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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (1906)"

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California State Library 



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and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN 



Vol. LXXI. No. 1. 



San Francisco, Saturday, January 6, 1906. 



THIRTY-FIFTH YEAR. 
OFFICE: 330 MARKET ST, 



Packing Lemons for Shipment. 



In our course of illustrating lemon production in 
California, as carried on in one of our largest estab- 
lishments, we come now to the packing for ship- 
ment. 

All the other processes lead up to this final test of 
success in growing, picking, washing and in carry- 
ing for several months, if necessary, under conditions 
which promote ripening of the contents of the fruit 



the American in the markets of this country. Lemon 
imports are but a small fraction of what they were 
before Californians learned how to grow good lemons 
and handle them satisfactorily. 

It was a hard and long process to learn these arts 
and much loss and disappointment resulted, but the 
present condition of the industry in this State shows 
that it has been learned, although it is unfortunately 
true that all enterprises are not equally profitable, 
because local difficulties in production have, in some 



lemons for shipment in the packing house of the 
Limoneira company at Santa Paula, Ventura county. 
It is here that are produced " the lemons that keep," 
as the motto of the company reads. Whoever has 
followed these sketches, and thus had intimation of 
the careful, systematic work which Mr. Teague, the 
manager, believes in, must also have the secret of 
why these are lemons that keep. 

In this week's picture another view is given of the 
curing tents which were fully described in the Pacific 




Packing Lemons for Shipment in the Limoneira Packing House, Santa Paula, Cal. 



and bringing its enclosing skin into beauty of 
color, silkiness of texture and resistance to shock or 
pressure during the thousands of miles of railway 
travel to the consumer. 

The best pack of California lemons has a uniformity 
of size, a finish of skin, a juiciness and keen acidity 
which is unrivaled in the world. Numerous careful 
tests have been made of the California lemon in 
Atlantic cities in comparison with the best south 
European product, and the superiority of the Ameri- 
can fruit has thus been demonstrated. The other 
test, which has also yielded victory, is its submission 
to popular favor as manifested in patronage, and the 
testimony of this victory is found in the fact that the 
Mediterranean fruit has been so widely displaced by 



cases, proved insurmountable. For this reason 
lemon growing has not proved ultimately successful 
in some districts where the largest plantings were 
made and the highest expectations indulged in. We 
recall these facts in the interest of sincerity, and to 
support a position which we took at the beginning of 
these articles, that lemon growing and handling were 
very high and complex horticultural arts and made 
rather trying requirements upon both natural con- 
ditions and business talent. It now seems demon- 
strated, however, that localities which possess the 
former and men who possess the latter can be com- 
bined in enterprises which are very profitable as 
agricultural profits go. 
The picture on this page shows the final packing of 



Rural Press of December 16. The packers are 
working in the wide alley-way between the rows of 
tents, each of which holds a carload of lemons. They 
are working from the large shallow trays into the 
regular shipping boxes, carefully scrutinizing each 
specimen to see that it is sound and handsome. The 
carrying of the lemons depends upon this final selec- 
tion, and it is, of course, wise to make it conscien- 
tiously careful and good. 

The structure is, as seen, quite an open one, 
and as Santa Paula is near the coast, and in a 
region of very equable temperature, it is possible 
to give the fruit plenty of fresh air, which it 
likes, and still furnish by the tents the protection it 
needs from such changes as do come in the outer air. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 6, 190K. 



Pacific Rural Press. 



Published Every Saturday at 330 Market Street, 
San Francisco, ( nl 



TWO DOLLARS PER 


YEAR IN ADVANCE. 


Advertising rates made known on application. 


Entered at S. F. Fostofnce 


as second-class mail matter. 








Horticultural Editor 


SAN FRANCISCO, 


JANUARY 6, 1906. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ILLUSTRATION.— Packing Lemons for -hipment in the Limoneira 
Packing House, Santa Paula, Cal.. 1. 

EDITORIAL.— Packing Lemons for Shipment, 1. The Week, 2. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.— Suspected Silage, 2. Orange Leaves; 
Peach Troubles Again; For the Canker Worm; Favors Long 
Grape Cuttings. 3. 

WEATHER AND CROPS.— General Summary; Rainfall and Tem- 
perature, 3. 

THE STOCK YARD — California Aspect of the Animal Industry, 4. 
AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE.— Organized Efforts Against Plant 

Diseases, 4. The Addition of Humus to Soils, 13. 
THE ORNITHOLOGIST.— The California Quail, 5. 
THE POULTRY YARD.— Promotion of the California Poultry 

Interest, 5. 

THE FIELD.— Some Practical Aspects of Seed Testing, 6. 
THE VETERINARIAN.— Bovine Abortion, 6. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— Which One Was Kept? A Dream Melody, 8. 
THE MARKETS. — Produce Market; Fruit Markets, 10-11. 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. — Officers of the California State 
Grange, 12. 

THE IRRIGATOR.— The Progress of the Reclamation Work, 12. 
AGRICULTURAL REVIEW.— 14. 
FORESTRY.— Grazing on the Reserves, 15. 



The Week. 

The New Year opens with a rather wide reaching 
rain which has set many to work and started the 
green on fields which have not shown a brown Christ- 
mas garment for many years. Such activity is quite 
a relief from the long leisure and much sowing is now 
being done in the expectation of deeper wetting later. 
As it is usual in dry times some sharp frosts have 
come and have done some injury to tender vegeta- 
tion, but nothing yet has proved widespread or seri- 
ous. The general summary of the year's experience 
in weather lines, which is furnished by the Weather 
Bureau and published upon the following page, will 
be found interesting to those who are in retrospective 
mood. 

They have been having an interesting time among 
the Eastern agricultural colleges to decide which 
students could do best in stock judging at the Chicago 
Fat Stock show. This is a way to put in prominent 
practice the college instruction, and it is certainly a 
good thing to demonstrate the expertness of the 
pupils in application of the lessons and demonstra- 
tions given them. Six students from the Ohio State 
University participated in the contest. Besides Ohio, 
teams from Iowa, Kansas, Texas, Missouri, Michigan 
and Ontario colleges also took part. Among the 35 
contestants from the different colleges, Mr. Main of 
Ohio stood an easy first by 21.87 points over a Texas 
student, while Mr. Waid ranked fourth and Mr. Laird 
fifth. These men were also from Ohio. The Ohio 
team won the horse trophy, which the Iowa Agricul- 
tural College won in 1904. Ohio scored 1,120.33 
points, with the Ontario Agricultural College second 
with 1,042.15 points, with Texas, Iowa, Kansas and 
Michigan following in the order given. While Ohio 
State University ranked first among the colleges in 
judging both horses and cattle, she dropped to third 
rank on swine and fourth on sheep, Texas excelling 
on swine and Ontario on sheep. In total points 
scored on judging cattle, sheep and swine, Ontario 
led with 3,111.15 points, Iowa second with 3,016.98 
and Ohio with 2,948.33 points. This takes the bronze 
trophy won by Ohio in 1904 to the Ontario Agricul- 
tural College at Guelph. It seems too bad that Ohio 
should miss getting anything, but comfort is found in 
the fact that a son of Canada cannot be President of 
the United States ! 

There is a flood of pathos in the facts concerning 
the originator of one of the most valuable peaches 
in California. Mr. G. W. Harney of Marysville, one 
of our best informed horticulturists, writes to the 
Marysville Democrat as follows: 

There is, however, one creation in the plant world, 
not by Burbank, that is deserving of extended notice 
from the newspapers and magazines. The ordinary 



observer does not, cannot, appreciate the collossal, 
tremendous, importance of this new fruit creation. 
Its a peach, the commercial value of which would 
require the entire capacity of one of these new-fan- 
gled counting machines to compute; of thin skin, 
golden hue, infinitesimal pit and firm tlesh; the trees 
most prolific bearers. It is the mainstay of the can- 
ning industry, and is considered so valuable that it is 
packed only in glass pots and shipped to London for 
the fanciest trade in all the world. It is the Phillips 
cling peach. And the originator of this, the great- 
est of stone fruits from a commercial point of view, 
is out here in the poorhouse of the county of Yuba. 

This announcement will and should bring a shock 
to the sensibilities of peach growers and peach can- 
ners. Certainly some way should be taken to brighten 
the latter days of Joseph Phillips and to reward him 
for his services to the California fruit industry. 



Two weeks ago we wrote about the indications of 
development in the San Joaquin valley as manifested 
by the making of new rural homes, the extension of 
towns and the multiplication of facilities for quick 
transportation. Since then we have had a long run 
in the Sacramento valley on both sides of the river, 
from the lowlands to the foothills, and are pleased to 
note the manifestations of a similar industrial activ- 
ity. Here and there one sees very gratifying begin- 
nings of the subdivision of large holdings and hears 
that some offerings have been practically taken up 
within a year or two of their first announcement. 
There is a strong movement from the whole northwest 
district of the United States toward the Sacramento 
valley as the product of the displays made at the 
Portland Fair and the accompanying distribution of 
descriptive "literature." Many who came first into 
the Northwest, attracted by the offerings of cheap 
lands, are now finding it possible to close out at an 
advance to newer comers and desire to invest their 
profits in a land with a higher winter temperature, 
and a wider range of products — a land more delight- 
ful to live in and to work in. It is interesting to 
note, also, that there is especially great demand for 
rich lands under the new irrigation systems, though, 
of course, there is activity also in rainfall lands if 
they can be shown to be of good quality, and with 
good records of production. It is unfortunate that 
so much good development enterprise in the Sacra- 
mento valley should have been expended upon lands 
uncertain of production and evidently not well 
adapted to the plantings undertaken upon them. 
The newer enterprises have profited by the mistakes 
of the elder, and have chosen richer land with better 
water supplies. In the vicinity of the larger towns, 
as for instance in the growth of Chico. large manu- 
facturing enterprises are establishing themselves 
and offering good chances for labor and for the local 
sale of products. It begins to be seen that the op- 
portunities in the Sacramento valley which have 
been exploited for years are being widely realized, 
and it is clear that the census of 1910 will put that 
region in a vastly different position in the public eye 
than did the census of 1900. 

The combination of pedagogical and agricultural 
interests during four days' meetings of Christ- 
mas week in Berkeley, proved to be grandly success- 
ful. Some authorties place the attendance of the 
meetings as high as 7000. The State Farmers' In- 
stitute phase of the event attracted much attention 
and each of several exercises in that line was at- 
tended by not less than 1000 people. A very notable 
manifestation was the full sympathy in the same ob- 
jects of effort by both teachers and farmers. 
Even in sections which had no connection with the 
Farmers' Institute, the agricultural point of view 
was promiment in the papers and discussions show- 
ing that rural improvement was a dominant idea 
in the whole affair. That in itself is a distinct gain, 
because even in rural schools the teachers are town 
born and bred, and are not sufficienty impressed 
with the importance of rural problems. This error is 
likely to be corrected in the minds at least of all teach- 
ers who attended the Berkeley meetings and the 
new point of view will doubtless be much more 
widely suggested than that. Dr. A. C. True, of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, who added 
greatly to the value of the meetings by his participa- 
tion, was deeply impressed by the warm interest 
which all displayed in agricultural education and 
considered the assemblies in some respects the most 
significant and promising he had ever attended, We 



expect that the events will have a lasting influence 
and will lead to some very important and progres- 
sive changes in our educational work. 

It will obviously be impossible for us to present 
all the papers, which were impressive from a peda- 
gogic point of view, without constituting the Pacikic 
Rural Press a pedagogical journal and sacrificing 
the interest of those who look to us for things more 
directly agricultural. We shall, therefore, give the 
right of way to the addresses more closely connected 
with agricultural practice, and draw from the others 
from time to time as opportunity offers. It is the 
intention of the California Teachers' Association, we 
understand, to prepare for publication their own 
distinctive matters, so that they will be available, in 
extenso, in due time. We shall, however, proceed 
with our selections from this side of the discussions 
without waiting for such publication. The papers 
presented in this issue are suggestive of several lines 
in which our agriculture may advance with profit to 
all concerned, and other similar discussions of other 
lines will follow. The State Institute was thoroughly 
an open meeting and no attempt was made to commit 
the attendance to support any particular 'doxy, 
except that Mr. Berwick held that parcels post was 
a good thing for eggs and Mr. Dore believed that 
teachers and farmers approved of equal suffrage for 
men and women, and one of the meetings unanimously 
declared itself of just that mind. There was the 
utmost cordiality manifested in the assemblies. The 
programmes were too full for free discussions, and 
the people were so well pleased with the formal 
affairs that they remained in attendance until the 
afternoon of the fourth day, in spite of the fact that 
the place of meeting was quite affected by the low 
temperature of the outer air. On the whole the 
meetings were a great success, even if judged only 
from the agricultural side. 



One of the best things done by the recent Fruit 
Growers' Convention at Santa Rosa was the call 
upon the general Government for continued co-opera- 
tion with our State Experiment Station in pursuit of 
the pear blight. It is now telegraphed from Wash- 
ington that a bill, appropriating $10,000 for carrying 
on the study of methods for stopping the pear blight 
in California, has been introduced by Representative 
McKinlay, after a conference with officials of the 
Agricultural Department. M. B. Waite, expert of 
the Department, has just returned from California, 
where he made a study of the pear blight. He 
reports that the disease is gaining a foothold in the 
Sacramento valley, after having ravaged the San 
Joaquin valley, and several valuable orchards have 
been uprooted in an effort to stamp out the disease. 
California pear orchards are valued at about £10,- 
000,000, and, unless pear blight is checked, the entire 
industry may be ruined. The blight has ruined the 
Le Conte pear industry of Georgia, and the Bartlett 
pear orchards of California are the next prospective 
victims. California affords the best place in the 
world to operate upon pear blight on a large scale, 
and we are desirous that all forces of Nation and 
State should be combined to demonstrate whether 
the pear grower or the disease should survive. 



QUERIES AND REPLIES. 



Suspected Silage. 

To the Editor: I send a package of ensilage that 
I am feeding to some old ewes. They eat it fairly 
well and seem to be doing well on the feed. They 
also get some hay and run out on poor field feed. 
Recently several have died; some in very good order 
at time of death. I have a fear that the ensilage 
may be the cause of their death, so send to you for 
an opinion of ensilage. The silo was filled from a vol- 
unteer crop of hay, consisting of wild oats, red oats, 
burr clover, etc., with some sweet (or bitter) clover. 
The oats had become very much affected by the rust 
that was so prevalent last season. The ensilage is 
all dark, almost black, all through the silo, like sam- 
ple I send you. I have some 40 tons of the ensilage 
left, but do not know whether it is best to centinue 
to feed it to sheep. Cattle eat it well also, but I 
have not fed it to them much. What is the best corn 
to raise for siloing for winter feed ?— Reader, Napa 
valley. 

The silage has certainly gone to the bad during 
transit (if it had not arrived there before sending), 
and in the condition we see it we should consider it 



January 6, 1906. 



rather dangerous stuff and would use it very cau- 
tiously and not risk it with cattle or horses at all. 
It is, however, unfair to judge the case by the sam- 
ple, which has undergone so much exposure to the air, 
even in a tin can, and, therefore, an analysis of this 
sample might not at all fairly represent the actual 
condition as it comes from the silo. We can only 
recommend cautious use, and abandonment if there 
are signs of trouble. The stuff of which the silo was 
filled is very hard stuff to keep, even if most care- 
fully put into the silo, because of its perishable na- 
ture and the fact that it is hard to handle it to ex- 
clude air. It is also known that bad silage has killed 
animals. Good silage speaks for itself; its odor is 
rather agreeable, while bad silage also discloses 
its character by offensive mustiness, or even odors 
of incipient putrefaction. The color is less significant 
and the blackness might be expected from the mixed 
material, particularly by the clovers included. The 
best corn for silage is the one which gives you the 
best growth, because the purpose is to get as much 
succulent material as possible in connection with the 
greatest number of ears in the glazed state. The 
best corn is, therefore, a local question, and no variety 
is best everywhere. The large dent varieties are 
usually preferred. 

Orange Leaves. 

To the Editor: I enclose a piece of new growth 
from an orange tree. From my garden is a scale and 
what shall I do to destroy it? It seems to affect the 
new wood; it turns yellow and dies. If you will reply 
through the Pacific Rural Press I shall be greatly 
obliged. — A Subscriber, Napa, Cal. 

There is no scale present. The discoloration of 
leaves and the die-back lof which you speak is due 
probably to defective soil or moisture conditions. 
The appearance sometimes follows drouth, sometimes 
follows standing water or a muddy subsoil. You will 
have to look into the soil conditions and use drainage 
or irrigation, as your investigation next summer may 
determine. A little stable manure may help the color 
of the leaves. 

Peach Troubles Again. 

To the Editor: I have mislaid the papers which 
discussed the 'peach blight,' which we had in this 
district last spring, so write for directions for spray- 
ing for it. First, was it definitely decided that it 
was shothole fungus? Second, how late can I spray 
and have it effective? Third, will spraying around 
four acres of old trees, which are surrounded by quite 
an acreage of younger trees not sprayed, protect 
the old trees? I do not care to go to the expense of 
spraying the younger trees, and they also adjoin a 
neighbor's trees which will not be sprayed. Fourth, 
does the Bordeaux mixture have any effect on San 
Jose scale and, if not, can I add anything so as to 
make an effective spray for both the scale and the 
blight at one application? — Reader, Selma. 

The peculiar trouble of the peach last winter was 
not completely demonstrated. There was, however, 
the strong presumption that it was due to compound 
causes. The unusual temperature and moisture con- 
ditions which, first, prevented a normal growth; 
second, promoted the development of parasitic dis- 
eases. It was not determined to be all shothole fun- 
gus — this pest probably only seized its chances with 
the rest. Spraying with Bordeaux mixture was 
fully discussed in our last issue. Spraying will 
undoubtedly lessen the trouble on certain trees, 
although they are adjacent to the unsprayed. Good 
spraying enables each tree to open the season with a 
clean bill of health. It removes the handicap of dis- 
ease from its own body and, of course, lessens its 
chance of suffering, first, because it will grow more 
vigorously after the Bordeaux mixture; second, it 
will have the start of a disease which must come from 
without. Bordeaux mixture is not an insecticide. 
For both scales and fungi you must use the lime, sul- 
phur and salt spray. Make it well and use it thor- 
oughly. The following is the recipe: 

Unslacked lime, 40 lb. ; sulphur, 20 lb. ; stock salt, 
15 lb. ; water to make 60 pounds. 

Directions.— Place 10 lb. of lime and 20 lb. of sul- 
phur in a boiler with 20 gal. of water and boil over a 
brisk fire for not less than one and one-half hour, or 
until the sulphur is thoroughly dissolved. When this 
takes place, the mixture will be of an amber color. 
Next, place in a cask 30 lb. of unslacked lime, pour- 
ing over it hot water to thoroughly slack it; and 
while it is boiling add 15 lb. salt. When this is dis- 
solved, add to the lime and sulphur in the boiler and 
cook for half an hour longer, when the necessary hot 
water to make the 60 gal. should be added. 

Follow the above directions carefully, particularly 



141997 
PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 

the boiling, if you desire success. For peach moth 
and fungi use this remedy as late in the season as 
possible. The best results will be obtained by spray- 
ing just before the peach trees burst into full bloom. 
On cloudy, moist days, blossoms will not be injured 
by this wash, but in dry weather, with north wind, 
blooms will be damaged if full strength is used. 

For scales, particularly, earlier work can be done, 
in fact, it is probably safer not to put off the spray 
ing too late for fear that you may not get it done at 
all. 



For the Canker Worm. 

To the Editor: How can I spray for the canker 
worm? — Grower, Gilroy. 

Spraying for the canker worm is a last resort. 
You should have had your trees banded with some 
sticky preparation since Nov. 15, to catch the wing- 
less moth as she crawls up to lay her eggs. Obvi- 
ously if you catch the moth you get no worms, and 
the few which escape the trap can be shaken down 
by jarring, for they let themselves down by a thread 
when disturbed sufficiently. If, however, you have 
the eggs and will get the worms as soon as there are 
leaves to eat, use an arsenical spray, just as it is pre- 
pared for the codlin moth, except that for the apri- 
cot you can make it about twice as strong without 
njury to the leaves, and do more execution with less 
defoliation. 

Stocks For the Sugar Prune. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly let me know in 
your answers to correspondents column the best stock 
for the sugar prune? Does it succeed well on the 
apricot or almond where the soil is adapted for the 
latter, being sandy loam with friable red clay loam 
subsoil? — Subscriber, Nuriootpa, New Zealand. 

The Sugar prune is a grateful grower, and suc- 
ceeds on many stocks. It has been successfully 
worked on many kinds of plums and prunes, and on 
the almond, to which it takes very kindly. Our ob- 
servation does not reach to the apricot. Will some 
reader answer that? 

Favors Long Grape Cuttings. 

To the Editor: Regarding the question of long 
and short grapevine cuttings, I have tried both and 
find the long cutting is the best. I think it makes 
the best vine and a larger per cent of the cuttings 
live; they will live with less water than a short cut- 
ting, because the roots are down to moist ground, 
where they will stay moist all summer with very lit- 
tle or no irrigating. I never watered mine at all. I 
intend to put out some more this spring. I put out 
the cuttiug where I want the vine to grow. I make 
my cuttings about 2 ft. long. — A Farmer, Dinuba. 



WEATHER AND CROPS. 



General Summary. 

Alexander G. McAdie, Section Director. 

The year on the whole was one of favorable climatic 
conditions from an agricultural standpoint, and yet dis- 
appointing- results followed, especially in connection with 
the wheat crop. The yield was unexpectedly light, and 
in view of the good start at the early part of the year 
and seemingly good growth for several months the 
result was something of a surprise. The wheat crop in 
California has been steadily decreasing, and the yield 
per acre throughout the wheat fields this year was far 
below a proper figure. Other reasons than climatic ones 
must be looked for to explain this steady decrease. 
Barley on the whole made a fair crop. Hay and pastur- 
age were above a good average and much dried feed was 
stored for winter use. The year was an excellent one 
for stock. 

The season was good for beans, sugar beets, hops and 
vegetables. Lima and small white beans made a good 
crop. Hops were for the most part free from pests, and 
during the picking period the weather was generally 
favorable and the yield large. 

All things considered, the year was a good one for 
fruit. Cherries, owing to heavy rains at the time of 
picking, and pears, owing to heavy rains at the time of 
blossoming, were light crops; but nearly all other decidu- 
ous fruits averaged satisfactorily. Unusually high 
temperatures during the first week of July had on the 
whole a beneficial effect except on grapes of the earlier 
varieties. The raisin season was favorable for drying, 
and there was but little loss through showers during the 
curing period. The raisins were of good quality and of 
larger size than usual. The apple crop was large and of 
excellent quality. In previous years extremely hot 
weather during the month of September has damaged 
the apple crop of California, but this year the weather 
was favorable and the loss through burning was com- 
paratively small. Citrus fruits in the northern, central 
and southern portions of the State were an excellent 
crop. The yield will probably be larger than that of 
any previous year, although it is yet a little early to 
estimate the total. The weather was favorable through- 
out the entire season. During the holidays heavy frosts 
occurred and some slight damage resulted, but. ample 
warnings and extensive smudging have again reduced 
the losses to a minimhm. The olive yield was large and 



3 



weather conditions were favorable. The honey crop i a 
an exceptionally heavy one. 

MONTHLY SUMMARIES. 

January. — Good rains materially changed crop con- 
ditions in southern California and the San Joaquin val- 
£Z' The outlook; for grain and grass was excellent 
The acreage in wheat, barley and oats was increased, 
pasturage improved, cattle did well and prospects were 
bright. The soil was well saturated, plowing and seed- 
ing were in progress, alfalfa and grass made good 
growth, and vineyardists and orchardists were busy. 

February.— Favorable conditions continued and by 
the middle of the month almond trees were in bloom. 
Frosts did but little damage. Late sown grain made 
wonderful improvement and the outlook for good crops 
was never better. 

March.— Rain fell nearly every day after the 10th 
and some slight damage was done to standing grain and 
cut alfalfa. Farm work was temporarily suspended in 
places, owing to the wet soil and continuous rain. Green 
feed was unusually abundant and cattle were in good 
condition. Apricots, almonds and peaches were so far 
advanced as to be comparatively safe from injury by 
frost. Plowing, seeding and the cultivation of orchards 
proceeded slowly. The fruit trees were heavily laden 
with blossoms and young fruit. 

April and May.— Conditions were fairly favorable 
for growing crops. Barley headed out early in April 
and alfalfa cutting and hay making were general by the 
beginning of May. Strawberries were shipped by the 
middle of April. The first box of cherries was shipped 
from Vacaville on the 7th of April, three weeks earlier 
than the previous year. Grapes were remarkably 
thrifty. Near the close of May there were reports that 
in some sections wheat had lodged. Grasshoppers ap- 
peared on some of the southern ranches. 

June and July.— Grain harvest began in the San 
Joaquin valley about the beginning of June. The wheat 
crop was not up to early expectations, and as threshing 
progressed the yield was found to be disappointingly 
small. Barley and oats yielded fair crops. Grasshop- 
pers caused some damage to grain. The sugar beet crop 
was heavy and matured earlier than usual. The hay 
crop was the largest in several years. During the first 
week in July high temperatures prevailed throughout 
the State. Previous records were broken at many 
places on the 7th and 8th. Some of the maximum tem- 
pertures were: Volcano Springs 128°, Angiola 115°, Bag- 
dad 119°, Bakersfield 114°, Biergs 118°, Chico 114°, Clover- 
dale 115°, Davisville 116°, Elmwood 116°, Farmington 
117°, Folsom 119°, Fresno 115°, Gilroy 116°, Imperial 
124°, Indio 125°, Marysville 118°, Newman 115°, Orland 
120°, Palermo 116°, Palm Springs 122°, Salton 120°, 
Shasta 119°, Tehama 115°, Williams 115°, San Francisco 
98° and Sacramento 110°. Deciduous fruits and grapes 
were injured to some extent by the extreme heat, but 
the damage to beans, sugar beets and vegetables was 
trifling. Grain harvest was practically completed by 
the end of July. 

August. — Deciduous fruit harvest progressed rapidly, 
grape picking was in progress and raisin making had 
begun. Extensive drying and curing of fruits was gen- 
eral throughout the State. 

September.— The weather continued favorable for 
raisin making and fruit drying. Hop picking and bean 
harvest were well under way, with satisfactory yields. 
The fourth crop of alfalfa was harvested. Wineries 
were busy and prune harvest was nearly completed. 
Almonds were nearly all picked and walnuts were ripen- 
ing. Light rain fell near the end of the month, but ade- 
quate warnings were given to fruit driers and raisin 
makers, and the loss was small. 

October. — This was a month of little rain, only a 
few showers occurring about the 7th and 22d. The 
weather was excellent for raisin making, and the second 
crop of raisins was practically safe by the middle of the 
month. In the bean counties the crop was harvested 
and the yield was said to be the best for many years. 
Wineries were running to their full capacity. 

November.— The long dry period ended about the 
middle of the month. The soil was hard and dry in 
most sections and little farm work had been done. In 
southern California the rain came earlier and was of the 
greatest benefit to farmers, orchardists and stock 
raisers. 

December. — Very little rain fell during the month 
and the snowfall was less than usual. Plowing and seed- 
ing were going on slowly. Heavy frosts occurred toward 
the end of the month, but little damage was done, as 
ample warnings had been given and orange growers 
generally fired or otherwise protected their fruit. High 
north winds on the 9th and 10th damaged oranges and 
olives in southern California. 

San Francisco, January 2. 1906. 



Rainfall and Temperature, 



The following data for the week ending 5 a. m. Wednes- 
day, January 3, 1906, are from official sources and are 
furnished by the United States Weather Bureau for the 
Pacific Rural Press: 









►9 


> 


s 






« 5. 


sp ci- 
ts E. 


in ° 
pES 


p a 


p p 


C P 




%» 


O M 


B ~~ 


t?2 

i-* SP 


<t B 




CALIFORNIA 


: p 


Op 


Dtp so 


P.W 




° § 


STATIONS. 


: b 


sp CO 

O 


P co CO 
tr. O 










all fort! 


a> a 

: p 

: W 
: £ 


nal Rai 
Year 

e 


Season 
o Date. 


Temper 
le week 


Temper 
le week 




- a 
■ a 


■ a 


: o? 


: p 


• ? 


• ? 


Eureka 


1.48 


10.14 


17 37 


18 44 


51 


32 


Red Bluff 


1 48 


4 15 


14 62 


11.47 


54 


34 


Sacramento ... 


.20 


1.76 


8.80 


7.93 


52 


32 


San Francisco. 


.39 


2 97 


10 18 


9.41 


56 


39 


San Jose 


.19 


3.35 


7.10 




56 


32 


Fresno 


.25 


1.35 


6 19 


3.61 


50 


28 


Independence 


T 


.43 


.45 


1 47 


56 


24 


San Luis Obispo . . . 


■ .16 


2 30 


6.45 


6 96 


60 


26 


Los Angeles 


.14 


3.25 


3.59 


5.65 


n 


36 




.20 


2 65 


2 63 


3.27 


62 


36 
28 




.00 


3.45 


.91 


1.71 


68 



4 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 6, 1906. 



THE STOCK YARD. 



California Aspect of the Animal Industry. 



U.v Pkof. K. W. Majoh, at the State Farmers' Institute at the 
University of California. 

The subject assigned tome is so large in scope that 
it is not possible to do more than give a brief review 
of the more important lines and note their possi- 
bilities. 

From the last report of the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture we learn that the total value of live stock in the 
United States is $2,879,255,000— very nearly 3,000 mil- 
lion dollars. The same report informs us.that the esti- 
mate made of the value of dairy products in 1905 was 
$665,000,000. No crop but corn produces the income 
that the dairy cow does. (Page 5, Secretary's Re- 
port.) 

According to the last census, the value of live stock 
in California was $67,303,325. 

I give these figures merely to call your attention 
to the magnitude of the animal industries, and, when 
we consider the returns, their possibilities. 

Long before gold was discovered, and before the 
wonderful adaptability of its soil and climate to 
horticultural pursuits, California was a live stock 
State. Each Mission had its herds and flocks. 
Later the Spanish rancho was used, it may be said, 
exclusively for purposes of stock raising. 

The live stock industry continues to be one of the 
most important of agricultural industries in the 
State; and yet we do not give it the thought and 
attention it deserves. 

Let us consider the dairy industry. According to 
the last report of the State Dairy Bureau, the value 
of California dairy products for the year 1903-4 was 
$20,375,567. I believe that the returns this year will 
amount to close upon $25,000,000, and yet we do not 
produce enough to supply the people within our 
borders. 

In the early days of dairying certain sections of the 
State were counted as dairy sections — Humboldt 
county, for example, and the coast counties, as far 
south as Santa Barbara county. At the present 
time dairying is carried on extensively in nearly 
every county in the State, from Del Norte in the 
north to San Diego in the south. A recent trip to 
the Imperial valley afforded me an opportunity of 
seeing how rapidly the dairy industry may develop in 
a section that a few years ago was counted a desert. 

The large interior valleys — that were at one time 
almost exclusively used for grain raising — are now, 
through irrigation, being converted into dairy farms 
— medium-sized farms, and each the home of a man 
who is making a home as well as a living on it. 
Where is there a State that can grow those two 
great cow feeds — alfalfa and corn — to better ad- 
vantage than we can? The so-called corn belt does 
not raise fodder corn as well as we do. 

What dairying is doing for some of those sections 
was well told by a Portuguese dairyman on the west 
side. He said that live years ago he was trying to 
make a living from raising grain. Times were hard, 
but he had to have groceries and clothes for his 
family. 

" I would go down town and go into " * * * * 
What he gave as his experience can well be used 
to illustrate the experiences of many in the business. 
It is not always the localities in the State that seem 
to combine all the desirable points that give the best 
results. Fighting against some disadvantages causes 
the dairyman to give closer attention to details. In 
this way he secures better results. 

A line of live-stock work that is closely allied to 
dairying is hog raising. The value of swine in our 
State is about $4,000,000. Of these animals about 
one-third are raised on dairies. Alfalfa makes a 
good feed for sows as well as for cows, and there is 
no better feed for pigs than the dairy by-products. 
Yet we do not produce enough pork to supply our peo- 
ple. Every year about 10,000,u00 lb. of pork prod- 
ucts are brought into San Francisco alone. Perhaps 
not all of this remains in the State; but it doesn't 
make any difference whether we consume all the 
product that is brought into the State or whether it 
is shipped to the Far East. If it is shipped, then we 
are to blame for not securing that export trade our- 
selves. 

The beef-cattle market has not been in good shape 
during the past year. There were several reasons 
for this: The rapid increase of the number of cattle 
for winter market fed in California from the year 
1900 to the year 1905; the abundant rainfall madi 
pastures so good that small bunches of cattle in fine 
order came from all parts of the State. These were 
important factors in the falling off of prices. 

However, for some time to come, beef raising will 
be carried on on the large ranches, and the small 
farmer will not be so interested in the question. 

When we consider sheep, we find an opposite con- 
dition has existed. The numbers have fallen off quite 
rapidly, and in consequence the wool clip last year 
was small. This resulted in high prices. The best 
Northern wools have sold as high this season as 28c. 
to 30c. per lb., the highest price in years. Mutton, 
too, has been high, very high. Under these condi- 
tions, and when we consider that the falling off in the 
number of sheep is not limited to California, but has 



been general, we must recognize the possibility of the 
sheep industry becoming one of the money-making 
lines for the small farmer. 

There is one more line of work that I wish to men- 
tion and that is the horse. 

California has achieved great reputation for her 
fast horses — runners, trotters and pacers. I do not 
wish to say anything against speed horses — they have 
their place. I like to see a good race. But the rais- 
ing of fast horses is a special business. Every live- 
stock farmer can raise draft horses — heavy or me- 
dium. James McNab of San Francisco, who has had 
large experience as a buyer, writes: " It is a fact 
that at the present time there is a great scarcity of 
heavy draft horses in this State. I have been con- 
stantly a buyer of heavy horses for 30 years past in 
San Francisco; have always traveled throughout the 
State in that time looking for and buying stock, and 
I must say that at no time during that period have 
good draft horses been so hard to find as at the pres- 
ent time. 

"I know of no opportunity in the stock business that 
affords such profitable inducements as that of raising 
heavy draft stock. Five-year-olds, weighing from 
1,700 to 1,800 lb., readily bring $300 each in the San 
Francisco market, and higher prices are paid for 
fancy animals. 

"Good 1,600-lb. teams and over are scarce and sell 
for from $500 per span and upward. They are sal- 
able when five years old, and, unlike roadsters, trot- 
ters and thoroughbreds, need no expense in the way 
of breaking and training. 

"The Fire Department in San Francisco has had the 
greatest difficulty in finding suitable stock. At the 
last price made of $285 per head, the contractor 
failed to fill the contract. 

" Had California horsemen followed up the line of 
breeding in recent years with the same enterprise 
that was displayed up to about the year 1885, I be- 
lieve they would have attained even greater success 
than they reached with the thoroughbred or trotter, 
and that the California draft horses would have been 
noted the world over. 

"Let us hope that the renewed interest manifested 
by recent heavy importations of draft stallions will 
result in an effort to put the State in the proper line 
for the future as a producer of draft stock." 

Think of the number of farms where mares could be 
substituted for geldings for work purposes. A mare 
will raise a colt, and, with judicious handling, will lose 
but few days from the field. As has been said already, 
the demand for horses of this type is great and the 
prices obtained good. 

Now, all the time allowed could well have been 
taken up by the consideration of some one line of ani- 
mal industry, and then we would not have covered it 
thoroughly. 

Before closing, I want to consider the conditions 
that are necessary to put animal industry work on a 
better basis. It is of no use to say that we have the 
finest climate, the best soil, we can grow large crops 
of the necessary food-stuffs, we have a good market 
in our State and great possibilities in other parts of 
the world, and then not do the best that is in us to 
utilize these advantages. We produce a good deal of 
butter, but it takes a large number of cows to do it 
— too many by far. We must have better cows, bet- 
ter breeding, better feeding. In fact, we may say 
that we need better stock and better stockmen. 
Now the latter must come first. We must train our 
stockmen before we can hope to make much improve- 
ment in the stock. A poor dairyman has poor cows 
and knows about enough to handle them. Give him 
of the best and he might — more than likely would — 
make a failure of them. 

There is no use in our saying that there is a great 
demand for horses of a certain type and telling the 
farmer that he ought to raise them unless we at the 
same time tell him how to select mares and stallions 
in order to secure the desired result. Again, when 
the colt is born he must know how to feed it and care 
for it, in order to have it in shape for the market. 

The whole matter can be summed up thus: In or- 
der to put the animal industry on a proper plane in 
California, we must have agricultural education. 
The farmer must be educated through the institute 
and through short courses. 

The University Farm must be so equipped and run 
that it will provide material for class-room purposes 
and for experimentation. The farmer's boy must be 
educated in the proposed High School in connection 
with the University Farm, or at such an institution 
as the Polytechnic School at San Luis Obispo. Both 
the farmer and the farmer's boy must be taught how 
to judge and select stock, how to breed them and how 
to feed them. 

By these methods we shall be enabled to increase 
our annual production, have a better product, and 
no one need fear that we shall overstock the market 
with goods of the highest quality. The better the 
article the more of it will people consume. 

There is another line of work for the live-stock man 
that might be dwelt upon. That is the advantages 
that exist in California for the production of pure- 
bred live stock for the breeders of other States. 
Our climate, our grasses, alfalfa and other succulent 
feed will enable us to develop animals that will be as 
good as, if not superior to, animals imported from 
Europe. This is particularly true of certain breeds 
of dairy cattle, beef cattle and hogs. 



AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. 



Organized Efforts Against Plant Diseases. 

By Prok. K. K. Smith at the State Farmers' Institute at the 
University of California. 

We must assume at the outset a consideration of 
this subject only as it applies to California, since 
even with this limitation I can present but the brief- 
est outline of what is being done or what might be 
done along the lines suggested in my subject. Plant 
pathology and economic entomology have come to be 
two of the most important phases of botany and 
zoology in relation to the production of crops. Pests 
and troubles have multiplied with the increase in 
plant production, until it may almost be said that 
every important crop has its serious enemies. It is 
the means of suppression or control of these pests, 
diseases and enemies which concerns the entomologist 
and plant pathologist. Economic entomology has 
far outstripped plant pathology in California, owing 
to the variety and pernicious activity of insect pests 
in the State and the manifest nature of their injuries. 

The diseases with which the plant pathologist is 
supposed to deal include broadly ali troubles with 
plants other than those caused by insects. These 
may be parasitic troubles, such as fungous or bac- 
terial diseases, or the injurious effects produced by 
unfavorable conditions. Both classes are frequent, 
destructive and comparatively little understood in 
this State. Each of our important fruits has its 
serious troubles, its blight, scab, rot, or "die-back;" 
farm crops and vegetables have their rusts, smuts, 
bliirhts and mildews; our flowers and ornamentals 
struggle with similar enemies. Some of these dis- 
eases are well known in their nature and method of 
treatment, but others of the most destructive are 
absolutely unchecked from want of knowledge. Many 
of them present most obscure problems for getting 
at their real nature in a manner which must be 
both technical and practical. I intend in this paper 
to point out the lines along which the most practical 
benefit may be obtained in this direction. 

In order to develop means for controlling any plant 
pest successfully we must have four things: Investi- 
gation, experimentation, demonstration and applica- 
tion. The specialist must first investigate the nature 
and cause of the disease, he must then experiment 
along whatever lines suggest themselves, with the 
object of finding a remedy or method of treatment. 
Having found a promising method, he must demon- 
strate that the treatment is practically successful. 
This being accomplished, the method must be gener- 
ally applied by the various growers. 

In this State we have several agencies available for 
accomplishing these results. First of all the grower 
himself must watch his crops for the appearance of 
disease and try the application of such remedies as 
are suggested to him. He may also be able to 
experiment to some extent. The State and county 
boards of horticulture are most important agencies 
for the control of diseases as well as insect pests. 
They can aid greatly in many ways The United 
States Department of Agriculture often lends its aid 
in various ways, giving the State the benefit of its 
specialists and their work. The Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station should in every State be the center of 
scientific investigation as applied to agriculture. 
The investigation of plant diseases is the province of 
the plant pathologist of the station. He must 
endeavor to lay bare the whole course, nature and 
cause of every serious disease, he must experiment 
for a remedy and endeavor to demonstrate and apply 
his results, using and co-operating with all the avail- 
able agencies which may aid in the work. 

Without further discussion of the need of organized 
effort against plant diseases, or the forces available 
for the work, I may mention some of the undertak- 
ings now being carried on by the department of 
plant pathology at this experiment station along 
these lines. The pear blight work is largely one of 
demonstration and application, the investigation 
having been previously done by the United States 
Department. The last Legislature made nearly 
$10,000 available for this work, which is being done 
jointly by the pear growers, the State and county 
boards of horticulture, the University Experiment 
Station and the United States Department. Eight 
men are now in the pear orchards on this work, 
showing and demonstrating to the growers the best 
methods of fighting the disease. 

The lemon rot investigation represents an organ- 
ized effort between the station and the southern Cali- 
fornia lemon growers to find a way to control a very 
serious decay of their fruit, which cost single growers 
over $10,000 last year. 

The walnut blight investigation was provided for 
by the last Legislature, and is being organized in 
connection with the walnut growers of the affected 
sections. 

A beet blight investigation is in progress, pro- 
moted by the sugar beet interests. Great losses 
have been sustained from this source. 

Various other work is in progress, but these are 
typical of organized, systematic work on very serious 
problems. It is hoped to take up other plant dis- 
eases of importance in the same manner, as circum- 
stances and resources will allow. 



January 6, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



5 



THE ORNITHOLOGIST. 



The California Quail.— II. 



By SylvestbrD. Judd, Assistant United States Biological Survey. 

By its habit of feeding on foliage, the California 
quail differs from the bobwhite and resembles the 
ruffed grouse. Such food forms 22.73% of the vege- 
table matter eaten. In February, when the bob- 
white is weathering blizzards, the California quail is 
enjoying balmy weather and feeding on browse to the 
extent of 80% of its food. Most of this browse con- 
sists of leaves of leguminous plants, principally 
clovers. Bur clover (Medicago denticulata), that 
grows in cultivated land and along irrigation ditches, 
appears to supply most of the forage. Alfalfa and 
clovers of the genus alfalfa form most of the remain- 
ing leguminous green food. Next to legumes, the 
finely divided leaves of alfilaria, or " filaree " (Ero- 
dium) are important: Grass, chickweed (Alsine 
media), the leaves of fern, geranium, oxalis and 
groundsel bush (Baccharis) also furnish forage for 
the quail. W. W. Cooke reports that near Grand 
Junction, Colo., where the California coast quail has 
been introduced and thrives wonderfully, market gar- 
deners regard it as a nuisance. 

Weed Seeds. — Different seeds, largely of weeds, 
furnish the California quail 59.77% of its year's diet. 
Legumes contribute 17.87%, alfilaria 13.38%, com- 
positae, 5.55%, the spurge family (Euphorbiaceoe) 
5.85% and miscellaneous plants 17.12%. Leguminous 
seeds are liked best by the bird and make up 17.87% 
of its seed diet for the year and 46.1% of its food for 
June. Bur clover yields abundance of seeds as well 
as forage. Its seed pod is peculiar, much elongated, 
beset with long, sharp spines, and spirally coiled into 
a roundish bur. The quail swallows it whole, regard- 
less of spines. This food is highly nutritious and is 
relished by sbock as well as by birds and wild animals. 
Seeds of closely allied plants, such as alfalfa, vetch, 
cassias, cultivated beans and peas, and clovers of the 
genera Trifolium, Lespedeza and Melilotus also are 
in the quail's list, as well as locust (Robinia) and 
lupines, the latter taken in large quantities. They 
include the seeds of Lupinus nanus, L. micranthus 
and L. sparsiflorus. Other leguminous seeds are 
eaten in great numbers, including a small beanlike 
seed, Lotus glaber, which looks much like a minia- 
ture Frankfurt sausage, and an unidentified, almost 
microscopic, square seed, with a notch in its edge — 
possibly some species of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus). 
Nearly all of the leguminous plants that furnish the 
quail with seeds belong to the category of weeds. 

Seeds of weeds from other families of plants make 
up no less than 41.89% of the annual food. Seeds of 
compositse yield 5.55%, such injurious weeds as this- 
tles making up the largest part of this percentage. 
The thistles most often eaten are Centaurea meliten- 
sis, C. americana, C. solstitialis, Mariana mariniana, 
Conchus sp. and Carduus sp. M. mariniana has the 
largest seeds. Ninety of these had been eaten by a 
quail shot by F. E. Le Beal at Hay wards, Cal, Aug. 
15, 1903. The seeds of the bur thistle (Centaurea 
melitensis) are smaller and have a hook at one end 
and a set of spines like a paint brush at the other. 
They are, perhaps, most liked of all composite seeds. 
From 500 to 800 are often eaten at a meal. The de- 
struction of this seed is highly beneficial, for the bur 
thistle is troublesome to farmers. Wild carrot (Dau- 
cus carota) tar weed (Madia sativa), wild lettuce 
(Lactuca sp.) mayweed (Anthemis cotula) and marsh 
elder (Iva xanthifolia) furnish most of the remaining 
seeds of composite plants. Tar weed is a favorite 
source of food, and one stomach, collected at Wat- 
son ville, Cal, by J. S. Hunter, contained 700 of these 
seeds. Another stomach, from the same place, held 
2000 tiny seeds of dog fennel, or mayweed. 

From seeds of plants belonging to the spurge fam- 
ily (Euphorbiaceoe) come 5.85% of the annual food. 
Spurges, particularly Crotou setigerus, commonly 
known as turkey mullein, are a staple with the Cali- 
fornia quail as with most other seed-eating birds. So 
fond are the quail of turkey mullein that their crops 
are often completely distended with the seeds, some- 
times from 500 to 900 to a bird. Turkey mullein is a 
prostrate plant covered with a whitish, woolly 
pubescence, and is often used by the Indians to poison 
fish. Seeds of alfilaria (Erodium cicutarium and 
other species), which is both a weed and a forage 
plant, are eagerly sought. They are lance-shaped, 
furnished with a long, elaborate corkscrew awn end- 
ing in a thin spine. They burrow into sheep's wool 
and even pierce the skin. The alfilaria is one of the 
few seeds of the West that all seed-eating birds con- 
sume. The plant is very abundant in California, and 
the quail often eats from 1,000 to 1,600 of the little 
corkscrew seeds at a meal. It affords 13.38% of the 
year's food and 26.70% of the June diet. 

Seeds of miscellaneous weeds comprise 17.11% of 
the annual food. Among the species included are 
pigweed (Chenopodium album), rough pigweed (Ama- 
ranthus retroflexus) and black mustard (Brassica 
nigra) — especially obnoxious in grain I. elds— and the 
closely related weed, wild radish (Raphaius sativus). 
Seeds of shepherd's purse )Bursa bursapastoris) and 
of other cruciferous plants are included in common 



with silene and the chickweeds (Cerastium sp. and 
Alsine media). Geranium seeds are so much relished 
that often 300 or 400 are eaten at a time. Two closely 
related plants, miner's lettuce (Montia perfoliata) 
and red maids (Calandrinia menziesii) bear minute 
shiny black seeds that are often eaten by the thou- 
sand. The little seeds of red sorrel (Rumex 
acetosella) and curled dock (Rumex crispus) are 
occasionally taken in almost as large numbers. 
Seeds of chess (Bromus secalinus and Bromus 
hordeaceus), a serious grain pest, are relished, and 
hundreds of the grain-like seeds of the grass known 
as "poison darnel" (Lolium temulentum) appear 
in crops examined. Macoun, quoting Spreadborough, 
states that ho British Columbia, where it winters 
successfully, the quail finds shelter in severe weather 
under the broom (Cytisus scoparius), which in places 
grows abundantly and yields seed for subsistence. 

The quail feeds also at times on mast. A. K. Fisher, 
in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the last 
of July, found both young and adult quail eating young 
acorns. Small quantities of sedge seeds (Carex and 
Scirpus) and of dodder (Cuscuta) are eaten, the lat- 
ter plant being a destructive parasite on leguminous 
forage crops. The miscellaneous seed list includes 
also stick seeds (Lappula sp.), buttercup (Ranuncu- 
lus sp.), bind weed (Convolvulus sp.), Amsinckia sp., 
Anagallis arvensis, plaintain (Plantago major), rib- 
grass (Plantago lanceolata), painted cup (Castilleja 
sp.), mountain lilac (Ceanothus sp.) and black wattle 
(Callicoma serratifolia). In the mountains of Lower 
California the food supply determines the breeding 
time of birds. If there is not enough rain for a good 
supply of seeds, the coveys of quail do not break up 
into nesting pairs, but remain in coveys throughout 
the summer. If the season is wet and the winter 
rains promise abundant food, the birds mate in March 
and begin nesting immediately. 



THE POULTRY YARD. 



Promotion of the California Poultry Interest. 



By Pkok. M. E. Jaffa, at the State Farmers' Institute at the 
University of California. 

Before we can properly consider how best to pro- 
mote the poultry industry in California we must make 
a survey of its present condition. The annual prod- 
uct of poultry and eggs for California, according to 
the last census, is upward of $6,000,000; at the same 
time the importation of Eastern and Middle West 
products amounts to 17,537,820 lb., valued at 
between $2,000,000 and $3,000,000. Here we have 
one striking fact, which shows that there is room for 
expansion to supply our home markets, to say 
nothing of exportation. But the annual amount of 
eggs and poultry produced does not show on the face 
of it whether»or not it has been a profitable enter- 
prise for the producer. Are our poultrymen pros- 
perous? There are in this State a number of persons 
engaged in poultry husbandry who have been thor- 
oughly successful, whether it be from the standpoint 
of the business man or the financier's point of view. 
Much credit is due to these people, as in most cases 
they have had no example to follow, but have had to 
educate themselves. It is owing to their energy, 
industry and perseverance that we are enabled to 
enjoy the highly creditable and instructive poultry 
shows annually held in different parts of California. 
But a very few days' travel and brief investigation 
would disclose the fact that there are a large number 
of men who are attempting to raise poultry for profit 
in anything but a rational manner. Some of these 
men desire help, some are ignorant of the fact that 
assistance can be had; and, again, there are those 
who do not care to receive any aid at all. 

The poor methods and practices which one meets 
with are due to some extent to lack of sufficient 
co-operation of science and practice. There has been 
very little scientific attention paid to the hen, as 
compared with the study which has been carried on 
with the cow, horse or hog, and, considering the 
great importance of the poultry industry, it is not right 
that this should be so. The value of the poultry and egg 
product of the United States exceeds $300,000,000, 
annually, which is about three-fifths of the value 
of the dairy products and not much below the valua- 
tion of the cotton crop. Does the poultry industry 
receive proportionately the scientific attention from 
the State Experiment Stations of the United States? 

In California the relative position of poultry prod- 
ucts, in 1900, is shown in the following statement: 



Wheat $20,179,044 

Hav and forage 16,486,388 

Orchard produce 14,528,786 

Animals sold 18,805,166 

Dairy products 12,128,471 

Barley 10,645,723 

Tropical fruits 7,219,082 

Poultry and eggs 6,356,746 

Grapes 5,622,825 



For investigations relating to viticulture, the 
last Legislature appropriated $10,000, while only 
$4,000 was similarly appropriated for experiments 
with poultry. It is true that some of the Eastern 
agricultural experiment stations are devoting time 
and attention to the improvement of methods and 



the betterment of the poultry interests in their 
respective localities. But our conditions are so dif- 
ferent from those met with by our Eastern brothers 
that we in California cannot follow the roads trav- 
eled by them, but must blaze a trail for ourselves. 
There has been considerable advance and progress 
made along this line, as shown by the papers read 
and discussed at the meetings of various county poul- 
try associations, and by the excellent poultry journals 
published in our own State. But there is room for 
improvement in many, by far too many, instances. 
It would be far better to describe what a typical 
poultry farm for California should be than to describe 
a typical California poultry farm. 

It would be impossible, within the time allotted to 
me, to thoroughly discuss this phase of the question. 
Suffice it to say that the plan generally practiced, 
that is, the colony plan, does not, nor will it ever, 
conduce to systematic and highly progressive poul- 
try culture. Such an end can only be attained by 
the intensive plan, and statistics fully bear out this 
statement. 

Poultry Experiment Station. — The Legislature 
of 1902-3, realizing the necessity for proper experi- 
mentation looking toward the improvement of condi- 
tions among poultrymen, appropriated a small sum 
for the establishment of a poultry experiment sta- 
tion at Petaluma. At this station the question of 
breeding, feeding and treatment of diseases are taken 
up and two very valuable bulletins on fowl cholera 
and fowl tuberculosis have been issued as the result 
of some of the work of the California Poultry Experi- 
ment Station, and a third is now in press. 

Among the lines of experiments under way is a 
practical illustration of the intensive system of poul- 
try husbandry. But owing to the smallness of the 
appropriation, and also because of the uncertainty 
of its renewal, the ideal system could not be carried 
out. We intend to estabiish such a plant in the near 
future on the University Farm and prove to those 
interested the advisability and economy of conduct- 
ing the poultry business along such lines. 

In carrying out scientific investigations the work- 
ers must be actuated by two motives — they must not 
only look toward helping the poultrymen, but bear in 
mind that it is their duty to be of as much assistance 
as possible to the consumer. It would be far more to 
the advantage of the poultrymen to have a more con- 
stant production of eggs at a more moderate price 
than a few eggs at an exorbitant rate at one time 
and a surplus at low prices at other seasons. It cer- 
tainly would not be just to teach the producer how 
to get rich at the expense of the consumer. It is far 
more equitable to try to so regulate hatching and 
raising young stock so that the price of eggs may 
not be, as at present, almost prohibitive for many 
who require eggs as a part of their diet. 

The fact that eggs are sold by the dozen and not 
by weight is an obstacle to progressive work among 
a large number of producers. There is no incentive 
to the production of large eggs. 

It has been stated by some that the selling of eggs 
by weight would cause trouble in the retail trade in 
making change. To a certain extent this would be 
so, but a step in the right direction would be to make 
a minimum standard, i. e., require all eggs to weigh 
at least 2 oz. each, or 24 oz. per dozen. Had such a 
law been in operation during the current season, 
there would have been many dozens of eggs in Berke- 
ley sold at 60c, subject to discount. 

Needs of the Poultry Interest. — These are a 
few of the problems which are necessary to be solved 
in order to promote the poultry industry, and at the 
Station at Petaluma and in the laboratory at Berke- 
ley we are doing our best to accomplish this end. 
Much as the successful outcome of the experiments 
will help the poultrymen and thus promote the indus- 
try, the greatest good must be expected from organ- 
ization and co-operation among the poultrymen for 
better and more systematic work, both as regards 
feeding, breeding and general management. Until 
those interested do organize and co-operate, it will 
be almost impossible to put into operation a food 
inspection law for the protection of the feeder. Were 
we exercising such a law at present there would not 
be on sale the large number of proprietary foods sell- 
ing at high prices, far beyond their food value or 
nutritive value. We do not find many such products 
for sale for the feeding of the horse, cow or swine, for 
the reason that the advice and conclusions of agricul- 
tural experiment stations, resulting from careful 
scientific studies, show that the feeder can obtain 
the best results without the use of proprietary or 
condimental foods. 

It would appear that, when similar extended inves- 
tigations for poultry shall have been carried out, 
there will not be the showing, as at present, by the 
manufacture of the foods in question. Not only is a 
food inspection law necessary with reference to pro- 
prietary foods, but also in connection with the sale of 
the ordinary cattle and poultry foods, such as the 
alfalfa meal, clover meal, bran, etc It can be truly 
said that alfalfa is a most valuable food for poultry 
and therefore alfalfa meal, when made from first 
quality alfalfa hay, is a highly desirable product. 
But on the other hand, when we find material labeled 
such that one would infer that its origin was the best 
alfalfa hay, showing, upon chemical examination, less 
than 13% protein, it is far from being what a poul- 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 6, 1906. 



tryman requires or should use, and at the same time 
costs far more than the nutritive value warrants. 

Market Problems. — It certainly would be to the 
decided interest and benefit of both consumer and 
producer if the pernicious practice, said to be in 
vogue by some dealers, of placing stored eggs in the 
same case with fresh-laid eggs and selling the whole 
case as fresh eggs, might be prohibited. A food 
inspection law, properly exercised, would soon pre- 
vent such impositions. These are just two instances 
emphasizing the urgency of the passage of the law 
referred to. 

During the last year a large number of requests 
for advice have been received at the station from 
poultrymen who have had difficulties with their 
flocks, arising either from improper feeding or from 
lack of knowledge necessary for the successful rais- 
ing of young chicks. These appeals have been so 
numerous that they seem almost to warrant the opin- 
ion that one of the means of promoting the poultry 
interests of this State would be to have a competent 
officer of the University, who would in person answer 
these calls for aid and instruct the party along the 
necessary lines. These visits would entail no travel- 
ing expenses on the University other than the rail- 
road fare, which, doubtless, could be nominal, as we 
have every reason to believe that the railroads in 
California would gladly co-operate in any such 
scheme. The party requesting the aid of such an 
officer would be asked to furnish his accommodation 
while in the locality. Similar plans, with reference 
to dairying, have been successfully carried out in 
Denmark — the people being only too glad to take 
advantage of State aid, and the results of visits have 
exceeded the expectations of the most sanguine. 
Why should not California do as much for her poul- 
trymen as Denmark does for her buttermakers? 

Brown or White Eggs. — It has already been said 
in this paper that the purpose of scientific promotion 
of the poultry interests is to help both the producer 
and consumer, and while it would appear that the 
main line of work is along the education of the pro- 
ducer, still there are some prejudices on the part of 
the consumer which prove the necessity of his further 
enlightenment in certain directions. One of these is 
the objection to brown-shelled eggs, and therefore it 
would seem timely to enter a plea for the Plymouth 
Rock and all fowls laying brown-shelled eggs. If 
there were any difference in size, in weight, or in 
nutriment between the brown-shelled and the white- 
shelled eggs, there might be some reason why the 
California markets should be a few cents less per 
dozen for the brown-shelled eggs. 

It has been said by some that brown-shelled eggs 
are richer than the white-shelled eggs. This state- 
ment, however, is not borne out by a searching chem- 
ical analysis; and the physical examination proves 
that the main points of superiority, although slight, 
are possessed by the white-shelled eggs. The minute 
differences that are found between the two groups 
are exceeded by variations between the varieties 
within the same group. 

We can, therefore, state as a conclusion, both from a 
chemical and physical point of view, that there are 
practically no differences so far as the food value is 
concerned between the white-shelled and the brown- 
shelled eggs. 

In conclusion, let me impress upon each of my lis- 
teners that he can individually add his share to the 
promotion of the poultry industry as a whole. What 
we need most of all is to accumulate full and accurate 
statistics upon which to base permanent and reliable 
conclusions. If a large number of the poultrymen 
would undertake to keep accurate and careful data 
in regard to the different methods employed in hous- 
ing, leeding and general management, it would be of 
inestimable value to those who are making scientific 
investigations. Science and practice must go hand 
in hand, and by a hearty and thorough co-operation 
between the poultrymen and the Agricultural Depart- 
ment, and between the poultrymen in different parts 
of the State, we might hope for a speedy solution of 
many of the problems now confronting us. 



THE FIELD. 



Some Practical Aspects of Seed Testing. 

By Miss Alice F. Crank, at, the State Farmers' Institute at the 
University of California. 

Nearly forty years ago Dr. Frederick Nobbe of 
Tharandt, Germany, commenced investigations of 
the condition of seed trade in that country. His dis- 
closures in regard to the poor quality and serious 
adulteration of commercial seeds resulted in awaken- 
ing much popular interest in the subject, and finally, 
in 1869, organized seed control was established in 
Germany, with a station for testing commercial 
seeds. Now there are many of these stations in 
Europe, Brazil, Japan, Java, etc. 

During the past ten or twelve years much valuable 
work has been done on this subject by the United 
States Agricultural Department. Considerable has 
also been done by a number of agricultural colleges 
throughout this country. 

We will not now discuss the necessity of seed 
control in this country. Such control will be wel- 



comed by honest dealers. We look for the time 
when only seeds that reach a required per cent of 
germination and of purity will be allowed on the 
market. 

More particularly, I wish to speak about weeds 
and weed seeds-but, a little about germination 
tests first. Different seeds require different treat- 
ment, or different conditions, and a practical seed 
tester is supposed to know what are the conditions 
most favorable to the germination of the seed in 
question. 

Testing sugar beet seed is a very interesting and 
a complicated piece of work. Some beet balls may 
produce from three to six sprouts. Each sprout 
must be carefully pricked out, and a record should 
be kept of how many sprouts to a ball. High per- 
centage seed will keep one busy when germination is 
at its height, for each sprout should be removed 
before it separates from the seed. Sometimes this 
happens in the middle of the night. A report of 
sugar beet tested after the rules of Germany and 
France should state: 

The average number of sprouts in 100 beet balls. 

The average number of balls in one kilogram of 
seeds. 

The average number of sprouts in one kilogram of 

seeds. 

The percentage of moisture. 
The percentage of purity. 

The percentage of beet balls that did not germi- 
nate. 

I have recently examined many samples of the last 
two crops of wheat grown in different sections of our 
State. A large number contained considerable 
barley and oats, either cultivated or wild oats. 
Also, 70% of the samples of wheat contained seeds of 
so-called poison rye grass, also called poison darnel, 
and these frequently in large numbers — in one 
sample one-half of the seed, by count, were of this 
weed. This grass, poison darnel, is our California 
chess or cheat. (A brome grass is the chess or 
cheat of the Eastern and Northern States.) There 
has been a popular fallacy that wheat turns to cheat 
— even some seedsmen believe it now. These grasses 
spring only from their own seeds. When chess seeds 
of strong vitality are present with small, shriveled 
wheat, is it any wonder that the wheat field is over- 
run with this pest, which is a very hardy plant? 

A few years ago in a district south of here there 
was considerable trouble experienced in raising oats. 
A sample of the seed used was sent to Prof. Hilgard 
with a letter explaining that repeatedly in that 
vicinity oats had been planted from which a crop of 
barley was raised. An appeal was made for an 
explanation of this freak or mystery of nature. 
Upon testing this sample I found that it contained 
80% of small oat seeds, 85% of which would germi- 
nate under most favorable conditions, but the seed- 
lings were not strong; 18% of the sample consisted 
of good, plump barley seeds, y8% of which would 
germinate, showing a vigorous growth; 2% of the 
sample was of poison darnel, chess or cheat. 

Please do not believe that wheat can turn to cheat, 
or oats can turn to barley. 

It has been said that in a broad sense any trouble- 
some plant may be called a weed. Bad or obnoxious 
weeds are any kind of bindweeds, as morning glory, 
which is more feared by farmers than any other 
weed, whether or not it is the worst one we have; 
parasitic vines, as dodder or love vine, which causes 
so much havoc in clover and alfalfa fields and in flax 
fields in the old world, which twines its yellow, leaf- 
less stems around the plant from which it takes its 
nourishment, surely weakening the plant, if not tak- 
ing its life The utmost precaution should be taken 
not to introduce it. 

Plants with creeping root stocks, as Johnson 
grass, Bermuda grass and poverty weed, are very 
objectionable, for once in the ground it is almost, if 
not quite, impossible to eradicate them. 

Squirrel tail and fox tail grasses may prove very 
troublesome. 

Also, any spiny or prickly plant, as the common 
spike weed of the lower San Joaquin Valley, and 
prickly lettuce, and any plant which bears many 
seeds and is of no use for forage. 

It is not unusual for me to find from 100 to 500 
weed seeds in about one teacupful or one-third of a 
pound of alfalfa seed. These samples frequently con- 
tain from 10 to 20 different species of weed seeds — 
often some may be screened out by means of a prop- 
erly selected sieve. One of the species of dodder seeds 
frequently found in alfalfa seed can not be cleaned out. 
Alfalfa seed which contains any dodder seed should 
never be planted. Utah alfalfa seed may be excel- 
lent as regards germination, but we want to know 
which of Utah's weed seeds we are importing. 

From the kind of weed seeds present, I can fre- 
quently tell whether the seed before me is Utah or 
California grown. In about one-third of a pound of 
alfalfa seed I found the other day just one seed of 
so-called Russian thistle, also called Russian cactus, 
but better called Russian tumble seed. Introduced 
with flax seed into the Middle West some 20 years 
ago, it proved a fearful pest. It is said that one 
plant may bear from 20,000 to 30,000 seeds, which 
are scattered as the plant is blown, rolling and 
tumbling over the country, or the seeds owing to a 
winglike attachment may themselves be carried by 
the wind. 



Is there not economy in having seed tested before 
planting? Frequently, whether there were many or 
few weed seeds present, I have been able to tell the 
farmer that it was possible to clean out all of the bad 
weed seeds. 

On rendering my reports I always explain the 
character of the objectionable weeds represented bv 
the foreign seeds in the sample. One man said 
recently that he spent $70 this last summer in 
attempting to destroy morning glory. I would like 
to know what some of this audience could tell of 
destruction of crops, land rendered useless, and 
money lost from the presence of weeds. 



THE VETERINARIAN. 



Bovine Abortion. 



By Chas. Ghksswell, M. B. C. V. S.. 222 Hayward Buliding, San 
Francisco, Consulting and Veterinary Surgeon to the National 
Live Stock Association. 

After many and various sources of loss to our live 
stock interests, that of abortion takes a prominent 
position in importance. 

The causes are many and varied, and the disease is 
both of a non-contagious and contagious character, 
but in the latter form can be greatly aggravated in 
violence by some of the non-contagious causes. 

The common causes of ordinary abortion are: Poor 
condition and weakness brought on by bad or insuffi- 
cient food, especially in the winter months or those 
of early spring; chronic indigestion, exemplified by 
frequent attacks of "bloating" or "colic;" uncertain 
water supply; sudden flushes of grass following a 
dry spell which has been severe enough to have 
caused great emaciation; feeding frozen roots, hay 
badly harvested, or grain affected with "amut," and 
drinking putrid water. Overfeeding after a time of 
underfeeding is also a predisposing cause, especially 
if an excess of nitrogenous food. In addition to these 
causes, probably the most common cause of non- 
contagious abortion among range and farm stock 
is the existence of the ergot fungus which, dur- 
ing warm wet seasons, and on undrained lands, fre- 
quently affects grain and the seeds of grasses. 

Ergotism. — Ergot consists of a purplish black fun- 
goid growth, which takes the place of several seeds 
on one stock. Rye grass is the most frequently 
affected, but it is also common in timothy, bluegrass, 
redtop and other grasses, and also found at times 
affecting wheat, barley, oats and rye. It is espe- 
cially common in wet seasons when the temperature 
is unusually high, and on meadows shaded by trees 
and protected from the free sweep of the wind. In 
addition to ergotized grasses and grain, certain poi- 
sonous weeds and the presence of the fluke parasite 
in the liver will cause abortion. 

It is not easy to devise a remedy for this kind of 
abortion when it is the result of widespread condi- 
tions, but in special meadows or pastures known to 
be affected with ergot, it is a good plan to mow the 
grass before the completion of the seeding period, 
which will prevent the formation of the fungus. If 
the hay cut is suspected of having ergot, a small 
sprinkling of salt between each three feet of hay as put 
up in the stack will, on the natural fermentation or 
the curing of hay, so affect the potent qualities of 
ergot as to prevent its harmful effects. 

No particular medicinal treatment is necessary for 
the after effects of non-contagious abortion, unless 
the membranes are retained in the womb longer than 
twenty-four hours. In that event, four ounces of 
sulphate of magnesia, one ounce of hyposulphite of 
soda, and one ounce of powdered ginger should be 
given in one pint of warm water once a day for two 
or three days to a cow, and half the dose to the mare. 
If the membranes have not been ejected on the third 
day, they should be carefully taken away, either by 
traction with the hand introduced as far back as pos- 
sible, or by placing the membranes, as they show 
outside, between two sticks, and gradually and slowly 
turning them round, until sufficient force is used to 
cause the removal of all the membranes. Care in 
this operation must be taken not to break the tissue, 
but bring all away intact. After removal, the va- 
gina and womb should be carefully irrigated with a 
solution of bichloride of mercury, made by dissolving 
one antiseptic tablet in two quarts of water, or with 
a solution of permanganate of potash, made by dis- 
solving ten grains to the pint of water. Irrigation 
is best done with a fountain syringe. 

Contagious Abortion. — A more important and dis- 
astrous cause of abortion is, however, contagion, and 
the resulting effect is known as contagious abortion, 
and when well established in a herd of cattle, or in 
a barn of dairy cows, is very disastrous in its effects 
unless remedied. Annual losses of offspring have 
occurred from this cause as high as 70% annually. 
The disease is conveyed from one animal to another 
by actual contact of the discharges from an abortive 
animal with the mucus lining membrane of the vagina 
of the healthy animal. A peculiar suppurative dis- 
ease is thereupon set up in the vagina which soon 
spreads to the uterus and foetal membranes, and 
causes expulsion of the foetus. This discharge from 
an infected animal is very virulent, and the smallest 
particle of it, wet or dry, will cause the disease, with 



January 6, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



7 



abortion in a varying period of from one month up- 
ward. This form of abortion may be aggravated by 
any of the causes before mentioned of non-contagious 
abortion, but may exist of itself when none of the 
other causes are present. It can only be stamped 
out by isolation and disinfection, though this can be 
done effectively and easily. The contagion allowed 
to run its course has been known to last in a stable 
or among a herd many years. The discharges after 
non-contagious abortion are not infective, but those 
from the contagious form always are to a more or 
less degree. 

The Germ. — The actual germ has not as yet been 
isolated and cultivated, but Nolard of France has 
discovered a germ existing abundantly between the 
womb and the afterbirth of abortive cows which was 
never found in the healthy. Sufficient proof, however, 
exists, by actual experiment with the discharges, 
that contagious abortion is quite distinct from 
that produced by other causes, and that it is only 
spread by actual contact. The virus taken from the 
contagious discharges will cause abortion in the sow, 
ewe, goat and rabbit, whereas the discarge from or- 
dinary abortion has no such effect. It is also noted 
that if the virus is first passed through a rabbit, it 
becomes intensified in its action, and then will most 
readily and more quickly act on the higher mammals, 
such as the cow or mare. The virus is supposed to 
act by causing a specific disease of the membranes of 
the foetus and of the lining of the womb, which grad- 
ually attains sufficient intensity as to cause, first 
separation and then expulsion of the whole contents 



of the womb, generally before death of the foetus has 
actually occurred. On the other hand, in non-conta- 
gious abortion, the foetus is generally dead before 
expulsion, and the membranes, being themselves 
more healthy than in the contagious form, are longer 
retained after the act of abortion. Thus, in the con- 
tagious form, it often happens that the evidences of 
the occurrence disappears before attention is drawn 
to the fact. 

