more con- 
veniently handled, and it is just as easy to put 
two small loaves in a pan, as one large one. 
Knead each loaf separately and form it into a 
smooth oval, or divide it into three equal 
pieces; roll each one into a long roll and braid 
the three pieces together; push it up so as to 
fit the pan; lay the loaves close together; 
prick the tops with a fork, and set the pans in 
a moderately warm place to rise. In three 
quarters of an hour, or an hour at farthest, 
they will be ready for the oven. If there is 
more bread than can be baked at once, set a 
portion of the dough aside, and when the first 
batch is put in the oven, mold the second and 
place it in the pans. 

To make the crust very crisp and delicious, 
brush the loaves when half done, with a little 
sweet milk, or better still, with a beaten egg 
mixed with a little milk; this gives a lovely 
color, and satiny smoothness to the crust, and 
improves it wonderfuUy. 

Rolls 

Work a piece of butter into the dough reserved 
for rolls, and set in a cool place, until time to 
make them out. The beaten whites of a couple 
of eggs will make them very delicate or, a 
whole egg can be added instead of two whites. 
The yolk will color them, but will be otherwise 
just as good as the whites alone. If the rolls 
are to be for breakfast make them out at bed- 
time; prick each one with a fork and put the 
pan in a place not actually warm, or positively 
cold, but " miildlin just;" in the morning the 
rolls will be ready for the oven, as soon as it is 
ready for them. Hrush them over when partly 
done with beaten egg and milk. 

Poison in the Milk Pail. — A Georgia cor- 
respondent of the New York Tribune cites a 
case of poisoning, from driuking buttermilk. 
Instances of nausea with symptoms of poison- 
ing occur every now and then, not only, from 
the use of buttermilk, but milk itself, and also 
the butter and cheese made from it. These 
cases all have a similar origin, namely: poison- 
ous ferments taken into the milk through the 
body of the cow from her partaking of bad food 
or water. They arc developed in buttermilk by 
the agitation in churning, and they are intensi- 
fied by concentration in cream, butter and 
cheese. Such instances indicate the strong ne- 
cessity for watchfulness in guarding against de- 
caying food and bad water for milch cows. 
Scalding the new milk before setting, and set- 
ting shallow so it will soon cool, prevents every 
such occurrence by killing the forment. 

To Wash Red Table Linen. — Use tepid 
water, with a little powdered borax, which 
serves to set the color; wash the linen sepa- 
rately and quickly, using very little soap; rinse 
in tepid water, containing a little boiled 
starch; hang to dry in the shade, and iron 
when almost dry. 



8 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January 5, 187$. 




A. T. DEWEY, W. B. EWER, 

Publishers. 

Office, 202 Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 



Subscriptions, payable in advance: For one year, 84. 
six months, $2. 25; three months, $125. Remittances by 
registered letters or P. O. orders at OTB risk. 
AvBRTisi.so Kates. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mos. 12 mos. 

Per line 26 . 80 82.00 8 5.00 

Half inch (1 square). .81.00 83 00 7.50 24.00 

One inch 2.00 5.00 14.00 40.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary tyjie or in particular parts of the payer, 
ii sertcd at special rates. 

Four insertions are rated in a month. 

DEWEV Ac CO. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 0. II. STRONO. J. L. BOONE 



Tins Paper will be supplied to the trade through the 
S. F. News Co., No. 413 Washington Street, S. F. 



Our latent forms yo to press Wednesday evening 



No Quack Advertisements inserted in these 
Columns. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 5, 1878. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS —Systems of Wheat 
Growing; Tho Sierra Fluine and Lumber Co. ; Notes on 
California Raisins, 1. The Week; Pacific Kikai, Prkss - 
Subscription Terms for 1S7S; Sapping Life and Strength; 
All Aboard for Another Volume, 8. Southdowns and 
Shropshires; Rainfall Before and After January 1st; 
The Necessity for Home Manufactures, 9. Cheap 
Fares, 12 

ILLUSTRATIONS —The "Champion'' Mill of the 
Sierra Flume and Lumber Co. ,1. Diagram of Rain 
fall Before and After Januarv 1st, Q. 

CORRESPONDENCE. -Report of the Entomolog- 
ical Commission; Valuable Plants Worth Testing in Cal- 
ifornia. £2. 

THE STOCK YARD -Hornless Cattle. 2 
THE DAIRY— Ensilage, Corn Fodder, Mangolds aad 
Comfrev, 3. 

ARBORICULTURE. — Cultivation and Rainfall- 
No. 3; Trees in Colifornia, 3. 

FLORICULTURE. -California Delphiniums; Rose 
Cmture, 3. 

PATKONS OF HUSBANDRY. - Co-Operation ; 
Election of Officers; Resolutions of American River 
Orange; installation Notice; Grange Meetings; Selling 
Wheal C. O. D. ; In Memorial!!, 4. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties in California, Arizona, Oregon and Washington, 5. 

HOME CIRCLE -The Honest Farmer, (Poetry); 
Uook Clubs for Rural Readers; Evils of Gossip; Beauly 
of Nature; The Blessing of a Cheerful Wife; Domestic 
Love; A Load from ll,x Heart; Noble Illustration; Re- 
moving a Wreck with Hercules Powder, 6 Ice Water 
at the Bottom of the Sea; How to Dress; The Book of 
Job. 7. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. —Curious Cats, 7. 
GOOD HEATH. —A Food for infants, 7. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY. — Bread from Potato 

Sponge; Poison in the Milk Pail; To Wash Red Table 

Linen. 7- 

MISCELLANEOUS. -Olive Oil in Spain. 2. Test- 
ing the Influence of Forests, 3. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES. - An Alfalfa Plant; 
Guano on Wheat. 8. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on 12 and other pages. 



NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Vick's Illustrated Pride Catalogue, James Viek, Roches- 
ter, N. Y. ; The German Savings and Loan So iety; San 
Francisco Savings Union; The Raby Clothes Line 
Holder, W W. Fletcher, Lomionville, Ohio; Oakland 
Poultry Yards, Geo. B Bayley, Oakland; Pajaro Valley 
Nurseries, Watsouville, Cal. , James Waters. 



The Week. 

As we write, on New Year's Day, the streets 
are well-nigh deserted ami long rows of shop 
fronts, instead of their usual varied display of 
merchandise, exhibits nothing but iron doors 
tightly closed, and their thresholds are un- 
crossed by busy traders. The rumble of the 
heavy drays beneath our windows has ceased 
and the weary pavements give no sound save 
when the gay carriage, with brightly colored 
robes and well-dressed occupants, is whirled 
along by well groomed horses on the way to the 
New Year's calling. It is a peerless day, and 
though the air is cooler than its wont, the sun 
shines brightly and where its heat is confined 
by converging walls, which leads the resting 
idler to exclaim: Aha! I am warmed! It is 
just such a day as one could most desire for a 
holiday. As we rush along in life's hurried av- 
ocations there is but a passing thought lie- 
stowed upon the forms and moods which na- 
ture dons from day to day. It is only when 
comes the holiday and its surcease of care and 
labor that most men think of their natural en- 
vironment. Therefore, a bright holiday bight- 
ens pleasure and doubly bestows rest and recre- 
ation by winning from us new appreciation of 
the beautiful world in which our lives are cast 
and new thanks to the Creator. Although it is 
unusual for us to find ourselves imprisoned in a 
city on a holiday, we find that it is only the 
body that recognizes the bonds. Our thoughts 
are amid blessed country scenes, the cheery 

tatherings in rural homes, the bracing rides and 
rives along roadways edged with green, the 
bounteous feast and the evening's social gather- 
ings, and, to crown the day, the speeding 
homeward in the refulgent starlight. 



Pacific Rural Press— Subscription Terms 
For 1878. 

Annual subscriptions, 34. 

When paid fully one year in advance, fifty cents will 

be deducted. 

No new subscriptions will be taken without cash in ad. 
vance. All arrearages must be paid for at tho rate of S4 
per annum. 

By paying up arrearages, at $4 a year any subscriber 
can continue at 8:1 50 in advance. 

Subscribers heretofore paying club prices will be rc„ 
quired to pay the foregoing rates unless they renew the 
club with strictly advance payments. 

The above terms are as low as can be afforded for a 
journal so valuable on the farm, and every way accept- 
able in the family circle. 

Sapping Life and Strength. 

In our opinion nearly all schemes to defraud 
people of their surplus savings become compara- 
tively innocent beside the insidious crime of 
making money by the debasement and adultera- 
tion of human food. .Swindling schemes to 
steal surpluses may produce almost indescriba- 
ble disappointment, and in some cases actual 
bodily suffering, but the evil is small compared 
with that of day by day, and hour by hour, 
sapping the life and strength of the community 
by lesseuing the nutritive power of the foods 
upon which we rely to arm and nerve us for the 
burdens of life. He who in the place of bread 
sells us something as worthless as a stone and 
perhaps as dangerous as a scorpion, deserves a 
degree of punishment far weightier than he 
who steals our purse. It is an absolute need 
that the public should protect itself against the 
practices of rascally adulterators of food sup- 
plies whose work is becoming so general and so 
bold. We have urged before our convictions 
on this point and we can but reassert them, 
with increased force, now that the Legislature 
will soon have measures for the protection of 
the peoples' food before it for consideration. 
We are sijuarely and fully on the side of the 
people in this matter. The need seems appar- 
ent enough. Other countries and other States 
have passed suitable laws for examination of 
foods offered for sale, and the examinations 
which have been made by competent inspectors 
show that the extent of adulteration and the 
range of substances assailed by the debaser are 
far beyond anything which had been imagined. 
The methods of examination are plain enough, 
thanks to the progress of science. Tho test 
tubes of the chemist and the microscope, when 
in competent hands, give evidence such as the 
courts freely recognize, and when inspectors are 
competent and penalties severe, tho remedy 
tli rough the law is ample for the public protec- 
tion. 

We notice that there is now before the Legis- 
lature a proposition for the appointment of a 
salaried milk inspectorship in this city. The 
idea is an excellent one, providing it is honestly 
urged and the office is not created merely to give 
a salary to some one. We kuow very well from 
our own examination and analysis of the milk 
which is often offered for sale in this city that 
we have found many samples in which at least 
one-quarter was worthless foreign material. The 
yearly expense of maintaining an inspector 
could be saved each week at least, if he were 
a competent man whose testimony the courts 
would recognize; and an active man, whose 
presence in every place would strike terror to 
the hearts of the debasers. If these can be 
assured we should advise the creation of the 
office forthwith, not only for the strength of 
the city's men and women, but also to save the 
lives of thousands of children from the wretches 
who furnish ^them inuutricious or unhealthy 
milk. 

But not alone to the dweller in the city are 
safeguards against the adulteration of food 
material requisite. The tons of supplies which 
are taken to the country and form a part of 
rural cookery and table furnishing are all liable 
to the frauds of evil minded manufacturers. 
There should be some means of discriminating 
between the evil and the good, of punishing 
the evil ai id transferring patronage to the good. 
We are glad to see that the .State Board of 
Health has brought up this topic anew in this 
year's report, and we trust their recommenda- 
tions will be heeded by the law makers. In 
the report we find an article by Dr. J. P. Mont- 
gomery, of Sacramento. Among other things 
the writer makes the following note of articles 
in which adulterations is practiced: 

Of the foods, some of the articles recently 
mentioned ail being most frequently adulter- 
ated, are tea with sand, powdered quartz, Prus- 
sian blue, exhausted and decayed tea leaves, as 
well as other leaves or husks, and various other 
substances, many of them injurious to health; 
coffee, to the extent of from 30% to 80% of 
chiccory, besides powdered beans and many 
other ingredients; bread, with alum, to con- 
ceal the bad quality of flour to an extent to 
damage health, and also, in some instances, 
with marble dust and other impurities, to 
cheapen its production or manufacture; butter, 
with foreign fats, some of them of vegetable 
origin, from 50% to 85%, and some samples 



without any butter at all, and milk with water 
from '20% to 50%, and deficient besides, in cream 
or butter fat. 

The condiments, too, as a general rule, are 
more or less adulterated. Mustard, for in- 
stance, is very frequenty adulterated, mainly 
with corn, wheat and rye flour, and turmeric, 
sometimes to the extent, in the aggregate, of 
90% of impurities. 

Of drinks, the alcoholic, vinous, and fermented 
are all very much adulterated, or tampered 
with in some way. Some specimens of whisky 
have been found to contain a sufficiently large 
quantity of fusel oil to render it liable to pro- 
duce insanity, among other injurious effects. 
Then, again, some specimens, besides other 
poisonous ingredients, contain sufficient quanti- 
ties of sulphuric acid to cause seriaus damage to 
the stomach and to the system generally. Some 
of these specimens, indeed, had barely a trace 
of real whisky. Wines are notoriously adulter- 
ated or mixed, apparently with the sole view 
of enriching the manufacturer or dealer, with- 
out any regard to the effect the spurious com- 
pounds may have on the health of those who 
may partake of them. 

Nor are drugs or medicines allowed to escape 
the polluting touch and the vile manipulation 
of the dishonest adulterant, although, upon 
their purity and efficacy the life of the sick and 
suffering often depends, and without the purest 
quality of which the most skillful physician is 
often thwarted in his efforts to minister to the 
needs of the afflicted, and is thus rendered 
powerless. 

All Aboard for Another Volume. 

This is the first issue of a new volume of the 
Rural, and it is a good time for all our frieuds 
to give the journal, which they tell us they find 
so useful, another push forward. Do us the 
favor to speak the good words, which you feel 
true, to your neighbors who do not read the 
Rural, and let us draw them to our circle of 
support and communication. We want each 
man's subscription to carry on the concern and 
we want each man's and each woman's experi- 
ence in order that the truth of agricultural suc- 
cess may be fully expounded in our columns. 
The beginning of the year is just the time for a 
step forward, and if each friend will take a step 
for us, our progress will be measured by many 
miles in a single day. This is what we want 
now. We want to extend our sphere of useful- 
ness and improve the quality of it to each one 
at the same time. Both these can be attained 
by the help of all our friends. We have often 
described our idea of the usefulness of our paper 
and how it may be increased. Our readers 
have the same idea, as is witnessed by the fol- 
lowing paragraph, which we receive this week 
in a letter from K. H. Cheney, of Bodega: 

'■ By a mutual exchange of opinions and ex- 
periences through the columns of the Press, 
upon all the varied and diversified phases of 
agricultural life, we can benefit ourselves as in 
no other way. Thousands of readers of the 
1'ress, with homes all over the State, and some 
of them with little experience in California 
agriculture, draw from the practical informa- 
tion which its columns contain and gain success 
in their operations. I have been enlightened 
and greatly benefited by the many contributors 
to the Prkss and render my grateful acknowl- 
edgements. " 

Let us go forward enlarging our circle each 
week. Now is the time. Who will help us 
with a word fitly spoken, which is often equiva- 
lent to a new subscription for the Rural. 

Progress at San Rafael. —The opening of 
the Donahue narrow-gauge road connecting 
Sonoma county with San Francisco by way of 
San Rafael is awaited with much interest by the 
residents of that place and by those along the 
line through Sonoma county. An excursion 
train was run over the new road on New Year's 
day, an<l one of the main topics of conversation 
among the people of San Rafael was the great 
advantage which would accrue to their town 
from its position upon such an important route. 
The result will be the plying of two lines of 
steamers between San Francisco and San Rafaf 1 
instead of one, as heretofore, and the route will 
be a favorite one because of the lessened time 
necessary to reach the prosperous towns of 
Sonoma county. A representative of the Press 
is indebted to W. J. Miller, of San Rafael, for 
opportunity to visit the new line and for the 
points of its prospective influence upon the 
prosperity and development of this important 
section of our State. 

Yerba Santa. — We notice by the last issue 
of the Physician and Pharmaceutist that the 
California shrub yerba santa ( Eriodyction Cali- 
fbrnicum ), is coining into high favor as a rem- 
edy for lung diseases. An essay on the subject 
by Dr. C. 6. Polk, late Professor in the Penn- 
sylvania College of Pharmacy, after giving de- 
tailed accounts of cases iu which the remedy 
was employed by him, concludes as follows: 
"The yerba, by its splendid blending of tonic, 
astringent, balsamic and alterative powers, ar- 
rested the' ulcerative processes in the lungs. 
* * * From the above cases it would seem 
that the yerba santa, as yet, has no equal in the 
management of chronic catarrhal diseases, ex- 
erting a peculiarly salutary influence upon the 
lungs, bronchi, or hemorrhoids. 1 would ex- 
pect most excellent results in dyspepsia, and in 
both chronic diarrhoea and chronic dysentery." 



QlkfvJES A^ND RjSpLIES. 



An Alfalfa Plant. 

Editors Prf.ss: —Please accept by express one crown or 
root of alfalfa, grown from a single seed sown on the new 
levee after the big flood of 18b2. It is not very attractive 
in appearance, I admit, but it goes to show the wonderful 
size it will STOW, when it has a fair chance. You will see 
it has been attacked two or three times by the gophers, 
but, Phumix-like, it arose amid all its difficulties, and waa 
equal to any emergency, by throwing out more roote, 
when its main root was nearly destroyed. 

Why cannot we mortals take a valuable lesson from this 
humble plant, and when adversity comes U|h>ii us, instead 
of giving up in despair, call on some of our reserved forcea 
to help us out. This root shows another important fact, 
and that is, it is not an exhauster of the soil like some 
plants, for its tops feed above ground, while its roote 
draw their substance far down in the soil, it having no 
surface or lateral roots, except, perhaps, where the soil is 
shallow and is irrigated — Daniel Flint, Sacramento. 

The plant to which our correspondent alludes 
was duly received in a large sack, which when 
opened disclosed something like an old-fashioned 
brush pile. In fact, as we straightened and laid 
out the specimen, we could not help thinking 
that a hatchet would be an assistant. The 
main root, at the place where it branched out 
into a thick crown of matted roots, was six and 
a half inches in circumference, or a little more 
than two inches in diameter. From this point 
this tap root extended four and a half feet, taper- 
ing down to the point where it was broken off. 
At this point it was still more than half an inch 
in diameter, so that there was more farther 
down. This main root, as our correspondent 
notes, was devoid of laterals, and was a straight 
thrust down into the lower soil. At the top 
there was a tangled growth of laterals, making 
a bunch of roots which would fill and cover a 
square yard of soil, and some of the twisted 
roots were three-quarters of an inch thick. 
These were apparently thrown out because of 
the injury to the main root, as it was nearly 
severed, probably by gophers, as stated above. 
The specimen is very interesting as showing 
what an enduring hold this plant takes upon a 
favoring soil, and it can be seen at our office by 
all who desire. 

Guano on Wheat. 

Editors Prkss:— Will you please inform me through the 
columns of the Rtkal Press when to sow and how much 
guano to sow per acre on wheat land '.' I have Just pur- 
chased a ton. and want to apply it at the proper time and 
to the best advantage My land is adobe.— T. S., Santa 
Rosa, Cal. 

Editors Press: — Guano should in general be 
used at the time when the plant is making leaf 
preparatory to sending up the stem. In the 
East this is " early spring; " in California this 
would in average seasons be some time in Jan- 
uary, depending on season, latitude, and the 
time the seed was sown. It must iu any case 
be applied in time to catch a good rain, since 
otherwise it might remain useless on the sur- 
face. The farmer must use his private judg- 
ment herein. Wherever practicable, guano 
should be raked or harrowed in. From 200 to 
250 pounds per acre is the usual quantity used 
broadcast; when drilled in with the seed, even 
100 pounds sometimes produce a remarkable 
effect. For even distribution as well as to pre- 
vent loss from evaporation, it is best, and a very 
common practice, to mix the guano thoroughly 
with about four times its weight (say about 
twice its bulk) of well pulverized earth, before 
broadcasting. T. S. will benefit a good many, 
and the cause of progressive agriculture gen- 
erally, by observing closely and reporting fully 
the results of his experiment, both as to quantity 
and quality of product, and financial profitable- 
ness. — E. W. IIiloard, University of Cali- 
fornia. 



Acorns as Hog Feed. 

That acorn-fed pork is not altogether desira- 
ble is generally known, but we believe the dis- 
like of it has resulted from the rank flavor and 
objectionable color which are generally charac- 
teristic of it. We are not aware that the exact 
position of the acorn as a food material has 
been determined by chemical analysis until 
now. We read in the London Farmer that on 
the subject of the amount of nutriment contain- 
ed in acorns as food for pigs, Dr. E. von Rod- 
iczy points out that they are of very little value 
unless liberally supplemented by nitrogenous 
substances. The proportion of nutritious mat- 
ter iu unshelled acorns varies from 1 in 13.9 to 
1 in 18.2, and in shelled acorns it averages 1 in 
13.4. Dr. Peters analyzed fresh and kiln-dried 
acorns, the latter, both in the shell and un- 
shelled state, with the following results: 



Unshelled. Shelled. 

Fresh. Dried. Dried. 

Water 260 14.3 14.S 

Nitrogenous nutritive mat- 
ter : .. «-5 M 6.8 

Non-nitrogenous nutritive 

matter 53.0 62.1 69.9 

Fat S.* 4.0 3.6 

Celluloee 10.6 122 M 

Ash 2.0 2.2 1.5 



Hence it appears that in the dried and shelled 
state their value as food is considerably in- 
creased. A French authority, M. Magne, fur- 
ther recommends that they should be used 
when germination has commenced, since this 
decomposes the tannin contained iu them, and 
so renders them much cheaper. In the East it 
appears to be the custom to bury the acorn for 
some time in the earth, and so induce a partial 
fermentation which rids them of their natural 
bitter taste. 



January 5, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



9 



Southdowns and Shropshires. 

Editors Press:— Would you please answer through the 
columns of the Rural the following questions respecting 
sheep. The difference Between the "Southdown" and the 
"Shropshire" sheep. Which cut the most Wool, an J if 
they are well adapted to hill ranges. I see them adver- 
tised for sale in the Rural, and am desirous of trying 
them if suitable to my ranch. 

I am rather sorry to find the sheep interest compara- 
tively so little spoken of in the Rural, and quite think it 
deserves it equally with the "Dairy" and other interests, 
to which so much space is weekly given. — A. W. B., Peach 
Tree valley, Cal. 

We share with our correspondent the regret 
that facts and experiences in connection with 
our sheep industry do not occupy larger space 
in the Rural. The industry is a leading one, 
and one in which success depends upon 
thorough knowledge and enlightened practices 
as much as in any other. It is also true that 
we are on the eve of great changes in the theo- 
ries and practices of wool producing in this 
State, and we believe that the future will show 
the profit which can be gained by keeping small 
flocks well than by keeping or losing large ones 
wholly upon the chances of seasons and wild 
growths. For these and other reasons we have 
urged upon our shepherds, personally and 
through our columns, the advantage of discuss- 
ing their aims and practices through the me- 
dium of comparison of views which the Rural 
affords. It is not because of our lack of ap- 
preciation or effort that our sheep and wool de- 
partment has not been as full as other depart- 
ments. We trust that in the future our shep- 
herds, among whom the Rural has many and 
firm friends, will favor us with their experi- 
ences and ideas on all branches of flock breed- 
ing, feeding and care. Let each one of them 
consider these lines a special invitation to them 
to come forward. 

Our correspondent asks concerning the South- 
downs and Shropshires. We have in this State 
some of the finest specimens of both these 
breeds, and we trust the breeders of each will 
favor us with local experiences. I» answering 
our querist's questions in a general way we can- 
not do better than print a brief description of 
each of the breeds as laid down by disinter- 
ested writers, and for this purpose we quote 
from Stewart's "Shepherd's Manual," which is 
the latest published work on the subject. Of 
the origin and characteristics of the Shropshire 
he says: "The sheep of Morfe Common where the 
original stock, upon which crosses of Cotswold 
and afterwards of Leicester and Southdown 
were made at various periods, and the result was 
the Shropshire. This course of improvement 
appears to have begun about 1792. After three- 
quarters of a century of cultivation they are 
now without horns, with legs and faces of a 
dark or spotted gray color, thick meaty neck, 
well-shaped, rather small and fine head; neat 
ears, well set on the head; broad, deep breast, 
straight back; a good, round barrel; and clean 
legs with strong bone. They are very hardy, 
thrive well on moderate keep, are quickly fat- 
tened, and produce, at two years old, 80 to 100 
pounds, or even 120 pounds of excellent meat, 
which brings the highest price from the butcher. 
The ewes are prolific and good mothers. The 
fleece is heavier than that of the Southdown, 
being longer, and more glossy. This sheep pos- 
sesses many valuable qualities, and promises to 
make a satisfactory farmer's sheep in localities 
where medium wool and choice mutton are 
profitable, and where flocks have to depend 
upon pasture for the greater part of their sup- 
port. Its close, well-set fleece and hardy con- 
stitution will also help to carry it through con- 
siderable exposure and variable weather without 
injury." 

Of the Southdowns Mr. Stewart says: "The 
modern improved Southdown descended from 
an old established breed of sheep which have 
inhabited the hilly portions of England from 
the remotest periods of known history of that 
country." After recounting the steps of im- 
provement gained by different distinguished 
breeders in the first half of this century, the 
writer concludes: "At the present time the 
Southdowns hold the position of being decidedly 
the best mutton sheep in the world. As year- 
lings they yield from 75 to 80 pounds in dressed 
weight, of the choicest meat in the market, and 
a flock of high character will produce an aver- 
age of six pounds to the fleece of wool in de- 
mand for flannels and soft goods. The ewes are 
prolific breeders and excellent mothers. These 
sheep, as they are now bred, are without horns 
and with dark brown or black faces or legs. 
The size is medium; the body round and deep; 
the fore quarters are wide and deep and the 
breast is broad. The back is broad and level, 
the rump square and full, and the thigh full and 
massive. The legs are short, with fine bone. 
The form is smooth, even, fine and symmetrical, 
without coarseness or angularity in any part. 
The habits of these sheep are active and they 
are docile and contented. They are able to ac- 
commodate themselves to any district or style 
of farming, where moderately good pasturage is 
to be had, and are well suited as gleaners upon 
an arable farm. The Southdown has become 
thoroughly naturalised in America, and its dark 
face and compact fleece, impervious to the 
heaviest rains, have left their mark upon a 
large proportion of our natives, ranking in this 
respect next to the Merino." 

These are the general descriptions of the 
breeds cited. Now if some of our California 
breeders of these sheep will take up the sub- 
ject and state the results of their experience 
with them, whether favorable or otherwise, we 
shall be able to «[ive local facts which nearly all 
our readers will be glad to receive. Will the 
flock-masters aid us with the facts ? 



Rainfalls Before and After January 1st. 

We are indebted to Prof. G. F. Becker, of 
the Department of Mining and Metallurgy at 
the State University, for the interesting dia- 
gram on this page, showing the relation between 
the amount of rain falling before and after Jan- 
uary 1st, in each year since 1849. The method 
which prevails in the plotting is described in a 
note from Prof. Becker, which we print below. 
It will be noticed that heretofore an average of 
two-fifths of the rain of the fiscal year has fallen 
before January 1st. While this would give us 
a rather light total rainfall this year, if it con- 
formed to the average, it is also shown in the 
diagram that wide departures from this rule 
have occurred in single cases heretofore, and we 
trust may occur this year. The study of our 
rainfall is a practical one, and we are under ob- 
ligations to all scientific observers who give us 
data for pursuing it. Prof. Becker's note in 
relation to the diagram is as follows: 

Editors Press:— To what extent the rainfall 
before the first day of January is proportional 
to that of the whole season, is a frequent sub- 
ject of discussion and is a matter of great prac- 
tical importance to the State. When Mr. Ten- 
nent published his valuable figures on the sub- 
ject in the Bulletin of a few nights since, it oc- 
curred to me that it would be interesting to 
give this relation of the partial rainfall to the 
total in a graphic form, and in such a manner 
that the general proportionality, if it existed, 
and the relations for each year, would be appa- 
rent at a glance. 



Regent Davidson, nearly five years since, 
plotted Mr. Tennent's figures for the purpose 
of discussing the periodicity of the rainfall, 
but not in such a manner as to bring this special 
relation into prominence. In the accompany- 
ing diagrams each perpendicular line represents 
a winter from the year 1849, on. The horizon- 
tal lines represent inches of rain and the dis- 
tance from the base or zero line, at which each 
curve crosses the vertical line appropriate to 
any year indicates the amount of rain which 
fell in San Francisco during that year. The 
three diagrams represent respectively the rain- 
fall before the first of January, after the first of 
January, and the total rainfall. The scale of 
years is continuous and is the same for all the 
curves; the scale representing inches, on the 
other hand, is different for each and is inversely 
proportional to the amount of r«,in which has 
fallen during the period covered by the dia- 
gram. The consequence of this selection of 
scales will evidently be that if the amount of 
rain falling before the first of January were 
simply proportional to the total rainfall for the 
season, and if, in each year, just two-fifths of 
the rain came before January 1st, the three 
curves would be identical. Hence, their varia- 
tion expresses exactly the limits within wh.ch 
this rule applies. 

As your readers are interested in the weather, 
perhaps some of them may find this chart a con- 
venient record of the past. G. F. Becker. 

University of California, Dec. 20th, 1877. 



An Agricultural Institute. — We notice a 
good work which has been undertaken by the 



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DIAGRAM SHOWING RAINFALL BEFORE AND AFTER JANUARY 1st. 



I make the following division of the rainfall 
in each year: 

Rainfall in San Francisco.* 



Year. 



1819- 
1850- 
1851- 
1852- 
1853- 
1854' 
1855 
1856- 
1867- 
1858- 
1859 
1860 
1801 
1802 
1803 
1804 
1805 
1S66 
1807' 
1808' 
1809> 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873' 
1874 
1875 
1870 



Grand total . 
Ratio 



Before 
Jan. 1. 
18. 00 

2.30 
10 40 
18.31 

5.22 

3.72 

6.03 

7.08 

8.13 

8.78 

8 85 
7 80 

13 00 

2.80 

4.38 
15.84 

6. 27 
18 02 
10.34 

5.07 

6.91 

3 80 
20.00 
10.22 
12.21 

9 01 
10.03 

3.21 

205.01 
2 t< 



After 
Jan. 1. 
15.10 

5.10 

7.98 
15.95 
18 65 
18.90 
15.03 
12.73 
13.75 
12.44 
22 27 
11 80 
35.01 
10.72 

5.70 

8.79 
17.06 
10 30 
22.60 
16 08 
12.40 
10. 30 
14.11 

7.80 
11.77 

9.39 
15.98 

6.79 

392.92 
8 



33.10 
7.40 
18.44 
35. 20 
23.87 
23.08 
21.06 
19.81 
21.88 
22.22 
31.22 
19.72 
49.27 
13 02 
10. OS 
24.73 
22.83 
34 82 
38 84 
21.35 
19.31 
14.10 
34.71 
18.02 
23.98 
18.40 
20.01 
10.00 

658.63 
6. 



Illinois Industrial University, namely, the 
holding of an Agricultural Institute during 
five days of the week, beginning January 14th. 
The Institute holds its sessions at the Uni- 
versity, and all are invited to attend and take 
part in the exercises without fees or charges of 
any kind. Lectures are given by the Profess- 
ors of the University and by others, and those 
who attend will have full access to the Univer- 
sity library, cabinets, museum, etc. Thus all 
the farmers of the State will have an opportu- 
nity to see what their agricultural college is 
doing and profit by the researches of the Pro- 
fessors in their special lines of work. We are 
glad to see this mark <5f enterprise in agricul- 
tural work. It is just what we expected would 
characterize the agricultural college under the 
charge of Prof. G. E. Morrow, who is one of 
the most zealous workeis in the cause of agri- 
cultural progress wc have ever known. 



On File.— "Farm Gate," J. T.j "Orchard 
Grass, etc.," E. H. C. ; "Cultivation and Bain- 
fall," S. B. ; "Farming in the Clouds," J. B. A.; 
"Royal Agricultural College," J. P. S.; "Wear 
Your Own Clothes," R. 0. 



•According to Tennont. 



The weather has been unusually cold for the 
past week. Ice, three-eighths of an inch thick, 
formed in Oakland on Wednesday morning. 



The Necessity for Home Manu ,es 

The only way that California can be made to 
be the prosperous State that she was before the 
railroads brought her into direct competition 
with the East, is to have work for everybody as 
there was then. And the only way to give 
everybody work is for our capitalists to stop 
speculating and lending money and start up 
home manufactures. The trouble with us now 
is that we have more people than we have work 
for. We have not enough manufactories. We 
buy too many things abroad that we could make 
as well or better at home, and still we wonder 
why " hard times" visit us and stay so long. 

Another thing is we want too much for our 
money. People who have it expect it to earn 
its one per cent, at least, simply by loaning it. 
Those who would establish manufactures if they 
could find it possible to do so and pay the rates 
of interest charged. Again, some of them say, 
" We must put up $20 in silver as security for 
$20 in gold!" No matter how much land a man 
has or how good it is he finds it next to impos- 
sible to borrow any money on it if it is in the 
country. And if he does succeed in raising any- 
thing on it they will not lend more than a quar- 
ter of its value. 

There has got to be a radical change in our 
manner of doing business on this coast, or 
things will go from bad to worse. No man can 
make a manufacturing business pay when he has 
to hire money to carry ii on at a cent or cent 
and a half a month. And not only that, he 
finds it difficult to get money at any price to 
establish anything new, such is the disinclina- 
tion of our moneyed men to enter the manufac- 
turing field. 

"Cent per cent" has been our bane and still 
continues. As soon as a man gets a little money 
he knocks off work, sits him down, and ex- 
pects his money to do the work for him, and he 
stops his work so soon that he wants a small 
amount to yield a large one, and charges his rate 
of interest accordingly. It is all very well to 
say you can get money in San Francisco for 
seven or eight per cent., but let any one try it 
at the banks and offer anything as security less 
than a first-class piece of city property and see 
how he succeeds. And then let him try to bor- 
row from a private individual and see what suc- 
cess he meets in that direction. 

There is not the slightest doubt but that this 
habit of collecting high interest has done more 
harm in California and kept it back more in 
every sense, than any railroad monopoly, 
Chinese immigration, land-grabbing schemes, 
Mexican grants, or any other grievance of which 
we have complained. When one-quarter of the 
people want to live on interest paid by the 
other three-quarters, and that one-quarter spend 
more than the others earn, the result is not sat- 
isfactory and the state of affairs cannot last 
long. 

We must all go to work. There is no use in 
putting off the issue any longer. The non-pro- 
ducers in our midst are too many and with 
them no country can be prosperous. The thou- 
sands who want to make their living from stock 
speculations must quit this precarious trade and 
work in the mines. Those who 3tand between 
the producers and consumers must perforce be- 
come producers as they are already consumers. 
The men who hold large tracts of land at prices 
no real farmer or herder could afford to pay, 
must sell these hinds to men who will cultivate 
them and must assiset them in so doing. The 
thousands of idlers in our cities, who eke out a 
precarious existence in any way, so they evade 
real work, must take off their coats, turn up 
their sleeves and handle the hoe or the plow, 
the hammer or the plane, or they must leave 
this country for some other — if they can find 
one — where there is more room for them than 
here. Work, real earnest, hard work js what 
the Pacific coast community must come to if 
they would be prosperous. The cities are fillod 
with idlers who should be tilling the fields or 
working the mines, and rich men who are 
money lenders instead of producers. People 
can ill afford to borrow money as rates now 
stand, and these men must establish manufac- 
tures to invest their money or keep it unproduc- 
tive in their hands. 

The times are ripe for change, and change 
there must be. With more manufactures there 
will be more opportunity for labor. As each 
man's arm becomes productive prosperity will 
rule among us once more, and California resume 
the proud position to which she is so well 
adapted. Her geographical position, climate 
and other natural advantages are in her favor, 
but her people must do their share in the good 
work to make her the most prosperous State in 
the Union. 



The Lick Telescopes. — The Manvfaetunr 
and Buikter, alluding to the proposition to erect 
two telescopes with the Lick fund, one a great 
refractor of the largest possible size, the object 
glass at least 40 inches in diameter; the other a 
reflecting telescope, of which the mirror should 
be at least four feet in diameter, adapted to use 
two kinds of mirrors, one a speculum metal 
reflector, and the other a silvered glass reflector, 
says: "We are conlident that if this plan ia 
realized, startling discoveries are in store. Cal- 
ifornia, with its monster telescopes, aided by 
its clear sky and otherwise favorable situation 
for astronomical research, will undoubtedly take 
the lead in discoveries, of which those of the 
moons of Mars, made with what is now the 
largest refractor in the world, have given ui A 
foretaste." 



10 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January 5, 1878. 



OUR PLATFORM. 

It is the aim of the publishers to make the Purine 
Rural Press a vital force in the agricultural development 
of the Pacific coast. In those methods of practice which 
secure widest success; in the introduction of cultures 
which are adapted to our varied conditions of soil and 
climate; in extending a knowledge of the true science of 
agriculture, the Rural Prkss is granted position as a 
leader, nor do publishers nor editors arrogate to them- 
selves special credit for the proud place which our jour- 
nal occupies, except as it may be in part the result of 
their devoted and unremitted labor. For the elements of 
experience and practical research, in which our columns 
are rich, wegladly acknowledge our indebtedness to the 
noblest band of 

Correspondents and Contributors 
Which any agricultural journal in the world can muster. 
They dwell in every part of the coast. They are practically 
engaged in every special branch of agriculture. They are 
leaders in these branches, by virtue of heir own suc- 
cesses. They are men and women who are ever ready to 
act upon their convictions, that by a comparison of prac- 
tices and exjierience, each can aid the other with 
such timely and valuable information as each gains from 
bis daily work and study. They respond quickly and 
definitely to all points which arise for elucidation, and 
thus they make the RrRAL Press, each week, a com- 
pendium of information concerning Pacific coast agricul- 
ture, an encyclopedia of the freshest facts and experi- 
ences, a treasury of valuable agricultural truth, such as 
cannot be found in any other journal in the world. 

The qualities which we have mentioned as characteristic 
of our correspondence and contributed articles are those 
ehiefly aimed at in our 

Editorial Writing. 

We have no interest to serve save the true advance- 
ment of all our readers in all things which unite to secure 
the truest manhood and the widest success in the field of 
industry in which they are engaged. We pander to no 
debasing sensations. Wo give expression to no sentiment 
except it be ennobling and elevating. In our search for 
toiucs for editorial comment, we glean the whole available 
field of literature and experience for themes which arc 
fresh and of direct bearing upon the improvement and 
extension of our agricultural resources, and readers may 
look to our columns for lessons drawn from progressive 
agriculturists everywhere. 

In this work we spare no pains nor expense, within our 
means, to enrich our journal with instructive 
Engravings and Diagrams 
Illustrative of the achievements in breeding of cattle and 
horses and other farm animals, the introduction of new 
fruits and trees, the latest improvements in designing 
and constructing agricultural buildings and rural homes, 
the beauties of landscape gardening, the fine arts of graft- 
ing and propagating; in short, in all lines of progress 
in which the engraver can aid the writer in the presen- 
tation of valuable facts and ideas. All who read our 
Journal concede us marked superiority in the fitness 
and value and excellent printing of our illustrations. 

The matter which is deemed worthy to be brought 
to the attention of readers is edited 

In Departments. 

tine of the secrets of modern progress in science and 
industrial art is the system of arrangement and classifi 
cation of knowledge which has prevailed. This system 
we find of the highest value in our editorial experience. 
Each of the departments of agriculture, The Stock V;»rd, 
The Dairy, The Vineyard, Horticulture, Floriculture, 
Arboriculture, The Apiary, The Stable, The Swine Yard, 
The Poultry Yard and other special branches, are each 
made the subject of special study and research, and thus 
faots most important to the success and progress of each, 
on this coast, are brought forward. 

The Home Circle 

Is looked upon by the editors of the Ri'RAL Pre<8 as a 
pleasant field in which their best and most valuable work 
can be accomplished. To instruct without wearying; to 
entertain without demoralizing; to amuse without engen- 
dering coarseness; to promote true sentiment, lofty and 
ennobling emotions -in short, to aid all readers toward 
the attainment of B higher manhood and womanhood and 
thus make life more and more a joy and a value, is our 
constant aim in the careful selection of reading for our 
Home Circle columns. 

liy means, both of engravings and descriptions, we in- 
form our rural housew ives the styles which are most ap- 
proved in wearing apparel and aid them in the valuable 
art of home dressmaking, and a hundred other homo arts. 

Our Young Folks' Column 
Pleases the tiniest birdlings of the flock with its wee 
stories and funny pictures, and once in a while gives 
w holesome lessons to their older brothers and sisters. 
Good Health. 

The Rvral Press holds a leading place in the modern 
movement t* instill among all werkers the need »f . 



better understanding of hygienic laws. It gives the latest 
discoveries for the preservation of health and the best 
hints for getting the best labors and the truest comforts 
with tho bodies which clothe our intellects and souls It 
gives Bimple remedies for common maladies and accidonts, 
and aims to promote the efforts of the wisest physicians 
for the strength and healthfulncss of the race. 

In Domestic Economy, 
Which underlies all the economies, the Rural Press ex- 
tends a helping hand to the housewife and thinks no 
effort too burdensome which promises to aid her in her 
arduous work in the kitchen, the dining-room and in the 
genera] care of her household. 

We believe that the success of the fanner lies in selling 
wisely, no less than in producing well. Hence 

Our Market Review 
Is prepared with the utmost care, and no pains are spared 
to make it fairly and truly reflect the state of the mar- 
kets. Our quotations are drawn from actual transactions 
(unless we state expressly th a thing is given as a 
rumor), and we cite special sales in all cases that we can 
obtain them. Thus net only do we give each week a 
schedule of rates at which farm produce is sold and farm, 
ers' supplies bought, in this market, but we are always on 
the lookout along all avenues of information for facts 
and tendencies which promise to influence the trade in 
special articles in any way. We claim to keep our readers 
fully informed of the leading and important trade news, 
which affects their interests, and we have so far succeeded 
in winning the confidence of readers that the quotations 
in the Rural Press are made the basis of transactions 
in many parts of the interior. We esteem this department 
of our paper of such great importance that we do not 
relogate it to repoitcrs but hold it as strictly editorial 
work, that we may be personally sure of its accuracy and 
trustworthiness. 

Improvement of "Rural Press" 

Our readers assure us that 'iach volume of the Rural 
Press is better than the preceding one. This is our ambi- 
tion for the paper. Agriculture on this coast is advancing 
from the early chance methods and results to the en. 
lightened systems which result from wider experience, 
fuller investigation and experiment, and the the applica- 
tion of scientific truth. As the Rural Press leads in 
this advancement it bears the mark of it upon its own 
countenance. We have been able to improve our journal 
in many ways and to do this the publishers have freely 
applied the revenues of the pa|ier to its own improve, 
mcnt. They regard it as no tenqwrary enterprise for 
immediate profit, but are proud to build it up as one of 
the institutions of the coast, confident that their honor 
and reward will he greater, even though it be deferred. 
This policy has both improved the journal in its mechan- 
ical departments and has secured the the highest editorial 
intelligence and skill which can be found in this s|iecialty 
of literary work. Hy such efforts to improve the Rural 
Press, the publishers have more than returned the value 
which subscribers exacted when they first bestowed 
their patronage. This we still exi>ect to do, and the 
wider our circle of readers becomes the better paper we 
can send to each. Thus our course is onward, and thus 
we feel a claim upon the co-nperation of all readers in the 
further building up of onr journal. 

The Field of the "Rural Press." 

Although our first and chief devotion is bestowed upon 
tho agricultural industry of this coast, and here dwell the 
great mass of our readers, we have groups of subscribers 
in such widely separated parts that we may fairly claim a 
World-wide aud'ence. The topics which are presented 
in our columns are so charged with fresh experiences 
that they win the attention of agriculturists everywhere. 
Men who are prominent in progressive agriculture in the 
Eastern States rank the Rural Press among the first rtf 
the journals of its class in this country. In Great Britain 
and on the continent of Europe, among foreign residents 
in East India, China and .lapan, and in the newly opened 
world of Oceanica, the Rural Press counts its firm 
friends, and is proud of its ability to Interest the Ji and 
aid them in their work. 

Why We Succeed? 

The reasons of the gratifying growth and extended in- 
fluence of our journal are not difficult to determine. 
First, by the constant co-operation of our readers we are 
able to make the Rural Press an acknow ledged repre- 
sentative of the agricultural interest on this coast. This 
is of itself a key to success, and it unlocks to us the doors 
to favor all over the world, for no narrower than this is 
the fame of our agriculture. Second, we hold the friend- 
ship of our patrons everywhere by the freshness and prac- 
tical value of the matters which we present for their con 
sidcration. Third, we win the respect of all truly pro- 
gicssive men because, though ever on the alert to battle 
on the side of progress, wo are never entrapped into wor- 
ship of the glittering tinsel of the sensational. Our policy is 
to strive untiringly for better knowledge and elevated prac- 
tice, but never to let go that which is good, until a better 
thing is demonstrated. Thus our policy may defined as a 
resolute, but yet open-eyed conservatism. This we be- 
lieve is the only true policy where great industrial 
interests, and all they involve, are at stake. Fourth, we 
never abuse the welcome which we gain to the homes of 
our readers by allowing our columns to carry the specious 
baits of quacks, confidence men and swindlers. They 
would pay us roundly for the opportunity to gorge them- 
selves upon our unsuspecting patrons, hut the idea is 
abhorrent to us. We can build up a truer and prouder 
success without their goM. Fifth, the grand secret of our 
success lies in the word work, enthusiastic, delightful and 
yet unceasing w ork for the success of the Pacikic Rural 
Press and all these who come within the circle of its 
rnftw— et 



Mining and Scientific 
Press Patent Agency. 

The Mining and Scientific 
Press Patent Agency was estab- 
lished in i860 — the first west of 
the Rocky Mountains. It has 
kept step with the rapid march 
of mechanical improvements. 
The records in its -archives, its 
constantly increasing library, the 
accumulation of information of 
special importance to our home 
inventors, and the experience of 
its proprietors in an extensive and 
long continued personal practice- 
in patent business, affords them 
combined advantages greater 
than any other agents can possi- 
bly offer to Pacific Coast invent- 
ors. Circulars of advice, free. 
Address. 

DEWEY & CO., 
202 Sansome St., N. E. Cor. Pine, 
San Francisco. 



E. BUTTERICK & Cos' 

WINTER STYLES. 

Double the Stock and Variety 
of Patterns found at any other 
agency ; the most reliable, stylish, 
and popular, being the standard 
of FASHION both in Europe 
and America. Send postage 
stamp for catalogue containing 
cuts of patterns for Ladies', 
Misses', Boys and Little Chil- 
drens' Garments, in large variety, 
which can be obtained in all sizes 
at the General Agency for the 
Pacific Coast, No. 124 POST 
STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, 
CAL. 



TEN PER CENT. 

First Mortgage Bonds 

AT PAR. 



The Sierra Flume and Lumber Company have 
mortgaged their large property — principally 
lands — to secure the payment of 1,200 Bonds of 
$500 each, running for one, two or three years 
and bearing ten per cent, interest, payable 
semi-annually. 

Two hundred Bonds of cither series are now 
offered for sale at par, to close this season's 
business. The remainder will be held for 
another year. 

The property cost over $1,400,000, and has 
produced the last six months §800,000 worth of 
lumber, at a cost of $400,000, most of which is 
stacked and drying, to be in readiness for sale, 
and for which there is a good market, both at 
home aDd abroad. 

Mr. Alvinza Hayward, being the chief owner, 
will give a written guarantee that the Bonds 
and interest will be paid at maturity. 

Merchants' Exchange Bank Stock will be 
taken in exchange, at $75 per share. 

For Bonds and further particulars apply to 
R. G. SNEATH, President fiierra Flume and 
Lumber Co., 423 California Jjjtreet, San Fraa- 



EDtJeAJtOfm.. 



THE BERKELEY GYMNASIUM. 

A PREPARATORY 

SCHOOL TO THE UNIVERSITY. 

THE FIRST TERM WILL COMMENCE 
Wednesday, August 1, 1877, and close Thurs- 
day, December 20, 1877. 

THE SECOND TERM WILL COMMENCE 
Wednesday, January 9, 1878, and close 
Thursday, May 30, 1878. 

The location of thia Institution for health, has no supe- 
perior. Its proximity and relationship to the State Uni- 
versity give it many advantages that no other school on 
the Pacific Coast can command. Our first aim iB to secure 
to every student in our charge such accommodations as 
will make him 

Comfortable and Contented. 

Devoted to but one well defined work, we are gathering 
around us the youth of loftier minds and purer aspira- 
rations; such as are seeking a higher education. We are 
protected, naturally, from that class of students who 
are sent to school to escape the House of Correction. 
The Principal and Faculty respectfully solicit a fair in- 
vestigation from intelligent parents and earnest studonts. 

REFERENCES: 

JOHN LeCONTE, M. D., 

President of the University of California. 
EUGENE W. H1LGARD, Ph. D., 

Professor of Agriculture, University of Cal. 

For Circulars, Address 

JOHN F. BURRIS, Berkeley, Cal. 



BUSINE 3S 
COLLEGE.. 

No. 24 Post Street 

SAM riANCBCO, CAL. 

The largest and best Business College in America. In 
teachers arc competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but give* 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
struction is given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modem Languages are practically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, and its system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

La i) iks' Df.I'artmbxt. — Ladies will be admitted for in- 
struction in all the Departments of the College. 

Tkleuraphic Department. — In this Department young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 

SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE. 

Santa Barbara, Cal., 1877. 



FOR YOUTH OF BOTH SEXES. 



John Lynch, 

Principal. 



<Mrs M. Atkins Lynch, 

Vice- Principal. 



Mrs. Lynch is' well known as Miss Atkins, long Identified 
with the Bunlcia Young Ladies' Seminary.) 

FULL CORPS OF COMPETENT INSTRUCTORS. 
For further information, address the Principal. 



Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 
Authorized Capital - $6,000,000. 

OFFICERS: 

President G. W. COLBY. 

Vice-President and Manager, 

C. J. CRESSEY. 

Cashier ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 

Secretary FRANK A CRESSEY 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
he best market rates. 



MONEY TO LOAN 

UPON CHOICE RANCH PROPERTY. 
JNO. D. HOOKER, 
302 Montgomery Street, San Francisco 



For Good Living go to Web- 
ster's Palace Restaurant, 218 
Sansome Street, S. F. Best of 
dinners only 50 cents, from 5 to 
8 p. M. 



25 



Faslonable Cards, no two alike, with name, lOe. 
postpf id. GEO. L REED & CO. , Nassau, N. Y 



fOUR NAME printod on 60 mixed cards for 13c. 26 fun 
cards 10c. CLINTON BROS., Clintonville, Conn. 



OC EXTRA MIXED CARDS, Snowflake, Oriental, Etc. 
AO with uamo, 10 ets. J B. HUSTED, Nassau, N. Y. 



January 5, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



11 



Purchasers of Stock will find in this Directory the 
Names of some of the Most Reliable Breeders. 

Our Rates. — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
60 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 

QATTLE. 

A. MAILLIARD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotatc Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.), Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



R. G. SNE ATH, San Bruno, Cal. , breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bulls for sale— various ages— at $i0 
to 8100. 

SHEEP AND G0ATS7 



L. TJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
Bex an d Berkshire Swine. 

B. P. WATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thorough- 
bred Spanish Merino Sheep. 



M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep. Rams and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $20 each; 
Lam bs, $15 each. ^ 

LANDRUM & RODGERS, Watsonville, Cal. Im- 
porters and breeders of Pure Breed Angora Goats. 

ET W"rWOO"LSEY74lFCalifor'nia~StrrRoonT27srF. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep, 
Choicest Vermont Strains. 



POULTRY. 



BURBANK & MYERS, 43 and 44 California Market, 
San Francisco, Importers and Breeders of Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. 

M. FALLON, comer Seventh and Oak streets, Oak- 
land. Bronze Turkeys. Choice Eggs for Hatching 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 



T. A. FREEMAN, San Jose, Cal. Pekin Ducks for 
sale. Also, eggs in their season. 

A. O- RIX, Washington, Alameda County, Cal., 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for circular. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importers 
and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs for 
hatching. 



MRS. L. J. WATKINS, Santa Clara, Cal. Pre- 
mium Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, S. S. Ham- 
burgs, L. Brahmas and B. B. Red Game Bantams. Also 
Eggs. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co 
Cal. , Breeder of Improved Berkshire Swine. 



A. J. TWOGOOD, Riverside, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Pure Bred Poland-China Hogs. 



Imperial Egg Food 




(Trade Mark.) 

Will HVTalce Your Hens Lay, 

Winter and Rummer, support Fowls during moulting, 
keep them constantly In fine condition, and Increase 
their profit 100 per cent. Half of the chicks die annually. 
This makes bone and muscle early, and will save them. 
Packages to mix with ">(> weight ordinary feed, 50 ots.; 
larger for $1.00 and $2.00. Sent prepaid on receipt of 
price. Also sold by Grocers, Feed Stores, etc. 

LOCAL AGENTS WANTED. 

C. R. ALLEN & CO., Box 103, Habtford, Con». 

0. C. SWAN & CO., Agt's for Pacific Coast. 

No. 202 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 
JtSTTo whom all orders should be addressed. 



BERKSHIRES. 




Breeder and Importer of the "Crown Prince, 
"SambO," and "'Bob Lee" families of Berkshires. 
Also, pure Suffolk hogs and pigs. Short Horn and 
Jersey, or Alderney cattle. Merino and Cotswold 
sheep. Prices always reasonable. All animals sold arc 
guaranteed as represented and pedigreed. 
PETER SAXE, Russ House, San Francisco, 
and Los Angeles City, Cal. 



LOOK! 

BURBANK & MYERS, Im- 
porters and Breeders of Fancy 
Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, Dogs, 
etc. Also Eggs for hatching from 
the finest Imported Stock. Eggs 
and Fowls at reduced prices. 

BURBANK & MYERS, 
43 and 44 California Market. 
Yards, Cor. Lott and McAllister 
Encloye stamp for Price List. 




treets, San Francisco. 



DEVON BULL FOR SALE. 

The undersigned offers for sale his Devon Bull, BLU- 
CHER. Calved October 28th, 1874. and registered in Vol. 
4, American Devon Herd Book. Also, two yearling bull 
calves of his get by cows entitled to register. Bluciier 
weighed September 21st, 1877, 1,380 pounds, and has been 
wintered on straw every winter. My Devons are not re- 
lated to any Devons on this Coast. For further particu- 
ars, address R. MsENESPY, Chico, Butte County, Oal. 



PAI A PC J ' V Websters large, fine, new Dining 
r HLftuC Rooms are exceedingly popular. The best 
pCCTAIIRAMr of everything on the tables, 
n CO I HUnHll I , Dinner furnished at the low 

NO. 218 SANSOME ST., S. F. £ C # XY 

CENTS, from five to eight p. M. Visitors to S. F. should 
try the Palace. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION. 

Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 

DANIEL INMAN, (President). 
A. D. LOGAN,(Vice President). 
AMOS ADAMS, (Secretary). 



W. W. GRAY. 



JOHN LEWELLING, (Treasurer). 
G. W COLBY. 
I C. STEELE. 

THOS. FLINT 



W. L. OVERHISER. 
A. T. HATCH. 
O. HUBBELL. 



SHIPPING 

Grangers' Building, 



AND COMMISSION HOUSE, 

106 Davis Street, S. P. 



Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairy Products, Fruit, Vegetables, and other Produos solicited, and 
Advances made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandise, 
Farm Implements, Wagons, etc., solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis that will 
enable the country at large to transact business through us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Association, San Francisco." Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 

DANIEL INMAN, Manager. 



IRA MARDEN & CO.'S 

BRANDS OF 

Coffee and Spices Have no Superior. 

Twenty-Five Years Experience 

IN THE BUSINESS ON THIS COAST ENABLES THEM TO PLACE ON THE MARKET THE VERY BEST 
GOODS AT THE LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES. 

Ask Your Grocer for Marden's Coffee and Spices. 



asr A Book for all That Have a Garden. "St 



FRAGARICULTURE; 



Culture of the Strawberry. 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON 

Culture, Propagation, Management 
and Marketing of Strawberries. 
1878. 



Illustrated with Photographs, representing 
the average size of best varieties 
Especially adapted to the 
Family Garden. 



BY FELIX GILLET, 

Nevada City, Cal. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS- 

Fragariculture; Description; Varieties; Selection; The 
Soil; Preparation of the Soil; Manures; Time of Setting 
Strawberries; Setting out Strawberries; Culture in Rows 
and Hills; Matted Row System; Mulching; Irrigation; 
Care of Plants after Setting; Propagation; Propagation by 
Seed; Resetting; Exposure; Annual Varieties; Biennial 
Varieties; Ever-bearing, or Wood Varieties; Bush-alpine 
Varieties; Staminate and Pistillate Plants; Hybridization; 
Forcing Strawberries; Care to Plants Forwarded by Mitil; 
Duration of Strawberry Beds; Mode to Perpetuate Straw- 
berry Beds; How to make Strawberries .Last; Spring 
Work on Strawberry Beds; How to Raise Very Large 
Fruit; How to Pick and Keep Strawberries; Packing and 
Shipping; Insects Injurious to Strawberries; Maladies of 
the Strawberry; The Art of Preparing Strawberries; Pre- 
serving Strawberries; Medicinal Properties of Strawber- 
ries; General Hints on Fragariculture; Explanation of 
Photographs, and list of best varieties. 

PRICE— 50 CENTS A COPY. 

Each photograpl- represents a group of strawberries- 
three to five— and not a single one. and is six inches by 
four inches. 

Note.— It is the most complete, practical, interesting 
treatise on Strawberry Culture ever published in the 
United States. Address 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 
202 Sansome Street. S. F. 



FARMERS HAVING GOOD 
DAIRY COWS FOR SALE 

Are invited to define tho ages, breed and number of those 
fresh and to come soon. Also, lowest cash price. Ad 
dress 

CALIFORNIA DAIRY COMPANY, 

Station B, 7th and Market St., San Francisco. 



$20,000 



To loan on Farming Land in Bay Counties, in sums to 
suit. Address 

G. W. HAIGHT, 
207 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



Dewey & Co. {sanest .Patent Ag'ts. 



GREAT ENTERPRISE ! 

— THE — 

Sierra Flume& Lumber Co. 

Have over 100,000 Acres of 

SUGAR PINE, YELLOW PINE, SPRUCE, 

Fir and Cedar Lands, 

10 Saw Mills, 3 Planing Mills. 1 Sash and 
Door Factory, 

149 Miles V Flumes, 

10 Miles Tramway, 

157 Miles Telegraph Line, 

13 Telegraph Stations, 

Employ 475 Men and 550 Oxen & Horses, 



The Sugar Pine is unsurpassed in quality, and the 
whole Coast can be supplied. 

The Yellow Pine is firm, fine grained and superior to 
any other hard Pine for Flooring, Stepping, etc. 

The Spruce has great strength, durable when exposed, 
and especially adapted to Bridge and Ship Building, while 
the Fir and Cedar are as valuable for a great variety of 
purposes. 

Last year thirty millions of feet were cut and the esti- 
mate for 1877 is fifty millions; fifteen millions are now on 
hand, thoroughly seasoned by the hot climate of Red 
Bluff and Chico. 

Large orders can be filled on a days' notice for all 
kinds of 

BUILDING MATERIALS, 

Rough or dressed dry, hy which elegant and substantial 
work may be accomplished without delay at the usual cost 
for green lumber. 

Orders for the interior filled at less than San Francisco 
prices and freights. 

DOORS, SASH and BLINDS always on hand in large 
quantities. Address 

SIERRA FLUME AND LUMBER CO. 



PRINCIPAL OFFICES; 

Red Bluff; Chico; San Francisco— corner 
Fo rth and Channel Sts. 



RUPTURE! RUPTURE!! 

Use no moro Metal Trusses. No 
No more suffering from iron hoops or 

steel springs ! 

Pierce's Patent Magnetic 
Elastic Truss 

Is worn with ease and conifer NlOMT 
ami Day, and will perform radical 
cures when all others fail. Reader, if 
ruptured, try one; you will never regret it. Send for Il- 
lustrated book and price ,! 3t. Magnetic Elastic Truss 
Co., 609 Sacramento St., a. F., Cal. jtarSent by mail to 
all parts of the world. 





Agricultural Article*. 

The Famous 11 Enterprise 

(PERKINS' PATENT) 

Self Regulating Farm 
Pumping, Railroad 
and Power 

WINDMILLS, 

Pumps & Fixtures, 

Have been in use on the 
Pacific Coast in the towns 
and farming districts for 
over four years, and wher- 
ever they have been sold 
(and there are thousands of 
them out) they are doing 
their work as well as when 
put up. A careful perusal 
of our Circulars gives a fair 
representation of them and 
shows their simplicity. 

We are prepared to fill ordera . ... ai^a, from a 
PUMPING MILL to a 24-foot POWER MILL for running 
Machinery, as well as doing the pumping. 

All warranted. Address, 

HORTON & KENNEDY, 

Managers for California and Pacific Coast, 

ALSO BEST FEED MILLS FOR SALE. 
General Otfice and Supplies, 

LIVERMORE, ALAMEDA COUNTY, CAL 

MATTES0M & WILLIAMSON'S 



Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is required 
in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. 
Sufficient play is given 60 that the tongue will pass over 
cradle knolls without changing the working position of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of ; he Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 
STOCKTON, CAL. 

Peerless Corn Sheller. 



It is so cheap (cost- 
ing only So), that al- 
most any one can af- 
ford to buy one. It is 
so rapid, it will shell 
almost as fast as a $40 
machine, and seven or 
eight bushels per hour 
is not above its capac- 
ity. It weighs only 13 
pounds and is simple 
and durable. For par- 
ticulars, address 

WEISTER & CO. 
17 New Montgom- 
ery St. , S. F. 





OAKLAND HEALTH INSTITUTE. 

Center Street Station, Oakland. 

Convinced of the superiority of the climate of Oakland 
to that of any other place on the Coast, moro particularly 
for those suffering from diseases of a malarial origin, and 
chronic diseases generally, the undersigned have opened 
the above named Institute as a resort for invalids, where 
all the facilities for the thorough and scientific treatment 
of diseases have been introduced. 

Our methods of treatment embrace Electricity, Turk- 
ish Russian, Magnetic and Medicated Baths of all 
kinds; the Healthlift, Hadfleld's Equalizer, and in fact 
all appliances and remedies of established merit known to 
the medical profession. The building is one of the finest 
in the city, and the rooms large and comfortable. No ef- 
fort will be spared to make the patients feel at home. 
Lying in rooms connected with the institute. Charges, 
including board, etc., from S15 to $30 per week. For 
further information*, address 

Oakland Health Institute, Oakland, Cal. 
J. II. BUNDY, M. D., & C. W. HANSEN, M. D. , Prop'r*. 

DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce. 

Reference.— Tradesmen's National Ban*, N. Y. ; Ell 
wanger A Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Rood; Sacra 
monto, Cal. ; A. Lusk & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 



JOHN L. BOONE, 

Attorney and Counsellor at Law, 

PATENT LAW A SPECIALTY. 

Office -202 Sansomo Street, N. E. corner Pino Street, 
San Francisco. 



A JOB PRESS WANTED. 

Any printer having an Eighth or Quarter Medium 
Job Press for sale, will please address J. P., caro of Dowey 
4t Co., S. F. State condition and lowest price. 



FOR SALE.— A Good Type- Writer. Price, $50 
For further information, address "COPYIST," this 

office. 



roUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
. Ten Cents. STEVENS BROS., Northford, Conn. 



12 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January 5, 1878. 



Cheap Fares. 

The fact that the Legislature has passed a 
law regulating the price of a single fare on the 
street railroads at five cents, is probably more 
important to the mass of the citizens of San 
Francisco than the question of choice of an 
United States Senator. Though apparently a 
small thing to grumble about, the six and a 
quarter cent fares, so long in vogue on the 
street railroads, has been burdensome. The 
railroad companies have been tenacious in keep- 
ing the fares at that figure, as it has given them 
considerable increase in revenue in more ways 
than are at first apparent. In the first place, 
of course, they only give four tickets for 25 
cents, instead of five as they will have to do 
under the new law. But this has been perhaps 
of even less importance than the fact they got 
10 cents for a single fare if coin were offered 
and change demanded, or if a 10-cent piece was 
paid instead of a ticket. Our system of coinage 
not admitting of taking six and a quarter cents 
from a quarter unless tickets were given in- 
stead of coin change, the passenger had to pay 
for a ride and a half instead of one ride when he 
handed the conductor a 10-cent piece. 

We have, however, a five-cent piece, the 
smallest coin in use among us, and under the 
new law it will constitute a legal fare and 
the railroad c unpanies cannot swindle the pas- 
sengers out of three and three-quarter cents 
any longer. The only strange thing is that this 
swindle should have been tolerated so long as 
it has. A man would generally rather throw 
into the street a half dollar than to feel that he 
has been swindled out of three cents; and many 
persons have steadily refused to ride in the 
street cars on principle, rather than to submit 
to the extortion. Our street car lines are well 
patronized as it is, and ought to pay well with- 
out resorting to any petty extortions to increase 
their revenues. 

To the humbler class of citizens residing in 
the suburbs, as most of our workingmen do, 
this change to five-cent fares will be very wel- 
come. It will not now matter to them whether 
they have tickets or coin when they get on a 
street car, as it costs them no more in either 
case, and we have no doubt that the measure 
will in the long run be to the benefit of the 
railroad companies as well as the passengers. 

The old extravagant habits in vogue in the 
early days of California will not do any longer, 
and one by one the little impositions of com- 
panies and tradesmen, which have been so long 
submitted to, must give way to a changed style 
of living. The old 12 L cent and 6J cent swin- 
dles will soon be things of the past, although 
we still pay 15 cents for articles marked 12^ 
cents oftener than we ought to. The difficulty 
of making exact change is taken advantage of 
to charge 15 cents for things worth only 10 
cents. For instance, the fare to Oakland on 
the ferries is the same as it has been for years, 
15 cents, when 10 cents would be ample. Oak- 
laud, Alameda, Berkeley and vicinity now con- 
tain more than twice as many inhabitants as 
they did a few years since, and the travel by 
ferry has increased proportionately. The cost 
of operating the ferries is no more now than 
then, although the revenues must have been 
largely increased. Still, a single fare is 15 
cents each way, although on Sundays in sum- 
mer a ticket to go and return to Oakland is 
sold for 25 cents. When the price for single 
fare is reduced to 10 cents it will be very much 
better than now, for on Sundays and holidays 
our workingmen delight to get a Bight at grass 
and trees and breathe the fresh air on the bay, 
provided they can do so at a reasonable cost. 
We hope this change will soon occur and that 
before many years the fare will be even lower, 
so that it will cost no more to cross the bay than 
to go to the Mission. 



A Prescription for Phylloxera. 

An Italian, SignorTorrinetti, has been treating 
the phylloxera evil very much as doctors treat a 
compound malady, by applying a remedy made 
of ingredients to reach all points. He aims to 
invigorate the vine and at the same time kill 
the insects. A German agricultural journal 
thus describes his process and its results: 
Having observed that poor land is particularly 
favorable to the development of the phylloxera, 
Torrinetti lays great stress upon the necessity 
of liberal manuring in conjunction with the ap- 
plication of such chemical agents as may be em- 
ployed for the direct destruction of the pest. 
In his own practice he uses a mixture of 50 
grammes of Peruvian guano, 2 grammes of ace- 
tate of baryta, 2 grammes of acetate of lead, 
and 1 gramme of acetate of zinc, for each plant. 
The method of application is extremely easy, 
the mixture being simply put into a small hole 
about six inches deep at the root of each vine 
stock, and immediately covered in with earth. 
The guano furnishes the necessary manure for 
the nourishment of the vine, and the other 
three ingredients, as soon as they are dissolved 
by the moisture of the earth, penetrate all parts 
of the plant with astonishing rapidity, and 
cause the death of all insects upon it without 
the slightest injury to the vine itself. At pres- 
ent Signor Torrinetti has treated about 500 
vines in this manner, and has met with com- 
plete success in every case. 



News in Brief. 

Indians have started on the war-path in 
western Texas. 

Thb Hon. Nathan Coombs, the founder of 
Napa, is dead. 

There was taken to China in treasure from 
herein 1S77, $17,601,273. 

A new tariff bill is being diligently prepared, 
and will be reported after the recess. 

Seven vessels and 37 men were lost by the 
Gloucester fishing fleet the past season. 

An average of rive carloads of wheat per day 
are now arriving at Long wharf, Oakland. 

The Collateral Loan and Savings Bank, of 
this city, has filed a petition in bankruptcy. 

There were 2,937 marriage licenses issued in 
this city in 1877, and 243 divorces granted. 

The French Government has requested Don 
Carlos to leave France. He started Thursday. 

It is stated that Bismarck is trying to break 
up the French exposition by some diplomatic 
movement. 

Ouk police force made 19,262 arrests during 
1877, and the Police Court tines amounted to 
$23,276. 

The Commissioner of Internal Revenue is 
opposed to any change iu the tax on whisky 
and tobacco. 

A crazy man threw himself under the wheels 
of the San Jose train last week and was crushed 
to death. 

New law suits, civil, were instituted in this 
city in 1877 to the number of 3,969, the Court 
fees being .'$00,831. 75. 

There are less than 2,000 acres of Govern- 
ment land iu Iowa and the Sioux City land 
office has been discontinued. 

The debts of the Pioneer Bank, thus far 
ascertained, amount to over $800,000, divided 
among 1, 150 persons. 

The notorious Northampton bank robbers, 
Scott and Dunlap, have each been sentenced to 
20 years in the State prison. 

The American ship Nimhia, with wheat from 
Portland to Cork, was lost off the Columbia 
river bar the first day out. 

The Internal Revenue receipts during 1877 
amounted in San Francisco to $1,933,752.46. 
The Custom duties were $6,692,432.56. 

Il is rumored in New York that the Bank of 
Nevada contemplates establishing its own agen- 
cies in New York, London and Paris. 

Courtney challenges any oarsman in the 
United States or Canada for any amount and 
the championship of America — the race to be 
rowed prior to the Trickett match, in July 
next. 

Over $53,000,000 has been paid out by the 
United States Treasury in the past six weeks, 
the greater portion to officers and men in the 
army. 

A dispatch from Yokohama says: Japan has 
renounced all commercial treaties and resumed 
the right to revise her custom duties at 
pleasure. 

Chief Engineer Scannf.ll, of the San Fran- 
cisco tire department, was run over and had his 
collar bone fractured while on the way to a tire 
on Saturday. 

The steamer Whipple and Chin-du-trnn col- 
lided during a fog in the Sacramento river, one 
day last week. The injuries were compara- 
tively slight. 

W. Y. Johnson, formerly of Oregon, is now 
at Yalparaiso, Chile, and writes that common 
laborers receive but 50 cents per day, and 
skilled labor ranges from $1 to 1.50 per day. 

A blind Italian beggar brought suit in the 
County Court last week to recover $100 and 
during the trial it come out that the plaintiff 
had $1,000 to his credit in the savings bank. 

Reports received at the Department of Agri- 
culture indicate that the wheat crop of this 
country for 1877 was about 360,000,000 bushels, 
or 50,000,000 bushels greater than for any pre- 
vious year. 

Ten men, convicted of riot in interfering with 
mining operations last August, have been sen- 
tenced at Wilkesbarre, Pa., to pay fines vary- 
ing from $10 to $100 and imprisonment of from 
30 days to nine month?. 

The track for the Dumbarton railroad is be- 
ing laid on the Alameda marsh, near the bay. 
Piles are being driveu for the wharf, and, before 
long, construction trains will run over the 
Alameda end of the road. 

The Western Union and the Pacific division 
of the Atlantic and Pacific telegraph lines have 
consolidated. Atlantic and Pacific telegraph 
offices on this coast have been discontinued, ex- 
cept at railroad stations. 

Seventy-five thousand tons of Scranton 
coal were sold at auction at New York Friday 
by order of the Lackawanna Company. There 
was a large attendance, and prices were from 10 
to 45 cents per ton more than last month. 

Official intelligence ha3 been received an- 
nouncing the success of the Chinese troops in 
Kashgar. They had fortified Touchtongaran 
and Ask, two strong strategical points. The in- 
habitants were fleeing in terror into Russian 
territory. 

The settlement at the Mint preparatory to 
the incoming of the uew Superintendent, is now 
in progress. During the year now ending the 
operations of the Mint have been unprecedented 
in the record of coinage in any institution in 
the world. 

Complete returns of the business transacted 
at the Bankers' Clearing- house in this city for 
the year 1«77 show that the total amount of 
exchanges effected during that period was 
1519,948,804, of which $497,407,380 was in gold 
and $22,541,424 in silver. 



The Branch Mint in this city is in operation, 

There were 243 divorces granted in this city 
during the year. 

The value of real estate in Alameda, is set 
at $36,389,961. 

Sacramento has a commercial business of 
$25,496,269 in 1877. 

A transit of Mercury over the sun's disc, 
takes place May 6th. 

Dr. Jacob B. Demarest, committed suicide at 
his office in this city this week. 

The Russian Generals have been directed to 
accept a truce when asked for. 

The attack on Erzeroum is to be delayed un- 
til the end of this month. 

The old Bulls-Head Bank, of New York, is 
about to retire from business. 

Burglaries and robberies are becoming 
alarmingly frequent in San Francisco. 

The net gain of San Francisco in population 
by emigration hither in 1877 was 17,293. 

There were 5,503 deaths in the city in 1877, 
of which 3,386 were males and 2,117 females. 

An old man was attacked by hoodlums, and 
shot dead at an early hour on New Year's day. 

Russia has secured a large number of loco- 
motives from manufacturers in Paris, France. 

A Commission is to be appointed to investi- 
gate the border troubles on the Rio Grande. 

Superintendent of Construction Welsh, of 
St. Louis, has been removed by the President. 

The yield of the precious metals of the Pa- 
cific States and Territories for 1877 was $98,- 
421,754. 

H. L. Dodge has taken the place of 0. H. 
La Grange as Superintendent of the U. S. mint 
in this city. 

The clerk of the Police Court of this city has 
been arrested on a charge of embezzling 
about $5,000. 

The contractors of the Brazil railroad will 
not be allowed to employ colored men iu the 
construction of it. 

The Harbor Commissioners report that 13,- 
250 feet of the new sea wall for the city front 
will cost $4,362,086. 

Property in this city worth $997,396.98 was 
destroyed by fire last year, the insurance on the 
same being $2,098,679.92. 

The situation on the Caffre frontier (Africa) 
is very dangerous and troops are being sent 
from England to Cape Town. 

B. P. Kooser, an old pioneer, and until 
lately, editor and proprietor of the Santa Cruz 
Sentinel, died at Santa Cruz on January 1st. 

A terrible hard winter is anticipated in 
England, Scotland and South Wales, and the 
average poor rate will probably be higher than 
it has been in 20 years. 

A dispatch from Washington states that the 
law officers of the Department of the Interior 
are making detailed examination of the opera- 
tions of the desert land grabbers. 

Experiments are being carried on in Prussia, 
by order of the German military authorities, 
to determine how far it may by practicable to 
employ the telephone for military purposes. 

The Senate Fish Committee, the Fish Com- 
missioners and a committee of fishermen have 
met in Canada, to discuss matters connected 
with the salmon of the Sacramento river. 

A number of wealthy gentlemen have 
bought the large conservatories imported from 
England by the late .lames Lick, and sold as 
part of his estate, and presented them to the city 
to be erected in Golden Gate park. 

The firm of Spaulding & Barto, printers, for 
many years in the same building as our edito- 
rial and composing rooms, No. 414 Clay street, 
have admitted to partnership, Mr. Solon H. 
Williams, and now style themselves Spauld- 
ing, Barto & Co. 

A very gratifving feature of this New Year's 
day in Washington was the general absence of 
wines and other intoxicating beverages from 
the tables of persons, either in public or private 
life, who received visitors. Washington has 
set at least one good example to other cities. 



Drilling for Prizes in Colorado. — A 
contest of considerable interest to all rock dril- 
lers was held in Colorado recently. The Sun- 
shine Courier says that at the recent Boulder 
county fair, $60 and $35 were offered iu pre- 
miums to the pair of men and single man who 
drilled the greatest depth in granite blocks in 10 
minutes' time. The contestants were to furnish 
their own tools. The match was open to the 
whole State. No limit was fixed to the number 
of drills used by each within the allotted time. 
The Sunshine Courier presented the result thus: 
The Yates Brothers, of Sugar Loaf district, won 
the double handed match, drilling 16.2 inches 
within the given time. C. M. Johnson, of 
Corning tunnel, won the single-handed match, 
drilling four drills, and reaching a depth of 9. 1 
inches. We presume the men were sadly 
"blown," at the end of the 10 minutes; since 
the fact is, that the least depth — 5. 3 inches — is 
antra work for a man when not working against 
time. 



To make Cow's Milk more Digestible. — 
In a German paper we note a hint given by Dr. 
Schaal with reference to the taking of cow's 
milk by persons who have a weak stomach. He 
says he has always succeeded in avoiding any 
evil effects by eating a little salt on bread either 
before or after taking the milk. When he 
omits to do this, a single glass of milk will pro- 
duce diarrhoea, whereas with salt he can take a 
whole liter. 



Woodward's Oardrns has the following new attractions 
The buffalo chase; large whale skeleton; new museum; 
improvements in the zoological department, besides the 
•ther features whioh have mode it popular. 



TENTS AND CONVENTIONS. 



List of U. S. Patents Issued to Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 



[From Official Repoits roa the Mining and Scientific 
Press, DEWEY it CO., Publishers and U. S. 
and Koreion Patent Aorntb. ] 

By Special Dispatch from Washinfrton, D. C. 

Week Ending December 4th. 

Books for Carrying Fishing Flies. — Henry H. Holt, 
Kalama, W. T. 

Piston Water Meter.— Alvah C. Austin, Oakland, Cal. 

Railway Air Brakes— N. W. Green and G. W. Hoag, 
of San Jacinto, and T. P. Cleveland, of Mountain House, 
Cal. 

Ore Roasting Furnace.— E. G. Hall, Healdaburg, Cal. 

Windmill — R. R. Lander, Turlock, Cal. 

Light Weight RorE — A. D. Leday. 8. F. 

Harvester.— Samuel Spencer, Turlock, Cal. 

Well Boring Machine.— W. F. Vaughn and S. Jack- 
soi., Stockton, Cal. 

Combined Railway and Conduit— J. B. Ward, S. F. 

Garden Valve.— V. Kingwell, S. F. 

Trade-marks. 

Oysters. — Haas Bros. , San Francisco and New York. 

Pulverized Sugar.— Chas. J. Hawley, 3. F. 

Packed and Preserved Fish V. ■• . Meats.— J. O. 
Nanthorn, Astoria, Oregon. 

Week Ending December 11th. 

Well Boring Machinery — J. Bennersheidt, Anaheim, 
Cal 

The Manufacture of Cabinet Jewelry.— W. A. L. 
Miller, S. F. 

Braiding Machines — P. Whelan, S F. 

Nut Locks. —H. D. Rock, Eureka, Nev. 

Screw Wrenches,— E. T. Barlow, S. F. 

Means for Removing and Destroying Sewer Darks. 
S J. Corbet, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Shaft Furnaces for Smelting Tailings and Conden- 
sing Mercury. — G. R. Evans and W. P. Prescott, Carson 
City, Nev. 

Firk Brick Compounds. — G. R. Evans and W. P. Pres- 
cott, Carson City, Nev. 

Overalls.— Henry S. Flood, S. F. 

The Manufacture of Soda from its Sulphates.— F. 
Gutzkow, S. F. 

Bed Lounges.— F. Jemsen, Seattle, W. T. 

Livf Stock Reoister — P. Lyttleton, Austin, Nev. 

Pipe Coupling and Joint— E. T. Stein, S. F. 

Clothes Clamps for Bedsteads — F. Woodward, Siae- 
ramento, Cal. 

Re-issues. 

Concrete Pavements.— 11. Skinner and B Bonnet, S. F. 

Concrete Pavements. — R. Skinner and B. Bonnet, S. F. 
Trademarks 

Whisky. —Anson P. Hotaling, S. F. 

The patents are not ready for delivery by the Patent 

Office until some 14 days aft°- the da* ■ of issue. 

Note. —Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey A; Co., in the shortest time possible (by tel- 
graph or otherwise) at ti.e lowest rates. All patent busi- 
ness for Pacific coast inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. 



pdBUSrf Ef\s' DEp^f\YiMEJ<T. 



The Sonoma Seedling Apple. — We learn 
that trees of this desirable apple, now two 
years from graft, can be had at Shinn's nurseries, 
Niles, Alameda county. These nurserymen ob- 
tained grafts from bearing trees on the premises 
of the originator. They fully corroborate the 
opinion we expressed as to the appearance and 
cjuality of this apple. 



important— Farmers . 

It is often desirable, when wishing to secure 
suitable Farm Hands, such as Teamsters, Milk- 
ers, Plowmen, etc., to know just where to find 
them, and so avoid being imposed upon by the 
numberless tramps with which the country 
abounds. The city is a place where large num- 
bers of men from all parts of the country con- 
gregate, and among the number many good, 
strong able-bodied farmers are to be found 
awaiting employment. Messrs. Crosett & Co.,. 
623 and 625 Clay street, are daily receiving ap- 
plications from these sturdy yeomanry, com- 
posed of Germans, Scandinavians, Americana 
and Irish, who wish to be sent out to work on 
some farm, and should any of our readers wish 
to avail themselves of the opportunity to pro- 
cure such persons for any work they wish ac- 
complished, they can address, giving full par- 
ticulars, Crosett & Co. , 623 and 625 Clay street, 
San Francisco, and particular attention will be 
given to supply them with good men. 

TO QUERISTS. 

In propounding questions to the editorial, patent or bus- 
iness departments of this office, letter writer* should be 
careful to enclose a stamp and addressed envelope If 
they wish prompt answer. If we were to furnish time, pa- 
per, envelojics and stamps, ALL free to parties who address 
this office on matters of more interest to themselves than 
to us, five hundred dollars a year would not cover the 
expense. This hint, however, is not intended for parties 
writing in our own or the public interest, or who would 
be obliged to delay writing at any time for want of an ex- 
tra stamp. ' 

The Best Fileholder.— After having used Dewey's 
patent elastic hinge fileholder for over a year past, the 
Vm cheerfully indorses it as the best newspaper file- 
holder in existence, possessing important advantages over 
any and all others in use. The holders are neat, light and 
convenient, and the newspapors are placed in them with 
the utmost facility and leaBt possible time and exertion. 
Thjy are the simplest, handiest and cheapest of all. Any- 
body keeping files of papers in reading rooms, offices or at 
home, should send at once to the proprietor, A. T. 
Dewey, San Francisco, and get the only proper fileholder. 
Samples by mail fifty cents. — (fold Hill Newt. 



"Cash Paid Promptly."— May Bros.' Galesburg, 111. 
want to hire agents for their late improved Windmill, the 
cheapest, strongest and best in use. Retail price, $50. 
Write for terms. 



The Raby Clothes Line Holder —New inven- 
tion; Everybody wants it; best thing out for agents, 
State and county rights at low figures. For particulars' 
address W. W. FLETCHER, 

Loudonville, Ohio. 



January 5, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBES 



13 



s. p- 



Note. — Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, January 2d, 1878. 
The usual broken week has passed in trade, and al- 
though little has been done, the situation is now one of 
expectancy and eagerness to launch upon the trade of the 
new year. Many merchants are now busy with their an- 
nual inventorying, and others a little fearful of the season 
and the standing of their interior retail creditors. This 
makes the present days somewhat dull, but the feeliug is 
hopeful. 

Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 
The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been 
as recorded in the following table: 



Thursday. . . 

^ Friday 

Saturday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday . 



Cal. Average. 



12s 7d@12s lid 
12s 8d@12s lid 
12s 8d(»12s lid 
12s 8d(312s lid 
New Year holiday. 
12s 8d(312s lid 



Club. 



12s 10d@13s 2d 
12s lld@13s 3d 
12s lld@13s 3d 
12s lld@13s 3d 
New Year holiday. 
12s lld@13s 3d 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date in former years as follows: 

Average. Club. 

1875 10s 6d@lls — lis — @lls 6d 

1876 10s 10d<ails 2d lis — @lls 6d 

1877 12s 8d@12s lid 12s lld@13s 3d 

The Foreign Review. 

London, January 1st. — The Mark Lane Express says: 
The appearance of the young Wheat plant is satisfactory, 
in spite of the germination of grain having been slow, 
owing to ths saturated condition of the soil. The weather 
has been very severe in Scotland, but in the south a fair 
breadth of land is under Wheat. In other districts, farm 
labor is still much behind hand. The position of the 
Grain trade at Mark Lane and the Provinces is decidedly 
strong, and with the turn of the year it is likely that con- 
siderable activity will ensue. Supplies of English Wheat 
continue very limited, and though holders have not been 
able to obtain higher prices, the tendency has certainly 
been in their favor. Imports of foreign Wheat into Lon- 
don have been more moderate, last Monday's returns 
showing a total of only 48,000 quarters, this decrease 
being due to a falling off in the arrivals of Indian produce 
and the closing up of the North Russian ports. The mo9t 
noticeable feature of the week has been a revival of the 
demand for Wheat from country millers, who have pur- 
chased more freely at the extreme prices of the previous 
week, and on Friday at an advance of 6d to Is perquarter. 
A steady Continental demand is also observable, as ex- 
ports continue at the rate of 8,000 and 9,000 quarters per 
week, and a fair outward movement invariably exercises a 
hardening effect on prices. Stocks of Wheat in London 
are considerable, but consist mainly of Calcutta, and 
other hard varieties. The price of American, and such 
descriptions as are valued for their flour-producing prop- 
erties, has been in no wise depressed. The- increased 
country demand is a natural result of the wants of the 
country after a deficient harvest. It is not unreasonable 
to look for a hardening of prices, now that there is likely 
to be a diminution in the scale of imports. There have 
been numerous arrivals of Maize cargoes at ports of call, 
and there are more sellers than buyers, but 20s 9d(t*30s 
have been paid for mixed American. The spot trade for 
this article has been steady, and last week s prices were 
well maintained. The arrival of Wheat cargoes at ports 
of call have been so moderate, and the demand so steady, 
that prices have been well supported. Barley is steady, 
while Maize, under the pressure of large arrivals, has 
ruled in buyers' favor. 

Freiprnts and Charters. 
For the first time in several months, says the Commer- 
cial News, the freight market shows an improvement, 
slight, to be sure, but still sufficient to warrant the belief 
that bedrock had been reached and that a reaction has set 
in. Wooden ships are now worth £1 12s 6d to Liverpool, 
and iron ships £1 15s. Any lower rate would undoubt- 
edly be refused. Experts place the total amount of Wheat 
in the State available for export at about 75,000 tons, 
which, if we are favored with seasonable rains, will come 
on the market. At present exporters are unwilling to 
take up tonnage owing to the difficulty of procuring suita- 
ble cargoes. At the close we have nominally 35,019 tons 
in port disengaged, though a considerable amount will lay 
up for the new crop, 14,223 tons miscellaneous, and 17,667 
tons to load Wheat. The transactions for the week have 
been: Br ship John Gambles, 1,066 tons, Wheat to Liver- 
pool, £1 15s, chartered in England; ship Annie H. Smith, 
1,503 tons, Wheat to Liverpool, £1 12s 6d; Cork, U. K., 
£1 15s; Continent, £2; Br ship Centaur, 1,571 tons, Wheat 
to Liverpool, £1 12s 6d. 

Eastern Orain Markets. 
New York, December 30th. -The general markets have 
shown a dullness during the week, peculiar to the holiday 
season, but in some kinds of produce, such as Breadstuffs 
and Provisions, there has been an increased export move- 
ment, based largely upon more warlike advices from 
Europe, and the downward tendency of prices has been 
checked. The large purchases of Beef, Pork and Mutton, 
in addition to Grain, for English account, are interpreted 
by many as indicative of a probable involvement of Eng- 
land in the war iu the East. Heavy stores of Wheat in 
southern Russia, and reported large purchases there for 
English account in depreciated Russian currency, coupled 
with possible mediation and peace, serve to render specu- 
lators cautious, and the transactions of the week have 
been confined to the execution of imperative orders. 
Home trade is rather below the usual light average at this 
period of the year. The summer-like weather has re- 
stored the demand for winter fabrics— in clothing, dry 
goods and the fur trade— and it has retarded Pork -packing 
operations and marketing of Hogs in the West. 

Chicago, December 29th. -The week's markets on 'Change 
have been less prolific of developments than usual, as but 
little more than half the week has been devoted to business 
— the rest being the holiday season. Wheat on Wednesday 
opened higher, and good firm prices prevailed throughout 
until to-day, when, with a fafr demand, there was a de- 
cided drop in prices. Sales were made at $1.08i@$l.ll 
Corn was lower, and gradually declined, with no very 
large movement or demand. Sales were made at 42 J@43^c 
Oats were unsettled in a small way, and became easier by 
degrees, with sales at 24J<325c. Pork weakened percepti- 
bly from a firm opening, going down and then reviving 
just at the close. Sales were made at S11.374<3$11.874. 
Lard opened steady and firm, but closed weak ; sales at 
$7.55@$7.75. Receipts for the week: Wheat, 331,000 bush 
els; Corn, 124,000 bushels; Oats, 89,000 bushels. Ship- 
ments: Wheat, 192,000 bushels; Corn, 114,000 bushels; 
Oats, 49,000 bushels. Receipts same time last year: 
Wheat, 197,000 bushels; Corn, 581,000 bushels; Oats, 128,- 
000 bushels. Shipments: Wheat, 86,000 bushels; Corn, 
212,000 bushels; Oats, 64,000 bushels. These figures show 
a tremendous aggregate decline in the movement, which 
is fully accounted for by the condition of the country 
roads. Closing cash prices are: Wheat, S1.08J; Corn, 
42jc; Oats, 44Jc; Rye, 56c; Barley, 57c; Pork, $11.50; 
Lard, S7.57JO. 



Crop Reports. 

New York, December 27th.— A Tribune Washington 
special says: Reports thus far received at the Department 
of Agriculture, and which will be compiled and published, 
indicate that the Wheat crop of this country for 1877 was 
about 360,000,000 bushels, or about 50,000,000 bushels 
greater than for any previous year. The Corn crop is 
estimated from the same report at 1,300,000,000 bushels. 
The crops of Oats and Potatoes are correspondingly large. 
Of Wheat it is estimated that 110,000,000 bushels can be 
spared for export. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, December 30th.— There is little of impor- 
tance that can be said regarding the Wool market. This, 
the last week of the year, as is usually the case, has been 
devoted by manufacturers to looking around, and, as a 
rule, the few purchases made are deliverable after the 1st 
of the month, so that the amounts will not be included in 
the accounts of 1877. In holding off the market, manu- 
facturers, it is believed, are pursuing a very foolish pol- 
icy, as but little doubt exists as to the stability of prices, 
and from the present prospects values are likely soon to 
take a turn upward. The telegraphic advices from San 
Francisco, giving the stock of Fall there as 750,000 lbs, 
has given a firm tone to the market here and holders are 
less inclined to seek buyers. Texas continues neglected, 
but current prices are firm. Fleeces are taken only in 
small parcels, but steady prices rule. Sales for the week 
are: 10,000 tbs Australian at 46c; 96,000 ths Western Texas, 
18@24c; 3,000 tbs snper pulled, 39<340c; 55,000 lbs No. 1, 
X and XX Ohio, 42^@46c; 5,000 lbs Wisconsin, 40£c; 4,000 lbs 
half-blood Western, 41Jc; 27,000 lbs unwashed do, 27@ 
27Je; and 11,000 lbs Georgia, 251 bags s»per pulled, 60 do 
extra do, 25 do black do, 17 do No. 2 do and 3.000 tbs 
medium New Jersey and 8,000 lbs fine unwashed Western 
— on private terms. 

Philadelphia, December 28th.— Wool is in fair demand, 
but sales are light, owing to a broken week, and manu- 
facturers taking account of stock. Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
West Virginia XX and above, 44@47c; X, 43@45c; 
medium, 44@46c; coarse, 35@40c. New York, Michigan, 
Indiana and Western fine, 39@42c; medium, 44@45c; 
coarse, 35(336c; combing, washed, 50(356c; do unwashed, 
36@37c; Canada combing, 50@51c; fine unwashed, 2S(t* 
30c; coarse and medium unwashed, 29(332c; tub washed, 
40(344c; Colorado fine and medium, 18@25c; do coarse for 
carpets, 17@18c; No. 1 and super pulled, 30@36c; extra 
and merino pulled, 37(340e; Texas fine and medium, 20@ 
25c; do coarse, 14@16Jc; California fine and medium, 25 
@30c; do coarse, 22@27c. 

Domestic Produce. 
The following table shows the S. F. receipts of Domes- 
tic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, as com- 
pared with the receipts of previous weeks: 



Articles. 



Flour, quarter sacks . 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, sacks 

Corn, centals 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales 



Week. Week. Week. Week. 
Dec. 12. Dec. 19. Dec. 26. Jan. 2. 



15,881 
147,937 
8,652 
778 
5,379 
1,501 
19,270 
2,449 
287 
39 
1,122 



72,847 
81,518 
14,143 

727 
2,258 
10,440 
15,953 

755 

331 
81 

870 



Bag's — An advance is noted in hand-sewed Wool Sacks. 
Other Bags are unchanged and the trade of the week has 
been very limited. 

Barley — Barley is purchasable at a point lower than a 
week ago. There are few transactions, but the Barley is 
firmly held We note sales during the week: 1,000 sks 
light Chevalier Feed, $1,624; 40 sks old Bay Feed, $1.65; 
500 do dark Coast do, $1.60. 

Beans — Receipts of Beans have been small and high 
prices are maintained. 

Corn— A decline has occurred. We note sales: 150 
sks large White, S1.57J; 450 do large Yellow, $1,574; 220 
do small Round, $1.76. 

Dairy Produce— Butter prices are unchanged and 
dealers report the trade dull. Supplies seem still in excess 
of requirements. Pickled and Firkin Butter can be bought 
at considerable concession from rates prevailing a month 
ago. 

Eggs— Eggs are weak and sold at a decline of 5c per 
dozen. 

Feed — All prices are stationary. Hay sales: 64 tons 
Wild Oat at $16; 38 do Cow, $14 per ton. 

Fruit — Apples from Oregon are abundant. Straw- 
berries are still received but are neglected. Some fine 
grapes, considering the season, have sold as high as $4 
per box. 

Hops — The local market is reported without transac- 
tions of any amount, although negotiations for sale are 
plenty. Emmet Wells reports the New York market for 
the week ending December 21st as follows: 

There is a continued demand for low grades at a cost of 
from 5 to 7c, our quotations on all other descriptions be- 
ing for the present nominal. There is a marked falling 
off in the receipts; the shipments to Europe, however, 
continue quite liberal, thus preventing much accumula- 
tion of stock here. According to the reports from Lon- 
don, our Hops seem to be meeting with the usual good 
favor in that market, owing probably to their soundness 
of character and cheapness. Our home brewers are also 
stocking up more freely, feeling assured that prices are 
low enough, and as an investment they can't do better 
than lay in a year's supply. 

Oats — Oats are unchanged. Sale 300 sks good Coast 
Feed, $1.90. 

Onions — Times are ruinous for Onions. The receipts 
have been far in excess of the demand and it has been 
impossible to clear the wharves at any price. We are 
told that sales were made at 10c per sack. Prices to-day 
are quotable at 25c per sack to 62jc per ctl, according to 
quality. 

Potatoes — Potatoes have advanced, as shown in our 
list. New Potatoes are beginning to arrive and prices 
will be determined by our next report. 

Provisions— There is no change in prico and but 
little doing. Provision merchants arc not pushing sales 
just now. 

Poultry— Poultry has sold fairly but with nothing 
like the Christmas activity. The market is now quiet. 

Vegetables— Beets have advanced to $1.50 per ctl 
and carrots have slightly improved. Marrowfat Squash 
is $1 lower per ton for the best lots. 

Wheat — Some of the largest mills have shut down 
for the time being and there is comparatively no demand 
for Milling Wheat. The best Shipping is slightly ad- 
vanced. We note sales: 792 ctls choice Walla Walla Club, 
to a shipper, $2.32J; 266 ctls Superfine, $2.05; 1,300 do 
good Shipping, alongside. 

Wool — Prices are unchanged except a possible im- 
provement of lc for the choicest. We note sales: 6,000 
tt>B Colusa County, 16c; 220,000 lbs various grades, 12@20c. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

r WHOLESALE. 1 

Wednesday m., January 2, 1878. 



BEANS* Almonds, hd shl lb 6 (3 

Bayo. ctl 4 00(34 25 Softsh'l.. 12 * 

Butter 3 00 (33 20 ~ 

Pea 3 30 (33 45 

Red 3 75 @4 00 

Pink 3 85 @4 124 

Sm'l White 3 20 "33 25 

Lima 4 25 («4 50 

RROOM CORN 



Common, lb 2 @ 

Choice 3 (3 

CHICtORV, 

California 4 @ 4$ 

German 6£@ 7 

COTTON. 

Cotton, lb 15 (3 18 

DAIRV PRODUCE, ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, lb 275(8 32. 

Point Reyes 32l(a — 

Pickle Roll 2240* 27i 

FirHln 22}(3 26 

Western Reserve.. 174(3. 20 

New York — @ — 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal, lb... . 19(3 21 

Eastern 18 @ 20 

N. Y. State 21 @ 22* 

EGGS. 

Cal. fresh, doz.... 424@ 45 

Ducks' 35 (3 — 

Oregon 35 @ 40 

Eastern 30 ft* 40 

do Pickled 20 @ 25 

EEED. 

Bran, ton 27 50 (828 50 

Corn Meal 38 00 (340 00 

Hay 14 00 @23 00 

Middlings 40 00 (3 

Oil Cake Meal. ..44 00 (3 

Straw, bale 75 (g 80 

FLOUR. 

Extra, bbl 7 124(37 50 

Superfine 5 50 <c6 00 

Graham 6 00 (§6 75 

FRESH .MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y, lb 61 7 

Second 5 (3 64 

Third 4 @ 4} 

Mutton 4a@ 5 

Spring Lamb — @ — 

Pork, undressed... 5 (3 5^ 

Dressed 7i<S 71 

Veal 5 @ 6J 

Milk Calves 6 (3 7 

GRAIN. ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl...l 60 @1 65 

Brewing 1 70 (31 15 

Chevalier 1 80 @1 85 

Buckwheat 1 50 tgil 55 

Corn. White 1 55 @1 60 

Yellow 1 65 @1 60 

Small Round.. ..1 70 (31 75 

Oats 1 70 -32 00 

Milling 2 00 ict2 12£ 

Rye 2 40 (£2 45 

Wheat, Shipping.. 2 30 (32 35 

Milling 2 35 @ — 

HIDES. 

Hides, dry 17 @ 174 

Wet salted 8 @ 9 

HONEY. ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 30@ 31 

Honey in comb. ... 18 (3 224 

do, No 2 124@ 15 

Dark 12|@ 15 

Strained 12J(a 14 

HOPS. 

Shipping 8 @ 10 

Choice brands — 10 @ 11 
NUTS-Jobbiiig. 

Walnuts, Cal 8 (3 10 

do, Chile 7 (3. 8 



Brazil 14 (8 16 

Pecans 17 <3 18 

Peanuts.'. '3 (3 5 

Filberts 15 @ 16 

ONIONS. 

Alviso 25 @ 621 

Union City, ctl.... 25 @ 624 

Stockton 25 @ 62$ 

Sacramento River. 25 (3 624 
POTATOES. 

Petaluma, ctl 1 25 (91 50 

Humboldt 1 50 '31 624 

Culfey Cove — (cfc — 

Early Rose, new. 1 75 u»l 90 
Half Moon Bay... — @ — 

Kidney 1 25 @1 50 

Sweet 75 @1 00 

POULTRY di GAME. 

Hens, doz 6 00 (37 00 

Roosters 5 00 (37 00 

Broilers 5 50 (36 00 

Ducks, tame 7 50 (38 50 

do, Mallard 2 50 @3 00 

Geese, pair 2 00 (32 50 

Wild Gray 1 50 (32 00 

White 75 .31 00 

Turkeys 16 (3 20 

do, Dressed 18 @ 23 

Snipe, Eng 1 25 @1 50 

do, Common 75 @1 00 

Rabbits 1 00 @ 

Hare 1 50 @ — 

Quail 1 25 <§ - 

venison 5 (3 8 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, L't, lb 134(3 

Medium 125(3 

Heavy 12 @ 

Lard 11 (3 

Cal. Smoked Beef 94(3 

Eastern — @ 

Shoulders, Cover'd 84@ 

Hams, Cal 12 @ 

Dupee's 154@ 

Boyd'B — (3 

Davis Bros' 154@ 

Magnolia — (3 

Whittaker 16 @ 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa 

Canary 7 (3 

Clover, Red 18 @ 

White 50 @ 

Cotton 6 @ 

Flaxseed 34(8 

Hemp 6 @ 

Italian Rye Grass 35 (g 

Perennial 35 (3 

Millet 10 @ 

Mustard, White... 8 @ — 

Brown 24(3 34 

Rape 3 (3 4 

Ky Blue Grass 20 @ — 

2d quality 18 @ — 

Sweet V Grass 1 00 @ — 

Orchard 30 @ 35 

Red Top 18 (3 20 

Hungarian 8 @ 12 

Lawn 50 @ — 

Mesquit 20 @ 25 

Timothy 9 @ 94 

TALLOW. 

Crude, lb 6i@ 6J 

Refined 8i@ 9 

WOOL. ETC. 

FALL. 

Burry 

Southern, free. . . . 
San Joaquin, free. 
Choice Northern. 
Burry, Northern.. 



14 

122 
124 
14 
10 

lj 
124 
16 

16 

164 



6 @ 12 



12 



10 @ 

11 <a 
li @ 
16 @ 
14 (3 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

[WHOLESALE. 1 



Wednesday m., January 2, 1878. 



RAGS-Jobblnss. 

Eng Standard Wheat. 9 '3 94 

Neville & Co's 
Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 9 @ 94 

24x36 -@— 

23x40 -@— 

Machine Swd, 22x36. 9 (3 9J 

Flour Sacks, halves.. . . 84(^104 

Quarters 5,(3 64 

Eighths 4 @ 41 

Hessian, 60 inch 15 @— 

45 inch 84@ 

40 inch — @ — 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 34 lb.. 45 ?50 

Machine Sewed 42^(3— 

4 lb do 474(3— 

Standard Gunnies 15 @ — 



CANDLES. 

Crystal Wax 17 @174 

Eagle 14 @— 

Patent Sperm 25 (330 

CANNED GOODS. 
Assorted Pie Fruits, 

24 lb cans 2 75 @3 00 

Table do 3 75 (34 25 

Jams and Jellies. .4 25 @ — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 50 @ — 

Sardines, qr box..l 65 (ml 90 

Hf Boxes 3 00 @ — 

Preserved Beef, 

2 ft), doz 4 00 <a — 

do Beef, 41b.doz.6 50 @ — 
Preserved Mutton, 

2 It), doz 4 GO @ — 

Beef Tongue 6 50 @ — 

Preserved Ham, 

2 lb, doz 6 50 (3 — 

Deviled Ham, 1 lb, 

doz 5 50 @ — 

do Ham, *lb doz.3 .00 @ — 
COAL— Jobbing. 
Australian, ton.. 7 75 (W 8 00 

Coos Bay 6 50 (3 7 00 

Bellingham Bay. 6 50 @- - 

Seattle 7 00 @— 

Cumberland 14 00 @ 

Mt Diablo 4 75 @ 6 75 

Lehigh 22 00 (3 

Liverpool 7 00 @ 8 00 

West Hartley. .. 7 50 (3 8 00 

Scotch 7 00 (3 8 00 

Scranton 13 00 (316 00 

Vancouver Id . . . 7 50 (3— — 

Charcoal, sack.. . 75 (3 

Coke, bbl 60 @ 

COFFEE. 

Sandwich Id, lb. 214@ 

Costa Rica 19 @ 19, 

Guatemala 19 <3 19i 

Java 25 (3 

Manila 19 @ 19J 

Ground, in cs... 25 (g 

FISH. 

Sac'to Dry Cod.. 5 @ 6 
do hi cases. . 64(3 7 

Eastern Cod 7J(3 

Salmon, hbls.... 9 00 (310 00 

Hf bbls 4 75 (3 5 25 

2 lt> cans 3 10 ©3 20 

Pkld Cod, bbls. .22 00 (3 

Hf bbls 11 00 @ 

Mackerel, No. 1, 

Hf Bbls 11 5) (312 00 

In Kits 3 0) (3 

Ex Mess 3 75 (3 

1'kld Herring, bx 3 00 (3 3 50 

Boston Smkd H'k i) @ 50 
LIME, Etc. 