Endurance of the Germ. — An important fact in 
cannection with the contagious form is that the dis- 
ease, set up in the womb and genital organs of an 
abortive cow, last an indefinite period after abortion 
has occurred, and often of so mild a character 
as to be scarcely perceptible, and does not interfere 
with the general health of the animal or prevent con- 
ception, but yet will cause abortion a few months 
after conception has taken place. Herein lies the 
particularly insidious danger of the disease, as dur- 
ing all this period the discharge continues to some 
extent, and is always effective. Tests show that 
abortion from this infection may occur at various 
times, depending upon the progress of the disease. 
It has occurred in a previously healthy animal in a few 
weeks, and, in some cases, a few months after inser- 
tion in the vagina of a piece of cotton saturated with 
the discharge of an affected animal. The dry dis- 
charge is infectious, and can be conveyed especially 
in stables most readily from one animal to another. 
On the open range or in large pastures the most 
common method of conveyance is direct by the bull. 
In stables and among small herds the absolute eradi- 



cation of the disease can be readily effected, but 
among very large herds on the open range the only 
practicable method is the culling out and treatment 
or destruction of infected auimals. 

Treatment. — The principles of treatment are to 
realize that the disease set up by the virus is mild, 
but constant in character, and kept in existence by 
the constant reproduction of the virus; and further, 
that it can be completely destroyed by such disin- 
fectants as bichloride of mercury, and it only requires 
contact with a 1 to 3000 strength solution of this 
agent to utterly destroy the power of reproduction 
in the virus. This irrigation, for a few days, of the 
womb once a day by means of a fountain syringe with 
a solution of bichloride of mercury, 1 part to 3000 
of water, and washing the tail and thighs with a solu- 
tion twice the strength for a few times, will prevent 
the contagious after-effects of contagious abortion. 
Isolation of the animal until cured is of course neces- 
sary, together with a thorough disinfection of all 
woodwork in stalls or corrals which may have be- 
come infected. Manure or litter which has been in 
contact, and also the afterbirth, should be buried or 
burned. In all cases of persistent outbreaks of abor- 
tion, a careful and scientific inquiry as to the real 
cause should be at once instituted, as I have known 
of no instance of continuous abortions where the 
cause could not, by careful inquiry, be discovered 
and in most instances remedied, not only to the profit 
and benefit of the individual, but frequently on open 
pastures and ranges, to the benefit of the commu- 
nity. 



TUBULAR-or "Back Breaker?" 

When you see the waist low Tubular you can't bo driven into buying a 
back-breaking, "bucket bowl" separator. Can and crank are just, (he 
right height on the Tubular. Here is the largest Dairy Tubular along 
side four "back breakers." The girl with her band on the Tubular is 5 
feet, 4 inches tall. This is an exact reproduction from a photograph. 
Which kind for you? Makers of "back breakers" try to get their cans 
low by setting the cranks low. High cans break your back backward — 
low cranks break it forward. Unless you are a double jointed giant, 
you'll lind a high can is no joke. To show you how high these "back 
breaker" cans really are, when the machines are set high enough to turn 
easily, we raised these "back breakers" 'til their crank axles were level 
with the Tubular crank axle. # "Back breaker" makers don't like this 
picture — it's too true. They try to squirm out of it. You wouldn't like 
turning cranks as low as "back breaker" makers put them. 

The low can Is only one of many advantages Dairy Tubulars hnvr over all others. 
Dairy Tubular bowls are simple— "back breakers" are complicated. Tubulars are 
self-oiling--no oil holes to till up. "Hack breakers" are oil drippers and oil wasters. 
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This is the world-famed Fig of Commerce. 

You will save money by patronizing us. 

We are selling good stocky trees at $15 00 per 100; 
Capris at the same price. 

LET US BOOK YOUR ORDER NOW. 

MAYW00D COLONY NURSERY, 

CORNINC, CAL. 

W. HERBERT SAMSON, Prop. 



PURE Florida Favorite Melon Seeds. If you want 
genuine seeds of this variety, write CRENSHAW 
BROS., Tampa, Fla. 



ROOTEDVINES. 

Tokay, Emperor, 
Thompson Seedless, Sultana, 
Malaga, Muscatel, Zinfandel. 



Also MUIR PEACH TREES. 



Fowler Nursery Co. 

FOWLER, CAL. 

FOR SALE. 

20,000 strong-rooted Loganberry tips, 2 cts. eaoh 
or J15.00 per M. Cuthbert Raspberry and Lawton 
Blackberry 2 cts. each or 15.00 per M. 

L. E. BARLOW, Sebastopol, Cal. 



8 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 6, 1906. 



The Home Circle* 



Which One Was Kept. 



There were two little kittens, a black and 
a gray, 

And grandmamma said with a frown — 
"It will never do to keep them both, 
The black one we'd better drown. 

"Don't cry, my dear," to tiny Bess, 
"One kitten's enough to keep : 

Now run to nurse, for 'tis growing: late, 
And time you wore fast asleep." 

The morrow dawned, and rosy and sweet 
Came little Bess from her nap ; 

The nurse said, "Go into mamma's room 
And look in grandma's lap." 

"Come here," said grandmamma, with a 
smile, 

From the rocking-chair whore she sat ; 
"God has sent you two little sisters, 
Now, what do you think of that?" 

Bess looked at the babies a moment, 
With their wee heads, yellow and brown, 

And then to grandmamma soberly said, 
"Which one are you going to drown?" 

—Lillian Street, in Ideal Home. 

A Dream Melody. 

" I suppose I've been ill! I wonder 
what's the matter with me ?" 

Colin Stuart opened his eyes, and, 
struggling into a sitting posture, saw 
that he was in the shabby bed-sitting- 
room in the dull side street which for a 
dreary time now had been his ' home.' 

He was still only half conscious and 
painfully weak, but gradually his brain 
cleared a little, and bit by bit memory 
came back. 

" So she didn't turn me out, after all ! 
She must have looked after me, too, and 
found money for medicine and food. 
Her bark was worse than her bite, 
poor creature ! I daresay she's hard 
pressed enough herself at times, espe- 
cially if many of her lodgers are as un- 
profitable as I am." 

" How much did I owe her, now, be- 
fore I was taken ill ? How long have I 
been lying here in delirium, and, worst 
problem of all, what am I to do with 
myself now I have my senses back 
again ? Life was pretty rough before; 
it will be impossible now." 

Another glance around the room 
freshened his memory again — the open 
piano, the loose sheets of torn music 
carelessly strewn all around. However 
long the illness had been in duration, no 
loving hand tended him, only grudging 
service (given, perchance, as an alter- 
native to an inquest) had been bestowed 
on him. 

"I remember! I'd reached the end 
of all things ; not one penny left — no 
work — season flat — couldn't sell music 
or get it sung, not one solitary engage- 
ment through all those awful weeks. 
Only the clothes I was wearing left ! 
Not a friend in the whole world I could 
turn to for help — bread and water for 
a week — then water without the bread, 
with the Frenchman's experience to 
follow ; no sooner had I taught the 
horse to live on one straw a day than 
the brute spited me and died ! 

"But I didn't die ! No, here I am, 
unfortunately, alive. I've been under 
the waters of fate ouce, and, like other 
bodies, risen to the surface. I shall go 
down again directly. Mrs. Wilcox 
thinks she can turn me out without be- 
ing held up for manslaughter or any- 
thing of that kind. Shall I rise the 
second time through the casual ward 
or be allowed to die quietly in the gut- 
ter ? Heaven knows ; I don't." 

Another long, weary pause, at the 
end of which the landlady popped her 
head in at the door, gave a grunt which 
might either have been satisfaction or 
disgust on realizing the invalid was con- 
scious — better ; then dived back to the 
kitchen, emerging therefrom a little 
later with a basin of very weak soup 
and a piece of bread, which she set 
down with a clatter on a small table 
near the bed with the remark: 

"You can feed yourself again now ; 
the time it's wasted every day a-look- 
ing after you no money could ever pay 
for." 

"I'm sure I'm very grateful," was 



the shamed reply. "Have I been ill 

long ?" 

"Mor'n two weeks," ungraciously, 
" an me scared to death with all this 
talk o' smallpox about." 

Colin started violently. 

"But it can't be that — there is no 
rash — " 

"Good thing for you it wasn't," was 
the sharp retort. " It's delirium, the 
doctor says. You've been a-playing 
that there piano to death, but there 
ain't enough on those bones to suit me ; 
it's all noise an' no meat in pianos. 
Never no more musicians take my 
rooms, and out you go just as soon as 
you can set foot to the ground. ' ' 

"I must owe you an awful lot," he 
murmured, brokenly. " I see medicine, 
and food, and wine, besides the rent ; 
you must be a kind of pantomime fairy 
disguised as — as — " 

"Don't you go poking your fun at 
me," she broke in shrilly. " I'm a poor, 
hard working, honest woman. Fairy, 
indeed. The very idea. What you've 
had you've paid for, or, it stands to 
reason, out you'd have gone long ago." 

"Paid for," blankly; "why, when I 
was taken ill I was behind with my 
rent — " 

"And who'll blame me for paying my- 
self out of the money in your pocket ?" 
hectoringly. " There you was a-lying 
dead (so it looked at first) on the floor, 
and when the doctor was fetched he 
says food, fire, wine an' good nursing. 
' Who's to pay ?' says I, and he says, 
' You'd better look amongst his things 
for his money. In the meantime, use 
this,' giving me a sovereign. One of 
the lodgers sat with you while I run out 
for the medicine, an' afterward we 
went through your things together. 

"Ten pounds there was in two five- 
pound notes, an' fifteen shillings in sil- 
ver. I jist got the gentleman to sign 
his name to its being all right, which, 
thank heaven, he's here an' can prove, 
an' in course I took out the three pounds 
owing for rent, an' paid the doctor back 
his sovereign, an' used the rest as it 
was wanted. What's left's in that there 
box on the table, an' another week's 
rent due tomorrow." 

She was hard but honest. There was 
still a remnant of gold among the sil- 
ver — enough to last, please heaven, 
until he was strong enough to crawl out 
again, with the hope of earning a pre- 
carious living. 

Where the money had come from 
goodness alone knew ! A purse of gold 
where not one copper piece had been ! 

As Colin lay back on his lodging- 
house pillow (hard and rather grimy) 
unshed tears burned his eyeballs as he 
thought of that doctor, who, seeing at 
a glance that he was dying from sheer 
starvation, had not hesitated to give 
the ' two pence 1 of the Good Samar- 
itan. 

" The mere money I may repay some 
day," he thought ; "but the action 
never ! Whether one pound or fifty at 
the last day, it will speak — it will have 
a thousand voices. God will hear them." 

As soon as he could crawl he dragged 
himself to the piano. If even now he 
could only be in time — time to win that 
grand prize offered by the Conserva- 
toire at Florence for the best setting of 
a song to words supplied by them — 
£250 English money, with the situation 
of harmony master at a large salary 
to, perhaps, the cleverest group of 
students the world had ever seen. 

There was an exquisite but madden- 
ing elusive melody in his brain — an an- 
gel song ; but his head was weak from 
illness, and it was evidently doomed to 
remain one of those untold dream witch- 
eries which thrall most soul musicians 
at times and draw away their thoughts 
toj cloud land. He could not hum it, 
could not find its beginning or end, 
though he tried each note in the gamut ; 
but he felt it, he had dreamed it ; some 
day — too late, perhaps, to make use of 
in this world — it would come to him in 
its full, glorious beauty. 

Song after song, tune after tune, he 
painfully evolved, only to throw them 
aside with a cry of despair when fin- 
ished. 

"Mechanical, wooden ! Correct har- 
mony? Yes, but oh, ye gods, how com- 
monplace, how evenly on the dead level! 
and only twenty-four hours left before 
the MS. must be posted. I am like a 




U. S. Government Inspected. 
For Quality, Unsurpassed. 

Western Heat Company, 

San Francisco. 



drowning man who sees the life belt 
hanging just out of his reach. The 
prize, the position, the melody, and my 
utter inability to grasp it. What is 
that ? " springing to his feet and al- 
most ceasiDg to breathe as certain 
notes, halting, faulty, but still gloriously 
beautiful, reached his ear. "Who is 

that? What is that " A long 

pause, then he said deliberately, res- 
olutely, though his face was white as 
snow: " That is the music that shall 
win the prize '. It is mine, not his! I 
dreamed it. I can write it into some- 
thing that will electrify the world; my 
harmonies shall be transcendently beau- 
tiful, his are hopelessly faulty; the 
melody is worthless to him, to me it is 
salvation for soul and body " 

The notes were played through again 
slowly, tenderly, with wrong chords, 
with right chords, with one finger only, 
a rich deep voice hummed them, a girl's 
clear soprano corrected the man to a 
curious minor resolution thatColin's soul 
had already leaped to— they— these un- 
known two — had given him the clew to 
his dream melody; theirs was of the 
earth earthy; he would turn it into 
something that was worthy even of 
heaven itself. 

Down he sat and set feverishly to 
work and the melody fitted the words, 
as a glove the hand: 

Hail, victor! in the generous strife, 
This is the golden hour of life; 
The struggle and the task are done, 
The guerdon and the chaplet won. 
****** 
Thine is the fadeless olive crown, 
Blazon and badge of bright renown; 
For thee the poet's lyre is strung, 
For thee the song of triumph won. 

He wrote on, and on, and on ! Night 
passed into day, and day nearly into 
night again before it was finished, and 
he managed to stagger out and post it 
himself; then he fainted, and Mrs. Wil- 
cox told him he must leave her house 
at the end of the week. She couldn't 
abide invalids, besides which she had a 
chance of letting her rooms for almost 
double the money; but her first floors 
were going, and new people coming in 
who wanted an extra room. 

Colin was thankful to go. He felt 
like a thief who had robbed a blind man. 
He was a thief, and he had stolen 
what was far more precious than gold 
— he had stolen fame from an old man, a 
foreigner, from a girl perhaps as poor 
as himself — and he hated himself for it. 
He had done it almost in his delirium, 
but as health and strength returned 
every hour, so did his moral sense of 
right and wrong. 

He was a thief. 



The letter with the good news came 
to a dreary London attic, one of those 
tiny, ill-furnished rooms which shelter 
broken hearts and hide blighted hopes 
from the mock of the world. 

Colin Stuart had won the prize for 
his superb setting of the classic ode — 
he held the cheque in his hand for £250, 
with the formal offer of the post he had 
craved, with more than formal ap- 
preciation of his work, for the famous 
Signor Tiorno pronounced it worthy of 
the highest praise. 



Colin threw the letter down in bitter 
contempt. " Stolen honors — a giant's 
robe," he muttered, "only, thank 
heaven, there is still time to make res- 
titution. I will take it there to-night 
— now, it may be to them what it was 
to me — what it would have been to me 
if it were honestly mine. Perhaps the 
melody was hers — that beautiful dark- 
eyed girl I used to see passing up and 
down to the second floor back — perhaps 
it was the old foreigner's I saw with 
her just before I was taken ill — they 
will pity and forgive, the temptation 
was so great." 

But they also had left Mrs. Wilcox's 
apartments, he found — they had gone a 
few days before he himself had done so. 

"She — Miss Giacomo — was a gov- 
erness and lived here for three years," 
explained Mrs. Wilcox, vexedly, "and 
paid to the day all that time. Then 
her uncle came and took her away — he 
hadn't any children, and is quite a rich 
old man, I believe, an' she's going 
abroad with him. She was his sister's 
child, an' there'd been a quarrel over 
the marriage an' they lost sight of each 
other. Anyhow the parents are dead 
now, and the signor he's adopted Miss 
Giacomo for his own; their address, sir? 
Now, let me see, they went from here 
to one of them big hotels — Cecil I think 
it was — " 

Colin contrived to cut short the rest 
of her voluble talk, and started off to 
walk to the Hotel Cecil; be was glad 
from his heart that the girl had found 
a friend and the prospect of happiness 
— if only the good luck had come to him, 
other dreams than money and fame 
might have been his; now she would 
never know that her pretty face had 
chained him to Mrs. Wilcox's house like 
a spell; that the chance meeting some- 
times, the glance from her sweet eyes 
had inspired his muse — yes! something 
else had gone out of his life with Nina 
Giacomo, and he had to confess himself 
as a thief before her. 

It was the only restitution he could 
make. 

****** 

" I had set my whole soul on winning 
that prize," stammered the culprit, 
with downcast eyes. " I thought of it 
by day and dreamed of it by night — 
then I was taken ill, and a wondrous 
melody made itself known to me; 
strange, sweet harmonies ran through 
my fever so that waking was almost a 
pain, for with coining back to this dreary 
world the angel tune vanished, and I 
could not catch hold of it — it seemed 



Face Value 

is what you value your 
face at. If you value it 
as you should, vou use 

WILLIAMS' 

Sold everywhere. Free trial sample 
for 2-cent stamp. Write for "The 
Shavers Guide and How to Dress 

Correctly." 

The J. B. Williams Co., Glastonbury, Conn. 



January 6, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



9 



still in my soul, but elusive, like a 
shadow which cannot be grasped — then 
— one night I heard it played in an- 
other room. I heard it hummed and 
strummed, not the harmony, but the 
ghost of the melody, and my delirium 
was not over. I entreat you to believe 
it was not the true Colin Stuart, but 
some remnant of the fever fiend who 
did it. I stole the melody and elaborated 
it, harmonized it, as I had heard it 
played in my dreams, and I sent it in as 
my own; it won the prize — it is here — 
yours, not mine — " 

"No," said Nina Giacomo, softly lay- 
ing a detaining hand to stay the retreat 
he tried to make, "it was always 
yours, Mr. Stuart; even in your fever 
the ruling passion of your life came 
out; there were many hours when you 
were alone, untended, and you used to 
get up and play wonderful music — 
dream music — which drove one into 
ecstasy to hear, better, far more beau- 
tiful than I had ever heard you play 
before. 

"That prize melody was yours, and 
I used to pick out just the air on my 
piano afterward sometimes. I have re- 
membered other tunes, but I liked that 
best; it is your very own, and the ap- 
pointment also — and I am happy for 
your sake — " 

" I had one other dream, too," he 
said in almost an inaudible tone, "as 
sweet or sweeter than the music. 
There was a purse found in my room, a 
lady's purse, with a name hastily 
erased, yet not so thoroughly but 
that some letters were left — " 

"You must forgive," she cried 
quickly; " the good luck came to me 
just then; my uncle offered me a home. 
I knew I should have enough money for 
always — and — and I was passing the 
door when you fell and fainted. I knew 
why, and— Mrs. Wilcox has been made 
hard because her own fight has been so 
bitter — those on the coach cannot un- 
derstand how the wheels hurt, unless 
once they have been under them them- 
selves." 

And after ail they did not pass out 
of each other's lives — the good luck had 
come at last! — Tid Bits. 



r 



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Interest at 4% per annum COM- 
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San Francisco, California 



.DAKES' AO'CY, 8. F.m 



J 



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FISTULA, PILES. 
ITCHING PILES, 
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Dept. A. Suite 501-502 Donohoe Building, 
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SEEDS suitable for southern climates, Florida 
grown. If interested, write CRENSHAW BROS., 
Tampa, Fla., for their descriptive catalog. 




CALIMYRNA FIG. 

There are a great many sorts of Smyrna Figs 
We catalogue six kinds, but these do not com- 
prise our entire collection. There is only one 
variety, however, which Ave years' successful 
production on a commercial scale warrants us 
in recommending it for drying purposes, and 
this particular variety we have designated as 
above, to give it the distinction it deserves. 
When you buy your trees from us, you know 
you are purchasing stock originating from 
pedigreed trees, which have been producing 
the highest grade of fruit for a period of years. 
When you purchase a thousand peach trees, 
you usually designate what you want. You 
certainly would not permit your nurseryman 
to send you a lot of varieties, without labeling 
them, if you could help it. Well, it is the same 
with the Smyrna tig; some are early, others 
late; some are purple, others green. Can you 
afford, for the sake of saving a few cents, to 
take chances on buying trees which car not be 
relied on? We were the first ones to demon- 
strate the value of this fig, and with our seal 
we guarantee the genuineness of our trees. 
Prices lower than ever before. 

FRUIT TREES. 

Are grown on a deep, alluvial river bottom, 
virgin soil, consequently the root system is as 
perfect as good soil can make them. Our as- 
sortment of apples, pears, peaches, prunes, 
apricots, is more complete than ever. 

ORANGES and LEMONS. 

Our stock is grown in Exeter, the famous 
thermal belt of Tulare county. The soil is a 
rich, deep, black loam, just the kind which de- 
velops the highest grade of fruit, as well as the 
most perfect type of tree. Our assortment con- 
sists of all standard varieties of Oranges, 
Lemons, Pomelos, Limes, Citrons, etc. Carry 
ing out the lines already established in the 
other branches, we do not confine ourselves to 
one or two standards and no more, for although 
it costs money to keep up a stock of many vari- 
eties, we want to be on top in this as well as in 
every thing we specialize in the nursery bust- 

GRAPE VINES. 

If you do not know it, you ought to know that 
we are the largest growers of vines on the 
Pacific coast. We are not only growers of 
raisin, wine and table grapes, but we are also 
making a specialty of vines grafted on phyl- 
loxera resistant roots. Our great and enter- 
prising neighbor, Mexico, is having its vine- 
yards devastated by this pest, and we have al- 
ready sold two orders to prominent vineyard- 
ists there, who know what our stock is, consist- 
ing of eighty thousand grafted vines. How 
did we get such orders? Because we had 
pleased our customers before, so they had no 
hesitation in patronizing us again. 

ORNAMENTAL STOCK. 

Our stock of Texas Umbrella trees branched 
in all sizes, guaranteed absolutely true to 
name, is better than ever We are extensive 
growers of Poplars, Mulberries, Maples, and 
all deciduous ornamental trees suited to our 
conditions. 

In evergreens, we have Acacias, Eucalyptus, 
Palms, Roses, Greenhouse Plants — in fact 
everything you want for your garden. 

OUR NURSERIES. 

Eleven hundred acres in four distinct places. 
Expensive to run a business so widely dis- 
tributed. We know it. Why do we not con- 
centrate all in one place? Because we want to 
be in a position to grow the best of everything, 
and, to do this, must select the soil to suit the 
tree, shrub or vine. No use to grow a tree 
where you know beforehand the conditions are 
not favorable for its perfect development. 
That is what twenty-one years of experience 
does. It places us in the position to grow the 
very best stock. In making a plea for your 
trade, we do so, not because we have the 
cheapest stock, but on the ground that when 
you favor us with your business, you will get 
the best which money, brains and experience 
combined can grow. 

CATALOGUE. 

We will mail our large, profusely illustrated 
catalogue, English or Spanish, to any address 
on receipt of 5c postage. Price list mailed on 
application. 

PAID UP CAPITAL, $200,000.00. 

Fancher Creek Nurseries 

(Incorporated) 
GEO. C. ROE0IN0, President and Manager, 

FRESNO, CALIFORNIA. 

Box 18. 



GUM TREES 

IN VARIETY, 

including RUDIS, ROSTRATA, VIMINALIS. 

MONTEREY CYPRESS, 
MONTEREY PINES, 

f\\ I Transplanted In Boxes. 

Write for prices, stating quantity wanted. 
W. A. T. STRATTON, PET ALUM A, CAL. 




POULTRYMEN! TAKE NOTICE! 

The Jubilee Incubator Co. has just issued a magnificent catalogue— 
o big pages-describing the Jubilee Incubators and Brooders— the busi- 
ness machines of the world. YOU NEED IT. 

The Jubilee Line of Poultrymen's Goods sold direct to you at wholesale 
rates. The Jubilee Book tells all. Send for it. Mailed FREE. 

JUBILEE INCUBATOR CO. 

SUNNYVALE Santa Clara County CALIFORNIA 




THIS 



IS THE 'PHONE FO 
FARM FOLKS 



In selecting a telephone for the farm line re- 
member that repairs and tinkering cost money 

and waste time. Use the same judgment that you would in buyuTg a 
reaper. The cheap telephone, like the cheap harvester, is out of ser- 
vice most of the time. Its talking qualities are not lasting; it soon 
gets weak, and is liable to cause you trouble all of the time. 

Siromberg-Carlson Telephones 

are the standard make for rural lines. Other manufacturers claim 
their instruments are as good— they like to compare theirs with Strom- 
berg-Carlson-but TIME will not bear out their claims. To avoid trouble, 
expense and disappointment, pay the trifle more and get the telephone with 
a reputation. Buy the Strombcrg-Carlson— vou buy satisfaction. Free 
book, 72 I), "How the Telephone Helps the Farmer." tells a lot of rea- 
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N.Y. STROMBERG-CARLSON TELEPHONE MFG. CO., CHICAGO, ILL. 




t 

ROCHESTER. 





POLYTECHNIC BUSINESS COLLEGE 

and SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

The Business University of the West. Finest Building in the West. 

Annual Enrollment 1000 — 30 Teachers. 100 Typing Machines. 
Individual Instruction. Most Modern and Complete Banking Offices 

in U. S. College Auditorium Seating 1000 Students. 
Civil, Electrical, Mining and all Engineering Branches. School Open 
the Year Round, Day and Night. Secures Positions for Graduates. 



PORTABLE BUILDINGS. 

NO. 23. STOCK SIZE-6 ft. 4% in. by 9 ft. 4% in. 
One Door. One Window. One Room. 
Folding spring bunks and drop table. Comfortable quarters for two men. 
We will be pleased to send catalogues on application. 

BURNHAM-STANDEFORD CO. 



WASHINGTON AND SECOND STREETS. 



OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA. 



RIO VISTA HOTEL, 253 THIRD ST.. NEAR HOWARD. SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. TEL. MAIN 1261. 
200 rooms, en suite and single. Rates per day, 35c and up; week, $2 and up. Country patronage so- 
licited. Convenient, respectable, up to date. Steam heat, hot and cold water, electric lights, 
return call bells in every room. Inside and outside lire escapes. Electric elevator all night. 
Ladies' parlor. Reading room with all daily papers. Baths free to guests. Take Howard St. car te 
Third from ferries, or Third St. car from Townsend St. depot to house. MRS. EMMA OLAFSEN, Prop. 



Land for Sale and to Rent* 



G 





Glenn County, 



California. 



FOR SALE 

IN SUBDIVISIONS. 



This famous and well-known farm, the home of 
the late Dr. Glenn, "the wheat king," has been sur- 
veyed and subdivided. It is offered for sale in any 
sized government subdivision at Iremarkably low 
prices, and in no case, it is believed, exceeding 
what it is assessed for county and State taxation 
purposes. 

This great ranch runs up and down the west bank 
of the Sacramento river for 15 miles. It is located 
in a region that has never lacked an ample rainfall, 
and no irrigation is required. 

The river is navigable at all seasons of the year, 
and freight and trading boats make regular rips 

The closest personal Inspection of the land by 
proposed purchasers is invited. Parties desiring 
to look at the land should go to Willows, Califor- 
nia, and inquire for P. O. Elbe. 

For further particulars and for maps, showing 
the subdiv'sions and prices per acre, address per 
sonally or by letter, 

F\ C LUSK, 

Agent of N. D. Rideout, Administrator oi the Estate 
of H. J. Glenn, at Chico, Butte County, California 



50 Acres, all in Apples; 

n I Over 8000 Boxes Crop of 1905. 

Apple house, stable and blacksmith shop. All 
choice shipping fruit and commands highest price. 
Easy terms or will sell part cash and long time on 
balance, or will exchange for city property 

Call or address 

I. J. TRUHAN, 

CALL BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO. 

IS YOUR RANCH FOR SALE? ™K 

Los Angeles and the East, we know we can sell it 
if the price is right. No charge unless we make a 
sale. Write us about it to-day. PHILLIPS & 
CULVER, 22 Sutter St., San Francisco, Cal. 

rHD QAI P GOOD RANCH AT A BARGAIN. 
rUn OHLt ioo acres near Red Bluff, Cal. 
Price $2500. For further particulars address 
I. R. D. GRUBB, Real Estate, 825 Mills Building, 
San Francisco. 

ALFALFA LANDS, Orchards, Vineyards, Stock 
ranches. Agents the famous Grldley Colony. 
Fertile land. Plenty of water. Printed matter free. 
CHAS. F. O'BRIEN &CO..30 Montgomery St., S.F. 

nil imnill R FARM BARGAINS. Send for 
LAI I P IIKN I A catalog. C.M.WoosterCo., 
unLM u,,,,,rl 648 Market St., S.F.,Cal. 

WE sell country lands. CHATFIELD& VINZENT, 
228 Montgomery street, San Francisco, Cal. 



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10 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January G, 1906. 



The Markets* 



San Francisco Produce Report. 

San Francisco, Jan. B, 1W6. 

CHICAGO WHEAT FUTURES. 
Wheat futures in Chicago were as follows for the 
week named, price being for No. 2 Red per bushel: 

May. 
87 K® 86* 

w«® 8654 

*7>i(cb 87 
88?b@ 8754 

ffl 

8854® «7Ji 



Dec. 

Wednesday » S2*@ 8254 

Thursday 82*® 82« 

Friday 8354® 835b 

Saturday 84 ® 8354 

♦Monday ffl 

Tuesday ® 

CHICAGO CORN FUTURES. 
Prices of futures on No. 2 corn per bushel in Chi- 
cago were as follows for the week : 

Dec. May. 

Wednesday 4554@44X 44?4®44' 8 

Thursday 457i(oi44V4 4 4 54ffl4» 

Friday 47 ®43^ 4454®44* 

Saturday 4454@41 44s<S44M 

♦ Monday @ @ 

Tuesday @ 44 54@44M 

SAN FRANCISCO WHEAT FUTURES. 
The range of values in San Francisco for No. 1 
White wheat per cental was as follows: 

Dec. 1906. May. 1906. 

Wednesday I ® *1 40X@1 40V4 

Thursday ffl 1 405(®1 39?i 

Fridav ® 1 40?6®1 40J< 

Saturday ® 1 *0 ®> 39fc 

♦ Monday @ ® 

Tuesday ® 1 40*4®1 4054 

♦Holiday. 

Wheat. 

The market for spot wheat continues 
steady, and prices remain unchanged. 
Very little cash grain has changed hands 
during the current week on account of 
the holiday season, and partly owing to 
the fact that local grain people : are all 
fairly well stocked. All the mills have 
purchased large supplies of northern 
wheat at about the appearing quotations, 
and aside from the buying of the millers 
trading has been very limited. Export 
shipments from San Francisco have been 
much smaller than usual, while from the 
north they have been considerably larger. 
Trading in futures has been rather lim- 
ited, though prices are maintained at 
about the same figures as for the week 
previous, being largely influenced by the 
advance in cargoes. Prices for May wheat 
have ranged from $1.40 to $1.41 per cen- 
tal. Advices from Chicago would indi- 
cate that the wheat situation is in as 
sound a condition as it has ever been, the 
market being far from what could be 
termed a trading market. In fact it is 
said that the speculative movement is 
largely confined to buying and selling on 
small margins, as the strong statistical 
situation seems to preclude the possibility 
of the market undergoing any radical 
change in the near future. The Russian 
situation which was used for a time by 
the bull element in an attempt to advance 
prices does not seem so alarming as it 
was represented. That country continues 
to ship wheat to other parts of the conti- 
nent fn apparently unlimited quantities. 
The Argentine wheat crop has now passed 
the stage where it could bo possiblo for 
the fears of a crop failure to be realized, 
and, consequently, is not able any longer 
to give any coloring to the market. On 
the whole, the situation seems to be ex- 
actly what would be desired by the grow- 
ers of wheat, were the making of the 
market placed unrestrictedly in their 
hands. 

California Milling II 42 @1 4754 

Cal. No. 1 shipping 1 40 @1 45 

Northern Club 1 4254®1 43* 

Northern Bluestem 1 46 ©1 4754 

Northern Red 1 35 ©1 3754 

PRICES OF FUTURES. 

Tuesday, at the forenoon session of Exchange, 
May, 1906, wheat ranged from ll.4101.4OX. 



The Hour market is inactive. The only 
demand at present comes from the local 
dealers, and most of these have laid in 
fairly largo supplies to carry them 
over the winter season. The shipping 
demand continued very light, most of it 
being confined to the usual Central Amer- 
ican trade, with an occasional shipment 
for the Hawaiian Islands and Japan. 
This latter demand, however, is usually 
supplies from the northern ports, as the 
limited crop of California wheat compels 
local millers to obtain most of their wheat 
supplies from the North; and the high- 
priced cargoes make it impossible for 
San Francisco Hour shippers to compete 
with those of the North in price. 

Patents, California t ffll 85 

Second Patents, California ®4 60 

Straights @4 25 

Superfine No. 1 3 50 ©3 75 

Superfine No. 2 3 00 ©3 40 

Oregon Bakers' 4 15 (3)4 50 

Washington B ikers' 4 25 ©4 60 

Eastern Patents 5 50 © 

Hurley 

The market for spot barley continues 
firm, and prices are unchanged. Good 
lots of No. 1 feed have changed hands 
during tho week at prices within the range 
of quotations given, and it is possible 
that an exceptionally bright lot of this 
grain would bring an advance over tho 



top quotation of $1.22$. There is plenty 
of medium and off-grade barley offering 
as low as $1.15, but with few takers. 
Trading in futures on the local stock ex- 
change has been rather limited, but the 
price has been steadily maintained at a 
figure not far from $1.22*. The only bar- 
ley option which is now receiving any 
attention from the trade is for May de- 
livery. 

Brewing »1 2254^1 25 

Feed, no. 1 1 20 <a,l 2254 

Feed, fair to good 1 15 ffll 1754 

Chevalier, No. 1 to choice 1 35 @l so 

Chevalier, common to fair 1 20 ®l 25 

Data. 

The oat market is quiet but steady. 
Appearing quotations are being well 
maintained and the light receipts which 
are now coming in are being readily taken 
up at these figures. There has been some 
inquiry for oats for shipment to the 
Philippines on United States Government 
contracts. So far as can be ascertained, 
the contracts have not as yet been 
awarded, and it is probable that when 
they are awarded they will go to the 
Northern shippers, as the San Francisco 
people are finding it difficult to bid 
against them this year, owing to tho fact 
that a large amount of the oats for this 
market must come from the North. 
Choice red oats and black oats are scarce, 
stocks being hardly sufficient to supply 
the demand for seeding purposes, and 
oats of these varieties suitable for seeding 
will bring an advance ovor the appearing 
quotations. 

White oats Jl 4754®1 55 

Black oats ®1 75 

Red, choice 1 35 ®1 65 

Red, fair 1 » @I 35 

Corn 

Corn is firm and stocks of yellow corn 
in both the large and small varieties are 
light. There have been as yet no large 
arrivals of Western corn, but quotations 
on Western to arrive are lower. Both 
white and brown Egyptian are firmly 
held at appearing quotations. 

Large White, good to choice (1 35 @1 3754 

Large Yellow @1 25 

Small Yellow 1 50 ffll 55 

Egyptian White s 1 3754©1 4154 

Egyptian Brown 1 25 ©1 2754 

Kye. 

The offerings of what might be termed 
choice rye have been very meager, and 
as there is now very little arriving from 
the East, the present prices show no 
tendency to decline. The only stocks now 
are in the hands of tho millers and these 
are very light. 

Good to choice II 4754®! 5254 

Buckwheat. 

Thore is no business of a jobbing char- 
acter reported and tho";only buyers now 
in the market are the millers, and these 
have only been able to secure limited 
quantities at the quoted price. Seed 
buckwheat brings a figure somewhat 
above these quotations. 

Good to choice ®1 75 

Beans. 

There is a good, steady demand for 
large and small white beans at appearing 
quotations. Supplies of Red Kidneys and 
Blackeyes are limited, and as the bulk of 
the crop has already been marketed, it is 
evident that tho quotations given are 
very conservative. On red beans and 
Bayos the market is firm and Limas are 
steadily advancing under the alleged 
manipulations of -one of the local dealers, 
who is said to have almost complete con- 
trol of the situation. 

Small White, good to choice »3 00 @3 25 

Large White 2 00 ®2 60 

Pinks 1 75 ©2 00 

Pinks, damaged 1 00 ffll 25 

Bayos, good to choice 3 50 @3 65 

Red Kidneys 3 65 ®3 90 

Reds 3 00 ®3 10 

Limas, good to choice 4 50 @4 75 

Black-eye Beans 4 60 ®4 75 

Dried Peas. 

The market continues firm on both 
green peas and Niles, with stocks of Niles 
practically out of the hands of jobbers. 
Arrivals have been few and are readily 
marketed at the figure given. Scarcely 
any of the Salinas crop found its way into 
this market, as better prices were pro- 
cured in the South, where they are exten- 
sively used in orchards as fertilizers. 

Green Peas, California 12 25 @2 40 

Niles 1 60 igl 75 

Hops. 

There is not much life to the hop mar- 
ket and very little trading has been done 
during the current week. The average 
buying price on such transactions as have 
been made will be found between 7c. and 
10c. per lb. The last deal of any size 
reported up to this date was made on the 
last day of the old year, and was for 125 
bales at 7Jc, the hops being, of course, of 
less than average quality. Holders of 
choice grades are, however, offering their 
hops at a figure UDder 10c. These facts 
and figures seem to substantiate the pre- 



dictions which have been made from time 
to time concerning the tendency of the 
market toward weakness. Not the slight- 
est advance has taken place since the 
hops were harvested, and at this writing 
little encouragement can be extended to 
the holders of hops for the betterment of 
prices. Prime to choice goods may hold 
steady at 9 to 10c, but the medium and 
inferior grades will necessarily have to be 
sold at reduced prices in order to find a 
market. 

Medium to fair 6 ©— 

Good brewing 8 ffl 854 

Prime 9 ®— 

Prime to choice 9 ©10 

Wool. 

A few straggling lots of scoured wools 
of the fall clip have come into this mar- 
ket and were picked up at about the 
appearing quotations. As the Eastern 
demand is mostly for long wools there 
has been no life to the trading, notwith- 
standing the fact that it is reported that 
a better demand for California wools has 
recently sprung up in the Boston market. 

FALL. 

Humboldt and Mendocino 15 @1654 

Northern, free 14 54@16 

Northern, defective 12 ®14 

Middle County, free 14 @16 

Middle County, defective 12 @14 

San Joaquin and Southern, free 10 ffl 14 

San Joaquin and Southern, defective 9 ®11 

SPRING. 

Oregon, valley 23 @25 

Eastern Oregon 15 @17 

Nevada 16 «s20 

Hay and Straw. 

Trade in hay has been very dull, owing 
to the holiday season, and the large quan- 
tity which has been received in this mar- 
ket during the current week has been far 
more than the market could well stand. 
Tho difficulty which has been experienced 
for some time past with regard to getting 
a sufficient number of cars to care for the 
shipping of hay has now been remedied, 
and the arrivals by rail have been some- 
what heavier. The bulk of arrivals have 
consistod of medium grade hay, very lit- 
tle choice hay arriving, and almost noth- 
ing in the line of cheap grades. The lack 
of green feed in the country has compelled 
farmers to feed baled hay, and for this 
purpose the lower grades have been used, 
almost cutting off the supply of this kind 
for the San Francisco market. A Gov- 
ernment contract has been awarded in 
San Francisco for 1,000 tons and this may 
relieve the tendency toward tho accumu- 
lation of stock. Alfalfa and straw re- 
main about as previously quoted, the 
former in rather g-ood demand and the 
latter dragging badly. 

Wheat, choice 114 00 ffl 16 00 

Wheat, other grades 8 00 ffl 13 50 

Wheat and Oat 9 00 ffl 12 50 

Tame Oat, fair to choice 8 00 @ 12 00 

Wild Oat 8 00 ® 9 50 

Barley 7 00 ® 9 50 

Clover 6 00 ffl 900 

Alfalfa 9 00 @ 11 50 

Stock hay 7 00 @ 8 00 

Compressed 10 00 ffl 13 00 

Straw, ft bale 30 & 50 

Mlllstnffs. 

The bran market shows a further weak- 
ness, prices having declined $2 per ton 
during the past fortnight. Receipts from 
the North have been liberal and the 
market has been fairly active on the de- 
cline, as it is thought that the present 
weakness is only temporary, being the 
result of the heavy arrivals from the 
North and the usual holiday dullness. On 
all other feedstuffs the market is steady 
and prices are being well maintained. 

Alfalfa Meal, f ton 121 00 © 22 00 

Bran, If* ton 19 00 ffl 20 00 

Middlings 27 50 @ 29 00 

Shorts, Oregon 21 00 ® 22 00 

Barley, Rolled, choice 26 00 ffl 27 00 

Cornmeal 29 50 @ 30 50 

Cracked Corn 30 00 ® 31 00 

Oilcake Meal 39 00 ® 40 00 

Cocoanut cake or meal 24 50 © 25 50 

Seeds. 

The seed market is not, at this writing, 
in a position to hold the attention of the 
jobbers, most of whom are turning their 
attention more toward other lines. The 
prices given are, however, being well 
maintained, and it is expected that more 
life will develop in the market within the 
next four weeks, when the ground will 
be ready for the commencement of seed- 
ing. 

Alfalfa »11 00 ©14 CO 

Flax @ 

Mustard, Yellow 3 50 @ 3 75 

Mustard, Trieste 4 50 @ 4 75 

Per lb. 

Canary 654® 7 

Rape 254® 3 

Hemp 3*@ 4 

Timothy 554® 6 

Honey. 

Honey is now coming into the market 
more freely than for some time past, but 
the size of the receipts does not seom to 
influence prices. There is a good demand 
for white extracted honey, and the quota- 
tion of 5c. is easily realized for choice lots. 

Extracted. Water White 4Ji@ 5 

Extracted, White 454® 4H 

Extracted, Light Amber 4 @ 454 

Extracted, Amber 354® 4 



Extracted, Dark Amber 3 @ 354 

White Comb, 1-frames 9 ®10 

Amber Comb 7 ffl 8 

Beeswax 

Both light and dark wax are in good 
request, and prices are being well main- 
tained. Stocks of the latter grade are 
very small and this is having a tendency 
to elevate prices. 

Good to choice, light ft fb 28 ®28 

Dark 2i (S25 

Live Stock and Meats. 

The market is quiet, but prices are 
steady on all kinds of dressed meats. 
Spring lamb and large veal are a shade 
firmer, though quotations remain un- 
changed. The hog market is active and 
prices are firmer. 

Allowing for the shrinkage of about 50%, which 
is exacted In buying cattle on the hoof, live cattle 
command as much or more per pound than dressed 
beef, the shrinkage exacted being the slaughterers' 
profit. 

The following quotations for beef and mutton are 
based on prices realized by slaughterers from 
wholesale dealers: 

Beef, 1st quality, dressed, net f lb 5 ffl 554 

Beef, 2nd quality 454® 5 

Beef, 3rd quality 3h® 4 

Mutton— ewes, 8@flc; wethers 954®IO 

Hogs, hard grain, 150 to 250 lbs —ffl 6 

Hogs, large, hard, over 250 pounds 554® — 

Hogs, small, fat, under 150 lbs b\(3> 

Veal, large, ft lb 6 @ 754 

Veal, small, fi lb 8 ® 9 

Lamb, spring, ft fb 10 ©II 

Hides, Skins and Tallow. 

Very little trading of a speculative 
character has been indulged in since the 
last report, as tho Eastern demand con- 
tinues too light to warrant it. There has 
been as yet no change in prices, but it is 
probable that there will be a slight easing 
off in the quotations on inferior grades of 
hides in the near future, as the market 
does not seem to warrant present figures. 
Good hides are, however, in very good 
request and prices are likoly to be well 
maintained. 

Nothing but select hides, clean and trimmed, 
will bring full figures. Culls of all kinds either 
from grubs, cuts, hair slips side brands or mur- 
rain, are not always readily placed at the lower 
figures. 

Sound. Culls. 

Heavy Steers, over 56 tt>s 13 ffl— 12 ffl— 

Medium Steers. 48 to 56 lbs. . ..12 @— II ®— 

Light Steers, under 48 fbs 1154® — 1054®- 

Heavy Cow Hides, over 50 lbs. 1154©— 1054©— 
Light Cow Hides, under 50 fbs. 11 54®— 1054 a— 

Stags 7 ffl 8 7 @— 

Wet Salted Kip 1054®— 10 ®— 

Wet Salted Veal 12 @— 11 ®— 

Wet Salted Calf 13 ®— 12 ffl— 

Drv Hii'es 19 ffl— 19 ffl— 

Dry Kip and Veal, 11 to 16 tbs. 16 ®17 15 ®— 

Dry Calf, under 4 lbs 20 ®2I 19 ffl— 

Pelts, long wool, ft skin 1 50@2 00 

Pelts, medium, ft skin 90ffll 25 

Pelts, short wool, ft skin 60® 90 

Pelts, shearling, ft skin 20® 50 

Horse Hides, salted, large prime, each.. 3 OOffl— 

Horse Hides, salted, medium 2 75®— 

Horse Hides, salted, small 2 25®— 

Horse Hides, dry, large 1 75@— 

Horse Hides, dry, medium 1 50®— 

Horse Hides, dry, small 1 00@— 

Tallow, good quality 4 @454 

Tallow, poorer grades 254®354 

Bags and Bagging. 

No business of any importance has been 
transacted in the bag market, as stocks 
are almost entirely cleaned up, and the 
demand has now practically ceased. Cal- 
cutta futures are firm, June bags being 
quoted at fiJC" <>ic. The season just closed 
has been one of tho largest that local 
dealers in bags have ever had. 

Bean Bags • 65<ffl — 

Fruit Sacks, cotton, No. 1, 7^@8S(: No. 2 7',®7^ 

Fruit Sacks, jute, as to quality 6^®754 

Grain Bags, Calcutta, 22x36, spot 754ffl7* 

Wool Sacks, 4-B> — ® 36 

Wool Sacks, 3541b — ffl 34 

Poultry. 

The market is a shade easier than before 
tho holidays; nevertheless all good stock 
finds ready sale. Large broilers and 
fryers and large hens are in good demand. 
Hens which are extra large and fat will 
sell above quotations. The turkey mar- 
ket is nominal. The demand is light and 
only fancy stock is wanted at quotations. 

Turkeys, choice Young, ¥ lb I 19 ffl 21 

Turkeys, live gobblers, ft 19 ffl 21 

Turkeys, live hens ft lb 19 ® 21 

Hens, California, ft dozen 4 50 @ 5 50 

Hens, large 5 50 @ 6 50 

Roosters, old 4 B0 @ 5 50 

Roosters, young (full-grown) 6 00 ffl 6 50 

Fryers 5 00 ffl 6 00 

Broilers, large 3 50 ffl 4 50 

Broilers, small to medium 2 00 ffl S 00 

Ducks, old, ft dozen 5 00 ffl 5 50 

Ducks, young, ft dozen 6 00 ffl 7 00 

Geese, f> pair 2 00 ffl 2 50 

Goslings, ft pair 2 00 ® 2 50 

Pigeons, old, ft dozen ffl 1 25 

Pigeons, young 2 00 ffl 2 25 

Bntter. 

The market for fancy creamery butter 
is steady at the decline. Other grades 
are steady, and California storage shows 
a slight advance. 

Creamery, extras, ft lb — ®3I 

Creamery, firsts — ®2754 

Creamery, seconds 21 ffl25 

Dairy, select 20 (326 

Dalry.flrs.es 22 ffl 25 

Dairy, seconds 20 ®22 

California storage 24 @26 

Mixed Store — ®20 

Cheene. 

A good, steady demand for all kinds of 
fancy stock has prevailed during the cur- 



January 6, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



rent week and prices are being well main 
tained. Intermediate grades are some 
what neglected. 

California, fancy flat, new 13 @14Vi 

California, good to choice — ®'3 

California, fair to good 11 @12V4 

California, "Young Americas" 13 ©14 

Eastern, new I 6 @' 7 

Eggs. 

The egg market is about the same as it 
was a week ago with regard to price, 
though there has been some fluctuation 
since that date. There has been a slight 
advance, but the market has reacted 
again and 36c. is now the top price for 
selected ranch eggs. This variety is rul- 
ing steady at these figures, while other 
grades are being somewhat neglected, and 
the tendency is to shade prices a little. 
Receipts have been fairly liberal, but have 
been well taken care of by a good local de- 
mand. 

California, select, large, white and fresh. — @35 
California, select, Irregular color & size. 30 @32!4 

California, good to choice store — ®10 

Eastern firsts 23 @26 

Eastern seconds 19 @20 

Potatoes. 

There is practically no change in the 
potato market since the report of last 
week. Market is firm and prices high for 
fancy stock only, all inferior grade pota- 
toes moving off slowly at reduced quota- 
tions. Fancy Salinas Burbanks are very 
scarce and are in good request at the 
quoted price of $1.50 per cental. The out- 
look is not encouraging for river stock 
pending a resumption of the demand for 
shipment to the South. 

River Burbanks, $ cental 60 @ 80 

Salinas Burbanks 1 15 (3> 1 50 

Oregon Burbanks 75 © 1 15 

Tomales 80 @ 90 

Sweet Potatoes 1 25 @ 1 50 

Vegetables. 

The vegetable market is weak on all 
kinds of fresh vegetables, and the stock 
which is now arising comes mostly from 
Los Angeles, and shows the effect of rains 
and frosts. Prices are, however, being 
well maintained by the local dealers, as 
supplies are so light and so difficult to 
procure that it is necessary to sell at a 
good figure in order to realize any profit. 
The onion market continues firm on all 
grades. Oregon onions continue to arrive, 
and are showing up somewhat better as 
to quality than heretofore. Cabbage has 
weakened somewhat in price, owing to 
the fact that the quality of the stock now 
on hand, and that which is coming in the 
market, is not up to the average. Garlic 
is also a shade weaker, but all other vari- 
eties are being firmly held at appearing 
quotations. 

Cauliflower, ^ dozen 75 (3) 1 00 

Beans, String, a> 8® 9 

Cabbage, choice garden, y 100 lbs. .. 1 00 @ 1 25 

Egg Plant, V B> 10 @ 15 

Garlic, 1& fr> 5 ® 6 

Onions, Oregon, $ ctl 1 30 (3) 1 40 

Onions, New Yellow Danvers, ipctl. 1 25 @ 1 40 
Onions, Australian Brown, $ ctl... 1 25 © 1 45 

Peas, Green, $fb 6 @ 8 

Peppers, Bell, f> lb 12>4@ 15 

Peppers, Green, ft lb 6 @ 8 

Tomatoes, ft box or crate 75 ® 1 00 

Artichokes, ft doz 50 © 1 25 

Cucumbers, ft dozen 1 00 (3) 1 25 

Carrots, ft sack 65 (3> 75 

Hubbard Squash, ft ton — ®20 00 

Note.— Large boxes are what are known to the 
trade as "pay boxes," which have to be returned 
or paid for. They are open top, with hand holes in 
the ends, and weigh when filled from 50@60 lbs 
gross. Small boxes are free boxes, about the same 
as the regular fruit box, weighing when full from 
30 to 30 0>s. gross. 

Fresh Fruits 

A dull market has ruled all through 
the current week, though at this writing 
it shows signs of reviving. Apples are 
the only fruit in which any of the ele- 
ments of a good market have appeared, 
and even in these the usual holiday dull- 
ness was evident. The price of apples 
has advanced and they are now ruling 
firm, with a good demand for choice stock 
at $1.50. The receipts still contain a great 
deal of stock which is badly worm eaten, 
and this will not bring even the minimum 
quotation of 75c. These figures include, 
in fact, nothing but sound stock, the 
grading being governed mainly by size 
and packing. Other varieties are in very 
limited supply and represent for the most 
part the latter end of the 1905 crop. 

Apples, choice to select, ft 50-lb bx 1 00 (3) 1 50 

Apples, good to choice, ft 50-lb. box 75 @ 1 00 

Pigs, ft two layer 85 & 1 00 

Grapes, Verdell, crate 1 25 (3) 1 65 

Grapes, Tokay, ft crate 1 25 (3) 1 65 

Grapes, Muscat, ft crate 1 26 (3) 1 65 

Persimmons, ft box 1 00 @ 1 SO 

Pomegranates, ft box — ® 225 

Pears, Winter Nelis 2 00 (3) 3 00 

Dried Fruits. 

Dried prunes are better cleaned up 
than for many seasons, and some sizes, 
especially desirable grades of the small 
and large sizes, are difficult to get. Stocks 
in the East are reported light, and the 
short apple crop is creating a good de- 
mand. The prune crop of California for 
1905 was about 52,500,000 lb., as compared 
with 135,000,000 lb. in 1904. Of this 
amount about 35,000,000 lb. were produced 
in Santa Clara valley, the rest coming 
from the interior. The crop in Washing- 



ton and Oregon is correspondingly smaller, 
not more than 9,000,000 lb. being pro- 
duced. Dried apples are also in rather 
light supply, and according to local pack- 
ing firms there should be a good demand 
at a rising market. All other varieties of 
dried fruit are steady as to price, but the 
general tone of the market is still quiet. 

EVAPORATED OB BLEACHED. 

Apples, 50-ft boxes, rings, pressed, good to 

choice —® £ 

Apples, extra choice to fancy, 50-B> boxes. Wi@ vy, 

Apricots, Royal, good to choice, ft fi> 7(4® »H 

Apricots, Royal, fancy 8V4® 9 

Pigs, 10-B) box, 1-B> cartons 5* @62Vi 

Nectarines, White and Stan wick, ft lb. . . 8 @ 8/, 

Nectarines, red, ft lb —la) 8 

Peaohes, unpeeled, good to choice &H@ °M 

Peaches, unpeeled, fancy to extra fancy. . 9 @ 9/, 

Pears, standard, ft B> — ® 8i4 

Pears, choice to fancy 10 ®12 

Plums, Black, pitted 554® 6% 

Plums. Red, pitted 7 (3) 8 

Plums, Yellow, pitted 6 @8 

Prunes, Sliver, good to fancy 5V4® 8H 

Prunes, In bags, 4 sizes, — ©— c; 40-50S. 5@5^c; 
50-608, 4^@4tfc; 60-70S, 3£@4c; 70-80S, 3\4@3%c: 
80-908, 2=£@3c; 90-lOOs, 2y,@2£c ; small, 2^(3)2/,^ 
COMMON 8 UK-DRIED. 

Apples, sliced 5 @ 5H 

Apples, quartered 43£@ 5V4 

Figs, White, In bulk 2tf@ 3 

Figs, Black 2)4® 3 

Raisins. 

The raisin situation remains practically 
at a standstill, though developments are 
expected in the near future, as the grow- 
ers' company received bids this week on 
their remaining stock on hand. This stock 
includes about 12,000 tons, and their ac- 
tion in asking for bids was probably 
caused by the difficulty which they have 
experienced since the crop was packed in 
finding a market for their goods at the 
price which they have named on them. 
The trouble seems to have been that 
growers who are unrestricted by any 
price agreement were underselling them, 
and thereby taking advantage of the 
holiday demand, while the association 
growers, owing to their contracts with 
the packers' association, were unable to 
take advantage of the high raisin season. 
The prices given herewith are those 
named by the growers' and packers' com- 
bination at the opening of the season, but 
are considered above the actual market, 
and it is probable that there will be a de- 
cline as soon as the transaction mentioned 
above has been consummated. 

(Fresno delivery except otherwise specified,) 

London Layers, 2-crown, 20- fb box 1 40 @ 

London Layers, 3-crown, 20- fb box 1 50 ® 

Fancy Clusters, 4-crown, 20-fb box 2 00 @ 

Dehesas, 20-tb box 2 50 @ 

Imperials, 20- B> box 3 00 @— 

2- Crown Standard loose Muscatel 55£@ — c 

3- Crown Standard 6 @ — c 

4- Crown Standard 6V4@ — c 

Seedless Thompsons, 50-lb boxes 6Yi@ — c 

Seedless Sultanas 5 @ — c 

Fancy 16-oz. Seeded 8H® — c 

Choice, 16-oz. Seeded 8 c 

Fancy, 12-oz. Seeded 6%c 

Choice, 12-oz. Seeded 6%c 

Ultras Frnlta. 

Citrus fruits of all kinds are now com- 
ing into the market in liberal supplies and 
are going up somewhat better as to size 
and quality than heretofore. The orange 
crop seems to have been especially favored 
this year, and the quality of those which 
have been received in this market would 
indicate that the crop is fully up to stand- 
ard with respect to quality. The mar- 
ket on oranges is steady and prices are 
unchanged, except for a slight advance in 
the price of standards, this being an indi- 
cation of the improvement in the quality 
of receipts. The lemon market is very 
weak and even the choicest grades are 
scarcely able to command a figure in ex- 
cess of $1.50 per box, while on the other 
grades there is scarcely any demand 
whatever even, at the reduced quotations. 
Grape fruit is also weaker, $2 per box 
being the top price for fancy new fruit. 
Limes are steady at figures given. 

Oranges, fancy 2 00 @2 50 

Oranges, choice 1 50 (3>\ 75 

Oranges, standard 1 00 ®l 50 

Oranges, Seedlings 65 @1 10 

Lemons, California, fancy, ft box 1 50 @2 00 

Lemons, California, good to choice.. 1 00 @1 25 

Lemons, California, standards 75 @1 00 

Grape Fruit, ft box, new 1 00 @2 00 

Limes, ft box 3 00 @4 00 

Nuts. 

The market is stiil rather quiet, but 
there is a marked improvement over the 
past two weeks. Supplies of Languedoc, 
IXL and Golden State almonds are light, 
and prices show a tendency toward ad- 
vancement. The holiday demand made 
great inroads in the supply of walnuts, 
which were at the best scarcely sufficient 
to fill the demand, and the result is that 
there are very light holdings in second 
hands, while the high prices made by the 
growers are being steadily maintained. 



WOOL. 

Have you any on hand and unsold? If so, tell us 
how much and kind, and we will give you valuable 
information that will help you in selling. 

CENTURY MERCANTILE CO. 

14 Sansome Street, - San Francisco. 



Ordinarily there should be a weakening of 
the market after the filling of the holiday 
demand; but this year, on account of the 
light yield, the contrary is predicted. 

Peanuts, fair to prime 4V4@ by, 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 1 soft shell — @13 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 2 soft shell — @ 9 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 1 hard shell — @]2 l A 

Cal. Walnuts. No. 2 hard shell — ® %y t 

Almonds, TXL, ft lb \\y,@\2y, 

Almonds, Ne Plus Ultra, ft lb n @12 

Almonds, Nonpareil, ft lb 11 (3)\3 

Almonds, Languedoc, ft fb 

Almonds, Golden State, ft fb g @— 

Hard Shell, ft ft 5 ©— 



MAIL ORDER HOUSES. 



Do you get. the price list of the IMPERIAL CASH 
STORE? If not, better send for It to-day. The 
best, cheapest and most reliable Mail Order House 
on the Pacific Coast. 531 Washington Street, San 
Francisco, California. 



TURKEYS 

We have been handling Turkeys in this market 
for the past thirty years, and with such a long ex- 
perience can give you the best results. Full 
weight, full prices and prompt returns is our 
motto. Write us for information. 

D. E. ALLISON & CO., Inc. 

117-119 Washington St., San Francisco. 




For Fertilizer 

Send for pamphlet and prices to 

R.A. HOUOMBE&C0. 

124 California Street, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 



HEALDS 



BUSINESS COLLEGE, 
24 Post Street San Francisco, Cal. 

The Leading Commercial School 
West of Chicago. : : : : 

ESTABLISHED OYER 40 TEARS. 

30 Teachers; nearly 100 Typewriting Machines 
20,000 Graduates; 1000 annual enrollment; 500 aver- 
age daily attendance; 600 calls annually for gradu- 
ates of the college. All departments open the en 
tire year. Both sexes. Individual instruction. 

Write for new Catalogue and College 
Journal— Free . 



C0C0ZELLE BUSH 
SQUASH. 

Matures in ten weeks. 
Continues bearing till frost. 

Yields more tons per acre than any other squash 
or pumpkin. 

Can be planted five feet apart each way. 

Can be planted until August 1st and mature 
crop. 

The best stock squash. 

Trial packet, 10c; 1 lb., 50c; 10 lbs., J4.00, post- 
paid. 

PIONEER NURSERY, 

MONROVIA, CAL. 



ORANGE TREES 

Three and four year old 

Improved Washington Navel Trees 

for this season's planting. 

REDUCED PRICES FOR LARGE ORDERS 

ADDRESS: Manager, SPRING VALLEY RANCH 
Rocklin, Placer Co., Cal. 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 



Tulare Lake 
or Utah 

ALFALFA SEED. 

Do you want to buy your Seed direct 
from headquarters and save money? 

Write us for Samples and Prices either 
in car lots or less. 

KUTNER-GOLDSTEIN CO., 

HANFORD, CAL 

Largest Dealers in Alfalfa Seed 
in the State. 



FRUIT TREES 
GRAPEVINES 

All Leading Sorts for 
Commercial Purposes. 

We are not the largest Nursery Concern on 
the Pacific Coast, but our long experience in 
the business and our reputation for Fair and 
Square dealing class us among the most 
rebable. We can refer to thousands of our 
patrons as to our reliability. 

Write us and send us a list of your wants 

The Fresno 
Nursery Co., inc. 

(Capital $50,000.00) 
Box 42, Fresno, Cal. 

Catalogue and Price List mailed FREE. 



Established 1876. 




JAMES O'NEILL, Prop. 

Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Grower of Leading Varieties of 




NO IRRIGATION. 

No Borers, Other Pests or Disease. 



SPECIALTY 

Apricots, Plums and Prunes on Myrobolan Root. 



SEND YOUR LIST FOR PRICES. 




Y 



T. J. TRUE, 



NURSERIES 

GROW THE 

BEST TREES 

Sebastopol, Cal. 




Make sure a yield of quantity and 
quality. When your father planted 
Ferry's, they were the best on t lie 
market, but they have been Improv- 
ing ever since. We are experts In 
flower and vegetable seeds. 
1906 .Seed Annual, beautifully illus- 
trated, free to all applicants. 

D. M. FERRY A CO., Detroit. Mich. 



I -J 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 6, 1906. 



Patrons of Husbandry* 

Officers of California State Grange. 

Master W. V. Griffith, Geyserville 

Overseer S. W. Pilcher, Folsom 

Lecturer J. W. Webb, Modesto 

Steward. K. C. Shoemaker, Vtsalia 

Assistant Steward N. H. Koot, Stockton 

Chaplain Mrs. C. F. Emery, Oakland 

Treasurer Daniel Flint, Sacramento 

Secretary Miss Emily L. Burnham, Healdsburg 

Gate Keeper S. S. Gladney, Roseville 

Pomona Mrs. Lottie V. Mitchell, Campbell 

Flora Miss Laura S. Root, Stockton 

Ceres Mrs. Eliza J. Farrell, Mountain View 

Lady Assistant Steward 

Miss Carrie D. Hansen, Mills Station 

Organist Mrs. Bessie McKnight, Napa 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Thos. Jacob Visalia 

G. N. Whitaker Santa Rosa 

Michael Farrell Mountain View 

List of Granges and Officers. 

A LHAMBRA, 230.— M., H. C. Raap; L., James 
Kelly; Sec. Mrs. L. T. Raap. 1st & 3d Sat. 2 p. M., 

I. O.'O. F. Hall, Martinez. 

AMERICAN RIVER, 172.-M., A. D. McDonell; 
L„ Mrs. Laura Hansen; Sec. Miss Carrie Hansen. 
2d & 4th Sat. from Nov. 1 to June 1. "p.m, June 1 
to Nov. 1,2 p.m. 

ANTELOPE, 100.— M.. R. A. Prvor; L., Mrs. 
W. A. Malloway; Sec, Miss Sadye Peterson. 2d & 
4th Sat. 11 A. M., school house, Sites. 

BENNETT VALLEY, 16.— M.. J. M. Talbot; 
L., P. Hanson; Sec. John Keppel. 1st & 3d Sat. 
2 p. M., Bennett Valley Grange Hall, near Santa 
Rosa. 

BOWMAN, 827.— M., W. H. Curtis; L., Mrs. Jen- 
nie Burtscher; Sec, Mrs. C. T. Musso: 2d & 4th 
Sat. 8 P. M„ Bowman. 

CAPITAL, 305. — M., W. W. Greer; L , Miss Jessie 
Shaw: Sec, Miss Nellie Burnside. 1st & 3d Fri. 
eve. 8 P. M., Daly's Hall, Oak Park. 

CASTORIA, 322.— M., W. B. Mathews; L., Seth 
W. Morrill; Sec, Mrs. Julia Mathews. 2d & 4th 
Sat. eve., French Camp. 

DANVILLE, 85.— M.. W.Stewart; E. L., C. E- 
Howard; Sec, Miss S.lst E. Wood. & 3d Sat. 
2 p. M., Danville. 

EDEN, 106. — M., H. V. Monsen; L„ Mrs. A. H. 
Christensen; Sec, Miss Olga H. Christensen. 2d & 
4th Sat. at different homes. 

ELK GROVE, 86.— M., Fred Srhlmeyer; L.. Geo. 
Sehlmeyer; Sec, Miss Florence E. Llemback. 1st 
& 3d Sat. 2 P. M., L O. O. F. Hall. Elk Grove. 

EL VERANO, 315.— M., J. F. Tale; Sec, Mrs. J. 
D. Magnon 

ENTERI'RISK. 12'.'. M . ' leurgc .1 L., John 

Plummer; Sec, Edna Jones. 1st & ;'d Sat. eve.. 
Enterprise Grange Hall, Walsh's Station. 

FLORIN, 130. -M., L. C Stewart; L., Melvina 
McFie; Sec, Miss Susie Cox. 2d & 4th Sat. 2 P. M., 
L O. O. F. Hall, Florin. 

GEYSERVILLE. 312.— M., Joseph E. Metzgar; 
L., Daniel W. Sylvester; Sec, Miss Edna Metzgar 
•2d & 4th Sat., Woodmen's Hall, Gcyserville. 

GLEN ELLEN, 299.— M., Robt. P. Hill; L.,Chas. 
A. Kennedy; Sec, Thos. Johnson. 1st & 3d Sat. 2 p. 
M., N. S. G. W. Hall, Glen Ellen. 

GOLD HILL. 326— M„ R. A. Lafayette; L., L. C. 
Gage; Sec, Chas. L. Miller. 1st & 3d Sat. eve. 8 P. 
M., Grange Hall. Gold Hill. 

GRASS VALLEY. 256.— M., O. L. Twitchell: L., 
W. H. Bryan; Sec, Mrs. R. S. Twitchell. 1st & 
3d Sat. 7:30 p. M., Fraternal Hall, Grass Valley. 

LINCOLN, 218.— M., Geo. E. Hyde; L., Miss A. 
Corpstien; Sec, Mrs. R. L. Stevens. 2d & 4th Fri. 
8 P. M., Grange Hall, C'upert ino. 

MAGNOLIA, 261.— M., Mrs. Wm. Gautier; L., 
Wm. Higgins; Sec, Miss Gertrude Higgins. 2d 
Sat., 1 P. M., Grange Hall, Magnolia. 

MOUNTAIN VIEW, 332.-M., M. Farrell; L.. 
Mrs. E. J. Farrell: Sec, C. P. Berry. 1st & 3d 
Sat. eve., Forester's Hall, Mountain View. 

NAPA, 307.— M., Mrs. O. E. Borrette; L.. D. J. 
Brown: Sec, Miss Nellie A. Borrette. 1st & 3d 
Sat. 1:30 p. m., Masonic Temple, Napa. 

OAKLAND, 35.— M., D. W. Gilbert; L., Mrs. C. 
F. Emery; Sec. Mrs. N. G. Babcock. 1st Sat 7:30 
p. M., 3d "Sat. 2 p. M., I. O. O. F. Hall, Oakland. 

ORCHARD CITY, 333. — M., Dr. E. C. Abbott; L„ 
Mrs. E. W. Waite; Sec, Mrs. O. A. Putnam. 2d & 
4th Tues. eve., Campbell. 

PENNGROVE, 337.— M., C. E. Parkinson; Sec, 
F. S. Farquas. 

PETALUMA, 23.— M., A. S. Hall; L. Margaret 
A. Ellis; Sec, Mrs. Ella McPhail. 2d & 4th Sat. 
1:30 p. M., K. of P. Hall, Petaluma. 

POTTER VALLEY, 115.— M.. William Eddie; 
L., Miss Rose Sides; Sec, W. V. Kilborune. 1st & 
3d Sat. 2 p. M., Potter Valley. 

PROGRESSIVE, 308. — M., J. D. Silvia; Sec, 
Emma Brigham. 1st & 3d Sat. 2 p. M., Redmen's 
Hall. Healdsburg. 

ROSEVILLE, 161.— M., E. A. Junior; L., S. S. 
Gladney; Sec, Mrs. Jennie Gould. 1st & 3d Sat. 2 
p. M., Roseville. 

ROWENA. 330. — M., Robt. E, Phelps; L , W. C. 
Newton; Sec, Mrs. Susie A. Stiles. Every other 
Sat. eve. 7 p. M., Mt. Hope school house, Zacharv. 

SACRAMENTO, 12.— M., C. E. Reese; L., Mrs. L. 
Dudley; Sec, Mrs. Silas Orr. 2d & 4th Sat. 1:30 p. 

II, . Forester's Hall, Sacramento. 

SAN JOSE. 10— M., C. R. Williams; L„ Mrs. E. 
Marcen; Sec, Mrs. Ella I. Saunders. Every Sat. 
10:30 A. M., L O. O. F. Hall, San Jose. 

SANTA ROSA, 17.— M., T. J. Pilkington; L.,Mrs. 
M. M. Gregory; Sec. Miss F. L. Gamble. 2d & 4th 
Sat. 1:30 P. M. from Oct. 1 to April 1, 1 P. M. from 
April 1 to Oct. 1, Fraternity Hall, Santa Rosa. 

SEBASTi >POL. 306.— M., Horace Weeks; L„ Mrs. 
Bonham; Sec, J. McKenzie. 1st & 3d Sat. 2 p. a., 
Janson's Hall, Sebastopol. 

SELMA. 291. -M., Donald Patton; L„ Mrs. F. M. 
Rhodes; Sec, Mrs. O L. Abbott; 2d & 4th Sat. 2 P. 
M., Vincent Hall, Sclma. 

STOCKTON. 70.-M., Wm. L. Overhiser; L„ Mrs. 
J. E. Leadbetter: Sec, N. H. Root. Every Sat. 
1:30 P. M., Fraternal Hall, Stockton. 