Lime, Sta Cruz, 
bbl 2 00 &** 25 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 75 @ 3 50 

Portland 4 75 @ 5 50 



Plaster, Golden 

Gate Mills.... 3 00 @ 3 25 
Laud Plaster, tn 10 00 @12 50 

NAILS. 
Ass'ted sizes, keg 3 25 @ 4 00 

OILS. 
Pacific Glue Co's 
Neatsfoot, No 1.1 00 @ 90 

Castor. No 1 1 10 (3 — 

do, No. 2 1 00 @ — 

Baker's A A 1 25 (31 30 

Olive, Plagniol....5 25 @5 75 

Possel 4 75 @5 25 

Palm, lb 9 (3 — 

Linseed, Raw, bbl . 77 @ — 

Boiled 80 (3 - 

Cocoanut 60 (3 — 

Cbinanut.cs 68 @ 70 

Sperm 1 60 (31 65 

Coast Whales 60 (3 65 

Polar, refined 60 @ - 

Lard 1 10 @1 15 

Oleophine 27 @ — 

Devoe's Bril't 27 (3 30 

Photolite 29@ — 

Nonpariel. . . , 50 @ — 

Eureka 224<3 25 

Barrel kerosene. . . 22A@ 25 

Downer Ker 224(3 25 

Elaine 45 (3 — 

PAINTS. 
Pure White Lead. 95(3 10J 

Whiting 1J@ — 

Putty 4 (3 5 

Chalk H(# — 

Paris White 2l@ — 

Ochre 34@ — 

Venetian Red 34@ — 

Averill Mixed 
Paint, gal. 

White & tints. . .2 00 (32 40 
Green, Blue & 

Ch Yellow 3 00 @3 50 

Light Red 3 00 (33 50 

Metallic Roof... 1 30 @1 60 
RICE. 

China No. 1, lb.... 6 (3 64 

Hawaiian 5 @ 5j 

SALT. 
Cal. Bay, ton.... 15 00 (325 00 

Common 10 00 («;12 00 

Carmen Id 15 00 @25 00 

Liverpool fine. . .26 00 H'W 00 
SOAP. 

Castile, lb 10 (3 104 

Common brands. . 44@ 6 

Fancy brands 7 (3. 8 

SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 45 (3 50 

Cassia 221(3 25 

Nutmegs 85 (3 90 

Pepper Grain 15 (3 17 

Pimento 15 (^ 16 

Mustard, Cal, 

4 lb glass 1 50 @ — 

SUCiAR, ETC. 

Cal. Cube, lb 12 j@ - 

Powdered 13 (3 — 

Fine crushed 13 (3 — 

Granulated 121(3 — 

Golden 101<# 104 

Hawaiian 10 (3 11 

Cal. Syrup, kgs... 70 (3 — 
Hawaiian Mol'sses 26 (g 30 

TEA. 
Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 35 @ 50 

Country pekd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 60 @ 60 

Hyson 30 (3 35 

Fooo-Chow 35 @ 60 

Japan, 1st quality 40 © 60 
2d quality 25 <0 35 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

fWHOLESALE. ] 



Wednesday m., January 2, 1878. 



FRUIT MARKET. 

Apples, box 75 @ 1 50 

Bananas, bnch.. 2 50 (3 5 00 
Cocoanuts. 100.. 7 00 (3 8 00 

Cranberries, bbl 12 50 @ 

Grants, box 75 (as 1 00 

do, Muscat ... 1 00 (3 1 60 
do, Black Mor. 1 25 (S 1 50 

Limes, Mex 7 50 (312 50 

do, Cal 2 50 (3 3 50 

Lemons, Cal M. 25 00 (330 00 

Sicily, bx 10 00 @ 

Oranges, Mex, 

M 15 00 (325 00 

Tahiti @ 

Cal 25 00 @ 

Pears, box 75 (3 1 00 

Winter Nellis... 1 50 (g 1 75 
Pineapples, doz. 8 00 (310 00 

Plums, lb 6 @ — 

Prunes 5 @ 7 

DRIED FRUIT. 



Apples, lb 4 (3 

Apricots 10 @ 

Citron 23 (3 

Dates 9 (3 

Figs, Black 4 (3 



White 6 (3 8 

Strawber'sch'st.20 00 (3 

Peaches 74@ 8 

Pears 4 (3 8 

Plums 3 (3 4 

Pitted 124® 15 

Prunes 12j@ 16 

Raisins, Cal bx 1 00 (3 2 00 
do, Halves. .. 1 25 (3 2 25 
do, Quarters. 1 50 (3 2 50 

Blowers' 2 75 @ 

Malaga 2 75 (3 3 23 

Zante Currants.. 8 (3. 10 

VEGETARLES. 
Asparagus, lb...— 40 (3— — 

Beets, ctl 1 50 (3 

Cabbage,- 100 lbs 1 25 (3 1 50 

Carrots, ctl 50 (3 55 

Cauliflower, doz 50 (§ 75 
Garlic, New. tb. . 

Lettuce, doz 

Parsnips, tb 

Horseradish 

Squash, Marrow 

fat, tn 5 00 (3 7 00 

Turnips, ctl 1 60 @— — 

White 1 00 @ 



14@- 2 

10 © 

1 (3 

4 @— 6 



LEATHER. 

TWHOLESALE. | 

Wednesday m.. January 2. 

Sole Leather, heavy, lb 26 Q 

Light 22 <( 

Jodot, 8 Kil., doz 48 00 <s 

11 to 13 Kil 65 00 

14 to 19 Kil 80 00 G 

Second Choice, 11 to 16 Kil 55 00 $ 

Cornellian, 12 to 16 Kil 57 00 6 

Females, 12 to 13 Kil 63 00 (< 

14 to 16 Kil 71 00 « 

Simon Ullmo, Females, 12 to 13 Kil 58 00 (i 

14 to 15 Kil 66 00 6 

16 to 17 Kil 72 00 <i 

Simon, 18 Kil 61 00 (i 

20 Kil 65 00 « 

24 Kil 72 00 i 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00 

KipB, French, lb 1 00 (j 

Cal. doz 40 00 d 

French Sheep, all colors 8 00 d 

Eastern Calf for Backs, lb 1 00 (< 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, doz 9 00 (j 

For Linings 5 50 (i 

Cal. Russet, Sheep Linings 1 75 ^ 

Boot Legs, French Calf, pair 4 00 ( 

Good French Calf 4 00 d 

Best Jodot Calf 5 00 (j 

Leather, Harness, lb 35 (, 

Fair Bridle, doz 48 00 

Skirting, lb 33 (, 

Welt, doz 30 00 

Buff, ft 18 ( 

Wax Side 17 < 



LUMBER. 

Wednesday m., January 2, 1878. 



CARGO PRICES OF 
REDWOOD. 

Rough, M 14 00 

Refuse 10 00 

Clear 24 00 

Clear Refuse 14 00 

Rustic 27 50 

Refuse 20 00 

Surfaced 24 00 

Refuse 14 00 

Flooring 26 00 

Refuse 14 00 

Beaded Flooring 26 00 

Refuse 14 00 

Half-inch Siding 20 00 

Refuse 16 00 

Half-inch Surfaced 20 00 

Refuse 15 00 

Half-inch Battens 18 00 

Pickets, Rough 12 00 

Rough, Pointed 14 00 

Fancy, Pointed 18 00 

Shingles 2 00 



I'K.l.T SOIND PINE. 

RETAIL PKIOB. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Fencing 18 00 

Flooring and Step 28 00 

Narrow 30 00 

2d quality 25 00 

Laths 3 50 

Furring, lineal ft I 

REDWOOD. 
RETAIL price. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Refuse 15 00 

Pickets, Rough 18 00 

Pointed 20 00 

Fancy 25 00 

Siding 22 50 

Surfaced & Long Beaded30 00 

Flooring 32 50 

Refuse 22 50 

Half-inch Surfaced 32 50 

Kustic, No. 1 32 50 

Battens, lineal ft 

Shingles. M 2 25 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 



Butter, California 

Choioe, tt> 

Cheese 

Eastern 

Lard, Cal 

Eastern 

Flour, ex. fam, bbl8 

Com Meal, lb 

Sugar, wh. crshd 

Light Brown 

Coffee, Green 

Tea, Fine Black... 

Finest Japan. ... 
Candles, Admt'e . . 
Soap, Cal 



Wednesday m., January 2. 1878. 

Rice 

Yeast Pwdr. doz. .1 50 
Cau'd Oysters doz2 00 
Syrup, S F Gold'n 75 
Dried Apples, tb.. 10 1, 

Ger. Prunes 124<< 

Figs. Cal 9 1 

Peaches 11 

OilB. Kerosene 50 1 

Wines, Old Port. ..3 50 1 

French Claret 1 00 1 

Cal, doz bot 3 00 (. 

Whisky, O K, gal. .3 50 @5 00 
French Brandy. . ..4 00 @8 00 




Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Shtro & Co.] 

San Francisco, January 2. 3 p. m. 
Legal Tenders in 8. F., 11 a. m., 971(3972. Silver, 4J@5 
Gold in New York. 102|. 

Gold Bars, 890(3910. Silver Bars, 8(315 $ cent, dis- 
count. 

Exchange on New York, J%; on London bankers, 494; 
Commercial 50; Paris, five francs $ dollar; Mexican 
dollars. 93. 

London Consols, 94 11-16; Bonds, 105J. 

Quicksilver in S. F.. by the flask. 38 lb. 46<3474<J. 



Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

Week Ending January 1, 1878. 

HIGHEST AND LOWEST BAROMETER. 

Dec 26 Dec. 27 Dec. 28 Dec. 29 Dec. 30 Dec. 31 Jan. 



30.24 
30.10 



30.18 
30.09 



30.11 

30.07 



30.17 
30.07 



30.19 30.18 
30.13 30.13 



MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM THERMOMETER. 



79 
N 



I S I 

I 88 I 
I N I 



68 
46 



63 
44 



MEAN DAILY Ill'MIDlTY. 

81 I 63 I 07 

PREVAILING WIND. 

E i N I N 



71 
N 



30.26 
30.20 



62 
43 



N 



94 



60 I 



WIND — MILES TRAVELED. 

97 I 181 I 03 I 90 I 152 

STATE OK WEATHER. 

Clear. | Fair. | Rainy. | Clear. | Clear. I Cleaa | Clear. 

RAINKALL IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS. 

I I .36 I I 1 I 

Total rain during the season, from July 1, 1877. 4.90 in. 



San Lorenzo, December 6th, 1877. 
Messrs. Dewey & Co.— Gentlemen: I received the Let, 
ters Patent for my invention 011 the 5th hist. , and beg 
to thank you for the gentlemanly and business-like man- 
ner in which you have dealt with me from the beginning 
of my application. I shall always feel it a pleasure to 
recommend you to all I come iu contact with who need 
Letters Patent. Respectfully, Wm. Daj.k. 



14 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January 5, 1878. 



Nurserymen. 



J. ROCK'S NURSERIES, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

for Sale this] seaso: a Large and Complete Stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

Evergreens, Shrubs, and Flowering Plants, 
ORANGE AND LEMON TREES, 

AMERICAN AND JAPANESE PERSIMMON, NUT 
BEARING TREES IS larob VARIETY. HARDY 
PALMS AND ORNAMENTAL PLANTS. 

A Large Assortment of Small Fruits, Etc. 

<y For complotc List send for a Catalogue. 

JOHN ROCK, San Jose. Cal. 

STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

Established in 1853. 
W. B. WEST, Proprietor, 
FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Evergreens, Shrubs and Greenhouse Plants 
Comprising everything NEW and RARE in my li"e. 



SPECIALTIES: 

Raisin Grapes, Figs, Oranges, 



Lem . s, 



AND OTHER TROPICAL FRUITS. 

I have imported superior Figs and Raisin Grapes direct 
from the place of their nati\ity in Europe, and having 
propagated large quantities, can' now offer them to the 
trade and public on the Most Reasonable Terms 

S3S~ Send for catalogue and further information. 

Established over 20 Years in Sacramento. 

% Trees & Plants 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, AT THE CAPITAL NUR. 
SERIES, SACRAMENTO. A FULL ASSORTMENT 
OF EVERYTHING IN THE NURSERY LINE, 
130TH WHOLESALE AND RETAIL, AT 
LOWEST MARKET RATES. 

ALSO, A VERY LARGE AND COMPLETE ASSORT- 
MENT OF FIELD. GARDEN. LAWN AND TREE 
SEEDS, WHICH WE OFFER AT VERY 
LOW RATES, BOTH TO THE TRADE 
AND PLANTER IN LARGE 
OR SMALL LOTS. 

Catalogues, Price-LiBts, and Printed Directions free on 
application. Address, 

W. R. STRONG & CO., 
Nos. 6, 8 and 10 J Street, Sacramento 



HANNAY BROS'. NURSERY, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

Large and splendid stock of Fruit, Shade and Ornamcn 
tal Trees, Vine<, Plants, etc. Apple, Pear, Cherry, Peach, 
Apricot, Almond, (Quince, Olive, Fig, Grapevines and 
small fruits assorted. 

Eucalyptus, Cypress, Pine. Acacia, 
Pepper, Elm, Poplar, Etc., 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 

Our trees are well grown, stalky and healthy, and those 
wishing to plant in large or small quantities would do 
well to call and see us before buying elsewhere. 

Address, 

HANNAY BROS' , San Jose, Cal 



100,000 Blackberry Plants for Sale. 

New varieties. The Early Cluster, Vina Seedling. Mis- 
souri Mamu.oth. Kittatiuuy and Deering Cluster. Price i& 
per 100. 5.000 Gooseberry plants, of the Houghton ami 
American Seedlings; these varieties ale free from mildew, 
and are strong growers and enormous hearers, price. $8 per 
100 hy mail. ¥'J per dozen. Black Naiiles Currant, £1 each 

I will give satisfactory pro.. f from two reliable gentlemen 
who have realized over fTSC per acre from these varieties of 
Blackberry plants last year. 

Cherry Cranberry plants deliv.-red and planted out for 
SIjO per acre, if not less than 50 acres, or I will take an In- 
terest in the same of ten acres. 

On large ordera, time of payment will be given, for part 
of the money, with good Beeurity. H. NYLAND, 

Isleton, Sacramento Couuty,' Cal 

L. M. NEWS0M, 

Nurseryman, Seedsman and Florist, 

East Twelfth Street, near Tubbs' Hotel, East Oak- 
land, Alameda County, Cal. 

E HAS FOR SALE EVERYTHING DESIRABLE IN THE 

Floral, Ornamental Fruit Tree & Seed Line. 

A large stock of Belgian C nnellias and Azaleas, 
Monterey Cypress and Blue Gum. 



FISHER, RICHARDSON & CO.'S NURSERY 

San Padro St., near cor. of Washington, 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Have for sale all kinds of DecMuous Fruit Trees. Also 
the leading varieties of Budded Orange and Lemon (inclu 
ding our Thoruless Sweet Iiincl, of which we have a limited 
number of trees and buds f„r sale), which we otfer at prices 
to suit the tunes. We took the prize ou Budded Orange and 
Lemon trees: also, on Deciduous trees at our Horticultural 
Fair this Kail. Special attention given to mail orders Cor- 
rcsjioudelice solicited, P. O. Box. t>7i;. Los Angeles, ( 'al. 

J. A. FISHER, C. a RICHARDSON, J. O. VEYMOUR 



FRUIT TREES, 

ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
Shrubs and Evergreens. 

LARGE PALMS, 

LARGE AURICARIAS, 

LARGE TREE FERNS, 

ORANGES & LEMONS 

uasi.no the orowth or 

ORANGES & LEMONS A SPECIALTY, 

I offer one year grafted trees of the following sorts of 
Oranges: Naval, Hill's, St. Michael, Konah, Sarmaretta, 
Sumillo, Acapulco, Maltese Blood, Mission, Mediterranean 
Sweet, Pernambuco, and Sicily and Lisbon Lemons, at 
$35 per hundred, >vith twenty other varieties. 

BERNARD S. FOX. 

San Jose, Cal. 



THE DIOSPYROS KAKI, 




OR JAPANESE PERSIMMON. 

Six Best Varieties. All Grafted^ Reliable. 

Viz. : Imperial, oblong, vermillion in color, flesh Boft, 
good cither fresh or dried. Stfion, oblong 1 , rounded 
apex, flesh BOhd and keeps well; early, very pro- 
lific, but smaller. Dain\ut ^"Veddo's best fruit"', oblong, 
rounded apex, color, yellowish red, flesh soft, fine Savored. 
Mikado, flat or round shaped, flesh more solid, orange or 
or yellow colored, (the same as grown by Col. Hnllister). 
Yamato, resembles Imperial, but more productive 
T aikiton, round, quite large, shade slightly green; 
a great favorite in Western Japan. 

SPECIMENS OF FKUT ON EXHIBITION 

HENRY LOOMIS, 
At TRUMBULL'S SEED STORE, 
419 &421 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

200,000 
Australian Gum Trees for Sale, 

T ST RATION'S 

Gum Tree Forest Nursery, 

Hayward's, Alameda Co., Cal. 

These trees are from five to twelve inches hifrh, trans- 
planted regularly into boxes 30x20 inches square, Weljrh- 
injr ISO pounds. 150 or 500 in each box, in splendid con- 
dition for transplanting to their permanent location. 
Price, $8 to $12 per l.OOO. Will contract to plant 
the trees, or furnish superintendence, on low terms. 
Cash must accompany orders for less than 850; or if 
greater than that amoun , city reference must be given. 
Address, JAS. T. STKATTON, 

Kast Oakland, Alameda County, Cal. 



FRUIT TREES FOR SALE. 

I wish to call the attention of those who expect to 
plant out fruit trees ti e coming winter to the fact that 1 
have a few thousand first-class trees which I offer for sale 
at the usual rates. These trees were gr ow II principally 
for myself, on good lard, without iirigation, are stout and 
stalky, ar hoiee varieties, and true to name. Also, 
Eucalyptus Monterey Cypress. Call on or address, 
W. W. SMITH, VacaviUe, 

Solano County, Cal 



SHINtVS NURSERIES. 

NILES, ALAMEDA COUNTY, CAL 

We invite attention to our large stock of 

Fruit Trees and Ornamentals, 

Of the most approved varieties. Also. Coffee. Cork Oak, 
oliv.s. Guavas, English and Black Walnuts, Magnolias. 
l.o<iuats. Butternuts, .small Fruits, Evergreens, Ktc. We 
have a choice stock of the DiospyroB Kaki fjupantse Persim- 
HUM,) of oar own growing, ai.o also, grafted stock imported 
ilirect from several Japan Nurseries. Address for catalogue 
and terms, 

DR. J. W. CLARK, No. 418 California St., San Francisco 
Or JAMES SHINN, Niles, Alameda Co., Cal. 



THE TROPICAL NURSERY 

Keeps only Choice and Rare Fruits, and Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs; tuich a& Japanese Persimmon, Mango, Sweet 
Sup, drape Fruit, Weeping Junipers and Banana Shrub. 
Also, choice Oianges, Lemons and Kaisiu Grap s; with many 
other rare plants t rom all parts of the world- X)eseripti ve 
catalogue and price list sent free to any address. 

CHAS A. REED, Santa Barbara, Cal. 



Fruit and Ornanental Trees. 



Evergrreen Shrubs and Greenhouse Plants 

Comprising Everything New and Rare. 

ORANGE & LEMON TREES. 

ONE TO FIVK YEARS' OLD, MAGNOLIAS, JAPAN 
PERSIMMONS, PALMS, MONTEREY CYPRESS, 
MONTEREY PINE, CAMELLIAS. BLUE Gl"MS, 
(by the 100 or 1,000, very l° w . all transplant- 
ed). ROSES, ETC.. AT THE LOWEST 
MARKET RATES. 

Agent for the Nurseries of B. S. Fox, 
SAN JOSE, CAL. 

TH0S. MEHERIN, 516 Battery Street 

San Francisco, Cal. 

THE GREAT BLOOMINGTON NURSERY 

Founded and managed by Mr. Franklin K. Phcenix, baa 
now passed into my possession, and the immense assort- 
ment of nursery stock must be disposed of. I orris 
ros CASH 

APPLE SEEDLINGS, (For Grafting) 

1,000 First-class for $ 3 00 

10,000 First-class for 27 00 

100,000 First-class for 200 00 

1,000 Second-class for 2 00 

10,000 Second-class for 10 00 

APPLE CIONS, (Our Assortment). 

1,000 Good Varieties 8 1 00 

10,000 Good Varieties 8 00 

APPLE ROOT IGRAFTS, (Best Assortment). 

1,000 Assorted for 8 3 50 

10,000 Assorted for 30 00 

100,000 Assorted for 280 00 

An immense stock of choice Apple Trees, Peach, ( herrv. 
Pear, Plum, Evergreens, Ornamental and Shade Trees, 
Hedge Plants, etc , for sale at prices which defv compe- 
tition. Address WILLIAM F. BAIRD. Trustee, 
Blooruington, Illinois. 

PETALUMA NURSERIES. 

(Established in 1850 ] 
WM. SEXTON, PROPRIETOR- 

£3TFor sale a general assortment of Fruit Trees, Ever- 
green Trees and Shrubbery. Our trees are all grown 
without irrigation and the wood is well matured. Cata- 
logue and price list furnished on application. Address 
WM. SEXTON, Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal 

FRUIT TREES AT REDUCED PRICES 



100,000 Apple Trees, also a large stock of other Fruit 
Trees, including Seedling and Budded Orange and Lemon 
Trees very cheap Two year old apple Trees, 810 per 
100. 

MILTON THOMAS, 

Los Angeles, Cal 



PEPPER'S NURSFRIES. 

Established in 1858. 

For sale, a general assortment of Fruit Trees and Small 
Fruits; Evergreen Trees and Shrubs in variety. Early 
planting recommended. My Trees are grown without irri 
gatioo; the wood is well ripened. I am prepared to Mil 
oriiers as soon as the rainy season commences. Cata< 
logues and price list furnished on application. Address, 
W. H PEPPER, Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



LOS GAT0S NURSERIES. 

S NEWHALL, Proprietor, San Jose, Cal. 

A large and general assortment of Fruit and Ornament; 1 
Tre* s. Evergreens, Flowering Shrubs, Roses, Greenhouse 
Plants. Grapevines and small fruits, etc. 20.0(10 fine Al- 
mond on Almond stocks. I oftVr for sale a well assorted, 
well grown and healthy stock. Low-topped stalky fruit tre.s 
a specialty. Address, 

S NEWHALL San Jose 



Combined CATALOGUE 




EVERYTHING 




GARDEN 

Numbering 175 pages, with Colored Plate, 

SENT FREE 

To our customers of past years, and to 
all purchasers of our books, either 

GARDENING FOR PROFIT, 

PRACTICAL FLORICULTURE, 

Or GARDENING FOR PLEASURE, 
(Price $1.50 each, prepaid, by mail.) 
To others, on receipt of 25c. 
Plain Plant or Seed Catalogues, without 
Plate, free to all. 

[PETER HENDERSONS CO, 



I Seedsmen, Market Gardentrs and FlorUti, 
35 Cortlandt St., New York. 

3HE 




DAIRYMEN. 

I will put into a cheese and butter firm for five or ten 
years, 800 acres, near Los Angeles City, if dairymen will 
put in experience, skill, labor, management and cows for 
a fair share of the profits. Sixteen tons of alfalfa hay per 
acre was the yield of some of the land this dry year. All the 
land good for alfalfa, corn, barley, pumpkins and beets 
Call before rain and see the land green with milk yielding 
vegetation, from mere inches high to six feet. Every 
acre artesian plow land. Wood! abundant. Artesian 
water, cold for milk and plentiful, with river water for 
irrigation. None need apply without skill, capital and 
reputation. 

J. H SHIELDS, Los Angeles City, Cal 

REFINISHED AND MADE 
I'P AS GOOD AS NEW. Send 
for circular. Agi-ntg Wanted. 
Waterproof Crape Refiuishiug Co., 811 MISSION ST.. S. F. 



OLD CRAPE 



Seedsmen. 



BULBS SEEDS TREES 
SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Wholesale and retail dealers in and 

GROWERS OF SEEDS, 

Keep Constantly on hand a complete stock of Vegetable 

FIELD, GRASS, FLOWER & TREE SEEDS 

Also, Flowerino Plants, Bclbs, Frcit and 
Ornamental Trees, Etc. 

We call attention of farmers and country merchants to 
our unusually low prices All seeds warranted 
fresh, pure and reliable. A2TTrade 
price list on application. 

*.* We have just issued the most complete guide to the 
Vegetable and Flower Garden ever issued U|>on this coast. 
It is Handsomely Illustrated, and contains full descrip- 
tions of Vegetables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with 
full instructions as to their culture; mailed free on appli- 
lon. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

(P. O. Box 1023.) 607 Sansome Street, S. F. 



SEEDS. 



TREES. SEEDS. 



Continually arriving. NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
HU E" CRASS. RED TOP TIMOTHY, SWEET 
VERNAL, MEZOU1TE and other Grasses. 
RED CLOVER, FRENCH WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Etc. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERING BULBS, JAPAN LILIES, FRESH AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE GUM, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEa Dj together with all kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 
425 Washington Street. - San Francisco. 




My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seed for 1878 w ill he sent free, in January, 
to all who apply. Customers of last season need not 
write for it. I offer one of the largest collections of veg- 
etable seed ever sent out of any seed house in America, a 
large portion of which were grown on my six seed farms. 
Printed directum* fur Cultivation on each package. All 
seed sold from my establishment warranted to be both 
fresh and true to name; so far, that should it prove oth- 
erwise I will refill the order gratis As the original In- 
troducer of the Hubbard and Marblehead Squashes, the 
Marblehead Cabbages, a score of other new vegetables. 
1 invite the patronage of all who arc anxious to hare 
their teed directly from the gro we r, fresh, true, and of 
the vera In st strain. Nkw Vegetables a Specialty. 
JAMES J H. GREGORY. Marblehead, Mass. 




Fifty pages :t00 illustrations, with descriptions of 
thousands of the best Flowers and Vegetables in the 
world, and the way to grow tkem—mB for a Two Cent 
postage stamp. Printed in German and English. 

Vice's Flower and Vegetable Gariie.n.— 50 cents in 
paper covers; in elegant cloth covers, $1, 

t ic k's Illustrated Monthly Magazine.- 32 pages, fine 
illustrations, and colored plate in every number. Price, 
81.25 a year; five copies for $5. Address, 

JAMES TICK, Rochester, N. Y. 




B. K. BLISS & SONS, 



Importers, Growers and Dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flower Seeds, Dutch Bulbous Roots, Summer Flowering 
Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description. Cata- 
logues mailed to all applicants. Address 

B. K. BLISS i SONS, St Barclay Street, N. Y 



CYPRESS AND GUM SEED. 

Beautiful fresh Monterey Cypress seed from the finest trees 
in California, delivered by mail for S3 per pound. Blue 
Iron or Red Gum Seed, last crop, *3 per pound. 

GEORGE R. BAILEY, Oakland. Cal. 



HORSE SHOEING, 



834 HOWARD STREET, Midway Between 
Fourth and Fifth, San Francisco. 

We shoe horses without burning the hoofs. Dunbar's 
alone understand the treatment of diseased feet. 

ALEX DUNBAR 



TO NURSERYMEN AND FLORISTS. 

Wanted, situation as propagator; well up in propaga- 
gation of ornamental plants, grafting conifre, etc Thir- 
teen years' experience. Address 

"PROPAGATOR," Los Angeles, Cal. 



January 5, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



15 



HAVING PURCHASED THE BANKRUPT STOCK OF 
LINFORTH, KELLOGG & CO., 



I OFFER FOR SALE THE 



CELEBRATED MYERS' EXCELSIOR GANG PLOW. 




At the Following Greatly Reduced 
Prices for Cash. 

10-INCH $70.00 

12-inch 75.00 

14-INCH 75.00 

With two Extra Shares to Bach. 



THIS IMPROVED GANG HAS MANY IMPROVED POINTS 
OVER THE PRESENT GANGS NOW IN USE. 



It Runs Lighter; Turns the Furrow Better; Lifts Easier out of the Ground and 
is Stronger and Less Complicated than any other Plow. 

BEAMS are made of WROUGHT IRON and very strong. PLOW BOTTOMS and SHARES are made of the 
beat CAST CAST STEEL and very hard MOLD BOARDS, thicker than any other used. The Dovetail Bhare, re- 
quiring no bolts, easily taken off and replaced with sharp ones without turning over the plow or losing any time. 

Warranted to Work in all Kinds of Soil. 



FOR SALE BY 



DAVID N. HAWLEY, Agent, 



211 Market Street, 



SAN FRANCISCO. 




IF YOU WANT A 

Wind Mill, 

P*— THE MOST POWERFUL AND THE NEAREST PERFECTION 
OF ANY IN USE— ONE THAT PROTECTS ITSELF IN A 
GALE, WILL KEEP YOUR TANK FILLED WITH 

Water Without Waste and Without Attention, 

EXAMINE THE RECENT 

S&tf Improvements of Mr. Bachelder, 

As now Manufactured by the 

Bachelder Manufacturing Co., 

NAPA, CAL. 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

■which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 

thus, 



* — ■> 

•which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ask for LEA &• PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester ; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
cVr., &C. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San Francisco. 



RANCH FOR SALE. 



A ranch for sale, near Riverdale, Fresno County 
It comprises 160 acres, (U. S. patent,) of ricli bottom 
land, with house and out-buildineu Grass is green the 
year round. Alfalfa grows without irrigation, as water is 
but six to eight feet beneath the surface. There is an 
irrigation ditch running across the ranch, and three cubic 
feet of water per second belongs with the place. It is the 
best of tule land and borders on the swamp or overflowed 
lands. There are a few Fruit Trees, Strawberries and 
Blackberries. The ranch is one mile from the school 
house and postotfice; 10 miles from Lemore, on the rail- 
way and nine miles from Kingston, county seat of Fresno 
county. Price, 16 per acre. For further particulars, 
address 

DAVID S- ORR, Riverdale, 

Fresno County, Cal. 



ASK YOUR GROCER OR OIL DEALER FOjK 

"ELAINE 1 

THE FAMILY SAFE GUARD OIL 



APnnn M/PI I can 00 made in one day with our 
UUULF fICL.L4.f0ot Well Auger. Send for 
oar Auger Book. U S. AUGER CO. , St. Louis, Mo. 



H« H Ha 

HORSE MEDICINE, 

D. D. T.-I868. 

As a horse medicine it is superior to any liniment ever 
invented. For Ringbone, SrAviN, Sweeney, Callous 
Lumps, and all old sores, apply freely so as to blister, 
from three to five days in succession, and in four or five 
days, if not cured, repeat as at first. SPRAINS, Stiff 
Joints, Bruises, Windgalls, and all slight aliments, apply 
a small quantity so as not to blister. Saddle Sores, Cuts, 
and all other sores where the skin is broken, mix the lin- 
iment half and half with any kind of oil, and apply in 
moderation. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Proprietors, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 



ANTIOCH FERRY. 



Notice to Stockmen and the public in general that a food 
Ferry Boat has been put on between Antioch and Collins- 
ville by the California Transportation Co., and are prepared to 
move stock in lota to suit, as a large barge is connected with 
the boat. For particulars apply to the Company's office, at 

Office, N. W. Cor. Jackson and East Sts., S. F. 

W. K. FORM AN. Antioch. WM. HASKIN8, Collinsville. 

Farmers, write for your paper. 



Winchester Repeating Rifle. 



MODEL 1873. 




The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharqe, 

' st r I up; measuring from center of tar- 
tl. , -l-i-i ...... get to center of each shot, 32 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, ^tTshotTf^inchel ' 
Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting 

Defense, or Target Shooting. 
The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and stvles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 
Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inoh-hlued. Oote#on barrel, plain, 24 inch-blued. Octagon barrel ... 
24, 26, 28, 30 inoh-blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28 , 30 inch-blued. Octagon barrel set 24 
26, 28, 30-extra finished, ease hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24 26 28 30 inch- 
extra finished-C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch-beautifully finighedlc' H & C S 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carhin„ 
model 1866. RELOADING TOOLS, PRIMERS AND PARTS OF ARMS. ' 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 

Sole Agent for Dupont's Mining, Blasting, Cannon, and Celebrated Brands 

of Sporting Powder. 

JOHN SKINKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco, 

SOLE AGENT FOR THE PACT XC COAST. 



THE GARDEN CITY SULKY PLOW. 




e Most Popular Plow in Use. 

r They are simple in construction, with 
nothing about them that is likely to get 
out of order. 

EASE OF HANDLING. 

Most plows are thrown out of thegroui 
by hand levers, but on these plows 
done by the 

Power of the Horses. 

The operation being simply to apply a 
brake to the wheel. They are quickly 
and easily adjusted to take more or less 
land. The depth of the furrow can he 
instantly changed by the driver without 
getting off the plow or stopping the 
hors' s. 



GEO. A. DAVIS, Manufacture s' Agency, 401 Market St., 

TREADWELL'S OLD STAND. SAN FRANCISCO. 



THE IMPROVED. 

Lamb's Family Knitting Machine. 




IT IS THE ONLY MACHINE 



That knits flat or tubular work of all sizes; 

Narrows and widens on hosiery or tubular work; 

Knits a regular right-angled heel, as by hand; 

Narrows off the toe; 

Knits a sock or stocking Complete; 

Knits mittens or gloves of any size without scam; 

Forms genuine Ribbed or Seamed work; 

Knits the Double, Flat, or Fancy webs; 

Knits an elastic seamcd-stitCh Suspender with button boles; 

Knits the Afghan stitch, Cardigan Jacket stitch, Fancy 
Ilibbcd stitch; the Raised Plaid stitch, the Nubia stitch, 
Shell stitch, Unique stitch, Tidy stitch, etc. 

It is now the standard machine for manufacturing, and the 
only family knittor that tills the bill. Local agents wanted. 
Send for circulars to 

J. J. PFISTER & CO., General Agents, 

Manufacturers of knitted goods and dealer in woolon yarns. 
120 SUTTEK STREET, Koom 4(1, San Francisco. 



rft LARGE MIXED CAl'DS, with name. Lie. 40 in 
OU ease 13c. 25 styles Acquaintance Cards 10c. Agents 
outfit 10c. DOWI) & CO., Bristol, Conn. 



HOLIDAY MUSIC BOOKS! 



THE WORLD OF SONG. 



Magnificent bound volume of son* 
and musical character. 



s of the most popular 



THE SUNSHINE OF SONG. 

Magnificent bound volume of the most recent and popu- 
lar songs. (In press and nearly ready). 

GEMS OF THE DANCE. 

Splendid bound volume of the most brilliant piano 
inusU:, by Strauss and others. 

THE CLUSTER OF GEMS. 

Splendid bound volume of the finest piano pieces of me; 
ilium difficulty. (In press and nearly ready). 

iEaTEach book has 200 to 250 pages full sheet music size, 
and costs 32.50 in boards; ?:J in cloth; ?l fine gilt for pres- 
ents. 

Send for 5 Christmas Selections, $4 per 100 

WINTER SINGING BOOKS 

THE SALUTATION; ($1.26 or 912 per dozen). ZION- 
($1.25 or $12 per dozen) Two first-class church music 

books. 

ENCORE; (7ft cents; or $7.50 per dozen). JOHNSON'S 
CIIOKUS CHOIK INSTRUCTION HOOK; (8125 or 812 
per dozen). PERKINS" SINGING SCHOOL; 75 cents, or 
16.75 per dozen. Three of the best possible singing class 

books. 

SS Any book mailed post-froe for retail price. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 

C. H. DITSON & CO. , 843 Broadway, New York. 



JACKSON'S BEST 
SWEET NAVY CHEWING TOBACCO. 

Awarded the highest prize at Centennial Exposition for 
its fine chewing Qualities, the excellence and lasting char- 
acter of its flavoring and sweetening. The Best To- 
bacco ever made. Ask your erocer for it. Our blue 
strip trade mark "Jackson's Best" on every plug. Send 
for sample to C. A. JACKSON & CO., Manufacturers, Pe 
torsburg, Va. L. & E. Wertheimer, Sole Atf'ts, S. F. 



16 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 5, 1878 




Removed August 1st to 202 Sansome Street, Northeast Corner of Pine. 




Some Reasons for Subscribing jor //. 



Because it is a permanent, first-class, conscientious, 
able, and well conducted journal. 

Because it is the largest and best agricultural weekly 
west of the Rocky Mountains. 

That more fanners' wives ana children in their isolated 
homes may be cheered by its weekly visits, laden with its 
pleasing yet moral reading, and sound instruction. 

That a more extended interchange of views and opin- 
ions may be had among farmers, upon all the great ques- 
tions touching their mutual interests and progress. 

That the agricultural resources of the Pacific States may 
be more wisely, speedily and thoroughly developed by an 
open and free discussion in its columns. 

That all the honest industries of our State may be ad- 
vanced in connection with that of agriculture, its col- 
umns being ever o}>en to the discussion of the merits of 
allprogresaive improvements. 

That the Rt'RAL, after having been read and pondered 
over by the home circle, can be filed away for future use- 
ful reference, or forwarded to the old Eastern fireside of 
the Atlantic border, in aid of an increasing immigration to 
our sunny clime. 

Send for sample copies. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 
202 Sansome St.. N. E Cor. Pine, S. P. 



OUR AGENTS- 

Oo> Fbikxdh can do much In aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by tending their 
Influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

J. L. Tharp— San FranclBCO. 

B. W. Crowkll — California. 
A. C. Knox— Pacific Coast. 

C. N. Wrst— Santa Cruz, Monterey and San Benito 
counties. 

A. C. Champion — Tulare, Fresno and Inyo counties. 
Eeward S. Bakrk— Australian Coloi ies and Sandwich 

Islands. 

W. D. White— San Bernardino and Los Angeles coun- 
ties. 

J. W. A. Wright— Sacramento, Placer and San Joaquin 
counties. 

B. E. Lloyd— Alameda, Contra Costa and Napa coun 
ties. 

E. M. BOIVi Oregon. 

F. B. Aldkrbon, Nevada. 

H. E. Hallett — San Joaquin, Yolo, Yuba, Sutter and 
Colusa counties. 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



IMPORTED. 



Crosby's Extra Early \ 
Marblehead Mammoth | 
8towell's Evergreen i' 
Mexican Sweet, New ; 



Sweet Corn. 



2XSS££} Yellow Flint Corn. 



J 



Beet Seed. 



Early Dutton 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzel) 
Yellow Globe 
White Sugar 
ALSO, EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY OF VEGETA- 
BLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, GRASS AND 
CLOVER SEEDS, ETC., OFFERED AT 
WHOLESALE OR RETAIL. 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

No. 317 Washington Street, San Francisco 



This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South 10th 
St., Philadelphia, & 59 Gold St., Cor. Ann, N Y. 



Books for the People. 

For Sale on the Pacific Coast at the 
Lowest Cash Price, by 

DEWEY & CO., 

Publisher of the Pacific Ri rai. Press, 
No. 202 Sansome Street, San Franci3co. 

WOODWARD'S GRAPERIES & HORTI- 
CULTURAL BUILDINGS. Designs and Plans of Hot 
Beds. Cold Pits, Propagating House*. Wo ruing Houses, 
Hot and Cold Graperies, Green House*, Conservatories, 
Orchard Houses, etc. , with the various modes of Veti- 
lating and Heating. Price, SI. 

JACQUES' MANUAL OF THE GARDKX, 

FARM and BARN-YARD. Embracing the Cultivation 
of Vegetables, Fruit, Flowers, all Field Crops, Details of 
Farm Work and Rearing Domestic Animals. New and 
Revised Edition. One Volume. Price, SI. 50. 

ELLIOTT'S LAWN AND SHADE TREES. 

For Planting Parks, Gardens, Cemeteries, Private 
Grounds and Avenues. Fully Illustrated. Price, jfi. 

FULLER'S FOREST TREE OULTURIST. 

The Cultivation of Forest Trees for Shade, for Shelter, 
for Fuel, for Timber, and for profit. Illustrated. 
Price, 91- 

R AMD ALL'S PRACTICAL SHEPHERD. 

New Edition, Extra Finn Binding. A complete Trea- 
tise on the Breeding, Management, and Diseases of 
Sheep. By Henry S Randall, LL D.. author of "Sheep 
Husbandry in the South." "Fine Wool Sheep Hus- 
bandry." Etc., with Illustrations. Price, $2. 

WILLIARD'S PRACTICAL BUTTER BOOK. 

A Complete Treatise on Butter Making at Factories and 
Farm Dairies, including the Selection, Feeding an 1 
Management of Stock for Butter Dairying, with Plans 
for Dairy-rooms and Creameries, Dairy Fixtures, Uten- 
sils, etc. Price, $L 

WILLARDS PRACTICAL DAIRY HUS- 
BANDRY. New edition. A complete Treatise on 
Dairy Farms and Fanning. Dairy Stock and Stock 
Feeding, Milk, its Management and Manufacture into 
Butter and Cneese, History and Mode of Organization 
of Butter and Cheose Fa-lories, Dairy Utensils, etc. 
Price, $3. 

LEWIS' PRACTICAL POULTRY BOOK. 

A Work on the Breeds, Breeding, Hearing, «.nd General 
Management of Poultry, with Full Instructions for 
Caponizing. 100 Engravings. Octavo. Price, SI. 50. 

TEN ACRKS ENOUGH. A Practical Treat- 

ise, showing how a very small farm may be made to sup- 
port a very large family, with full minute instructions 
as to the best mode of Cultivating the Smaller Fruits, 
such as Strawberries, Raspberries, Blackberries, etc. 
Price, $1. 

FLAX CULTURE. A Manual of Flax Culture 
and Manufacture, with Directions for Preparing 
Ground, Sowing and Harvesting, including Hemp and 
Flax Culture in the West, and Preparation for Market. 
Price, 10 cents. 

WOODWARDS NATIONAL ARCHITECT. 

Vol. 2. Complete in itself Embracing New and Orig- 
inal Designs, Plans, Elevations, Sections, and Detail 
Drawings to Working Scale for City and Country 
Houses. 100 Quarto Plates. Superb Binding. Price, 
97 50. 

FRANK FORESTER'S HORSE OF AMKR- 

ICA. By Henry YV. Herbert. . In two superb royal oc- 
tavo volumes, of 1,300 pages, with Steel Engraved orig- 
inal portraits of thirty representative horses. This 
Standard Historical Work has been thoroughly revised, 
newly written, compiled, and perfected. By S. V. it 
B. G. Bruce. (Two Volumes). Price, 95. 

HORSE- PORTRAITURE. —BREEDING, 

REARING. AND TRAINING TROTTERS. Prepara- 
tions for Races; Management in the Stable; on the Track; 
Horse Life, etc. By Joseph Cairnc Simpson. Price, 92. 
GUN, ROD, AND SADDLE. Nearly Fifty 
practical articles on subjects connected with Fishing, 
Shooting, Racing, Trotting, etc. Price, 91. 

FRANK FORESTER'S FIELD SPORTS. 

Embracing the Game of North America, Upland Shoot- 
ing, Bay Shooting, Wild Snorting of the Wilderness, 
Forest, Prairie, and Mountain Sports, Bear Hunting, 
Turkey Shooting, etc. Illustrated. 2 Vols. Price, $4. 
itsTAny of the above books will he sold on the Pacific 

Coast, by l>ewey & Co., and mailed for the price named. 

[In some instances there may be a delay (not over twenty 

days) from receipt of orders with the cash. J 

Other agriculture books furnished at tho publishers 

prices. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 



PACIFIC MAIL STEAMSHIP CO. 



The Compauy"s Steamers will sail as follows, at U M. : 

ALASKA January 3. 

For YOKOHAMA and HONGKONG. 

COLIMA January 15th 

For Panama and New Yohk, calling at Acapulco, San 
Jose de Guatauiala, La l.ibertad and Punta Arcuas. 
Tickets to and from Europe by any line for sale at the 

lowest rates. 

CITY OF SYDNEY, January 2Sth, at 12 o'clock, noon, 
or on arrival of the English Mails, for HONO- 
LULU, AUCKLAND and SYDNEY. 

$10 additional is charged for passage in Upper Saloon. 

DAKOTA January 10th. 

(Fare to Seattle- Cabin, $15; Steerage 
For Victoria. Port Towutend, Seattle, and Tacoma, 
connecting at Tacoma with Northern Pacific 
Railroad lor Portland, Oregon. 
Tickets must be purchased before II A. M. on day of 
sailing. 

For freight or passage apply at the office corner First 
and Brauuau streets. 

WILLIAMS, BLANCHARD Ji CO., Agts. 



202 Sansome Street, 



San Francisco. 



Buy the Best. 

Before purchasing an American 
Watch, examine the different styles 
rt anufactured by the HAMPDEN 
WAJCH COMPANY, at Springfield, 
Mass. They are the latest and 
best improved manufacture You 
can depend upon them for fine finish, 
du ability and perfect time. They 
are sold at favorable prices— in 
tact, no higher than many of the 
inferior styles. Examine into the 
merits of this Watch before you 
buy any other. Our word for it, 
you will not regret it. 

DEWEY & JORDAN, Agents, 
433 Montgomery St., S. F. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The Gerirr.n Savings and Loan Society 

For the halt year ending this date, the Hoard of Directors 
df the Cenua-i S.ivings ;uid Loan Society has declared the 
dividend c,u imn deposits at th • rate of eight and two-fifths 
IS '_> 5) per cent, per annum, and oil ordinary deposits at the 
rate of seven (7) per ceut. per annum, free from Federal 
taxes, a :d payable on and after the 15th day of January, 
1878. Hy order OHO LLTTE. Sec y. 

San Francisco, Dec. 31st. 1877. 



DIVIDEND^ NOTICE. 
San Francisco Savings Union, 

532 California Street, comer Webb. 

For the half year ending with December 31st, 1877. a divi- 
dend has been declared at the rate of eight and one-tenth 
(8 110) per cent, per annum on term deposits, anil nix and 
three-fourths per cent, on ordi ary deposits, free of Fed 
eral tax payable uu and alter Tuesday. 15th January. 1878. 

LOVELL WHITE. Cashier. 



R.J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

SUCCESSORS TO 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers In 




FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS, FRUITS AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCV WIRE 
DESIGNS. OARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 
Comprising the Most Complete Stock 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Prices Unusually Low. 
*. ""Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden 
will be sent frkk to all (ihtomk.rs. It contains in- 
structions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, etc 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 
419 and 421 Sansome Street. S. F. 

OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS. 

Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland 

Constantly on bond and for sale, choice specimens 
of the following varieties of Fowls: 

Dark snd Light Brahma?, Bull 
White and Partridge Co- 
chins, White & Brown 
Leghorns, Dork- 
ings. Polish Ham- 
burgs, Plymouth Rocks, 
Game and Sebright Ban- 
M tams, Bronze Turkeys, Pekin, 
Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks 
EGGS FOR SALE AFTER JANUARY FIRST. 

No Lferior Fowls So d at any Price. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
jRTFor further information send stamp for Illustrated 

Circular, to 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 
P. O. Box, 659 San Francisco, Cal. 




M. EYRE, Jr., NAPA, CAL. 

fi/* Safe Arrival of 

Eggs & Fowls 



For 

Price List. 




Guaranteed. 



I never owned a FINER LOT OF BIRDS than I have 
raised this year. Also, 

Thoroughbred Southdown Sheep. 

O-Pamphlet on the care of fowls- -hatching, feeding, 
diseases and their cure, etc., adapted rs xcially to tub 
Paciimc Coast. Sent for 15 cents. 



PAJARO VALLEY NURSERIES, 

Watsonville, Cal. 

For sale this season a large and complete stock of 
Fruit and Ornamental Trees; Evergreens; Shrubs; Fl iw- 
ering and Green House Plants, Japanese Persimmon 
Trees, Japanese Flowering Shrubs, etc. 1 have received 
direct from Japan a large lot of Japanese Persimmon 
Trees, of the choicest varieties. Fine Om amenta'. Trees 
and a large lot of Flowering Plants, Orchids, etc , together 
with a fine variety of Bulbs of Japanese Lillies All of 
which will be sold at as low rates as can he had elsewhere 
in the State. For catalogue and further information, ad- 
dress 

JAMES WATERS. Proprietor 




Volume XV.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 12, 1878. 



Number 2. 



The Preservation of our Fisheries. 

A subject which possesses present interest, 
both for its intrinsic worth and from the fact 
that it is up for legislative consideration, is the 
preservation and restocking of our California 
fisheries. That it is as advisable that our bays 
and streams should be made to yield their pro- 
portion of our food supply, as that a like area 
of our soil should be brought to its fullness of 
fertility, is admitted by all who are aware of 
the importance of the subject. To be convinced 
of this fact one has only to study the position 
which fish occupies in the food supply of the 
world and the achievements which have been 
made in intelligent fish culture during the last 
few years. We have no space for this inquiry 
at this time, although the facts are very inter- 
esting. Suffice it to remark that France years 
ago demonstrated that an acre of water may be 
made to yield from $10 to $50 per year by the 
cultivation of fish. We have no data for de- 
termining the possible result of making all 
available California waters thus productive, but 
Massachusetts, with more than 500,000 acres 
of p onds and rivers, is pushing forward most 
rapidly toward restoring these waters to their 
old-time fullness of fish production, thereby 
expecting to aid her citizens with at least 
$5,000,000 per year in the value of fish taken 
from what a few years ago were almost waste 
waters. This is at least worthy of the careful 
consideration of Californiaus, both to strengthen 
their favor of the operations which are now be- 
ing prosecuted by the State through our Fish 
Commissioners, and to induce them to stock the 
ponds and streams which lie within their own 
fences. 

We have been much interested in reading the 
straightforward and practical report lately made 
. to the Governor by our Fish Commissioners, 
Messrs. Redding, Throckmorton and Farwell. 
They have evidently been diligent in the prose- 
cution of their gratuitous labors and they de- 
serve the thanks of all. Their report contains 
many points of general interest and information 
and other points of which bring forcible support 
to the maintenance of our legal provisions for 
the preservation of our fish during the spawning 
season. W e shall instance chiefly the former 
at this time; leaving the latter until we know 
that the preservation measures are definitely 
assailed. 

Of the reduction of the salmon supply which 
has been caused in this State the report says: 
"In 1850 the salmon resorted in vast num- 
bers to the Feather, Yuba, American, Mokul- 
umne and Tuolumne rivers for purposes of 
spawning, and many places, such as Salmon 
Falls, on the American, were named from the 
abundance of these fish. On the Yuba river, as 
late as 1853, the miners obtained a large supply 
of food from this source. At the present time 
no salmon enter these streams. It would be 
safe to estimate that one-half the streams in 
this State to which salmon formerly resorted 
for spawning, have, for this purpose, been de- 
stroyed by mining. As mining is the most im- 
portant industry, of course, for this evil there 
is no remedy, other than by artificial means to 
increase the supply in those tributaries 
that are still the resort of these fish. * * * 
"The introduction of more than 8,000,000 
young salmon into the headwaters of the Sac- 
ramento, since the organization of the Commis- 
sion, in addition to the natural increase, has 
had the effect to keep up the supply and reduce 
the local market price of these fish. It is re- 
ported that the "cannery" at Collins ville lias 
purchased all the salmon it could consume dur- 
ing the past season at from 25 to 40 cents each. 

Of the actual increase in the catch of salmon 
in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, the 
Commissioners make the following statement: 
"In our last report we showed the total 
weight as transported from the leading places 
of shipment to San Francisco from November 
1st, 1874, to August 1st, 1875, to be 5,098,781 
pounds. This year's tables show the catch from 
November 1st, 1875, to August 1st, 1876, to be 
5,311,423 pounds, and from November 1st, 1876, 
to August 1st, 1877, 6,493,563 pounds. This 



shows a gain of more than 1,000,000 pounds in 
the legal catch over any year since the organi- 
zation of the Commission, and may be ascribed 
to the fact that our waters are now beginning 
to feel the beneficial effects of the millions of 
of salmon hatched artificially and turned into 
the headwaters." 

The report aside from the points in favor of 
the close season for salmon, makes specific men- 
tion of the wrongs which are being practiced 
upon our fisheries. One point is as follows: 
" The Chinese and others continue to use nets 
of a mesh much finer than is allowed by law, 
and the young of all kind of salt water fish that 
spawn in the bays and estuaries, are persis- 
tently caught, dried and shipped to China. The 
records of the Custom House show that there 
were shipped to China, from San Francisco, dur- 
ing the year ending July 1st, 1877, dried fish 



An Australian Fern Tree. 

We give upon this page an engraving .of a 
"fern tree" (Grevillea robitsta), as grown by 
John Rock, the well-known nurseryman of San 
Jose. The picture shows a plant only two 
years old. This beautiful tree has not been 
much known in California until lately, and the 
plants have always been high priced and diffi- 
cult to procure, but now, thanks to enterprising 
propagation, they may be had of any nursery- 
man at a reasonable price. 

This tree is a native of Australia, and is 
there much prized for its timber and also as an 
ornamental tree. In Australia it is called the 
"silky oak," because its leaves are silvered on 
the under sides. In habit it is unlike other 
Australian trees that grow up rapidly and then 




THE "FERN TREE" OR "SILKY OAK "— Grevillea Robusta. 



aud dried shell fish valued at $293,971. " 

Although the labors of the Commission are 
mainly expended in the preservation and in- 
crease of our noble fish, the salmon, due enter- 
prise is shown in introducing valuable fish from 
foreign waters. The reports mentions the shad, 
which are now becoming quite numerous in the 
Sacramento river, and the cattish, which are 
now becoming quite an addition to the fish sup- 
ply of the State capital. They have also im- 
planted in California waters, white fish from 
the East; carp from Japan and the Danube; 
"awa," the most valuable fish of the Sandwich 
Islands; and mullet from the same waters; 
trout, black bass, eels and lobsters from the 
Eastern States. All these have been put in 
appropriate waters in different parts of the 
State, and already there is evidence that they 
are thriving and multiplying. The results from 
all the enterprising movements of the Commis- 
sion will ere long prove the wisdom of the State 
in taking steps for making its waters more and 
more productive of valuable food|for the people. 



become scroggy, like some of the acacias and 
the eucalyptus tribe. It pursues a steady 
growth, has a fine fern-like foliage, and im- 
proves in shape as it grows older, until it be- 
comes a stately tree. Fine specimens may now 
be seen at Menlo Park, Oakland and San Jose. 
In its native country it attains a hight of 80 feet. 

One writer describes the tree as "a handsome 
evergreen tree of broad spreading, conic form, 
dense, divided foliage, similar to that of the 
'China tree,' with very neat, broad, fern-like, 
frondose leaves. It keeps its shape well bal- 
anced against strong winds. Tho timber is 
good for domestic utensils, firewood, etc. Some 
of its kindred grevilleas are turned to use as 
dyes and medicines for bowel complaints. Some 
have edible nuts and some exude honey that is 
boiled to a thickened syrup, for coughs, etc. " 

We are glad that Mr. Eock is doing much to 
bring this desirable tree to the attention of 
planters, for we certainly ought to diversify 
our trees to obtain thoir varied beauties and 
utilities. 



West Side Irrigation. 

The Senate Committee on Irrigation has, 
wisely we think, resolved to hold a series of 
meetings at various parts of the State, at which 
testimony on the subject of irrigation may be 
presented to them. We say wisely, because 
the Committee will be enabled to obtain from 
those most interested, and who have given the 
subject most practical thought, many points 
which will enable them to meet the wishes of 
the people in any measures which they may 
propose for the adoption of the full Senate. 
Information will be brought forward more freely 
and more impartially at the various points where 
the irrigation is to be applied than it could be 
gathered by a stationary committee at Sacra- 
mento. Although the chief aim of the Com- 
mittee will be the decision of the West Side 
project, there will also be testimony taken in 
other parts, with the idea, we suppose, of dis- 
covering whether there are wants similar enough 
to be provided for in a general irrigation law. 
The subject of irrigation has been more carefully 
and practically considered than ever during the 
past dry months, which have enforced it upon 
the public mind, and it is well that the latest 
phases of the question should be laid before the 
Senate. The meetings will be held as follows: 
Modesto, January 14th; Merced, 15th; Fresno, 
16th; Visalia, 17th; Bakersfield, 18th; Los An- 
geles, 19th; San Bernardino, 21st; Nevada City, 
24th; Marysville, 26th, and San Francisco, 28th. 
The session will commence each day at 9 A. M. 

These meetings are to be held with the special 
design of hearing the opinions and experiences 
of practical men, and those who have given most 
study to the subject of irrigation. We trust 
that they will be well attended, and that all 
will feel free to bring forward all testimony 
which they deem fitted to throw light upon the 
subject. As expressed in the resolution of Sen- 
ator Haymond, the following will be the chief 
points of inquiry : First, what land can be ben- 
efited by irrigation. Second, also whether any 
system can be devised which will tend to the 
reclamation of swamp and overflowed lands, 
and which at the same time will prevent the 
mining debris from being turned into the rivers. 
Third, the cost of such a system. Fourth, such 
other matters as the Committee deem of im- 
portance. This scheme is wide enough to admit 
all pertinent topics, and we trust they will be 
presented more fully and clearly than they have 
yet been. After this season of study, unless 
the Committee throws the subject upon a pro- 
crustean bed, by attempting a too general enact- 
ment, we see no reason why the project, at 
least so far as the West Side is concerned, can- 
not be pushed into definite steps for realization. 

Death of Senator Porter. — The Hon. 
Nathan Porter, State Senator for Alameda 
county, died suddenly at Sacramento on Sun- 
day. Senator Porter was well and favorably 
known throughout the State. He arrived in 
California in 1854. He was a law partner of 
the Hon. E. D. Sawyer for several years, aud 
was at one time District Attorney in this city. 
He was also a law partner of Samuel Holladay 
for a number of years. He was a prominent 
Odd Fellow, having taken all the degrees, and 
represented California in the Grand Lodge of 
the United States for the past two years. He 
was an able orator, a ready debater, a fine 
criminal lawyer, a good citizen and a conscien- 
tious and upright man, and leaves a legion of 
friends to mourn his loss. The Senate and As- 
sembly both adopted appropriate resolutions 
and adjourned over, out of respect to his mem- 
ory. Resolutions were also adopted by the 
San Francisco Bar, and the courts adjourned on 
the announcement of the death. The funeral 
obsequies in this city on Wednesday were con- 
ducted by the Odd Fellows and were very 
impressive. Deputations from various Lodges, 
members of the Legislature and the Bar attended 
the funeral. 



It was reported Wednesday that the Turkish 
generals were ordered by the Porte to prepare 
for an amistice. 



18 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 12, 1878. 



Correspondence. 



It is tho desire of the editors of this journal to be lib- 
eral toward all correspondents, and therefore statements 
and opinions are frequently published, on the authority 
of the writers, for which we do not assume responsibility. 



Notes in San Joaquin County. 

Editors Press:— Shall we or shall we not 
have an abundant rainfall, is the question that 
now occupies the minds of the residents of San 
Joaquin county. The rainfall thus far has been 
light, less that last year at this time. The first 
rain, which was the lightest, came in the last of 
November, wetting the ground to the depth of 
about two inches in the eastern part, while 
Stockton and vicinity received but a slight 
sprinkle. The next rain fell December 17th, 
falling evenly over all of the country, about 
three-fourths of an inch, and wetting the 
ground to the depth of three inches. The last 
rain came the 23d, after an interval of cloudy 
weather, coming in showers accompanied by 
wind; altogether the prospect was quite flat- 
tering for an incessant and abundant rain. Our 
hopes were not destined to full fruition; the 
rain ceased and after a few days of cloud 
and fog, is now succeeded by weather pro- 
vokingly clear. Many and anxious are the 
surmises as to what will follow. Meager as 
has been the rainfall in comparison with what 
usually comes at this season, its present re- 
sults are beneficent in the extreme. Fields of 
wheat in the vicinity of Lockford and on the 
Calaveras were beginning to suffer severely, 
while others which were beginning to assume a 
sear and yellow leaf far in advance of maturity 
are now wearing a look of promise in their 
green luxuriance. On the lwttoms, and the 
adobe, farmers are hurrying the seeding to com- 
pletion, and on the sand up north the ranchers 
are pushing operations with a vigor born of 
hope. On the adobe near Stockton the grain is 
but just making its appearance. 

The best piece of grain I have seen in the 
county is a field of 400 acres lying one mile 
northeast of Atlanta. This field was sowed 
early, coming up with the first rain, and is now 
stooling out and nearly covers the ground. 
Much of the land on the sand remains to be 
sowed yet. 

A few days spent in the vicinity of Farming- 
ton and Befiota showed rich farming lands and 
well cultivated ranches and, richest and best of 
all, many happy homes with pleasant and taste- 
ful surroundings. 

Farmington 
Is a small railway station finely situated near 
the plains, and 16 miles distant from Stockton. 
It comprises a dozen dwelling houses, one brick 
warehouse, built and owned by J. Harold, Ksq., 
one store, a blacksmith shop and harness shop 
and a saloon. Grain is looking very well in this 
section despite the dry weather. Summer-fal- 
low yielded 15 to 20 bushels here in the past 
season, and on the plains adjoining was much 
better than in ordinary years. 

About five miles from here in a northwesterly 
direction is Peters, a small station situated at 
the point where a road branches from the Cop- 
peropolis railroad, running southeast and ter- 
minating at Oakdale, Stanislaus county. At 
the time of the building of the railroad Peters 
was a lively little place. Then the road was 
sold out and stopped short of its projected des- 
tination, and Peters, like Woolsey, bid farewell 
to all its future greatness, nipped by this frost, 
this killing frost of miscalculation. 

About five miles distant from Peters, skirting 
the plains, is 

Bellota, 

A wee bit of a place on the Calaveras. The 
road runs through handsome ranches, among 
the finest of which is that of W. H. Russell. 
Its location is fine, consisting of plain and' rich 
bottom land. The low land forms a kind of 
pocket running into the plains, and is divided 
into two broad fields by Mormon slough. Most 
of the surface is as level as a house floor, and is in 
a fine state of cultivation. 

Just before reaching Bellota one sees a hand- 
some quarter-section, owned by E. P>. Cogswell, 
an old and intelligent '49er, who is full of pleas- 
ant reminiscences of early times; extremely 
pleasant in the narration, however they might 
have been in the experience. His ranch is just 
west of Bellota, and its boundary is the divid- 
ing line, one might say, of wheat culture on one 
side and a diversified agriculture on the other. 
Above his place the Calaveras bottom grows 
quite narrow, and being enclosed on each side by 
hills the culture of corn is rendered both pos- 
sible and profitable, and in ordinary years is 
raised quite extensively, yielding from 86 to 30 
bushels of shelled corn per acre. It is said to 
be very superior in quality and always com- 
mands the top price in market. Very little was 
raised here last summer owing to the drouth, 
the principal crop being barley. In ordinary 
seasons potatoes and other vegetables are raised 
in considerable quantity. Bellota is better 
known as Fisher's bridge. Accomodations for 
crossing the Calaveras and its tributary sloughs 
at this point are limited to three bridges. Far- 
ther up is a swinging wire foot bridge suspended 
about 20 feet above the river bed. 

There are a few cosy, vine-clad dwellings 
here, blacksmith shops, and a store of general 
merchandise carried on by Alfred Parker, Esq. 



Mr. Parker is already known to some of the 
readers of the Press as a breeder of improved 
Berkshire Swine 

Visiting the swine yard I saw a herd of Berk- 
shires, which, for symmetry, close uniformity 
in appearance, and those distinctive points 
which denote good breeding and good pedigree, 
cannot be excelled on the Pacific coast. When 
I saw them there were 26 of them in the herd, 
viz.: 2 boars (19 months), 1 sow (18 months), 
3 sows (1 year), 10 pigs from to I months, 
and 10 more three days old. Mr. Parker 
breeds two distinct strains of Berkshires, 
known in the herd books as the "Crown 
Prince" and the "Sambo" families. The 18 
months' sow is the mother of the litter of young 
pigs; she is of the "Crown Prince" breed and is 
a very fine specimen. She is fully grown, 
stands low on her legs, is large, deep and com- 
pact, a hearty eater and a kind mother. She is 
perfectly marked, having a deeply dished face, 
four white feet, and a white tipped tail. This 
marking is distinctive of those two families and 
is very uniform in the whole herd, every one, 
with one exception, showing all those marks 
very clearly. The exception is marked with a 
white spot in the face, a white tipped tail and 
but three white feet. This amounts to little, 
however, for Darwin has shown that with the 
most painstaking care in breeding there will 
be, occasionally, a slight variation in some par- 
ticular. The oldest sow, one of the year-old 
sows, and one boar, are of the "Crown Prince" 
family, while the other boar and two sows are 
of the "Sambo" family. This latter breed is 
directly in the line of descent from the famous 
Berkshire boar, "Othello," imported from Eng- 
land by Cooper, and generally considered the 
finest one ever brought to the United States. 
From "Othello" all the older families of Berk- 
shires of good pedigree are descended, either 
directly or indirectly. I believe this strain is 
of more recent introduction into California than 
than the "Crown Prince." Both boars are ex- 
tremely fine types of this valhable breed. 

The pigs are fine, well grown and straight- 
backed, very uniform in size and not a "runt" 
among them. Though young and but partly 
grown, their formes show the transmission of 
all the excellences which distinguish the parent. 
Herein lie the great value of the thoroughbred, 
the sure transmission of the best qualities of the 
parents, rendering stockraising akin to an 
exact science and eliminating the slipper}' ele- 
ment of chance. That this fact is well appre- 
ciated by the farmers of California is fully at- 
tested by the ready sale which Mr. Parker finds 
for all he can raise at remunerative prices, and 
the many letters of inquiry from all parts of the 
coast, and even from the East. He has more 
orders on hand than he can fill and he is aiming 
to increase his herd as rapidly as possible, in 
order to accommodate the increased demand. 
Mr. Parker is about to introduce into California 
the latest and most popular strain of Berkshires 
in the East, known as the "Robin Hood" 
family, and has made arrangements with the 
most noted breeders of Kentucky to deliver in 
California next June, one boar and two sows of 
that family, thus keeping abreast of the times 
and furnishing a fine choice to his numerous 
patrons. 

Commencing breeding in 1875 for amusement 
and to occupy leisure moments, Mr. Parker 
soon had, after supplying neighbors, more on 
hand .than he knew what to do with, and it 
seeming a pity to kill them merely for pork 
after the trouble and cost of importing the pro- 
genitors from the East, tho desideratum was to 
make them know to farmers at a distance. The 
problem was solved by a two-line advertisement 
in the Rural Press, which brought the ducats 
to his pocket as it did likewise to his customers 
in the gaining of fine hogs. 

H. Eugene H. 

Stockton, Cal., Jan. 3d. 



Farming in the Clouds in Lake County. 

Editors Press: — "All aboard for Lakeport!" 
was the cry as a stage rattled up to the door of the 
hotel in Cloverdale, one morning not long ago. 
Our destination, about 30 miles across the Coast 
range, is reached by one of the best graded 
mountain roads in the State. We soon crossed 
Russian river and began the ascent of Sulphur 
creek canyon towards the Geysers. When in 
sight of them the road bears to the left up Squaw 
creek, a narrow and rocky defile, through which> 
for a long way, a limpid trout stream winds 
among overhanging branches of ferns, laurel 
and alders. About 20 miles on the way 
the summit is reached, from which a very 
fine view of Clear lake and the plain 
surrounding it is obtained. At the left of the 
road, on the mountain, is the ranch of Chester 
Pool, caUed High valley. Its elevation is 
3,500 feet above the sea. The soil is rich and 
well watered with springs. It grows good crops 
of grain and fruits. As his nearest neighbors 
are rive miles distant no fences are required. 
But numerous prowling wild animals molest 
his sheep and pigs. By the aid of the bounty 
paid for scalps he manages to keep even with 
the wild cats and black bears. 

Clear Lake 
Is in the bottom of a basin of irregular shape 
about 30 miles in diameter. The basin has 
lofty mountain sides, fencing it out from the 
cold winds of the coast, making the climate 
very soft and regular. Asa place of resort for 



invalids it is nnequaled. The atmosphere, by 
reason of the elevation, is pure and invigorat- 
ing. There are no trade winds heavy with fogs 
and chill with moisture. Nor is it tempered 
with the furnace-like heat of the great interior 
plains where fevers and ague prevail. While 
wandering through this region every breath 
seemed, truly, an inspiration. 

As we descend to the valley the lake is in full 
view, stretching from northwest to south- 
east, about 30 miles along the further side. Its 
blue waters reflect the dark shadows of the 
mountains along the shore. They are clad with 
fir, oak and pine, and here and there are 
patches of bare earth, red with cinnabar, and 
furrowed with great rifts, wrinkles of time, 
pictured in the mirrow-like surface below. 
White sails of boats, and the smoke of a 
steamer were visible. Before entering the val- 
ley we crossed a plateau of second-rate land, 
mostly unoccupied and belonging to the United 
States. It is covered with chemisal thickets, 
and groups of oaks. The soil is red and 
gravelly; but would certainly produce vines and 
fruits. Considerable labor will be required to 
clear it. But there is every reason to suppose 
that soil which produces a heavy crop of acorns 
will yield other products if fairly tilled. There 
are several thousands of acres here waiting for 
pre-emptors who come to California willing to 
work. They should first inquire at the San 
Francisco Land Office for maps of ranges 13 and 
14 north, of township 9 and 10 west. Mount 
Diablo meridian. Messrs. Dewey & Co. have 
issued a very useful little book for land hunters, 
with maps, costing only .50 cents. It contains 
a manual of the Land Laws, with directions for 
locating lands, which will save one much 
trouble. 

Once fairly in the valley, which contains over 
20,000 acres of first-class farms, we entered on 
a gravelled road, part of the way, leading by 
the finely improved farms of the Boggs' broth- 
ers, Lindsay Carson (brother of the famous Kit 
Carson), Phelan Combs and others, where we 
saw numerous teams afield, some of them with 
gang plows. Mr. Carson has a meadow of red 
clover, over 1000 acres, requiring neither irri- 
gation or reseeding, that cuts an average of 
three tons of hay per acre, annually. 

Through a border of large oaks we began to 
get nearer views of the lake. A gentle breeze, 
in flaws, ruffled its surface, leaving spots of 
glassy smoothness undisturbed. Along the 
shore little ripples sparkled like diamonds in 
the sunlight, or sank in threads of water wind- 
ing away out, as if a barely perceptible current 
set in somewhere leading to an unseen outlet, 
then melted away before one had a notion of its 
direction. This is owing to subterranean 
springs which keep up the supply, and, in 
places, boil to the surface. 

Fine VaUeys. 

There are other fine valleys hereabouts of 
which the writer has some personal knowledge. 
From lakeport the view does not indicate their 
existence. Ridge on ridge overtop each other, 
clothed with timber and studded with vast 
piles of rocks, until lost to sight in the dim hor- 
izon, as if Nature with a gigantic plow hail fur- 
rowed this part of the continent when fitting it 
for habitation, and forgot to smooth the fur- 
rows. But the mountains are divided by val- 
leys, some of ample extent for whole settle- 
ments, others, merely cosy nooks sheltering 
single farms. The principal ones in the vicinity 
of Lakeport are Big valley, Scott's valley, Bach- 
elor valley, Middle Creek, Blue Lakes, and 
Clover Creek. When driving through Scott's 
valley last summer, there were to be seen fields 
of wheat which yielded 40 bushels per acre. 
One especially, at Scuddamore's, where the 
grain stood as high as the top rail of a stake and 
rider fence, of such dense growth that had a 
puff of wind taken the driver's straw hat, it 
seemed as though it would have blown across 
the top of the grain as if on ice. The soil is a 
moist, sandy loam, yielding about eight tons of 
potatoes, thirty bushels of wheat, and fifty 
bushels of corn per acre. Excellent fruit of 
most sorts is produced. The place of G. C. 
Riggs is the model fruit farm here; though 
Sheriff Ingraham and others own valuable and 
productive ranches. Prices, for best class of 
improved farms, $50 per acre. Some city folks, 
Capt. Floyd, Mr. Buckingham, Rev. Wiley, 
and others, pleased with the scenery and cli- 
mate, purchased places on Clear lake and have 
expended a good deal of money in beautifying 
them. 

Rain and Clouds. 

The season's rainfall, to December 20th, is 
over seven inches. It was distributed in gentle 
showers, hardly interfering with the work of 
plowing and seeding. There are real clouds up 
here when it rains. The skies are not obscured 
by ocean fogs and draggling mists, shutting out 
the landscape, like being extinguished under a 
huge, inverted bowl. Great billows of majestic 
clouds sweep across the heavens, as they do on 
the Atlantic coast. Other times the sky is 
broken by fleecy masses sailing along, or linger- 
ing idly about the rim of the horizon, as if play- 
ing with their own shadows on the lake and 
hills and admiring the beauties of the world be- 
low them. 

It was our good fortune to witness the ad- 
vent of the first snow. In the valleys it was 
rain, although the wind was light for some 
hours before there were visible signs of the ap- 
proaching storm, there was a dead roar from the 
lake, not like the murmur of waves, or the dash 
of breakers on the shore. It w as a low mono- 
tone as if Nature heaved a long and deep sigh 
of relief. Old mariners say the warning is 



sometimes given by the sea on a dangerous 
coast Towards evening the clouds mustered 
their forces, rank on rank, behind the highest 
peak, and pushed the storm across in black lines 
of battle, filling the gorges as it came with 
snow squalls. Then, from the billows of the 
clouds, broad sheets of the blessed rain de- 
scended, swaying in the wind. 

When the storm drifted away the mountains 
were white with snow, in beautiful contrast 
with the green valley. The full moon shone on 
Alpine cliffs and glacier-like slopes, making 
such an Arctic picture, so well timed for Christ- 
mas and Santa Claus, that, for fear he should 
overlook the little folks at home, the writer 
took the morning stage, homeward bound, to 
be quite sure the little stockings were well 
filled. J. B. Armstrong. 

Santa Rosa, Cal., Dec, 29th, 1877. 



Killing Squirrels: 

Editors Press:— In your issue of December 
29th the question is asked what shall we do 
with our Bquirrels ? Now, to me, that question 
has been properly solved. I had about 100 
acres of land that in places was fuU of the ro- 
dents, so much so that they took the entire 
crop, not leaving enough to seed the ground for 
hay. One day last fall the Gerow Bros, came 
to my house and asked me if I would like to 
have the squirrels killed. They said they 
would kill them on 100 acres for $5, if they did 
did not kill no pay. They came to my house 
when the sun was about an hour high and went 
out to work, and we expected them to come to 
supper. But that was the last we saw of them 
or the squirrels for about a week. They then 
came after their pay, but the squirrels have not 
put in an appearance yet, at least I have never 
seen but two. I never paid $5 more willingly 
in my life. 

1 have often wondered why they did not ad- 
vertise their wares in the Rural, as all that are 
troubled with little rodents ought to know what 
to do with the squirrels. All in this section of 
country had their squirrels poisoned but one 
man, and there is enough on his place to seed 
the whole country again. It is to be hoped 
that our Legislature will make a general law 
to compel every man that has them on his 
place to destroy them in some way. 

Farmers in this section of country are nearly 
all through with tneir sowing and the prospects 
are good for another crop. We are in what iB 
called the moist belt, and failure has never been 
known. F. Hutton. 

American Canyon, Solano Co., Dec. 31st. 

[We know nothing of the parties named by 
our correspondent, and of course give them no 
endorsement by printing the above except as 
they are approved by our correspondent. — Eds. 
Press.] 

A Tour Through Tehama County. 

"As a blessing sinks in a grateful heart, 

Tin! knowelh all Us need, 
So came tne good of the p.casant rain, 

O'er hill and verda.it meed 
It shall breathe this truth on the human ear, 

In hall and cotter's home, 
That to bring the gift of a bounteous heaven. 

The pleasant rain has come." 

Editors Press: — An abundance of rain, »t 
least for present wants, has already fallen. The 
county of Tehama, lying as it does in the upper 
part of the Sacramento valley, with mountain 
ranges on all sides, except the south, is very 
favorably located for receiving an ample sup- 
ply of rain. Consequently an entire failure of 
crops is here an unheard of thing. Good living 
water also is found at short intervals throughout 
its whole extent. In addition to the fact of the 
Sacramento cutting the county from north to 
south, there is a series of creeks putting into 
the river both from the east and west, and run- 
ning nearly parallel, all of whose valleys are 
lined with growing grain and hopeful homes, 
while the higher and more distant hills, with 
some of the more barren plains, are given up to 
the grazing of sheep and other live stock, or to 
the craw of the more voracious turkey. By the 
way, 

Turkey Raising 
Has proved very profitable and turkeys have 
been raised here in greater numbers, probably, 
than in any other county in the State. The 
business still affords the most favorable opening 
to the man of smaU means of any other held in 
the country, as there is yet a large tract of un- 
occupied land not well adapted for grain. One 
hundred hens will raise from 500 to 1,000 tur- 
keys per season, worth from $1.50 to $2 a head. 
Mr. Martin Wilcox, on the reservation, in ad- 
dition to much time given to his sheep and 
farm, manages to raise annually from 700 to 800 
with some assistance from other members of his 
family. From 1,000 to 1,500 are frequently met 
with in a flock together, sometimes herded by 
women and children. 

The Chief Products of the County, 
However, are small grain, wool and lumber. 
The estimated annnal wheat product will not 
fall far short of 1,000,000, while that of barley 
will probably reach 250,000. The wool clip- 
ping may be set down in the neighborhood of 
2,000,000 pounds, and the number of sheep at 
somewhere near 400,000 head, some individuals 



January 12, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC 1111 L PRESS. 



being said to own from 15,000 to 25,000 head. 
The lumber interest is one of the most impor- 
tant; from 50,000,000 to 75,000,000 feet being 
cut annually, principally by the mills of the 
Sierra Flume and Lumber Company, some fine 
illustrations of which have recently adorned 
the pages of the Rural. 

Fruit has had but comparatively little atten 
tion. Large fine orchards and vineyards are 
rather the exception than otherwise. The cli 
mate is evidently much better adapted to apples 
than that of our more southern counties, for 
jucier and more luscious fruit of the kind was 
never tasted than that met with at the house of 
Mr. J. N. Gates, on Payne's creek, in the 
northeastern part of the county, and as to the 
cider, it was simply delicious enough to tempt 
the most temperate of Good Templars. 

Character of the Soil, Etc. 

Much of the soil along the river and creek 
bottoms is of a very fine quality, consisting of 
a dark sandy loam. The same may be said of 
the black adobe found on the hills or their 
sloping sides. The land of the plains is thin 
ner, intermixed with gravel and clay of a red 
dish cast. Much of it has been brought under 
cultivation and has been found to yield, by 
summer-fallowing, from 10 to 30 or more bush 
els of grain to the acre, according to quality of 
soil or nature of the season. 

An allegorical interpretation of the first con- 
test on record of man with his brother man, re 
minds one of the gradual encroachments of the 
present tiller of the soil on the ground hitherto 
occupied by the more modem Abel and his 
flocks. One consolation attends the change: If 
less mutton and wool are produced, there will 
be more grain. A larger population will be sus- 
tained on a given area, towns will be built, 
manufactories multiplied, and the aggregate 
wealth of the community increased, such is the 
inevitable law of the survival of the fittest in 
the struggle for existence. 

The population of the county is a little up- 
wards of 7,000. Nearly one-half the number 
are residents of 

Red Bluff, 

The county seat, and one of the best business 
points found anywhere on the upper Sacra- 
mento. It is eligibly located, on the line of the 
Oregon and California railroad, and neatly laid 
out on an elevated bench on the west bank of 
the river, but by no means on an abrupt bluff 
of very considerable hight, as one might be led 
to imagine from the name. Both its stuation 
and surroundings, may well be looked upon as 
more than usually attractive and beautiful. Its 
court house and other public buildings, inclusive 
of a very large brick school house, are of the 
most substantial character, to say nothing of a 
large public hall, and similar buildings erected 
by the Masons and Odd Fellows, two fine 
churches and the many neat private residences 
that adorn the town and its suburbs. 

The Sacramento is spanned at this point by a 
well-constructed bridge, wlflch puts the town in 
easy communication with Antelope valley, one 
of the richest and most beautiful in the county. 
It is all settled up by well-to-do farmers. Among 
the number of fine ranches those belonging to 
Mr, J. S. Cone and Mr. R. H. Blossom were 
represented as the largest. The forte of the 
northern part of the county is confined more to 
grazing and lumber than to agriculture. 

The Town of Tehama 
Is situated also on the west bank of the river, 
12 miles below Red Bluff, at a point where the 
railroad crosses, and although much smaller, is 
quite a lively place, being the center of the 
great grain-producing section of the county. 
Mr. A, Simpson has a well cultivated tract 
of 700 acres of good bottom land immediately 
below the town, while above come the places of 
Messrs. Mooney, Schultz and Tyler, the latter 
giving much attention to the improvement of 
stock, having some very fine cattle and thorough- 
bred horses. 

The ranch of Mr. R. H. Thomes is the largest 
in the vicinity, and consists of about 18,000 
acres. He is represented by his neighbors to 
own some 2,300 head of cattle. His place is 
well fenced, and he has built himself a beauti- 
ful and substantial residence on Elder creek, 
four miles from Tehama. 

Mr. H. C. WilsoD, on Thomes creek, eight 
miles from town, has also one of the most desir- 
able places in the neighborhood, consisting of 
about 6,000 acres, the principal portion of which 
is leased and worked by others. This gives him 
more leisure for looking after his stock, which 
consists of many different kinds, and often of a 
variety of breeds of each. It would seem as 
though he were almost possessed with a passion 
for fast horses, as he keeps on hand from 20 to 
30 head of thoroughbreds. He is raising also 
from 175 # to 200 head of mules! His hogs are 
numerous, from 500 to 600, and of several varie- 
ties, among them the full-blood Chester, Berk- 
shire, Essex and Poland China. He has 3,500 
head of cattle, 13,000 sheep and 600 Angora 
goats— 10 full-bloods, and 350 crossed up to 
within one-sixteenth of thoroughbreds. He in- 
formed me that he had from eight to ten very 
large moose or mule-tailed deer, and that he 
had made an attempt at rearing the antelope, in 
which he thinks, from the experiment already 
made, he is likely to be successful, they being 
as readily herded as sheep or goats. He stated 
further that he had on his place some 6,000 grape 
vines, and from 400 to 500 apple trees, and at 
this season of the year (December 25th), he has 
ripe oranges and lemons on the trees of his 
orchard. 

On the west of the Sacramento there are 
three villages. Paskenta, the largest and thrift- 



iest, apparently, is about 25 miles west of Te- 
hama, and supplies mail matter and other wants 
over quite an extensive area. Henleyville, 
nearly midway between the last named places, 
is situated on the north bank of Thomes creek. 
Farmington is on the projected line of the 
northern railroad, 15 miles in a southerly direc- 
tion from Tehama, and although on the plains, 
is surrounded by a body of good farming land. 
Vina 

Is a station on the railroad, on the east side of 
the river, near the southern boundary. The 
soil in the vicinity along the river, and for many 
miles above and below, is excellent, and the 
grain here, as everywhere throughout the 
county, may be said to be looking remarkably 
well. Among the number of fine ranches in 
the more immediate vicinity of Vina may be 
mentioned those of Messrs. Copeland, Moore, 
Delaney, Jones and. Gerke. Mr. H. Gerke's, ad- 
joining the station, has 150 acres in vines, and 
30 in apples, peaches, pears, cherries, and other 
of the smaller varieties. Here is where the 
somewhat celebrated "Gerke" wine is made. 

In conclusion let us siy further details must 
be omitted, ae this letter is already too long. 
Thanks for many unlooked-for favors from 
friends of the Rural during this tour through 
Tehama. K. 



Orchard Grass. 

Editors Press: — Since I last wrote we have 
had a succession of showers and soaking rains. 
Farmers in this section, with few exceptions, 
are through seeding to grain, and most of it is 
up and looking well. Pastures as yet only 
yield a scanty subsistence'for stock, and with a 
light stock of hay, and that of poor quality, af- 
fected by the blight of last season, cows that are 
in milk are generally thin in flesh and are mak- 
ing only about one-half the butter per head that 
they did last season. 

I was in hopes that some of the readers of the 
Rural Press in Mendocino and Humboldt 
counties, who have had experience with orchard 
grass, would respond to your request and give 
us their opinions of its adaptability to our cli- 
mate and its value as a forage grass and for 
hay. 

Three years ago I purchased a few pounds of 
orchard grass seed, to test it in this climate. A 
part I sowed with oats, a part I sowed by itself 
upon land prepared for it, and a part I sowed 
upon poor land where the bedrock was only two 
feet below the surface. That which was sown 
with the oats did not do well. It came up well, 
but the oats getting the start absorbed all the 
moisture and about half the orchard grass per- 
ished. That sown by itself came up, made a 
good stand and when ripe stood three feet high. 
It makes a good sod. It has one peculiarity in 
its favor: When it throws up its seed stems 
and is fully ripe, near the grounoT is always 
thick foliage of green leaves which remain green 
all through the summer and fall without any 
irrigation. If it is a valuable and nutritious 
grass for stock, it is certainly a great acquisi 
tion, as it seems to thrive better than the na 
tive grasses on the Coast range. My experi 
ment has been too small to test only its grow 
ing qualities and its adaptability to the climate 
of the Coast range. 

Will not some of the readers of the Press in 
Mendocino and Humboldt counties, who have 
had a larger experience with this grass, tell us 
their opinion of it as a pasture grass and its 
value for hay ? E. H. Cheney. 

Bodega, Gal, Dec. 29th. 



INI 



Utilizing the Grape. 

Editors Press: — The extensive growth of 
the vine throughout our rich valleys and on our 
sunny hillsides has created a surplus of grapes, 
Questions have arisen as to what shall be done 
with them. Various pens have written of their 
utility. Cellars contain their full proportion of 
wine; our markets are becoming filled with 
many brands of raisins; choice varieties in a 
green state only Knd ready sale. What is to be- 
come of the balance? 

Statements are made that by utilizing them 
as food for hogs, the bulk of fat well repays 
the outlay. It is said that in distant lands 
grapes are grown so abundantly that they are 
fed to stock three months in the year. They 
are also utilized by picking them green and, 
when dried, pounding them into grape powder 
for pickle use {'!). Again, grape juice is boiled 
down to the consistency of molasses, under the 
name of "debes," and is said to be superior to 
any kind of sugar cane treacle. 

In China the wine extracted from the grape 
has the property of keeping several years by 
placing it in pitchers buried in the earth, and 
when brought forth it is a favorite drink. 

We find that the grape differs in color. The 
bloom that tints the skin is added in proportion 
to the attention or neglect given to its culture, 
as the color is wholly in the skin. So the cul- 
turist who earnestly seeks to prepare his ground 



will produce, with equal care in curing, raisins 
in a high state of bloom and fineness. 

To improve the quality of raisins, pluck the 
choice clusters and fill our market with 
excellent fruit. . Various gatherings should be 
made in making good selections, either in a 
green state for market, for drying or wine 
making. This gives them time to mature and 
perfect their form. After finishing, the surplus 
may be boiled down into syrup, made into vin- 
egar, or the grapes may be used to fatten stock. 
The grape has many uses. If converting the 
grape into wine does not pay with the present 
tax, apply to the Government for aid. Do not 
destroy your vines. Make some use of them 

Geo. Rich. 

Sacramento, Cal. 




Wool Production and Export of 1877. 

The annual circular of E. Grisar & Co. , of this 
city, contains the following review of the wool 
industry of 1877: 

During the past year the wool growing inter- 
est of California has received a very decided 
check, owing to the paucity of rain falling dur- 
ing 1876-1877, and the consequent failure of the 
grass crop, especially throughout the middle 
and southern portions of the State. The mor- 
tality amongst the sheep began in the winter, 
and rapidly increased as the season advanced, 
compelling many owners to drive their flocks to 
the mountains, where, and during their transit 
to and from, large numbers were lost; others 
found temporary ranges in the northern parts 
of the State, and in Nevada, also in Arizona and 
New Mexico, from whence a portion may in all 
probability return, should the coming season 
prove to be favorable. These disasters have 
greatly diminished the wool growing capacity 
of the State, from which it must take some 
time fully to recover. The loss, however, has, 
to some extent, been counter-balanced by a 
large increase in the northern counties. 

The receipts of spring clip show that the nat- 
ural increase has been lost, and the diminished 
production of fall wool furnishes evidence of'the 
great mortality amongst both sheep and lambs. 

Shearing during the fall has been general, and 
there will probably be less long stapled wools 
than usual the coming clip. The drouth will 
have the effect of improving the quality of the 
wool hereafter, as naturally the poorest sheep 
have died, and owners in reducing their flocks 
have, of course, retained the best. It has also 
served to call attention to the advantages of 
green feed, as an exceptionally large number of 
sheep have been fed on tule lands and artificial 
grasses, such as alfalfa, etc., and in many cases 
the fall wool from those sheep has been superior, 
being quite free from dust, and very similar to 
spring wools in appearance and working prop- 
erties. Of the coming clip, it is too early to 
form any estimate, but the amount must be 
considerably less than last year. 

The wool product of 1877 has been inferior to 
that of the preceding year, more of the wools 
being dusty, and the long stapled spring clips 
were generally in poorer condition. The un- 
usually large proportion of short stapled, dusty 
wools, resembling those of the fall clip, coming 
on 'the market may be accounted for by the 
scarcity of food, and consequent suffering of 
sheep. 

Fall wools, also, were generally inferior, al- 
though better than was anticipated. The fall- 
ing off in the receipts from the south was very 
marked. The spring and fall clips of the ex- 
treme northern counties were, however, above 
the average, both in condition and staple. 

The market has been good. Spring wools 
were moved readily, and until late in the sea- 
son, without any excitement or marked fluctua- 
tion in prices. During July the market here 
sympathized in the activity prevailing in other 
wool-growing States, and prices reached a point 
which subsequent events have shown to be un- 
warranted. When fall wools began to arrive, 
stocks were very light. Receipts were at first 
small, but as they increased, stocks unsold be- 
came larger. As prices were lower than growers 
anticipated, they were at first inclined to hold. 
At the beginning of November, stocks were 
large, but since that time the demand has been 
good, and the warehouses here contain less than 
the amount usual at this time. 

Prices during the spring were much higher 
than those rnling in 1876. Average stapled free 
wools opened at 17 to 19 cents, and maintained 
these rates during the season for good lots, and 
14 to 15 cents for dusty and unsightly parcels. 
Southern wools ranged from 15 to 19 cents, ac- 
cording to staple condition and freedom from 
bur. Northern wools brought from 26 to 32 
cents, the latter price being paid for good sta- 
pled light conditioned and slightly free wools. 

Rates for fall wool have been generally about 
the same as those ruling in 1876. The lower 
premium on gold, and latterly the reduction of 
freight, have rendered possible their being 
landed in Eastern markets at lower cost than a 
year since. 

The receipts of Oregon wool have increased. 
The Eastern wools were better than heretofore, 
as they contained less alkah and were of finer 
quality. Prices ranged from 26 to 29 cents. 
Valley wools were of the usual character; from 
28 to 33 cents was paid. A large amount was 



shipped to the East for owners' account, because 
buyers could not be found here to take the wool 
at cost. On account of the wide variation in 
character and consequent difference in values of 
free wools grown in the State, we omit the tab- 
ular quotations heretofore given. Free wool 
from one part of the State has been sold at 15 to 
17 cents, while the productions of other sec- 
tions have realized at the same time 30 to 31 
cents. 



Wool Production. 



Receipts at San Francis* 



Bags. 



•July 3,777 

August 6,674 

September 14,381 

October 26,679 

November 14,408 

December 3,182 



Bags. 

January 540 

February 338 I 

March 8,948 1 

April 34,386 '. 

May 30,523 

June 11,924 

Total 155,760 

„ . , Pounds. 

Spring wool, 90,895 bags, weighing 27,068,500 

Spring wool, shipped direct from the interior. 2,291,940 

Total spring production 19,360 440 

Fall wool, 62,865 bags, weighing 2oj43l|l25 

Fall wool, shipped direct from interior '569,'l77 

Total fleece wool 50 3go 742 

Pulled wool, shipped direct from S. F 2^750^000 

Total production of California 53,110 742 

On hand December 31st, 1876, about 3,50o'ooo 

Received from Oregon, 16,417 bags 4 929 675 

Foreign wool received, 2,047 bales '685' 100 



Grand total 62,225,517 

Exports. 

Domestic, Foreign, Pulled and Scoihed. 

Pounds. 

By rail, shipments from interior 44,961,919 

By steamer, including shipments from coast. . 395 154 
Per sail 7,609',216 

Total shipments 52.866,289 

Value of exports 89,500,000 

On hand December 31st, 1877 1,500,000 

Difference between receipts and exports has 
been taken by local mills. 

The weights of receipts and exports are gross. 
The usual tare of bags received is about 3 
pounds each; on pressed bales shipped, 14 to 16 
pounds each. 

The difference between receipts and exports 
is larger than formerly, on account of the open- 
ing of several new scouring companies, which 
has increased the shipment of scoured wool. 



E. 



Soil, Situation and Mulch for Straw- 
berries. 

Editors Press:— As- soils vary in different 
portions of the State, adaptation to strawberries 
may not always be found unless some additions 
are made. Still the strawberry is grown on 
almost any soil, but soils deep, moist, loamy, 
airy and open in their situation are most favora- 
ble for its growth. In referring to moist land, 
I do not mean land saturated or stagnant and 
ir. Such land requires drainage to make it 
productive. Soils adapted to potatoes and corn 
make good soils for strawberries. There is a 
distinction of soils as to its productiveness. On 
the lighter the berries mature early and are 
highly flavored. On heavy soils they are later 
and larger. 

Soils require diverse treatment. Those of 
light, sandy or gravelly nature require the use 
of cooling manure. Vegetable matter, clean- 
ings of cow stable, rotten compost, spent hops 
and castor pomace are excellent in their way. 
On the other hand land that is cold, clayey, 
wet and sour requires direct opposite treatment. 
Light and heating manures are the best, taken 
direct from the stable. 

In regard to variety of berries, some thrive 
best in soil in which clay predominates, while 
others do best in a light, rich soil. Deep soil is 
requisite, whether light or heavy. All plants 
require food. Vou gather fruit in proportion to 
the amount of plant food you feed them. 
Mulch. 

Mulching berries in our State is not carried 
on to such an extent as on the Eastern side. 
Still there is virtue in its use during our hot 
summers by keeping up an equal temperature. 
The shadow of chips, rubbish, boards or the 
wood pile on its under soil keeps up a certain 
degree of moisture. The same principle holds 
good in covering plants, trees or anything else. 
Small fruit requires such protection that the 
roots and slender fibers will shoot out beneath 
the surface and not dry out or lose vigor. This 
they will do without the shade or moisture 
given by a mulch. Soils act as a mulch to some 
extent, but require farther aid to keep equal 
moisture and temperature. Therefore,- the use 
of clean, ripe straw or hay, swale grass (cut up 
the better), or one may take tan bark, sawdust, 
or mill shavings and throw them in a heap and 
scatter lime through the mass and it will form 
a compost in a few months that will be ready 
for use. This is far more preferable than to use 
tan bark in a raw state, as your correspondent 
from Santa Rosa used in his beds. Leaves are 
full of elements of fertility and make a fine 
mulch when they can be had. They should be 
gathered together and become partially com- 
posted before they are used, as they will lie in 
place without being blown by the wind. They 
eventually can be turned in as fertilizing matter. 

Geo. Rich. 

Sacramento, Cal. 



20 



THE PACIFIC RUB AV PREuS. 



[January 12, 1878. 




Correspondence cordially invited from all Patrons for this 
department. 



Removal 

Until further notice the office of the Secretary of the 
State Grange will be at lOti Davis street, in the store of 
the Grangers' Business Association. Correspondents will 
continue to send their commui^-ations to No. 40 Califor- 
nia street, as heretofore. 



Statement of J. W. A. Wright. 

Editors 1'i;kss: I liave naturally read with 
some interest the resolutions of Stoekton and 
Dixon Oranges, referring to my humble self, 
having first seen them in your columns. Of 
course, it is not pleasant to have any of one's 
language or sentiments in a lecture, intended 
only for the good of our Order, misunderstood 
and censured in this public way by any O range. 
Still less pleasant is it, after devoting one's 
most faithful and unselfish efforts with but 
small returns for nearly five years to a good 
oause to see in print so harsh a resolution as 
that by Stockton Orange about legislation in 
in general, which Dixon Grange fully indorses. 

Since a few of my fellow-Patrons have seen 
(it, to publish resolutions which I deem very 
unkind and unjust, they leave me no choice but 
to make my defence as publicly. This I shall 
do to the best of my ability, though I wish to 
do so without harsh feelings or words. Know- 
ing your space for (i range matters is limited, I 
shall condense my comments as much as I can. 
I merely wish to show wherein the censure of 
said resolutions is wrong. I am so fortunate as 
never before to have been rebuked by any 
Grange. Such censure was wrong for the fol- 
lowing reasons: 

1. It was hasty, being based upon the de- 
fective report, and unfair construction and crit- 
icism of an unfriendly journal. 

2. It condemns a brother publicly without 
giving him the slightest chance for a hearing, 
and thence is contrary to our obligations. 

3. It shows a lack of information about the 
principles and acts of our National and State 
Granges, whose guidance we have promised to 
follow. 

On the financial question our friends of Dixon 
(irange say very plainly, that they oppose botli 
"the repeal of the resumption act and the mak- 
ing of the silver dollar of 412) grains an un- 
limited legal tender, and that neither Brother 
Pilkington nor I have any authority or right to 
speak for or to commit the Patrons of Husband- 
ry of California, as a body on these questions." 
Now I am sure neither of us as lecturers have 
wished to assume any authority, that did not 
belong us. In advocating principles of reform 
and legislation, I have always wished and tried 
to be guided by the authoritative acts of leading 
bodies, and the clear deductions from them. I 
believe this has always been the case with my 
successor, Bro. Pilkington. It has always 
been a pleasure for me to listen to his able and 
forcible lectures and to co-operate with him in 
every way in my power, and I thought I had 
never heard an abler and truer one from him 
than his last at Sacramento. 

I must call attention to the fact, that neither 
he nor I said a word on the subject on national 
finances at Sacramento, until after I had an- 
nounced the news, which I had just received 
officially from the Cincinnati session, that the 
National Orange had favored the repeal of the 
resumption act and the remonetization of silver 
by over a two-thirds vote. Now it so happened 
that neither of us knew any better authority 
to be guided by in these matters than the Na- 
tional Orauge, for we have all sworn to main- 
tain its edicts. Hence, if Dixon Orange cannot 
favor these two financial measures, they should 
blame the (National (irange, not Bro. Pilking- 
ton and me for advocating them. 

The most sweeping, if not the severest of the 
Stockton resolutions, is the one which says they 
"do not acknowledge the authority of Bro. 
Wright as the exponent of the views of the 
Order in this State on legislation. " 

I have only this to say on that point. I 
claim that all legislation I have ever advocated 
in my Sacramento lecture or any other is in 
entire accord with some authoritative act of 
the National (irange or the State (irange of 
California. / challenge anyone itutide or outxide 
the Orange to prove Hie contrary. Consequently, 
whether any of my fellow-Patrons acknowledge 
my authority to advocate our principles of leg- 
islation, etc., or not — a matter of very great 
indifference to me — if they do not favor the 
principles I have advocated, and ever expect to 
advocate in public and private, they do not 
favor the established principles of our Order. 
That is all. 

As regards other matters with which said 
resolutions charge me, 1 deny, and my fellow- 
Patrons of Sacramento county, who heard me, 
have also denied for me, that I used any really 
incendiary language in my Sacramento lecture. 
I deny that I have ever uttered or that I enter- 
tain sentiments "utterly at variance with the 
principles of the Order" and "good citizen- 
ship," or " calculated to work great injury to 



the Order, not only in this State but the 
United States." All my wishes and efforts 
have aimed at the contrary results. I always 
have been and always expect to be on the side 
of law and order. I sincerely disapprove of all 
violence and lawlessness and said so most point- 
edly in the lecture, a small part of which has 
been so unjustly criticised. Nothing I said 
contained threats from me, but merely referred 
to the words of others. The resolutions having 
been passed hastily from wrong impressions, I 
am willing to forgive their harshness, ami I 
write these explanations and denials for the 
Rural Press, not that I wish to censure my 
fellow-Patrons of two Oranges' for their hasty 
and unjust condemnation, Hut? to have the truth 
known and to prevent the injurious effects of 
such resolutions to a good name J* a conserva- 
tive citizen, which I value more than Kfe itself. 

I heartily thank my fellow-Patrons of Sacra- 
mento county, among whom I have worked for 
some time, for coining forward so promptly to 
prevent injustice to a brother. On Saturday, 
the 5th, and Thursday, the 10th, I shall enjoy 
the pleasure of lecturing to them again at 
Franklin and American River (i ranges. 

.). W. A. Wright. 

Jan. 1st, 1878. 

Grange work at Walnut Creek. 

Contra Costa County G rangers are not only 
alive but lively. Danvillo (irange- met with 
their neighbors at Walnut Creek last Saturday 
and had a very pleasant and we believe profita- 
ble meeting. Several Patrons from Oakland and 
from Point of Timber (irange were present and 
we presume some from other parts of Contra 
Costa county. Some 300 Patrons and their 
friends gathered in the Methodist church about 
12 o'clock, and listened to a most interesting as 
well as instructive lecture by Dr. Dio. Lewis, 
of Oakland. The Doctor talked for the interest 
and kind treatment of that noble friend of the 
fanner — the horse. Also, on the health of 
women and liberal treatment of farmers' wives, 
fashionable follies, etc. The lecture was 
well received. We never heard more jolly and 
sensible hits made by a speaker in so short a 
time- 
After the lecture the Patrons and their guests 
repaired to the dining-hall, where the sisters 
spread out an abundance of good things — in- 
cluding coffee, turkey, roast pig, frosted cake, 
honey, etc. 

Harvest Feast over, Sister Steele led an open- 
ing ode, and the installation of officers of Wal- 
nut Creek and Danville Oranges was proceeded 
with by A. T. Dewey, General Deputy, assisted 
by Bro. Jasper Jones. The list of officers of 
each (irange have already, or will soon, appear 
in the report of elections in the Rural. 

It was, indeed, pleasant to see so many old 
workers whom we met in Walnut Creek (irange 
years ago, still animated in their effort for the 
good of the Order. Quite a uumber have been 
received into their fold from Pacheco Grange, 
which lately surrendered its charter. Walnut 
Creek (irange seems not only flourishing, but 
bound to progress. A vote was carried almost 
unanimously on Saturday to purchase a .*400- 
lot for building a hall and general headquar- 
ters in the town as soon as practicable. 



P. of H. in British Columbia. 

Bro. N. W. Garretson, who organized the 
State Granges of California and Oregon, has 
received the appointment from the Dominion 
• irange (Canada) as a Deputy for planting the 
Order in British Columbia. He will soon leave 
Portland, Oregon, and proceed with his good 
work. Bro. Garretson greatly endeared himself 
with the Patrons in this State during his brief 
intercourse with them, and all will wish him 
( iod-speed in his new field. We believe he will 
do his work well, and therefore hope that he 
will be well received and heartily assisted by 
all progressive agriculturists in his new field. 
Following is a copy of the official notice of his 
appointment: 

"Having been requested by prominent fanners in British 
Coluiflbia to send a Deputy into the Province, for the 
purpose of organizing Granges of the Patrons of Hus- 
bandry, I am pleased to inform those interested that we 
have secured the services of N. W. Garretson, of Portland, 
Oregon, U. S. , to organize Granges under authority of the 
Dominion Grange. Mr. Garretson is a gentleman fully 
conversant with the work of the (irange, and well i|uali- 
tied to undertake the duty of organizing in anew Province, 
having organized the State Granges of California and Ore- 
gon, as well as many Subordinate Granges in the United 
States. If those feeling an interest in the matter will 
corresiiond with him, their communications will receive 
immediate attention, and any information desired will be 
freely given. He will visit the Province at an earlv day. 

W. Pkmrkrtos Paob, Scc'y of Dominion Grange. 
P. of H." 



Clarksville Grange. — Samuel Kyburz, Sec- 
retary, writes us that the installation at Clarks- 
ville Grange, in El Dorado county, was held 
January 5th, Past Master R. T. Mills officiating. 
Afterward there came a feast and a social dance, 
which were both greatly enjoyed. 

Eden Grange has invited all Alameda 
County Granges to attend installation of officers, 
etc., at Hay wards, on Saturday, January Pith. 

Installation or Officers and harvest feast 
at Temescal Orange, January 12th, at one 
o'clock, as announced last week. 



Election of Officers. 



Antelope Grange, No. 100, Colusa . — 
Election, Dec. 22d: H. A. Logan, M. ; 1. 
S. Taylor, ().; H. A. Clark, L;X Sites, fifij* P - 
Peterson, A. S. ; Mrs. Logan, C. ; Mrs. SjtX 1 > 
T. ; C. P. Dam, Sec'y; A. I). IWan, G. Ftt ' 
Mrs. Peterson, Ceres; Mrs. ClariL Poniorf**-, 
Mrs. Cleghorn, Flora; Miss Logan, mt A. S. 

Bodega Grange, No. 34. — A. S. Purrine, 
M.; N. R, Shaw, 0.; E. H. Cheney, /.; Wm. 
K-se, S. ; Mrs. Cheney, A. S.; James Grejjson, 
» '. ; Mrs. S. L. Purrine, T. ; J. Cunningham, 
Sec'y;- James Kee, G. K. ; Mrs. N. R. Shair 
Ceres; Mrs. E. Gregson, Pomona: Mrs. R. 
Hakes, Flora; Mrs. Mattie Watson, L. A. S. 

( 'edarvilf.e Oran«se. No. 269.— Election, 
Dec. 19th: George Colborne, M.; M. L Scam- 
nion, O. ; J. R. Cooke, L; I). J. Benner, S. ; N. 
Buck, A. S. ; Wm. rXidsoo. C. ; R. Buck, T. ; 
L O. Baehelder, Sec'y; J. Street, G. K. ; Mrs. 
I.. H. Seammon, Ceres; Mrs. H. A. Baehelder, 
Flora; Mrs. P. H. Drouillard, Pomona; Miss 
Minnie fh-mullard, L. A. S.; J. Stevens, 
Trustee. 