SUNNYVALE, 331.-M., J. F. Spaulding; L., 
Nettie M. Fuller; Sec, W. C. Beach. 2U& 4th Tues. 
eve., Sunnyvale. 

TULARE, 198.-M.. E. Barber; L., J. Tuohy; 
Sec, Mrs. B. I. Morris. 1st & 3d Sat. 11 a.m., 
Goldman's Hall, Tulare. 

TWO ROCK, 152.— M., G. W. Gaston; L„ J. L. 
Schwobeda; Sec, Mrs. T. G. King. 1st & 3d Thurs. 2 
p. M.,Two Rock Grange Hall. 

WEST PARK, 335.-M., Rev. J. W. Webb; L., 
Mrs. Minnie E. Sherman: Sec, .l.>hn S. Dure. 

SACRAMENTO COUNTY POMONA, 2.— M., H. 
C. Muddux; L., J. Holmes; Sec, Mrs. Jennie Still- 
son. 5th Sat. of months having same, Forester's 
Hall, Sacramento. _ 

SANTA CLARA COUNTY POMONA, 4.-M., 
F. H. Babb; L., Mrs. H. F. Tuck; Sec, Mrs. M. J. 
Worthen. _ 

SONOMA COUNTY POMONA, I.— M., P. Hansen: 
L G N Sanborn; Sec ; Mrs. A. E. Johnson. 3d 
Wed. in January, April, July and October. 



UCM \aJ AMTtn TO LEARN BARBER TRADE 
MEN WAN I tU FIRST-CLASS PROFESSION 

Trade tau"ht in eight weeks. Positions secured. 
Write for particulars. MOLER BARBER C'OI. 
LEGE, 642 Clay St., San Francisco. 



THE IRRIGATOR. 



The Progress of the Reclamation 
Work. 



The Secretary of the Interior has re- 
cently approved two new reclamation 
projects. The two additional projects 
will bring the number of reclamation 
schemes up to 24. Of these, 11 are 
well under way. They provide for the 
reclamation of 1,303,600 acres of arid 
lands at a cost of $37,028,571. These 
are big figures and they represent big 
projects. 

On June 30, 1905, the total cost of 
construction and engineering work per- 
formed by the Reclamation Service, to- 
gether with the administration ex- 
penses, amounted to$5,462,169. On that 
date the reclamation fund had reached 
a total of $i8,028,571. It was estimated 
at that time that the receipts for the 
fiscal years 1906-1908 would amount to 
$!4,006,000, so that the sum available for 
reclamation purposes up to the end of 
1908 will be $37,028,571. 

Since the work of reclamation began, 
77 miles of main canals have been con- 
structed and 54 miles of distributing 
canals, as well as 186 miles of ditches 
and 147 bridges. Over 9,350,000 cubic 
yards of earth have been excavated 
and 35 miles of tunnel driven. The tele- 
phone lines installed have measured 250 
miles and the roads built have covered 
126 miles. It has been necessary to 
erect 50 offices and other buildings. One 
cement mill has been constructed, the 
product of which already amounts to 
15,000 barrels. Besides the cement 
manufactured by the Reclamation Ser- 
vice, use has been found for 78,000 addi- 
tional barrels of cement, which were 
purchased in open market. Over 2,880,- 
000 feet B. M. of lumber have been 
sawed for the work of construction and 
1,750,000 feet B.M. in addition have been 
purchased. The concrete complete 
amounts to 70,000 cubic yards, the pud- 
dling done to 4500 cubic yards, the rip- 
rap completed to 12,000 cubic yards, 
and the paving to 190,000 square feet. 
The railroad iron used amounts to 130,- 
000 pounds, the structural steel to 250,- 
000 pounds, the cast iron to 600,000 
pounds. The sheet piling driven has 
amounted to 150,0()0 lineal feet, the 
bearing piles to 10,000 lineal feet. 

These figures will give some idea of 
the gigantic size of the enterprise 
which the engineers of the Reclamation 
Service have in hand in the reclamation 
of 1,303,600 acres of arid land. 



SMITH, EMERY & CO. 
CHEMISTS. 

analysis- 
sous, Water, Fertiliz- 
ers, Foods, Minerals, 
Natural Products, etc 
83-85 New Montgomery St. 
San Francisco 





DIVIDEND NOTICE 

The German Savings and 
Loan Society, 

526 CALIFORNIA STREET. 



For the half year end inn December 31, 1905, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate of three 
and six-tenths (3 610) per cent per annum on all 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after Tues- 
day, January 2, 1906. Dividends not called for are 
added to and bear the same rate of interest as the 
principal from Jan. 1, 1906. 

GEORGE TOURNY, Secretary. 



DIVIDEND NOTICE 

California Safe Deposit and Trust Company, 

Cor. California and Montgomery Sts. 

For the six months ending December 31, 1905, 
dividends have been declared on the deposits In the 
savings department of this company, as follows: 
On term deposits at the rate of 3 6-10 per cent per 
annum, and on ordinary deposits at the rate of 3^ 
per cent per annum, free of taxes, and payable on 
and after Tuesday. January 2, 19C6. 

J. DALZELL. BROWN. Manager 



ELLWOOD 
FENCE 

We guarantee Ellwood Fence be- 
cause we know how it is made. All 
the resources of the greatest steel 
and wire mills in the world are 
brought to bear in getting as near 
perfection as it is possible. 




We mine the ore from our own 
mines, make it into steel in our own 
mills, draw it into wire and weave it 
into the fence — all under our own 
eyes from the ground until it is ready 
to staple to the posts. The best known 
processes are employed. Dealers in 
every place. Get catalogue. 

American Steel & Wire Co. 



CHICAGO 



NEW YORK 



DENVER 



SAN FRANCISCO 



DIVIDEND NOTICE 
San Francisco Savings Union 

532 California St., Cor. Webb. 



For the half year ending with 31st December, 
1905, a dividend has been declared at the rates per 
annum of three and six-tenths (3.60) per cent on 
term deposits, and three and one-third (3S) per 
cent on ordinary deposits, free of taxes, payable 
on and after Tuesday, January 2nd, 1906. 

LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



Dividend INotioe. 

SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCIETY, 101 MONT- 
gomery St., Cor. of Sutter, has declared a divi- 
dend for the term ending December 31, 1905. at the 
rate of three and one-half (3(4) per cent per annum 
on all deposits, free of taxes, and payable on and 
after January 2, 1906. Dividends not called for are 
added to and bear the same rate of interest as 
principal. KDWIN BONNELL, Cashier. 



Wanted Everywhere 



MAnr APCMTC t0 sc " our fruit trees 
IVIUnC nULIM I O alul ornamental 
bery. We pay the largest commissions and furnish 
you outfit free. Our agents are earning from 115 to 
175 per week. If you want to earn such money 
write for agency with the 

OREGON NURSERY COMPANY, 

SALEM, OREGON. 



FOR Snow's Grafting Wax* 

IN USE ALL OVER THE STATE! 

For sale by all the large grocers, or 

D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Ave.. San Jose, Cal. 



SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL, CIVIL, MECHANICAL, 
ELECTRICAL AND MINING ENGINEERING, 
Surveying, Architecture. Drawing and Assaying. 

113 Fulton St., 1 blk. west of Uify Hall, San Francisco. 
Open All Year. A. VAN DER NAILLEN. Prest. 

Assaying of Ores, 125: Bullion and Chlorination 
Assay, J25; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Full course of 
Assaying, 150. Established 1864. Send for Circular. 

A PERFECT Musk Melon. Crenshaw's mammoth 
perfection. Write them for description and price 
of seeds. CRENSHAW BROS., Tampa, Fla. 



January 6, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



13 



AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE 



The Addition of Humus to Soils. 



As the humus has such a decided in- 
fluence over the condition of plant food 
in the soil, the addition of it to a soil 
more or less depleted, or naturally de- 
ficient, must always be kept in mind, in 
the consideration of any system of fer- 
tilization. 

While the time-honored method of 
supplying humus in the shape of stable 
manure is still not to be neglected, yet 
much of its effectiveness is lost from 
the presence of so large a quantity of 
straw, which forms humus quite slowly. 
Care should always be taken to save as 
much of the manure as possible, but the 
more modern way of utilizing certain 
plants as nitrogen catchers, and humus 
formers, thus improving the moisture 
and general physical condition of the 
soil, is by far the better method for the 
horticulturist, who generally has a 
limited amount of stock from which to 
derive manure. 

Humus secured in this manner is both 
superior to and cheaper than that from 
animal manures. The plants generally 
most available for this purpose are 
peas, vetches, lupines, or any of the 
clovers. In California the selection 
should be made of one which makes a 
fairly rapid winter growth, so there 
will be a considerable mass of succulent 
matter to turn under in the early 
spring. The particular value of the 
humus obtained from this source lies in 
the fact that the material is green 
and succulent and easily decomposes 
and that this class of plants is rich 
in nitrogen, thus producing a more 
lasting effect than the humus obtained 
from stable manure. These plants are 
also producers of a large root surface, 
which extends much deeper into the 
soil than most other plants, thus dis- 
tributing the organic matter to greater 
depth than other plants. They are at 
the same time larger users of lime, 
phosphoric acid and potash than the 
other classes of plants. 

Leguminous crops are also great 
users of nitrogen. They not only utilize 
all the soluble nitrogen within their 
reach, but also avail themselves of 
the nitrogen of the air, through 
the medium of a system of bac- 
teria which they harbor upon their 
roots, and which serve to manufacture 
nitrogenous food to supply their host 
plant. The necessity for their using 
such large quantities arises, at least in 
part, from the fact that they have to 
furnish nitrogen in considerable quan- 
tities for the successful operation of 
these bacteria. 

For most general application, the 
Canadian field pea has given the best 
results as a green manure crop in Cali- 
fornia. The handling of a pea crop, 
outside of the seed, does not cost more 
than the handling of the soil without it, 
and there is added to the soil the fer- 
tilizer with which they have been fed, 
in addition to the nitrogen which the 
crop has been able to gather from the 
air, and the entire amount then becomes 
the plant food for the main crop grown 
upon the land. 

Right at this point it must be plainly 
understood that a pea crop brings 
neither potash nor phosphoric acid to 
the orchard, as it obtains all its supply 
from the soil on which it grows. Further, 
unless these two elements are present 
in the soil in an available condition, the 
pea cannot take up and elaborate the 
nitrogen of the atmosphere. We should 
so feed the pea crop then, with potash 
and phosphoric acid, that it can make 
the greatest possible use of the atmos- 
pheric nitrogen. The fact that we 
make use of peas as a green manure 
makes it really the more necessary that 
we use additional amounts of the two 
mineral fertilizers, potash and phos- 
phoric acid. The effect of these is not 
lost through the pea crop, but they 
enable it to do more work in the elabora- 
tion of the nitrogen, and at the same 
time the potash is saved for the use of 
the fruit crop of the succeeding year, 
since, by turning under the peas, we 
leave in the soil all the ingredients which 
the crop has required for its growth. 

Phosphates and potash should always 
be applied before the pea seed is planted, 



whether the planting is done broadcast 
or in drills. The fertilizer may be either 
sown broadcast or, if the seed is to be 
drilled in, strewn along where the rows 
are to be, and subsequently mixed with 
the soil. A fair application would be 
300 lb. acid phosphate and 100 lb. 
muriate or sulphate of potash per acre 
In some cases, on account of the lack of 
soluble nitrogen in the original soil, the 
plants may appear sickly and yellow. 
When this condition is observed, the 
addition of about 75 lb. of nitrate of 
soda per acre may be used as a top 
dressing; but to avoid injury, it should 
be first mixed with four or five times 
its bulk of dry earth, but as a rule this 
is unnecessary, and only the potash and 
phosphates need be supplied. 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



GEO. C. ROBBING, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of High grade thoroughbred Holstcin Hulls 
and Heifers. Thoroughbred Berkshire 
Boars and Sows. 

RIVERSIDE HERD HOLSTEIN CATTLE 

One of the largest and best in the world. Send 
for catalogue. Pierce Land & Stock Co., Stock- 
ton, Cal. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of registered Shorthorns; 
milk strain High class stock. First-class dairy 
breeding Smooth cattle Best pedigree. P. O. 
Box 321, Petaluma, Cal. 

HOLSTKINS— Winners at State Fairs of every 
batter contest since 1885 in Calif. Stock near 
S. F. F. H. Burke. 30 Montgomery St., S. F. 

"HOWARD" SHORTHORNS— Quinto Herd, 7? 
premiums California State Fairs 1902-3-4. Regis- 
tered cattle of beef and milking families for sale. 
Write us what you want. Howard Cattle Co., 
206 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Short Horned 
Durhams. Address E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal 



A.J.C.C. JERSEYS. Service bulls of noted strains. 
Joseph Mailliard, San Geronimo, Marin Co., Cal. 

BULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine individuals. At prices to 
suit the times, either singly or in carload lots. 
Oak wood Park Stock Farm, Danville, Cal. 

PKTEK SAXE & SON, Lick House, S.F.,Cal. Im 
porters, Breeders and Dealers for past 30 years. 
All varieties Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Hogs. High 
class breeding stock. Correspondence solicited. 

JERSEYS, HOLSTEINS St DURHAMS. Bred 
specially for use in Dairy. Thoroughbred Hogs, 
Poultry. Wm. Nlles & Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeders and Exporters. Established 1876. 



POULTRY. 



PIGEONS for squab raising, 50c to $1.50 per pair. 
Cottonwood Farm, Pleasant Grove, Cal. 

WHITE LEGHORNS, White Minorcas— ranch 
bred and free range. Eggs only. Agent for 
the " Model " Incubator and Brooder — best 
made. A.Warren Robinson, Napa, California. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs— Ed. Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 

L. W. CLARK, Petaluma, Cal. White Leghorns, 
the white kind that lay lots of large, white eggs. 



C.B. CARRINGTON, Haywards, Cal. White Leg- 
horns. World's Fair winners Stock for sale. 
Eggs by sitting 100 or 1000. Send for new folder 



SANTA TERESA POULTRY FARM, Eden 
Vale, Santa Clara Co., Cal. White and Brown 
Leghorns, White Wyandottes, Barred Plymouth 
Rocks, Black Minorcas, White Cochin Bantams. 



WM. NILES & CO., Los Angelps, Cal. Nearly alj 
varieties chickens, geese, ducks, peafowl, etc. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



S. H. FOUNTAIN, Dixon, Cal. Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Shropshire sheep. Both 
sexes for sale at all times. 



TIIOS. WAITE, Perkins, Cal., has the Gold Medal 
Hock of South Down sheep. 



SWINE. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co , Cal. 
Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 



POLAND-CHINAS.— Choice stock, bred from 
prize winners. R. Kynaston, Burson. Cal. 



BERKSHIRE, POLAND-CHINA, CHESTER 
WHITE HOGS. Choice; Thoroughbreds. Wm. 
Nlles & Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Establ'd in 1876. 



BERK SHIRES— Prize Winners— bred from prize 
winners. Boars all ages. T.Waite, Perkins, Cal. 



BERKSHIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS. 

C. A. Stowe, Stockton. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GEO. H. CROLEY, 508 SacramentoSt., San Fran- 
cisco. Manufac- 
turer and Dealer 
In 

of every description. Send for catalogue— FREE. 



Poultry Supplies 



MANHATTAN FOOD fattens stock and poultry. 
Cures all common ailments. At your grocer. 



L 






PACIFIC COAST'S GREATEST IMPORTING 
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DIFFERENT 
EUROPEAN BREEDS OF HORSES. : 

Three Importations in 1905. 

THE ONLY FIRM IN CALIFORNIA HAVING A LARGE 
SELECTION OF 

Percherons, Royal Belgians, Shires, 
Clydes, French Coach and 
German Coach, always on hand. 

HORSES WILL BE SOLD ON EASY TERMS WITH THE MOST LIBERAL GUARANTEES. 
Visitors are always welcome at our stables, and correspondence is invited. Call or address 

LANDIS BROS,, Folsom, California. 
Must Hatch Incubators and Brooders Have Stood the Test. 

J&ffiS^TIgSSSSi?* 1 - 1 Beware of others "JUST AS GOOD." 

We hatch and prepare little chicks— White Leghorns— for shipment, to all points within sixty hours 
travel from Petaluma. Now is the time to place your order. When the chicks come high, they are the 
most profitable. We also supply White Leghorn eggs for hatching. Prices for chicks and eggs on 
application. 

SuWeD MUST HATCH INCUBATOR CO., Petaluma, Cal. 

Emery's Poultry Foods arc sold by all dealers and 
commission men because they are the BEST. 

N. OHLANDT & CO.. Indiana and 24th Sts., San Francisco. 



all About 




..-uide to success. The Weekly 

AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL. 

tells how to make the most money with bees. 
Contributors are practical honey-procurer 
"~ L "1 know how. Inter* ■uinfr — instructive. * 
ear; 3 mos. 1 vs copies), 20c. Sample free, 
nencan Bee Journal 334 Dearborn St. .Chicago 



ORPINGTONS. 

SILVER CUP for BEST DISPLAY; 40% of all rib- 
bons in class to Garden Valley Yards, at San 
Francisco show Dec. 2. Illustrated folder tells the 
rest; it's free. Eggs$3and $5perset. Stock for sale. 

W. SULLIVAN, Agnews, Cal. 

State V.-Pres Nat S. C. B. O. Club. 
Member Am. Orp. Club. 

Cocoanut Oil Cake. 

THE BEST FEED FOR STOCK, 
CHICKENS AND PIOS. 

For sale In lots to suit by 

El Dorado Oil Works 

an« California St.. San RVanrlacn. fjal. 



VERYTHING FOR POULTRY. 

Our Catalogue. 228 pages, (8x11) Is a valuable 
guide to money-making poultry success. De- 
s ril»e& all needed articles. We make them, 
including the new lyOG-pattero 

STANDARD CYPHERS INCUBATOR 

?SoId on 90 Days Trial. Guaranteed to hatch 
More and Healthier Chicks than any other. 
Catalogue free if you mention this paper and send addresses of 
two persons interested in Poultry. Write nearest offire. 

CYPHERS INCUBATOR CO., 1 :r>>^w' k - 



Brabason's POULTRY WIDE FREE, 

jit's a dandy. Cuts of fowls from life 
'Chickens, Turkey >. Ducks and Geese, 
70 varieties. Price of fowls and ejiKs. 
Send 10c to pay postage of fine guide 
of Poultry and buying fowls. Best on earth. 

J. R. Brabaion, Box 22, Glenview, Delavan, Wis for sale 




LIVE OAK STOCK FARM, 

Six Miles If. W. from PETALUMA, on the 
Petaluma and Sevastopol Road. 

FRANK A. MECHAM, Prop. 

Importer and Breeder of 

Red Polled Cattle. 

Color Deep Red. Both Sexes for Sale. 

Address all communications PETALUMA, SO 
NOMA CO., CAL. 




FRANK. f\ . mBCHAJVl, 

Importer and Breeder of Shropshire Sheep. 

They were all imported from England, or bred 
direct from Imported stock. 





We have also bred American Merinos— Hornless 
--heep— for 30 years. They are a large sheep, with- 
out wrinkles. Rams will produce 20 to 25 pounds 
of long, white wool yearly. Shei p of both sexes 



12 



.80 For 
200 Egg 
INCUBATOR 



Perfect in eonitruetlon and 
aollODi Hatches every fertile 
eutf. Write for catalog to-day. 

GCO . H. STAHL, Oulncy, III 





30 DAYS TRIAL 

Buy From Our Factory— Save One-Third. 

PRACTICAL I^bators : - ''• 

IL«ronK< r thicks. 10 YEARS' GUARANTEE 
Cal. Im. PMCTICil IK. CO.. 750 S. 1 Mh SI. Sin Jul. hi. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS. 

Established 36 Years. 
IMPORTERS AND BREEDERS OF ALL VARIETIES 
OF LAND AND WATER FOWLS. 

Stock for Sale. Dept. 81. Box 8602, San Francisco. 




FRANK A. MECHAM, Importer and Breeder, 

Shipping Points: PETALUMA AND SAN T.\ 
tlOaA, SONOMA CO., CAL. 



It 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 6, 1906. 



Warranted 

to give satisfaction 




GOMBAULT'S 

CAUSTIC BALSAM 

A safe, speedy and 
positive cure for 

Curb , Splint , Sweeny , Capped Hock , 
Strained Tendons, Founder, wind Puffs, 
and all lameness from Spavin, Ringbone 
and other bony tumors. Cures all skin 
diseases or Parasites, Thrush, Diphtheria. 
Removes all Bunches from Horses or 
Cattle. 

As a HUMAN REMEDY for Rhru- 
miitlim, Mpritlna, Sore Throat, eto., it 
is invaluable. 

Every bottle of fanatic llalaam sold Is 
Warranted t<> gfl»e satisfaction . Price Sl.SO 
i>er bottle. SuUl by dniK-jrists, or sent by ex- 
press, charges paid, with full directions for its 
use. Send for descriptive circulars, testimo- 
nials, etc. Address 

TEE LiWRENCE-WIlUAMS C0MP1HT, Cleveland, Ohio. 



Agricultural Review* 



Humboldt. 

Creamery at Eureka. — Eureka dis- 
patch to Union, Dec. 25: That Eureka 
will soon have a mammoth creamery 
seems to be a certainty. A. Jensen of 
Ferndale said that the work of erecting 
the plant will begin about the first of the 
year, and that it will consist of a two- 
story building, covering a quarter of a 
block, with a daily output of 20,000 lb. of 
butter. 

Kings. 

Signing Up Beet Acreage.— Visalia 
letter to Fresno Republican, Dec. 28: Con- 
tracts for over 2,000 acres of sugar beets 
for the local factory have been signed and 
other contracts are coming in rapidly. A 
considerable acreage has come in within 
the past few days and tho amount promises 
to be largely increased. Sherman Smith 
and G. S. Dyer, local representatives of 
the factory, E. S. Field, a prominent 
stockholder of Los Angeles, and G. E. 
Slater, auditor for the company, attended 
a mooting at. Corcoran, called by the 
ranchers in that section, desirous of learn- 
ing something of the culture of sugar 
beets. As a result it is estimated that 
fully 500 acres will be secured in that lo- 
cality. A representative of the Armenian 
colony at Churchill, near Orosi, has made 
arrangements for the signing up of 200 
acres and double this amount is expected 
later. Near Reedley the contract acreage 
is stated to be already several hundred 
with a prospect for much moro. At Lind- 
say and in that section east the amount 
already approximates 200 acres with 300 
more in sight. It is believed that the re- 
mainder of the 3,500 acres desired for the 
first season's run will be signed within the 
next few weeks. The factory is to be in 
readiness for operation by July 1st. 

San Joaquin. 

Growing Jordan Almonds. — Lodi 
Sentinel, Dec. 28: Experiments in the 
growth of the Jordan almond, an impor- 
tation from Spain, are being made here 
by Geo. E. Lawrence in charge of the local 
branch of the United States government 
station in viticulture. The Jordan al- 
mond experiment is aside issue, but never- 
theless is a very important one. Its suc- 
cess moans the revolutionizing of the Cali- 
fornia almond market, as Jordan blanched 
almonds to-day are selling in the San 
Francisco market at $1 per lb., while the 
best California varieties blanched bring 
45c. a lb. Two years ago the agricultural 
department forwarded to Mr. Lawrence 
a selection of Jordan scions imported from 
Spain that were grafted here into seed- 
ling almond trees. Last season they came 
into bearing, not in great quantity, but 
about as heavy as was expected. By com- 
parison the local grown Jordan exceeds in 
size its Spanish ancestry by an average of 
at least one-fourth, but in uniformity the 
latter excels. This advantage Mr. Law- 
rence believes he will overcome by a sys- 
tem of propagation that will result in a 
standard size nut. In other respects, so 
far as the experiments have gone, there 
seems little or no difference. The skin- 
covering of tho Jordan kernel is delicate 
and thin. The meat has a decidedly hazel 
nut Havor and is oily and rich. The point 
to be determined by this experimental 
work is whether or not in this soil and 
climate the same characteristics can be 



preserved that make the Spanish-grown 
Jordan so desirable in American markets. 
The propagating hero will be done en- 
tirely from the bud which promises a true 
type of the Jordan, better even than the 
original in Spain, where it is the custom 
to propagate from the seed. 

Planting Table Grapes. — Lodi 
special to Sacramento Bee, Dec. 26: The 
large profits made in grape growing this 
year have acted as an impetus to the grow- 
ers to set out moro vines, and this winter 
there will be 1,515 acres of table grapes set 
out and t>24 acres of wine grapes. The table 
grapes, with but few exceptions, are To- 
kays, for it was this grape that realized 
returns in the Eastern markets during 
the season just closed. 

Interesting Study at Experimen- 
tal Station.— Lodi Sentinel, Dec. 28: 
The viticultural department station at the 
Lawrence place affords a great and inter- 
esting study for grape men. Here are 
growing 102 varieties of vines including' 
both cuttings and rooted stock imported 
from all parts of the world where grapes 
are grown. San Joaquin county has 72 
varieties of bearing grape vines, and tho 
experimental station swells the number 30 
more. The biggest importations were 
made from South Africa and European 
countries. The object of experimenting 
with so extensive a variety is to take ad- 
vantage of many years' experience by the 
French Government in producing a resist- 
ant stock that will prove congenial to this 
soil and climate. 

Acreage to Tokay Grapes.— Lodi 
Sentinel, Dec. 28: C. W. Norton purchased 
220 acres, 17 miles south of Stockton, 
near Ripon, which he will make a Tokay 
vineyard. The land is sandy, has means 
of irrigation with ditches intersecting it. 
but Mr. Norton does not expect to irri- 
gate his vineyard. The field is surrounded 
by alfalfa fields that are well irrigated 
and the loose character of tho soil allows 
the water to spread widely, i 

Sunta liarliara. 

A Big Potato. — Santa Barbara Pross, 
Dec. 28: J. C. Phillips brought to The 
Press office the largest sweet potato ever 
seen in this locality. It was 23 in. in 
length and weighed 20 lb. It was grown 
on the MacLean ranch at Thermal. 

Stockmen to Meet. — Santa Barbara 
Press, Dec. 28: As a result of the resolu- 
tions adopted at the annual meeting of 
the County Cattlemen's Association, there 
will be a meeting in Santa Maria, January 
4th, of a committee appointed by the 
Santa Barbara association, with a like 
committee appointed by the San Luis 
Obispo association, the proposition being 
to discuss ways and means for promoting 
the work of cleaning the two counties of 
tho Texas cattle tick, and thereby insure 
certain and permanent reliof from the 
federal quarantine against Texas fever. 
The Santa Barbara committee consists of 
James Sloan, R. O. Easton and the county 
stock inspector. 

Siskiyou. 

Fine Hops.— Etna Mills dispatch to 
Sacramento Union, Dec. 30: Scott valley 
can boast of a highly productive soil. 
There is now on exhibition at tho Cham- 
ber of Commerce office in Yreka a sample 
of hops raised on the Charles Holzhauser 
ranch, two miles from Etna, which took 
the gold medal at the Portland Exposi- 
tion. Many now fields will be started 
next year. 

Sonoma. 

Hop Growers in Santa Rosa.— 
Santa Rosa Democrat: There was a meet- 
ing of the Sonoma County Hop Growers' 
Exchange Saturday afternoon at the 
courthouse, and it was unanimously de- 
cided to open an office and employ an. 
agent who will act for all the hop growers 
of the county, who have yet hops on 
hand, without any charge. 

Stanislaus 

New Lemon. — Modesto Herald, Dec. 
28: L. H. Watson is exhibiting at the 
Oderon saloon some mammoth lemons 
which came from the residence of A. M. 
Hilts, at Knights Ferry. The lemons 



Why Are Eggs High? 

Wo nil know— because hens are not laying now. But 
why do poultry owners overlook this chnnce to make 
money? It must be because they don't believe our 
statement that 

SECURITY POULTRY FOOD 
WILL MAKE HENS LAY. 

You don't have to take our word. You can be the judge. 
We c an mnko your hens lay hi from 2 to 4 weeks and 

WE GUARANTEE IT. 

Our dealer in your town will buck up this guarantee 
Ask him. Will you pussthis chance to mako money 
v. lion wo take the risk? It also puts sick poultry in 
healthy condition ami keeps them so. 

SECURITY STOCK FOODCO. 
MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 




The name Keen Kuttcr 
eliminates all uncertainty in tool buying. 
As this brand covers a complete line of tools, all you need remem. 
ber in buying a tool of any kind is the one name Keen Kutter. 
Keen Kutter Tools are without reserve or qualification the 
best tools that money, brains and skill can produce. No 
matter how much you pay, no matter who you may 
have thought to be the best maker of a particular kind 
of tool, you cannot get any tool, anywhere, better 
than those sold under the name of Keen Kutter. 
If your dealer doesn't keep Keen Kutter took 
write us and we will see that you are supplied. 

K$M MffiK 



Tools rerened the Crand Prise at the St. Louii Exposition— the onlu men award ever 

line of tools. 
k Some kinds of Keen Kutter Tools 
Chisels, Knives of ail kinds, 
Hair Clipper*. So Users, 
Shears, Adzes, Axes, 
Brush Hooks, Chop- 
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Clearer!*. Haj 
Knlies, Scythes, 
Sana, Horse 
Shears, Tool 
Cahi nets, 
Etc. 



oiven a complete 




SIMMONS HARDWARE COMPANY 



•' The 

Recollection 
of Quality 
Reinuitis Long 
After the 
Price is 
Forgotten." 

Trade Murk Reginald. 



St Louis and New York. 



-KND KOlt T(ML HOOKLKT. 



average Hi in. in circumference latitudin- 
ally, and 13 in. longitudinally, are hard 
and firm, and full of juice and meat, the 
skin uniformly thin. Mr. Watson does 
not know the name of the lemon, but tells 
us the trees were sent to an Oakdale lady, 
now dead, by a nurseyman in the East. 
The lemon is a product of some of the 
tropical islands in the West India group. 
About two years ago the Oakdale lady 
died, and Mr. Hilts was given a couple of 
the trees, then about three years of age, 
and transplanted the same at his place at 
Knights Ferry. Last year, when four 
years of age, the trees bore prolifically, 
and have done so again this year. They 
say the fruit has a fine flavor, and is more 
juicy than the common California lemon. 
The lemons shown resemble the grape 
fruit to some extent in size and texture 
of skin, but have the true lemon shape, 
whereas the true grape fruit, or pomelo, 
is fiat at both ends. A "mock " pomelo 
is pear shaped, but pithy, despite its large 
size. The attention of several orchard ists 
has been called to the new lemon, and its 
merits noted. The slightly cooler weather 
at Knights Ferry than is experienced here 
seems to have no bad effect upon the new 
lemon. 

Sutter. 

Fig Packing. — Sutter County Farmer: 
A force of 100 was put to work at the 
Rosenberg Bros, packing house at Yuba 
City the first of the week packing figs for 
Eastern orders. The work will continue 
most of next week. 



Dietz Lanterns 

Befo.e you buy. post up a little on lanterns. 
Ourfiee catalogue will help you. When 
you have made your choice, your dealer 
will supply you. If not, we will. If you 
know the 

Dietz Gold Blast Lantern 

you will have no other kind. Handy, easy 
fUUof, long burning, safe, clean. Burns a 
strong, steady flame, the result of using 
pure fresh air. Another great big reason 

Clear White Light of the 

DIETZ. 

You get the whole story in the catalogue. 

R. E. DIETZ COMPANY, 

61 Laight St. NEW YORK CITY. 

Established 1SUU. 



PATENTS 



DEWEY, STRONG & CO. 

(ESTABLISHED 1860.) 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, 
and WASHINGTON, D. C. 



OLDEST AND LARGEST AGENCY ON 
THE PACIFIC COAST. 



WHY TO BE PREFERRED? 



BECAUSE-- 

Inventors have the opportunity to e< 
First i plain their inventions personally ane 

directly to the men who write the speci- 
fications and make the drawings, so that all tug 
inventor's ideas will be correctly conveyed, a volt 
lng mistakes and vexatious delays. 

Inventors living at a distance from Saa 
Second : Francisco may, where they so desire, 

consult directly with our Washington 

office. 

Inventors receive the benefit of ovei 
Third: thirty years' continuous, successful 
experience. 

A description of the patented lnven- 
Fourth I tion will appear In the ifining and Scien- 
tific Pren. 

We have a complete Patent Library, including 
3fflclal reoords since 1793 and full certified copies 
Df all patents issued Bince 1872. These are fot 
free examination by any one who desires. 

We attend to all business connected with pa- 
tents, such as the preparation of Caveats, Trade- 
Marks, Design Patents, Assignments, License! 
and Agreements. We make examinations as to 
the patentability of inventions, searches, and glvi 
opinions as to infringements, or the scope or va- 
lidity of Patents. Our Branch Offices and arranga- 
ments for Foreign Patents, Trade-Marks, etc., art 
very extensive and complete. Inventors' Uuidf 
sent free on application. 



330 Market St., Sao Francisco, Cal. 

AND 

918 F St., Washington, D. C. 



HENRY O. LISTER, 

ATTORNEY AT LAW. 

Noiary Public and Commissioner of Deeds for 
New York. Room 14, fourth floor, Mills Building, 
San Franolsco. Telephone Bush 848. 



January 6, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



15 



FORESTRY. 



Grazing on the Reserves. 

President Roosevelt, in a letter ad- 
dressed to Secretary Wilson of the 
Department of Agriculture on the sub- 
ject of fees for grazing horses and cat- 
tle in the national forest reserves, up- 
holds the Secretary in the regulations 
formulated by him and which will be- 
come effective January 1, 1906, whereby 
certain rules are laid down for the 
granting of grazing permits. 

The communication is the result of a 
protest sent to the President by cat- 
tlemen from one of the Western States, 
and is based on a report by Secretary 
Wilson, to whom the protest was re- 
ferred. The letter of the President 
follows: 

The White House, Washington, 
December 21, 1905.— My Dear Mr. Sec- 
retary: I have received your letter of 
December 20th. I cordially approve of 
the policy you are carrying on. Your 
effort is to keep the grazing lands in the 
forest reserves for the use of the stock- 
men, and especially the small stockmen 
who actually live in the neighborhood of 
the reserves. To prevent the waste and 
destruction of the reserves and to keep 
them so they can be permanently used by 
the stockmen no less than by the public 
you have to spend a certain amount of 
money. Part of this money is to be ob- 
tained by charging a small fee for each 
head of stock pastured on the reserve. 
Less than a third of the actual value of 
the grazing is at present charged, and it 
is, of course, perfectly obvious that the 
man who pastures his stock should pay 
something for the preservation of that 
pasture. He gets all the benefit of the 
pasture and he pays for its use but a 
small fraction of the value that it is to 
him, and this money is in reality returned 
to him, because it is used in keeping the 
forest reserve permanently available for 
use. You this year make a special reduc- 
tion by which the ranchmen pay but half 
rates. This is in accordance with the 
steady policy of your department as re- 
gards the Western lands, which is to 
favor in every way the actual settler, the 
actual homemaker, the man who himself 
tills the soil or himself rears and cares for 
his small herd of cattle. In granting 
grazing permits you give preference first 
to the small nearby owners; after that, to 
all regular occupants of the reserve 
range, and finally to the owners of tran- 
sient stock. This is exactly as it should 
be. The small nearby owners are the 
homesteaders, the men who are making 
homes for themselves by the labor of 
their hands, the men who have entered 
to possess the lands and bring up their 
children thereon. The other regular 
occupants of the reserve range, that is, 
the large ranch owners, are only entitled 
to come after the smaller men. ff, after 
these have been admitted, there still re- 
mains an ample pasturage, then the own- 
ers of transient stock, the men who drive 
from the tramp herds or tramp flocks 
hither and thither, should be admitted. 
These men have no permanent abode, do 
but very little to build up the land and 
are not to be favored at the expense of 
the regular occupants, large or small. 

This system prevents the grass from 
being eaten out by other herds or flocks 
of non-residents, for only enough cattle 
and sheep are admitted upon the re- 
serves to fatten upon the pasturage with- 
out damaging it. In other words, under 
the policy you have adopted, the forest 
reserves are to be used as among the most 
potent influences in favor of the actual 
homemaker, of the man with a few dozen 
or few score head of cattle, which he has 
gatheied by his own industry and is]him- 
self caring for. This is the kind of men 
upon whom the foundation of our citizen- 
ship rest, and it is eminently proper to 
favor him in every way. Sincerely yours, 

Theodore Roosevelt. 
Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agri- 
culture. 



Rust - Proof Wheat. 

Seed Wheat For Sale. 

"ROBS," a rust-proof, prolific, hardy, and very 
strong flour variety, bred by the Australian Gov- 
ernment Expert; guaranteed pure and true to 
name; 11.25 a Bushel f. o. b. Sydney. 

CHARLES BININIE, 

Box 1075 G P. O., Sydney. 



SHORTHAND taught by mail; demand more than 
' supply. Miss M. G. Barrett, 302Montg'y St., S.F. 



Seeds, Plants, Etc* 

Pure Bur Clover Seed* 



We have arranged to gather Clover Burs in 
quantities, clean them from all noxious weeds, 
thresh, and can deliver the seed in any quantities, 
practically free from all foreign seed. 



Write for Circulars, Samples and 
Prices. 

THE JESSUP - WHEELAN CO., 
224 California St., San Francisco. 

PACIFIC NURSERIES, 

3041 Baker St., San Francisco, Cal. 
and Milbrae, San Mateo Co. 

■ — f — "v ■ » Two-year-old 
l\Vj9C/3 field grown. 

Rhododendrons, Camellias, Azaleas, 
Daphne, and other hardy flowering 
Shrubs and Vines. 

Acacias, Pines, Cypress, and a large 
collection of Trees. 

Cypress, Blue and Red Gums, Pines 
transplanted in boxes. 



TREES! 

80,000 APPLE TREES in 42 Varieties. 

Extra well rooted. Clean. Grafted on whole 
roots and free from all pests. Also an extra tine 
stock of Prunes, Pears, Plums and Walnuts. 

Write for price list. A. P. SCHEIDECKER, 
Prop. Pleasant View Nursery, Sebastopol, Cal. 



PECAN TREES AND NUTS. 

Gold and Silver Medals awarded our Nut and 
Tree Exhibits St. Louis, 1904. 

High-grade budded and grafted trees of all best 
varieties. 

770 acres in Pecans. 

Write for Catalogue "J," with which is incorpo- 
rated a valuable treatise upon Pecan Culture. 
THE G. M. BACON PECAN CO., Inc., 
DeWitt, Ga. 



AUSTRALIAN 

RYE GRASS SEED (Perennial) 

PRICE, FIVE CENTS PER POUND. 

DISCOUNT ON LARGE AMOUNTS. 
Samples on request 

VIER.RA BROi.. Moss, Monterey Co., Cal. 



WALNUT TREES 

At Wholesale or Retail. From El Monte Seed, 
extra well rooted. 

CHERRIES and GENERAL NURSERY 
STOCK. 

JONATHAN APPLE for hill sections. 

RIVERSIDE NURSERY, 

HENRY SHAW. 320 River St., Santa Cruz. 



LUTES 

From carefully hand-selected seed. 
Postal gets prices. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, California. 




BLUE GUM, RED GUM and 

MONTEREY CYPRESS 

Transplanted In Boxes 

WRITE FOR PRICES. 

W. A. REINHOLDT, 

MAIN STREET NURSERY, PETALUMA, CAL. 



c 




THE PHILIPPI NURSERIES, 

ROCKLIN. CAL. 

BURBANK'S 

Crimson Winter Rhubarb 

ONE OF OUR SPECIALTIES. 

$1.50 per dozen, $7.50 per 100, $50 per 1000. 

WAGNER'S NURSERY, 

Phones: Home 1291; Sunset 1297. Pasadena. Cal. 

THE CROCKER BARTLETT PEAR 

Is out of sight compared with other pears. 
GOLDEN RULE NURSERY, Loomls, Cal. 



C. C. MORSE & CO. 




The well known SEED GROWERS, formerly 
at Santa Clara, now located at 

815-817 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



We are now prepared to sell our Seeds in 
any quantity, wholesale or retail. 

We are Headquarters for ONION Seed and 
all Uinds of Vegetable Seed. 

Also SWEET PEAS and all kinds of Flower 
Seeds. 

Also ALFALFA and all kinds of Farm and 
Field Seeds. 



SEEDS OF THE HIGHEST QUALITY ONLY. 

WRITE FOR HANDSOME NEW ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 

1 1 ""T APPLE — Leading Varieties. 

rfPnO I APRICOT— Blenheim, Hemskirk and Royal. 

I I [ill A f ALMOND— I.X.L., Nonpariel, Drake's Seedling. 

Ill I I I UUU I PRUNE— French, Imperial, Silver and Sugar. 

WALNUT-Burbank's Soft Shell. 

GRAPE UINES- Wine, Table and Raisin Varieties. 

A COMPLETE ASSORTMENT OF SMALL FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS. 
VEGETABLE, FLOWER AND FARM SEEDS. 
BURR CLOY/ E R SEED— The Best Soil-Improving Crop. 

COR ^r^EE NCK TRUMBULL & BEEBE, 

Seedsmen and Nurserymen. 419-421 SANSOME ST.. SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



&W.MARSHALL&SON 

NURSERYMEN, 

FRESNO, CALIFORNIA. 

Address all communications to P. O. Box 101 
Large Stock of 

Grape Vines, Fruit Trees and Citrns 
and Deciduous Fruit and Orna- 
mental Stock. 

All Stock First Class. 



COX SEED CO. 

Will mail you their latest 
illustrated CATALOGUE 



Valuable 


Hints for the Fall 


Planting 


of Seeds, Bulbs, 


Trees, 


Shrubbery, etc. 


Forage 


Plants, Vetches, 



Alfalfa, etc. 

SEND FOR IT. 

411-413-415 Sansome Street, 
San Francisco, Cal. 



California Fruits. 



By PROF. E. J. WICKSON. 



CONTENTS. 



Ohapt 
I. 

II. 

III. 
I\. 
V. 
VI. 
VII. 
VIII. 
IX. 
X. 
XI. 
XII. 
XIII. 
XIV. 
XV. 
XVI, 
XVII. 
XVIII. 
XIX 
XX 



The Climate of California and Its Local 
Modifications. 

Why the California Climate Specially Fa- 
vors the Growth of Fruits. 

The Fruit Soils of California. 

The Wild Fruits of California. 

California Mission Fruits. 

Introduction of Improved Fruit Varieties. 

Clearing Land for Fruit. 

The Nursery. 

Budding and Grafting. 

Preparation for Planting. 

Planting Trees and Vines. 

Pruning Orchard Trees and Thinning Fruit. 

Cultivation. 

Fertilizers for Fruit Trees and Vines. 

Irrigation of Fruit Trees and Vines 

The Apple. 

The Apricot. 

The Cherry. 

The Peach. 

The Nectarine. 



Chapter. 
XXI. The Pear. 
XXII. Plums and Prunes. 

XXIII. The Quince. 

XXIV. Vine Propagating and Planting 
XXV. Pruning and Care of the Vine. 

XXVI. Grape Varieties in California. 
XXVII. The Date. 
XXVIII. The Fig. 
XXIX. The Olive. 
XXX. The Orange. 
XXXI. The Lemon, Lime, Etc. 

XXXII. The Banana, Loquat, Persimmon, Pine- 

apple, Avocado, Etc, Etc. 

XXXIII. Berries and Currants. 

XXXIV. Almond.Walnut, Chestnut, Peanut, Etc. 
XXXV. Fruit Cannicg Crystallizing and 

Drying. 
XXXVI. Injurious lnseots. 
XXXVII. Diseases of Trees and Vines. 
XXXVIII. Injurious Animals and Birds. 
XXXIX. Protection from Winds and Frosts. 
XL. Utilization of Fruit Wastes. 



Price $2.50, Postpaid Anywhere, 



CALIFORNIA VEGETABLES 



:|N: 



GARDEN AND FIELD. 



By PROF. E. J. WICKSON, Author of "California Fruits." 



Price, $2.00 F»o«stp«Icl 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publishers, 330 Market St., Sao Francisco, Cal. 



16 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



January 6, 1906. 



Traction Vineyard and Orchard Sprayer. 




THREE SIZES OF SPRAYERS: 

190-Gal. Machine, $200 
100-Gal. Machine, $190 
65-Gal. Machine, $180 



TWO-HORSE. 

We recommend this stvle for Its many exclusive features. 
The cypress tank holds ioo ea'lons, is hung 12 inches below 
the axle. This pkkvents tipping over on side hills. 
The half round tank bottom will ride where wheels go 
and cannot scrapk the ground. Equally desirable on 
level ground or side hill. Wheels extra heavy— diameter, 
3 feet. Direct positive pitman drive from both 
wheels. Instantaneous shift to start and stop pump. By 
pass, safety valve, pressure gauge, outside adjustment for 
pump stroke and packing. Pump brass. Valves exposed. 
Agitation perfect and mechanical. Has one of our "Never 
Leak" tanks with oak and iron ties. Universal nozzle ad- 
justment. Steel bed frame. Axle \% inch cold rolled steel. 
Tires as ordered, 3-inch being regular. Balanced load. Brass 
strainer. Tracks Z% feet. Weight 650 pounds. Capacity 100 
gallons. Painted with lead color, striped and varnished. 
For pears, plums, peaches, hops and oranges, as well as vine- 
yards, this machine is almost indispensable. This is 
another high pressure sprayer and delivers the spray 
as fog or mist under a pressure of 80 to 120 pounds. 

You can spray vour trees thoroughly while team is in mo- 
tion; not required to stop at each tree. Can spray 4000 trees 
per dav with ease. No covering of face and hands to protect 
from spray required. Can spray while the wind is blowing, 
by spraying one side of trees until the wind changes. THIS 
MACHINE HAS NO EQUAL. 

L. L. CROCKER, Agent, Loomis, Cal, 



He Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co. 





Works: 



100 WILLIAM STREET, NEW YORK. 
PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 



C \I A MIFfcP guaranteed 98-99% for generating; 
\S I £\V\ \\J\Z, HYDROCYANIC ACID GAS. 
The only positive eradicator of the SAN JOSE SCALE, 

RED AND BLACK SCALE and other insect pests. 

FOR SALE BY 

THE F. W. BRAUN COMPANY, - Los Angeles and San Francisco. 
MESSRS. HAAS, BARUCH & CO. - Los Angeles and San Francisco. 



k re 




Are the Best for all Conditions 
in Pumping for 

Irrigation, Mining 
and Reclamation. 

Efficiency and Durability Guaranteed. 

KR0GH MFG. CO. 

519 Market St., SAN FRANCISCO. 




Jackson Patent Horiz 



innected 



PUMPS! 



CENTRIFUGAL. 

JACKSON'S LATEST IMPROVE! 
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS BEAT THE 
WORLD FOR EFFICIENCY AND 
DURABILITY. 

Guaranteed to take less power to 
operate than any other centrifugal! 
pump. Highest efficiency and econ 
omy guaranteed. 

BYRON JACKSON MACEINE WORKS, 

41 1 Market St.. San Francisco. 



THIS IS WHAT VOU NEED. 

SINGLE TRACEnSARNEST"ATTACHMENT. 

For Vineyard, Orchard, 
Nursery and Hop Fields, 

Both Single and Doub'e Work. 

Light. Durable. Economical. 
Satisfactory. 
Price, *30. 

Pull particulars furnished 
by the inventor and manufac- 
turer. 




(Patented Sept. 13, 1905.) 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, 

LODI. CAL. 

Reliable Agents Wanted 



CEMENT FENCE POSTS. 

MAKE THEM FOR YOURSELF AND FOR YOUR NEIGHBORS. 

CHEAPER AND A HUNDRED TIMES MORE LASTING THAN WOOD. 

Fire Cannot Destroy Them. Age Adds Strength. 

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE SHOWING SIMPLICITY OF WORKING THE 

"COX" CEMENT FENCE POST MACHINE. 

PACIFIC CONCRETE MACHINERY CO. 



Pacific Coast Agents, 



321 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 




WHAT'S THE USE OF TALKING? y\. 

FERTILIZING PAYS. 



mococct 



FERTILIZERS. 



FERTILIZERS. 



Chemical Fertilizers Are What You Need; 

BUT! 

"Any Old Fertilizer" Won't Do the Trick. 

To Make a Success, the Requirements of Soil and Climate Must be Carefully Met. 

We make a specialty of fertilizers for cereal farming, also suitable 

formulas for fruits, vegetables, etc. 
Our factory is the largest on the Pacific Coast, our goods are right 
and our prices are low. 

\A/rlte for Particulars 

THE MOUNTAIN COPPER CO. 

604 MONTGOMERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 

ZERSI 

NITRATE OR SO DA supplying NITROGEN or AMMONIA. 
THOHAS' PHOSPHATE POWDER supplying PHOSPHORIC ACID. 
HURIATE and SULPHATE OF POTASH supplying POTASH. 

THE THREE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF PLANT FOOD. 

Can be supplied alone or mixed in any proportion to supply whatever deficiency may exist in the soil, 
thus paving only for what is lacking and necessary to replace. 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., m £^^t?^°- 

WRITK TO THEM FOR PAMPHLETS. 

NATIONAL WOOD F»IF»E CO. 

Woodward Patent Machine Banded 
Wheeler Patent Continuous Stave 
Bored Wood Water Pipe. 

MADE FROM CALIFORNIA HEDWOOD OR 



Wood Pipe 



SELECTED PDGET SOUND YELLOW FIR. 



LOS ANGELES OFFICE: 6TH & MATEC STS. SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE: 301 MARKET 8T. 

PUGET SOUND OFFICE: OLVMPIA, WASH. 
A BOOKLET, "THE WHOLE STORY ABOUT WOOD PIPE," MAILED FREE UPON REQUEST. 

Fertilizers and Fertilizing for Profit. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS, Inc. 

534 CLAY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL,. 

Manufacturers of PURE BONE MEAL and COMPLETE FERTILIZERS. 

PRODUCERS, IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN FERTILIZING MATERIALS OF ALL KIND3. 
BEST THOMAS' PHOSPHATE POWDER. 19 ... $14 PER TON. 



GREENBANK 

T. \AJ. JACKSON ««r CO. 
1 23 California St., San Francisco. 



98% POWDERED CAUSTIC SODA and PURE POTASH. 

BEST OLIVE DIP AND TREE WAfcH. 

Analysis of a competitive brand labeled and sold as 



_J Powdered 
I 'austic Soda". 



Sodium Hydrate 75 00% 

Sodium Ox id 58..=*% 



CUTTER'S 

ANTHRAX and 

BLACKLEG 
VACCINES 

are given the preference by 80.%' 
of California stockmen because 
they give better results than 
others do. 

Write lor prices, testimonials and our NEW 
booklet on ANIHRAX and BLACKLEG. 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY, 
mi Rialto Bldg. San Francisco, Cal. 




WELL DRILLING 
MACHINERY. 



Portable and drill any 
depth by steam or horse 
power. 4* Different 

Styles. We challenge com- 
petition. Send for Free Il- 
lustrated Catalog No. 27. 

KELLY & TANEYHILL CO.. 27 Chestnut St.. Waterloo, la. 



Redwood and Pine Tanks. 

ROUND AND FLAT HOOPS. 
PUMPS, PIPE and FITTINGS. 

Kstimates furnished on Pumping Plants and 
Water Supply Outtits. 

O. T. ROSE, 
818 Bryant St. bet. 6th and 7th, San Francisco, Cal. 

THE finest and sweetest watermelons grown are 
Florida Favorite Pure Seeds, for sale by CREN- 
SHAW BROS , Tampa, Fla. 



THE FRESNO SCRAPER. 

3H — -+ - S foot. 




FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FRESNO. CALIFORNIA. 



To Irrigators! 

Don't pay exorbitant prices 
to surveyors. Get a CALI- 
FORNIA LEVELING IN- 
STRUMENT for $7 and do 
your own leveling. Money 
refunded If not satisfactory. 
Send for circulars to 

B. A. GOODWIN 

RIPON, CAL- 





nn 

uu 



on household 
goods shipped 
east or west 
between 
Washington, 
Oregon, Cali- 
fornia and 
Colorado or 
along the Pacillo coast. For rates write Bekins Van 
& Storage Co., 11 Montgomery St , San Francisco. 
244 S. Broadway, Los Angeles; X95 Washington St.. 
Chicago; 1016Bdwy, Oakland. Send 2c for city maps. 

Telephone Main 109. 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne % Dealers in Paper. 

Nos. 55-57-69-61 First St., San Francisco, Cal. 

BLAKE, MOFFITT & TOWNE Los Angeles 

BLAKE, McFALL & CO Portland, Or. 



i ms raper not 
to be taken from 
the Library. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 




CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. LXXI. No. 2. 



San Francisco, Saturday, January 13, 1906. 



THIRTY-FIFTH YEAR. 
OFFICE: 330 MARKET ST. 



In the Fruit Cannery. 

Three weeks ago we gave two views 
of operations in a California fruit can- 
nery, selecting, for illustration, the 
sorting of apricots and peeling, pitting 
and can-filling of the same fruit in the 
establishment of the J. H. Flickinger 
Co. of San Jose. Upon this page other 
views in the progress of the series are 
given, namely, the slicing of peaches 
and the making of syrup. There are 
two features of canning fruit in Cali- 
fornia which are plainly suggested by 
these pictures: One is the acceptable 
employment which it furnishes to those 
who desire to turn part of their time 
into money, and the other is the inven- 
tion of labor-saving machinery which 
secures speed, uniformity, cleanliness 
and cheapness of product. 

First, the work of the cannery. In 
this respect it must be admitted that 
there has been great improvement and 
elevation during the last few years. 
When the supply of Chinese labor be- 
gan to manifest the influence of the ex- 
clusion laws, there was great doubt 
whether some of the industries which 
required a great amount of hard labor, 
like the fruit preservation enterprises, 
could survive. The fruit-growers and 
packers were very apprehensive. Ex- 
periments previously made in the em- 
ployment of white boys and girls had 
not resulted favorably. It was a very 
gratifying surprise then to all con- 
cerned that there should be developed 
among our own people dwelling in the 
smaller cities and towns an adequate 
and very acceptable labor supply, con 




Slicing Machines for High-Class Peach Canning at the J. H. Flickinger & Co.'s Cannery. 



sisting largely of mature women who 
were very glad to get nearer to nature 
in the form of elegant California fruit and 
to work hard for good compensation in 
the orchard cutting-sheds and in the 



large canning and drying establish- 
ments of the towns also. Our pictures 
show them at this work and the ac- 
ceptability of it is shown by their faces 
and by the very pretty and proper 




The Syrup Room of the Cannery — How the Sugar Goes From Barrels to Cans. 



garments which they are able to wear 
at their work. How much better em- 
ployment for women than the toil of the 
sweat-shop and other establishments 
open to the sex ! This fact was very 
quickly recognized after the first trial 
was made of it and now there is no lack 
of supply. Families go in groups to 
the vicinities of the orchards and can- 
neries, secure respectable habitations 
and employ weeks and months in fruit 
i work in its various phases and many a 
person enjoys for all the rest of the 
year the financial lift which earnest 
work during the deciduous fruit season 
secures. In the South many women 
find winter employment in the citrus 
fruit-packing houses, so that the same 
condition prevails throughout the State 
and is an important factor in our in- 
dustrial situation. 

The other suggestion of the pictures, 
viz., the use of special machinery, ap- 
plies to our canning industry in all its 
phases, from the making of the empty 
cans to the finishing label on the filled 
ones. The particular machines shown 
in one of the pictures are for the slic- 
ing of peaches, for although most 
peaches are canned as halves, a spe- 
cially fine brand of sliced peaches for 
eating with cream, a close resemblance 
to the fresh sliced fruit, meets a cer- 
tain high-class demand. Note the size 
of the fruit as it rolls along the ways of 
the nearer machine toward the cutters. 

The outfit for the making of syrup is 
not particularly handsome, but it shows 
the scale on which the operation is con- 
ducted. 



18 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 13, 1906. 



Pacific Rural Press. 

Published Every Saturday at 330 Market Street, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE. 

Advertising rates made known on application. 

Entered at S. F. Postofnce as second-class mail matter. 



DEWEV PUBLISHING CO Publishers 

E. J. WICKSON Horticultural Editor 



SAN FRANCISCO, JANUARY 13, 1906. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS.— Slicing Machines for High-Class Peach Can- 
ning at the J. H. Flicklnger & Co. 'a Cannery: The Syrup Room of 
the Cannery— How the Sugar Goes From Barrels to Cans, 1". 

EDITORIAL.— In the Fruit Cannery, 17. The Week, 18. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.— Esparto Grass for Paper Slock: Peas 
and Grain for Green Feeding: What Kind of Lime? IK. Italian 
Chestnuts: Field Peas in the San Joaquin: Pruning, Irrigating 
and Planting; Just the Same; Cheat or Chess in California: Apply- 
ing Sulphur; Peach Planting; The Reclaimed Lands': Not the 
Winter Nelis, 19. Cypress or Pine on Roadsides, 21. 

WEATHER AND CROPS.— Report of the U. S. Weather Service 
for Week Ending January 9, 1900; Rainfall and Temperature, 19. 

THE POULTRY YARD.— Seasonable Reflections, 20. 

THE IRRIGATOR.— The Future of Irrigation in California, 20. 

FRUIT PRESERVATION.— Prunes in Cans, 2L 

CEREAL CROPS — Fertilizers and the Wheat Crop, 22. 

AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. — 23. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— The Garden of Forgiveness; A Man's Judg- 
ment; A New England Plum Pudding; Some Beauty Hints: Habits 
in Appetite, 24. Domestic Hints: To Clean a Floor, 25. 

THE MARKETS — Produce Market; Fruit Markets, 26-27. 

FORESTRY.— Grazing Fees on Reserves Upheld, 27. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— From Grass Valley Grange, 28. 

THE DAIRY.— How to Secure Sanitary Milk. 30. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Transfers of Holstein Friesians, 31. 

HORTICULTURE.— Care in Planting Peaches, 31. 



The Week. 



Weather pranks have been peculiar, as is generally 
the case in a year which opens dry. Low tempera- 
tures have dashed in here and there in the southern 
California citrus region, and, though some fruit has 
been hurt, the restlessness of the atmosphere has 
kept things stirred up and equalled temperatures to 
such an extent that general injury has been averted. 
Rains have also been flighty and in most places have 
not settled down to business as the growers desire. 
This is another of the usual performances of a freaky 
year, and it is often after the middle of January before 
good, warm, deep-soaking rains arrive. It may be 
so this lyear; meantime our farmers are doing the 
best they can. Seeding and planting are going for- 
ward, and that is about all one can do to ensure 
something, for, except near the coast, if one waits too 
long for rain, he gets nothing, even if the rains do 
come. Work should go ahead wherever possible. 



There is, however, one thing which will be sure this 
year, and every year, whether it rains or not, and 
that is taxes; and whenever other topics are scant, 
taxes will do to talk about. Everybody knows that 
the taxing system of California is now being expertly 
looked into and we have had items from time to time 
noting the progress of the inquiry. The farming in- 
terests have been for some time systematically push- 
ing for a reform because they believe that the land is 
hit harder than it ought to be by the tax gatherer. 
This seems to be the view of the experts also who ap- 
pear to quite agree with the farmers' claim that 
there are vast property interests which are too suc- 
cessful in tax dodging. The State Commission on 
Revenue and Taxation advocates plans for the sepa- 
ration of State from local taxation, and fear has 
been expressed that the proposed change might 
work to the disadvantage of the cities and counties. 
The fear is that, by surrendering the right to tax the 
public service corporations, the counties and cities 
may lose more than they would gain by the release of 
their real estate from the burden of State taxation. 
On this point Professor Plehn, expert of the commis- 
sion, says: 

If by the plan proposed it does not seem pos- 
sible to lower, in some degree at least, the present 
oppressive burden on real estate, one of the most 
essential objects of the reform sought will be lost. 
Eighty-five per cent of all the direct taxes are now 
borne by real estate, and only 15 per cent by per- 
sonal property. The aim of the Commissioners' plan is 
to reach directly or indirectly some of the personal 
property that can not be reached under the present 
plan. The Commission is satisfied from the data col- 
lected up to the present time that separation can be 



accomplished in such a manner that in a very great 
majority of the counties there will be a substantial 
gain and in none any great material loss. 

This is a very hopeful statement. If relief can come 
to the owners of real estate, and at the same time al- 
low the agricultural counties what is needed for local 
administration, that will come very near attaining 
all that our farmers have contended for. That is a 
good thing to get happy about while waiting for the 
rains. 

A unique tribute to the winter climate of the 
Eastern States is found in the story which is being 
warmly telegraphed that the newly inaugurated 
Governor of Ohio, John M. Pattison, having taken 
the oath as Governor, reviewed the parade of 4,000 
troops from a glass cage. Mr. Pattison, who has 
been ill for some time, stood in the open air long 
enough to take the oath, although the weather had 
all the rigor of mid-winter, and then stepped into 
the cage of glass, which had been constructed in the 
reviewing stand. Standing on footwarmers while 
the long parade shivered past, the new Governor 
bowed his acknowledgments. This experience seems 
to enforce the idea which has been gaining ground 
that the Eastern States will have to do away entirely 
with its winter pageants or else remand them to 
participation in by vigorous young people in skating 
costume. The historical date for presidential inaug- 
urations, March 4, is likely to be changed, because of 
the danger of pneumonia to all who take part. 
Eastern people should certainly have their cere- 
monies in the spring or summer, or else come to Cali- 
fornia, where the winter climate holds no malice 
against statesmen. 

We have recently claimed that there ought to be 
a good rest before another world's fair was under- 
taken on this continent, and the proposition made by 
Congressman Kahn of California seems to meet that 
suggestion. He has introduced in Congress a bill to 
provide for a Pacific Coast Exposition at San Fran- 
cisco in 1913, to celebrate the discovery of the Pacific 
Ocean by Europeans. As fitting that event, it is 
proposed that a great naval review in San Francisco 
Bay shall form part of the festivities. To this 
end the bill contains a request to the President 
to send invitations to all the nations of the 
earth to dispatch warships to participate in this 
review, for which the date is to be September 25, 
1913, that being the 400th anniversary of the discov- 
ery of the Pacific Ocean by Balboa. The vessels are 
to meet at Monterey and proceed thence to San 
Francisco. The bill asks for an appropriation of 
$5,000,000 and a similar amount is to be raised in 
California. Congress is also asked to erect a build- 
ing at a cost of $250,000 for the Government exhibits, 
this building to be subsequently sold to the State of 
California. The Exposition is to be exceptional in 
many ways. The climate of the State enables it to 
be kept open for a much longer period than is usual, 
and it is therefore proposed that it shall be formally 
dedicated on April 30, 1913, opened on May 1 and 
continued until January 1, 1914. There is Dlenty of 
time to get ready for such an event. 



A man up in El Dorado county has been lined $150 
for selling a band of goats, which he says he found on 
his place, to a butcher. The man's claim was that 
14 goats strayed on his ranch near George- 
town, and following the alleged custom of the 
vicinity, he took possession of the goats and disposed 
of them. The owner of the goats got on their trail 
and caught up with them at the butcher's, who had 
only killed one of them. The goat-seller entered a 
plea of guilty of petty larceny and was fined $150, 
with the alternative of 150 days in jail. The fine was 
promptly paid. The goat-seller's reputation hereto- 
fore had been good, and he is probably wiser now. 
It will not do to consider as one's own what comes to 
him, and possibly the general statement of it may 
keep others from making a mistake of the same kind. 

We are pleased with the announcement that 
Lieutenant-Governor Alden Anderson has been chosen 
president of the Sacramento Chamber of Com- 
merce without opposition, and, according to the 
I'n inn. the general expression of opinion was that 
the organization was fortunate in securing the 
services of Mr. Anderson in this capacity. Mr. 
Anderson has within the past year permanently 



located in Sacramento and his fellow-citizens ex- 
press gratification to have him become thus promi- 
nently identified with the active business interests of 
the community. President-elect Anderson was in- 
vited to supply a forecast of his policy, and replied 
that he will endeavor to formulate a plan that will 
meet with the substantial apprval of all who are inter- 
ested in the welfare of the community. This he will sub- 
mit in a formal way at the time of taking office. It 
is likely to be of such nature that all similar 
organizations may be helped by it to higher effi- 
ciency. 



QUERIES AND REPLIES. 



Esparto Grass for Paper Stock. 

To the Editor: I have been reading in Eastern 
and foreign journals about the suitability of esparto 
grass (stipa tenacissima) for the making of fine 
paper, instead of linen stock. If that is so, would it 
not be desirable to introduce the plant and see if it 
will grow in California, because it might meet the 
needs of paper makers? — Manufacturer, San 
Francisco. 

Esparto grass was introduced into California by 
the University of California about 25 years ago, and 
full accounts of its success in California soil were 
published in our columns early in the 80's. The seed 
was offered for distribution about 1885. No particu- 
lar interest was manifested. The first idea of its 
use was in weaving mats used in the pressing of 
olives to restrain the pomace from following the oil 
out from under the press, but it was soon found that 
a wide cloth would answer the purpose as well for 
less cost than was necessary to weave these mats. 
Esparto grass has been growing in the University 
garden in Berkeley ever since that time. There is 
no question about its success in the coast region of 
California at least, and it is perfectly hardy around 
the bay. No more experimentation is necessary; it 
is simply a question now of whether some one desires 
to take the matter up commercially. A farmer can- 
not undertake to put this crop into his field unless 
his market is assured. If a paper maker finds that 
he can use it to advantage he will have no difficulty 
in making contracts with farmers for the growing of 
it, or in undertaking the production of it himself if 
he has land available. 

Peas and Grain for Green Feeding. 

To the Editor: I wish to experiment a little with 
cow peas and grain as an early green feed for my 
milch cows. I expect to mow and feed as early as 
possible. Will you kindly advise me as to whether I 
should sow oats or barley? How much seed of each 
(oats or barley and peas) should I sow to the acre? 
The soil is rich sediment. — Dairyman, Gilroy. 

Cow peas are not suited for growing with grain 
for winter feeding, because cow peas are really 
beans, and are subject to destruction by slight frost. 
The pea which you desire for your combination is the 
common field pea, which is hardy against ordinary 
frost, and you will get good results by using these 
peas as the rate of about 30 lb. to the acre when 
combined with oats or barley. 

California Wild Grape Not Resistant. 

To the Editor: Would the common wild grape 
which commonly grows wild in central California be 
a good resistant stock on which to graft our best 
varieties of grapes ?— Beginner, Ceres. 

The wild California vine was largely planted 20 
years ago on the presumption that it was resistant 
of phylloxera. Experience proved that this was a 
mistake, and the use of it as a resistant stock has 
been abandoned. 

What Kind of Lime? 

To the Editor: I am about to spray my pear or- 
chard, and will try the sulphur, salt and lime mix- 
ture. The storekeepers are offering a powdered 
lime, and would like to know if that is as potent as 
the quicklime. I want to spray for the scab. Have 
formerly sprayed in the spring, with the Bordeaux 
mixture, but with poor results, as the least rain 
washed off the spray. Would like to know what re- 
sults others have had in eradicating the disease, 
which is greatly on the increase. — Grower, San 
Francisco. 

For the lime, salt and sulphur you must have good 
sharp lime, and powdered lime is usually air-slaked 
and dull in causticity. For this wash you must have 
quicklime, because it enters into a chemical com- 
pound with the sulphur, and it is to promote this that 



January 13, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



ample boiling is needed. Powdered lime would do 
better for Bordeaux, perhaps, because there the lime 
is a conveyor for the bluestone, and not to combine 
chemically with it, and yet powdered lime does not 
make as good a whitewash as quicklime, and there- 
fore is more apt to be washed off by rains. The blue- 
stone needs to be Conveyed in a durable whitewash, 
so it can be released gradually, and thus protect the 
plant for some time. For the scab we should use 
lime, salt and sulphur in the winter, and then watch, 
and if the smoky patches begin to come on the leaves 
and fruit, give the trees a dose of Bordeaux mixture. 
This disease can certainly be controlled. 



Italian Chestnuts. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly tell me what 
variety of chestnuts are most suitable for this local- 
ity? Italian chestnuts are generally quoted 5c. per 
lb. more than other varieties. Is there more than 
one variety of Italian chestnuts? Must all chestnuts 
be grafted to be true? One nurseryman tells me 
that Italian chestnuts come true to seed; another — 
Mr. Gillet, of Nevada City — told me that all chest- 
nuts had to be grafted to be of any account. In put- 
ting out trees like chestnuts a person wants to be 
pretty sure what he is about, for a mistake means 15 
years of lost labor. — Planter, Grass Valley. 

We do not know of more than one variety of Italian 
chestnut grown in California, although there are 
undoubtedly many varieties known in Italy. It is 
true that in order to get just the particular type of 
nut which you desire grafting must be resorted to. 
We presume, however, that most of the Italian chest- 
nuts grown in California are seedlings. Mr. Gillet 
believes in growing particularly fine varieties of 
Spanish chestnuts, and those certainly must be 
grafted. We have no doubt you can find other 
nurserymen who will sell you Italian chestnuts grown 
from seed, or you can grow them from the seed your- 
self, and they will be such as are commonly marketed 
in California under that name. 



Field Peas in the San Joaquin. 

To the Editor: I am about to plant a peach or- 
chard and vineyard on land pretty well exhausted by 
wheat-raising. I would, therefore, like to try green 
manuring. I see that field peas have done well for 
the purpose. Will you kindly inform me if it is the 
common field pea which we used to raise in Minnesota, 
and if it will mature seed here ? — A. K., Collis. 

The field peas are practically the same as those 
which you knew in Minnesota — the common field pea. 
It does not generally make a satisfactory seed crop 
in the interior valley unless you can get the plant 
well grown before the dry season comes on; in that 
case you ought to grow seed enough for your own 
use, if not for sale. Of course, for green manuring, 
the plant is to be winter-grown and plowed in before 
the seed ripens and while the plant is still succulent. 



Pruning, Irrigating and Planting. 

To the Editor: I would feel greatly obliged if you 
would kindly inform me through the columns of your 
most valuable and interesting paper — (1) The best 
time to prune olives. (2) The best time to graft 
olives. (3) Your opinion in regard to irrigating olives. 
(4) Also as to irrigation of grapes (table). (5) When 
do you consider the best time to plant deciduous 
trees? — Subscriber, Auburn. 

Prune olives at any time after the fruit is gathered 
that you have sharp tools. Graft olives just about 
the time the new growth starts at the close of the 
winter dormancy and continue at your convenience 
during the early part of the growing season. You 
must irrigate olives unless you get good free growth 
and plenty of fruit without it. Grapes must be irri- 
gated unless you can get good size of fruit and growth 
of cane and late enough retention of green leaves 
with the rainfall. There can be no rule about these 
things. Practice must meet conditions which must 
be learned by studying the plants. Deciduous trees 
can be planted whenever, in the dormant season, the 
ground is in good condition, but there is no gain in 
planting in cold, wet ground. 



Just the Same. 

To the Editor: Will you please inform me through 
the Pacific Rural Press if the pear scab treated in 
the issue of Feb. 11, 1905, would be what I would need 
for apple scab? Is it the same kind of a scab? If 
not, what do you recommend for apple scab? — 
Grower, Napa county. 

The disease is exactly the same and so is the treat- 
ment. 



Cheat or Chess in California. 

To the Editor: I desire to get as much informa- 
tion as possible about the plant known as cheat in 
your State, and particularly of its habits and preva- 
lence in California. The plant is known botanically 
as Lolium temulentum, and as you know is known in 
Europe as the darnel. It is reputed to be poisonous. 
I shall therefore be greatly obliged if you will give me 
what facts you can on the following points: (1) Preva- 
lence in California. (2) Evidences of poisonous action 
or any poisonings which might possibly be ascribed 
to cheat. (3) The prevalence of the ergot fungus in 
this plant. (4) Any other facts of the life history of 
the darnel, as you may have observed them in Cali- 
fornia. — E. M. Freeman, Pathologist U. S. Dept. of 
Agr., Washington, D. C. 

We make public answer to Mr. Freeman's ques- 
tions for the purpose of drawing out information 
from others who have observation and experience 
with the plant. We can only say in a general way 
that Lolium temulentum is very widely distributed 
in California, and comes up very freely whenever seed 
of grain is killed out by excessive moisture during 
the winter, and is the plant which is called cheat or 
chess in this State. During an observation of over 
30 years we have never seen or heard anything to 
indicate that it has any poisonous action whatever; 
in fact, when young it is highly esteemed as a green 
winter feed, and to some extent is cut for hay. We 
have seen ergot upon the plant frequently, but as it 
is seldom allowed to reach maturity, but is either cut 
or pastured off when green, the opportunity for the 
growth of the fungus is narrowed, and no consider- 
able injury has ever been reported, although its 
occurrence in dry feed may have been more trouble- 
some than has usually been recognized. We hope 
our readers will supply other facts of interest. 



Applying Sulphur. 

To the Editor: I have been requested by several 
owners of vineyards to look for a good machine for 
applying sulphur to vines for mildew, and I wish to 
seek information through your paper. Will you 
kindly publish a request to the vineyardists as to 
which is the way and in what manner is the best for 
applying sulphur to vines, especially vines which are 
staked. — Grower, Orosi. 

Sulphur is used in all sorts of ways which cause it 
to be evenly dusted over the foliage. It may be ap- 
plied by shaking it over the vines either from a little 
sack made from close bagging or other material 
which will not let the sulphur pass too quickly. A 
better method is to use a bellows or a knapsack dus- 
ter, especially constructed for the purpose. These 
can be obtained from most of the dealers handling 
spraying appliances or from hardware men. All 
such appliances should be continually advertised in 
our columns. There is, perhaps, no absolutely best 
appliance. Some like one and some like another. 



Peach Planting. 

To the Edttor: I am pulling out some 200 
oranges and planting cling peaches instead. Shall 
I get the best results by planting all Levi or Levi and 
Phillips in alternate rows ? Do you advise planting 
in orange holes or between rows ? How low would 
you head the new trees ? — Planter, Penryn. 

So far as we know, the peaches chiefly grown in 
California are self fertile, and no necessity for 
associating varieties for pollination has yet been 
demonstrated. We should always plant a new tree 
in a new place if possible. If the roots like the old 
place, they will get there all right. We should have 
the lowest branches of the tree quite near the 
ground in the foothills, but you can head higher and 
distribute the branches better than occurs when the 
young tree is cut very low at planting. 

The Reclaimed Lands. 

To the Editor: Can you tell me where I can get 
any literature on peat or island lands ? — Reader, 
San Jose. 

The best accounts we know of are published in the 
Pacific Rural Press of July 1 and July 15, 1005. 



Not the Winter Nelis. 

To the Editor: I send a pear, bought in one of 
the San Francisco fruit stores, which I request that 
you kindly name. All the pears in the box with this 
one were completely covered with russet. While the 
flavor of this pear is similar to that of the Winter 
Nelis, it is difficult to believe that unusual growing 
conditions could cause so complete a covering of rus- 
set and so different an appearance generally from 
that of the Winter Nelis. If you should conclude this 



variety is the Winter Nelis, please explain the prob- 
able cause for its unusual appearance. — Subscriber, 
San Francisco. 

It is an entirely different pear and one not com- 
monly grown in this State. We do not recognize the 
variety. Although local conditions do affect the 
coats of pears, they do not make such complete trans- 
formations as this sample shows. The Winter Nelis 
under no conditions becomes as uniformly russet as 
your specimen, which has a coat as brown as a 
Seckel, but is not that variety. 



WEATHER AND CROPS. 

Report of the U. S. Weather Service for Week 
Ending January 9, 1906. 

Alexander MoAdie, Forecast Official and Section Director 



Sacramento Valley. 

Clear and cold weather prevailed during the week, 
with severe frosts nearly every night and dry northerly 
winds. The seasonal rainfall is far below the average 
and all farm work is backward, owing to the drought 
and continued cold weather. The soil is too dry and 
hard for profitable cultivation. Early sown grain has 
started, but its growth is very slow. It is probable the 
grain acreage will be considerably diminished unless 
heavy rains occur soon. Feed is very scarce and stock 
are suffering. In some places sheep-raisers are com- 
pelled to feed corn. Some plowing is Being done, but 
most farmers are waiting for rain. Orange harvest is 
completed and the crop was very satisfactory. No dam- 
age was done by the frosts. 

Coast and Bay Sections. 

Cold and clear or partly cloudy weather prevailed 
during the week, with dry northerly winds. Severe 
frosts occurred nearly every night in the interior and 
fogs were frequent in the coast districts. The light rain 
at the close of the preceding week was of little benefit. 
In nearly all sections the soil is too dry for cultivation 
and farm work is very backward. Early sown grain is 
in poor condition and making slow growth. Very little 
seeding is being done and present indications are that 
the grain acreage will be light. Feed is very scarce and 
cattle are suffering. One stock-raiser in Alameda county 
lost 40 head of cattle. Lambing is in progress, with 
heavy loss of lambs from the cold weather. Frosts 
killed tender branches of orange and lemon trees in the 
vicinity of San Luis Obispo, and probably caused some 
damage to oranges at Cloverdale. 

San Joaquin Valley. 

Clear and cool weather prevailed during the past week, 
with heavy and killing frosts on several mornings. Crops 
are all harvested and no injury resulted from the cold 
weather. Plowing and seeding are progressing and early 
sown grain is coming up. Pruning orchards and vine- 
yards is in progress. Grass has started, but has made 
little growth on account of the cold weather. Feed is 
scarce and stock are thin, but generally reported in a 
healthy condition. Heavy snow is reported in the moun- 
tains. Rain is badly needed by both farmers and miners. 

Sontbern California. 

Clear and cold weather prevailed most of the week, 
with slightly higher temperature at the close. Severe 
frosts occurred several nights, but owing to timely warn- 
ings and precautionary measures the damage to oranges 
was comparatively light. Citrus groves were freely irri- 
gated and smudging was resorted to at the most critical 
hours. A report from Riverside states that the severe 
frost of December 24th was accompanied by light north 
wind, which prevented serious damage to oranges. It is 
reported that oranges are generally of small size, for 
reasons which do not yet appear plain. Orange harvest 
continues and the yield is very good. Grain and grass 
are making fair growth, but rain is badly needed in most 
sections. 

Eureka Summary.— Cold, rainy weather has been 
very severe on stock. Feed is short, and on some ranges 
cattle are subsisting almost on acorns. Owing to the 
dry summer and cold|weather, grass did not get a good 
start and has but little substance in it. 

Los Angeles Summary.— Cold and frost continued 
until Saturday, when weather became threatening and 
showers fell in San Gabriel valley at night. Drought 
continues. Rain is needed badly; irrigation general. 



Rainfall and Temperature. 



The following data for the week ending 5 a. M. Wednes- 
day, January 10, 1906, are from official sources and are 
furnished by the United States Weather Bureau for the 
Pacific Rural Press: 



CALIFORNIA 
STATIONS. 



Eureka 

Red Bluff 

Sacramento 

San Francisco. . . 

San Jose 

Fresno 

Independence... . 
San Luis Obispo 

Los Angeles 

San Diego 

Yuma 



Total Rainfall for the 


Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 


Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall Last Year to 
Same Date 


Average Seasonal 
Rainfall to Date. . . 


Maximum Tempera- 
ture for the week . . 


Minimum Tempera- 
ture for the week. . 


.82 


10.96 


17 37 


19.93 


60 


36 


.56 


4 71 


14 75 


12.42 


66 


32 


.08 


1 84 


9.70 


8.66 


60 


84 


.01 


3 01 


10.56 


10.22 


59 


41 


.01 


2.39 


8.17 




60 


32 


.00 


1.3S 


6 23 


3.88 


62 


34 


.00 


.43 


.68 


1.62 


62 


24 


.00 


2.30 


6 71 


8 05 


70 


30 


.00 


3 25 


4 55 


6.10 


74 


40 


.00 


4 65 


3 98 


8.68 


70 


42 


.00 


3 45 


1 69 


1 80 


68 


32 



30 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 13, 1006. 



THE POULTRY YARD. 



Seasonable Reflections. 

To the Editor: Undoubtedly there will be a very 
notable increased activity in poultry matters during 
the year 1906. In all sections of our State the clos- 
ing months of 1905 were far busier along these lines 
than in the same months in preceding years. There 
has been a large demand for good poultry, not neces- 
sarily fancy, and it has been utterly impossible thus 
far this season to supply eggs for hatching in incu- 
bator lots. 

All this, notwithstanding the unexceptional back- 
wardness of the fall and winter period, for the cold 
weather which has prevailed in the region known as 
the bay counties has kept hens from laying their 
usual quota of eggs. Breeders on an extensive scale, 
with but very few exceptions, unite in this verdict. 

So far the greatest demand has been for White 
Leghorns and White Minorcas. There is a fast grow- 
ing demand for the latter eggs and these fowls are 
forging ahead in the estimation of the general public. 
Deservedly so, for they have proved to be excellent 
layers of large white eggs, and numbers of them. 
While it is probable that the Leghorns will head the 
poultry procession for many years to come, there 
seems to be little doubt that the White Minorcas will 
follow a good second. 

This is a matter that may well engage the atten- 
tion of farmers who raise only a few hundred hens. 
Of course all farmer readers of the Pacific Rural 
Press are endeavoring to build up their flocks, aim- 
ing always for a higher standard. It will pay to 
raise the very best hens obtainable. The arguments 
on this side are numerous and unanswerable. 

Another fowl that will be heard from in the not 
distant future is the Indian Runner duck. There 
appear to be but few flocks of these modest looking 
birds in this State; or, at least, in this section. 
Parties who have tned them for any length of time 
unanimously agree that they are famous layers of 
large white eggs, free from any objectionable flavor, 
and which command top prices in the open market. 
They have the reputation not only of being remark- 
able layers, but they keep up the record for several 
years. For a long time they have been very popular 
in Ireland, where they are esteemed very highly as 
money makers among the poorer classes. 

Not a few farmers have concluded that hens, when 
they are moulting and are not paying their way, may 
as well shift for themselves, at least in good part. 
But it is very poor policy to cut short the rations of 
the hen when she is taking her annual resting period. 
At that time she needs the best of care and an 
abundance of nourishing food. In future months she 
will make good the extra outlay, though the patience 
of the owner may be taxed for a seemingly long time. 
We are always ready to speak a good word for the 
hen, providing she is well bred and promising as a 
layer. Gentle treatment and watchful care, never 
relaxed, will go a long way in making the hen a money 
maker — ' a mortgage lifter ' — as she has been called 
in some localities. 

In his last report, recently issued, the United 
States Secretary of Agriculture says, regarding the 
fowls of the country: "The farmer's hen is becoming 
a worthy companion to his cow." ("The estimated 
value of dairy products for 1905 was $665,000,000, or 
$54,000,000 above the estimate for the preceding 
year). "The annual production of eggs is now a 
score of billions, and, after supplying the needs of 
factories, tanneries, bakeries and other trades, they 
are becoming a substitute for high-priced meats, 
beside entering more generally into the every-day 
food of the people. Poultry products have now 
climbed to a place of more than half a billion dollars 
in value; and so the farmer's hen competes with 
wheat for precedence." 

Farmers will And the following recipe for a cheap 
paint an exceedingly valuable one, and it will stand 
each one in hand to keep a liberal supply ready mixed 
at all times. It is very useful in the poultry house, 
inside as well as outside. For rough work of any 
kind, such as fences, gates and outbuildings, it will be 
found without a peer. One thing regarding it that 
will appeal to the farmer is its cheapness: Crude oil 
(petroleum), one gallon; Prince's metallic (dry paint), 
three pounds. This will give a paint of a dark choco- 
late color when first applied. If a warmer color is 
wished, Venetian red can be added in quantity to suit. 

Mix well and let stand for two or three days before 
using. A longer time will improve the mixture. 
Apply with a common paint brush. It will take a 
few weeks to dry and a second coat can be used if it 
is thought necessary. This paint has been tested by 
the writer and others and can be relied upon as a 
cheap and good article. It is well to keep a quan- 
tity on hand all the time, for one will find occasion to 
use it every now and then. 

The writer believes it is well enough to pass a good 
thing along when it can be truly asserted to be of 
benefit. There is an old assertion that one's torch 
burns none the less brighter for lighting that of 
another. So, having tested for several years the fol- 
lowing recipe for making an unparalleled harness 



dressing, assuring all the readers of the Pacific 
Rural Press that there is nothing that excels it for 
treating leather, whether as foot wear or harness. 
The formula sold a few years ago for $1. 

To two quarts of fish (or neat's foot oil) add two 
pounds of mutton tallow, one pint of castor oil, one- 
fourth pound of ivory black, one-half pound beeswax, 
four ounces rosin and one ounce of Burgundy pitch 
Put all together in an iron kettle over a slow fire. 
Boil and stir half an hour. Then take off the fire and 
allow to settle 15 minutes. Pour into another vessel, 
leaving all the sediment in the bottom of the first 
kettle. When cold it will be ready for use. 

This preparation can be used hot or cold, but it is 
preferable to have the leather free from all dirt, 
clean and dry, and use the oil in a warm condition. 
If fish oil is used it will keep mice from gnawing the 
harness. After the oil has well soaked into the 
leaLher wipe off the surplus with a soft cloth. 

There is another thing the writer can heartily 
recommend to all who have occasion to use a light 
vehicle upon the farm. The wagon described can be 
built at a nominal cost and will prove invaluable to 
anyone who has any hauling to do, especially where 
only one horse is kept. 

Take the two wheels of a castaway gang plow. 
Hunt up an iron axle that belongs to a farm wagon 
that has been set aside as useless. It may be neces- 
sary to have a blacksmith reduce the size of the 
ends somewhat in order that the wheels may fit 
thereto. 

Make a frame of 3 by 4 redwood or pine, 7 feet 
long and the width of the axle. ' Fasten it securely 
to the axle. If you cannot well do this get the 
blacksmith to help you out; likewise, in placing 
the shafts in position, which can be made out of 
3 by 6 pine, worked down to proper shape. 
These are bolted to the framework. If the axle is 
placed at or near the center of the frame the wagon 
will be well balanced, and is not to be used as a tip- 
cart. 

With this vehicle and a strong, steady horse, one 
can readily haul gravel, manure, brush or anything 
that has to be moved. Being so near the ground, a 
vast amount of heavy lifting is avoided. Put a good 
breeching harness on the horse and you can back 
him into any out-of-the-way corner very easily. If 
you wish to haul straw at any time make a light rack 
of 1 by 3 or 1 by 4 pine, with stakes of 2 by 3 inserted 
into the side irons placed on the framework. For 
hauling gravel, side boards one foot high are used. 
Try this little wagon and you will wonder how you 
got along without it for so long a time. 

Napa, Cal., Dec. 26. A. Warren Robinson. 



THE IRRIGATOR. 



The Future of Irrigation in California. 



By Piiiik. S. Fortikh, of the Irrigation Investigations of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, at the State Farmers' Institute 
at the University of California. 

Irrigation in California is a subject of endless vari- 
e1y and of infinite magnitude. In the few minutes of 
your valuable time which I shall occupy I cannot do 
more than present a general outline of the subject. 
In reviewing briefly what irrigation has accomplished 
in this State and in considering in a general way the 
natural resources in both land and water which await 
development, we may perchance obtain a clearer 
vision of the future and of the difficulties which be- 
set it. 

It is now generally conceded that the future pros- 
perity of the State of California depends on irrigated 
agriculture. The cultivation of fertile soil rendered 
highly productive by the use of water will forever 
constitute the leading industry. This does not imply 
the neglect or supplanting of other industries. The 
beneficial results of agriculture are nowhere more 
important than in furnishing cheap and wholesome 
food to the miner, in producing raw material for the 
manufacturer, in buying wearing apparel and farm 
equipment from the merchant, in providing freight 
for the transportation company, and finally in con- 
tributing in the form of taxes a large part of the 
revenue of the county, municipality and State. The 
varied products from the irrigated farms, the timber 
from the forests, the domestic animals on the range, 
and the hay and grain from the dry farms, all these 
soil products wiil form the safe and permanent foun- 
dation on which all other industries may successfully 
build. 

The statistics of California show almost without 
exception that in every sectiou where water has 
been successfully applied to cultivated fields and or- 
chards, the greatest and most permanent gains have 
been made. The same geueral statement does not 
hold true for any other industry. A large part of 
the total revenue of the State is still derived from 
mining, but comparatively few mining camps have 
grown into prosperous cities. Many mining centers 
that once throbbed with life and activities are de- 
serted. The fabulous sum of 11,000,000,000 of gold 
which was washed from the gravel bars or wrested 
from the quartz ledge has likewise vanished, leaving 
little trace that so vast a sum was ever mined. On 
the other hand, Californians point with pride to the 



prune orchards of Santa Clara, the alfalfa fields of 
the San Joaquin, the vineyards of Fresno, and to the 
orange groves of Riverside as worthy examples of the 
value and permanency of irrigation when applied to 
fertile soil in a climate like that of California. 

The Extent of the Practice of Irrigation in 
California. — Compared with the total land area of 
the State, the irrigated portion appears small. At 
the present time something like a total of 2,000,o0o 
acres out of 100,000,000 are irrigated. While this 
represents the work of half a century, the greater 
part has been accomplished during the past 25 years. 
Twenty-five years ago, Fresno county had only 425 
acres in grapevines, now there are about 85,000 acres. 
At that time the number of bearing orange trees in the 
entire State was less than 250,000, now the number is 
over 7,000,000. At no time in the history of the 
State has progress in irrigation been more rapid than 
during the past three years. In 1901 the crops irri- 
gated in the Imperial Valley did not exceed 1,000 
acres in extent, while last year the irrigated farms 
comprised 80,000 acres. In 1904 the Modesto Canal 
furnished water for 6,895 acres. During the past 
season of 1905 the acreage had increased to 12,685 
acres. 

A few years ago there was practically no land irri- 
gated in the Sacramento Valley; now canals are 
being constructed to water several hundred thousand 
acres. These few cases taken from many that might 
be cited will serve to convince the most skeptical that 
irrigation is a live issue in California. 

But one should not attempt to estimate the value 
of irrigation by the size of the field. The real test is 
the quantity and quality of the products. Judged by 
this standard, irrigation pays. One acre of irrigated 
land in California, according to statistics, will pro- 
duce on an average as valuable products as can be 
raised on three acres of non-irrigated land. Leaving 
out of consideration water rentals and the cost of 
applying water, an acre of land with a water right is 
thus equivalent in producing value to three acres of 
land without water. Again the yield from dry farms 
is decreasing, whiie that from the irrigated farms is 
either the same or is increasing. Fourteen years 
ago the yield of wheat in California was 1,250,000 
tons; last year it was considerably less than 500,000. 
This decrease was not so much due to a smaller area 
cropped, but chiefly to diminished yields. On the 
other hand, there has been a marked increase in the 
production of citrus fruits derived from the irrigated 
orchards. For every ton of citrus fruits shipped out 
of the State in 1891 there were eight tons in 1904. 
Trace the 76,000 carloads of fruit which left this State 
in 1904 back to the grower and in nearly every case 
it will be found to be the part of the output of irri- 
gated agriculture. The oranges and lemons, the dried 
fruits and canned fruits, the raisins and nuts, the de- 
ciduous fruits and vegetables and all soil products 
for which California is famed, come for the most part 
from irrigated fields and orchards. 

Future Development.— When one contrasts what 
has been done in reclaiming arid and semi-arid lands 
in California with what remains to be done, he is 
forced to conclude that the present marks but the 
first stage of development. Although there are 
1,000,000 acres of irrigated land in the San Joaquin 
Valley, so extensive is this great central plane that 
the traveler in passing through it imagines that it is 
devoted principally to the production of grain and 
grain hay on dry farms. The irrigated alfalfa fields 
and orchards look like spots on otherwise unbroken 
stretches of cultivated but non-irrigated grain fields. 
The rainfall and melted snows from a lofty mountain 
range, 300 miles long, flow through it. The combined 
annual flow of the largest of these streams would 
cover 19,000,000 acres a foot deep, yet this vast sup- 
ply subserves no higher duty at present than to 
irrigate 1,000,000 acres. 

In the valley of the Sacramento the prospects for 
future development in irrigation are equally great. 
The results of recent surveys made by the Depart- 
ment of the Interior show that there are 2,666,000 
acres in the floor of the valley and that the quantity 
of water which flowed from this basin through Golden 
Gate in 1904 was sufficient to cover 26,000,000 acres 
a foot in depth. This vast quantity of water, like 
that which descends from the Sierras east of the San 
Joaquin plain, can never be entirely utilized in irriga- 
tion, for the reason that it cannot be fully controlled, 
but the fact that so large volumes flow through the 
arablelandsof the great central planeof Californiaisan 
indication of the possibilities of irrigated agriculture. 

Obstacles to be Overcome. — At the present time 
it is quite generally admitted that the one essential for 
the betterment of agriculture in California is the ex- 
tension of the irrigated area. A more general and 
more skillful use must be made of the water which 
flows past the dry farms on its way to the ocean. In 
the few minutes of my time that remain, I cannot do 
better than point out a few of the obstacles that lie 
in the way of such progress. 

The dry farms of California are located in the 
wrong place. They now occupy the valley lands that 
should be irrigated, and the foothills and higher mesas 
that should be dry farmed are either non-productive 
or devoted to grazing purposes. In the States of 
Colorado, Utah and Montana, farmers would not be 
content with the meager returns resulting from the 
cultivation of valley land in its dry state. They in- 



January 13, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



variably make use of the deep soil of the upper mesas 
which are located above the highest canal for the 
production of winter wheat. These mountaineers 
who strive to shield their crops from the effects of 
high altitudes and killing frosts cannot understand 
why their friends in central California, where the 
climate is so favorable, continue to devote several 
million acres of their best land to the production of 
grain in which there is little or no profit. 

Bub the people who live in other States fail to com- 
prehend conditions as they exist here. It is from 
necessity and not from choice that the farmers of 
California are raising wheat on 2,000,000 acres and 
selling it for a trifle above the cost of production. 
Dependent as they are upon the rainfall of winter, 
they cannot do better. Before the profits can be 
increased there must be a radical change in the mode 
of farming and an artificial supply of moisture se- 
cured to nourish the crops during six months of a 
rainless|summer. A change from dry farming to irri- 
gation can be readily made when the land is held in 
quarter sections or less, provided the water supply 
is abundant, but when the size of the farms include 
estates of 20,000 acres, the task is more difficult. 
The large size of the farms is accordingly one of the 
obstacles which stands in the way of irrigation devel- 
opment. In the course of time this obstacle will be 
removed. The proprietors of large estates in cen- 
tral. California will be forced either to sell or to 
irrigate. The yield of grain on the dry farms is de- 
creasing so rapidly that the profits will soon appear 
in red in the farmers' ledger. In 1884, the Monte- 
zuma district, comprising about 60,000 acres in the 
Sacramento Valley, produced on an average 20 sacks 
of wheat, weighing 138 pounds, to the acre; in 1905, 
the yield throughout the same section averaged four 
and one-half sacks, weighing 122 lb. 

Another obstacle which retards progress in irriga- 
tion can only be overcome by educational means. It 
would be a waste of money to conduct water from 
the foothills of the Sierras to a farm unless the pro- 
prietor or tenant is willing to use it. Again, if the 
use is to prove beneficial, it is important that the 
water be skillfully and intelligently applied. It is 
too much to expect that the farmer who has raised 
wheat or grain hay for 25 years and trusted to the 
season's rainfall will take kindly to gum-boots and an 
irrigator's shovel. And if it is difficult for the farmer 
to change his methods of farming which he has pur- 
sued for a lifetime, it is by no means easy for his boy. 
The boy who has been accustomed to do things on a 
large scale, plowing and seeding with a 10-mule team 
and harvesting with a steam thresher, is apt to be- 
come discouraged by the more arduous and difficult 
tasks of the small irrigated farm. We cannot won- 
der if such men decline to irrigate their farms unless 
abundant proof is presented that it would be to their 
interest to make so radical a change. 

Here then is to be found an educational work 
which, if successfully carried on, may prove of lasting 
benefit to the State of California. It devolves on the 
progressive farmer, the agricultural schools and col- 
leges, and the Department of Agriculture of the Gen- 
eral Government to demonstrate to the farmers 
of central and northern California the increased 
yields resulting from a scientific rotation of 
crops, the advantages of diversified farming, and, 
above all, the value of water when rightly applied. 

A Broad Problem. — Men who consider only the 
engineering features of irrigation are apt to take a 
one-sided view of the reclamation of arid and semi- 
arid lands. While everyone must admit the impor- 
tance of irrigation structures, yet it is nevertheless 
true that these are but a means to accomplish an 
end. At one end of irrigation enterprises are the 
water supply, the storage reservoir, the canal; at 
the other end should be found abundant harvests, 
prosperous homes and the highest class of citizenship. 
We are urging the breaking up of the big farms of 
the Sacramento V alley, but if the old families are to 
be replaced by an undesirable class of foreigners, who 
would welcome the change? Here is another task 
for those who love California. It may be stated in a 
single sentence. When the big farms are broken up 
and when a stream of water is brought to several 
thousand small farms, see to it that the right kind 
of people purchase and settle on these irrigated 
farms. 

The only proper standard by which future progress 
in irrigation can be measured is by the success of the 
farmer, the fruit-raiser, and the stockman, who make 
use of water to increase their annual income from 
the soil. If they are happy and prosperous, then it 
may be taken for granted that the entire State is 
likewise prosperous. On the other hand, if they are 
unsuccessful there can be little connected with irri- 
gation of which we shall care to boast. If I am right 
in the belief that the future prosperity of California 
depends mainly on irrigated agriculture and that 
irrigated agriculture depends on the farmer, then we 
should not overlook the interests of so important a 
class. It would seem to be incumbent upon the State 
and upon every influential citizen of the State to en- 
deavor to remove some of the obstacles which threaten 
to defeat the best efforts of the producing class. 

The State can greatly aid the rural communities in 
irrigated sections by an early, just, and final settle- 
ment of the rights to water that have been acquired. 
The State can likewise establish an efficient system 



of administration by which the appropriated waters 
may be equitably distributed to those entitled to their 
use, and it can also make adequate provision for the 
acquirement of rights in unappropriated waters. 

It would also seem to be the duty of both the State 
and the nation to assume part of the expense of car- 
rying on the large number of experiments that are 
necessary before we learn how to farm in an arid 
region. The revenue derived by the State from the 
taxes on 80 acres of unoccupied and unirrigated grain 
land is quite small, but when a thrifty farmer pur- 
chases a tract of this size, builds his home upon it, 
and multiplies the yields by intensive cultivation, 
under irrigation, the taxes are multiplied many fold. 
By this change the State is the gainer in many ways. 
So it would seem to be just and prudent on the part 
of the State to encourage the extension of irrigated 
agriculture by contributing liberally to every agency 
that has for its object the prosperity of the farmer. 



FRUIT PRESERVATION. 



Prunes in Cans. 



By Mil. J. Luther Bowers of Monticello at the Fruit Growers' 
Convention at Santa Rosa. 

"Prunes! Well, that subject was worn thread- 
bare long ago," some of my hearers will tell me, 
" and for prunes in tin cans, the late Cured Fruit 
Association tried that and it did not prove a suc- 
cess." Let me here tell you that a processed prune 
in tin cans and an unprocessed prune in tin cans are 
two entirely different propositions. 

Some six years ago a prominent San Jose packer 
said to me, "Bowers, a fortune awaits the party 
who can devise or invent some way to pack prunes 
in their natural state without processing them. 
From that time until something like a year ago I 
made many experiments along that line, until I 
finally discovered a way to keep prunes or any other 
dried fruit for an indefinite period. Simply fill glass 
jars or tin cans, hermetically seal, and sterilize. 

My next move was to experiment and find out just 
the condition the fruit should be in, the kind of pack- 
age, and what the trade thought of the proposition. 

The Fruit. — I found by experiments that it made 
no difference in keeping qualities whether the fruit 
was moist or very dry, the same results were ob- 
tained. If put up moist, at the end of the year a 
can opened showed its fruit moist, and if dry when 
put up, the fruit was dry when opened. That moist 
fruit kept in fine condition and at that stage was the 
condition in which it should be put up. 

The Package. — On account of breakage and 
weight, I found glass jars too expensive, only for ex- 
hibition purposes. I then corresponded with a num- 
ber of can makers and can-making machinery firms, 
and finally adopted the sanitary can made by the 
Max Ames Machine Co., Mount Vernon, N. Y., be- 
cause this can has the whole top off and will admit 
a press plunger to press the fruit solid in the can. 
The top is then put on by machinery, making a double 
seam. No heat or solder is used in closing or sealing 
the can, and when goods are finished a neat, clean 
package is the result. 

The Trade. — I submitted to the Eastern trade 
this proposition. I would pack sometime in the 
future prunes in tin cans, in their natural state, and 
make only three sizes, as follows: 30 to 50 size, No. 
1; 50 to 70 size, No. 2; 70 to 100 size, No. 3. I also 
stated that I would make three sizes of cans; small 
size to hold 1] lb. of fruit; medium size to hold 2$ lb. 
of fruit, and large size to hold 5 lb. of fruit; the small 
can to be 2} in. high; the medium to be 5 in., and the 
large to be 10 in. high, all cans to be 4 T % in. in 
diameter, the same case for all sizes holding 12 large, 
24 medium, and 48 small cans, each can to be labeled 
and the price to be put on the label in large figures, 
the price being the consumers' price, as follows: 

White label, No. 1 — Large can, 75c; medium can, 
40c. ; small can, 25c. 

Red label, No. 2 — Large can, 70c. ; medium can, 
35c. ; small can, 20c. 

Yellow label, No. 3 — Large can, 70c; medium can, 
35c. ; small can, 15c. 

What Dealers Say. — I wrote to 17 brokers who 
are large handlers of dried fruit, many of them hand- 
ling 100 or more cars of prunes alone. I received 
answers from 14. Nine of these wrote me very en- 
couraging letters. Two said that I "had the best 
proposition ever brought before the American 
people." Five said: "Just as soon as you get your 
proposition in working shape we want the exclusive 
territory of a given State or States to sell these 
goods in." One said: "The price on the can does 
not interest us. Let the retailer and the consumer 
fight it out among themselves." The size by num- 
bers was considered a good change by all. Eight 
firms thought the price on the cans was all right. 
These nine letters came from Boston, New York, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, St. Louis, Columbus, Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee, and Vancouver. 

I have spent a good deal of time and postage to 
gather information in regard to the prune situation 
throughout the East, and 1 have found many con- 
ditions that are against the grower. One thing more 
than another is the wide range of prices. Take 



Philadelphia, for instance. Last summer a party in- 
terested in the prune industry visited that city. On 
a certain street one grocer priced Santa Clara 
prunes of a certain brand at 8c; two blocks further 
up town another grocer quoted the same brand and 
size at 15c. per lb.; then up town at a store in the 
fashionable part of the town 25c. per lb. was quoted 
for the same brand. Such a range of prices will kill 
any industry. The first price does not help the 
grower any, and the last-named price is prohibitory, 
while by the system I have given the price would be 
the same everywhere. 

A gentleman well known to every prune grower 
in the Santa Clara valley said: " Do not make the 
price so high that the poor people cannot buy." I 
will answer the above by saying that people who buy 
prunes would rather pay 15c. per lb. for prunes in a 
nice clean package than to pay 8c. for the majority 
of prunes offered for sale at many of the Eastern 
retail groceries. Many of these prunes are dirty, 
dusty and covered with flies. 

Saving to Growers. — Every grower who dries his 
his own fruit well knows that some seasons his last 
prunes give him a great deal of trouble in getting 
them dry. They will hang sometimes two or three 
weeks in the trays. They are cured, but not dry. 
They are fine fruit, but the packer will not receive 
them. He wants them dry. Right here is where 
the can proposition makes a showing. These prunes 
are just right to can, just right to pack. I claim 
that the growers can save 200 lb. of fruit on each 
dry ton, or, in other words, a ton of fruit ready for 
the cans would only weigh 1800 lb. or less when dry 
enough for the commercial packer. 

On a crop of 120,000,000 lb. of prunes for the State 
of California, then save this 200 lb. for every 2,000 
lb. and we will have saved 13,333,333 lb. of prunes 
that are doing no one any good. We dry it out of 
the prune and the commercial packer puts it back 
in the shape of water and sells the water for pruues. 
Counting 60 as the average size and prunes at 3-c 
basis or 4c per lb., we would have the enormous sum 
of $533 333, enough money to put up a factory large 
enough to pack in tins the entire crop of the State. 
The same amount of money saved would put up and 
equip 10 factories in different parts of the State to 
do the same work, and all from only one year's crop. 

The question has been asked me: "What about 
the cost of packing ? " In a small way, the cost will 
be per case about as follows: Cans, 48c; labels, 8c; 
case, 10c. ; incidentals, 14c; total, 80c Each case 
will hold 60 lb. net of fruit. Do I hear some one say 
too costly to pack ? Let us see. The French packer 
comes to our State to buy our prunes, pays freight 
and duty, sends them back to the United States, and 
we pay the freight and duty. Can we not compete 
with our own goods packed in tin cans by the French 
packer if we adopt his way of packing ? 

To give this mode of packing a severe test I placed 
on a shelf in my kitchen, near and almost over the 
cook stove, a lot of cans filled with prunes, about 
Jrnuary 5 and left them there until the last of 
August. Then every 10 days for two months I 
opened a can. Every one was in perfect condition. 
Not a sign of mould or sugarcoat, and everyone who 
saw them was astonished at their fine appearance. 

Railroad rates on canned goods from common ship- 
ping points to points east of the Mississippi are $15 
per ton, according to present classifications, a saving 
of $5 per ton over boxed prune rates. This one thing 
would go a long way toward cutting down the pack- 
ing expenses. We could have a good market for our 
prunes in the Orient and the Philippines if they could 
be kept any time after they arrive there. A pro- 
cessed prune has been a failure in the Philippines. 
They will not keep in that hot, moist climate. But 
in this can proposition I think that prunes can be 
packed so there is absolutely no loss from mould or 
worms. So as to be sure of this, a lot have been 
sent to Manilla, to be left there three and six 
months, and then to be returned to be opened to 
ascertain their keeping qualities, and then a report 
will be published, giving a full account of the work 
done. 



Cypress or Pine on Roadsides. 

To the Editor: Kindly inform me through the 
Pacific Rural Press which variety of either the 
cypress or pine tree would be best for highway 
planting in situations bordering the ocean where 
they would be exposed to the sea breezes and fogs. 
I would like some large growing tree and plant them 
about 80 ft. or more apart, so that each tree could 
have a good chance to show itself and leave a good 
view of the country on the opposite side from be- 
tween them. If you know of any other tree better 
suited for the purpose than the above mentioned 
variety, I would be pleased to know of it. — Reader, 
Moss, Monterey county. 

We would prefer the Monterey pine, because the 
natural form of the tree with its discarding of the 
lower branches is vastly better for avenue purposes. 
The cypress should be allowed to take its natural, 
pyramidal form and then it is too broad on the base 
for roadsides. To trim up the branches of a cypress 
is barbaric The Monterey pine will make a majestic 
avenue effect if you give them plenty of room. 



22 



PACIFIC RU 



RAL PRESS. 



January 13, 1906. 



CEREAL CROPS. 



Fertilizers and the Wheat Crop. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Pkkss. 

The time has evidently arrived 
when the wheat growers of this State 
must seriously consider the use of 
fertilizers, if they are to continue to 
grow profitable crops. The large 
yields of early years have steadily de- 
creased, until now, on many ranches, 
it is largely a question of good luck if 
the crop pays expenses. And the 
reason is that the continued cropping 
to wheat has gradually robbed the soil 
of the readily available plant food re- 
quired for the growth of wheat, until 
not enough of this form of plant food 
is left to fully satisfy the growing crop. 

This condition is, of course, not 
peculiar to California. It is the ex- 
perience of every country where wheat 
is grown continuously. Big yields from 
the virgin soil have steadily diminished 
as each crop took its portion of plant 
food away from the soil, until the point 
has now been reached where one must 
either put back on the land the plant 
food taken out by the crops, or quit 
growing wheat. Off years cannot be 
held as the cause of this, as some seem 
to think. Off years came when crops 
were good, about as they do now, but 
very likely the off years do more harm 
now than formerly, because of the 
lessened vigor of the plant, due to low 
soil fertility. 

The quality of our wheat is also fall- 
ing off, and while this may not be due 
wholly to insufficient plant food, there 
can be no doubt that a well-nourished, 
vigorous wheat plant will produce bet- 
ter grain, all around, than one not 
properly fed. 

Much of this loss of soil fertility is 
due, of course, to the methods of crop- 
ping and cultivation practiced, and to 
climatic and other conditions, but a 
proper rotation of crops demands a 
market for each, which is not always 
obtainable, and, as to correct methods 
of cultivation, it may be assumed that 
the wheat grower of California is intel- 
ligent enough to hunt out and apply 
the methods most suitable to his par- 
ticular case. 

But, whether under the most or least 
favorable conditions, it is evident that 
the land must eventually lose its fertil- 
ity, if its plant food is removed year 
after year and none returned, and the 
time comes, as it now has in California, 
when it is necessary to return to the 
soil that amount of available plant food 
needed by the plant to make its full 
growth. 

Unfortunately, though California 
wheat growers have realized for some 
years past that the land was giving out 
— " that something should be done" — 
they have done practically nothing so 
far in the way of securing experimental 
date which would be of use in determin- 
ing what fertilizing element, or com- 
bination of elements, is best suited to 
wheat growing, partly, no doubt, be- 
cause of the old-time feeling that Cal- 
ifornia soils were inexhaustible— 
" could'nt give out"— and partly be- 
cause fertilizers have been so high 
priced that it looked doubtful if enough 
increase in crop would be gained to 
make good the outlay. To a certain 
extent, the latter is true. Generally 
speaking, wheat growers could not 
use fertilizers at a profit at prices re- 
cently prevailing. 

Wide use and improved facilities for 
manufacture will reduce the price, but 
for best economy in the use of fertil- 
izers the grower should experiment. 
Chemical and mechanical analyses of 
soils give much useful data, but, un- 
fortunately, they don't tell the whole 
story. It is still to be found out, by 
actual trial in the field, what must be 
added to the soil to make the wheat 
plant do its best. Treating separate 
portions of the field, each with fertil- 
izer of a different composition, results 
will soon tell which elements in the soil 
are least available to the plant, and, 
by adding these, in the form of quickly 
available fertilizers, the soil is put into 
condition at a minimum cost. Some 
soils, for instance, contain an abun- 
dance of some one of the plant-food 
elements contained in a complete fertil- 



izer — for instance, potash. If a fertil- 
izer containing potash is applied to 
such a soil, the cost of that much pot- 
ash is practically thrown away. Hence 
the value of proving, as closely as pos- 
sible, the exact needs of the soil for 
each of the fertilizing elements. 

The method of determining the plant- 
food needs of the soil by field experi- 
ments has been found to be by far the 
most satisfactory wherever fertilizers 
are used for cereals. Fertilizer manu- 
facturers recognize this, and a concern 
in this city, the Mountain Copper Co., 
has now under way a very compre- 
hensive series of experiments, in co- 
operation with wheat growers in all 
parts of the State. The fertilizer has 
been furnished free of charge to the 
grower who conducts the experiment. 
The company expects to secure in this 
way data which will enable it to put 
out a line of fertilizers best suited to 
wheat growing, and, as the firm has 
large capital, exceptionally good man- 
ufacturing facilities, and makes part of 
its raw material, there is a reason to 
hope their prices will be down where 
they should be. As a matter of fact, 
there is no reason why the California 
wheat grower should pay more for his 
fertilizer than does the Ohio farmer, 
nor why both should not get it in the 
cheapest and most suitable form, and, 
given these conditions, its use will 
probably prove as profitable here as it 
has there. But use it we must, and 
the sooner we get posted on the situa- 
tion the better. While California has 
many advantages in the matter of soils, 
she also has her disadvantages; proper 
rotation cannot be generally practiced, 
and the methods of cultivation neces- 
sarily tend to destroy the humus more 
quickly than is the case in more humid 
climates, with various other troubles, 
so that a wheat soil here, while much 
richer in its virgin state than a similar 
Eastern soil, may show signs of giving 
out just as quickly, owing to its more 
rapid loss of plant food. 

This loss of plant food must be made 
good, and if a fertilizer can be found 
composed of high-grade, ready available 
materials, at the right price, ithere is no 
reason why it cannot be used at a 
profit in wheat growing. 



Horse Owners! Use 

GOMBAULT'S 

Caustic 




Balsam 



A Safe. Bpttij, and Posltlre Cor* 
The safest, Best BLISTER ever used. Takei 
tlie place of all ttnaments for mild or severe action. 
Kemovei all Bunchps or Blemishes from Horses 
and Cattle, SUPERSEDES ALL CAUTERY 
UK FIRING. Impossibleto produce scar or blemish 
Every bottle sold Is warranted to give satisfaction 
Price SI. 80 per bottle. Sold by druggists, or sent 
by express, charues paid, with fall directions for 
Its use. Send for descriptive circulars. 
Trig 1. AWRHNCR-WILHAM3 CO.. Cleveland. . 



HALF -WILD TURKEY GOBBLERS. 

A few of these desirable birds for sale. 
PRICE *12. 
MRS. N. FRANK MORSE, 

Kullerton, California. 



ORPINGTONS. 

SILVER CUP for BEST DISPLAY; 10X of all rib- 
bons in class to Garden Valley Yards, at San 
Francisco show Dec. 2. Illustrated folder tells the 
rest; it's free. Eggs»3and$5perset. Stock for sale. 

W. SULLIVAN, Agnews, Cal. 

State V.-Pres. Nat. S. C. B. O. Club. 
Member Am. Grp. Club. 



SINGLE 
COMB 



WHITE LEGHORNS. 

Thoroughbred Stock. Eggs for setting, $1.5U for 15, 
J2.W1 for 30, 13.50 for 45, *6 per 100. 

INDIAN RUNER DUCKS. 

Eggs, 11.50 for 12, »7.50 per 1(10. 
Send for illustrated catalogue. 

JOHN P. BODEN, 
1338 Second St., Watsonville, Cal. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS. 

Established 36 Years. 
IMPORTERS AND BREEDERS OF ALL VARIETIES 
OF LAND AND WATER FOWLS. 

Stock for Sale. Dept. 31. Box 2602. San Francisco. 




FREE 



VETERINARY 

ADVICE 

Dr. 8. A. Tuttl«\ a veterinary sur- 
peonof long experience has writ- 
ten a book entitled "Veterinary 
Experience 1 ' on the diseasee of 
horses, giving symptoms and 
treatment in plain terms. It la 
fully illustrated with diagrams 
showing the skeleton and circu- 
latory and digestive systems with 
preferences that make them plain. 
'Tells how to buy a horse and 
know whether it 19 sound or not. Every horse owner 
ehou Id have one. It Is sent to any one. 

TUTTLE'S ELIXIR 

Is the only guaranteed cure for Colic, Curb, recent 
Shoo Boil* and Calloua. It locates lameness, relieves 
and cures Spavins, Ring Bona, Cock la Joint*. Croaas 
Haal, Scratchea, Catarrh, etc. Send today mid get the 
book free uud information abont Dr. Tuttle's speclttoa* 

Tuttle's Elixir Co., 33 Beverly St., Boston, Mass. 
Hack & Co., San Francisco and F. W. Braun, Los 
Angeles, California Agents. 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



UKO. C. KOKDINU, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of High grade thoroughbred Holxteln K11II8 
and Heifers Thoroughbred KerkHhire 
Hoars and Sow*, 



RIVEKSIDK HERD HOLSTKIN CATTLE. 

One of the largest and best in the world. Send 
for catalogue. Pierce Land & Stock Co., Stock- 
ton, Cal. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of registered Shorthorns; 
milk strain. High class stock. First-class dairy 
breeding Smooth cattle Best pedigree. P.O. 
Box 321, Petaluma, Cal. 

HOLSTKIN S -Winners at Suae Fairs of every 
butter contest since 1885 in Calif. Stock near 
S. F. F. H. Burke, 30 Montgomery St., S. F. 

"HOWARD" SHORTHORNS— Quinto Herd,?? 
premiums California State Fairs 1802-3-4. Regis- 
tered cattle of beef and milking families for sale. 
Write us what you want. Howard Cattle Co., 
206 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



'HOKTHANB taught by mall; demand more than 
» supply. Miss M.U.Barrett, 302 Montg'y St., S.F. 



BULLS ANU COWS FOR SALE— Short Horned 
Durhams. Address E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



A.J.C.C. JERSEYS. Service bulls of noted strains. 
Joseph Mailllard, San Geronlmo, Marin Co., Cal. 



BULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine individuals. At prices to 
suit the times, either singly or in carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm, Danville, Cal. 



PETER SAXE& SON, Lick House, S.F.,Cal. Im- 
porters, Breeders and Dealers for past 30 years. 
All varieties Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Hogs. High 
class breeding stock. Correspondence solicited. 



JERSEYS, HOI. STEIN S & DURHAM S. Bred 

specially for use in Dairy. Thoroughbred Hogs, 
Poultry. Wm. Nilen & Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeders and Exporters. Established 1876. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



S. H. FOUNTAIN, Dixon, Cal. Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Shropshire sheep. Both 
sexes for sale at all times. 



THOS. WAITE, Perkins, Cal., has the Gold Medal 
Hock of South Down sheep. 



POULTRY. 



WHITE LEGHORN S, White Minorcas- ranch 
bred and free range. Eggs only. Agent for 
the " Model " Incubator and Brooder — best 
made. A. Warren Robinson, Napa, California. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs— Ed. Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 



PIGEON 8, Belgian Hare. Chickens, Guinea Fowls, 
Turkeys. Cottonw ood Farm, Pleasant Grove, Cal 



L. W. CLARK, Petaluma, Cal. White Leghorns, 
the white kind that lay lots of large, white eggs. 



C.B.CARRINOTON, Hay wards, Cal. White Leg- 
horns. World's Fair winners. Stock for sale. 
Eggs by sitting 100 or 1000. Send for new folder. 

SANTA TERESA POULTRY FARM, Eden 

Vale, Santa Clara Co., Cal. White and Brown 
Leghorns, White Wyandottes, Barred Plymouth 
Rocks, Black Minorcas, White Cochin Bantams. 



WM. NILES ft CO., Los Angeles, Cal. Nearly all 
varieties chickens, geese, ducks, peafowl, etc. 



SWINE. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Hegistered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 



KKKKSHIRE, POLAND-CHINA, CHESTER 
WHITE HOGS. Choice; Thoroughbreds. Wm. 
Niles tt Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Establ'd in 1876. 



KERKSHIRE8— Prize Winners — bred from prize 
winners. Boars all ages. T.Waite, Perkins, Cal. 

BERKSHIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS. 

C. A. Stowe, Stockton. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GEO. H. CKOLEY, 508 Sacramento St., San Fran- 
cisco. Manufac- T* It C f 
turer and Dealer POUltry SUppllCS 

of every description. Send for catalogue— FREE. 

MANHATTAN KMMJ fattens stock and poultry. 
Cures all common ailments At your grocer. 




CYPHE 



IG Profits in Poultry 

If you raise It right. Let US help you "get 
right"' with a new ii»6-pattern 

Standard Cyphers Incubator 

Guaranteed to hatch more and larger chicks 
than any other. Easy to operate. Complete Cat- 
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if you mention this paper and send names of * 
nei^ht.ors who keep poultry. Writ* ni*mt«ac«. 
RS INCUBATOR CO., Buffalo, Honton. Chicago. 
York, Kaunas City or San Francisco. 



Blazon's POULTRY 5UIDE FREE. 

ill s a dandy. Cuts of fowls from life 
f Chickens.Turkey.;. Ducks and Geese. 
70 varieties. Price of fowls and eggs. 
Send 10c to pay postage of fine guide 
OX Poultry and buying fowls. Best on earth. 

J. R. Brabazon, Box 22, Glenview, Delavan, Wit 




12 



.80 For 
200 Egg 
INCUBATOR 



Perfect io construction and 
aaafcM. Hut.-hea every fertile 
egg. Write for catalog tv-dar. 

OEO. H. STAHL, Qulncy, III 





PACIFIC COAST S GREATEST IMPORTING 
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DIFFERENT 
EUROPEAN BREEDS OF HORSES. : 

Three Importations in 1905. 

THE ONLY FIRM IN CALIFORNIA HAVING A LARGE 
SELECTION OF 

Percherons, Royal Belgians, Shires, 
Clydes, French Coach and 
German Coach, always on hand. 

HORSES WILL BE SOLD ON EASY TERMS WITH THE MOST LIBERAL GUARANTEES. 
Viiiton are always welcome at our stables, and correspondence is invited. Call or address 

LANDIS BROS., Folsom, California. 




Must Hatch Incubators and Brooders Have Stood the Test. 



JUST AS GOOD." 



Manufactured at Petaluma. Cal., Rou/arp nf nthpr^ 

the chicken center of the world. Deware ol u " ,cr5 » 

We hatch and prepare little chicks— White Leghorns-for shipment, to all points within sixty hours 
travel from Petaluma. Now is the time to place your order. When the chicks come high, they are the 
most profitable. We also supply White Leghorn eggs for hatching. Prices for chicks and eggs on 

8P SEd MUST HATCH INCUBATOR CO., Petaluma, Cal. 



Emery's Poultry Foods arc sold by all dealers and 
commission men because they are the BEST. 

~ "i ~i n 1 r ~ ...... tJ ,j b "v. 

N. OHLANDT & CO., Indiana and 24th Sts., San Francisco. 



January 13, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



23 



Agricultural Review* 



Sacramento. 

Fruit Growers Meet. — Florin dis- 
patch to Sacramento Union, Jan. 6: The 
annual meeting of the Florin Fruit Grow- 
ers' Association on Monday brought out 
a fair attendance. The manager sub- 
mitted his annual report, which, on 
motion of James Totell, was received and 
placed on file. The year just closed has 
been noted as a good one for all grape 
growers, and the members of the Florin 
association shared in this. The report 
showed in brief as follows: Cash on hand, 
$3,824.74; notes, $3,035; stock, $35; build- 
ing and other property, $1,057. Total, 
$7,950.74. Cars shipped as follows: New 
York, 29; Chicago, 17; Boston, 16; Phila- 
delphia, 6; Pittsburg, 4; Minneapolis, 2; 
Cleveland, 1. Total, 75. Average price 
for Eastern shipments— Tokay grapes— 
per half crate: New York, $1.51; Chicago, 
$1.60; Boston, $1.46; Philadelphia, $1.49; 
Pittsburg, $1.49; Minneapolis, $1.47; 
Cleveland, $1.52. Total average on 
Tokays, $1.52. Total average net on 
Tokays, 95c. The new board of directors 
is as follows: George L. Hunt, P. H. 
Murphy, H. B. Hunting, George Nesche, 
J. E. Thomas. 

Tulare. 

Orange Shipments. — Lindsay (/«- 
zette, Dec. 29: The shipment of citrus 
fruits from the Lindsay district for the 
year 1905 practically closed last week as 
only one car of fruit left this place since 
our last week's report. There still re- 
mains on the trees about ten cars of Ruby 
Bloods belonging to Curtis & Glaze, 
which Mr. Curtis says he will not ship 
until some time during next month, con- 
sequently these will start the table of 
next year's shipments. The year's crop 
amounted to 594 cars which shows an 
increase over last year of 38 cars. Early 
estimates gave the district 650 cars, but 
owing to the excessive number of splits 
this year the estimate was not made good. 
The excessive splitting of oranges was a 
new thing for this district, which was 
likely due to some change of weather 
during the summer months and it has 
only occurred once in the history of the 
industry. As a whole, the season was a 
successful one. The fruit was early, 
excellent in quality and the returns from 
the markets have been coming in very 
satisfactorily. In fact the prices exceed 
those of last year when it was considered 
that the returns were very good. It is 
too early yet to obtain figures showing 
the average returns, but in many in- 
stances the growers have received 
between $1.50 and $2 per box net. 

Kern. 

Shipping Oranges. — Kern County 
Echo, Jan. 4: Loveland & Long are 
marketing the San Emigdio orange crop, 
having shipped three carloads of the 
fruit to various Pacific coast points, be- 
sides numerous single boxes to points 
scattered all over the United States. 

San Joaquin. 

Ground Ready for Sowing.— Lodi 
Sentinel, Jan. 6: The farmers of the 
county have commenced plowing in gen- 
eral, and even in the adobe lands it is 
found that the soil works up well except 
in certain very unfavorable localities. 
While the showers which have fallen 
were light, the moisture penetrated the 
soil enough to make it tillable, and the 
cold frosts seem to have aided in putting 
the ground into better condition for 
breaking up. In the sandy loams of course 
there is no difficulty about dry plowing, 
and the cultivation of land in the locality 
where such soil abounds is in full swing. 
Ranchers say that if there is a eood rain- 
storm within the next 30 days there will 
be a large crop the coming season. 

Will Plant Asparagus.— Stockton 
Mail, Jan, 6: An immense tract of aspar- 
agus is to be planted in the western part 
of San Joaquin county immediately. The 
work is to be done by the Empire Aspar- 
agus Company, under the direction of 
M. E. R. Barling and C. M. Owen. The 
corporation will begin operations with 
the opening of the new year, and prose- 
cute the work as fast as possible. Five 
hundred acres are to be planted to aspar- 
agus. 

Napa. 

Napa Will Have Cannery.— Napa 
dispatch to Call, Jan. 5: A large fruit 
and vegetable cannery is to be erected in 
Napa by Foster Bros. & Co. Work on 
the new plant will be commenced in a few 
days. T. H. Foster, president of the com- 
pany, has been conducting a cannery in 
Dixon. It will employ about 500 persons 
five or six months in the year. 

Nevada. 

Mammoth Pear.— Grass Valley Union, 
Dec. 28: A pear 9 in. high and 21 in. in 
circumference was grown in the yard of 



John Williams of Grass Valley. The tree 
was given no more attention than any or- 
dinary pear tree. 

Grass Valley dispatch to Sacramento 
Union, Jan. 2: Thousands of boxes of 
pears are shipped from Grass Valley and 
Nevada City each year, and the pear 
blight could prevent thousands of dollars 
from being distributed here. It has al- 
ready made its appearance in more than 
one orchard. The Department of Agri- 
culture and the State Board of Horticul- 
ture are sending men out to find where 
the blight exists, and where it is thickest 
they will work hard to destroy it before 
the orchards are completely ruined. The 
cause of the disease is a bacterium which 
finds its way into the inner bark of the 
trees from the tender points of the 
sprouts, and, by preventing the flow of 
the sap, causes the death of the portion 
infected. When the sap starts in the 
spring and reaches the portion in which 
the bacteria exist, the further flow is 
stopped and it is exuded from the bark in 
a gum. Birds and bees lighting on these 
limbs carry away particles of the infected 
gum on their feet, and in this manner in- 
fect other trees, thus causing a rapid 
spread of the germs. The sign of the 
presence of this disease is death to the 
portion affected, which assumes a darker 
color than the live limbs, and during this 
season the presence is also indicated by 
the hanging on of the leaves of the dead 
portion, which do not fall as those of the 
healthy branches do. 

Tehama. 

Smyrna Figs.— Red Bluff dispatch to 
Sacramento Union, Dec. 31: The propa- 
gation of Smyrna fig trees in Tehama 
county has become quite a good-sized in- 
dustry of late years, and now thousands 
of this variety are annually shipped to 
orchardists all over the State. Tehama 
county is one of the three places in the 
United States where large Smyrna fig 
trees are in bearing. At the recent expo- 
sition at Portland, Supervisor W. H. 
Samson, who has made the propagation 
and fruiting of this choice fig a study, 
carried off the gold medal for his exhibit 
of the fresh fruit. For years about 300 
trees of this variety, planted almost forty 
years ago, refused to bear fruit, and it 
was not until a few years ago that Super- 
visor Samson investigated the trees and 
succeeded in making them produce by 
the introduction of the blastophaga, or 
fig wasp. The fig wasp, which fertilizes 
the bloom, and without which the fruit 
on the trees will not mature, makes its 
home in the figs of the male — or capri — 
fig tree, and in the summer months fer- 
tilizes the fruit blooms on the bearing 
trees by carrying the pollen from the 
capri figs to the swelling buds on the 
female tree. 



Smooth Hocks 

When Veterinaries Fail. 

Madison, 111., April 21, 1905. 
Dr. B. J. Kendall Co., 

Enosburg Falls, Vt. 

Gentlemen:— I have a very 
valuable pacing mare; she 
bruised her hind leg- at the 
hock joint in the stall, causing 
acallousRTowth. 1 tried sev- 
eral veterinaries and they did 
no good with medicines and I 
did nut want a surgical opera- 
tion. One tottle of your Spavin 
Cure did the work so easy. 

L. M. MEAD. 

Kendall's 
Spavin Cure 

5 no equal for cure of Spavins, Ringbones, 
_ nrbs. Splints, Bone Growths or Lameness. 

PRICE 9 1 ; 6 lor 95. Greatest known liniment 
forfamily use. All druggists sell it Accept no 
substitute. The great book, "A Treatise on the 
Horse," free from druggists or 

Dr. B. J. Kendall Co.. Enosburg Falls. Vt. 




RHODES DOUBLE OUT. 

PRUNING SHEAK 




RHODES MFG. CO. 



Cuts from 
both sides of 
limb and does 
not bruise 
the bark. 
We pay Ex- 
press charges 
on all orders. 

Write for 
circular and 
prices 



424 West Bridge St., GRAND RAPIDS. MICH. 



A MAN SAVED 

BY USING A FOLDING 8AWING MACHINE. 

One man can saw more 
wood with it than two 
In any other way and 
do it easier, a CORDS 
IN 1 HOURS. Sawa 
any wood oh any 

S round. Saws trees 
own. Catalog free. 
First order secures acuncy. 
Folding Sawing Macb. Co., 158 E. Harrison St., ZU icagn. III 




UCll \jU AIM TCn TO LEARN BARBER TRADE. 
mCn WHN I LU FIRST-CLASS PROFESSION. 

Trade taught In eight weeks. Positions secured. 
Write for particulars. MOLEK BARBER COL- 
LEGE, 642 Clay St., San Francisco. 



WHAT'S THE HATTER WITH 

MOCOCO" FERTILIZERS? 

NOTHING ! 

ALL THOSE POOR CROPS ARE DUE TO 

SOIL EXHAUSTION. 

YOUR LAND NEEDS A TONIC, and if it don't get it THERE'S TROUBLE 

AHEAD. 

Find out what your soil lacks and then provide it. Don't be afraid to put all 
your spare cash into Fertilizers. They pay 100%. It's not necessary to take our 
word, experiment for yourself, it can't cost much, and we tell you it spells— CROPS 
CASH and SUCCESS. ' 



-\A/rit« 



for Particulars- 



THE /VYOUINT/\ir\J COF»F»ER CO 

604 MONTGOMERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



REDWOOD WATER PIPE 

FROM 3=IN. TO 10-FT. IN DIAMETER 



Water Works, Mining and 
Irrigation Plants. 

CHEAPER, STRONGER AND 
MORE DURABLE 

than riveted iron or steel pipe. 
Requires no expert to lay and 
can be easily taken up and re- 
laid, as it is absolutely inde- 
structible, All pipe sulci un- 
der an absulute guarantee. 
We contract for complete irri- 
gation systems. Illustrated 
catalogue sent on application. 

NATIONAL WOOD PIPE 
COMPANY, 

6th and Mateo Sts., 

Los Angeles. 
301 Market St., 

San Francisco. 
Northern Office, 

Olympia, Washington. 



4z: 



14-inch Machine Banded Redwood Water Pipe for City of 
Ocean Park. Cal. 



Fertilizers and Fertilizing for Profit. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS, Inc. 

534 CLAY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Manufacturers of PURE BONE MEAL and COMPLETE FERTILIZERS. 

PRODUCERS, IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN FERTILIZING MATERIALS OF ALL KINDS. 
BEST THOMAS' PHOSPHATE POWDER, 19%, $14 PER TON. 



WANTED— 100,000 CUTTINGS 

Rupestris St. George 

In large or small lots— large enough to bench graft. 

JOHN SWETT & SON, Martinez. 



GREENBANK 

T. \A/. JACKSON dfc CO. 
1 23 Calllornla St., San Francisco. 



98% POWDERED CAUSTIC SODA and PURE POTASH, 

BEST OLIVE DIP AND TREE WASH. 

Analysis of a competitive brand labeled and sold as 

"98% Powdered I Sodium Hydrate 75.60% 

Caustic Soda".. /Sodium Oxid 58.59% 



RIO VISTA HOTEL, 253 THIRD ST., NEAR HOWARD, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. TEL. MAIN 1261. 
200 rooms, en suite and single. Rates per day, 35c and up; week, $2 and up. Country patronage so- 
licited. Convenient, respectable, up to date. Steam heat, hot and cold water, electric lights, 
return call bells in every room. Inside and outside tire escapes. Electric elevator all night. 
Ladies' parlor. Reading room with all daily papers. Baths free to guests. Take Howard St. car tc 
Third from ferries, or Third St. car from Townsend St. depot to house. MRS. EMMA OLAFSEN, Prop. 



NITRATE OF SODA 

AND 

THOMAS' PHOSPHATE POWDER 

Por Sale toy 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., 

SAN FRANCISCO, FRESNO. LOS ANGELES. 
Write for Pamphlets and Prices. 



ALL ABOUT 



guide to success. The Weekly 

AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL 

tells how to make the most money with bees. 
Contributors are practical honey-producers 
who know how. Interesting- — instructive. (1 
per year ; 3 mos. (13 copies), 20c. Sample free. 
American Bee Journal. 334 Dearborn St. .Chicago 



No Smoke House. Smoke meat with 
KRAUSERS' LIQUID EXTRACT OF SMOKE. 

Made from hickory wood. Gives delicioas flavor. 

Cheaper, cleaner than old way. Send for cir- 
cular. E. Krauser A Bro., Milton, Pa. 



I CURE 



fistula, piles, 
itching piles, 
fissures, ulcers, 
constipation, 

Without Pain or the 
Knife. 
Over 20 years experience 
Office hours from 10 a. m. 
to 4 p. m. Sundays by ap- 
pointment. If possibie, 
call on me for consulta- 
tion. If not, write today 
for my FREE BOOK— 
"Rectal and Intestinal F. R. Weston, M. D- 
Diseases; Their Cause and Cure." 

FRANK R. WESTON. M. D. 

Dept. A. Suite 501-502 Donohoe Building, 
8 Taylor St., Cor. Market, San Francisco. 





30 DAYS TRIAL 

Buy From Our Factory— S«vc One-Third. 

PRACTICAL J h ?ta" BA J,uh« S m p o« liv .nS 

«roo|icr chick" IP YEARS' GUARANTEE 
Cat. Im. PRICIICU I«C. CO.. 120 S. 1Mb SI. SinJiif.Cli. 



. DEWEY.STRONG&ClX, 

"1ST 



^330 MARKET ST. S.F^ 



24 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 13, 1906. 




U. S. Government Inspected. 
For Quality, Unsurpassed. 

Western Heat Company, 

San Francisco. 



The Home Circle* 

The Garden of Forgiveness. 



There is a garden, far, oh, far away, 
Kept for the souls who sinned and suf- 
fered most. 

The sword of God forever guards the 
way, 

And round its borders camps a heavenly 
host. 

A gentle wind breathes through the 
tufted grass, 
Rich with the scent of roses in their 
bloom; 

And, with the wind, all sins and sorrows 
pass, 

Leaving a sweet contentment in their 
room. 

Here are no troubles; here are none that 
weep; 

Here come no thoughts of sadness or 
despair: 

But fairest flowers, in fullest beauty, 
sleep; 

And softest sunlight fills the dreaming 
air. 

The murmurings of fountains, low and 

sweet, 

Forever fill the air and never cease, 
Soothing the silence with a gentle beat, 
Like kindly voices speaking words of 
peace. 

And here, forever and forever, rest 
The weary souls, unburdened of their 
sin; 

And cursed things are here forgiven and 
blessed : 

And wicked hearts are made all clean 
within. - Bertrand Shadwell. 

A Man's Judgment. 



"Confound her," muttered Hardin 
savagely, as the girl balanced herself 
on a big stone right at the gully's edge. 
Aloud he said as patiently as possible, 
"You had better be careful, Miss 
Stuart, if you should slip you might get 
a bad fall." 

ClutchiDg a slender twig for support, 
Stella looked over into the ravine and 
raising her eyebrows began with a 
ludicrous solemnity, "The dark abyss 
that looms before — " 

A little gasping scream finished her 
recital as the bank gave way and 
tumbled her down its side. Hardin 
plunged after her white with fear and 
anger. 

She was a forlorn looking figure as 
he pulled her out of the wreckage of 
earth, stones and dead bushes and 
raised her to her feet. With his as- 
sistance she stood, trembling but with 
compressed lips. 

" No bones broken?" he asked shortly. 

"No, I am not hurt much," she 
answered quietly, trying to stand 
alone. 

He had a new respect for her as he 
gathered her in his arms, tousled, 
soiled, scratched, bruised, scared and 
ashamed, yet making a nobie effort to 
be brave and reasonable. She was 
now an injured woman instead of the 
spoiled child who had worn his patience 
threadbare that afternoon; and with a 
strong man's natural kindness he even 
felt tender toward her as he saw the 
blood trickling down over the mud- 
stained face against his shoulder. 

Struggling out of the gully, he car- 
ried her to the spring where they had 
eaten dinner, and called for the rest of 
the party. While waiting their ar- 
rival he patched and cleaned her up as 
best he could, going about it with a re- 
spectful frankness that made her sub- 
mit quietly and even thankfully. 

He was glad enough, however, to 
turn her over to the girls who gathered 
about her; and so far recalled his re- 
sentment as to tell Jack Gluey that it 
was due to "her own cursed foolish- 
ness " that she was hurt. 

Yet as they drove home she bore her 
evident suffering of both body and 
mind with such unaffected humility that 
he found himself immensely sorry for 
her; and looking at the pale face so 
resolutely calm, he felt that he would 
like to take her in his arms again and 
comfort her as if she were a hurt child. 
He restrained himself to courteous 
kindness, however, and unsuccessfully 
tried to keep his thoughts within the 
same safe limits. 

When they reached her home he 



picked her up despite her rather feeble 
protests, and carried her in. From the 
lounge where he placed her she looked 
frankly at him and said with simple 
dignity: 

"Mr. Hardin, I am very sorry I 
acted so foolishly and caused you so 
much trouble, and I thank you very 
much for your kindness. I know you 
cannot sympathize much with me, but 
I want you to know I appreciate the 
■way you have treated me." 

Hardin hesitated, then, crushing 
back the things he longed to say, mur- 
mured some stupid conventionalities 
and took his leave. 

It was several weeks before he saw 
her again, and at her first words the 
fond dreaming of these weeks gave way 
to the realization that .he had judged 
her rightly at first. Yes, he said to 
himself, she was only a spoiled child, 
not bad at heart, but vain, thoughtless, 
fickle and capricious. He could not 
help smiling at her whimsical speeches 
and her vivid mimicry, yet they dis- 
pleased him. And as he watched the 
dark eyebrows curve and the red lips 
ripple into wayward smiles, or heard 
the sweet-spoken satire, the soft, 
mocking laughter, his heart filled with 
anger. He wanted to see again the 
face, gentle and repentent, but calm 
and brave, that had appealed so 
strongly to him the afternoon of that 
luckless picnic day. 

As he met her again and again the 
deepening perception of the difference 
between what she might be and what 
she choose to be aroused in him a deep 
resentment as if she were doing him a 
personal injury. So he treated her 
with a formal politeness whose cold- 
ness could be felt; and she repaid this 
with a punctilious deference which 
seemed to him to have in it something 
of mockery. 

Thus matters went on until one night 
they met at an informal party. Stella 
was the central figure of a little group 
which was talking of old school days. 
She had been making them laugh by 
telling all the absurd things she could 
remember about her teachers and 
schoolmates; but sundenly she became 
grave. " There was another boy, too, 
who came there that I will never for- 
get. We called him ' Red ' from the 
color of his hair and his freckled face. 
He was awfully poor and wore the fun- 
niest old patched-up clothes. We used 
to tease him every way we could think 
of; but he was the brightest fellow I 
ever saw, and when he began to show 
us what he could do we got ashamed 
and treated him better. After a while 
some of the people who knew him 
helped him to go to college; but almost 
as soon as he got there he began 
drinking and went to the bad. His 
poor old mother was awfully proud of 
him and it nearly killed her. I used to 
go to see her and try to cheer her up, 
but I couldn't do much at it. She's 
dead now, I think." 

There was silence for a little while, 
then she spoke again very softly. " He 
had a sweetheart, too, a little pale- 
faced girl who took it nearly as hard 
as his mother did; but I could make her 
laugh a liftle sometimes. Isn't it sad 
to see anyone sacrifice all that is best 
in himself to what is worst." 