Montezuma Grange.— Thos. T. Hooper 
M.; F. Ungor, 0.; Jag. Oalbreath, L.; E. i! 
Upham, S.; D. Cushman, A. S.; Sister Addio 
Daniels, Sec'y; S. EL DePerry, C; (i. M 
Daniels, T.; F. Wise, (i. K.; Sister H. De- 
Perry, Pomona; Sister Anna Oalbreath, Ceres; 
Sister S. A. Daniels, Flora; Jas. Oalbreath, 
Wm. Donal, F. Unger, Trustee*. 
Il North Bctte Grange, No. 225.— Otis Clark 
1^ f. ; W. T. Lam, O. ; H. S. Graves, L. ; Hugh 
, S. ; (ins Clyma, A. S. ; H. A. Wem- 



Centkevii.le Orange, No. 120, Alameda 
Co.— Election, Dec. 2»th-. N. L. Babb, M. ; F. 
Peres, O. ; Miss Mary Ann Horner, L ; W. A. 
Moore, S. ; A. S. Clark, A. S. ; John M. Horner, 
C. ; Howard Overacker, T. ; M. B. Sturges, 
Sec'y; Chas. Chase, G. K. ; Mrt>. Jenny Tyson, 
Ceres; Miss Maya Bahb, I'omona; Mies Jose- 
phine Horner, Flora; Mrs. L E. Osgood, L. A. 
S. ; M. J. Overacker, Trustee. Installation last 
Saturday in January. 

Clarksville Grange, No. 149, Ei. Dobaj>o 
Co.— T. Maltby, Mi; J. R. Barret, O. ; A. T. 
Leachman, L. ; Charles Chapman, S. ; C. P. 
Wiuchel, A. S. ; J. H. York, C. J Geo. Garten, 
T. ; S. Kyburz, Sec'y: W. Johnson, G. K.; Mrs. 
Emma Woodward, Ceres; Mrs. R. S. Kyburz, 
Pomona: Miss Mary Mills, Flora; Mrs. Etfie E. 
Winchel, L. A. S. * 

Colusa Grange, No. 48, Colusa Co. — Elec- 
tion, Dec. 4th: R. Jones, M.; David J^ewis, O. ; 
J. T. Wilkins, L. : J. R. Totman, S.; W. S. 
(ireen, A. S.; F. B. Reed, C; Mrs. L. O. 
Stomer, T. ; Mrs. L. M. Totman, Sec'y; S. T. 
Stomer, G. K.; Mrs. C. R. Webley, Ceres; 

Mrs. Mary Kilgore, Pomona; Mrs. Mace, 

Flora; Miss Katie Jones, L. A. S. 

Confidence Grange, No. 121. — Election, 
Dec. 8th; S. D. Triplett, M.: A. McKechnie, 
O. ; John Newlove, L. ; Geo. C. Cocke, S. ; Win. 
C. McGuire, A. S. ; Mrs. Angie Ayres, C. ; A. 
Copeland, T. ; James Morse, Jr., Sec'y; C. K. 
Owen, G. K.; Mrs. E. A. Hudson. Ceres; Mrs. 
S. L. Walker, Pomona; Mrs. C. A. Cocke, 
Flora; Mrs. R. N. Triplett, L. A. a 

Cottonwood Grange, Merced Co.— J. L.. 
Crittenden, M.; T. M. Gardner, ().; Mrs. M. P. 
Gardner, L. ; S. Ewing, S. ; J. L. Hale, A. S.; 
R. M. C. Hale, C. ; C. S. Johnson, T. ; I. J. 
True, Sec'y; W. T. Bradley, O. K.; Mrs. A. 
M. Crittenden, Ceres; Mrs. S. A. Bradley, 
Pomona; Mrs. M. ('. Wiggs, Flora; Miss L. 
Tinnin, L. A. S. Installation third Saturday 
in January. 

Denverton Grange, No. 123, Solano Co. — 
Election, Dec. 1st: J. B. Carrington, M.; J. 
Bullars, O.; W. D. Merrill, L. ; O. H. Bullars, 
S. ; Mrs. J. E. Stewart, A. S. ; Mrs. R. Spencer, 
C; Mrs. Merrill, T. : John, Bird, Sec'y; R. H. 
Barkway, G. K.; Mrs. H. Carrington, Ceres; 
Mrs. E. Ornold, Pomona; Mrs. N. Barnes, Flora; 
Mis. E. Bullars, L. A. S. 

Elliot Orange, No. 183. — Election, Dec. 
22d: H. H. West, M. ; Jas. Lamb, O. ; Mrs. 
A. (ireen, L.; F. Ritter, S.; H. B. Smith, A. 
S. ; Mrs. M. A. West, C. ; 0. M. West, T. ; H. 
Adams, Sec'y; J. Wiltse, G. K. ; Mrs. Hannah 
Adams, Ceres; Mrs. Misener, Pomona; Miss 
Susie Adams, Flora; Mrs. Lamb, L. A. S. 

Enterprise G range, No. 1211. Election, 
Dec. 15th: A. M. Plummer, M.; G. Wilson, 
O.; F. B. Fitch, L.; F. Bell, S.; A. M. Gunter, 
A. S.; L. B. Sharp, O; Nelson Shaner, T.; S. 
A. (ireen, Sec'y; J. Campbell, G. K. ; Mrs. M. 
W. Parker, Ceres; Miss Mary Shaner, Pomona; 
Mrs. J. Campbell, Flora; Mrs. Plummer, L. A. S. 

Florin Grange, No. 130.— C. Towle, M.; E. 
Taylor, O. ; D. Reese, L. ; Sister C. Bates, S. ; 
J. L. Scholefield, A. S.; W. A. Smith, ('.; D. 
H. Buell, T. ; J. T. Amos, Sec'y; J. Jackson, 
(i. K.; Sister A. Bates, Ceres; K. Jackson, 
Pomona; S. A. Buell, Flora; E. A. Fassett, L. 
A. S. 

Lassen Grange. No. 253.— E. S. Talbot, M.; 
J. Jensen, O. ; I. M. Stewart, L. ; F. Hine6, S.; 
Theo. Williams, A. S. ; E. Winchest, ( '. ; T. N. 
Long, T. ; C. W. Moore, Sec'y; Allen Wood, 
G. K.; Mrs. T. N. Long, Ceres; Mrs. C. John- 
son, Pomona; Mrs. Mary Bennett, Flora. 

Lincoln Grange. — Election, Dec. loth: A. 
J. Soule, M.; Hollis Newton, O. ; Jacob Welty, 
L.; S. J. Lewis, S. ; John Crook, A. S. ; J. P. 
Fowler, C; E. J. Cox, T.; J. S. Philbrick, 
Sec'y; C. Crook, O. K.; Mrs. E. J. Cox, Ceres; 
Mrs. A. E. French, Pomona; Mrs. H. Newton, 
Flora; Mrs. T. D. Williams, L. A. S. 

Mattoi.e ({range. No. 201. — Election, Dec. 
15th: David Simmons, M. ; Stephen Goff, O. ; 
Mrs. A. A. Benton, L. ; Mrs. Ann Cook, S. ; 
James H. Goff, A. S. ; David Knoyer, C. ; Chas. 
A. Doe, T. ; Jacob Miner, Sec'y; Theo. Aldrich, 
G. K. ; Mrs. Martha Simmons, Ceres; Mrs. 
Mary Knoyer, Pomona: Miss Clara A. Conklin, 
Flora; Mrs. Sarah E. Marshall, L. A. S. In- 
stallation January 10th, 1878. 

" Officers of Granges arc requested to sen i list of offi- 
cers elect, date of election and day set for installation, to 
thii ottioe direct. \ 



piV^ ('.;('. Williams, T. ; Mrs. L. A. Clark, Sec'y; 
Etc* ,n Brown. G. K.; Mary J. Stevenson, 
Cere* : M - & Bruce, Pomona; Annie E. Clyma, 
Mbrui; ^' ra - Emma Spilman, L. A. S. 

(j>biv\'' REEK Grange. Election, Dec. 8th: C. 
Hi SwA. '■> M.J K. C. Swain. O. ; J. D. Dinner, 
L. Willi. Nuckolls, S. ; S. J. Tolle, A. S. ; C. S. 
( lUatb (f. s - Kingery, T. ; A. Kingery, Sec'y; 
W. Recton, (l - K > *• Kingery, Ceres; Sister 
Clark, P6nu» la: Btatat Linner, Flora; S. A. 
Nuckoirsi-IL . *• s - Trustees— A. S. Tolle (for 
three yearsrt; aa» * K- 0. Swain (for one year). 

Petaluma'-Wra !ilit " " - Election, Dec. 8th: W. 
W. Chapmany BL; D - G - Heald, O. : A. Sym- 
onds, L. ; Sister .si Orun, C. ; D. N. Winans, 
S.; N. Wiswell, ii 1 -! A. S. Hall, T. ; F. Par- 
ker, Sec'y; H. (C'hu* c j)> (i - K -i Mrs. Flora 
Thomas, Ceres; Mies' i "• Hammond, Pomona; 
Miss I, Skillman, PUk*, Mrs - N. Wiswell, L. 
A. S. ; T. C. Tutma*, l.'rustec; F. F. Mocks, 
Financial Secretary. 

•Poway Grange, Not 23v > — Election, Dec. 
10th: S. P. Abell, M,; John Mc Woods, L.; A. 
K. Cravath, O. : Fred. Reetake, 8- i ^' m - Byers, 
A. 8.; C. C. Watson, C.f N. Jfe. 'son.^ T. ; James 
Anderson, Sec'y; George Hoffinat. '• K. : Sis- 
ter S. Wattson, Ceres; Sister A nnie Abell, 
Pomona; Sister I>ena Rhodes, Fk Sister 
Virginia Kerren, L. A. S. ; W. h 'urroughs, 
Trustee. 

San Jose Orange, No. 10.— C. T. Sek 'e, M. : 

E. A. Braly, O. ; Mrs. E. P. Bicknell, L., ( 8 >nce 
deceased); J. Powell, S. ; N. J. Haines, A, S. ; 
Mrs. H. 0. Paine. C. ; W. L. Manly, T. ; H. G. 
Keesling, Sec'y; Mrs. O. Cottle, G. K. ; Mr» 
H. 0. Fainsworth, Ceres; Mrs. M. Hale, Pomona; 
Mrs. W. L. Manly, Flora; Miss Jennie Powell, 
L. A. S. 

Vai.le.io Orange, No. 113, Solano Co. — J. 

F. Deming, M. ; S. S. Drake, O. ; G. C. Pearson,. 
L. ; C. Deming, S. ; M. Carroll, A. S. ; Mrs. A. 
Deming, C. ; B. Brown, T. ; Mrs. C. J. Mosely, 
Sec'y; G. Greenwood, G. K.; Mrs. Hettie Dem- 
ing, Ceres; Miss H. Ryerson, Pomona; Mrs. G.. 
C. Pearson, Flora; Mrs. S. S. Drake, L. A. S. 

Santa Maria Grange, No. 52, Santa Bar- 
bara Co. — J. J. Holloway, M.; Joel Miller, O. ; 
M. H. Stephen, L. ; R. D. Cook, S.; B. T. 
Wile)*, A. S. ; John Thornburgh, C. ; Mrs. M. 
M. Thornburgh, T. ; O. W. Lewis, Sec'y; W. C. 
Moore, G. K. ; Mrs. Elizabeth Harris, Ceres; 
Mrs. Jenette Cook, Pomona; Mrs. Mary 
Stephen, F'lora; Mrs. Sarah Linebaugh, L. A. S. 

Sonora Grange*— Election, Dec. 8th: Geo. 
C. Soulsby, M. ; J. F. Ralph, 0. ; John Taylor, 
L. ; L. Keeley, S. ; Robt. F. Williams, A. S. ; 
Wm. Kelly, C; 0. Cowan, T.; Jas. W. Purdy, 
Sec'y; John Lawson, G. K.; Sister F. J. Kelly, 
Ceres; Sister G. J. Wood, Pomona; Sister Anna 
E. Koblen, Flora; Sister Esther Ralph, L A. S. 

Suisun Valley Grange, No. 9, and Rock- 
ville Grange, No. 107, (Consolidated).— J. 
McMullen, M. ; Mrs. J. M. Baldwin, O. ; Mrs. 
A. M. Cox, L. ; Mrs. Geo. M. Berry, S. ; J. R, 
Morris, A. S. ; J. Cunningham, 0. ; J. M. Bald- 
win, T. ; Julia Krinbill, Sec'y; A. T. Hatch, 
(i. K. ; Mrs. G. H. F:ilsworth, Ceres; Mrs. M. J. 
Cunningham, Pomona; Mrs. A. T. Hatch, 
FTora; Mrs. A. Paugburn, L A. S. 

Tulare Grange, No. 198.— Election, Dec. 
29th: A. P. Mcrritt, M. ; T. W. Maples, 0. ; 
Mrs. T. W. Maples, L.; Joseph Merritt, S.; G. 
W. Wray, A. S.; E. M. Wilson, C. ; J. H. 
Hart, Sec'y; J. A. Goodwin, T.; P. S. Tracy, 
(i. K.; Mrs. J. A. Goodwin, Ceres; Mrs. A. P. 
Merritt, Pomona; Mrs. G. W. Wray, Flora; 
Mrs. J. Merritt, L. A. S. 

Woodville Grange, No. 199.— F'lection, 
Dec. 19th: O. K. Jones, M. ; Thos. Lewis, O.; 
J. A. Slover, L.; O. W. Herndon, S.;T. B. 
F'uquay, A. S. ; li. McKee, C. ; W. Monroe, T. ; 
.7. N. Herndon, Sec'y; J. S. Johnson, G. K. ; 
Mrs. (). K. Jones, Ceres; Mrs. J. A. Slover, 
Pomona; Mrs. Thos. Lewis. F'lora; Miss E. T. 
Herndon, L. A. S. 

Yuba City Grange, No. 65. — Election, Dec. 
1st: T. B. Hull, M.; B. F. Frisbie, O.; Thos. 
Brophy, L. : Wm. Wadsworth, S. ; W. J. 
Hardy, A. S. ; J. T. Smith, C. ; S. Rice, T. ; 
Anna Ohleyer, Sec'y; B. F. Walton, G. K.; 
Mrs. Maggie Hull, Ceres; Mrs. M. J. Frisbie, 
Pomona; Miss Josie Heddin, Flora; Miss Annie 
Stewart, L. \ S. 

Railroad Ties.— A recent lumberman's cir- 
cular estimates the number of railroad ties in 
present use in the United States at 150,000,000. 
A cut of 200 ties to the acre is above rather 
than under the average, and it therefore has 
required the product of 750,000 acres of well 
timbered land to furnish the supply. Railroad 
ties last about rive years; consequently 30,000,- 
000 ties are used aunually for repairs, taking 
the timber from 150,000 acres. The manufac- 
ture of rolling stock disposes of the entire yield 
of 350,000 acres, and full supply of near 500,- 
000 acres more, every year. It appears, then, 
that our railroads are stripping the country at 
the rate of 1,000,000 acres per annum; and 
their demands are rapidly increasing. 



January 12, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FliS 



California. 

COLUSA. 

Our Chop. — Sun, Jan. 5: There has been a 
greater area sown to wheat in this county than 
ever before, and it is all looking very well, con- 
sidering the extraordinary heavy frosts of the 
last fortnight. That has of course a tendency 
to turn it yellow, but a rain will bring it out of 
that. 

EL DORADO. 

The Crops.— Republican, Jan. 3: We have 
interviewed a number of farmers of late who 
reside in this vicinity, and none have we found 
who complains in the least at the outlook. All 
predict good crops of grain and hay, and as the 
past season was an " off" one for fruit, we may 
confidently expect an abundent crop this sea- 
son, which alone will put from $200,000 to 
$300,000 into the pockets of the producers. 
Everything looks bright for the coming season. 
FRESNO. 

Notes. — Expositor J an. 1: We learn that the 
rainfall on the plains, bordering the foothills 
of the Sierras, has not been sufficient to enable 
the farmers plow up new land. The grass on 
the north side of the San Joaquin river is much 
more forward than it is in this vicinity. A 
few days ago our people had begun to get dis- 
couraged because of the absence of rain, and 
the consequent sufferings of stock on account 
of scarcity of feed. Now, since the rain, they 
feel in better spirits, and are hopeful for the 
future. 

Editors Press: — Our total rainfall to date 
has been 3.05 inches. Grain is looking well at 
present. The acreage sown is less than last 
season. Grass is good and growing fast since 
the weather became warm. Stock of all kinds 
are doing reasonably well. — E. S. Russell, Bor- 
den, Jan. 8th. 

KERN. 

Corn. — Courier, Jan. 5: Mr. E. R. Green, 
on the conclusion of his harvest, found himself 
in possession of corn to the value of $4,000. It 
was raised from 100 acres of new ground, and 
for quality has never been excelled in the State. 
He proposes to double the quantity the coming 
season. The efficiency of the Kern Island 
Canal through the dryest season ever known in 
southern California, is most thoroughly estab- 
lished. There is general exultation by the 
stock men over the favorable weather since the 
heavy rains. In some of the alfalfa fields hay 
has been fed to the cattle driven in from out- 
side, but many were too poor to survive, even 
when driven ia the midst of plenty. The large 
bands have already been started for the foot- 
hills. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Good Ditch. — Editors Press: We are at 
work building one of the finest irrigation ditches 
in the State, and I hope that hereafter the dry 
seasons will not affect us like the last did. — H. 
G. , Santa Ana. 

Increased Area. — Santa Monica Outlook, 
Jan. 3: From Santa Monica to Compton we 
were constantly in sight of extensive seeding 
operations. Quite an area is being sown to 
barley just out of town by several parties. 
Beyond, when one reaches the plains beginning 
at the Centinela, and stretching away to Wil- 
mington, a distance of some 16 miles, his eyes 
rest upon large fields of grain already green; 
others brown, and fresh and just sown, while 
large gangs drawn by four, six and eight horses, 
dot the plains in all directions. This large sec- 
tion was barren last ' year, and of conrse there 
are many similar localities in the country, 
which are now being sown to grain. To these 
let us add the large areas that are seeded every 
year, and we can form some notion of the enor- 
mous small grain crop that will be gathered 
next harvest. 
MENDOCINO. 

Editors Press: — Our frosty spell is over, 
now raining and thermometer marks 43°. 
Twenty hundredths of an inch has fallen dur- 
ing the night; .04 fell last week in the shape of 
frost; 25° was the lowest marking of the ther- 
mometer; 21° in Potter. Grain is not injured, 
the ground not being wet enough. Nine and 
seventy-one one-hundredths inches is our fall 
of rain for the season. Only a few of the 
streams are running, and they not strong. — A. 
O. C. Ukiah, Jan. 7th. 
MONTEREY. 

A Good Year. — index, Jan. 3: January 
and February will not fail of some rain, so that 
a more prosperous year than the last may be 
reasonably anticipated. For this (Salinas) val- 
ley short rains may still produce a good crop if 
the temperature be not too low and the fogs of 
the spring and summer be abundant. We have 
already more rain than last year and can there- 
fore be quite hopeful of a favorable year. 
NAPA. 

Pine Station.— Cor. Star, Jan. 4: We have 
some very forward grain in our neighborhood, 
some being near two feet high, and already 
commencing to fall or lodge. The ground 
seems to be plenty wet enough for the present. 
In digging tree holes we found the water has 
gone down from four to five feet. I find only 
one case of there being dry dirt at the depth of 
three and one-half or four feet. In digging a 
five-foot hole to remove gravel, it was found 
wet the entire depth. What rain has fallen 
has come in showers, so as to all sink in and 
not run off. Messrs. (! raves & Sons have sold 



80 head of their cattle to a party in Knight's" 
valley, to make room,, as their feed is getting 
short. The immense stocks of straw are grow- 
ing small. Some people- think straw poor feed, 
but it will maintain life- -in fact, keep cattle in 
fair living condition — yet there is much of it 
wasted. 
PLACER. 

Editors Press: — I have been four months 
among the oak timbers bordering the foothills 
of Placer county. I have not many items of 
interest for you. I could not help telling these 
people that I thought they ought to have more 
to show for a five or a ten-years' residence upon 
their claims. "There is the Niokerson ranch, 
right in your neighborhood, what was there to 
hinder there being a constant succession of such 
places the whole length of Doty's ravine. " I 
did have the pleasure of seeing some "effort of 
improvement. Some are ashamed at buying 
hay to feed their teams, while they haul off 
government wood. J. C. Crosby had a castor 
bean plant which survived ten winters and bore 
beans in various stages of growth, every month 
of that time. This last fall it showed signs of 
failure, but whether from old age or on account 
of the extreme dry season we could not deter- 
mine. Other neighbors have beans now four or 
five years old. Mr. Crosby also had a tobacco 
plant that grew and blossomed for four sum- 
mers. In the midst of such climate and with 
such soil, there is very little to show for years 
of residence. — Jeigh Arrh. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Alfalfa or Barley. — J. N. Hoag in Record- 
Union: We have been experimenting to deter- 
mine for ourselvos which is the best winter feed 
for hogs — growing alfalfa or growing barley. 
We had a field sown in barley and alfalfa last 
spring. We headed the barley and cut the 
stubble and young alfalfa for hay. There then 
grew a second crop of allalfa hay, and we cut 
this also. When the first rain came there came 
up all over the field a fine set of barley nearly 
as thick as it should be sown for a crop. Since 
that time, though we have been pasturing it 
v\rith cows and hogs, both the alfalfa and barley 
have been growing rapidly, each seemingly 
trying to outstrip the other. Since this cold, 
frosty weather commenced, however, the barley 
has had the best of it decidedly. While the 
alfalfa looks wilted and checked, the barley 
keeps green and tender as ever. We have also 
noticed that hogs reject the alfalfa but eat the 
young barley as eagerly as ever. In addition 
to this last we have had hogs running in a field 
of clean alfalfa where the seed appears to be 
about the same as in the mixed field, and in this 
field these hogs have now thrived as well as 
those that have had both alfalfa and barley to 
eat. Hereafter we shall always endeavor to 
sow a piece of harley early — say before the first 
rains — on purpose for winter feed for hogs. 
Volunteer barley harrowed in will do as well. 
It can be pastured all winter till March, and 
will then make a better crop than if sown late. 
SAN DIEGO. 

Larue Beet. — News, Jan. 1: Mr. Walker, of 
the National ranch, brought into town, Christ- 
mas day, the largest beet we have ever seen. It 
was a blood beet of the ordinary quality. He 
had the beet photographed, and we do not 
wonder at that, as its size and appearance ought 
to be perpetuated. The beet, or rather the 
largest of two monsters, stood about four feet 
high, and weighed 166 pounds, while its mate, 
dug from the same row, weighed 93 pounds. 
These beets were only the growth of one sea- 
son, being planted less than a year ago. 
SAN JOAQUIN. 

Large Pears. — Independent, Dec. 31: Pears 
of Easter Beurre variety, of immense size, pro- 
duced in the orchard of Mr. Phelps, not far 
from the Agricultural Society's park, excited 
the wonder of sojourners from New York last 
Saturday. Thatjvariety is large, roundish oval, 
yellow, melting and rich, and will keep until 
spring. Visitors from the East regard the dis- 
plays of fruit in our market at this season of 
the year with perfect amazement. 

SONOMA. 

Alexander Valley. — Flay, Jan. 3; M. C. 
Bailey informs us that in Alexander valley 
seeding is in the main done; wheat is up about 
six inches, thrifty, and has a good stand. The 
cold weather has checked it some, but is all the 
better for that. Early-sown barley is exceed- 
ingly heavy. 

Argus Notes. — Petaluma, Jan. 3: Neal 
Mclsaacs, at Nicasio, says that' this is so far 
one of the most favorable seasons he has known. 
J. C. Scudder informs us that crop prospects in 
Green valley and the vicinity of Sebastopol, 
are fully as good as usual at this season of the 
year. J. McMillen, of Tomales: Crop pros- 
pects are fully as good as usual in Tomales. 
The late heavy frosts have somewhat retarded 
the growth -of vegetation, but the season, up to 
a week ago has been very favorable. 
STANISLAUS. 

Returned. — News, Jan. 3: Mr. A. Stonsi- 
fer, of Hill's Ferry, after an absence of some 
months in the northern part of the State, with 
his band of fine French merino sheep, has re- 
turned. He comes home feeling much better 
satisfied with Stanislaus county than over be- 
fore. In his pilgrimage he has been very for- 
tunate in saving the lives of his valuable sheep. 
He lost but 25 head during the season. 

The Season. — Herald: The rainfall during 
December amounted to 60-100ths, a very small 
quantity to give any other assurance but a dry 
season. Still many are confident that we will 
have abundance of rain during the month of 



January. The grain is up and growing, and 
J will not suffer any for two or three weeks. 
Feed is growing slowly, owing to the cold 
nights. 

Oregon. 

Oregon Productions. —Ore(jonia?i, Dec. 29: 
To be seen last night at the St. Charles hotel, 
collected by W. F. West to replenish the '* Or- 
egon exhibit" at Philadelphia: Oats in the 
straw measuring over seven feet high; samples 
of wheat raised on the farm of G. W. Backus 
on the Columbia river, and yielding 80 bushels 
to the acre; of wheat from the farm of O. Os- 
borne, near Walla Walla, averaging 75 bushels 
per acre, in a field of 50 acres; a strawberry 
and plant grown in the open air in the garden 
of Dr. Adams, Hood river. Likewise at the 
O. & C. R. R. office, a turnip raised on railroad 
lands near Silverton, measuring 27x26 inches in 
circumference; a potato 12x24 inches weighing 
when first dug three pounds and two ounces, 
without any excrescence or second growth, 
raised by S. Herren near Jefferson. 



News in Brief. 

The Pope continues to improve in health. 
The Pottsville Bank, Pennsylvania, has sus- 
pended. 

Gen. John O'Neill, the noted Fenian leader, 
is dead. 

General Grant has arrived in Cairo, and ihas 
visited the Khedive. 

The National Woman Suffrage Association is 
in session at Washington. 

Charles M. Nye, son of the late Senator, is 
lecturing on temperance. 

The Columbia river has been filled with ice 
' during the past few days. 

Don Francisco de la Guerra, a noted na- 
tive Californian, is dead. 

An octopus eight feet in length was found at 
Hunter's Point Dry Dock a few days ago. 

In New England, on Monday morning the 
thermometer marked from 24 to 42 degrees be- 
low zero. 

The U. S. Supreme Court has rejected the 
famous McGarrahan claim. 

The late Nathan Coombs, of Napa, left prop- 
erty valued at $363,750, to be divided equally 
among his five children. 

The garroting epidemic is becoming alarm- 
ing in San Francisco. Robberies are being 
committed even in the day-time. 

Ninety-nine new buildings were erected at 
Rio Vista during last year, at an estimated cost 
of $46,740. 

The big California ship Three Brothers lias 
just, arrived from Liverpool, making the pas- 
sage in 112 days. 

The difficulty between Spain and Hayti„ re- 
garding the threatened execution of a Spanish 
subject, has been amicably arranged. 

Kearney, Knight, Wellock and Helm have 
been indicted by the grand jury for riot and 
conspiracy, but were released on bail. 

The absurd report comes from Paris, that 
Bonanza Mackay is to become Count di Mac- ! 
kay by purchasing an Italian earldom. 

The Pennsylvania Supreme Court has af- 
firmed the sentence of death passed on Molly 
Maguires Hexter, Tully, McCune and Kehoe. 

The attachment against the Collinsville Fish 
Cannery, owned by Emerson Corville, has been 
released, and its original owners have taken 
possession again. 

Col. Shafter,- before the sub-committee on 
military affairs, testified that there was less 
stealing on the Texas border during the past 
year than in any former year. 

On Tuesday i4 tons of bullion were received 
from the California and Consolidated Virginia 
mines. This is one of the heaviest shipments 
received in this city for some time. 

Augustus Hemmerway, of the class of '75 
of Harvard College, has given that institution 
sufficient money to erect a new gymnasium, 
that will accommodate 300 persons. 

A Washington special says the Cabinet has 
agreed to recommend a popular loan, and the 
President will send a message to Congress at 
once, asking for legislation upon the subject. 

Hickox & Spear, bankers of this city have 
made an assignment for the benefit of their 
creditors. The assets, including personal prop- 
erty of the firm, slightly exceed the liabilities. 

This week has been marked by heavy bank- 
ruptcies, in Chicago especially, but also in the 
North and West; bad roads, poor collections, 
and a decline in real estate being the prime 
cause. 

The report of the Commissioners of Immi- 
gration shows that the total number of aliens 
which arrived at New York last year was 54,536, 
a decrease of 16,129, compared with the pre- 
vious year. 

The new tug built by order of the Harbor 
Commissioners has been launched, and is now 
at Harrison street, receiving her boilers and 
machinery. She has been named the Governor 
Irwin, and will soon be ready for service. 

A St. Petersburg dispatch says that hopes 
of an armistice are rapidly disappearing. The 
strictest secrecy is maintained as to the terms 
Russia would propose. It is said that even the 
Commander-in-Chief has not yet been in- 
structed on this point. 

Lieut. Wise and his party of explorers re- 
turned to Panama from the examination of the 
Bayano. The examination of this route has 
tended to confirm the report of Commander 
SeL'ridge, that a tunnel over seven miles long 
would be necessary in opening the Isthmus 
canal at that point. 



Victor- Emanuel, the king of Italy, died on 
Tuesday. 

Keene says"' he" is $2,500,000 ahead of Wall 
street. > ( . , 

It is estimated that 1,593 houses were erected 
in San Francisco last year. 

The number of deaths in Chicago during 
1S77 was 8,026, or 546 less than in 1876.' ,.. ,. ) 

The total number of bodies thus far recovered 
from the ruins of the candy factory in New 
York is 15. 

A NFAv* fraud upon the Indians has been dis- 
covered connected with the sale of their surplus 
produce. 

Several vessels were driven ashore and 
foundered in a gale on the Massachusetts coast 
last Friday night. 

Supervisor Gibbs, of this city, has been 
acquitted of the trivial charges of misappropria- 
tion of election funds. 

The Oakland Transcript has changed hands. 
Mr. Johnson, of Santa Barbara, has purchased 
the entire establishment. 

Milton S. Latham has resigned the Presi- 
dency of the London and San Francisco Bank, 
on account of ill health. 

At the East there has been an unusual fall of 
rain, and the prayer has been for a change t» 
old-fashioned cold weather. 

The telephone has been tried between Dov«r 
and Calais with perfect satisfaction to the ia- 
spectors of submarine cable. 

The British government embargoed 2,000 
cases of cartridges on board a steamer at Car- 
diff, destined for Constantinople. 

It is said that Victoria and New Tacoma will 
be the termini of the Pacific Mail Steamship 
north coast service in a short time. 

Secretary Sherman has instructed Collector 1 
Fulton to go on with the sale of property aban- 
doned at the Centennial exhibition. 

It is again reported that James Gordon Ben- 
nett is about to establish a daily paper in Lon- 
don, to be called the London Herald. 

The Great Western market, on Bush street, 
in a building formerly used as a stable by the 
Sutter Street R. R. Co., has been opened. 

The Kickapoo Indians in Mexico, formerly 
our "wards," are now asking to be allowed to 
return to the United States, as Mexico is too 
hot for them. 

Internal revenHe receipts for December fell 
off $448,000. The cause is thought to be the 
agitation in Congress to reduce taxes on whisky 
and tobacco. 

It is stated that President Diaz lias signified 
the desire of Mexico to resume diplomatic rela- 
tions with France and participate in the 
approaching exhibition. 

Ettinger, who wrecked a Baltimore and 
Ohio train during the July strike, killing two 
persons, has been found guilty of murder in the 
second degree and sentenced to 18 years im- 
prisonment. 

Probably an order will soon be issued from 
the Treasury Department for uniforming Cus- 
tom House employees, though it will depend 
somewhat on experiments yet to be made in one 
or two principal offices. 

On the 7th inst. four vessels cleared from 
New Orleans for Liverpool, loaded with cotton, 
amounting to 25,000 bales, valued at $1,500,- 
000, the largest shipment ever made in one day 
from any Southern port. 

Governor Conner offers the fact that there 
has been but one conviction in Maine for mur- 
der since the abolition of the death penalty, in 
refutation of the argument that a carnival of 
crime would follow such abolition. 

The Official Gazette of London announces the 
creation of the Imperial Order of the Crown of 
India, for ladies only. The order has been con- 
ferred on all the Princesses, eight Indian High- 
nesses, and 18 other persons of distinction. 

The grand jury suggests that, as diptheria is 
as contageous and as fatal as small pox, a law 
should be enacted which makes it a penal of- 
fense to send children to school out of a family 
infected with diptheria. There was in this city 
912 deaths last year from this disease. 

The Aldermen's Committee for the investiga- 
tion of New York ring frauds have fin ished a 
report. It seems that of thirty millions stolen 
$876,000 has been recovered. The committee 
recommended the prosecution of those who have 
not given up their stealings, including Oakey 
Hall. 

Mr. Swift has in the Assembly a bill to pre- 
vent the destruction of shrimps and small hsh, 
such as are known to be the usual food for sal- 
mon and large fish. His plan is to stop the 
taking of these small fish to dry them, as is now 
practiced by the Chinese fishermen, and also to 
stop the drying of such fish. 

It is stated that President Hayes has. defi- 
nitely determined to make the Chinese question 
the subject of a special message to Congress. In 
this message he will call attention to present 
and prospective evils of unlimited Chinese im- 
migration to this country, and will recommend 
Congress to take such action as in its wisdom 
may be most proper and effective to restrict and 
regulate the immigration of Mongolians. 

The Supervisors, on Monday evening, on mo- 
tion of Mr. Hill, adopted the following resolu- 
tion: Resolreil, That this Board is opposed to 
and deprecates any action being taken by the 
Legislature of this State to compel the employ- 
ment of any designated number of men at tho 
charge and expense of the taxpayers of this 
city and county, and hereby respectfully re- 
quest that all legislative action taken in refer- 
ence to the relief of unemployed workingmen 
in this city and county shall vest tho number to 
be employed and the manner of their employ- 
ment in the discretion of this Board. 



22 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 12, 1878. 




Treasures. 



A maiden sitting at the close of day 
Within the shadow of a rose-wreathed bower, 

Deep brooding o'er a soul that passed away, 
While fall her tears upon a faded flower— 

That sweet forget-me not, thrice precious now, 

Since death has set his seal upon the giver's brow. 

Yet though the flow'rct now has lost its blue, 
Though dull and dead are its once lustrous eye«. 

It gives the maid a peace she never knew— 
Not even when 'twas plucked 'neath summer skies; 

It leads her from the darkness of the tomb, 

To him in that bright land where flowers are aye in bloom. 

II. 

A mother gazing on a curl of gold, 
Or on two little shoes of brightest pink, 

Which tell her of the time she did enfold 
Close in her breast her heart about to sink— 

Her blue-eyed buy the angels claimed one night, 

The Lord had need of him where all is love and light. 

But soon the fond one sees in her despair 
That in His love and wisdom God hath riven 

Her boy from her, and that the golden hair 
She treasures is her angel child's in Heaven. 

And that the little feet those shoes once shod 

Are bound now with the sandals of the love of God. 

III. 

An aged man, with waving silver'd hair, 

A rosy child asleep upon his knee, 
Breathing with peace-throned smile a tender prayer, 

When rapt in some ecstatic reverie; 
A precious casket of the b}'-gone years 
Within his hand, and wan leaves wet with sacred tears. 

The child is all unconscious as he sleeps, 
That he's a link in that great golden chain 

Which joins each blessed one who vigil keeps 
Around his grandsirc, in the heavenly train; 

The old man knows not what his life may be, 

But for those treasures, and that child upon his knee 



Modern Tyranny. 

[Written for the Press by L. J. W ] 

EDITORS Press:— The annual taxgatherer 
is around again, and I am more fully convinced 
than ever that there is more truth in the princi- 
ples for which our forefathers fought and died 
than people generally comprehend — that is, 
"That taxation without representation is 
tyranny." I notice that women as well as 
men are expected to cheerfully walk up to the 
captain's office and settle, even though the lat- 
ter have had no say as to how their money is 
to be expended. 

As according to the old doctrine it takes a 
man and woman to make one — man being the 
one according to law, it is perhaps not surpris- 
ing that we should be so ignored in regard to 
ways, if not means. But, infinitesimal as is the 
cypher by which one-half of the world is rep- 
resented legally and intellectually, the same 
spirit which actuated the brave hearts of 100 
years ago now urges us to claim for ourselves, 
with a self-satisfaction fully as intense as any 
gained by custom, or prerogative, in what a 
simple manner and with what entire accordance 
to arithmetical principles the little cypher 
wedged in the vacant space, or added with 
small consideration, increases tenfold the value 
of the quantity to which it may be attached. 

I fully endorse the sentiment, "That taxa- 
tion without representation is tyranny." The 
words are full of meaning and so plain that "he 
who runs may read, " Are women taxed? Then 
why not represented. Do you tell me that our 
husbands, sons and brothers do that? There 
are many arguments made to prove that we are 
so represented, but every argument that can 
be made in favor of suffrage for man applies 
equally to woman. There can be no better 
argument made of the necessity of woman rep- 
resenting herself than the manner in which she 
is usually so palpably ignored, and which you 
see illustrated in the affairs of everyday life. 

A faint suspicion arises in my mind as to 
whether the opinions of the wife are fully rep- 
resented by the husband in his speech, his vote, 
or his a6tions. If she is not present to expound 
her own views, we are apt, I am afraid, to take 
too much for granted. "My dear," he remarks 
to his better half, "there is to be a delicious 
little supper at Brown's to-night and I will do 
my best to represent you!" or he may volunteer 
to be present for her at the lecture, concert, or 
sermon. These comparasions may seem irra- 
tional, but are they any more so than the idea 
that a being of mature years and intellect can 
be represented by another with widely differing, 
perhaps contrary dispositions? Yet we are 
every day asked to accept this as an established 
fact. Can we expect the misfortune of sex to 
destroy the noble attribute of self-respect? 

Any being of independent spirit, born with a 
love of justice and a proper self- appreciation, 
cannot possibly be sufficiently represented by 
another, who has opinions dear to himself and 
born of his peculiar organization. The princi- 



ples embodied in the words I have just quoted, 
are not less evident now when applied to 
woman than in the days of the revolution when 
our forefathers, yea, and our mothers, too, 
fought and died for liberty. So believing in the 
good time coming, let us go bravely on, count- 
ing the milestones of the coming years, feeling 
sure that the time will come when our nation 
will be able to see clearly the whole meaning of 
that brave declaration: "Taxation without 
representation is tyranny." 

Dress^ Materials. 

Evening dresses usually follow after street 
and visiting costumes in the order of interest 
felt by a lady who is fond of social life. Not 
that full dress is least because last in being pre- 
pared, but because her other apparel is first re- 
quired for use. It was at one time supposed 
that the "Princess" style of shaping a costume 



to bourettes to highten and intensify their 
rough effects. For very elegant toilettes Lyons' 
silks combined with brocades take the lead in 
popular favor. For cloaks, rough and smooth 
beavers, silk and woolen faced matelasses, 
basket beavers, chinchilla cloths, velvets, vel- 
veteens, plushes, and shagg are worn. 

A Si n Stove. — An East Indian newspaper, 
the Time*, says: The other day a trial was 
made of Mr. Adams' patent solar cooking appa- 
ratus; the result was pronounced to be highly 
satisfactory. At 1 1 o clock in the forenoon the 
apparatus was so placed in the open air as to 
receive the solar rays, and about every half 
hour its inclination was changed by a touch of 
the hand. About 4 o'clock in the afternoon the 
apparatus was removed from the spot, placed 
in a room, and covered with a railway rug. 
At 8 p. ik, when the cover and the rug were 
removed, the contents (several pounds of mut 
ton and some vegetables) were found thoroughly 




A STREET AND VISITING COSTUME. 



was unsuited to anything but the heaviest fab- 
rics, but a trial of models for this graceful dress 
has established the fact that it is an altogether 
elegant fashion even for tissues. A plain under- 
dress cut by the same model is always worn 
beneath gossamer materials, but this underdress 
need not be made of silk if it is inconvenient. 
The silky surface of an English silesia not only 
produces the same effect as does the real article, 
but it may be procured in all the evening shades. 
Soft woolen goods in cashmeres, albatross 
cloth, etc., in evening colors, are in large de- 
mand, they are now as much an established 
need in the outfit of young ladies, both married 
and single, as are black cashmeres in the ward- 
robe of ladies of every age. These goods receive 
all the shades that can be found in evening 
silks, and are less trying to the figure and com- 
plexion, because they bear no gloss upon their 
surfaces, and besides they wash quite as well as 
a piece of linen. 

Plain silk or satin sleeves, silk pipings and 
perhaps other additions of ornament, are made 

" The coat shown in this engraving was cut bv pattern 
No. 8060. The wa'8t by pattern No. 0024. The skirt by 
No. 4886. The overskirt by No. 6041. These can be ob- 
tained at the agency of E. Butterick & Co., 124 Post 
street, San Francisco. Sea advertisement in another 
column. 



cooked. The apparatus, we may state, con- 
sisted of a copper vessel tinned inside and 
painted black outside, with a glass cover envel- 
oping the vessel with an inch of hot air. The 
solar rays, passing through the glass, we are 
told, became transformed into obscure heat, 
which the glass retained. The vessel was fixed 
on the bottom of a conical reflector lined with 
common silvered sheet glass, and was 21 inches 
square at its large base and eight inches at its 
small base. Mr. Adams has made another ap- 
paratus of greater simplicity than the one ex- 
perimented upon, which, by means of solar 
rays, and in the open air, can cook (Shops and 
steaks as well and as expeditiously as over a 
coal or coke fire. A very important point is 
that the heat can be retained as long as three 
hours and a half, and perhaps longer. Mr. Ad- 
ams hopes soon to be able, under more favor- 
able circumstances than at present, by means 
of an apparatus constructed on the same princi- 
ple, and by a combination of flat reflectors, to 
concentrate solar rays to such a degree as to 
work wonders in science yet undreamt of. 

The people in a town in Iowa wanted a flour- 
iug mill, and finally they got it And they *re 
now very anxious to have a bank established, 
so that they can borrow money to buy flour. 



After the Honeymoon. 

Most wives after a year or two of wedded life 
Admit to themselves — if not to one or two per- 
sonal friends— that husbands differ essentially 
from lovers in their deportment toward the 
chosen of their hearts. The small, sweet 
courtesies, which made the lover so irresistible 
are forgotten or put aside, and the husband 
makes anybody else welcome to perform such 
offices for his wife, so long as he is not inter- 
fered with in the enjoyment of his newspaper 
and cigar; the friend, the guest, the casual 
stranger turns tne wife's music, opens the wife's 
parasol, runs the wife's trivial errands. The 
next one handy is the convenient person on 
whom these little duties devolve in too many 
instances. The wife's reign is short enough; 
and now she who was a sovereign lady must 
minister to the wants of her former slave — now 
her lord. She does not doubt her husband's 
fealty. She knows that he is ready for all the 
big things of life! but she who longs for the 
every-day demonstration of love, would rather 
have the little things. To her it is not the 
great sacrifice, the all day work and weariness 
that constitute evidence of affection, but what 
was evidence of love before marriage is to her 
that evidence now, and only that — just these 
little cares that warmed her girlish heart, the 
things he would be doing for her and her per- 
sonality alone. And now he is indifferent and 
careless, not only when they are alone but- 
worst sting of all — when in company. 

Woman s pride is usually equal to her love. 
She cannot bear that others should see her hus- 
band's neglect of her, she wants people to see 
by his outward demeanor that she has been able 
to preserve his love. The small courtesies of 
other men do not compensate for his neglect. 

In rare instances women are to blame for this 
state of affairs; a vixen or a sloven cannot hope 
to retain her husband's love and respect. But 
as a rule it is the man not the woman who 
ignores the graceful attentions which sweeten 
life. It is the wife who tries to make home 
what it should be, and herself as pleasing an 
object as may be in her lord's eyes, and it is 
often by this very course of her's that his neglect 
has come about. She has pampered him till 
he forgets to pamper in return. Yet she rarely 
complains; the wife with self-respect or spirit 
makes no demands; what love does not render 
as a free-will offering she will go without; but 
if her husband knew what she suffered in going 
without, it would never be withheld, for his 
neglect usually has its origin in thoughtlessness, 
or perhaps the fault lies with his parents. 
Most boys are trained to an utter disregard of 
the feelings of others. The sympathetic and 
considerate are not in their line. — Faith Ripley, 
in Rural Xew Yorker. 



Draining the German Springs. — Much ex- 
citement has been created at Ems, in Germany, 
the most famous of Continental watering places, 
by the threatened destruction of the baths 
which are its main dependence. The mining 
companies working in that neighborhood are 
undermining the springs. The mines formerly 
supplied lead and silver only, but since the ex- 
tension of the manufacture of steel, the gangue 
rock— which is a carbonate of iron — has be- 
come more important than the other parts of 
the ore. The fact seems to be that the in- 
creased activity given to the operations by this 
new source of profit has led to excavations to a 
depth which may really interfere with the nat- 
ural water courses of the region. Such a re- 
sult is by no means new in mining, for, fre- 
quently, wells and springs dry up when the 
shafts near them are sunk to a great depth. 
Sometimes the mine is the sufferer from the 
mishap, as was the case with the famous Ram- 
melsberg copper mine. The discovery of a 
very rich vein in one portion of the workings 
was followed by the drying up of the wells in 
Goslar, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, situated 
two or three miles from the Rammelsberg 
shafts. The managers were obliged to wall up 
their rich stores and forego the benefit of work- 
ing them. At Ems an investigation has been 
ordered, but as yet the result has not been re- 
ported, so that, for the present, it cannot be de- 
termined whether the baths or the mines are to 
be the sufferers. 

Origin of the Name of "Punkin-Head." 
— Newhaven (now New Haven) is celebrated 
for having given the name of "punkin-heads" to 
all the New Englanders. It originated from the 
' Blue laws," which enjoined every male to have 
.lis hair cut round by a cap. When caps were 
not to be had, they substituted the hard shell 
of pumpkin, which being put on the head every 
Saturday, the hair is cut by the shell all round 
the head. Whatever religions virtue is sup- 
posed to be derived from this custom, says 
Peters in his History of Connecticut, I know 
not; but there is much prudence in it; first, it 
prevents the hair from snarling; secondly, it 
saves the use of combs, bags and ribbons; 
thirdly, the hair cannot incommode they eyes 
by falling over them; and fourthly, such per- 
sons as have lost their ears for heresy and other 
wickedness cannot conceal their misfortune and 
disgrace. 

A little fellpw, five or six years old, who 
had been wearing undershirts much to small for 
him, was one day, after having been washed, 
put into a garment as much too large as the 
other had been too small. Our six-year-old 
e'irugged his shoulders, shook himself, walked 
around, and finely bnrst out with, "Ma, I do 
feet awful lonesome in this shirt!" 



January 12, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



3 



Chaff. 

"I can't sold you some of dot sauerkrout," 
said a Shelby Dutchman. "I shust hafe tree 
barhels, und I keeps dot in case of sickness." 

Josh Billings says: "Don't despise your 
poor relations. They might get rich some time, 
and then it would be so hard to explain things. ' ' 

A man in Louisiana has had four wives go off 
and leave him. The fifth he swapped for an 
old shotgun, and now he has got something that 
won't go off. — Worcester Press. 

A little Florida boy taught an alligator to 
come to the shore and take food out of his hand. 
It became so fond of the boy that one morning 
it took the food and the little Florida boy too. 

Mamma: Look, Cissy, here is the dear doc- 
tor coming. What a favorite he is! See, even 
the little chickens run to meet him. Cissy: 
Yes, ma; and the little ducks cry "Quack! 
quack!" — Funny Folks. 

"Mariah! Mariah! please slet me in!" 
said a man to his wife, who was looking out of 
the window watching him trying to open the 
door with a toothpick. " Ish tread on my key, 
and it'sh all flattened out. " 

Two men met on the piazza of a hotel at Lin- 
coln, Neb. One claimed that Nebraska was all 
a good country, or should be. "All it lacks," 
said he, "is good society and water." Said 
the other: " That is all that Tophet lacks." 

First Scot: " Fat sort o' minister hae ye 
gotten, Geordie?" Second Ditto: "Oh!weel' 
he's no muckle worth. We seldom get a glint 
o' him. Sax days o'th' week he's enveesible 
and on the seventh he's encomprehensible. " 

Mamma sat in the nursery, sewing, with 
baby May playing at her feet. Six-year-old 
Lou was there, too, tending her dolly; and 
Mamma was talking to her of her duty and 
pleasure of being kind and generous to those 
not so well off as ourselves. Lou drank it all 
eagerly. Her eyes grew bright and earnest. 
"Oh! Mamma,"' she cried, "if baby had some- 
thing awful pretty, and there was a real poor 
little girl coming along the sidewalk, I would 
go right off and give it to her." 

Can such things B? A young lady of the . in 
gorgeous R A went out 2 T. She 80, but soon 
arose from the table, saying: I C I wish for 
here. . Society is going into B K, or I am D- 
Cved. Most of the dishes are M T, and I can 
C they R not 2 B filled. Is there N E Ds N C 
among you? Y R U here at all? Will N E 1 
tell me B 4 I go? I would rather be hung in F 
I G, and have an L E G written on my untimely 
death by an "occasional poet," than quietly 2 
submit 2 such treatment. I will go 4th like L 
X & R and weep for new worlds 2 conquer. 

In an assize court the crier was old and 
deaf. " Call Arabella Hanks," said the Judge. 
Entertaining much doubt of the name, the crier 
arose from his seat and said with much puzzled 
look. "What, your lordship?" "Call Ara- 
bella Hanks, crier," repeated the Judge, much 
provoked. The old crier thereupon, with a 
countenance indicating both doubt and despera- 
tion, in his loudest voice called out, "Yaller 
Belly Shanks! Yaller Belly Shanks!! Yaller 
Belly Shanks!!! come into the court!" It is 
needless to say that the seriousness of the court 
was compromised; and quiet was restored only 
to be again disturbed by the laughter caused 
by the crier, who, in answer to the court as 
to whether or not the witness replied, said: 
"No, my lord; and I don't believe there is 
such a person in the town, I have lived here 40 
years, and I never heard of him before!" 

A New Arctic Expedition.— A whaling 
steamship, the Vega, has been bought for the 
Swedish Arctic expedition, which is to start 
next July from Gothenburg. The vessel is very 
strongly built, and can carry coal enough for a 
cruise of 8,000 miles; she is to be supplied with 
sufficient provisions to serve for thre^ years. 
Capt. Palander will be in command; less than 
30 persons will be on board, in all; three or four 
will constitute the scientific corps. The King 
of Sweden, the Government, Oscar Dickson, of 
Gothenburg, and Mr. Sibariakoff (a Russian), 
conjointly defray the expenses. The projected 
voyage will circumnavigate Asia and Europe. 

A Japanese Directory.— Prof. Edward S. 
Morse, now of the University of Japan, in lec- 
turing about the Japanese in Cambridge, the 
other evening, praised their diet of grass- 
hoppers as extremely palatable. He described 
the city directory of Tokio as a much more 
poetical volume than people are accustomed to 
think directories can be; it contains, besides the 
names of streets and business places, the locali- 
ties of pleasant walks about the city, with di- 
rections where "sweet singing insects" can be 
heard, the best place to see fireflies and tinted 
foliage, etc. 

The Sycamore of Palestine. — The sycamore 
of Scripture, it may be observed, is a species of 
fig. The English sycamore, a maple, and our 
sycamore, the buttonwood, being so called from 
the resemblance of their leaves to the old-time 
fig. It was at one time thought, from carvings, 
that the orange grew in Egypt; but the repre- 
sentations are now proved to be the fruit of 
this sycamore fig. 

An African Railway.— In the United 
States Senate, on the 7th ult., Mr. Conkling 
(New York) presented a petition of Austin 
Packard and others, of New York, in favor of 
the appointment of a commission to communi- 
cate with other nations with a view of having a 
railroad across the continent of Africa. 



Yq^HQ F©E.ks' CoLiJflN. 



Jesus Who? 

John W. Chadwick's little daughter May once 
asked "What's Jesus' other name?" "Jesus 
who?" "Jesus God?" This being told to Mr. 
W. C. Gannet, he thereupon wrote the follow- 
ing : 

And are the children prophets thon, 

Or have they lived before; 
To speak grand words, so simple wise 

And babble spirit lore. 

Their wonder plays on questions quaint. 

All vision and surprise, 
Like clumsy gates whose clumsy swing, 

Reveals half paradise. 

Yes, little May, you've said it, 
"God" is his other name; 
Ours always ends with father, 
His is the very same. 

The earth is one home only, 

Our father only one; 
And all the folks are brothers, 

And every one his son. 

So up and down the city, 

And everywhere I've trod, 
It's Mary, Maud and Katy, 

John God and Willie God. 

Dear Jesus was your brother, 

Who died so long ago, 
And May's his little sister, 

I think he'd like to know. 

Out there's another brother, 

His name is Pat, or Tim, 
If May's his little sister, 

What will she do for him ? 

His first name's Tim — his other, 

That name we say in prayer. 
For when we say our father, 

Ar'n't Tim and Jesus there? 

O, life and love, in whom we are, 

From whom, to whom, all lives; 
I thank thee for the christening now 

Thy little prophet gives. 

The father's name, the children's name; 

More plain nor earth nor sky; 
And yet I never guessed, till now, 

The name thou knowest me by. 

My name it shames, it greatens me; 

I feel so weak, so strong, 
And all the gates are swinging wide, 

One name fills every song. 



A Father's Advice. 

[Written for the Rural Press by R. O. Root.] 
My son, always wear your own clothes. No 
man can act up to the full, rounded measure of 
manhood while he knows and his friends know 
that he uses another man's boots and owes the 
hatter and the tailor for the nice fitting gar- 
ments he wears. 

2. Always wear good clothes, neat, whole and 
clean. Never allow yourself to look seedy, as 
men say. While we know that dress does not 
make the man, and that "a man is a man for 
all that," yet all will acknowledge that a neatly 
fitting garment gives pleasure to the beholder, 
and as we have more pleasure in a company of 
well-dressed people than with the rough and 
slovenly, so it is our duty to contribute our 
part to the pleasure of others. 

3. Never wait for dead men's shoes. Do not 
wait for the death of your rich friend, in order 
that you marry the lovely widow and succeed 
to his place and share his estate. He may not 
die first after all, and if he does you cannot be 
sure of becoming his successor. Much better 
go out among young people of your own class, 
choose a companion and build your own fortune 
and family. So also in business. Do not wait 
idly for the head clerk to die, that you may 
have a place. Go and find a place, or make one, 
and then it will be your own. Life is too short 
for us to wait for other people. Don't "wait for 
the wagon;" if you wish for the wagon, go and 
get it. 

4. Do not work for half price, "in order to 
aid a good cause." Be a first-class workman in 
whatever you undertake, and have first-class 
wages for the work you do. Do some one thing 
better than any other man, and you can have 
your own price for it. Then if you have §100 to 
spare for some good cause, the friends of the 
cause will be ready to thank you; but if you 
work for the good cause at half price, some one 
will tauntingly ask, "Conld you do any better 
elsewhere ?" Better to give two weeks' work 
out and out than to work two weeks at half 
price. 

5. Save your strength while you are young, 
for when you are old you cannot save it. A 
man is capable of doing and enduring about so 
much in his lifetime. If he dissipates and squan- 
ders his vitality recklessly in early life, he will 
die early, or drag a miserable and diseased body 
with him during his last years. A man who 
takes good care of a good constitution has the 
best kind of a savings bank in himself, on which 
he can draw in the prime of life, and which will 
carry his prime into those years when others 
begin to fail. 

It is better to keep the reins constantly well 
in hand, than to trust to picking them up from 
the ground after you find the team is running 
away. 

Tommy came home from school, and handed 
to his father the teacher's report on his progress 
during the month. "This is very unsatisfactory, 
Tom; you've a very small number of good marks. 
I'm not at all pleased with it." "I told the 
teacher you wouldn't be, but hi; wouldn't alter 
it." 



The Pernicious Habit of Drinking:. 

An English physician, Dr. Duckworth, writes 
as follows: "Medical men may fairly tell the 
healthy, robust, well-fed and well-housed to give 
up stimulants if they fully maintain their health 
without them. Total abstainers are generally 
large eaters, and the ultimate textural effects of 
excess in eating or drinking, if any, may not be 
very dissimilar. I think it is proved that the 
addition of a little alcoholic food to a meal 
secures a more moderate ingestion of solids, and 
where it agrees, which it does not always, pro- 
motes a more satisfactory digestion of them. 
But a large number of persons suffering chiefly 
from dyspepsia or insomnia are better without 
stimulants of any kind. A daily allowance of 
alcohol is manifestly wrong; more to-day and 
less to-morrow may be needed or instinctively 
called for. The rational individual must hon- 
estly and conscientiously find out for himself 
what the special needs of his system are, and 
where a right-minded christian individual is in 
earnest in such a matter and has a proper con- 
trol over his appetite, he is not likely to go far 
wrong in the matter of stimulants. 

"Medical men should urge teetotalism upon 
the nervous classes of drunkards, persons who 
are careless and self-indulgent or who by their 
lives or callings are much in the way of drink. 
Stimulants should be always taken at meal 
times, and only then. 

" I am confident that, as a body, our profes- 
sion is unanimous in condemning the modern 
American habit of taking odd glasses of stimu- 
lants at all hours and laments the grievous mul- 
tiplication of the means of gratifying this mis- 
chievous custom, for truly the conduct of 
masses of young business men in our cities and 
large towns in this respect is becoming disgrace- 
ful and the practice is fast gaining in other 
circles and communities. Our countrymen of 
these classes have no excuse for this, for they 
are well-fed and have liquors with their meals 
in addition to their hourly drams, while Ameri- 
cans, who are notoriously the worst dietitians 
in the civilized world, are water-drinkers at 
meal time." 



Experiments with the Turkish Bath. — 
Some interesting observations were related at 
the last meeting of the British Medical Associa- 
tion, by William James Fleming, M. B. (Glas- 
gow). These experiments were performed by 
the author upon himself, and consisted of obser- 
vations on the effect of the Turkish bath at tem- 
peratures of from 130" Fah. to 170° Fah., upon 
the weight, temperature, pulse, respiration and 
secretions. The results showed that the immer- 
sion of the body in hot, dry air, produced loss 
of weight to an extent considerably greater than 
normal, amounting, on the average, to the rate 
of about 40 ounces an hour. This was accom- 
panied by an increase in the temperature of the 
body and a rise in the pulse rate, with at first 
a fall and then a rise in the rapidity of respira- 
tion. The amount of solids secreted by the 
kidneys was increased and coincidently the 
amount of urea. The sweat contained a quan- 
tity of solid matter in solution and among other 
things a considerable amount of urea. The 
most important effect of the bath was the stim- 
ulation of the emunctory action of the skin. 
By this means the tissues could, as it were, be 
washed by passing water through them from 
within out. The increased temperature and 
pulse rate pointed to the necessity of caution in 
the use of the bath when the circulatory system 
was diseased. 



Boracic Acid for Skin Diseases. — Sur- 
geon Major Watson reports in the India Medi- 
cal Gazette, that he has lately employed boracic 
acid with very great success as an external ap- 
plication in the treatment of dermatophyta, or 
vegetable parasitic diseases of the skin. He 
was, it appears, induced to try this remedy from 
witnessing its employment as an antiseptic in the 
Edinburg infirmary wards. The diseases in 
which he has hitherto used boracic acid have 
been the various forms of tinea, especially that 
very troublesome form of the disease which 
affects the scratum and inner sides of the thighs 
of many Europeans in India. Dr. Watson de- 
clares that the external application of a solu- 
tion of boracic acid acts like a charm in such 
cases. An aqueous solution of boracic acid of a 
drachm to the ounce, or as much as the water 
will take up at ordinary temperature, is em- 
ployed. The affected parts, he says, should be 
well bathed with the solution twice daily, some 
little friction being used, and it should not be 
wiped off, but allowed to dry on the part. Al- 
together, he regards it as preferable to all other 
remedies of the same class. 



Warts. — If they give you no special incon- 
venience, says Hall's Journal, let them alone. 
But if it is of essential importance to get rid of. 
them, purchase half an ounce of muriatic acid, 
put it in a broad-bottomed vial, so that it will 
not easily turn over; take a stick as large as 
the end of a knitting-needle, dip it into the acid, 
and touch the top of the wart with whatever of 
the acid adheres to the stick; then, with the 
end of the stick, rub the acid into the top of 
the wart, without allowing the acid to touch 
the well skin. Do this night and morning, and 
a safe, painless and effectual cure is the result. 



Domestic Eco^o^y. 



The Wholesomeness of the Orange. 

Julia, Colman, Superintendent of the New 
York cooking school, gives the Phrenological 
Journal the following: Not a few of those who 
wish to be careful as to the quality of their food 
have doubted the wholesomeness of the orange 
as it is found in the markets. A fruit, they 
have said, which is picked so green and kept so 
long can not be very desirable food. These 
queries, however, have mostly died away before 
the experimental proofs of its wholesomeness. 
Invalids and all sorts of well people eat of it 
freely without known ill effects. Many have 
gone to the other extreme and attributed to it 
health-giving properties, which they deem 
almost marvelous. For example, it is said to 
be a sort of insurance against disease to eat two 
oranges before breakfast for three months in 
the spring, say from March to May inclusive. 
We admit that such a course, if generally pur- 
sued, might turn many doctors out of employ- 
ment. 

Another prescribed use is to cure a longing 
for alcoholic drinks. The sufferer must eat an 
orange the first thing in the morning. We 
have faith in the remedy, so far as it goes, but 
to make it effective the subject must earnestly 
desire to give up the drink, be determined to 
do so, and then the orange will be a natural 
help to quench thirst, to aid in healing the 
stomach and to induce a wholesome tendency 
in the system generally. This much ought to 
be understood to prevent any one from suppos- 
ing that it acts like a charm or philter to take 
away the unnatural craving. That will return 
again and again for some days, and if the sub- 
ject understands this, instead of being discour- 
aged, he will take another orange, and calling 
all the moral and social aid he can command to 
his help, he will be much more likely to 
succeed. 

If in hot, unhealthy countries generally, men 
would eat an orange in place of drinking a glass 
of gin, brandy or other alcoholic liquor, the 
result would be most advantageous. And if 
some juicy fruit were eaten always in place of 
taking unwholesome water or any other drink 
whatever, the malaria of the worst localities 
might become almost harmless. If the water 
be wholesome, oranges or other fruit juice 
mingled with it makes it very much more satis- 
factory, both in taste -and results. If we took 
half the pains to provide ourselves with fruits 
that we do to provide ourselves with alcoholic 
drinks, we should soon see a beneficial change 
on the face of affairs. 



How to Clean Engravings. — A correspond- 
ent has recently succeeded in cleaning some 
engravings by the following process: Soak the 
print in cold water till ali creases are out and 
it lies quite smooth; then put into a dish con- 
taining a solution of chloride of lime with 
twice its quantity of clear cold water. When 
the stains have disappeared, put the engraving 
into plain water, and afterwards dry with blot- 
ting-paper. For the solution referred to, put 
half a pound of chloride of lime into a vessel 
with one pint of water; let it stand, stirring it 
now and again, for 24 hours, and then strain it 
through fine muslin till quite clear, when the 
liquid is to be added to one quart of water. 
The prints should not be left in the solution 
longer than is necessary to remove the stains, 
and the more thorougly they are washed in 
cold water afterwards the better for them; for, 
if any of the bleach is left in the paper, it is • 
liable to rot and destroy it. The wet print re- 
quires care in handling. 



Spice Salt. — You can make this very nicely 
says the American Agriculturalist by drying, 
powdering and mixing by repeated sittings the 
following ingredients: One-quarter of an ounce 
each of powdered thyme, bay-leaf and pepper; 
one-eighth of an ounce each of marjoram and 
cayenne pepper; one-half of an ounce each of 
powdered clove and nutmeg; to every four 
ounces of this powder add one ounce of salt, 
and keep the mixture in an air-tight vessel. 
One ounce of it added to three pounds of stuff- 
ing, or forcemeat of any kind, makes a delicious 
seasoning. 



Dried Celery and Parsley. — Wash tho 
leaves, stalks, roots and trimmings of celery, 
and put them in a cool oven to dry: then grate 
the root and rnb the leaves and stalks through 
a sieve, and put all into a tightly corked bot- 
tle, or tin can with close cover. This makes a 
most delicious seasoning for soups, stews and 
stuffing. When you use parsley save every bit 
of leaf, stalk or root you do not need, and treat 
them in the same way as the celery. With 
parsley the root has even a stronger flavor than 
the leaves, and do not waste a bit. 



Sausage. — To 80 pounds of meat chopped 
fine — not too fat, add two pounds of fine salt; 
three ounces of pulverized sage; five ounces of 
black pepper; two ounces of savory; four 
ounces of allspice; four ounces of ginger; four 
tablespoonfuls of sugar; warm and mix without 
water. 



Molasses Candy. — Two cups molasses, one 
cup of sugar, one-half cup of vinegar; boil to- 
gether (but be careful not to burn) for a few 
minutes; try a little on snow or in cold water? 
when it becomes hard enough turn out to cool; 
while yet warm pull until white. 



24 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 12, 1878. 




A. T. DEWEY, W. B. EWER, 

Publishers. 

Office, 202 Sansome St., jf. E. Corner Pine. St. 



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Pacific Rural Press — Subscription Terms 
for 1878. 

Annual subscriptions, $4. 

When paid fully one year in advance, fifty cf.sts will 
be deducted. 

No new subscriptions will he taken without cash in ad- 
vance. All arrearages must be paid for at the rate of $4 
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By paying up arrearages, at §4 a year any subscriber 
can" continue at 83.50 in advance. 

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club with strictly advance payments. 

The above terms are as low as can be afforded for a 
Journal so valuable on the farm, and every way accept- 
able in the family circle. 



This Papf.r will be supplied to the trade through the 
S. F. News Co., No. 413 Washington Street, S. F. 

Our latest forma go to press Wednesday evening 

No Quack Advertisements inserted in these 
Columns. 

san Francisco: 
Saturday, January 12, 1878. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS —The Preservation of 
Our Fisheries; An Australian Tree Fern; West Side li- 
tigation, 17- The Week; Work for the Unemployed; 
Free Reading Rooms, 24. California Climate and 
Consumption, 25. The Necessity for a Physical Sur- 
vey of California. 25-28. Notices of Recent Patents; 
Patents and Inventions, 28. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. "Fern Tree," or the Silkv Oak, 

17. The Fashion, 22. Enlarged Limnoria, 25. 
CORRESPONDENCE.— Notes in San Joaquin Co.; 

Farming in the Clouds in Lake Co. ; Killing Squirrels, 

18. A Tour Through Tehama Co., 18-19. 
THE DAIRY —Orchard Crass, 19. 

THE VINEYARD - Utilizing the Crape, 19. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.-Wool Production and Ex- 
port of 1877, 19. 

HORTICULTURE — Soil, Situation and Mulch for 
Strawberries, 19. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.-Statement of J. 
W. A. Wright; Grange Work at Walnut Creek; Clarks- 
ville Grange; P. of II. in British Columbia; Election of 
Officers. 20 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties in California and Oregon, 21. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on 21 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE -Treasures, (Poetry); Modern Ty- 
ranny; Dress Materials; A Sun Stove; After the Honey- 
moon; Draining the German Springs; Origin of the 
Name of "Punkin -Head," 22. Chaff; A New Arctic 
Expedition; A Japanese Directory; The Svcamore of 
Palestine; An African Railway, 23." 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. — lesns Who? (Po- 
etry); A Father s Advice, 23. 

GOOD HEALTH. —The Pernicious Habit of Drinking; 
Experiments with the Turkish Bath; lioracic Acid for 
Skin Diseases; Warts, 23. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY —The Wholesomeness of 
the Orange; How to Clean Engravings; Spice Salt; 
Dried Celery and Parsley; Sausage; Molasses Candy. 23. 

QUERIES' AND REPLIES.— Tamping in Squir- 
rels; Warty Potatoes; Honey Locust, 24. 

MISCELLANEOUS. -How an Axe is Made; Why a 
Belt runs on a Higher Pulley, 20. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Vick's Flower and Vegetable Garden, James Vick, Ro- 
chester, N. Y. ; Music Books, Oliver Ditson & Co., 
Boston; Reliable Seeds, Win. Rennie, Toronto, Canada; 
Dividend Notice— California Savings and Loan Society; 
Nursery', Felix Gillet, Nevada City, CeX: Shropshire 
Ram for Sale, R. P. Saxe, S. F. ; Dividend Notice -Sa- 

B vings and Loan Society, 61fl Clay Street, S. F. ; Optician, 
S. D. Burbank, Oakland, Cal. 



The Week. 



Another week and another rain; refreshing, 
cleansing and, in some localities, quite a soak- 
ing rain, hut for the most part only a "sample" 
of the whole piece of water which we need, and 
little more satisfying than a smell of roast heef 
to him whom hunger prompts to drive his teeth 
through juicy morsels. To the lover, the pres- 
ent coyness of the clouds can suggest naught 
but the eyes which promise and the lips which 
deny the boon. To the angler the figure is the 
finny llirters of the flood which fondly "nibble" 
but refuse to "bite." To the merchant the 
lowering but ungenerous sky brings to mind 
the purchaser, of ponderous purse, pricing 
plenteous produce but expending naught. 
While to the farmer, needing no simile, there is 
but a deep regret that the winds and clouds do 
not do business, settle down and show for once 
the persistency and determination of "old- 
fashioned storms." And yet great good is done 
in many populous portions of our State by the 
present measure of rain. The coast and the 
adjacent valleys can count themselves assured 
of gratifying growth for a month upon the wa- 
ter thus far deposited, and there are of course 
ound anticipations of more in fewer days than 
that 



Work for the Unemployed. 

The problem which is now forced upon pub- 
lic attention by the threats and demands of 
incendiary leaders is one which should be 
quickly brought to solution. Although we have 
no sympathy nor tolerance for the riotous in- 
citements of those who have constituted them- 
selves leaders of the unemployed, it cannot be 
doubted that in the rank and Die of those who 
follow this unfortunate leadership there is real 
hardship and an honest desire for assistance. 
In our view of the matter, the way to meet this 
condition is to disarm the movement of the only 
element of strength there is in it, and that is by 
providing work for the unemployed at a price 
which will sustain life. If there were no mate- 
rial in the form of men without employment, 
the fabric of riot, which a few men are striving 
to weave for their own aggrandizement, would 
fall to the ground by its own weight, and the 
weavers would be regarded as too harmless and 
worthless even to lumber up a prison. 

In the lirst place, the State and municipal 
governments, in their beneficent character as 
conservators of the public well being, could, we 
think, find fitting opportunity for the exercise 
of their paternal functions in providing a means 
of earning bread to those who are kept from it 
by the exigencies of the times, and not by their 
own fault or choice. There are public works 
which can be wisely undertaken, and which 
can never be more cheaply executed than now. 
There is wealth enough in the country to defray 
the expense with no hardship, for the chief 
burden will come on those who have most, and 
whose money now lies idle in the banks because 
of the slight demand for it. There is prospect 
enough in the future of the city and State to 
warrant the inception of wise and permanent 
improvements now for the coming generation to 
pay for, and capital is said to be ready to entrust 
itself for future returns. 

Second, it seems evident to us that the cheap- 
est way by which the public can release itself 
from dangers which now threaten destruction 
of life and property, is in disarming the mal- 
contents by providing for them, rather than 
by allowing them to pursue the present evil ten- 
dencies until they eventuate in riot and crime. 
Prevention is proverbially better than cure. It 
would be far cheaper to build a boulevard than 
to fill our streets with armed militia. The 
desert wastes of Golden Gate park can be made 
to blossom like a rose for less money than the 
city would lose by a riot and by the prosecution 
and execution of the offenders. No one doubts 
but than uprising like that we hear so freely 
threatened would be quickly and permanently 
crushed if it should assert itself; but who thinks 
it is the dictate either of economy or humanity 
that the city should wait to have its streets 
raked by grapeshot and perhaps its proudest 
buildings in ashes ? We have, of course, no 
belief in the accomplishment of the revolutions 
which agitators urge upon their ignorant and 
thoughtless followers, but there is reason to fear 
that they may inllame desperate men to deeds 
which may lead to the destruction of a part of 
the city and their own. This is what we believe 
can be prevented for far less money than it 
could be cured, if the disease is permitted to 
break out. For this reason we are in favor of 
the request which the city is making this week 
upon the Legislature for permission to raise 
money on its own security for the prosecution 
of certain beneficial public works. If the city 
can thus offer a livelihood during the winter to 
those who will labor for it, the present move- 
ment of the unemployed will be shorn of all the 
strength there is in it, and those who are now 
endeavoring to profit by men s misfortunes will 
be forced to seek more honorable employment. 

It is claimed by those who object to the city's 
offering employment to all who need bread, 
that the announcement of the city's action 
would bring thousands of unemployed from the 
country, and the city would thus be forced to 
boar the burden of the whole Stnte. This 
would probably be true to a certain degree, and 
it might be advisable for the State to undertake 
some needed public work in the interior. It 
might be found that the West Side canal pro- 
ject was ripe enough to push forward into 
actual building, and this would give employ- 
ment to an army of men. This too could now 
be constructed cheaply if the funds were 
honestly administered, because men could be 
had at little more than the cost of living. It 
would be, of course, unwise to begin a work of 
this kind hurriedly, but we take it that the 
canal has been virtually decided upon in some 
form and the Legislature might safely order 
that the preliminaries be accelerated with 
all proper speed and the work begun. This 
project would have to be fostered by the State, 
although the benefited lands should ultimately 
fully assume the burden. Thus it might be 
found that the State could most cheaply provide 
for its unfortunate wards and relieve communi- 
ties from the sustenance and plundering of the 
horde of tramps which now besiege our farm 
and village homes. The whole State would be 
interested in this result. As it is the burden of 
supporting tramps falls most upon those who 
can least afford it. If the State had work for 
them and should direct them to assume it or go 
to prison, many a resident of the interior would 
breathe more freely and sleep more soundly. 

The beginning of the West Side canal this 
season, should it be found practical, might give 
work to those who may need it none the less, 



although they are good citizens and not tramps, 
nor "revolutionists." Should this year prove 
dry as the last, a contingency which seems 
quite possible, at least so iar as the San Joaquin 
valley is concerned, there would be a need 
among many dwellers in that district of oppor- 
tunity to employ their hands and teams. It 
has been shown by experience in the valley that 
the farmers build the best irrigation ditches, 
and it would be a boon to many to find employ- 
ment on a public work which their own fields 
denied. For this reason, as well as for giving 
livelihood to the country's "unemployed," it 
would be a public benefit to have this work be- 
gun and prosecuted with vigor. 

The view which residents along the line of 
the canal and elsewhere take concerning its 
building is to be learned even more fully during 
the coming week, as the Senate committee [on 
irrigation lias resolved to hold meetings at 
different parts of the State, as may be seen by 
an article in another column. We trust that 
something may ke found feasible, both in city 
and country, by which work can be afforded to 
all who honestly need and desire it, and then 
"agitators" and "revolutionists" will find them- 
selves without an avocation. 



Free Reading Rooms. 

The Union Reading Room Association has 
done credit to itself and the city of Oakland, in 
arranging for a popular low-priced lectures 
in these hard times. It places within the reach 
of that class deserving of and mostly to be bene- 
fited by such entertainments, amusement and 
instruction combined, at a price with which no 
fault can be found. As a general thing the 
cost of such entertainments is so great as to 
prevent mechanics and other working men from 
attending; but the result of the experiment 
inaugurated by the Union Reading Room Asso- 
ciation shows that low-priced lectures can be 
made a success. It is noteworthy that Oakland, 
which has been rather apathetic as to lectures, 
responded nobly in this case, showing that price 
had a great ileal to do with it. 

Following is a list of the coming lectures 
of the course: "Nebular Hypothesis," by 
Prof. John LeConte; "Irrigation," by Prof. 
Geo. Davidson; "An Apology for the Turk" 
(by request), by Prof. Bernard Moses; " Keeent 
Geographical Discoveries," by Hon. W. C. 
Bartlett; "Our Nerves," by Dr. Dio Lewis. 
The tickets for the course are sold at SI, and 
those for a single lecture at 25 cents. A grand 
musical entertainment will be given at the close 
of the course, free to holders of season tickets, 
but single tickets for this will be f>0 cents. 

The Oakland Reading Room Association 
has done a worthy work. After a great 
deal of trouble and labor the Managers of the 
association have provided good rooms, with 
plenty of papers and books, where any one, the 
capitalist or laborer, is welcome to come. There 
are here no social distinctions whatever, one 
man having equal rights and privileges with an- 
other. No fees are charged, and any one who 
chooses has the privilege of visiting the rooms. 

It is to the credit of the Managers that 
through their efforts Oakland led off practically 
on the free reading room question; Alameda 
followed and is doing well. As a result a joint 
stock association there is erecting a ten thousand 
dollar building, the largest public hall in Ala- 
meda, for the purpose. San Francisco follows, 
and in examining the field concluded that in the 
great metropolis of the Pacific it should be a 
municipal institution, so Senator Rogers — all 
honor to him — has drawn up a bill which is 
likely to become a law and the results of which 
will do an immense amount of good in cities 
built or now building in California. The Rogers 
bill to establish and maintain free public libra- 
ries and reading rooms, authorizes the various 
Boards of Supervisors of the various counties, 
and of the city and county of San Francisco, 
and the municipal authorities of incorporated 
towns and cities of this State to levy and collect 
annually a tax not exceecding one mill on the 
dollar for the purpose of establishing free public 
libraries and reading rooms, putting up build- 
ings and buying books. The same authorities 
may appoint seven Trustees to carry out the 
ideas of the act. All moneys collected go to a 
" library fund," and can only be used for the 
purposes specified. The following 10 persons, 
John S. Hager, Irving M. Scott, R. J. Tobin, 
E. D. Sawyer, John H. Wise, A. J. Moulder, 
Louis Sloss, A. S. Hallidie, C. C. Terrill and 
Henry George are instituted and appointed dur- 
ing good behavior, honorary Trustees without 
salary, of any library or reading room in the 
city and county of San Francisco. . These 
Trustees are clothed with powers to make rules 
and regulations for the government of the 
library or reading room. This is for this city. 
In other places the term of office of Trustees is 
limited to four years. 

One of the clauses is as follows: "The pro- 
prietors of any subscription or other library 
may, upon such terms and conditions as shall be 
agreed upon by them and the municipal authori- 
ties of any incorporated city, town or city and 
county, donate and transfer its property, real 
and personal, to any such city, town or city 
and county, for the purpose of establishing and 
maintaining a public library within the mean- 
ing of this Act. As a condition of any such 
donation, such proprietors shall nominate and 
appoint, as honorary Trustees, a number equal 
te those authorized, and to be appointed as 



hereinbefore provided. A majority of such 
honorary Trustees may fill all vacancies that 
may occur in their number. Such honorary 
Trustees shall have an equal voice with the 
other Trustees appointed, as hereinbefore .auth- 
orized, in the management and control of such 
libraries as may be donated and transferred un- 
der the provisions of this section." 

All this is the direct result of the work com- 
menced in Oakland by a few gentlemen who saw 
the need of free reading rooms for the public, 
and who were public spirited enough to give 
time and labor to inaugurate the one over there. 
The friends of the Union Reading Room Asso- 
ciation hope to advance, and add new and 
appropriate features to make their good work 
felt in a wider range of benefits. It is not often 
that a course of seven lectures is given for a sum 
of (1, especially when the lecturers are persons 
of the education and intelligence such as those 
chosen by the Oakland association. The cause 
is a worthy one, and should be upheld by all 
good citizens, and the example set by Oakland 
can be followed with benefit by other towns and 
cities, if a few liberal-hearted citizens take hold 
of the matter. 



QdEf\tES \HD REPLIES. 

Tamping in Squirrels. 

Editors Prkss:— As the squirrel question is still open, 
I will give my recipe. Fill and tamp all the holes well, 
especially when the ground is cold and wet and hut few 
will ever see daylight afterward.— J. H. G. 

This method has been mentioned once or 
twice in our columns during the last six months. 
Lest others may have overlooked it we insert 
again. We have also received other testimony 
that the tamping in is often successful. It can 
best be done with a piece of scantling or fence 
post, about four feet long, with a smooth handle 
put through an auger hole, so as to be at right 
angles with the stick and give room for one 
hand on each side. A few drops on the filled 
hole with this packs the earth very tight. 
Warty Potatoes. 

Editors Press: — I notice in the Prf.ss that 
Mr. White, of Bloomfield, has sent you some 
potatoes covered with abnormal developments, 
resembling warts. I have often had potatoes 
thus affected. I believe it is caused by exces- 
sive manuring, richness and moisture. Last 
season I moved a chicken house and planted 
potatoes where it stood, and most of the pota- 
toes were covered with these warts, and I have 
often had them on low, swaley ground, moist, 
ricli and sandy. Upon no other conditions of 
soil have I ever found them. — E. H. C'hknkv, 
Bodega, Cal. 

Honey Locust. 

Editors Prf.ss:— Has any one ever tried the honey 
locust as a hedge in this State? Du the seed need scald- 
ing as do the black locust to get them to germinate? 

—J. H. O. 

Will some reader answer? 



Tiif. Manorial Value of Rodkists. — We 
have not heard anyone argue that our squirrel- 
ridden fields were becoming rapidly manured 
by their presence, and this is the consolation 
which a German philosopher finds in a similar 
or even worse affliction. We read in the Lon- 
don Farmer that from all quarters come com- 
plaints that the plague of mice in Austro- 
Hungary and Germany is ever on the increase. 
In some parts of Hungary they are so numerous 
that local agriculturists omitted to sow in the 
autumn, partly because they knew it would be 
labor lost and partly in the hope of thereby 
starving out the vermin. In Bohemia things 
are almost as bad. In Silesia all efforts to lessen 
the pest have proved in vain; poisons and traps 
and trenches are abandoned in despair. A 
Leipzig philosopher endeavors to make the best 
of it. The mice must die some time or other, 
he points out, and what a valuable manure such 
millions of carcasses will make! Assuming that 
1 mice come to grief on each square meter of 
ground, this will give 100,000 carcasses per 
hectare; and, taking their average weight as 30 
to the pound, we get 33 centners of animal 
manure on each hectare of land. Meanwhile, 
however, less philosopic folk would rather 
draw their supplies from other sources. 

Oi'R Public Schools. — We have received 
from Hon. Ezra S. Carr, Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, a copy of his report to the 
Governor, coveting the work of his department 
during the last two years. The report is evi- 
dently prepared with great care and furnishes 
information which all interested in the discus- 
sion of educational topicB should possess. In 
the body of the report Dr. Carr describes the 
work done by himself and his associates and 
urges several matters which he deems worthy of 
adoption. He also speaks generally upon the 
quality and aims of education and the best 
modes of attaining them. Mrs. Jeanne C. Carr 
furnishes an excellent paper descriptive of her 
educational studies at the Centennial and in the 
Eastern States, and draws deductions from her 
observation and research. The appendices are 
full and contain statistics of the number of 
schools and pupils, list of teachers holding State 
certificates, etc. The report should be widely 
circulated. 

On File. — "New Year's Greeting," S. J.; 
"Floriculture," W. C. L D. ; "A ride through 
Lisbon District," G. R.; "In Mem.," Potter 
Valley Grange; "Cultivation and Rainfall," S. 
B. ; "Coffee Germination," C. H. S. and H. G. 



IP 



January 12, 1878.] 



California Climate and Consumption. 

Indiscriminate praise is productive of evil. 
It cannot be doubted that our favorite State has 
suffered more from flatterers than defamers. 
Glowing statements with either thoughtless or 
studied neglect of qualifying conditions are 
quite apt to mislead, and those who place reli- 
ance upon them often reap disappointment. 
Those who have glorified our conditions as fa- 
vorable to industrial success have many times 
forgotten to state that labor is requisite to suc- 
cess here as elsewhere. The result has been 
that hundreds of thoughtless persons have come 
to California expecting to gain a livelihood and 
a competence simply for the asking. Failing, 
of course, to receive it upon such conditions, 
they have become bitter denunciators, blaming 
the State for the failures which their own weak 
hearts and unwilling hands achieved. Not 
otherwise has been the praise Of the climate of 
California in its relations to consumption. Glori- 
ous as we find our clear and invigorating air 
and warm sunshine, we have been too apt to 
speak of it as the sovereign cure for all the ills 
to which flesh is heir. Especially in its favoring 
influence upon those afflicted with consumption 
has our climate been lauded high. This general 
praise has been productive of evil in many cases 
because it has been spoken without discrimina- 
tion. We have forgotten that we have a com- 
plex climate, and therefore discrimination is 
most necessary, We have also forgotten that 
consumption is a disease capable of division 
into degrees, and in its latex stages seems to 
pass almost wholly beyond the reach of climatic 
influences. For these reasons there seems occa- 
sion to conclude that in some cases California 
climate, in its relation to consumption, has been 
praised not wisely but too well. We are glad 
to see that this subject is being considered by 
competent and discriminating minds, and that 
the true opportunity which our State affords to 
unfortunate victims of lung diseases, bids fair 
to receive true exposition. 

One of the most interesting papers in the val- 
uable report which our State Board of Health 
has just handed to the Governor, is upon the 
subject which we have mentioned, and is by 
Dr. F. W. Hatch, of Sacramento, the perma- 
nent Secretary. For the information of our 
readers, both here and at the East, we proprose 
to present, as briefly as possible, the leading 
points brought forward by Dr. Hatch. For 
practical purposes he divides the State into four 
regions, more or less distinct, in respect of cli- 
mate. First, the coast and the valleys border- 
ing thereon; second, the interior valleys, as the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin; third, the Coast 
range mountains; fourth, the Sierra Nevada 
mountains. These divisions are also subdivided 
in the report. 

Beginning with the climate of the coast and 
the coast valleys, Dr. Hatch starts at San Fran- 
cisco with a mean annual temperature of 55.23° 
Fah., and follows the coast to San Diego with a 
mean temperature of G2. 11° Fah., including a 
narrow belt of country extending along the 
coast for a distance of 479 miles. The climate 
of this extensive district presents certain fea- 
tures in common though varying in degree — a 
winter season mild and agreeable, a certain 
amount of fog, and cool wet winds in the sum- 
mer. Taking Sail Francisco as an extreme, we 
find some modifications in each of these ex- 
tremes as we go southward. The number of 
foggy days may be said, as a rule, to become 
less, the severity of the summer winds is sub- 
dued, the temperature somewhat higher and 
more equable, the rainy season shorter and the 
rainfall less abundant, and intervening between 
these two seasons of summer and winter, a 
short season representing spring, which becomes 
more and more attractive, inviting by the mild- 
ness of its temperature, the purity of its atmos- 
phere, the early freshness and beauty of the 
vegetation, and combining all these qualities 
which have given to this region its popular rep- 
utation as a resort for health. Dr. Hatch then 
proceeds to analyze the different localities along 
the southern coast, and adduces the testimony 
of local physicians as to their fitness and unfit- 
ness for consumptive people, and the months in 
the year when these qualities are most predom- 
inant. We have, no space to follow these inter- 
esting inquiries, but the result will appear in 
the general conclusions which we shall present 
before we close. 

Of the climate of the great central valleys, 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin, an extensive 
district, stretching from the 35th to the 41st 
parallel, with an average width of 50 or 00 
miles, it is said: The meteorology of this vast 
region presents certain features common to 
every part. As compared with the coast region, 
the atmosphere may be said, in a general way, 
to be warmer and drier during the summer, not 
much subject to fogs, a high temperature during 
the day, with a considerable reduction at night. 
Although giving this region of our State full 
credit for its many charms and excellencies, Dr. 
Hatch concludes that "in the prolonged high 
temperature, the sudden changes which ojour 
in places subject to the influence of the ocean 
winds (which sweep through the Straits of Car- 
quinez and diverge north and south), the com- 
paratively greater humidity of the atmosphere, 
and the presence of malaria, is found a combi- 
nation of circumstances which would seem to 



THE PACIFIC 



render this interior valley region ineligible as a 
summer residence for the consumptive. " 

Concerning our mountain climate, both of 
the Coast range and the Sierra Nevada, Dr. 
Hatch speaks at length and with definiteness. 
We have space only for his general comparisons. 
As compared with the great valleys, the moun- 
tain climates, as a whole, possess a less pro- 
longed season of high temperature; a lower rel- 
ative humidity; comparative exemption from 
malarial influences; altitude and its supposed 
advantages in chronic pulmonary disorders. As 
compared with the coast region, the mountain 
climates have a lower relative humidity; a 
greater exemption from winds and fogs; the ad- 
vantages of altitude and a more invigorating at- 
mosphere. These points of comparison refer to 
climaoes in the different regions during the 
summer months. 

After treating his subject in all its parts sci- 
entifically, so far as data afford ground for a 
scientific deduction, Dr. Hatch concludes with 
the following general observations: 

First — That for the majority of invalids seek- 
ing a change of climate in consumption, the 
mountains — preferably the Coast range — offer 
advantages, during the summer and early fall 
months, superior to those of any other portion 
of the State. 

Second — That a certain proportion may find 
the eastern slope of the Coast range agreeable 
and beneficial even during the winter season. 

Third — That a life in the open air — camp 
life, with the exercise to which it invites, agree- 
able companionship, pleasant occupation of 
mind and body, are indispensable to the attain- 
ment of the full benefits to be derived from 
climate. 

Fourth — That for a large proportion of con- 
sumptives, some point on the southern coast 
seems eminently suitable as a winter residence. 

Fifth — That the premonitory stage of phthisis, 
or the first stage of its actual development, are 
the only ones in which climate may be safely 
relied upon. That some cases in the second 
stage may be greatly benefited, especially when 
the nutritive processes are not seriously im- 
jjaired. That a few may secure an apparently 
permanent arrest of disease, and enjoy good 
health for many years; but that the climate of 
California, while it may for a time seem to in- 
spire hope offers, in reality, no very strong in- 
ducement to these lapsing, or who have already 
passed, into the third stage of disease. 

Sixth — That the remedy, if found beneficial, 
must be continued from year to year, until the 
restoration of the nutritive processes is com- 




Enlarged Limnoria. 



1U11 L PBES 




The Necessity for a Physical Survey of 
California. 

[Read before tlie Academy of Sciences by Prof. Gko. 
Davidson. J 

The subject matter of the few remarks which 
I shall offer for your consideration this evening 
is not strictly new to you. On more than one 
occasion this Academy has expressed its views 
upon the necessity for a thorough and exhaust- 
ive survey of this State, and not only of the 
State, but of the States and Territories adjacent 
thereto. 

Whatever has been partially done has its 
value and its usefulness; but it is now a neces- 
sity that a more comprehensive system should 
be inaugurated, which will embrace every field 
of enterprise and investment. 

I do not propound this necessity from theo- 
retical or abstruse considerations, but upon the 
plainest, strongest demands of utilitarianism. 
Do not misunderstand me as ignoring science in 
such a work, on the contrary it is only upon the 
clearest deductions of observation and research, 
conducted by scientific methods, that the great- 
est gains and advances can be made in every- 
day practical life. When the practical man 
raises huge beams, and structures, and volumes 
of water by the application of the lever, or the 
pulley, or the pump, he is simply utilizing 
knowledge; and all of the so-called "practical" 
that is effected by rule of thumb, without an 
adequate and probably unrecognized basis of 
knowledge, is done at a dead loss of work, which 
is capital, and of time, which is profit. 

I repeat, that every great industry on this 
coast is largely and directly interested in the 
subject of a physical survey of the State, and 
the humblest trades and professions are there- 
fore certainly and intimately affected, and af- 
fected favorably. 

The great mining interests, in the precious 
and base metals, in coal, building material, etc. ; 
the millions of money and thousands depending 
upon the success of agricultural investments; 
the large capital bound up in manufacturing 
and commercial enterprises; the steamboat and 
railroad undertakings, involving so much of 
wealth and comfort, and rapidity and certainly 




A Pile Eaten Off by Knots Left by 

Limnoria. Limnoria. 



X) 



or have borne no crop; hundreds of thousands 
of animals have perished, and yet the rivers 
have been running to the ocean, the life-blood of 
this State has ebbed without imparting a spark 
of vitality, the green places are parched and 
arid. I refer to the agricultural phase of the 
problem because it is brought home so painfully 
and directly to hundreds of thousands of our 
people, to the whole population indirectly. I 
mention it because the solution of one part of it 
seems so readily understood; we are not stand- 
ing still for want of the necessary skill to accom- 
plish what is sought; but each and all seem 
waiting for some supernatural interposition to 
bridge them over the rainless years. 

What will this physical survey give to the 
State? When shall it be undertaken? How shall 
it be carried on? Will its cost be excessive? 
These and a hundred correlative questions may 
readily be propounded, and yet to each I am 
convinced that a satisfactory answer can be 
given. 

Let me answer the main question that must 
arise in many minds. Qui bono' — of what good 
is it? — by asking another and analagous ques- 
tion. Of what good lias been the survey of the 
Pacific coast of the United States? The map- 
ping of its outline, its dangers, its harbors, its 
islands; the establishment of light houses, fog 
whistles, buoys and other aids to navigation; 
the knowledge of the currents and winds, and 
climatology; the variation of the compass and 
its secular changes and local peculiarities; the 
geographical position and elevation of thou- 
sands of positions; the marked peculiarities of 
the tides, whereby they are closely predicted 
for years in advance, and a multiplicity of other 
information that daily and hourly has its prac- 
tical application in a hundred ways. To-day 
no seaworthy vessel need go ashore that is hon- 
estly found and manned, and properly handled. 
As a consequence the insurance has decreased, 
and should be far less upon this coast than upon 
the Atlantic and Gulf seaboard. The loss of 
life is necessarily diminished, and all commer- 
cial ventures depending upon regularity of pas- 
sage must profit from the knowledge acquired. 
The partial information, early made known, of 
the great currents of the north Pacific, and 
their effects upon the weather, solved the ques- 
tion against the great circle route from iSan 
Francisco to Yokohama, or even to Hakodadi; 
even if the commercial advantages of the steam 
route to China through the warmer and more 
agreeable latitudes had not been shown to out- 
weigh any merely theoretical and shorter, but 
more hazardous route. 

A perfect map of the physical features of 
California should give all the data that could be 
demanded by the farmer seeking for laud and a 
home; by the manufacturer, seeking to estab- 
lish new industries, or to enlarge previous ones; 
aad by the capitalist, seeking for the investment 
of money in developing its natural resources. 

Amongst other information it should afford a 
complete geographical exhibit of its entire sur- 
face. This is absolutely necessary for the agri- 
culturist, the miner, the engineer, the settler, 
and to the State as a body politic. Without it 
we can never fairly study the hydraulics of the 
Sacramento valley; the reclamation of our 
swamp lands; the irrigation of our millions of 
rainless acres; the relation of our mineral and 
timber belts; the most advantageous and profit- 
able lines of transportation; the opening of new 
avenues of communication and traffic. Every 
day for years 1 have been appealed to for in- 
formation upon these and cognate subjects — in- 
formation that is scattered iu hundreds of drib- 
lets, frequently without recognized author- 
ity unless gathered by the State or General 
Government. The demands are unceasing; the 
growing need for sound and certain knowledge 
is increasing fourfold with every dollar to be 
invested; every year's delay complicates prop- 
erty relations, and involves dead loss from erro- 
neous work. 

With such a survey the problem of reclama- 
tion and irrigation can be shaped for solution; 
system can be evolved from the present chaotic 
condition, and future interminable complica- 
tions lessened or avoided. It will open fresh 
fields for the farmer, and give a guarantee for 
his metes and bounds; it will settle many diffi- 
culties arising from imperfect surveys, or from 
surveys made where local causes are obnoxious 
yet unknown; it will afford the means of best 
studying the effects produced in our rivers and 
the adjacent lands from the deposit of the de- 
tritus from hydraulic mining. 

The geographical map is the ground and basis 
of every other character of work involved in a 
physical survey. The engineer studies it for 
the location of railroads, highways, canals. 
Had such a map been in existence the requisite 
field work of the Water Commissioners would 
have been a minimum, and the logical conclu- 
sions decisive and final. The State studies it 
to control the projection of railroads by corpo- 
lations, and may definitively measure the value 
of any proposed scheme. It can decide almost 
with certainty what enterprise shall be sup- 
ported and what condemned. It can winnow 
the true from the false with merciless precision. 
It will assist in quieting titles and give stability 
to landed property. Abroad and in the Atlan- 
tic States it would be studied by the thrifty and 
ambitious householder and mechanic; and by 
the manufacturer with means to invest, whereby 
its development would be hastened. It is in 
vain that you look for details in any published 
map of this State. Distances are erroneous, 
orographical features exaggerated or ignored, 
and locations established very much as in John 



Continued on page 28. 



plete, and the progress of disease, as determined 
by the physical signs, appears to be arrested. 



The Wood Boring Shrimp. 

The Limnoria Terebrans is a Crustacea of the 
Isopoda order. The limnoria is about two lines 
in length, or about the size of a grain of rice, 
and of a dark ash gray color. The front out- 
line of the body is a long oval, though the head 
is large, round, and strongly defined. The 
eyes are black, and are composed of numerous 
ascelli placed close together. The general ap- 
pearance is like that of a wood louse. When 
disturbed or handled they roll themselves up 
like a hedgehog. These little creatures are 
wonderfully destructive to submerged timber, 
such as piles, docks, piers, bulkheads, etc. In 
the Bay of San Francisco they eat piles off en- 
tirely in a short time. The contents of the 
stomach consist of comminuted wood, showing 
that food is the object sought. They attack a 
pile about half tide. The limnoria swarm 
around the timbers attacked in great numbers. 
They excavate little cells along the annual 
rings of growth, and while eating the wood for 
its albumen, as is presumed, make a sheltering 
place for protection from enemies, and in which 
to breed. The outside of the wood has a spongy 
look, and is very frail. A mass of these per- 
forations as large as a base ball taken into the 
hand and the water squeezed out leaves a mere 
pulp of woody fiber many times reduced from 
its original bulk. 

The illustrations on this page show this tim- 
ber-boring shrimp enlarged seveu times. 
Another engraving shows the appearance of a 
pile eaten off by limnoria, and another shows 
how they leaVe the knots in their work. Mr. 
John P. Culver, an engineer of this city, has 
been investigating the habits of these creatures, 
and also the Teredo navalis, and has patented 
a plan to prevent their ravages. The process 
consists in treating the piles with the bark on 
or off, as follows: First there is a poisonous 
composition brushed over the surface of the 
pile or timber, which is allowed to dry; then 
the pile or timber is coated with asphaltum, 
laid on at great heat to the bare wood, after 
which bur-laps treated in asphaltum are wound 
around in spiral courses while warm, and fin- 
ished by a final coating of hot asphalt. The 
piles can be handled, transported, and driven, 
with reasonable care, without injury to the 
coating, and after being driven are most fully 
protected. 



of traffic; the enormous sums locked up in 
landed property throughout the country; all 
these fail to attain their legitimate proportions 
and security when insufficient knowledge hin- 
ders and balks their development. And all of 
these interests are so interwoven and so inter- 
related that one cannot suffer without the 
remainder becoming nervous and enervated by 
sympathy. 

I do not pretend that a physical survey of 
this State will afford a panacea, for the commer- 
cial distress and the agricultural dismay that 
cloud our souls to-day, but I do positively assert 
that such a survey, if completed and its deduc- 
tions houcstly acted upon, would, for instance, 
have enabled us to avert much of the distress 
arising from the failure of our crops, and rami- 
fying every artery of trade. It would lead to 
a guarantee for the safe and permanent invest- 
ment of every man's means, and of the labor of 
his hands, and the wit in his 10 fingers, if his 
capital be nothing more. Those who have in- 
vested their money in operations based upon 
insufficient knowledge, know to their sorrow 
that it might have been much better employed, 
had proper data been available. 

The development of the agricultural and min- 
eral resources of this State has satisfied those 
who reflect upon the intimate relation necessa- 
rily existing between the uniform production of 
the country and the general prosperity of the 
population; that a higher and a more difficult 
problem is offered for our solution than the 
patient and anxious waiting for the rains of 
heaven to supply the fertile land and the for- 
ests with water, and the mountain streams with 
their quantum sufficient for mining purposes. 

We may assert it as a dictum, that the agri- 
cultural prosperity of this State has reached its 
maximum without recourse to artificial means 
of supplying water to the soil. This is not an 
impromptu ad caj)tandiim assertion, but the de- 
liberate and painful conviction following an 
intimate, earnest, and prolonged acquaintance 
with nearly the wliole territory of the Pacilic 
seaboard; and as the solid foundation of a State's 
prosperity and population is mainly iu and 
related to her agricultural wealth, we must also 
conclude that, without unexpectedly favorable 
influences, the population of the country will 
henceforth but slowly increase. 

Our State has an area equal to that of Spain, 
but a population only one twenty-fifth as great. 
We have a great valley that would support 
5,000,000 of people, and during this year its 
sparse population has been almost in despair. 
Millions of acres of land have remained unfilled 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 11, 1878. 



How an Axe is Made. 

A writer in the Polytechnic Review describes 
the process of axe making as now practiced in 
our largest American factories. There are sev- 
eral departures from the old method, and these 
we note as follo>vs: Formerly the polls or heads 
of axes were made by drawing down a bar of 
iron from the middle each way, leaving the 
thick part for the head, the thin portions form 
ing the eye and the embracing ilaps for the re- 
ception of the steel bit. But it was found that 
the welded portion below the eye was liable to 
split in use. The present method is to form the 
poll from a solid bar of iron. This is done by a 
machine that operates two punches simulta- 
neously to form the eye for the reception of the 
handle. The attendants of this machine take 
the bar and, after heating it, place it under 
shears that cuts off a piece just sufficient for the 
poll, which piece is placed in the machine, the 
two punches working from either edge, a sup- 
plementary punch finishing the eye and a set of 
dies forming the sides, when the poll drops, still 
red hot, rea< ly to receive the bit. There is no 
welding around the eye by this method, and 
consequently no danger of producing a "cold- 
short." The after insertion of the steel bit and 
shaping the axe are done by ordinary forging. 

The axes are then sent to the hardening and 
tempering room, which is partially darkened, so 
that no ray of sunlight is admitted to mislead 
the workman, who depends entirely on the 
sense of sight for the perfection of his work. 
The hardening ovens are circular, having a ver- 
tical shaft in the center to which are attached 
rotating tables, on which the axes are laid with 
the bits toward the outside. The table turns 
slowly but continually, bringing the axes over 
furnaces of anthracite eoal alternating with 
spaces. When brought to the proper redness 
by heat, the axes are bung on hooks on a revolv- 
ing frame, the bits dipping into a tank of brine, 
which is kept in constant circulation by a pump. 
When cool, the axes are brittle and must be 
tempered, which is done by heating them in a 
rotary oven like that used for the hardening, 
except that the fuel used is charcoal. One of 
the batch of perhaps 200 which are tempered, or 
drawn, at one time is brightened, and serves as 
a test of all the others, the rotary action of the 
shelves insuring equal heating. When the 
brightened axe shows the right color, the entire 
batch is removed, and are then ready for sub- 
sequent finishing operations of grinding and 
polishing. One axe out of each batch is broken 
after tempering to test, not only the temper, but 
the quality of the steel. The grinding is done 
on J»ova Scotia stones from six to seven feet in 
diameter. 

Why a Belt runs on the Hichek Pulley. 
— This problem is explained by J. H Cooper 
in his new book on "The use of Belting" as 
follows: "That end of the belt which is to- 
wards the larger end of the cone is more rap- 
idly drawn than the other edge; in conse- 
quence of this the advancing part of the belt is 
thrown in the direction of the larger part of the 
cone, which obliquity of advance towards the 
cone must lead the belt on its higher part. It 
may here be observed that this very provision 
— the rounding of the face of the pulley -which 
keeps the belt in its place so long as the ma- 
chinery is in proper action, tends to throw it 
off whenever the resistance becomes so great as 
to cause a slipping. To maintain a belt iu po- 
sition on a pulley, it is necessary to have the 
advancing part in the plane of the wheel's ro- 
tation." 



Woodward's Gakdkns has the following new attractions 
The buffalo chase; lar^e whale skeleton; new museum; 
improvements In the znuluirical department, besides the 
other features w hich have made it popular. 



OUR AGENTS. 

Oi'R Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

J. L. Tiiarp— San Francisco. 

B. W. (Jrowkll — California, 
A. C. Knox— Pacific Coast. 

C. N. West— Santa Cruz, Monterey and San Benito 
counties. 

A. C. Champion— Tulare, Fresno and Inyo counties. 
Ekward S. Bakrr— Australian Coloi ies and Saudwicr 

Islands. 

W. D. White— San Bernardino and Los Angeles coun- 
ties. 

J. W. A. Wrioht— Sacramento, Placer and San Joaquin 
counties. 

B. E. Lloyd— Alameda, Contra Costa and Napa coun 
ties. 

E. It DENNy, Oregon. 

F. B. Aldkrsox, Nevada. 

II. E. Hallett. — San Joaquin, Yolo, Yu'ia, Sutter and 
Colusa counties. 

TO QUERISTS. 

In propounding questions to the editorial, patent or bus- 
iness departments of this office, letter writers should be 
careful to enclose a stamp and addressed envelope if 
they wish prompt answer. If we were to furnish time, pa- 
per, envelopes and stamps, all free to parties who address 
this office on matters of more interest to themselves than 
to us, kive ni sDRED dollars a year would not cover the 
expense. This hint, however, is not intended for parties 
writing in our own or the public interest, or who would 
be obliged to delay writing at any time for want of an ex- 
tra stamp. 