" Yet how many do it," said Hardin, 
with quivering intensity, looking 
straight at her. She seemed to guess 
something of his meaning; for her face 
flushed and her eyes fell, while his 
tumultuous fancy broke away from all 
restraint. Here was the Stella of his 
dreams; and he found an exquisite joy 
in reversing his decision about her and 
telling himself that he had been a fool. 

" Miss Stuart," he said a little later 
when he happened to find here in the 
hall alone, " I want to ask your par- 
don." 

" What for, please?" she demanded. 

"For misjudging you through all 
these months. I have thought — " 

She interrupted him, "Well, I can't 
see that you need apologize to me for 
your own bad judgment. I have 
nothing to do with it." She was turn- 
ing away, but he caught her hand. 
"One minute, please, Miss Stuart, 
Stella, I love you. I have loved you 
from the first day I knew you." 

"Mr. Hardin, you have no right to 
say such things to me. You have al- 



ways treated me as if you could 
scarcely endure me, and I do not — " 

" But I have been so sadly mistaken," 
he broke in, tightening his grasp on 
the hand she was striving to withdraw. 
" It has seemed to me you were sacri- 
ficing what was best — 

"Sir !" 

"I mean — I beg your pardon, Miss 
Stuart. Iam a fool; but I love you. I 
have been trying all this time to think 
I didn't, for I thought — I mean — you 
know what 1 mean, Miss Stuart. I 
mean that — that I love you." 

"Stella, sweetheart !" For the face 
she turned toward him was tenderer 
and sweeter than that of his dreams. 

" No, you mustn't," she said, push- 
ing him gently away. "Don't you 
hear, someone is coming?" — Viek't. 



A New England Plum Pudding. 

This style of plum pudding is a favor- 
ite with people who prefer a plainer one 
than the usual rich mixture. 

Heat a cupful of the best quality mo- 
lasses in a bowl set in a pan of hot 
water, add half a cupful each, of lard 
and butter. Sift in with a cupful of 
brown sugar, half a teaspoon each of 
allspice and cloves, a level teaspoon of 
cinnamon, half a grated nutmeg and 
half a teaspoon of ginger. Stir into the 
hot mixture, and when thoroughly 
blended mix in two cups of flour sifted 
twice with a teaspoon of baking pow- 
der and half a cupful of fine bread 
crumbs. Sweeten two-thirds cup of 
sour cream with a little soda— a good 
pinch will be sufficient. Beat hard for 
three minutes, then stir in a cupful of 
seeded raisins and two tablespoons of 
chopped candied orange peel, floured, 
to keep the fruit from sinking. Turn 
the pudding into a square pudding mold 
well greased. Steam for four hours 
continuously. Allow the pudding to 
cool in the mold. This kind of pudding 
is always made the day before along 
with many other goodies for Christmas, 
and is equally good warmed over, as 
when freshly boiled. The reheating in 
its mold will take about an hour. Un- 
mold on a flat silver or other pretty 
platter and garnish with marshmallows 
on the top and sides. The marshmal- 
lows will stay in place on the sides if 
you press them slightly into the warm 
pudding. Circle the platter with a 
wreath of holly and stick a spray of it 
in the top. 

A liquid sauce to serve with this pud- 
ding is simply made. Beat together 
two eggs, a cupful of powdered sugar, 
and a tablespoon of butter for five min- 
utes. Add the juice of an orange, a 
tablespoon of lemon juice, a sprinkling 
of nutmeg and a cupful of hot water. 
Boil for five minutes slowly. It should 
be clear and of the consistency of thick- 
cream. 

A delicious hard sauce which many 
prefer is made as follows: Use butter 
for the sauce that has not been salted 
or if that is not handy, work out the 
salt with the butter ladle. Beat half a 
cup of butter with two cups of powdered 
sugar, or granulated will do. Beat 
until very creamy, adding two table- 



spoons of cream, the unwhipped white 
of one egg and another cup of sugar. 
Flavor with some fine cider, and set in 
a cold place to chill. When ready to 
serve turn into a glass dish and with 
the handle of the spoon shape lightly 
into a mound. Then with the tip of the 
spoon make little dents all over, pine- 
apple style, sticking in the top of the 
cone some spiky pineapple leaves cut 
smaller to suit the size of the sauce 
shape.— T. C.-C. 

Some Beauty Hints. 

To clear the complexion take the 
juice of half a lemon each morning on 
rising with a glass of hot water. 

If the skin is oily, use a little pork, 
rich pastry and cake. Eat tomatoes 
freely and celery or other crisp vege- 
tables one can get in winter, plenty of 
apples and all the boiled beef or poultry 
one wishes. 

Remember, butter and cream are 
heat producing elements and take the 
place of fat meat, yet do not seem to 
show themselves so plainly on the com- 
plexion. 

Brush the hair before retiring each 
night and braid it loosely. 

If the scalp seems dry and growing 
less soft and smooth, part it, and with 
the tips of the fingers rub a little vas- 
eline on the scalp, but do not let it 
grease the hair. Go all over the scalp 
and repeat once or twice a week, de- 
pending upon the condition of the hair. 
If the ends of the hair are split or 
uneven, carefully singe them, holding 
the hair just above the ends to be 
burned, with the hand, to prevent the 
flame spreading. 

Eat plenty of food; sleep regularly 
and keep the impurities out of the sys- 
tem by keeping the skin clean and the 
kidneys flushed by drinking plenty of 
water and the bowels regular. 



Habits in Appetite. 



The so-called cravings of appetite 
are purely the result of habit. A habit 
once acquired and persistently followed 
soon has us in its grasp, and then any 
deviation therefrom temporarily dis- 
turbs our physiological equilibrium. 
The system makes complaint and we 
experience a craving, it may be, for 
that to which the body has become 
accustomed, even though this some- 
thing be, in the long run, distinctly 
injurious to the welfare of the body. 
There has thus come about a sentiment 
that the cravings of the appetite for 
food are to be fully satisfied, that this 
is merely obedience to nature's laws. 
This idea, however, is fundamentally 
wrong. Any one with a little persis- 
tence can change his or her habits of 
life, change the whole order of crav- 
ings, thus demonstrating that the lat- 
ter are purely artificial, and that they 
have no necessary connection with the 
welfare or needs of the body. In other 
words, dietic requirements are to be 
founded not upon so called instinct and 
craving, but upon reason and intelli- 
gence. — ( entwy. 



January 13, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



2 



Domestic Hints. 



Corn Souffle. — Drain the water 
from a can of corn and stir in three 
tablespoonfuls of melted butter. Beat 
four eggs until very light and turn with 
a pint of rich milk into the corn. Sea- 
son well, beat for several minutes and 
pour into a buttered pudding dish. 
Cover and bake thirty minutes. Ee- 
move the cover brown the souffle and 
serve directly. 

Creamed Ham With Mushrooms. — 
Melt two tablespoonfuls of butter and 
stir into it H tablespoonfuls of flour; 
then, slowly stirring all the while, pour 
in one cup of hot miik. When smooth 
and thick season with pepper and salt 
and stir in one cupful of minced ham 
and a quarter of a can of chopped 
mushrooms; pour over rounds of nicely 
browned toast and garnish with slices 
of hard-boiled eggs aDd parsley. 

Grape Catchup. — Wash two quarts 
of grapes, pick over and remove stems. 
Put in graniteware saucepan, pour 
over one quart of vinegar, bring to 
boiling point, and cook until grapes are 
soft; then rub through a sieve. Re- 
turn to saucepan, add 1§ lb. of brown 
sugar, one tablespoonful each of cinna- 
mon, clove and pimento, one-half table- 
spoonful of salt and one-fourth of a 
teaspoonful of cayenne. Cook until 
of the consistency of tomato catchup. 
Bottle, cool and seal. 

Cream Chocolate Pudding. — One 
pint of milk, one-half cupful of sugar, 
four eggs, four tablespoonfuls of corn- 
starch, 2 oz. of chocolate and one tea- 
spoonful of vanilla. Put the chocolate 
in a saucepan to melt, stirring until 
perfectly smooth. Put the milk on to 
boil in a farina boiler; moisten the corn- 
starch with a fourth of a cup of water 
and add to the boiling milk; cook and 
stir until thick and smooth. Beat the 
whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, add 
the sugar to the milk, then the whites, 
and beat all together over the fire. Take 
from the fire and add the vanilla. Now 
take one-third of the mixture and add to 
it the chocolate, mixing well. Dip a plain 
pudding mould in cold water, put in 
the bottom of it half the white mixture, 
then all of the dark, and next the re- 
mainder of the white. Stand on the 
ice to harden, and serve with a vanilla 
sauce poured around it. 



To Clean a Floor. 



First take some soap jelly or soft 
soap and mix with it fine beach sand or 
good building sand. Spread this on 
the grease spots. We all know that 
grease is removed from cloth with soap 
and cold water. Do the same with the 
floor. With an old stiff broom and cold 
water scrub the spots. Then you are 
ready to mop. If you wish to save your 
hands have two pails of water, one con- 
taining very hot water and washing 
soda, the other clear warm watar. 
Dip the mop in the first pail and after 
washing a portion of the floor, rinse 
out the mop in the second pail and 
wring. The rinsing water will need to 
be changed several times. By this 
means you will have a clean floor and 
the hands will not suffer. 



Rust - Proof Wheat. 

Seed Wheat For Sale. 

" BOBS," a rust proof, prolific, hardy, and very 
strong flour variety, bred by the Australian Gov 
ernment Expert; guaranteed pure and true to 
name; 81.25 a Bushel f. o. b. Sydney. 

CHARLES BINNIE, 

Box 1075 G P. O., Sydney. 



t. . To Irrigators! 




Don't pay exorbitant prices 
to surveyors. Get a CALI- 
FORNIA LEVELING IN- 
STRUMENT for $7 and do 
your own leveling. Money 
refunded if not satisfactory. 
Send for circulars to 

B. A. GOODWIN 

RIPON, CAL- 



THE finest and sweetest watermelons grown are 
Florida Favorite Pure Seeds, for sale by CREN- 
SHAW BROS., Tampa, Fla. 



Dietz Lanterns 



You might as well carry a lantern that 
gives a strong, steady light as to carry 
the smoking, flickering kin^. They 
don't cost any more. Dietz Cold Blast 
lanterns burn pure, f**-sh air. That 
accounts for the 

Clear White Light of the 

DIETZ. 

That's only half of the story. They 
are safe and everybody says a Dietz, 
any style, is the most convenient lan- 
tern made. You cet all these things 
all the time if you buy a Dietz. If your 
dealer offers you some other "just as 
good." write to us. We'll see you sup- 
plied with a Dietz. 

R. E. DIETZ COMPANY? 

61 LaightSt. NEW YORK CITY. 

Established 1S40. 



( ' 

MAIL US SOME 

MONEY 

with which to open a savings account 
for you in this strong, well managed 
City Bank. 

WE ACCEPT ANY SUM 
FROM #1.00 UP, as a savings 
deposit, drawing 3j^% compounded 
semi-annually. 

If you have % i oo or more it will 
pay you to write for information about 
our term deposit certificates earning 
4% P er annum > compounded semi- 
annually. 

When you once start, it is easy to 
save. Do it now. Write us and 
learn how to bank by mail. 

The MARKET STREET Bank 
Market and 7th Sts. 
San Francisco, California 



DAKES' AC'C Y , S. T., 





SMITH, EMERY & CO. 
CHEMISTS. 

ANALYSIS — 
Soils, Water, Fertiliz- 
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Natural Products, etc. 
83-86 New Montgomery St. 
San Francisco 



BUSINESS COLLEGE, 

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20,000 Graduates; 1000 annual enrollment; 500 aver- 
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Write for new Catalogue and College 
Journal— Free. 



Wanted Everywhere 



Mnn r iPCMTC t0 seI1 our fruit trees 
mUnC nULlM I O autl ornamental shrub- 
bery. We pay the largest commissions and furnish 
you outtit free. Our agents are earning from $lft to 
$75 per week. If you want to earn such money 
write for agency with the 

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SALEM, OREGON. 

SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL, CIVIL, MECHANICAL, 
ELECTRICAL AND MINING ENGINEERING, 
Surveying, Architecture. Drawing and Assaying. 

US Fallon St., 1 /ilk. west of Vitij Hall, San Francisco. 
Open All Year. A. VAN DER NAILLEN. Prest. 

Assaying of Ores, $25: Bullion and Chlorination 
Assay, $25; Blowpipe Assay, $10. Full course of 
Assaying, $50. Established 1804. Send for Circular. 

FOR Snow's Grafting Wax* 

IN USE ALL OVER THE STATE! 

For sale by all the large grocers, or 

D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Ave., San Jose, Cal. 




(ERMANENT MEADOWS should have 
an annual dressing of 500 pounds per 
acre of a fertilizer containing eleven per cent. 
Potash and ten per cent, available phos- 
phoric acid. 

This will gradually force out sour grasses 
and mosses from the meadows, and bring good 
grasses and clovers; thus increasing the quality 
as well as the quantity of the hay. 

Our practical book, "Farmer's Guide," gives valuable facts for even- 
sort of crop-raising. It is one of a number of books on successful fertiliz- 
ation which we send on request, free of any cost or obligation, to any 
farmer who will write us for them. 

Address, GERMAN KALI WORKS, 93 Nassau Street. New York 

MEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco, Cal., are sole agents for the Pacific Coast. 



THE WESTERN GAS ENGINE 




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U7VY 



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Pacific Coast Agents, 202 California Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

DEWEY, STRONG & CO., Patent Agents, San Francisco, Cal., Washington, D. C. 



26 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 13, 1906. 



The Markets* 



San Francisco Produce Report. 

San Francisco, Jan. 10, l«06. 

CHICAGO WHEAT FUTURES. 
Wheat futures In Chicago were as follows for the 
week named, price being for No. 2 Red per bushel: 
May. July . 

84?i@ 34M 

841,® 84! B 



Wednesday • 

Thursday 

Friday 89 W 

Saturday 88X® 

Monday 87*<ai 

Tuesday 877,® 



88', 

88 
87* 

B9)5 

803, 



84*® 

84^@ 



88S( 



CHICAGO CORN FUTURES. 
Prices of futures on No. 2 corn per bushel In Chi- 
cago were as follows for the week : 

May. July. 

Wednesday 44*@44& 44^@445£ 

Thursday 44?4@44* 45" 8 @44?» 

Friday 45 ©44?, 45^rdJ45 

Saturday 447,® 45^@44?, 

Monday 44X@44? 8 4M S @45 

Tuesday 45*@44« 45*® 

SAN FRANCISCO WHEAT FUTURES. 
The range of values In San Francisco for No. 1 
White wheat per cental was as follows: 



Dec. 1906. 



Wednesday 
Thursday . . . 

Friday 

Saturday .. . 

Monday 

Tuesday . . 



May. 1900. 
11 41 ®1 40^ 
1 413,@1 *IH 

i 4i'<a 

1 40M@1 40>, 
1 40'n®! 40 
1 40 @1 39J£ 



Wheat. 

The local wheat market remains steady 
with 9tocks on hand seemingly adequate 
to supply all immediate demands. In-as 
much as the greater portion of supply for 
this market will, necessarily, come from 
the North this year, on account of the 
failure of California crops, the main 
factor which influences this market at 
present is the matter of transportation 
facilities. Just at present there seems to 
be no difficulty in procuring tonnage 
sufficient to land almost unlimited quan- 
tities of wheat in this city, and conse- 
quently the difficulty in securing ton- 
nage, which assumed the proportions of 
a bull element in the market a few weeks 
ago, is now practically eliminated from the 
situation. Trade in futures in the local 
market has been confined mainly to buy- 
ing and selling on small fluctuations 
caused by similar movements of the 
Chicago market. There has been a lack 
of activity to the speculation since the 
holidays, but prices have shown only 
light variations and the average prices 
for May wheat is now $1.40 per cental. 
Just at present the unstable condition of 
the weather is causing the trade to hold 
back to some extent. All the latest 
advices from Chicago seem to indicate 
that the present condition of the market 
is full of complications. Logically the 
preponderance of bear news should indi- 
cate a lower level of prices, but actual 
facts concerning the movements of the 
wheat market during the past few weeks 
show that bearish reports have very 
little bearing on the situation. However, 
it is undeniable that the foreign situation, 
financial troubles, uncertainties in Argen- 
tine, continued excellent demand in 
British markets for Manitoba wheat, are 
all conditions and possibilities which can- 
not be ignored, and which lend color to 
the belief that the wheat market has 
before it a period of activity and strength. 

California Milling tl 42 @1 47* 

Cal. No. 1 shipping 1 40 @1 45 

Northern Club 1 42*®1 43* 

Northern Bluestem 1 45 ©1 47* 

Northern Red 1 35 ©1 37* 

PRICES OF FUTURES. 

Tuesday, at the forenoon session of Exchange, 
May, 1906, wheat ranged from $1.40© . 

Floor. 

There is no change of any consequence 
in the flour situation since the last re- 
port. The holiday demand was about 
normal, and was filled at about the ruling 
quotations. It will probably be several 
weeks before there will be a renewal of 
activity locally, and the prospects for 
anything like an active shipping demand 
seems even more remote. The Chinese 
boycott situation does not seem to have 
been relieved any; on the contrary, it 
seems to have increased in bitterness. 
There is, however, a fair demand for 
shipment to Japan, where a large quan- 
tity of American flour is being used as a 
substitute for rice, the crop of the latter 
having fallen short of what would be nec- 
essary in order to supply the wants of the 
populace. This demand, however, is 
usually filled from the Northern ports, as 
California millers are handicapped in the 
matter of competition for Oriental trade, 
by the fact that this year's wheat sup- 
plies for the local mills must come en- 
tirely from the North. The demand for 
shipment to Central and South American 
points continues fair, and is about equally 
divided between San Francisco and the 
Northern ports. 

Patents. California * ®4 85 

Second Patents, California @4 60 

Straights ®4 25 

SuperBne No. 1 3 50 ©3 75 

1 >erflne No. 2 3 00 ©3 40 

L.jgou Bakers' 4 15 ©4 50 



Washington Bakers - 4 25 04 60 

Eastern Patents 5 50 (S 

Barley. 

The barley market continues firm and 
prices are without change. There is a 
good demand for bright lots of spot feed 
at the appearing quotations, and the 
scarcity of this grade would indicate that 
there is no danger of an immediate de- 
cline. Off grades are, however, moving 
slowly and the minimum quotation of 
$1.15 is seldom exceeded. May option has 
sold during the current week as high as 
$1.23 on the local stock exchange. Traders 
are now commencing to turn their atten- 
tion toward December barley for 1906 de- 
livery, and sales of the past few days have 
established a price ranging around $1.04 
per cental. 

Brewing *1 22*©1 25 

Feed, No. 1 1 20 <a>l 22* 

Feed, 'air to good 1 15 @1 17* 

Chevalier, No. 1 to choice l 2ft @i 30 

Chevalier, common to fair l 20 &i 25 

Oat,. 

Trading in the oat market has been 
rather light, but appearing quotations 
are being well maintained. Reports from 
the North indicate that whites and grays 
are now pretty well cleaned out of first 
hands, so the arrivals of these varieties 
are likely to be rather limited from now 
on, and higher prices may be expected as 
soon as any appreciable shipping demand 
springs up. It is rather difficult to make 
an accurate quotation on black oats, as 
there is very little of what may be termed 
good black oats in the market. The price 
of $1.70 per cental might be exceeded for 
a choice lot suitable for seeding purposes, 
but the bulk of the stock now available 
would not bring anything like that figure. 
Hod oats move slowly at quotations. 

White oats »l 45 ©1 60 

Black oats 1 3ft @1 70 

Red oats 1 30 ®1 60 



The market has been dull for several 
days past, but at the present writing 
there seems to be a little more disposition 
to trade. Local stocks are light on all 
varieties quoted, but the general statis- 
tical situation would seem to indicate that 
the present prices are fully high enough. 
Egyptian corn, in both the white and 
brown varieties, is firmly held at appear- 
ing quotations. 

Large White, good to choice (1 27*@1 30 

Large Yellow @1 30 

Small Yellow 1 50 ®1 55 

Egyptian White 1 38*©1 40 

Egyptian Brown 1 25 ©1 27* 

Kye. 

There is very little rye of any descrip- 
tion now arriving from the East, and 
stocks in the hands of local grain men are 
very light. The price of $1,524 is for choice 
grades only, and includes very little of 
the Utah crop. 

Good to choice II 47*@1 52(4 

Buckwheat. 

There is no noteworthy movement in 
buckwheat, as stocks are exceptionally 
light and would seem to indicate that the 
area devoted to the production of this 
grain is much smaller than usual. The 
appearing quotation seems to be about 
what would be justified for the average of 
the crop, but could probably be exceeded 
for choice lots of seed buckwheat. 

Good to choice 



®1 75 



There is a scarcity of large white beans 
and the appearing price of $2.50 for first- 
grade beans is being firmly held. In fact, 
if the same demand as that now ruling 
continues right along, the expectations of 
the trade for a 3c. market seem likely to 
be realized. It is estimated that the 1904 
crop of large whites was about 335,000 
bags, while the 1905 crop is only 235,000 
bags, making a shortage of 100,000 bags 
for 1905. Small whites are in good demand 
and in fairly liberal supply. The stocks 
of Pinks in the hands of jobbers are 
rather light, and the appearing quotation 
of $2 for choice is being well maintained. 
Only a small portion of the crop has been 
marketed up to this date, a large portion 
of the crop having been warehoused on 
the river. When this is let loose, which 
will probably be some time before tax day 
in March, prices will undoubtedly weaken. 
Red Kidneys and Blackeyes are in rather 
limited supply, and in the case of the 
former somewhat firmer in price. Red 
beans and Limas have advanced, the lat- 
ter now being held at the high price of 
$5. Traders do not seem disposed to buy 
Limas at this figure, as it is generally con- 
ceded to have been a speculative move- 
ment whic*h has brought the price up to 
this figure. 

Small White, good to choice $2 90 @3 10 

Large White 2 10 ®2 50 

Pinks 1 75 ©2 00 

Pinks, damaged 1 00 @1 25 

Bayos. good to choice 3 30 ® 3 611 

Red Kidneys 3 50 @3 75 

Reds 3 00 @3 10 

Limas. good to choice 4 75 05 00 

' Black-eye Beans 4 50 @4 80 



Dried Peas. 

The dried pea market is quiet, but 
steady at quotations. These figures seem 
to be warranted by the limited stocks 
available, but trading has been light, as 
such high prices leave a small margin for 
speculation. There has been a fair de- 
mand for good seed peas of both the 
quoted varieties and a large amount of 
Salinas stock was shipped South for use 
as fertilizer. The small size of the recent 
marketings even at the present high 
price shows that there is practically noth- 
ing left in first hands, so there is not 
likely to be any decline in price before the 
next crop is placed on the market. 

Green Peas, California t2 25 @2 40 

Niles 1 60 <g 1 75 

Hops. 

The Eastern market is quiet and the 
same tendency is reflected on the Pacific 
coast. Business has been done in a slow 
way, but absolutely no speculative move- 
ment has taken place. The latest trans- 
action of any consequence was made Jan- 
uary 8, and was for 125 bales of Sonomas 
at 9c. per lb. Prices on all grades of hops 
continue as heretofore, and the situation 
generally would seem to eliminate |any 
possibility of immediate improvement. 
Some contracting has been done in So- 
noma county for a period of from one to 
three years at an average price of 10 
cents. 

Medium to fair 6 © — 

Good brewing 8 @ 8* 

Prime 9 @— 

Prime to choice 9 ©10 

Wool. 

There is some improvement in the Bos- 
ton market for wools suitable for worsteds 
and some good-sized transactions in Cali- 
fornia Spring wools have been reported, 
but on all wools of the fall clip, of which 
the stock now on the Coast consists en- 
tirely, there is practically no demand. 
No trading is being done by local jobbers 
for the reason that they regard the prices 
named by the growers on the fall clip as 
prohibitive of anything in the nature of 
speculative buying. It is probable from 
the estimated size of the stocks now 
in first hands that some concessions will 
have to be made by the growers before 
the fall clip can be moved. An estimate 
emanating from a jobbing source places 
the remaining stocks in the hands of 
growers at between 800,000 and 1,000,000 
pounds. 

KALI.. 

Humboldt and Mendocino 15 @16* 

Northern, free 14*@16 

Northern, defective 11 @13 

Middle County, free 10 @14 

Middle County, defective 11 @13 

San Joaquin and Southern, free 9 @12 

San Joaquin and Southern, defective 8 ®|0 

SPRING. 

Oregon, valley 23 ®2ft 

Eastern Oregon 15 ®17 

Nevada 15 @19 

Hay and Straw. 

Shipments of hay for the week just ended 
amount to 2,450 tons, which is somewhat 
below the average range for the past 
month. This lessening in arrivals, com- 
ing at a time when the car situation is 
comparatively easy, is unusual. There is 
yet a large quantity of the crop in first 
hands, but owing to rather unpromising 
conditions, many farmers continue to hold 
their hay rather than sell at present 
quotations. There is a growing demand 
for hay throughout all interior sections, 
and many dealers and warehousemen are 
busy disposing of their holdings at points 
other than San Francisco. Large quanti- 
ties of hay are also being unloaded from 
the various warehouses and shipped to 
interior points every day. Choice hay is 
rather scarce and high and the medium 
grades are in ample supply. Alfalfa con- 
tinues in good demand and straw shows a 
tendency to drag somewhat owing to the 
dry weather, a wet winter always necessi- 
tating the use of more of this latter 
article. 

Wheat, choice *14 00 <a 16 00 

Wheat, other grades 8 00 @ 13 60 

Wheat and Oat 9 00 @ 12 50 

Tame Oat, fair to choice 8 00 ® 12 00 

Wild Oat 8 00 ® 9 50 

Barley 7 00 ® 9 50 

Clover 6 00 ® 900 

Alfalfa 9 00 @ 11 50 

Stock hay 7 00 @ 8 00 

Compressed 10 00 @ 13 00 

Straw, V bale 30 ® 50 

MIllstnfTs. 

The lack of rain and the consequent 
dependence of stockmen on feedstuffs 
for their cattle have caused a firmness in 
the tone of the market which could not 
otherwise be felt at this season of the 
year. Bran is a shade firmer in price, 
though receipts have been quite liberal. 
Other varieties of millstuffs are being 
steadily held at appearing quotations and 
altogether the market is in excellent 
shape, as a heavy rain right now could 
not affect prices materially for several 
weeks. 

Alfalfa Meal, * ton 121 00 © 22 00 

Bran, * ton 19 50 @ 20 50 

Middlings 27 50 @ 29 00 

Shorts, Oregon 21 00 @ 22 00 



Barley, Rolled, choice 26 00 @ 27 00 

Cornmeal 29 50 @ 30 50 

Cracked Corn 30 00 ® 31 00 

Oilcake Meal 39 00 @ 40 On 

Cocoanut cake or meal 24 50 ® 25 50 

Seeds. 

Some signs of reviving animation have 
been shown by the seed market during 
the week, but no particular activity is to 
be expected before another month. A 
week's rain would, however, stimulate 
business and cause a demand to spring up 
sooner than that date. Hemp seed is 
scarce and shows an advance. The mar- 
ket contains a libera) supply of alfalfa 
seed, the lack of rain having caused hold- 
ers to make some concessions in price In 
order to clean up stocks. It is reported 
that there have been offerings in carload 
lots at primary points at 1 lie. Rains 
would probably cause a reduction of 
stocks at this point and an advance in 
price. 

Alfalfa Ill 00 ©14 00 

Flax ® 

Mustard, Yellow 3 50 ® 3 75 

Mustard. Trieste 4 50 <a 4 75 

Per lb. 

Canary 8*@ 7 

Rape 2*® 3 

Hemp — ® 5 

Timothv 5*® 

Honey. 

Receipts of honey have been of fair 
size, and seem to indicate that apiarists 
are now more willing to conform to the 
ideas of buyers regarding prices. The 
price of 5c. for extracted white is, how- 
ever, considered a jobbing figure, and can 
scarcely be realized on round lots. 

Extracted, Water White 44f® 5 

Extracted, White 4*® 4»i 

Extracted, Light Amber 4 @ 4'/, 

Extracted, Amber 3*@ 4 

Extracted, Dark Amber 3 @ 3* 

White Comb, 1 -frames 9 ffllO 

Amber Comb 7 ® 8 

Beeswax 

The market continues firm on all grades 
of wax, and stocks in first hands are well 
cleaned up. An occasional lot of dark 
wax comes into this market and is quickly 
picked up at the price of 24c to 25c. 

Good to choice, light $ ft 26 @28 

Dark 24 @25 

Live Stock and Meats. 

The market for beef continues steady 
though not active, prices remaining 
quotably unchanged. Mutton, lamb and 
veal are all in good demand, and the mar- 
ket is well supplied at these figures. Hogs 
are firmer in price and receipts rather 
light. 

Allowing for the shrinkage of about 50%, which 
Is exacted in buying cattle on the hoof, live cattle 
command as much or more per pound than dressed 
beef, the shrinkage exacted being the slaughterers' 
profit. 

The following quotations for beef and mutton are 
based on prices realized by slaughterers from 
wholesale dealers: 

Beef, 1st quality, dressed, net V ft ft @ 5* 

Beef, 2nd quality 4*@ ft 

Beef, 3rd quality 3>*@ 4 

Mutton— ewes, 8@9c; wethers 9*®iu 

Hogs, hard grain, 150 to 250 lbs — ® fi 

Hogs, large, hard, over 250 pounds 5ii@— 

Hogs, small, fat, under 150 fts — @ 6 

Veal, large, » ft 6 ® 7* 

Veal, small, » ft 8 ®9 

Lamb, spring, * ft 10 ©11 

Hides, Skins and Tallow. 

The Eastern hide market has hardly 
opened for the new season yet and prices 
are a little hard to fix. The quality of 
the present take-off is very poor and but 
few sound hides are offering. California 
stock now offering will hardly bring the 
top quotations, though sound stock is still 
held at former prices. 

Nothing but select hides, clean and trimmed, 
will bring full figures. Culls of all kinds either 
from grubs, cuts, hair slips side brands or mur- 
rain, are not always readily placed at the lower 
figures. 

Sound. Culls. 

Heavy Steers, over 56 fts 13 @— 12 @— 

Medium Steers. 48 to 56 fts 12 ®— 11 @— 

Light Steers, under 48 fts 11 *<a— 10*®— 

Heavy Cow Hides, over 50 fts. 11*©— 10*©— 
Light Cow Hides, under 50 fts. 11*®— 10*®— 

Stags 7@8 7 @— 

Wet Salted Kip 10*®— 10 @— 

Wet Salted Veal 12 ®— 11 ®— 

Wet Salted Calf 13 @— 12 @— 

Dry Hides 19 ®— ' 19 @— 

Dry Kip and Veal. 11 to 16 fts. 16 ®17 15 @— 

Dry Calf, under 4 fts 20 @21 19 @— 

Pelts, long wool, » skin 1 50@2 00 

Pelts, medium, » skin 90@l 2ft 

Pelts, short wool, * skin 60® 90 

Pelts, shearling, fi skin 20® 50 

Horse Hides, salted, large prime, each.. 3 00@— 

Horse Hides, salted, medium 2 75®— 

Horse Hides, salted, small 2 25®— 

Horse Hides, dry, large 1 75® — 

Horse Hides, dry, medium 1 50®— 

Horse Hides, dry, small 1 00@— 

Tallow, good quality 4 ®4* 

Tallow, poorer grades 2*@3* 

Bags and Bagging;. 

There is practically nothing of import- 
ance to note in the bag situation, stocks 
in the hands of jobbers having been 
nearly exhausted for some time. Calcutta 
futures are said to be steady and quota- 
tions for June bags are from 6|(g>.6j|c. 

Bean Bags t 6*@ — 

Fruit Sacks, cotton, No. 1, 7*@8*; No. 2 7S>®7? 11 

Fruit Sacks, jute, as to quality 6*®7* 

Grain Bags, Calcutta, 22x36, spot 7*®7*4 

Wool Sacks, 4-ft — @36 

Wool Sacks, 3*ft - 34 

Poultry. 

With four cars of Eastern poultry in 



January 13, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



27 



the market, and with some held over 
from last week, it seems prohable that the 
market will be somewhat easier on all 
grades except large broilers and fryers for 
which there is an exceptional demand at 
good prices. Large fat hens are also 
wanted in the local market. The turkey 
market remains nominal. Live turkeys 
move slowly and only limited quantities 
of fancy dressed stock is wanted at the 
prices of 23 to 25 cents. 

Turkeys, choice Young, ft fi> t 18 @ 20 

Turkeys, live gobblers, V St> 18 @ 20 

Turkeys, live hens %t lb 18 @ 20 

Hens, California, $ dozen 4 50 @ 5 50 

Hens, large 5 50 @ 6 50 

Roosters, old 4 50 @ 5 00 

Roosters, young (full-grown) 6 00 @ 7 00 

Fryers 5 50 @ 6 00 

Broilers, large 4 50 @ 5 00 

Broilers, small to medium 2 00 @ 3 00 

Ducks, old, V dozen 5 00 @ 6 00 

Ducks, young, $ dozen 6 00 @ 7 00 

Geese, * pair 2 00 @ 2 50 

Goslings, <S* pair 2 00 @ 2 50 

Pigeons, old, dozen @ 1 25 

Pigeons, youm 2 00 ® 2 25 

Butter. 

The butter market is steady at quota- 
tions — a shade under those of last week 
for fancy creamery stock. Receipts have 
been fairly liberal, and owing to the cold 
weather, the quality is good. The reduc- 
tions for the past few weeks in the price 
of select stock have caused cold storage 
stock to become somewhat neglected. 

Creamery, extras, $ 16 — @30 

Creamery, firsts — @27 1 / 2 

Creamery, seconds 21 @25 

Dairy, select 20 <&25 

Dairy, firsts 22 @25 

Dairy, seconds 20 @22 

California storage 24 @26 

Mixed Store — @20 

Cheese. 

A stronger market on fancy California 
cheese prevails this week and the appear- 
ing quotation of 15c. is being well main- 
tained. Other grades are steady at 
quotations. 

California, fancy flat, new 14 @15 

California, good to ohoice — @13 

California, fair to good 11 @12!4 

California, "Young Americas" 13 @14 

Eastern, new 16 @17 

E8K8. 

The egg market continues to decline, 
and it is now apparent that the move- 
ment which has kept the prices soaring 
during the past few weeks was of a specu- 
lative nature. The top price at which 
eggs were sold on the local Dairy Produce 
Exchange during the current week was 
32c. this figure being only for the most 
select grade. The intermediate and off 
grades are having a tendency to accumu- 
late at these figures, and a further reduc- 
tion is probable. 

California, select, large, white and fresh. — @32 
California, select, irregular color & size. 27H@30 

California, good to choice store — @27% 

Eastern firsts 23 @26 

Eastern seconds 19 @20 

Potatoes. 

The condition of the potato market is, 
in substance, what it has been since the 
falling off of the Southern and Southwest- 
ern shipping demand, which promised for 
a time to keep the supply of cheap pota- 
toes well reduced. The only change at 
this writing is a possible accentuation 
of previous conditions. Fancy stock is 
harder to procure, and prices are higher, 
while the demand for cheap stock is al- 
most nothing and the wharves are fairly 
groaning under the burden of it. 

River Burbanks, $ cental 50 & 70 

Salinas Burbanks 1 25 (3) 1 60 

Oregon Burbanks 75 © l 15 

Tomales 80 @ 90 

Sweet Potatoes 1 25 @ 1 50 

Vegetables. 

The market is in good shape, but stocks 
of nearly all the varieties now quoted are 
very limited, and a great deal of such 
stock as is now appearing shows up in 
somewhat damaged condition, owing to 
recent frosts and rains in the southern 
part of the State, whence most of the 
supplies for this market are now coming. 
The market was very short of such vege- 
tables as string beans and green peas, and 
extremly high prices are asked for the 
same. Peppers of both the Bell and 
green varieties are now out of the market 
entirely, and cucumbers are in scarcely 
sufficient supply to justify a quotation. 
The onion market remains in good shape, 
and fairly large receipts are coming in 
from Oregon, showing up extremly well 
as to quality. 

Cauliflower, f, dozen 75 (a) 1 00 

Beans, String, $ fi> — @ 17 

Cabbage, choice garden, ft 100 lbs. .. 1 00 ® 1 25 

Egg Plant, * lb 10 @ 15 

Garlic, » lb 5 l» 6 

Onions, Oregon, # ctl 1 30 (a) 1 40 

Onions, New Yellow Danvers, ft ctl. 1 35 @ I 40 
Onions, Australian Brown, ft ctl... 1 25 (a) 1 40 

Peas, Green, ft fib — @ 12K 

Tomatoes, ft box or crate 1 50 <a 1 75 

Artichokes, ft doz 50 © 1 25 

Carrots, ft sack 65 (3) 75 

Hubbard Squash, ft ton — ©20 00 

Note. — Large boxes are what are known to the 
trade as "pay boxes," which have to be returned 
or paid for. They are open top, with hand holes In 
the ends, and weigh when filled from 50@60 lbs 
gross. Small boxes are free boxes, about the same 
as the regular fruit box, weighing when full from 
JO to 30 lbs. gross. 



Fresh Fruits. 

• The past week has seen the supplies of 
nearly all kinds of fresh fruits exhausted. 
Apples and pears of the Winter Nelis 
variety are the only deciduous fruits re- 
maining in the fresh fruit market, and, in 
the case of the pears, the greater portion 
of these is cold-storage stock. The de- 
mand for apples has been fair and prices 
are being well maintained. Winter Nelis 
pears are firmly held at $2.75 per box, for 
choice grades. There are some apples in 
the local market which will not bring the 
minimum quotations of 75c. for good to 
choice, but these are either wormy or 
otherwise damaged and are in practically 
no demand whatever. 

Apples, choice to select, ft 50-lb bx 125 © 175 
Apples, good to choice, ft 50-lb. box 75 ® 100 
Pears, Winter Nelis 2 00 ffl 2 75 

Dried Fruits. 

The market is quiet but steady on all 
kinds of dried fruits. Apples are firmer 
and in rather light supply, and while 
there is no immediate heavy demand ex- 
pected, the shortage of the Eastern crop 
and the generally strong position of all 
dried fruits lend an unusually strong 
undertone to the situation. Stocks of 
prunes in first hands have been practi- 
cally exhausted for some time, and the 
estimated supply on the Pacific Coast in 
all hands is smaller than it has been for a 
number of years. On the strength of 
this unusual statistical situation, jobbers 
are holding their stocks at an advance of 
\c. per pound over last week's quotations 
and predictions of further advances are 
many. 

EVAPORATED OH HLEACHEI). 

Apples, 50-fb boxes, rings, pressed, good to 

choice 8 <a 

Apples, extra choice to fancy. 50-fiJ boxes. W,® 9V4 

Apricots, Royal, good to choice, ft fl> 7V t ® 8^ 

Apricots, Royal, fancy Sy t ® 9 

Figs, 10-tt) box, l-ft> cartons bS (a&lV, 

Nectarines, White and Stan wick, ft lb. . . 8 & %Y, 

Nectarines, red, ft lb —(a) 8 

Peaches, unpeeled, good to choice 8^(B> 8J£ 

Peaches, unpeeled, fancy to extra fancy. . 9 @ 9V4 

Pears, standard, ft lb — @ 8)4 

Pears, choice to fancy 10 @12 

Plums, Black, pitted 5J4@ 6K 

Plums. Red, pitted 7 © 8 

Plums, Yellow, pitted 6 @ 8 

Prunes, Silver, good to fancy 5%® 8% 

Prunes, in bags, 4 sizes, — @ — c; 40-50s, 5!<@5!4c; 
50-608, 4V4@4?io; 60-70s, 4@4Mc; 70-80S. 3*<a3%c; 
80-90S, 3@3^c; 90-1008, 2^@3c : small, 2y t @2%c. 
COMMON SUN-DRIED. 

Apples, sliced 5 @ 5V4 

Apples, quartered 43£@ 5V4 

Figs, White, in bulk 2y,® 3 

Figs, Black 2J4@ 3 

Ralalns. 

It is almost impossible to name a figure 
on raisins at this writing, which will in 
any way conform to the requirements of 
the situation. Just at present there 
seems to be an uncertainty regarding the 
proprietorship of the raisins now oq hand 
on the Pacific Coast. A transaction was 
supposed to have been consummated last 
week by which the Packers' Association 
came into possession of the entire remain- 
ing stock in the hands of the Raisin 
Grower's Company, including about 12,000 
pounds. The packers have not yet 
named any prices on their newly acquired 
stock, and they gave as the reason for 
their failure to do so the fact that they 
are not yet legitimately in possession of 
the goods. So far as trade is concerned, 
the market is practically nominal, no 
demand of any consequence having 
sprung up since the holidays. 

(Fresno delivery except otherwise specified,) 

London Layers, 2-crown, 20-fb box 1 40 @ 

London Layers, 3-crown, 20-lb box 1 50 @ 

Fancy Clusters, 4-crown, 20-B> box 2 00 @ 

Dehesas, 20-fib box 2 50 @ 

Imperials, 20-B> box 3 00 @ 

2- Crown Standard loose Muscatel — @ — o 

3- Crown Standard — @ — c 

4- Crown Standard — @ — c 

Seedless Thompsons, 50-fib boxes — @ — c 

Seedless Sultanas — @ — c 

Fancy 16-oz. Seeded — ® — c 

Choice, 16-oz. Seeded — c 

Fancy, 12-oz. Seeded — o 

Choice, 12-oz. Seeded — c 

HI true Fruits. 

Oranges are firm for good stock only, 
inferior grades having a tendency to 
accumulate at these prices. Lemons are 
weak and prices lower. There is a fairly 
active demand for grape fruit, but most 
of the arrivals have been of small size, and 
on such, the appearing quotations cannot 
be excelled. Large grape fruit would 
readily bring from $2 to $2.50 per box. 
Limes are steady at appearing quotations. 

Oranges, fancy 2 00 @3 00 

Oranges, choice 1 25 ©1 75 

Oranges, standard 1 00 ffl 1 40 

Oranges, Seedlings 65 @1 10 

Lemons, California, fancy, ft box 1 50 @2 00 

Lemons, California, good to choice.. 1 00 @1 25 

Lemons, California, standards 60 @ 75 

Grape Fruit, ft box, new 1 00 @1 50 

Limes, ft box 3 00 @4 00 

Nuts. 

As is usual after the filling of the holi- 
day demand, the market has weakened, 
i. e., with regard to demand. This is not 



true of prices, however, the same prices 
as those named by the growers earlier in 
the season still holding good. Many 
predictions have been made, concerning 
the almond market, and all to the effect 
that prices would decline after the holi- 
days, but, notwithstanding the predic- 
tions, and the figures set forth in their 
justification, prices remain unchanged. 
Walnuts are in very light supply and 
stocks remaining in first hand9 are un- 
usually light, so there is small probability 
of any decline in price. 

Peanuts, fair to prime i%® by, 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 1 soft shell — @13 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 2 soft shell — ffl 9 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 1 hard shell — @12J4 

Cal. Walnuts. No. 2 hard shell — ffl 8H 

Almonds, IXL, ft lb UV4@12H 

Almonds, Ne Plus Ultra, ft ft 11 @12 

Almonds, Nonpareil, ft ft 11 ©13 

Almonds, Languedoc, ft ft 8J4@ — 

Almonds, Golden State, ft ft 8 ffl— 

Hard Shell, ft ft 5 ©— 



AMERICAN WIRE FENCE. 

These two very important qualities are found In 
the superlative degree in fence made by the Amer- 
ican Steel & Wire Co. Their fences are not only 
constructed from extra long Hbre steel wire, strong 
and flexible, but this is galvanized heavily to pro- 
tect it from the weather and prevent rusting out. 
Steel is the very best material for fences because 
it is the strongest substance made. Its invention 
and development have made possible modern sky- 
scraper buildings, bridges of hitherto impossible 
length and height, and transportation in trains 
and steamships to which you trust yourself with 
every confidence In their strength and opacity to 
insure your perfect safety. Hence it is the safest 
and most reliable material for fence. And, If it fs 
properly galvanized and woven and put up as it 
should be, it will last for many years and give 
your hind permanent protection. 



WOOL SALE. 

The Century Mercantile Company is conducting 
regular sales at its warehouse. This Interests all 
growers. Full particulars by mail. Office, 14 
Sansome St., San Francisco. 



GAS ENGINE ON TRIAL. 

This is the liberal proposition made to the farmer 
by the Western Malleable & Grey Iron Mfg. Co., 
427 Chase street, Milwaukee, Wis. In their adver- 
tisement which appears 1n another part of this 
issue they agree to send any farmer one of their 
Simplicity gasoline engines and allow the farmer 
the privilege of taking the engine to his farm and 
using it until he is satisfied that the engine will 
not do more work at less cost than any other power 
on the market, but that it will save its cost in one 
season. 

GOOD BECAUSE IT DOES GOOD. 

That is the brief but significant comment made 
in a recent testimonial about Kendall's Spavin 
Cure. The writer of It put much in little. He ex- 
pressed no new ideas : he did not concern himself 
with the way, the how, or the why. but he put in 
expressive form the great fact that is testified to 
by so many thousands of people, namely : That 
Kendall's Spavin Cure is the standard dependable 
remedy for the commonest ailments of horses. We 
have yet to hear of a user in all the years Ken- 
dall's Spavin Cure has been in use who will con- 
tend that it is not all that it is represented to be. 



MAIL ORDER HOUSES. 



Do you get the price list of the IMPERIAL CASH 
STORE? If not, better send for it to-day. The 
best, cheapest and most reliable Mail Order House 
on the Pacific Coast. 531 Washington Street, San 
Francisco, California. 



TURKEYS 

We have been handling Turkeys in this market 
for the past thirty years, and with such a long ex- 
perience can give you the best results. Full 
weight, full prices and prompt returns is our 
motto. Write us for informal ion. 

D. E. ALLISON & CO., Inc. 

117-119 Washington St., San Francisco. 



CUTTER'S 

ANTHRAX and 

BLACKLEG 
VACCINES 

are given the preference by 80% 
of California stockmen because 
they give better results than 
others do. 

Write lor prices, testimonials and our NEW 
booklet on ANTHRAX and BLACKLEG. 

THE COTTER LABORATORY, 
322B Rialto Bldg. San Francisco, Gal. 



g\ a irnni A FARM BARGAINS. Send for 

CAUFORNIA-^^^ 



648 Market St., S. F., Cal 



w 



ANTED — Good Ranches. Burr - Paddon Co., 
Dept. J, 40 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



SEEDS suitable for southern climates, Florida 
grown. If interested, write CRENSHAW BROS., 
Tampa, Fla., for their descriptive catalog. 



HENRY fe. LISTER, _ 
ATTORNEY AT LAW. 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds for 
New York. Room 14, fourth floor, Mills Building, 
San Franolsoo. Telephone Bush 848. 



Officers of California State Grange. 

Master W. V.Griffith, Geyserville 

Overseer S. W. Pilcher, Folsom 

Lecturer J. W. Webb, Modesto 

Steward E. C. Shoemaker, Visalia 

Assistant Steward N. H. Root, Stockton 

Chaplain Mrs. C. F. Emery, Oakland 

Treasurer Daniel Flint, Sacramento 

Secretary Miss Emily L Burnham, Healdsburg 

Gate Keeper S. S. Gladney, Roseville 

Pomona Mrs. Lottie V. Mitchell, Campbell 

Flora Miss Laura S. Root, Stockton 

Ceres Mrs. Eliza J. Farrell, Mountain View 

Lady Assistant Steward 

Miss Carrie D. Hansen, Mills Station 

Organist Mrs. Bessie McKnight, Napa 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Thos. Jacob Visalia 

G. N. Whitaker Santa Rosa 

Michael Farrell Mountain View 

List of Oranges and Officers. 

ALHAMBRA, 230.— M., H. C. Raap; L., James 
Kelly; Sec, Mrs. L. T. Raap. 1st & 3d Sat. 2 P. M., 
I. O. O. F. Hall, Martinez. 

AMERICAN RIVER, 172.— M., A. D. MeDonell; 
L., Mrs. Laura Hansen; Sec, Miss Carrie Hansen. 
2d & 4th Sat. from Nov. 1 to June 1, 7 P. M., June 1 
to Nov. 1, 2 P. M. 

ANTELOPE, 100.— M., R. A. Pryor; L., Mrs. 
W. A. Malloway; Sec, Miss Sadye Peterson. 2d & 
4th Sat. 11 A. M., school house, Sites. 

BENNETT VALLEY, 16. — M., J. M. Talbot; 
L., P. Hanson; Sec, John Keppel. 1st & 3d Sat. 
2 P. M., Bennett Valley Grange Hall, near Santa 
Rosa. 

BOWMAN, 327. — M., W. H. Curtis; L., Mrs. Jen- 
nie Burtscher; Sec, Mrs. C. T. Musso; 2d & 4th 
Sat. 8 p. M., Bowman. 

CAPITAL, 305.— M.,W. W. Greer; L., Miss Jessie 
Shaw: Sec, Miss Nellie Burnside. 1st & 3d Fri. 
eve. 8 P. M., Daly's Hall, Oak Park. 

CASTORIA. 322.— M., W. B. Mathews; L., Seth 
W. Morrill; Sec, Mrs. Julia Mathews. 2d & 4th 
Sat. eve., French Camp. 

DANVILLE, 85.— M., W.Stewart; E. L., C. E- 
Howard; Sec, Miss S.lst E. Wood. & 3d Sat. 
2 p. m., Danville. 

EDEN, 106. — M., H. V. Monsen; L.. Mrs. A. H. 
Christensen; Sec, Miss Olga H. Christensen. 2d & 
4th Sat. at different homes. 

ELK GROVE, 86.— M., Fred Sehlmeyer; L., Geo. 
Sehlmeyer; Sec, Miss Florence E. Liembacn. 1st 
& 3d Sat. 2 p. M., I. O. O. F. Hall, Elk Grove. 

EL VERANO, 315.— M., J. F. Tate; Sec, Mrs. J. 
D. Magnon. 

ENTERPRISE, 129. — M., George Jones; L., John 
Plummer; Sec, Edna Jones. 1st & 3d Sat. eve., 
Enterprise Grange Hall, Walsh's Station. 

FLORIN, 130. -M., L. C Stewart; L., Melvina 
McFie; Sec, Miss Susie Cox. 2d & 4th Sat. 2 p. M., 
I. O. O. F. Hall, Florin. 

GEYSERVILLE, 312.— M., Joseph E. Metzgar; 
L., Daniel W. Sylvester; Sec, Miss Edna Metzgar 
2d & 4th Sat., Woodmen's Hall, Geyserville. 

GLEN ELLEN, 299. — M., Robt. P. Hill; L.,Chas. 
A. Kennedy; Sec, Thos. Johnson. 1st & 3d Sat. 2 p. 
m., N. S. G. W. Hall, Glen Ellen. 

GOLD HILL, 326.— M., R. A. Lafayette; L., L. C. 
Gage; Sec, Chas. L. Miller. 1st & 3d Sat. eve. 8 p. 
m., Grange Hall, Gold Hill. 

GRASS VALLEY, 256.— M., O. L. Twitchell; L., 
W. H. Bryan; Sec, Mrs. R. S. Twitchell. 1st & 
3d Sat. 7:30 p. M., Fraternal Hall, Grass Valley. 

LINCOLN, 218.— M., Geo. E. Hyde; L., Miss A. 
Corpstien; Sec, Mrs. R. L. Stevens. 2d & 4th Fri. 
8 p. m., Grange Hall, Cupertino. 

MAGNOLIA, 261.— M., Mrs. Wm. Gautier; L., 
Wm. Higgins; Sec, Miss Gertrude Higgins. 2d 
Sat., 1 P. M., Grange Hall, Magnolia. 



PATENTS 



DEWEY, STRONG & CO. 

(ESTABLISHED 1860.) 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, 
and WASHINGTON, D. C. 



OLDEST AND LARGEST AGENCY ON 
THE PACIFIC COAST. 



WHY TO BE PREFERRED? 



BECAUSE-- 

Inventors have the opportunity to e* 
First : plain their inventions personally ant. 
directly to the men who write the speci» 
flcations and make the drawings, so that all th« 
inventor's ideas will be correctly conveyed, avoii? 
lng mistakes and vexatious delays. 

Inventors living at a distance from San 
Second : Francisco may, where they so desire, 
consult dlreotly with our Washingtoq 
office. 

Inventors receive the benefit of over. 
Third : thirty years' continuous, successful 
experience. 

A description of the patented lnven- 
Fourth: tion will appear in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. 

We have a complete Patent Library, including 
official records since 1793 and full certified copies 
of all patents Issued since 1872. These are foi 
free examination by any one who desires. 

We attend to all business connected with pa- 
tents, such as the preparation of Caveats, Trade- 
Marks, Design Patents, Assignments, Licenses 
and Agreements. We make examinations as to 
the patentability of inventions, searches, and giv« 
opinions as to infringements, or the scope or va- 
lidity of Patents. Our Branch Offices and arrange 
ments for Foreign Patents, Trade-Marks, etc., art 
very extensive and complete. Inventors' Quid* 
sent free on application. 



330 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 

AND 

918 F St., Washington, D. C. 



28 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 13, 1906. 



Patrons of Husbandry* 



From Grass Valley Grange. 

To the Editor: We are so pleased 
to see a nice letter from the State Sec- 
retary again. As that ' Committee on 
Press ' don't materialize — anyway, she 
is the one who is in a position to know 
things. 

We have not seen any accounts of 
election of officers in the Pacific Rural 
Press, so are wondering if we are all 
in the same boat. Grass Valley, No. 
256, has held no election. We cannot 
get enough members on hand at one 
time to fill the offices. We decided at 
our first meeting in December to omit 
next meeting night, as it came the 
night before Christmas Eve, then to 
call one in January to discuss the mat- 
ter and see what can be done. 

The State Lecturer, J. W. Webb, in 
his remarks on December 30 in the 
Pacific Rural Press, makes me think 
of writing this — hoping for some advice 
or assistance. A few of us hate to give 
the Grange up, but the most of them 
take no interest. We are getting old; 
the duties we have cheerfully done for a 
good many years are growing hard for 
us, and we do not feel so ambitious as 
of yore. 

This being more of a mining commun- 
ity than a farming makes it difficult, 
perhaps, to have an up-to-date Grange. 
There are a good many fruit raisers, 
market gardeners, etc., that should be 
interested in a farmers' organization, 
but some way we cannot get them 
interested or fail to find the right ones. 

An interesting Institute was held 
under our auspices on December 20 — 
and we furnished hall, also programmes, 
of course — so it seems that we do some 
good in the world for those outside our 
gates. I want the Grange Editor to 
make a note of it, as he wants such 
things, he said. 

D. T. Fowler was with us as leader — 
and a born one he is— his wife coming 
in a good second, and B. E. Hutchinson 
(the ' right man in the right place ') 
seeming to be a practical, all round, 
well informed man on the raising, care 
and marketing of fruit. The weather 
was quite disagreeable, otherwise we 
should have had much larger attend- 
ance. One can hardly expect people 
to drive several miles through snow and 
sleet, even to hear free lectures, 
although we do that same ourselves, 
not living on a street car line or having 
other conveniences than our own horse 
and surrey. They could come, if their 
hearts were in it, and a little snow or 
rain would not discourage them. 

To the Worthy State Lecturer I 
would say, his remarks about Subordi- 
nate Lecturers are, alas, too true. We 
have been unfortunate in our choice it 
seems for the last few years, although 
it seemed we elected our best at the 
time but were disappointed or mistaken 
in them. We could not persuade our 
Lecturer to send his name for the 
Shrqnge mnl Qbmg when it was first 
launched on the waves, to our chagrin, 
and he seemed uninterested. The Ex- 
ecutive Committee soon informed us 
that the official organ was changed 
to the Pacific Rdral Press, so now 
we don't propose to change again to 
please anybody. 

Mrs. R. S. Twitchell, 
Secretary Grass Valley Grange. 

Redwood and Pine Tanks. 

ROUND AND FLAT HOOPS. 

PUMPS, PIPE and FITTINGS. 

Estimates furnished on Pumping Plants and 
Water Supply Outfit*. 

G. T. ROSE. 
818 Bryant St. bet. fitb and 7th, San I'Yancisco, Cal. 



on household 
goods shipped 
east or west 
between 
Washington, 
Oregon, Call- 
torn ia and 
Colorado or 
along the Pacific coast. For rates write Bekins Van 
& Storage Co., 11 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 
244 S. Broadway, Los Angeles; X95 Washington St.. 
Chicago; 1016 Bdwy, Oakland. Send 2c for city maps. 




Citrus 





Deciduous 
Ornamental 



And Every One True to Name 

When you buy goods of any kind you of course lind it to your interest to do business with an old established firm thathas made a repu. 
tatlon for itself by selling dependable goods. Did you ever stop to think that a nursery that has been engaged in working along certain 
lines for a period of twenty one years, and has developed a business extending throughout California, as well as into many other stales 
and foreign countries, is a safe institution for you to do business with? Growing trees is no difficult matter, but to have them true to 
name requires great care and a thorough knowledge of the business brought about by years of hard work and close application to business, 
backed by a pride to give our customers, old and new, square treatment, and never to make any misrepresentations. 

Deciduous Fruit Trees 

Are grown in new land in the great Kings Kiver bottom where the soil is so deep and loose that our trees have not only made a magnili- 
cent top growth, but have a Bne fibrous system of roots, which is In itself a great recommendation to any fruit grower. 



I 



Citrus Trees 



Grape Vines 



If you want an assortment of varieties we can supply you with the 
leading kinds of Oranges, Lemons, Pomelos. Limes, Citrons, all 
grown In the great thermal belt near Exeter, Tulare county. Trees 
are well matured and stocky, with rich, dark green foliage, which 
is typical of the perfect citrus trees. 



On their own roots and grafted on Phylloxera Resistant 
roots. The largest stock and the most complete assortment 
on the Pacific coast. Let us figure with you on your require- 
ments. It will be worth your while. 



Apples 



All standard sorts, budded and grafted 
on whole roots. No piece roots used. 



Pears 

No blight in our stock, 
the best come to us. 



If you want 



Cherries 

We have a complete line of all |the 
standard varieties, but the bulk of our 
trees consists of Royal Ann, Bing, and 
Black Tartarian. Any cherry grower 
knows how they stand in the markets, 
and further recommendation from us is 
not necessary. We have a limited 
number of trees on Mahaleb root. 



Plums and Prunes 

are again coming to the front. Prunes 
have paid well this year and their ready 
sale shows what can be done with a 
fruit so universally in demand, when 
the price is right and the quality above 
criticism. 



Apricots Peaches 
Nectarines 

We have a good supply of the standard' 

sorts, but stocks are becoming depleted 
fast. If you contemplate planting this 
season put your order in now. Don't 
delay: This is good advice to follow. 




FIGS 

One of Our Great Specialties 

In the lead stands the CALIMYRNA, 
the fig above .all others for commercial 
purposes. Ours is the only orchard in the 
United States producing these figs on a 
commercial scale. When you buy trees 
from us you get pedigreed stock. Our seal 
must be on your trees if you want the 
genuine article. 




Almonds 



The Hatch varieties sold from 13c to 
15c per pound this year. Better put in 
your order at once. The best trees 
always go out first. 



Chestnuts Pecans 
Pistachio Nuts 



We carry these both In grafted trees 
and on their own roots, in the very best 
varieties, of course. 



Walnuts 



Placentia Perfection is the great 
money winner, selling for 18c per pound, 
this season. We have trees on their own 
roots, as well as a magnificent stock 
u-rafted on California Black Walnut 
roots. Prices for grafted trees lower 
than ever before. A tine stock of all 
other varietit s in grafted and also 
grown from selected seeds. 



Olives 



California Olive Oil and particularly 
Ripe Olives are forging to the front 
after years of earnest and persistent 
effort to introduce them. We have all 
the standard pickling and oil sorts. 
The demand is good and leading vari- 
ety's are going fast. 



We are Universal Providers for Orchard and Garden 

We do not confine ourselves to Fruit Trees alone, but grow also an immense assortment of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, Climbing 
and Trailing Plants, Palms for House Decoration and Outside Planting, Roses in Tree and Bush Form. 



Free Catalogue 



We will mail our large, profusely illustrated 
catalogue, English or Spanish, to any address on re- 
ceipt of live cents postage. Price list mailed on 
application. 



Our Nurseries 



Experimental Farm, Plant No. 1, &tn Acres. 
Nursery and Propagating Department, Plant No. 2. 130 

Acres. 

Oeneral Nursery, Plant No. 3, 3211 Acres. 
Citrus Nursery and Citrus Orchards, Exeter, Tulcre 
county, UK) Acres. 




Paid-Up Capital $200,000.00 



FANCHER CREEK NURSERIES 

(Inc.) 

Geo. C. Roeding, President and Manager 

Box 1 8 
Fresno, California 




January 13, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



29 



Seeds, Plants, Etc* 

WALNUT TREES 

At Wholesale or Retail. From El Monte Seed, 
extra well rooted. 

CHERRIES and GENERAL NURSERY 
STOCK. 

JONATHAN APFLE for hill sections. 

RIVERSIDE NURSERY, 

HENRY SHAW. 320 River St., Santa Cruz. 

BLUE GUM, RED GUM and 

MONTEREY CYPRESS 

Transplanted In Boxes 

WRITE FOR PRICES. 

W. A. REINHOLDT, 

MAIN STREET NURSERY, PETALUMA, CAL. 

BURBANKS 

Crimson Winter Rhubarb 

ONE OF OUR SPECIALTIES. 

$1.50 per dozen, $7.50 per 100, $50 per 1000. 

WAGNER'S NURSERY, 

Pbones: Home 1291; Sunset 1297. Pasadena. Cal. 

TREES! 

80,000 APPLE TREES in 42 Varieties. 

Extra well rooted. Clean. Grafted on whole 
roots and free from all pests. Also an extra fine 
stock of Prunes, Pears, Plums and Walnuts. 

Write for price list. A. F. SCHEIDECKER, 
Prop. Pleasant View Nursery, Sebastopol, Cal. 

PECAN TREES AND NUTS. 

Gold and Silver Medals awarded our Nut and 
Tree Exhibits, St. Louis, 1904. 

High-grade budded and grafted trees of all best 
varieties. 

770 acres in Pecans. 

Write for Catalogue "J," with which in incorpo- 
rated a valuable treatise upon Pecan Vulture. 
THE G. M. BACON PECAN CO., Inc., 
DeWltt, Ga. 




Y 



NURSERIES 



GROW THE 



L I BEST TREES 

T. J. TRUE, Sebastopol, Cal. 

Pure Bur Clover Seed. 



We have arranged to gather Clover Burs in 
quantities, clean them from all noxious weeds, 
thresh, and can deliver the seed in any quantities, 
practically free from all foreign seed. 



Write for Circulars, Samples and 
Prices. 

THE JESSUP - WHEELAN CO., 
224 California St., San Francisco. 

PACIFIC NURSERIES, 

3041 Baker St., San Francisco, Cal. 
and Milbrae, San Mateo Co. 

Two-year-old 
field grown. 

Rhododendrons, Camellias, Azaleas, 
Daphne, and other hardy flowering 
Shrubs and Vines. 

Acacias, Pines, Cypress, and a large 
collection of Trees. 

Cypress, Blue and Red Gums, Pines 
transplanted in boxes. 



After 
50 Years 

we still keep up 
the old habit of giving 
special directions, when 
asked, in addition to those for 
raising each variety of vegetable 
and flower contained in our 
catalogue — sent free. 

J. 3. II. GRKSOBY 
A SOX, 
Blarbl.head, 
Diana. 



PURE Florida Favorite Melon Seeds. If yon want 
genuine seeds of this variety, write CRENSHAW 
BROS., Tampa, Fla. 



Tulare Lake 
or Utah 

ALFALFA SEE 

Do you want to buy your Seed direct 
from headquarters and save money? 

Write us for Samples and Prices either 
in car lots or less. 

KUTNER-G0LD8TEIN CO, 

HANFORD, CAL. 

Largest Dealers in Alfalfa Seed 
in the State. 



SEED TALK. 



Complete and reliable informa- 
tion and advice on seeds, planting, 
etc., in our beautifully illustrated 
catalogue, 1906. 

Mailed Free. 

HIGHEST GRADE SEEDS ONLY. 

Now and rare varieties of Flower 
and Vegetable Seeds, Fruit Trees 
\ including Bartlett Fears), Orna- 
mental Plants, Roses, etc. 



COX SEED CO. 

411.413 415 SANSOME STREET, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Established 1876. 




JAMES O'NEILL, Prop. 

Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Grower of Leading Varieties of 

Deciduous Fruit Trees. 

NO IRRIGATION. 

No Borers, Other Pests or Disease. 



SPEGI/XLT-V- 

Apricots, Plums and Prunes on Myrobolan Root. 



SEND YOUR LIST FOR PRICES. 



Ferry'8 Seeds are best because r»0 
successful years have been spent in 
their development— half a century 
of expert care in making them 
superior to all others 
We are specialists in growing 
flower and vegetable seeds. 
1906 Seed Annual free. 

D. M. FERRY & CO., 
Detroit, 
.Mich. 



FERRYS 

SEEDS 



AUSTRALIAN 

RYE GRASS SEED (Perennial) 

PRICE, FIVE CENTS PER POUND. 

DISCOUNT ON LARGE AMOUNTS. 
Samples on request. 

VIERRA BROS.. Moss, Monterey Co., Cal. 



C. C. MORSE & CO. 

.... ; :: ':^^Mk4 




The well known SEED GROWERS, formerly 
at Santa Clara, now located at 

815-817 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



We are now prepared to sell our Seeds in 
any quantity, wholesale or retail. 

We are Headquarters for ONION Seed and 
all kinds of Vegetable Seed. 

Also SWEET PEAS and all kinds of Flower 
Seeds. 

Also ALFALFA and all kinds of Farm and 
Field Seeds. 

SEEDS OF THE HIGHEST QUALITY ONLY. 

WRITE FOR HANDSOME NEW ILLUSTRA f ED CATALOGUE. 

■ t "¥~ I APPLE — Leading Varieties- 

rrpQO I APRICOT— Blenheim, Hemskirk and Royal. 

[Hill 1 almond__, x l m Nonpariel, Drake's Seedling. 

Ull I I UUU ■ PRUNE— French, Imperial, Silver and Sugar. 

WALNUT Burbank's Soft Shell. 

GRAPE UINES-Wine, Table and Raisin Varieties. 

A COMPLETE ASSORTMENT OF SMALL FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS. 
VEGETABLE, FLOWER AND FARM SEEDS. 
BURR CLOV/ER SEED— The Best Soil Improving Crop. 

ro,i SS NCE TRUMBULL & BEEBE, 

Seedsmen and Nil r.sery men. 419-421 SANSOME ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 



US TREES. ! WALNUT TREES 



THE PHILIPPI NURSERIES, 

ROCKLIN, CAL. 



From carefully hand-selected seed. 
Postal gets prices. 

A. A. MILLS, 



Anaheim, California. 



Califor nia Fruits. 

NEW EDITION (3rd). LARGELY REWRITTEN. 

By PROF. E. J. WICKSON. 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter. 

I. The Climate ol California and Its Local 

Modifications. 
II. Why the California Climate Specially Fa- 
vors the Growth of Fruits. 
III. The Fruit Soils of California. 
I\ . The Wild Fruits of California. 
V. California Mission Fruits. 
VI. Introduction of Improved Fruit Varieties. 
VII. Clearing Land for Fruit. 
VIII. The Nursery. 
IX. Budding and Grafting. 
X. Preparation for Planting. 
XI. Planting Trees and Vines. 
XII. Pruning Orchard Trees and Thinning Fruit. 

XIII. Cultivation. 

XIV. Fertilizers for Fruit Trees and Vines. 

XV. Irrigation of Fruit Trees and Vines 

XVI. The Apple. 
XVII. The Apricot. 

XVIII. The Cherry. 
XIX. The Peach. 
XX. The Nectarine. 



Chapter. 
XXI. The Pear. 
XXII. Plums and Prunes. 

XXIII. The Quince. 

XXIV. Vine Propagating and Planting 
XXV. Pruning and Care of the Vine. 

XXVI. Grape Varieties in California. 
XXVII. The Date. 
XXVIII. The Fig. 
XXIX. The Olive. 
XXX. The Orange. 
XXXI. The Lemon, Lime, Etc. 

XXXII. The Banana, Loquat, Persimmon, Pine- 

apple, Avocado, Etc., Etc. 

XXXIII. Berries and Currants. 

XXXIV. Almond.Walnut, Chestnut, Peanut, Etc 
XXXV. Fruit Cannicg Crystallizing and 

Drying. 
XXXVI. Injurious Insects. 
XXXVII. Diseases of Trees and Vines. 
XXXVIII. Injurious Animals and Birds. 
XXXIX. Protection from Winds and Frosts. 
XL. Utilization of Fruit Wastes. 



Price $2.50, Postpaid Anywhere. 



CALIFORNIA VEGETABLES 

GARD EN AND FIELD. 

By PROF. E. J. WICKSON, Author of "California Fruits." 
The only book published on Vegetable Growing in California 



\ MANUAL OF PRACTICE WITH AND WITHOUT IRRIGATION. THE BOOK COMPLETELV 
COVERS ITS FIELD. A FULL ILLUSTRATED CHAPTER EACH ON 

Vegetable Growing in California. 
Farmers' Gardens in California. 
California Climate as Related to 

Vegetable Growing. 
Vegetable Soils of California. 
Garden Irrigation. 
Garden Drainage In California. 
Cultivation. 
Fertilization. 

Garden Location and Arrangement. 
The Planting Season. 
Propagation. 
Asparagus 

Price, $2.00 Postpaid 



Artichokes. 


Peppers. 


Beans. 


Potatoes. 


Beet. 


Radishes. 


Cabbage Family. 


Rhubarb. 


Carrot, Parsnip, and Salsify. 


Spinach. 


Celery. 


Squashes. 


Chicory. 


Tomato. 


Corn. 


Turnip. 


Cucumber. 


Vegetable Sundries. 


Egg Plant. 


Vegetables for Canning and Drying 


Lettuce. 


Seed Sowing In California. 


Melons. 


Garden Protection. 


Onion Family. 


Weeds in California. 


Peas. 





PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publishers, 33C Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 



30 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 13, 1906. 



The Dairy Problem Solved, 
and Solved Rightly. 

Since man first began to milk cows, the prob- 
lem of how to make the most dollars from 
them has been up for solv- 
ing. After centuries of ex- 
periment the way has been 
discovered. 

An Easy Running 

Empire 
Cream 
Separator 

will get these dollars for 
the cow-owner, and will get 
them all. This is no ex- 
periment, it is an actual 
fact proven by years of ex- 
perience by farmers the 
country over. 
You want to know why; we want to tell you 
why. Write, and get our free books on dairy- 
ing. Read these; then investigate the Empire. 
The result can only be one thing, a complete 
proof that our statements are true. 
Empire Cream Separator Co., Bloom Held, N. J. 

Pri"fh Officp. Portland. Orpgon. 




THE DEERE IMPLEMENT CO., 
Agents, San Francisco, Cal. 



THE DAIRY. 



How to Secure Sanitary Milk. 

By C. M. Hakim:, Instructor in Veterinary Science 
and Bacteriology to the University of California, 
at the State Farmers' Institute. 

A crusade for pure milk is going on 
throughout the State and everyone 
ought to wish it Godspeed. 

This is a movement of importance in 
every household. In families where 
there are young children, milk is a 
necessity of life, and the problem of 
how to secure a wholesome supply, is a 
vital one. The difficulties of the prob- 
lem vary as widely as do the conditions 
under which families live. For in- 
ance, to the customers of the city milk 
company this is usually a question as 
to the thoroughness and conscientious- 
ness of the inspection of the Board 
of Health. To the customer of the 
village milkman, it is a delicate per- 
sonal problem, and to the creamery- 
man or the dairyman himself, it is a 
question of knowledge, care and de- 
cency. 

Sanitary milk is not capable of trans- 
mitting or directly producing disease in 
human beings consuming it. Sanitary 
milk means more than milk produced 
by healthly cows ; more than unadult- 
erated milk, pure milk so-called ; or 
even more than milk of a low bacterial 
count. (The low count signifies that it 
is free from dirt.) It is possible for 
milk to fulfill all of these conditions and 
still fall short of wholesomness. Milk 
from healthy cows and unadulterated 
may, by unsanitary handling, become so 
tainted that even pasteurization or 
sterilization will not render it a harm- 
less food for infants. Unlike many 
other foods, unsanitary milk can not 
usually be detected by eye and taste. 
Good milk is the most wholesome diet 
for young children, but it is to them 
that the chief dangers of unsanitary 
milk are fatal. 

A principle recognized by efficient 
municipal Boards of Health is, that a 
rise in the infant mortality without a 
proportionate rise in the total mor- 
tality usually indicates unsanitary con- 
ditions in the milk supply. 

Milk is more often the means of 
transmitting disease than any other 
food. This does not imply that clean, 
fresh milk from healthy cows is any- 
thing but the best diet. The dairyman, 
or anyone else, who takes the stand 
that disagreeable facts, regarding the 
common transmission of disease by 
milk, ought not to be brought to the at- 
tention of the public because, as it has 
been said, "it spoils the people's appe- 
tite for milk and hurts the business," 
ought to lose the confidence of his cus- 
tomers. The public needs education 
right along this line. "Sanitary educa- 
tion is better than sanitary legislation" 
and informing the people of unsanitary 
conditions in the milk supply will help 
the right kind of dairyman every time. 

Typhoid fever, diphtheria, scarlet 
fever and tuberculosis are diseases com- 
monly transmitted in milk. I had rather 



live in a room with a typhoid fever pa- 
tient than to drink a glass of milk from 
a dairy where I knew there to be a 
case of this disease. That an average 
milker can be an attendant to a 
typhoid patient and escape transmit- 
ting the virus to the milk in milking, 
seems unlikely. 

Milk from tuberculosis cows is not 
sanitary milk. The argument as to 
whether there are two distinct varie- 
ties of the germ, or whether the defici- 
ency in virulence of the germs from 
human sources is due to the different 
conditions under which they have 
grown, does not affect the truth of the 
above statement. The best authorities 
hold that tuberculosis of infants may be 
produced by their drinking milk from 
tuberculosis cows. 

The milk from diseased cows, what- 
ever the trouble, is not desirable. 
Udder troubles especially are to be 
guarded against. There is a great 
temptation, particularly at this time of 
the year, to use every drop of milk that 
is produced in the dairy. Milk from 
pretty badly caked, or otherwise 
affected udders, can be used without its 
showing when diluted with the milk of 
several other cows. 

The contamination of milk with large 
quantities of manure and dirt, during 
milking or transportation, renders it 
unsanitary. 

The shower of manure particles, 
hair, etc., which usually fall into the 
milk-pail during milking, can be pre- 
vented by grooming the cow and by 
dampening the udder immediately be- 
fore milking. The use of a centrifugal 
clarifier is not to be recommended. 
Pasteurization, as a regultar practice, 
is not to be recommended. The thing 
to do is to prevent the dirt and germs 
from getting into the milk in the first 
place. Milking pails constructed so as 
to expose as little opening as possible 
for the reception of dust, aid in minim- 
izing the contamination by fecal matter. 
In a large herd all this necessitates a 
good deal of extra labor and the em- 
ployment of more help, and hence 
means an added cost to the milk. 

As long as the people are unwise 
enough to purchase their milk entirely 
on the basis of cheapness and the per 
cent of butter-fat, they must expect to 
get a dirty product. This is inevitable 
and cannot be entirely remedied by the 
most energetic Board of Health. The 
personality of the milkers has as much 
to do with the sanitary condition of the 
milk as anything, and it is a fact to be 
deprecated that the average union 
milker is anything but a neat and 
savory individual. The non-union 
milker, on the average, is even more 
slovenly. The fault is not entirely that 
of the milkers, but in the way that they 
are often treated. I have seen many 
dairies where the conditions under 
which the cows were living were far 
more sanitary than those imposed upon 
the milkers. 

It is desirable that milk be quickly 
strained, cooled and put up in sterilized 
bottles. Once in a bottle and kept cool 
the milk is protected from further pol- 
lution. 

Dr. S. D. Belcher, in her book 
entitled 'Clean Milk,' states a good 
point in this connection. "In hotels, 
restaurants, and other public eating 
places, whose cuisine and service is 
otherwise faultless, the manner of serv- 
ing milk is antiquated. Whereas in 
families and households, bottled milk 
has long been in use, there still remains 
in hotels and restaurants the unclean 
practice of dipping milk from large re- 
ceptacles. All the thought and atten- 
tion lavished on other foods is denied to 
milk which in fact requires the most 
careful protection. Just as the wine 
and finer grades of beer and ale are 
brought to the table in sealed bottles, 
so also should milk, and brands of milk 
of known reputation for cleanliness. 
The hotel-keeper has no excuse for not 
furnishing milk in this manner, as many 
dealers are able to supply him with 
pint or quart jars, which have been 
sealed at the dairy, and the question of 
cost is not to be considered. At most 
it is only a fraction more than the 
present objectionable method calls for 
and the advance in cleanliness is imper- 
atively needed. Certainly the patrons 
of expensive hotels are entitled to 




Put Facta and Common Senile tfl 
work on a Tubular Cream Separa- 
tor and you know it must be easy 
to operate. Put Facta and Common Sense up against 
a back breaking, hard to wash, high can "bucket 
bowl" machine and you can't make yourself believe 
it is easy to operate. In the light of truth, the out- 
of-date, "bucket bowl" separators go to smash. 



Which kind for you, the 
Tubular or 

IjOW Can or 
Sinij>/e Bowl or 
Enclosed Gears or 
Self Oiling or 



"Bucket Bowl" 

High Can 
Bowl Full of Parts 
Exposed Gears 
Oil Yourself 



Catalog 0-13I tells all about Tubulars. Write for it. 
The Sharpies Separator Co. 

Toronto, Can. WEST CHESTER, PA. Chicago. 




DE LAVAL SEPARATORS 



AND OUR 
LINE OF 



DAIRY AND CREAMERY MACHINERY 



are far superior to other like goods. The cost, efficiency and durability 
considered, are no higher than so-called cheaper grades. Everything on hand 
for the Dairy and Creamery. Write for Catalogues. Mailed free. 

DE LAVAL DAIRY SUPPLY CO. 

9 and II Drumm St., Ssn Francisco 107 First St., Portland 112 2nd Ave. South, Seattle 



TO STAY 
TRMF»F»ED. 

The trouble with most gopher traps is that they permit the rodent to escape 
after the trap has been sprung. This not only makes the old style traps worth- 
less, but prevents the recapture of the gopher. The only sure means of destroy- 
ing gophers is with the 

IMPROVED C. V. 2-RING GOPHER TRAP. 

This is a newly patented trap, embodying all the latest im- 
provements. It is superior to the Single ring, as well as the 
Clutch and Claw Traps, for the double ring disables the gopher 
and holds it securely, allowing no chance for escape. 

See that you get the genuine 
Improved C. V. 2-Ring. Sold every- 
where for 25c; or it your dealer does 
not have them, send us bis name 
:md 25c. for sample trap or 12.50 for 
a dozen, which we will forward 
.postpaid, 




Falls Manufacturing Co, 

12 Drumm St., San Francisco. 



FRANCIS SMITH 8c CO., Manufa f ur6r ' 



SHEET IRON & STEEL PIPE 



FOR TOWN WATER WORKS. 

Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc., All Sizes 

83 FREMONT STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

WATER AND OIL TANKS— ALL SIZES. Iron cut, punched and formed, for making pipe on 
tround where required. All kinds of Tools supplied for making pipe. 

Estimates given when required. Are prepared forcoatlng all sizes of Pipes with Asphaltum 



Portable Buildings. 

NO. 410. STOCK SIZE— 12 ft. 9* in. by 81 ft. 5* in. 
Shows supplementary roof for hot climates. 
They can be applied to any of our houses. 
Two outside and two inside doors, four windows and 

three rooms, screens, etc. 
We will be pleased to send catalogues on application. 

BURNH AIM-STAN DEFORD CO. 

Second and Washington Sta., OAKLAND, CAL. 




EAMES TRICYCLES AND ROLLING CHAIRS 

Won the Gold Medal at the St. Louis Fair. If you or a friend need some 
means of getting around, write for our catalogue of the best chairs made. 

EAMES TRICYCLE CO, 

2020 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 

Los Angeles Representatives, SWEENEY SURGICAL MANP'G CO., 
212 S. Hill Street. 



January 13, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



every refinement in the service of their 
food, and a bottle of milk, known to 
have been produced and delivered with 
a regard for cleanliness, is no longer a 
luxury." 

Dr. N. K. Foster, secretary of the 
California State Board of Health says, 
in the October, 1905, bulletin of that 
bureau: "Milk is a necessary article of 
diet and should be furnished pure. It 
can be, but it depends in no small 
measure upon the consumer. The pro- 
ducing and selling of milk are commer- 
cial, as much as that of flour or cloth 
and are governed by the same laws. If 
one demands a good article he must 
pay for it. Cheap flour will be made 
from cheap dirty wheat, and cheap 
milk will be supplied from poor cows 
kept in cheap and unsanitary surround- 
ings, and it will be served in dirty con- 
tainers. To have the corrals clean, the 
milk-shed whitewashed and free from 
dust and dirt, the milkers dressed in 
freshly washed suits, the containers 
cleaned with steam, and the milk-house 
free from flies and odors requires an 
outlay of money for which the owner 
must get return. His milk costs more 
to produce, and therefore he must get 
a better price. Consumers too often 
demand cheap milk, and, getting it, 
find fault that it is poor and soon 
spoils. This forces the producer to use 
preservatives to keep the cheap milk 
sweet — a proceeding entirely unneces- 
sary if the milk has been kept clean. If 
consumers demand good milk they can 
it, but it will cost more money. 

"In every city can be found some 
dairyman who will be willing to furnish 
pure and clean milk for a reasonable 
advance in price. The Oakland Home 
Club is getting such a milk, the dairy- 
man agreeing to conform to the re- 
quirements of the club, which are those 
recommended by the United States 
Bureau of Animal Industry. The 
dairy is inspected and the cows tested 
as often as necessary, and the exami- 
nation of the milk is made frequently. 
The limit of bacteria is placed at 10,000, 
but has never come over 3,000 germs, 
while the ordinary dairyman's milk 
often goes to 500,000 or 1,000,000. 
This is the difference between pure 
milk, which is a nourishing food, and a 
filthy solution, which is the cause of 
much disease." 

It is a pleasure to say that the dairy 
which has conformed to the rules of the 
Home Club is proving a financial suc- 
cess and the business has so enlarged 
that they are now sending certified 
milk to San Francisco. Any other 
dairy in this part of the State can have 
the certificate of the Oakland Home 
Club, provided they come up to the re- 
quirements, but as yet none have cared 
to do so. The plan adopted by the 
Home Club is essentially that recom- 
mended in the 17th Annual Report of 
the Bureau of Animal Industry — 1900 ; 
page 158, Market Milk: A plan for its 
Improvement, by R. A. Pearson, M. S. 
There are few large cities in the East 
that do not have an abundant and 
reasonably cheap supply of high-grade 
certified milk. "Laws will always be 
necessary to protect the public against 
themselves and unscrupulous producers 
and should be strictly enforced ; but a 
recognition by the customers that pure 
milk is worth more than impure is also 
necessary." 

The care of the milk at home is also 
an important factor. The milk-pan is 
sometimes the last dish washed and, 
without scalding, is wiped on a towel 
that has done service for all the other 
dishes and, the milk having been poured 
in, it is set where flies could take a 
drink and mice, occasionally, refresh 
themselves from it. The careless maid 
may also leave it on the table or shelf 
while she sweeps the floor, and it 
catches the dust filled with all kinds of 
unquestionable filth. The pan should 
be thoroughly washed with soap and 
warm water and scalded with boiling 
water and dried with a clean towel. 
After receiving the milk one should 
protect it from contaminating influence 
of animals, insects or dirt, for the dirt 
allowed to enter after the milk has 
been received at the house it is as bad 
as that entering it before. Buy pure, 
clean milk, and keep it clean and much 
sickness of children will be prevented. 



Transfers of Holstein Friesians. 



Recorded sales of registered Holstein 
Friesian cattle in California, reported 
for the Pacific Rural Press by F. L. 
Houghton, Brattleboro, Vt., secretary 
of the Holstein Friesian Association of 
America: 

cows. 

Autumn Bud, Ozro Mitchell to R. P. Guerin, 
Visalla. 

Nola Beryl Wayne, E. Gt. Wharton to W. I. Bur- 
nett, Tulare. 

BULLS. 

Agent Royal of Obispo, Chas. J. Welch to Oak- 
land Sanitary Dairy Co., Oakland. 

De Kol Mercedes Aaggie, R. T. Brooks to G. W. 
Mills, Tulare. 



HORTICULTURE. 



Care in Planting Peaches. 

To the Editor: The fruit crops of 
our State have been exceptionally 
profitable during the year now draw- 
ing to a close. Especially has this been 
the case with certain varieties of 
peaches. 

As a natural consequence there is a 
heavy demand on the nurseries for 
these varieties, and prices are ranging 
high. It is useless to attempt to in- 
duce a practical grower in any of our 
orchard counties to plant anything but 
Muir and Lovell peaches for drying pur- 
poses, or Phillips, Tuscan, Orange and 
other California clings for canning. But 
there are always novices in orchard 
planting who do not know the relative 
value of different varieties and are will- 
ing to accept something else which 
they think is nearly as good, be- 
cause these can be had from the East 
at a lower price. 

Now the fact is, there is scarcely a 
variety of peaches in any of the East- 
ern nurseries that is wanted by any of 
the older orchardists of our State who 
know the value of our native strains. 
Notwithstanding these facts, there are 
communities in our peerless fruit State 
iu which these Eastern trees will be 
brought in car lots this season. This 
practice of bringing Eastern 'peach 
trees to California should be condemned 
by all who have an interest in our fruit 
industry. The dreaded 'rosette' and 
'yellows' are liable to be introduced. 
The larva3 of borers will come in spite 
of all precautions, and from past ob- 
servations it seems impossible to get 
all varieties true to the name from the 
East. 

Only a few years ago conditions were 
similar to those of the present, and 
there was an influx of peach trees from 
Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri and Ala- 
bama. I know of several orchards of 
these trees, but I do not know of one 
that is not badly mixed and some have 
not a single variety that the labels rep- 
resented, and are practically worthless 
in a commercial way. This furnished 
grounds for complaints and threats of 
suits for damages against some of the 
venders of these trees, and it would 
seem strange now if these same venders 
could afford to repeat their folly. 

There doubtless are many Eastern 
nurserymen who are just as honest and 
careful as any on the Pacific coast. 
Some on either side of the Rockies may 
be honest for policy sake only. Policy 
alone would cause him to keep things 
straight around home, but it might not 
prevent him from mixing or substitut- 
ing in order to fill an otherwise impos- 
sible order, when his customer is two 
thousand miles away and] it is the last 
order from him he expects to get. 
There might easily be a difference of 
from fifty to one hundred dollars per 
acre per annum in favor of our Muirs and 
Lovells as compared with some other 
varieties which are planted for the 
same purpose. This is not an extrava- 
gant estimate, in view of the fact that 
the income from many orchards has 
been above the two-hundred-dollar 
mark the past season. If such varie- 
ties as are wanted could not be had at 
any price, it would be far better to de- 
fer planting a year or two than to ac- 
cept any substitute. Competition in 
fruit growing will be great. The dis- 
crimination by packers and canners will 
be more definite as to grade and qual- 
ity. Good peach land in ideal peach 
climate is limited. Make the best of 
the situation. Plant only the best. 

Merced. W. T. Kirkman, 



Seeds, Plants, Etc* 



FRUIT TREK 



All 

Varieties 



All 

Varieties 




E 



Citrus Trees .7 Ornamental Trees 



When you buy your Nursery Stock, buy same 
from a reliable Hrm. We have made a life 
study of the Nursery Business. Our relia- 
bility is vouched for by our customers in 
every county in the State to whom we have 
sold stock during the past 17 years. 

Write us and send in a list of your wants. 

Catalogue and Price List FREE. 

The Fresno 
Nursery Co., inc. 

(Capital $50,000.00) 
Fresno, California 



EsTAHI.ISHKI) If 



S.WJARSHALL&SON 

NURSERYMEN, 

FRESNO, CALIFORNIA. 

Address all communications to P.O. Box 161 
Large Stock of 

Grape Vines, Fruit Trees and Citrus 
and Deciduous Fruit and Orna- 
mental Stock. 

All Stock First Class. 



C0C0ZELLE BUSH 
SQUASH. 

Matures in ten weeks. 
Continues bearing till frost. 

Yields more tons per acre than any other squash 
or pumpkin. 

Can be planted rive feet apart each way. 

Can be planted until August 1st and mature 
crop. 

The best stock squash. 

Trial packet, 10c; 1 lb., 50c; 10 lbs., 84.00, post- 
paid. 

PIONEER NURSERY, 

MONROVIA, CAL. 



ROOTEDVINES. 

Tokay, Emperor, 
Thompson Seedless, Sultana, 
Malaga, Muscatel, Zinfandel. 



Also MUIR PEACH TREES. 



Fowler Nursery Co. 

FOWLER, CAL. 



ORANGE TREES 

Three and four year old 

Improved Washington Navel Trees 

for this season's planting. 

REDUCED PRICES FOR LARGE ORDERS 

ADDRESS: Manager, SPRING VALLEY RANCH 
Rocklin, Placer Co., Cal. 



THE CROCKER BARTLETT PEAR 

Is out of sight compared with other pears. 
GOLDEN RULE NURSERY, Loomis, Cal. 



FOR SALE. 



20,000 strong-rooted Loganberry tips, 2 cts. each 
or $15.00 per M. Cuthbert Raspberry and Lawton 
Blackberry 2 cts. each or S?.00 per M. 

L. E. BARLOW, Sebastopol, Cal. 



A PERFECT Musk Melon. Crenshaw's mammoth 
perfection. Write them for description and price 
of seeds. CRENSHAW BROS., Tampa, Fla. 



PLANT THE 

Lob Ingir 

SMYRNA FIG. 

This is the world-famed Fig of Commerce. 

You will save money by patronizing us. 

We are selling good stocky trees at 815.00 per 100; 
Capris at the same price. 

LET US BOOK YOUR ORDER NOW. 

MAYW00D COLONY NURSERY, 

CORNING, CAL. 

W. HERBERT SAMSON, Prop. 



GUM TREES 

IN VARIETY, 

including RUDIS. ROSTRATA, VIMINALIS. 

MONTEREY CYPRESS, 
MONTEREY PINES, 

f\ 1 1 Transplanted In Boxes. 

Write for prices, stating quantity wanted. 
W. A. T. STRATTON PET ALUM A, CAL. 

Land for Sale and to Rent* 



G 





Glenn County, 



J 



California. 



FOR SALE 

IN SUBDIVISIONS. 



This famous and well-known farm, the home of 
the late Dr. Glenn, "the wheat king," has been sur- 
veyed and subdivided. It is offered for sale In any 
sized government subdivision at Iremarkably low 
prices, and in no case, it is believed, exceeding 
what it is assessed for county and State taxation 
purposes. 

This great ranch runs up and down the west bank 
of the Sacramento river for 15 miles. It is located 
in a region that has never lacked an ample rainfall, 
and no irrigation is required. 

The river is navigable at all seasons of the year, 
and freight and trading boats make regular rips 

The closest personal inspection of the land by 
proposed purchasers is invited. Parties desiring 
to look at the land should go to Willows, Califor- 
nia, and inquire for P. O. Eibe. 

For further particulars and for maps, showing 
the subdiv ; sions and prices per acre, address per 
Bonally or by letter, 

F\ C. LUSK, 

Agent of N. D. Rideout, Administrator oi the Estate 
of H. J. Glenn, at Chico, Butte County, California 



50 Acres, all in Apples; 

Over 8000 Boxes Crop of 1905. 

Apple house, stable and blacksmith shop. All 
choice shipping fruit and commands highest price. 
Easy terms or will sell part cash and long time on 
balance, or will exchange for city property 

Call or address 

I. J. TRUHAN, 

CALL BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO. 



IS YOUR RANCH FOR SALE? ™ l n h t8 °? n r 

Los Angeles and the East, we know we can sell it 
if the price is right. No charge unless we make a 
sale. Write us about it to-day. PHILLIPS & 
CULVER, 22 Sutter St., San Francisco, Cal. 

CflR QAI C GOOD RANCH AT A BARGAIN, 
run OHLl i6o acres near lied Bluff, Cal. 
Price $2500 For further particulars address 
I. R. D. GRUBB, Real Estate, 825 Mills Building, 
San Francisco. 



ALFALFA LANDS, Orchards, Vineyards, Stock 
ranches. Agents the famous Grldley Colony. 
Fertile land. Plenty of water. Printed matter free. 
CHAS. F. O'BRIEN & CO., 30 Montgomery St., S. F. 



WE sell country lands. CHATFIELD& VINZENT, 
228 Montgomery street, San Francisco, Cal. 



32 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 13, 1906. 



SUCCESS 

MANURE SPREAD E R 




CUT OF SUCCESS SPREADER with left hand rear wheel removed, showing gear- 
drive for running apron. Drum is driven by a steel pinned chain on right hand 
side. These are features peculiar to the Success alone and add greatly to its long 
life and light draft. 

THE TIME IS NOT FAR OFF WHEN A MANURE SPREADER WILL BE A 
NECESSITY to every ranch in California. 

SEND FOR SPECIAL CATALOGUE ON FERTILIZERS. 




R&V 

GASOLENE 



-ATND 



GAS 
DISTILLATE 

ENGINES 

Pet/Me Motors 
for A //Purposes 
tY/tere Power 
/s Required 



WE CARRY BOTH VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL TYPE 
IN STOCK in sizes from 1 to 26 horse power. Estimates 
given on complete pumping outfits. 



DEALERS WANTING A PROFITABLE AGENCY should 
look into this line. 



DEERE IMPLEMENT CO., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



DEERE IMPLEMENT CO.. SAN FRANCISCO 




EE 



WITH OR WITHOUT 

PUMPING ATTACHMENT 

Is a money saving and con- 
venient machine for a FARM, 
ORCHARD or STOCK 
RANCH. 

The outfit is strong, easy to 
operate, economical and re- 
liable. 

Pump can be disconnected 
and power used for other pur- 
poses. 

The cut shows 2i h. p. plant 
weighing H0O pounds. Speed 
:'i20 revolutions per minute. 
Ground space 30x58 inches. 

Illustrated "Regal" Cata- 
logue with full particulars will 
be mailed free. 

AUSTIN J RIX, 

396 M'stion St.. San Francisco. 




Send for free book and prices. 

R. A.HO1COMBE&C0. 

Dealers, 
124 CALIFORNIA SIREET, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 




WELL DRILLING 
MACHINERY. 



Portable and drill any 
depth by steam or horse 
power 48 Different 

Styles. We challenge com- 
petition. Send for Free Il- 
lustrated Catalog No. 27. 

KELLY & TANEYHILL CO . 27 Chestnut St . Waterloo, la. 



Telephone Main 199. 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne * Dealers in Paper. 

Nos. 55-57 -59-61 First St., San Frunclsoo, Cal. 

ItLAKK. MOfFITT & TOWNE Los An (teles 

ULAKE. &K.FALLA CO Portland. Or 



THIS IS \A/H/\X YOU NEED. 



SINGLE TRACE HARNESS ATTACHMENT. 

For Vineyard, Orchard, 
Nursery and Hop Fields, 

Both Single and Double Work. 

Light, Durable, Economical, 
Satisfactory. 
Price, $30. 





(Patented 



12, 1905.) 



Full particulars furnished 
by the Inventor and manufac- 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, 

LODI. CAL. 

Reliable Agents Wanted. 



& 



Co. 



Works: 



100 WILLIAM STREET, NEW YORK. 
PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 



C\f A XII FlF? guaranteed 98-99% for generating 
W I 1 U Cr HYDROCYANIC ACID GAS. 

The only positive eradicator of the SAN JOSE SCALE, 

RED AND BLACK SCALE and other insect pests. 

■ FOR SALE BY 

THE F. W. BRAUN COMPANY, - Los Angeles and San Francisco. 
MESSRS. HAAS, BARUCH & CO. - Los Angeles and San Francisco. 



and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN 





Vol. LXXI. No. 3. 


San Francisco, Saturday, January 20, 1906. 


THIRTY-FIFTH TEAR. 
OFFICE: 330 MARKET ST, 



In the Southern Orange Belt. 



Written for the Pacific Rural Press by Mr. Wm. M. 
Bristol of East Highlands. 

It has been said that California is as spotted 
as a coach-dog. The simile was first used, 
doubtless, in connection with the striking 
diversity of soil, but it is equally applicable 
to the variegated climate. Roughly speak- 
ing, the spots may be said to represent the 
innumerable valleys which form the great 
State, while the intervening spaces stand 
for the eternal hills and mountains which 
divide them. 

To a person accustomed to the uniform 
conditions existing over great stretches of 
the middle West, the sharp definitions of 
the California orange-growing districts are 
interesting and peculiar, and even within 
the districts where oranges will grow, the 
lines must again be drawn around the areas 
where they can be grown with profit, until 
on a map of the United States these spots 
would appear as a small constellation of 
minute pencil dots. 

The accompanying illustration shows one 
of these little patches. East Highlands, in 
San Bernardino county, is an irregular tri- 
angle about one and a half by three? miles in 
extent and contains about 1500 acres. 
Ninety-eight per cent of this is planted to 
citrus fruits, of which more than three- 
fourths are Navel oranges, the remainder 
being an assortment of varieties and lemons. 
From these figures it may be inferred that 
this is one {of the spots particularly adapted to the 
Navel orange — and so it is. A peculiarly favorable 
combination of conditions exists. The high mesa of 
reddish gravelly loam slopes to the south and is pro- 
tected on the north by the San Bernardino mountains, 
Mt. Harrison being its immediate guardian. The 




The East Highlands Citrus District in San Bernardino County, California. 



Pacific is 50 miles away, but there is no intervening 
range to break or divert the sea breeze, which rolls 
in every day through the summer, shorn of its surplus 
moisture because of the distance it has traveled. 
With the going down of the sun the direction of the 
air currents is reversed and the pure, dry atmos- 




How Fruit Cans Are Filled With Syrup at the Flickinger Cannery, San Jose. 



phere of the mountains and desert, flowing down 
through the groves during the night, prevents the 
ingress of the ocean fogs and dampness, so conducive 
to scale and other pests. So far the district has had 
no occasion to spray or fumigate, and the coal basket 
and oil pot for frost protection are equally unfa- 
miliar. The elevation of the orchards 
shown ranges from 1,300 feet at the 
viewpoint to 1,700 feet in the back- 
ground, the mountain being 4,700 and 
the main range beyond it 6,000. It 
should be remarked, however, that 
freedom from damaging frosts is not 
dependent upon altitude above sea level, 
but rather upon relative local eleva- 
tion. Half a mile below the viewpoint 
no attempt is made to grow oranges — 
and this abrupt and inflexible limita- 
tion exists in all citrus-growing dis- 
tricts. This is but another way of 
saying that the area in California where 
all conditions are favorable for orange 
growing is limited; in fact, if all such 
lmd were now planted and all existing 
orchards in unfavorable localities were 
pulled out, the acreage would not be 
materially greater than at present. 
Within the past two years a large per- 
centage of the orange trees planted 
have been the Valencia Late — a variety 
which goes to market throughout all 
that part of the year when the Navel 
does not. Taking account of the Navel 
trees which have been budded over to 
Valencias, it is safe to say that the 
Navel acreage is not much greater 
than two years ago. Considering the 
popularity of the California orange and 
the constantly widening market, there 
does not seem to be any imminent dan- 
ger of overproduction. 



34 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 20, 1906. 



Pacific Rural Press. 



Fubllihed Everj Saturday at 330 Market Street, 
San Franclgco, Cal 



TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE. 

Advertising rates made known on application. 



Entered at S. F PostofHce as second-class mail matter. 



DEWEY PUBLISHING CO Publith.r. 



E J. WICKSON Horticultural Editor 



SAN FRANCISCO, JANUARY 20, 1906. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS.— The East Highlands Citrus District in San 
Bernardino County, California: How Fruit Cans Are Filled With 
Syrup at the Flickinger Cannery. San Jose. 33. 

EDITORIAL. — In the Southern Orange Belt. 33. The Week. 34 

QUERIES AND REPLIES— Alfalfa Meal — Alfalfa Varieties: 
Treatment for Alfalfa: Buckwheat and Flax: The Use of Bones- 
Potash for Prunes. 34. Shall Peas Follow Beans I Pruning Cher- 
ries: Nitro-Cultures Again: Asiatic Alfalfas: Cottony Cushion 
Scale: Trees for Hillside: Needs in Alfalfa Seed. 35. 

WEATHER AND CROPS. — Report of the U. S. Weather Service 
for Week Ending January 16. 1906: Rainfall and Temperature. 35. 

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE.— The Industrial Use of the Imagina- 
tion, 36. 

THE VINEYARD -The Needs of California Viticulture, 36. 
THE FIELD.— Rotation of Crops. 37. 

THE IRRIGATOR.— Teachings of Experience in Irrigation, 38. 
AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. — 39. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— When Johnny Spends the Day: The Story 
of the Violin, «0. Hints to Housekeepers, 41. 

THE MARKETS.— Produce Market: Fruit Markets. 42-43. 

FORESTRY.— Grazing Pees on Reserves Upheld, 44. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— From the State Lecturer. 46. Tu- 
lare Grange Meeting. 47. 



The Week. 

The glorious rain: so soft and warm and wet, and 
such an amount of it ! The coming of such generous 
downpours when people had almost nerved them- 
selves to be reconciled to the worst, has exhausted 
the stock of appreciative adjectives in California, 
and people find adequate expression beyond the 
reach of words. The only recourse, in the absence 
of fitting speech, seems to be to do things, and peo- 
ple are doing things which they almost despaired of 
this year. They can scarcely wait for the surface 
water to disappear. Even the mud seems delightful 
to work in. Those who can refrain from such relief 
are buying things to use as soon as the soil welcomes, 
and the rush for seed, plants, trees, tools and general 
supplies is noticeable in all markets, from the hamlet 
to the metropolis. The whole agricultural organism 
seems to be endangered by enlargement of the heart, 
so expansive are the emotions of satisfaction and 
confidence. There have indeed been a number of 
years in which a late beginning of rains has been fol- 
lowed by a very satisfactory season's aggregate, and 
in which production has reached very high figures. 
There is every reason to expect such an outcome 
this year, for the storms succeed each other with 
most business-like manner. As we go to press on 
Wednesday we are taking water from the third 
cyclonic entry to the coast within a week. Snow 
covers the mountains and reaches far out over the 
Nevada plains. Rains drench the foothills, and val- 
ley streams are swollen. The soil is fast filling to 
saturation. It will be a great year for all things 
which move by water-power, and that includes 
nearly all interests and nearly all people. It is not 
wonderful that the State is glad and active. 

Speaking of water power, it is interesting to note 
that Uncle Sam is doing something in that line on his 
own account. The General Government is going for- 
ward with the completion of the first national irriga- 
tion project in Nevada, preparing to make moist and 
productive a large area of arid land with the water 
of the Truckee river. Private parties who feel them- 
selves aggrieved have so beset the contractors with 
injunctions that their work seemed doubtful of issue. 
As this became apparent, Uncle Sam annulled the 
contract, paying the contractor for his expenses and 
machinery, and will carry on the work on its own 
account, as an injunction cannot be obtained against 
the United States. No doubt those aggrieved can 
have their claims tested in the courts, but they can- 
not try their case by injunction. No individual can 
stop the people. One can get some measurement of 
the importance of this governmental fact from some 
figures recently given before the National Geograph- 



ical Society by C. J. Blanchard. of the Geological 
Survey. He declared that 77 miles of main canal of 
river size have been built during the three years in 
which the United States reclamation service has been 
organized, and that irrigation canals long enough to 
span the earth twice and representing an outlay of 
$90,000,000 had been built during the past quarter 
century. " Every year," he said, " this area returns 
a harvest valued at $150,000,000, and 2,000,000 peo- 
ple dwell in harmony and contentment where only a 
short time ago the wilderness reigned." These are 
other statements by Mr. Blanchard: 

"The reclamation service has built 54 miles of irri- 
gation canals and 186 miles of ditches. It has con- 
structed and has in operation 150 miles of telephone. 
125 miles of road in canyons, involving deep cuts; it 
has excavated 10,000,000 cu. yd. of material and one- 
half mile of tunnels. Work is now actually going on 
in 11 different projects. The reclamation service 
has laid 70,000 cu. vd. of concrete, 12,000 cu. yd. of 
riprap, 19,000 sq. ft. of paving, 150,000 lin. ft. of 
sheet piling, and has driven 10,000 ft. of bearing 
piles. It has purchased 150,000 lb. of railroad iron, 
250,000 lb. of structural steel, 600,0001b. of cast iron, 
75,000 bbl. of cement, and 1,750,000 ft. of lumber. 
The sawmills operated bv the reclamation service 
cut 2,800,000 ft. of lumber." 

And yet this work is only beginning. It is a force 
in west American development which will keep us 
abreast of the new era for Pacific countries. 



Our representatives in Washington have been 
incited, by the questions of their constituents, no 
doubt, to ascertain the share of California in this 
great gov?rnmental effort for development, and 
Senator Perkins came to the front with a letter to 
the Director of the Geological Survey, complaining 
against the apparent discrimination against Cali- 
fornia in the allotment of reclamation funds, and 
Director Walcott of the Geological Survey has re- 
plied in part as follows: 

While on one hand the Yuma project is largely in 
Arizona and listed under head of California, the 
Klamath project is about one-half in California and is 
listed under the head of Oregon. On the passage of 
the Reclamation Act efforts were promptly made to 
find a project in California which would fulfil the con- 
ditions of the Act. and to this end surveys were made 
on Clear lake. Cache creek, Stoney creek. King 
river, Sacramento river, Eel river, Pitt river and 
several other points. On the Sacramento river and 
at other places in California large ownerships of 
land, vested rights to water and lack of apprecia- 
tion of the benefits of irrigation were so great that 
consideration of these were abandoned for the time. 
Since the adoption of the Yuma project more liberal 
offers have been made by the landowners under Clear 
lake than they were willing to consider a year earlier, 
and it is possible that a feasible project may yet 
develop in that vicinity and other sections of the 
Sacramento drainage basin. 

California is therefore in it in the projects on gov- 
ernment land and will enter also on private lands as 
far as the owners will co-operate. We seem to be 
getting what we deserve. 

Governor Pardee is showing his well-known pro- 
clivity for doing things, in the way he is laboring to 
rehabilitate the State Agricultural Society and make 
California State Fairs true to the name. He very 
wisely has said: "If the people can be convinced 
that the State Fair is to be made what it ought to 
be— really a State Fair — much good will be accom- 
plished. They will all be glad to help, and the press, 
this being done, will also be glad to help. Nobody 
really takes the State Fair seriously nowadays. But 
let it be shown that it is really desired to make it 
again a State Fair, and everybody will help push it 
forward." Governor Pardee also says: 

In a word, why should not the State Fair be made 
a State Fair? And how can it be done unless we 
have some man or some men who know how to do it? 
The Board of Directors cannot hope to do it, even 
were they all experts at this sort of thing, for they 
are, as they should be, busy men — men of affairs — 
who cannot, even if they knew how, devote them- 
selves to the actual work of procuring and installing 
exhibits for a State Fair. If this be true, why not 
do as we all do in our own business — procure the ser- 
vices of those who know how and can? 

That is certainly sound. The State Fair has been 
trifled with and its opportunities neglected. Spas- 
modic effort has been made to collect certain ex- 
hibits and to provide " attractions " to draw gate- 
money from the Sacramento people, but which had 
no relation to agriculture nor to any other develop- 
ing force in the State. The Governor is on the right 



track, and he is right as to what can be done; but 
he is also right that it will take a lot of work of the 
right kind to make the fair of wide value to the 
State and to afford the State a demonstration of the 
fact. All our organizations should support him in 
the work which he now proposes shall be done. 



QUERIES AND REPLIES. 



Alfalfa Meal — Alfalfa Varieties. 

To the Editor : Is there any difference in the food 
value of a ton of alfalfa hay and a ton of alfalfa meal 
for cows? If so, please explain why. I understand 
there are several varieties of alfalfa — some do better 
on one soil and some on another. I would like to 
know which is best to sow on upland soil, from five 
to eight feet deep, the land quite level, and no water 
within reach of alfalfa roots but what is held in the 
soil from year to year. The rainfall is from five to 
six feet, falling from September to June. — Reader, 
Humboldt county. 

There is no difference in the food value of the same 
sample of alfalfa hay ground and unground except 
that the ground material is in such finely divided 
form that the digestive juices can act upon it more 
easily and completely, and for this reason better 
results may be had in feeding it. This is the only 
virtue we know of in the grinding. As we have said 
before, the comparative values of alfalfa from differ- 
ent countries has not yet been fully determined. 
How well any alfalfa will do on the place you de- 
scribe will depend on the soil, climate and whether 
you can keep the gophers out of it. Upland rainfall 
alfalfa is not usually very long-lived, but your situation 
may be exceptional. The only way to rind out is to 
try it. 

Treatment for Alfalfa. 

To the Editor : I should like to get your idea of 
the spring treatment for an alfalfa field three years 
old in good condition, that is a good stand. I have 
been advised to disk it thoroughly, harrow and sow 
with oats or barley. The explanation is that either 
of these grains will give a better second crop, pre- 
venting the foxtails and other weeds from growing. 
How much seeii would I need for my 30 acres, 
which is at Lodi and under irrigation, and when 
would you advise starting the work. — Newcomer, 
Sacramento. 

You will have to get some other doctor to advise 
you about that treatment, which is too new for us. 
If we had a good stand of young alfalfa on a soil 
which best suits alfalfa, viz: one which does not crust 
badly with winter rains, we would not worry it with 
farm tools nor with grain seeding. We should be so 
giad with what we had that we would not take the 
risk of injuring it by such treatment. An old stand 
of alfalfa, especially if scanty, would be improved 
with the disking and by putting on more alfalfa seed. 
But, as we have admitted, the method described by 
our correspondent is new to us. Who can com- 
mend it? 

Buckwheat and Flax. 

To the Editor: Can you offer any suggestions in 
the matter of raising flax for the seed, and what ? 
I notice no attempt anywhere in the State to do any- 
thing with either it or buckwheat. Has either of 
them been grown profitably under irrigation under 
soil conditions similar to ours here, a slightly adobe 
soil ? — Farmer, Esparto. 

There is very little buckwheat grown in California, 
nor is there any particular inducement to grow much, 
as the local demand is very small. Buckwheat can 
only be grown during the frostless season and it re- 
quires moist land and the small product which is now 
made is grown in the river bottom. Flax is grown 
to some extent for the seed crop on the plains in the 
Sacramento valley in Solano county and the crop is 
handled very much as barley is. The difficulty with 
flax-growing for seed is that our oil-makers can 
often buy supplies at a lower price than the Cali- 
fornia grower can afford to produce it for. Flax- 
growing for the fiber is still in an experimental 
stage, and the individual who can give you most in- 
formation is Dr. J. K. Toles, Stockton, Cal. 

The Use of Bones — Potash for Prunes. 

To the Editor: How do you apply sulphuric acid 
to bones in dissolving them and preparing them 
foj* fertilizing purposes ? How is bone phosphate 
produced? I have several tons of bones that I 
wish to grind and apply as a fertilizer. What 
effect has the acid on them? I wish to use this 



January 20, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



35 



method in order to secure my phosphoric acid in 
order to stimulate young vines, as, while I am aware 
we have phylloxera, I think that our vines are starv- 
ing and injured as much by constant cropping with- 
out fertilizing as by the phylloxera. Do you think 
potash would assist in making less shrinkage in 
prunes through lack of sugar if the trees were occa- 
sionally fed potash — say, 200 lb. per acre — or what 
amount would you suggest and where could I secure 
the best for this purpose? Would not constantly 
cropping grapes (heavy crop) in time destroy vines? 
— Vine Grower, Sonoma county. 

It is very doubtful whether you can make super- 
phosphate from the bones which you have accumu- 
lated without too great cost, as sulphuric acid can be 
used only on bones in properly prepared tanks, 
which are too expensive for the small amount of bones 
which you mention. Besides this, sulphuric acid is a 
very dangerous material, which only experienced 
people should undertake to use. The following are 
some suggestions prepared by Prof. Hilgard as sug- 
gestive of ways in which bones can be used to 
advantage on the farm: 

1. Bones put into a well-kept (moistened) manure 
pile will themselves gradually decay and disappear, 
enriching the manure to that extent. 

2. Raw bones may be bodily buried in the soil 
around the trees; if placed at a sufficient depth, be- 
yond the reach of the summer's heat and drouth and 
cultivating tools, the rootlets will cluster around 
each piece and in the course of a few years consume 
it entirely. 

3. Bones may be packed in moist wood ashes, best 
mixed with a little quicklime, the mass kept moist 
but never dripping. In a few months the hardest 
bones will be reduced to a fine mush, which is as 
effectual as superphosphate. Concentrated lye and 
soil may be used instead of ashes. In this process 
the nitrogen of the bones is lost, going off in the form 
of ammonia, the odor of which is very perceptible in 
the tank used. 

For neither of these processes should the bones be 
burned. The burning of bones is an unqualified detri- 
ment to their effectiveness, which can only be undone 
by the use of sulphuric acid. 

4. Bones steamed for three or four hours in a boiler 
under a pressure of 35 to 50 lb., can, after drying, be 
readily crushed in an ordinary barley-crushing mill, 
and thus be rendered more convenient for use. Prac- 
tically, very little of the nitrogen (glue) of the bones 
need be thus lost. 

It certainly is desirable to stimulate the growth of 
young vines when the soil becomes less productive, 
and, although fertilization is a cure for phylloxera, 
there are cases in which the vine can be longer main- 
tained in production by recourse to fertilization. 

It is held that potash does in some cases produce a 
desirable effect on prunes in the way you indicate, 
and the easiest way for you to try it would be to 
apply wood ashes to a number of trees (as you are in 
a wooded district) and watch their fruit as compared 
with other trees of the same kind to which you do not 
apply the ashes. This will give you an opportunity 
to form practical judgment as to the value of potash 
and to decide whether you would be warranted in the 
purchase of commercial fertilizers, which you have in 
view. You can safely apply wood ashes at the rate 
of two bushels to a tree, scattering it evenly over 
the surface and plowing it in at the winter plowing. 
Commercial potash in the form of sulphate or muriate 
can be applied at the rate of about 200 lb. to the 
acre, scattering it evenly over the surface and plow- 
ing in. You can purchase commercial potash for 
fertilizing purposes from dealers advertising in our 
columns. 

Shall Peas Follow Beans? 

To the Editor: Kindly inform me of the best time 
to plant the common field pea for green manuring in 
the Lompoc valley on land from which a bean crop 
has been harvested. — Owner, San Jose. 

The field pea for green manuring should be started 
as soon as possible. It would have been better to 
have planted it a month or two ago, but probably this 
year little would have been accomplished because of 
the drouth. We would get them in now so as to 
secure as much growth as possible for plowing under 
while there is still plenty of moisture remaining in 
the spring. But why do you wish to grow peas for 
green manuring after a bean crop ? The beans 
themselves have probably done all that a legume can 
do in the way of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, and the 
decay of the bean roots is in itself a large contribu- 
tion toward the humus in the soil. It is common to 
use green manuring plants for the relief of soil which 
has been cropped with grains or potatoes, or fruit 
trees, or any other plant which is not of a leguminous 



character. However, the experiment will be an 
exceedingly interesting one, to see whether green 
manuring with peas, following a crop of beans, will 
be of any particular value. 

Pruning Cherries. 

To the Editor: I have a small orchard of the 
Bigarreau varieties of cherries, planted last spring 
from one-year-old stock. They have made a very 
satisfactory growth, and I would like information in 
regard to proper pruning. Most of them are on a 
sidehill, and I would prefer to train them (if advis- 
able) to a wide-spreading form rather than to have 
them grow so tall. Will they stand pruning about 
the same as other deciduous fruit trees? Any infor- 
mation you can give will be appreciated. — Sub- 
scriber, Santa Cruz. 

Certainly; the cherry tree is one of the easiest 
trees to get into a low-headed, vase form. Cut back 
summer's growth to 10 or 12 in. from the starting 
place of each shoot — always leaving the top bud on 
the outside when you wish to spread the tree. 

Nitro-Cultures Again. 

To the Editor: Will you kindly tell me through 
your columns of the Pacific Rural Press if 'nitro- 
culture' is successfully and extensively used for beans? 
Is the plan of dissolving the stuff and sprinkling it on 
the beans before planting the correct way of using 
it? Would the application of nitrate of soda to the 
soil, in addition to the nitro-culture, be profitable. — 
Subscriber, Escondido. 

As we have said before, this matter is still in the 
experimental stage and enquirers must not expect 
conclusive answers. The whole matter was started 
with a boom and it will take some time to demon- 
strate what can be accomplished with it. At present 
there are some favorable reports and some which in- 
dicate no advantage. If you are interested try it for 
yourself on a small scale. You can get the cultures 
and directions as to use from the larger dealers in 
seeds and garden supplies. 

Asiatic Alfalfas. 

To the Editor: What is the difference between 
the Arabian alfalfa and the Turkestan alfalfa that 
was introduced by the Agricultural Department some 
years ago? We wish to send for some of the Arabian 
alfalfa for a trial in our high, arid land. — Rancher, 
Mono Lake. 

The particular differences of the various kinds of 
alfalfa which are now being introduced from Asia are 
not yet made out. We only know that they have 
been grown for generations in the districts from 
which the seed has been obtained and presumably 
some variations and adaptations to different climates 
have been acquired. What these are can only be 
told by local experiment and it certainly would be 
advisable for you to try both the Arabian and the 
Turkestan to determine their comparative suitability 
for your conditions. 

Cottony Cushion Scale. 

To the Editor : Kindly inform me as to what the 
enclosed sample of parasite is called, and what to do 
to get rid of it? — Subscriber, Petaluma. 

You have the cottony cushion scale on your orange 
trees and for an insect to destroy it you can apply 
to Mr. E. M. Ehrhorn, Deputy Horticultural Com- 
missioner, Ferry Building, San Francisco. 

Trees for Hillside. 

To the Editor: I have a hillside facing south, 
which is more or less overgrown with liveoaks, holly, 
etc., and an occasional madrone. Most of the trees 
are small (six to ten inches). I am thinning out the 
trees for stovewood, and want to put back other 
trees, which will be suitable, and which are orna- 
mental and useful, which will grow moderately fast. 
I want a selection which will include shade, fuel, fruit, 
nuts, and beauty. — Reader, Sonoma county. 

You can get quickest results in fuel by putting in 
eucalypts of several kinds; more beauty, perhaps, 
by using maples and elms, nuts by using California 
black walnuts if you like them. We doubt if it would 
be worth while to try improved varieties of nuts un- 
less you give them something better than wild treat- 
ment. 

Weeds in Alfalfa Seed. 

To the Editor: I enclose in separate envelope 
some alfalfa seed which seems to be mixed with some 
foreign seed. Will you please tell me what it is Mid 
if it would harm the alfalfa crop? — Farmer, Fresno. 

Miss Alice F. Crane, seed tester and examiner, 



kindly makes an examination of the sample, which 
was about one- third of a teacupful in amount, and 
reports finding six seeds of dodder, the parasite vine 
which is so obnoxious in clover and alfalfa fields. 
These seeds are so nearly the size of alfalfa seed that 
they cannot be cleaned out. There were also six 
seeds of sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella), and about 
300 seeds of tumble weed (Amaranthus albus), which 
seeds may be sifted out. Amaranthus albus is not 
considered a particularly harmful weed by farmers, 
but such seeds are certainly very undesirable is such 
large quantities. Miss Crane's address is 314 Cherry 
St., San Francisco, and we must advise our readers 
to secure her services as it is impossible for us to 
undertake such determinations in these columns. 



WEATHER AND CROPS. 



Report of the U. S. Weather Service for Week 
Ending January 16, 1906. 

Alexander McAdie, Forecast Official and Section Director. 



Sacramento Valley. 

The weather was warmer than during the preceding 
week and rain fell every day. Heavy rains in the 
mountain districts toward the close of the week caused 
a rapid rising of the American and Sacramento rivers, 
but no danger of overflow is probable unless heavy, 
warm rains continue. The warmer weather and gener- 
ous rains have come most opportunely and materially 
changed the prospects for crops of all kinds. The soil is 
well saturated and grain and grass will now make good 
growth. Plowing and seeding have been resumed and 
reports state that a large acreage of wheat, barley and 
oats will be planted. Stock are in poor condition, but 
green feed will soon be plentiful if warm weather con- 
tinues. Orchards and vineyards are in excellent con- 
dition. 

Coast and Bay Sections. 

Warm, cloudy and rainy weather prevailed during the 
week, with high southerly winds Friday and Saturday. 
The rain was very beneficial to grain and grass and the 
soil is now in good condition for cultivation. Plowing 
and seeding have been resumed and it is probable the 
grain acreage will be about average. Orchards and 
vineyards were greatly benefited by the rain and are in 
splendid condition. In some sections grain and grass 
had made a fair start, and with warm weather following 
the rain will soon make good growth. Feed is still 
scarce in most places and cattle are in poor condition, 
but there will be rapid improvement if warm weather 
continues. The high winds caused no material damage. 

San Joaquin Valley. 

Clear and cool weather prevailed the first part of the 
week and cloudy and warm with generous rains the 
latter portion. The rainfall averaged from an inch to 
two and one-half inches over the valley, and being 
accompanied by warm, growing weather will prove very 
beneficial to grass and grain. Plowing and seeding are 
progressing as rapidly as the condition of the ground 
and weather will permit. Orchard and vineyard prun- 
ing is in progress. A large acreage of vines will be 
planted. Packing houses are running to their full 
capacity seeding and packing- raisins. Green feed is 
scarce and stock are thin but healthy. 

Southern California. 

Cool and frosty weather prevailed at the beginning of 
the week and some damage was done by frost to celery 
and other tender vegetation. Warmer weather with 
rain prevailed at the close of the week. At Upland the 
seasonal rainfall is 5.43 inches, or 0.83 inch greater than 
at the same date last year. The warm rains will be of 
great value to grass, early grain and orchards. Grain 
and grass are making good growth and the outlook for 
large crops was never better. Plowing and seeding con- 
tinue. Green feed is quite plentiful and stock are doing 
well. Orange harvest is progressing. It is reported 
that citrus fruits have not been seriously damaged by 
frost. 



Los Angeles Summary.— Cool, dry weather fol- 
lowed the latter part of the week by a general rain 
storm, which continues, improving farming and cattle 
interests which had begun to feel the drought. Farm- 
ing operations will now become active. 



Rainfall and Temperature. 



The following data for the week ending 6 A. M. Wednes- 
day, January 17, 1906, are from official sources and are 
furnished by the United States Weather Bureau for the 
Pacific Rural Press : 



CALIFORNIA 
STATIONS. 


Total Rainfall for the 


Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 


Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall Last Year to 
Same Date 


Average Seasonal 
Rainfall to Date. . . 


Maximum Tempera- 
ture for the week. . 


Minimum Tempera- 
ture for the week . . 








18.38 


21.52 


56 




Red Bluff 


3.60 


8 31. 


17 35 


13.37 


38 
38 




4.58 


6.42 


10.57 


9.39 


58 




2 48 


5 50 


11.41 


11.03 


58 


45 


San Jose 


1.69 


5.08 


8 57 




64 


44 




1.15 


2.78 


6.43 


4 17 


64 


40 




1.82 


2.50 


.68 


1 81 


70 


24 
40 


San Luis Obispo 


2 23 


4 55 


7.17 


9 15 


66 
70 




T62 


4 88 


5.11 


6.66 


44 




.25 


4 92 


4.73 


3 94 


62 


44 




.00 


3 45 


1.87 


1.89 


74 


38 



36 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 20, 1906. 



AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. 



The Industrial Use of the Imagination. 



By E. J. Wk'Kkon, Dean of the College of Agriculture of the ITniver- 
s'ty of California, at the joint meeting of the California Teach- 
ers' Association and the State Farmers' Institute in Berkeley. 

Those of my hearers who are old enough to be wise, 
will recognize my subject as a graft. Thirty-five 
years ago John Tyndall had the task of preparing a 
discourse for the British Association, and to escape 
distractions, made a journey to the Swiss Alps, tak- 
ing with him, as he says, " two volumes of poetry" — 
Ga'the's ' Farbenlehre ' and Bain's 'Logic' One 
of his critics afterward said he failed to see the wit 
in calling those books two volumes of poetry. To 
him Mr. Tyndall simply replied: "Nor do I." For 
Tyndall was deeper than his critic thought; he was 
not indulging in pleasantry, he had a deep purpose, 
and he even went so far as to select his books for 
dramatic effect. He wished to forcibly suggest that 
creative work in poetry and in reasoning called into 
action the same power of the mind, and he could then 
proceed to show that creative work in natural science 
proceeded from the same source, and he chose as his 
subject: "The Scientific Use of the Imagination." 
The idea was not new, but the times seemed to de- 
mand its enforcement, and Tyndall proceeded to meet 
this requirement by recourse to the true scientific 
method, that is, to illustrate by a few simple instances 
the use that scientific men have already made of this 
power of the imagination and to indicate afterward 
some of the further uses they are likely to make of 
it. And this he succeeds in doing in a way more 
effective with the people to whom he desired to ap- 
peal than any philosophic argument could have been. 

it was particularly necessary just at that time that 
this should be done. The wave of popular interest in 
the achievements of natural science was running high. 
Books and magazines were laden with discoveries, 
and lecture platforms were ablaze with demonstra- 
tions in chemistry and physics. The people were 
getting the idea that all they needed to do was to 
equip themselves sufficiently with instruments of 
glass and brass to lay bare all the secrets of the uni- 
verse — they were even prone to think that they could 
1 find out God ' by this line of searching. It was time 
to show them, thought Tyndall, that such hopes were 
vain. The god in a machine was a graven image, 
and more than that, even simple instances of scien- 
tific achievement were the products of the creative 
power of the human mind, for without this power to 
discern the relation of things, the investigators are 
like those who, having eyes, see not, even though 
possessed of the most powerful batteries of brass 
and glass. 

I have invoked this powerful work of Tyndall, 
which accomplished so much a third of a century 
ago toward a better understanding of the relation of 
scientific research to other great undertakings of 
mankind, because it seems to me our present strong 
impulses toward industrial achievements may lead 
some to think that here, at least, we have something 
quite different, intellectually, from other human 
efforts and that proper preparation for it consists in 
securing an entirely new outfit of methods, agencies 
and principles. 

The Agricultural Use of tue Imagination.— 
But here I perceive that the subject which I chose 
for this writing is too comprehensive. The ' indus- 
trial use of the imagination ' is beyond my power of 
illustration. In grafting it is possible to cut too 
long a scion even for a strong stock. To guard 
against this danger I shall cut a short one and con- 
fine my effort to a few suggestions on the 1 agricultu- 
ral use of the imagination ' and endeavor to render 
them somewhat concrete by discussing the signifi- 
cance of forms in animals and plants. There is, of 
course, the prime significance of forms in the theo- 
ries of evolution, mutation, etc., but that belongs 
to science, and if Darwin had written on Tyndall's 
theme, they would have displaced Tyndall's ' simple 
instances ' which were naturally drawn from physics. 
The scientific aspect of forms is quite different from 
the agricultural aspect; let us, therefore, consider 
briefly a few of the more obvious manifestations of 
forms in agricultural practices and products and 
ask: 

1. What they teach us of themselves. 

2. What they teach us of ourselves. 

What do we mean by ' form ' iu this discussion ? 
An agricultural form is an improved form. The 
very word agriculture implies that; not improved 
form in a moral sense; not 'in good form' as ap- 
proved by a society leader; not 'in good form' as 
depicted in the advertisements of popular tonics — 
but improved form in an agricultural sense. But an 
improved form of what ? Manifestly of everything 
on the farm except the farmer and his bank account 
— these improvements belong to the preacher and 
the economist. Let me suggest a few striking in- 
stances of improvement. 

First: Improved Implements. — Contrast the mod- 
ern riding gang plow and the forked stick of ancient 
agriculture and surviving still in benighted regions. 
Or compare the California traction engines, pulling 



plows enough to turn a 40-ft. width of land with the 
single furrow plow which lacked rational adaptation 
to its work, even as late as Jefferson's time. Or 
think of the flail, which, perhaps, some of my older 
hearers remember swinging, with the California com- 
bined harvester, steam propelled and riding the 
plains of the San Joaquin, automobile as a battle- 
ship, which its fuming chimneys and castellated 
structure cause it to resemble. 

Second: Improved Animals. — Compare the lordly 
Shorthorn and other cattle bred for beef, every use- 
ful part expanded to fullness and every useless part 
repressed, with the sway-back, cat-hammed, long- 
legged bos u/na which Julius Caesar hunted in Gaul. 
Compare, also, the deep, capacious dairy breeds with 
the wretched, unprofitable scrubs which still remain 
to emphasize the quality of their betters. Remem- 
ber, also, the thoroughbred racer and the draught- 
horse; the greyhound and the mastiff; the game 
fowl and the Light Brahma, grand instances of agri- 
cultural form as adapted to various powers and 
uses. 

Third: Lmproved Plants. — Study the uniformity 
of California orchard trees, capable of a maximum 
of product with east cost of production. Learn 
the economic importance of the spherical peach, the 
seedless orange, the special types of grapes for va- 
rious uses. Compare the grand, many times double 
rose with the scant but graceful eglantine. Remem- 
ber the flavors, odors and colors developed in the 
improved fruits, the food value of grains, the durable 
beauty of flowers. 

All these are but few of the wonderful array of 
improved forms which agriculture has achieved for 
its own purposes from earlier and ruder types, and 
still all are probably but approximations of the at- 
tainment of generations yet to come. They are, 
however, exponents of our agricultural progress; 
they are the embodiment of the deepest thought and 
the most determined effort of the larger part of the 
human race during all the courses of history. 

The Agricultural Points of View. — Whence 
came all these strange forms — these products of ad- 
vancing civilization ? They do not belong to the nat- 
ural; the so-called 'lover of nature ' calls them mon- 
sters. No poet will sing of them except the one who 
sings of the prize cow at 25c. per line. No artist 
will paint them except the specially trained ' live- 
stock artist ' whose work has little standing in the 
studios or galleries. But these improved forms of 
the agriculturist are not unnatural except that they 
are wide departures from wild types. They are, in 
fact, strictly natural in that they have been attained 
through natural laws directed by human intelligence 
toward ideals which are the acmes of specific desira- 
bilities. These achievements are deeply respected 
by science, and some of the most forceful arguments 
in support of evolution have been based upon the 
work of the stock-breeder and horticulturist. The 
man of science appears, then, as the champion of an 
agricultural achievement as distinct from the scien- 
tific or the esthetic, and yet of the same kind : dif- 
ferent in methods and purposes but similar in origin 
and functions. For thousands of years the bucolic 
poets have flattered the agriculturist, and the ora- 
tors have patronized him, but it was reserved for 
the men of modern science to appreciate his work 
and to honor his achievements as striking manifesta- 
tions of the power of the human mind. 

Now to what quality of mind are these achieve- 
ments to be attributed. Tyndall in his essay avoided 
definitions, and he could afford to, because of his 
power in describing his 1 few simple instances.' This 
graft of mine upon Tyndall is of weaker growth and 
means tying up a little with definitions. Possibly, 
also, the traditional place of agriculture in the public 
mind is so different from that of full panoplied science, 
that its relation to the higher mental functions may 
excuse a faint attempt at analysis. The poem, the 
music, the painting, the sculpture, are products of 
the human mind. The industrially magnificent horse, 
or ox, or sheep, or swine, are also products of the 
human mind. All of them result from the exer- 
cise of the same mental activities and functions. We 
will not quarrel about differences in degrees; points 
of view are so different that degrees are not easily 
determined. The contention is that the old idea that 
there was a 'divine afflatus ' in the poet not vouch- 
safed to other high human workers, is wrong. The 
quick perception, the deep insight, the full sympathy 
are the same in kind with all of them. It has always 
been wrong to attribute to the man who develops 
plants or animals only the possession of ' shrewd sa- 
gacity,' as though it were something akin to instinct 
in the lower animals. There is only one mind in man, 
as there is only one heat in the universe. The heat 
in the roaring furnaces of the blazing sun is the 
same which burns in the arteries of the angry man, or 
which boils the kettle in the cottage. It is the same 
mind in man which constructs an epic poem, releases 
an imprisoned angel from a block of marble, plans a 
battle or frames a constitution for a free people. It 
is the same mind, also, which molds a splendid domes- 
tic animal, with perfectly adapted form and placid 
disposition, from the gaunt and liery wildling of na- 
ture's make. 

Imagination. — What, then, is this faculty of the 
mind so potent in all the higher achievements of man- 



kind ? It is the imagination which the philosophers 

characterize as follows : 

Imagination— The reproductive power considered as producing 
ideal objects under the Intentional guidance of an abstract synthetic 

judgment. 

Distinguished from phantasy by special exercise of judgment, 
hence a faculty of imaginat ion involves voluntary control of our 
thinking powers. 

Results from vividness of conceptions, hut it also stimulates and 
Increases the ability to form such concept ions. 

Ideals are objects which one imagines and endows to the best of 
his ability, with every object suitable to their nature, and with 
which, as standards, he compares things really existing, or In the 
process of production. 

Success in scientific discovery and invention depends greatly on 
the exercise of the imaginative power. Investigation which dis- 
covers the laws of nature and invention, which discovers the modes 
in which these laws may be rendered practically useful, and make 
no progress without vigorous employment of constructive and cre- 
ative thought. 

If we should review the achievements of progress- 
ive agriculture in all lines, it would be easy to de- 
monstrate the service rendered by this creative fac- 
ulty in industrial affairs. 

It would be clear, that to reach any success in 
industrial effort, there must be an ideal. In no line 
has this been more clearly demonstrated than in the 
development of the domestic animal, as has already 
been suggested. But, even in smallest affairs, the 
same rule holds. No man can prune a tree intelli- 
gently without an ideal of a tree of that variety in 
his mind. Nor can he turn a furrow nor can he hitch 
up a team, without such a conception. 

Men who cannot conceive an ideal of what each act 
should be, are our stupid men. They are men who 
never can do anything right because they cannot con- 
ceive a fact clearly, nor discern its relations to other 
facts. 

Education. — Now that is the conclusion of the 
whole matter ? Education is the only agency by 
which the true can be enforced and the false cast out 
— not shallow, inadequate, incomplete education 
which misleads, because the possessor thinks he has 
gold, but it is only silver. Teach handicraft, teach 
imitative arts, but do not think that those are the 
end — they are but means to an end of which they are 
unconscious. Humanity must see beyond the ends of 
its fingers, and the guaranty is, that as one does go 
farther and forms conceptions of the principles and 
understanding of the materials involved, handicraft 
is improved and its rewards multiplied. 

In the present demand for a change in pedagogic 
subjects, so as to better serve the time and the peo- 
ple in industrial advancement and to arouse tastes 
and sentiments in sympathy with rural employment, 
care should be taken not to substitute information 
for education. It is teaching for the good old pur- 
pose of mental awakening and strengthening which 
must not be lost sight of. The new pedagogic mate- 
rial will be better than the old in its intrinsic useful- 
ness and suggestiveness, but the art and science of 
employing it in school work will be the same, in mo- 
tive and purposes, that have ruled since good teach- 
ing began. 



THE VINEYARD. 



The Needs of California Viticulture. 

By F. T. BlOIJRTI, Assistant Professor of Viticulture in the Uni- 
versity of California at the State Farmers' Institute in Berkeley. 

Before discussing the needs of viticulture in Cali- 
fornia it may seem necessary to give some reasons 
why we should consider these needs. 

California Grape Products. — There are, first, the 
economic reasons. At present the crop of the vines 
of California is about equal in value to that of all the 
other States in the Union taken together. In the 
absence of trustworthy official statistics it is im- 
possible to give exact figures regarding the acres of 
vines or the amount of the crop, but a rough estimate 
made from the available sources of information places 
the number of acres at about 200,000, and the total 
average annual value of the crop at about $10,- 
000,000. 

More than half of this acreage is devoted to wine 
grapes, a little less to raisin grapes and somewhere 
between b% and 10% to table and shipping grapes. 

The average annual money value of the crop is 

divided about as follows: 

value of average annual grape crope of 
California. 



9,000,000 gal. of dry wine (Si 15c 1 3,000,000 

5,000,000 gal of sweet wine <a 25c 1,250.00(1 

1,000,000 gal. of brandy (a) *1.25 1,250,000 

100 000,000 lb. of raisins (Si 4c 4,000.000 

30,000 tons of table grapes (Si 130 900,000 

Total 110,400,000 



The value depends, of course, on both the amount 
of crop and the price obtained, but as these factors 
usually vary inversely, the total value to the coun- 
try at large will be fairly constant. 

The reason why grapes are grown in California 
on a scale so much larger than any other State is 
that it is only here that raisin grapes, the best wine 
grapes, or grapes most suitable for shipping to long 
distances can be grown at all on a commercial scale. 
The whole United States, therefore, must depend on 
California for its home supply of these commodities, 
and we have a market of 80,000,000 people in which 
to sell our products. 

The Wine Industry. — Americans do not drink 
much wine, but there are probably nearly 2,000,000 



January 20, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



people in the United States who were born in one or 
another of the wine-drinking regions of Europe. If 
these people drank as much wine here as they did in 
their native country they would consume 50,000,000 
gallons of wine per year, which is about twice as much 
as the present production of California. There are 
probably another 2,000,000 people of Latin race 
whose parents were brought up among the vines of 
the Mediterranean littoral, and who, with the wine 
drinkers scattered among the rest of the population, 
could easily bring up the consumption of wine in the 
United States to four or five times the present out- 
put of our vineyards. 

All that is necessary to throw this market open to 
us is to offer good, cheap wine in every section of the 
country and this California, and California alone, can 
do. To do this, however, before it is too late, before 
our hyphenated fellow citizens, the Franco-, Italo-, and 
Hispano- Americans, learn to satisfy their thirst with 
coffee and whisky, we must improve our methods 
both of grape growing and wine making. We have 
the most favorable soil and climate in the world for 
the production of good, cheap wines, but we cannot 
derive the full benefit from them unless we use every 
effort to learn and adopt the best methods of cultiva- 
tion and manufacture. 

The economic importance of viticulture in Cali- 
fornia, then, may be summed up saying that it brings 
$10,000,000 yearly into the State and may be ex- 
panded very quickly until it brings in $40,000,000 or 
$50,000,000. 

Viticulture, moreover, has a moral and esthetic 
value which should not be lost sight of. No satis- 
factory reason has been given why the nations of 
southern Europe are more temperate than those of 
the northern countries, except that they drink wine 
instead of ardent spirits. Drunkenness, which is 
the curse of even the country districts of England, 
Germany and Scandinavia, is almost unknown in 
Spain, Italy and southern France, especially in the 
wine-producing districts. 

My contention is not that wine will not intoxicate. 
A Russian peasant will get drunk on wine, methylated 
spirits or ginger pop, if he can't get vodka. But 
statistics prove that racial sobriety and wine drink- 
ing go hand in hand and whether or not wine has any 
direct influence in the cause of temperance, it cer- 
tainly has no influence in the contrary direction. 

Anything which can be said against the use of wine 
by healthy, normal human beings can be said with 
far more force and truth against the use of tea, 
coffee, or any of the numerous articles of our ordinary 
diet which, in excess, have deleterious effects. 

The esthetic side of viticulture hardly needs em- 
phasizing. The shady, fruitful vine has been the 
theme of poets from the time of Homer and it still 
keeps its fascination for the native and adopted sons 
of the Golden West. With this introduction and 
apology allow me to proceed with the subject of my 
paper. 

To Make Grape Growing More Profitable. — 
Means of increasing the absolute and relative profit- 
ableness, that is, the profit to the State and to the in- 
dividual grower, may be discussed under two heads: 
First, those which depend on improvements in the 
creation and exploitation of market, and, second, those 
which aim at increasing the output and quality of our 
vineyards. 

With regard to the first group the Agricultural 
College can be of little help, except in so far as its 
efforts tend to the improvement of the products of 
our vines and thus facilitate the work of the business 
man in getting and retaining markets. 

It is with regard to the second group that the 
work of the Agricultural College should be effective 
and towards which most of our efforts are aimed. 

Broadly considered our work is of two kinds: First, 
the collection and dissemination of facts and knowl- 
edge which is of proved value to Californian grape 
growers and wine makers, and, second, experimenta- 
tion with promising methods and the search for new 
facts with especial reference to peculiar Californian 
conditions. 