Every new subscriber who does not re- 
ceive the paper and every old subscriber 
not credited on the label within two 
weeks after paying for this paper, should 
write personally to the publishers without 
delay, to secure proper credit. This is 
necessarv to protect us and the subscri- 
bers against the acts and mistakes of 
others. 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents 

OFFICE, 202 SANSOME St., N.E.Cor. Pine, 8. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent Reissues taken out 
Assignments made and recorded in legal form; 
Copies of Patents and Assignments procured; 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; Examinations made of Assign- 
ments recorded in Washington; Examinations 
ordered and reported by Telegraph; Rejected 
cases taken up and Patents obtained; Inter 
ferences Prosecuted; Opinions rendered re 
garding the validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Patent 
Agency Business promptly and thoroughly 
conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inven- 
tions of this coast, and long practice in patent 
business, enable us to abundantly satisfy our 
patrons; and our success and business are 
constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Baden, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Denmdrk, 
Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemburg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Granada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European countries, 
but the drawings and specifications should be 
prepared with thoroughness, by able persons 
who are familiar with the requirements and 
changes of foreign patent laws — agents who 
are reliable and permanently established. 

Our schedule price for obtaining foreign patents, 
in all cases, will always be as low, and in 
some instances lower, than those of any other 
responsible agency. 

We can and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country) 
sooner than any other agents. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more correctly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions discov- 
ered here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may ba 
lost by extra time consumed in transmitting 
specifications from Eastern agencies back to 
this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

Confidential. 

We take great pains to preserve secrecy in 
all confidential matters, and applicants for 
patents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing to them the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applicants 
which will interfere with their obt- ; uiug a 
patent. 

We invite the acquaintance of all pa. ties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short call 
at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not oidy lost their money, but 
their inventions also, from this cause and con 
sequent delay. We hold ourselves responsible 
for all fees entrusted to our agency. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in our own office, and 
all facilities for producing fine and satisfactory 
illustrations of inventions and machinery, for 
newspaper, book.circular and other printed il- 
lustrations, and are always ready to assist 
patrons in bringing their valuable discoveries 
into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO. 

United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scientific Press ana the 
Pacific Rural Press, 202 Sansome St, N. E. 
sorner Pine, 8. F. 



E. Butterick & Co.'s 
WINTER STYLES 

Double the Stock and Variety 
of Patterns found at any other 
agency ; the most reliable, stylish, 
and popular, being the standard 
of FASHION both in Europe 
and America. Send postage 
stamp for catalogue containing 
cuts of patterns for Ladies', 
Misses', Boys' and Little Chil 
drens' Garments, in large variety, 
which can be obtained in all sizes 
at the General Agency for the 
Pacific Coast, No. 124 POST 
STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, 
CAL. 




*&al(araUJ°ine Jo ur? 
Some Reasons for Subscribing jorit. 

Because it is a permanent, first-clam, conscientious, 
able, and well conducted journal. 

Because it is the largest and best agricultural weekly 
west of the Kocky Mountains. 

That more fanners' wives and children in their isolated 
homes may be cheered by its weekly visits, laden with its 
pleasing yet moral reading, and sound instruction. 

That a more extended interchange of views and opin- 
ions may be had among farmers, upou all the great ques- 
tions touching their mutual interests and progress. 

That the agricultural resources of the Pacific States may- 
be more wisely, si>eedily and thoroughly developed by an 
o)>en and free discussion in its columns. 

That all the honest industries of our State may be ad 
vanced in connection with that of agriculture, its col- 
umns being ever open to the discussion of the merits of 
all progressive improvements. 

That the Rural, after having been read and pondered 
over by the home circle, can be filed away for future use- 
ful reference, or forwarded to the old Eastern fireside of 
the Atlantic bonier, in aid of an increasing immigration to 
our sunny clime. 

Send for sample copies. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 
202 Sansome St., N. E Cor. Pine, S. F 



TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR I878. 

Hall's Journal of Health. 

Contents of a Single Number: 

The Little Courtesies of Life; Coughing in Consump- 
tion; Influence of Christianity on Medical Science; Igno- 
rance and III Health; Rage and Ruin; Kindness the Best 
Punishment; Grass In Rum; Valuable Table; Incurable 
Insanity; Consumption — A Suggestion; TheSpirit Rapper 
Premium on Babies; Our Proverbs; Wrecked Clergymen; 
Marrying Well; The Lifting Cure; Sea Sickness; Face 
Painting; A Filthy Atmosphere; The Latest Crazy Man; 
A Suggestion; The Erie Railway; Sick Children. 

Published in New York. E. H. GiBBS, M. D., Editor. 

This journal has maintained the highest record of any 
health journal issued in the English language. It is not 
the amount of matter published which makes it the most 
valuable journal, but the plain and condensed truths it 
furnishes concerning that which is of ever vital import- 
ance to its large list of readers. 

Annual subscription (post-paid) $1.50. 

To subscribers of this pajier 75 cents. 

Address : DEWEY & CO., 

No. 202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, 
Airents on the Pacific Coast. 



RUPTURE! RUPTURE!! 

Use no more Metal Trusses. No 
No more suffering from iron hoops or 
steel springs ! 

Pierce's Patent« Magmetic 

Elastic Truss 
Is worn with ease and comfci Nioht 
and Day, and will perform radical 
cures when all others fail. Reader, if 
nipturcd, try one; you will never regret it. Send for Il- 
lustrated book and' price list. Magnetic Elastic Tinas 
Co., 609 Sacramento St., S. F., Cal. /tSTSent by mail to 
all parts of the w»rld. 




The Raby Clothes Line Holder — New inven- 
tion; Everybody wants it; best thing out for agents. 
State and county rights at low figures. For particulars' 
address W. W. FLETCHER, 

Loadonville, Ohio. 



25 



Fasionable Cards, no two alike, with name, 10c. 
postprid. GEO. I. REED & CO., Nassau, N. Y 



f OUR NAME printed on 50 mixed cards for 13c. 25 fun 
>i<i. los CLINTON BROS., Clintooville, Caun. 



HEALD'S 



BUSINE 38 

COLLEGE. . 

No. 24 Post Street 
•am rsAMcaoo, CAL. 

The largest and best Business College in America. IU 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the l imes demand. Thorough In- 
struction is given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modem Languages are practically taught The 
discipline is excellent, ana its system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladies' Dkpartmknt.— Ladies will be admitted far in- 
struction in all the Departments of the College. 

Telegraphic Department.— In this Department young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HBALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 



SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE. 

Santa Barbara, Cal., 1877. 



FOR YOUTH OF BOTH SEXES. 



John Lynch, 

Princi|>al. 



Mrs. M. Atkins Lyhch, 

Yice-Principal. 



Mrs. Lynch is well known as Miss Atkins, (long Identified 
with the Benicia Young Ladies' Seminary.) 

FULL CORPS OF COMPETENT INSTRUCTORS. 
For further information, address the Principal. 



REGISTER YOUR 

TRADE 




MARKS. 



The U. S. Government now offers greater protection 
than formerly to manufacturers under the Law of Trade 

Marks. 

Those who manufacture a superior article, or put up 
improved packages of merchandise, should protect them- 
selves from imitations by registering their Trade Marks. 

We have special facilities for securlug full rights by the 
registration of Trade Marks, and our terms are very reas- 
onable. 

Consultations free Many dealers have missed fortunes 
from not being fully informed and protecting themselves 

in their rights. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors, 

No. 202 Sansome Street, S F. 



A. T. Dkwky. 
W. B. Ewer. 



Jko. L. Booni. 
Geo. II. Strong. 



OAKLAND HEALTH INSTITUTE, 

Center Street Station, Oakland. 

Convinced of the sui>eriority of the climate of Oakland 
to that of any other place on the Coast, more particularly 
for those suffering from diseases of a malarial origin, and 
chronic diseases generally, the undersigned have opened 
the above named Institute as a resort for invalids, where 
all the facilities for the thorough and scientific treatment 
of diseases have been introduced. 

Our methods of treatment embrace Electricity^ Turk- 
ish Russian, Magnetic and Medicated Baths of all 
kinds; the Healthlift, Had fields Equalizer, aud in fact 
all appliances and remedies of established merit known to- 
the medical profession. The building is one of the finest 
in the city, and the rooms large and comfortable. No ef- 
fort will be spared to make the patients feel at home. 
Lying in rooms connected with the institute. Charges, 
including board, eta, from $15 to $30 per week. For 
further informations, address 

Oakland Health Institute, Oakland, Cal. 
J. H. BITNDY, M. D., & C. W. HANSEN, M D. ( frop'r* 

DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Directors 
of the German Savings and Loan Society has declared toe 
dividend on terra deposits at the rate of eight and two-fifths 
(8 2-5) per cent, per annum, and on ordinary deposits at the 
rate of seven (7) per cent, per annum, free from Federal 
taxes, and payable on and after the 15th day of January, 
1878. By order GEO. LETTE. Seo'y. 

San Francisco, Dec. Slat, 1877. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
San Francisco Savings Union, 

632 California Street, corner Webb. 

For the half year ending with December 31st, 1877, a divi- 
dend has been declared at the rate of eight and one-tenth 
(8 140) per ceut. per annum on term deposits, and six and 
three-fourths (6{) per cent, on ordinary deposit*, free of Fed- 
eral tax, payable on and after Tuesday. l&th January. 1878. 

LOVELL WHITE. Cashier. 



DIVIDEND_NOTICE. 

The California Savings and Loan Society, Junction Market. 
Eddy and Powell— The Directors hare declared a dividend of 
eight and two-fifths (8 2-5) per cent per annum on term de- 
posits and seven (7) per cent on ordinary deposits for the half 
year ending December 31. 1877. free from Federal tax, and 
payable on and after Monday. January 7, 1878. By order 
D. B. CHI8HOLM, Secretary. 



For Good Living go to Web- 
ster's Palace Restaurant, 218 
Sansome Street, S. F. Best of 
dinners only 50 cents, from 5 to 

8 P. M. 



January 12, 1878J 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Purchasers ok Stock will kind in this Directory the 
Names ok some ok the Most Reliable Breeders. 

Our Rates. — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 

CATTLE. 

A.. MAILLIARD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluraa, Sonoma Co.), Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



R. G. SNEATH, San Bruno, Cal., breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bulls for sale— various ages — at $40 
to «100. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



L. TJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



B. P. WATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thorough- 
bred Spanish Merino Sheep. 



M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep. Rams and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $20 each; 
Lambs , $15 each. 

LANDRUM & RODGERS, Watsonville, Cal. Im- 
porters and breeders of Pure Breed Angora Goats. 

E. W. WOOLSEY, 418 California St., Room 2, S. F. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep, 
Choicest Vermont Strains. 



POULTRY. 



BURBANK & MYERS, 43 and 44 California Market, 
San Francisco, Importers and Breeders of Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabb its, etc. 

M. FALLON, corner Seventh and Oak streets, Oak- 
land. Bronze Turkeys. Choice Eggs for Hatching 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 

T. A. FREEMAN, San Jose, Cal. Pekin Ducks for 
sale. Also, eggs in their season. 



A- O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, Cal., 
Breeder pf Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for circular. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importers 
and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs for 
hatching. 



MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Prcnvum 
ft Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
^ Pekin Ducks, etc. 

SWINE, 

ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co 
Cal., Breeder of Improved Berkshire Swine. 



A. J. TWOGOOD, Riverside, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Pure Bred Poland-China Hogs. 



Imperial Egg Food 




(Trade Mark.) 

Will 3Ia.lt© Your Ileus Lay, 

Winter and Rummer, support Fowls durlngmouUiiiLr, 
keep them constantly In flue condition, and Increase 
their profit 100 per cent. Half of the chicks die annually. 
This makes bono and muscle early, nnl v ill save them. 
Packages to mix with 50 weight ordinary feed, 50 eta.: 
larger for fl.no and $;.r0. Sent prepaid on receipt of 
price. Also sold by Grocers, Feed stores, etc. 

LOCAL ACJENTS wanted. 

C. R. ALLEN & CO., Box 103, Habtfohh, Covw. 

0. C. SWAN & CO.. Agt's for Pacfic Coast. 

No. 202 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 
©To whom all orders should he addressed. 



BERKSHIRES. 




Breeder and Importer of the "Crown Prince, 
"Sambo," and "Bob Lee" families of Berkshires. 
Also, pure Suffolk hogs and pigs. Short Horn and 
Jersey, or Aldemey cattle. Merino and Cotswold 
sheep. Prices always reasonable. All animals sold are 
guaranteed as represented and pedigreed. 
PETER SAXE, Russ House, San Francisco, 
and Los Angeles City, Cal. 



LOOK! 

BURBANK & MYERS, Im- 
porters and Breeders of Fancy 
Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, Dogs, 
etc. Also Eggs for hatching from 
the finest Imported Stock. Eggs 
and Fowls at reduced prices. 

BURBANK & MYERS, 
43 and 44 California Market. 
Yards, Cor. Lott and McAllister 
treets, San Francisco. Enclose stamp for Price List. 




DEVON BULL FOR SALE. 

The undersigned offers for sale his Devon Bull, BLU- 
CHER. Calved October 28th, 1874, and registered in Vol. 
4, American Devon Herd Book. Also, two yearling bull 
calves of his get by cows entitled to register. Blucher 
weighed September 21st, 1877, 1,380 pounds, and has been 
wintered on straw every winter. My Devons are not re- 
lated to any Devons on this Coast. For further particu- 
ars, address R. MeENESPY, Chico, Butte County, Cal. 



DAI AOC J- V. Websters large, fine, new Dining 
inLnuC Rooms are exceedingly popular. The best 
pCCTAIIDAMT' of everything on the tables, 
n CO I nun nil I ) Di nne r furnished at the low 

NO. 218 SANSOME ST., S. F. ft1 TT 

CENTS, from five to eight p. M. Visitors to S. F. should 
try the Palace. 



GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION. 

Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 



DANIEL INMAN, (President). 
A. D. LOGAN, (Vice President). 
AMOS ADAMS, (Secretary). 



JOHN LEWELLING, (Treasurer). 
G. W COLBY. 
I. C. STEELE. 

THOS. FLINT 



W. L. OVERHISER. 
A. T. HATCH. 
O. HUBBELL. 



W. W. GRAY. 

SHIPPING AND COMMISSION HOUSE, 

106 DaviR Street, S. P. 



Grangers' Building, 

Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairy Products, Fruit, Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and 
Advances made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandise, 
Farm Implements, Wagons, etc., solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis that will 
enable the country at large to transact business through us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Association, San Francisco, 
furnished free on application. 



Stencils for marking will be 

DANIEL INMAN, Manager. 



IRA MARDEN <fc CO.'S 

BRANDS OF 

Coffee and Spices Have no Superior. 

Twenty-Five Years Experience 

IN THE BUSINESS ON THIS COAST ENABLES THEM TO PLACE ON THE MARKET THE VERY BEST 
GOODS AT THE LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES. 

Ask Your Grocer for Marden's Coffee and Spices. 



In consequence of spurious imitations of 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

•which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Pemns 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 

thus, 



v -> 

which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Ask/or LEA & PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and far Export by the Proprietors, Worcester ; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
&c, 6-V. ; and by Grocers and Oilmtn throughout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO.. San Francisco. 



\Ft$2 




Among the advantages gained by this holder are the 
following: 

It can be opened and closed quickly. 

The points are less obstructed while the articles to be 
filed are being placed. 

The papers (wholly or partly folded) can be either 
"straddled" over the lower bar, or filed in regular book 
order. 

The elastic hinge and band accommodate and hold firm 
either a large or small number of papers. 

With less material, it is lighter and less cumbersome 
than other holders, and approaches nearer to bookbinding. 

It has no rigid hooks, hinges or loose parts to break or 
get lost. 

It has proved durable in practice. The file is adjusted 
but 52 times a year for a weekly paper, and a sample 
holder can be opened and closed 1,000 times without 
showing wear. 

Five sizes are made to suit the dimensions of different 
papers, viz. : IS, 22, 26, 30 and 34 inches, inside measure. 

Single samples will be mailed from office for 50 
cents, (and upward, according to size), postpaid. Whole- 
sale and retail agents wanted. 



FARMERS HAVING GOOD 

DAIRY COWS FOR SALE 



Are invited to define the ages, breed and number of those 
fresh and to come soon. Also, lowest cash price. Ad 
dress 

CALIFORNIA DAIRY COMPANY, 

Station B, 7th and Market St., San Francisco. 



JOHN L. BOONE, 

Attorney and Counsellor at Law, 

PATENT LAW A SPECIALTY. 

Ofvick— 202 Sansome Street, N. E. corner Pino Street, 
San Francisco. 



London Assurance Corporation, 

OF LONDON, ENGLAND. 

Established in 1720. 
Cash Assets - - $14,993,466 

Western Assurance Company, 

OF TORONTO, CANADA. 

Incorporated 1851. 

Cash Assets - - - $1,576,307 

CROSS & CO., Gen. Aprents, San Francisco 



Buy the Best. 

Before purchasing an American 
Waleh, examine the different styles 
manufactured by the HAMPDEN 
WATCH COMPANY, at Springfield, 
Mass. They are the latest and 
best improved manufacture. You 
can depend upon them for fine finish, 
durability and perfect time. They 
are sold at favorable prices — in 
tact, no higher than many of the 
inferior styles. Examine into the 
merits of this Watch before you 
buy any other. Our word for it, 
you will not regret it. 

DEWEY & JORDAN, Agents, 
433 Montgomery St., S. F. 

A JOB PRESS WANTED. . 

Any printer having an Eighth or Quarter Medium 
Job Press for sale, will pleas" Mldross J. P., care of Dowcy 
& Co., S. F. State condition and lowost price. 



Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 
Authorized Capital - $5,000,000. 

OFFICERS: 

President G. W. COLBY. 

Vice-President and Manager, 

C. J. CRESSEY. 

Cashier ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 

Secretary FRANK A. CRESSEY 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
he best market rates. 



GREAT ENTERPRISE! 



— THE — 

Sierra Flume& Lumber Co. 

Have over 100,000 Acres of 

SUGAR PINE, YELLOW PINE, SPRUCE, 

Fir and Cedar Lands, 

10 Saw Mills, 3 Planing Mills, 1 Sash and 
Door Factory, 

149 Miles V Flumes, 

lO Miles Tramway, 

157 Miles Telegraph Line, 

' 13 Telegraph Stations, 

Employ 475 Men and 550 Oxen & Horses, 



The Sugar Pine is unsurpassed in quality, and the 
whole Coast can be supplied. 

The Yellow Pin* is firm, fine grained and superior to 
any other hard Pine for Flooring, Stepping, etc. 

The Spruce has great strength, durable when exposed, 
and especially adapted to Bridge and Ship Pudding, while 
the Kir and Cedar are as valuable for a great variety of 
purposes. 

Last year thirty millions of feet were cut and the esti- 
mate for 1877 is fifty millions; fifteen millions are now on 
hand, thoroughly seasoned by the hot climate of Red 
Bluff and Chico. 

Large orders can be filled on a days' notice for all 
kinds of 

BUILDING MATERIALS, 

Rough or dressed dry, by which elegant and substantial 
work may be accomplished without delay at the usual cunt 
for green lumber. 

Orders for the interior rilled at less than San Francisco 
prices and freights. 

DOORS, SASH and BLINDS always on hand in large 
quantities. Address 

SIERRA FLUME AND LUMBER CO. 

PRINCIPAL OFFICES: 

Red Bluff; Chico; San Francisco— corner 
Fourth and Channel Sts. 



DAVIS & SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce. 

Rbkkrknck. — Tradesmen's National Ban*, N. Y. ; Ell 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal.; A. Lusk & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 

MONEY TO LOAN 

UPON CHOICE RANCH PROPERTY. 
JNO. D. HOOKER, 



302 Montgomery Street, 



San Francisco 



JACKSON'S BEST 
SWEET NAVY CHEWING TOBACCO. 

Awarded the highest prize at Centennial Exposition for 
its fine chewing qualities, the excellence and lasting char- 
acter of its flavoring and sweetening. The Best To- 
bacco ever made. Ask your grocer for it. Our blue 
strip trade mark "Jackson's Best" on every plug. Send 
for sample to C. A. JACKSON & CO., Manufacturers, Pe 
tersburg, Va. L. & E. Wertheimer, Sole Ag'ts, S. V 



28 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 



[January 12, 1878. 



Continued from page 25. 



Phoenix's classical survey of the Mission Dolores. 
The whole system and method of the usual 
land surveys of the (iovernmeut is a delusion 
and a snare, and any and every map based 
upon them adds to the confusion. It is but a 
little over four years since the eastern boundary 
of this State was discovered to differ three- 
quarters of a mile from the official location, and 
nearly two miles in the opposite direction from 
another survey. About the same time the 
northern boundary of the State upon the sea- 
board was discovered to be over half a mile er- 
roneous in its latitude; each settler claimed to 
be in Oregon when the California tax collector 
made his appearance, and when the Oregon tax 
collector grew certain of his game the same set- 
tler claimed to be within the State of California. 
Within a very few miles of San Francisco the 
sea coast, by one survey, is suddenly thrust one 
mile further into the Pacific ocean than by the 
adjacent survey. On the northern sea-board 
the coast line is laid down upon a recent map 
only 17 miles in error, and Cape Lookout is un- 
ceremoniously projected four miles fnrther into 
the Pacific than we have found it. In some re- 
cent examinations I found the given position of 
a well-known landmark and mountain eight or 
ten miles in error, and a group of snow peaks 
much further from the truth. With such work 
before us when shall we ever know the bounds 
of any piece of property — even its position on 
the face of the earth is mythical. 

This survey would exhibit the character of 
the soil, its relation to water courses, highways, 
railroads, its bight above the ocean, its relation 
to the rainfall, to the wiuds and its location 
among the isothermals. These would enable 
all — the old settler and the incoming farmer, to 
choose their locations without the time, expense 
and annoyance of traversing the State, at the 
risk of receiving untrustworthy information 
from those interested and prejudiced. 

It would graphically exhibit the rainfall 
throughout the State, the force and direction of 
the winds, the temperature, the hygrometric 
condition, the distribution of the flora and 
principally the extent and character of forest 
woods and chapparal, the latter for one of the 
reasons for knowing where the timbered lands 
lie, its preventing the rapid and destructive 
etiects of the rainfall when quickly reaching the 
water courses, small and large. 

It would exhibit the geology of the State and 
guide the prospector, the miner, the engineer 
and the capitalist. It would furnish the material 
for the intelligent discussion of the economic 
geology of the country and make it available 
for every intelligent reader. Much has been 
already accomplished in this direction and it 
needs but the collating and publication to be 
available. The interest manifested in the Fast 
in the work alone, prompted the National 
Academy of Sciences, at its last annual meet- 
ing, to urge, by resolution, one of its members 
to use every honorable effort to have the work 
which has been done published as early as 
practicable. Vet we sit with folded arms and 
move not. At present the two great industries 
of the State are agriculture and mining. Man- 
ufacture and commerce necessarily have an 
intimate relation and high ratio therewith. 
This physical survey would among other 
information afford lis tangible, practical and 
reliable knowledge, applicable to the varied 
industries which are intimately dependent upon 
the geology of the State. It would have great 
influence upon the opening of the deposits of 
coal, iron, quicksilver, tin and the metalliferous 
ores generally, guiding the mining engineer in 
his search and controlling the investor and 
manufacturer in their relation to means ami 
ways of transportation, and in their relation to 
fuel, to water, to supplies and to population. 
The hundred conditions and contingencies which 
mar projects, if Insufficiently known, would be 
herein fairly presented for sober discussion and 
logical deduction. Capital aud labor ami life 
that might lie wasted in undigested schemes 
could be surely and securely invested in safe 
projects to the benefit and prosperity of the 
State. 

The hydraulic mining of this State is yet in 
its infancy, and there is, doubtless, sufficient 
gravel deposits already known that will afford 
large annual yields for the next century; but 
there is very much yet to be learned and pre- 
dicted concerning them and their economical 
working. This survey would exhibit the oro- 
graphical features and accidents, the sources 
and extent of the supply of water, the safest 
and cheapest route for getting it to the work, 
and enable the engineer to predict the prospec- 
tive effects of the vast quantities of detritus 
carried to the lower lands. 

I know of no industry which it would not aid 
and encourage. The fisheries upon the coast 
and throughout our waters; the commerce along 
the immediate seaboard; the deep sea traffic 
carrying our agricultural, mineral and manufac- 
tured products to the ends of the earth. 

Its beneficial influence would be exerted in a 
hundred channels not yet appreciated. As a 
mere question of business it would be the ne 
plu* ultra of advertising in the Fast, and 
throughout the world, the physical advantages 
of our State. 

In one sense such a survey would have to be 
undertaken <U novo: but already much authen- 
tic information is in existence although only 
partially published, aud all disconnected. 
Every iota of knowledge that has been honestly 
quarried can have assigned a place aud weight 
in the structure. 

As I have already said, the geology of the 



State has been well advanced, and a large mass 
of unpublished material is in existence; this can 
all 1 be utilized. The U. S. Coast Survey has 
almost completed the topographical survey 
along the line of coast, giving the orographical 
features thereof; the hydrography of the coast 
has been well advanced and is available. The 
triangulation has been nearly completed from 
Mexico to Oregon and has commenced spread- 
ing its net-work over the whole State. This 
gives to the State thousands of geographical 
positions and elevations; the length and true 
bearings of lines whereby the surveyor can de- 
termine quickly and unmistakably the variation 
of the compass at numerous localities through- 
out the State. They enable contrasts depend- 
ing upon distances, etc., to be fairly drawn. In a 
short period the Coast Survey will measure in 
Yolo county the longest base line ever adopted 
in any triangulation. and upon it will be built 
up all the work of the State. All this work 
the State of California can abtain for the simple 
asking and copying. And. moreover, by adopt- 
ing it she preserves the unity of the standard 
measures of the State aud general (iovernmeut; 
and homogeneousness in the system of work, 
and in the expression of physical phenomena. 
Other States are moving in these matters, al- 
though possibly not to the completeness which 
1 suggest under the term of a physical survey 
of California. In 1G States the Governors have 
applied to the United States Coast Survey for 
the geographical data necessary for the ground 
work of surveying the States, and in most of 
them examinations and measurements are being 
made. Errors of distances between large towns 
and cities have been rectified; discrepencies of 
the old surveys have been adjusted, and the 
newer aud more accurate methods adopted. 

The relation which we bear to the At- 
lantic States; the peculiar character of our 
climatology; the wonderful favorableness of 
the wealth of our soil; the winters for 
carrying on all employments; the wealth 
from fisheries; the productiveness of our 
precious metals; the unique geographical posi- 
tion which wo bold upon the west coast, where- 
by we must inevitably control the trade of the 
Pacific ocean: these, and the consideratious 
already enumerated, and a thousand others that 
will spring into life, demand that this State 
should promply and seriously undertake and 
carry to completion, a thorough and exhaustive 
physical survey of the State of California. 



M KTKOHOI.OlilCAI.Sl'MMAKY FOR DeC'EU BB. 

The report of the U. S. Signal Service officer, 
of San Francisco, for the month of December is 
summarized as follows: The mean bight of 
barometer for the mouth was 80.04: mean tem- 
perature, 52.0 : mean humidity, 78; prevailing 
winds, north; highest barometer, 30.388; lowest, 
20.074; highest temperature, 04 ; lowest, 42 ; 
monthly range, 22"; greatest velocity of wind, 
20 miles per hour; total number of miles trav- 
eled by wind. 4,038; total rainfull, 2.00 of an 
inch. Rainfall in December during former 
years: 1S7I, 14.30 inches: 1S72, 5.05 inches: 
*1S73, 9.72 inches: 1874, 0.33 of an inch: 1S75, 
4.15 inches; 1870, 0.00 inches. 



The Oakland Mechanics' Institute. — A 
practical move is on foot In Oaklandto establish 
a mechanics' institute there which is to be a 
real school of technology. Col. John Scott, a 
liberal-hearted citizen of that town has come 
forward with an extremely liberal donation to 
start it in the shape of a site for the buildings. 
A considerable sum is required for the purpose 
and a number of gentlemen are now devising 
ways aud means. We shall shortly give an en- 
graving of the proposed building and such de- 
tails of the plan as have been arranged. It is 
to be hoped that the project will receive the at- 
tention it warrants from all good citizens. 

Mortgaging Growing Crops. — Senator 
Murphy, of Santa Clara county, has introduced 
a bill to amend the law relating to mortgaging 
growing crops as follows: "When a mortgage 
is upon a growing crop, the lien thereof shall 
remain until such crop is harvested and put 
into the usual condition for sale, and until it is 
hauled and delivered to the mortgagee or his 
agent, if the same is done within 15 days after 
it is harvested and put into the usual condition 
of sale. When enough of the mortgagee's crop 
has been delivered, as aforesaid, to answer for 
the debt of which it is security, the lien thereon 
shall cease on the remaining part of such crop." 

Ft i;i. Bcttkr.— A dispatch from New York 
says: The butter merchants met to-day and 
passed a resolution forming a national associa- 
tion for the protection of dairy products from 
adulteration; the enforcement of the statute 
relative to the sale of oleomargarine, and to 
procure uniform State laws regulating the sale 
of the same. The name will be the "National 
Association for the Prevention of Adulteration 
of Butter." 

Illustrated Annual.— The valuable "An- 
nual Kegister of Rural Affairs, for 1878" is re- 
ceived. It is published by Luther Tucker & 
Son, of Albany, New York, of the Country 
Qittthmdn. It contains much useful matter. 
An illustrated article on barn building should 
be examined by all who contemplate improve- 
ments. 

Shareholders Votes. — Mr. Johnson, of 
Sacramento, has introduced into the Legislature 
a bill to amend the code so that the number of 
votes which any individual shareholder may 
cast shall be regulated. The bill is evidently 
in the interest of small shareholders. 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Amoug the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are worthy 
of mention: 

Air Brake. — H. W. Green and G. W. Hoag, 
Jacinto, Colusa Co., CaL, and T. P. Cleveland, 
Mountain House, Sierra Co., Cal. The patent 
covers an improved automatic arrangement for 
connecting and disconnecting the air pipes of a 
railway air brake between the cars of a train, 
so as to avoid the inconvenience of coupling 
and uncoupling them by hand, and the liability 
of their being negligently left uncoupled. The 
invention consists in attaching a supplemental 
spring bumper to the truck at each end of every 
car, where it will not be affected by the varying 
bight of the car body. These bumpers pro- 
ject out somewhat further than the ordinary 
drawhead bumpers, so that the opposing ends 
will come together and be tightly compressed 
l>efore the ordinary bumpers are connected. 
The heads of these supplemental bumpers are 
chambered out anil provided each with a valve, 
which remains closed when the cars are discon- 
nected, but which is opened automatically by 
the meeting of two bumpers. The air pipe of 
the air brake is then connected with the cham- 
ber in the bumper head, so that the connection 
of the air passages will be automatically com- 
pleted when the cars come together and are 
coupled. 

Mowing Machine Attachment. — Samuel 
Spencer, Turlock, Stanislaus Co. This inven- 
tion is a novel device to be used in connection 
with the ordinary sickle of a mowing machine, 
for the purpose of separating the cut from the 
standing grass, when the machine is working 
in fallen or tangled grass or grain the attach- 
ment is operated by the same pitman which 
operates the mower sickle. In mowing tangled 
grass or grain, especially alfalfa, where only the 
usual sickle is used, the standing grass being 
entangled with that which is cut, remains mat- 
ted together so that no indication is left where 
the cut grain leaves off and the standing grain 
begins. This invention consists of a short, up- 
right sickle attached to the outer end of a yoke- 
shaped frame which extends upward and over 
the ordinary sickle. This upright sickle makes 
a vertical cut at the outer end of the ordinary 
sickle so that the cut grass is completely severed 
from the standing grass, and the driver of the 
mowing machine can always tell where to run 
the sickle so as to cut standing grass. 

Light Weight R.orF.. — Alfred D. l>aedy, S. 
F. The object of this invention is to provide a 
rope which will be large in diameter and, at the 
same time, light in weight. It often happens 
that rope of large diameter is desired when a 
much smaller rope would be sufficiently strong; 
such is the case for instance in supporting 
painters scaffolds from buildings. A small rope 
would have sufficient strength to sustain the 
weight of the scaffold, and the weight of the 
persons who stand upon it, but it is painful and 
tiresome for the painters to hoist the scaffold 
with a small rope, when it would tie but a sim- 
ple task if the rope was of twice the diameter. 
The improved rope is intended to supply such 
demands, and it consists of a hollow rope tilled 
with cork or other light flexible filling or stuff- 
ing so as to provide the necessary qualities, 
viz., lightness, increased diameter and the 
requisite flexibility. 

I'vriAVAY and Conduit. — Jno. B. Ward, 
S. F. This invention consists in an arrange- 
ment of water pipes, conveying water for irri- 
gation or other uses in combination with an 
ordinary railway for transportation purposes. 
On the usual ties, pipes are laid. The rails are 
curved to fit the top of the tube, and are secured 
in place by chairs fitted for the purpose. The 
ties have concave grooves for receiving the 
pipes, cut at both ends. The distance between 
the rows of pipe will conform with the gauge of 
the road. The pipes consist of an inner and 
outer tube, or binding rings. The inner tube 
is formed of staves in lengths of any suitable 
material, so placed as to break joints at the 
meeting ends. The inner pipe is inclosed by an 
outer tube or mask of iron. The inventor 
claims that the combination of pipe and track 
on the same road bed is of ad vantage in many 
ways. The pipe as a support for the rail is con- 
tinuous and elastic, greatly reducing the danger 
of accidents from broken rails, and furnishing 
a smooth roadway. The water pipe by being 
laid on a graded road bed looses less head and 
force of water than by the usual way of laying 
pipe. Any break that may occur is easily 
found and quickly reached for repairs. 

Stoneware Kiln. — Chas. Gladding, S. F. 
This invention relates to certain improvements 
in the construction of stoneware and pottery 
kilns. It consists of a novel method of util- 
izing the waste heat from the downward draft 
pottery kiln, and an arrangement of secondary 
furnaces in a waste heat kiln, which are to be 
tired after the first kiln is burned off in order 
to complete the burning of the secondary or 
waste heat kiln. It also consists in the employ- 
ment of certain dampers whereby the heat is 
regulated aud the charged secondary furnaces 
are prevented from burning until desired, aud 
by which all ingress of cold air to the kiln is 
prevented while these tires are being lighted. 



Windmill.— R. R. Lander, Turlock, Stani- 
slaus Co., Cal. This invention relates to cer- 
tain improvements in windmills and regulating 
devices. There are two vanes, one of which is 
intended to lie flat and present but little surface 
to the wind, while the main vane is vertical and 
holds the wheel to the wind, but when the 
small vane is turned up the main vane is laid 
flat. These movements are made together. 
While the wind blows with moderate strength 
the main vane will hold the wheel into the 
wind, but as it increases beyond a certain point 
it turns a small side vane, which, by appropri- 
ate mechanism, allows the wheel to be turned 
from the wind. 

Well Boring Apparatus. — W. W. Vaughn 
and S. Jackson, Stockton. This improved ap- 
paratus for boring wells and other holes in the 
ground consists, first, of an improved arrange- 
ment for feeding and forcing the boring apparatus 
into the earth; second, of a novel arrangement 
for hoisting the loaded cylinder to the surface 
and discharging its contents; third, of a device 
for steadying and bracing the crowding rod or 
shaft which drives the auger into the earth; and 
fourth, of a device for forcing the curbing down 
the hole as the boring progresses; all compactly 
arranged and easily operated. 

Chance of Death by Travel.— It takes the 
French to get up statistics. One of their learned 
men, skilled in that line, has demonstrated the 
great improvement which has taken place in 
the safety of travel in modern times. He says 
that in the old diligence days a man had one 
chance of being killed in 300,000 trips and one 
chance of being injured in 30,000. On the rail- 
way, between 1835 and 1855, there was one 
chance of being killed in 2,000,000 journeys and 
one chance of being injured in 500,000. From 
1855 to 1875, one chance of being killed in mak- 
ing 0,000,000 journeys and one chance of being 
injured in 000,000. Now the chances of being 
killed are as one to 45,000,000 and of being in- 
jured one to 1,000,000. Consequently, a person 
traveling 10 hours a day at the rate of 40 miles 
an hour, would, in the first period, have a 
chance of escaping destruction during 321 years, 
during the second period during 1,014 years, 
and between 1872 and 1875 during 7,430 years. 

Colusa County. — We are in receipt of the 
"Colusa County Annual," being a holiday sup- 
plement of the Colu3a Sun, one of the foremost 
of our interior newspapers. The pamphlet is 
neatly printed, and contains a description of the 
situation, extent, surface and resources of Co- 
lusa county, its large farms, its towns and vil- 
lages and schools, its geography, soil, climate, 
etc. There are also historical notes, official 
directory, and valuable tables concerning the 
county. We esteem the publication highly, and 
hope it will be sent far and wide over the land. 
It may be had by addressing Addington & 
(ireen, Colusa, CaL 

The firm of Spaulding &. Barto, printers, for 
many years in the same building as our edito- 
rial and composing rooms, No. 414 Clay street, 
have admitted to partnership, Mr. Solon H. 
Williams, aud now style themselves Spauld- 
ing, Barto it Co. 

Plant List. — Chas. N. Read, of Santa Bar- 
bara, sends us a copy of his list of rare and 
choice fruits and other plants, tropical and semi- 
tropical, in his nursery. It should be consulted 
by all planters. 

The French Academy of Naval Sciences has 
elected llalph Waldo Emerson one of its for- 
eign associates. 

In the first nine months of last year, the los- 
ses by fire in this country were §52,000,000. 



^ A TENTS AND CONVENTIONS. 



List of U. S. Patents Issued to Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 



[From Official Reports yos the Mining asp 8ciK.Tnnc 
Press, DEWEY £ CO., Piblishers asd V. S. 
and Foieion Patent Aokntb.] 

By Special Dispatch from Wasbinfrton, D C. 

Wrrk Ksdixo December 25rn. 
Excavator.— J. A. Ball, Oakland, Cal. 
Combined Overflow and IUs Thai 1 for Stationary 

Wash Basis — A K. Grim and J. B. Low, ft F. 
Stench Trap. — A. K. Grim and J. B. Low, 8. F. 
SHOW-PLOW. — G. Roval, Truckee, Cal. 
Clamps for Rock Drills. —P. S. Buckminntcr, Bellevine. 

Nov. 

Stench Trap — F. W. Volkman, S. F. 

Undkrhiith— Clara S. Bradley, S. F. 

Portable Hoistiso Apparati h or Wa80» Derrick. — 
W. W. Carlile, lone City, Cal. 

H arrow.— Frank A. Hill, San Leandro, CaL 

Harvkhtkr and Thresher.- W. B. Rite, Modesto, and 
.1 ('. Iloult, Stockton, Cal. 

Wool Washi.no Machine — J. Bauhelder, Napa, Cal. 

Ciii'CK for Rock Drilmno Machines. —P. 8. Buckniin- 
ster, Belleville, Nev. 

Stop-Cock Attachment. S. W. Dcnniston and C. Sim- 
mons, Prcflcott, A. T. 

SwiNOfl.— C. Hartman and F. A. FreeHe, S. F. 

Bed Bottom.— T. J. Pettit, S. F. 

Machine Shi ttle.— C. H. Schumacher, Walla Walla, 

W. T. 

The patents are not ready for deliver}- by the Patent 

Office until some 14 davs alter the date ol iaue. 

Note. -Copies of 0. S. and Foreirn Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tel- 
graph or otherwise) at ti.e lowest rates. All patent miri- 
ness for Pacific coast inventors transacted with perfect 
security and in the shortest possible time. 



January 12, 1878.] 



TIE PACIFIC BUBAL PR£SS. 



]9 



Note. — Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, Wednesday, January 9tli, 187S. 
Trade is quiet, aud business is hardly under way yet, 
except in some lines of food supplies. In produce there 
is waiting to gain a clearer outlook and count the cost of 
the last year. The Grain market abroad has been sta- 
tionary, as may be seen by the following: J 

Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 
The course of the Liverpool quotation for Wheat to the 
Produce Exchange during the days of last week has been 
as recorded iu the following table: 





Cal. Average. 


Club. 




12s 


8d@12s 


lid 


12s 


lld@13s 


3d 




12s 


8d@12e 


lid 


12s 


lld@13s 


3d 




12s 


8d<ai2s 


lid 


12s 


lld@13s 


3d 


Monday 


12s 


8di<il2s 


lid 


12s 


lld@13s 


3d 




12s 


8d@12s 


lid 


12s 


lld@18s 


3d 




12s 


8d@12s 


lid 


12s 


lld@13s 


3d 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce Exchange 
compare with same date in former years as follows: 

Average. Club. 

1876 10s 2d@10s 6d 10s 8d@lls — 

1877 10s lld@lls Id lis 2d@lls 7d 

1878 12s 8d@12s lid 12s lld@133 3d 



that manufacturers show any inclination to purchase. 
From present app earances, holders have decidedly the 
advantage, for the season is now well advanced and stocks 

re reduced, which tends to give a steady and firm sup- 
port to prevailing rates. No immediate improvement in 

alues is looked for, but should a suddenly active demand 
spring up, prices would, without doubt, mend. The 

tock of Wool, as just compiled, shows the aggregate to 

>e 6,055,000 lbs domestic and 8,32!) bales foreign. In- 
cluded in the former total are 862,000 lbs Fall California, 
9111.000 lbs Spring do, Oregon, Utah and Nevada, 33,000 
lbs California pulled and 1)4,000 lbs Colorado. Sales for the 
week include 266,000 lbs Fall California, here and to arrive, 
at lli@19i; 14,000 lbs Spring do, 21@24c; 30,000 lbs 
Western Texas, 17@18$c; 35,000 tbs Fall do, 22^c; 110,000 
lbs X and XX Ohio, 43"@46c; 3,000 tbs No. 2 do, 40c; and 
35,000 lbs Oregon, 5,000 lbs Georgia and 22,000 lbs X 
Western Fleeces, cm private terms. 

Philadelphia, January 4th. — Wool is steady and firm. 
Colorado fine and medium, 18(o?25c; do coarse, for car- 
pets, 17(3'18c; extra and Merino pulled, 30«f33c; Texas fine 
and medium, 20<»25c; do coarse, 14@161c; California fine 
and medium, 25(rt'30c; do coarse, 22@27c. 

Domestic Produce. 
The following table shows the S. F. receipts of Domes- 
tic Produce for the week ending at noon to-day, as com- 
pared with the receipts of previous weeks: 



The Foreign Review. 

London, January 8th. — The Mark Lane Jixpress says: 
Sustained by political apprehensions and strengthened by 
increased consumptive demand, the present position of 
the Wheat trade is strong, and, in spite of large arrivals 
of foreign Wheat, prices have been steadily maintained. 
Speculation is wanting, but a healthy stimulus has been 
found in the supply of legitimate requirements of millers 
who have purchased without much reserve at rather 
higher prices. Maize remains about the same, firm on 
spot owing to limited supplies, and rather easier off coast 
under pressure of numerous arrivals of cargoes at ports 
of call. The market has varied little for Spring Corn, 
but a slight improvement both in value and demand is 
noted for Oats. Crop returns for the year 1877 show that, 
except Hay, all crops have been much below the average. 
The wheat crop has been the most deficient of all — six out 
of 409 returns only representing it as over average, and 
no less than 369 describing it as below. According to 
tables it was even a worse crop than that of 1875, which 
was the most deficient crop previously had during 15 
years. Barley, too, was the smallest grown within the 
same period. 

Freights and Charters. 

The firmness in the freight market noticed in our last 
review, says the Commercial Actus, still continues, and is 
even more apparent now than at that time. At this writ- 
ing it would be difficult to obtain a wooden ship for Cork 
at £1 15s, and it is doubtful if an iron vessel could be had 
at £2 — certainly nothing less would be accepted. The 
amount of tonnage in port available for Wheat is small, 
and rapidly (diminishing, and of this amount three or 
four vessels will probably be required for Oregon. Out' 
side business is dull and without any interesting features. 
There is now in port 10,686 tons under engagement to 
load Wheat here, 1,011 tons to load via Portland, 15,950 
tons miscellaneous, and 27,164 tons disengaged. The 
latest Wheat charter reported is Br. bark Cochrina, 1,011 
tons, Wheat from Portland to Cork for orders, £2 12s 6d. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

New York, January 5th.— The Wheat market has been 
quiet during the week, and though no decided change 
can be noticed in values, they have tended in buyers' 
favor. This is true of Winter as well as of Spring, the 
market for this description having lost the buoyancy by 
which it has been characterized during the last few weeks. 
Closing quotations are nominally $1.45@.$1.50 for White 
Western; $1.44@S1.45 for No. 2 Red, $1.48 for No. 1 do, 
and $1.28@$1. 29 for Milwaukee Spring. The flour market 
exhibits but little change. Shipping extras have been 
sought after to a moderate extent, but holders have not 
granted any concessions. 

Chicago, January 5th.— On 'Change the Wheat market 
jumped up quickly on Monday last, and then a pretty 
steady downward movement followed, which ended to-day 
in the lowest prices of the week and about the same as 
last Saturday. Trading was rather limited, although 
there was a large attendance of operators, who seem to 
take unusually lively interest in the future of Wheat, and 
the foreign markets are carefully watched. Next week 
heavier arrivals are looked for, but it is hard to predict 
whether or not the farmers will bring in their Grain 
readily, even with good roads, for the experience of the 
past year has made fancy prices sweet to them and they 
are just now prone so hold their Grain. The Corn mar- 
ket has been very constant, with lowest prices at the 
close, and so little fluctuation that speculative business 
flagged. Operators are, however, all on hand awaiting 
developments with an eagerness that betokens a break or 
bulge before long. Oats were dull and steady, attracting 
but little attention, far less than usual. February Wheat 
sold at 8108iirt81.ll; February Corn, 41|@52|c; February 
Oats, 24i(a>25c. The Provision trade seems to have at 
tracted most of the business, although not any of the 
attentions or operators from the Grain crowd. Pork was 
irregular and fluctuating, with a fine speculative market, 
and Lard was in a similar condition. Much interest is 
felt in Provisions, especially in view of probable heavy 
packing operations soon. February Pork sold at S11.30@ 
$11.75; February Lard, S7.37Aco , $7.72i. Receipts for the 
week: Wheat, 252,000 bushels; Corn, 60,000 bushels 
Oats, 82,000 bushels. Shipments: Wheat, 230,000 bush 
els; Corn, 24,000 bushels; Oats, 43,000 bushels. Receipts 
same time last year: Wheat, 165,000 bushels; Corn, 515, 
000 bushels; Oats, 155,000 bushels. Shipments: Wheat. 
81,000 bushels; Corn, 320,000 bushels; Oats, 89,000 bushels 
— a heavy decrease in the movement all round. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, January 5th. — Wool is quiet and steady. The 
small stock now on hand at the principal centers of trade 
• are giving strength to the prevailing feeling. The stock 
held in Boston is less than last \ ear by 2,200,000 tbs 
domestic and 350,000 tbs foreign. In combingand delain 
Fleeces very little doing. Pulled Wools are quite firm 
and in steady demand. Sales this week comprise: Ohio 
No. 1, X, XX and above, at 43i@46c; Michigan and Wis. 
consin Fleeces, 39@45Jo; combing and delaine, 50@55c 
unwashed combing, 30(g33Jc; scoured, 35@80c. A super 
and X pulled, 31i<a>46c. In California Wool the mo 
ment the past week has not been to any extent. The 
stock is about 2,000,000 lbs less than last year, but there 
is considerable Fall Wool now on the way. Sales include 
only 41,000 tbs Spring at 20i@33c, and 200,000 tbs Fall at 
15@24c. The total sales of domestic for the week were 
884J00 tbs. Total stock in Boston, December 31st, 1877 
was 12,647,480 lbs of domestic. 

New York, January 5th. — The year has opened without 
any important change in the Wool market. It is rather 
early, however, to expect buyers in any great numbers, 
for it is usually from the middle to the last of January 



Articles. 



Flour, quarter sacks . 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, sacks 

Corn, centals 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales 



Week. 


Week. 


Week. 


Week. 


Dee. 19. 


Dec. 26. 


Jan. 2. 


Jan. 9. 


50,778 


15,881 


72,847 


43,883 


130,651 


147,937 


81,518 


173,451 


7,859 


8,652 


14,143 


15,775 


2,086 


778 


727 


1,725 


4,141 


5,379 


2,258 


5,041 


7,551 


1,501 
19,270 


10,440 


6,319 


16,444 


15,953 


18,612 


2,973 


2,449 


755 


1,377 


1,000 


287 


331 


248 


984 


39 


81 


90 


1,252 


1,122 


870 


841 



So far this week but little has been done. Holders in the 
interior arc still firm in their view of the future. 

Wool— There is almost a. standstill in the Wool trade 
and leading dealers report no sales. A review of the 
Wool trade for the last year may be found in our " Sheep 
and Wool" department foregoing. 



Bags. — Wheat bags are unchanged, but reported 
firmer because of the rain and a little speculative demand 
which seems springing up. 

Barley. — Barley is weak, and holders and buyers can- 
not agree, the former being quite firm in their views. We 
piote sales: 558 sks good Bay feed, S1.62J; 600 sks fair 
feed, S1.62J; 320 do medium Bay feed, $1.65; 140 do 
choice Bay feed, $1.70; 1,000 do fair Bay brewing, $1,683. 

Beans. — There is another advance on the choicest 
lots of nearly all sorts of beans, as may be seen by our 
price list below. 

Corn — Corn is unchanged. We note sale of 1,150 
sks good large Yellow, S1.57J per ctl; 34 sks good large 
White, S1.67J. 

Dairy Produce— Fresh Roll Butter is unchanged. 
The supply is ample for all requirements. There is still 
stagnation and greatly reduced rates in all kinds of 
pickled and imported Butter. Supplies of these kinds 
are reported large and sales are being pushed at almost 
any price. We hear of a sale of good Eastern Butter at 
13^c T)' lb. Cheese is scarce and the fancy California now 
ranks up with the best imported, as it always ought to do. 

Eggs— Eggs are lower, as quoted below. We hear of 
a lot of 50 barrels of Eastern, which were found frozen on 
arrival. 

Feed Hay is the favorite, anil much activity is re- 
ported at prices which have prevailed. There is a firm 
demand for top prices, and $23 has been refused for choice 
Wheat Hay. We note sales: 25 tons poor Wheat, $16.50; 

do good Wild Oat, $17; 38 do choice Cow, $17; 51 do 
medium Wheat, $18.50; 38 tons medium Wild Oat, $16 
20 do ordinary Wheat, $19; 24 tons Clover Cow, $17 per 
ton. 

Fruit— Los Angeles Oranges are coming in more plen- 
tifully, and the price tends downward. The Apple mar- 
ket is glutted with poor Oregon stock, which stands in 
the way of the better qualities which are now arriving. 

Hops— We note a sale of 64 bales Oregon at Ogc. 
These were some of the best Oregons we have had this 
season, although they were damaged. Emmet Wells re- 
ports the New York market for the week ending Decem- 
ber 28th, as follows: 

A much larger business has been doing in Hops this 
week than is usual for a Christmas holiday week, and we 
think the same may be said of the London market. The 
very low prices at which American Hops are now being 
ffered tempts both foreign and home buyers to lay in 
large supplies; for they well know that the ruinous prices 
now current cannot long exist without driving farmers 
out of the business, which of course would soon result in 
higher prices, from a decrease in acreage. Regarding 
present prices, there is no change from last week; a gap 
between 7 and lie still exists, and any figure between 
these quotations are entirely nominal; in other words, 
the week's transactions have been on a basis of 5 @ 7c for 
poor to fair grades aud 11 @ 13c for choice export Hops, 
any quality betweeu these being entirely neglected. 
Quotations: New Yorks (choice export Hops), ll@13c; 
New Yorks, good to prime (nominal), 8 @10c; New Yorks, 
low to fair, 5(*7c; Eastern, 8(S12c; Wisconsins, 5@8c; 
Yearlings, 3@5c; Olds, all growths, 2@3c; Californians, 
12<ai4c. 

OatS -Oats are unchanged. We note sales: 200 sks 
good Oregon Feed, $1.87^; 265 sks fair Oregon do, $1,771, 
150 do do, $1.80; 180 sks choice Humboldt Feed, $1.90 
100 do do, $1.95 per ctl. 

Onions—Onions are still suffering from last week's 
excess and depression. 

Potatoes— There is no change, except that Kidney 
Potatoes have taken their place in the recent advance. 
New Potatoes, which are now in, arc like marbles and 
have sold at 5c $ lb. 

Provisions -Fresh Meats are abundant, but the 
price of Mutton has advanced since our last report about 
lc $ lb, and the quality offering is not as good. Beef is 
also a shade firmer. The supply of Pork is light but equal 
to all demands. The market for Cured Meats, Lard, etc 
is inactive and prices unchanged. Considerable un- 
smoked Meat is arriving (rem Oregon, and finds a ready 
sale, but chiefly to local packers, who buy for future 
trade, at low prices. Eastern Hams are arriving a little 
more freely, but the market is still light by being stocked 
with new crop. 

Poultry — Our price list shows a considerable advance 
in Hens, Roosters and Broilers. Turkeys are lower. 

Vegetables —Cabbage is a shade lower anil Marrow- 
fat Squash rules at $10 per ton. 

Wheat— The trade is quiet, and, as millers are dning 
nothing, there seems a*stand on $2.30 for the best grades. 
We note sales: 350 ctls Oregon Milling, $2.30; 2,000 ctls 
j choice Stockton Milling, last week, in two lots, $2.37i 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

[WHOLESALE. | 

Wednesday m 



BEANS. 

Bayo, ctl 4 00 @4 25 

Butter 2 90 W3 40 

Pea 3 30 ®'A 50 

Red 3 75 (ft! 00 

Pink 3 85 (s'4 20 

Sm'l White 3 20 "<t3 40 

Lima 4 25 (a/4 50 

KKOO.1I COltX. 

Common, tb 2 (a) 2i 

Choice 3 @ 4 

CUICCOKY, 

California 4 (ft 4i 

German 6i@ 7 

COTTON. 

Cotton, lb 15 (» 

IHIICV rilOIIH K, ETC 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll. 1b 27 Jio! 

Point Reyes 32i(g 

Pickle Roll 22£@ 

Firkin 22i(co 

Western Reserve.. 17i@ 

New York 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal., lb. ... 

Eastern 

N. Y. State 21 (fp 

EOOS. 

Cal. fresh, doz.... 37 J@ 

Ducks' 35 (0 

Oregon 32J(J0 



January !'. 1878. 

Almonds, hd shl tb 6 .re 7 

Soft sh'l 12 m 16 

Brazil 14 (a 16 

Pecans 17 (0 IS 

Peanuts 3 (0 5 

Filberts 15 (0 16 

ONIONS. 

Alviso 25 @ C2J 

Union City, ctl 25 <<* 624 

Stockton 25 (0 624 

Sacramento River. 25 (0 62i 
"OTATOES. 



@ 



19 ® 

18 i 



Petaluma, ctl 1 25 (31 50 

Humboldt 1 50 Si 621 

Cuffey Cove ■ <S — 

Early Rose, new. 1 75 ugl 90 
Half Moon Bay... — @ — 

Kidney 1 50 C«l 621 

Sweet 75 dpi 00 

32*1 POULTRY Al (. ( Hi:. 

— iHens, doz 7 00 @9 00 

27.', Roosters- 5 50 CL'9 50 

Broilers... 6 00 (w8 00 

Ducks, tame 9 00 (ftlO 50 

do, Mallard 2 50 <s3 00 

Geese, pair 2 00 @2 50 

Wild Gray 2 00 (cl'2 50 

White 75 M 00 

Turkeys 14 @ 17 

do, Dressed 15 (M 19 

Snipe, Eng 1 25 (nl 50 

do. Common 75 dpi 00 

Rabbits 1 00 (0 



18 



In 



Eastern 30 <o> 32J Hare 1 50 (fl- 

do Pickled 20 C<* 25 Quail 1 25 (o> 

EEED. Venison 5 @ 

Bran, ton 27 50 «*28 50 PROVISION*. 

Corn Meal 36 50 io)38 50 

Hay 14 00 («23 00 

Middlings 40 00 (0 

Oil Cake Meal... 44 00 (0 

Straw, bale 75 (0 80 

FLOUR. 

Extra, bbl 7 12Jr»7 50 

Superfine 5 50 _o>6 00 

Graham 6 00 @6 75 

tKI>fl MEAT. 

7 

r, 



Beef, 1st qual'y, lb 6 @ 

Second 5 (a) 

Third 4 @ 

Mutton 5 

Spring Lamb 

Pork, undressed... 

Dressed 

Veal 

Milk Calves 

«.i£AB\. ETC. 
Barley, feed, ctl...l 60 @1 65 

Brewing 1 70 del lb 

Chevalier 1 80 '01 85 

Buckwheat 1 50 dpi 5? 

Corn. White 1 55 dpi 60 

Yellow 1 55 (31 60 

Small Round.. ..1 70 (ad 75 

Oats 1 70 -32 00 

Milling 2 00 W2 124 

Rye 2 40 @2 45 

Wheat, Shipping. .2 30 (3 — 

Milling 2 30 @ - 

IETDES. 

Hides, dry 17 @ 17 

Wet salted 8(3 9 

HONEY, ETC. 

Beeswax, tb 30@ 31 

Honey in comb.... 18 (ft 224 

do. No 2 12Jig 15 

Dark 124® 15 

Strained 12j@ 14 

HOPS. 

Shipping 8 @ 10 

Choice brands 10 (3 11 

NJITS-Jobbing. 

Walnuts, Cal 6 (a 

do, Chile 7 ("' 



10 



Cal. Bacon, L't, lb 13S(3 

Medium 12fe 123 

Heavy 12 (3 12J 

Lard 11 (3 14 

Cal. Smoked Beef 9J(tf 10 

Eastern — @ — 

Shoulders, Cover'd 8J@ 8j 

Hams. Cal 12 (3 124 

Dupee's 15J@ 16 

Boyd's — @ — 

Davis Bros' 1540* 16 

None Such 15 (S 154 

Magnolia — @ — 

Wbittaker 16 & 16 J 

SEERS. 

Alfalfa 5 @ 12 

Canary 7(cC 8 

Clover, Red 18 @ - 

White 50 @ 55 

Cotton 6 @ 10 

Flaxseed 3J@ — 

Hemp 6 @ 

Italian Rye Grass 

Perennial 

Millet 

Mustard, White... 

Brown 

Rape 

Ky Blue Grass 

2d quality 

Sweet V Grass 

Orchard 

Red Top 18 @ 

Hungarian 8 @ 

Lawn 50 (rt 

Mesquit 20 (3 

Timothy 9 @ 

TALLOW. 

Crude, tb 6iffl 

Refined 8f(§ 

WOOL, ETC. 

FALL. 

Burry 

Southern, free 

Sara Joaquin^ free 
Choice Northern 
Burry, Northern. 



35 (a - 

15 @ — 



31 

. io a 

. 8 @ 
. 2>M 

3 @ 

. 20 <a 

. 18 @ 

.1 00 <» 

30 @ 



10 <a> 

11 <3> 
11 @ 
16 ® 

14 (a 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

[WHOLESALE. ] 

Wednesday m.. January 9, 1S78. 



FRUIT MARKET. 

Apples, box 75 (gi 1 00 

Bananas, bueh.. 2 50 @ 5 00 
Cocoanuts. 100.. 7 00 @ 8 00 
Cranberries, bbl 12 50 ."- 

Granes, box 75 (a 1 00 

do, Muscat... 1 00 <& 1 50 
do, Black Mor. 1 25 @ 1 50 

Limes. Mex 10 00 @— 

do, Cal 2 00 <S 3 00 

Lemons, Cal M.12 50 @15 00 

Sicily, bx 10 00 @12 00 

Oranges, Mex, 

M 15 GO (825 00 

Tahiti @— 

Cal 12 50 (*25 On 

Pears, box 75 <a 1 00 

Winter Nellis... 1 50 @ 2 00 
Pineapples, doz. 8 00 (cclO 00 

Plums, lb 6 @ — 

Primes 5@ 7 

RICIED FRUIT. 



Apples, tb 4 @ 

Apricots 10 @ 

Citron 23 (3 

Dates 9 @ 

Figs, Black 140 



White 6 <» 

Strawber'sch'st.20 00 (S— 

Peaches 7a@ 

Pears 4 (fti 

Plum3 3 <a 

Pitted 

Prunes 12j(3 

Raisins. Cal, bx 1 00 C« 2 
do, Halves... 1 25 ® 2 
do, Quarters. 1 50 (* 2 

Blowers' 2 75 (»— 

Malaga 2 75 @ 3 

Zaute Currants. . 8 (w 
VEGETABLES. 
Asparagus, lb... — 40 <@ — 

Ueets, ctl 1 50 W— 

Cabbage, 100 lbs 1 00 (9 1 

Carrots, ctl 50 «t> 

Cauliflower, doz 50 @ 
Garlic, New. lb.. 1J@— 

Lettuce, doz 10 (*— 

Parsnips, tb 1 @ — 

Horseradish 4 @ — 

Squash, Marrow 

fat, tn 10 00 @- 

Turnips, ctl 1 50 @— 

White 1 00 (a— 

Mushrooms, lb.. 15 (£»-- 



LUMBER. 



Wei 

CARGO PRICES OF 
REDWOOO. 

Rough, M 14 00 

Refuse 10 00 

Clear 24 00 

Clear Refuse 14 00 

Rustic ' 27 50 

Refuse 20 00 

Surfaced 24 00 

Refuse 14 00 

Flooring 26 00 

Refuse 14 00 

Beaded Flooring 20 00 

Refuse 14 00 

Half-inch Siding 20 00 

Refuse 16 00 

Half-inch Surfaced 20 00 

Refuse 15 00 

Half-inch Battens 18 00 

Pickets. Rough 12 00 

Rough, Pointed 14 00 

Fancy, Pointed 18 00 

Shingles 2 00 



nesoay M., January a. 1878. 
PUCET SOUKfU PINK. 

KETA1I. PRICE. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Fencing 18 00 

Fleming and Step 28 00 

Narrow 30 00 

2d quality 25 00 

Laths 3 50 

Furring, lineal ft I 

REDWOOD. 

KETAIL PRICE. 

Rough, M 18 00 

Refuse 15 00 

Pickets, Rough 18 00 

Pointed 20 00 

Fancy 25 00 

Siding 22 50 

Surfaced & Long BeadedSO OQ 

Flooring 32 50 

Refuse 22 50 

Half-inch Surfaced 32 50 

Rustic, No. 1 32 50 

Batlbens, lineal ft 

Shinnies. M 2 25 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro it Co.] 

San Franoisoo, January 0, 3 r. M. 
Leoai.TendersIu S. F., 11 a. m., 97S<£?97i. Silver. 4.j@5 
Gold In New York. 1024. 

Gold Bars. 890®910. Silver Barh, 8(815 $ cent, dis 
count. 

ExoriAVOE on Now York i%; on London bankers, 4i)i; 
Commercial, 50; Paris, nve francH $ dollar; Mexican 
dollars, 93. 

London Consols, 94 11-16; Bonds, 105J. 

Quicksilver In S. F.. by the flask, $1 lb, 46(A471c. 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

[WHOLESALE. 1 

„„,_ .... We " *•"«« January 9, 1878. 
BAGS .lobbing. [Piaster, Golden 
Eng Standard Wheat. S a 9J| f; a te Mills.... 3 00 @ 3 25 
Land Plaster, tn 10 00 (*12 50 

NAILS. 
Ass'ted Sizes, iir 3 25 («f 4 00 

OILS. 
Pacific Glue Co's 
Nuatsfoot. No 1.1 00 @ 90 

CaStof. No 1 1 10 C* — 

do. No. 2 1 00 @ — 

Baker's A A 1 25 @1 30 

Olive. Plagmdl....5 25 (cc5 75 

Posset 4 75 @5 26 

Palm, lb 9 @ — 

Linseed. Raw, bbl. 77 (m - 
Boiled 



Neville & Co's 
Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 9 @> 91 

24x36 @_ 

23x40 

Machine Swd, 22x36. ;i (a 9J 
Flour Sacks, halves.. . . S 1(3 lflj 

Quarters 5,(flC 6, 

Eighths 4 <» 4) 

Hessian, 60 inch 15 (re— 

45 inch 8j(tt 

40 inch — w — 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 31 lb.. 45 '50 

Machine Sewed 42.U«* - 

4 tb do 41ija— 

Standard Gunnies 15 @- 

Bean Bags CM 8 

CANDLES. 

Crystal Wax 17 @174 

Eagle 14 @— 

Patent Sperm 25 (»30 

CANNED GOODS. 

Assorted Pie Fruits, 

21 lb cans 2 75 (e>3 00 

Table do 3 75 («4 25 

Jams and Jellies. .4 25 (.0 — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 50 (5 — 

Sardines, qr DOX..1 65 <§<1 90 

Hf Boxes 3.00 @ — 

Preserved Beef. 

211,, doz 4 00 «* — 

do Beef, 4 lb.doz.6 50 <H) — 
Preserved Mutton, 

2 lb. doz 4 CO @ — 

Beef Tongue 6 50 @ — 

Preserved Ham, 

2 lb. doz 6 50 (<* — 

Deviled Ham, 1 lb, 

doz 5 50 @ — 

do Ham, ill. doz.3 00 @ — 
COAL-.lol>liiHK. 
Australian, ton.. 7 75 (0 8 00 

Coos Bay 6 50 (ee 7 00 

Beliingham Bay. 6 50 @— 

Seattle 7 00 dp— 

Cumberland 14 00 (»— ~- 

Mt Diablo 4 75 & 6 75 

Lehigh 22 00 (» 

Liverpool 7 00 @ 8 00 

West Hartley. . . 7 50 <§ 8 00 

Scotch 7 00 & 8 00 

Scrauton 13 00 (§16 00 

Vancouver Id . . . 7 50 ^ 

Charcoal, sack.. . 75 @ 

Coke, bbl 60 @ 

COFFEE. 

Sandwich Id, tb . 21 1@ 

Costa Rica 19 W 19J 

Guatemala 19 @ 191 

Java 25 @ " 

Manila 19 (ft 194 

Ground, in cs... 25 (<* 

FISU. 

Sac'to Dry Cod.. 5 @ 6 
do in cases . . 64@ ( 7 

Eastern Cod 71@-^ 

Salmon, bbls.... 9 00«<aflO 00 

Hf bbls 4 75 @ 5 25 

2 lb caiiB 3 10 @3 20 

Pkld Cod, bbls. .22 U0 ui 

Hf bbls 11 00 (a 

Mackerel, No. 1, 

Hf Bbls 11 50 (»12 00 

In Kits 3 00 @ 

Ex Mess 3 75 @— r- 

Pkld Herring, bx 3 00 @ 3 50 

Boston Smkd IPg 40 @ 50 
LIME, Etc. 

Lime, Sta Cruz, 
bbl 2 00 <g 2 25 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 75 @ 3 50 

Portland 4 75 <&5 50 



80 (ft - 
60 qp 

68 @ 70 

l 60 w l 65 

60 & 65 

60 p - 

1 10 (al 15 

27 <a> - 

27 (* 30 

29 ® - 

50 (<* - 

22Rf« 25 

221@ 25 



Cocoanut 

China nut, cs. . . 

Sperm 

Coast Whales. . 
Polar, refined. . 

Lard 

Oleophhv 

Dcvoe's Bril't. . 

Pbotolite 

Nonporiel 

Eureka 

Barrel keroseno. . . 

Downer Ker 22J«n 25 

Elaino 45 @ — 

PAINTS. 
Pure White Lead. 9f@> 1( I 

Whiting llap — 

Puttv 4 (ri 5 

Chalk ltich — 

Paris White 21(a) — 

Ochre 34<a — 

Venetian Red 34(a) — 

Averill Mixed 
Paint, gal. 

Wliite & tints. . .2 00 (o2 40 
Green, Blue & 

Ch Yellow 3 00 fr'3 50 

Li(dit Ked 3 00 (f<3 50 

Metallic Roof.. .1 30 ®1 60 
RICE. 

''hinaNo. 1, lb.... 6@ 6j 

Hawaiian 5 @ 5] 

SALT. 
Cal. Bay, ton.... 15 00 (925 00 

Common 10 00 in 12 00 

Carmen Id 15 00 vj'15 1)0 

Liverpool tine. . .26 00 i?28 00 
SOAP. 

Castile, lb 10 @ 

Common brands. . 44@ 

Fancy brands 7 (* 

SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 45 @ 

Cassia 224(a) 

Nutmegs 85 @ 

Pepper Grain 15 <g 

Pimento 15 (tp 

Mustard, Cal, 

1 11, glass 1 50 @ 

SUGAR, ETC. 

Cal. Cube, tb 12;(o) 

Powdered 13 (<p 

Fine crushed 13 (§ 

Granulated 121® 

Golden C 10J(f* 

Hawaiian 10 (a) 

Cal. Syrup kgs... 70 @ 
Hawaiian Mol'sses 26 (ft 1 

TEA. 
Young Hysou, 

Moyime, etc 35 @ 

Country pekd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 50 @ 

Hyson 30 (» 

Fooo-Chow 35 ffi 

Japan, 1st quality 40 (o> 
2d quality 25 @ 



104 

6 
8 

50 
25 
90 
17 
16 



30 



50 



LEATHER. 

[WHOLESALE. I 

Wednesday m.. January 9. 1S78. 

Sole Leather, hea vy, lb 26 (W 29 

Light 22 @ 24 

Jodot, 8 Kil, doz ' 48 00 <n)50 00 

11 to 13 Kil 65 00 #76 00 

14 to 19 Kil 80 00 W90 00 

Second Choice, 11 to 16 Kil 55 00 (S70 00 

Comedian, 12 to 16 Kil 57 00 (W67 00 

Females, 12 to 13 Kil 63 00 <fC67 00 

14 to 16 Kil 71 00 1076 50 

Simon Ullmo, Females, 12 to 13 Kil 58 00 C*C2 00 

14 to 15 Kil 66 00 (A;70 00 

16 to 17 Kil 72 00 (*74 00 

-iimon, 18 Kil • 61 00 (rt«3 00 

20 Kil 65 00 M67 00 

24 Kil 72 00 «*74 00 

" >bert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00 (*i0 00 

K |«, French, lb 1 00 # 1 35 

Cal. doz 40 00 (a«0 00 

French Sheep, all colors 8 00 ("15 00 

Kastern Calf for Backs, lb 1 00 @ 1 25 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, doz 9 00 (rpl3 oO 

For Linings 5 50 (rflO 5 

Cal. Russet Sheep Linings 1 75 @> 4 50 

Boot Legs. French Calf, pair 4 00 @ 

Good French Calf 4 00 (a> 4 75 

Best Jodot Calf 5 00 (8 5 25 

Leather, Harness, lb 35 @ 38 

Fair Bridle, doz 48 00 <a-72 CO 

Skirting, tb 33 & 37 

Welt, doz 30 00 (am 00 

Buff, ft 18 & 20 

Wax Side 17 @ 18 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 



Butter, California 

Choice, lb. .... .. 

Cheese 

Eastern 

Lard, Cal 

Eastern 

Flour, ex. fain, bbIS 

Corn Meal, lb 

Sugar, wh. crshd 

Light Brown 

Coffee, Green 

Tea, Fine Black . . . 

Finest Japan. ... 
Candles, Admt'e. . 
Soap. Cal 



25 



Wednesday m., January !), 

Rice 8 

Yeast Pwdr. doz..l 60 
Cau'd Oysters doz2 00 
Syrup, S F Gold'u 75 
Dried Apples, lb.. 10 

Ger. Prunes 12] 

Figs, Cal 9 

Peaches 11 

Oils. Kerosene 50 

Wines, Old Port... 3 50 

French Claret 1 00 

Cal, dozbot 3 00 

Whisky, O K, gal.. 3 50 
French Brandy 4 00 



40 d* 

18 % 

25 ("• 

18 ('(' 

2H \.< 

nil (10 

2\({p 3 

121w> 1.1', 

S (<* (l.l 

23 <S 35 

50 Ml 00 

55 (Si 00 

15 (S) 25 

7 «* 10 



1878. 
@ 12 

m oo 
m so 

(*1 02 
(<n 1 1 

'I \l 

<a> io 

(<> 60 
(«5 00 

m so 

(a>4 50 

as oo 
(88 oo 



Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

Week Ending January 8, 1878. 



HWHEST AMI LOWEST BAHOMKTER. 



Jan 2 


Jan. 3 


Jan. 4 


Jan. 5 


Jan. 6 


Jan. 7 


Jan. 8. 


30.2!) 


30 . 2'.) 


30.16 


30.08 


30.00 


30.02 


30.22 


30.22 


30.16 


30.06 


20.98 


21). 03 


29.93 


30.09 




MINIMI'M AM) 


MAXIMl'M THERMOMETER. 




60 


i 












40 




it 




| 5? 


| 5? 


1 s 






MEAN 


DAILY HUMIDITY, 






01 




62 


60 


| 61 


88 


| 87 






PREVAILING 


WIND. 






E | 


NE | 


N 


98 


| NW 


| SE 


| SE 






WIND- 


MILES TRAVELED. 






72 


91 


70 


87 


| 85 


| 98 


| 150 






STATE OK WEATHER. 






Clear. | 


Clear. | 


Clear. 


| Fair. 


] Rainy. 


i Rainy, 


Rainy 




RAINFALL IN TWKNTY-KOIIR HOURS. 




. 1 






1 


1 .02. 


| .28 


| .59 



Total rain during the season, from July 1, 1877, 6.79 in. 



30 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 12, 1878. 



Nurserymen. 



J. ROCK'S NURSERIES, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

For Sale this season a Large and Complete Stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

Evergreens, Shrubs, and Flowering Plants, 
ORANGE AND LEMON TREES, 

AMERICAN AND JAPANESh PERSIMMON, NUT 
BEARING TREES in LA&as VARIETY. HARDY 
PALMS AND ORNAMENTAL PLANTS. 

A Large Assortment of Small Fruits, Etc. 

tS" For complete List lend tor a Catalogue. 

JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 



STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

Established in 1853. 
W. B. WEST, Proprietor, 
FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Evergreens, Shrubs and Greenhouse Plants 

Comprising everything N BW and RARE in my li"e. 

SPECIALTIES: 

Raisin Grapes, Figs, Oranges, Lem is, 

AND OTHER TROPICAL FRUITS. 

1 have imported superior Figs and Ruisin Grapes direct 
from the place of their nativity in Europe, and having 
propagated large quantities, can now offer them to the 
trade and public on the Most Reasonable Terms 

/far Send for catalogue and further information. 



Established over 20 Years in Sacramento. 

% Trees & Plants JfcHt 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, AT THE CAPITAL HUB. 
SERIES, SACRAMENTO. A FULL ASSORTMENT 
OF EVERYTHING IN THE NURSERY LINE, 
BOTH WHOLESALE AND RETAIL, AT 
LOWEST MARKET RATES. 

ALSO, A VERY LARGE AND COMPLETE ASSORT- 
MENT OF FIELD, GARDEN. LAWN AND TREE 
SEEDS, WHICH WE OFFER AT VERY 
LOW RATES, BOTH TO THE TRADE 
AND PLANTER IN LARGE 
OR SMALL LOTS. 

Catalogues, Price- Lisle, and Printed Directions free on 
application. Address, 

W. R. STRONG & CO , 
Nos 6, 8 and 10 J Street, Sacramento. 

HANNAY BRGS'. NURSERY, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 



Large and splendid stock of Fruit, Shade and Ornanien 
tal Trees, Vine-', Plants, etc. Apple, Pear, Cherry, Peach, 
Apricot, Almond, (Quince, Olive, Fig, Grapevines and 
small fruits assorted. 

Eucalyptus, Cypress, Pine. Acacia, 
Pepper, Elm, Poplar, Etc., 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 

Our trees are well grown, stalky and healthy, and those 
wishing to plant in large or small quantities would do 
well to call and see us before buying elsewhere. 

HANNAY BROS'-, San Jose, Cal. 
100,000 Blackberry Plants for Sale. 

New varieties. The Early Cluster, Vina Seedling. Mis- 
souri Mammoth, Kittatiuny and DoMlug Cluster. Price, .*8 
per 100. 5,000 Gooseberry plants, of the Hough ton and 
American Seedlings; these varieties are free from mildew, 
and are strong growers and enormous bearers, price, $3 per 
100. By mall, $2 per dozen. Hlack Nanles Currant, .<1 each 

I will give satisfactory proof from two reliable gentlemen 
who have realized over $750 per acre from these varieties of 
Blackberry plants last year. 

Cherry Cranberry plants delivered and planted out for 
8150 per acre, if not lens thau 50 acres, or I will take an in- 
terest in the game of ten acres. 

On large orders, time of payment will he given, for part 
of the money, with good security. H. XYLAN D, 

Isleton, Sacramento County, Cal 

L. M. NEWSOM, 

Nurseryman, Seedsman and Florist, 

East Twelfth Street, near Tubbs' Hotel, East Oak- 
land, Alameda County, Cal. 

£ HAS PUR SALE EVERY HUNO DESIRABLE IN TUB 

Floral, Ornamental Fruit Tree & Seed Line. 

A large stock of Belgian Cmiellias and Azaleas, 
Monterey Cypress and Blue Gum. 



FISHER, RICHARDSON & CO.'S NURSERY 

San Padro St., near cor. of Washingrton, 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Have for sale all kinds of Deciduous Fruit Trees. Also, 
the leading varieties of Budded Orange ami Lemon (inclu- 
ding our Thornless Sweet Rind, of which we have a limited 
number of trees and budB for sale), which we offer at prices 
to suit the times. We took the prize on Budded Orange and 
Lemon trees; also, on Deciduous trees at our Horticultural 
Pair this Fall. Special attention given to mail orders. Cor- 
respondence solicited, P. O. Box, B76, Los Angeles, Cal. 

J. A. FISHER, C. H. RICHARDSON, J. 0. SEYMOUR 



FRUIT TREES, 

ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
Shrubs and Evergreens. 

LARGE PALMS, 

LARGE ADRICARIAS, 

LARGE TREE FERNS, 

ORANGES & LEMONS 

MAKING THE GROWTH OK 

ORANGES & LEMONS A SPECIALTY, 

I offer one year grafted trees of the following sorts of 
Oranges: Naval, Hill's, St. Michael, Konah, Sarmarctta, 
Sumillo, Acapulco, Maltese Blood, Mission, Mediterranean 
Sweet, Peraambuco, and Sicily and Lisbon Lemons, at 
fBC per hundred, *ith twenty other varieties. 

BERNARD S. FOX, 

San Jose, Cal. 

THE DIOSPYROS KAKI, 




OR JAPANESE PERSIMMON. 

Six Best Varieties. All Grafted* Reliable. 

Viz : Imperial, oblong-, vermilliou in color. Mesh soft, 
good either fresh or dried. -V ihon, Oblong, rounded 
apex, flesh solid and kcc]»s well; early, very pro- 
lific, hut smaller. Daimxo ("Yeddo's best fruit" 1 , oblong, 
rounded apex, color, yellowish red, licsh soft, fine flavored. 
Mikado, flat or round shaped, flesh more solid, orange or 
or yellow colored, (the bame a,s grown by Col. Hollister). 
Kama to, resembles Imperial, but more productive 
Taikiton, round, quite large, shade slightly green; 
a great favorite in Western Japan. 

SPECIMENS OF FRUIT ON EXHIBITION. 

HENRY LOOMIS, 
At TRUMBULL'S SEED STORE, 
419 &421 Sansome St , San Francisco. 

200,000 
Australian Gum Trees for Sale, 

AT STRATTON'S 

Gum Tree Forest Nursery, 

Hay-ward's, Alameda Co., Cal. 

These trees are from five to twelve inches high, trans- 
planted regularly into boxes 30x20 inches Bquare, weigh- 
ing 150 pounds. 150 or 500 in each box, in splendid con- 
dition for transplanting to their permanent location. 
Price, $6 to $12 per l.OOO. Will contract to plant 
the trees, or furnish superintendence, on low terms. 
Cash must accompany orders for less than 850; or if 
greater than that amoun , citv reference must be iriven. 
Address, " JAS. T. STKATTON, 

East Oakland, Alameda County, Cal. 

FRUIT TREES FOR SALE. 



I wish to call the attention of those who expect to 
plant out fruit trees the coming winter to the fact that I 
have a few thousand first-class trees which I offer for sale 
at the usual rates. Tiese trees were (Town principally 
for myself, on Rood lai d, without h titration, are stout and 
stalky, ar hoicc varieties, and true to name. Also, 
Eucalyptus Monterey Cypress. Call on or address, 
W. W. SMITH, Vacaville, 

Solano County, Cal 



SHINN'S NURSERIES. 

NILES, ALAMEDA COUNTY, CAL 

We invite attention to our large stock of 

Fruit Trees and Ornamentals, 

Of the most approved varieties. Also. Coffee, Cork Oak, 
Olives, (iuavas, English and Black Walnuts, Magnolias. 
Louuats, Butternuts, Small Fruits, Evergreens, Etc. Wt 
have a choice stock of the Diospyros Kaki (Ja pane-He Persim- 
mon,; of our own growing, ana also, grafted stock imported 
direct from several Japan Nurseries. Address for catalogue 
and terms, 

DR. J. W. CLARK, No. 418 California St., San Francisco 
Or JAMES SHINN, Niles, Alameda Co., Cal. 

THE TROPICAL NURSERY 

Keeps only Choice and Rare Fruits, and Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs; such as Japanese Persimmon, Mango, Sweet 
Sop. Grape Fruit, Weeping Junipers and Banana Shrub. 
Also, choice Oranges, Lemons and Kaisin Grapis; with many 
other rare plants from all parts of the world. Descriptive 
catalogue and price list sent free to any address. 

CHAS. A. REED, Santa Barbara, Cal. 



Fruit and Ornanental Trees. 

Evergreen Shrubs and Greenhouse Plants, 

Comprising Everything New and Rare. 

ORANGE & LEMON TREES, 

ONE TO FIVE YEARS' OLD, MAGNOLIAS, JAPAN 
PERSIMMONS, PALMS, MONTEREY CYPRESS, 
MONTEREY PINE, CAMELLIAS, BLUE GUMS, 
(bv the 100 or 1,000, very' low, all transplant- 
ed). ROSES, ETC.. AT THE LOWEST 
MARKET RATES. 

Agent for the Nurseries of B. S. Fox 
SAN JOSE, CAL. 

TH0S. MEHERIN, 516 Battery Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 



THE GREAT BLOOM NGTON NURSERY 

Founded and managed by Mr. Franklin K. Phoenix, has 
now passed into my possession, and the immense assort 
ment of nursery stock must be disposed of. 1 offer 

FOR CASH 

APPLE SEEDLINGS, (For Grafting) 

1,000 First-class for $ 3 00 

10,000 First-class f..r 27 00 

100,000 First-class for 200 00 

1,000 Second-class for 2 00 

10,000 Second-class for 10 00 

APPLE CIONS, (Our Assortment). 

1,000 Good Varieties 8 1 00 

10,000 Good Varieties 8 00 

APPLE ROOT {GRAFTS, (Best Assortment) 

1,000 Assorted for % 3*0 

10,000 Assorted for 30 00 

100,000 Assorted for 290 00 

An immense stock of choice Apple Trees, Peach, Cherry 
Pear, Plum, Evergreens, Ornamental and Shade Trees 
Hedge Plants, etc , for sale at prices which defy compe- 
tition. Address WILLIAM F. BAIRD. Trustee, 
Bloomington, Illinois 



FLOWER VEGETABLE 




Is the most beautiful work of the kind in the world. It 
contains nearly l!i0 pages, hundreds of tine Illustrations, 
and six Chrome Plates of Flmrcrs, beautifully drawn 
and colored from nature. Price. 50 cents in paper covers; 
$1 .00 in elegant cloth, printed in German and English. 

Vick's iLUsi'RATK.n Monthly Mahazine. — Thirty-two 
pages, fine Illustrations, and Colored Plate in every num- 
ber. Price $1.25 a year; five copies for $5. 
Vick's Catalogue. --SO0 Illustrations, only two cents, 
Address, JAMES VICK, Rochester. New York 



SEE 



CATALOGUE & 



[Combined 




EVERYTHING 

FOR THE 

I GARDEN 

| Numbering 175 pages, with Colored Plate, 

SENT FREE 

To onr customers of past years, and to 
all purchasers of our books, either 

| GARDENING FOR PROFIT, 

PRACTICAL FLORICULTURE, 

Or GARDENING FOR PLEASURE, 
(Price $1.50 each, prepaid, by mail.) 
To others, on receipt of 25c. 
Plain Plant or Seed Catalogues, without 
Plate, free to all. 

IPETER HENDERSON & CO 




I Seedsmen, Market Gardeners and Florists, \ 
35 Cortlandt St., New York. 

PAJAR0 VALLEY NURSERIES. 

Watsonville, Cal. 



For sale this season a large and complete stock of 
Fruit and Ornamental Trees; Evergreens; Shrubs; Flow- 
ering and Green House Plants, Japanese Persimmon 
Trees, Japanese Flowering Shrubs, etc. I have received 
lirect from Japan a large lot of Japanese Persimmon 
Trees, of the choicest varieties. Fine Ornamental Tr«es 
ami a large hit of Flowering Plants, Orchids, etc., together 
with a fine variety of Bulbs of Japanese Li Hies. All of 
which will be sold at as low rates as can be had elsewhere 
in the State. For catalogue and further information, ad- 
dress 

JAMES WATERS, Proprietor. 



PETALUMA NURSERIES. 

(Established in 1S59.] 
WM. SEXTON, PROPRIETOR- 

tf3TFor sale a general assortment of Fruit Trees, Ever- 
green Trees and Shrubbery. Our trees are all gTown 
without irrigation and the wood is well matured. Cata- 
logue and price list furnished on application. Address 
WM SEXTON, Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



FRUIT TREES AT REDUCED PRICES. 



100,000 Apple Trees, also a large stock of other Fruit 
Trees, including Seedling and Budded Orange and Lemon 
Trees very cheap Two year old apple Trees, 810 per 

100. 

MILTON THOMAS, 

Los Angeles, Cal 



LOS GAT0S NURSERIES, 

S NEWHALL, Proprietor, San Jose, Cal. 

A large and general assortment of Fruit and Ornamental 
Trees, Evertm-ens. Flowering Shrubs, Roses, Oreeuhouse 
Planta, Ura^-vines and small fruits, etc. 20,000 fine Al- 
mond on Almond stocks. I offer for sale a well assorted, 
well grown and healthy stock. Low-topped stalky fruit trees 
a specialty. Address, 

S. NEWHALL San Jose. 



FELIX GILLET'S NURSERY, 

NEVADA CITY, CAL. 

For gale, choice French imported yarietics of all sorts 
of fruit, introduced by us in California, including Chest- 
nut, (Marron De Lyon and Courbale), Prceparturiena 
Walnut, Duehesse Almond, Filberts and .v. rimes, (5 va 
rieties), 

Medlar, Cherry, Plum, Pear, Apple, 

Black Mulberry, etc. Grapes for the table, (14 varieties). 
Everbearing Raspberry, (three crops a year), Currant, 
Gooseberry and Blackberry Plants. 

45 VARIETIES OF STRAWBERRIES, 

(French, English, American and Calif omian.) 

Also, Scions for Grafting purposes and Grape Cuttings 
of our choicest varieties. 

Every Tree and Plant Guaranteed to be 

"TRUE TO NAME." 

AaTSend for Descriptive Catalogue and Trice List. 

FELIX GILLET. Nevada City Cal. 
PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

Established In 1858. 

For sale, a general assortment of Fruit Tiees and Small 
Fruits; Evergreen Trees and Shrubs in variety. Earlv 
planting recommended. My Trees are grown without irri- 
gation; the wood is well ripened. I am prepared to fill 
orders as soon as the rainy season commences. Cata- 
logues and price list furnished on application. Address, 
W. H PEPPER, Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



JUST PUBLISHED. 



SUNSHINE OF SONG, 

A bright and sunny collection of new songs, ballads and 
songs with choruses, and with Piano or Reed Organ ac- 
companiment. A book quite American in character, with 
our own ]>opular composers, and the claas of songs that 
are the greatest favorites. 

Uniform in style, binding and price with the "World of 
Bong," "Genu of English Song," and others of the "Li- 
brary" scries, and costs in boards, $2.50; cloth, $3.00; 
fine 'gilt, $4.00. 

THE CLUSTER OF GEMS, 

This is a valuable collection of pieces of a somewhat 
advanced character as to difficulty, and is suited to the 
tastes of advanced players. There are 239 pages, sheet 
music size, and the pieces, which average about five 
pages each, are by Leybach, Spindler, Von Bulow, Lich- 
ner, Rubenstcin, Aschcr, Oesten and other celebrities. 
Uniform in style, price and binding with the "Sunshine" 
described above, and with the 27 other books of the 
famous "Library" series 

In boards, $2 50; cloth, $3.00; fine gilt, $1. 

For sale at all principal music stores Will also bo 
mailed, post free to any address for the retail price. 
Change may be sent in postage stamps. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 

C. H. DITSON & CO. , 84S Broadway, New York. 



RANCH FOR SALE. 

A ranch for sale, near Riverdale, Fresno County 
It comprises 100 acres, (U. S. |«teut,) of rich bottom 
land, with house and out-buildings. Grass is green the 
year round. Alfalfa grows without irrigation, as water is 
but six to eight feet beneath the surface. There is an 
irrigation ditch running across the ranch, and three cubic 
feet of water |>cr second belongs with the place. It is the 
best of tulc land and borders on the swamp or overflowed 
lands. There are a few Fruit Trees, Strawberries and 
Blackberries. The ranch is one mile from the school 
house anil |K>stofrlce; 10 miles from Lemore, on the rail- 
way and nine miles from Kingston, county scat of Fresno 
county. Price, 15 per acre. For further particulars, 
address 

DAVID S ORR, Riverdale, , 
Fresno County, Cal. 



H. H- H B 

HORSE MEDICINE, 

D. D. T.-I868. 

As a horse medicine it is superior to any liniment ever 
invented. For Rinobone, Spavin, Swbbnev, Callous 
Limps, and all old sores, apply freely so as to blister, 
from three to five days in succession, and in four or Ave 
days, if not cured, repeat as at first Sprains, Stiff 
Joists, Bruises, Windoalls, and all slight ailments, apply 
a small quantity so as not to blister. Saddle Sores, Cuts, 
and all other sores where the skin is broken, mix the lin- 
iment half and half with any kind of oil, and apply in 
moderation. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Proprietors, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 



ANTIOCH FERRY. 



Notice to Stockmen and the public Id general that a good 
Ferry Boat has been put on between Antioch and Colllns- 
ville by the California Trans|>ortation Co., and are prepared to 
move stock in lots to suit, as a large barge is connected with 
the boat. For particulars apply to the Company's office, at 

Office. N. W. Cor. Jackson and East Sts., S. F. 

W. R, FORMAN, Antioch. WM. HA8KIN8. CoUlnsville. 



TO NURSERYMEN AND FLORISTS. 

Wanted, situation as propagator; well up in propaga- 
gation of ornamental planta, grafting conifre, eta Thir- 
teen years' experience. Address 

"PROPAGATOR," Los Angeles. Cal. 



C M LARGE MIXED CARDS, with name. 13c 40 in 
OU case ISc. Sf> styles Acquaintance Cards 10c. Ageuta 
outfit 10c. DOWB 4 CO., Bristol, Conn. 



January 12, 1878.] 



TME PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS. 



31 



Seedsmen. 



BULBS SEEDS TREES 
SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Wholesale and retail dealers in and 

GROWERS OF SEEDS, 

Keep Constantly on hand a complete stock of Vegetable 
FIELD, GRASS, FLOWER & TREE SEEDS. 
Also, Flowering Plants, Bulbs, Fruit and 
Ornamental Trees, Etc. 

We call attention of farmers and country merchants to 
our unusually low prices All seeds warranted 
fresh, pure and reliable. ttSTTrade 
price list on application. 

V* We have just issued the most complete guide to the 
Vegetable and Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast. 
It is Handsomely Illustrated, and contains full descrip- 
tions of Vegetables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with 
full instructions as to their culture; mailed free on appli- 
cation. 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

[P. O. Box 1023.] 607 Sansome Street, S. F. 



SEEDS. 



TREES. SEEDS. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
BLUE GRASS, RED TOP TIMOTHY, SWEET 
VERNAL, MEZQUITE and other Grasses. 
RED CLOVER, FRENCH WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Etc. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERING BULBS, JAPAN LILIES, FRESH AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE GUM, or "FEVER trrk" 
SEwD; together with all kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TKtfcS, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 
425 Washington Street. - San Francisco. 




My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seed for 1878 will be sent free, in January, 
to all who apply. Customers of last season need not 
write for it. I offer one of the largest collections of veg- 
etable seed ever sent out of any seed house in America, a 
large portion of which were grown on my six seed farms. 
Printed directions for Cultivation on each package. MX 
seed sold from my establishment warranted to be bblh 
fresh and true to name; so far, that should it prove oth- 
erwise I will refill the order gratis. As the original in- 
troducer of the Hubbard and Marblehead Squashes, the 
Marblehead Cabbages, a score of other new vegetables. 
I invite the patronage of all who are anxious to have 
their seed directly from the grower, fresh, true, and of 
the very best strain. New Vegetables a Specialty. 
JAMES J. H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass 



rT — "ILLUSTRATED ^~ N - 



Will be^ 
mailed FREE to 
mil applicants. It con. 1 
tain, colored plate, 500 engravings, ^ 
about 160 page., and full description 
prices and directions for planting over 1200 
varieties of Vegetable and Flower Seeds, Plants, Hoses, Eto. 
IfiTsiuable to all. fiend for lu Address 

D. M. PEK&Y & CO., Detroit, Mich. 




B. K. BLISS & SONS, 

Importers, Growers and Dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flower Seeds, Dutch Bulbous Roots, Summer Flowering 
Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description. Cata- 
logues mailed to all applicants. Address 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 34 Barclay Street, N. Y 



RELIABLE SEEDS. 

My new Catalogue of Field, Garden and Flower Seeds 
will be mailed to every applicant. Address carefully, 

WILLIAM RENNIE, Seedsman, Toronto, Canada 



Winchester Repeating Rifle. 



HIGHLY IMPORTANT. 

GOLD AND SILVER PLATING 

AT THE SAN FRANCISCO PLATING WORKS, 

653 and 655 Mission Street, San Francisco 
Between New Montgomery and Third. 

THREE FIRST PREMIUM MEDALS 

Awarded at the last three Fairs of the Mechanics' Institute 

Every description of goods (including table ware) from which 
the Bilrei is worn, repaired and reflated in the best manner, 
manner. 

Watches, jewelry, etc., plated with gold in the finest manner 
A large assortment of new styles of Plated Ware and 
Cutlery on haud and for sale at lowest rates. New and ele- 
gant styles of Door Plates and Numbers furnished. 

Qold-iaving Silver-plated Amalyumating Plates for -Miners' 
use, furnished to order. 

EDWARD G DENNISTON, Proprietor, 



MODEL 1873. 




The Strength ot All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, M . . , 

J 3 ' String measuring from center of tar- 

get to center of each shot, 32 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, ™^ s £riTmfnclt ot 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting, 

Defense, or Target Shooting. 
The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 

Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel set 
24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24 
26, 28, 30— extra finished, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch- 
extra finished— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— beautifully finished— C. H. & C. S. 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbines 
model 1866. RELOADING TOOLS, PRIMERS AND PARTS OF ARMS. 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 



Sole Agent for Dupont's Mining, Blasting, Cannon, and Celebrated Brands 

of Sporting Powder, 

JOHN SK1NKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco, 

SOLE AGENT FOB THE PACI IC COAST. 



THE GARDEN CITY SULKY PLOW. 




The Most Popular Plow in Use. 

They are simple in construction, with 
nothing about them that is likely to get 
out of order. 

EASE OF HANDLING. 

Most plows are thrown out of the grout 
by hand levers, but on these plows 
done by the 



Power'of the Horses. 

The operation being simply to apply a 
brake to the wheel. They are quickly 
and easily adjusted to take more or less 
land. The depth of the furrow can be 
instmtly changed by the driver without 
getting off the plow or stopping the 
hors s. 



GEO. A. DAVIS, Manufacturers' Agency, 401 Market St., 

TREADWELL'S OLD STAND. SAN FRANCISCO. 



GRAND HEADQUARTERS FOR MUSICAL BOXES. 

HVL". J~. PAILLARD CO., 

t Manufacturers and Importers of all kinds of 



MUSICAL BOXES 



Holiday, Birthday 




MUSICAL BOXES 



Holiday, Birthday 

AND 

Wedding Presents. 



Wedding Presents, 

OF STANDARD REPUTATION. 

Our stock embraces the latest novelties, the newest and most pleasing airs, and the most approved appliamres 
for rendering them with every shade of musical expression. 

£3TWe offer this season many new improvements that must be Been to be appreciated, therefore buyers coming 
to San Francisco are invited to examine our Stock— TBS larokst in TBI city. 

£3TMedal and diploma awarded at the Centennial Exposition to our establishment in Switzerland for excellence 
in manufacture, durability, volume, purity of sound and superior workmanship. Also, medal awarded at the Me- 
chanics' Institute Industrial Exhibit! San Francisco. 

REPAIR DEPARTMENT.— Our workmen are especially educate 1 to all kinds of intricate repairs, so that all 
repairs entrusted to us will meet with careful, skillful and prompt attention. We are recipients of many special 
patents for improvements in musical boxes. 

M. J. PAILLARD & CO,, No. 120 Sutter St., (Rooms 5 and 6 ) San Francisco. 
680 Broadway, New York, and St. Croix, Switzerland. 



ASK YOUR GROCER OR OIL DEALER FDR 

"ELAINE 

THE FAMILY SAFE GUARD OIL 



REFINISHED AND MADE 
UP AS GOOD AS NEW. Send 
for circular. Agents Wanted. 
Waterproof Crape Rennishhig Co.. 811 MISSION ST., S. F. 



OLD CBAPE 



HORSE SHOEING, 

834 HOWARD STREET, Midway Between 
Fourth and Fifth, San Francisco. 



We shoe horses without burning the hoofs. Dunbar's 
alone understand the treatment of diseased feet. 

ALEX. DUNBAR. 



rOUlt NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
. Teu Cents. STEVENS BROS. , NortMord, Conn. 



Agricultural Articles. 



The Famous *' Enterprise 

(PERKINS' PATENT) 

Self Kegulating Farm 
Humping, Kaiiroad 
and Power 



WINDMILLS. 



Pumps & Fixtures, 

Have been in use on the 
Pacific Coast in the towns 
and farming districts for 
over four years, and wher- 
ever they have been sold 
(and there are thousands of 
them out) they are doing 
their work as well as when 
put up. A careful perusal 
of our Circulars gives a fair 
representation of them and 
shows their simplicity. 

We are prepared to fill orders *u oizes, from a 
PUMPING MILL to a 24-foot POWER MILL for running 
Machinery, as well as doing the pumping. 

All warranted. Address, 

HORTON &. KENNEDY, 

Managers for California and Pacific Coast, 

ALSO BEST FEED MILLS FOR SALE. 
General Office and Supplies, 
LIVERMORE. ALAMEDA COUNTY, CAL 




MATTES0N & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is required 
in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. 
Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over 
cradle knolls without changing the working position of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of : he Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 



Peerless Corn Sheller. 




It is so cheap (cost- 
ing only $ti), that al- 
most any one can af- 
ford to buy one. It is 
BO rapid, it will shell 
almost as fast as a $40 
machine, and seven or 
eight bushels per hour 
is not above its capac- 
ity. It Weighs only 13 
pounds And is simple 
and durable. For par- 
ticulars, address 

WEISTER & CO. 

17 New Montgom- 
ery St. , S. F. 



THE IMPROVED. 

Lamb's Family Knitting Machine. 




IT IS THE ONLY MACHINE 



That knits flat or tubular work of all sizes; 

Narrows and widens on hosiery or tubular work; 

Knits a regular right-angled heel, as by hand; 

Narrows off the toe' 

Knits a sock or stocking complete; 

Knits mittens or gloves of any size without seam; 

Forms genuine Ribbed or Seamed work; 

Knits the Double, Flat, or Fancy webs; 

KnitH an elastic seamed -stitch Suspender with button holes; 

Knits the Afghan stitch, Cardigan Jacket stitch, Fancy 
Ribbed stitch; tiie Raised IMaid stitch, the Nubia etitch, 
Shell stitch. Unique stitch, Tidy stitch, etc. 

It is nnw the standard machine for manufacturing, and the 
only family knitter that tills the bill. Local agents wanted. 
Send for circulars to 

J. J. PFISTER & CO., General Agents, 

Manufacturers of knitted goods and dealer in woolen yarns. 
120 SUTTEK STREET, Room 40, San Franciseo. 



$20,000 



To loan on Fanning Land in Bay Counties, in sums to 
suit. Interest, one per cent. Address 

G. W. HAIGHT, 

207 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



OK KXTKA MIXED CAUDS, SnowHake, Oriental, Etc. 
ZiO with name. 10 cts. J. B. HUSTED, Na»stsu, N. Y. 



32 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 12, 1878. 



JNO. L. BOONE. 
GEO. H. STRONG. 



W. B. EWER. 
A. T. DEWEY. 



ESTABLISHED IN 
1860. 



202 SANSOME STREET, 




A 



o 




SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Removed August 1st to 202 Sansome Street, Northeast Corner of Pine. 



Books for the People. 

For Sale on the Pacific Coast at the 
Lowest Cash Price, by 

DEWEY & CO., 

Publisher of the PACIFIC Ri'ral Press. 
No. 202 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

WOODWARD'S GRAPERIES & HORTI- 
CULTURAL BUILDINGS. Design* and Plans of Hoi 
Beds, Cold Pits, Propagating Houses, Forcing Houses, 
Hot and Cold Graperies, Green Houses, Conservatories. 
Orchard Houses, etc., with the various modes of Veti- 
laling and Heating. Price, 81. 

JACQUES' MANUAL OF THE GARDEN, 

FA KM and BAKN-YARD. Embracing the Cultivation 
of Vegetables, Fruit, Flowers, all Field Crops, Details of 
Farm Work and Rearing Domestic Animals. New and 
Revised Edition. One Volume. Price, 81.50. 

ELLIOTT'S LAWN AND SHADE TREES. 

For Planting Parks, Gardens. Cemeteries, Private 
Grounds and Avenues. Fully Illustrated. Price, vl. 

FULLER'S FOREST TREE OULTURIST. 

The Cultivation of Forest Trees for Shade, for Shelter, 
for Fuel, for Timber, and for profit. Illustrated. 
Price, 81. 

RANDALL'S PRACTICAL SHEPHERD. 

New Edition, Extra Fine Binding. A complete Trea- 
tise on the Breeding, Management, and Diseases of 
Sheep. By Henry S. Randall, LL. D. .author of "Sheep 
Husbandry in the South." "Fine Wool Sheep Hus- 
bandry." Etc., with Illustrations. Price, $2. 

WILLIAIiD'S PRACTICAL BUTTER BOOK. 

A Complete Treatise on Butter Making at Factories and 
Farm Dairies, including the Selection, Feeding an J 
Management of Stock for Butter Dairying, with Plans 
for Dairy-rooms ami Creameries, Dairy Fixtures, C ten- 
site, etc. Price, $1. 

WILLARDS 1*1! ACTICAL DAI 11 V HUS- 
BANDRY. New edition A complete Treatise on 
Dairy Farms and Farming. Dairy Stock and Stock 
Feeding, Milk, its Management and Manufacture into 
Butter and Cheese, History and Mode of Organization 
of Butter and Cheese Factories, Dairy Utensils, etc. 
Price, Si. 

LEWIS' PRACTICAL POULTRY BOOK. 
A Work on the Breeds, Breeding, Rearing, and General 
Management of Poultry, with Full Instructions for 
Caponiziug. 100 Engravings. Octavo Price, 81.50. 

TEN ACRES ENOUGH. A Practical Treat- 
ise, show ing how a very small farm may be made to sup- 
port a \ery large family, with full minute instructions 
as to the best, mode of Cultivating the Smaller Fruits, 
such as Straw berries, Raspberries, Blackberries, etc. 
Price, 8L 

FLAX CULTURE. A Manual of Flax Culture 
and Manufacture, with Directions for Preparing 
Ground, Sowing and Harvesting, including Hemp and 
Flu Culture in the West, and Preparation for Market 
Price, 10 cents. 

WIIOIIWAIID'S NATIONAL ARCHITECT. 

Vol. 2. Complete in itself. Embracing New and Orig- 
inal Designs, Plans, Elevations, Sections, and Detail 
Drawings to Working Scale for City and Country 
Houses. 100 Quarto Plates. Superb Binding. Price. 
87.50. 

FRANK FORESTER'S HORSE OF AMER- 
ICA. By Henry W. Herbert. In two superb royal oc- 
tavo volumes, of l,:j(K) pages, with Steel Engraved Orig- 
inal portraits of thirty representative horses. This 
Standard Historical Work has been thoroughly revised, 
new ly written, compiled, and perfected. By S. D. & 
B. G. Bruce. (Two Volumes). Price, *5. 