The first of these divisions of our work is at pres- 
ent of the most pressing importance and takes up 
the major portion of our time and of our resources. 

If the methods known and practiced by our most 
enlightened grape growers and wine makers could 
be made general throughout the State, there can be 
little doubt that the average crop of our vineyards 
could easily be doubled and the quality considerably 
improved. 

While some of our grape growers prune their vines 
with a care and skill unexcelled anywhere in the 
world, most of our vineyards are pruned, or rather 
mutilated, in a way that seriously diminishes the 
crop and shortens the profitable life of the wine. 

Certain minor diseases of the vine, such as oidium, 
which can be, and in many vineyards are, kept un- 
der almost perfect control, are responsible for the 
loss of tens of thousands of tons of grapes, amount- 
ing in some localities and some years to 50% and 
even in some vineyards to 75% and 100% of the crop. 

Other more serious diseases, such as phylloxera, 
which threaten the very existence of our vineyards, 
are so little known or understood by many of our 
grape growers that hundreds of vineyards and 
thousands of acres of vines are being planted where 



there is not one chance in fifty of their ever bearing 
a paying crop. 

Educational Effort.— On the other hand, many 
of our methods of handling the crops of our vineyards 
have reached a high degree of perfection. Our best 
methods of raisin making, of handling table grapes, 
and of the manufacture of wine are much more 
generally disseminated throughout the State, though 
even here there is much room for improvement in 
many sections of the country. The pressing need 
along these lines, especially in the manufacture of 
wine, lies not so much in the dissemination of ac- 
quired knowledge as in the discovery of new methods 
adopted to our peculiar soil, climate and labor con- 
ditions. 

A major part of our efforts, then, as already 
stated, is directed towards the education of grape and 
wine makers. The Department is to some extent, and 
should be so more completely, a kind of clearing 
house where the viticultural and oenological knowl- 
edge of the State and of the world is collected, sifted, 
arranged and sent out to every grape grower and 
wine maker in the State. 

The machinery by which it is attempted to ac- 
complish this is by correspondence, lectures to farm- 
ers, the regular and short courses of the Agricultural 
College, and by occasional bulletins of information 
published by the University. 

To increase the efficiency and widen the scope of 
this phase of our work, what we need more than 
anything else, is the active co-operation of all our 
grape growers and wine makers. 

If they will write to us whenever they want in- 
formation regarding their vineyards or wines, and 
whenever they encounter any difficulties in growing 
the former or in manufacturing the latter, we will 
often be able to give them useful information, though 
they must not be disappointed or disgusted if we fail 
to solve immediately every problem they present to 
us. 

They should read our reports and bulletins carefully, 
using what appeals to them as correct, and criticis- 
ing freely and openly what strikes them as errone- 
ous. It is only in this way that our publications can 
be improved and made thoroughly and generally 
useful. 

Above all, they should make use of the courses 
given at the Agricultural College. The number of 
students who follow our courses in viticulture and 
ocnology is astonishingly small when we consider the 
importance of these industries in California and the 
great need of instruction in these subjects. This is 
due undoubtedly to a lack of a just conception of 
what we do or can do for a student. We cannot take 
a young man, who often hardly knows a vine from a 
potato, and, in four years, while at the same time he 
is acquiring a general education, make him an ex- 
pert pruner, ploughman and wine maker. To be an 
adept with the plow, the pruning shears or the pump 
handle requires long practice, which, if needed, can be 
obtained much more easily and quickly on a farm 
than at a college, and we have no more right to 
waste a student's time teaching him these things than 
the grape grower has to expect him to know them 
when he leaves college. 

What we can do, and ought to do, is to put him 
into a position to learn quickly all his neighbors have 
to teach him, to avoid their mistakes and gradually 
to improve on their methods. If he has natural 
ability, and has received the proper mental training 
at college, he will acquire all the manual dexterity he 
needs very quickly when he gets among the vines 
and the wine casks. 

Experimentation. — I don't wish to be understood 
as meaning that all we need in the teaching of our 
special subjects is a blackboard and a desk. We need 
most urgently a vineyard and cellar where we can 
illustrate and demonstrate theories and their applica- 
tion to practice. This is especially true as regards 
our short courses, which are intended primarily for 
young men and farmers who are actually engaged in 
the production of grapes and wine. We ought to be 
able to show by actual examples how a cane from a 
certain part of a vine produces grapes, while a cane 
from another part yields nothing but leaves; how a 
wine fermented at one temperature possesses aromas 
which caused Homer to call it a nectar fit for the 
Gods, while a wine fermented at another is full of 
bacteria and possesses odors which I must refrain 
from characterizing. 

While it is above all theories, correct theories, de- 
duced from what experience has shown to be the 
best practice, that should be our main subject-mat- 
ter, these theories should be constantly and com- 
pletely illustrated by practical examples. For these 
reasons it is to be hoped that our new college farm 
will include a vineyard and cellar of suitable character 
and adequate proportions. 

With regard to the investigational phase of our 
work, the special function of the Experiment Station, 
it will be sufficient to say that all of our conditions are 
so different from those of any other grape-growing 
region in the world that, while there is much we can 
learn from France, Italy and Algeria, there are nu- 
merous vital problems which we must attack and solve 
ourselves. Many of these are pressing for solution at 
the present time and new problems arise every year. 

Undoubtedly much has been done by the Experiment 
Station during the last 20 or more years, under the able 



direction of Prof. Hilgard, that is of permanent value 
to the grape industry of the State. This has been 
done under great difficulties, the principal of which 
is the uncertain and discontinuous way in which 
funds have been appropriated for the purpose. 

Some problems can be solved by a microscopic ex- 
amination or a chemical determination which takes 
an hour, while others require weeks, months, a whole 
season, and the great majority of problems require 
continuous and careful tests extending over several 
seasons, or even over many years. Many of the 
most important and most difficult problems which 
the grower and manufacturer have neither the time 
nor the training necessary to solve, cannot, from 
their nature, be solved in a short time. Questions 
of fertilization, pruning, adaptation of varieties, re- 
quire years of effort and observation before definite 
answers can be given. Progress may be made, use- 
ful conclusions drawn, continually, but most of these 
questions may never be answered completely for all 
time. 

Conditions change, one improvement suggests 
others, and, while useful knowledge is being acquired 
all the time, very few subjects can ever be exhausted, 
and with most the more we learn the more avenues 
we see for useful experimentation. The work done 
one year and the money expended are in great part 
wasted if they are not continued the following year. 
A break of two or three years in the funds available, 
and still more in the men available, will necessitate 
the recommencement and repetition of much of the 
work already done. 

Summary. — In conclusion, it may be said that the 
main needs of viticulture in California are educa- 
tional. Nature has done everything possible for us. 
All that remains is, first for the grape grower and 
wine maker to learn how to make the best of the 
great opportunities offered; how, with a soil and a 
climate that seem specially made for the develop- 
ment of the vine, to produce the finest grapes, 
raisins and wine at the least possible cost and, 
second, for the rest of the United States to learn how 
good these products of our State are. 

In satisfying these needs the Agricultural College 
has an important role, and with the aid, sympathy 
and co operation of the growers it will pay it well. 



THE FIELD. 



Rotation of Crops. 



To the Editor: Could you kindly give informa- 
tion in regard to the use of the rotation of crops in 
California ? I would like to know: 1. Is the rota- 
tion of crops in general use in your State ? 2. Could 
you kindly name 10 important rotations in use in the 
State, stating type of soil and object, and whether 
good or poor for the purpose in view. For instance, 
taking our own it would read; Clay loam. Dairy- 
ing. Four course: 1, Corn, manured, cut for silage; 
2, oats; 3, wheat, manured; 4, timothy and clover, 
mown twice. Good results are secured here by this 
rotation. — Agricultural Student, New York. 

It must be acknowledged that systematic rotation 
of crops has not in general been used in this 
State; in fact, the course of agriculture hitherto has 
been to avoid rotation and to keep the land produc- 
ing that to which it seems adapted and for which 
profitable prices could be had, for an indefinite 
period. There have been, of course, local changes of 
crops which might, perhaps, pass as very short rota- 
tions, such as getting an occasional grain crop from 
land which has been used for a good many years for 
beans, also growing grain on turned-over alfalfa land, 
upon which the stand has become scanty for some 
reason. There has also been a change of crop for 
the purpose of avoiding diseases and pests, such as 
moving watermelons and tomatoes on new ground 
and following with grain in their old places, etc. 
Recently the desirability of rotation has become more 
apparent and is commanding wider interest. This is 
especially true in connection with sugar-beet grow- 
ing and something is being done in that direction. It 
may be interesting to know that our rotations 
probably will never be like yours, because it is only 
occasionally that a certain piece of land is suited to 
the growth of three different grains. Wheat and 
barley are interchangeable in many places, but oats 
are not grown in the general wheat districts, nor is 
corn (except for silage) successful in most places which 
grow one or two of the other grains. Timothy is not 
grown in California at all, except in the extreme 
north, where conditions resemble those of Oregon 
and Washington, and the clovers which you use as 
a summer crop do not thrive, except on low moist 
lands, in California without irrigation. Manifestly, 
California must devise rotations of her own, 
as agriculture advances, and the question 
will be quite as much what crop will suc- 
ceed at all, as what crop will be best for the land. 
We would like to hear from readers what they have 
done with rotations in California. The general dis- 
cussion of the subject would be interesting. 



38 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 20, 1906. 



THE IRRIGATOR. 



Teachings of Experience in Irrigation. 

By Mk. J. B. Nkkf of Anaheim. Conductor of 
Farmers' Institutes in Southern California at 
the State Farmers - Institute at the University 
of California. 

It is likely that irrigation has been 
practiced ever since the wants of man 
could not be supplied by the natural 
productions of the uncultivated land, 
as the earliest writings mention the 
pouring of water on the thirsty land, 
and there are remains of ancient irri- 
gation works in various parts of the 
world; as in Egypt and the valley of 
the Euphrates, which likely are older 
than any written history; even in our 
own country there are remains of 
canals in Arizona which were made by 
some pre-historic race. 

The irrigated area of the world has 
gradually grown until it now covers 
possibly 60,000,000 acres, of which In- 
dia has more than half and the United 
States about one-eighth, being second 
in the number of acres. 

The meaning of irrigation to the 
farmer is the method of applying water 
to land so as to produce the best re- 
sults with the least amount of labor 
and water; the statesman views irriga- 
tion as a means of bringing waste land 
under cultivation, so as to sustain a 
dense population on territories that are 
otherwise practically a desert. The 
people generally are interested, because 
they are the owners of the public lands, 
and with irrigation these lands may be- 
come more valuable as well as more 
productive. In this way every indi- 
vidual as well as every locality is more 
or less interested in irrigation. 

An adequate and perpetual water 
supply must first be secured before it 
will be wise to undertake any consider- 
able outlay for other improvements on 
land, for in case the water supply 
should fail at any time the entire labor 
and previous expenditure of money 
may be a total loss, or if not entirely 
lost the returns may be so small that 
they will not be profitable. It is al- 
most useless to undertake fruit growing 
without plenty of water that can be 
obtained at such time as the trees need 
it. Grain can be grown with a less cer- 
tain water supply, as the water can 
be applied early in the season, when 
water is usually plentiful and the crop 
may mature without further irrigation. 

Alfalfa will need a much larger quan- 
tity, and the supply must be at hand 
as often as needed, in order to produce 
the best results. Vegetable growers 
need water in smaller quantities, but 
at much more frequent intervals. 

The quantity of water needed varies 
with the soil and climate. In some 
places a constant flow of one miners' 
inch, .02 second foot, or nine gallons 
per minute, is sufficient for ten acres. 
This means a depth of 8.8 inches from 
May to October, inclusive, or 17.6 
inches for the season in addition to the 
natural rainfall. This will be sufficient 
for citrus and deciduous fruits if there 
is a rainfall of 15 inches which is evenly 
distributed, but it will not be at all 
satisfactory if alfalfa growing is at- 
tempted. In other places as much as 
one miners' inch to five acres is re. 
quired. 

In estimating the quantity of water 
needed, the seepage of canals and the 
evaporation from reservoirs must be 
taken into consideration. If canals 
have cement lining the seepage will be 
reduced to a minimum, which in some 
cases is as low as 6% of the supply, 
while in dirt ditches the loss sometimes 
reaches one-half of the amount turned 
in at the head of the ditch. 

Evaporation from reservoirs varies 
greatly under different conditions. It 
has been determined that with a wind 
velocity of five miles per hour the evap- 
oration is 2.2 as much as it is in still 
air, and with a wind velocity of 15 miles 
per hour the evaporation is increased 
nearly five times. Evaporation de- 
creases with increase of altitude, be- 
cause of lower temperature, so it will 
be seen that reservoirs in the moun- 
tains where they can be protected 
from wind are to be preferred to those 



on the warmer and more open plains. 
Evaporation from water fully exposed 
varies in the western part of the United 
States from about 18 in. on Puget 
Sound to 1U0 in. during the year at 
Fort Grant, Ariz., and Keeler, Cal. 
The evaporation from ordinary soil is 
about the same as from water, and 
from sandy surfaces is about one-third 
as much as from water. A covering 
of any kind greatly affects the amount 
of evaporation. When the evaporation 
from bare uncultivated ground is called 
100 the evaporation from sand will be 
33% and from ground well covered 
with forest leaves only 10% to 15%. A 
covering of finely pulverized earth is 
even better than any other covering, 
showing the value of frequent and thor- 
ough cultivation. 

Proper drainage is also needed where 
irrigation is practiced and where the 
soil is not sufficiently porous some sys- 
tem of drainage must be provided, 
otherwise swampy places may be 
formed or alkali salts brought to the 
surface and the fertility of the fields 
destroyed. Care is also needed that 
the soil may not be leached by the ex- 
cessive application of water. 

Several methods of applying water 
to the land are in use, depending on the 
needs of the soil and the convenience of 
the irrigators. Where large fields of 
alfalfa are to be irrigated with a large 
water supply, contour basins are fre- 
quently made to contain from 5 acres 
to 40 acres in one basin. Where the 
water supply is smaller, and in or- 
chards, the irrigating is done either by 
basins of 10 ft. to 50 ft. square, which 
are filled to a desired depth, or in fur- 
rows from three feet to six or eight feet 
apart, in which the water is allowed to 
flow until the land is sufficiently wet. 

According to statistics, the average 
cost per acre of the irrigating systems 
in California is $10.30 per acre, and the 
average annual cost for maintenance 
is .69c. per acre. This does not in 
include the systems which are supplied 
by pumping. These are often expen- 
sive, and a cost of $50 per acre is not 
considered excessive for the installa- 
tion of pumping plant and ditches. 



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perfection. Write them for description and price 
of seeds. CRENSHAW BROS., Tampa, Fla. 



January 20, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



39 



Agricultural Review* 

Decision for Sheep Men. — The 
Appellate Court has handed down 
a decision declaring the sheep tax as 
levied by the mountain counties against 
sheep coming into said counties from the 
valley to be illegal. The court held that 
the ordinances levying such a tax were 
illegal on account of an amendment to 
the Political Code of 1901 repealing that 
section of the County Government Act of 
1897, under which said ordinances were 
passed. Just what action can be taken 
to collect the amounts paid by the sheep 
men heretofore has not been determined. 

Will Study Hop Industry. — 
A bill appropriating $5,000 for the 
study of the hop industry of the Pacific 
Coast will be introduced by Senator 
Perkins. He has written to Secretary 
Wilson suggesting that the department 
make a recommendation for that amount 
and pointing out the needs of that in- 
dustry. 

Butte. 

Believes Blight Ruined Orchard. 
— Biggs special to Sacramento Bee, Jan. 
12: Some days ago a representative of 
the Agricultural College visited the Reed 
ranch, northeast of this place, and in- 
spected the large pear orchard which has 
been badly affected with blight for sev- 
eral years. Whatever hopes the Agri- 
cultural College people may have for 
saving the pear orchards from the blight 
find no echo in the mind of Frank Wat- 
son, the superintendent of the place. He 
is now engaged in pulling up by the roots 
some 6,000 of the pear trees in the 
orchard. There are 3,000 more which 
will be subjected to treatment in an at- 
tempt to stay the blight. The treatment 
consists in cutting out the affected parts, 
disinfecting the tools with bichloride of 
mercury. Watson says he has no hope 
of saving the pear trees and believes that 
ultimately they will have to be removed. 
The ground where the trees are to be re- 
moved entirely is to be planted to alfalfa. 

Tree Planting Begins. — Gridley 
special to Sacramento Bee, Jan. 12: Tree 
planting will experience a boom now that 
the drouth has been broken by the gen- 
erous rains of the past few days. Among 
those who will plant trees immediately 
are John Moreland and J. W. Gilstrap, 
who contemplate putting out 20 acres 
each in peaches. F. A. Cowee will also 
plant peaches and prunes. 

Best Fruits for Canning Pur- 
poses. — For the guidance of the orchard- 
ists around Chico, the Chico Chamber of 
Commerce asked M. J. Fontana, general 
superintendent of the California Fruit 
Canners' Association, for a list of the 
fruits most suitable for, canning and, 
therefore, the best to sell to the can- 
neries. The entire list submitted by him 
was not published, but the following were 
named as the best adapted to the climate 
and soil in that vicinity. Cling peaches, 
taken in the order of ripening: Yellow 
Tuscan, California, Nicholls, Sellers, Mc- 
Devitts, Phillips, Levi; White McDevitts, 
Large White. Free peaches: Yellow, 
Elberta, Muir, Lovell. Pears: Bartlett. 
The Chamber of Commerce in a published 
statement says: Now, you will notice 
that this list is rather limited, but it con- 
tains everything we would recommend. 
In fact, we would reduce it still further 
by cutting out all the white clings and 
the Elberta freestones. The varieties we 
would specially recommend would be the 
Tuscan, Sellers, Levi and Phillips clings; 
Muir and Lovell frees, and Bartlett pears. 

Pear Blight Is Too Much for 
Charles Wesley Reed.— Gridley dis- 
patch to Call, Jan. 12: Charles Wesley 
Reed of San Francisco, who has a ranch 
northeast of Gridley, has given up the fight 
against pear blight and 6,000 pear trees 
on the ranch are being pulled up. The 
land will be devoted to alfalfa. This has 
been one of the most prolific pear or- 
chards in northern California and has 
been affected with blight for only a year 
or two. 

Sacramento. 

Seed Wheat Tests. — Sacramento 
Union, Jan. 12: George Coleman, who 
lives between Fair Oaks and Antelope, is 
not satisfied with the tests that have been 
made in this county of the seed wheat 
sent out by the United States Govern- 
ment. He insists that the tests made in 
Fair Oaks and elsewhere were not practi- 
cal, inasmuch as the grain was planted in 
the choicest land owned by the parties 
making them; that extra care was taken 
in the cultivation and seeding; that the 
land was cultivated twice before the grain 
was planted; that the crop was tended 
like a garden, and that the results, under 
the circumstances, could not have been 
other than the best; that any wheat in 
California, given like care and attention, 
would have produced good results, and 
finally that the tests have been of no 



practical value to the wheat farmers of 
the county. Mr. Coleman suggests that 
a practical test of the seed grain sent out 
by the Government, and one that will be 
of value to the farmers in the county, can 
only be had by planting a considerable 
area of land — something like 100 acres — 
using the methods employed by the farm- 
ers of the county; that the wheat should 
be sown in ground that is usually 
planted to wheat, and it should be culti- 
vated in the customary manner. He says 
there is not a farmer in Sacramento 
county or any other county in the State 
who plows his land twice before sowing 
his wheat; that the California wheat crop 
is sown upon good, bad and medium land, 
and not upon the best little half-acre on 
the particular ranch, and that after it is 
planted no extra care or attention is given 
to it. He says he will, if arrangements 
can be made to that effect, buy enough 
wheat from the Government, paying a 
fair price for it, and seed 100 acres, plant- 
ing it as the California farmer plants his 
wheat; that he will harvest it properly 
and that he will make an accurate return 
of the bulk and quality of the grain after 
threshing. He proposes to pay for the 
wheat when delivered, so that the Gov- 
ernment will be out nothing, and he pro- 
poses that the report he will make will be 
of practical value to the farmers in the 
county and in the entire wheat-growing 
section. 

8an Joaquin. 

Trees Were Diseased.— Lodi special 
to Sacramento Bee, Jan. 11: The almond 
trees in the Christian Colony have been 
found to be diseased with black knot. 

Placer. 

Experimental Farm for Placer 
County. — Auburn dispatch to Call, 
Jan. 11: A dispatch from the Agricul- 
tural Department at Washington states 
that an experimental vineyard will be 
located at the Corto Passi ranch, near 
Colfax, in Placer county. The selection 
in a measure is due to the efforts of the 
Sacramento Development Association. 

Shasta. 

Lions Kill Calves.— Redding dis- 
patch to Sacramento Union, Jan. 11: 
Two California lions are terrorizing the 
farmers and residents along the river 
south of Clear creek, and within the past 
four day 3 several head of cattle have been 
sacrificed. Sunday a fine calf belonging 
to Farmer Johnson was slaughtered in the 
corral and another calf carried off bodily. 
Adam Fickas has had much trouble with 
the same two lions that visited the John- 
son farm. On Tuesday the two lions were 
reported on the east side of the river, 
striking terror to the farmers on the east 
side. Charles Parsons, who was in Red- 
ding Tuesday afternoon, saw evidances of 
the animals' visit to his place Monday 
night. Mr. Parsons and his famous dogs, 
assisted by several of the neighboring 
farmers, have planned a campaign against 
the lions for Wednesday. 

Solano. 

Had to Kill Lambs. — Suisun dis- 
patch to Sacramento Union, Jan. 14: 
The driest season known in Solano county 
for over 20 years was broken yesterday 
by a copious downpour. The rain will 
have a beneficial effect upon the country 
in general, and especially on the stock 
ranges, where the feed had become very 
scarce, leaving stock, as a rule, in poor 
condition. The greatest suffering has 
been among sheep and cattle. In many 
instances young lambs have been killed 
to save the ewes, which were too poor to 
nourish their young. 

Sonoma. 

Grapes Replacing Fruit.— Windsor 
Herald, Jan. 13: D. F. Fryer is pulling 
up a portion of his orchard and will plant 
the same to vineyard. W. C. Macy con- 
templates doing the same thing, as also 
does Charles Gordon, W. C. Chisholm, 
F. T. Brown, W. B. Rich, and others ex- 
pect to increase their acreage of vineyard 
this spring. It does not look now as if 
the wine industry is on the wane in this 
section. The report that the Asti colony 
people were willing to contract grapes for 
ten years at $15 per ton has done much to 
stimulate the growers in their intention 
to increase the acreage of grapes. 

Stanislaus. 

Rancher Attacked by a Sow. — 
Modesto Herald, Jan. 11: L. W. Hun- 
sucker had a narrow escape from serious 
injury Saturday afternoon when he was 
attacked by a vicious sow. The animal 
had been running wild on the Hunsucker 
ranch for some time, and a few days ago 
the rancher drove her into a pen. On 
Saturday the animal broke out, and Mr. 
Hunsucker and son, on horseback, and 
armed with a pitchfork, started after 
her. They overtook the animal, and in 
attempting to drive her back to the pen 
the gentleman got off his horse. The 
sow charged him and Mr. Hunsucker 



tripped and fell, and the animal stood 
over him and began to tear at him with 
her long tusks. Henry Crow, a neighbor, 
happened along at this time, and with the 
assistance of a dog drove the sow from 
her victim and helped the gentleman to 
his home. 

Sutter. 

Pruning Trees.— Yuba City dispatch 
to Sacramento Union, Jan. 13: About 
three-fourths of the orchardists have fin- 
ished pruning and are now gathering up 
and burning brush preparatory to spray- 
ing, while some of the orchardists are 
now in a position to commence spraying. 
The usual formula of lime, sulphur and 
salt will be used this season. As soon as 
the ground is in proper condition culti- 
vating in the orchards will commence. 
At the various vineyards in this locality 
the grape-growers are displaying much 
activity in pruning, staking, re-setting 
and tying their grapevines and putting 
them in shape for the coming crop. 

Tulare. 

A Cantaloupe Meeting. — Exeter 
Sun : The Exeter-Lindsay Cantaloupe As- 
sociation met Saturday evening at the 
office of the Exeter Sun, there being quite 
a number in attendance, several growers 
from Farmersville attending, and nearly 
all of them signified their intention to join 
the Association, which, as now organized, 
includes all the large growers, and it is 
hoped will also include Arakelain Bros. & 
Co. In this event there will be no compe- 
tition between the same goods in the 
market this year, and it will enable those 
handling the market to act more intelli- 
gently, preventing any market from being 
glutted with the melons. From the 
present indications there will be about six 
or seven hundred acres of cantaloupes 
planted in the Exeter-Lindsay district 
and it is thought that the present arrange- 
ments will be sufficient to dispose of all 
of them at fair prices. 

Ventura. 

Oxnard Beet Outlook. — Santa 
Barbara Press, Jan. 11: Reports from 
Oxnard state that the outlook for the 
1906 sugar beet campaign is very promis- 
ing. J. A. Driffill, manager of the Oxnard 
plant, informs the Courier that there are 
12,000 to 13,000 acres already contracted 
and it looks very bright for reaching the 
hoped-for acreage of 18,000 to 20,000. The 
new price scheduled is proving attractive. 

Yuba. 

Good Demand for Olives. — Marys- 
ville special to Sacramento Bee, Jan. 12: 
Despite the fact that climatic conditions 
this season have not been altogether 
favorable for the olive crop, and notwith- 
standing the fact that much of the fruit 
is leaving the tree shriveled, there is a 
demand for olives which cannot be met. 
The dealers in the southern portion of 
the State came into this section this sum- 
mer and bought up the crops of the large 
growers, leaving the dealers and consum- 
ers here to depend for their supplies on 
the farmer who has put out the olive in 
small tracts. 



fte« 




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The legs and feet need watching and care. 
Ready for treating the common ailments 
saves many a valuable animal. Begin in 
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Spavin, Ringbone, Splint, Curb or Lame- 
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USED FOR YEARS. 

Northumberland, Pa , Deo. !9, 1904. 
Dr. B. J Kendall Co., Enosburg Falls, Vt. 

Gentlemen ■ — Please Bend me a copy of your 
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beast wherever 1 have an opportunity. 1 
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Accept no substitute. The great book, "A 
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Dr. B. J KENDALL CO . Enosburg Falls, VI. 




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40 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 20, 1906. 



The Home Circle* 



When Johnny Spends the Day. 

When Johnny spends the day with us, 

you never see the beat, 
O' all the things a-happenin' in this old 

house an' street. 

Ma she begins by lockirr up the pantry 
door an' cellar, 

An' ev'ry place that's like as not to inter- 
est a fellar. 

An' all her chiny ornyments a-stickin' 
'round the wall, 

She sets as high as she kin reach, fer fear 
they'll get a fall. 

An' then she gits the arnicky an' stickin'- 
plaster out, 

An' says, "When Johnny's visitin' they're 
good to have about." 
I tell you what, there's plenty fuss 
When Johnny spends the day with us! 

When Johnny spends the day with us, 
Pa puts his books away, 

An' says, " How long, in thunder, is that 
noosance goin' to stay? " 

He brings the new lawn-mower up an' 
locks it in the shed 

An' hides his strop an' razor 'tween the 
covers on the bed. 

lie says, "Keep out that liberry, what- 
ever else you do, 

Er I shall have a settlement with you an' 
Johnny, too! " 
Says he, " It makes a lot o' fuss 
To have him spend the day with ns! " 

When Johnny spends the day with us, 

the man across the street 
Runs out an' swears like anything, an" 

stamps with both his feet; 
An' says he'll have us 'rested 'cause his 

winder-glass is broke, 
An' if he ever ketches us it won't be any 

joke! 

He never knows who done it, 'oause 

there's no one ever round. 
An' Johnny, in particular, ain't likely to 
be found. 
I tell you what, there's plenty fuss 
When Johnny spends the day with us! 

When Johnny spends the day with us, 
the cat gits up an' goes 

A-scootin" 'crost a dozen lots to some ole 
place she knows; 

The next-door children climb the fence 
an' hang around fer hours, 

An' bust the hinges off the gate an' tram- 
ple down the flowers; 

An' break the line with Bridget's wash, 
an' muddy up the cloze; 

An' Bridget she gives warnin' then — an' 
that's the way it goes — 
A plenty noise an' plenty fuss 
When Johnny spends the day with us! 

— ('oifuri/. 

The Story of the Violin. 

A dark, chill, dreary November night 
it was. A cold rain, turning anon into 
a cutting sleet, pelted the dead leaves 
overhead and fell in grim persistency, 
glassing over the pavements with a 
thin layer of ice. The wind blew in fit- 
ful little gusts, lashing together the 
loose leaves and small twigs and hurling 
them, together with a disconcerting 
dash of rain, full into the face of the 
chance passerby. 

Into this dreary scene shuffled a 
human apparition no less wretched and 
forlorn. The emaciated, shivering fig- 
ure that stumbled along was clothed in 
rags, which covered but indifferently 
his shrinking form. His hair hung in a 
tangied mass about his shoulders; his 
face, dirty and unshaven, mirrored too 
accurately the life of intemperance and 
dissipation. Along the icy pavement 
he dragged his weary way. At length 
he stood before a brilliantly lighted 
saloon. Through the plate glass came 
a happy vision of laughter, and song and 
joy — and wine. The tramp stood shiv- 
ering a moment in the doorway and then 
timidly opened the door and entered. 

In an instant the revel had ceased. 
Gaily-dressed men paused with the 
glass half way to their lips to stare at 
the intruder. Then arose a shout of 
laughter, mingling with hoots of 
derision and angry threats. Another 
moment and the unfortunate wretch 
would have been thrown from the room 
by the aristocratic revelers, when they 
were arrested by a loud, "Ho! Ho! 
Look here, my merry friends!" A 
flashily-dressed young man, evidently 



under the influence of liquor, had 
caught sight of a bulky object under 
the man's ragged coat, and, snatching 
it roughly away, waved it above the 
heads of the crowd. The object proved 
to be a violin of exquisite workmanship. 
The crowd gathered about the man, 
eyeing him suspiciously. 

But the tramp, who had remained 
silent up to the present time, now 
sprang forward and cried imploringly, 
almost defiantly: "Give it back! Give 
it back, I say! Oh, give it back! I 
didn't steal it; indeed I didn't. It's 
mine, mine!" Then, as no move was 
made to return the violin, he continued, 
yet more beseechingly: "Oh, sirs, 
don't take it away from me. Indeed, 
indeed, I did not steal it. It is mine, 
mine — all mine. For the love of Heaven, 
do not take that away, too. It is all I 
have. It is everything to me — friends, 
home, mother, sweetheart, purity — and 
God! Oh, don't take it away!" The 
last few words had come almost as a 
wail. The man was white and trem- 
bling — almost gasping. 

For a moment following this unex- 
pected scene an intense stillness per- 
vaded the room. At length the silence 
was broken by a voice, rough and 
brutal, but not so brutal as it would 
have been a few moments before. "Let 
the fellow give us a tune. If he can 
play it, why, we'll let him keep his fid- 
dle; if not — " and the sentence ended 
in a muttered curse. 

"And a glass of the best whisky I've 
got in the house if the tune be a merry 
one," said the barkeeper, not unkindly. 

The man grasped his precious violin 
and began to play, his eyes wandering 
greedily toward the well-filled glass 
upon the counter. The selection was a 
stirring drinking song and pleased his 
audience greatly. At its conclusion 
there was ringing applause. But the 
old man did not seem to notice this. 
Instead, he drew the bow aimlessly 
across the instrument several times 
and a far-away look crept into his eyes. 
Then he began to play again. The rev- 
elers stopped their applause and list- 
ened. 

Low and faltering, and yet tinged 
with an ineffable sweetness, sounded 
the first few notes. Then, as the trem- 
bling hand firmer grasped the bow, the 
broken strains gathered strength and 
volume. But still they sounded soft 
and far away, like the distant sound of 
falling water or the faint tinkling of a 
cowbell when long stretches of green 
meadows and fresh-plowed ground lie 
between. Still the strains poured forth 
with an intangible and elusive sweet- 
ness; sometimes loud and clear, but 
more often low and far away, as if 
wafted faintly from some distant land. 
The music told of flowers blooming in 
green fields, of fragrant patches of 
clover blossoms, of fruit trees bending 
under their weight of pink and white 
petals. In it you could hear the song 
of birds, clear and limpid, and as an un- 
dertone running through it all the 
humming of bees and the lapping of 
water. 

The motley audience stood spellbound. 
The old, ragged musician seemed trans- 
formed — his tattered clothing, his sur- 
roundings, the glass of untasted liquor, 
all were forgotten. He was living 
again the innocent life of childhood. He 
romped again upon the hillside, plucked 
buttercups and violets and spring beau- 
ties in the cool, shady glens along the 
streams; waded once more in the rip- 
pling brook, knelt once more by his 
mother's knee. The tramp had become 
the poet; the man had become the 
master. 

And still the inspired strains poured 
forth from the old violin. Now he has 
left behind his childhood days, and the 
strains breathed forth the buoyancy 
and light-heartedness of youth. Light 
and airy, charged with life and enthu- 
siasm, the notes flooded the room. 
Occasionally a few measures would be 
tinged with an eager, unsatisfied long- 
ing or with a sad and pensive dreami- 
ness — for even youth has its tragedies. 
But for the most part the melody was 
light and happy, and made one think of 
running brooks pushing their way 
through green meadows, or of the rain- 
bow smiling after the storm. 

Then it seemed that the bow faltered 
upon the strings. Was the wonderful 



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burst of melody to cease? No; it was 
but the solemn hush of the soul, awed 
for the moment by the sacredness of its 
theme. Soft and low, the notes trem- 
bled into life again, endowed with a 
richness of tone that was not in them a 
moment ago. A soft light was in the 
eyes of the tramp musician, and as he 
played a vision of his first love came 
before his eyes. And how he played! 
The melody flooded the barroom with 
all the warmth, the fervor, the ecstacy 
of first love, pure and holy. With what 
a lingering sweetness did the notes fall 
from the old violin! How they trem- 
bled, warm and sensuous, upon the 
pulsating air! How reluctantly they 
died away, leaving behind them the 
faint fragrance of crushed violets! The 
air became heavy with the incense of 
roseate flowers, vocal with the melody 
of song, pregnant with life and love. 

While the mellow notes were still 
trembling upon the air, permeating 
everything with their sweet airiness, a 
wail of despair burst from the heart of 
the old violin. Oh, the pathos of that 
cry, the dumb, bewildering surprise, 
the wounded pride, the poignant pain, 
the hopeless sorrow, it expressed! How 
discordantly it struck upon the melody 
that had filled the room, causing it to 
vanish as if in terror! The next few 
strains were more subdued than the 
first wild cry, but breathed out, if pos- 
sible, even greater intensity of passion. 
It was as though all the tears, all the 
heartaches, all the sorrow of the world, 
were blended into one despairing tor- 
rent of anguish, to adequately voice the 
cry of a soul suddenly defrauded of 
love's sweet birthright. The half score 
of men surrounding the tramp are lean- 
ing forward in the intensity of their 
emotions. All are iD tears, and one 
elderly gentleman is sobbing audibly as 
the heartrending strains, full of poign- 
ant, biting, anguished sorrow, pierce 
through to their very hearts. 

Then the music came crashing 
through the air — bitter, passionate, 
defiant. In angry, frenzied torrents it 
flung itself from the quivering instru- 
ment. It told of passions fierce and 
wild, of sin's dark reign, of crimes com- 
mitted and darker crimes conceived. 
Like a flood of cold, black, seething 
waters it surged along, and swept be- 
fore it mother, home, love, purity, 
truth — and God. So the music poured 
forth, intoxicated with a base and sens- 
ual pleasure tinged with a deadly 
cynicism. 

Then a transformation came over the 
ragged musician and a new emotion 
breathed out from the instrument. The 
harsh and jangled notes died away and 
were followed by others in which there 
was something akin to regret. Then, 
as the music continued, the emotions 
deepened, the regret became sorrow, 
the sorrow remorse, the remorse ended 
in a cry that was almost despair. It 
was the awakening of the soul. 

The awakening was followed by a 
prayer of forgiveness. Soft and plead- 
ing the notes fell upon the eager, lis- 
tening ears of the motley crowd. How 
different the harsh, wild cry of passion 
and sin that had filled the room a few 
moments before from the prayerful, 



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Open All Year. A. VAN DER NAILLEN. Pres'l. 

Assaying of Ores, 125: Bullion and Chlorlnation 
Assay, 135; Blowpipe Assay, 110. Full course of 
Assaying, t50. Established 1864. Send for Circular. 

Telephone Main 199. 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne $ Dealers in Paper. 

Nos. 55-57-59-61 First St., San Francisco, Cal. 

BLAKE, MOFFITT & TOWNE Los Angeles. 

BLAKE, MoFALL & CO Portland, Or. 

MCM UUAMTPnTO LEARN BARBER TRADE. 
men WMIl I CU FIRST-CLASS PROFESSION. 

Trade taught in eight weeks. Positions secured. 
Write for particulars. MOLER BARBER COL- 
LEGE, 643 Clay St., San Francisco. 



January 20, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



4: 



pleading notes that now welled forth 
from the heart of the violin! Then it 
was the cry of the flesh, debauched and 
degraded; now the language of the 
spirit, the voice of the soul. The old 
man was leaning forward, and with 
longing, pleading, tear-dimmed eyes 
was peering into the distance. Out of 
the blackness of despair he was strain- 
ing bis eyes to find somewhere, some- 
how, a ray of hope. 

And the light came — dim and waver- 
ing at first, like the faint and uncer- 
tain flushes of dawn. But the man 
saw, and a new light was in his eyes 
and a soft-breathed hope was in his 
playing. Then, as the first faint 
streaks of light in the eastern sky 
blush into a deeper crimson, and at last 
are merged into the full-grown radiance 
of the rising sun, so the first rays of 
the light of hope deepened and intensi- 
fied into a more brilliant radiance, and, 
emanating from the cross of Calvary, 
flooded the room in a burst of splendor. 
Hope, joy, peace, ecstasy and awe 
blended into a paean of triumph — and 
the tramp musician's soul swept 
through the gates of the New Jerusa- 
lem. — Dem i r TKnu s. 



Hints to Housekeepers. 



Sprinkle salt on the carpet in several 
places. No bother from so much dust 
aDd brightens up the carpet. 

Without care knives not in use soon 
spoil. Keep them in a box in which 
sifted quicklime has been placed. The 
blades should be covered with this, but 
it must not touch the handles, which 
should be occasionally exposed to the 
air to keep them from turning yellow. 

The ascetic acid of vinegar is in re- 
quest for all sauces. It mingles well 
with the citric acid of lemon juice. In 
making mayonnaise of any kind, this 
ascetic acid of the vinegar is required 
in mixture with as many flavors as pos- 
sible, hence tarragon, chili and celery 
vinegars are used. 

Unless washed with great care black 
stockings soon turn a greenish color. 
They should be washed in soap that is 
free from soda and rinsed in water to 
which a teaspoonful of vinegar has 
been added. When damp press them 
into shape, but do not iron, as the heat 
tends to destroy the color. 

It is well that housewives should 
know that paper bags are made of a 
compound of rags, lime, glue and simi- 
lar substances, mixed with chemicals 
and acids. When dry these can do no 
harm, but if allowed to become damp a 
paper bag is unfit to touch articles of 
food. Never, therefore, keep food that 
is of a damp or juicy nature in a paper 
bag. 

Beeswax and turpentine polish for 
linoleum is hard to beat as far as its 
appearance is concerned, but it has one 
defect — it causes a slipperiness which 
may be very dangerous to children and 
old people. A polish which has no such 
objection is made of equal parts of lin- 
seed oil and vinegar. Apply a little to 
a flannel cloth, rub it well on the lino- 
leum and polish with a clean, dry cloth. 

The blanching of nuts is a process of- 
ten thought difficult because not under- 
stood. The nuts should be covered with 
boiling water and should be allowed to 
stand for 10 minutes where they will 
keep hot but not cook. Then drain 
them, plunge them into cold water and 
chill them. A knife must be used with 
English walnuts because of their ser- 
rated surface. Pistachio nuts are hard 
to blanch, and the water in which they 
soak needs to actually boil while they 
are in it, although they must not cook. 



For Chapped Hands. — Delicate skins 
are very sensitive to the approach of 
cold weather, and, unless proper care 
is taken to prevent it, it will chap the 
hands almost before one realizes the 
fact. If persons who are troubled with 
chapped hands would be careful to 
wash, first with warm water to 
cleanse, then immerse in cold water, to 
harden the flesh, dampen with three 
drops of glycerine, dissolved in one 
teaspoonful of water, and wipe per- 
fectly dry, they would be surprised to 
see what soft, smooth hands they had. 



What we might say here about 
the Studebaker line of farm wagons, 
carriages, buggies and harness, might 
or might not have much weight with you. 

What you can see with your own eyes will tell 
the story better than volumes of our talk. There- 
fore we say 

See the Studebaker Agent 

Here are some of the things he will show }ou: 

Why the Studebaker Wagon, while stronger, heavier and 

more durable (being made of heavier timber and more heavily 

ironed) is nevertheless the lightest running -wagon on earth. 
Why the Studebaker axles to H inch deeper than others 

and reinforced with heavy truss) hsLvegreatercarryingcapacity. 
Why the Studebaker hub does not split, check nor crack 
Why the Studebaker slope-shoulder spokes (larger than 

others) make a stronger wheel. 

Why the Studebaker wagon-box with reinforced bottom, 

is the strongest and most convenient box made. 

Why the Studebaker vehicles are so popular; why more people buy 
them than any other; why more than one million are in daily use all 
over the world. 



^gBM over tne world. M Mil 

mu deb a he r 




Si" " 



See the Studebaker Agent 



before you buy a farm wagon, a buggy, a carriage or anything in the 
vehicle or harness line. He will not ask you to buy on reputation alone. 
He will show you point by point wherein the Studebaker excels and 
you can see for yourself. 

If you don't know a Studebaker agent, write to ns. Enclose a two cent stamp and we'll 
send you the Studebaker Farmer's Almanac for 1906 — Free. Please address Dept. S3. 

STUDEBAKER BROS. MFG. CO., Sooth Bend, Indiana. 

The Studebaker — A wagon with a reputation behind it 



Send To day 




If you believe in quality— if you want the biggest value 
for your money — if you want durability and complete 
roofing satisfaction, you will insist upon having 



"Pioneer" Rubber 
Sanded Roofing 



It is proof against everything that an ideal roofing should be 
proof against. It contains all the good qualities of the best 
standard rubber roofings, and, in addition, has a hard, wear- 
proof surface of clean flint sand, which adds years of wear to your 
roof and eliminates all the expense of paint and patent 
coating. If you want the best rooting protection for 
the least money, you should get acquainted with 
" PIONEER " RUBBER SANDED ROOFING to-day. 
and the best way to get acquainted is to send for sam- 
ples and complete information at once. 

"PIONEER " RUBBER SANDED ROOFING is 
good on any roof, under every condition, in any climate. 

Our booklet, "B, 'is invaluable to builders and 
property owners. It tells you the best and cheapest 
roofings and building papers to use on any kind of a 
job. Send for it to-day. 



Pioneer Roll Paper Co. 
Los Angeles, California 




Portable School or Store Room. 

No. 810 24 feet 4- inches by 30 feet 4; inches. 
DOUBLE WALLS 9 FEET HIGH. GABLE ROOF \ PITCH 

We will be pl'-ased to send catalogues on application. 

BURNHAM-STANDEFORD CO. 

WASHINGTON AND SECOND STS. - - - OAKLAND, CAL. 




Land for Sale and to Rent* 



GLENN RlUi] 



Glenn County, 



California. 



FOR SALE 

IN SUBDIVISIONS. 



This famous and ■well-known farm, the home of 
the late Dr. Glenn, "the wheat king," has been sur- 
veyed and subdivided. It is offered for sale in any 
sized government subdivision at Iremarkably low 
prices, and in no case, it is believed,' exceeding 
what it is assessed for county and State taxation 
purposes. 

This great ranch runs up and down the west bank 
of the Sacramento river for 15 miles. It is located 
in a region that has never lacked an ample rainfall, 
and no irrigation is required. 

The river is navigable at all seasons of the year, 
and freight and trading boats make regular rips 

The closest personal inspection of the land by 
proposed purchasers is invited. Parties desiring 
to look at the land should go to Willows, Califor- 
nia, and inquire for P. O. Eibe. 

For further particulars and for maps, showing 
the subdiv*sions and prices per acre, address per 
sonally or by letter, 

F\ C. LUSK, 

Agent of N. D. Rideout, Administrator oi the Estate 
of H. J. Glenn, at Chico. Butte County, California 

To Rent. 

50 Acres, all in Apples; 

Over 8000 Boxes Crop of 1905. 

Apple house, stable and blacksmith shop. All 
choice shipping fruit and commands highest price. 
Easy terms or will sell part cash and long time on 
balance, or will exchange for city property 

Call or address 

I. J. TRUflAN, 

CALL BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO. 

FflR QAI F GOOD RANCH AT A BARGAIN, 
run uHLL jeo acres near Red Bluff, Cal. 
Price J25O0. For further particulars address 
I. R. D. GRCBB, Real Estate, 825 Mills Building, 
San Francisco. 

ALFALFA LANDS, Orchards, Vineyards, Stock 
ranches. Agents the famous Gridley Colony. 
Fertile land. Plenty of water. Printed matter free. 
CHAS. F. O'BRIEN & CO.. 30 Montgomery St., S.F. 

WE sell country lands. CH ATFIELD & VINZENT, 
228 Montgomery street, San Francisco. Cal. 

ft A I I r ft nil ■ A FARM BARGAINS. Send for 

CALIFORNIA ssaMSCWSfc 



w 



ANTED — Good Ranches. Burr - Paddon Co., 
Dept. J, 40 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



There's No Risk, in 
Banking by Mail in 
any Sum from $1.00 
Upward. 

You can open a savings account 
with this strong, safe City Bank by 
mail. Your money will draw good 
interest compounded every six months. 

It is easy to save, if you once com- 
mence, and a bank account is a "hard 
times insurance." 

Term deposits of $ I oo or more 
earn 4% per annum, compounded 
semi-annually. Write to us. 

DO IT TO-DAY. 
The MARKET STREET Bank 
Market and 7th Sts. 
San Francisco, California 



i«u' *«"«v, a. r. 



42 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 20, 1906. 



The Markets* 



San Francisco Produce Report. 

San Fbancisco, Jan. 1", 1906. 

CHICAGO WHEAT FUTURES. 
Wheat futures in Chicago were as follows for the 
week named, price being for No. 2 Red per bushel: 
May. July. 

Wednesday I 88M® ST% 86 @ SiH 

Thursday 88H«n 87J4 85 @ 84* 

Friday 88%® 87* 85 @ 84K 

Saturday 88%@ 88H 85H® 84 % 

Monday 89 ® 8896 &>\® 85!< 

Tuesday 89^® 88% 85%® 85'i 

CHICAGO CORN FUTURES. 
Prices of futures on No. 2 corn per bushel in Chi- 
cago were as follows for the week : 

May. July. 

Wednesday 45 @44% 45%®45>< 

Thursday 45«@45 45%@45% 

Friday 45%@45 ih\&ih% 

Saturday 45?£@45 455@45% 

Monday 45%@45'6 46H@45H 

Tuesday 45%@45 45^@45J4 

SAN FRANCISCO WHEAT FUTURES. 
The range of values in San Francisco for No. 1 
White wheat per cental was as follows: 

May, 1906. 
11 40 @1 39% 
1 39%@1 39'i 
1 38*®1 38 
1 n I 39 
1 39^@1 39'4 
1 38^®1 38% 



Dec. 1900. 



Wednesday t- 

Thursday - 

Friday - 

Saturday - 

Monday 

Tuesday 



There is nothing doing in the local 
wheat market. Buyers abroad have not 
made any new orders, and San Francisco 
local exporters are not making any offer- 
ings for wheat. From Northern points it 
is reported that nearly everyone in the 
trade there has plenty of wheat on hand, 
both at tidewater and in interior ware- 
houses. It ia hoped that when business 
affairs shapo themselves in Europe offers 
will bo on a more plentiful scale. There 
is a great deal of conjecture at present 
respecting the foreign markets, and es- 
pecially that of the Russian trade. Ex- 
porters are wondering whether or not 
that country will export grain in the near 
future, and whether this country will be 
called upon to supply the demand. If so, 
evidently we will see higher prices. The 
crops of the southern hemisphere, 
namely, those of Australia and Argentine, 
are somewhat abnormal, and it is difficult 
at present to place the amount sold so far. 
These countries will cut an important 
figure in the wheat trade for the next few 
months. From all information that can 
be obtained, however, it looks as if the 
crops in both countries will be good, both 
in size and quality, and, as soon as the 
latter is definitely known, there will be a 
rush of offers to European markets. So 
far this month there has been buying of 
the hand-to-mouth variety abroad. 
Quotations are steady, with a generally 
stronger feeling in both spot and futures. 
There is some demand in California for 
Northern red wheat, and possibly a large 
quantity will be brought in later. 

California Milling 11 42 ffil 4714 

Cal. No. 1 shipping 1 40 @1 45 

Northern Club 1 42V4«»1 43Jf 

Northern Bluestem 1 45 ©1 47Vi 

Northern Red 1 35 ffil 37 hi 

PRICES OF rUTUBES. 

Wednesday, at the forenoon session of Exchange, 
May, 1906, wheat ranged from »1.38%® . 

Floor. 

Flour markets all over the world seem 
to have lapsed into the dullness customary 
at this time of the year. Cables from the 
Orient are not forthcoming, and only 
routine shipments are being made to 
Central and South America. While con- 
ditions are very quiet, the present state 
of affairs was expected, and millers have 
no cause to complain. Even in the North 
the situation is quiet. The straggling 
cables coming to hand there are only for 
small lots, and it will be some time before 
a good-sized demand materializes. Nearly 
every mill in that territory has closed 
down for an indefinite period. Of course, 
a few are running, but these are very 
fortunate. A few old orders romain un- 
filled, and some will be shipped this 
month. What is true of the export 
trade is also true of domestic business, 
and it looks as if everybody is temporarily 
out of the market. Quotations, how- 
ever, are steady. 

Patents, California I @4 85 

Second Patents, California ®4 00 

Straights @4 25 

Superfine No. 1 3 50 ©3 75 

Superfine No. 2 3 00 (S3 40 

Oregon Bakers* 4 15 ©4 50 

Washington Bakers' 4 25 ©4 60 

Eastern Patents 5 50 (S 

Barley. 

The market is strong, and the demand 
is exceedingly good, though there are no 
changes in prices. In view of the fact 
that other feod stuffs are very firm, 
dealers would not be surprised to see an 
advance in the near future. Stocks re- 
maining unsold in the North are in very 
strong hands; it may require higher 
prices to dislodge them. 

Brewing II 22tf©l 25 



Feed, No. 1 1 20 @1 2254 

Feed, fair to good 1 15 @1 17H 

Chevalier, No. 1 to choice 1 25 @l 30 

Chevalier common to fair.. 1 20 i»l 25 

December 99 @ 

U«ti. 

Orders for seeds, both blacks and reds, 
have increased since the rains and choice 
oats should move off more rapidly from 
now on. Choice reds for feed have ad- 
vanced and northern whites are higher 
than last week. Washington oats cannot 
be landed here at less than $1.60. 

White oats II 45 ©165 

Black oats 1 35 @1 70 

Red oats 1 30 ®1 60 



Western yellow corn has been arriving 
more freely in the last week, and conse- 
quently the market is easier. The same 
applies to the white, though in a less de- 
gree. It is generally held, nevertheless, 
that prices should be a little higher, and 
holders here are inclined to wait for 
a turn in the market. Small yellow is un- 
changed and with but little inquiry, 
largely because of the firm, high price. 
White and brown Egyptian are having a 
slow sale at quotations, and as Western 
White Kaffir corn can be landed here at 
$1.25, it is quite likely that California 
White Egyptian will decline. 

Large White, good to choice II 22X@1 27'4 

Large Yellow 1 22^@1 27H 

Small Yellow 1 50 ®1 55 

Egyptian White I 38%©1 40 

Egyptian Brown 1 25 ©1 27tf 

Kye. 

The rye market is well cleaned up and 
handlers have little trouble selling at quo- 
tations. The demand for rye for seeding 
purposes is increasing and choice rye is 
very likely to advance. 

Good to choice II 47"4@1 52H 

Buckwheat. 

There is but little trading and none at 
prices above $1.(55, as the millers are 
bringing in New York rye flour on the 
same basis. 

Good to choice 1 50 @1 65 

Beans. 

The market is steady with a little more 

activity in pinks, which are generally 
held a little higher. They are selling 
quite freely in the neighborhood of 2c. 
As these are the cheapest beans to be 
had, it is predicted that there will be 
some lively trading before long. The last 
crop was exceptionally large, and good 
stocks are still held. In view of this, it 
seems that while pinks may firm up a lit- 
tle, it is hardly possible that any marked 
advance will occur. Large and small 
whites are firm, owing to the small stocks 
of these on hand. The market in general 
has more chance to improve than decline. 
Bayos, red kidneys and blackeyes remain 
firm at quotations. Limas show no ad- 
vance; but these beans are still largely In 
growers' hands, held up to 5c. in some 
instances. 

Small White, good to choice 12 90 @3 10 

Large White 2 10 ®2 50 

Pinks 1 75 ©2 00 

Pinks, damaged 1 00 @1 25 

Bayos, good to choice 3 30 @3 60 

Red Kidneys 3 50 @3 65 

Reds 3 00 @3 10 

Llmas, good to choice 4 75 ®5 00 

Black-eye Beans 4 50 ®4 60 

Dried Peas. 

Dried peas show no great change, al- 
though the top quotation is an outside 
one. The market remains steady, and 
considering the fact that Eastern peas 
cannot be landed here at less than $2.50, 
it is quite likely that a high price will 
prevail before the new crop comes in. 
Niles are having a slow sale. 

Green Peas, California 12 25 @2 35 

Niles 1 60 (gl 75 

Hops. 

The hop market seems to show con- 
siderable improvement. Transactions in 
California have been few and usually of 
small proportions, but the interest is in- 
creasing and advices both from the East 
and from northern coast points indicate a 
stronger market. A good sized sale of 
Sonoma county hops is reported from 
Santa Kosa where 1,000 bales changed 
hands at 9 and 10c. In the Salem, Oregon, 
district 400 bales were sold this week at 
9c. In Portland, small sales are reported 
at from to 10c, with but little chang- 
ing hands at the latter figures. A bullish 
feeling prevails in Oregon and growers 
are generally holding for higher prices. 

Medium to fair 6 ©— 

Good brewing 8 ® %% 

Prime 9 ©— 

Prime to choice 9 ©10 

Wool. 

The local wool market continues feature- 
less, except for an occasional small sale. 
The ideas of buyers and growers seem as 
far apart as ever as regards values. Not- 
withstanding a strengthening of the situ- 
ation in the East, local buyers are holding 
off, claiming that California fall wools are 
not effected by the recent changes in 



Boston. Growers, on the other hand, are 
encouraged by the present outlook and as 
most of the holdings are in pretty strong 
hands, it looks as though buyers would 
have to change their views if any business 
is to be done in the near future. 



Humboldt and Mendocino 15 @16M 

Northern, free I4H®16 

Northern, defective n ®vt 

Middle County, free io <314 

Middle County, defective 11 @13 

San Joaquin and Southern, free 9 @12 

San Joaquin and Southern, defective 8 @10 

SPK1NC. 

Oregon, valley 83 ®25 

Eastern Oregon 15 @17 

Nevada 15 ®19 

Hay and Straw. 

During the week just ended, 2,550 tons 
of hay were shipped to this market, prac- 
tically the same quantity as for the week 
preceding. The heavy rain of the past 
few day 8 has interfered seriously with 
shipments by water, so everything mar- 
keted since Friday has come by rail. The 
ultimate effect of the rain on the hay 
market cannot be foretold as yet. Con- 
siderable quantities of hay are being held 
back for speculation, and all these will 
now be offered for sale here. On the 
other hand, farmers can now go to work 
putting in their crops, which will necessi- 
tate the feeding of much larger quanti- 
ties of both hay and barley than would 
have been used had the weather con- 
tinued dry. The general feeling of en- 
couragement occasioned by the storm will 
help business in every line, which always 
means a greater consumption of feed than 
would have been noted under a discour- 
aging season, so on the whole wo may ex- 
perience but little change in prices until 
the extreme end of the season, at which 
time it is possible that any surplus that 
might be remaining may be rushed to 
market, producing a temporary decline. 

Wheat, choice 114 00 <& 16 CO 

Wheat, other grades 8 00 ® 13 50 

Wheat and Oat 9 00 @ 12 50 

Tame Oat, fair to choice 8 00 @ 12 00 

Wild Oat 8 00 ® 9 50 

Barley 7 00 ® 9 50 

Clover 6 00 @ 900 

Alfalfa 9 00 @ 11 50 

Stock hay 7 00 @ 8 00 

Compressed 10 00 @ 13 00 

Straw, ft bale 30 ® 50 

Mlllatuffl. 

In the millstuffs the excessive rains in 
the valleys have not affected prices. Dur- 
ing the dry weather the market did not 
stiffen, as would naturally be expected, and 
now it does not seem to have been weak- 
ened by the rain. To all outward appear- 
ances the market will remain steady for 
some little time yet, and there are some 
indications that prices will advance. In 
the North prices have an upward ten- 
dency, both bran and shorts having been 
marked up 50c. during tho past week. 

Alfalfa Meal, <p ton |21 00 © 22 00 

Bran, > ton 20 50 @ 21 00 

Middlings 27 50 @ 29 00 

Shorts, Oregon 21 00 ® 22 00 

Barley, Rolled, choice 26 50 ® 27 50 

Cornmeal 29 50 @ 30 50 

Cracked Corn SO 00 @ 31 00 

Oilcake Meal 39 00 & 40 00 

Cocoanut cake or meal 24 50 © 25 50 

Bee <to. 

The rain throughout the State has 
created more demand for seeds. The in- 
quiry for mustard seed for shipment to 
the East is also on the improve. The 
market has gained some strength through 
the string of inquiries. There is only a 
small stock on hand which will probably 
be sold before the arrival of the new crop. 
The Lompoc valley has had good rains 
and to all appearances the usual crop will 
be harvested. 

Alfalfa 111 00 ©14 00 

Flax ® 

Mustard, Yellow 3 50 @ 3 75 

Mustard, Trieste 4 50 ® 4 75 

Per lb. 

Canary 6*@ 7 

Rape 2«@ 3 

Hemp — ® 5 

Tlmothv 5*@ 6 

Honey. 

California honey is moving off slowly on 
account of the recent arrival of 400 cases 
from Honolulu, which is selling at from 
2 to 2}c. There are no changes in quota- 
tions, but sales are hard to make at 5c. 
for water white. The heavy rains in 
southern California should improve the 
outlook for the future, and buyers here 
expect holders to show more of a disposi- 
tion to sell. Local jobbers are cutting 
prices to work off stocks on hand. 

Extracted, Water White 4fc@ 5 

Extracted, White 4&@ 4* 

Extracted, Light Amber 4 @4H 

Extracted, Amber 3K@ 4 

Extracted, Dark Amber .. 3 @ 3% 

White Comb, 1-frames 9 @10 

Amber Comb 7 ® 8 

Beeswax 

Beeswax show3 practically no change, 
although considering 25c. the top of the 
market on dark, there is likely to be 
a drop very soon in this grade. The top 
price for light has changed from 28 to 
27c, with very little selling at that figure. 

Good to choice, light V lb 26 ®27 

Dark 24 @25 



Live Stock and Heats. 

There is no great change in the beef 
and mutton market since the last report. 
The demand is still good and prices aro 
firm. Mutton is in good request and 
prices may advance slightly at any time. 
The hog market is unusually stiff, and 
prices have advanced slightly. To all 
appearances the present condition in the 
hog market will continue for some weeks. 
Buyers hero anticipate a tendency to 
advance within the next few weeks. 

Allowing for the shrinkage of about 50?<, which 
is exacted In buying cattle on the hoof, live cattle 
command as much or more per pound than dressed 
beef, the shrinkage exacted being the slaughterers' 
profit. 

The following quotations for beef and mutton are 
based on prices realized by slaughterers from 
wholesale dealers: 

Beef, 1st quality, dressed, net V B> 5 ® 5tf 

Beef, 2nd quality 4(4® 5 

Beef, 3rd quality 3^® 4 

Mutton— ewes, 8@9c; wethers 9V4@10 

Hogs, hard grain, 150 to 250 lbs 6 ® 6> 8 

Hogs, large, hard, over 250 pounds 5> 4 a, 

Hogs, small, fat, under 150 lbs 6 ® 64 

Veal, large, V lb 6 ® 7H 

Veal, small, f» lb 8 ®9 

Lamb, spring, ¥ lb 10 ©II 

Hides, Skins and Tallow. 

The hide market is appreciably weaker, 
owing rather to the poor quality of the 
stock now offered than to any falling off 
in tho demand. Hide dealers admit the 
probability of a further drop in prices 
within the next few weeks. Tanners are 
not buying very freely at present owing 
to the slow leather market, and holders 
of hides will become anxious to dispose of 
their present holdings beforo tho good 
quality hides begin to come in. 

Nothing but select hides, clean and trimmed, 
will bring full figures. Culls of all kinds either 
from grubs, cuts, hair slips side brands or mur- 
rain, are not always readily placed at the lower 
figures. 

Sound. Culls. 

Heavy Steers, over 56 lbs 13 ®— 12 @— 

Medium Steers, 48 to 56 lbs. ...12 <&— II ffl— 

Light Steers, under 48 fts 11K«4— !<(',•«. — 

Heavy Cow Hides, over 50 lbs.UHffl— i"- : ,„ 
Light Cow Hides, under 50 lbs. 1 1 J4®— iok<«— 

Stags 7 @8 7 @— 

Wet Salted Kip ..MH@— 10 @— 

Wet Salted Veal 12 ®— 11 ®— 

Wet Salted Calf 13 ®— 12 ®— 

Dry Hides 19 @— 19 @— 

Dry Kip and Veal, 11 to 16 Bis. 16 @17 15 @— 

Dry Calf, under 4 lbs 20 ®21 19 @— 

Pelts, long wool, » skin 1 50@2 00 

Pelts, medium, f> skin 90® 1 25 

Pelts, short wool, » skin 60® 90 

Pelts, shearling, * skin 20® 50 

Horse Hides, salted, large prime, each.. 3 00®— 

Horse Hides, salted, medium 2 75@— 

Horse Hides, salted, small 2 25@— 

Horse Hides, dry, large 1 75®— 

Horse Hides, dry, medium 1 50@— 

Horse Hides, dry, small 1 00@— 

Tallow, good quality 4 ®4K 

Tallow, poorer grades 2H®3H 

Bags and Bagging;. 

The bag market is very quiet, with 
prices on the same high level as heretofore. 
Calcutta bags are in better demand and at 
better prices than was the case at this 
season a year ago. There is no demand 
for bean bags and none is anticipated for 
July and August. A few contracts have 
been taken for grain bags for June and 
July delivery. Fruit sacks, in both cot- 
ton and jute, are quoted a fraction higher. 

Bean Bags I 6H® — 

Fruit Sacks, cotton, No. 1, 8@8Ji; No. 2. . 7S®8 

Fruit Sacks, jute, as to quality 6^®7i£ 

Grain Bags, Calcutta, 22x86, spot 7*®7% 

Woolsacks, 4-lb 36 @ 37 

Wool Sacks, 3%9> 32 ® 34 

Poultry. 

The market is generally firm, and there 
has been an advance in some lines. To 
all indications there will be a good, steady 
market for the coming week. The poul- 
try receipts are lighter, owing largely to 
bad weather and the difficulty of getting 
stocks to market. Prices are correspond- 
ingly stronger. The entire trade is look- 
ing for choice poultry in all lines at good 
prices. The coming Chinese holidays are 
bringing certain lines into especial favor. 
The Chinese are paying top figures for 
fine large stock. The turkey market is, 
however, dull, and only really fancy stock 
is taken at appearing figures. 

Turkeys, choice Young, H lb I 17 ® 18 

Turkeys, live gobblers, f» lb 17 a, m 

Turkeys, live hens » lb 18 ® 19 

Hens, small, fi dozen 4 50 @ 5 50 

Hens, large 6 00 ® 7 00 

Roosters, old 4 BO ® 5 50 

Roosters, young (full-grown) 6 50 @ 7 50 

Fryers 5 50 @6 50 

Broilers, large 4 50 @ 5 50 

Broilers, small to medium 2 50 @ 3 50 

Ducks, old, » dozen 500 @600 

Ducks, young, ft dozen 6 00 @ 7 00 

Geese, > pair 200 ®250 

Goslings, V pair 2 00 @ 2 50 

Pigeons, old, V dozen 1 00 @ 1 50 

Pigeons, young 2 50 ® 2 75 

Butter. 

Butter is in good demand, the medium 
and store grades of dairy and creamery 
butter being especially wanted. Receipts 
have not been large and there are no 
accumulations. Storage stocks are being 
drawn on to some extent. Increased re- 
ceipts and lower prices are anticipated 
with the first fair weather. 

Creamery, extras, ft 0> — @30 

Creamery, firsts — ®27'i 

Creamery, seconds 21 ®25 

Dairy, select 20 ®25 

Dairy, firsts 22 ®25 

Dairy, seconds 20 ®22 

California storage 24 ®26 

Mired Store 1» ®20 



January 20, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



4: 



Cheese. 

The cheese market this week seems to 
be a very little stronger in some grades, 
but, practically speaking, there is no 
change. The tendency, however, seems 
to be toward a higher level of prices, 
especially for the better grades. 

California, fancy flat, new 14 @15 

California, good to choice — @13 

California, fair to good 11 @12H 

California, "Young Americas" 13 ®14 

Eastern, new 16 @17 

Eggs. 

Receipts continue about equal to the 
present demand at prevailing quota- 
tions. The commission houses expect 
heavier receipts when the present stormy 
weather ends, and a decline in prices may 
be expected to come in with the first 
bright weather. 

California, select, large, white and fresh. 30 @32 
California, select, irregular color & size. 28 @29 

California, good to choice store 26 @27 

Eastern firsts 23 @,26 

Eastern seconds 19 @20 

Potatoes. 

Since the dropping off of the great de- 
mand from the Southern States and the 
Southwest for potatoes, there has been 
practically nothing of importance doing 
here in cheap grades, which are still in 
stock here in considerable quantities. 
Fancy stocks are still hard to procure and 
prices for these are high and steady. 

River Burbanks, $ cental 50 (® 70 

Salinas Burbanks 1 25 (3) 1 60 

Oregon Burbanks 75 (3) 1 25 

Tomales 80 @ 90 

Sweet Potatoes 1 25 ® 1 50 

Vegetables. 

Considering the poor quality of vege- 
tables now arriving in this market, the 
market is reasonably firm. Most of the 
goods now being offered have been in cold 
storage for a long time and the condition 
is very poor. Green bell peppers are now 
out of the market. Some Oregon onions 
are now on the way from the Columbia 
river, and advanced reports indicate that 
the quality of the goods shipped is excel- 
lent. Stocks of string beans and green 
peas are very low and prices are high. 
Cucumbers are practically out of the mar- 
ket, being quoted as high as $2 per dozen. 

Cauliflower. ¥ dozen 60 (3) 75 

Beans, String, ^ Bs — @ 17 

Cabbage, choice garden, $ 100 Sis. .. 1 00 @ 1 25 

Egg Plant, * lb 10 @ 15 

Garlic, » ft 4'^® 5 

Onions, Oregon, f, ctl 1 25 (3) 1 50 

Onions, New Yellow Danvers, $ ctl. 1 25 <a> l 50 
Onions, Australian Brown, ctl... 1 25 (3> 1 50 

Peas, Green, $ fi> — @ 12^ 

Tomatoes, ^ box or crate 1 50 ffl 1 75 

Artichokes, $ doz 50 (3) 1 25 

Carrots, f, sack 65 (3) 75 

Hubbard Squash, $, ton — ©20 00 

Note.— Large boxes are what are known to the 
trade as "pay boxes," which have to be returned 
or paid for. They are open top, with hand holes in 
the ends, and weigh when filled from 50@60 B>s 
gross. Small boxes are free boxes, about the same 
as the regular fruit box, weighing when full from 
20 to 30 fbs. gross. 

Fresh Fruits. 

Nearly all kinds of fresh fruits are out 
of the market, apples and pears being 
still the only deciduous fruits offering, 
except a little cold storage. The demand 
for both apples and pears has been fair, 
though the quality of the offerings are in 
some cases poor. Winter Neli pears shows 
a further slight advance. Some poor 
quality apples are now selling as low 
as 50c. 

Apples, choice to select, $ 50-lb bx 125 (3) 175 
Apples, good to choice, ft 50-lb. box 75 @ 1 00 

Apples, common 50 @ 75 

Pears, Winter Nelis 2 25 (5) 2 75 

Dried Fruits. 

The local market for dried fruits shows 
very little change, although the wet 
weather has a tendency to weaken those 
lines which are in good supply. As a rule, 
however, stocks are low and there is but 
little prospect of any being held over for 
the next year. Therefore, the rain will, 
in general, have but little effect on quota- 
tions. In fact, prices on almost all dried 
fruits continue very steady, though the 
amount of business done is small. Retail- 
ers are all taking stock at this time of 
the year, and they are not busying them- 
selves with much buying. It is to be ex- 
pected, however, that within a week or 
two there will be a marked change. Apri- 
cots are higher and are generally held at 
about half a cent above former quotations. 

EVAPORATED OR BLEACHED. 

Apples, 50-B) boxes, rings, pressed, good to 

choice 8 @ 8>i 

Apples, extra choice to fancy, 50-ft boxes. 8V4® 9H 

Apricots, Royal, good to choice, f» B> 8 @ 8J£ 

Apricots, Royal, fancy 9 @ 9y, 

Pigs, 10-ft box, 1-ft cartons 55 @62y, 

Nectarines, White and Stan wick, fi lb... 8 ® Shi 

Nectarines, red, lb — (S> 8 

Peaches, unpeeled, good to choice 8J£ 

Peaohes, unpeeled, fancy to extra fancy. . 9 @ 8tf 

Pears, standard, B> — @ 84 

Pears, choice to fancy 10 @12 

Plums, Black, pitted 554® 6% 



WOOL SALE. 

The Century Mercantile Company is conducting 
regular sales at its warehouse. This interests all 
growers. Pull particulars by mail. Office, 14 
Sansome St., San Francisco. 