HORSK-PORTRAITURE. BREED! NO 
REARING, AND TRAINING TROTTERS Prepara- 
tions for Races; Management in the Stable; on the Track; 
Morse Life, etc U\ Joseph Cairne Simpson. Price s-' 

'.C\. ROD, AND SADDLE. Nearly Fifty 
practical articles on subjects connected with Fishing 
SI ting, Racing, Trotting, etc. Price, 81. 

FRAN K FORESTER'S FIELD SPORTS. 
Embracing the Game of North America, Upland Shoot- 
ing. Bay Shooting. Wild Snorting of the Wilderness, 
Forest, Prairie, and Mountain Sports, Bear Hunting, 
Turkey Shooting, etc. Illustrated. 2 Vols. Price, 84. 
1ST Any of the above books will be sold on the Pacific 

Coast, by Dewey & Co., and mailed for the price named. 

I In some instances there may be a delay (not over twenty 

days) from receipt of orders with the cash. | 
Other agriculture books furnished at the publishers 

prioes. 



DEWEY & CO. 
202 Sansome Street, 



Publishers, 
San Francisco 



0*A Book for all That Have a Garden."£S 

FRAGARICULTURE; 

— OR THE— 

Culture of the Strawberry. 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON 

Culture, Propagation, Management 
and Marketing of Strawberries. 
1878. 



Illustrated with Photographs, representing 
the average size of best varieties 
Especially adapted to the 
Family Garden. 



BY FELIX GILLET, 

Nevada City, Cal 

TABLE OF CONTENTS- 

Fragariculture; Description; Varieties; Selection; The 
Soil; Preparation of the Boil; Manures; Time of Setting 
Strawberries; Setting out Strawberries; Culture in Rows 
and Hills; Matted Row System; Mulching; Irrigation; 
Care of Plants after Setting; Propagation; Propagation by 
Seed; Kesettiii'.': Exposure: Annual Varieties; Biennial 
Varieties; Ever-bearing, or Wood Varieties; Bush alpine 
Varieties; staminate and Pistillate Plants; Hybridization; 
Forcing Strawberries; Care to Plants Forwarded by Mail; 
Duration of Strawberry Beds; Mode to Perpetuate Straw- 
berry Beds; How to make Strawberries Last; Spring 
Work on Strawberry Beds; How to Raise Very Large 
Fruit; How to Pick and Keep Strawberries; Pucktii,' and 
Shipping; Insects Injurious to Straw ■berries; Maladies oi 
the Strawberry; The Art of Preparing Strawberries; Pre- 
serving Strawberries; Medicinal Properties of Strawber- 
ries; General Hints on Fragariculture; Explanation of 
Photographs, and list of best varieties. 

PRICE— 50 CENTS A COPY. 

Each phofograp! represents a group of straw berries - 
three to five and not a single one. and is six inches by 
four inches. 

Note. — It is the most complete, practical, interesting 
treatise on Strawberry Culture ever published in the 
United States. Address 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 

202 Sansome Street. S. F 
P. S. - Also, for sale by A. Waldtenfel, in San Jose. 

Contents of Pamphlet on Public Lands of 
California, U. S. Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 



Map of California and Nevada j The Public 
Lands; The band Districts; Table of Rainfall in Califor- 
nia; Counties and Their Products; Statistics of the State 
at Lar„'e. 

Instructions «*f the TJ S. Land Commis- 
sioners-Different Classes of Public Lands; How Lands 
may be Acquired; Fees of Land Office at Location; Agri- 
cultural Collcarc Scrip; Pre-emptions; Extending the 

Homest I Privilege; Lui one Homestead Allowed; Proof 

of Actual Settlement Necessary; Adjoinim.' Farm Home- 
steads; Lands for Soldiers and Sailors; Lands for Indians; 
Fees of Laud Office and Commissions; Laws to Promote 
Shaba* Culture; Concerning Ap|<eals; Returns of the Reir- 
isierand Receiver; Concerning Mining Claims; Second 
Pre-emption Benefit. 

Abstract from the U. S Statutes. The law 
Concerning Pre-emption; Concerning Homesteads; Amend- 
atory Act Concerning Timber; Miscellaneous Provisions; 
Additional Surveys; Land for Pre-emption; List of Cali- 
fornia Post Offices Price, post paid, .'.o cts. 

Published and sold by DEWEY Si CO..S. F. 

The Ri kal Pkebs is one of the handsomest, best and 
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SUCCESSORS TO 

R. J- TRUMBULL, 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers in 




SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



IMPORTED. 



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Shropshire Ram for Sale 



Two year's old ; bred by Lord Kilmerdalc. England, and 
imported by Kollin P. Saxc. Sire weighed ;t00 pounds 
This ram was used last season on 20 ew es, and proved 
himself in every way a good one Price, $1.10. 

Enquire at 

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DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

Savings anil Loan Society, ill'J Clay Sircet. At a meet- 
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was declared, free of Federal tax, of eight (S) per cent, 
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cember 31st, 1877. Dividend payable on and after the 
15th instant. CYRUS W CARMANY, See'y. 

San Francisco, January sth, 1878. 



Projipt and Suti ivssplu,.— Jfr«r». Dewey <k Co:— Gen- 
tlemen: Ynurtircular letter, 1-th inst. f informing; me of 
successful termination of my application for patent re 
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Yours respectfullv, J. H. Catakagoii. 

Walla Walla. Dee 24th 



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OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS. 

Cor Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland 

Constantly on hand and for sale, choice specimens 
of the following varieties of Fowls: 

Dark md Light Brahmaa, Buff 
White and Partridge Co- 
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I never owned a FINER LOT OF BIRD.S than I hare 
raised this year. Also, 

Thoroughbred Southdown Sheep. 

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Volume XV.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 19, 1878. 



Number 3. 



A Hereford Heifer. 

In our issue of September 1st, we gave our 
readers a portrait of the Hereford bull "Suc- 
cess," a Centennial-premium animal, owned by 
the leading breeder of Herefords in this country, 
Mr. T. L. Miller, of Beecher, Illinois. The 
heifer shown on this page is a daughter of 
"Success," and if our readers will compare the 
two portraits, they will see how fully the grand 
old sire transmits his characteristic form and 
markings. We are glad to be able to show the 
two animals, because thus our readers can study 
the characteristic points of both the bull and 
the cow of this tine beef-making breed of cattle. 
We are glad also to show the breed because it 
is coming into prominence among grazers in this 
country and has many qualities to claim 
attention. 

At a public sale of these cattle in England 
short time since, the 
auctioneer claimed that 
five could be grazed or 
fed at same cost as four 
Short Horns. This 
statement has led to 
some discussion in this 
and the old country. 
The Kentucky Live 
•Stock Record admitted 
the statement so far as 
three - year - olds were 
concerned, but claimed 
it was not true as re- 
gards two - year - olds. 
And the Kentucky 
writer went beyond this 
and stated that Here- 
ford beef from three- 
year-olds and over was 
always worth more in 
the London market than 
that from Short Horns. 
Although we do not pre- 
sent these points in a 
controversial way, we 
give them as a part of 
the cattle literature of 
the day and worth the 
consideration of breed- 
ers. 

The Hereford cattle 
are advocated for their 
meat-producing quali- 
ties. The beef interest 
is a large one and what- 
ever tends to cheapen 
and improve it, is so 
much added wealth, and 
we shall avail ourselves 
of such information as 
we can obtain to solve 
this question. Our graz- 
ing districts are peculiar, 
and while they offer great inducements to the 
grazer, there are some drawbacks, and the 
breed of cattle that adapt themselves the most 
readily to these conditions will yield the largest 
returns. We hope the Herefords will be tried 
on this coast, both in their purity of blood and 
for crossing upon the common stock in the direc- 
tion of improving our beef product. 

Sowing Wheat on Horseback. — Mr. James 
Burnell, of Pacheco, has adopted for several 
years a method of sowing wheat which has 
never been described in the Patent Office, but 
which we have heard has been practiced and 
advocated by some of our farmers. He fastens 
a common sack of seed in front of him, on horse- 
back, attaches his feet to guide reins and uses 
both hands in throwing the grain broadcoast, 
right and left, in such quantity as suits him. 
Being elevated from the ground the seed ob- 
tains a wide spread. He says he can sow 20 
acres a day without much fatigue in this way. 

State Agricultural Society's Election. — 
The time for holding the annual election of the 
State Agricultural Society has been fixed by 
the Directors for Wednesday, January 23d, at 
3 oclock p. m. At this election a President of 
the society will be elected to serve one year, 
and three Directors to serve three years, and 
one Director to serve out an unexpired term. 



No Irrigation Meetings. 

The Senate has reconsidered its resolution 
which instructed its committee to visit the parts 
of the State desiring irrigation for the purpose 
of taking the testimony of residents as to the 
facts of their wants and the means to provide 
for them. As this is so, the meeting which the 
committee announced last week through the 
Press will not be held. We saw good ground 
for approving the idea of holding these meet- 
ings, and we are sorry that they are done away. 
The place to gain facts for this style of legisla- 
tion is on the ground and in direct contact with 
the people whose wants are to be met, and the 
need in this case is imperative. We trust the 
Senate does not intend to give the subject the 
go-by, nor bury it in the obscurity of protracted 
closet investigation. The logic of events is that 
the good of a great part of our population de- 
pends upon the speedy solution of irrigation 



the act of last session. An election is to be 
held on the first Tuesday in May, for Commis- 
sioners to succeed the appointees of Governor 
Irwin. All qualified electors are to vote at said 
election. The bill then, in terms similar to the 
act of last session, authorizes the elected Com- 
missioners to issue bonds for $3,000,000 instead 
of $4,000,000, as in the present, but to pay for 
the construction of the canal and the other 
necessary works. The bonds are issued for 20 
years, bear interest at eight per cent., and in- 
terest and principal are payable at the office of 
the State Treasurer. Bonds are not to be sold 
less than 90 cents on the dollar, except that 
the first $500,000 may be sold for 75 cents. 
| The bill also contains the provision of the act 
of 1876, that no Chinese labor shall be employed 
in the construction of the canal. 

Immigration Wanted. — It has been common 
for the people of the Oceanic colonies to cry for 
mmigration, but what peculiar clashes of imm- 
igrants they call for. A writer in the Adelaide 




THOROUGHBRED HEREFORD HEIFER OWNED 



BEECHER, 



problems, and uncertainty should be swept 
away. If this committee investigation was un- 
necessary, let us have proof that something can 
be done without it. 

While upon this subject we notice that a 
ponderous bill of 58 pages has been introduced 
in the Assembly, providing for an irrigation 
canal for the West San Joaquin valley. A 
copy was received by the Antioch Ledger, and 
the following outline of its provisions was made: 
It omits the counties of Alameda, Contra Costa 
and Tulare v\ hich were embraced in the former 
act and confines it exclusively to the counties 
of San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced and Fresno. 
The first section occupies 34 pages of the bill in 
delineating the territory embraced in the pro- 
visions of the bill. This territory consists of 
five divisions, as (1) that portion of San Joaquin 
county on the west side of the San Joaquin 
river; (2) that portion of Stanislaus county 
lying north of Orestimba creek; (3) those por- 
tions of Stanislaus and Merced counties south 
of Orestimba creek and north of San Luis creek ; 
(4) that portion of Merced south of San Luis 
creek; (5) the west side of Fresno county. 
Five Commissioners, one for each district, are 
to be appointed by the Governor within ten 
days after the passage of the bill. These Com- 
missioners are to organize and locate an irri- 
gating canal only on the line delineated in the 
report of the Commissioners appointed under 



Observer says: " Let sufficient reward be given, 
either by the Government or squatters and 
farmers, to each captain of a vessel for the im- 
portation of every weasel, stoat, polecat, marten, 
ferret, ichneumon, mcerkat, or other inveter- 
ate adversary of the rabbit, and let these 
be turned out in pairs, male and female, on the 
lands infested by this voracious rodent, and the 
result will soon be satisfactorily apparent. 
There is no doubt that, had the rabbit been an 
indigenous animal, nature would have placed 
an indigenous antagonist along with it, and the 
two forces would have kept each other pretty 
well balanced. As it is, eagles and hawks prey 
here on the smaller birds, birds devour insects 
which would otherwise destroy the vegetable 
world, and the kangaroos and wallabies have 
their natural foe in the dingo or wild dog. 
But there is no wild animal in Australia able to 
keep down the rabbit, whose extraordinary 
powers of increase require extraordinary treat- 
ment. Man has disturbed the balance of na- 
ture, and man must equalize it, and that in the 
way I have indicated." 



There were 515 failures on the Pacific coast 
in 1877. The total liabilities were $12,495,417 
and the assets $8,258,915. The increase of last 
year over the preceeding one is as follows: 
Number of failures, 158; liabilities, $8,372,- 
058.52; assets, $6,084,487.54. 



Swine as Vineyard Gleaners. 

That grapes are good feed for fattening hogs 
has been stated several times during the last 
few months in the Press, the statement being 
based upon the experience of our readers as re- 
ported to us. Whether it can be shown that it 
is profitable to grow grapes for hog feed we very 
much doubt, although we believe even this is 
claimed. We would speak at this time of the 
profit of using hogs as gleaners in the vineyard. 
One of our leading producers in the interior 
gives us the following facts: In October last he 
purchased 30 hogs. They were of ordinary 
good stock and in fair condition. It was his 
practice to let the hogs have the run of the 
vineyard, in the daytime, after the grapes for 
the market and for raisin making had been 
gathered, and at night they were turned out on 
an alfalfa field. Their food then consisted of 
the loose grapes which 
fell to the ground, the 
decayed clusters, in 
short, the grapes which 
usually go to waste in 
the vineyard; with a 
bite of alfalfa at night. 
In 31 days these 30 hogs 
gained in weight an 
average of 63 pounds 
each, or a little more 
than two pounds per 
day, and the net profit 
on them when sold after 
the refuse grapes were 
gone was about $115. 
We give these facts as 
an interesting contribu- 
tion to the understand- 
ing of grapes as feed for 
swine. In this case 
there was a gain of per- 
haps about $100 on the 
refuse grapes in a 20- 
acre vineyard, as the 
alfalfa pasture at night 
would hardly be worth 
more than the odd $15, 
for one month. This we 
should consider quite 
wortli the saving, espec- 
ially as the hogs would 
return to the vineyard 
more fertilizing material 
than the refuse grapes 
would amount to if left 
to dry or decay on the 
ground. 

We should like to 
know if any reader has 
kept weights on grape- 
fed hogs, so that he can 
tell about what return 
was made per ton for the 
grapes fed. We presume the feeding has not 
been so carefully done that weights either of 
grapes or hogs can be told, but it may be that 
some one lias made the experiment. If so, we 
should be pleased to knew the result. 

Choice Hops. — Happening in the wholesale 
drugstore of J. R. Gates & Co., on Sansome 
street, the other day, our attention was attract- 
ed to some tiny packages of hops bearing the 
mark of the Centennial premium taken by Mr. 
A. Clock, of St. Helena, Napa county. They 
were packed in one-quarter, one-half and one- 
pound papers, and were as bright and fragrant 
as the closest critic could desire. The hops are 
put in these forms to meet the demands of 
druggists and for family use, and some who 
have been using the poor hops which are gen- 
erally worked into this form, will be surprised 
when they open the papers. Mr. Gates told us 
that they are the best hops he ever saw packed 
for his trade, and that Mr. Clock will estab- 
lish his brand at onco among druggists on qual- 
ity alone. We do not suppose the demand for 
small parcels of hops would warrant others in 
packing in this form, but we note the fact as 
we saw it, as an illustration of the wisdom of 
an enterprising producer adapting his product 
to the form demanded by all trades. The fact 
is capable of many applications. 



34 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS 



[January 19, 1878. 



Correspondence. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents— Ei>s. 



Notes from Fresno County. 

Editors Press: — I send you some notes of 
my agricultural experience in the Central Cal- 
ifornia colony iu^Kresno county. I came here 
in March, 1876, and selected a lot, expecting to 
get the water upon my lot right away, hut the 
route of the distributing ditch failed to bring 
the water. So in August I made an exchange 
taking a lot in a more favorable, and, at the 
same time, more pleasant focation. But just 
at that time the water was turned off from the 
canal for the purpose of enlarging it, and I did 
not get the water to use until some time in 
January last, when I succeeded in getting about 
seven acres settled, and, although late, got 
the land into barley, from which I sold about 
seven tons of hay. I also graded off two acres 
of ground, and got a tine stand of alfalfa, from 
which I have cut four crops of hay, the last 
cutting some time in August. I did not get 
water again until October, too late to make a 
crop of hay, but have at present a heavy crop 
of feed upon the field. I also planted a few 
acres to beans, but rather too late in the season, 
and the long continued hot weather caused the 
blossoms to fall; but later in the season they 
commenced to set, as a general thing, how- 
ever, too late to mature. 

I have planted Irish potatoes at three differ- 
ent times, raised some very good potatoes, but 
light yield. Two acres this fall were cut by the 
early frost. At best I do not think they are a 
paying crop here. Sweet potatoes make a 
splendid crop. Indian corn makes a fine growth 
but fails to make much grain. Still it is better 
this year than last, as the soiljmproves by cul- 
tivation. 

Heavy Yield of Egyptian Corn 
Last spring I also planted about eight 
ounces Egyptian corn on a small piece of ground 
rather uneven, and I could not successfully ir- 
rigate it. Although planted late and not irri- 
gated, I threshed out some 1,100 pounds of seed. 
From a few hills which I left standing I har- 
vested three distinct crops of corn. That is, by 
cutting off the head or ears, and by giving the 
roots water, a new head started out from a 
joint, which ripened in about three weeks. A 
field planted early will produce in this way at 
least four crops in a season from one planting, 
and the yield is enormous. I was the first one 
to introduce it in the colony, but some of the 
farmers outside have planted it on a small scale 
with great success. 1 consider it the best crop 
for this valley, as it required but little water. 
When made into flour it makes good bread and 
the best of hot cakes. 

When 1 came here the water was 36 feet from 
the surface, but at present water can be got al- 
most anywhere by digging 22 feet. I think in 
the near future, as the canal runs through, that 
water will be found still nearer the surface. 
The lot I have is much better than the average, 
and smoother upon the surface, but in working 
I soon found that it had too much slope for suc- 
cessful irrigation, except for flooding previous to 
planting. So I laid off my lot into 20 fields or 
checks, and each check requires from 12 to 18 
inches cut or filling. I shall have 15 acres 
brought to a level this spring. The balance of 
the lot is now in grain and looking fine. A few 
cows, hogs and chickens can be kept, which, 
with small expense, will materially add to 
the income of the place. I intend putting out 
fruit trees this spring; have grapevines one year 
old, and as I go along many more things no 
doubt will be suggested that can be raised 
with profit. I intend this year to cultivate 
largely the Egyptian corn. 

Isaac A. Grout. 
Fresno, Cal, Dec. 24th, 1876. 



Notes in San Diego County. 

Editors 1'ress: — Our late copious rains have 
caused man and vegetation to look bright and 
happy. Merchants and mechanics imbibe the 
joyous spirit of the farmer, for they well know 
that the prosperity of all trades and professions 
depends on the productiveness of mother earth. 
We have already had more rain than during 
last rainy season. The ground is thoroughly 
wet and plowing and sowing are going briskly 
forward. The hopeful workers can scarcely 
fail of a bountiful reward. 

Orange culture is gradually winning favor 
here. Mr. Kockwood has a tree, eight years 
old, smiling under a burden of 300 magniticent 
oranges. Its owner may well smile too, for he 
has several hundred, which, in a few years, will 
doubtless make as fine display. He has proved 
to his entire satisfaction that the mesa land is 
better adapted to oranges than the valley. 
Most of our fruit growers agree with him. 

Five years ago a Los Angeles friend said to 
me: " If you only had orange trees in bearing 
to show that they could be produced in San 
Diego, with your incomparable climate, there 
would be no end to home seekers." We have 
climate unequaled; oranges will grow; now for 
more home seekers. 



Kimball Bros, are making a specialty of the 
olive. They have now about 4.000 young trees. 
Mr. F. A. Kimball gathered from trees, grown 
from cuttings put out in the spring of '72, from 
five to 12 gallons per tree. Those raised at the 
old ^Mission sell readily for SI. 25 per gallon. 
There is no portion of the United States where 
the olive can be cultivated with such promise 
of success as in this county. 

I have never heard that the pawpaw tree had 
received any attention in California, and I see 
no reason why it might not be a desirable fruit 
to raise if the best varieties are cultivated. A 
gentleman here planted a seed last May, and 
before it is 12 months old, it will mature fruit. 
It grows with astonishing rapidity. 

The coffee obtained at your office produced 
several plants, which promised well, until a 
heavy rain, one night, washed the earth over 
them. They will probably die. But for this 
they would have done well. 

A neighbor of mine cut open a squash which 
was seedless and solid clear through. The 
philosophy of # the freak is not quite clear. 

1'. M. K. 

National Kanch, San 1 »iego Co. 

[We are glad to know that some of the coffee 
seed we distributed germinated. This is the 
only case of germination reported from that lot 
of seed. It was from Costa Kica and seemed 
quite fresh. — Eds. Press.] 

A Ride Through Lisbon District 

Edi tors Press: — Of late years the reclama- 
tion of tule land on different islands below Sac- 
ramento, has proved a decided success. Parties 
in our city and county have had their attention 
drawn to some tracts of land below the city on 
the west of the river. Mr. Gwynu has taken 
the enterprise in his own hands to a great ex - 
tent, assisted by Mr. Gardner and others. The 
district was first surveyed, mapped off and the 
work of constructing the levee was commenced 
during the early part of the summer. It is 
now nearly completed. To give a more definite 
idea of the outlay and extent, Mr. Gardner 
furnished the following items: The length of 
the levee is 13 miles. It encloses an oblong 
tract The southwestern line of new levee is 
attached to the river bank, some miles above 
Freeport, and extends some four to five miles 
below to a point to the river. The higlit of 
general run is 17 feet. The river levee is 10 
feet high. The number of acres enclosed is 
5,1>00. The land is distributed among 15 to 20 
holders. Mr. (iwynn, the largest holder, has 
from 5,000 to 0.000 acres. Mr. Gardner lias 
228 acres. The former leases his out to renters 
in tracts of from 150 to 225 acres <5n shares. 
The renter breaks it up, provides everything for 
three years, and gives four per cent, of the pro- 
ceeds for use. Along the river bank are the 
old residents and Portuguese vegetable gardens, 
who cultivate the higher land along the levee in 
grain, hay and vegetables. 

Wishing to see the new levee and other points 
of the district, I rode up the river some four 
miles and struck in on tule land. I came to the 
house of Mr. Slack. He has of late put up a 
new house and barn. He is busy burning off 
tules for future work. To burn them up more 
effectually he uses a large roller, some six feet 
in diameter, constructed in a frame similar to a 
reaper. Placing the double roller before the 
horses and mashing down the tules, he leaves 
but few spots untouched. These are cut by the 
mower. He also showed me a new cultivator 
(of his own invention) to cut into the tule roots 
previous to plowing. This aids greatly in pul- 
verizing the sod. The teeth are bars of iron, 
some 18 inches in length, sharpened on one 
side, similar to a coulter of a plow. It cuts 
some four inches in depth, leaving the strips the 
same size in width. The time thus employed 
he expects to save in harrowing, as it leaves 
the land in better order, crumbling the sod in 
finer particles. 

The drawback which most of the renters are 
experiencing is a lack of plows suitable for such 
work. That used is called the "Harden City." 
These are made especially for such work. As 
there were but six in the State, all were spoken 
for early. The others are on the way from 
Chicago and expected within 20 days. This 
plow cuts 18 inches, throwing over a broad slab 
of tule roots. The depth of first plowing is but 
four inches. Two plowings are required, and a 
thorough harrowing each. Some have tried the 
lteady plow, but it would not answer. 

Barley will be the priucipal crop. Alfalfa 
will l>e put in to some extent. Wheat grows 
too rank and mildews unless put in late in the 
season. They expect barley to yield 50 to 75 
bushels per acre, and want to get all in by the 
1st of May next. Four plowings are required 
for alfalfa and the soil must be well pulverized. 

I passed on to Mr. Gardner's land.* They are 
also clearing up and will use 18 head of horses. 
Many are putting up their houses and barns on 
their respective lands. I saw some land which 
had been previously- broken by an old resident. 
It looked in tine condition. 

Passing to the southern extreme, I struck the 
newly-constructed levee. The lower portion 
requires finishing by topping the cap; 80 hands 
are steadyiat work wheeling by hand dirt from 
outside. As it is of a sticky nature, it will pack 
to advantage and become a solid wall, in time, 



rendering great protection. Many judge the 
seepage will not amount to much, as the founda- 
tion is constructed on a clay bottom, protection 
is ever secure. To further its security it is the 
intention to plant a close hedge of willow on the 
outside to break the force of the waves. This 
is considered a better plan than to sow in 
grasses, as the latter draws gophers and they 
undermine it. 

After passing two miles along the levee I 
struck for the river road homeward, and passed 
land that was plowed by the "Golden City" 
single cutter. Three were in sight. The 
movement seemed easy and they are expected 
to prove a great advantage over others in work- 
ing such land. I noticed the sod laid more flat 
side by side. 

The reason given for shallow'plowing is that 
the surface being of an ashy nature, it dries out 
more readily. Therefore it is practicable to 
keep onlv the surface loose, allowing the moist- 
ure to come as near to the surface as possible. 

Sacramento county is increasing in her agri- 
cultural capacity and will soon contain a much 
larger quantity of productive land, thus increas- 
ing in wealth and distinction. All this land 
will eventually l>e divided in smaller parcels, 
making way for homes for future husbandmen. 

Mr. Gardner informs me there are lands ad- 
joining comprising some 2,500 to 3,000 acres 
under the superintendence of Gen. Thomas H. 
Williams. If the coming season is favorable 
they will levee it in, therefore giving the land 
which I have described a double protection. 

George Rich. 

Sacramento, Cal. 



Hints to Orchard Planters. 

Mr. W. B. West, of Stockton, has succeeded 
in introducing a great deal of practical and val- 
uable information into his annual catalogue for 
1877-8, and thus has given his price-list in- 
creased value. Others of our nurserymen do 
this and all ought to do it, because nurserymen 
are naturally on the ijiii rire to gain the results 
of experience and experiment and thus gain 
much light which should be made known. Mr. 
West's experience lies chiefly in the San Joa- 
quin valley and his remarks may be supposed 
to have particular application to the conditions 
in the interior. They are, however, full of sug- 
gestions which can be applied elsewhere. We 
shall quote Mr. West's advice as to planting and 
treatment of orchards: 

In the first place, select a suitable spot for 
the orchard, if possible, land that lays well for 
irrigation. Then see that it is well fenced, and 
plowed when the land is in proper condition, 
that is, when not too dry or too wet. If possi- 
ble, have it plowed before or soon after the first 
rain. Summer-fallow would be still better. 
Then, before you purchase your trees, make up 
your mind as to the quantity of each kind of 
fruit trees you will want, and the season of 
bearing. If you are not acquainted with the 
names of different varieties, request the nur- 
seryman to select such as you want. A selec- 
tion of varieties that will give a succession of 
fruit through the season is most desirable, even 
if some of them are not of the best quality. 
By all means purchase your trees early, even if 
you cannot find time to plant them immediately. 
They can be transplanted with much less dan- 
ger of injury early in the season than later; the 
climate is much more humid in December, Jan- 
uary, and the early part of February, than 
later. Another important consideration is that 
you can get a much better selection, having the 
first choice. If the ground is not in condition 
to plant, or other business interferes, the trees 
can be "heeled in," as nurserymen term it, that 
is, they can be planted closely in a trench, tak- 
ing care that the soil is packed around the roots 
so that they will not get dry. You then have 
your trees in such a position that you can plant 
at your leisure. 

Planting. 

In the important operation of preparation of 
the trees, there are more mistakes made than in 
any other. Usually trees are planted just as 
they come from the nursery; in removing a tree 
from the nursery-rows, no matter how care- 
fully it is done, a portion of the roots are cut 
off and consequently the balance existing be- 
tween the root and top is destroyed; this must 
be restored by proper pruning. Apple, pear 
and plum trees are sold usually at two years 
old, having been cut back in the nursery at the 
end of the first year, to from three to five feet; 
they have branches from this hight, which 
should be shortened in to within a foot or so of 
the previous season's growth. Next the roots 
must be attended to; all cut and jagged places 
must be made smooth. The holes should be 
dug large enough to admit all the roots to be 
spread out in their natural position; then let 
one person hold the tree and another shovel in 
the dirt, being careful to till up every interstice, 
and bring every portion of the root in contact 
with the soil; a bncket or two of water should 
then be thrown in to settle the ground and keep 
it moist; then fill up the hole. Standard trees 
should be planted just so deep that when the 
ground settles they will be as deep as they were 
in the nursery. Dwarf pears should have all 
the stock (that is the quince) under the ground. 



When the trees are planted throw about six 
inches of coarse manure around them, which 
wiU prevent the ground from drying, and keep 
the trees in good condition. 

The orchard should be kept free from weeds 
and cultivated as long in the spring as they 
grow. I do not believe in plowing too much 
after dry weather sets in. Some protection 
from the sun should be given to the trunks, 
either by sacks or otherwise. Whitewash is 
beneficial. , 

On a majority of farms in the San Joaquin 
valley, irrigation is absolutely necessary; trees 
may live and produce some small and inferior 
fruit, but for large and fine crops do not spare 
the water. The trouble is inconsiderable com- 
pared with the benefits derived; better irrigate 
and cultivate one acre well than 10 poorly. 
Second Year. 

At the end of the first year, if the trees have 
made a good growth, they must be shortened 
about half their summer growth, and all the 
branches growing across the tree, or in places 
injurious to the symmetry of the tree, should be 
cut out. The result of this pruning will be 
that several branches will start from below, 
each cut forming a round, well balanced head. 
It is necessary for another reason. If the long 
shoots remain, they will not, usually, make a 
good growth, but from almost every eye fruit 
spurs will issue. These wiU in a year or two be 
covered with fruit, which will bend and perhaps 
break the limb, or at any rate destroy the sym- 
metry of the tree. As the tree becomes older, 
it will grow less vigorously. All the pruning 
necessary to be done will be to cut out an occa- 
sional shoot that grows out of place or shorten 
one that grows unnecessarily long. All kinds of 
trees should be grown as low standards. This ad- 
vice is as necessary to the fig, cherry, plum and 
apple as to the peach and nectarine. Many 
trees, especially the cherry, die the first year 
from the nursery, from no other reason than 
that the sun and borers have destroyed the 
trunk. 

Where land can be thoroughly irrigated, 
small fruit may be grown between the rows of 
the orchard. Blackberries, raspberries, currants 
and gooseberries can be grown better thus than 
in the full exposure to the sun. To have straw- 
berries produce abundantly they must be irri- 
gated freely. It would be better not to have 
them planted too near trees that do not want 
so much water. It is astonishing to see what 
an amount of fruit can be produced upon a 
small piece of land, properly planted and culti- 
vated. 

Apples, pears and plums, well grown, will 
produce some fruit the second or third year from 
planting, but no crop must lie expected until 
the fourth or fifth. Peaches, if not cut back too 
severely, will bear a crop the third year. Black- 
berries • will produce a good crop the second 
year. Currants, raspberries and gooseberries 
are uncertain. Strawberries can be made to 
produce well the same year that they have been 
planted. Plant early, irrigate freely. 

Diseases of Fruit Trees. 

Perhaps the most common cause of disease 
and failure in fruit trees is sun-blight This is 
the prime cause of many other difficulties. If 
a tree is kept growing by giving it an abundance 
of water, then, perhaps, it may not suffer from 
the sun, but this is not always convenient or 
possible to do. The best and most practical 
way to overcome the evil arising from this cause 
is to grow only low, standard trees. 

Borers. 

We are troubled with the worst species of 
borers. Young trees should be examined from 
the first of July until the end of the season. 
Their presence can be determined by a dark 
spot upon the bark of the tree, usually, but not 
always, on the sunny side. By examining with 
a knife a grub will be found, very small, at first 
hardly discernible, afterwards growing to half 
an inch in length. By a little attention the 
first and second years they can be conquered. 
They are hatched from an egg deposited upon 
the bark by a fly. 

We have no long list of diseases caused by 
bitter cold and sterility, but only such as can 
be conquered by energy, perseverance and a 
little common sense. 



Plum Growing. 

Editors Press: — The article on "Plum on 
Peach Stock," in the IU'kal of the 15th ult, 
and sustained by Mr. Patterson in the issue of 
Dec. 20th, caught my eye. I wish to offer my 
experience and the opinion of every orchardist 
of this country, embracing the great basin of 
the Columbia, which is that there is no stock 
fit for a plum but the peach. No man of prac- 
tical knowledge here would plant a plum tree on 
a plum root if you would make him a present 
of the trees. I believe that ordinarily when 
we believe a thing, and assert that such and 
such a thing is the case we should be able to 
give some reasons for it. 

While engaged in the nursery business for 
about 20 years, I observed some points that 
suggest to me the propriety and advantage of 
grafting plum on peach stock. First the peach 
root is a vigorous, healthy root and a gross 
feeder, and was always found to be of a healthy 
look, no matter at what age or on what kind of 
soil; that the top or wood above ground was 
always found to be in a decaying condition from 



January 19, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



00 



the time it was three years old. This observa- 
tion resulted in the practice adopted by my par- 
ents, over 40 years ago, of cutting back and re- 
newing, the same as we renew grape vines. Re- 
membering that our old peach orchards had 
been renewed time and again, by cutting back 
the tops while the roots remained healthy, I 
was led to the thought that a plum would suc- 
ceed on such a root. 

Now, on the other hand, I always found the 
plum root diseased, seldom digging a tree five 
or six years old but what I found the root 
knotty, with rotten spots and wood borers in 
them. At the same time the wood of a plum 
tree is a sound, hard, fine wood seldom brown 
and decaying inside like the peach. Knowing 
that they assimilated on the same stock, I com- 
menced grafting plum on peach and I have had 
them growing side by side, and from those first 
bearing up to those 15 years old, I have always 
found the fruit superior in size and the tree 
much larger and of more robust and vigorous 
appearance. 

I have had experience with them upon vari- 
ous soils and am well satisfied that if I was 
planting upon a damp, heavy soil, where a 
peach tree would be worthless, I would use 
plum on nothing but peach root. 

As to suckering, the nuisance is beyond 
human patience to bear. I at one time had 
some plum on plum stock and they were so 
much trouble that I dug them up and worked 
the ground for two years to get rid of the 
suckers. 

Now I will tell your readers how to get a 
plum orchard that will produce the finest of 
fruit and succeed on a greater variety of soils 
than any other. Lay off the ground as you 
want the trees to stand in the orchard. Plant 
a few peach pits at each point. Bud them in 
September following with plum, and the follow- 
ing spring remove all but one tree from each 
point. In this way you have a tree without the 
mutilating process of transplanting and you will 
find that you can raise plums from the tule 
lands of the Sacramento to the frost line of the 
Sierras. 

I have seen plum on peach stock of the finest 
and most vigorous growth produce the most ex- 
cellent fruit on wet, springy land, on dry gravel 
land with a well-drained subsoil, on alkali 
land with a hard-pan, subsoil, upon the foot- 
hill lands in Walla Walla, on the sand ridge 
lands and upon cold meadow lands in Grande 
Ronde valley, where, in the month of August, 
the potato and squash vines were killed with 
frost; and here in Boise valley upon the warm, 
sandy plains, in the cozy little foothill valleys, 
and upon the low bottoms of the river where 
their feet stand constantly in water, the plum 
seems at home. A. B. Roberts. 

Boise City, Idaho, Jan. 3d, 1878. 



Coffee Seed. 

Editors Press: — Mr. Reed's very interesting 
article has encouraged me to give my experi- 
ence. I think most of the coffee seed we buy 
has not been properly gathered or dried, and 
hence is very deficient in germinating power. 
But I have good reason to believe that good 
seed can and ought to be procured. It costs so 
much to import plants, and the risk of losing 
them is so great, that we ought first to make 
every effort to get reliable seed. 

Two small lots of seed which I obtained, one 
through the kindness of the Rural, failed en- 
tirely with green-house treatment. I had little 
faith in them, for I had subjected a portion of 
each lot to various tests, which resulted badly, 
the germ seeming devitalized. Now if we had 
not previously succeeded with coffee, I should 
feel that possibly other methods would have 
done better. 

It happens, however, that two years ago we 
had a large lot of berries from the Sandwich 
Islands, nearly every one of which grew. This 
seed was gathered for us by a friend, from the 
trees; was dried slightly, with the pulp on, in 
the shade; was packed carefully, so it could not 
mold, and sent at once. When they arrived, the 
berries were fresh enough to eat, and tasted 
somewhat like a cherry. 

This seed was at once planted in shallow 
boxes of equal sand and loam; some of these 
were put in the green-house and some in a lath- 
house; both lots grew finely. We found, how- 
ever, that the seed boxes must be shaded, or 
the hot sun destroys the young plants. Coffee 
needs warmth and shade. We expect soon to 
receive a fresh lot shipped in the same way, and 
in due time I hope to report a success. 

Our Sandwich Island friend writes that sun- 
dried berries are worthless for seed. Let our 
seedsmen take note, and import only ripe seed, 
slightly dried, with the pulp on, and kept warm 
and dry until sown. Otherwise, these costly 
failures will continue. Chas. H. Shinn. 

Niles, Cal., Dec. 29th. 

Better Experience. 
EDITORS Press: — The propagation of the 
coffee tree being discussed in our paper, I 
thought I would offer my experience, which is 
quite the reverse of Mr. Chas. A. Read's. 
About three years ago, the President of the 
Santa Clara College received from a friend a 
package of coffee seed, and advertised in the 
Santa Clara Echo that all those wishing a small 
lot could get it at the Echo office, which I did 
and received about 12 bolls. One of them 1 
opened and found two seeds in, just like all 
other coffee, and the rest I planted in small 



pots, which I placed in an ordinary cold-frame 
and kept them moist. In about one month or 
six weeks two plants appeared in every pot, 
which I afterward divided and placed one in 
each pot. When they were about six inches 
high, I exhibited a few of them at the San Jose 
fair. I afterward left home and stayed about 
five months, where I now live, and during my 
absence they were neglected and perished. So 
much for the coffee. 

Mr. Samuel Purnell's articles on trees and 
rainfall are very interesting, if nothing else. 
But will the gentleman condescend to tell us 
where the rain would fall providing all the for- 
ests on the globe were destroyed. H. G. 

Santa Ana, Cal. 



[Cultivation and Rainfall— No. 4. 



Editors Press: — There is yet another view 
of the influence of trees on rainfall, which I 
have not noticed specifically. It is that trees, 
and especially forests, keep the earth cool — or 
the lower stratum of air — by their shade, and 
that the warm ocean winds — surcharged with 
water — are so cooled as they pass over the 
shaded lands that they are contracted below 
the dew point, and so let down their water. To 
this I reply: First, that a wooded country is 
warmer than the prairie, and not cooler. The 
prairie is cooler in summer and in the winter 
than the adjacent forest. The thermometer 
shows it, the depth of frost shows, vegetation 
shows it, and a man feels it. You that have 
lived on the borders of prairie country and for- 
est, is this not so? My friend Col. Hollister, of 
Santa Barbara, claims to have increased by 
some degrees the warmth of some parts of his 
orange orchard by encircling them with forest 
trees, and I think he is correct. What, then, 
becomes of the theory that forests cool the 
earth, and the air to an extent that for miles in 
hight the passing cloud confesses its strong grip, 
and, like a squeezed sponge, lets down the rain? 

Let two balloonists ascend into the aerial re- 
gions, one from out of a forest, the other from 
out of the treeless plain, to the hight of 500 
feet. Let them note their thermometers. Who 
believes the thermometer over the forest will 
show the greatest cold? At a mile, or five 
miles, amid the steady currents of that upper 
sea, we all know the caloric influence of forest 
or plain would be less than the fine dust of the 
balance. 

And here let me notice a very common mis- 
take in regard to excessive rain and snow storms 
in mountainous countries. The cause of this 
is said to be the cooling influence of the moun- 
tains upon rain clouds. But the thermometer 
shows the mountain to be warmer than the air 
of the same hight. Being your thermometer to 
the ground, and the mercury rises. The only 
mountains which are cooler than the adjacent 
air are those covered with perpetual snow, and 
mure than half the year they are warmer than 
the air of the same level. Some other cause 
must be sought for excesssive rains in mountain 
regions. 

I once spent some time on a large island in 
tropic seas. It was densely wooded, yet daily 
a strong breeze set in from the sea at 8 a. m. 
and blew hard till about 6 P. M. From all sides 
it blew in upon the island, showing that the 
sea air was colder than that of the land, in spite 
of its "cooling forest. " In other islands, under 
thorough cultivation, and largely denuded of 
forests, the same sea breeze by day and land 
breeze by night prevailed. My conclusion was 
that neither forest nor want of forest has much 
to do in governing the winds and storms of 
heaven. 

But we are told that "all wooded countries 
have abundant rainfall." Ergo — "the trees 
cause the rain!" The willows are plenty along 
the course of a neighboring water ditch. Ergo 
— the willows are the cause of the ditch! Sup- 
pose I suggest that the rain is the cause of the 
trees, and that Oregon would be a rainy coun- 
try if the last tree were cut down. As to the 
lands and trees causing the rains — who has not 
observed that all our rains commence far off 
upon the sea, and drift inland, but emptying 
most of their contents into the sea that gave 
them being. 

The Question in Southern California. 

Before closing this article let me refer to Mr. 
Samuel Purnell's extraordinary statements in 
regard to the condition of southern California 
before the greedy, selfish and destructive white 
man came. He says: "It is ascertained that 
the coast and the islands off the coast of Santa 
Barbara were then densely peopled with Indi- 
ans, covered with trees, and abounding in per- 
ennial streams; summer rains refreshed the 
earth, and all the country for hundreds of miles 
was a scene of almost tropical life and luxuri- 
ance! How different now since the fatal pres- 
ence of the white man. The forests have been 
felled; the- streams have disappeared; the 
springs are dry; summer rains no longer refresh 
the earth; the native people have become en- 
tirely extinct. To such a state has the felling 
of the forests reduced the coast of southern 
Calfornia. Santa Clara river, of Ventura 
county, and Posa creek, and the springs that 
fed them, have mostly dried up," etc. 

Bah! The first white settlement on the south- 



ern coast of California was that made by the 
Jesuits at San Diego in A. D. 1769— just 108 
years ago. That of San Francisco 101 years 
ago. The first white settlement made here (in 
San Buenaventura) was made in 1782— about 96 
years ago. The Jesuits had the country en- 
tirely to themselves till 18,31, when, according 
to Forbes, they and their white attaches, and 
adventurers connected with their missions, num- 
bered only 7,46.3. These were all the whites, 
and the Indians belonging to the missions at 
that time numbered only 15,562 — in all 23,025. 
A few more people than in San Jose, yet this 
2.3,025— counting in women and children — were 
able to occupy the whole country from San 
Francisco to San Diego, fight and whip the 
pagan Indians, and cut down and destroy the 
vast forests for 500 miles down the coast so that 
not a vestige is left behind! What Anakins the 
men, and what Amazons the women of those 
days! Think of the vast treeless plains be- 
tween San Francisco and San Diego! These all 
covered with forest trees less than a hundred 
years ago, and before 1831 all gone, and riot a 
root left in the ground, or a stump to bear wit- 
ness to the murderous axe of these few priests 
and their neophytes! Besides, what did they 
do it for? Not to sow wheat, nor plant corn, 
nor to raise barley or fruits. They must have 
done it for the fun of it, or for mischief. And 
they stopped the summer rains, dried up the 
brooks, and played the duece with our climate 
generally — and all too from 1769 to 1831! In 
52 years! 

•You speak of Santa Clara river and Posa 
creek having dried up nearly from the same 
cause. I live on the Santa Clara river. I know 
every part of what you call "Posa" creek. Its 
name is Los Pom-?. Los Posas creek rises in a 
big spring, and there is not a particle of evi- 
dence that it has ever averaged a greater flow 
per annum than it does now. As to Santa Clara 
river, its numerous tributaries rise far away in 
the mountains where no man lives, and no axe- 
man has fallen the trees. There is not a parti- 
cle of evidence that its annual flow is diminish- 
ing, and if there was, no cutting down of for- 
ests could possibly account for it. Your state- 
ment that "Arizona was once covered with for- 
ests, had summer rains, abounded in limpid 
streams, and was very populous till the axeman 
came, and cut down the forest, abolished sum- 
mer rains, wiped out the brooks, dried up the 
rivers," etc., shows a facility for making history 
worthy of a patent. Men hereabouts familiar 
with every part of Arizona say it is ' 'pure ro- 
mance. " The editor of the San Luis Tribune 
calls it "bosh." Most of the ruins you speak 
of are less than 100 years old. There was a 
time when the Spaniards had near 100 silver 
mines there. Of course they used the streams 
to raise supplies for their employees. Hence 
the larger part of these ruins. The rest are 
Aztec or other Indian ruins — few and far be- 
tween, and all indicating, at best, only a sparse 
population in that arid land. 

S. Bristol. 
San Buenaventura, Dec. 28th, 1877. 



Pruning Flowering Shrubs. 

Editors Press: — If there is one operation 
in. the flower garden that requires more thought 
and judgment than any other, that operatiions 
pruning; and yet how often, particularly in our 
State, do we see it done as if it were the sim- 
plest of garden work. The operation being 
considered necessary only to get rid of a por- 
tion of the plant, the most awkward hand on 
the place, or the one with the least judgment, 
is set to work with a pair of garden shears to 
trim the roses, lilacs, snowballs and other shrub- 
bery. As a rule, he goes through the place 
cutting at everything, whether it be a strong or 
weak grower, a bloomer on old or new wood, 
indiscriminately. 

While, in pruning, we should study to get 
the greatest symmetry of form attainable on the 
subject on which we are working, we should 
also take into consideration its habit of growth, 
whether weak or vigorous, and also as to the 
fact of its blooming on new, or on one or two 
year old wood. 

A plant that is of naturally vigorous growth 
should be trimmed only sufficiently to get it in- 
to the desired shape. Pruning naturally pro- 
duces a more vigorous growth, and, therefore, 
to severely prune a vigorous growing plant will 
only make it grow more rampantly. On the 
other hand, a severe but judicious pruning of a 
weak grower will make it grow stronger, and 
therefore is to be recommended. 

Many of our handsomest flowering shrubs, 
like the lilac and mock orange, bloom on the 
previous season's wood; therefore, to trim such 
plants it must be done (I am speaking now of 
fall and spring pruning, ) at the expense of the 
next season's flowers. 

Where flowers, therefore, are of particular 
importance, first find out whether they are pro- 
duced on new or old wood and prune accord- 
ingly; if on new wood, prune severely, so as to 
induce new growth; if on old wood, prune 
lightly. 

Roses are much handsome when trained into 
trees; some, however, have frames made of va- 
rious fancy shapes to which they train them. 
In either case, prune strong growers very little, 
and vice versa.. I 



In regard to the best season for performing 
this work there are conflicting theories. I 
prune entirely in the spring, however, and on 
the whole, I think it the most judicious. 

In pruning all flowering plants, cut close and 
use a sharp instrument; on soft wooded plants 
always use the knife in preference to shears. 
Answers to Inquiries. 

Since I began to write for the Press I have 
received quite a number of inquiries from dif- 
ferent readers. These I am always willing to 
answer through the Press, when the subjects 
are of sufficient general interest. 

Mrs. G., of Ohio, asks concerning the 
Hoya Carnosa. 

This is the true wax-plant; the leaves are 
about three inches long, ovate-lanceolate in 
shape, in the center one inch across, very thick 
and wax-like, appearing when the sun shines 
on them as if made of pure green wax. Flow- 
ers in clusters, a delicate yellow. Easily prop- 
agated from slips. To make it bloom, set it out 
in the full sunshine and water freely. It will 
grow with the meanest of treatment, but no 
plant repays better for a little care. 

J. H., of California, asks of the 
Tricyrtis Grandiflora. 

This is indeed a superb plant. Flowers 
white, variegated with purple spots. Does best 
in pots or boxes of rich loam. In the spring 
and summer water freely. In October and No- 
vember it will bloom, after which the stems 
will decay and should be removed. Give little 
or no water from December to April, when it 
will again start into growth from the root. 

W. C. L. Drew. 

El Dorado, Cal. 



TljE Swine Yvi 0, 



Bacon, Hams and Pork. 

A correspondent of the Country Gentleman 
gives the following practical information and 
instructions: As the salted flesh of swine is the 
chief reliance for food of a great portion of our 
country, it is very desirable to prepare it in the 
best manner, and to do this we have only to 
take a lesson from the English, whose bacon is 
always in great demand for a breakfast relish 
on both sides of the ocean. Their custom is to 
let the pig hang for 24 hours before it is 
cut up, and then, after cutting off the ribs, 
lard, sausage meat, and head and feet, a mixture 
of saltpeter, sugar and salt is thoroughly rub- 
bed into the "sides." Half as much sugar is 
added to the salt, and one-sixteenth as much 
saltpeter. Enough is used to wholly cover the 
meat. Then it is placed in long pieces into a 
tub, and closely covered. In a fortnight it is 
turned over, and a little more salt added. Af- 
ter it has laid two or three weeks longer in the 
pickle it is taken out and hung up into the 
kitchen to dry. If possible, it is hung on poles 
placed across the ceiling; and in two months it 
is cured enough to eat, but is better in three 
months. Early in the spring it is sewed up in 
cotton cloths, and brushed over with a thick 
whitewash, to preserve it from flies. 

In France they pursue a different plan, and 
there bacon is also the chief food of hundreds 
of thousands of the inhabitants. They never 
scald the hog to remove the bristles, but singe 
them off. A large bed of straw is prepared, 
and the carcass is laid upon it. Fire is set to 
the windward. After singeing it on one side, 
the pig is turned over on the other side for a 
few minutes, and if any bristles remain, they 
are singed off with wisps of straw. The carcass 
is then brushed thoroughly and washed in cold 
water, and shaved off with sharp knives. Meat 
thus treated is supposed to keep in a better con- 
dition than if scalded. For a hog weighing 300 
pounds they use 40 pounds salt, and 10 pounds 
of brown sugar, three ounces of ground pepper, 
and six ounces of ground allspice and cloves, 
mixed half and half. These ingredients are all 
mixed together, ahd rubbed into the pork for an 
hour or two. It is then packed tightly in a 
salting tub, and each layer is sprinkled with it, 
and all that remains is laid over the top of the 
meat. In three or four weeks it has become suf- 
ficiently salted to dry or smoke. 

Hams and bacon are usually smoked in houses 
built for that purpose, but they can also be 
smoked in large, old-fashioned chimneys, by 
burning corn on the cob in the fire-place. In 
Hamburg, Germany, the smoking is done in 
upper rooms of large buildings, and the smoke 
is carried through tubes from the fires in the 
cellar. The smoke being dry and cool when it 
enters the room, the meat is of a much superior 
flavor than when nearer the fire. The celebra- 
ted Westphalia pickle is made witli six pounds 
of rock salt, two pounds of powdered loaf sugar 
and three ounces of saltpeter, dissolved in three 
gallons of water, and boiled till all scum is re- 
moved. When quite cold it is poured on the 
meat, and every part must be kept under the 
brine. In four or Ave weeks the hams are 
ready for the smoke-house. This pickle can be 
used several times, by boiling it over to remove 
all scum, and adding a small amount of its in- 
gredients. 

Hams should bo thoroughly washed before 
being pickled in order to remove all the blood, 
and then be wiped dry. After being smoked 
they can be kept for several years, if, after sew- 
ing them up in old cotton cloth, they are closely 
packed in ashes or powdered charcoal. They 

Continued on page 42. 



36 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January 19, 1878. 




Correspondence cordially invited from all Patrons for this 
department. 



Removal 

Until further notice the office of the Secretary of the 
State Orange will he at 100 Davis street, in the store of 
the Grangers' Business Association. Correspondents will 
•nntinue to send their communications to No. 40 Califor- 
nia street, as heretofore. 

Temescal Grange Installation. 

On Saturday, Jan. 12th, Worthy Secretary 
Adams, of the State Grange, installed the offi- 
cers of this 1 1 range. Past State Master Web- 
ster resumed the duties of Master of his Subor- 
dinate Grange with all the zeal and vigor of old 
times, and the confidence of his fellow Patrons. 
]>eputy Nathaniel Jones, of Contra Costa 
county, by invitation, spoke on the Rochdale 
co-operation plan, and ably and enthusiastically 
advocated the organization of co-operative asso- 
ciations in Oakland and elsewhere. He also 
well portrayed the need of, and advantages to 
be derived from, a narrow-gauge railroad from 
Walnut Creek to Oakland. The subjects dis- 
cussed by Mr. Jones will, no doubt, he further 
urged in the Grange. We hope he will have an 
opportunity of speaking them more widely. 

Upon the adoption of the memorial resolu- 
tions to the memory of Sister Lydia A. Cressey 
(published in this issue) Sister Jeanne C. Carr, 
from Sacramento, who seemed so opportunely 
present in her charter Grange, paid a glowing 
tribute to the departed, speaking as feeling and 
eloquent words as it has ever been our lot to 
listen to. 

No fraternal association, no matter how an- 
cient and imposing, has ever elicited a higher 
fraternal feeling than our Order, and Mrs. 
Carr's allusion to the manner in which the great 
heart of the ( irange comes np in sympathy and 
eomfort to the affiicted in the hour of trial, 
touched a tender chord in the hearts of those 
present. 

Dr. Dio Lewis and wife were present at the 
harvest feast, so bountifully provided by the 
sisters. With all present they seemed to roundly 
enjoy the occasion. With great force the Doc- 
tor spoke upon the currency question, giving 
forth some novel ideas, which were well listened 
to. He will most likely be invited to repeat 
this speech before a large audience. 

Installation and Lecture at Stockton 
Grange. 

Editors Press: — On Saturday, the 5th inst., 
the officers of Stockton Grange were installed 
by Past Master Win. G. Phelps, assisted by 
Past Master A. Wolf. The installation was 
public and was largely attended. Immediately 
after the installation all present were invited to 
partake of a harvest feast, which was prepared 
by the sisters of the Grange. About 200 sat 
down to the tallies, which were loaded with 
good things, and rare flowers of many kinds 
graced the board. All seemed to enjoy the 
feast, which was so abundant, that many bas- 
kets full were left, and distributed among the 
worthy poor in the town. 

Prof. HUgard, of the University of Califor- 
nia, arrived in time to partake of our feast, and 
after we had adjourned to our hall delivered one 
of the most interesting lectures it has ever been 
our fortune to hear. The subject was, " The 
Treatment of Alkali Soils." The lecture was 
public and the hall crowded with people, who 
evinced great satisfaction in the manner in 
which the Professor treated the subject, and 
the experiments made by him. We feel that 
he has done much good to the agricultural por- 
tion of the community in this section, and would 
suggest to our Representatives in the State 
Legislature to take into consideration the expe- 
diency of appropriating more! money to enable 
Prof. Hilgard to visit different portions of the 
State to give information to the people, and also 
to learn himself, by actual observation, the ex- 
tent of the soil that is, at the present time, 
almost worthless, but which he believes can be 
reclaimed without great expense. The Professor 
made many friends here, and we believe that he 
is the "right man in the right place"' and we 
wish to keep him there and assist him all in 
our power, Wm. G. Phelps. 

Stockton, OaL, Jan. 12th. 

Pomona Grange, No. 3, Endorses Stockton 
Grange. 

Editors Press:— The following resolution 
was adopted by Pomona < irange, No. 3, at 
Dixon, Jan., 3d 1878. 

Resolved, That we endorse the action of the Stockton 
Grange with regard to the utterances of Bro. J. W. A. 
Wright hefore Sacramento Grange on Dec. 8tli, 1877. 

J. R. Morris, S«c,y. 

1. J. True writes that at Cottonwood Grange 
Some one introduced a resolution for the 
(irange to return its charter to the State Grange, 
thereby disorganizing the Grange. But it would 
not down worth a cent. The season may be 
bad, aud, of course, it is then hard for most of 
us to keep up our dues, but nearly all feel like 
doing all they can to keep up our organization. 

Pomo Grange. — lohn Woolever, Secretary, 
writes us that this (irange is in the ascendant- 
installed officers January 5th, and starts for- 
ward zealously toward a more prosperous 
future. 



In Memoriam. 

Our Grange circle has again l>een broken by 
the death of our beloved Sister Mrs. C. J. 
Ckessey, the second link in our chain severed 
since its organization. A long painful illness of 
three years' duration, the greater part of which 
she suffered untold bodily anguish, was borne 
with almost unparalleled patience, fortitude and 
true heroism. Her final calm resignation, and 
rejoicing in the clear and bright assurance of 
acceptance with the Divine Master above, re- 
mains a blessed consolation to her bereaved 
family. 

Outside her little family she had not a single 
relative on this coast, but she did not lack for 
warm friends: they are many, to whom she 
endeared herself by her quiet goodness, cheerful 
demeanor, intelligent mind aud loving consider- 
ation for others. 

Living in the delightful suburbs of the large 
city of Oakland, adjacent to San Francisco, she 
had all the combined advantages of country air 
and city skill for her recovery. But all these, 
together with the ever-watchful, thoughtful, 
tender care and constant, untiring, self-sacrific- 
ing devotion of her loving husband, aided by 
the efforts of their eldest son, failed to arrest 
the disease, and could only in a measure miti- 
gate her sufferings. Two little ones are left, a 
daughter and a son, of ten and four years, too 
young to fully realize their loss. As time rolls 
on, may they ne.ver know the full meauingjof 
that desolate word — motherless. 

Whereas, In the death of Sister Cressey, 
Temescal (irange has lost a loving, esteemed 
sister and faithful Matron of our Order, our 
afflicted brother and family an affectionate, 
devoted wife and mother. 

Jiesolred, That we deeply sympathize with 
them in their great sorrow and bereavement, 
although we feel that all words must be as 
empty shadows to the stricken heart. 

Itexolrrd, That we who watched by her bed- 
side during her last days of extreme suffering, 
were greatly benefited by the lessson there 
received, through her spirit of patient endur- 
ance aud unmurmuring, cheerful resignation, 
which arose superior to all pain, in joyful 
anticipation of the future, so that when the last 
hour came, the soul shone out of its frail tene- 
ment, and with mind clear as a sunbeam, she 
gave directions as to the place aud preparations 
for her final rest. Then, with a press of the 
hand, she called each weeping friend by name 
and said good-bye. Then, as a weary child in 
its mother's arms, she turned to her weeping 
husband, saying: "How kind you have been to 
me in all my afflictions: faithful to the last. I 
am very weary, good-bye. I am passing away 
now." 

Resolved, That this heartfelt testimonial of 
our syirpathy be placed on record, and a copy 
sent to her family, also to the California Patron 
and the Pacific Rural Press for publication. — 
Committee: Mrs. A. T. Dewey, Mrs. N. A. 
Salter, Nellie M. Crouch, J. V. Webster. 



Sacramento Grange. 

Editors Press: — Saturday, Jan. Pith, the 
members of the above Grange assembled in 
their hall for the purpose of installation of of- 
ficers for the ensuing year. It was also the in- 
tention to hear Prof. E. S. Carr lecture, it 
being the second series of the course; but be- 
fore we assembled were sad to learn that the 
Professor was confined to his bed unabled to be 
with us. As it was fortunate, we had the 
pleasure of Bro. J. W. A. Wright,, who after 
installation by Past Master, Geo. W. Hancock, 
gave us a tine lecture on "Practical Education," 
spending an hour in giving an account of his 
visit at the Royal Agriculture college at Ciren- 
cester, England, and showing the practical 
teachings there undertaken in the school and 
farm experiments. A very good number was 
out, and all were pleased with the afternoon 
session. Geo. Rich. 

Sacramento Cal. 

H. Mahler writes that Sutter Mill Grange is 
prospering and is healthier than any time since its 
existence. We have a class of three on whom 
to confer the fourth degree ou the 18th inst. 
We are talking of having a big time in April or 
May next, when we shall invite Brother Pilk- 
ington to address us. 

Rotting Straw Piles. — We will give $5 
(in subscription to the Rural Press) for the 
best formula received previous to April next for 
converting rapidly the refuse straw heaps left 
by threshing machines on the wheat and barley 
fields of our California valleys. We will leave 
it to a vote of the Stockton Grange to decide 
the winning process. Certainly there should be 
some simple method by which the farmer can 
expeditiously convert his straw into fertilizing 
material without reducing it to ashes. We 
invite correspondence on the best method of 
utilizing straw. 

A. S. TpLLB writes that Old Creek (irange is 
in fine working order at present, having expelled 
all delinquent members: those we have are good 
workers aud faithful to the cause. Consider- 
ing the dryness of the season and the hardness 
of the times, we have done well to keep our 
Grange alive and pay up our dues, but we hope 
to report more favorable next quarter. 

J. R. Tot man writes that the Colusa county 
Deputies are working harmoniously together, and 
do not intend to leave anything undone that we 
can do to help the cause along. 



Election of Officers* 

Cambria Grange, San Luis Obispo County. 
— 0. H. Ivins, It; J. M. Woods, O.; Phillip 
Kaetzel, L. ; J. L. Leffingwell, S. ; Magr. Lef- 
tingwell, A. S. ; Saide Kaetzel, C. ; J. C. Baker, 
T, ; Rufus Rigdon, Sec'y. ; J. Mullin, G. K. ; 
Indiana Rigdon, Ceres; May Leffingwell, Po- 
mona; M. J. Carey, Flora; M. E. Quinn, L. A. S. 

Deep Creek Grange, No. 136, Farmers- 
vii.le, Tulare Co. --Elected, December 22d, 
1877: Installed, January Pith, 1878, by Bro. 
Merritt, Master of Tulare (irange: F. G. Jef- 
ferds, M.; L. Teague, O. ; A. W. Mathewson, 
L. ; C. Van Loan, S. ; E. M. Jefferds, A. S. ; Mrs. 
S. Buckman, C. , John Teague, T. ; W. G. Pen- 
nebaker, Sec'y; M. Jasper, G. K.; Mrs. N. Jef- 
ferds, Ceres; Mrs. A. Calhoun, Pomona; Miss 
Ella Pennebaker, Flora; Mrs. M. A. Harlow, 
L. A. S. 

Etna Grange, No. 219, Siskiyou Co.— Elec- 
tion Dec. 15th: J. Ehler, M.; Charles Hoven- 
den, O. ; I. S. Mathews, L. ; O. N. Green, S. ; 
D. B. Kingery, A. S. ; S. D. Varnum, 0. J Jerry 
Davidson, T. ; L. S. Wilson, Sec'y; Clark Brad- 
bury, (i. K.; Mrs. D. B. Kingery, Ceres; Mrs. 
A. A. Green, Pomona; Mrs. L. S. Wilson, Flora; 
Mrs. J. H. Walker, L A. S. ; J. T. Moxley, 
C. Hovenden, Thomas Quigly, Trustees. 

Morro City Grange, No. 27, San Luis 
Obispo Co.— H. Y. Stanley, M. ; J. H. Cocke, 
O.; F. Riley, L.; T. J. Stephens, S.; W. H. 
Lovell, A. S. ; Sister S. Langlois, C. ; F. W. 
Parker, T.; A. J. Mothersead, Sec'y; John 
McCune, G. K. ; Sister H. G. Riley, Ceres; 
Sister S. C. Stephens, Pomona; Sister S. «N. 
Parker, Flora; Sister Gleunie Mothersead, L. 
A. S.; D. H. Whitney, Trustee. 

Napa (Irange, Napa Co. — Election, Dec. 
29th: J. M. Thompson, M.; S. Eaton, 0.; A. 
1). Butter, L. ; J. F. Knief, S.; C. Hill, A. S., 
J. L. Marshall, C: J. W. Ward, T.; H. W. 
Haskill, Sec'y; H. Goodrich, ( i. K. ; Mrs. H. 
(ioodrich, Ceres; Mrs. C. W. Plass, Pomona; 
Miss M. Eaton, Flora; Mrs. M. Amos, L. A. S. 
Installation on the last Saturday in January, 
with harvest feast. 

Nord Grange, Nord, Butte Co. — Election 
Dec. 29th: L Mcintosh, M. ; P. Kerne, O. ; 
G. W. Colby, L. ; Wm. Van Woert. S. ; P. 
McGwin, A. S. ; A. Swena, C. ; J. R. Haugh- 
ton, T.; C. A. Colby, Sec'y.; T. M. Smith, (i. 
K.; Mrs. Mattie Kern, Ceres; Maggie Leininger, 
Pomona; Miss Nellie Turner, Flora; Mrs. Nora 
Nan Woert, L. A. S. Public installation, Sat- 
urday, January 12th, 1878. 

Pomo Grange, No. 216, Mendocino Co. — 
John Mewhinney, M. ; T. W. Dashiell, O.; M. 
P. Goforth, L. ; Owen Grover, S. ; James 
Nower, A. S. ; Stoddard Neil, C. ; E. V. Jones, 
T. ; John Woolever, Sec'y; W. V. Kilbourne, 
(!. K.; Mrs. I). M. Mewhinney, Ceres; Mrs. 
L. J. Hale, Pomona; Mrs. M. J. Neil, Flora; 
Mrs. E. F. Gordon, L. A. S. 

Sonora Grange, No. 208, Tuolumne Co. — 
(ieo. C. Soulsby, M., J. F. Ralph, O.j John 
Taylor, L. ; L. Keeley, S. ; R. F. Williams, A. 
S. ; Wm. Kelly, 0. ; Oliver Cowan, T. ; J. W. 
Purdy, Sec'y; John Lawson. G. K. ; Miss Flor- 
ence J. Kelly, Ceres; Emma J. Wood, Pomona; 
Miss Anna E. Rablen, Flora; Mrs. Esther 
Ralph; L. A. S. 

Walnut Creek Grange, No. 119, Contra 
Costa Co. — Election, Dec. 15th: M. L. Grey, 
M. ; A. W. Hammitt, 0.; N. Jones, Lj J. W. 
Jones, S. ; W. L. Jones, A. S. ; J. Baker, C. ; 
J. Larkey, T. ; A. E. Hodges, Sec'y; J. Peter- 
son, G. K.; Mrs. J. Peterson, Ceres; Ella Wit- 
ten, Pomona; Lizzie Hodges, Flora; Lizzie Ham- 
mitt, L A. S. Installation Jan. 5th, 1878. 

West Grafton Grange, No. 89, P. of H., 
Yolo Co. — Election, Jan. 5th: (ieo. Sharpnack, 
M.; E. Harley, O.; A. W. Morris, L. ; J. G. 
Bower, Sr., S. ; Wm. Manor, A. S. ; Mrs. 
Mapes, C. ; S. M. Mapes, T. ; J. G. Bower, Jr., 
Sec'y; (ieo. Farlow, G. K. ; Mrs. Hadley, Ceres; 
Miss Watson, Pomona; Mrs. A. Bower, Flora; 
Mr- Harley, L. A. S. Installation, first Satur- 
day in February. 

• Officers of Oranges are requested to send list of offi- 
cers elect, date of election and day set for installation, to 
this office direct. 



The Salaries of Officers of the National 
(J range. — The compensation of its officers as 
the National Grange has fixed it for the coming 
year is something less than what was paid them 
last year and the year before. The Master's 
salary will be §1,000 instead of $1,200; the 
Treasurer's, §500 instead of §600; and the Sec- 
retary's, §1,500 instead of §2,000. The Lec- 
turer is to be paid all traveling expenses 
incurred in the performance of his official duty 
— as formerly — aud at the rate of §4 a day, in- 
stead of §5, as heretofore, for time spent in doing 
the work of his office. Members of the Execu- 
tive Committee are subjected to precisely the 
same reduction as the Lecturer. They are to 
receive §4 a day instead of §5 for time spent in 
performing the duties of their office, and their 
traveling expenses. All the salaried officers of 
the National (irange have, therefore, been sub- 
jected to a reduction of compensation. 

Installation. — Officers and members of 
Golden (iate (Irange are fraternally requested 
to remember its regular meeting and installation, 
Tuesday evening 7:30 p. m., January 22d, that 
we may have a full attendance and a useful 
meeting. All visiting Patrons, who can attend, 
will be cordially welcomed. J. W. A. W. 



Morro Grange, — A. J. Mothersead, Secre- 
tary, writes as follows: "Our little (irange is 
alive and has strong faith that the Grange 
movement will live and be a grand success." 



™ ttto . California. 

COLUSA. 

Seeding.— Napa Reyister, Jan. 12: Mr. Chris. 
P. Adamson returned home from Colusa county 
last Friday. He has just finished seeding 700 
acres of land between Stoney creek and the 
Sacramento river, some 40 miles above Colusa, 
and feels encouraged at the prospect of an 
abundant harvest. In putting in his crop up 
there he has used two eight-mule and three six- 
mule teams; these he now hires to others who 
are summer-fallowing. Mr. Adamson says they 
have had about 5A inches of rainfall in the 
northern part of Colusa county and that every- 
thing looks well. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

No Fenue Law. — Antioch Ledger, Jan. 12: 
Certain parties having expressed a desire to 
Assemblyman Young that he would endeavor 
to abolish the "no fence law," our Representa- 
tive sent word to leading citizens at Point of 
Timber desiring an expression of opinion of the 
fanners in that community. Accordingly a 
public meeting was held at the school-house 
January 1st, the matter fully discussed, a vote 
taken, which showed five to one were in favor 
of the present law; another meeting is to be 
held on Marsh Creek and a remonstrance will 
be forwarded to Mr. Young against making the 
contemplated change. The farmers say it 
would be a great hardship to compel them to 
fence against stock at the present time, having 
just experienced one dry season with prospects 
of a greater drouth the present year. 

Stock Dying. — There having been no early 
rains to start the grass, thousands of cattle and 
sheep on the plains and tule land have died 
from starvation. R. F. Lord, who resides at 
the Stone House on the Marsh grant will save 
about 1,000 out of a band of 6,000 sheep. Of 
a band of 700 or 800 Spanish cattle which came 
up from a southern county and were placed on 
Winter's island, only 208 came off alive; those 
were purchased by E. I. Upham, of Collinsville, 
for §4 per head. The owner paid §1,500 for 
island pasturage, hence was loser to the ex- 
tent of several thousand dollars. Various 
other parties have lost stock in proportion. 

Squirrel Meeting. Gazette, Jan. 12: In 
accordance with a resolution adopted at the 
meeting of citizens held at Walnut Creek on 
Saturday, December 22d, for consultation upon 
the means to be employed for abating the squir- 
rel nuisance, the following [Committee, of two 
representatives from each township of the 
county, has been selected by the Chairman to 
report the action of the meeting to the Board 
of Supervisors, at their meeting on the first 
Monday of February, and to confer with our 
representatives in the Legislature with a view 
of securing the most economical and effective 
application of the squirrel abatement law, viz: 
For township No. 1 , Alanson Benson and C. B. 
Porter; for township No. 2, A. W. Hammitt 
and Charles Wood : for township No. 3, J. T. 
Walker and Munson Gregory: for township No. 
4, I. J. Smith and P. Moreshead; for township 
No. 5, J. E. W. Cary and A. C. Wristen. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Wholesale Farming. — E.?)/retui: Mr. R. 
Nadeau, of the Cerro Gordo Freighting Com- 
pany, to-day purchased from Barrows, Furrey & 
Co. 20 gang-plows of seven shares each, making 
140 shares altogether. He had a very large 
number of idle mules at his Florence farm, and 
with these he intends to plow and sow about 
5,000 acres of barley. He has leased tracts of 
good land in various parts of the country, 
principally at the Brea ranch and in the Cahu- 
enga district. He expects to raise in the vicin- 
ity of 15,000,000 pounds of barley, and with 
this enormous amount of grain he will be able 
to feed his teams through the year. 

San Fernando. — Outlook, January 10: About 
11,200 acres of grain have been sown in San 
Fernando valley, the greater portion of which is 
already up. Plowing is still being prosecuted 
at the rate of from 100 to 150 acres per day. 
MARIN. 

Gums and Quail. — San Rafael Journal, Jan. 
12: Mr. Shippee, of Olema, has gums of as mar- 
velous growth as any we have heard of. They 
were set out in February, 1876, being then not 
over six inches high. In the October follow- 
ing, they were nine feet and are now 30 feet 
high, with a diameter of fully 10 inches. He 
planted a thick grove of gums on one side to 
afford shelter for fowls, and a few quails came 
and joined his chickens. These he protected, 
and they now number 200 and are as tame as 
hteus, feeding with them and in storms roosting 
in the chicken house. 

MERCED. 

Fine Grain. — Argue, Jan 12: The fine rains 
of the past week have brought smiles to the 
faces of our farmers. Mr. M. D. Atwater, a 
farmer whose farm is situated a few miles north- 
west of Merced, informs us that he never saw 
so fair a prospect of a full crop at this time in 
the year; he has 3,500 acres of propo wheat up 
and looking well, and he expresses the opinion 
that even if there should be no more rain until 
late, and very little then, there could not pos- 
sibly be a failure on his land. Mr. Atwater is 
an experienced and successful farmer, and fully 
understands the cultivation of the soil, 
especially that of California. 
MONTEREY. 

At Work.- -Castro ville Argue, Jan. 12: The 
rains have enabled everybody to go ahead with 



January 19, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS 



37 



farming work, and the number of idlers about 
town has visibly decreased. 
* The Salinas Valley. — Index, Jan. 12: The 
total rainfall for the season is 3.8.3 inches at 
Salinas City. Considerable more than this has 
fallen in the surrounding hills and mountains, 
and even in the upper end of the valley the 
showers of Monday and Tuesday are reported 
to have been heavier than here. Over on the 
Carmel and down the coast enough rain has al- 
ready fallen to insure good crops the coming 
season; and no fears are entertained in regard 
to the crops on the uplands in Salinas valley. 
On the lowlands there has been sufficient rain 
to admit of plowing and seeding in good shape, 
although more will be necessary to insure good 
crops. Grass and early-sown grain is growing 
finely. The bulk of the seeding is done, and 
the prospects for a bountiful harvest this year 
are decidedly encouraging. 
NAPA. 

Hardy Oranges. — Reporter, Jan. 12: Not- 
withstanding the great severity of the weather 
during last week, orange trees at Hon. M. M. 
Esteems place, about four miles from Napa in a 
northerly direction, were uninjured. Mr. Estee 
has also some lemon trees, and although they 
were well protected by corn stalks, they could 
not withstand the heavy frosts, and were killed 
to the ground. The orange trees were unpro- 
tected. 

Fine Crops.— Editors Press: We have had 
plenty of rain in Napa valley, and crops never 
looked finer. — H. W. Haskell. 
SAN BERNARDINO. 

Riverside. — News, Jan. 12: The agricult- 
ural outlook has improved considerably, the late 
rain having extended to every portion of the 
State. Business in Riverside has perceptibly 
improved, and we have every reason to expect a 
prosperous season. The farmers in the foothills 
express themselves satisfied with the appear 
ance of the grain fields, as they look unusually 
fine for this season of the year. 

Notes. — Colton Semi-Tropic, Jan. 12: We 
have upon our table a Sicily lemon from one of 
George North's trees at Riverside. The seed 
for these trees was planted in June or July, 1871, 
consequently the trees ars not yet seven years 
old. The lemon is very fine in color, not a 
speck or blemish to be seen, and is very large, 
being nine inches in circumference one way and 
ten the other. The unprecedentedly cold weather 
has not damaged fruit a particle. No trees are 
injured except those whose growth had been 
forced by injudicious watering late in the fall. 
As for the deciduous fruits, they will be bene- 
fited by the cold. We have promise of an im- 
mense fruit crop this year. 
SAN DIEGO. 

Notes. — Netvs, Jan. 5: We had a look yes- 
terday at the snow off on the mountains, and it 
seemed to be pretty plenty, coming down well 
on the sides of the mountains. At Julian, we 
have heard it said that they have had six inches 
of snow, and if so the streams will be filled up 
considerably by it. The grasses are growing 
nicely, and the hills are assuming an appearance 
of green that is very gratifying. We noticed 
a band of sheep feeding between the city and 
Chollas valley yesterday, that looked to be in 
good order. 

Sumac Shipment. — News, Jan. 12: The first 
shipment of sumac of any note was made by 
Mr. Adler, Monday. This promises to be an 
important industry for San Diego, and we trust 
the enterprise may be successful. 
SAN JOAQ.UIN. 

The "Valley. — Stockton Independent, Jan. 
10: The present condition of the young grain 
throughout San Joaquin valley was never sur- 
passed at this season of the year. Reports from 
Stanislaus county are of the most flattering 
character. The rainfall in the southern part of 
the valley has been much more copious than 
throughout San Joaquin county, yet in the lat- 
ter early sown grain is in splendid condition, 
and the young feed is growing rapidly. Robert 
Dallas, who is now on a visit to this city, says 
that nothing could be more satisfactory than 
the wheat crop on the upland between the val- 
ley and the foothills in Stanislaus, where suf- 
ficient rain has fallen to moisten the soil to a 
considerable depth. The farmers in that sec- 
tion are well satisfied with the existing state of 
things and feel confident that with the occa- 
sional rains that may be expected as the season 
advances, a fair yield will be had. In some por- 
tion of San Joaquin farmers are still plowing. 
We were told yesterday that on some land a 
few miles north of the city the rain had not 
penetrated the soil to a greater depth than six 
inches. In some districts the rain seems to 
have been copious, while in others but little 
fell. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

Morro. — Editors Press: — The present pros- 
pects of our county for grass and grain crops are 
very good, having had sufficient rain for farm 
ing purposes and to bring on the feed for our 
famishing stock in good season. The heart of 
the husbandman is made to rejoice, and to give 
thanks to the Giver of all good for the beautiful 
and timely rain. — A. J. Mothersead. 
SAN MATEO. 

The Season. — Times, Jan. 12: The rain of 
the last 10 days have enabled farmers to plow, 
for the first time this season the adobe lands in 
the vicinity of Redwood. The teams are at 
work on them now, and this peculiar 
soil is in best of condition for plowing. It is 
estimated that there will be 5,000 more acres 
of land sown to grain in the county this season 
than last. 



SOLANO. 

Dixon. — Tribune, Jan. 5: Comparatively few 
farmers are plowing in this vicinity. We have 
not heard of a dozen in any direction from 
town. Riding over to Vacaville, the first of 
the week, we observed but two places 
where plows were running. It is almost 
necessary to plow deeper than the late rain wet 
the ground, and consequeutly in dry ground. 
SONOMA. 

Notes. — Healdsburg Enterprise, Jan. 10: The 
farmers have finished sowing wheat; a much 
larger breadth than usual has been seeded this 
season. The ground was in good condition, 
being neither too wet nor too dry; all the land 
was well cultivated before seeding. The tule 
land near Yountville is sown to wheat, which, 
at the present time, is two inches high, and 
should the coming spring not be too wet, it will 
yield a good crop. Farmers are busy cultiva- 
ting their vineyards, pruning trees, making 
fences, etc. The prospect for fruit is very 
good, as the climate so far has been mild and 
favorable. 

Prickly Comfrey. — Russian River Flag, 
Jan. 12: During a late call on Mr. G. Hunzi- 
ker, at Cloverdale, to whose interesting experi- 
ments we have already had occasion to refer, 
we were shown a small patch of prickly com- 
frey, which was set out last April, and has 
been cut eight times since then. Mr. Hunzi- 
ker informs us that after feeding it to his cows 
there was a perceptible increase in the flow of 
milk, to the extent of a pint or more each. The 
habit and appearance of the plant is something 
like the mullen, and, as it sends down its roots 
to a depth of six or seven feet, it seems as 
though with a good start it ought to do very 
well without irrigation. Where it has had a 
fair trial it is especially recommended for hogs. 
Mr. Hunziker is somewhat reserved about re- 
commending it, advising those who are think- 
ing of growing it to experiment in its adapta- 
bility, etc., for themselves. From the results 
obtained, however, we should say that with 
proper attention it would be likely to yield 
largely a most desirable green fodder the year 
round, on land which could not be relied on for 
alfalfa. 
SUTTER. 

Wheat Shipment. — Banner, Jan. 12: The 
D. E. Knight carried away from this place, on 
Wednesday, the largest cargo of the season, 
2, 158 sacks. To this she added 1,000 sacks at 
Vernon. Returning, she is again loading, as 
we go to press, from the Farmers' Union ware- 
house. The wheat goes to San Francisco and 
to the Starr mills, Vallejo. We understand 
there has been considerable wheat sold lately, 
which is awaiting shipment. The present 
stage of water will enable the steamers to relieve 
the pressure of shippers. 
TULARE. 

Winter Tomatoes. — Delta, Jan. 12: Up to 
the present writing our table has been supplied 
with fresh tomatoes from the vines in our gar- 
den. They were in full bearing when the first 
frosts set in, and with little trouble we preserved 
them till the late freezing spell, the fruit ripen 
ing slowly, but in quantity sufficient for table 
use. Another season we intend to protect the 
vines more completely, and have fresh tomatoes 
all the year round. We are satisfied from our 
experience in gardening, that this month and 
the next is the best time of the year for sowing 
lettuce, beets, carrots, parsnips, turnips, cab- 
bage, rutabagas, etc. , provided the ground is in 
suitable condition. 



News in Brief. 



VENTURA. 

Bees. — Signal, Jan. 5: The crisis has passed 
for the bee men. In the hills bees will soon 
feed on alfilerilla blossoms 

The Condition of the Bees. — Free Press, 
Jan. 12: From one of the most noted bee 
keepers in the county, we learn that during the 
past dry year, all bees died which were not fed. 
He estimates the losses as fully one-half of the 
whole number of stands on hand last January. 
The survivors are yet gathering little if any 
honey, but a couple of weeks of this weather 
will bring out the alfilerilla blossoms, which 
yield plentifully of a reddish-colored, fine, sweet 
honey. The prejudice against its color prevents 
any demand for this, and it is stored away for 
food in tight times. This is succeeded by 
kind of sage, also yielding , inferior honey, and 
then follows the white sage, the honey plant, 
par excellence, of southern California. So soon 
as this appears, the inferior honey in the hives 
is carefully removed, so as not to be mixed 
with the merchantable honey of the white sage, 
which is stored up by the bees for over three 
months, ending in August. Again, every par- 
ticle of honey is carefully removed and the little 
insects, from that time onwards, continue to 
gather vast quantities of honey from various 
blooms which yield a good article, but not so 
highly prized as that of the white sage. Our 
informant, Mr. Corey, who has carried his bees 
through the season, has fed them a ton and a 
half of honey. As the- price now is nearly 
double that of last year and all the old stock 
consumed, high prices may be looked for as 
soon as there are any to sell, which will enable 
apiarists to retrieve their losses of last year. 
YOLO. 

Hope. — Mail, Jan. 10: We are extremely 
glad to know that most of our farmers have 
hopes of plenty of rain for a crop next season. 
We have only found a very few who feel dis- 
couraged. 



The loss by the fire in London on Saturday 
was over $ 1,000, 000. 



They have had a $250,000 fire in Honolulu. 

They are having serious freshets in Virginia. 

Henry M. Stanley, the African explorer, is 
now in Rome. 

A baby show is the latest place of amuse- 
ment in this city. 

Cases of garroting still continue on the out- 
side streets, in this city. 

The Roger bill for employing 2,000 men on 
the streets of this city, has been defeated. 

A seam ens' bethel has been established at 
Portland, Oregon, the first in the State. 

A Chinaman, arrested for murder last week, 
commited suicide in the city prison on Monday 
night. 

Capt. Bogardus, the shot gun expert, has 
succeeded in breaking 5,000 glass balls in 500 
minutes. 

The winter is now severer in Turkey than 
that during which the Germans campaigned in 
France in 1870-71. 

The heaviest northeast gale ever known on 
the coast of Maine prevailed last week. A great 
amount of damage was done. 

A Senatorial election will be held in Ala- 
meda county on the 22d, inst., to select a suc- 
cessor to the late Nathan Porter. 

Cheyenne business men are making overtures 
to have that place fixed as the starting-point of 
the Black Hills railroad. 

The Postoffice Department has issued orders 
to increase the mail services between San Ra- 
fael and Petaluma to three times a week. 

James R. Keene says there is no truth in 
the California stories of his intention to return 
to San Francisco, for residence or business. 

The bark Osmyn was sunk by a collision with 
the bark Aureola, near Port Townsend last 
week. Both vessels belonged to the same 
owner. 

A fire broke out in the steamship Herman, 
while at sea, on Friday evening, which was 
with great difficulty subdued, after several 
hours' effort. 

There are now 854 manufacturing establish 
ments in San Francisco, whose aggregate pro- 
ducts amount to $02,338,000. They employ 
over 20,000 persons. 

Rev. Henry Ward Beecher offers to give 
up a quarter of his salary, in view of the falling 
off in pew rents. This will make his salary 
$15,000 for the year. 

H. L. Taylor & Co. struck a new well on Si 
mon Well's farm, on the Ghost Well territory 
Pa., which is flowing over 1,000 barrels. It 
opens up a large tract of new territory. 

The Immigration Society of Guatemala, 
founded under the auspices of and protected by 
the government, have an agent to San 

Francisco to endeavor to direct immigration to 
Guatemala. 

A London dispatch says that the Wigan cot 
ton spinners have resolved, in consequence of 
the depression in the trade, to give all their 
operatives notice of a five per cent, reduction 
in wages. 

At Lynn, Mass., on the 14th inst., most of 
the shoe operatives were requested by the em 
ployers to withdraw from the Crispin organiza 
tion or quit work. The Crispins have adopted 
the latter alternative. 

General Sheridan has been informed by 
the War Department of the ravages of Bannock 
Indians, who threaten a severe outbreak in 
Montana that will devastate ranches and destroy 
the lives of white people. 

The boring of the Channel tunnel between 
France and England is to be done by the 
French Railway company, the Chemin de Fer 
du Nord, and the Southeastern and Chatham 
Railway companies of England. 

Demetrius Bulgaris, the well-known Greek 
politician, has just died of apoplexy. He was 
President of the Provisional government of 
Athens in 1862, and later was President of the 
Council and Minister of the Interior. 

W. <S. Duval and W. T. Duncan, (son 
Duncan, the Pioneer Savings bank defaulter, 
have been arrest ;d on charges of felony, as ac 
cessories to the escape of J. C. Duncan, by 
harboring and protecting him and not giving 
him up to the officers. 

The revolution in the northern Provinces 
San Domingo continues. The insurgents sur 
rounded Porta Plata, Santiago and La Vega. Th 
whole mercantile community is in danger of be 
ing ruined. It appears that Ex-President Gon 
zeles is leading the revolution. 

A steamer arrived at New Haven Saturday 
for a cargo of arms and ammunition for the 
Turkish government. Another steamer, laden 
with war material valued at $1,500,000, has 
been in the sound the past 14 days, waiting 
orders to sail for Constantinople, drawing, in 
the meantime, $250 per day demurrage. 

Senator McCoppin has introduced a bill 
authorizing the Board of Supervisors of San 
Francisco to expend $50,000 out of the General 
Fund for the improvement of Golden Gate and 
Bellevue parks, under the direction of the Com 
missioners, a part of which is to be used for the 
Lick observatory; also, $25,000 for grading and 
improving the squares and plazas of the city 
under the direction of the Superintendent 
Streets; $10,000 for cleaning sewers, under the 
direction of the Board of Health, and $25,000 
for cleaning the streets. The bill further pro 
vides that the Board of Supervisors shall fix by 
resolution the compensation of the men to be 
employed at a rate not exceeding $2 per day 
?.nd that no man shall be employed who was 
not a resident of the city at the beginning of th 
year. 



of 



of 



Minister Noyes conveys to the United States 
the thanks of France for proposed partici- 
pation in the Paris exposition. 

Henry M. Stanley, the African explorer, 
has been presented with a gold medal, the gift 
of the late King Victor Emmanuel. 

The Crispin troubles have extended to 
Marlboro', Mass., where several strikes began 
on Monday. 

The average daily mortality from cholera at 
Mecca, to the 31st of December, was 60; at 
Jeddan, 38. 

Alfred E. Edgcumbe has been appointed by 
Congressman Luttrell as cadet to West Point. 
The young man is a resident of Vallejo. 

Slade the Spiritualist, has been expelled 
from Vienna, because he was unable to describe 
his avocation satisfactorily to the police. 

The storm and heavy sea of Tuesday night 
badly damaged or destroyed the wharves at 
Carpinteria, Morro Landing, Ventura and 
Santa Barbara. 

The exports from New York last week inclu- 
ded 853,505 bushels of wheat, 218,442 bushels 
of corn, 6,624 bushels of oats and 77,892 bush- 
els of barley. 

Sergeant Charles McCarthy, one of the 
recently released Fenian prisoners, who, with 
his companions reached Dublin Saturday, died 
suddenly on Monday. 

The sloop-yacht Clara, having been pur- 
chased in New York by San Francisco parties, 
will be brought hither on the deck of the clip- 
per ship Young America. 

The railroad company has discharged about 
300 Chinamen, they having completed their 
part of the grading on the railroad now build- 
ing between Benicia and Suisun. 

Three hundred miles of railroad were con- 
structed in this State last year, bringing the 
number of miles in operation up to figures ex- 
ceeding 1,000. 

On Saturday last, at San Rafael, a boy nine 
years old, while watching the operation of 
scalding a hog at the slaughter house, fell into 
a vat of boiling water. He died on Monday. 

The Courts have decided that the money 
for the compromise in the Lick trust matter, 
must come from the portions of the residuary 
legatees, viz., the Pioneers and Academy of 
Sciences. 

George H. Pendleton has been elected 
United States Senator from Ohio to succeed 
Stanley Matthews, the latter having been 
chosen to fill the unexpired term of John Sher- 
man, Secretary of the Treasury. 

The two most important Committees at work 
under Glover's resolution are: Whitthorne's 
Committee on the Navy Department and Glov- 
er's on the Treasury. The latter have evidence 
already that promises sensational developments. 

The Cousett (England) Iron Co., the largest 
makers of ship plates in the world, have blown 
out one of their blast furnaces, and the men 
employed at another furnace have received no- 
tice that their services will not be required at 
the end of a fortnight. 

Postmaster-General Key says business has 
so increased in the South that over 200 post- 
offices have been made presidential offices, 
namely: such as receive appointment from the 
President, and confirmation by the Senate. 
This indicates prosperity. 

It has been resolved at a meeting of the 
Board of Directors of the Bank of California, 
to declare a dividend at the rate of seven per 
cent, per annum for the three months ending 
December 31st, payable on the 15th instant. 
No dividend has been paid by the bank since 
July, 1875. 

Senator Jones still maintains that the Presi- 
dent will sign Bland's silver bill if passed, and 
ridicules the idea that it will receive a veto. 
He refuses to believe the President will go 
against the silver sentiment of the West and 
allow his judgement to be influenced by hard- 
money members of the Cabinet. 

Lieutenant Clark, who left New Red 
Cloud agency on the 7th instant, and New 
Spotted Tail on the 11th, says: "The Indians 
at both agencies are well satisfied with the 
promises so far carried out, but they are anx- 
ious to move back from the Missouri river in 
the spring, and trouble is anticipated if they 
are not allowed to do so. " 

Tiif. bill for labor schools, introduced in the 
California Senate, authorizes boards of educa- 
tion in the State to give technical education. 
It permits $50,000 to be expended the first year 
and $20,000 per annum thereafter. It also au- 
thorizes a similar school for girls between the 
ages of 13 and 18, where they may learn milli- 
nery, printing, dressmaking, telegraphy and 
engraving. 



Winged Phylloxera. — The Comptes-rewlu* 
of the Academy of Sciences contain a notice of 
M. Boitcau's most recent observations on the 
phylloxera. The winged insects among them 
are this year especially numerous, and, what- 
ever people may say to the contrary, are capa- 
ble of a sustained flight, as anyone may witness 
on a bright afternoon in summer by placing 
himself near the infested vines, with the sun 
shining in his face. The flight of the myriads 
of insects playing around will be found to be 
regular, continuous and rapid, and the capture 
of some of these by the hand will prove that 
nearly all of them are phylloxeras. M. Boiteau 
has also found quantities of winter eggs, the 
very existence of which is still denied by many 
observers, and, so far as his opportunities of re- 
search have extended, it seems probable that 
they are deposited exclusively on the external 
part of the stocks, 



"38 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



[January 19, 1878. 




Eyes. 

Sweet baby eyes 
They look around With such ■ grave surprise, 

What do y>u see? 
A SttBDg* new world, where uilliplft things 
Engender wild Imaginings 

And fancies free ! 
A resting place that is not homo, 
A paradise wherein to roam, 

For years, may be ! 
O placid, wondering; baby eyes, 
The mystery that in you lies 

Oft puzzles me. 

Clear boyish eyes, 
Whose fearless glance unconsciously defies 

Trouble and care; 
When babyhood is past and gone, 
What is it that you graze upon? 

A land most fair; 
A sunny shore with pleasure rife; 
And that greet, glorious gift of life 

'Tis bliss to share, 
O happy, trustful, boyish eyes, 
Let saxes envy, fools despise, 

The faith you wear. 

The anxious eyes 
Of manhood, slowly piercing; earth's disguise, 

Discover— what? 
That life at best is quickly done, 
That hopes fulfilled and wishes won 

Are dearly grot; 
That shadows chased in headlong; haste. 
And golden fruit he stiove to taste, 

Delight him not. 
O, restless, doubting;, troubled eye?, 
To learn in sorrow to be wise 

Is manhood's lot. 

Dim, aged eyes, 
Gazing across the wreck of broken ties. 

What do they see? 
Behind -dead leaves that withered fall. 
A fading wilderness where all 

Is vanity; 
Before to gladden weary sight, 
A glimpse, a promise of the bright 

Eternity. 
O dim and tearful aged eyes, 
If waiting till that dawn shall rise, 

Blessed are ye ! 

And angel eyes, 
Who have their dwelling place beyond the skies, 

Vainly do we 
Imagine the glories they must know. 
Picture the Pearly gates aglow— 

The crystal sea 
For brightest visions mortals paint 
Of that celestial country, faint 

Must ever be. 
No ! pure anil holy eyes, 
We can but pray that what you prize 

Our own may Bee. 

— Lrixun' Hour. 



The Man Who Didn't Want the " Rural." 

An Agent's Story. 

[Written for the Press bv C. EL S. I 

" Well, of course, I can't get along without 
the Rural, so here are two years' subscription," 
said my honest friend, John Nameless. " But 
there's an old fellow up the creek, rich old 
chap, named Midden. If you can fetch him! " 
My friend drew a long, a very long breath, ex- 
pressive of the sheer impossibility of such a 
feat, and, with a smile, I rode off. 

Bravuly the sunlight from the golden west 
flowed over the shining peaks and crept through 
the clinging willows and lit the quiet river, as 
I rode by many a winding path, till I came to 
Midden's house, a small building in a beautiful 
beud of the stream, from which the farm ex- 
tended southward in long, fertile ridges. 

Several men were under a scrawny oak, re- 
pairing a forlorn wagon, so, tying my horse to 
the rickety fence and skirting the prominent 
wood pile, which was crowned by several rusty 
axes, an old hat and a sorrowful oyster can, I 
approached thegroup and asked for Mr. Midden. 

An elderly, withered man faced me, hitching 
his pants up a little, and shifting his extensive 
quid, looked at me, looked at the horse, hitched 
his one suspender again, then Bpoke. 

" Wall, now, what d'ye want ! Hain't got 
no money t' spare. Won't hev no organ, no, 
uur coal He.'' 

I laughed. "Why, my good sir, the agents 
appear to have treated you badly. " 

"Now, don't you deceive yerself, young 
man,'' he said, " I kinder get even." 

The old fellow left his men hammering at the 
wagon, drew himself up on the fence and sat 
there meditatively. 

" There were a Dutchman come jumping by 
her on a pinto mule t'other day," he continued, 
"an' he yelled out, 'would I hev any ile?' 
Wall, I sus, mild-like, oh, yes, light off; an' 
then I let out an' cursed the ornary hippercrit, 
till he sed, ' Was I crazy ? ' an' he rode off 
quick. The old woman said I was mighty good 
natured arter that." 

The old fellow chuckled and looked at me 
suspiciously, as if he thought it would be well 
to clear the atmosphere again. 

" Well, I haven't got any oil at all or a pinto 
mule," I said. "Neither am I a Dutchman." 
blather mollified, he began to whittle, and I 



asked various questions about the soil, climate 
and productions of the district. 

Suddenly he straightened up. "Wall, what 
hev ye yan?" nodding his head towards my 
leather saddle-bags. 

"Mr. Midden," I replied, " you raise good 
crops here ? " 

" In course." 

"Well, of course, you want to raise better, 
and, of course, you want to know what is going 
on and get the best prices and buy cheaply; so, 
of course, you want to take the Rural Press. 

He grinned sardonically, dropped his stick 
and shifted his quid. 

"So that's yer game, young man; its a mighty 
poor hand. Why, I know more about farming 
than all your 'Frisco men." 

" I am glad to hear it," I replied. " If you 
know so much, we will give you $25 per month 
to write lotters for us. You shall have steady 
work and a free copy of the paper if you will 
write as good articles as Stratton, Lyon, Reed, 
Sanders, Drew, Strentzel and a host of others. 

He hitched along on the rail. "Tonguey, 
ain't yer '! I know too much to tell all I know. " 

"That's what people say when they are 
treed," I retored. "Come, I've made you a fair 
offer." 

"Don't want it," he said, shifting his quid. 

"Well, now, Mr. Midden," I suggested 
mildly, " I think you are rather a queer genius, 
with a style of your own. Suppose you let me 
show you a copy of the Rural, with its pre- 
miums, anil, perhaps, I can show you where 
the profit comes in. ' 

" I won't do it." he cried mildly. "You're 
a pretty slick fellow; might talk me over; the 
wimen folks shant hev no paper, he! he!" 

1 straightened up and looked him in the eyes. 
"Mr. Midden, I don't urge your subscription. 
The Rural stands on its own merits. But 
allow me to ask, would you like to make some 
money, a fortune, in fact ? " 

"In course," he drawled out. 

" Well, if you will let me put you in a glass 
case and exhibit you over the State, as the man 
who knows more than the whole Rural Press 
corps, we shall both get rich. I'll furnish half 
the tobacco." 

The motion amused him and he laughed 
loudly. "That's an idea," he said, "but old 
Midden never does what you want. Saay, how 
many subscrips ye got ! ' 

" About lifty so far," I replied. 

"Thunder! Wall, ye don't git me." 

"All right," I said, mounting my horse, "so 
you won't write for the Rural ?" 

"No." 

" And you won't go in a glass case ? " 

" No." 

"Then I'll write you up and print this inter- 
view. I'll call it «ie Man Who Wouldn't 
Take the Rural.'" 

He slapped his skinny hand on his thigh. 
"Great feller, aint ye? I've half a notion ter 
see yer paper. No, I swore I wouldn't. But 
ye're a purty peart chap. Come round next 
year. Mebl>e I'll take it then." 

"Oh, I don't care," I said, "you ought to 
take it for your own sake. Good-bye." 

Half an hour later John Nameless hailed me. 
" Did ye get Midden ? " 

" Well, no," I said, " Midden rather got me: 
but 1 had lots of fun." And, thereupon, I told 
the story. 

John shook his ribs silently, enjoyiug the 
narrative. 

" A queer chicken," he exclaimed. "You 
got off better than anyone else 1 ever heard of." 

" Oh, he couldn't get me mad," I said, 
laughing again, and so rode westward along the 
winding road. 

A Sleeping Car Kpisodk. — Only a few nights 
ago an accident occurred, says the Nashville 
American, on the Northwestern road in which a 
sleeping coach was turned over on its side. As 
the car went over a lady in a berth on the oppo- 
site side was hurled out and landed in the berth 
of a gentleman whose weight was about 230 
pounds. She was sound asleep at the time of 
the accident, and so was he. Both awoke, 
startled at the sudden turning of the car, and 
scarcely knowing whether they would be hur- 
ried into eternity or not. The clothing had 
fallen out of the lady's berth and was almost 
suffocating the gentleman. She heard his deep 
breathing for a moment; then it suddenly 
ceased, and the horrible thought passed through 
her mind that he had been smothered to death. 
He recovered himself, however, to find that his 
nose was flattened against the cold glass win- 
dow. Not knowing what manner of person had 
fallen upon him, he held the lady up off his 
head, and at this juncture, when the conductor 
asked if any one was hurt, he cried out breath- 
lessly: " Nobody's hurt, but I wish you'd come 
and take this fellow off my head." The lady 
attempted to move, but found she could not. 
Lights were soon produred and both passengers 
were relived of their awkward dilemma. 



The Corset Liver. — Some medical students 
in one of the Cincinnati colleges, dissecting a 
female subject a few days ago, found what is 
called in doctor's parlance a "corset liver." 
When tight lacing has been practiced through 
several years, a permanent dent or hollow is 
produced in the liver, which may lie seen very 
plainly after the woman is dead and her liver 
taken out. This kind of liver occurs so fre- 
quently in woman that physicians have given 
it the name of "corset liver." In the subject 
mentioned, the hollow in the liver was large 
enough for the wrist of a grown man to be laid 
iu it. 



A New Year's Greeting 

[Written for the Riral Prf.ss by Sax JoAQOmt, ) 

I yield to an almost irresistible impulse to 
extend to you and all the charmed circle of con- 
tributors who make up the Press family, my 
New Year's greeting. Not so much for the tal- 
ents or originality of the writings do I prize the 
notes from the north and south of our State, as 
for the glimpses of home life, the social feeling 
and good cheer. I, too, have been dreaming — 
building castles iu the air, whose foundation 
stone shall be a fortune something like a bo- 
nanza king's. Then I should send out invita- 
tions to the whole Press family for a glorious 
New Year's banquet. At the door of a heart- 
some, cheery dwelling— not a massive pile of 
stone architecture, with lofty ceilings and dark 
winding passages — I should welcome them. 
They would all be there — the editor, the more 
frequent contributor; and some whose names 
have appeared but once, making you wish to 
hear from them again. 

Would we know each other? No. I venture 
to say there would be many surprises. Those 
whose printed words flow along with unbroken 
ease would be found slow and hesitating. Those 
who, under a convenient nom de plume, ex- 
pressed their sentiments with very positive 
boldness, would in the actual presence of their 
hearers appear shy and retiring, until we should 
feel like poor Hood, who seeing his grave face 
hanging near the smiling one of a noted divine, 
thought the two should have been exchanged. 

But the gravest face should relax in the 
happy hours of the new year devoted to social 
pleasures. Not a ghost of all the vexed ques- 
tions should glide across that banquet hall, but 
the kindliest part of every nature beam from 
the face. With healthful sympathy for each 
other, and courage for the future, the New Year 
may be a good one, and the echoes of the 
Christmas anthem, "Peace on earth, good will 
to man" not die away until the bells ring in an- 
other year. Yes, the New Year may be a good 
one, although no rain falls and no harvest is 
gathered. 

Every day is making it more painfully appa- 
rent that we must draw a long, Ion;/ breath of 
courage to breast another unpropitious season. 
Nothing but hope can anchor the soul amid so 
many repeated discouragements. But hope we 
have, and we wait with what patience we can 
for the good time surely coming. 

KUis, San Joaquin County, Jan. 4th, 1878. 



Silly Extravagance. 

" The diamond coat of Prince Esterhazy, 
from which he dropped enough brilliants at 
every court ball to enrich the servants in the 
morning, has passed into romantic history; but 
the New York correspondent of the Washing- 
ton Capital tells a story that will rank with 
the Esterhazy fable as a companion piece. He 
says the wife of a wealthy banker of that city 
recently appeared at an evening party, whose 
dress was covered on the skirt, so as to make it 
appear as one piece, with one hundred and rive 
hundred dollar bills. The waist and sleeves 
were $1,000 bonds sewed in, and her ringers 
and ears blazed with diamonds. The tiara was 
said to have been worth $80,000, and the total 
value of the notes and diamonds on her person 
was $2<i0,000. Two pages carried her train 
and watched lest the jewels and greenbacks 
should fall to the floor." 

" The American sojourner of wealth is a wel- 
come visitor to Paris. He is an object of spe- 
cial interest to the hotel keepers, hotel servants 
and dealers in costly fabrics. The entertain- 
ment given by Mrs. Mackcy, wife of one of the 
" bonanza chiefs," has been described as bril- 
liant almost beyond precedent, and the trous- 
seau of Miss Yanderbilt, lately married in that 
city, surprised even those accustomed to the 
lavish manner in which our millionaire country- 
men and women make the money fly. Her 
bridal dress was of brocaded satin, woven at 
Lyons from the dressmaker's own design. The 
bridal bonnet, made entirely of lace, in which 
riiie pearls were wrought, and trimmed simply 
with a single marabout feather, cost $75. The 
six bridesmaids' dresses of thin gauze were each 
embroidered with different flowers. All the 
other appointments were on a scale of equal 
magnificence. " 

We clip the above items from one of the 
daily papers. It is hard to read with patience 
of such lavish waste of money when so many 
poor people are starving, and when so many 
worthy enterprises are waiting for the capital 
necessary to push them forward. Is it any 
wonder times are hard when those whom God 
gives wealth use it so basely and with such ut- 
ter inappreciation of the fact that wealth 
should be used as a trust to be wisely disposed 
for the good of the race, and not turned to the 
vortex of vanity and selfish extravagance. 



A "Tolling" Machine. — In the current num- 
ber of Fors Ckifi'jera, Mr. Ruskin gives the 
following note from a correspondent: "Here's 
a good thing for 'Fors.' A to///n</-machine has 
been erected at Ealing cemetery at the cost of 
£80, and seems to give universal satisfaction. 
It was calculated that this method of doing 
things would (at 300 funerals a year) be in the 
long run cheaper than paying a man threepence 
an hour to ring the bell Thus we mourn for 
the departed ! ' 



How and When to Laugh. 

Robert Hall, of world-wide fame, once . 
preached a powerful sermon, and was accompa- 
nied home by a brother minister of the solemn 
sort. Robert was a great wit and his house 
resounded with his hearty laugh, greatly to the 
amazement of his solemn brother, who said, 
"Brother Hall, how can you be so inconsistent?" 

"Oh!" replied Hall, "I get off all my non- 
sense out of the pulpit, you in it!" He knew 
how to unstring his mental bow out of the pul- 
pit, and thus made it the power it was to send 
its arrows down through all time. The other is 
only remembered by this rebuke. 

A laugh is a very characteristic thing. As 
people remarked, cats never laugh, ana some 
people are like cats, cautious, purring, still and 
solemn. Some laugh noisily, with an empty, 
wind- like laugh. As Goldsmith says: "The 
empty laugh that spoke a vacant mind. " Others 
again laugh with a merry, gurgling, and musical 
sound; laugh as the birds sing. Some have a 
sneery, sarcastic laugh, like the yowl of a jackal 
or hyena. Others again have a fat, ox-like kind 
of laugh — a lazy, lubber-like effusion. But one 
thing i - lazier than their laugh, and that is them- 
selves. Another class has a genuine, whole- 
souled, agitating, profound, purifying kind of a 
laugh, which has the same relation to the corpus 
that a storm has to the sea — purifies it to the 
bottom and fills it with health. 

C'arlyle says, "Never fear a man with a 
hearty laugh. " And Charles Lamb says: "A 
laugh is worth a hundred groans in any market." 
I suppose he included the religious exchange. 
Leigh Hunt struck the core of the subject when 
he said: "Laughter is one of the privileges of 
reason, being confined to the human mind." 
And Addison added: "If w-e consider the fre- 
quent relief we receive from laughter, and how 
often it breaks the gloom which is apt to depress 
the mind, one would take care not to grow too 
wise for so great a pleasure of life. " 

Above all things laugh in the right place! 
Don't laugh when a piece of hot pancake is 
burning your tongue, nor cry when your mother- 
in-law falls down stairs at the risk of breaking 
her neck. Above all things, rememtar the 40th 
commandment, which reads: "Laugh if you 
would grow fat and be wise, for he alone who 
laugheth rightlv, liveth wisely." — Rev. Geo. H. 
Peeke. 



Attaching Wages. — Judge Stowe, of Pitta- 
burg, has aunouueed a new rule of practice 
governing the attachment of wages. The case 
was that of George Miller vs. George Rush, in 
which wages in the hands of Singer, Niuiick & 
Co., garnishee, were attached. A rule was 
asked to show cause why the attachment should 
not be quashed. The Court says: "There is, 
perhaps, no other class of cases in which it is 
so necessary to adopt a summary proceeding as 
this. The law is that the laborer shall have his 
wages to live and support his family upon, with- 
out being liable to have them seized in execu- 
tion for his debts, and courts should, as far as 
possible, see that this object is secured and the 
iaw so administered as best to reach the result 
intended. To allow wages to be attached, and 
then compel the laborer to wait for mouths, 
and perhaps for years, to get a trial before a 
jury on facts which are not disputed, is clearly 
wrong, and undoubtedly should not be permit- 
ted if it can be avoided. We think the court 
has a right to and can establish a practice to 
secure the end proposed, without infringing the 
right of trial by jury. We have, therefore, 
come to the conclusion that hereafter when 
wages are attached, as in this case, we will quash 
the attachment as to them, permitting it to 
stand so far as other debts, if any not exempt, 
are concerned. But whenever the allegation 
that the debt attached is for wages, is properly 
traversed under oath, we will refuse to quash, 
and require the cause to go to a jury to deter- 
mine all questions of facts involved." 



Refusing Passage to a Drunken Man.— 
In a recent case the Indiana Supreme Court 
holds: A railroad company is not bound to re- 
ceive any person as a passenger who is drunk to 
such a degree as to be disgusting, offensive, dis- 
agreeable or annoying; and a person so drunk 
as to be likely to violate the common proprie- 
ties, civilities and decencies of life has no right 
to passage while in that condition. The com- 
fort and convenience of passengers generally 
must be protected, their opinions and feelings 
regarded, and a proper decorum observed. Al- 
though in a railroad passenger car neither the 
highest breeding of the drawing-room nor the 
fastidious delicacy of the parlor is required, yet 
the behavior of all persons therein should be 
becoming the place and the general character of 
the passengers. Slight intoxication, such as 
would not be likely to seriously affect the con- 
duct of the person intoxicated, would not be 
sufficient ground to refuse passage in a public- 
car, although the persons behavior might not be 
in all respects strictly becoming. 

American Progress in Science. — TheCAem- 
ical Xews, London, warmly praises the exertions 
made by the local and general governments of 
the United States for the advancement and dif- 
fusion of science, and calls especial attention to 
the fact that the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology has provided special laboratories for 
the instruction of women in chemistry — analyt- 
ical, industrial, and physiological; in botany, 
mineralogy, microscopic manipulation, etc. ; and 
it gives credit for the work done in this depart- 
ment by the ladies. 



January 19, 1878. J 



THE PACIFIC 1I11L PRESS 



Oven Builders. 

There are few vocations of such a distressing 
character as that of the oven builder. At the 
best of times, when he is engaged in building a 
new oven and is not subjected to the intense 
heat that usually accompanies operations in one 
already constructed, he is compelled to work in 
a painfully constrained position, and this is ren- 
dered more intolerable when having to replace 
broken tile or repair a fissure in the roof, he is 
obliged, by the exigencies of the baker's busi- 
ness, which will not permit him to let his oven 
stand several days to cool, to perform the job in 
a condition of temperature that to ordinary 
persons would be unendurable. In operations 
of this nature oven builders always work in 
couples. Placing a flour sack rolled up at the 
mouth of the oven, the workman crawls into 
the chasm on his stomach, unfolds flat be- 
fore him, and then, resting upon it, wrig- 
gles himself or is pushed into the place 
where the repair has to be effected, while his 
comrade, standing at the door, ready to pull 
him out should he be overcome by the heat, 
hands in the tools as he requires them. Great 
care has to be exercised in using the latter. If 
left in the oven long they become too hot to 
handle, and in consequence, together with the 
mortar and other repairing material, are always 
kept outside until actually needed. After work- 
ing about five minutes the signal is given, and 
the man hauled out by the heels, throws himself 
upon the dough-board, where a sort of bed of 
flour sacks has been improvised for the occasion. 
Among these he buries himself to prevent his 
catching cold, and for a few moments his writh- 
ings alone testify the stress of suffering to which 
he has been subjected. The effect of the heat 
is more appreciated when, on emerging from 
the sacks to refresh himself in a copious draft 
of beer, his clothes are found to be literally 
dripping with perspiration. The wonder is 
that men should be found willing to devote 
themselves to such a business as this, but the 
wages are high, and, in spite of the suffering 
the work entails, as much competition exists in 
the oven building trade as in other walks of 
life. 




"Nothing But a Parmer." 

"He's nothing but a farmer," said a little 
miss, a few evenings since, as she scornfully 
curled her pretty lip, on being introduced to a 
fine, generous, open-hearted fellow, whose 
broad and expansive forehead was the symbol 
of his broad acres. "He's nothing but a 
farmer." And who was she that looked thus 
disdainfully on one of God's noble men ? She 
was the daughter of a broken merchant, whose 
fortune had been ruined by the extravagance of 
a wife and foolishly proud daughter. Though 
her father's heart had been wrung by misfor- 
tune — and he had paid the penalty of extrava- 
gance by being incarcerated in the home pre- 
pared for criminals — his daughter had not yet 
learned the difference between pride and worth, 
extravagance and wealth. The noble man who 
ate the bread of industry and looked every man 
in the face with an independence which said, 
"I owe you nothing," was in her estimation 
"only a farmer." 

Did these foolish persons ever read their 
Bibles, they would find that God himself has 
selected His prophets and kings from among 
farmers. Noah was a husbandman and planted 
a vineyard; Abraham was rich in cattle and 
Lot had flocks and herds — insomuch that there 
was not pasture for both and they divided the 
country. Lot selected the plain of Jordan and 
Abraham took the hilly country of Canaan. 

Jacob was a great cattle grower, as he pre- 
sented Esau with several hundred cattle. 
Moses was a wool grower and Gideon was taken 
from his threshing floor. Saul was a herds- 
man, even while he was king. David was a 
shepherd and was taken from that occupation 
to be king of Israel, and the ancestor, according 
to the flesh, of the Messiah. Uzziah was a 
cattle grower. Elisha was plowing, with 12 
yoke of oxen before him, when Elijah cast his 
mantle on him and called him to be a prophet 
of the Most High. 

And yet, though God has honored the hus 
bandman — selected his kings and prophets from 
among the farmers — there are some so foolish as 
to cry out, " O, he's nothing but a farmer ! '' 

Postal Note. — " How much do ye ax for 
twinty three-cint stamps I dunno ? " Inquired 
Barney Drumgoole, at the post-office wicket 
" Sixty cents, " replied the clerk. "Don't yer 
make any reducshin at all for buying thim that 
way?" "No." "Say half a dollar, now." 
" I can't make any reduction." "I'll give ye 
fifty-five cints." "If you don't want to buy 
stamps at the regular price, go away and make 
room for other people, said the official savagely 
"Well, ye needn't get mad over it," said Barney, 
as he handed over the money. "Sure, it's 
mighty stiff and stuck-up like, posht-office 
people are. Faix, now, av some av the people 
as av money wud shtart an opposition posht 
office an' be more accommodatin', they'd take 
the heft av the business away from them, so 
they wud." 

A witness in a Western court was asked if 
the party to the suit was not a truthful man, 
"No," he answered; "he'd sooner lie at CO 
days tha.i tell the truth for cash." 



Y©^[*Q F@Lks' OoLlJ^N. 



"What Shall We Do?" 

A mother sat stitching and stitching away, 
It rained and hur buys were in door at play, 
When one of them came and leaned on her chair, 
And said with a touchingly wearied-out air, 
"We've played every play in the world that we know; 
Nolo, what shall we do? 1 

Before poor mamma had a chance to reply, 
The rest of the little ones gathered close by, 
And the sum of their troubles all seemed the same: 
"We wish we knew some wonderful game. 
We've been sailors and soldiers, and fought battles too; 
Now, what. shall we do?" 

Mamma thought for a moment, then gaily replied, 
"Build a palace of blocks with portico wide, 
And play that the owner had money to spend, 
And wanted to decorate rooms without end, 
And ordered some pictures painted by you; 
That's what you can do. 

"Now each take a pencil and paper, and draw 
The most wonderful thing that ever you saw; 
A lilly, a sunset, a shore, or a sea, 
A georgeous-winged butterfly chasing a bee; 
Or — three little boys that are saying like you, 
'Now, what shall we do ?' " 

The brightened-up children took pencils in hand, 
(As amateur artists, you'll all understand) 
And worked at their pictures until it was plain 
The funny gray clouds had forgotten to rain; 
And mamma had a rest (not a long one, its true), 
From, "What shall we do?" 

O! sweet, patient mothers! in this earnest way 
You are doing life's work, while your little ones play; 
You are fashioning souls that hereafter shall rise, 
God's beautiful angels, winged, to the skies; 
Anil Heaven makes reply to your "What shall we do?' 
Since love teaches you. 



Good Manners at Home. — Shut every door 
after you, without slamming it. 

Never stamp, jump, or run in the house. 

Never call to a person up-stairs, or in the 
next room; if you wish to speak to them, go 
quietly where they are. 

Always speak kindly and politely to the ser- 
vants, if you would have them do the same to 

you. 

When told to do, or not to do, a thing by 
either parent, never ask why you should or 
should not do it. 

Tell of your own faults, not of those of your 
brothers and sisters. 

Carefully clean the mud or snow from your 
boots or shoes before entering the house. 

Be prompt at every meal. 

Never sit down at the table or in the parlor 
with dirty hands or tumbled hair. 

Never interrupt any conversation, but wait 
patiently for your turn to speak. 

Never reserve your good manner for strangers, 
but be equally polite at home and abroad. 

Let your first, last, and best confidant be your 
mother. — Oliver Optic's Magazine. 



"I wish I was short-sighted," said a little boy 
to his mother, the other day. "Why, my 
dear?" said the fond parent. "Because," replied 
the precocious six-year-old, "I should not then 
be blamed for always taking the largest plums 
off the dish; for, of course, I should not be able 
to see the small ones." 



"I will not learn a trade 1" exclaimed the 
Chicago youth to his father. But this business 
of learning a trade is only a matter of time, for 
within a year that young man was studying 
harness-making in State-prison. 

"Mister, will you lend pa your paper? He 
wants to send it to his uncle in the country." 
"Oh! certainly. And ask your father if he'll 
lend me the roof of his house? I only want it 
to make the tea-kettlo boil?" 



esjic economy. 



Causes of Diphtheria. 

In a paper read before the Syracuse Medical 
Society, and printed in the Journal of Chemis- 
try, E. R. Maxson M. D., L. L. D., instances the 
following conditions as conducive to diphtheria: 
In this as in all putrid fevers every imprudence 
and deviation from the laws of health", such as 
exposure, want, improper clothing, unwhole- 
some and improper food, low, damp apartments, 
filth of every kind, including animal aud vege- 
table, act as predisposing causes. 

A damp atmosphere, such as always exists 
in some localities, from protracted rains, or 
from warm weather at seasons when it is usu- 
ally cool, there being little ozone generated to 
purify the air, may also predispose to this dis- 
ease. It acts, doubtless, not only by causing 
to be retained in the blood the perspirable mat- 
ter, but also by letting down the positive elec- 
trical condition, depressing vitality, thus ren- 
dering the brain incompetent to generate and 
distribute sufficient vital force to keep up 
a perfectly healthy condition of the system. 
The generation of ozone during thunder storms 
in summer, purifying the air, lessens the liabil- 
ity to this disease. 

On the temperate, well-fed, properly clothed, 
and cleanly, whose blood may be up to the 
standard of health, such atmospheric and elec- 
trical influences may scarcely operate unfavor- 
ably. Not so, however, with the unfortunate 
children of want, who are half fed, improperly 
clothed, and filthy withal. Nor with the in- 
temperate nor imprudent, not with the gaud- 
ily-dressed, bare-armed and bare-legged chil- 
dren of wealth and vanity, equally unfortunate, 
their parents not having the discretion to pro- 
tect a child as they would a brute. 

It is probable, however, that in every case of 
diphtheria there is an animal poison introduced 
into the blood, either from the bodies of those 
suffering from the disease, or else arising from 
an accumulation, and perhaps decomposition, 
of various animal secretions and exhalations. 
It is also probable that the paludal poison is 
generally combined with the animal, in a 
greater or less degree; often in sufficient quan- 
tity to render the disease slightly remittent, 
and increasing its malignancy. 

It appears that the animal and paludal poisons 
combined, or else the contagion, when it is thus 
contracted, may early enter the blood through 
the skin, stomach, or lungs, decomposing the 
fluid; and hence the putrid odor, and the fib- 
rino-albuminous exudation, prostration, chills, 
fever, and every essential feature of the dis- 
ease; the animal miasm decomposing, or pro- 
ducing fermentation, while the paludal de- 
presses the nervous system, causing the remit- 
tent tendency. The contagion, when it is the 
cause, produces a similar change in both re- 
spect; such cases being, perhaps, less remittent, 
especially in districts that are but slightly if at 
all malarious. 

Among the sources of the poisons causing 
diphtheria, the most frequent are doubtless 
personal filth, dirty, damp apartments, imper- 
fect sink-drains, privies, filthy water, pig-sties, 
hen-coops, and piles of decomposing animal and 
vegetable matters. 



Soups. 

The delicate and proper blending of savors, 
writes a housewife to the Germantown Teh- 
graph, is the chief art of good soup making. 
Be sure and skim the grease off the soup when 
it first boils, or it will not become clear. 
Throw in a little salt to bring up the scum. 
Remove all the grease. Be sure and simmer 
softly, and never let a soup boil hard. Put the 
meat into cold water, and let it grow warm 
slowly. This dissolves the gelatine, allows the 
albumen to disengage, and the scum to rise, and 
diffuses the savory part of the meat. But if 
the soup is over a hot fire, the albumen coagu- 
lates and hardens the meat, prevents the water 
from penetrating, and the savory part from dis- 
engaging itself. Thus the broth will be with- 
out flavor, aud the meat tough. Allow about 
two tablespoonfuls of salt to four quarts of 
soup, where there are many vegetables, aud one 
and a-half where there are few. Be sure not to 
leave any fat floating on the surface. A quart 
of water, or a little less, to a pound of meat, is 
a good rule. Soup made of uncooked meat is 
as good the second day, if heated to the boiling 
point. If more water is needed, use boiling hot 
water, as cold or hike warm spoils the soup. 
It is thought that potato water is unhealthy, 
and therefore do not boil potatoes in soup, but 
boil elsewhere, and add them when nearly 
cooked. Keep the vessel tight in which you 
boil soup, that the flavor be not lost. Never 
leave soup in metal pots, as sometimes a family 
is thus poisoned. Thickened soups require 
more seasoning, nearly double the quantity 
used for thin soups. 



"Charley, what is it that makes you so 
sweet?" said a loving mother to her little boy, 
as she pressed him to her bosom. "I dess when 
Dod made me out of dust He put a little thuger 
in," snid ( 'barley. 



Adapt your Shoes to your Feet. — Why it 
should be desirable to have a small, weak foot 
any more than a small and weak brain is not 
easy to conceive. For the purpose of having 
such small feet, not a few wear boots one or 
two sizes too small, and about two-thirds of the 
width of the foot, as it would be at^the ball if 
allowed to spread as it does when standing 
without the confinement of the boot. As a 
natural and necessary result of such pinching 
confinement, the foot becomes deformed and 
larger than it would naturally grow, with en 
larged joints, the toes turned from a line 
parallel with the foot, to say nothing of the 
troublesome corns so annoying and crippling to 
a large class of young women. The worst re 
suits of this crippling custom of wearing small 
and narrow boots is felt by children when al 
lowed to outgrow their boots. It is poor econ 
omy to allow the young to wear boots when the 
feet have become too large for them, since de 
formity of the feet is easily produced at this 
time. When the boot is too short for the 
wearer, and the heel too high, the ingrowing of 
the nails is a perfectly natural result. 



Scarlet Fever. — Rules for the prevention 
of scarlet fever have lately been issued by the 
Michigan Board of Health, and as this is one of 
the most contagious of diseases, it might bo 
well to bear them in mind. The first precau 
tion is the isolation of the sick from the well 
and the prevention of contact with the patient. 
The room should be cleared from all unnecessary 
clothing, carpets or other substances in which 
the poison may lurk and be thence transferred 
elsewhere. The patient should use rags instead 
of handkerchiefs, so that they may be burned. 
Body and bed linen should bo placed in vessels 
of water containing chloride of lime or similar 
substance. Discharges should, be received in a 
solution of sulphate of iron or copper and be 
afterward buried. Persons recovering from 
this disense should be considered dangerous as 
long as there is any scaling «f the skin, soreness 
of the eyes, etc. Many other precautions are 
inculcated, all of which are considered more or 
less important. 



Dose for Rats. — A writer to the Rural 
New Yorker says: My method of ridding my- 
self of rats in the cellar, or about the house, is 
to take a quantity of refined potash, (I use 
Babbit's) partially pulverize it, moisten it with 
water, so that it will form a sort of paste, and 
daub this about the bottoms of their holes and 
run-ways, so that they are compelled to step 
in it, in entering the premises. 1 have prac- 
ticed this method for several years, with very 
satisfactory results. If the first application is 
not sufficient, it can, of course, be repeated 
with but little trouble or expense, and I am 
confident of favorable results. Such, at least, 
has uniformly been my experience since I first 
adopted the method, many years since. The 
theory is, the rats step in the moistened potash 
while entering. Its caustic nature produces a 
smarting sensation in the feet. He at once 
proceeds to lick his feet' to alleviate the pain. 
The consequence is, a not-very agreeable sensa- 
tion in the mouth. He is compelled to renew 
the application in going out — result, he does 
not care to renew his visit, and probably im- 
parts good counsel to his associates, and the rat 
nuisance is at once abated. I prefer this 
method to the use of phosphorus, or any of the 
" rat poisons " recommended, as it is not al- 
ways safe to have the latter around, and we 
have no dead rats left in the walls or other out- 
of-the-way places to infect the air with their 
offensive odors. 



About Vegetables. — Don't wash your veg- 
etables, says the Phrenological Journal, until 
just before you are ready to cook them. At 
least one-quarter of the sweetness, vivacity and 
aromatic element is lost by the too common 
practice of having washed clean of the natural 
earth adhering to its fibers and surface during 
the growth, and which, when roughly dug, 
is put into the cellar or pit of the countryman 
for winter keeping. Did that countryman wash 
each beet, carrot, potato, etc., as is generally 
practiced for sale by the dealer, and by the con- 
sumer desired, he would never bo able to keep 
his produce a single month. The receiver of a 
clean-washed vegetable, according to the newly 
established law of refinement, never yet ate of 
a good natural flavor, and these same people, 
if once they leave their city homes and go into 
the country farm-house, rarely fail to notice the 
superiority of the vegetables. It is not because 
of the better knowledge of cooking, butjit is 
from the fact that the earth is a preservative 
and absorbent of the volatile element of the 
root, which, as soon as washed, evaporates 
rapidly into the air and is lost. 



Seasoning Food. — Many people have the 
idea that a finely flavored dish must cost a 
great deal. Th;vt is a mistake; if you have un- 
tainted meat, or sound vegetables, or even In- 
dian meal, to begin with, you can make it 
delicious with proper seasoning. One reason 
why French cooking is so much nicer than any 
other is that it is seasoned with a great variety 
of herbs and spices. These cost very little. If 
you would buy a few cents worth at a time you 
would soon have a good assortment. The best 
kinds are sage, thyme, sweet marjoram, tarra- 
gon, mint, sweet basil, parsley, bay leaves, 
cloves, mace, celery seed and onions. When 
you buy a bunch of dried herbs rub' the leaves 
through a sieve, and bottle them tightly till you 
need them; tie the stalks together and save 
them until you want to make what the French 
call a bouquet, for a soup or stew. A bouquet 
of herbs is made by tying together a few sprigs 
of parsley, thyme and two bay leaves. The 
bay leaves, which have the flavor of laurel, can 
be bought at any German grocery or drug store, 
enough to last a long time Tor five cents, 



40 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 19, 1878. 




A T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER 

DEWEY & CO , Publishers. 
Office, 202 Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine.. St. 



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lor 1878. 

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The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO.. Patent Solicitors. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWER. 0. B. 8TR0NO. J. L. BOONE 

SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 19, 1878. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS A Hereford Heifer; 
No Irrigation Meetings; swine as Vineyards Gleaners, 
33. Tne Week; Protection of the Wool Industry; Tem- 
perature and Kainfall; Heavy Grapes; Personal, 40. 
Agricultural Topics tieiore the Legislature; The Itains; 
A Plan for a Flower Garden; Our New Year's Callers, 41. 

ILLUSTRATIONS -Thoroughbred Hereford Heifer. 
33. Diagram 01 a Flower Garden, 41. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Notes from Fresno County; 
Notes in San Diego County; A Hide Through Lisoon 
District, 34 

HORTICULTURE Hints to Orchard Planters. 34 

Plum Growing; Coffee Seed, 34-3o. 
ARBORICULTURE — Cultivation and Kainfall, 

No 4, 36. 

FLORICULTURE. Pruning Flowering Shrubs, 35 

PATitONiOr' HUSBANDRY.— Temescal Orange 
Installation; Sacramento Grange; Installation and Lec- 
ture at S.ocktou Grange; In Metuoriam; Poino Grange; 
Pomona Grange No. 3, Endorses Stockton Grange, 
Election of Ollicers; The Salaries of Officers of the 
National Gronge; Morro Grange, 36. 

AURIC LTLT U UAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties in California, 3fJ-37- 

NEWS IN BRIEF on page 36 and other pages. 

THE SWINE YARD -Bacon, Hams and Pork, 35- 
42. 

HOME CIRCLE — Eyes (Poetry); The Man Who 
Didn't Want tiie "Rural"; The Corset Liver; A New- 
Year's Greeting; Silly Extravagance; How and When to 
Laugh; Attaching Wages; Refusing Passage to a 
Drunken Man; American Progress in science, 38. 
Oven Builders; "Nothing But a Farmer;" Postal 
Note, 39. 

YOUNU FOLKS' COLUMN.-"What Shall We 

Do'.'" (Poetry); Good Manners at Home, 39 
GOOD HEALTH. - Causes of Diphtheria,; Adapt 

Your Shoes to Your Feet; Scarlet Fever, 39. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY -Soups; Dose for Rats; 

About Vegetables; Seasoniug Food, 39- 
QUERIES AND REPLIES.— Bird Lime; Honcv 

Locust or Three- 1'honicd Acacia, 40 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. 

seed Catalogue. B. K. Bliss 4: Sons, N. Y.; Farming, 
Vineyard and Orchard Lands to Let; Vick's Flower and 
Vegetable Seeds, James Vick, Rochester, N. Y. ; Annual 
Meeting, Granger's Business Association, S. F. ; Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine, W. 4; J. Robinson, Hantord, 
Tulare Co., Cal.; Pear Seedlings, Hunter & Brewer, 
Springwater, Livingston Co., N. Y. 



The Week. 

This rain is grand. It will nerve the arm of 
every farmer to redoubled effort, and it will till 
many an aching pocket with comfortable gold. 
It will bill trade revive, and will make invest- 
ment relax its twisted features. It will awake 
our State from the troubled slumbers which 
the long drouth induced and will dispel the 
dreams of hardship and distress by the dawn- 
ing of the sun of general prosperity. Let all 
rejoice and give thanks. 



Almond Blossoms. — Mr. K. L. Beard, of 
Mission .San Jose, Alameda county, iuforms us 
that almond trees are in blossom m the old mis- 
sion orchard. The trees are of the bitter 
almond variety. The recent frosts did but little 
injury in the Mission belt, and that to tender 
garden plants. 



Protection of the Wool Industry. 

It has become a common remark that while 
Congress is in session the business interests of 
the country tremble. It is quite natural that 
this should be the case, for our national law 
makers have in their hands the power to so 
change the laws and regulations of trade that a 
commodity in which men may invest their 
money, or a line of industry in which all their 
interests are involved, may be reduced in a 
few days from a condition of profitability to 
the reverse. The men whom we choose to make 
laws for us often have far too little knowledge 
of the needs of producers and are led into vot- 
ing for measures which are proposed by trade 
theorists or the emissaries of foreign capitalists, 
and which, if permitted to go upon the statute 
book, will result in snatching the bread from 
the mouths of thousands of our producing 
classes. Although questions of the national 
finance have bearings of this kind, it is chieHy 
in the so-called "tariff tinkering" that elements 
of uucertainty and loss are involved. It is re- 
ported, and, so far as we know, with truth, 
that during the last year or two the believers in 
free trade and the removel of all protective du- 
ties have succeeded in increasing their power 
in Congress and that at the present session a 
determined effort will be made to launch the 
nation upon a free trade experiment. We do 
not propose to discuss the general theories of 
free trade and protection, because the argu- 
ments on either side are well nigh endless and 
a discussion of them might involve us and our 
correspondents in a maze of finely drawn argu- 
ments for which we have no space. What we 
lesign to do is to call attention to a single 
point at issue, and that is the one which in- 
volves the great wool industry of the Pacific 
coast. 

It is believed that a movement has been set 
on foot to remove the protective tariff on wool 
and woolen goods, and thus admit duty free the 
woolen fabrics from Europe and the great 
masses of wool which are being clipped in Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand and the South American 
States. The immediate effect of such free ad- 
mission ot wool, raw and manufactured, would 
undoubtedly be to greatly reduce the prices 
which our Hock masters are now receiving for 
their clips and which aie certainly low enough 
already. This being so, it is evident that for 
the protection of their own interests our wool 
growers should let their voices be heard by 
those who represent them in Congress, and 
thus bring forward an intelligent and forcible 
opposition to the removal of the duty on im- 
ported wools and woolens. We notice that 
wool growers both East and West are awaking 
to the necessity of united action in this direc- 
tion. The National Association of Wool <!row- 
ers aud the National Association of Woolen 
Manufacturers, have worked together for the 
last 10 years in protection of their mutual in- 
terests, and these two societies are now awake 
to present dangers. For the last year they 
have b»en at work gathering the strength of 
the industries into focus for use at the proper 
time, and we have no doubt that the parties 
who w ish to open our ports to unlimited quan- 
tities of wool and woolens, will find that those 
whose interests are threatened will contest the 
point with vigor. We notice that the National 
Wool Growers' Association have arranged for a 
sheep show at St. Louis next fall, at which all 
the wool-growing States will be invited to com- 
pete for liberal premiums. The gathering of 
the growers on such an occasion will enable 
them to make their influence felt toward the 
maintenance of favorable laws with regard to 
the industry. We hope that some of our tine 
Pacific coast sheep may be shown at St. Louis 
and that our coast may speak for itself in the 
councils of the growers. 

The subject of the maintenance of the present 
tariff is attracting attention on this eoast, as we 
notice by a very forcible letter by an Oregon 
grower, Mr. T. S. Lang, in the Willamette 
/•'<* rm- r. From this letter we draw the follow- 
ing statements, bearing upon the general sub- 
ject: "The report of the Australian govern- 
ment upon its industries for 1876, deplores the 
low state of their wool growing interests, which 
for that year was five times greater than the 
combined returns of all other industries, in- 
cluding mining products of the continent, and 
adds that there is reason to hope that the com- 
bined influences of the boards of trade, indus- 
trial associations and commercial circles of the 
Home government, of their own ports and that 
of the boards of trade of the commercial cities 
of America, will be able to break down the pro- 
tective tariff of the United States and again 
open up that great market to their overstocked 
wool market. 

"I have no hesitation in expressing the 
belief that should our ports be opened to Aus- 
tralia, to New Zealand, to Buenos Ayres, Cape 
of Good Hope, Adrianople and the wool produc- 
ing parts of the world, at such reduced rates of 
duty as will admit of free importation, the 
sheep in the Columbia valley will not be worth 
the pelts which now cover them. We pay our 
herders $400 per year and board, while the 
average of wages for the same service in the 
countries named is $160 and board. 

' ' The following are the words of Prof. Grothe, 
of Berlin, a member of the Imperial Parliament, 
of Germany, upon the effect of free trade upon 
their wool industries: ' We formerly had in 
Germany the best wool in the world and a most 



flourishing sheep husbandry. The whole world 
was attracted to the (lerman market of fine 
wool, and the German woolen cloths in nearly 
all qualities was the best produced in any coun- 
try. Since the first and second steps in the 
way of free trade, we have lost successively our 
great number of sheep and our great quantities 
of fine cloth.' He adds that a large portion of 
the wool now used in ( iermany, is purchased in 
London wool market, which, should friendly- 
relations be disturbed between the nations, 
would close the German mills." 

These things are well worth the attention of 
our wool growers. So far as we can see, there 
is nothing which promises to bring the industry 
again into its former position of profit, except 
the maintenance of the tariff of 1867, which 
was the cause of the prosperity of the following 
years. Now, as a revival of general business is 
confidently expected all over the country, it 
would be but a sorry sight for our wool grow- 
ers to see the renewal of demand for woolen 
goods met by a free importation of foreign 
fabrics, and their own sheep sacrificed liecause 
the money of our own citizens is taken to enrich 
the shepherds in all the quarters of the globe 
instead of falling into the worthy , hands of 
home producers. This, we believe, will be the 
condition of our wool industry unless Congress 
should wisely refrain from meddling with a pro- 
tective measure which has fostered the great 
development of our wool resources. 



Temperature and Rainfall. 

While frosts were coming thick and fast, not 
long since, and no less than eight or ten came 
and went without bringing rain (much to the 
disgust of old residents who usually had use for 
their umbrellas after the third frost) we deter- 
mined to look into the possible relations which 
might exist between temperatures and rainfalls 
on this coast. Repressing the alluring task of 
drawing eloquent conclusions oh both sides of 
the question before examining the record, we 
set our pencil at work among the tables of tem- 
perature and rainfall for the last 25 years in this 
city. It is well we did so, for if we understand 
the figures aright, there is but narrow ground 
to base any deduction upon. We will, how- 
ever, lay our computations before our readers 
and if they can make any more of them than 
we can we shall be glad to know it. 

We took the tables of mean temperatures for 
each month in the year and struck another 
mean between those months (October to April) 
which comprise the rainy season in each fiscal 
year. Opposite this mean we place the rainfall 
lor that fiscal year and the result is shown as 
follows: 

Year. Mean temperature. Rainfall. 

1852- 3 64.7 33.5 

1853- 1 68.3 28.0 

1854- 5 5«.s 24 1 

1855- 6 58.8 21.2 

185(1-7 54.0 20 

1857-8 64.5 10.0 

185S-9 50K 10.8 

1859-00 61. !> 17. r 

1800- 1 62 14.0 

1862- 2 61.1 88.0 

1801- 3 55.8 15.2 

1863- 4 50 4 8.5 

1804- 5 53.7 21.3 

1805- 54.1 21.2 

1800-7 54.9 32.0 

1807-8 53.8 40.5 

1868-9 55.3 21.0 

1809-70 54.3 20.0 

1870- 1 53.5 13.0 

1871- 2 tAH 33.10 

1872- 3 55 3 17.6 

1873- 4 52.2 24.1 

1874- 5 52.7 18.2 

1875- 6 54.5 28.2 

1876- 7 55.6 

As one studies this table he will think he 
sees reason for first placing the greatest rainfall 
at the lowest temperature, because the wettest 
year, 61-62 (38 inches), was at the low temper- 
ature of 51.1°, and because the driest year 63- 
4 (8.5 inches), was at a high temperature of 
56 4°. But if the inquiry is pushed farther it 
will be discovered that some of the heaviest 
rain years were those of the higher tempera- 
tures. To make a careful comparison of the 
whole list of 25 years we took the medium tem- 
perature of 54.3' as a median point and grouped 
the 12 remaining years as they graded above 
and below it. The following is the result: 

I.oW TKMPKRATl'ltES. 1— IMJH1IIIIIH 

/><•</»•<•«> Rainfall. Degree*. Rainfall 



>0. 6 

11.1 



52.2. 
52.0. 



.19.8 
.38.0 
.17.1 
.24.1 
.14.0 



56.8. 
56.4. 
55.8. 
55.8. 
55.6. 



52.7 

53.6 

53.7 

53.8 

53.8 



54 . 1 . 



Is 2 
.13.0 
.21.3 
.40.5 
.21.2 
.20.0 
.21.2 



55.3. 
55.3. 
55.3. 
54.9. 
54.7. 
54.5. 
54.5. 



. . . .24.1 
.... 8.6 
....15.2 
....33.1 

10.0 

23.0 

. . . .21.0 



.32.0 
.33.5 
.2S.2 
19.0 



Average of low temp's .22.41 Average nf high temp's 22. OS 
This table shows that there is but one-third 
of an inch increase in the average rainfall at the 
lower temperatures. The average being so 
close it is not strange that different observers 
find individual cases within their memory to 
warrant them in declaring in favor of either 
high or low temperature with heavy rains. 
Our conclusion from these computations would 
lie that the temperature has very little to do 
with it. 

Our tables are made from the records of Dr. 
H. Gibbon, as his only give both temperature 
aud rainfall for so long a period. 

Thf. amount of customs dues paid at this port 
last week was $73, '299. 



Bird Lime. 

Kiiitoks Prkss: In the Rirai, Truss of Deeember 29th, 
1877, 1 noticed an article on bird lime. Can it be procured 
in San Francisco, and if so, of what firm, and what would 
it Boat? -M. K Samkrs, Hiieneme, Cal. 

The inquiry which we have made fails to dis- 
cover bird lime in our stores. One of our lead- 
ing wholesale druggists, Mr. J. R. Gates, said 
that he had a package about seven years ago, 
and had sold it, but there has been no inquiry 
since that time. It can, of course, be obtained 
easily from dapan if people call for it, as our 
drug houses have correspondents in Yokohama. 
Mr. Gates informs us that the price would range 
from 30 to SO cents per pound. It comes in 
wooden packages something like a butter firkin. 

Honey Locust or Three-Thorned Acacia. 

Editors Prkss: — This is a tree of rapid 
growth and good size, foliage beautiful, leaves 
pinnate, close at night; seed pods a foot or more 
in length. The tree is armed with triple or 
branching thorns sometimes a foot in length. 
They are trained in hedges and grown there as 
a wind brake. Mr. Pearson, near Florin, has 
grown a tine hedge of honey locust facing one 
side of his garden; the front hedge being of 
osage orange. Both do well; both, properly 
trained, would make it impassable for man or 
beast. Soak the seed the same as black locust, 
as it quickens germination. Let the stem rise 
six feet, then check it to force out lateral 
shoots. I see difference of opinion in forming 
them, some advocate plassing, others the ordi- 
nary way, turning over. I believe this covers 
the question under the above head of your cor- 
respondent in Rural I'ress of January 12th. — 
Geo. Kirn. Sacramento, Cal. 

Diseased Cattle at Large. 

F.pitors I'ress: —There arc diseased horses running at 
large a part of the time, and frequently traveling the 
public roads, badly infeeted with a disease said to be the 
epizootic, and in this vicinity several have lost good 
horses from so becoming infeeted. We would like to re- 
main law-abiding citizens, so what shall we do? — A. C. 
BabBODB, Snelling, Cal. 

If the horse or other diseased animal has no 
owner, either go out and shoot it down, and 
take the consequences of the act, or take it up 
as an estray and then have it condemned and 
killed. If it has an owner, and he refuses either 
to kill the animal or have it killed, have him 
arrested for maintaining a public nuisance. 

The No-Fence Law. 
1 Kditors Press:- Asa subscriber of the Kiral Press, I 
would like to ask if the no-fence law has been abolished 
by the Supreme Court of the StateT-E. G. DvDLlT, Salt, 
Cal. 

The "no-fence" law, which was passed two 
\cars ago, is still in force. No decision adverse 
to it has been made by the Supreme Court. It 
only applies to certain outside counties. 

Heavy Grapks. — There is some noise being 
made in our Eastern and English exchanges 
about heavy bunciles of grapes. We have no 
doubt California could weigh them all down if 
the effort were made. At the last Mechanics' 
fair in this city Mr. Blowers showed a bunch of 
Emperor grapes which weighed 25 pounds, and 
made no special effort about it either. There 
was also a bunch shown in this city last summer 
which weighed 125 pounds, but it w as an artifi- 
cial affair, made by interweaving a number of 
branches. That which is said to be the "heav- 
iest bunch of black grapes ever known," has 
recently been on exhibition in Dublin, as we 
learn from the Gardener'* Chronicle, of Ixmdon. 
The variety is Gros Guillaume, and the grower 
Mr. Roberts, gardener to the Countess of Charle- 
ville, Charlcville forest, Tullamore, King's 
county. Its weight is 23 pounds 5 ounces; its 
length 24 inches; its width across the shoulders 
221 inches; and in point of bloom, size of ber- 
ries, and general finish, it is described as all 
that could be desired. This bunch stands third 
on the list of heaviest bunches (irrespective of 
color), being 2 pounds 15 ounces less in weight 
than the bunch of Kaisin de Calabre 126 pounds 
4 ounces), shown by Mr. Curror, at Edinburgh, 
in September, 1875, and 2 pounds 5 ounces less 
than the White Nice (25 pounds 15 ounces), 
shown by Mr. Dickson, of Arkleton, at the 
same time and place. 

Personal.— One of the recent prominent ar- 
rivals in oiir agricultural circles has been Mr. 
D. M. Osborne, of Auburn, New York, the 
senior member of D. M. Osborne & Co., 
whose reaping and mowing machinery is world- 
wide in its fame. It is seven years since Mr. 
Osborne visited our coast before, and he assured 
us, when we called upon him last week, that he 
was surprised and gratified to see the great for- 
ward strides which we have taken in agricul- 
ture since he last saw us. Mr. Osborne has 
made a flying tour through the different parts 
of the State, and thus added the results of ob- 
servation to his already witle acquaintance with 
our agricultural conditions and needs. Mr. 
Osborne tiuds the business of his branch office 
here in gratifying condition. The whole of the 
territory west of the Rocky mountains is tribu- 
tary to the office in this city, and Mr. M. Ayers, 
the" manager, has shown himself fully quali- 
fied to have charge of such a large trade. 
A local agency has just been established at 
Portland, Oregon, with Newbury, Chapman t 
Co. We trust that Mr. Osborne may have a 
safe homeward journey, and count himself re- 
freshed and profited by his trip hither. 



January 19, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



Agricultural Topics Before the Legisla- 
ture. 



Aside from the peculiar action taken by the 
.Senate on the irrigation question, which is noted 
in another column, there have been several im- 
portant agricultural measures brought forward 
during the week. One of these is the listing of 
growing crops and "improvements" with real 
estate instead of as personal property. A bill 
to this effect is before the Assembly, and thus 
takes its first step towards becoming a law. It 
is a measure which we have strongly urged, and 
which is necessary for the just assessment of 
agricultural values. 

Mr. Hart, of Colusa, introduced a bill author- 
izing the poisoning of wild geese, which are an 
insufferable pest in some counties, and it was 
referred to the Committee on Agriculture. The 
first section of this bill reads: "It shall be 
lawful for any person or persons residing in any 
of the agricultural counties of the State of Cal- 
ifornia to use any poisonous substance, includ- 
ing phosphorus, strychnine, or any other nox- 
ious or destructive poison, for the purpose of 
killing wild geese; and for this purpose may 
mingle or saturate such poisonous substance 
with any feed, grain or seeds that will be most 
likely to kill destroy and exterminate the same. 
Provided* that the provisions of this act shall 
only apply to persons either owning land, or in 
possession or having control of laud. " Other 
clauses declare that the poisoning shall only be 
permitted from the 15th of September to the 
1st of March in each year, and authorizes Su- 
pervisors to give public notice of the passage of 
the act. 

Assemblyman Hanna, of Santa Clara, has 
introduced a bill in relation to cheese factories. 
This provides that whoever shall knowing sell 
or supply, or bring to be manufactured to any 
butter or cheese factory, any milk diluted with 
water, or from which any cream has been taken, 
or tainted milk, is made liable to a penalty of 
not less than $25 nor more than $100, witli costs 
of suit. This law, we presume, is similar to 
the one which is in force in New York State, 
and has been found of great value for the pro- 
tection of factory owners, and, in co-operative 
factories, for the protection of honest dairymen 
against those of different character. 

The mining debris question was brought up in 
the Assembly by Mr. Berry, of Sutter county, 
in the following resolution: " Whereas, the 
debris from the hydraulic mines of our State is 
greatly injuring, and in many places has totally 
destroyed large quantities of our finest alluvial 
lands, and the same cause . is filling up our 
streams and shoaling our navigable rivers. 
Therefore, be it resolved, that the Speaker ap- 
point a committee of five to investigate this 
subject, and they are authorized to send for 
persons and papers, examine witnesses, admin- 
ister oaths, and may visit San Francisco and 
the city of Marysville if they deem if proper. 
They are empowered to employ a shorthandre- 
porter, at a per diem not to exceed §8 for act- 
ual service rendered." The resolutions was 
adopted without a dissenting voice. The fol- 
lowing Committee were subsequently ap- 
pointed: Messrs. Ostrom, Garvey, Waters, 
Coffey and Kercheval. 

Mr. Thompson, of the Committee on Agri- 
culture, reported back with a recommendation 
for its passage, Assembly bill to regulate the 
use of artesian wells and prevent the waste of 
subterranean waters in this State. This bill 
provides for capping flowing wells where the 
water is not in use. 

The Assembly Committee on Agriculture 
have also reported favorably on Mr. Swift's 
concurrent resolution asking the Federal Con- 
gress for sush legislation as will prevent 
streams and sources of water supply from be- 
ing appropriated to private use. 



A Plan for a Flower Garden. 



The Rains. 

True it is that the clouds have not forgotten 
their mission nor the strong south wind its 
power. A storm, such as all have longed for 
during all these mouths, has come and filled 
the heart of Californians with joy. It is no 
local, discriminating blessing, but most gener- 
ous and general. From the extreme south the 
telegraph brings word of copious rain. In the 
Coast valleys the drenching has been complete, 
and streams are running which for two years 
have lain with bleaching bottoms. Through 
the lower San Joaquin valley the first notable 
rain since the last " good year " has come. In 
the Sacramento valley and especially in the 
northern counties, the down-pour was of course 
of its usual grand proportions. As we write 
on Wednesday the rain is coursing down our 
window panes, almost as though some kind 
friend was emptying buckets from the roof. 
And still it comes. Any table which we could 
prepare to-day would be but partial before it 
reached the reader, so we defer until next 
week a measure of the blessing. 



[Written for the Pkf:ss by C. H. Smixn. ] 
Some definite plan in the garden is essential 
to floral success. It will not do to have a mo- 
notonous succession of similar beds, nor is it 
advisable to mix plants of all sizes and styles of 
growth in the same bed. Moreover, some flow- 
ers are only showy in masses, and others are in 
continual demand for decorations, vases, and 
the ever welcome bouquet, so that little groups 
of each kind are by far the most effective. 

If the ground is undulating the plan should 
follow the natural curves. The highest beauty 
of landscape gardening is attainable only on 
varied surfaces. But when the ground is level 
a mathematical plan shows the flowers to much 
the best advantage, though in this case the 
flower garden must be surrounded by lawn and 
shrubbery, so that the eye finds relief from its 
precision in grass and trees. 

The accompanying plan is now in use on a 



lents. 30. Pelargoniums. 31. Verbena (scar- 
let). 32. White daisies. 33. Linum, gra/ndi- 
florum. 34. Calla lilies and caladiums. 35. 
Dwarf nasturtiums. 36. Convolvulus, minor. 
37. Small shrubs. 38. Choice perennials. 

The edging should be of dwarf pink on one 
circle, and of Oxalis ftorabunda on the other, 
unless a uniform edging of box or tiles is pre- 
ferred. 

No place is given for roses, which are sup- 
posed to occupy a prominent position on the 
lawn, and among the shrubbery, but, if it is 
thought advisable, one or two roses may be put 
in each bed. 

By a little care all of the early bulbs can be 
got out of the way in time for late annuals. 
The irises used must be the choice hybrids. In 
all beds where there are more than one kind, 
the tallest must be in the middle, or the little 
ones will not have a fair chance. 

The beds must be well manured, and kept 
loose and light by frequent raking. A little 
clean sand sprinkled on top adds to the appear- 
ance. Almost all the plants will need staking 
when they begin to bloom. Nothing is more 
unsightly and slipshod than a lily, gladiolus or 



w 

n 
n 

p 

x 

w 




DIAGRAM OF A FLOWER GARDEN-SIZE 104 BY 52 FEET. 



On File. — "Berkshire Swine," A. P.; 
"Healdsburg Grange," E. H. K. ; "Sacramento 
Grange," J. W. A. W.; "Installation at Wash- 
ington Grange," W. L. 0.; "In Memoriam," 
Washington and Potter V alley Granges. 



piece of level ground 104x52 feet. The large 
circles and straight paths are four feet wide; 
all others are three. Surround the garden by a 
low hedge, as denoted in the diagram by the 
parallel lines. Use heliotrope from Ehionymus 
var. aurea and Clematis rubia, on a low trel- 
lis. If these hedge plants are used on different 
parts of the enclosing circuit, the effect is very 
pleasing. At the central point in the design is 
an appropriate location for a large garden vase, 
or piece of garden statuary. 

Arrange the flowers as follows, referring to 
the figures on plan: 1. Crocus followed by 
pansies. 2. Anemone followed by portulacca. 
3. Verbena (striped). 4 Nemtyphila var. 5. 
( 'ollinsia and Leplosiphon. 6. Verbena (blue). 
7. Dwarf ten-week-stock. 8. Verbena (white). 
9. Liies, native and foreign. 10. Hyacinths 
followed by asters. LI. Bulbs in variety, Ra- 
nunculus, etc. 12. Carnations. 13. Campanu- 
la medium, edged with C. rarpn/irn. 14. Del- 
phinium forrnosum. 15. Iris and ornamental 
grasses. 16. Gladiolus and cannas. 17. Evei- 
lastings in variety. 18. Penstemon and antin- 
hinum. ■ 19. Salpiglossis, edged with browalia. 
20. Foxglove, edged with whitlavia. 21. Chrys- 
anthemums and zinnias. 22. Geranium, 
mountain of snow. 23. Candytuft, phlox, and 
annuals for bouquets. 24. Anagalis. 25. Co- 
leus, or perilla. 20. Pansies. 27. Blue lobelia. 
28. Petunias, single ajid double. 29. Succu- 



carnation dragging its blossoms in the dirt for 
lack of a helping hand. 



Our New Year's Callers. 

The Rural Press received a host of congrat- 
ulatory New Year's greetings from those whose 
approval and patronage give us strength and 
courage. Although we do not propose to make 
public all the kind words which were written 
and spoken to us, there are a few which are 
descriptive of our work and the value which is 
set upon it, and which, if spread abroad, may 
aid as to extend our field. A few such we 
shall quote: 

" The Rural has paid me its weekly visits 
many years, and I invite its continuance and 
make provision therefor. I regard it as invalu- 
able to every agriculturist, pomologist and stock 
raiser. However well versed each may be in 
his department, the Rural will give new ideas 
worthy of thought and consideration, and no 
one will have just cause of complaint for hav- 
ing become its patron."— J. R. Crandall, 
Auburn, Cal. 

" Enclosed is amount.of my subscription for 
the coming year, and I must express with 
pleasure my most perfect satisfaction with the 
many important, interesting and carefully 
gathered subjects treated in the columns of the 
Rural. Though the past year has been truly 
a keen one in this part, I trust that you may 
not have felt the pressure that has been forced 
upon all in southern California."— Thos. P. 
Hinds, Anaheim. 

"I do not wish to lose any of the valuable 
information contained in the Rural, for it has 
been a great benefit to me and I have found it 
to contain many valuable hints to one in my 
business, that of market gardener. Its columns 
are always filled with valuable information to 
the farmer, and I find it all you claim for it, a 
first-class, reliable journal, which is more than 
I can say for hundreds of other journals which 
I pick up during a year. Please send it right 
along."— Geo. S. Brown, Silver Star, Madison 
county, Montana. 

"I have been a careful reader of the Rural 
Press the last three months. I intend settling 
down on the Pacific coast, and I am getting 
information now and at the same time making 
the money to get a home with. All I want is 
100 acres of good land, and I think when my 
old neighbors in Scotland can get rich on 60 
acres of land there, I ought to be able to make 
a good living on 100 on the Pacific coast. I 
find a great deal of valuable information in the 
Rural Press." — Alex. West, Virginia. 

" One of your readers told me, the other day, 
that he cannot get along without the Press, 
although he has found it a hard year for him. 
The PRESS is a stand-by and a farmer's friend. 
Its columns are suited for all readers. The 
' Young Folks ' column pleases my children 
with its odd cuts, pleasant stories and spicy 
sayings. When Saturday comes, the first thing 
is: 'Papa, let's see the Press, and find us the 
good things it has got to read.' I hope the , 
opening year the Press will still increase in 
p ipularity, circulation and in correspondence, 
and continue to be ilvepaier among fie far- 
mers and the intelligent readers of the world. " 
— Geo. Rich, Sacramento, Cal. 

" ' Success to our paper' — the Pacific Rural 
Press, the farmers' true friend." — A. J. Mother- 
SEAD, San Luis Obispo. 

" I renew my interest in the Press for an- 
other year and am well satisfied with the paper, 
having found many single articles well worth 
the whole year's cost. " — Wm. Duncan, Red 
Bluff, Cal. 

"The Pacific Rural Press closed its four- 
teenth volume with last year. The Press is a 
favorite in this office, as well as in the house- 
hold of the agriculturist. We trust it will con- 
tinue to en joy many years of prosperity, and to 
its enterprising publishers be a satisfactory 
source of revenue." — Colusa Sun, Jan. 5. 

"The Rural Press closed its fourteenth 
volume last Saturday. It starts upon a new 
volume with resolution strong to make it sur- 
pass all which have gone before." — Castrorille 
Argus, Jan. 5. 



Rapid Growth of Eucalyptus. — The rapid 
growth of the eucalyptus is wonderful. Anson 
Goodspeed has on his lot in north Healdsburg 
some trees which have grown 40 feet in two 
years, and others 22 feet in 18 months. The 
latter were set out one year ago last March; in 
May they had not grown more than a foot. 
He then began watering them with the above 
results. His experience teaches that they 
should be planted in the fall, so as to receive 
the benefit of the winter rains. Russian River 
Fli'il, December 18th, 

W r e cannot too strongly urge upon our farm- 
ers the importance of planting out these valu- 
able trees. Every farmer should put out at 
least an acre of eucalyptus trees the present 
winter. They are rapid growers and said to 
make excellent fence posts and good fuel. Ten 
dollars' worth of young trees, would plant an 
acre; $20 would be sufficient to erect a wind- 
mill to irrigate them with, and in three years 
more then enough fire-wood can be taken to 
supply any farm house. 

All the Pacific Coast Congressional delega- 
tion, except Senator Sharon, are again in 
Washington, to remain during the season. 



De Lesseps on the Darien Ship Canal. — 
At a recent meeting of the Paris Academy of 
Sciences, a paper was read by M. l)e Lesseps, 
in which some further particulars are given of 
the proposed canal across tho Isthmus of Darien. 
The line advocated by Lesseps, starting from 
the Pacific coast, ascends, in the first place, the 
river Turyraas far as the Island of Piriaque or 
Alligators' island. From this point a straight 
cutting, 16,200 meters long, connects Tuyra 
with Chucunaque near the point where the 
Tupisa flows into this latter river. The line 
then ascends the Chucunaque for 14,400 meters; 
then turning to the northeast, it continues up the 
valley of the Tiati ..to a point, where, for rea- 
sons of economy it would lie preferable to make 
a tunnel rather than continue deep cutting. 
This tunnel passes to the south of the peak of 
Gandi, under the remarkable ridge from which 
on one aide an arm of the Tuquesa, and the 
Tiati flow down toward the Pacific, and on the 
other the Tolo and Acanti flow to the Atlantic. 
On emerging from the tunnel the canal contin- 
ues through an open cutting about ten kilom- 
eters long, down the valleys of Acanti and Tolo 
to the deep waters of port Candi. The prob- 
able length of the tunnel is estimated at be- 
ween 13 and 14 kilometers, and the cost of mak- 
ing the whole canal at 600,000,000 francs. 



42 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 19, 1878. 



Continued from page 35. 



can also be kept in chests tilled with bran or 
oat chaff. A two-year-old ham makes a much 
liner dish than one recently smoked. 

Warwickshire Hams. — Rub a large ham with 
two ounces of powdered saltpeter, and let it 
remain in the salting pan for 24 hours. Make a 
pickle of three pounds and a half of salt, one 
pound of sugar, four onions sliced fine, a peck 
of pale-dried malt, and one gallon of water. 
Boil all together ten minutes; pour it hot over 
the ham, straining out the malt and onions. 
Keep the ham covered with pickle for three or 
four weeks. Take it out, wipe it dry, and 
smoke it slowly for two or three weeks. 

To Pickle Pork.— For pickling pork, the 
pieces should be so cut that they will lie Hat in 
the tub, and each layer should be pounded 
down closely. But before the sides are cut up 
it is a good plan to rub them over with a mix- 
ture of white sugar and salt, putting one- third 
as much sugar as sait. Then place the pieces 
in the tub, rind downward, and sprinkle each 
layer with the sugar and salt. When the tub 
is well filled, put a layer of salt over it so thick 
as to exclude the air, and cover it closely for 
ten days; then look at ft, and if the brine is 
not formed enough to cover it, sprinkle in a 
very little cold water. In three months the 
pork will be ready to cook, and it will keep 
good for two years at least, and the sugar will 
give it a finer flavor than saltpeter. In warm 
climates both sugar and saltpeter can be used 
as advantageously as in pickling beef. All 
housekeepers know that they can make corned 
beef more tender and better flavored, by using 
a pickle of one pound of sugar to two pounds 
of salt, and a tablespoonf ul of saltpeter. 

The Berkshire Herd Book. — We have re- 
ceived a copy of Vol. 2 of the herd book issued 
by the American Berkshire Association, Phil. 
M. Springer, of Springfield, 111., Secretary. It 
contains the pedigrees of males numbering from 
47! to 1,606, and females from 1,092 to 8,500. 
The volume is well gotten up and is of unques- 
tionable value to the breeders of Berkshire 
swine, as it places in their hands a permanent 
record by which purity of blood can be estab- 
lished. That the work is a success can be seen 
from the favor which it gains at the hands of 
breeders. We notice that several California 
breeders have taken space in its pages. Full 
information concerning the published volumes 
and the conditions for registry in future vol- 
umes, may be gained by addressing the Secre- 
tary, as above. 



||aCIFIC fjURAL f^RESS, 

A first-class ld-page Illustrated Agricultural Weekly, filled 
with fresh, valuable and interesting reading. Every 
fanner and mralist should take it. It is im- 
mensely popular. Send for a sample copy. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, S. F. 



• Evert new subscriber who does not re- 
ceive the paper and every old subscriber 
not credited on the label within two 
weeks after paying for this paper, should 
write personally to the publishers without 
delay, to secure proper credit. This is 
necessarv to protect us and the subscri- 
bers against the acts and mistakes of 
others. 



Prompt and Scccesbfcl.— Me**ra. Dewey d- Co.— Gen- 
tlemen: Your Circular letter, 12th hist., informing me of 
sueeessful termination of my application for patent rc- 
eeived. Please aeecpt thanks for the prompt and suc- 
cessful manner in which you have managed this business. 
Yours respectfully, J. H. Cavaxaloii. 

Walla Walla. Dee 24th 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 
The German Savings and Loan Society. 

For the half year ending this date, the Board of Directors 
of tlie Gtnoail Savings and Loan Society has declared the 
dividend on term dep. .sits at the rate of eight and two-fifths 
(8 2-5) per cent, per annum, and on ordinary deposits at the 
rate of seveu (7| per cent, per annum, free from Federal 
taxes, and payable on and after the 15th day of January 
1878. By order GEO. LETTE, Sec y 

San Francisco. Dec. 31st. 1877 



DIVIDEND^ NOTICE. 
San Francisco Savings Union, 

532 California Street, comer Webb. 

For the half year ending with December 31st. 1877, a divi- 
dend has been declared at the rate of eight anil one-tenth 
(8 110) pur cent, per annum ou term deposits, and six anil 
three-fourths WJI per cent, ou ordinary deposits, free of Fed- 
eral tax, payable on and after Tuesday. 15th January 1878 
I.OVELL WHITE. Cashier. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE. 

Savings and Loan Society, (ill) Clay Sireet. At a nieet- 
iug of the Board of Directors, held "this day, a dividend 
was declared, free of Federal tax. of eight (s) per cent, 
per annum on all deposits, for the six months ending De- 
cenihcr :tlsl, 1S77. Dividend payable on and after the 
15th instant. CYKI S W. CAKMANY, BecY 

San Francisco, January sth, 1S7S. 



For Good Living go to Web- 
ster's Palace Restaurant, 218 
Sansome Street, S. F. Best of 
dinners only 50 cents, from 5 to 

8 P. M. 

VOL'R NAME printed on 50 mixed cards for 13c. 25 fun 
• cards 10c. CLINTON BROS., Clinton ville, Coun. 



Purchasers of Stock will kind is this Directory tub 
Names of some of the Most Reliable Breeders. 

Our Rates.— Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per mouth, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



A. MAILLIARD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal. 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Francisco 
(orCotatc Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.), Breed 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



R. G. SNEATH, San Bruno, Cal. , breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bulls for sale— various ages— at £*0 
to $100. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



L. TJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



B. F. WATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thorough- 
bred Spanish Merino Sheep. 



M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep. Rams and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $20 each; 
Lambs, $15 each. 

LAN DRUM & RODGERS, Wateonville, Cal. Im- 
porters and breeders of Pure Breed Angora Coats. 

ET~ W7 WOOLSEY, 41S California St., Room 2, S." F. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino Sheep, 
Choicest Vermont Strains. 



POULTRY. 



BURBANK & MYERS, « anil 44 California Market, 
San Francisco, Importers and breeders of Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. 

M. FALLON, corner Seventh and Oak streets, Oak- 
land. Bronze Turkeys. Choice Eggs for Hatching 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 



T. A. FREEMAN, San Jose, Cal. Pekin Ducks lor 
sale. Also, eggs in their season. 



A. O RIX, Washington, Alameda County, Cal , 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for circular. 

WILLIAM NILES, l.os Annies, Cal. Importers 
and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry. F.ggs for 
hatching. 



MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
ifowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin I lucks, etc. 



SWINE. 



ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joiumin Co 
Cal., Breed, r of Improved Berkshire Swine. 

A. J. TWOGOOD, Riverside, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Pure Bred Poland-China Hogs. 



Poultry. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS. 

Cor Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland 

Constantly on hand and for sale, choice specimens 
of the following varieties of Fowls: 

Dark snd Light Brahmas, Butt 
White and Partridge Co- 
chins. White & Brown 
Leghorns, Dork- 
ings, Polish Ham- 
burgs, Plymouth Rocks, 
Game and Sebright Ban- 
Si tarns, Bronze Turkeys, Pekin, 
ijjy' Aylesbury and Rotten Ducks 
EtiGS FOR SALE AFTER JANIZARY FIRST. 

No Inferior Fowls Sold at any Price. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 

£3TFor further information send stamp for Illustrated 
Circular, to 

GEO. B BAYLEY, 

P. O. Box, 659 San Francisco, Cal. 




It 



M. EYRE, Jr., NAPA, CAL. 

Send Stamp lb Safe Arrival of 

For BU» E ^ S & Fowls 

Price List. -^jmF^ \ Guaranteed. 



I never owned a FIXER LOT OF BIRDS than I have 
raised this year. Also, 

Thoroughbred Southdown Sheep. 

/far Pamphlet on the care of fowls- -hatching, feeding, 
diseases and their cure, etc. , adaited ks xcially to tiik 
Pacific Coast. Sent for 15 cents. 




treets, San Francisco. 



LOOK! 

BURBANK £ MYERS, Im- 
porters and Breeders of Fancy 
Fowls. Pigeons, Rabbits, Dogs, 
etc. Also Eggs for hatching from 
the finest Imported Stock. Eggs 
and Fowls at reduced prices. 

BURBANK & MYERS, 

43 and 44 California Market. 
Yards, Cor. Lott and McAllister 
Enclose stamp for Price List. 



MONEY TO LOAN 

UPON CHOICE RANCH PROPERTY. 
JNO. D. HOOKER, 

302 Montgomery Street, San Francisco 

Crj LARGE MIXED CARDS, with name, 13c. 40 in 
\J\J case 13c. 25 styles Acquaintance Cards 10c. Agents 
outfit 10c BOW* a; CO., Bristol, Conu 



ARITHMETIC MADE EASY 

BY ROPP'S 
EASY CALCULATOR. 

This valuahle work is used by thousands of fanners, 
mechanics and business men, and is highly recommended 
for its practical utility and convenience. 

It embodies an entirely new system of calculation, by 
which a vast amoiintof figures and mental labor— required 
by the ordinary methods and fractious with their com- 
plexities, arc absolutely avoided. 

It is so simple and easily comprehended that even the 
most illiterate is enabled, in a few minutes, to reckon 
with absolute accuracy and speed; while its original and 
rapid methods, benefit and delight the most scholarly. 

It shows at a glance the accurate value of wheat, corn, 
rye, oats, barley, cattle, hogs, hay, coal, lumber and mer- 
chandise, from one pound to a ear load, and for any price 
the market is likely to reach. 

It gives the interest, simple and compound, on any sum, 
tor any time, at six, seven, eight, and ten per cent.; the 
exact measurement of boards, scantlings, timbers, saw 
logs, cisterns, tanks, wells, granaries, bins, wagon beds, 
com cribs, etc. , the wages at various rates, for hours, 
days, weeks and months; besides numerous other iin]>or- 
tant methods, rules and tables. 

It is printed on fine tinted paper, is well and elegantly 
bound in pocket-book shape, and accompanied by a sili- 
cate slate, |sicket for papers, and memorandum* which 
can be replenished in the two latter styles. 

It answers the purpose of a pocket book and diary, and 
costs no more, although it was gotten up at great expense 
and labor, and is unquestionably one of the most useful 
publications ever issued from the press. 
Price, bound in Fine English Cloth, $1.00. 

Sent direct from the Eastern publisher, ]>ost|>aid, on 
receipt of price, by P. O. order, registered letter or 
receipted by express. Address 

DEWEY & CO., San Francisco. 



THE IMPROVED. 

Lamb's Family Knitting Machine. 




IT IS THE ONLY MACHINE 

That knits flat or tubular work of all sizes; 

Narrows ami widens on hosiery' or tubular work; 

Knits a regular right-angled heel, as by hand; 

Narrows off the toe; 

Knits a sock or stocking complete; 

Knits mittens or gloves of any size without soam; 

Forms genuine Ribbed or Seamed work; 

Knits the Double, Flat, or Fancy webs; 

Knits an elastic scamed-stitch Suspender with button-holes; 

Kuits the Afghan stitch, Cardigan Jacket stitch, Fancy 
Ribbed stitch; the Raised Plaid stitch, the Nubia stitch, 
Shell stitch. Unique stitch. Tidy stitch, etc. 

It is now the standard machine for manufacturing, and the 
only family knitter that tills the bill. Local agents wanted. 
Send for circidars to 

J J. PFISTER & CO , General Agents, 

Manufacturers of knitted goods and dealer in woolen yarns. 
'ViO BUTTER STREET, Room 40, San Francisco 



Imperial Egg Food 



■ir*^- *"*"■> 




(Tmlf Mark.) 

Will Jrako "Vour Jlt-us Lay, 

Winter and Summer, support Fowlsdurlngmoulting, 
keen them constantly In fine condition, and Increase 
tbelr protlt 100 per cent. Half of tbccblcks die annually. 
This makes bone and muscle early, and will save them. 
Vacknges to mix w ith ."'0 wciirht ordinary feed. fi0ov.j 
larger for 11.00 and S2.00. Sent prepaid on receipt of 
price. Also sold by Grocers, Feed stores, etc. 

LOCAL AGENTS WANTED. 

C. R. ALLEN & CO., Box 103, Habtfobd, Coxw. 

0. C. SWAN & CO., Agt's for Pacific Coast. 

No. 202 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 
£3TTo wliom all orders shouM lie addressed. 



BERKSHIRES. 




Breeder and Importer of the "Crown Prince, 
"Sambo," and "Bob Lee" families of Berkshires. 
Also, pure Suffolk hogs and pigs. Short Horn and 
Jersey, or AJderney cattle. Merino and Cotswold 
sheep. Prices alway s reasonable. All animals sold are 
guaranteed .as represented and pedigreed. 

PETER SAXE, Russ House. San Francisco, 
and Los Angeles City, Cal. 



RUPTURE! RUPTURE!! 

Use no more Metal Trusses. No 
No more suffering from iron hoops or 
steel springs ! 

Pierce's Patent Magnetic 
Elastic Truss 

Is worn with oase and conifar Nioht 
and Day, and will perform radical 
cures when all others fail. Reader, if 
ruptured, try one; you will never regret it. Send for Il- 
lustrated book and price list. Maokktic Elastic Truss 
Co., 009 Sacramento St., S. F., Cal. 43-Scnt by mail to 
all parts of the world 




THE BERKELEY GYMNASIUM. 

A PREPARATORY 

SCHOOL TO THE UNIVERSITY. 

THE SECOND TERM COMMENCE 
Wednesday, January 9, 1878, and will close 
Thursday, May 30, 1878. 

The location of this Institution for health, has no su|ie- 
perior. Its proximity and relationship to the State Uni- 
versity give it many advantages that no other school on 
the Pacific Coast can command. Our first aim is to secure 
to every student in our charge such accommodations as 
will make him 

Comfortable and Contented. 

Devoted to but one well defined work, we are gathering 
around us the y outh of loftier minds and purer aspira- 
rations; such as are seeking a higher education. We are 
protected, naturally, from that class of students who 
are sent to school to escape the House of Correction. 
The Principal and Faculty respectfully solicit a fair in- 
vestigation from intelligent parents and earnest students. 

REFERENCES : 

JOHN LkCONTE, M. D., 

President of the University of California. 
EUGENE W. HILGARD, Ph. D, 

Professor of Agriculture, University of Cal. 

For Circulars, Address 

JOHN P. BURRIS, Berkeley. Cal. 




BUSINE "3S 
COLLEGE. 

No. 24 Post Street 
■an nuMcano, I II. 

The largest and best Business College in America. Its 
teachers are compet»nt and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of young men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
struction is given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modem Languages are practically taught The 
discipline is excellent, and its system of Actual Business 
l > ractice is unsur|iassed. 

Lauiks' Dkpaktment.— La>lies will be admitted for in- 
struction in all the Detriments of the College. 

Tkxkukai'Iiic Dki'aktmkst.— In this Department young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and pajier. 

For further jiarticulars call at the College^ 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business Collevre, San Francisco, Cal. ' 



SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE. 

Santa Barbara, Cal., 1877. 

FOR YOUTH OF BOTH SEXES. 



John Lynch, 

Principal. 



Mrs. M. Atkins Lykch, 

Vice-Principal. 



Mrs. Lynch is well known as Miss Atkins, (long identified 
with the Benicia Young Ladies' Seuunary.) 

FULL CORPS OF COMPETENT INSTRUCTORS. 
For further information, address the Principal. 



Grangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Authorized Capital - $5,000,000. 

OFFICERS: 

President ft. W. COLBY. 

Vice-President and Manager, 

C. J. CRESSEY. 

Cashier ALBERT MONTPELLIER. 

Secretary FRANK A CRESSEY 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
he best market rates. 



OAKLAND HEALTH INSTITUTE. 

Center Street Station, Oakland. 

Convinced of the suj»eriority of the climate of Oakland 
to that of any other place <>n the Coaat, more particularly 
for those suffering from diseases of a malarial origin, and 
chronic diseases generally, the undersigned have opened 
the above named Institute as a resort for invalids, where 
all the facilities for the thorough and scientific treatment 
of diseases have been introduced. 

Our methods of treatment embrace Electricity, Turk- 
ish Russian, Magnetic and Medicated Baths of all 
kinds; the Healthtift, Hadfield's Equalizer, and in fact 
all appliances and remedies of established merit known to 
the medical profession. The building is one of the finest 
in the city, and the rooms large and comfortable. No ef- 
fort will be spared to make the patients feel at home. 
Lying in rooms connected with the institute. Charges, 
including board, etc., from $15 to $30 per week. For 
further informations, address 

Oakland Health Institute, Oakland, Cal. 

J. H. BUNDY, M. D , * C. W. HANSEN, M. U., Prop*r#. 

The Raby Clothes Line Holder — New inren* 

felon; Everybody wants it; best thing out for agents* 
State and county rights at low figures. For particulars- 
address W. W. FLETCHER, 

London villa, Ohio. 



OC EXTRA MIXED CARDS, 8nowflake, Oriental, Etc 
Z0 with name. K> cts. J B. HUSTED, Nassau, N. Y. 



January 19, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



Musical Instruments. 



The firm of Kohler & Chase, of 633 and G35 
Clay street in this city, is an old established 
and trustworthy house, dealing in pianos, or- 
gans and all other kinds of musical instruments. 
They are extensive importers of instruments 
and instruction books, and have long held an 
enviable position in this branch of trade. We 
take pleasure in recommending them to all our 
readers who wish to introduce the refining in- 
fluences of music to their homes. The firm 
make a specialty of the Decker Brothers' piano, 
the Mason & Hamlin cabinet organ, the Emer- 
son piano and the J. & C. Fischer upright pi- 
ano. All of these instruments have gained a 
wide fame for excellence and won high praise 
from those who know best what constitutes ex- 
cellence in a musical instrument. 

We would speak especially at this time of the 
Decker Brothers' piano. We cannot do better 
than present a testimonial of its quality, freely 
given by a group of musicians whose praise will 
commend itself to all music lovers. During the 
Centennial there was held in Philadelphia a 
grand musical congress, at which the Decker 
Brothers' instruments were used, and the result 
was the following straightforward endorsement: 

Philadelphia, June 27th, 1876. 
The Decker Brothers' Grand pianos, used bv the Musical 
Congress at their grand operatic concerts and musical fes- 
tivals, recently given at the American Academy of Music, 
were remarkable for their superior quality of tone and 
extraordinary power. Finer instruments we never heard. 
Clara Louise Kellogg, Annie Louise Cary, Zelda Seguin, 
Julia B. Hive, Esmeralda Cervantes, Joseph White, Mxx 
Maretzek. P. Brignoli, S. 15. Mills, P. Ferranti, Frai.z 
Remmertz, E. Behrens. 

A matter which we would make most promi- 
nent in this connection is, that the Decker 
Brothers' name is the subject of attempts at 
counterfeiting. This is the penalty which the 
manufacturers of a first-class instrument have 
to pay for the gaining of a good name, and all 
our readers should be on their guard against 
imposition. Unprincipled parties have manu- 
factured and sold cheap pianos under the names 
of "Decker," "Decker & Co.," "Decker & 
Brothers," "Becker Brothers," etc., doing busi- 
ness on the reputation and popularity of the 
celebrated Decker Brothers' pianos. All genu- 
ine Decker Brothers' pianos have their name in 
front on the pianos above the keys, viz. : Decker 
Brothers, New York. In all genuine Decker 
Brothers' square pianos the following words ap- 
pear, cast upon the iron plate on the inner left- 
hand side of the instruments: Decker Brothers' 
patent, June 2d, 1863. 

The simplest way to guard against imposition 
is to deal with those who are well known to be 
trustworthy. Kohler & Chase have a reputation 
of this character established by twenty years 
of business experience in this city. — Pacific 
Rural Press, Nov. 1st, 1877. 



The Best and JYXost J^opiilai 4 "Pianos 



-ARE THE 



DECKER BIROS'- 



The EMERSON and 




The FISCHER Upright 



A Gr JEtEAJT OFFER 



WE WILL SELL THE MAGNIFICENT 



DECKER BROS.', Square No. 2 for $525, 
AN EMERSON Square No. 2 for S400, - 
A FISCHER Upright C for $400, 

OTHER STYLES EQUALLY LOW. 



Catalogue Price, $660. 
Catalogue Price, $550, 
Catalogue Price, $725. 



The above Pianos are seven and one-third octaves, in elegant cases, perfect in tone and the most durable of any made in the world. 
Will sell on the installment plan to good parties if desired. We can furnish bogus pianos for §250, such as are generally sold in the country. 
JtaTSend for Catalogues and mention where you saw this advertisement. 

Kohler & CIi 

633 and 635 Clay Street, San Francisco. 

The Largest and Oldest Music House on the Pacific Coast- 



'FIR^ZLSTOIS SMITH &o GO, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

THE SUPERIOR CHANNEL IRON WHEELBARROWS, 



u 

Q. 

lu n 

ID 

X ™ 

o 




73 
O 



"0 



CO 
X 

m 
m 
H 



GRANGERS' RUSINESS ASSOCIATION 

Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 

OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS. 



DANIEL INMAN, (President). 
A. L). LOGAN, (Vice President). 
AMOS ADAMS, (Secretary). 



W. W. GRAY. 
SHIPPING AND 
Grangers' Building, 



JOHN LEWELLING, (Treasurer). 
G. W COLBY. 
I. C. STEELE. 

THOS. FLINT 



W. L. OVERHISEK 
A. T. HATCH. 
O. HUBBELL. 



COMMISSION HOUSE, 

106 Davis Street, S. P. 



The Strongest Barrow Made. These Barrows ore made by Superior Workmen, and of the best mate'rial. 
All sizes kept constantly on hand. 

Lap- Welded Pipe, all sizes, from Three to Six Inches. Also, Galvanized Iron Boilers, 
From Twenty-five to One Hundred Gallons. 

Iron Cut, Punched, and Fonned for making pipe on ground, where required. All kinds of tools supplied for 
making pipe. Estimates given when required. Are prepared for coating all sizes of pip^s with a composition of 
Coal Tar and Asphaltum. 

Office and Manufactory, 130 BBALE STREET, San Francisco, Cal. 



In consequence oj spuriou: mutations oj 

LEA AND PERRINS' SAUCE, 

which are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrim 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 

thus, 

■which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuine. 

Art for LEA &> PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export by the Proprietors, Worcester; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
&c, frc. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throughout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San P ranciaco. 



Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairy Products, Fruit, Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and 
Advances made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandise, 
Farm Implements, Wagons, etc., solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis that will 
enable the country at large to transact business through us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Association, San Francisco." Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. M _ _ 

DANIEL INMAN, Manager. 



IRA MARDEN & CO. S 

BRANDS OF 

Coffee and Spices Have no Superior. 

Twenty-Five Years Experience 

IN THE BUSINESS ON THIS COAST ENABLES THEM TO PLACE ON THE MARKET THE VERY BEST. 
GOODS AT THE LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES. 

Ask Your Grocer for Marden's Coffee and Spices. 



DEVON BULL FOR SALE. 

The undersigned offers for sale his Devon Bull, BLU- 
CHER. Calved October 28th, 1874, and registered in Vol. 
4, American Devon Herd Book. Also, two yearling bull 
calves of his get by cows entitled to register. Bluciier 
weighed September 21st, 1877, 1,380 pounds, and has been 
wintered on straw every winter. My Devons are not re- 
lated to any Devons on this Coast. For further particu- 
ars, address R. McENESPV, Chico, Butte County, Cal. 



Dewey & Co. {a^* I Patent Ag'ts. 



JACKSON'S BEST 
SWEET NAVY CHEWING TOBACCO. 

Awarded the highest prize at Centennial Exposition for 
its fine chewing qualities, the excellence and lasting char- 
acter of its flavoring and sweetening. The Best TO- 
baCCO ever made. Ask your grocer for it. Our blue 
strip trade mark "Jackson's Best" on every plug. Send 
for sample to C. A. JACKSON & CO., Manufacturers, Pe 
torsburg , Va, L. & E. Werthetmer, Sole Ag 'ts, S. F 
Ar Fasionable Cards, no two alike, with name, 10«. 
^0 poetpi id. GEO. I. REED it CO., Nassau, N. Y. 



S. D. BURBANK, OPTICIAN, 

Special Attention to Pitting Eyes. 
OFFICE-NICHOLL BLOCK, NINTH STREET, 

(Bbtwkkn Broadway and Washington.) 
OAKLAND, CAL. 



DAI A PC ••• V Webster* large, fine, new Dining 
r ALAUC Roorns art exceeding! j popular. The best 
nrp T A II D A W r ">' •vwythiiw on the tablet 
ntO I AUnAN I , pinner furnished at the low 

NO. 218 SANSOMF ST., S. F. Vi'iVv 

( ICNTS. from five to eight f. M. Visitors to S. F. should 
try the Palace. 



JOHN L. BOONE, 

Attorney and Counsellor at Law, 

PATENT LAW A SPECIALTY. 

Omen -202 SanfOtne Street, N. E. comor Pino Street, 
San Francisco. 



Farmers, write for your paper. 



A JOB PRESS WANTED. 

Any printer having an Eighth or Quarter Medium 
Job Press for Bale, will please address J. P., care of Dowey 
& Co., S. F. State condition and lowest price. 

FOB SALE. -A Good Type- Writer. Price, *60 
For further information, address "COPYIST," thii 
offlee. 



44 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January ig, 1878. 



Publishers' OEp^TpEflj. 

Fine Pianos. — Those who de9ire (irst-class 
pianos of different styles can safely consult 
Messrs. Kohler & Chase, of 033, Clay street, 
San I'rancisco. This firm has by its long con- 
tinuance and upright dealings won public confi- 
dence, and they have also done it by keeping 
tirst-rate instruments. We can but mention 
the Decker Brothers' pianos, grand, upright and 
square, which have a reputation unsurpassed in 
all desirable qualities. They have also the 
Kmerson pianos, which are also in good repute, 
and for an upright specialty they have the in- 
struments made by J. & C. Fischer. These 
make a good list to choose from. In addition 
to pianos, the firm are importers of all kinds of 
musical instruments and instruction books. 
Their establishment is well worth a visit from 
all music lovers. 

Music in Kvekv Family. — When so much 
perfection has been attained in music boxes 
which cost from $."> to 8500, every household 
should be enlivened with a musical instrument 
of some kind. Take a music box until you can 
afford an organ or a piano. The music box is 
of comparatively small cost, little trouble, but 
often the source of great happiness. We wish 
all investments could prove a9 fruitful of 
blessings and as non-productive of evil. Few 
people who have not visited M. Paillard & Co. 's 
salerooms in San Francisco are aware of the 
great variety and excellence of musical boxes 
now offered the public. 

Small Farms for Tenants. — An advertise- 
ment in another column announces the deter- 
mination of the Natoma Water and Mining Co. 
to lease their valuable land, in lots, to suit, for 
agricultural purposes. This land has already 
become well known in the markets for its pro- 
ductions and we doubt not the present action 
of the owners will give many a man with small 
means just the opportunity he needs to get a 
good start in California agriculture. The chief 
owners are well known for their generous enter- 
prises in developing the resources of their prop- 
erty, and we can freely commend their offer to 
the attention of all who desire land to culti- 
vate. 

Bkrkbhirbs. —Mr. Saxe shows his Berkshire 
bogs in fine style on the last page of this issue 
of the PRESS. The popularity which this breed 
is gaining everywhere on this coast warrants the 

most prominent exhibition of them. We have 
seen quite a number of the animals which 
Mr. Saxe has delivered to his customers, and 
we have heard expressed the satisfaction of 
those who have received them. We believe he- 
is doing a good thing for the sw ine interest of 
this coast in bringing the Berkshires to the at- 
tention of all swine growers. 

Revolutionary Battle Ground.— We have 
received a copy of a neat lithograph showing 
the battle ground at Concord, Mass., the first 
battle ground of the revolutionary war. It 
gives one an exalted idea of this historic field, 
and will be prised by all students of American 
history. It is about 18x30 inches, and deserves 
a good frame. The publisher is S. W. Bruu- 
dage, of this city, and we understand that he 
will solicit purchasers in person. It deserves 
wide sale. 

To Subscribers. — We have recently made a 
contract with the publishers of Hull's Journal 01 
Health, New York, to furnish us that old and 
popular publication, for any of our subscribers at 
75 cents a year, postage paid. Any subscriber, 
old or new of the Pacific Rural Press, can 
have the advantage of club rates for Halts 
Journal of Health by sending us 75 cents. 
Regular subscription price, SI. 51). 

Cabbage Culture is the title of an interest- 
ing 25 cent pamphlet, published by David Land- 
reth & Sons, seedsmen, of Philadelphia, Pa. 
It is illustrated with tine engravings of the best 
kinds, gives modes of culture, and has a valua- 
ble chapter upon the insects which prey upon 
the cabbage. 

Windmills. — We are pleased to notice that 
the Enterprise windmills and pumps, sold by 
Messrs. Horton & Kennedy, of Livermore, Cali- 
fornia, who are the general agents for the coast, 
give the best of satisfaction, so far as we have 
heard, in every instance, and to our friends who 
wish to be sure of a good article at a reasonable 
price, we recommend them to this firm. 



Rainfall at Sacramento. 

We give herewith the tabular statement of 
the rainfall at Sacramento which we have been 
accustomed to give from year to year. It is of 
great value, not only to the residents in the ad- 
jacent country, but also to the general student 
of meteorology as it affords an opportunity to 
contrast the rainfall in the interior with the 
coast rainfall in this city. The table is in the 



S = • 



• - r g I O 

.... I pg 



Old Eyes are Made New to a wonderful de- 
gree, oftentimes, by the application of the right 
kind of glasses. It requires honesty, skill and 
large experience on the part of the opticians to 
give general and lasting satisfaction to his cusl 
tomers. Unfortunately these three essentia- 
qualities are too seldom found in a business in 
which cheating temporarily pays such good 
wages. For reason of the facts above stated, 
we take pleasure in introducing to our readers 
Mr. Samuel D. Bar bank, a first;class optician, 
who has recently established himself in Dak- 
land. We have known Mr. Burbank inti- 
mately for over 20 years as a practical (and 
most of the time an extensive) manufacturer of 
spectacles ami eye-glasses in Springfield, Mass. 
We bespeak for him a rapidly increasing busi- 
ness, by reason of full satisfaction rendered to 

11 his patrons. 



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KET 



Note. —Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Francisco, January Kith, 1878. 

City trade has been well nigh suspended dur- 
ing the last two days, owing to the heavy 
storm. Merchants have divided their time 
between exchanging views about the "glorious 
rain " and baling and pumping out their cellars. 
The difficulty of moving produce and the gen- 
eral disposition to enjoy the improved prospect 
have reduced traffic to a small amount. 

Rarn?e of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for 
Wheat to the Produce Exchange during the 
days of last week has been as recorded in the 
following table: 





'Ual. Avkkaoe. 


am. 




Thursday 


12s 


Hdirtl2s lid 


12s lldi*13s 


:id 


Friday 


1 2s 


7d«tl2! lid 


lis iodo(i:t» 


2d 


Saturday 


12s 


7dml2e lid 


12s lOdtrtUis 


2d 


Monday 


12s 


7d^l2s lid 


12s 10d(«13s 


2d 


Tuesday 


12s 


7dv<l2s lid 


12s lOdealss 


2d 




12s 


7d'<M2s lid 


12s HlduJlSs 


2d 



main the one prepared for us by the late Dr. 
Logan, a well-known weather student, and the 
table is brought down to the close of last year, 
from the records of Dr. F. W. Hatch, Secre- 
tary of the State Board of Health. 



The World's Wine Product.— An official 
statement gives the number of gallons of wine 
produced by each of the grape-producing coun- 
tries of the world for 1S70: France, 1,176,076,- 
ll'.f; (iermany, 7t'>.."{17,L , 04; Switzerland, 30,- 
000,000; Bohemia, 85.0(H); Austria, 84,802,841 : 
Hungary, 221,214,400; Russia (provinces in 
part), 44,361,000; Portugal, 111,000,000; Tur- 
key and Iloumania, 22,000,000; Australia, 
1,928,624; Cape of Good Hope, 1,785, 926; Ba- 
learic and Canary Isles, 2i»l,456; .Spain (in 
part), 66,000,000; Greece, 26,400,000; United 
States 14,000,000. 



Woodward's Gardens has Die following new attractions 
The buffalo chase; large whale skeleton; new museum; 
I improvements in the zoological department, besides the 
other featurus which have made it populur 



To-day's cable quotations to the Produce 

Exchange compare with same date in former 
years as follows: 

Average. Club. 

1876 10s 5d(810s 0d 10s 9d<ails 3d 

1877 10s lOdifflls — lis ld(<!lls f,d 

1878 12s 7d<«12s lid 12s 10d<tfl3s 2d 

The Foreign Review. 
London, January 15th. — The Murk Lane 
E-ejtrf** says: The Wheat plant is progressing 
favorably, and has, as far as can be ascertained, 
sustained no injury from recent heavy rains. 
At Mark Lane there has been very little busi- 
ness done in English Wheat, but in provincial 
markets the tone has been rather better and a 
moderate amount of activity has prevailed. 
The upward tendency in values for foreign 
Wheat has received a temporary check, owing 
to the unusual heavy importation which reached 
our shores last Monday, returns showing the 
arrival of over 111,000 quarters, besides large 
imports of American and Indian drains. The 
calculation of sellers has been somewhat thrown 
out by arrivals of Russian Wheat by way of 
Reval. Should the season continue mild and 
the Reval route remain open, our winter sup- 
plies may show an unlooked-for increase, hav- 
ing regard to the fact that Russia is turning all 
her available produce into gold to enable her to 
carry on the war. Apart from political consid- 
erations, the present range of values for Wheat 
appears to be a safe one. as far as can be seen. 
Any material change either way would be the 
result of political influence, but even if peace is 
proclaimed and the Black sea ports set free, we 
could not calculate on receiving supplies mnch 
before April. So, taking all things together, it 
is doubtful whether a pacific turn in Eastern 
affairs would materially affect prices. It most, 
however, be confessed that this opinion scarcely 
obtains credence with millers. Prices are 
slightly in buyers' favor, although not quotably 
lower, and the few saleB which have taken 
place have been to supply immediate require- 
ments. Corn off coast sold more freely. On 
spot mixed American eased slightly, bnt a 
revival in demand may occur at any moment, 
,is the stock of sound Corn in London is very 
short. Firmness characterizes the trade for 
Barley and Oats, with small arrivals at ports of 
call. The floating cargo trade has ruled dull 
for Wheat and rates receded. 

Freights and Charters. 

The improvement in Wheat freights which 
was noticeable a week ago, says the Commercial 
Neil's, lias continued during the period under 
review, and quite a number of ships have been 
taken at increased rates. The last charter 
drawn was at t!2 1 s for an iron vessel to a direct 
port, which is an advance of 8s 6d over rates 
at the latter part of December. At the close, 
however, business has been checked by the 
news of an armistice between Turkey ami Rus- 
sia. A number of vessels have been added to 
the disengaged list, but the charters have been 
sufficient to nearly offset the arrivals. There 
are now in port 13,363 tons under engagement 
to load Wheat here, 2,119 tons in Portland, 
15,366 tons miscellaneous and 32,955 tons dis- 
engaged. The Wheat charters for the week 
have been: Br. ship Ennerdale, 1,290, Wheat to 
Liverpool, £2 Is. Br. ship Hooghly, 1,300 tons, 
Wheat to Cork, U. K., £2 2s 6d; Br. ship 
Nereus, 1,108 tons, Wheat from Portland, Ore- 
gon, to Cork, U. K., t'2 17s 6d; ship Queens- 
town, 1,540 tons, Wheat to Liverpool, i'l 17s6d; 
Br. ship E. .1. Harland, 13,333 tons Wheat to 
Liverpool, £1 18s. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

New York, January 12th. — Peace prospects 
in Europe have had a depressing effect on the 
Grain market, and prices of Flour, Wheat and 
Corn are lower, and for the moment very dull. 
Spring Wheat has sold at #1. 25<o $1 . 38, and 
Corn for export at 57(ft62c. 

Chicago, January 12th. — The Grain market 
opened lower last Monday morning, and con- 
tinned steady until to-day, when a partial re- 



action occurred. The decline was occasioned 
by several causes, chiefly local in character, the 
European question being at present a second- 
ary consideration. The principal causes of the 
decline were the unsettled state of finances, and 
the temporary improvement early in the week 
in the condition of country roads, which, with 
the severely cold weather, froze stiff, and ad- 
mitted of some transfers of Grain from granaries 
and barns to elevators. Wheat has been fairly 
active, unsettled and fluctuating moderately, 
with increased receipts and a prospect of a de- 
cided decline before Spring. Sales at $1.05^(0' 
SI. 08} for February. Corn has steadily de- 
clined, with a barely speculative fluctuation, 
and sales of February at 40@41 Jc. Oats were 
very dull and weak, and easy at almost station- 
ary prices. February sales at 24£(a 24gc. Pro- 
visions were rather active, and an intense 
interest in the market was evident. The bad 
packing weather exerted a depressing influence 
late in the week, and the distressing financial 
rumors alluded to above, were mostly effective 
here. A heavy break occurred in Pork toward 
the close of the week, being nearly 50c easier. 
Eastern quotations here are influenced, too, and 
the week records the most marked decline of 
the season. Hog receipts were 225,000, the 
second largest week's receipts that ever came 
into this market. February Pork sold at 
*10.62V<o $11.35. Lard simply reflected the 
course of Pork, although itB movements were 
neither so heavy nor so decided. Sales of Feb- 
ruary were at S7.20(<"$7.45. Closing prices for 
to-day were: Wheat, £1.06i(a$1.0(H; Corn, 41c; 
Oats, 24(o 24}c; Rye, 55ic; Barley, SSifao^c; 
Pork, *10.70(« N *10.75; Lard, S7.20; Whisky 
was dull at $1.05 throughout. Receipts for the 
week: Wheat, 32,000 bushels; Corn, 252,000 
bushels; Oats, 89,000 bushels. Shipments : 
Wheat, 290,000 bushels; Corn, 86,000 bushels; 
Oats, 31,000 bushels. Receipts same time last 
year: Wheat, 175,000 bushels; Corn, 809,000 
bushels; Oats, 138,000 bushels. .Shipments: 
Wheat, 83,000 bushels; Corn, 317,000 bushels; 
Oats, 94,000 bushels. The only increase indi- 
cated by these figures is in Wheat, and that, 
under the circumstances, is very creditable and 
remarkable. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, Jan. 12th. — The week has de- 
veloped considerable activity for low price 
Wool, the sales of California being greater than 
in any week for some months past. Manufac- 
turers generally are running on an inferior 
quality of goods, and, in consequence, the latter 
class of Wools are taken only in limited quanti- 
ties. As regards the strength of the market, 
there exists the same firm feeling, no desire 
being shown to force supplies at anything under 
previous current rates. This feeling arises 
from the fact that desirable stocks are very 
light, and prices current are believed to rest on 
bottom and that any changes that may take 
place will surely be in the interests of holders. 
Sales for the week are 2,000 lbs coarse South 
American, 13c; 400,000 lbs Fall California, 14(5 
19c; 53,000 lbs Spring do, 22(o-24Ac; 10,000 lb» 
Colorado, 17 4c: 31,000 lbs Eastern Texas, 22(a) 
24c; 2,000 lbs inferior Georgia, 20c; 2,000 lbs 
low domestic Noils, 374c; 2,000 fine do, 62b; 
40,000 lbs X and XX "Ohio Fleeces, 4A»46c; 
15,000 lbs unwashed Kentucky combing, 39c; 
20.000 lbs low washed, 35c; »em) 25. bales. 
Donskoi, 50 bales Oregon, 1,000 lbs Utah, &V 
000 ibs Western Texas, 5,000 lbs Eastern doy. 
100 bags super pulled, 60 do combing; db, 5 do> 
shearlings, 5,000 ths unwashed Ohio audi 1,000> 
ths Western Fleece, on private terms; also' 
3,000 lbs Buffalo Hair, at 8c. 

Boston, January 12th. — Wool is rather quiet,, 
the new year not having as yet brought any 
increased activity. There is, however, a vary 
firm feeling, and holders are confident that full 
current prices will be realized for some montfis 
to come, on account of small, available sup- 
lilies and large consumption. Combing and de- 
laine Fleeces continue very quiet, the large- 
mills, after purchasing quite freely for the past 
six months, having withdrawn entirely from the- 
market. Ohio and Pennsylvania X, XX and! 
above, 42(ii46c; Michigan, Wisconsin and other 
Fleeces, 37(«424c; combing and delaine, 52c; 
for a line quality unwashed combing, 29@38c; 
coarse Cotswold and combing, 27(S45c: scoured, 
374tf'80c; super and X pulled, 32(a46c. In 
California Wool, sales were large, amounting to 
about half of the transactions of the week, in- 
cluding 516,000 His Fall, at 14ra25ic; and 90,- 
000 tbs Spring, at 25@32c. Total sales of 
domestic for the week were 1,229,900 tbs. 

The General Wool Trade of 1877 

From the "Annual Wool Circular" of James 
Lynch, of New York City, we make the follow- 
ing extract: The American farmer was com- 
pensated with good prices for his wool the past 
year; the importer failed to make money, and 
the manufacturer, on the average, did little bet- 
ter than hold his own. At the beginning of 
1877 the market was about at the scale of prices 
now current, and trade light; business improved 
in February, but fell off in March, and remained 
languid until the approach of the new clip, 
when competition among buyers became ex- 
tremely active, and the prices paid producers 
were advanced to figures quite as high as they 
have been at any time during the year. Wool 
importers have had a very unsatisfactory year in 
'77. It has been difficult to obtain prohts on 
imports, while in many cases losses have had to 
be borne. The manufacturing business, while 
not really profitable, was, as a whole, more sat- 
isfactory than that of the preceding year, and a 
better and more hopeful state of affairs now 



January 19, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL FBESS. 



XJ 



exists than has been experienced for a long 
time past. In worsted products the business 
has been quite satisfactory, and fairly good in 
low and medium clothing goods. Strictly fine 
woolens have not done well; the raw material 
has been too expensive, and buyers would not 
pay the high cost of the cloth. Stocks of fine 
Wools in the principal markets are smaller than 
they were at the beginning of last year. The 
Wool clip of the United States in 1877 exceeded 
in quantity all its predecessors. Wool growers 
in the older States are giving a large share of 
their attention to the production of Combing 
Wools, which of late years have found a readier 
sale, and at better prices, than clothing descrip- 
tions. The coarse long Wools of Colorado and 
New Mexico are also in high favor for carpet 
worsteds, and at all times command a market. 
The year begins with a fair demand. Already 
some important sales have been made at full 
prices. 

Grain on Hand January 1st. 

The Produce Exchange has completed its tak- 
ing of stock of Flour and Grain remaining in 
the State on the 1st day of Jauuary, 1878. The 
following is the report issued, showing the 
amounts of each Grain on hand January 1st of 
.the two preceding years: 



DISTRICTS. 



,S, F. and Oakland . . 
North coast & Sonoma 

county 

Napa Val. R. R., Val 

lejo, andC. P. R. R. . 
Sac. valley and river . . . 
Lower 8ac. San Joa 

quin and Suisun Bay. 

S. F. landings 

W. P. R. R., San Lean 

dro to Livermore — 
.Stockton and San Joa 

4llin valley 

S. P. K. R., Redwood 

to Hollister.i 

Salinas and Pajaro val 
Southern coast 



2'.),% I 
2,500 



Ml2j 



Totals 

Totals, July 1, 1877 
Totals, Jan. 1, 1877 



330 
20 
600 

57, 187 
73.SU 
5S.837 



427,403 

92,480 

744,000 
639,626 

46,440 
23,017 

13,695 

556.650 

84,220 
17.080 
2 200 



Ctls. 

217,301 

39,590 

51,000 
109,050 

17,419 
161,233 

44.812 

22,010 

73,700 
1112.751', 
53.175 



2,646,811 852,046 104,998 110,434 
294,565 595,463 55,753 40.009 
3.640,727 1.458,645 80,738 142,709 



Oats. 


Corn. 


Ctls. 


Sks. 


80,415 


17,844 


8,360 


5,500 


4,800 




267 




1,000 




115 


310 




6,000 


6,400 


3,000 


3,641 


500 
88,080 



The amount of Rye on hand is 3, !I0 1 sks, 
against 2,959 sks, July 1st, 1877, and 14,045 sks 
January 1st, 1877. 

Oregon Wheat and Flour. 

The Oregonian publishes the following state- 
ment of the exports of Wheat and Flour from 
Oregon during the year just ended: 

Wheat. CUs. 

To Europe, harvest of 187(i 440,113 

To San Francisco, harvest of 1876.. . 78,299 

To Europe, harvest of 1877 1,1101,007 

To San Francisco, harvest of 1877 .'. . 430,537 



Value. 
(981,680 
168,343 
4,022,934 
038,555 



Total 2,850,046 $6,061,373 

Flour. Bhls. Value. 

To Europe, season of 1876-77 16,125- $110,053 

To San Francisco, season of 1876-77. . 68,416 478,912 

To Europe, season of 1877-78 '. , 43,194 245,637 

To San Francisco, season of 1877-78. . 45,316 294,554 

Total 173,121 $1,129,156 

Domestic Produce. 
The following table shows the S. F. receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at 
noon to-day, as compared with the receipts of 
previous weeks: 



Articles. 



Flour, quarter sacks . 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, sacks 

Corn, centals 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales 



Week. 


Week. 


Week. 


Week. 


Dec. 26. 


Jan. 2. 


Jan. 9. 


Jan 16. 


15,881 


72,847 


43,883 


11,235 


147,937 


81,518 


173,451 


100,793 


8,652 


14,143 


15,775 


12,538 


778 


727 


1,725 


466 


5,379 


2,258 


5,041 


4,428 


1,501 


10,440 


6,319 


339 


19,270 


15,953 


18,612 


16,586 


2,449 


755 


1,377 


1,283 


287 


331 


248 


186 


39 


81 


90 




1,122 


870 


841 


777 



Bag's — The rains have induced dealers to 
add Jc. to their prices for Grain Bags. Other 
Bags are unchanged. 

Barley — Barley is quiet and unchanged. 
We quote sales: 500 sks light Brewing at 
$1,65; 2,460 ctls Bay Feed, weevily, at $1.60, 
silver; 980 ctls do do, $1.52| per ctl, gold; 500 
sks fair bay Brewing, 150 sks choice Coast 
Feeding, $1.62$. 

Beans — There is no change since the last 
advance, except a further of 12ic per ctl on 
Red Beans. 

Corn — Com has improved since our last 
and holds rates of a month ago. We quote 
sales: 500 sks Large Yellow at $1.60; 100 sks 
Large Yellow, $1.72A, silver; 100 sks Large Yel- 
low at $1.60 per ctl; 200 sks do, at $1.65 per 
ctl. 

Dairy Produce — Last weeks comments 
are still true. The supply of fresh roll is ample 
(unless this storm should retard shipments) and 
sales are made at last week's figures. Cheese is 
scarce, dealers' shelves are bare. 

Egg's — Eggs are unchanged. 

Feed — Hay sustains an advance of 50c per 
ton for choice Wheat, and the market is active. 
Corn Meal has advanced about $1 per ton. 
There are now two grades of Straw on the mar- 
ket; a poor quality ranging at 50@60e and a 
good quality at 70®80c. 

Fruit — Oranges are improving in quality, 
and the best now bring $30 per M. The price 
will probably advance with the quality when 
the better Californians come in. 



Hops — Hops are unchanged, and no nota- 
ble sales are reported. The New York mar- 
ket for the week ending January 4th is reviewed 
by Emmet Wells as follows: 

The New Year opens with a brisk market, 
the demand still running chiefly on low to 
fair grades at late prices. There is a growing 
scarcity of choice export Hops, and those of 
our dealers who are favored by orders experi- 
ence great difficulty in finding the quality to 
suit. It will be seen that the shipments this 
week exceed the receipts by nearly 500 bales; 
This is of very little account, however, as the 
stock is large and fully adequate to meet all 
calls. A few Hops are changing hands in the 
interior at nearly the same prices as rule here 
in New York. Quotations — New Yorks (choice 
export Hops), 11 to 13c; New Yorks, good to 
prime (nominal), 8 to 10c; New Yorks, low to 
fair, 5 to 7c; Eastern, 8 to 12c; Wisconsins, 5 
to 8c; Yearlings, 3 to 5c; Olds, all growths, 2 
to 3c; Californians, 12 to 14c. 

Oats — The price is unchanged. We note 
sales: 52 sks good Feed, $1.85; 100 sks Black 
Washington Territory, $1.85. 

Onions— An extreme of 85c per ctl has 
been reached by the best Union City. 

Potatoes — The advance is continued for 
choice lots, as may be seen by our list. 

Provisions— An improvement is noted in 
nearly all kinds of Fresh Meat, owing to the 
scarcity of good Cattle and Sheep. The late 
drouth may now be expected to show its influ- 
ence on our Meat market for a while. 

Poultry— The market is Arm, though a 
slightly lower schedule of prices has prevailed. 
The storm may reduce supplies for a time. 

Vegetables— There are no changes. The 
winter store Vegetables are chiefly shown, 
although there has been a small receipt of 
(ireen Peas. 

W^heat —The rain, the probable ending of 
the Turkish war and the beginning of the year, 
have induced a slight reduction in current rates 
in this market. Wo uuw oalcs: 1,200 ctls fair 
Shipping, $2 22J; 800 ctls Milling, §2.30; 1,°00 
ctls fair Shipping, $2.22.1; 800 ctls choice Ship- 
ping, $2.30; 400 do fair Milling, $2.25. 

Wool — We hear of nothing new in the 
local trade. The telegraphed review, in another 
column, shows increased activity in California 
Wools in the New York market. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

[wholesale. 1 

Wednesday m., January 16, 1878 



BEANS. Almonds, hd sbl lb 6 (a 

Bayo, ctl 4 00 @4 25 Soitau'i 12 @ 

Butter 2 90 (*3 40 " 

Pea 3 30 c«'3 50 

Red 3 Wim 12J 

Pink 3 85 (S4 20 

Sin'l White 3 20 '<t3 40 

Lima 4 25 i<»4 56 



IS 



BROOM <OK\. 

Common, tb 2 

Choice 3 (ri 

4 III* < OKI . 

California 4 @ 

German 6J(<# 

COTTON. 

Cotton, lb 15 @ 

l» UK V FKOUIICE, ETC. 

BUTTER. 

Cal. Fresh Roll, lb 27}@ 321 

Point Reyes 324(3 - 

Pickle Roll 22|@ 27j 

Firkin 22i(d> 26 

Western Reserve.. 17J(S 20 

New York — @ — 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal, lb.... 19 @ 21 

Eastern 18 @ 20 

N. Y. State 21 @ - 

Cal. fresh, doz.... 37i@ 40 

Ducks' 35 <a — 

Oregon 32J@ - 

Eastern 30 (at 321 

do Pickled 20 (<* 25 

FEED. 

Bran, ton 27 50 <g> 

Corn Meal 37 00 iff39 00 

Hay 14 00 ®23 50 

Middlings 40 00 iff 

Oil Cake Meal. ..44 00 @ 

Straw, bale 50 ig 80 

FLOUR. 

Extra, bbl 6 87J<<?7 25 

Superfine 5 50 <t>6 00 

Graham 6 00 @6 75 

FKFSII MEAT. 
Beef, 1st qual'y, lb 7 @ 

Second 6 @ 

Third 4 (0 

Mutton 6 (ft 

Spring Lamb 8 <a> 

Pork, undressed... 5 (tr 

Dressed 7K« 

Veal 5 Qi 

Milk Calves 7 @ 

GRAIN. ETF. 
Barley, feed, ctl...l 60 (rtd 65 

Brewing.... 1 70 «*1 lb 

Chevalier 1 80 al 85 

Buckwheat 1 50 tail 55 

Corn. White 1 62J(<»1 67 J 

Yellow 1 60 (31 65 

Small Round.... 1 80 (ft\ 85 

Oats....» 1 70 '<?2 00 

Milling 2 00 (al 12i 

Rye 2 40 (#2 45 

Wheat, Shipping.. 2 22J*ec2 27i 

Milling 2 25 <g2 30 

HIDES. 

Hides, dry 1? @ 

Wet salted 8 <ff 

HONEY. ETC. 

Beeswax, lb 30@ 

Honey in comb. ... 18 @ 

do, No 2 12J(<» 

Dark 12iW 

Strained 12J@ 

HOI'S. 

Shipping 8 @ 

Choice brands 10 (iff 

NI/TS-JobbiiiK. 

Walnuts, Cal 6 & 

do, Chile 7 <ff 



Brazil 14 <S 

Pecans 17 (ff 18 

Peanuts 3 (ft 5 

Filberts 15 (ff 16 

ONIONS. 

Alviso 25 (S 62{ 

Union City, ctl 25 iff S5 

Stockton 25 (ff 62 J 

Sacramento River. 25 (ff 62£ 
POTATOES. 

Petaluma, ctl 1 50 @1 60 

Humboldt 1 621, «1 77 1 

Cuffey Cove — Iff — 

Early Rose, new. 1 75 v<i2 00 
Half Moon Bay. . .• — @ - 

Kidney 1 50 @1 62, 

Sweet 1 50 @1 75 

FOI LTRY <fc GAME. 

Hens, doz 6 00 @8 00 

Roosters 5 50 (ff9 00 

Broilers 6 00 (ff8 00 

Ducks, tame 9 00 (ffll 00 

do, Mallard 2 50 <g>3 00 

Geese, pair 2 00 (n 2 50 

Wild Gray 2 00 ®2 50 

White 75 .gl 00 

Turkeys 14 <ff 17 

do. Dressed 17 (ff 20 

Snipe, Eng 1 25 (ffl 50 

do, Common 75 @1 00 

Rabbits 1 00 (ff 

Hare 1 50 @ — 

Quail 1 75 (ff - 

Venison 5 (ff 8 

PROVISIONS. 
Cal. Bacon, L't, lb 13J@ 14 

Medium 12J@ 12J 

Heavy 12 @ 12* 

Lard 11 (ff 14 

Cal. Smoked Beef 95(8 10 

Eastern — (ff — 

Shoulders, Cover'd 84.(8 82 

Hams. Cal 12 (ff 124. 

Dupee's 15JCff 16 

Boyd '8 — (ff — 

Davis Bros' 15J(ff 16 

None Such 15 (ff 15J 

Magnolia -- (8 — 

Wliittaker 16 (ff 164 

SEEOS. 

Alfalfa 5 @ 12 

Canary 7 <o? 8 

Clover, Red 18 <» — 

White 50 (ff 55 

Cotton 6 (ff 10 

Flaxseed 34,(ff — 

Hemp 6 (ff 

Italian Rye Grass 35 & — 

Perennial 35 (ff — 

MiUet 10 <0 12 

Mustard, White... 8 (ff — 

Brown 25<ff 34, 

Rape 3 (ff 4 

Ky Blue Grass 20 W — 

2d quality 18 & — 

Sweet V Grass. . . .1 00 <ff 

Orchard 30 <S 

Red Top 18 (ff 

Hungarian 8 (ff 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



Lawn 50 (ff 

Mesquit 20 (ff 

Timothy 9 @ 

TALLOW. 

Crude, lb 6J@ 

Refined 8j(ff 

WOOL. ETC. 

KAI.L. 

Burry 

Southern, free 

San Joamiin, free. 
Choice Northern. 
Burry. Northern.. 



in w 
11 (ff 

11 <|> 

16 l"' 
14 (ff 



BAGS— Jobbing. 

Eng Standard Wheat. 9J 410 
Neville & Co's 
Hand Sewed, 22x36.. 95<S10 

24x36 -(ff— 

23x40 -@- 

Macbine Swd, 22x36. 9Ji* 92 
Flour Sacks, halves.. . . 8J@10i 

Quarters 5,(ff 6i 

Eighths 4 (ff 41 

Hessian, 60 inch 15 <« — 

45 inch 8j(g 

40 inch — @ — 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 34. lb.. 45 ?50 

Machine Sewed 424(3— 

4 lb do 47i(ff— 

Standard Gunnies 15 (ff -- 

Beau Bags 6J(ff 8 

CANDLES. 

Crystal Wax 17 @17i 

Eagle 14 (ff— 

Patent Sperm 25 (g30 

CANNED GOODS. 
Assorted Pie Fruits, 

24. tb cans 2 75 (ff3 00 

Table do 3 75 (ff 4 25 

Jams and .Tellies.. 4 25 (i* — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 50 (§ — 

Sardines, qr box . . 1 65 @1 90 

Hf Boxes 3 00 (ff — 

Pr< served Beef, 

2 It., do/. 4 00 <» — 

do Beef, 4tb.doi-.6 50 (ff - 
Prefl rved Mutton, 

2 It), doz 4 00 <» - 

Beef Tongue 6 50 (ff — 

Preserved H a ui, 

2 lb. doz 6 50 (ff - 

Deviled Ham, 1 ft), 

doz 5 50 (ff — 

do Ham, *ll.doz.3 00 (if - 
COAL-.l<il>l>iiiK. 
Australian, ton.. 7 75 (ff 8 00 

Coos Bay 6 50 (ff 7 00 

Bcllingham Bay. 6 50 (ff- 

Seattle 7 00 (ff— 

Cumberland 14 00 (ff— 

Mt Diablo 4 75 (ff 6 75 

Lehigh 22 00 iff 

Liverpool 7 00 (ff 8 00 

West Hartley. . . 7 50 <& 8 00 

Scotch 7 00 (ff 8 00 

Scranton 13 00 (ffl6 00 

Vancouver Id . . . 7 50 (ff 

Charcoal, sack.. . 75 @ 

Coke, bbl 60 (ff 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Id. Ib. 21 J@ — — 

Costa Rica 19 (ff 19; 

Guatemala. 19 (ff I9i 

Java 25 (ff- 

Manila 1H (ff 

Ground, In cs. . . 25 @- 
FISH. 

Sac 'to Dry Cod . 5 (ff 6 
do in cases.. 6J(ff 7 

Eastern Cod .... 7% i^— — 

Salmon, bbls.... 9 00 (fflO 00 

lit bhls 4 75 (ff 5 25 

2 111 cans 3 10 (ff3 2o 

Pkld Cod, bbls.. 22 00 (ff 

Hi bbis ii oo <a 

Mackerel, No. i, 

Hf Buls 11 5 I (ST12 00 

In Kits 3 00 (ff 

Ex Mess 3 75 @- 



f WHOLESALE. 1 % 

Wednesday m., January 16. 1878. 



70 



30 



19{ 



H@ 
ljlff 
4 (ii 
lUa 
2lvt 



Plaster, Golden 

Gate Mills.... 3 00 @ 3 25 
Land Plaster, tn 10 00 <ffl2 50 
NAILS. 

Ass'ted sizes, keg 3 25 (ff 4 00 
OILS. 

Pacific Glue Co's 

Neatsfoot, No 1.1 00 (ff 90 
Castor. No 1 1 10 (3 — 

do, No. 2 1 00 iff — 

Baker's A A 1 2J. ("1 30 

Olive, Plagniol 6 25 '.'5 75 

Possel 4 75 (ff5 26 

Palm, lb 9 (ff — 

Linseed, Saw, bbl, 77 (ff — 

Boiled 80 (ff - 

Cocoanut 60 (* 

China nut, cs 68 @ 

Sperm 1 60 01 65 

Coast Whales 60 (ff 65 

Polar, refined 60 (ff — 

Lard 1 10 (ffl 15 

Oleophine 27 (ff 

Devoe's Bril't 27 (ff 

Photolite 29 @ 

Noupariel 50 (ff 

Eureka 225(ff 

Ban el keroBeue. . . 22J(ff 

Downer Ker 22£<(» 

Elaine 45 (ff 

FAINTS 
Pure White Lead. 

Whiting 

Putty 

Chalk 

Paris White 

Ochre 3j(ff 

Venetian Red 3 j(ff — 

Averill Mixed 

Paint, gal. 

White & tints. . .2 00 (ff2 40 
Green, Blue & 

Ch Yellow 3 00 («3 50 

Light Red 3 00 ("3 50 

Metallic Roof...l 30 («1 60 
RICE. 

China No. 1, lb.... 6 @ 64 

Hawaiian 5 (ff 5J 

SALT. 
Cal. Kay, ton.... 15 00 025 00 

Common 10 00 <ffl2 00 

Carmen Id 15 00 u(25 (10 

Liverpool fine... 26 00 la 28 00 
SOAP. 

Castile, ft. 10 (ff 

Common brands. . 4£(ff 

Fancy brands 7 (ff 

SPICES. 

Cloves, lb 45 (ff 

Cassia 22$ ff 

Nutmegs 85 (ff 

Pepper Grain 15 iff 

Pimento 15 (ff 

Mustard, Cal. 
i II. glass 1 50 (ff 

SUGAR, ETC. 

Cal. (Julie. II 

I'owdered 

r'ilie crushed 

.ranulatedj. . 

ioldeli C. .". 

Hawaiian 

Jal Syrup, kys. . . 
Hawaiian Mol'sses 
TEA. 
Young Hysoi , 
Mo> une, etc 



105 



!2iiff 
13 l«> 
13 (ff 
12ilff 
10J w 
lu '«' 
70 (ff 
2.1 (ff 



30 



In 



Pkld Herring, bx 3 00 <fi 3 50 jCounuy puk.l I.. 
Boston Smkd H'g 40 (3 50 

LI. VIE. Etc. 
Lime, Sta Cruz, 

bbl 2 00 (ff 2 25 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 75 (ff 3 50 

Portland 4 75 (ff 5 50 



35 (a) ftii 



50 (ff 



powder & 
perial. . . 

Hyson 30 (ff 

Fooo-Chow O 35 <0 

Japan, 1st quality 40 (ff 

2d quality 25 @ 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

Twholesale. ] 

Wednesday m.. January 16. 1S7S. 



IRI IT MARKET. 

AppleB, box 75 (ff 1 

Bananas, bnch.. 2 50 (ff 5 
Cocoanuts. 100. . 7 00 (ff 8 
Cranberries, bbl 12 50 ;<( 
Grapes, box:. ... 75 (<* 1 
do, Muscat. . . 1 00 (ff 1 
do, Black Mor. 1 25 (ff 1 

Limes. Mex 10 00 <ff- 

do, Cal 4 00 (ff 5 

Lemons, Cal M . 15 00 (ff20 

Sicily, bx 10 00 (ffl2 

Oranges, Mex, 

M 15 00 (930 

Tahiti — — @— 

Cal 12 50 (ff 30 

Pears, box 75 (ff 1 

Easter Beurre 1 00 («> — 
Winter Nellis. 1 50 (ff 2 
Pineapples, doz. 8 00 ©10 

Plums, lb 6 (3 

Prunes 5 (ff 

DRIED FBI IT. 

Apples, tb 4 @ 

Apricots 10 (** 

Citron 23 (ii 

Dates 9 @ 

Figs, Black 4 (ff 



White 6 <a 

Strawber'sch'st.20 00 (ff— 



7{@ 
4 (3 
3 ieb 

12K(* 



Peaches 
Pears. . . 
Plums. . 

Pitted 
Prunes. . 

Raisins. Cal bx 1 00 (ff 2 
do. Halves... 1 25 <g 2 
do, Quarters. 1 50 (ff 2 

Blowers' 2 75 (ff— 

Malaga.'. 2 75 (ff 3 

Zante Currants.. 8 Iff. 

VEGETARLES. 
Asparagus, tb... — 40 @ — 

Beets, ctl 1 50 @— 

Cabbage, 100 lbs 1 00 <a 1 

Carrots, ctl 50 @ 

Cauliflower, doz 50 (ff 
Garlic, New. tb. . 14,(ff— 

Lettuce, doz 10 (ff— 

Parsnips, lb 1 @ — 

Horseradish 4 @ — 

Squash, Marrow 

fat, tn 10 00 @— 

Turnips, ctl 1 50 <$b — 

White 1 00 (ff— 

Mushrooms, lb.. 15 @ — 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro & Co.] 

San Francisco, January 16. 3 p. m. 
Legal Tenders in S. F., 11 a. m., 96lff98i Silver, 5@5J 
Gold in New York, 102. 

Gold Bars, 890(n)910. Silver Bars. 8@15 $ cent, dis 
count. 

Exchange on New York. J%; on London bankers, 49J; 
Commercial, 50; Paris, hvt francs $ dollar; Mexican 
dollars, 93. 

London Consols, 95 7-16; BondB, 105J. 

Quicksilver in S. F.. by the flask. * Ib, 46(ff47ic 



Important— Farmers . 

It is often desirable, when wishing to secure 
suitaVile Farm Hands, such as Teamsters, Milk- 
ers, Plowmen, etc., to know just where to find 
them, and so avoid being imposed upon by the 
numberless tramps with which the country 
abounds. The city is a place where large num- 
bers of men from all parts of the country con- 
gregate, and .among the number many good, 
strong able-bodied farmers are to be found 
awaiting employment. Messrs. Crosett & Co., 
623 and C'25 Clay street, are daily receiving ap- 
plications from these sturdy yeomanry, coin- 
posed of (iermans, Scandinavians, Americans 
and Irish, who wish to be sent out to work on 
some farm, and should any of our readers wisli 
to avail themselves of the opportunity to pro- 
cure such persons for any work they wish ac- 
complished, they can address, giving full par- 
ticulars, Crosett & Co., 623 and 625 Clay street, 
San Francisco, and particular attention will be 
given to supply them with good men. 



TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR-1878. 

Hall's Journal of Health. 

Contents of a Single Number: 

The Little Courtesies of Life; Couching' in Consump- 
tion; Inllueuee of Christianity on Medical Science; Igno- 
rance and III Health; Elage and Ruin; Kindness the Best 
Punishment; Grass in Hum; Valuable Table; Incurable 
Insanity; Consumption -A Suggestion; The Spirit Kapper- 
Premium on Babies; Our Proverbs; Wrecked Clergymen; 
Marrying Well; The Lifting Cure; Sea Sickness; Face 
Painting; A Filthy Atmosphere; The Latest Crazy Man; 
A Suggestion; The Erie Railway; Sick Children. 

Published in New York. E. II. Gums, M. I)., Editor. 

This journal has maintained the highest record of any 
health journal issued in the English language. It is not 
the amount of matter published which makes it the must 
valuable journal, but the plain and condensed truths it 
furnishes concerning that which is of ever vital import- 
ance to its large list of readers. 

Annual subscription (post-paid) §1.50. 

To subscribers of this paper 75 cents. 

Address: DEWEY & CO , 

No. 202 Sansome Street, San Francisco, 
Ae-ents on the Pacific Coast. 



PACIFIC MAIL STEAMSHIP CO. 

The Company's Steamers will sail as follows, at 12 M. : 

CITY OF TOKIO February 5th. 

For YOKOHAMA and HONGKONG. 

COLIMA lanuary I8lh 

For Panama and New York, calling at Acaputco, 

Mazutlan and Manzanillo. 
Tickets to and from Europe by any line for sale at the 

owest rates. 

SALVADOR On or about January 10th. 

For Panama, calling at Acapuleo and all ports south 
of Acapnia.. 

CITY OF SYDNEY, January 21st, at 12 o'clock, rtootn 
or on arrival of the English Mails, for HONO- 
LULU, AUCKLAND and SYDNEY. 
810 additional is charged for passage in Upper Saloon. 

CITY OF PANAMA lanuary loth. 

For Victoria, Port Towns-end, Seattle, and Taenia, 
connecting at Tacotna with Northern Pacific 
Railroad for Portland, Oregon. 
Tickets must be purchased before 11 A. M. on day of 
sailing'. 

For freight or passage apply at the oHice corner First 
and Brannan streets. 

WILLIAMS, BLANCHARD & CO., Agts. 



REGISTER YOUR 

TRADE 




MARKS. 



The U. S. Government now offers greater protection 
than formerly to manufaeturers under the law of Trade 
Marks. 

Those who manufaeture a superior artiele, or put up 
improved paekages of merchandise, should protect them- 
selves from imitations by registering their Trade Marks. 

We have special facilities for securing full rights by the- 
registration of Trade Marks, and our terms are very reas- 
onable. 

Consultations free. Many dealers have missed fortuues 
from not being fully informed and protecting themselves, 
in their rights. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors, 

No. 202 Sansome Street, S. F. 



A. T. Dkwey. 
vv. B. Ewkr. 



Jno. L. Boone. 
Obo. II Stronq. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 



Office of Grangers' Business Association. 

Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting of the 
Stockholders of the Granger's Business Association for the 
election of Directors, and for the transaction of such other 
business as may properly conic before the Annual Meet- 
ing of said oorparatinn, will be held at the office of said 
corporations. No. 100 Davis Street, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, on Wednesday, February 20th, 1S7S, at 10 A. M. 

Amos Aoamh, Sec'y. D. INMAN, President.^ 

San Franbisco, January 14th, 1878. 



PEAR SEEDLINGS. 

We have left over from the fall trade a line lot of No. 
2, from three- sixteenths to one-fourth of an inch in diam- 
eter, which we will sell at S4 par thousand Wo will de- 
liver them at our nearest freight or express office, boxing 
free. Terms cash. 

HUNTER m BREWER, 

Springwater, Livingston County, New York 



W. & J. ROBINSON, 

Hanford, Tulare County, California 

IMl'ORTKRH AND UKKRDKRH OK 

THOROUGHBRED BERKSHIRE SWINE- 

Also, the finest strains of 

Pure Brown Leghorn Fowls. 

BIRDS AND EGGS FOR SALE. 



This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South loth 
St., Philadelphia, & 50 Gold St., Cor. Ann.N Y. 



46 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January ig, 1878. 



Nurserymen. 



J. ROCK'S NURSERIES, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

For Sale this season a Luya and Complete Stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

Evergreens, Shrubs, and Flowering Piants, 
ORANGE AND LEMON TREES, 

AMERICAN AND JAPANESE PERSIMMON, NUT 
BEARING TREES rs laros VARIETY. HARDY 
PALMS AND ORNAMENTAL PLANTS. 

A Large Assortment of Small Fruits, Etc. 

43T For iplete List send for a Catalogue. 

JOHN ROCK, San Jose, Cal. 

STOCKTON NURSERIES. 

Established in 1853. 
W. B. WEST, Proprietor, 
FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES, 

Evergreens, Shrubs and Greenhouse Plants 

Comprising everything NEW ami RARE in my line. 

SPECIALTIES: 

Raisin Grapes. Figs, Oranges, Lem . s, 

AND OTHER TROPICAL FRUITS. 

I have imported superior Figs and Raisin Grapes direct 
from the place of their nativity in Europe, and having 
propagated large quantities, can now offer them to the 
trade and public on the Most Reasonable Terms 

j&TSend for catalogue and further information. 




Established over 20 Years in Sacramento. 

% Trees & Plants 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, AT THE CAPITAL NUR. 
SERIES, SACRAMENTO. A FULL ASSORTMENT 
OF EVERYTHING IN THE NURSERY LINE, 
BOTH WHOLESALE AND RETAIL, AT 
LOWEST MARKET RATES. 

ALSO, A VERY LARGE AND COMPLETE ASSORT- 
MENT OF FIELD, GARDEN, LAWN AND TREE 
SEEDS, WHICH WE OFFER AT VERY 
LOW RATES, B'lTH TO THE TRADE 
AND PLANTER IN LARGE 
OR SMALL LOTS. 

Catalogues, Price-Lists, and Printed Directions free on 
application. Address, 

W. R. STRONG & CO , 
Nos. 6, 8 and 10 J Street, Sacramento 



HANNAY BROS'. NURSERY, 

SAN JOSE, CAL. 

Large and splendid stock of Fruit, Shade and Ornamen 
tal Trees, Vine-, Plants, etc. Apple, Pear, Cherry, Peach, 
Aprivot, Almond, (Quince, Olive, Fig, Grapevines and 
smalt fruits assorted. 

Eucalyptus, Cypress, Pine, Acacia, 
Pepper, Elm, Poplar, Etc., 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 

Our trees are well grown, stalky and healthy, and those 
wishing to plant in large or small quantities would do 
well to call and see us beiore buying elsewhere. 

Address, 

HANNAH BROS' , San Jose, Cal. 
100,000 Blackberry Plants for Sale. 

New varieties The Early Cluster, Vina Seedling, Mis- 
souri Mammoth. Kittatinny and Deering Cluster. Price, ,<3 
per 100. 5.000 Gooseberry plants, of the Houghton and 
American Seedlings; these varieties are free from mil u w, 
and are strong growers and enormous bearers, price. $8 per 
100. By mail, £2 per do/.en. Black Nanlcs < 'urrant, si each 

I will give satisfactory proof from two reliable gentlemen 
who have realized over S750 per acre from these varieties of 
Blackberry' plants last year 

Cherry Cranberry plants delivered and planted out for 
8150 per acre, if not less than 50 acres, or I will take an in- 
terest in the same of ten acres. 

On large orders, time of payment will be given, for part 
of the money, with good security H. NYLAND, 

iBleton, Sacramento County, Cal 

L. M. NEWS0M, 

Nurseryman, Seedsman and Florist, 

East Twelfth Street, near Tubbs' Hotel, East Oak- 
land, Alameda County, Cal. 

I HAS FOR SALK EVERYTHING DESIRABLE IN THE 

Floral, Ornamental Fruit Tree & Seed Line. 

A large stock of Belgian C imellias and Azaleas, 
Monterey Cypress and Blue Gum. 

FISHER, RICHARDSON & CO.'S NURSERY 

San Padro St., near cor. of Washington, 

LOS ANGELES, CAL. 

Have for sale all kinds of Deciduous Pratt Trees. Also 
the leading varieties of Buddeil Orange and Lemon (inclu- 
ding our Thornless Sweet Rind, of which we have a limited 
number of trees and buds for sale), which we offer at prices 
to suit the times We took the prize on Budded Orange and 
Lemon trees; also, on Deciduous trees at our Horticultural 
Fair this Fall Special attention given to mail orders Car- 
esjioudeuce solicited, P. O. Box. 876, Los Angeles, Cal I 



• FRUIT TREES, 

ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
Shrubs and Evergreens. 

LARGE PALMS, 

LARGE AURICARIAS. 

LARGE TREE PERNS, 

ORANGES & LEMONS 

MAKING THE GROWTH OF 

ORANGES & LEMONS A SPECIALTY, 

I offer one year grafted trees of the follow ing sorts of 
Oranges: Naval, Hill's, St. Michael, Konah, Sannaretta, 
Sumillo. Acapulco, Maltese Blood, Mission, Mediterranean 
Sweet, Pcrnambuco, and Sicily and Lisbon Lemons, at 
per hundred, with twenty other varieties. 

BERNARD S POX, 

San Jose, Cal. 



THE DIOSPYROS KAKI, 




FELIX GILLET'S NURSERY, 

NEVADA CITY, CAL. 

For sale, choice French imported varieties of all sorts 
of fruit, introduced by us in California, including Chest- 
nut, (Marron De Lyon and Courbale), Prtrparturions 
Walnut, Duchesse Almond, Filberts and Avelines, (5 va- 
rieties), 

Medlar, Cherry, Plum, Pear, Apple, 

Black Mulberry, etc. Grapes for tho table, (14 varietios). 
Everbearing Raspberry, (three crops a year), Currant, 
Gooseberry and Blackberry Plants. 

45 VARIETIES OP STRAWBERRIES, 

(French, English, American and California!).) 

Also, Scions for Grafting purposes and Grape Cuttings 
of our choicest varieties. 

Every Tree and Plant Guaranteed to be 

"TRUE TO NAME." 

WSand for Descriptive Catalogue and Price List 

FELIX GILLET. r\ev da City Cal. 



Seedsmen. 



R.J. TRUMBULL & CO., 

SUCCESSORS TO 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

Growers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers in 




Fruit and Oi inuiciital Trees 

Evergreen Shrubs and Greenhouse Plants 

Comprising Everything New and Rare. 

ORANGE & LEMON TREES, 

ONE TO FIVE YEARS' OLD, MAGNOLIAS, JAPAN 
PERSIMMONS, PALMS, MONTEREY CYPRESS, 
MONTEREY PINE, CAMELLIAS, BLUE GUMS, 
(by the 100 or 1,000. verv low, all transplant- 
ed). ROSES, ETC . AT THE LOWEST 
MARKET RATES. 

Agent for the Nurseries of B. S. Pox 
SAN JOSE, CAL. 

THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery Street. 

San Francisco, Cal 



OR JAPANESE PERSIMMON 



Six Eest Varieties. All Grafted^ Reliable 

Viz : Imperial, oblong : Vermillion in color, flesh soft, 
good either fresh or dried. Xihtm, oblong, rounded 
apex, flesh solid and keeps well; early, very pro 
line, but smaller fJaimw ("Yeddo's best fruit"), oblong 
rounded apex, color, yellow ish red, rtesh soft, fine flavored. 
Mikado, flat or round shaped, flesh more solid, orange or 
or yellow colored, (the same as grow n by Col Hollister). 
Vamatif, resembles Imperial, but more productive 
TaiktMii, round, quite large, shade slightly green; 
a great favorite in Western .lapan. 

SPECIMENS O FRUIT ON EXHIBITION. 

HENRY LOOMIS, 
At TRUMBULL'S SEED STORE, 
419 &421 Sansome St , San Francisco 



200.000 
Australian Gum Trees for Sale, 

AT STRATTON'S 

Gum Tree Forest Nursery, 

Hayward's, Alameda Co., Cal. 

These trees are from five to twelve inches high, trans- 
planted regularly into boxes :<0x20 inches square, weigh- 
ing 150 pounds. 150 or 500 in each box, in splendid con- 
dition for transplanting to their permanent location. 
Price, $6 to $12 per l.OOO. Will contract to plant 
the trees, or furnish superintendence, on low terms. 
Cash must accompany orders for less than S550; or if 
greater than that ainoun , city reference must be iriven. 
Address, JAS. T. STRATTON, 

East Oakland, Alameda County, Cal. 



FRUIT TREES FOR SALE. 

I wish to call the attention of those who expect to 
plant out fruit trees the coming winter to the fact that I 
have a few thousand first-class trees which I offer for sale 
at the usual rates. These trees were grown principally 
for myself, on good lard, without ii ligation, are stout and 
stalky, ar hoice varieties, and true to name. Also, 
Eucalyptus Monterey Cypress. Call on or address, 
W. W SMITH, VacavHle, 

Solano County, Cal 



SHINNS NURSERIES. 

NILES, ALAMEDA COUNTY, CAL 

Wc invite attention to our large stock of 

Fruit Trees and Ornamentals, 

Of the most approved varieties. Also. Ooffe \ Cork Oak 
i>livts, Ouavas, ffngtiltl Atid Black Walnuts, Magnolias. 
■LuquatB, Huttemuts, Small Fruits, EvergrecuM, Etc. We 
have a choice utock Of the DiospymK Kaki i Japan Prrniiu- 
>'<mj of our own tfmwinb', iiuj also, grafted ntock imported 
lirect from Several Japan Nurseries. Address for catalogue 
■ hi' 1 terms, 

DR. J. W. CLARK, No. 41S California St. , San Francisco 
or JAMES SHINN, Nilea, Alameda Co., Cal. 

THE TROPICAL NURSERY 

Keeps only Choice and liare Fruits, and Ornamental Trees 
ami Shrubs; such as Japanese Persimmon. Mango, Sweet 
Boft Orape Fruit. Weepiug Junip.-rs and Banana Shruh. 
Also, choice Oranges. Lemons and Kaisin Orap s; with many 
otherrareplautsfri.in all parts of the world I Ksnipt iv<- 
catalogue and price list sent free to any addre 



J. A. FISHER, C.II. RICHARDSON, J. o. SEYMOUR I CHAS A REED, Santa Barbara, Cal. 



Are Planted by a Million PiOFLI ix Americ*. She 
Vick's Catalogue— :100 illustrations, only two cts 
Vick's Illustrated Monthly Magazine—:!: 
pages, fine illustrations, and colored plate in each num 
ber. I'riee, (A.8B a year; five copies for #5. 

Vick's Flower and Vegetable Garden, M 
cents in paper covers; with elegant cloth covers, $1. 

All my publications are printed in English and Germai 
Ad l.ess, .JAMES TICK, Rochester, N. Y. 

PAJARO VALLEY NURSERIES, 

Watsonville, Cal. 

For sale this season a large and complete stock of 
Fkldt, ud Ornamental Trees; Evergreens; Shrubs; Fl >w- 
cring and Green House Plants, Japanese Persimmon 
Trees, Japanese Flowering Shrubs, etc. I have received 
direct from Japan a large lot of Ja|iancse Persimmon 
Trees, of the choicest varieties. Fine Ornamental Trees 
.I'm I ;i large '."< ' >l Flowering Plants, I Irchids, etc . together 
with a fine variety of Bulbs of Japanese billies. All of 
which will he sold at as low rates as can be had elsewhere 
in the State. For catalogue and further information, ad- 
dress 

JAMES WATERS, Proprietor. 



PETALUMA NURSERIES. 

[Established in 18511.] 
WM. SEXTON, PROPRIETOR- 

tiTFor sale a general assortment of Fruit Trees, Ever- 
green Trees and Shrubbery. Our trees are all grown 
without irrigation and the wood is well matured Cata- 
logue and price list furnished on application. Address 
WM. SEXTON, Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



FRUIT TREES AT REDUCED PRICES. 



10n, Ooo Apple Trees, also a large stock of other Fruit 
Trees, including Seedling and Budded Orange and Lemon 
Trees verv cheap Two year old apple Trees, $10 per 
100. 

MILTON THOMAS, 

Los Angeles, Cal 



LOS GATOS NURSERIES, 

S NEWHALL, Proprietor, San Jose. Cal. 

A large and general assortment of Fruit and Ornamental 
Trc< s. Everirrcelis, Flowering Shrubs, Roses. Greenhouse 
Plants, Grapevines and small fruits, etc. 20.000 fine Al- 
mond on Almond stocks. I offer for sale a well assorted, 
well grown ami healthy stock. Low topped stalky fruit trees 
a specialty. Address, 

S NEWHALL San Jose. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 

Established in 1858. 

For sale, a general assortment of Fruit Trees and Small 
Fruits; Evergreen Trees and Shrubs in variety. Early 
planting recommended. My Trees are grown without irri- 
gation; the wood is well ripened. I am prepared to fill 
ruers as soon as the rainy season commences. Cata- 
logues and price list furnished on application. Address, 
W. H PEPPER, Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



FLOWERING PLANTS AND BULBS, FRUITS AND 
ORNAMENTAL TREES, ETC. FANCY WIRE 
DESIGNS, GARDEN TRELLISES, SYR- 
INGES, GARDEN HARDWARE. 
Comprising the Most Complete Stock 
EVER OFFERED ON THE PACIFIC COAST. 

Prices Unusually Low. 
".•"Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden 
will be sent freb to all Cistomeks. It contains in- 
structions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, etc. 

R. J. TRUMBULL & CO., 
419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 



BULBS SEEDS TREES 
SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

Wholesale and retail dealers in and 

GROWERS OF SEEDS, 

Keep Constantly on hand a complete stock of Vegetable 
FIELD, GRASS, FLOWER & TREE SEEDS 
Also, Fuiwbrixo Plants, Bi lbs, Fri it asd 
Orxambxtal Trees, Etc. 

We call attention of farmers and country merchants to 
our unusually low prices All seeds warranted 
. fresh, pure and reliable i>vTradc 
price list un application. 

'. W"e have just issued the most complete guide to the 
Vegetable and Flower Garden ever issued upon this coast. 
It is Handsomely Illustrated, anil contains full descrip- 
tions of Vegetables, Flowers, Grasses, Trees, etc., with 
full instructions as to their culture; mailed free on appli- 
cation. • 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO., 

[P. O. Box 1023.] 007 Sansome Street, S. F. 



SEEDS. 



TREES. 



SEEDS. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
BLUE GRASS, RED TOP TIMOTHY. SWEET 
VERNAL, MEZuUITE and other Grasses. 
RED CLOVER, FRENCH WHITE 
CLOVER, CHOICE CALIFOR- 
NIA ALFALFA, Etc. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
ERING BULBS, JAPAN LILIES, FRESH AUS- 
TRALIAN BLUE GUM, or "FEVER TREE" 
SEali; together with all kinds of FRUIT, 
FOREST and ORNAMENTAL TREES, 
and evervthing in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

Importer and Dealer IB Seeds, 
425 Washington Street. - San Francisco 




My Annual Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seed for 1878 will be sent free, in January, 
to all who apply. Customers of last season need not 
Write lor It. I offer one of the largest collections of veg- 
etable seed ever sent out of any seed house in America, a 
large portion of which were grown on my six seed farms. 
Printed direction* for Cultivation on each package. All 
seed sold from my establishment warranted to be both 
fresh and true to name; so far, that should it prove oth- 
erwise I will refill the order gratis. As the original in- 
troducer of the Hubbard and Marblehead Squashes, the 
Marblehead Cabbages, a score of other new vegetables. 
I invite the patronage of (iff who are anxiou* to hare 
their eeed directly /rum the yrinrer, frexh, true, and of 
the Mry be*t*train. New Vegetables a Specialty. 
JAMES J H. GREGORY, Marblehead, Mass 




ANTIOCH FERRY. 



Notice to Stockmen and the public in general that a good 
Ferry Boat has been put on l>etwecn Antioch and Collins- 
ville by the California Transportation Co., and are prepared to 
re stock in lots to suit, as a large barge is connected with 
the boat. For particulars apply to the Company's office, at 

Office. N. W. Cor. Jackson and East Sts„ 8. F. 
W. R, FORM AN. Antioch. WM. HAVKINS. CollinsriUe. 



2,000 Varieties Rare and Beautiful Flower Seeds 
500 Varieties Choice Vegetable Seeds, 
soo Varieties Seed Potatoes. 
Bliss's Illustrated Seed Catalogue and Am- 
ateur's Guide to the Flower and Kitchen 
Garden, The 2:1d Axxi al Edition, contains 216 pages, 
with nearly flOO engravings, and a reai tifully colored 

CHBOMO OK A VASE Of FAVOH1TE FLOWRRS. A valuable 

guide to every one having a garden. Price, 35 cents. 

Bliss's Gardener's Almanac for 1878, and 
Abridged Catalogue lstl pages, finely Illustrated. 
Also, contains a monthly calendar of o|>crations for the 
Farm, Orchard, and Garden. Price, 10 cents. 

The above catalogue will be Issued about January 1st, 
1S7S, and mailed to all applicants enclosing price. 

B. K. BLISS & SONS, 

P. o Box. 5,712. 34 Barclay St.N. Y 



January 19, 1878.] 



TME PACIFIC BUBAL PBESS 



47 



SEEDS. 



SEEDS. 



IMPORTED. 



Crosby's Extra Early n 
Marblehead Mammoth \ 
Stowell's Evergreen f 
Mexican Sweet, New ) 



Sweet Corn. 



22 Son} Yellow Flint Corn. 



I Beet Seed. 



Early 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzel) 
Yellow Globe 
White Sugar 

ALSO, EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY OF VEGETA- 
BLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, GRASS AND 
CLOVER SEEDS, ETC., OFFERED AT 
WHOLESALE OR RETAIL. 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

No. 317 Washington Street, San Francisco 
CYPRESS A ND GUM SEED. 

Beautiful fresh Monterey Cypress seed from the finest trees 
in California, delivered by mail for S3 per pound. Blue 
Iron or Red Gum Seed, last crop, $8 per pound. 

GEORGE R. BAILEY, Oakland, Cal. 



RELIABLE SEEDS. 

My new Catalogue of Field, Garden and Flower Seeds 
will be mailed to every applicant. Address carefully, 

WILLIAM RENNIE, Seedsman, Toronto, Canada. 



Agricultural Articles. 



The Famous " Enterprise 

(PERKINS' PATENT) 

Self Regulating. Farm 
Pumping, Railroad 
and Power 



WINDMILLS, 



Pumps & Fixtures, 

Have been in use on the 
Pacific Coast in the towns 
and fanning districts for 
over four years, and wher- 
ever they have been sold 
(and there are thousands of 
them out) they are doing 
their work as well as when 
put up. A careful perusal 
of our Circulars gives a fair 
representation of them and 
shows their simplicity. 

We are prepared to fill orders 
PUMPING MILL to a 24-foot POWER MILL for running 
Machinery, as well as doing the pumping. 

All warranted. Address, 




sizes, from a 



HORTON &. KENNEDY, 
Managers for California and Pacific Coast, 

ALSO BEST FEED MILLS FOR SALE. 
General Office and Supplies, 

LIVERMORE, ALAMEDA COUNTY, CAL 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is required 
in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adiusted. 
Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over 
cradle knolls without changing the working position of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action of ; he Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 



Peerless Corn Sheller. 




It is so cheap (cost- 
ing only $6), that al- 
most any one cas> af- 
ford to buy one. It is 
so rapid, it will shell 
almost as fast as a $40 
machine, and seven or 
eight bushels per hour 
is not above its capac- 
ity. It weighs only 13 
pounds and is simple 
and durable. For par- 
ticulars, address 

WEISTER & CO. 

17 New Montgom- 
ery St., S. F. 



DAVIS &. SUTTON, 

No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce. 

Reference.— Tradesmen's National Bamc, N. Y.; Ell 
wanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal.; A. Lusk & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 



TO NURSERYMEN AND FLORISTS. 

Wanted, situation as propagator; well up in propaga- 
gation of ornamental plants, grafting conifre, etc. Thir- 
teen years' experience. Address 

"PROPAGATOR," Los Angeles, Cal. 



Winchester Repeating Rifle. 



MODEL 1873. 




One-third size by Br. E. II. i'ardec. 




The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharqe, 

° 7 String measuring from center of tar 
get to center of each shot, 32 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, ^J8tt$gSZ.« 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting. 

Defense, or Target Shooting. 
The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit 
Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch-blued. Octagon barrel 
24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24 
26, 28, 30— extra finished, case hardened and cheek stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26 28 30 inch- 
extra finished— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— beautifully finished— 0. H.' & C. S 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbines 
model 1866. RELOADING TOOLS, PRIMERS AND PARTS OF ARMS. 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A, Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 

Sole Agent for Dupont's Mining, Blasting, Cannon, and Celebrated Brands 

of Sporting Powder, 

JOHN SK1NKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Fr ancisco, 

SOLE AGENT FOR THE PACI • IC COAST. 



THE 




EN CITY SULKY PLOW. 



The Most Popular Plow in Use. 

They are simple in construction, with 
nothing about them that is likely to get 
out of order. 

EASE OF HANDLING. 

Most plows are thrown out of the grout 
by hand levers, but on these plows 
done by the 

Power of the Horses. 

The operation being simply to apply a 
brake to the wheel. They are quieklj 
and easily adjusted to take more or less 
land. The depth of the furrow can b 
instantly changed by the driver without 
getting off the plow or stopping tin 
horsi s. 



GEO. A. DAVIS, Manufacturers' Agency, 401 Market St., 

TREADWELL'S OLD STAND. SAN FRANCISCO. 




IF YOU WANT A 

Wind Mill, 

THE MOST POWERFUL AND THE NEAREST PERFECTION 
OF ANY IN USE-ONE THAT PROTECTS ITSELF IN A 
GALE, WILL KEEP YOUR TANK KILLED WITH 

Water Without Waste and Without Attention, 

EXAMINE THE RECENT 

1 Improvements of Mr. Bachelder, 

As now Manufactured by the 

Bachelder Manufacturing Co., 

NAPA, CAL. 



HORSE SHOEING, 



834 HOWARD STREET, Midway Between 
Fourth and Fifth, San Francisco. 

We shoe horses without burning the hoofs. Dunbar's 
alone understand the treatment of diseased feet. 

ALEX. DUNBAR. 



ASK YOUR GROCER OR OIL DEALER FOR 

ELAINE 

THE FAMILY SAFE GUARD OIL 



rOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
. Ten Cents. STEVENS BROS. , Northford, Conn. 



JUST PUBLISHED. 

—THE— 

SUNSHINE OF SONG, 

A bright and sunny collection of new songs, ballads and 
songs with choruses, and with Piano or Reed Organ ac- 
companiment. A book quite American in character, with 
our own popular composers, and the class of songs that 
arc the greatest favorites. 

Uniform in style, binding and price with the "World of 
Song," '.'Gems Of English Song," and others of the "Li- 
brary" scries, and costs in boards, 82.50; cloth $3 on- 
line gilt, §1.00. 

THE CLUSTER OF GEMS, 

This is a valuable collection of pieces of a somewhat 
advanced character as to difficulty, and is suited to the 
tastes of advanced players. There are 239 pages, sheet 
music size, and the pieces, which average about five 
pages each, arc by Leybach, Spindler, Von Bulow, Lich- 
ner, Rubenstein, Aschcr, Ocsten and other celebrities 
Uniform in style, price and binding with the "Sunshine" 
described above, and with the 27 other books of the 
famous "Library" series. 

In boards, S2.S0; cloth, $3.00; fine gilt, $4. 

For sale at all principal music stores. Will also bo 
mailed, post free to any address for the retail prieo. 
Change may be sent in postage stamps. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 

C. H. DITSON & CO., 843 Broadway, New York. 



A Chance for Poor Men. 

Farming, Vineyard and Orchard 
Lands to Let. 



The Natoma and Water Mining Company, having been, 
during the last four years, perfecting a svstem of irriga- 
ting ditches, over their property, situated near the town 
of Folsoin, in Sacramento County, California, having 
cleared most of the land and fitted it for cultivation, now 
propose to let the land (about 10,000 acres,) in subdivis- 
ions as required by applicants. The land being alluvial, 
is well adapted to any purpose of farming or fruit raising 
Special Terms will be made for Irrigation. 

Every portion of the land can be irrigated from the 
company's canals, aid the railroad runs through the 
property for nine miles, with convenient stations. 

From the growth of orchards and vineyards now fruit 
bearing on tliese lands, it is undoubtedly proved that 
These Lands are Specially Adapted for Fruit 
RAISING. The Company propose to lease also, for a term 
of years, their FARM, with stock, machinery, implements, 
utensils, etc., complete, to carry it on, situated on Alder 
creek, consisting of about. 2,000 acres of farming land. 

The Company's fruit-drying establishment, being now 
finished, the Company is now prepared to buy all the 
Vegetables, Fruits, etc. •that can be raised by their te ants 

For further information, inquire at the Company's 
oifices, at Folsom, and No. 53 i Market Street, 
San Francisco 



RANCH FOR SALE. 



A ranch for sale, near Riverdale, Fresno County 
It comprises 100 acres, (U. S. patent,) of rich bottom 
land, with house and out-buildings. Grass is green the 
year round. Alfalfa grows without irrigation, as water is 
but six to eight feet beneath the surface. There is an 
irrigation ditch running across the ranch, and three cubic 
feet of water per second belongs with the place. It is the 
best of tule land and borders on the swamp or overflowed 
lands. There are a few Fruit Trees, Strawberries and 
Blackberries. The ranch is one mile from the school 
house and postofflce; 10 miles from Leniorc, oil the rail- 
way and nine miles from Kingston, county seat of Fresno 
county. Price, 1ft per acre. For further particulars, 
address 

DAVID S. ORR, Riverdale, 

Fresno County, Cal. 



FOR SALE. 



I offer for sale a Ranch of 320 acres, situated in Para- 
dise Valley, Humboldt County, Nevada. Two hundred 
and fifty acres of plowed land, and 70 acres of hay land, 
with plenty of water for irrigating purposes, with gooil 
dwelling and out-houses; also, wagons, teams and fann- 
ing tools. Ranch beautifully situated, about two miles 
from a good school, object, change of climate. TorniB 
reasonable. For further information, address 

B. S RILEY, Paradise Valley, 

Humbolt County, Nevada 



$20,000 



To loau on Farming Land in Bay Counties, in sums to 
suit. Interest, one per cent. Address 

G W. HAIGHT, 

207 Sansome St , San Francisco. 



H. H. H. 

HORSE MEDICINE, 

D. D. T.-I868. 

As ft horse medicine it is superior to any liniment ever 
invented. For Rinohoxk, SPAVIN, Swkknk.y, CaLIiOUI 
LUMPS, and all OLD BORES, apply freoly so as to blister, 
from three to five days in succession, and in four or five 
ilays, if not cured, repeat as at first. Sprains, Stiff 
Iointk, Bri isks, WiMHtAi.i.s, and all slight ailments, apply 
i small quantity so as not to blister. Saddle Sores, Cuts, 
md all other sores where the skin is broken, mix the lin- 
iment half and half with any kind of oil, and apply in 
moderation. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Proprietors, 

STOCKTON, CAL. 



OLD CRAPE 



RF.FINISHKI) AND MADE 
CP AS GOOD AS NEW. Send 
for circular. Agents Wanted. 
Waterproof Crape RettnisbiiiK Co . 811 MISSION ST., S. P. 



48 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January ig, 1878. 



OYER 450 SOLD I INT 1877 



To Breeders on th.e Pacific Sloj3e and Exported. 

ROLLIK 



[Of Saxe Bro.'s and Col. Peter Saxe & Sons.] 



V) 

3 


w 

m 

D 




Importer and Breeder of 



P 

a 





s 

CO 



THOROUGHBRED ENGLISH ■ KENTUCKY BERKSHIRES, 

Of the "Crown Prince," "Bob Lee." and "Sambo" Families. - 

Imported 200 Pigs from Kentucky in 1872, and waa awarded the SILVER CUP at the State Fair at Sacramento, by the Committee on Swine, a SPECIAL PRKMIUM on the car load 
These Twenty-seven litters were all from sires and dams imported, directly or indirectly, from England, and every pig perfectly pedigreed by the breeders in Kentucky. 



Harris on the pig says: "This breed of swine has had a fixed type for 125 years at least. Is a black hog, covered with lustrous, coarse, black hair, no bristles, has four white feet, white in 
face and on tip of tail; is a meat hog; abounds in a greater proportion of sweet, tender, juicy, lean, well marbled with very tine streaks of fat, than any other breed of swine; the hams and 
shoulders are almost entirely lean, a thin rim of fat covering only the outside; usual weight 10 to 18 months old (fat) is 300 to 600 pounds. In Europe and America there is a growing tendency 
for tender, juicy, well marbled smoked hams, shoulders and side pieces, in preference to very fat salt pork, and which is unquestionably the most healthy food. The Improved Berkshire is a 
natural grass hog; is the most prolific and most docile of any breed. Considering these facts, the Berkshire, above all others, should be the favorite swine, and should take the precedence of 
all other breeds. " 

"By universal consent, the improved Berkshire hog stands at the head of the list, either to breed pure or to cross with inferior breeds." 
Parties desiring a white hog, can be supplied with Thoroughbred Suftblks on application. 

My pigs fat, will weigh close to one pound per day for the first 400 days. Tt costs no more to raise one good animal than it does three scrubs. * 

N. B.— Any party desiring a Poland China— a lard hog— a bristly, coarse boned— coarse meated— heavy, lop-eared animal, can be supplied by sending orders. 

P. S.— Homer P. Saxe is the Vice-President (for California), of the "American Berkshire Association," head office at Springfield, Illinois. He will supply blanks gratis, to any who wish to 
have their swine recorded, and give information to any who may feel interested in the attain of the Association. ' 

•> All animals sold are guaranteed as represented, and pedigreed. Crating and boxing and feed for shipping FREE. Prices for BERKSHIRES, 
$25 to $100 each, according to number, age and condition— being about one-third the price charged in the Eastern States for Thoroughbred 
swine. Address 

ROLLIN P. S^lXE, 

IMPORTER OF ALL BREEDS OF CATTLE, HORSES, SHEEP AND SWINE. 

Saxe's Stock Yards, 9th and Howard Sts., 

Sj^ZLST FRANCISCO, O^LIZFO^ILSri.^- 




Volume XV.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY 26,31878. 



Number 4. 



An Idea on Winter Irrigation. 

One of our best known vinegrowers thinks his 
experience and observation have taught him a 
lesson concerning the growth of vines and fruit 
trees during a dry season which may be turned 
to practical account. Whether the idea be 
either new or true, neither he nor we are fully 
assured, but we give it for the sake of draw- 
ing attention to the subject. He thinks 
he discovers in perennial growers, like vines 
and fruit trees, and in annuals, like the cere- 
al, an opposite behavior in growth during a 
dry season. If the winter be dry he finds 
his vines active in their root growth, as far 
as possible, but little is done in perfecting 
the buds for fruiting. This he counts a 
provision of nature to preserve the life of 
the plant by husbanding its strength in the 
roots, by which its life is maintained. On 
the other hand, he cites it as a fact of gen- 
eral observation that the cereals, being an- 
nuals and dependent upon the perfection 
of seed for future propagation, throw up a 
single seed-stem, instead of stooling, if the 
ground be dry. If the drouth continue, this 
stem will be hardly more than a finger's 
hight, and the head will be for the most part 
unfilled, and yet there will be one or two 
perfectly formed kernels near the base of 
the head in wheat, and near the crown if it 
be barley. Thus the annual will perfect seed 
or fruit enough to perpetuate its kind, in 
spite of the dry season. Here, then, lies 
the contrast. While in drouth the vine and 
tree permit the fruit buds to shrink and 
never develop, the cereal sacrifices all for 
the sake of developing a few perfect steds. 
These are the facts if they be facts. 

The practical deduction from this observa- 
tion, with reference to vines and orchard 
trees, is plainly this: If the plant begins 
thus early to modify its growth so as to 
withstand a drouth, artificial watering to 
secure fruit should be applied before this 
modification has progressed too far— that is. 
irrigation should be given before the plant 
has marked out its method of growth for the 
season. Here then is a theory which speaks 
in favor of winter irrigation, so that abun- 
dant supply of water may be at hand when 
the dormant period is at an end. Our 
friend finds proof in the wisdom of his prac- 
tice of winter irrigation in his vineyard, in 
this year's yield of grapes, which was the 
best he ever had, while very few vineyards 
in the State were similarly circumstanced. 
That summer irrigation does not meet the 
demand m the case of fruit trees, he instances 
some orchards which he observed in Placer 
county, where, in spite of the water applied 
after the fruit buds quickened, they shriveled 
and fell off, and the fruitage was almost a 
failure. 

We believe that the experience and opin- 
ions of the great majority of our fruit 
growers are decidedly in favor of a com- 
plete saturation of the ground by winter 
irrigation, as this preserves the normal 
growth and fruitage in their trees and vines 
and ensures a crop, no matter what the 
season may be. Whether the theory which 
our friend modestly advances be the true 
one or not, there is money in the practice, 
and we feel secure in recommending it to 
all who have the facilities for applying it. 
The oubject is now open for discussion. 



Centennial Premium Raspberry. 

We give on this page another of the series of 
premium berries, which were originated by Mr. 
Oscar Felton of Camden county, New Jersey, 
after IS years of careful culture of seedlings. 
Mr. Felton began in 1S.58 with seeds of the 
Philadelphia variety, and continued his efforts 



shows the berries reduced to about two-thirds 
of their natural size. There were 138 berries 
on this stalk. The "Early Prolific" is from one 
week to 10 days earlier than the "Reliance." 
The plant is short jointed, of stocky habit, 
having very dark foliage, great vigor of growth, 
and is perfectly hardy; were never known to 
winter-kill in Eastern winters. The fruit is 
large roundish, conical, regularly formed, of a 



Personal. — We had the pleasure, the 
other day, of meeting the Hon. Mr. New- 
berry, Mayor of Portland, Oregon, who was 
on a business visit to this city. He is a 
member of the firm of Newberry, Chapman 
& Co., who have recently taken the local 
agency for the D. M. Osborne & Co.'s reap- 
ing and mowing nwhinery. Mr. Newberry 
is well informed of the features of agricul- 
tural growth in his State and in Wash- 
ington Territory, and he assures us that it is in 
active progress. There is wide prosperity and 
great increase in population, and consequently 
in cultivated areas, and there is much enter- 
prise in various kinds of development. We re- 
joice in tiie progress of our whole coast, and are 
glad to hear of the forward movement which 
the north is now making. 




THE "EARLY PROLIFIC " RASPBERRY. 



| until he produced the "Reliance," which wc il- 
' lustrated some weeks ago, and the "Early Pro- 
lific," which appears upon this page, and put 
the seal of success upon his labors by winning 
the Centennial prizes. Messrs. ( Jibson & Ben- 
nett, of Woodbury, New Jersey, are now bring- 
ing Mr. Felton's berries to the attention of cul- 
tivators. 

The engraving of the "Early Prolific" on this 
page was made from a photograph taken of a 
single fruit stalk as cut from the plant, and 



dark red color, and rich, brisk, vinous flavor, 
inclining to acid. 

Since we began to present engravings of these 
new berries, we have heard from several of our 
readers that they intended to make a trial of 
them, so that we shall hear ere long how they 
succeed under our conditions. They are highly 
recommended by Eastern fruit market men for 
their selling qualities, and this being the case 
we hope they will have wide trial by our grow- 
ers. 



Investment of Savings. 

We see by the dispatches from Sacramento 
that there is some lobby opposition to the 
scheme of appointing a Bank Commissioner or 
any other plan which shall interfere with the 
present working of the savings banks. In the 
present state of feeling there is no doubt but 
that some plan must be devised to protect 
depositors in savings banks, and give them 
an opportunity of knowing what is done 
with their property. The people want the 
present system remedied, and it is probable 
that lobby opposition will be in vain. If no 
better guarantee can be given than the fact 
that the bank has offices, officers and a tray 
or so of coin on its counters, the people will 
soon give up having anything to do with 
savings banks and look for other places to 
put their money. A certain class of people 
have not time to look out for investing their 
savings, or the business knowledge neces- 
sary to do so. Accordingly they put them 
in savings banks. Unscrupulous men have 
taken advantage of their positions as man- 
agers of such institutions to walk off with 
the money entrusted to them and the de- 
positors have no redress. 

It remains with the representatives of the 
people to enact such, laws as shall prevent 
any opportunity for stealing or making away 
with the depositors' money. No bank should 
be allowed to do business for two or three 
years right along without a representative of 
the depositors having a right to enquire how 
business was conducted. The failure to 
have such examinations made has resulted 
disastrously here and elsewhere and it 
remains with the Legislature to devise some 
plan for preventing the people from being 
swindled. We have some good banks and 
we have had some bad ones, but the de- 
positor never knows the bank is bad until 
it is too late to get out his money. 

The idea of government provision for 
facilitating the deposits of savings has been 
brought forward by the introduction of a bill 
in the House, by Mr. Price of Iowa, which 
authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to 
issue certificates of deposit of the denomin- 
ations of $10, $20, $50, and $100, each of 
which certificates shall bear interest at the 
rate of 3 65;100 per cent. per annum. 
Certificates thus issued shall be deposited, 
in such amounts as the Secretary of the 
Treasury may direct, with any designated 
depository of the United States, or with any 
postmaster of any postal money order office 
of the United States, on condition that all 
such certificates so deposited shall be paid 
for by such designated depository or post- 
master, within !)0 days from the time of 
making such deposit, in coin or its equiva- 
lent, or the return of such certificate, any 
part thereof, to the Secretary of the Treasury; 
and that certificates issued as foresaid shall 
be redeemed only in United States four per 
cent, bonds; and the holder thereof shall be 
authorized to receive from the Secretary of 
the Treasury United States bonds bearing 
interest at the rate of four per cent, per 
annum when presented at the United States 
Treasury or any designated depository, in 
sums of $10 or any multiple thereof; said 
bonds being payable, principal and interest, 
in coin of the standard of July 4th, 1870. 
The bill further provides that all national 
banks organized and doing business under 
the National Banking law of the United 
States are required to receive at par and 
accrued interest all such certificates in pay- 
ment of any debt duo to said 'banks; pro- 
vided, however, that no interest shall be 
allowed unless the same shall amount to 50 
cents, or upward. It further authorizes 
any national bank doing business under the 
United States banking law to hold at its option 
two-thirds of the reserve now required by law 
to be held in certificates hereinbefore referred to. 



Semi-Tkopic.u, Fruits. — We acknowledge 
with thanks the receipt of fine, large specimens 
of lemons and oranges from (Jeo. Rich's 
orchard in Sacramento county. They are proof 
of what the interior can do in this line of pro- 
duction. 



50 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



[January 26, 1878. 



Correspondence. 



We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents— Ens. 

The Royal Agricultural College, Ciren 
cester. 

Editors Press: — It may interest some of your 
readers to know something about the origin, ob- 
ject and present position of the only agricul- 
tural college that at present exists in this island. 
There is a similar, though somewhat smaUer, 
institution in Ireland, at Glasncvin, near Dub- 
lin, and a Scotch university of a similar kind is 
being talked about, to be built near Aberdeen; 
but, with the single exception of the Glasnevin 
one, this at Cirencester is, so far, the only one 
in the British Islands. 

You must not infer from the fact that we 
have only one agricultural college in this wealthy 
country that science has had no influence over 
agriculture in England, for it has had already 
an enormous one, gained bit by bit, without 
the farmers themselves being more than dimly 
aware of it. Many scientific men, such as 
Voelcker, Lawes, Gilbert, l'layfair, and others 
of lesser note, each "paddling his own canoe" 
(which, by the way, is a favorite custom with 
Englishmen — especially English farmers) have 
by patient experiment and investigation brought 
to light many of the secrets of nature, and have 
quietly, without any pedantic pretense at tui- 
tion, scattered the results of their toil broadcast 
throughout the land. These have slowly 
molded the bucolic mind of this country, though 
that mind is yet, in many cases rebellously un- 
willing to admit it; and the result is that agri- 
culture has made great advances, despite the 
obstacles which barred the way. 

At a meeting of the Cirencester Farmers' 
Club, held in November, 1842, Mr. Robert Jef- 
fries Brown delivered an address "On the Ad- 
vantages of a Specific Education for Agricultu- 
ral Pursuits," and from this sprang the Royal 
Agricultural College. Mr. Brown devoted a 
year to the work he had so well begun. Lord 
Bathurst offered a farm of 500 acres for a long 
term of years, and an adjacent building site for 
99 years, at a moderate rent; a society was 
formed for the establishment and management 
of an agricultural college; the interested noble- 
men and land-owners in distant parts of the 
kingdom were raised to subscription point, and 
a proposed capital of £12,000 was thus ob- 
tained. In March, 1845, a charter of incorpo- 
ration was obtained from the crown; but as it 
was now found that £12,000 would be insuffi- 
cient to accomplish the objects in view, it was 
provided in the deed of settlement that this 
capital should be doubled. 

The managers, being pioneers in the new ven- 
ture, were tilled with enthusiasm of beginners, 
and they had all their experience to buy — dearly, 
as most beginners have to buy it. The archi- 
tect — several of his craft have done the same 
within the present century - considerably ex- 
ceeded his estimates. But the council were 
nothing daunted by this, and they began work 
like heroes, by offering board, lodging, practi- 
cal and scientific tuition — all for the magnani- 
mous sum of £30 a year! A brief experience 
demonstrated the awkward fact that, while the 
cash student paid €30 a year for the whole cur- 
riculum, he cost the college £32 for meat and 
drfnk alone! Then where was the interest of 
money and the salaries of principal and profes- 
sors, wages of servants, coal, gas, to come from? 
Oh, the profits on the farm would supply the 
deficiency; for were not the students to do all 
the work, or, at all events, that in the course of 
their practical tuition in farm work they should 
do a good deal of it. But who on earth ever 
kuew the manual labor of an agricultural pupil, 
either at a college or on a farm, to amount to 
anything more tfian a little less than nothing in 
in value. The idea was a very pretty one in 
theory; a book was to be kept in which every 
student was credited with the wages of such 
work on the farm, anil it was thus thought that 
their industry might pay some part of the cost 
of their maintenance. U, naiirta ximplicitas ! 

This was in the old days of the college. Now 
all is changed. Finding things were all going 
the wrong way — the students wouldn't work 
and the farm didn't pay— it was deemed expedi- 
ent that some other method of conducting the 
establishment should be adopted. 

In the year 1848 the managers found that 
they had overdrawn their account in the bank 
to the tune of some £10,000 and beyond this 
the college and farm were both being worked 
at a loss. 

At this point the promoters met to consider 

whether or not the college was to bo closed a 

confessed failure. The Karl of Ducie, Earl 
Bathurst, Mr. Esteourt, Mr. Holland, and Mr. 
Laugston not only offered to become responsible 
for the college debts, but added, on their own 
personal security, upwards of £30,000 to the 
original subscriptions and donations. These 
noblemen anil gentlemen theu became the Coun- 
cil of Management, and under their care certain 
alterations, some of which tend to diminish the 
risks of the institution, were brought about. In 
the first place the farm was let to a tenant, a 
farmer student of the college— one who had 
taken honors there, who now farms it on his 
own account, having no connection with the col- 



lege himself officially; the students, however, 
have the privilege of going with the Agricul- 
tural Professor over the farm, whenever and 
wherever they think tit, for which accommoda- 
tion the tenant receives a subsidy of two 
guineas per student per r.nnum. This arrange- 
ment is found to work tolerably well. 

Meanwhile the college is now not only paying 
its way, but is rapidly reducing the old debt. 
The students' fees are over £125 per annum, 
and the course of study extends over three ses- 
sions of 18 weeks each; but where they proceed 
to the diploma an additional session is neces- 
sary. The college diploma admits those holding 
it to the position of graduate under the title of 
member. 

The subjects taught are scientific, theoretical 
and practical agriculture, so arranged that they 
supplement and illustrate each other, agricul- 
tural chemistry, in all its branches; natural 
philosophy, mensuration, mathematics, survey- 
ing, botany, geology, mechanics, anatomy, 
physiology, therapeutics and pathology, hygiene, 
book-keeping designing and drawing — all in 
their relation to higher agriculture. 

The agricultural course consists of lectures 
and daily classes on the farm. The students 
are not required to perforin any manual labor 
on the farm. The lectures embrace cultivation 
in all its branches; crops, livestock of all kinds 
and their breeding and management, labor, ma- 
chinery, etc., and these are illustrated as far as 
possible by out-door examples. After a time it 
is hoped that the farm may again be taken in 
hand by the college, and managed by a practi- 
cal agricultural professor whose labors shall be 
supplemented by an assistant to whom shall be 
confided the theoretical portion of the in-door 
lectures. But before this can be done the debt 
must still further be reduced. 

Only in a most limited sense do the farmers of 
this country take advantage of the advantages 
which the college offers for the education of 
their sons; not more than 3% of the number of 
students" who go through the course of this col- 
lege are sons of farmers, and at the present 
moment, I doubt if we have a single bona fltlr 
farmer's son in the college. They are' mainly 
the sons of noblemen and landed proprietors, 
who wish to learn how the better to manage 
their paternal acres; the sons of laud agents who 
intend to walk in their fathers' footsteps; the 
sons of various professional men who do not in- 
tend so to walk, but to go out to the colonies, 
or happly to become land agents in this country; 
whilst a few intend to be themselves farmers 
from pure choice. 

Thus it follows that only in a limited sense 
can this be regarded as an agricultural college; 
but that it is eminently qualified to accomplish 
the objects for which it is used, none can deny. 
It is, however, disappointing to reflect that it is 
so little used for the education of our rising gen- 
eration of farmers. Still, I am hoping that in 
time it will be sought out by those for whose 
benefit it was originally intended, because science 
is gradually working its way so far and so firmly 
into our farming practices that it will soon be- 
come necessary that our farmers should have 
more than a merely empiracal agricultural edu- 
cation, however practical that may be. 

J. P. Sheldon, 
Professor of Agriculture. 

Cirencester, England. 



The North America Uniones. 

Editors Phess: — At the recent meeting of 
the Washington Philosophical Society in this 
city, Dr. C. A. White, paleontologist of the 
Hayden Geological Survey, delivered a short 
address on some phases in the evolutional his- 
tory of the North American Unionida\ 

He commenced by a comparison of .the 
Uniones of North America with those of other 
parts of the world, showing that the types in 
which their variation is expressed are not only 
numerous and varied, but many of them are 
peculiar to North American waters. The 
greater part of these types, which conchologists 
in all parts of the world recognize as North 
American, are found only in the great Missis- 
sippi river system and in the Ked-river-of-the 
North. Then giving a table of the mesozoic 
and cenozoic formations of western North 
America on the blackboard, he explained that 
collections of fossil Unionidie have been made 
from nearly all the mesozoic and all the een- 
ozoic formations of the great Rocky mountain 
region; their abundance increasing with advanc- 
ing time. All the species are different from 
any of those now living, but they are all so sim- 
ilar in type as to leave no doubt that the fossil 
forms represent the living ones ancestrally. 
Some of these fossil Unios, especially the earlier 
ones, are found in layers of formations that 
contain marine forms with few or no other ex- 
ceptions, but they have beeu mostly obtained 
from the great locustrine deposits of the ter- 
tiary and late cretaceous periods. 

The great Laramie group, representing the 
closing epoch of the cretaceous, or the com- 
mencing one of the tertiary period, has proved 
to be especially rich in fossil Unios of North 
American type. This great group of strata, 
reaching a maximum thickness of 3,500 feet, 
was deposited mainly in brackish waters, as 
evidenced by the following facts: 1st. The ab- 
sence of true marine forms, but the presence of 
Outran and Anomia throughout the whole 
thickness of the formation. 2d. The common 
occurrence of the genera Corbula corbkuln and 



Ktritinn. 3d. The presence but more restricted 
range of the genera Goniobasis, Vivipartu, 
Sjilttrrium and Unio. Those of the third cate- 
gory are occasionally found alone, but usually 
associated with those of the second, and not 
unfrequently with those of the first also; and 
so associated as to make it evident that they 
all lived ami thrived together in the same wa- 
ters. The abundant and almost constant pres- 
ence of the Ostre'uhe gives satisfactory proof 
that the waters were, in at least some degree, 
saline. 

I )r. White advanced the idea that although 
the Unionid;e may now be found only in purely 
fresh waters, the great and varied differentia- 
tion of these ancient representatives of the fam- 
ily probably took place under the influence of 
the salt in the waters in which they lived; and 
that the family, once having impressed upon it 
these types, they have been hereditarily pre- 
served through extraordinary vicissitudes of 
environment to the present day, and therefore 
did not originate in the waters where they now 
exist. 

The history of these North American types 
of Unio antedates that of the Rocky moun- 
tains, for the strata in which they are found 
have been displaced by the movements that re- 
sulted in the elevation of those mountains. 
They have witnessed, so to speak, the origin 
and extinction of those wonderful families of 
vertebrates, of that great region, which have 
been made known by the labors of Marsh, 
Cope and Leidy. When the continent was 
gradually emerging from the sea, a large por- 
tion of what is now western North America 
was almost or wholly enclosed by the rising 
land and cut off from the open ocean. Thus a 
great, brackish, inland sea was formed, hun- 
dreds of miles across, in which the strata of 
the Laramie group was deposited. This sea 
finally became entirely fresh, when the strata 
of the Wasatch, Green river and Bridger 
groups were deposited. By further movements 
of the earth's crust and the action of denuding 
forces, these great lakes became entirely 
drained. Some of the streams that now con- 
stitute portions of the Mississippi and northern 
Red river drainage systems, were doubtless 
channels of drainage overflow of those ancient 
lakes; and through these, by an unbroken line 
of hereditary descent, the Uniones of North 
American type's have reached their present hab- 
itats. S. 

Washington, D. C, Dec, 31st. 



Signs of Rain. 

"The south wind never dies indebted to the norther." 

Editors Press: — This is an old sailor's prov- 
erb originating in the North Atlantic, and ap- 
pears to be quite as well suited to this coast. 
Early in November we noticed the arrival of 
large numbers of northern birds in this portion 
of the State, and then ventured to predict 
plenty of rain this winter, on the ground that 
the birds were driven south by very cold 
weather north of the United States. These 
little weatherwise creatures always migrate 
some days or weeks in advance of the coming 
storms, as if able to foretell them. This year 
we saw birds here that rarely come so far south, 
but which we were once familiar with in 
Oregon during the cold season. They came here 
while it was still quite warm, and at least two 
weeks before the long spell of frosty weather 
with north wind. This wind began at once to 
condense the moisture of the more southern 
counties, and abundant rains fell there, while it 
still blew too much from the north in this part 
of the State. But as the sun again came north- 
ward, the south wind has gained power, and 
now we are within the region of heavy rain, 
caused by an upper current from the north, 
condensing the moisture of the lower south 
winds. • Contributor. 

Haywood, Cal. 

Exchange of Seeds Proposed. 

Editors Press: — I beg to suggest the opening 
of a column for offers of exchanges of seeds, cut- 
tings plants, etc. There are many horticulturists, 
farmers, gardners, etc., who would gladly pro- 
cure plants but do not care to spend money for 
them; and yet these very persons are in pos- 
session of an abundance of other plants which 
they would really be glad to disseminate. Of 
course in opening your columns to such an- 
nouncements you could not guarantee the good 
faith of parties making insertions, any more or 
as much as you can business advertisers. Let 
me begin: I offer the seed of the catalpa tree at 
current market rate, $2.50 per pound (the seed 
is very light), in exchange for the seed of any 
kind of eucalyptus except globulus, at current 
rates, or Japan persimmons. The catalpa is 
a0ery fast growing tree, valuable for posts, and 
propagates itself freely. 

Horai e J. Smi th. 
George's Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Dose for Rodents. — The following cheap 
and simple method is said to be used in Ger- 
many: A mixture of two parts of well-bruised 
common squills and three parts of finely- 
chopped bacon is made into a stiff mass, with as 
much meal as may be required, and then baked 
into small cakes which are put down for the rats 
to eat. Several correspondents of the German 
Agricultural Gazette write to announce the com- 
plete extirpation of rats and mice from their 
cow-stalls and piggeries since the adoption of 
this simple plan. 



ThjE Swine YaA d - 



Mr. Parker's Berkshires. 

Editors Press: — In your issue of the 12th 
inst. I notice an article by your correspondent, 
EL Eugene EL, entitled "Notes in San Joaquin 
County." In that portion relating to my Berk- 
shires he has, unintentionally of course, made a 
few errors in regard to ages, pedigrees, etc., and 
with your courtesy I will proceed at once to 
correct the same. At the time (about four 
weeks since) that your correspondent inspected 
my herd there were 2 boars aged, respectively, 
21 mouths; 4 sows aged, respectively, 25 
months, 21 months, 21 months and 18 months; 
10 pigs 3A and 4 months, and 10 pigs 3 days 
old. Last fall, after selling all the pigs on hand 
that were old enough to ship, I reduced my 
breeders to one trio, my tine "SamW boar and 
two "Crown Prince" sows, those mentioned 
as 25 and 18 months' old, respectively. I after- 
ward purchased of R. S. Thompson, Esq., of 
Napa, a trio, one boar and two sows, which he 
imported in 187(5 from the herd of J. A. How- 
erton, Paris, Ky. These are now in my herd. 
The boar was sired by Eng. imp. "Watchman" 
(1,113 Vol ii.. Am. Berkshire Record), bred by 
Heber Humfrey. The sows were sired by 
"Count Liverpool" (715, Vol. ii., A. B. R.,) 
bred by John Knell's Sons, Edmonton, Ont., 
Canada. The first dam of the sows was "Jenny" 
by "Prince Arthur; second dam, "British Maid." 
The latter won a prize of §500 at St Louis, 
1870, for the best sow and pigs of any breed, 
and "Jenny" was first choice pig of that litter. 

I never let a sow have a litter of pigs until 
she is at least one year old and fully two-thirds 
grown. The 25-months' sow mentioned above 
has had two litters, (i of the 3A months be- 
longing to her, and she is due to farrow her 
third litter about the middle of next month. 
The 18-months' sow has her second litter, now 
four weeks old. The remaining two sows are 
also due next month with their second litters. 

The characteristic markings of the improved 
Berkshire's are: Black with four white feet, 
some white in the face and on tip of tail, with 
an occasional splash behind each shoulder. 
Sometimes, however, the white is lacking either 
on the tail, in the face or on one or two feet, 
and sometimes more white appears than is de- 
sirable, but these variations are no indications 
of impure blood. The exception to correct 
marking is with my "Sambo" boar, he having 
only three white feet, although his pigs, almost 
without exception, are perfectly marked. In 
regard to my importations this year, I am 
already booked with W. C. Norton, Ridge farm, 
Wayne county, Pennsylvania, for a boar pig 
from his famous Eng. imp. boar "Robin Hood," 
out of one of his finest imp. sows, and he has 
several that cost him §1, 000 each. He paid for 
"Robin Hood" $1,400, cash. I have also an 
order with Chas. B. Moore, Glendale stock farm, 
Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, for two sows 
of the latest and most fashionable pedigrees. 
This trio will be added to my herd early next 
summer. Alfred Parker. 

Bellota, Cal., Jaunary 14th, 1878. 



White Grapes at the East 

Editors Press: — Probably only a small pro- 
portion of the people of this country are aware 
that delicious white grapes have been and can 
be grown in the open air very generally through- 
out the Eastern States. It is a treat indeed to 
be able to decorate your table or fruit-dish with 
beautiful clusters of white grapes, that rival in 
flavor the far-famed and deservedly popular fruit 
that comes to us from California and the shores 
of the Mediteranean. If our Eastern country- 
men were only aware of the ease with which 
white grapes can be grown, we feel assured that 
there are very few having gardens of their own 
but what would be agreeably pleased in growing 
these fair-hued clusters. As white grapes have 
so largely been grown in the East under glass in 
green-houses and graperies during the past few- 
years, the impression has very naturally become 
prevalent that the white varieties are more ten- 
der than the dark -colored kinds usually to be 
seen upon our garden trellises. That this erro- 
neous impression may be removed, I will give a 
short description of a few of the more prominent 
of the white varieties, that are found to be hardy 
and most desirable in our Eastern climate. 
Martha. 

This is .probably better known than any of 
the others that I will name. It is sometimes 
called the "White Concord, " owing to the vigor- 
ous habits of growth and to the hardiness of the 
vine. In size it is one of the largest of our 
native grapes, and will prove a decided help in 
adding to the attractions of a well-arranged 
dessert-table. The fruit ripens during the mid- 
dle of the season, and follows very acceptably 
in the footsteps of a newer white grape called 
The Lady. 

This promises to be even more popular than 
the preceding variety. Ripening unusually early, 



January 26, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC 



RURAL PRESS. 



51 



it will be well appreciated by those who have 
felt the want of a good, early white grape, and 
will add decidedly to the pleasures to be found 
m the fruit garden. The fruit is of the largest 
size, which, together with its other good quali- 
ties, is causing it to receive a cordial welcome. 
One gentleman, who upon seeing it was ren- 
dered specially enthusiastic in its favor, re- 
marked: " 'The Lady' has the right name; it is 
a perfect beauty." In flavor it is somewhat 
similar to the well-known and popular Concord, 
though by some considered to be even superior 
to that variety. In some markets the Lady 
grape will undoubtedly prove quite profitable, 
as the very early ripening, large size and fine 
appearance of the fruit will cause it to command 
good prices. 

Elvira. 

This is also quite a new variety, and differs in 
many respects from the preceding. Though not 
as large as the others, yet it has qualities that 
fruit-growers have been very quick to appre- 
ciate. It is thought that it will prove to be the 
best white wine grape that has yet made its ap- 
pearance. Correspondents in different parts of 
the country also speak of it as being a decided 
acquisition. The vines are vigorous, healthy 
and productive, and ripen their clusters during 
about the middle* of the grape season. 

These three varieties make a very good selec- 
tion of white grapes. In the way of red grapes, 
I might mention quite a number, but Brighton, 
Diana and Catawba will probably give as good 
satisfaction as any, while Concord, Wordens and 
Ives will be well appreciated by those in search 
of desirable black varieties. 

E. H. Haines. 
Sangerties-on-Hudson, N. Y. 



Trees and Evaporation. 

Editors Press: — At this time, while we are 
enjoying the first southeast 3torm of the season, 
and the first old-fashioned southwest gale since 
1S70, it is a very appropriate time to discuss 
the question of trees and rainfall. I, for one, 
believe that, as a general rule in nature, trees 
have nothing to do with the rainfall. We all 
know that the rainfall has everything to do 
with the trees. 

Any one who has traveled on the great in- 
terior plains of our continent and had the op- 
portunity at the proper season to observe from 
some eminence that commanded a bird's-eye 
view of streams bordered by trees on the plains 
below, will have noticed the phenomena of the 
gathering and course of summer thunder storms. 
The clouds form at some point in the midst of 
the timber; commence discharging their water, 
as they move rapidly down the stream and fol- 
low its meanderings until they are emptied. 

This phenomena seems to form an exception 
to what I consider the general rule of nature, 
that trees have nothing to do with rainfall. 

Observations taken at sea off our coast, com- 
pared with observations on the land taken dur- 
ing the same storm, prove that what are popu- 
larly called southeast gales are southwest gales 
upon the ocean. The wind impinges upon the 
mountains, and is felt upon the land as a south- 
east gale. Wind from the direction of the south- 
regions west brings currents of air from the warm 
of the Pacific ocean. Our present southwest gale 
of wind commenced here about Sunday noon. 
The minimum of temperature on Friday the 1 1th 
was 32°; Saturday, the 12th, 41°; Sunday, 1.3th, 
47°; Monday, 14th (last night), it was 52° The 
maximum temperature yesterday was only 60". 
The warm air of the tropics has been driven 
across California by a southwest gale of two 
days' duration. 

If the trees produce the rainfall, their influ- 
ence must be exerted here to produce the south- 
west wind, and to keep it blowing, for this 
wind, whatever may cause it, always brings the 
rain. 

Forests as Conservers of Water. 
I believe that the influence of trees is exerted 
to save the water after it has fallen. The same 
is true of plowed ground. It absorbs moisture 
better than the unplowed land. Every farmer 
knows how to plow his hillsides to retain the 
rain — that they must not be plowed perpendic- 
ularly. I have a small piece of road leading up 
a hillside, the grade not very steep, and on each 
side of the road is an almond orchard. A few 
weeks since, during a period of 24 hours, when 
82-100 of an inch of rain fell, the road was gul- 
lied, while the newly-plowed ground absorbed 
all the water that fell. This illustrates the way 
certain conditions of the ground favor the re- 
tention of the water that falls, while other con- 
ditions allow it to pass rapidly off. In a forest 
the mold of the leaves, the fallen limbs, the 
foliage and bark, trunk and roots of the trees 
all act as reservoirs. Napoleon the Third re- 
planted certain forests that had been destroyed 
in the Vosges mountains in order to prevent 
the overflow of certain rivers. It had been no- 
ticed by the French Academy of Sciences that 
the cutting away of certain forests was fol- 
lowed by inundations that had never occurred 
until the forests were cut down. The disas- 
trous floods in the Pyrennees>a few years since 
were cited by the foreign press as going to show 
that the trees must be left on the mountain 
sides to exert their influence in preventing in- 
undations. If trees produced rainfall, the 



Emperor, to save the French valleys from in- 
undation, should have cut down more trees. 

A. B. Dickinson, late U. S. Minister to Nicar- 
agua, and formerly N. Y. State Senator from 
Steuben county, gave me some valuable infor- 
mation on trees and inundations. Mr. D. was 
a practical farmer and full of information 
obtained by his own observations. He was also 
one of the early New York canal commission- 
ers. Riding through the tropical forests of 
Nicaragua, I asked him the direct question, 
'■Had he during his experience as canal com- 
missioner in New York State noticed any facts 
to support the theory that trees produced rain- 
fall':'" He answered none whatever, but he had 
noticed after 25 years' observation of the work- 
ing of the canal that the cutting down of the 
forests in central New York had increased the 
number of damaging floods and reduced the 
supply of water necessary for the canal reser- 
voirs. That if the canal engineer had antici- 
pated the cutting down of the forests he would 
have constructed larger reservoirs and secured 
more sources for his supply of water. That the 
waste gates and ditches to carry off the surplus 
that was sufficient at the time the canal 
was finished, were not large enough after it 
had been constructed 25 years. He cited the 
fact hereinbefore referred to, that the forests 
form reservoirs and allow the water to run off 
more gradually. 

Take the case of tropical western Nicaragua. 
They have a rainy and dry season as we have. 
During the dry season the wind is from the 
northeast from the Caribbean sea, and during 
the rainy season it blows from the southwest 
and from the Pacific ocean as ours does. They 
have their wet and dry winters as we have. 

In Boi'ssingault's "Rural Economy" I have 
seen a quotation from Humboldt setting forth the 
following facts: That Humboldt had noticed a 
lake in New Grenada that had passed through 
a transition state. Within one generation the 
inhabitants had cut down all the timber border- 
ing the lake and the lake had so shrunk in its 
proportions that land was cultivated along its 
margin where the water formerly stood, and 
the people feared it would entirely dry up. 
This fear induced them to restore the trees and 
the lake had assumed its original proportions. 
It was in this connection that Humboldt re- 
corded his observation of a crime against pos- 
terity of cutting down the forests, resulting in 
the two evils of a loss of wood and a loss of wa- 
ter for the next generation. I am quoting 
from memory, the book I referHo not being ac- 
cessible to me. I have not read any quotations 
from Humboldt that upon dissection would 
support the theory of trees causing rainfall. In 
the case of the lake to which he refers the 
facts are self-evident: destroying the trees 
destroyed the reservoirs that fed the lake. 

Some time in the early history of California, 
under the Spanish government, a clump of palm 
trees was planted on the Colorado desert at the 
site known in '49 and '50 as Palm springs. I 
say were planted, because that tree is not indi- 
genous to California. The springs were located 
on the line of immigrant travel between Fort 
Yuma, San Diego and Los Angeles and near the 
eastern base of the Coast range of mountains. 
As a rule little or no rain falls on the Colorado 
do.x. rt. Thissandj tract forms a climatic boun- 
dary between the rainy season of Arizona and 
Sonora, which occurs in the summer months, 
and the rainy season of California occurring in 
the winter mouths. Palm springs formed a de- 
sirable watering place for the thirsty traveler, 
but very soon after the immigration commenced 
to California some vandals cut down these palm 
trees and the springs disappeared. This would 
be a good opportunity for our Legislature to 
spend a few hundred dollars to replant with 
trees the site of Palm springs and see whether 
the water would return. As no rain falls there 
the experiment would be a very simple one. 
My opinion is that the water would return; 
that the trees, by preventing evaporation, would 
allow the water, which has its source in the 
Coast range of mountains to become once more 
a living spring on the desert. I have seen it 
often stated in the public prints that the French 
in Algeria have restored lost springs by the 
planting of eucalyptus. 

Before the occupation of California by the 
Americans, redwood trees grew on the summits 
of the mountains back of Oakland and Hay- 
wards. The timber used in the old' Mission 
buildings at this place, according to the tradi- 
tions of the church, was dragged out of the 
mountains by the Mission Indians. It is, more- 
over, within the recollection of our pioneers, 
that the hills back of Oakland had their sum- 
mits covered with a small belt of redwoods. 
Prof. Kellogg botanized and Harry Edwards, 
our Pacific entomologist, cast his nets there for 
bugs and butterflies. Springs flowed out of 
the hills and some farmers or stock men resided 
there. Now the redwoods are gone, the springs 
and the ranchmen have followed. We have 
Prof. Kellogg's authority for the statement that 
since the disappearance of the redwoods and 
springs, plants and flowers that formerly grew 
there have disappeared and been replaced by 
other species. Mr. Edwards stated to the 
writer within a few days that the former insect 
life had been replaced by entirely different 
f pecies. 

The Hon. Eugene Casserly informs me that 
he crossed a certain stream that Hows into the 
Pajaro valley, about the year 1850, and partic- 
ularly observed the quantity of timber border- 
ing the stream, also the amount of water in the 
, creek at the place where they forded it; that he 
has had occasion to cross the same stream 
nearly every year since; that the gradual 



diminution of the water seemed to have a direct 
connection with the annual destruction of the 
timber; that now the hill sides are bare of trees 
and the creek has become a mere remnant of 
what it was 27 years ago. 

It seems clear to me that the phenomena I 
have cited as having occurred within the last 
25 years, on the mountains back of Oakland and 
in the Pajaro valley and elsewhere, was due to 
trees shading the ground, and by preventing 
evaporation, permitted the water to collect and 
form springs, creeks, etc. 

Your correspondent, Mr. Purnell, stated, 
some weeks since, in one of his articles on trees 
and rainfall, that in Arizona there were numer- 
ous ruins of ancient cities and aqueducts. He 
also stated that Arizona was once a fine agricul- 
tural country and had been ruined by its people 
continually cutting down the trees. I addressed 
you a communication at the time, asking him 
for his evidence in support of that statement 
and further wishing to know where the sites of 
the cities were and where the rivers ran when 
Arizona was an agricultural and rainy country. 
Thus far I have seen no answer to my demand 
for the evidence in support of his statement. 
Being myself familiar, by travel, with that por- 
tion of Arizona lying south of the Gila river, I 
pronounce his statements, so far as that portion 
of Arizona is concerned, to be without any 
foundation and to be as baseless as a dream. 
There are plenty of evidences in Arizona of its 
having once been a great mining country, prob- 
ably under the early Spanish governments. 
There is no evidence whatever now existing of 
Arizona having ever been an agricultural coun- 
try, but the testimony, on the contrary, shows 
that since the Spanish conquest, all its cultiva- 
tion has been by irrigation by ditches taken 
from streams that are themselves fed by the 
perpetual snows of the Rocky mountains. 
Reasons for Tree Planting. 

I am as earnest an advocate for the planting of 
trees in California as any believer in their po- 
tency to increase the rainfall. I would plant 
them around all springs and springy places, be- 
cause of the facts set forth in this article. I 
would plant them around all enclosures and 
pasture lands, because of their grateful shade to 
stock during our warm summer days. All 
animals avoid the sun as much as possible. 
Sheep will always do their best to take advant- 
age of even the shady side of a fence. I would 
plant trees for another reason, viz., because of 
their influence as windbreaks, and thus pre- 
venting evaporation. The effect of our north 
winds on soil and vegetation by producing 
evaporation, is familiar to us all. 

I think that semi-tropical fruits in Alameda 
county require protection from the northwest 
wind. W T e have orange and almond trees here 
at the Mission yielding fruit of the best kinds, 
the oranges not even surpassed by the famous 
orange groves at San Bernardino. I know also 
of a lemon tree in the town of Alameda which 
for years has grown a fine crop of lemons and I 
believe that in both this place and Alameda the 
result has been produced by a proper protection 
against the summer wind. 

Housekeepers know that the windy days are 
the drying days, so do the masons and plasterers; 
so do carpenters and all workers and manufac- 
turers of lumber. I consider that we have 
wandered so far away from the real influence of 
trees by being led to believe that they would 
-produce rainfall that we have overlooked their 
real value in saving the rain after it has fallen. 

I. C. Woods. 

Mission San Jose, Cal., Jan. 15th. 



Ti-fi Sf^SLE. 



Aims in Horse Breeding. 

At the late meeting of the Massachusetts 
Board of Agriculture, as reported for the New 
England Farmer, Mr. John E. Russell of 
Leicester, spoke on the breeding, training and 
management of horses. He said that horse 
breeding in New England for the past 20 years, 
had been without profit. This has not been be- 
cause capital and ability have not been em- 
ployed, but because they have not bred horses 
to meet the present demand for good road 
horses, both for the saddle and carriage, good, 
large, stylish carriage horses, not fast, hut good 
stately horses. There was also a demand for 
gooil farm horses, and heavy dray horses. 

The leading object in breeding horses at pres- 
ent is to produce a Lady Thorne or a Dexter, 
but in this c ise, everywhere, failures are the 
rule; success comes so seldom that it can hardly 
lay claim to an exception, and the failures are 
utterly worthless for any other purpose. The 
trotting horse was an accidental horse, which 
frequently upset all theories. These accidental 
trotters when they obtain a low record are 
used in the stud, and not unfrequently more is 
charged for the service of one mare than their 
whole stock is worth. 

It is much easier to produce a finely devel- 
oped horse than a fast one; good bred horses of 
good form reproduce themselves, which fast 
horses seldom do. Good formed horses, with a 
noble lineage, invariably reproduce themselves; 
an acciden'al good horse seldom, but goes back 
to some inferior stock. Lastem horses are the 
foundation of the best stock in the world. The 
English blood horses, their descendnnts, are 
found all over Europe, and if New England 
farmers desire to breed good stock they must go 
to the thoroughbred horses. Breed from no 
weedy stock. He would have no horse who did 



not show good style and noble action; would 
have them from 15 J to 16 hands, with legs not 
long at that. It would be easier for him to tell 
what mares not to breed from, than to say what 
they should breed from. The dam should be 
equal to the sire in blood. Old, worn-out mares 
were not fit to breed from. A mare in foal 
should have regular exercise, and if gently 
worked every day she would be all the better 
for it. 

When a horse enters the stud, he should 
never have any excitement, nor should he be con- 
fined in a close box alone, for horses so confined 
and fed high become vicious and sometimes in- 
sane; should have regular exercise, be worked 
every day, and would be best worked with an- 
other horse. In feeding the colt use common 
sense. It takes the first two years to make a 
horse. At two years old the colt should be 
broken and put to gentle work. The French 
work their horses at one year old, and at one 
and a half they earn their living. The best 
time to sell is before the colt is foaled; the next, 
when it is a weanling; and to keep one beyond 
two years is like burning daylight. 

The training of a fast successful horse one 
year costs more than the horse is ever worth. 
Of trotters that are produced not more than 
one in a hundred proves successful. Before a 
person seeks to control a horse, he must control 
himself. But the greatast mistake made with 
the horse is in allowing an ignorant, stupid 
smith to shoe them. Few horses live out half 
their days, on account of bad shoeing. 

He objected to the manner of awarding pre- 
miums at fairs; he did not object to speed being 
considered as one point, but he would also con- 
sider symmetry of form, soundness and style 
of action. He saw a horse which took a pre- 
mium because of its speed which was suffering 
from opthalmia, and another had two spavins, 
and to such animals the highest prizes were 
awarded. 



Death of Flora Temple. 

The Prairie Farmer, says: At the advanced 
age — for an equine — of 33 years, Flora Temple, 
acknowledged one of the grandest mares that 
ever stepped upon the turf, died last Friday, 
at Chestnut Hill stock farm, near Philadelphia. 
She had not figured in trotting circles to any 
extent since 1861, when she was retired, but 
down to that time, from 1852, she was the ac- 
knowledged queen of the turf. For great and 
uniform speed and endurance, and long con- 
tinued success, retaining her wonderful powers 
until a ripe old age — she was over 17 when 
withdrawn — she has never had an equal on the 
American turf, except the lately retired queen, 
Goldsmith Maid. When four years old, Flora 
Temple was such an unmanageable and vicious 
little brute that her owner was glad to rid him- 
self of her for the magnificent sum of $13. The 
man who bought her in turn disposed of her 
for $(>8, and was extremely glad to make the 
trade, feeling that he had rid himself of a bad 
bargain at a good price. The last purchaser 
disposed of her, and she finally, in 1850, turned 
up in New York city, the property of a 
butcher, when a Mr. Vielee, of Dutchess 
county, N. Y. recognizing that there was some- 
thing in the brute, bought her for §175. He 
kept her a couple of weeks, speeded her a little 
and sold her for $350, to George E. Pernn. 
From that time began her triumphs. During 
her turf career of eleven years she won '.13 
races and lost 1 8. netting a total of $113,000. 
She was the first horse to trot below 2:20, win 
nine at Kalamazoo, Mich., in harness, October 
15th, 1859, a third heat in 2:19f. She still 
leaves an unbeaten record of two miles in har- 
ness, made over the Eclipse course, L. I., in 
2:504. 111 1804 she was sold to Mr. Welch, 
who owned her at her death, for $8,000. 
Since her retiracy she has foaled three times, 
two fillies and one colt. 



A Parasitic Caterpillar. — We read that 
Mr. J. C. Bowring has discovered a curious 
moth, which in the caterpillar state is parasitic 
on the Chinese lantern fly [Fulgora cap/Maria). 
The caterpillars are very short and thick, fleshy 
and about half an inch in length, and, when 
fully fed, covered with a "cottony coat," which 
makes them resemble certain bark lice. The 
pupa is covered by a tl.ick cocoon, and the time 
in which it remains in the pupa state is very 
variable; in one instance only nine days, in an- 
other "during our cool season" -upward of 12 
months. The caterpillars are themselves in- 
fested by hymenopterous parasites. Prof. 
Westwood, who describes the insect in the 
"Transactions of the Entomological Society of 
London," under the name of Epipyrops CMOmala, 
thinks that the caterpillar feeds upon the waxy 
secretion of the fulgora. The moth is referred 
to the arctians by Prof. Westwood; but while 
it is probably one of the bombycidie, we think 
it is wrongly referred to the "arctiidie." 

Pkru anp tiik Chinamen. —While Califor- 

nians are trying to get rid of John Chinaman, 
the Peruvians are making unusual efforts to in- 
duce him to come and work on their sugar plan- 
tations. The government of Peru has granted 
a subsidy of $120, 000 to a company which pro- 
poses to 'establish a line of steamers between 
Callao and Hong Kong, and an agent has ar- 
rived in San Francisco to engage Chinamen to 
embark for Peru, where there are promised the 
"freedom of the country" and a "soft" dollar 
(about 80 cents) a day for work on the sugar 
plantations. 



52 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



[January 26, 1878. 



Correspondence cordially invited from all Patrons for this 
department. 



Removal 

Until -further notice the office of the Secretary of the 
State Grange will be at 100 Davis street, in the store of 
the Grangers' Business Association. Correspondents will 
continue to send their communications to No. 40 Califor- 
nia street, as heretofore. 



Sacramento Granges and Bermuda Grass 
Equally Hard to Root Out. 

Editors Press: — A few items from some of 
the Sacramento Granges in the beginning of 
their New Year may be acceptable. The meet- 
ing of Franklin Grange, the installation of its 
officers, and their harvest feast, on the 5th, 
were quite as enjoyable as a similar occasion 1 
shared with them 1 1 months ago. Since then 
they have initiated several new members, and 
their Grange is in quite a nourishing condition. 
At American River Grange the neat school 
house in which they meet was well filled with 
an attentive audience of members and others 
to hear the appointed lecture. The subject 
was, "Some things the Grange has done, and 
some things it has yet to do." Under the latter 
clause a detailed account was given of the thor- 
ough training for young fanners by lecture, text 
books and practice in the two years' course of 
the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester, 
England. Their Grange is one of the strongest 
and most harmonious in the county. Saturday, 
the 12th, I enjoyed being with Sacramento 
Grange at their installation, conducted by Bro. 
Geo. W. Hancock. We all anticipated a treat 
in the way of one of Bro. E. S. Carr's good 
lectures, but his sudden illness disappointed us 
— none more so than your correspondent. Hav- 
ing attended with the wish to enjoy the luxury 
of a silent listener, I had unexpectedly to sup- 
ply his place, by request, as well as I could. It 
is gratifying to be able to testify to the wide- 
awake and nourishing condition of Sacramento 
Grange. Its members are aiming to make it 
the banner Grange of California, and it proba- 
bly has as good claims to this honor as any in 
our jurisdiction. Their newly-installed Master, 
Bro. Daniel Flint, proposes "Excelsior" as their 
motto this year. 

I write this while enjoying a quiet visit in 
the well-improved and happy home of Bro. Geo. 
Rich, six miles southeast of Sacramento. He 
has lived here since '55, and all his surround- 
ings show the care of years in adding to the at- 
tractions of one of the finest building spots in 
this part of the country. His house, thickly 
surrounded by ornamental and fruit trees, 
stands in the center of a large and regular nat- 
ural ground, some 16 feet above the surrounding 
plains. He has eight fine orange trees and two 
lemon trees in full bearing, now well loaded 
with their beautiful fruit, and several younger 
ones. They are from 8 to 19 years old. Among 
his other trees are English and black walnuts, 
Languedoc almonds, mountain cedar, or giant 
arbor vita?, Monterey and Italian cypress, Mon- 
terey pine, several of the genuine English bay, 
the English laurel, a Japanese plum which has 
been bearing for three years past, a date tree 
some four years old, wax, myrtle and pomegran- 
ates, acacias, shrub juniper (Juniperus pros- 
trata), crape myrtles, pepper trees, and the 
graceful pampas grass, to say nothing of the 
usual fruit trees, beautiful hedges of the Eng- 
lish box, large-sized locusts, a large vineyard of 
White Muscats and Flame Tokays, fine straw- 
berry and blackberry patches. 

He has the only genuine English yew tree I 
have ever seen in the State. It is now about 
12 years old, though not more than eight feet 
high, being of much slower growth even than 
our sequoias, or redwoods. The writing of this 
letter, after an evening of singing and instru- 
mental music, is interspersed with the enjoy- 
ment of some of his home products — as good 
raisins and English walnuts as the State af- 
fords. 

I have inspected with Bro. Rich his flourish- 
ing patch of Bermuda grass, which he wrote to 
the Rural about, and the first I have seen in 
the State. It is the genuine article, beyond 
question, as is proved by its successful efforts 
to resist destruction, when it spreads where it 
is not wanted. From a small patch 12 years 
ago, he has enough now to stock the whole 
State. When he plows every fall, he is will- 
ing to furnish any number of farmers with 
roots, if they will pay the expressage. Alfalfa 
having failed to root it out, he has turned his 
hogs on it, and with all their industrious root- 
ing, it is doubtful yet which will triumph, the 
hogs or the Bermuda. Yet Bro. Rich is bent 
on checking its growth "by thorough cultiva- 
tion." 

On Saturday, January 2(>th, I have promised 
to install the olticers of Social Grange, in this 
county. The Grange at Elk (J rove expects to 
renew its work soon. There is, perhaps, no 
county in this State where the Grange cause is 
in a sounder condition in every way than in 
Sacramento county. 

The Grangers' Co-operative Association of 
Sacramento Yalley lias opened its store, with a 
'ubscribed capital of over §20,000. It does a 
strictly cash business, has a large patronage 
from the city as well as the country, and is giv- 



ing entire satisfaction. The reduced prices at 
which they can sell many groceries, and yet 
make the desired per cent, of profit, is surpris- 
ing. 

Crops generally are looking remarkably well. 
The rain so far this month has been abundant. 

J. W. A. Wright. 

January 15th. 

Installation at Healdsburg Grange. 

Editors Press: — The officers elected to serve 
the ensuing year in Healdsburg Grange, No. 18 
were duly installed last Saturday. The selec- 
tion of officers is a good one, many of them hav- 
ing previously served and are familiar with the 
workings of the Grange. S. T. Coulter, W. M. 
of the Santa Rosa (irauge, officiated as installing 
officer. About 100 members were present. 
After the installation all adjourned to the ante- 
room, where a harvest feast had been spread for 
the occasion. The feast reflected much credit 
on those who had prepared it, and consisted of 
all the delicacies, as well as more substantial 
edibles that could be desired. It was fully ap- 
preciated by all. Several of the members made 
short addresses. 

Mr. Coulter spoke very flatteringly of the 
prosperity of the Healdsburg ( irauge, the pluck 
and energy of its members, the beauty of the 
hall, the strength of those united in one pur- 
pose, the benefits to be derived from secret so- 
cieties, the power and influence that different 
societies wielded in governmental affairs and 
closed his remarks by thanking all for the 
honor bestowed upon him. 

Nelson Carr, of Bennett Yalley, also made a 
few encouraging remarks. He gave the mem- 
bers credit for their untiring energy, said the 
Grange contained more young men and women 
than any other he had visited, and expressed a 
hope that good will and harmony would pre- 
vail. 

The Grangers' warehouse has given universal 
satisfaction; considerable grain is still stored in 
the building, awaiting shipping orders. Perhaps 
a brief outline of the building would not be out 
of place here. It covers an area of 7,500 square 
feet; the walls are 50x150 feet, 18 inches thick, 
and are formed of concrete; the hight of the 
building is 15 feet in the clear; the roof is tin; 
on each side of the building are three heavy 
double doors. The storage capacity of the build- 
ing is 3,000 tons. The prices of storage are 
moderate, and are as follows: A single month, 
25 cents per ton; for more than one month, 12} 
cents per ton; for the season, 75 cents per ton. 
On the whole, the warehouse is a substantial 
and commodious one, being both lire and bur- 
glar-proof. 

The store is constantly gaining popularity, 
and is giving general satisfaction to the custo- 
mers, as well as the stockholders; an invoice is 
being taken, and the results are satisfactory. 
The patronage is daily increasing. The stock 
of goods kept is the best the market affords, 
and none but trustworthy customers can obtain 
goods on credit. The town people are now 
patronizing the store liberally, and many resid- 
ing at a distance buy large bills of goods. The 
sales of the store are increasing each month, 
and now average between .?<>,000 and §8,000 
per month. Clark Andrews is the business 
manager, and ( ieorge Steadman principal sales- 
man. Both are rirst-class business men, and 
give entire satisfaction. E. H. Barnes is Presi- 
dent of the Board of Directors, and is recog- 
nized as one of the best business men in Sonoma 
county. 

The Grange and everything connected with 
it is in a prosperous condition, everything work- 
ing in perfect harinony; the best of feeling, 
confidence and uniformity of opinion exists. In 
membership it is slowly, steadily, but surely 
increasing. We have the honor of numbering 
among our members some of the prettiest 
women in the State, and they are as good and 
brave as they are beautiful. Healdsburg Grange, 
No. 18, is, to-day, the most popular, wealthy 
and flourishing Grange in the Golden State. 
So mote it be. Ed. H. Kraft, Sec'y. 

Healdsburg, Cal., Jan. 14th. 

Installation at Washington Grange. 

Editors Press: — As the time has arrived for 
the officers elect of the different Granges to be 
installed, I have received several invitations to 
perform that duty. Last Friday, I left home 
at 7 a. m., in company with Bro. D. A. Lerned, 
to visit Washington G range, located in the 
northeast corner of San Joaquin county, about 
20 miles from my home. We arrived at the 
school house a little after 10 o'clock, having 
had a very pleasant but cool ride. Meeting 
with a cordial reception, we were soon in con- 
versation with the members that had arrived, 
while others were coming from all quarters. 
At 1 1 o'clock we were called to order by Worthy 
Master Soller, and the Grange opened in due 
form. After the minutes of the previous meet- 
ing were read and approved, a report was 
received from a committee on the death of a 
worthy sister. The general order of business 
was passed over, and the Grange closed in the 
fourth degree and opened in the third, for the 
purpose of conferring the degree on a class of 
three. The Worthy Master invited me to con- 
fer the degree, which I declined, knowing that 
he was well posted in the work and I had not 
worked in that degree for over two years. At 
the call of the Assistant Stewart, but two can- 
didates being presented, the Worthy Master 
conferred the degree on two. At the close, the 



third candidate put in an appearance, and it 
u.i - decided to confer the degree on him, so 
that he could take the fourth with the two that 
had just taken the third. The Worthy Master 
then insisted that I should do the work, as he 
had gone through it with the previous candi- 
dates. Being acknowledged as the Deputy, I 
could no longer refuse. I then put on the 
regalia and took the Master's gavel and com- 
menced. I can assure you it seemed like old 
times, when St»ckton Grange was conferring 
degrees at every meeting. I also had the 
pleasure of conferring the fourth degree on a 
class of three, after which we were invited to 
the harvest feast, where all the bounties that 
could be desired were spread before us, of which 
we partook with a good relish and had a good 
time generally. At 2 p. m. , we were called to 
order again for installation, which was per- 
formed by your humble servant, assisted by 
two very efficient brothers. 

Washington Grange deserves the credit of 
being the "banner Grange" of San Joaquin 
county. There are now about 70 active mem- 
bers and more on the list to join soon. After 
installing the officers and listening to a few 
remarks from Bro. Lerned, we left for home, it 
being about 4: 30 r. m., feeling obliged to return 
home, to be on hand, Saturday, at 
Stockton Grange, 
For installation, harvest feast and to listen to 
a lecture from Prof. Hilgard, on alkali soil. 
We, as a G range, considered ourselves very for- 
tunate to have been able to secure his services. 
Our installation being public, quite a number 
of persons besides the members were present. 
We were called to order by Worthy Master 
Elliot, of Lodi Grange. Our Master having 
been re-elected, could not well perform that 
duty. The officers were installed by Past- 
Master Phelps in a very able manner, after 
which we repaired to the dining-hall and par- 
took of a bounteous feast. Prof. Hilgard 
arrived just in time to partake of the feast with 
us. At 2 P. M., all being ready and the hall 
well filled, the lecture commenced and was 
listened to by an appreciative audience and well 
received. WlL L. Overiiiser. 

Oak Home, Stockton, Jan. Cth, 1878. 

Election of Officers * 

Healdsburg Grange, No. 18, Sonoma 
County.— B. B. Capell, M.; T. J. Barnes, 0.; 
W. N. Gladden, L.; J. L. McClish, S.; J. Far- 
ley, A. S. ; W. T. Allen, C. ; Aaron Hassett, T. ; 
E. H. Kratf, Sec'y; F. M. Laymance, G. K. ; Mrs. 
Josie Hassett, Ceres; Miss Luella Wolcott, 
Flora; Mrs. D. F. McClish, Pomona; Mrs. S. 
Beeson, L. A. S. ; S. Beeson, Trustee. 

Point ok Timber Grange, No. 14, Contra 
Costa Co.— Election Jan. 12th: S. M. Wills, 
M. ; C. J. Preston, 0. ; J. E. W. Carey, L. ; Geo. 
W. Smith, S. ; Calvin Carlton, A. S. ; A. Plum- 
ley, C. ; Geo. Cople, T. ; Yolney Taylor, Sec'y; 
A. Vernon Taylor, G. K. ; Mrs. A. E. Gal- 
lagher, Ceres; Miss Lovina Plumley, Pomona; 
Mrs. H. C. McCabe, Flora; Mrs. J. E. W. 
Carey, L. A. S. 

Watsonville Grange, No. 124, Santa 
Cruz Co.— D. M. Clough, It; Owen Tut- 
tle, 0.; Mrs. O. Tuttle, L.; Bates De- 
hart, S. ; A. Kerr, A. S. ; D. Tuttle C. ; Miss 
Lottie Roadhouse, Sec'y; M. B. Tuttle, G. K. ; 
Mrs. N. A. Uren, Ceres; Mrs. Rob't Boland, 
Pomona, Miss Y. Ferguson, Flora; Mrs. J. C. 
Drew, L. A. S. ; Mrs. O. S. Tuttle, Treasurer. 

* Officers of Granges are requested to send list of offi- 
cers elect, date of election and day set for installation, to 
this office d irect. 

Modoc Granges. — Sylvester Daniels writes 
us concerning the Granges in Surprise valley, 
Modoc county, as follows: "There are four 
Granges in the valley, three Good Templar 
lodges, one Odd Fellows', and one of Masons, 
all doing very welL The Grangers' co-operation 
have a good steam sawmill about ready for 
work in the spring." 

J. W. A. Wright and Grange Resolu- 
tions. — We decline inserting several well-writ- 
ten articles in response to Bro. Wright's com- 
munication concerning Grange resolutions, etc. 
We have already published more on this sub- 
ject than our space warrants, in order to do no 
personal injustice. 

Confidence Grange. — Editors Press: — At 
the installation of officers of Confidence Grange, 
Rev. John Newlove declined to serve as Worthy 
Lecturer, and we elected Bro. A. J. Pichle to 
rill the place. - James Morse, Jr., Sec'y, 
Guadalupe, lianta Barbara Co. 



Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

Week Ending January 22, 1878. 



HIGHEST AND LOWEST BAROMETER. 



Jan 16 


Jan. 17 


Jan. 18 


Jan. 19 


Jan. 20 


Jan. 21 


Jan. 2 


29.76 


30.21 


30.30 


30.31 


30.17 


30.03 


29.93 


29.44 


30.05 


30.24 


30.23 


30.08 


29.92 


29.60 




MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM THERMOMETER. 




60 


68 


57 


57 


57 


1 61 


s 


52 


50 


50 


51 


52 


52 








MEAN 


DAILY HUMIDITY. 






76 


76 


85 


86 


82 


| 79 


77 






PREVAILING WIND. 






SE 


1 8 


SE 


i N 


| NE 


| SE 


SE 






WIND — 


MILES TRAVRLED. 






414 


318 | 


113 


146 


| 102 


| 98 


348 



state of wkatu EE- 
Rainy. I Fair. | Rainv. I Rainy. | Clo'dy. | Clo'dy | Rainy. 

RAINFALL IN TWENTY-FOUR HOURS. 



1.97 | 



I .28 I 



.10 



I -13 | 



1.15 

Total rain during the season, from July 1, 1877, 12.22 in. 



An Extra Edition of the "Pacific Rural 
Press." 

We have in publication an Extra Edition of 
the Pacific Rural Press, which will contain 
in full the proceedings of the last meeting of 
the California Dairymen's Association. It will 
be the most important publication, from a dairy 
point of view, which has ever been made on 
this coast. All the matters advanced were by 
men practically engaged in the dairy business, 
and the "extra" therefore gives a sound idea of 
what is believed to be the best dairy practice in 
this State on the different subjects which were 
under consideration. Among other matters 
presented, we notice Mr. R. G. Sneath's ac- 
count of his experience with dairy cows and his 
experiments with New Zealand rye grass as a 
fodder and pasture plant in this State. Mr. I. 
N. Hoag, of Yolo county, gives a sketch of 
dairying in the interior of the State, and his ex- 
perience with alfalfa. Mr. Sherman Day, of 
Contra Costa county, contributes an exhaustive 
essay on the dairy adaptations of the tule lauds 
— these vast fertile tracts which are now being 
so rapidly developed into profitable farms. Mr. 
Robert Ashburner, of San Mateo county, gives 
the results of his wide experience in choosing 
good dairy cows and in breeding, feeding and 
caring for them. Mr. I. C. Steele recounts the 
points in his successful practice of cheese mak- 
ing in the coast counties. In addition to these 
important contributions to the dairy literature 
of our coast, there are notes of the discussions 
on the different subjects brought forward, the 
list of the officers of the Society and the condi- 
tions of membership in it. These are in good 
form for preservation, and the publication will 
have wide circulation among dairymen here and 
at the East, where great interest is felt in our 
dairy practices. The edition contains also an 
engraving of the Centennial premium Jersey 
bull, and ground plans of a creamery, a cheese 
factory and a large dairy barn. 

All readers of the Rural who have not kept 
the issues of their papers containing these mat- 
ters, or who wish to secure them in collected 
form, can be furnished with copies of this ex- 
tra edition, post-paid, for 10 cents per copy, by 
addressing Dewey & Co., 202 Sansome street, 
San Francisco. 



Squirrels Killed by the Acre. 

No doubt many readers were interested as we 
were in the statements of a Solano county 
reader of the Press in a recent issue giving an 
account of the way squirrels were exterminated 
from his fields by the Gerow Brothers. We have 
since received additional information indicating 
that these gentlemen have scceeded in doing 
all our correspondent stated, and more too. 
Their plan is to kill the squirrels by the acre by 
contract, and they are ready to make contract 
to exterminate the rodents from a whole county 
or part of a county. The rate charged is five 
cents per acre and upwards, according to the 
number of squirrels. In Suisun valley the work 
was done for five cents per acre. We under- 
stand that the Messrs. Gerow will submit a 
proposition at the meeting of the Contra Costa 
Board of Supervisors, which will be held early 
in February. A number of leading citizens of 
Solauo county are mentioned as acquainted with 
the successful work which they have done in 
Solano county, and it would be well for the 
Contra Costa meeting to consider the statements 
and propositions which they have to make. If 
their work is so successful as is represented, it 
is a thing which should be spread abroad all 
over the infested districts of the State for the 
public benefit, and we hope aU readers who 
have testimony to give about Gerow brothers' 
operations will favor us with it. 

The Way the " Rural" Advances Trade. 
— The advertising value of the Rural Press is 
generally recognized among our Eastern adver- 
tising patrons. The following may serve as a 
hint to those who do not enjoy its aid. Messrs. 
Hunter & Brewer, of Springwater, Livingston 
county, New York, writes as follows: "We 
inclose you a little advertisement, which we 
wish inserted in the Rural Press one month 
(August). Last fall, we had a large quantity of 
small pear seedlings, which were unsalable here 
on account of size. Learning, some time in the 
winter, that there were some demand for small 
seedlings in California, we advertised in the 
Press, last March, which brought us customers 
from Oregon, Idaho and California, whose trade 
amounted to a number of hundred dollars. We 
hope the Press will be as successful this year 
as last in finding us customers." This experi- 
ence is similar to that often described to us by 
Eastern dealers in farmers' supplies of all kinds. 

On File. — "Periodicity in Rainfall, Etc.," 
G. F. B. ; "Rose Culture," M. C. ; "Saving 
Fertility," G. R.; "Notes from Fresno," W. A. 
S. ; "Farm Gate," J. T. ; "Coffee Culture," 
G. P. R. and F. A. P.; " Signs of Rain, Etc.," 
J. G. 0.; ".What is a Rain Gauge?" W. P.; 
"Solano County," G. C. P.; "Stanislaus 
Grange," M. B. K.; "Eden Grange," Sec; 
"In Memoriam," Walnut Creek G range." 

The silverware delivered by the National 
Silver-Plating Co., No. 704 Chestnut street, 
Philadelphia, is giving entire satisfaction. All 
orders are promptly filled, and no one need 
hesitate about sending them money. — Lutheran 
Observer. 



January 26, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PRESS. 



53 



California. 

EL DORADO. 

Strawberries. — Republican, Jan. 18: On 
Sunday last Alex. Wonderly, took a walk out 
in Wolf Bros', garden, and says that notwith- 
standing the recent cold spell, that he saw lots 
of strawberries in all stages, unharmed by the 
frost, and in proof of his assertion he exhibited 
a stem containing three large ripe berries, a 
number of green ones, together with two blos- 
soms. He expressed it as his opinion, that 
with a week of warm weather, a bushel or 
more of ripe berries could be picked from the 
patch. How is that for the middle of January? 
FRESNO. 

Enough. — Republican, Jan. 16: Enough 
rain has fallen to maintain the growth of the 
grass and grain, and prospects are now in favor 
of fair crops. Everybody feels jubilant. 

Editors Press: — The rainfall from Jan. 10th 
to the 17th amounted to 1.33 inches. The 
weather is warm and still cloudy. — E. S. Rus- 
sell, Borden, Jan. 17th. 
KERN. 

Work. — A force of 270 men is engaged clear- 
ing new ground, plowing and sowing on the 
farms of Haggin and Carr. A separate force of 
80 men is at work on their canals. There is no 
evidence of discouragement because of the 
drouth in this section of country. These farms 
produced their largest crops last year. It is 
well worth the time to see the progress made so 
far this season and witness the moving of the 
force from the headquarters to the fields. 
About 500 Chinese are reported in the town, 
many of whom are without work. It is pleas- 
ing to see a disposition to do without their use 
when white labor can be had. There has been 
a large addition to our laboring population the 
past two months, and Chinese have generally 
been displaced to give them work. There are 
several farms run by Chinese on contracts or 
lease, and the gardens of the town are chiefly 
cultivated by them, so that room is made for 
them when work is needed, without crowding 
out white labor. The country will be bene- 
fited by the change. 
LOS ANGELES. 

Good f%i Bees. — Outlook, Jan. 16: We 
called at the bee-ranches of Messrs. Killgore, 
Baker & Cox, and Manville, finding them all 
pleasantly situated and looking hopefully for 
a good honey season. Since then they have 
had a copious rainfall, which Mr. Killgore tells 
us, has placed them upon a sure basis. With 
a good season, the canyon apiaries in the 
mountain ranges near Santa Monica are good 
for at least 200,000 pounds of honey. 

MARIN. 

Tomales Cheese Factory. — The Tomales 
cheese factory, lately purchased by Messrs. 
Lang & Hartling, is running again, with pros- 
pects of success. Mr. Lang has lately arrived 
from the East, and understands the business 
thoroughly. He has been the cheese maker for 
years in Wellington factory, Ohio, the largest 
cheese factory in the United States, and under- 
stands both the inside and outside business. It 
will be carried on on the Eastern plan. The 
dairymen bring their milk in the morning to 
the factory, where it is weighed and credited to 
them. A certain number of pounds of milk 
makes one pound of cheese, and the factory 
receives two cents a pound and the whey for 
making, taking care of and delivering the cheese 
at the depot. The selling will done by a firm 
in San Francisco, under the direction of Messrs. 
Thos. J. Abies and J. P. Whitaker, and the 
returns will be made direct to the Bank of 
Tomales. The cheese made during the month 
of January will be put on the market on the 1st 
of March, and as soon as return of sales is made, 
a dividend will be paid to those having fur- 
nished milk during January. After March 1st, 
shipments will be made every month. By sell- 
ing the cheese and paying in dividends, as 
above stated, all parties are served alike. This 
has given the best satisfaction in the East. But 
by serving all alike it is necessary that the 
milk should all be good, therefore it is always 
tested. They have what is called a cream jar, 
by which they can, in a few hours, tell if the 
milk has been skimmed. They also have lac- 
tometers, by which they can tell in an instant 
if the milk is watered. The contract between 
the dairymen and factory contains a clause, 
that if it is ascertained that the milk is not 
sweet or has been skimmed or watered, a com- 
mittee of five shall be appointed from the 
patrons, with power to levy a fine, the amount 
to be retained from their dividend and divided 
among the other patrons. The contract is 
binding from the time they commence deliver- 
ing milk until August 1st, with the provision 
that any one of the dairymen, or all, may draw 
out on the first day of March, but if not quit- 
ting at that time, to continue until August 1st. 
Messrs. Lang & Hartling have now engaged 
the milk of 800 cows and expect to get about 
200 more. It is intended to make an article of 
cheese which will have no superior in the 
United States. They have run just one week 
and have 29 cheeses on their shelves. 
MODOC. 

Surprise Valley. — Editors Press: We 
are a great way from the world, t being nearly 
200 miles from Reno, the nearest railroad 
station. We have a good valley to live in, but 
we labor under great inconveniences by being 



so far from market and railroad communication. 
All news is old when it gets to us. This is 
in Surprise valley. I have only lived here two 
years; coming from Iowa. As nearly as I can 
judge, the farmers are being prospered and are 
making good homes. — Sylvester Daniels, 
Lake City. 
MONTEREY. 

Forward Grain. — Cor. Santa Cruz Cour- 
ier, Jan. 16: John Dixon, one mile below Sali- 
nas City, has sunk four artesian ten-inch wells 
on his place, operating the same by steam, 
with which he irrigates 40 acres of land. He 
now has 40 acres of grain in dough, which 
would ripen in five or six days under a summer 
sun. There are 50 acres of grain at Elkhorn 
slough, now in dough, growing in swamp land. 

The Valley. — Index, Jan. 17: The pros- 
pect never was so bright for a big yield of grain 
in the Salinas valley. In no previous season 
has there been so great an acreage under seed, 
and a large portion of the grain is already up 
and growing finely. Plenty of rain has fallen, 
but not enough to have drowned out the seed 
anywhere in the valley. Everybody wears a 
smiling countenance. 
SACRAMENTO 

The Bright Future. — Editors Press: — 
Amid many despondencies blessings often come 
unawares and dispel all fears of the future. So 
it has proved in the recent rain, not only with 
the agricultural class but the community at 
large. The earth quickly drank in the abun- 
dance spread over the State. The new year 
opens with auspices far brighter than at 
first predicted. With light rains in the 
early season, continued with north winds and 
the heavy frost in January, gave no better pre- 
dictions; but at the turning point of the latter 
half the clouds broke the spell, and the delu- 
sion vanished. Now all can work with the 
new year with lighter hearts, willing hands, 
with the future lit up with smiles and laden 
with increased fruits of their own production. 
— Geo. Rich, Sacramento. 
SAN BERNARDINO. 

Riverside Nursery. — Semi-Tropical, Jan. 
12: Mr. P. S. Russell came from San Diego 
five years ago, when Riverside was in its in- 
fancy. He purchased 20 acres of land a mile 
north of the town and set earnestly to work 
putting it out in treeB. Since his arrival he has 
sold thousands of trees and has still a stock of 
100,000 on hand, all semi-tropical fruits. Mr. 
R. has recently purchased 20 acres of land ad- 
joining his original purchase, in order to give 
room to his rapidly growing business. All his 
budded lemons are put in on orange roots, a de- 
cided advantage in longevity and thriftiness. 
Mr. Russell has been to considerable trouble 
and expense in procuring buds from Florida of 
several of the most valuable varieties grown 
there, but has none of them for sale yet. He 
has also the loquat, Japanese persimmon, guava 
and other semi-tropical trees growing, although 
none as yet for sale. Mr. Russell's place shows 
what can be done by intelligent, persistent 
effort. He has 2,200 orange trees set out in 
orchard and will put out several thousand more 
this year. He believes thoroughly in low train- 
ing, as the stem of the tree is better protected 
from the sun, and the trees themselves are more 
stocky, and better able to maintain themselves 
upright. His trees are all healthy and vigor- 
ous, showing that they have been well taken 
care of, and giving promise of strong growth 
and early fruiting. The heavy frosts of the past 
two weeks have not injured his trees to any ex- 
tent. Very young trees, or those whose growth 
has been forced by late and heavy irrigation 
have been nipped slightly. Older trees are not 
injured a particle, although the cold has been 
more severe than at any time since records have 
been kept in the county. 

SAN JOAQUIN. 

Jersey Bulls. — Independent, Jan. 18: S. 
B. Kingsley, of this county, lately purchased 
from the herd of R. G. Sneath, of San Mateo 
county, two full-blood Jersey bulls — "San 
Bruno," two years and one month old, weigh- 
ing 810 pounds, and "Prince." one year and 
seven months old, weighing 670 pounds. These 
animals were brought to Stockton by steamer 
yesterday morning, and taken to Mr. Kingsley's 
ranch,' Mariposa road. Mr. Kingsley has at his 
ranch a bull of this breed, and thinks the cows 
are particularly valuable for dairy purposes. 
He also finds that a cross between the Durham 
and Jersey gives to the progeny the form of the 
Durham and the superior milking qualities of 
the Jersey. 

Grain Receipts. — The amount of grain re- 
ceived at Stockton wharf station, Stockton and 
Copporopolis railroad, from June 1st, to De- 
cember 31st, 1877, was 12,299 tons or 1,230 car 
loads. 

Tule Culture. — San Jose Mercury, Jan. 12: 
The owners of the reclaimed tule lands along 
the San Joaquin river, in leasing their lands for 
farming purposes, are required to furnish all 
the necessary seed, and also feed for the horses 
used whilo putting in the crop. The tenant 
performs all the work, furnishes the sacks and 
delivers one-half of the grain upon the river 
bank to the owner of the land. (Jen. Naglee, 
of this city, is now shipping several carloads a 
week of seed grain and ground barley to his 
tenants on the San Joaquin. 

SANTA BARBARA. 

Editors Press: — We are having the finest 
rain of the season, and so warm, too! The last 
rain commenced on the night of the 13th inat., 
and has been coming in beautiful showers since, 
and the prospect is still good for more. The 



croakers will get moistened up, and I think will 
have something else to talk about now. Our 
hay and grain are safe, and we think a good 
prospect of spring crops. Certainly grain and 
hay never looked better than now, and have 
been growing finely since the rains in Decem- 
ber. We cannot have all the good without an 
evil. I hear the wharf at Carpinteria is nearly 
all washed away, but the extent of damage I do 
not know. Some cloud-bursts on the sides of 
the mountains filled the canyons and brought 
some of us mud and debris enough to keep us 
busy some time, but no serious damage that I 
know of. It looked grand to see the muddy 
torrent rushing down the ravines, with the 
sound of a mighty wind! Where the ground 
was freshly plowed some of it was washed away, 
but I think the sediment left will make that 
even. There has been but little wind here 
during the storm, nor have we had much disa- 
greeable wind from any source this season. 
People here have great reason to take new 
courage, as the promise is great for the coming 
harvest. Since writing the above we have had 
an old-fashioned thunder storm and a heavy fall 
of rain. — O. N. Cadwell, Carpinteria, Jan. 17th. 

SANTA CRUZ. 

Prolific Sheep. — Courier, Jan. 18: ' Mr. 
Martin Kinsley informed us last Saturday that 
on the day before a sheep belonging to his band 
gave birth to four lambs, the mother being one 
year and seven months old. This prolific 
breeder was the offspring of a sheep that gave 
birth to eight lambs in one year — two lots of 
four lambs each — the first above mentioned be- 
ing one of the four. All of these large yields 
are flourishing, and if this rate of increase will 
only continue, Mr. Kinsley has a bonanza on 
his ranch. 
STANISLAUS. 

Low Water in Tulare Lake. — News, Jan. 
18: We have received a copy of the report of 
the reconnoisance of Tulare lake, by the civil 
engineer of the West Side irrigation district, 
Wm. Hammond Hall. The reconnoisance was 
made by Mr. Hall during the months of No- 
vember and December, 1877, with the view of 
ascertaining something definite as to the water 
supply of that lake at the close of the driest 
season ever known in the San Joaquin valley 
by white settlers. He finds that in October, 
1871, the base of the water line of the lake was 
195 feet above the base used for the survey of 
the West Side canal located in September, 1876. 
He also finds that the level of the lake is only 
a little over three feet lower than it was at the 
time of the survey spoken of, in 1876. The 
lake now, or rather in December last, notwith- 
standing the severe drouth of the past season, 
was found to cover an area of from 420 to 430 
square miles. The lake shore has now reached 
a line where the depth is much greater than the 
shore line of high floods. The lake is now, at 
its present standard, a clear open sheet of water 
of from 10 to 40 feet in depth throughout its 
body. The report of Mr. Hall is a clear, plain 
statement of facts, useful at the present junct- 
ure. 

Increase. — Last week grain fields on the 
West Side, already sown, could have been pur- 
chased for the season at from $1.50 to $2 per 
acre. No doubt they are worth $10 per acre to- 
day. 

TEH A.MA. 

The Outlook. — Red Bluff Cor. Tocsin, Jan. 
16: Farmers are jubilant in consequence of the 
rainy season proving so good. Crops have now 
a reasonable chance to thrive and mature to an 
abundant yield, always providing some unfor- 
seen change for the worse does not take place 
during the spring weather, which often has 
more to do with the yield than the winter rains. 
Stock and sheep men rejoice in the fast improv- 
ing feed, and assurance of ample grass for lamb- 
ing, which many are now looking forward to 
with anxiety. Mutton sheep seem to be selling 
off quite brisk this winter. A. C. Owens, from 
Payne's creek, disposed of a fine band to a 
southern butcher a few weeks ago at a very fair 
price. Wool is still held by our principal wool 
growers for a rise in the price, which is to be 
hoped for ere the spring clip comes into market. 
If we had a woolen mill of our own at this 
point we should now be combing and manufac- 
turing that wool, and giving employment to 
hundreds of industrious, hard-working citizens, 
who are now idle from the want of something 
of that kind to do. 

YUBA. 

Oranges. — Appeal, Jan. 11: T. J. Power 
exhibited to us yesterday a twig cut from an 
orange tree at his residence, which eclipses any- 
thing in this section. Hanging in clusters like 
grapes, upon a stem of 16 inches, arc one dozen 
large oranges, and which will average 1 1 inches 
in circumference and weigh nine pounds. They 
are of bright color, and a beautiful sight to be- 
hold. The tree is a nine-year-old seedling, and 
this specimen of its fruit may be seen at the 
saloon. On Tuesday the cluster will be sent to 
a friend in San Francisco, with a request to 
exhibit the same on Montgomery street. 

Washington. 

Wheat Yields. — Walla Walla Union, Jan. 5: 
We know of one wheat field, embracing 270 
acres, that produced an average yield of 45 
bushels of superior wheat to the acre, and an- 
other field of 55 acres that gave a yield of 58 
bushels per acre, both fields owned and farmed 
by Henry Copeland, of this valley. 

Frozen Fog. — Up to the present time there 
has been no snow at this place. The ground is 
white with fog that has frozen and settled en it. 



News in Brief. 

A $10,000 fire occured at Virginia City on 
Tuesday. 

Europe is anxiously awaiting the peace ne- 
gotiations. 

Further depredations by border thieves in 
Texas are reported. 

Nearly a hundred murderers were hanged in 
the United States last year. 

The weather at sea off this coast has been 
very tempestuous of late. 

The temperance movement is still progress- 
ing successfully in this city. 

By the recent Connecticut railroad disaster, 
13 persons were killed and 46 wounded. 

The United States has sued the Erie railroad 
to recover $67,000, alleged back taxation. 

Slade, the "Medium," after being expelled 
from Vienna went to Berlin, whence he was also 
expelled. 

The Western Union company has increased 
its rates to the various points west of New York 
about 20%. 

A bill has been introduced into Congress to 
amend the law governing the appointment of 
postmasters. 

Recent shipments of American goods to Cey- 
lon have been so successful that orders have 
been sent for more. 

John W. Mackay and W. S. Keys have 
been appointed commissioners from Nevada to 
the Paris exposition. 

The funeral of McCarthy, the Fenian, at 
Dublin, is said to have been the most imposing 
display since O'Connel's burial. 

James Gordon Bbnnett has purchased the 
steam yacht Pandora, and it is said she is again 
to be used for an Arctic expedition. 

An official statement of the Russian Minister 
of Finances estimates the extraordinary expen- 
ses occasioned by the war at 432,000,000 rou- 
bles. 

The run on several of the savings banks in 
this city this week was soon over, the deposit- 
ors feeling assured that the draw was unwar- 
ranted. 

The Southern Pacific Railroad Company of- 
fer 1,000 men work at $1 per day until they 
can find something better. The men are to be 
paid every night. 

The Governing Committee of the New York 
Stock Exchange have voted to expel Netter 
and Bonner, who failed after re-hypothecating 
customers' collaterals. 

J. W. Bones, the " Workingmen's candi- 
date," has been elected State Senator from Al- 
emeda county, to fill the unexpired term of the 
late Senator Nathan Porter. 

The Supreme court has affirmed the decision 
of the lower court, in the case of John Runk, 
convicted of murder in the first degree, and ho 
will therefore be hanged. 

The Empire pipe line, which carries the oil 
from wells in the Pennsylvania oil regions to 
the railroad, has been purchased by the United 
pipe line for about $1, 100,000. 

The Cherokee nation object to the Senate 
bill allowing Indians to become citizens of the 
United States. They think the bill is in con- 
flict with the treaty obligation and acts of Con- 
gress. 

The Senate Finance Committee agrees to 
recommend the passage, with sundry amend- 
ments of the bill introduced by Senator Davis, 
of Illinois, to remit taxes on insolvent savings 
banks. 

The House Committee on Appropriations has 
finished the Fortification bill. It does not dif- 
fer materially from the bill passed last year. 
It appropriated about the same amount, $275,- 
000. 

Over 1,000 men applied for work at $1 per 
day in digging on the Southern Pacific R. R 
ground on the Potrero. The men are paid 
every night. This is an indication of the 
" hard times " in this city. 

Aftkr a short deliberation, the jury in the 
case of Kearney, Wellock and Knight, on trial 
for misdemeanor, for the use of incendiary lan- 
guage tending to riot and breach of the peace, 
brought in a verdict of not guilty. 

Prof. Geo. Davidson delivered a lecture 
last Saturday evening on "Irrigation," being 
one of the course being given for the benefit of 
the Oakland Free Reading Kooms. The lecture 
was instructive, practical and interesting. 

Geo. A. Croi'kktt, author of "Crofrett's 
Trans-continental Guide," has lately been on a 
tour over every railroad in this State. He re- 
turned Fast this week and can be addressed at 
the Briggs' house, Chicago, for the present. 

A CONSIGNMENT of 500,000 white fish eggs 
from the State hatching house at Northville, 
Michigan, have arrived in the city for consign- 
ment to New Zealand. A shipment has also 
been received for distribution in this State. 

THIEVES and pickpockets are unusually nu- 
merous in this city at present. During the 
lirst 20 days of this month some 30 citizens have 
been garroted, and either beaten or robbed, 
while on the way to their homes or places of 
business. 

•«The funeral of Victor Emmanuel, which took 
place in Rome on the 16th iust., was very im- 
pressive. The official portion of the procession 
was a mile long, and there were also 2,700 
deputations from, different parts of the king- 
dom. 

The solemnity of the King taking his oath 
occurred in Rome on Saturday. The King, in 
his speech, thoroughly upholds Italian unity, 
and ho says he will conform to the measures in- 
augurated by his father. An amnenty will be 
granted to political offenders, 



54 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 



[January 26, 1878. 



■yz 




The Mystery of Bare Boughs. 

All' how stem January drives the sap down to the root 
How the trees stand dry and lifeless, and every bird is 
mute, 

And ruthfullv we listen to the olaahlng of bare boughs 
Was there ever any shade in these for summer's last-year 
house? 

And thou, my heart, make answer, whose punier is a 
bare 

Of any fruit from last year's hopes as thuse gray branehes 



Did we 'neath May's sweet heaven brood ami 1st the 

growing green. 
While the wind talked to the slender leaves and sun- 

beaiu> peeped between? 

And in the soul's safe garden vow that Spring had naught 
to fear, 

8ince Love and Faith had driven out the Winter from its 
year I 

But now, but now make answer! For the vines have 
fallen down, 

And every bloom is shriveled and every twig is brown! 

Then, like a homely sparrow that chirps about the eaves 
After the frosts have fallen upon the loosening leaves, 

My spoiled heart responded: "There are buds upon 
these boughs 

With which next June shall garland the Summer's royal 
brows; 

"In those brown knobs bestudding each frozen branch 
that creaks 

The new leaf-life doth slumber through all the snowy 
weeks." 

O, eyes! that are so fleshly, so sadly short of seeing— 
That cannot trace through seeming death the clue to bet- 
ter being! 

For so tenderly our sorrows hold the germs of future joys 
That even a disappointment brings us more than it de- 
stroys. 

— Howard Glyndnn. in Independent 



Woodside Papers.— No. 15. 

I Written for the BOUL 1'kess bvJK.xxiK E. Jameson*.-] 

When the ladies asssembled for their next 
meeting, at the pleasant home of Mrs. (iraham, 
they could look upon their week's work with a 
degree of satisfaction, for some of the work had 
been taken to their homes, and a whole suit 
had been finished for James Pike, one partly 
made for Henry and some sewing done for 
another family. 

Mr. Qcaham had been a wealthy merchant in 
a large city, but had failed, through the fault of 
another. His health had become impaired and 
lie had been advised to try fanning. Having 
been brought up upon a farm, he had a knowl- 
edge of the work and enjoyed it much better 
Una his wife did the housework. Their house 
was well furnished, but it was not so much the 
furniture as the many nick-nacks and treasures 
from foreign lands that gave it the cosy, home- 
like look that it wore. Pictures and ornaments 
were examined until, at last, the ladies declared 
that they should lose all the rewards of merit, 
mentally appropriated during the week, if they 
did not go to work. 

" I want you to remember," said Mrs. Gra- 
ham, after they were seated, " that you did not 
finish setting the table at our last meeting. Of 
course I ought to be posted on all such work, 
but dearie me! I never took particular notice, 
because I did not have such things to do. Then 
I am trying to be economical, and, though I do 
not have to pinch real hard, yet, I think, it 
makes a great difference what one has to do 
with. I move we continue the table talk." 

"All right," said Mrs. Johnson, "I guess 
that question has laid upon the table long 
enough. 1 think we did not mention individual 
salt-dishes. I think them very useful. I do 
dislike to see everybody's knife going into a 
common salt-dish, and if one has a salt-spoon, 
it is always tumbling out." 

" Y-e-s, individual salts are nice and neat; 
but, after all, I think they area bother; always 
slipping about when one carries them to and 
from the closet," returned Mrs. Lee. 

" 1 have no such trouble," said Mrs. Johnson, 
" I have a box, large enough to set six salt- 
dishes in and deep enough to put one above the 
other. 1 set in six and cover them with a piece 
of paste-board; then I put in the others, which 
are enough for my family, and leave the lower 
ones all ready for company." 

" Oh, dear! how nice that is. I am a perpet- 
ual wonder to myself because I never think of 
these little, simple things, that are so very 
handy when somebody thinks them up for me," 
said Mrs. Lee. 

" All that is very nice, but I confess I like 
the salt-shakers best, because the salt is kept 
so clean and is so evenly sifted over the food. 
It can be rolled, and, if damp, thoroughly 
dried before being put in and it will last sweet 
ir salt) and clean for a long time," said Mrs. 
Leslie. 

" Kither method is a great improvement upon 



one common salt-dish," said Mrs. Payson. 

"Another good addition to a set of dinner- 
dishes is a dozen vegetable- dishes. In them the 
BQUash, onions or turnips is kept warm by each 
plate and more room is left upon the plate for 
the rest of the food. But there is one great 
consolation, if one has not the money to buy 
these things, they can get along without them 
and probably live as long. Time and a brain 
that will work well is sometimes as valuable as 
money. Now, Mrs. (Iraham is very fortunate 
in having all these beautiful ornaments, many 
of them being of double value because they are 
gifts from friends; but, if we cannot have one 
of Roger's groups in one corner of our sitting- 
rooms, we can make a bracket of a piece of thin 
wood, cover a box or tin fruit-can witli beauti 
fully tinted paper and till it with moss, autumn 
leaves and vines, to set upon it. If we orna 
ment the can with pictures, as is fashionable, 
who will know, as they see it peeping out from 
behiud the gracefully -drooping moss and vines, 
but that it is a painted and pictured earthen 
vase, costing a dollar or more. ' 

"Oh, ladies!" cried Mrs. Johnson. "I want 
you to look out and see that man who is passing, 
the one with a traveling-bag in his hand. I 
would give a dollar, this moment, if he would 
come in here, but he probably thinks it is time 
to leave the place." 

" Have you ever seen him before? " 
"I have, " said Mrs. Payson. "He called 
the other day and seemed determined to sell 
me some stove-blacking, but I happened to be 
out of change, so he was obliged to move on. 

"Well, ladies, "said Mrs. Johnson solemnly, 
" I did buy some blacking and I am going to 
give you the benefit of my sad experience, 
was washing dishes when the walking humbug 
came. Before I had a chance to say 1 would 
not buy, he took out a bottle and a cloth, and 
such a polish as he put upon the corner of my 
kitchen stove was perfectly astonishing. I 
could almost see my face in it and it was as 
smooth as glass to the touch. He talked at the 
rate of a mile a minute all the time; said it was 
his own invention; that it was lo cents per 
bottle; but he had been in the place some time, 
wanted to leave that night, and was closing out 
the last few bottles at eight cents, where the 
people provided a bottle, etc. The reason that 
it had such a beautiful polish was that it was 
oil-blacking. Water was good for some things 
but not for blacking, etc. Well, 1 thought it 
was worth eight cents, so I took two bottles 
and he took his departure. When I was ready 
to black my stove, I used it according to direc 
tions, but it was no more like what he used 
than black is like white. If I had only taken 
the bottle he took some from, I should have 
been wise. He said he came around once a 
year, but 1 never shall expect to see him again. 

" An agent," continued Mrs. Johnson, "came 
to a lady, who lives some distance from this 
place, and wanted to sell some wonderful 
varnish. He showed her what it would do, and 
she told him she would take the bottle, the 
contents of which he had began to use. She 
saw that lie did not like the idea; but, as she 
would take no other, he was obliged to let her 
have it. It was an unlucky sale for him, how 
ever, for he had to stop work and send to 
Boston for a bottle of varnish before he could 
go on. Of course that proved that the bottles 
he had for sale were worthless. Now, ladies, I 
hope you will remember, when agents come 
with such articles, take the specimen bottle or 
case and you will probably get something valu- 
able. Next time I shall be on the watch." 

"Mrs. Payson, shall I press open the seams 
of this dress-waist or over-cast them together ? " 
inquired Mrs Lee. 

" Ah! that brings us to the subject of dress- 
making again. I believe we were talking about 
the necessity of knowing more about it at our 
last meeting," replied Mrs. Payson. 

" Well, ladies, if I know more than you do 
in that direction, what I know about dress- 
making shall be the burden of my song and 
speech, for I am always aching to impart all the 
knowledge possible to others, if it will make 
their work any easier or things more pleasant 
around them, though sometimes 1 do not have 
courage to speak to strangers. 

"The other day, when I was riding in the 
cars, a lady came in and sat with me, who car- 
ried the brownest hand-satchel I ever saw. I 
should think it had been carried ' visiting ' by 
several generations. Now, I knew if she would 
take the white of an egg, some day when she 
was cooking, mix some black ink with it and 
rub it upon the poor little browny, it would 
look quite new; but, of course, I could not say 
so right away, as she might not take it kindly, 
so I tried to enter into converstation with her; 
but, dearie me! she was as mum as could be, 
and I finally concluded to punish her by allow- 
ing her to wander along through all the future 
years of her life, carrying that little brown 
satchel and never knowing what she missed. 

"About those seams; as that is a common 
dress, I shall only press open the back seam, 
overcasting both sides. The back seams and 
cross, or hip biases, should be cut quite close, 
leaving only what I call a ' wide seam's ' width 
The under arm seams should be left a full inch 
wide, as those are the only seams that should, 
on any account, be made smaller, to 'let a dress 
out,' as the saying is. Letting out the front 
biases will always spoil the fit of a dress. These 
should be left about three-quarters of an inch 
wide and stitched about three-eighths of an 
inch from the first seam, leaving ample room 
for a bone to slip in. All these seams should 
be overcast together. That is what the first- 
class dressmaker of to-day would call ' slight- 



ing, ' but I think it is a good thing to know how 
to save time and yet have a garment look pretty 
well. The nice way of finishing the inside of a 
dress is to press open every seam, overcasting 
each side or (after the bone-casing is on) turn- 
ing in the edges and hemming them to the 
lining. These bone-casings are cross-way strips 
of the lining hemmed upon the seam or run on 
one edge and stitched down on the other. Some 
people put thin bones upon every seam except 
the cross-biases, but I do not think it necessary. 
Were a housekeeper to finish a dress in this 
style and trim as fashions would make her, if 
she follows them, it would be a six months' 
job. At the end of that time she might wear 
the dress — into an insane asylum. It is well, 
however, to know how to do a thing well, even 
if one is obliged to slight it." 

"Yes, inarm, I guess we had orter know 
how," said Mrs. Towue. " I've tried to sorter 
block out my dresses, and I allers git as riled 
up as a settin' hen." 

"Well, now," said Mrs. Johnson, "I say 
that of all mortals, except the dressmakers, who 
ought to have a knowledge of dressmaking, the 
woman who lives in the country, from one to 
30 miles from a dressmaker, should stand the 
first chance. I mean the one who can't afford 
to hire if she had a chance. One who is cook, 
chamber-maid, table-girl, washer-woman, dish- 
washer, Moor and stove scrubber, ironer, coal or 
wood-carrier, butter-maker, cheese-maker, 
chicken-feeder, and who must, in addition to 
all these, be her own dressmaker and, perhaps, 
act as tailoress for her hnsbaud, beside taking 
care of more or less troublesome comforts and 
do—" 

"Oh, Mrs. Johnson, you almost take my 
breath away. Is there such a person on the 
face of the earth ?" said Mrs. Graham. 

" Yes, there is. I am acquainted with sev- 
eral. I wonder that they exist, but they do 
at>d will until they die and the second ' beloved ' 
comes to have the benefit of the hard-earned 
home comforts. There, there! I have nothing 
against second wives, but I do pity the poor 
creatures who wear their lives out in such a 
hard, hard way. But here I have been chatter- 
ing away and we have not heard enough about 
dressmaking. Mrs. Payson, you must tell us 
more next time." 



How to Cure a Bad Boy. 

Klisha M. Carpenter, who has for more than 
20 years been Superintendent of State reform- 
atory institutions for boys in New York, gives 
the Independent the result of his wide expe- 
rience in curing bad boys. We quote a few 
paragraphs : 

During all these years of experience in a re- 
formatory the one thought uppermost in his 
mind has been; "How is a bad boy cured of his 
bad habits ? how is a bad child changed into a 
good child ? " and he has made corresponding 
effort in that direction. After the first few 
months of observation and experience, it be- 
came evident that the mere machinery of a re- 
formatory would not grind a disobedient, dis- 
honest boy into an obedient, honest boy; that a 
system of rules and regulations, of school in- 
struction and labor, rigidly enforced, would 
not, in and of itself, change bad boys, en masne, 
into good boys. Results demonstrated the fact. 

No bad boy is reformed without earnest per- 
sonal effort on his own part; and this effort he 
will not make until he sees, first, that reform is 
desirable, and second, that it is possible. 
Hence, the first step is to secure his confidence. 
If he has your sympathy, and you really desire 
that he should become a hotter boy and believe 
it possible, he will find it out in due time; and 
then he will believe you and trust in you. Then 
you can influence him and bring to bear upon 
him those ideas which will work a change in 
his course of thought and feeling, and ultimately 
in his outward life. Then can be brought to 
bear upon him the fundamental truths of the 
Bible, which will work within him a complete 
and permanent change — the only true and per- 
manent reformation. 

A merely outward change of conduct, what- 
ever the course pursued and motives presented 
to secure it, is but for a time aud will end in 
disappointment. A change of thought and 
purpose, based on Christian principle, is the 
only true reformation. Children hardened in 
habits of untruthfulness and dishonesty often 
struggle for months and sometimes even for 
years, after conversion, before they gain 
strength to overcome every temptation and 
finally settle down into a permanent, upright, 
Christian life. 



How Mrs. Hayes Spoiled a Joke. — Mrs. 
Hayes captured Mr. A. Riddle, the novelist- 
lawyer of Washington, by excusing his appear- 
ance at the White House, one sweltering hot 
lay last summer, in a duster, linen pants and 
slippers, assuring him that in such weather the 
most comfortable way of dressing was the most 
proper. A pretty little story is also told of how 
his comrades in the Twenty-third Ohio con- 
cocted a huge joke and sent a gawky country 
lad, one Jim Saunders, up to Colonel Hayes' 
tent to see "the woman whose business it was 
to mend the soldiers' clothes." Mrs. Hayes had 
just arrived in camp at the time, and when the 
simple soldier went to her she accepted his com- 
mission, executed the repairs, and won the men's 
hearts while unconsciously spoiling their joke. — 
Xe,n York World. 



Charles Lamb on the Curse of Drink. 

Charles Lamb was not a sot. A very little 
liquor sufficed to upset the equilibrium of his 
delicate nerves. Yet he was sufficiently ad- 
dicted to drink to have experienced the sensa- 
tions, both physical and mental, which result 
from the practice. Read the following from his 
"Confessions of a Drunkard:" 

I have seen a print after Correggio, in which 
three female figures are ministering to a man 
who sits fast bound at the root of a tree. 
Sensuality is soothing him, Evil habit is nailing 
him to a branch, and Repugnance, at the same 
instant of time, is applying a snake to his side. 
1 In his face is feeble delight, the recollection of 
past rather than perception of present pleasures, 
languid enjoyment of evil, with utter imbecility 
to good, a sybaritic effeminacy, a submission to 
bondage, the springs of the will gone down like 
i a broken clock, the sin and the suffering coin- 
| stantaneous, or the latter forerunning the 
| former, remorse preceding action; all this pre- 
sented in one point of time. When I saw this, 
1 admired the wonderful skill of the painter, 
but when I went away I wept, because I 
thought of my own condition. 

Of that there is no hope that it should ever 
change. The waters have gone over me. But 
out of the black depths, could I be heard, I 
would cry out to all those who have but set 
foot in the perilous flood. Could the youth, to 
whom the flavor of his first wine is delicious as 
the opening scenes of life, or the entering upon 
some newly-discovered paradise, look into my 
desolation, and be made to understand what a 
dreary thing it is when a man shall feel him- 
self going down a precipice with open eyes and 
a passive will — to see his destruction and have 
no power to stop it, ami yet to feel it all the 
way emanating from himself; to perceive all 
goodness emptied out of him, and yet not to be 
able to forget a time when it was otherwise, to 
bear about the piteous spectacle of his own self- 
ruin. Could he see my fevered eye, feverish 
with last night's drinking, and feverishly look- 
ing for this night's repetition of the folly; could 
he feel the body of the death, out of which I cry 
hourly with feebler and feebler outcry to be 
delivered — it were enough to make him dash 
the sparkling beverage to the earth in all the 
pride of its mantling temptation; to make him 
clasp his teeth, 

"and not undo 'em. 
To suff er wkt damnation to run thy igh 'em." 

Decorated by the Czar. — The emperor him- 
self is the sole fountain of military honor. He 
watches all personally, and his personal bearing 
enhance the reward in every case. A generous 
word, a friendly look, the well-chosen expres- 
sion of praise to suit the individual, go home to 
the heart of the recipient as much as the highly 
cherished reward itself. Two hundred officers 
of all ranks breakfast and dine daily at his 
table. From the youngest to the oldest every 
eye is fixed on him. Before the meal, in the 
assembled circle, as the Czar appears, it is seen 
one day that an aide-de-camp behind him 
carries a cushion with crosses on it, and, per- 
haps, half a dozen sword-knots of honor — the 
riband of St. George, orange aud black — to be 
worn attached to the sword-hilt Instantly ex- 
pectation is at its hight. The Czar's voice caUs 
the chosen name, all make room for the envied 
man to pass, he comes blushing and flushed, re- 
ceives the prize, bends low to kiss the imperial 
hand, and retires, bowing at every step, a made 
man for life, the admired and courted of all be- 
holders. Then he has to go through the usual 
embracing and kissing on l>oth cheeks from his 
friends. I have seen old officers so overcome by 
this mark of distinction that they went about 
for ten minutes after like children, weeping, 
with the prized decoration in their hands, show- 
ing it round, half dazed. — Correspondent Lon- 
don Times. 



To Increase Beauty'. — There ia a divine 
contagion in all beauteous things. We alter- 
nately color objects with our fancies and affec- 
tions or receive from them a kindred hue. This 
principle prevades all nature, physical and 
moral. Let those who would trace an expres- 
sion of serenity and tenderness on a human 
face, watch a person of sensibility as he gazes 
upon a painting by Claude or Raphael. In con- 
templating a fine picture, we drink in its spirit 
through our eyes. If a lovely woman would in- 
crease her charms, let her gaze long and ardent- 
ly on all beauteous images. Let her not in- 
dulge those passions which deform the features, 
but, cultivate, on the contrary, every soft af- 
fection. It will soon become an easy task, for 
one good feeling suggests and supports another. 
We involuntarily adapt our aspect to our emo- 
tions, and long habits of thought and feeling 
leave a permanent impression on the counte- 
nance. Every one believes thus far in physiog- 
nomy, and acts more or less decidedly upon his 
belief. A fierce man often looks beautifully 
tender and serene when either caressing or be- 
ing caressed, and deceives us like an ocean in a 
calm, which at times is "the gentlest of all 
things. " — LU( rary Leaves. 

Duty of Scientific Men. — Prof. Pettenkofer, 
at the recent meeting of the German Associa- 
tion of Naturalists at Munich, thus spoke of the 
duty of scientific investigators: "Natural sci- 
ence has but to look for facts and truths, and 
need never busy itself about the immediate 
practical application of what has been found, 
because for them alone it deserves the sympathy 
of the entire civilized world and the means 
necessary for its culture and development. 



January 26, 1878.] THE PACIFIC BUB AL PRESS* 



Chance for Midnight Battles. 

"The troops retreated under cover of the 
darkness" is a sentence which bids fair to go 
out of use in the history of future battles. 
The electric light promises to make fighting at 
night as practical as fighting by day — as though 
there could not enough bloodshed be enacted 
while the sun is above the horizon. A number 
of interesting experiments have been recently 
carried out at Metz by a committee of engineers 
and other officers appointed to investigate the 
practicability of employing electric light during 
siege operations, and to suggest any modifica- 
tions which it may seem expedient to introduce 
in the apparatus at present in use. According 
to the Pall Mall Qazelte, on the night of Octo- 
ber 20th, Forts Frederick, Charles and Alvens- 
leben were illuminated by throwing the electric 
light upon them, when it was found that at a 
distance of from two to three kilometers, not 
only buildings but also individual men could be 
plainly made out. On the night of the 27th of 
October the electric apparatus was arranged on 
the exercising ground outside the Chambier 
gate, and the light directed upon a row of tar- 
gets. Fire was then opened against these latter 
by a squad of riflemen, and the practice made 
was nearly as good as that recorded on ordi- 
nary occasions when firing by day — a result 
which was considered exceedingly satisfactory, as 
a thick mist prevailed at the time, and materi- 
ally interfered with the action of the light. Al- 
together the committee concluded that the elec- 
tric light may in future be employed with ad- 
vantage not only in siege operations, but also 
during outpost duty and engagements at night. 

The London Times says that the parachute 
light, introduced into the service as a means of 
revealing the enemy's position and movements 
at night, is to be superseded by the newest de- 
scription of star shell. The parachute light, 
which was invented by Colonel, now General 
Boxer, when superintendent of the Royal La- 
boratory Department, Royal Arsenel, Wool- 
wich, is somewhat expensive in manufacture and 
rather cumbersome in carriage, as it forms, 
when closed, a large shell, expanding into a huge 
umbrella, 15 feet high, when opened, the cup of 
composition which is suspended being designed 
to burn four minutes and a half. The star shell 
is much smaller and more portable, and of com- 
paratively trifling cost. It can be fired into the 
air from a mortar at the required angle to show 
the enemy's works, and burns with a brilliant 
light for about half a minute, long enough to 
take an observation and lay a gun, but not long 
enough to allow an adverse wind to bring the 
light back over the firing point, and so turn the 
advantage in favor of the enemy. 



Live Jewels. 

All nature is made to contribute to woman's 
love of self-adornment. The demands vary ac- 
cording to the grade of culture or the carprice 
of the reigning fashion. The savage is content 
with the bones, teeth and heads of animals, the 
feathers of birds, and the shells of snails and 
fishes, to adorn the head, ears, noes, neck, arms 
and girdle. With the women of the cultured 
world nothing, perhaps, is made to contribute 
so largely to gratify vanity as the richly-colored 
birds. Whole birds of paradise and other 
species, and the feathers of the ostrich, peacock, 
marabou, and many other birds, are made to 
serve as ornaments for the head. But it is not 
generally known that the Mexican women of 
the wealthier classes use as ornaments, on ex- 
traordinary occasions, live fire-flies, which in 
the dark, emit a bright, phosphorescent light. 
They belong to the family of leaping or spring- 
ing beetles, and are called by the Spanish 
cucujo. In order to catch these bugs, the Indi- 
ans fasten a live coal to a stick, and move it to 
and fro in the dark. The cucujo thinks this 
bright point a rival, and, in his anger, darts to- 
ward it, and finds the grave of his liberty in 
the hand of the Indian. The Indians find a 
ready sale for them in the larger cities, where 
they are bought by the wealthy ladies at about 
two reals (25 cents) a dozen. They are kept in 
elegant little cages, and fed on slices of sugar- 
cane, and bathed twice a day, either by the 
ladies themselves or by their maids. In the 
evening they are put into little sacks, shaped 
like roses, and attached to the ladies' dresses. 
The light these little bugs emit surpasses in bril- 
liancy the reflection of the purest diamonds. 
The daily bath they receive is absolutely nec- 
essary, as without it they would emit no light, 
which is sometime^ strong enough, it is said, to 
read by. — Appleton's Journal. 

Beautiful Incident. — A friend relates to us 
a very interesting circumstance which occurred 
at West Point not long since. It was on one of 
the late delightful autumnal Sabbaths, when 
windows were universally left open. Over the 
pulpit, in the chapel, as some of our readers will 
remember, is a fine allegorical picture by Weir. 
A part of it represents Peace as a female figure, 
holding an olive branch in her hand. During 
the services, at the time alluded to, a small bird 
flew into the chapel and made several attempts 
to alight on the branch. What a fine criticism 
upon the fidelity of the artist. 

Lemon Wood. — A traveler writes : "When 
in Rome, a few years ago, I was shown some 
work made out of wood of the lemon tree that 
was considered almost as good as if made from 
box." 



YoiJjJq pontes* G©lJ^h. 



Robin Hood's Miracle. 

Fair, fair was the forest of Sherwood in the 
days of Robin Hood; long were the summers 
that garmented the the forests with green, and 
bright were the autumns that browned the 
thickets and coverts from which the merry 
hunters, clad in Lincoln-green, started the 
deer. The silver horns of Robin Hood's merry 
men divided in the morning, and their notes 
were lost in the great deep forests, but they 
blended again at evening, echoing at first from 
afar and then drawing near. 

Then merry were the tales of the hunters, 
as the red moon rose in the dusky shadows, 
and poured her light over the forests like a 
silver sea. 

Robin Hood performed a mast wonderful 
miracle in his day. 

Perhaps, though, you may not think [it so 
wonderful after all. 

We will tell it to you as a very old ballad 
told it to us. 

One day Robin, being in a merry mood, took 
it into his head to go into the king's highway 
in the disguise of a Friar. He put on hood, 
gown, crucifix and beads, and walked off 
slowly, looking very demure and woe-begone. 

He had not gone far, when he met two lusty 
priests clad all in black, and riding gallantly 
along. 

" Benedicite!" he said. "Have pity on a 
poor friar, who has been wandering since 
morning, without meat or drink." 

"In the name of the Virgin," said one of the 
priests, "we cannot help thee. We've been 
robbed, and haven't a penny to help ourselves." 

Robin laid hold of the priest's robes, and 
drew him from the horse. Robin was so stout 
a man that the priest could not resist, and 
when he command the other priest to dis- 
mount, he dared not disobey him. 

"You say you have no money," said Robin. 
" Neither have I. " 

"You know how to pray?" said Robin. 

"Yes," said the priests. 
" Then let us all fall on our knees, we three to- 
gether, and for money we will pray earnestly, 
and we will see what Heaven will send." 

The priests knelt down. 

"Now pray," said Robin. 

They prayed very dolefully. At last they 
began to weep and wring their hands. Then 
Robin began to dance. 

The priests' prayers became more doleful 
than ever. But Robin said: 

" Pray ! Pray !" 
They prayed a very long time. 

"Now put your hands into your pockets, 
and see if you have received an answered to 
your prayers." 

The first priest felt in his pockets, then 
rolled up his eyes very solemnly a.id said: 

"Nothing. " 

"Let me feel," said Robin. 
The priests now looked more troubled than ever. 

Robin searched the pockets of one, and drew 
forth a purse heavy with gold. 

" What an answer to prayers?" said Robin, 
and he searched the other, and found another 
purse. 

The two priests were struck dumb — what 
could they say? If they had spoken truly at 
first, here indeed was»a miracle! The old bal- 
lad says that they "sighed wondrous heavy." 

"You have prayed well," said Robin, en- 
couragingly, seeing their dejected looks. 
" Here are five hundred pounds. Now we will 
divide it." 

And divide it he did. He gave each priest 
fifty pounds for praying so well, and kept the 
rest himself. But the priests did not seem 
very much pleased with Robin's division and 
liberal present, but rode away looking more 
woeful than ever. 

"Always speak the truth," said Robin to the 
two priests, as they departed; and we have a 
sort of suspicion that if they had spoken the 
truth about their money to the bold outlay, as 
good priests ought, the miracle would not have 
been so great. — H. II. Bulterworth, in January 
Wide Aivake. 



Female Heroism. — "One day," said Mas- 
sena, "beirig at Buezenghen, I perceived a young 
soldier belonging to the Light Artillery, whose 
horse had been wounded by a lance. The young 
man, who appeared quite a child, defended him- 
self desperately, as several bodies of the enemy 
lying around could testify. I immediately dis- 
patched an officer with some men to his assist- 
ance, but they arrived too late. Although this 
action had taken place on the borders of the 
wood, and in the front of the bridge, this artil- 
leryman hade alone withstood the attack of the 
small party of Cossacks and Bavarians, whom 
the officer and the men I had dispatched put to 
flight. His body was covered with wounds in- 
flicted by shots, lances and swords. There were 
at least 30. And do you know, Madam, what 
the young man was?" said Massena, turning to 
me. "A woman?" ."Yes, a woman, and a 
handsome woman, too! although she was so 
covered with blood that it was difficult to judge 
of her beauty. She had followed her lover to 
the army. The latter was a captain of artil- 
lery; she had never left him; and, when he was 
killed, had defended like a lioness the remains 
of him she loved. She was a native of Paris; 
her name was Louise Pellets, and she was the 
daughter of a fringe maker in the Rue dc Petit 
i Lion." — Memoir* of (he Durhetn d'Abrante*. I 



Q©@0 ^E^Lftf. 



Why Gum and Pine Trees are Good 
Neighbors. 

Ed itors Ppess: — There have been many con- 
tradictory rumors abroad in this State respect- 
ing the desirability of gum trees around dwell- 
ings. We lately were solemely assured that 
they were poisonous. No doubt this rumor has 
reached many readers. As I once heard Spur- 
geon say: "A lie runs round the world while 
truth is putting his boots on. " 

Truth's last new boots then, must be as to 
gum trees, that they exhale those powerful pu- 
rifying, antiseptic compounds, peroxide of hy- 
drogen and camphoric acid. A Mr. Kingzett, 
in England, has been paying much attention to 
the subject, and has succeeded in producing a 
new disinfectant, called "Sanitas," containing 
these compounds. His method consists in de- 
composing water and turpentine, placed in 
juxtaposition, by a blast of hot air. "Santias" 
is not only useful as a disinfectant, but also as 
a preservative in curing meat; preventing 
and even overcoming decomposition. 

The lesson is, keep your houses salubrious 
and your meat untainted by encircling your 
dwellings with blue gums. 

Edward Berwick. 

Monterey Cal. 

[The points made by our correspondent are 
fortified by experience in Africa. It is hardly 
more than 15 years since the first eucalyptus 
trees were introduced into Algeria, yet their 
growth has been extraordinarily rapid. Some 
remarkable examples are given of the action 
of the eucalyptus in improving the sanitary 
condition of unhealthy districts. Formerly 
it was impossible for the workmen at the 
great iron mines of Mokta-el-Hadid to remain 
there during the summer; those who attempted 
to do so died, and the company was obliged to 
take the laborers to the mines from a distance 
by train every morning, and to carry them back 
every night. From 1868 to 1870 the company 
planted more than 100,000 eucalyptus, and now 
the workmen are able to live all the year 
through on the scenes of their labor. The en- 
tire works and the railway leading to them are 
bordered with thick belts of these trees, and 
each of the miners has his cottage and kitchen 
garden surrounded with them. — Eds. Press.] 

Cause of Decayed Teeth. 

A writer in the British Medical Journal gives 
some valuable suggestions on the preservations 
of the teeth: The general prevalence of dental 
caries is chiefly owing to food remaining on and 
between the teeth after meals — from breakfast 
time till the following morning — when, accord- 
ing to custom, the teeth are brushed; brushed, 
but probably not cleaned, as the brush is more 
often used to polish the surface merely than to 
assist in removing what has accumulated be- 
tween them. Experiments have been referred 
to that prove the solvent action of weak acids 
on the teeth; and I think it will be conceded 
without proof that, were portions of our ordin- 
ary food, mixed and moistened as in mastica- 
tion, kept during the night at the high' temper- 
ature of the mouth, the compound would be 
sour. It follows that dental caries must con- 
tinue to prevail as now, while it is the custom 
to allow the food to remain in contact with the 
teeth all night. 

The following observations show the depend- 
ence of caries on food remaining in contact with 
the teeth. When the teeth are wide apart food 
is not retained, and they generally remain free 
from caries. The lower front teeth are seldom 
attacked by caries when, as is generally the 
case, the spaces between are closed to the en- 
trance of food by tartar. The backs of all the 
teeth, upper and lower, being kept free from 
food by the tongue, are seldom affected by 
caries. Lodgment of food takes place between 
the bicuspids, between the molars, in the de- 
pressions on the masticating surface of these 
teeth, and on the buccal walls of these molars, 
and these are the chief seats of caries. While 
mastication is performed by the molars and 
bicuspids, the upper front teeth remain free from 
food and from caries; but, when they them- 
selves are made to do the work of lost or dis- 
eased molars, and the food gets between them, 
caries is certain to follow before long. Further 
proof cannot bo required that, if no food re- 
mained in contact witli the teeth after eating, 
they would be free from caries, unless acted 
on by acidity from other sources. The only in- 
dications, therefore, for the prevention of dental 
caries are the neutralization of acid applied to 
the teeth and the removal of food before it has 
become acid. The food should be removed 
after every meal, and all who have not the op- 
portunity of doing so should not fail to remove 
it every night at bedtime by rinsing, as the 
brush cannot be trusted to remove the food 
from between the teeth. 

Another Case of Aniline Poisonino. — The 
fact has recently come to light in Germany that 
poisoned aniline dye is sometimes used to color 
the lining of hats. A hat with a brown leather 
lining was purchased at Stettin, near the Baltic 
sea, by a gentleman, M ho began to suffer from 
inflammation of the head and eyes soon after lie 
commenced wearing it. A chemical examina- 
tion of the hat showed that the brown hue was 
imparted to the leather lining by means of a 
poisonous substance intermixed with the aniline 
dye made from coal tar. 



Smoked Goose and Duck. 

We do not know how practical the following 
suggestion may be, but there is interest in it 
certainly. • Mr. W. M. Ryer writes to the Bul- 
letin as follows: On the continent of Europe 
smoked geese and other wild birds are to be 
found in the provision stores, and are sold at 
prices considerably higher than ordinary meats, 
being considered delicacies. The breast or liver 
of a goose, when smoked, is a choice morsel for 
an epicure, and the whole bird is at all times 
desirable as a change in the ordinary routine of 
the dinner table. You are aware that in the 
mountains of California and Nevada among the 
miners, and upon the plaius among the farmers, 
fresh meat cannot always be had, except in or 
near the towns. From this both miners and 
farmers become consumers of salt and smoked 
meats, as well as canned meats and fruits. To 
these, smoked birds might advantageously be 
added. Smoked fish, such as herring, mack- 
erel, salmon, etc., and smoked pork, in the form 
of bacon, ham, etc., and smoked beef and ven- 
ison are all excellent articles for food, and why 
not smoked geese and ducks? 

Some may suppose that at the price wild 
birds sell for in San Francisco, it would not be 
possible to get them in quantities sufficient for 
smoking. This is a mistake, for the birds are 
more abundant than the salmon in the rivers, 
and there are plenty of men to hunt them, pro- 
vided they could dispose of them near their 
hunting grounds. Hunting grounds for ducks 
and geese are rarely near town, railroad depots 
or steamboat landings. The hunter of one day 
spends the second in getting his game on the 
cars; the third day finds his game in the hands 
of a commission merchant or middleman; the 
fourth day one-half or more is spoiled or is not 
sold, and the return made to the hunter is dis- 
couraging. Before the canneries were estab- 
lished only enough salmon were caught to sup- 
ply immediate wants. Now fishing is largely 
for export trade. Smoking establishments are 
not necessarily expensive, nor do they require 
much capital to conduct them. Every slough, 
river, lake, and all the overflowed land abound 
in edible birds. If a hunter could send every 
day to such smoke-houses or curing establish- 
ments the game he shoots, he would have a 
profitable occupation, and probably 2,000 men 
who are now idle could thus find a means of 
living. As it is now, a hunter may drop fifty 
geese or ducks in a day, and find no available 
market for them, but if canning establishments 
were near his hunting place he could make sat- 
isfactory wages. 



To Tell the Age of Fowls. 

If the hen's spur is hard and the scales on 
the legs rough she is old, whether you see her 
head or not, but her head will corroborate your 
observation. If the uuder-bill is so stiff that 
you cannot bend it down, and the comb thick 
and rough, leave her, no matter how fat and 
plump, for some one less Darticular. A young 
hen lias only the rudiments of spurs; the scales 
on the legs are smooth", glossy and fresh colored, 
whatever the color may be; the claws tender 
and short, the nails sharp; the under-bill soft, 
and the comb thin and smooth. 

An old hen turkey has rough scales on the 
legs, callosities on the soles of the feet, and 
long, strong claws; a young one the reverse of 
all those marks. When the feathers are on the 
old turkey-cock has a long tuft or beard; a 
young one but a sprouting one; and when they 
are off, the smooth scales on the legs decide 
the point, besides the difference in size of the 
wattles of the neck and in the elastic shoot 
upon the nose. 

An old goose when alive is known by the 
rough legs, the strength of the wings, particu- 
larly at the pinions, the thickness and strength 
of the bill, and the fineness of the feathers, and 
when plucked by the legs, the tenderness of the 
skin uniler the wings, by the points and the bill 
and the coarseness of the skin. 

Ducks are distinguished by the same means, 
but there is the difference that a duckling's bill 
is much longer in proportion to the breath of its 
head than the old duck's. 

A young pigeon is discovered by its pale 
color, smooth scales, tender, collapsed feet, and 
the yellow, long down interspersed among its 
feathers. A pigeon that can fly has always red- 
colored legs and no down, and is then too old 
for use as a squab. 

Stuffing for Poultry or Fish. — Two 
cups of light bread or cracker crumbs; one cup 
of mashed potatoes; one egg well beaten; but- 
ter size of an egg; one small teaspoonful of sage 
and savory; one dozen clams or oysters chop- 
ped; moisten with warm, rich, new milk, add- 
ing salt and pepper to the taste. This is nice 
for poultry and fish; for duck, goose or wild 
game of any kind, an onion chopped fine and 
and added is an improvement. 

Pressed Chicken. — Boil two chickens until 
dropping to pieces; pick meat off bones, taking 
out all skin, etc.; chop pretty fine; put back 
into the kettle with a little of the liquor in 
which it is boiled; season with plenty of but- 
ter, pepper, salt, and a little sage; put in a 
dish anil press witli plate and weight to be 
sliced when cold. 



56 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 



[January 26, 1878. 




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O. II. STRONG. J. L. BOOSE 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, January 26, 1878. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS. -An Idea on Winter 
Irrigation; Centennial Premium Raspberry; Investment 
of Savings. 49. The Week; The Awakening; The 
Climate of California. 56-57-60. An Extra Edition 
of the "Pacific Rural Press," Squirrels Killed by the 
Acre 52. 

ILLUSTRATIONS The Earlv Prolific Raspberry, 
49 

CORRESPONDENCE. —The Royal Agricultural 
College, Cirencester; The North American L'niones; 
Signs of Rain; Exchange of Seeds Proposed. 50. 

THE SWINEYARD Mr. Parker's Berkshires, 50. 

THE VINEYARD. — White Grapes at the East, 50-51. 

ARBORICULTURE. —Trees and Evaporation, 51. 

THE STABLE — Aims in Horse Breeding; Death of 
Flora Temple, 51. 

PATRONS OP HUSBANDRY.— Sacramento and 
Bermuda Gras* Equally Hard to Root Out; Installation 
at Healdsburg Grange: Installation at Washington 
Grange; Election of Officers; Proposed Constitutional 
Amendment, 52. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties^n California, 53. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on 53 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE -The Mystery of Bare Boughs 
'Poetry); Woodside Papers No. 15; How to Cure a 
Bad Boy; How Mrs. Hayes Spoiled a Joke; Charles 
Lamb on the Curse of Drink; Decorated by the Czar; To 
• ncreasc Beauty; Duty of Scientific Men, 54. Chance 
for Midnight llattles; Live Jewels; Beautiful Incident; 
Lemon Wood, 55. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. - Robin Hood's 
Miracle; Female Heroism, 55. 

GOOD HEALTH. —Why Gum and Pine Trees are 
Good Neighbors; Cause of Decayed Teeth; Another 
Case of Aniline Poisoning, 55. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY — Smoked Goose and Duck; 
To tell the Age of Fowls; Stuffing for Poultry or Fish; 
Pressed Chicken, 55. 

NEW ADVERTISEMENTS 

Agricultural Implements, Baker it Hamilton, S. F. ■ 
The Randall Pulverizing Harrow, Claude V. Burke 
Yolo, Cal. ; To Capitalists and Land Owners, Bailey & 
Co., Oakland, Cal.; Japanese Persimmons, Kelsey's 
Nurseries, Oakland, Cal ; Grand Triumph in Horticul- 
ture, Gibson & Bennett, Woodbury, N. J. ; Catalogue of 
Plants, John Saul, Washington, D. C. ; Richardson's 
New Methoil for the Piano Forte, Oliver Ditson & Co., 
Boston; Card, Alfred Parker, Bellota, Cal. ; Ranch for 
Sale, Dewey k (Jo., S. F. ; Combination Pipe, American 
Pipe Co. , S. F. ; Chufa Seed for Sale, Eisen Bros. , S. F. 



The Week. 

Although it is evident from recurring rains 
that no present measurement of the rainfall 
will be more than partial by the time it reaches 
the reader, still to show how general the bless- 
ing has been, and how much more generous 
than last year, we prepare a table giving the 
inches of rain up to a given date at different 
points. Our information is gained from our 
country exchanges, and wherever possible we 
have given the amount received up to this date 
last year: 

locality. Season tn Thin year. Last year 

San Francisco Jan. 23 12.22 5.56 

San Rafael, Marin Co... Jan. 17 10.12 8 08 

Petaluma Jan. 22 14 .00 

Napa Jan. 18 10.57 9 00 

St. Helena, Napa Co Jan 17 15.33 

Vallejo Jan. 22 10.00 

Martinez, C. Costa Co. ...Ian. 18 6 29 3 99 

Colusa Jan. 22 14.50 

Chieo, Butte Co Jan. 18 9.14 

Marysville Jan. 17 8.57 

Woodland, Yolo Co Ian. 22 10 22 

Sacramento Jan. 22 0.73 4 69 

" Placerville Jan. 18 10.72 

Stockton Jan. 17 4.46 j'ftj 

Modesto Jan. IS 4.37 

Fresno Jan. 17 2.54 

Visalia, Tulare Co Jan. 18 2.25 

San Jose Ian. 17 5.27 

Gilroy, Santa Clara Co. Jan. 18 6.WI 

I'ajaro Jan. 15 7.36 

Hamster, S. Benito Co. .Jan. 18 6.00 

Santa Cruz Jan. 22 15.00 6 80 

Salinas City Jan. 22 7.72 

Monterey Jan. 22 1L80 

San Luis Obispo Jan. 22 10.00 

Santa Barbara Jan. 17 8.30 

San Buenaventura Jan. 17 7.00 

Los Angeles. . . Jan. 18 16 12 g 08 

Westminster, Los An- 
geles Co Jan. IS 9.12 

Cotton. San Beraa Co .Jan 18 g.70 1.00 



The Awakening. 

The strong man awakes from refreshing slum- 
ber. The trials he has undergone, and the 
depressing effect of labor diligently prosecuted 
but slightly rewarded, are all banished from his 
thought by "nature's sweet restorer"' — sleep. 
He awakes with strong arm, clear brain and 
confident heart, eager for the contest which 
shall yield him victory. As Tristam sang to 
Isolt, he brings "new life to meet the newer 
day." He rises from his couch, not as creeps 
the weakling from fitful slumbers, but with a 
bound, as sprang the stalwart Cheeks upon the 
Trojan shores. His labor, thus welcomed to 
his hand, is half accomplished ere it is begun. 

Not otherwise is the revival of vigor in the 
industrial heart and hand of our commonwealth 
since the drenching storms have come. While 
the clouds were gathering in density we hardly 
hoped to see, and the rains descending in unac- 
customed volume, the State relaxed its features 
and lay in peaceful, glad contemplation of the 
generous gift of vivifying water. Memory re- 
turned to former prosperous years. The hard- 
ship of the adjacent past was forgotten. Each 
day was wasting hope restored and waning 
strength renewed. Now that the skies are clear 
again, and earth shows at every turn of the 
plow the treasure that lias been committed to 
it, the general awakening of hope, strength and 
the spirit of enterprise has come. Workers in 
all fields of production, trade and manufacture 
are awake to the possibilities in their labor, and 
the State presses forward to the realization of 
that prosperity which many declare will surpass 
anything we have known before. 

It is fitting to remember, now that the condi- 
tions are so fair for gratifying success, that he 
only will secure it whose effort and enterprise 
are commensurate with his thought of prosper- 
ity. Indulging in words and dreams of success 
will not attain it. Wrapt contemplation of 
general prosperity will bring but sorry individual 
shares. He who trusts to absorbing fatness 
from the general store, will gain little more than 
the whaler who idly sits upon the blabber, 
while his comrades, with whetted knives, are 
delviug deep. Be success never so general, its 
rewards are bestowed upon those who labor for 
it. In the field of production, the truth of this 
general observation will shine more and more 
clearly as the months progress. Already it is 
clear that the brave and trusting hearts, who 
pushed their plowing and seeding while the 
skies were clear for work, will reap a grand 
reward. Their lands have stored all the rain 
which has fallen, and it will be transformed at 
once into sturdy blades of grass and grain. By 
early work they have already seeded a wider 
area than would have been possible had they 
waited for the assurance which they now enjoy, 
and to them will be credit due for whatever of 
progress our yields of produce show. To the 
work which has been thus well began, there is 
opportunity for profitable additional effort. It is 
to be expected that with the increased funds 
which a prosperous year will bring into all 
hands, there will be a greater demand for all 
the productions of the soil, and he who can turn 
all his resting acres into growth of some kind, 
will tind the markets eager for his crops. We 
believe the returning promise and confidence 
will result in doubled activity in all lines of 
production. There is warrant for wise invest- 
ment in improved varieties of fruit, both in the 
orchard, the vineyard and the small fruit gar- 
den. There is surety for the expenditure in 
improved kinds of seed for Held and garden 
crops. The outlook for liner cattle and sheep 
and swine was never better, and no one should 
fail to gain the winning blood, in his stable, his 
dairy, his herd and Hock. The dry year has 
swept away a race of "scrub" stock, which, we 
believe, the future will show we could well 
afford to lose, if all growers will now use every 
means within their reach for improvement. 
What has been lost can be replaced with much 
better, if all do what they can to secure this 
desirable result. 

It is a joyful task to contemplate prosperity, 
provided one feels strong within him the power 
to act in it and win his part by well-directed 
effort. Such we feel and we are just as confi- 
dent of making a more useful and generally 
successful agricultural newspaper this year than 
last, as we are sure that the year itself will be 
better. We play no laggard's part and all the 
advantages will be on our side. The impulse to 
increased and improved production will furnish 
us abundant material and enrich the writings 
of all our contributors. Thus our columns will 
catch and disseminate a thousand progressive 
ideas and practices, and at the same time en- 
large the circle of our readers and knit them 
closer together in the co-operative effort to ad- 
vance each other in the forward march of Cali- 
fornia agriculture. 

The awakening will lie general. Already live 
stock has doubled, and in some cases quadru- 
pled its value for breeding purposes. The feel- 
ing of confidence in agricultural security has 
notably increased, and the desirability of agri- 
cultural investment and development is now 
cleared from the clouds of drouth-dust which 
have been blown into the eyes of investors. In- 
deed, the year opens well. There is naught to 
cloud the outlook save the smart from a little 
city sore, which rioters have created. This will 
be speedily cauterized, and will no more impede 
our advancement than would a wart on the tail 
of an elephant. 

Our State is a strong man. He is awake. 
He goes forward. 



The Climate of California. 

The following interesting paper was read at 
the last meeting of the California Academy of 
Sciences by Mr. B. B. Redding. The subject is 
so important and is treated with such skill and 
thoroughness, that we give the paper in full. 
Mr. Redding has had exceptional facilities for 
collecting statistics on the subject, and has 
been gathering data for this article for the past 
six months. The highly valuable information 
it contains is given in a condensed form, and 
the paper affords a better explanation of the 
laws governing the climate of California than 
has heretofore appeared in print. The article 
is worthy of careful perusal and preservation : 

The temperature of the air, course of the 
wind, rain and snowfall, are taken daily at 7 
a. m., 2 p. m. , and p. m., at 83 stations of the 
Central Pacific and Southern Pacific railroads 
and their branches, extending from San Fran- 
cisco to Ogden, Lathrop to Fort Yuma, San 
Francisco to Solcdad, Sacramento to Redding, 
Sacramento to Willows, and Vallejo to Calistoga 
and Petaluma. The temperature of the water 
is also taken at several points, including five 
stations on the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
rivers. 

In addition to the observations made by the 
United States Signal Service, the Coast Survey 
and those made at all the military posts, we thus 
have throe daily observations recorded at 83 
stations on the Pacific Coast, extending through 
eight degrees of latitude and 12 degrees of longi- 
tude. These have been kept for the use of the 
companies, and for the benefit of the people 
residing in the vicinity of the various stations. 
As each new station is reached in the construc- 
tion of a railroad, the agent is supplied with 
proper instruments, and the record required to 
be kept. On all the roads first constructed the 
record has been kept for more than 10 years. 
On the new road over the Colorado desert from 
the San Bernardino mountains to Fort Yuma, 
of course the record is only for the past year. 
The record of these three daily observations, for 
even 50 stations for 10 years, makes an army 
of figures that it is almost appalling to attack; 
yet, when reduced, and the mean obtained, the 
results are of great importance, not only to the 
farmer, but to every citizen. As an illustra- 
tion of the 

Financial Importance of these Records, 
That came within my personal observation: In 
lSG'.t some gentlemen made an investment of 
nearly .s.">0,000 near Summit Station, in the con- 
struction of sheds over some lakes under which 
to cut ice for the San Francisco market. They 
found it impossible to erect any wooden struc- 
ture sufficiently wide for their purpose that 
would bear the weight of snow that aunually 
falls at that point. Their structures are in 
ruin, and every dollar put into the enterprise 
(other than it gave a small army of men em- 
ployment in the erection of their buildings) is 
lost. Could the gentlemen have consulted these 
records they would have seen that the annual 
average rainfall at this point is more than five 
feet. Nearly all of this falls in the form of 
snow, and is equal — if the snow that falls did 
not become compact or melt — to a bank of snow 
on their lakes and the- roofs of their buildings, 
each winter, of (50 feet in depth. If the farm- 
ers who have made settlements on the west 
side of the San Joaquin river, and have tried 
unsuccessfully for years to raise crops upon 
them without artificial irrigation, could have 
seen the results in the hard, unyielding facts 
these figures disclose, they would know that 
they hope in vain for rain, and also hope in de- 
fiance of the laws that control climate. They 
live in a section of the State that is an exem- 
plification of the truth of the law, well stated 
by Ouyot: "That when a mountain chain op- 
poses a horizontal wind the air is forced up 
along the slopes; its vapors are condensed, and 
water the side exposed to the wind, while on 
the opposite slope the same wind descends into 
the valley dry and cloudless." The western 
slope of the Mount Diablo range, in the lati- 
tude of San Francisco, receives about an annual 
average of 20 inches of rainfall. Ellis, in the 
same latitude, on the eastern side of the same 
range, has but an annual average of and 22- 
100 inches. Modesto, a few miles further south, 
on the opposite side of the San Joaquin, has 
but 8 !).")- 100 inches. Still further south these 
averages continue to decrease, until, on the 
west side of Tulare lake, the annual rainfall 
cannot exceed three inches. The record of this 
point has been kept for so short a period that 
the amount cannot be stated positively, but ap- 
plying to this section of the State the well- 
known 

Laws Controlling Climate. 
It will be found in time that this estimate is 
not far from correct. I have thought it of in- 
terest to condense some of the results of all 
these observations, as they show that consider- 
ing the elements of disturbance in the facts 
that this State has, on one side, the vast Pa- 
cific ocean, presenting a uniformly radiating 
and absorbing surface, and on two other sides, 
vast tracts in the Colorado, Mohave and Ne- 
vada deserts, presenting rapidly absorbing and 
radiating surfaces. Yet California is controlled 
by the same universal laws that control climate 
in other places. A statement of some of these 
laws and the application of them to the records 
obtained of the temperature, prevailing wind, 



and annual rainfall, it will be seen that until 
the isthmus of Panama sink beneath the ocean, 
and allows the Gulf stream to pursue its way 
into the Pacific, or some other great change 
takes place in the physical geography of the 
earth, the climate of any given section of this 
State is not exceptional, but just such as these 
laws show it should be. 

Prof. Joseph Henry, in his "Contributions 
to Meteorology." has done so much to clear 
up the 

Mystery of the Winds, 
And has stated these laws so concisely, that 
it is a pleasure to quote from him. He says: 
"If the earth were at rest, it is obvious that 
the air expanded by the sun's heat at the equa- 
tor would rise up and flow over, descending as 
it were an inclined plane towards the poles, 
where it would reach the earth's surface, and 
flow back to the equator, and thus a perpetual 
circulation would be maintained. It is further 
evident that since the meridians of the earth 
converge, all the air that rose at the equator 
would flow along the upper surface entirely to 
the poles, but the greater portion would pro- 
ceed on further north or south than latitude 
30°, for the surface of the earth contained be- 
tween the parallel of this degree and the equa- 
tor is equal to that of half of the whole hemis- 
phere. Portions, however, in the northern 
hemisphere would flow on to descend at differ- 
ent points further north; and of these portions, 
some probably would reach the pole, and there 
sink to the surface of the earth, and from that 
point diverge in all directions in the form of a 
northerly wind. Between the two ascending 
currents near the equator there would be a 
region of calms or variable winds. The cur- 
rents which flow over towards the poles, would 
descend with the greatest velocity at the cold- 
est point, because there, the air would be 
densest. Now, the earth is in rapid motion on 
its axis from west to east, and every particle of 
air, therefore, flowing from the north to the 
equator, would partake of the motion of the 
place at which it started, and would reach in 
succession lines of latitude moving more rap- 
idly than itself. It would therefore lag 
behind continually and appear to describe 
on the surface of the earth a slightly cur- 
vilinear course towards the west, and hence 
the northeast trades in the northern hemis- 
phere and the southeast trades in the south- 
ern hemisphere — where the conditions are 
reversed, but both blowing towards the belt of 
greatest rarification. The particles of air ap- 
proachin^the equator will not ascend in a per- 
peuicular direction, but will rise continually as 
they advance towards the west along an ascend- 
ing plane, and will continue for a time their 
westerly motion in the northern hemisphere. 
After they have commenced their return to- 
wards the north, and until they arrive at parts 
of the earth moving more rapidly than them- 
selves, they will gradually curve towards the 
east, and finally descend earthward to become 
again a part of the surface trade-winds from the 
northeast. The atoms will move westward as 
they ascend; 1st., on account of the momentum 
in that direction, and 2d., because as they reach 
a higher elevation, they will have less easterly 
velocity than the earth beneath. They will also 
be affected by another force, first pointed out by 
Mr. Ferrell, due to the increase of gravity 
which a particle of matter experiences in trav- 
eling in a direction opposite of that of the ro- 
tation of the earth. The last mentioned cause 
of deflection will operate in an opposite direc- 
tion on atoms when they assume an easterly 
course. The result of the complex conditions 
under which the motive power acts in such a 
case would be to produce a system of cir- 
cuits inclined to the west, the eastern portion 
of which would be at the surface, and the west- 
ern portion at different elevations even to the top 
of the atmosphere. The greater portion of the 
circulation would descend to the earth within 
30° of the equator, giving rise to the trade- 
winds; another portion would flow further 
north, and produce the southwest winds, and 
another portion flowing still further north 
would descend to the earth as a northwest wind. 
The air which descends in the region of the 
north pole would not flow directly southward, 
but on account of the rotation of the earth 
would turn toward the west and become a north- 
easterly current. It might appear at first 
sight that the north wind which descends from 
the polar regions would continue its course 
along the surface until it joined the trade-winds 
within the tropics; but this could not be the 
case on account of the much greater western 
velocity which this wind would acquire from the 
rapidly increasing rotary motion as we leave 
the pole. There would therefore be three dis- 
tinct belts in each hemisphere — namely, the 
belt of easterly winds within the tropics, the 
belt of westerly within the temperate zone, and 
the belt of northwesterly at the north. " 

Without doubt these laws would operate 
uniformly if the earth were a perfect smooth 
sphere with a uniformly radiating and absorbing 
surface, but it is broken by mountain chains, 
covered by large tracts of desert which rapidly 
absorb and as rapidly radiate heat; about three- 
fourths of its surface is water, which slowly ab- 
sorbs and as slowly gives up its heat; the water 
of the ocean is in circulation producing great 
currents which in this hemisphere carry a por- 
tion of the heat of the tropics into northern, 
latitudes, and the cold of the north into warm- 
er latitudes. All of these causes interrupt the 
uniformity of the 

Flow of the Aerial Current, 
Changes its temperature, and give rise, ai well 



January 26, 1878.] 



THE PACIFIC BUBAL PB1SS. 



57 



as direction to local winds. The zones of trop- ern part of the Atlantic States they set in from 

ical winds move bodily to and fro with the ver- j south of east and terminate from south of 

tical sun, northward during our summer, and west. 

southward during our winter; the belts of The States east of the Rocky mountains are 
westerly winds in the temperate zone move the great battle ground on this continent of 
north and south with these. As California is these hot and cold winds. It is doubtful if the 
within the northern temperate zone, it is pri- Atlantic trade-winds ever give rain to Califor- 
marily to the movement as a body, north and nia. That portion which passes the mountains 
south, of this belt of wind, that we are in- through the Valley of the Rio Grande precipi- 
debted for our dry summers and winter rains, tating its moisture on the White mountains and 
where, within the tropics, the northeastern and Black hills of Arizona, which, by the meteor- 
southeastern trade-winds meet, is a region of . ological records of the Smithsonian Institute, 
calms and rains. This belt of calms and rains, ! are shown to have an annual average of 20 



as has been stated, moves northward and south- 
ward with the sun's declination, where within 
the temperate zone the northern and north- 
westerly winds from the polar regions meet the 
westerly return trade-winds, is a region of 
storm's and rains. These belts also follow the 
sun's declination north and south. 

Applying- these Laws to this Coast. 

At our midsummer, the vertical sun would be 
on the Tropic of Cancer, and in that vicinity 
the northeasterly and southeasterly trade winds 
would meet, create ascending air, consequently 
calms; this air, laden with moisture, would rise 
into cooler regions, when a portion of its 
moisture would be precipitated, making tropi- 
cal rains; this air would flow north and south 
towards the poles. Confining our view to that 
portion which would flow towards the north 
pole, the larger part of it must descend to the 
earth within 30° of latitude, under the law as 
stated by Prof. Henry; as in going north it con- 
tinually has to pass over a portion of the earth 
which is moving less rapidly than the portion it 
has left, it is deflected and becomes a south- 
west wind. The greater portion of this upper 
current, having descended to the earth within 
30°, and returned to join the trade-wind, the 
remainder would flow towards the pole, portions 
descending in its course at all points where the 
rarification of the air near the earth's surface 
would permit. These descending currents cause 
the local variable winds of our temperate zone, 
but the aggregate of all of them is the prevail- 
ing southwest return trade wind. The descend- 
ing currents cannot give rain, as they can only 
fall to the earth when they become colder than 
the air near the earth's surface. In falling they 
are constantly arriving at places of warmer 
temperature than those they have left; they, 
therefore, change to a condition of taking up 
moisture rather than of parting with it. Where 
the great body of the descending return trade- 
wind reaches the earth between latitudes 28° 
and 35° must therefore on this coast be compara- 
tively a rainless region. 

Other lessening portions of the upper current 
would pass on until they met the prevailing 
northerly wind from the polar regions, when 
their temperature would be lowered and their 
moisture condensed, and fall as rain. The con- 
flict of this descending current with the polar 
wind would create storms and give rise to elec- 
trical phenomena. The prevailing northerly 
polar wind reaches to about latitude C0° varied, 
by the declination of the sun. This view of 
the causes of the tropical, temperate and polar 
zones of prevailing winds, is in accordance with 
the theoretical deductions of Prof. Ferrell con- 
cerning the course of atmospheric currents mov- 
ing on a sphere, and appears to be confirmed by 
the belts of low barometer prevailing in the 
vicinities of the equator, and of latitude 60°. 
The polar wind being colder is heavier than the 
return trade-wind, and where they meet the 
tendency is for this polar wind to become a 
surface wind and prevent the upper current 
from reaching the earth, until it has been re- 
duced to the same temperature. 

The operation of these general laws can be 

More Clearly Seen on this Coast 

x Than on that of the Atlantic and Gulf States. 
There, the northeast trade-winds are forced into 
the great cauldron of the Gulf of Mexico. The 
Cordilleras of Central America and Mexico form 
a wall against their progress, they rise, turn to 
the north as an upper current, and return to 
the earth as southwest winds. The Rocky 
mountains, one great chain of which extends 
from the center of the continent northwesterly 
to the Arctic ocean, assisting in the deflection. 
The great prairies extend in an unbroken line in 
the same direction from the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi to the same frozen ocean at the mouth 
of Mackenzie river in about latitude 62°. Prof. 
J. W. Foster, in his work on " The Physical 
Geography of the Mississippi Valley," states 
that the sources of the Mississippi river are but 
1,600 feet above the ocean. Prof. Coflin has 
shown from the records in the Smithsonian In- 
stitute, in his article on the "Winds of the 
Northern Hemisphere," that between latitudes 
60° and 66° there prevails a belt of easterly and 
northeasterly winds. These winds coming from 
the Arctic ocean meet the great chain of the 
Rocky mountains, are deflected into north 
westerly winds and pass unobstructed along this 
great stretch of prairie land into the States 
east of the Rocky mountains. The conflict 
between the northwest polar winds, and the 
moisture-laden southwest wind from the Gulf 
of Mexico gives all the Atlantic States north 
of Florida, their summer rains. As far back 
as 1850 Prof. Espy, in his second report on 
meteorology to the Secretary of the Navy, with 
out, at that time, more than suspecting the 
cause, reported, as the result of a long series 
of observations, that in the northern part of the 
Atlantic States the winds generally, in great 
storms set in from the north of east and ter 
minated from north of west, and in the south 



inches of rain. 
Application of These Laws to California. 

That these general laws may be applied to 
California as the cause of our climate, I will 
assume to follow a given portion of air along 
well-known points on the coast. At midsummer, 
at noon, the sun would be vertical in southern 
California, just north of Cape St. Lucas. In this 
vicinity this portion of air having been a part 
of the trade-wind would have become heated, 
and saturated with moisture. It would rise 
until it met colder regions, when it would part 
with some of its moisture; a portion would re- 
turn to the earth within 30°, again to join the 
trade-wind, and another portion return towards 
the north as a part of the greater upper current. 

Under the operation of Prof. Henry's law, 
the greater part must return to the earth be- 
tween latitude 30° and say latitude 35°; the 
remainder would flow on towards the poles, 
until it met the prevailing polar northwesterly 
winds; at these points there would be fogs and 
summer rains. Wherever the polar wind forced 
its way south of this, it would condense the 
moisture of these descending trade-winds and 
give rain. This they would do until they had 
passed so far south that their temperature would 
be raised to that of the descending return trades, 
when, of course, no moisture could be precipi- 
tated. It is these polar winds, forcing them- 
selves among the descending trade-winds, that 
give Britisli Columbia, Washington Territory 
and northern Oregon their summer showers. 
Should they force themselves further south, 
they in their passage have to pass into warmer 
latitudes; they would also meet the heat of our 
great valleys and deserts, and become as warm 
as our prevailing summer wind, and therefore 
could not give California summer rains. 

But from midsummer, the sun is for six 
months moving south, taking with him the 
great belts of the winds of the tropical, temper- 
ate and polar zones, until, at our midwinter, his 
rays at noon are vertical just north of the north- 
ern part of Chile in South America. These 
belts moving south with the sun during six 
months, the region of conflict between the polar 
wind and the variable winds, which in summer 
was over British Columbia, Washington Ter- 
ritory and Oregon, has now moved south over 
Oregon and the northern and middle parts of 
California. The temperature of the earth's sur- 
face, and the air in contact with it, have been 
lowered by the withdrawal of the sun's more 
direct rays, and the polar winds are permitted 
to reach further to the south without increasing 
their temperature. The region of calms and 
the southern limit of the variable winds have, 
of course, also moved south with the sun 
beyond the Tropic of Cancer. At this season, 
the Pacific, the trade-wind is not usually 
found north of latitude 13°. When in winter 
the descending return trade-wind, coming from 
the southwest, meets the coast south of Cape 
St. Louis, it is forced by the Cordilleras and the 
configuration of the main coast into the Gulf of 
California, and is defected into a course from 
the sotitheast, or, to be more exact, as shown by 
the records kept by Dr. Gibbons, into a course 
from the south southeast. Without doubt, the 
southwest trade-wind, which strikes the coast 
of Lower California in winter north of Cape St. 
Lucas, is deflected by the high mountains par- 
allel to the shore, and also passes over our coast 
.counties as a southeast wind. H. L. Warner, 
in a paper read before the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, at its 
Baltimore meeting in 1858, was the first to note 
the fact, that the waters of the Gulf of Califor- 
nia supply the moisture to the southeast wind 
that bears to us our rains. It may be objected 
that the Gulf of California has not sufficient 
area from whence could be delivered the great 
volume of southeast winds that at times, during 
our winters, flows over this State. The Gulf is 
not the cause of this wind, but it is the channel 
through which it flows and gives to it direction. 
When the sun is vertical on the coast of Bolivia, 
just north of Chile, at our midwinter, he has 
carried south with him the northeast trade- 
winds, until, as has been stated, they do not 
prevail north of about latitude 13" The region 
of calms, where the great body of the upper 
current returns to the earth again to join the 
trade-winds, is at this season between latitudes 
13° and 18°. North of this region of calms, at 
this time, those portions of the upper current 
which pass further north descend to the earth, 
under Prof. Henry's law, as southwest winds. 
At latitude 20°, the west coast of Mexico pro- 
jects a bold headland into the Pacific ocean, 
known as Cape Corrientes. South of the Cape 
the trend of the coast for nearly 2,000 miles is 
east-southwest. Nortli of this Cape, the trend 
for more than 100 miles to Mazatlan is north 
From Mazatlan to the head of the Gulf of Cali 
fornia, a further distance of 600 miles, it is 
north-northwest. The Sonora arm of the Cor 
dilleras rises above the table land of Mexico at 
latitude 20°, and runs north northwest along 
the coast nearly to the head of the Gulf of Cali 
fornia. 



All of these southwest 

Winds that Strike the Coast, 
From Cape Corrientes north to Cape St. Lucas, 
are deflected by these mountains and forced up 
the gulf as south-southeast winds. The United 
States Coast Survey have lately completed the 
survey of this gulf and parts of the Mexican 
coast, north of Cape Corrientes. When their 
record of observations of the course of the pre- 
vailing winds in winter, the barometric pressure 
and the temperature of the air and water is 
published, I feel confident that it will be found 
that the southwest return trades prevail in 
winter north of Cape Corrientes, and are turned 
by the mountains and the coast up the Gulf of 
California, and so over this State as our south- 
east winds. It comes from this gulf warm and 
laden with moisture and passes over the Col- 
olrado and Mohave deserts. These deserts, as 
shown by the meteorological records of the 
Smithsonian Institute, have a mean winter 
temperature of from 48° to 56°. This is not 
sufficiently low to precipitate its moisture and 
it passes on until it meets the Sierra Nevada 
and Coast Range mountains. In ascending 
these, it rises into cooler regions, finds a mean 
winter temperature of 40° and gives up some of 
its moisture. When it flows down into the 
southern end of the great valley of the Tulare, 
it meets a mean winter temperature of 48°, 
which is high ?r than that of the mountains it 
has just passed. It therefore retains its mois- 
ture and passes on, until it meets a cold polar 
wind and has another portion of its moisture 
condensed in a rain storm, or failing to meet 
this, passing still further north, until its mois- 
ture is condensed by the prevailing low temper- 
ature of a higher latitude. It is of frequent 
occurrence in winter, that a gentle southeast 
wind will blow for days, giving no rain south of 
the latitude of San Francisco, but cloudy 
weather at the northern end of the Sacramento 
valley and light showers and rains from Red 
Bluffs to Oregon. Therefore the norther part 
of the State should receive more rain than the 
southern and the mountains more than the 
valleys. The least rain should be in the hot 
deserts and on those sides of valleys most 
sheltered by mountains from the moisture- 
bearing winds. The first proposition that the 
northern part of the State should receive more 
rain than the southern, appears to be confirmed 
by the following exhibit of the 
Rainfall in the Sacramento, San Joaquin and 
Tulare Valleys. 
These, in fact, constitute one great valley. 
All of it has the Sierra Nevada on the east and 
the Coast Range mountains on the west. A 
line drawn through its center, in the line of the 
rain-bearing wind, south-southeast from Fort 
Reading to Sumner, would at all points be 
about an equal distance from the ocean and also 
an equal distance from the Nevada desert. All 
the stations relatively to their surroundings are 
therefore similarly situated and general laws 
have full operation free from local disturbance. 
Commencing at the north end of the valley, the 
record is as follows: 

Rainfall at North End of Valley of California. 



is confirmed by the records kept at various 
stations. 

Commencing s outh and proceeding north, the 
following statement is shown: 



Stations. 


titudc. 


igitude. 


ibove ocean 
-feet. 


t of series. 


1 mean oi 
in inches. 




d 

pj 


Loi 


Bight i 


Exten 


j Annua 
rain 




40" 30' 


122° 05' 


674 


1852-56 


29.11 


Red Bluff 


40° 10' 


122' 15' 


307 


1872-77 


18.41 


Tehama 

Chico 


40° 

39" 40' 


122° 08' 
121° 50 
121° 30 


222 
193 
67 


1870 77 
1871-77 
1871-77 


16.30 
21.99 

i: f<; 




38° 34' 


121° 28' 


30 


f849-77 


18.75 


Stockton 


37° 57' 


121° 17 


23 


1854-57 ) 
1871-77 1 


13 23 




37° 40' 


120° 55' 


91 


1871-77 


9.60 




37° 20' 


120° 20 


171 


1871-77 


9.30 






120° 


274 


1875-77 


8. 32 


Tulare 

Delano 


35° 43' 


110° 18' 
119° 12 
118" *>' 


282 
313 
415 


1875-77 
1875-77 
1875-77 


4.83 
4.03 
3.92 



Mountains have More Rain than Valleys 
The second proposition, that the mountains 
should receive more rain than the valleys, is 
also confirmed by the following exhibit, wherein 
have been selected successive stations on a line 
as nearly as possible east from San Francisco, 
thereby avoiding any increase of precipitation 
due to increase of latitude. The law, as stated 
by Guyot, deduced from experiment and obser- 
vation, is that an elevation of 350 feet is suffi- 
cient to diminish the mean temperature of a 
given place by 1° of Fahrenheit; that is to say, 
the effect is the same as if the place were situ- 
ated 70 miles further north. 

Commencing near the center of the Sacra- 
mento valley, at the lowest elevation above the 
sea, the following results are shown : 

Center of Sacramento Valley. 



St.Qkton 

Sacramento . . . 

Rooklio •• 

Anlmrn 

Colfax 

Alta. 

Emigrant Gap. 

Cisco 

Summit 



37° 57 
38' 



34 

38° 45 
38" 52' 
39° Ofi' 
39° 12' 
39° 18' 
39 u 19' 
89-' 20' 



121" 17' 

121" 28 
12T 12 
lal" 02 
120" 55 
120° 52 
120° 35 
120° 28 
120" 15 



28 

30 
249 
1868 
2421 
3012 
5230 
5939 
7017 



w 

1854-57 \ 

1871-77 t 

1849-77 

1870-77 

1870-77 

1870-77 

1870-77 

1870-77 

1870-77 

1870-77 



Lati- 
tude. 



Fort Yuma. 32° 44' 

06' 



Longi- 
tude, 



114° 
114° 



II igh I 

above 
Sea. 



200 ft 
004 ft 



Extent of 
Series. 



1855 to '67 
1869 to '73 
1859 to '66 

1869 to '73 

1870 to '77 
1870 to '77 
1070 to '77 



Annual 
mean of 
Main, In 



3.21 
3.90 
3.53 



13.23 

18.75 
17.80 
29.79 
42.72 
47.32 
51.49 
55.32 
58.48 



Ft. Mohave. 135' 

Wadaworth. 139° 42' 119° 15' |4077 ft 

Hot Springs 39° ftl'ill9° 02' 4070 ft 

Brown's .... '40° 00''ll8° 35' l 3925 ft 



The Great Deserts. 

Forts Yuma and Mohave, on the Colorado and 
Mohave deserts, are in the zone where the great 
body of the descending southwest return trade- 
winds reach the earth. It has been shown that 
these descending currents cannot give rain, as, 
in falling, they continuously arrive at regions of 
increasing temperature. It is therefore in this 
zone, on both sides of the equator, that almost 
all the great deserts of the earth are situated, 
and primarily to this cause is their existence 
due. The Mohave and Colorado deserts are in 
the same latitudes north of the equator as the 
deserts of Sahara and Arabia. The great desert 
of the interior of Australia is in the same lati- 
tude south of the equator as the desert of Ata- 
cama in South America. 

The stations of Wadsworth, Hot Springs and 
Brown's in the above table are in Nevada and in 
the region of variable winds, and are made des- 
ert by want of rain; but better illustrate the 
last proposition, that less rain should fall on 
the opposite side of mountains to that exposed 
to the moisture-bearing winds. 

Rainfall on Mountain Sides. 

For further illustration of the proposition; I 
have selected stations in different parts of this 
State and Nevada. Fort Tejon, latitude 34° 
53' north; latitude, 118° 53' west, on the south 
side of the Tehachapi mountains, were the 
Sierra Nevada and Coast range unite, forming a 
wall against the southeast wind, has an eleva- 
tion of 3,240 feet. From a record of five years, it 
has an annual mean of 19.53 inches of rain. 
Caliente, a station of the Southern Pacific rail- 
road ,30 miles northeast, elevation 1,290 feet 
upon the north side of this range, from a record 
of two years, has but an annual mean of 6.38 
inches; and Sumner, 31 miles north of Tejon, 
with an elevation of 415 feet, receives but 3.92 
inches. The Tehachapi mountains precipitate 
some of the moisture from the southeast winds 
and under the law as stated by Guyot, they de- 
scend into the valley dry and cloudless. The 
Summit of Mount DiaMo — elevation 3,856 feet 
— from a record of two years, receives an an- 
nual mean of 20.85 inches. Livermore — in one 
of its valleys — elevation 485 feet, from a record 
of six years, has an annual mean of 13.28 
inches; while Ellin, at its northeastern base, 
with an elevation of 76 feet, from a record of 
six years, receives but an annual mean of 9.22 
inches. Benicia, at its northwestern base, ele- 
vation 64 feet, from a record of 13 years, re- 
ceives an annual mean of 13.7 inches. This in- 
crease at Benicia shows an interference with 
the law which, I think, may be explained by 
the indraft of air into San Pablo bay from the 
Bay of San Francisco through the narrow chan- 
nel, on the bank of which Benicia is situated. 
Gen. Myer, Chief of the Signal Service, in his 
circular on the practical use of meteorological 
reports, says: "That wind which in the ocean 
would blow with a certain velocity will have 
but one-half or one-third of that velocity, when 
blowing over a hilly country." While Diablo 
robs Benicia of its rain, it is, in part, compen- 
sated from the currents of moisture-laden air 
that flow up the Straits of Carquinez, in conse- 
quence of meeting with less resistence. The 
Summit of the Sierra Nevada where it is crossed 
by the railroad, as has been shown, receives an 
annual mean of 58.48 inches. Boca, 13 miles 
northeast in an air-line, but 1,484 feet below, 
on the eastern flank, for the same number of 
years, receives but an annual mean of 14.58 
inches; and Reno, 31 miles in an air-line in the 
same direction, and 1,510 feet below the sum- 
mit, and nearer the eastern base of this range 
of mountains, receives for the same time but an 
annual mean of 4.78 inches. There are two 
stations, one on each side of the Sierra Nevada, 
whose elevations above the sea are nearly the 
same — Alta, on the soutli western side, and 
Brown's on the northeastern. The first has an 
elevation above the sea of 3,6)2 feet, the latter 
of 3,925 feet. Alta recoived during a record of 
seven years an annual mean of 47.32 inches, and 
Brown's for the same period 3.53 inches. 
Moisture-Bearing' Winds. 
Br. Henry Gibbons has shown from his daily 
record of the climate of San Francisco, that 
whatever course the wind may have near the 
surface of the earth at this place, the upper 
currents of air, whenever their clouds could be 
seen, were moving from the southwest. The 
records of the station at the summit of the 
Sierra show the same fact. It is not unfre- 
quent that the Sacramento valley is filled with 
a southeast wind, it may be giving rain, while 
a cloud bearing southwest wind is blowing at 
the summit. When this southeast wind be- 
comes a storm, it tlows up the canyons, ravines, 
gulches and river courses as a southwest wind 
and joins this upper current, for the general 
course of all the ravines and river courses of 
the Sierra is from the northeast to the south- 
west, and the wind, like other fluids, takes the 
course of least resistance. It is believed that 



That the least rain should be in the deserts, 



Continued on pagre 60. 



58 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



(January 26, 1878. 



Purchasers ok Stock will kind in this Directory the 
Names ok some 01 the Most Reliable Breeders. 

Our Rates.— Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 

CATTLE. 

A. MAILLIARD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 



PAGE BROTHERS, BOS Davis street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.), Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 



R. G. SNEATH, San Bruno, Cal., breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bulls for sale-various ages— at $40 
to $100. 

SHEEP ANTTG0ATS7 



L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Ks- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 



B. P. WATKINS, Santa Clara, breeder of thorough- 
bred Spanish Merino Sheep. 



M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep. Rams and Ewes, 1 to i years old, iiO each; 
Lambs. $15 each. ___ 

LANDRUM & RODGERS, Watsonvillc, Cal. Im- 
porters anil breeders of Pure Breed Angora Coats. 

ETW. WOOLSEY, 41.> California St., Room 2, S. F. 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Bpaniah Merino Sheep, 
Choicest Vermont Strains. 



POULTRY. 



BURBANK & MYERS, « and 44 California Market, 
San Francisco, Importers and Breeders of Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. 

M. FALLON, curlier Seventh and Oak streets, Oak- 
land. Bronze Turkeys. Choice Eggs for Hatching 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 



T. A. FREEMAN, San Jose, Cal. Pckin Ducks for 
sale. Also, eggs in their season. 

A. O. RIX, Washington, Alameda County, Cal., 
Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry. Send for circular. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importers 
and Bleeders of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs for 
hatching. 



MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pckin Ducks, etc. 



SWINE, 



ALFRED PARKER, liellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Importer. Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Sw ine. 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 



A. J. TWOGOOD, Riverside, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Pure Bred Poland-China Hogs. 



Stock