Plums. Red, pitted 7 ©8 

Plums, Yellow, pitted 6 @ 8 

Prunes, Silver, good to fancy 55£® 8S4 

Prunes, in bags, 4 sizes, — @ — c; 40-50S, 5M@5i4c; 
50-608, 4V4@4?ic; 60-70s, 4@4^c; 70-80S. 3H®3%c; 
80-90S, 3@3J4c; 90-1008, 2&@3c ; small, 2*/,@2%c. 
COMMON SUN-DRIED. 

Apples, sliced 5 @ 5K 

Apples, quartered 43£@ h% 

Pigs, White, in bulk 2y,@ 3 

Figs, Black 2}4@ 3 

Raisins. 

The raisin situation seems to have 
cleared and prices are now considered 
pretty well established. The Mercantile 
Company, which includes most of the big 
packing houses, which bought the stock 
of the Raisin Growers' Company last 
week, has named prices, which, it is be- 
lieved, will be maintained for some time 
to come. These are generally a little 
lower than the ruling quotations for some 
time back. The outlook for the coming 
crop has been improved considerably by 
the rains, but as jet it is too early for the 
1906 crop to have any bearing on prices. 
Holders of raisins believe that last year's 
crop will be entirely exhausted before the 
new goods come in. 

(Fresno delivery except otherwise specified,) 

London Layers, 2-crown, 20-lb box... 1 25 @ 

London Layers, 3-crown, 20-lb box 1 30 @ 

Fancy Clusters, 4-crown, 20-B> box 1 75 @ 

Dehesas, 20- ft box 2 00 ® 

Imperials, 20-ft box . 2 50 @ 

2- Crown Standard loose Muscatel 454® — c 

3- Crown Standard i%® — c 

4- Crown Standard 45£@ — c 

Seedless Thompsons, 50-lb boxes 4)4® — c 

Seedless Sultanas 4 <& — c 

Seedless Muscatels 35£@ — c 

Fancy 16-oz. Seeded 6 ® — c 

Choice, 16-oz. Seeded 5*® — c 

Fancy, 12-oz. Seeded 43£@ — c 

Choice, 12-oz. Seeded 4%@ — c 

Fancy Seeded, bulk 5%® — c 

Choice Seeded, bulk 5!4® — c 

Seeded Seedl. Muscatels, 16 oz 5 ® — c 

Seeded Seedl. Muscatels, 16 oz 5 @ — c 

Seeded Seedl. Muscatels. 12oz 4%(3) — c 

Seeded Seedl. Muscatels, bulk 



2 00 


®8 00 


1 25 


(3)1 


75 


1 00 


(d>\ 


40 


65 


Ur\ 


HI 


1 50 


(o>2 


11(1 


1 00 


@1 


25 


60 


@ 


75 


1 00 


@1 


50 


3 00 


@4 


00 



Citrus Fro Its. 

The orange market is weaker, the 
market having gone down for all, except 
strictly fancy grades, owing to the in- 
creased accumulations. A good deal of 
poor stock is coming in. Lemons are be- 
ing held at former figures, and there is no 
appreciable change in this market. 
Grape fruit is up, some sales having been 
made at $2.25, with the possibility of 
higher figures within a few days. 
Oranges, fancy 



Oranges, standard 

Oranges, Seedlings 

Lemons, California, fancy, $ box... 
Lemons, California, good to choice. 

Lemons, California, standards 

Grape Fruit, $ box, new 

Limes, f* box 

Nats. 



There is but little movement in nuts, 
although the stocks on hand are gradu- 
ally passing out of first hands. Prices 
are still holding at the old figures, though 
quotations may have been shaded by 
holders who came through the holidays 
with larger stocks than they had hoped 
for. Walnuts are in light supply and are 
being more firmly held than is the case 
with almonds. The outlook is for a bear 
walnut market before the next crop comes 
in, and prices may move up a month or 
two from now. 

Peanuts, fair to prime Wt@ ^>Vt 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 1 soft shell — @13 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 2 soft shell — @ 9 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 1 hard shell — @1254 

Cal. Walnuts. No. 2 hard shell — @ 854 

Almonds, IXL, * ft 11/,@12K 

Almonds, Ne Plus Ultra, $ ft 11 @12 

Almonds, Nonpareil, $ lb 11 (S13 

Almonds, Languedoc, $ ft 8 J4@ — 

Almonds, Golden State, $ 8> 8 @— 

Hard Shell, ^ ft 5 13)— 



Transfers of Holstein Friesians. 



Recorded sales of registered Holstein 
Friesian cattle in California, reported 
for the Pacific Rural Press by F. L. 
Houghton, Brattleboro, Vt., secretary 
of the Holstein Friesian Association of 
America: 

BULLS. 

De Kol Hengerveld Burke Mechthide and Rouble 
Creamelle De Kol Prince, Chas. D. Pierce to 
Minor & Thornton, Fresno. 



MAIL ORDER HOUSES. 



Do you get the price list of the IMPERIAL CASH 
STORE? If not, better send for it to-day. The 
best, cheapest and most reliable Mail Order House 
on the Pacific Coast. 531 Washington Street, San 
Francisco, California. 



TURKEYS 

We have been handling Turkeys in this market 
for the past thirty years, and with such a long ex- 
perience can give you the best results. Full 
weight, full prices and prompt returns is our 
motto. Write us for informaiion. 

D. E. ALLISON & CO., Inc. 

117-119 Washington St., San Francisco. 





Orchard id Park 

T\a/o Horse. 





WARRANTED to be MORE POWERFUL and of GREATER 
CAPACITY than any other traction spraying machine manu- 
factured. For orchard and park use, and DESIGNED 
ESPECIALLY FOR LARGE OPERATIONS. Convertible for 
use in all field work, such as potatoes, grape vines, beans, 
beets, melons, cucumbers, wild mustard, and so forth. 

There is every reason why our "Auto Spray" No. 23 should do and should be what we claim for it. 
The illustrations annexed are reproduced from actual photographs of the machine. Hence not a 
particle of exaggeration. A man with any idea of mechanics can see at a glance that this machine has 
been built on mechanical lines. The mechanism is equal to that of a modern locomotive This 
machine is designed for use in extensive orchards with large trees, and of course will do smaller 
operations equally well. Just here we are going to ask you to read what Mr. Chas. W. Burnett of 
Phelps, N. Y., wrote us recently after having used this "Auto-Spray" No. 23 throughout one season. 

"I am pleased to give you a report of my experience with your horse power machine the past 
season. In spraying apple trees it performed beautifully, carrying a pressure of 125 to 140 pounds on 
trees 30 years old and 33 feet apart in the row; in fact we had power to spare as the machine would 
build up 2 pounds pressure for every foot we drove. You have surely solved the problem of orchard 
spraying effectively and cheaply, and the manner in which your machine does its work is not only a 
credit to its builder but a lasting pleasure to the purchaser. 

"In spraying potatoes the machine gives us equally good satisfaction. We found that one pump 
would carry 6 nozzles at a pressure from 110 to 150 pounds with an overflow. With this pressure at our 
command we did very thorough and rapid work. We ran the machine over something like 100 acres." 

We have known all along that it was possible to build a traction machine capable of handling 
large trees and large orchards successfully. Some growers have favored gasoline outfits. From our 
standpoint we believe that even if a gasoline outfit could be bought for half the cost of our "Auto- 
Spray" No. 23, it would be a mistake to invest in one. As a matter of fact, however, a gasoline outfit 
will cost twice as much as this traction rig, and when you have a gasoline outfit you pay for every 
particle of power you generate. Not only that, but you have to pay large bills for repairs. Your outfit 
will likely break down in the middle of your spraying season, perhaps several times. It also requires 
an expensive and competent man to manage such an outfit. Any man who can drive horses or handle a 
plow can use our "Auto-Spray" No. 23 and without annoyance. If you have ever seen a gasoline outfit 
in operation you know that two horses can handle it only with the greatest difficulty, and this only 
when the ground is hard and the pull is short. Did you ever see a gasoline outfit mounted on four 
wheels turn at the end of a row? If so, imagine how much trouble is saved when you have your outfit 
mounted on two wheels. You notice that we are comparing " Auto-Spray" No 23 with a gasoline out- 
fit. This is because there is nothing else in capacity or power that compares with our traction 
machine. 

Not only is this machine cheap as compared with a gasoline outfit, but it is still cheap as compared 
with any other traction machine on the market. It is cheap because every journal is machined to a fit. 
Every line is according to the rules of mechanics. There is not one ounce of waste material and yet 
every part Is equally strong. 

We do not ask you to take our word entirely about our machines. We can give you any amount of 
reference. For instance, we take the following statements from letters recently received from Mr. 

L. L. Crocker of Loomis, Cal. " I now claim I have the best and cheapest power spraying 

machine in California. It will cause a great many gasoline outfits in this State to hang up their 

fiddles. They are not in it alongside of this machine You see I am very much enthused over 

your power machines because I know they are the best spray outfit made in the world. Tell the people 
that your machine will spray two to four thousand trees per day with three men and one span of horses. 
There are no limbs or portions of the tree not thoroughly sprayed. Not one-half the spray is lost as is 
usual with hand machines. The tallest trees as well as the smaller ones get a thorough spraying. No 
labor. No expense for power." 

A detailed description of the " Auto-Spray" No. 23 would call attention to the heavy Sarven wheels 
with 4-inch tread. Axle made of heavy cold rolled shafting. Independent eccentric drive to each 
pump. The eccentrics bored to a fit within three thousandths of an inch. The bed frame is steel, and 
both the pump and the axle upon which the eccentric is locked are joined to this steel bed frame, 
hence there is no chance of racking the tank. This simplicity of construction is fully Illustrated in 
our circular No. giving a representation of this bed frame with mechanical parts attached. 

The pump is double acting with cylinder 8 inches long and full inch stroke. The valves are all 
exposed and may be cleaned instantly. The suction is taken directly from the bottom of the solution 
tank, and the flow is controlled by a lever shut-off between the pump and the tank. The agitator works 
independent of the pump and is constant. The two pumps work independently and are thrown out and 
in action by simply moving a lever. There is also a hand lever attached to the right-hand pump by 
which it is possible to develop power while the machine is standing still. This is sometimes useful in 
field operations where one wishes to spray without driving to work up pressure. 

The 30-gallon air chamber furnished with this outfit is another unique feature. This machine will 
develop pressure at the rate of 2 pounds for every foot of motion. To understand the wonderful 
capacity of this machine you must take into consideration the fact that this pressure is developed in an 
air chamber of 30 gallons capacity. 

We would also call your attention to the complete equipment for controlling the How and pressure. 
Also the convenience with which the valves, overflow, safety valve, shift levers, lever pump handle, 
etc., may be reached by the operator sitting in his seat. 

One of the valuable features to be noticed in connection with this machine is the fact that it can be 
converted to use in the potato field, or in fact for any spray operation. A machine of large capacity 
can be used for small operations, but a machine of small capacity cannot be used for large operations. 
To convert this machine for use in the potato field one has only to detach the lead of discharge hose and 
extension pipe and substitute the ordinary potato nozzle frame; or for use in the vineyard the usual 
attachment for vineyard work is substituted. For prices of these extra attachments see our price list. 

Our object in giving you a full description of this sprayer is to put you in the position you would 
occupy if you could go to some man who is using one of these machines and ask for his honest opinion 
after use and severe test. Whenever we can refer a man to a user who is near enough so he can call 
upon him, we always secure an order. 

As in the case of all our sprayers, we warrant the " Auto-Spray" No. 23 to be as represented and to 
give satisfaction, and if it falls in any particular we will cheerfully refund the purchase price. This 
means that every user must be satisfied, and a satisfied user is our best advertisement. 

PRICES. 

"AUTO-SPRAY " No. 23— A brass piping, 30 gallon air chamber, pressure gauge, one 20-ft. lead of dis- 
charge hose, bamboo extension, nozzle cluster, 150-gallon solution tank, complete, as shown in 
illustration herewith $21 5 

SIX-ROW POTATO ATTACHMENT, complete with nozzles, if wanted as an extra $10 

VINEYARD NOZZLE FRAME, with six nozzles, three on a side, the nozzles complete!, if wanted as 
an extra i£ S 

For Sale by 

L, L, CROCKER, Loomis, CaL 



44 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 20, 1906. 



FORESTRY. 



Grazing Fees on Reserves Upheld. 

The policy of charging fees for live 
stock pastured on the forest reserves 
having been upheld by the sentiment of 
a majority of the stockmen using the 
reserves, and having been approved by 
the President, the efforts of the Forest 
Service are now directed toward ren- 
dering the grazing privileges so secured 
by permit of the fullest value to the 
user consistent with the permanent 
good of the reserves. 

Since the first grazing regulations 
were issued by the Secretary of Agri- 
culture on July 1 last the Forest Ser- 
vice has attentively watched their 
working in practice. It became evi- 
dent that they would need certain modi- 
fications to assure to stockmen a more 
equitable use of the range without in 
the least loosening those essential 
restrictions on which the very existence 
of the live-stock industry depends. 
From the first, the main body of the 
grazing interests quickly grasped the 
advantages of grazing under a system 
of regulation, and justly appreciated 
the fairness of a reasonable charge 
which would secure both the grazing 
privilege and a permanent use of the 
range. Naturally enough, the terms 
of the grazing regulations have called 
forth discussion and suggestion, but, 
with the exception of Colorado, pro- 
tests have been received from no graz- 
ing State calling for more than the 
amendment of certain of the restric- 
tions under which the grazing privilege 
was to be paid for. The protest of 
Colorado grazing interests against the 
payment of any grazing fee whatever 
led to the conference held on December 
1 at Glenwood Springs, at which rep- 
resentatives of live-stock owners con- 
ferred with the Forester. Certain con- 
cessions for which the experience of the 
Forest Service with the new regula- 
tions had paved the way were then 
agreed to by the Forester. These con- 
cessions will be included in the revised 
edition of the grazing regulations which 
the Secretary of Agriculture will issue 
on January 1, when the charge for 
grazing permits will go into effect as 
planned. 

Among the new regulations to go in 
force on January 1 are these: 

Regulation 14 provides for the con- 
struction and maintenance of drift or 
division fences, under certain condi- 
tions, without charge other than the 
regular grazing fee. 

Regulation 17 has been amended so as 
to provide that: "Whenever any stock 
is removed before the expiration of 
the permit, it can be replaced by other 
stock to fill out the number covered by 
the permit, if the nearest forest officer 
is notified at once of such action." This 
amendment is designed to give permit 
holders the full use of their permits. 

Regulation 21 is amended so that all 
stock will be required to conform not 
only to the quarantine regulations of 
the Bureau of Animal Industry, as 
heretofore, but to all live-stock laws of 
the State or Territory in which the 
reserve is located. Rangers will imme- 
diately report any violation of the live- 
stock laws, and will assist stockmen to 
protect their property against theft. 

Regulation 22 is amended so as to 
allow more freedom in the use of pri- 
vate lands owned or leased within 
reserves by stockmen whose stock must 
cross reserve lands to reach such hold- 
ings. 

The amendment to Regulation 24 
defines more specifically the privileges 
allowed in the construction and mainte- 
nance of pastures, and provides that 
"The agreement for the privilege 
granted under Regulations 14 or 24 may 
be made to cover a period of from one 
to five years, provided it stipulates 
that failure to secure a renewal of the 
grazing permit in connection with 
which it is granted will cancel the 
agreement for the maintenance of the 
drift or division fence, or pasture." 

A special concession was also made 
in grazing permits on cattle for the 
season of 1906, in order to protect and 
assist home builders by giving a half 
rate on cattle up to the number allowed 
in the highest permit of the lower half 




SEPARATOR 
) FACTS 




you 



Jus! fads — (hat's al 
want. Facts can't hurt you nor Tubular Cream Separators. 
Facts prove Tubulars outwear all other makes five to ten times over. 

On August 2d, 1904, we started a No. 9 hand driven Dairy Tubular, 
rated capacity 900 lbs. per hour, on the hardest test a separator was 
ever put to — an endurance test to last until the wearing parts give 
way. This Tubular has now run 50 hours a week for 43 weeks— and 
is still running. Every week of this test is equal to a year's service 
in a ten cow dairy. No other separator made could stand such a test. 



24 Years' Work— Ho Repairs 

II. mi-* run 1,200 

Pound** .t'parated 1.0RO,000 

Turn* crank 8.155,760 

Turn, al howl 1,158,000,000 

OH uned 8 uuurtu 

Time oil I nit All. mi 1 iiiln. 

Time adjusting None 

Kepulra None 



43 Years' Work— 75o Repairs 

Hours run / 2. "150 

l'ound. neparnted... 1.DR5.000 

Turns ol' crank 5,652,070 

Turns of bowl 1,864.000,000 

Oil used 5H quarts 

Time oiling About 7 mln. 

Time adjusting 10 mln. 

Kepairs 75 cents 



After 24 weeks, the balls in the frictionless bearing supporting the 
bowl showed wear. This was natural, for each had rolled over 
32,000 miles. Renewing balls cost only 75 cents and ten minutes ad- 
justing, yet made this Tubular as good as new. All Tubulars are equally 
durable. Catalogue P-131 tells about them. Write for it today. 

THE SHAKPLES SEPARATOR. CO. 
Toronto. Canada West Chester, Pa. Chicago, Illinois 



4T0&BUTTER| 
LOST THIS 
~ IWAY1 




WHICH * 




Which way do you skim your milk ? 
It is hard sometimes to realize just how 
great the loss of cream is with crocks and 
pans. Some people may not believe that a 

u. s. 

CREAM SEPARATOR 

skims enough closer than the old way to increase their butter vield one-fourth 
or more, but it does. Users say so. Here's an every-day example— 

"Alturas, Cal., Sept. 1, 1905. 
"The U. S. Separator beats them all for ease of .handling and clean 
skimming. When we got the No. 7 we were making 40 lbs. of butter 
per week with pans. The first week that we run the Separator we 
made 60 lbs. and with less work.— KELLY BROS." 

For additional proofs write for our interesting free catalogue 

VERMONT FARM MACHINE CO., Bellows Falls. Vt. 

4»6A 18 centrally located warehouses in United Stales and Canada 



u — s 



Prompt Delivery Assured 



to California customers from San Francisco warehouse 
No delays. Address all letters to Bellows Falls, Vt. 



DAIRY AND CREAMERY SUPPLIES S,:,", 



AND 

WITH 

THE 



DE LAVAL SEPARATORS 



we are placed in an advanced position to furnish the latest and best goods for 
every branch of the Dairy and Creamery business. The newest, the latest and 
the best always in stock. Our complete Catalogue mailed free. 

DE LAVAL DAIRY SUPPLY CO. 

9 and II Drumm St., San Francisco 107 First St., Portland 112 2nd Ave. South, Seattle 



of all permits issued in each State or 
Territory. The limit, based on per- 
mits issued during 1905, is found to be 
as follows: 

Half-rate 

State or Territory. Limit. 

Arizona 75 

California 50 

Colorado 60 

Idaho 80 

Kansas 50 

Montana 60 

Nebraska 50 

New Mexico 30 

Oklahoma 50 

Oregon 80 

South Dakota 30 

Utah 30 

Washington 30 

Wyoming 100 



Rust - Proof Wheat. 

Seed Wheat For Sale. 

" HOBS," a rust proof, prolific, hardy, and very 
strong flour variety, bred by the Australian Gov- 
ernment Expert; guaranteed pure and true to 
name; 11.25 a Bushel f. o. b. Sydney. 

CHARLES BINNIE, 

Box 1075 U. P. O., Sydney, Australia. 



PLANT THE 

Lob Ingir 

SMYRNA FIG. 

This is the world-famed Fig of Commerce. 

You will save money by patronizing us. 

We are selling good stocky trees at 115.00 per 100; 
Capris at the same price. 

LET US BOOK YOU It ORDER NOW. 

MAYWOOD COLONY NURSERY, 

CORNING, CAL. 

W. HERBERT SAMSON, Prop. 



Rry on household 

PfllPPf jQtPQS^ "S 
"** Colorado or 

along the Pacific coast. For rates write Bekins Van 
& Storage Co., 11 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 
244 S. Broadway, Los Angeles; X95 Washington St.. 
Chicago; 1016 Bdwy, Oakland. Send 2c for city maps. 



I 



Our 
Nurseries 

Comprise over 1190 acres 
0\ situated In the best 
ISO location In the country 
for producing the most 
perfect and healthy 





and by our system of growing different 
varieties in our separate nurseries we are 
able to grow them all true to name 



DECIDUOUS. 

Apples, Pears, 

Plums, Prunes, 

Cherries. 

NUT TREES. 

Walnuts and Chestnuts 

On their own roots and grafted trees. 

CITRUS. 

Oranges, Lemons, 

Pomelos, Citrons. 

GRAPES. 

drafted on their own roots. All the lead- 
ing table, wine and raisin sorts. 

Berry Plants, 

Burbank's Crimson Rhubarb 

Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs, 

Roses, Palms, 

Greenhouse Plants. 

CALIMYRNA FIGS. 

Our great specialty. 
None genuine without our seal. 




CATALOGUE. 

We will mail our large, profusely Illus- 
trated catalogue. English or Spanish, to 
any address on receipt of 5c postage. 

Price List on application. 



Paid-Up Capital, #200,000. 




January 20, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



45 



Seeds, Plants, Etc* 



WALNUT TREES 

At Wholesale or Retail. From El Monte Seed, 
extra well rooted. 

CHERRIES and GENERAL NURSERY 
STOCK. 

JONATHAN APPLE for hill sections. 

RIVERSIDE NURSERY, 



HENRY SHAW. 



320 River St., Santa Cruz. 



BLUE GUM, RED GUM and 

MONTEREY CYPRESS 

Transplanted In Boxes 

WRITE FOR PRICES. 

W. A. REINHOLDT, 

MAIN STREET NURSERY PETALUMA, CAL- 



BURBANK'S 

Crimson Winter Rhubarb 

ONE OF OUR SPECIALTIES. 

81.50 per dozen, $7.50 per 100, $50 per 1000. 

WAGNER'S NURSERY, 



Pbones: Home 1291; Sunset 1297. 



Pasadena. Cal. 



TREES! 

80,000 APPLE TREES in 42 Varieties. 

Extra well rooted. Clean. Grafted on whole 
roots and free from all pests. Also an extra line 
stock of Prunes, Pears, Plums and Walnuts. 

Write for price list. A. F. SCH EIDECKER, 
Prop. Pleasant View Nursery, Sebastopol, Cal. 

PECAN TREES AND NUTS. 

Gold and Silver Medals awarded our Nut and 
Tree Exhibits. St. Louis, 1904. 

High-grade budded and grafted trees of all best 
varieties. 

770 acres in Pecans. 

Write for Catalogue "J," with which is incorpo- 
rated a valuable treatise upon Pecan Culture. 
THE G. M. BACON PECAN CO., Inc., 
DeWitt, Ga. 



NURSERIES 

GROW THE 

BEST TREES 

T. J. TRUE, Sebastopol, Cal. 




Y 




EES 



From carefully hand-selected seed. 
Postal gets prices. 

A. MILLS, 



Anaheim, California. 



ORANGE TREES 

Three and four year old 

Improved Washington Navel Trees 

for this season's planting. 

REDUCED PRICES FOR LARGE ORDERS 

ADDRESS: Manager, SPRING VALLEY RANCH 
Rocklin, Placer Co., Cal. 



PACIFIC NURSERIES, 

3041 Baker St., San Francisco, Cal. 
and Milbrac, San Mateo Co. 

I m 1 ^ Two-year-old 

1V.w9lLS field grown. 

Rhododendrons, Camellias, Azaleas, 
Daphne, and other hardy flowering 
Shrubs and Vines. 

Acacias, Pines, Cypress, and a large 
collection of Trees. 

Cypress, Blue and Red Gums, Pines 
transplanted in boxes. 

GUM TREES 

IN VARIETY, 

including RUDIS. ROSTRATA, VIMINALIS. 

MONTEREY CYPRESS, 
MONTEREY PINES, 

All Transplanted In Boxes. 

Write for prices, stating quantity wanted. 
W. A. T. STRATTON, PETALUMA, CAL. 

FOR Snow's Grafting Wax* 

IN USE A 1. 1. OVER THE STATE! 

For sale by all the large grocers, or 

p. A. SNOW, Lincoln Ave., San Jose. Cal. 



FRUIT TREES and 
ORNAMENTAL PLANTS. 

Australian Rye Grass, Alfalfa, 
Vegetable and Flower. 
(Agent for the California Nursery Co ) 
THOS. MEHERIN, Seedsman and Nurseryman, 
552 Battery St. (P. O. Box 2059) San Francisco, Cal. 



SEEDS: 



Established 1884. 

MARTINEZ NURSERY. 

THOS. S. DUANE, PHOP. 
A complete stock of all leading varieties of 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

ORANGES, LEMONS, GRAPEVINES, 
CAL. BLACK WALNUTS, SHADE TREES, ETC. 

Write for Prices. 



S.W.WARSHALL&SON 

NURSERYMEN, 

FRESNO, CALIFORNIA. 

Address all communications to P. O. Box 161 
Large Stock of 

Grape Vines, Fruit Trees and Citrus 
and Deciduous Fruit and Orna- 
mental Stock. 

All Stock First Class. 



C0C0ZELLE BUSH 
SQUASH. 

Matures in ten weeks. 
Continues bearing till frost. 

Yields more tons per acre than any other squash 
or pumpkin. 

Can be planted five feet apart each way. 

Can be planted until August 1st and mature 
crop. 

The best stock squash. 

Trial packet, 10c; 1 lb., 50c; 10 lbs., $4.00, post- 

P PIONEER NURSERY, 

MONROVIA, CAL. 



R00TEDVINES. 

Tokay, Emperor, 
Thompson Seedless, Sultana, 
Malaga, Muscatel, Zinfandel. 

Also MUIR PEACH TREES. 



Fowler Nursery Co. 

FOWLER, CAL. 



SEED: 

Make sure a yield of quantity and 
quality. When your father planted 
Ferry's, they were the best on the 
market, but they have been improv- 
ing ever since. We are experts in 
flower and vegetable seeds. 
1906 Seed Annual, beautifully illus- 
trated, free to all applicants. 
0. M. FERRY & CO., Detroit, Mich. 



^OUR CATALOGUER* 

m tj^P opens with a triumphant arch 

made up of over 40 varieties of vege- 
tables the world has learned to value, and 
of which wo were the original Intro- 
ducers. It has some both new and pood 
for this season, and a vast variety of 
standard vegetableand flower st-ed, with 
Intelligent instructions for the cultivat- 
ing of all of them. Catalogue FREE. 
J. J. H. GREGORY & SON 
Marblehead, Mass* 



^SEED e 
^rALO&Ja 



PURE Florida Favorite Melon Seeds. If you want 
genuine seeds of this variety, write CRENSHAW 
BROS., Tampa, Fla. 



C. C. MORSE & CO. 




The well known SEED GROWERS, formerly 
at Santa Clara, now located at 

815-817 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



We are now prepared to sell our Seeds in 
any quantity, wholesale or retail. 

We are Headquarters for ONION Seed and 
all kinds of Vegetable Seed. 

Also SWEET PEAS and all kinds of Flower 
Seeds. 

Also ALFALFA and all kinds of Farm and 
Field Seeds. 

SEEDS OF THE HIGHEST QUALITY ONLY, 

WRITE FOR HANDSOME NEW ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 

■ t T APPLE— Leading Varieties- 

rrPPO I APRICOT— Blenheim, Hemskirk and Royal. 

J ALMOND— I.X.L., Nonpariel, Drake's Seedling. 

Ill I I I UUU ■ PRUNE— French, Imperial, Silver and Sugar. 

WALNUT-Burbank's Soft Shell. 

GRAF»E V/INES- Wine, Table and Raisin Varieties. 

A COMPLETE ASSORTMENT OF SMALL FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS. 
VEGETABLE, FLOWER AND FARM SEEDS. 
BURR CLOV/E R SEED— The Best Soil-Improving Crop. 

cor so 3 lic ( i?ed. nce TRUMBULL & BEEBE, 

Seedsmen and Nurserymen. 419-421 SANSOME ST.. SAN FRANCISCO, CAL' 



SEED TALK. 



Complete and reliable informa- 
tion and advice on seeds, planting, 
etc., in our beautifully illustrated 
catalogue, 1906. 

Mailed Free. 

HIGHEST GRADE SEEDS ONLY. 

New and rare varieties of Flower 
and Vegetable Seeds, Fruit Trees 
(including Bartlett Pears), Orna- 
mental Plants, Roses, etc. 



COX SEED CO. 

411. 413, 415 SANSOME STREET, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



FRUIT TREES 



All 

Varieties 



All 

Varieties 




[ 




Citrus Trees .v Ornamental Trees 

When you buy your Nursery Stock, buy same 
from a reliable Arm. We have mnde a life 
study of the Nursery Business. Our relia- 
bility is vouched for by our customers In 
every county in the State to whom we have 
sold stock during the past 17 years. 

Write us and send in a list of your wants. 

Catalogue and Price List FREE. 

The Fresno 
Nursery Co., inc. 

(Capital $50,000.00) 
Fresno, California 

Established 1889 320 Aches 



CITRUS TREES, 

THE PHILIPPI NURSERIES, 

ROCKLIN. CAL. 



THE CROCKER BARTLETT PEAR 

Is out of sight compared with other pears. 
GOLDEN RULE NURSERY, Loomis, Oal. 



Tulare Lake 



or 



Utah 



ALFALFA SEED. 

Do yon want to buy your Seed direct 
from headquarters and save money? 

Write us for Samples and Prices either 
in car lots or less. 

KUTNER-GOLDSTEIN CO., 

HANFORD, CAL. 

Largest Dealers in Alfalfa Seed 
in the State. 



Established 1876. 




JAMES O'NEILL, Prop. 

Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Grower of Leading Varieties of 

Deciduous Fruit Trees. 

NO IRRIGATION. 

No Borers, Other Pests or Disease. 



SPECIftLT Y 

Apricots, Plums and Prunes on Myrobolan Root. 



SEND YOUR LIST FOR PRICES. 



AUSTRALIAN 

RYE GRASS SEED (Perennial) 
PRICE, FIVE CENTS PER POUND. 

DISCOUNT ON LARGE AMOUNTS. 
Samples on request. 

VIERRA BROS., Moss, Monterey Co., Cal. 



46 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 20, 1906. 



Patrons of Husbandry* 



Tulare Grange Meeting. 

To the Editor: Tulare Grange in- 
stalled its officers for the ensuing year, 
yesterday, the sixth. The retiring 
Worthy Master, Emmet Barber, being 
the installing officer. There was a 
large attendance to witness the in- 
stallation services and the usual excep- 
tionally good lunch afterwards. 

The following officers were installed: 
Worthy Master, Sister Amanda O. 
Swanson; Overseer, Brother T. J. 
Lawson; Lecturer, Bro. John Tuohy; 
Steward, Bro. E. C. Shoemaker; Assis- 
tant Steward, Bro. F. H. Styles; 
Chaplain, Sister Caroline P. Styles; 
Treasurer, Bro. E. E. Davis; Secre- 
tary, Sister Bertha I. Morris; Gate 
Keeper, Bro. A. J. Woods; Ceres, 
Sister Emma Isley; Pomona, Sister 
Ada Griffith; Flora, Sister Myra Field, 
L. A. Steward, Sister Ella Nelson; 
Organist, Sister Ella Styles. 

The new Worthy Master makes a 
dignified presiding officer and impress- 
ively conferred the third and fourth 
degrees on a class of two. 

After installation Bro. E. C. Shoe- 
maker, on behalf of Tulare Grange, 
presented the retiring Worthy Master 
with a Past Master's badge. 

Bro. E. C. Shoemaker reported obit- 
uary resolutions on the death of Bro. 
Wm. Johnston, Past Worthy Master of 
California State Grange. 

The program committee reported a 
program of subjects to be considered 
at the several meetings of the Grange 
for the next six months. 

Jan. (>th, National Grange topic. 
National Grange topics will be consid- 
ered at the first meeting of each month; 
local Grange topics will be considered 
at the second meeting each month. 

Jan. 20th, 'What are the advantages 
of an agricultural education to the 
young man who follows farming? ' As- 
signed to Dr. Field. 

Feb. 17th, 'In the distribution of 
water for irrigation, should the allot- 
ment be in accordance to the require- 
ments of the crop to be grown? ' 

March 16th, 'Should Tulare Grange 
encourage the culture of sugar beets 
in Tulare county?' Assigned to Bro. 
Henry Hunsaker. 

April 21st, Does it pay farmers to 
import high-priced stock?' Bro. E. C. 
Shoemaker. 

May 19th, 'For income purposes, 
what fruits should we raise on our 
Tulare farms?' J. Forrer. 

June 16th, 'Do good roads add to the 
value of the farm and promote the en- 
joyment of farm life? ' Assigned to E. 
E. Davis. 

The necessity of the Grange sustain- 
ing the efforts of the President favor- 
ing Congressional legislation enabling 
the Interstate Commerce Commission 
to enforce its rules and orders was 
discussed thoroughly without bias or 
partisanship, all agreeing that the 
recommendations of the President are 
right and should be sustained. 

After the meeting closed a public 
meeting was held to hear Mr. Dyer, 
manager of the Pacific Sugar Company, 
on the adaptability of the soil and 
climate of Tulare county to the growth 
of sugar beets, the cost of their produc- 
tion aud the price the company will pay 
for the beets. 

Mr. Dyer's address was listened to 
with marked attention and will doubt- 
less cause many sugar beets to be 
planted in this district. T. J. 




Brabazon's POULTRY 



. suids free, 

s a dandy. Cuts of fowls from life 
f Chickens. Turkey.!, Ducks and Geese, 
70 varieties. Price of fowls and 6(88. 
Send 10c to pay postage of tine guide 
of Poultry and buying fowls. Best on earth. 

I. R Brabazon, Box 22, Glenvlew, Delavan. Wis. 




30 DAYS TRIAL 



.he bra H.,lrti«n »»ie ».« 
suongtf chicks. IP YEARS ' GUARANTEE 

(at, !„,. mCllCU lit. CO.. 720 S 1 III Si. Si. Jan. CD. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS. 

Established 36 Years. 
IMPORTERS AND BREEDERS OF ALL VARIETIES 
OF LAND AND WATER FOWLS. 

stock for Sale. Dept. 31. Box 2602, San Francisco. 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



UKO. V. KOKDJNG, Fresno, California. Breeder 
Of High grade thoroughbred HoUtein Bulla 
and Heifers. Thoroughbred Berkshire 
Boars and Bows. 



KIVERSIOK HERD HOI.STKIN CATTLE. — 

One of the largest and best in the world. Send 
for catalogue. Pierce Land & Stock Co., Stock- 
ton, Cal. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of registered Shorthorns; 
milk strain. High class stock. First-class dairy 
breeding Smooth cattle Best pedigree. P. O. 
Box 321, Petaluma, Cal. 



HO L STEIN 8 — Winners at State Fairs of every 
butter contest since 1885 in Calif. Stock near 
S. F. F. H. Burke, 30 Montgomery St., S. F. 



"HOffAKD" SHOKTHOKNS — Quinto Herd, 7? 
premiums California State Fairs 1902-3-1. Regis- 
tered cattle of beef and milking families for sale. 
Write us what you want. Howard Cattle Co., 
206 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Short Horned 
Durhams. Address E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 

A.J.C.C. JERSEYS. Service bulls of noted strains. 
Joseph Mailliard, San Geronlmo, Marin Co., Cal. 

BULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine individuals. At prices to 
suit the times, either singly or in carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm, Danville, Cal. 



PETER SAXEttt SON, Lick House, S.F.,Cal. Im- 
porters. Breeders and Dealers for past 30 years. 
All varieties Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Hogs. High 
class breeding stock. Correspondence solicited. 



JERSEYS, HOLSTEINS & DURHAMS. Bred 
specially for use in Dairy. Thoroughbred Hogs, 
Poultry. Wm. Nlles & Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeders and Exporters. Established 1876. 



POULTRY. 



WHITE LEGHORNS, White Minorcas- ranch 
bred and free range. Eggs only. Agent for 
the "Model" Incubator and Brooder — best 
made. A. Warren Robinson, Napa, California. 



WHITE HOLLAND TURKEY 8. Eggs from 
large, vigorous birds 25c. each. Chas. F. Gould, 
Chula Vista, Cal. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs— Ed. Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 



PIGEONS, Belgian Hare. Chickens, Cuinea Fowls, 
Turkeys. Cottonwood Farm, Pleasant Grove.Cal 

L. W. CLARK, Petaluma, Cal. White Leghorns, 
the white kind that lay lots of large, white eggs. 

U.B.CARRINGTON, Hay wards, Cal. White Leg- 
horns. World's Fair winners. Stock for sale. 
Eggs by sitting 100 or 1000. Send for new folder. 



SANTA TERESA POULTRY FARM, Eden 
Vale, Santa Clara Co., Cal. Wbite and Brown 
Leghorns, Wbite Wyandottes, Barred Plymouth 
Rocks, Black Minorcas, White Cochin Bantams. 



WM. N1LES A CO., Los Angeles, Cal. Nearly all 
varieties chickens, geese, ducks, peafowl, etc. 



SWINE. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodi. San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 



BERKS 11 IRE, POLAND-CHINA, CHESTER 
WHITE HOGS. Choice; Thoroughbreds. Wm. 
Nlles A Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Establ'd in 1876. 



BERK SHIRE 8— Prize Winners— bred from prize 
winners. Boars all ages. T.Waite, Perkins, Cal. 



BERKSHIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS. 

C. A. Stowe, Stockton. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 

S. H. FOUNTAIN, Dixon, Cal. Importer and 

breeder of thoroughbred Shropshire sheep. Both 
sexes for sale at all times. 



THOS. WAITE, Perkins, Cal., has the Gold Medal 

flock of South Down sheep. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GEO. H. CROLKY^SOS Sacramento St., San Fran- 
cisco. Manufac- 
turer and 
In 

of every description. Send for'catalogue— FREE 



» iv> n.r. i , ouo Sacramento St., san PTan- 
Poultfy SUppllCS 



MANHATTAN FOOD fattens stock and poultry. 
Cures all common ailments At your grocer. 



SINGLE 
COMB 



WHITE LEGHORNS. 

Thoroughbred Stock. Eggs for s"tting, II. GO for 15, 
$2.50 for 30, $3.50 for 45, $6 per 100. 

INDIAN RUNER DUCKS. 

Eggs, $1.50 for 12, $7.50 per 100. 
Send for illustrated catalogue. 

JOHN P. BODEN, 
1338 Second St., Watsonville, Cal. 



ORPINGTONS. 

SILVER CUP for BEST DISPLAY; 10% of all rib- 
bons in class to Garden Valley Yards, at San 
Francisco show Dec. 2. Illustrated folder tells the 
rest; it's free. Eggs $3 and $5 per set. Stock for sale. 

W. SULLIVAN, Agnews, Cal. 

State V.-Pres. Nat. S. C. B. O. Club. 
Member Am. Orp. Club. 



OULTRY For PROFIT 

r or pleasure, is easy if you' have a 
1906 Pattern Standard Cyphers 
^Incubator. Guaranteed to hatch more 
id healthier chicks than any other. 
' OO DAYj TRIAL. Start right ami make money. 
)fnplete outfits fur dooryard or farm. Catalogue 
d Poultry Guide pages) free if you mention 
.iu.il and send addresses of two nearby poultry raisers. 
Address nearest office. 
CYPHERS INCUBATOR CO., BUFFALO, N. Y. 
boston, Chicago, New York, Kansas City or ban lranctsco. 




12 



.80 For 
200 Egg 
INCUBATOR 



Perfect In construction and 
actum. Hatches every fertile 
eg*. Write for catalog to-day. 

GEO. H. STAHL, Qulncy, III 





PACIFIC COAST'S GREATEST IMPORTING 
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DIFFERENT 
EUROPEAN BREEDS OF HORSES. : 

Three Importations in 1905. 

THE ONLY FIRM IN CALIFORNIA HAVING A LARGE 
SELECTION OF 

Percherons, Royal Belgians, Shires, 
Clydes, French Coach and 
German Coach, always on hand. 

HORSES WILL BE SOLD ON EASY TERMS WITH THE MOST LIBERAL GUARANTEES. 
Visitors »re slwayi welcome at our stables, and correspondence is invited. Call or address 

LANDIS BROS., Folsom, California. 




Must Hatch Incubators and Brooders Have Stood the Test. 

th e M cffiSrW 1 rr?4. 0al •• Beware of others "JUST AS GOOD." 

We hatch and prepare little chicks— White Leghorns— for shipment, to all points within sixty hours 
travel from Petaluma. Now is the time to place your order. When the chicks come high, they are the 
most protltable. We also supply White Leghorn eggs for hatching. Prices for chicks and eggs on 

3d MUST HATCH INCUBATOR CO., Petaluma, Cal. 



Emery's Poultry Foods arc sold by all dealers and 
commission men because they are the BEST. 

in— i irn i — i~ti ~ b 'V sMaai 

N. OHLANDT & CO., Indiana and 24th Sts., San Francisco. 



Plows Close 



TO THE 



Trees andVlnes 




The Right Plow 



FOR- 



Orchards 
and Vineyards 

"ft Sii Benfl" 

These are the Genuine 

CHILLED PLOWS 

Made only by the 

South Bend Chilled Plow Co. 

SOUTH BEND, INDIANA. 

Pacific Implement 
Company 

13 and 15 Main St., San Francisco 

GENERAL COAST AGENTS 

Osborne Harvesting Machinery 
Osborne Farm Machinery 
Milburn Wagons 
Pontiac Buggies 
" New Way" Hay Presses 
" Iron Age" Garden Tools 
Implements of all kinds 
Rope, Twine, Oil 



January 20, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



47 



Patrons of Husbandry* 



From the State Lectures. 



To nil Members, but Especially Lecturers, 
of Subordinate and Pomona Granges, 
Greeting: 

Since last writing to the Pacific Ru- 
ral Press and other agricultural 
papers in California, I have not been 
overburdened by communications. One 
direct enquiry by an outsider and Sister 
Twitchell's letter in the last issue of 
this paper, are all. But, then, the new 
Lecturers and officers are not yet in- 
stalled. Today I am at Dinuba, Tulare 
county, to install. Master of State 
Grange Griffith is doing the same for 
San Jose, and he was to supply Santa 
Rosa with an installing officer. Doubt- 
less other Granges are inducting their 
newly elected into office. So now we 
hope all will 'get off on their right foot' 
and keep things moving. 

First, in reply to Sister Twitchell, of 
Grass Valley: Thanks for prompt re- 
sponse. So long as the faithful few, the 
old guard, are at their posts, nail to 
the mast your motto, 'Don't give up the 
ship. ' If there are but a few that meet, 
make it so social, so interesting, with 
profitable informal discussions, or com- 
paring of notes and experiences, that 
all will want to come again. Then tell 
all of the absentees you can individually 
reach, so that some of them will con- 
clude that they can't afford to stay 
away. Announce and report in your 
local paper. You might try, if con- 
venient, an occasional meeting at some 
member's home with that magic draw- 
ing announcement, ' basket dinner,' or, 
at least, 'light refreshments.' 

We should all emphasize that while 
we most of us need to learn how to 
raise the most possible and best pro- 
duce per acre, and to secure the high- 
est prices therefor, these are not the 
only or main motives that actuate the 
true Patron or Matron of Husbandry. 
We aim to raise the profession of farm- 
ing till young men and women shall 
realize that it takes as much brain- 
power, is as fascinating and may be 
made as remunerative as other profes- 
sions. Try hard to inaugurate or assist 
in some useful public improvement — 
better roads or sidewalks, ornament- 
ing or beautifying the school house or 
God's Acre, as the last resting place 
of the loved ones is sometimes called. 
Talk up and get the public to investi- 
gating and discussing the parcels post; 
or circulate some petition for some 
worthy object. Do something, and let 
the public know that the Grange is up 
and doing. 

I am glad to report that Dinuba 
Grange, Tulare county, as doing well 
and going to do better. They have a 
good, influential membership. An 
active canvass is being made and new 
proposals are received at nearly ev>sry 
meeting. I saw the editors of the two 
local papers and found they had already 
promised ample space under the head- 
ing of ' Grange Column ' if members 
will give matter and news therefor. 
I handed in enough for the first issue of 
each. In talking with public men it 
was easy to discern that they recog- 
nize the local, State and National 
Grange as potent factors for good. It 
was my pleasure to instal an excellent 
set of officers, among them a wide- 
awake Lecturer. They are to be con- 
gratulated as being in the same 
county as Tulare Grange. They will 
co-operate and fraternize. The officers 
are: Master, F. S. Clifton; Overseer, 
W. F. McCracken; Lecturer, James N. 
Patterson; Steward, C. B. Cone; As- 
sistant Steward, J. W. Fraser; Chap- 
lain, Rev. E. E. Fix; Treasurer, J. H. 
Ramm; Secretary, W. A. Bates; Gate- 
keeper, W. T. Pyott; Lady Assistant 
Steward, Mrs. S. A. Gordon; Ceres, 
Mrs. G. W. Wylie; Pomona, Miss Liz- 
zie Patterson; Flora, Miss Pearl Hamm. 
They meet in Odd Fellows' Hall at 2 
p. m. each second and fourth Saturdays. 

I add the subjects suggested by the 
Lecturer of the National Grange for 
discussion during January and Feb- 
ruary: 

1. ' Why does the Grange favor the 



removal of the revenue tax on de- 
naturized alcohol? ' 

2. ' What can the Grange do, in view 
of the present status of railroad-rate 
legislation, to promote it? ' 

3. ' How can farm-fuel supply be ob- 
tained at least cost? ' 

For February: 

1. 1 Why should a parcels post be es- 
tablished by the Government? ' (A good 
subject for public discussion; som p 
merchants will be ready to take the 
negative.) 

2. ' How can inspection (visitation by 
State deputy) of Granges be made most 
helpful to the Order? ' 

3. 1 What rules should be observed in 
providing a supply of seed for the sea- 
son's crop? ' 

Let these be supplemented by others 
of local and State interest. Don't fail 
to have a question box. 

J. W. Webb, 
Lecturer State Grange. 
Modesto, Cal. 

Florin Grange has adopted reso- 
lutions of respect to the memory of 
Senator James R. Clark, an old mem- 
ber, whose death is sincerely mourned. 



Fight Pear Blight.— Sacramento 
dispatch to Chronicle, Jan. 16: A supreme 
effort to secure effectual control of the 
pear blight, which threatens the destruc- 
tion of the pear orchards of California, 
was determined upon at a meeting of the 
Sacramento Valley Development Associa- 
tion held in Sacramento, which was at- 
tended by representatives of prominent 
fruit interests, including Lieutenant- 
Governor Anderson, manager of the Cali- 
fornia Fruit Distributers. The Depart- 
ment of Agriculture at Washington ex- 
pressed a willingness a short time ago to 
send four experienced pathologists to aid 
in directing the fight now being waged 
against this disease, but has been deterred 
by the fact that no moneys are available 
in the department for this purpose. At 
the meeting the development association 
decided to assume the responsibility of 
the field expenses of these men, estimated 
at $1,200, and so wired the department. 
This action will result in an increase in 
the working force now combating the 
blight, and will oring to California some 
of the men noted for successes in fighting 
other plant diseases. The Bartlett pear 
orchards of this State, which are threat- 
ened with destruction, are estimated to be 
worth $10,000,000. The effort to stamp 
out the pear blight is being carried on 
jointly by the State University, the State 
Horticultural Commission and the United 
States Department of Agriculture. The 
disease has practically destroyed the pear 
orchards of the San Joaquin valley, and 
only the most vigorous effort will prevent 
the destruction of the entire pear indus- 
try, one of the most important of Cali- 
fornia's horticultural industries, and the 
prompt action of the valley organization 
is regarded here as one of the most im- 
portant steps ever taken by this body. 



He that Loves 

a rosy cheek and a soft, 
smooth face uses nothing 
but the old reliable 

WILLIAMS' ITO 

Sold everywhere. Free trial sample 
for 2-cent stamp. Write for 'The 
Shavers Guide and How to Dress 
Correctly." 

The J. B. Williams Co., Glastonbury, Conn. 



THE FRESNO SCRAPER. 

3K — -4- — S Foot. 




FRESNO AGRICULTURAL WORKS 

FRESNO, CALIFORNIA. 




"33 



ir 

WW 



Edges That Last 




Probably you have bought ed^ed tools made of steel that 
was crumbly, or too soft to hold an edge, or so hard as to 
be brittle. You may have bought them for good tools, too. 
There is, however, a sure way to get tools with edges that 
last. It is simply to ask for the Keen Kutter Brand when 
buying. Keen Kutter Tools have been standard of America 
for 36 years, and are in every case the best that brains, 
money and skill can produce. They are made of the finest 
grades of steel and by the most expert tool makers. As a 
complete line of tools is sold under this brand, in buying 
anv kind of tool all you need remember is the name 

KtM MffiR 

The draw knife shown here is an example of the excellence 
of Keen Kutter Tools. It has a nicety of balance and 
"hang," which has never been successfully imitated, and 
it is made of the best steel ever put into a draw knife. In 
all the years that we have sold this tool we have never 
heard of one defective in any way. 

Yet the Keen Kutter Draw Knife is no better than all 
other Keen Kutter Tools. 

The Keen Kutter Line was awarded the Grand Prize at 
the St. Louis Fair, being the only complete line of tools 
ever to receive a reward at a great exposition. 

Following are some of the various kinds of Keen Kutter Tools: 
Axes, Adzes, Hammers, Hatchets, Chisels, Screw 
Drivers, Auger Bits, Files, Planes, Draw Knives, 
Saws, Tool Cabinets, Scythes, Hay Knives. Grass 
Hooks, Brush Hooks, Corn Knives, JSye Hoes, 
Trowels, Pruning Shears, Tinners' .Snips, Scissors, 
Shears, Hair Clippers, Horse Shears, Razors, etc., 
and Knives of all kinds. 

If your dealer does not keep Keen Kutter Tools, 
write us and we will see Hint you are supplied. 
Every Keen Kutter Tool is sold under this Mark and Motto. 
" The Recollection ol Quality 'Remains 
Long After the Price is Forgotten." 
Trade Mark Rcgiste' d. 

SIMMONS HARDWARE CO., St. Louis, and New York. 

.,IP ;! 




SEND FOR TOOL BOOKLET 




Orange Land Deal.— Porterville 
Enterprise, Jan. 12: W. A. Hall sold 
for R. E. Hyde, 100 acres of his land 
north of Tule river, near Globe, to D. A. 
Russell of Palo Alto. Mr. Russell will 
make arrangements to put out all the land 
to oranges. He intends putting down a 
well. 



CUTTER'S 

ANTHRAX and 

BLACKLEG 
VACCINES 

are given the preference by 80% 
of California stockmen because 
they give better results than 
others do. 



Write for prices, testimonials and our NEW 
booklet on ANTHRAX and BLACKLEG. 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY, 
322B Rialto Bldg. San Francisco, Gal. 



Nitrate o! 





Send for free book and prices. 

R. A. HOLCOMBE&CO. 

Dealers, 
124 CALIFORNIA STREET, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA. 



PATENTS 



DEWEY, STRONG & CO. 

(ESTABLISHES 1860.) 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, 
and WASHINGTON, D. C. 



OLDEST AND LARGEST AGENCY ON 
THE PACIFIC COAST. 



WHY TO BE PREFERRED? 



BECAUSE- 

Inventors have the opportunity to ex 
First : plain their inventions personally am 

directly to the men who write the sped 
Bcations and make the drawings, so that all the 
Inventor's Ideas will be correctly conveyed, avoic 
lng mistakes and vexatious delays. 

Inventors living at a distance from San 
Second : Francisco may, where they so desire, 

consult directly with our Washington 

office. 

Inventors receive the benefit of over 
Third: thirty years' continuous, successful 
experience. 

A description of the patented lnven- 
Fourth : tion will appear In the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. 

We have a complete Patent Library, Including 
official records since 1793 and full certified cople8 
of all patents issued since 1872. These a:e for 
Tree examination by any one who desires. 

We attend to all business connected with pa- 
tents, such as the preparation of Caveats, Trade- 
Marks, Design Patents, Assignments, Licenses 
and Agreements. We make examinations as to 
the patentability of inventions, searches, and giv« 
opinions as to infringements, or the scope or va- 
lidity of Patents. Our Branch Offices and arrange 
ments for Foreign Patents, Trade-Marks, etc., art, 
very extensive iind complete. Inventors' Guld« 
Bent free on application. 



330 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 



AND 



918 F St., Washington, D. C. 



HENRY B. LISTER, 

ATTORNEY AT LAW. 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds for 
New York. Room 14, fourth door, Mills Building, 
San Franolsco. Telephone Bush 848. 



48 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 20, 1906. 




mi 

j * A 



You Can USE This 
Engine Before 
You Buy It 

You can have it on your farm, working 
for you, until you are absolutely satisfied on 
the following points: — 

1st: That It will do MORE work, at LESS cost, In LESS time than any OTHER 

POWER or any OTHER gas or gasoline enirlno on the market. 
2nd: That It Is the most SIMPLE, the easiest enirlne to run. and the most durable. 
3rd: That It Is the most profitable machine on your farm, and that you will sare 
Its cost In one season. 

After you know what the fiimnlirSiv Ellfline w!l1 do > y° u can amn S c 

to buy it. The terms »™pHCITy ^ easy- We make 

them easy so all can own an engine and make it pay for itself. We guarantee 
every Simplicity Engine we sell. The thousands now in daily use, doing every class 
of work, in every section of the country, and not one call a day for repairs, is the 
greatest endorsement we have. If you will write us we will send you by return mail our 

rnrr TDI1I ACCED by which you can use the engine and be convinced that it will do 

rilCC I nlAL UriCll what we say before you decide to buy it. We will also send you our 

rnrr AITII flfillC which illustrates our engine IN USE in many ways and tells HOW 

rnCC UA I ALUUUC to operate and care for a gasoline engine. We will also send a 

[prr D AAV written by a farmer telling how he SAVED $1,000.00 in one year with an engine and 

| REE DUUrt we will send you letters from hundreds of other users telling their experiences. 

We advise every man who uses and requires power to write us. We have the greatest 
engine and the greatest offer ever made. Write us now, while you think of it. Address: 

Western Malleable & Grey Iron Mfg. Co., 427 Chase St., Milwaukee, Wis. 



THE WESTERN GAS ENGINE 

" From Factory Direct to User." 

Designed and built by Western experts, for West- 
en use with Western fuel In construction the 
Western embodies many Original, yet practical 
ideas, which place it in advance or any other 
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IRRIGATION, POWER AND ELECTRIC PLANTS, 
ANY SIZE FROM 5 TO 600 H. P. 

burns cheapest fuel — gasoline, distillate or crude 
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over any other style. 

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 

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MAXIMUM POWER AT MINIMUM COST. how and why the Western excels all others; it 

gives the facts-the proof. I.earn what Western engines are doing for others Send your name 

today— ask for latest issue, A7. 

Western Gas Engine- Company, 

908-932 N. MAIN ST , LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA. 





U7VY 



Are the Best for all Conditions 
in Pumping for 

Irrigation, Mining 
and Reclamation. 

Efficiency and Durability Guaranteed. 

KROGH MFG. CO. 

519 Market St., SAN FRANCISCO. 




I ackson Patent Horizontal Centrifugal Pump 
to Electric Motor 



PUMPS! 



CENTRIFUGAL. 

'ACKSON S LATEST IMPROVE!) 
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS BEAT THE 
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Guaranteed to take less power to 
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otny guaranteed. 

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41 1 Market St.. San Francisco 



CEMENT FENCE POSTS. 

MAKE THEM FOR YOURSELF AND FOR YOUR NEIGHBORS. 

CHEAPER AND A HUNDRED TIMES MORE LASTING THAN WOOD. 



Fire Cannot Destroy Them. Age Adds Strength. 

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE SHOWING SIMPLICITY OF WORKING THE 

"COX" CEMENT FENCE POST MACHINE. 

PACIFIC CONCRETE MACHINERY CO. 

Pacific Coast Agents, 202 California Street, San Francisco, Cat. 



GREENBANK 

T. Wl. JACKSON dfc CO. 
1 23 Calllornla St., San Francisco. 



98% POWDERED CAUSTIC SODA and PURE POTASH. 

BEST OLIVE DIP AND TREE WAbH. 

Analysis of a competitive brand labeled and sold as 

"98% Powdered I Sodium Hydrate 75 60% 

Caustic Soda".. /Sodium Oxid 58.59% 



WHAT'S THE HATTER WITH 

"MOCOCO" FERTILIZERS? 

NOTHING ! 

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SOIL EXHAUSTION. 

YOUR LAND NEEDS A TONIC, and if it don't get it THERE'S TROUBLE 

AHEAD. 

Find out what your soil lacks and then provide it. Don't be afraid to put all 
your spare cash into Fertilizers. They pay 100%. It's not necessary to take our 
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\A/rIte for Particulars 

THE MOUNTAIN COPPER CO. 

604 MONTGOMERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 

FERTILIZERS! 

NITRATE OF SODA supplying NITROGEN or AMMONIA. 
THOHAS' PHOSPHATE POWDER supplying PHOSPHORIC ACID. 
nURIATE and SULPHATE OF POTASH supplying POTASH. 

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Can be supplied alone or mixed in any proportion to supply whatever deHciency may exist In the soil, 
thus paying only for what is lacking and necessary to replace. 

BALFOUR GUTHRIF Rr CO 3,8 California Street. San Francisco. 
U^a-J^l W^lV, UU 1 1 11ML. OC Also at Fresno and Los Angeles. 

WRITE TO THEM FOR PAMPHLETS. 

Fertilizers and Fertilizing for Profit. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS, Inc. 

534 CLAY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CM. 

Manufacturers of PURE BONE MEAL and COMPLETE FERTILIZERS. 

PRODUCERS, IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN FERTILIZING MATERIALS OF ALL KINDS. 
BEST THOMAS' PHOSPHATE POWDER, 19%, $14 PER TON. 

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Works: 



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PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 



C \J A M I Pi P guaranteed 9&-99% for generating 
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THE F. W. BRAUN COMPANY, - Los Angeles and San Francisco. 
MESSRS. HAAS, BARUCH &. CO. - Los Angeles and San Francisco. 

THIS IS WH/\X YOU NEED. 



SINGLE TRACE HARNESS ATTACHMENT. 




(Patented 



For Vineyard, Orchard, 
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Reliable Agents Wanted 



PumpS Power, Rotary and 

Centrifugal. 




DEEP WELL, OIL AND WINDMILL 
PUMPING MACHINERY. 



J.C.H0WLETT MACHINE WORKS, Inc. 

256 FREMONT STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



IN/\XIOIN/\L WOOD F»IF»E CO. 

Woodward Patent Machine Banded 
Wheeler Patent Continuous Stave 
Bored Wood Water Pipe. 

MADE FHOM CALIFORNIA KKDWOOD OR 
SELECTED PUUET SOUND YELLOW F1K. 

LOS ANGELES OFFICE: 6TH & MATEO STS. SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE: 301 MARKET 8T. 

ANl)tL PUGET SOUND OFFICE: OLVMPIA, WASH. 

A BOOKLET. "THE WHOLE STORY ABOUT WOOD PIPE," MAILED FREE UPON REQUEST. 



Wood Pipe 



RIO VISTA HOTEL, 253 THIRD ST.. NEAR HOWARD. SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. TEL. MAIN 1261. 
20(1 rooms en suite and single. Rates per dav, 35c and up; week, 12 and up. Country patronage so- 
licited Convenient, respectable, up to date. Steam heat, hot and cold water, electric lights, 
return call bells in every room. Inside and outside tire escapes. Electric elevator all night. 
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Third from ferries, or Third St. car trow Townsend St. depot to house. MRS. EMMA OLAFSEN, Prop. 



1 his Paper not 
to be taken from 
the Library. ♦♦♦♦ 




and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. LXXI. No. 4. 



San Francisco, Saturday, January 27, 1906. 



THIRTY-FIFTH YEAR. 
OFFICE: 330 MARKET ST. 



The Fruit Box Industry. 

We have already followed the lemon from picking 
to packing for shipment, illustrating the various 
steps of the producing process by reference to the 
operations of the Limoneira Company of Santa Paula, 
Ventura county, which is one of the leading enter- 
prises of its kind in the State. This week we allude 
to a very important incidental branch of the indus- 
try, that of making the boxes required for the deliv- 



set-up boxes. Many labor-saving devices in forms, 
clamps, etc., are employed in the final making of the 
box; one of the most recent is the nailing machine 
which is being introduced in some packing houses. 

At a recent convention of California fruit canners 
held in this city a very interesting paper was read 
by Mr. G. X. Wendling, vice-president of the Cali- 
fornia Pine Box & Lumber Co., from which we shall 
take a few statements of importance in this connec- 
tion: In the early days of the fruit industry, says 



transported to all parts of the globe, came to the 
struggling box industry of California, Oregon, Ari- 
zona and Nevada a new life, welcomed by the lum- 
bermen. In 1896 the consumption of pine boxes for 
the movement of California fruits was approximately 
50,000,000 feet of finished shook. In 1897 the pro- 
ducers of pine boxes were successful in the formation 
of the Pine Box Manufacturers' Agency, the first 
year's production of the association being about 57,- 
000,000 feet. The fruit industry has grown by leaps 




Box Making at the Limoneira Lemon Packing House in Ventura County. 



ery of the fruit to consumers thousands of miles 
away. And in this connection we make allusion to 
box making in general as related to fruit products. 
It is, indeed, one of the most interesting of the many 
industries which has been encouraged by the growth 
of the fruit interests, and without which the growth 
could not have been attained. 

Obviously, fruit box making at the packing house 
is only the closing act in making the box. The lum- 
ber is milled hundreds of miles away and is cut to 
sizes also at the mills. The box comes to the grower 
or packer with all its parts true to size, but 
"knocked down," and only the assembling of the 
parts and nailing are required. The technical term 
is "in the shook," and in this . form a car holds, of 
course, many times the number it would contain of 



Mr. Wendling, the call for boxes was of necessity 
limited to a small production of fruits distributed 
locally throughout the State to serve a scattered 
population found mainly in the cities and towns. For 
many years the box factory was looked upon as the 
general scavenger to a lumbering plant, on the 
theory that what could not be used for building lum- 
ber could be put through the box factory, and what- 
ever was realized was so much to the good, as other- 
wise it would be a total loss. With the invention of 
the refrigerator car, providing safe and satisfactory 
transportation for green fruits over arid plains and 
desert wastes, and, concurrent therewith, the dry- 
ing of fruits, and last but not by any means least, 
the discovery of safe and economical methods of so 
canning fruits of all kinds that they could be safely 



and bounds until with the close of 1905 fruit box 
making is consuming approximately 160,000,000 feet. 
Perhaps nothing more graphically illustrates the 
growth of the fruit industry than these totals, as 
they lie within the short span of nine years, and 
these figures refer only to shook manufactured from 
soft pine lumber. 

It is a strenuous life for the pine lumberman. The 
saw-milling season in the altitudes where white and 
sugar pine grows is short, usually opening about the 
first of April and closing about the first of November, 
hence effort is required through this brief operating 
season to produce sufficient raw material for the fol- 
lowing season's approximate requirements. The 
products are highly perishable and require a compar- 
i atively perfect service in shook delivery. 



50 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 27, 1906. 



Pacific Rural Press. 

Published Kvery Saturday at 330 Market Street, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE. 

Advertising rates made known on application. 

Entered at S. F. Postofflce as second-class mail matter. 



DEWEY PUBLISHING CO Publishers 

E. J. WICKSON Horticultural Editor 



SAN FRANCISCO, JANUARY 27, 1906. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ILLUSTRATION. — Box Making at the Limoneira Lemon Packing 
House in Ventura County. 49. 

EDITORIAL.— The Fruit Box Industry, 49. The Week, 50. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.— About Fertilizers: Frozen Oranges- 
Peach Spraying, 50. Sprouting Locust Seed; Grape Grafting: 
Poultry Manure: Summer Cover-Crop Proposed: Transplanting 
Orange Tree!-; Peach Plant ing and Windbreaks; Stocks for the 
Almond; The Uses of Gypsum, 51. 

VVEATHFR AND CROPS.— Report of the U. S. Weather Service 
for Week Ending January 23, 190ti; Rainfall and Temperature, 51. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— Quarantine Co operation, 52. 

HORTICULTURE.— PaciUc Coast Walnuts and Filberts. 52. Straw- 
berry Growing at Florin; Wyoming Horticultural Laws, 53. 

THE VINE YARD.— Danger in Buying Abroad, 53. 

CEREAL CROPS.— Cereal Improvement, 53. 

THE DAIRY'.— California's Butter Product for 1905; Balanced Ra- 
tions; Transfers of Holstein Friesians, 54. 
AGRICULTURAL REVIEW.— 55. 

THE HOME CIRCLE — Heir of the Ages; The Farmer's Blessings; 

Work; The Most Beautiful Poem; Tender-Hearted Bess. 56. Things 

to Remember; The Sailor's Prayerbook; To Make Colors Fast; 

Proving One's Identity, 57. 
THE MARKETS —Produce Market; Fruit Markets, 58-59. 
FRUIT MARKETING.— California Fruit Exchange. 60. 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY'.— Reforms in Taxation. 62. The 

Good Work of the Grange, 63. 



The Week. 

Since the storms, the lengthening sunshine and in- 
creasing temperature have induced a doubling of effort 
at field work, and every animal is now earning his 
barley and his owner is trying his best to make him 
do something which will pay for all the barley he ate 
during the long idle spell. It looks as though the 
effort would succeed, for the outlook could not be 
better at this season. The prospect is that, as 
usual in the third week of January, the lowest tem- 
peratures of the winter have been reached and a 
quick growth of grass and grain may be expected 
from the coming of the February springtime. Plant- 
ing of trees and vines should now proceed rapidly in 
all except west coast situations, because root growth 
now will be the measure of the summer endurance of 
the new plant. It is expected, therefore, that our 
agricultural population will be as busy as they can 
possibly be during the next few weeks. 

Have you thought recently of what a tremendous 
agricultural advantage it is to California that tem- 
peratures are so steady, extremes not far apart, 
cosmically speaking, and oscillation between them 
gradual? This last proposition is perhaps one of our 
best endowments. See what has happened during 
the past week at the East. On Sunday, the Weather 
Bureau says, a warm wave, scoring the highest record 
in temperature since 1890, prevailed throughout the 
region between the Mississippi valley and the Atlantic 
Coast. Its crest was in Ohio, where the tempera- 
tures ranged from 70 to 74°. South of the Ohio 
river it was less warm because of heavy rains and 
thunder showers. In Washington the weather was 
spring-like, with a maximum temperature of 63°. 
Two days later there came a sleet storm of almost 
unprecedented severity in the Mississippi valley and 
the Great Lakes region, with heavy snow in all sec- 
tions between the lakes and the Mississippi, heavy 
rains and high winds between Chicago and the Atlan- 
tic Coast. The Polar waves sweeping down from the 
Northwest threw a large section of the United States 
into the icy grip of the worst winter day experienced 
in years. This is the condition which largely limits 
the endurance of arboreal vegetation on the Atlantic 
side of the Sierra Nevada. To awake to activity in 
midwinter thaws and to perish in the following freez- 
ing is the fate of many deciduous growths. The tele- 
graphed reports say that the loss to fruit and 
ornamental trees and shrubbery will be enormous, as 
the unusually warm weather had coaxed the sap into 
the trees and all over the valley regions trees were 
ready to blossom. The sudden arrival of the cold 
wave will destroy millions of trees. This is indeed a 
calamity and likely to considerably affect the produc- 



tion of fruits in regions where such severe fluctua- 
tions of temperature occurred. 

There is no excuse for having an "opinion" as to 
whether the climate is changing or not. It is not a 
matter of opinion; it is a thing of the record. A 
Sacramento man had an opinion that the winters at 
the capital were getting colder and the record 
showed that there was no foundation for it in the 
facts. Still we are quite in sympathy with the man 
in his conclusions, although his premises were wrong, 
because he insisted that when a horse is shorn 
of the natural covering which gives protection against 
the sweeping winds of winter some provision ought 
to be made to prevent chilling of the animal, which 
inevitably would lead to suffering and ailments. To 
guard against these dangers proper coverings should 
be provided. "It may not injure a horse to clip him 
in this way if he is treated right afterwards," said 
our humanitarian. "It might not hurt any of us if 
we should strip for a race even on a chilly day, pro- 
vided we put on the requisite clothing afterwards. 
The cases are analogous. The horse is entitled to 
some sort of protection. That is strictly true, and 
however men may quarrel as to the tendency of the 
climate to change, they should cover up the clipped 
horse while they are struggling with the issue. That 
is simply a case of horse sense. 

And while we are talking about the weather, it 
may be just as well to go on to another phase of it, 
and that is the wet and dry of it. A very important 
new phase of the Irrigation Investigations of the 
United States Department of Agriculture is coming 
into proper prominence. In all the irrigated dis- 
tricts there will always be land above the water- 
even in the present cavortings of the Colorado river 
we hope that will be the case. When there is every 
effort being made to develop irrigation practice, 
there should be corresponding effort for the better 
handling of the adjacent land above the ditches. This 
problem is now exciting much attention throughout 
the plateau region from the Sierra Nevada to the 
Rockies, and California is interested in it also, for 
her high mesa and foothill lands, as well as for the 
plains beyond the reach of water. We notice that 
there was recently a conference of the irrigation and 
drainage engineers of the Department of Agricul- 
ture to determine the location and character of the 
field work to be carried on during the year 1906. 
Among the questions under consideration was the 
investigation of irrigation as related to dry farming. 
This is a most important line of work. Utah has 
already taken it up by State appropriation. It will 
strike nearly everywhere in time. 

There is another irrigation proposition telegraphed 
from Washington which we are not so sure about. 
The Senate Committee on Irrigation has referred to 
a sub-committee a bill providing for the withdrawal 
from public entry of lands needed for townsite pur- 
poses in connection with irrigation projects. The 
purpose of the bill is to bring in an amendment which 
will deal with the subject of disbursing public money 
from the irrigation fund. Several members of the 
committee took the position that the control of these 
funds should not be left to the Geological Survey 
without supervision by Congress. There is now 
about $32,000,000 in the funds affected, and it is not 
surprising that Congress should prick up its ears 
and snort at all that money being spent without its 
participation. Perhaps it is all right to look into it, 
but our first impression is that the reason why the 
people look so complacently upon the spending of all 
that money for interior development is because the 
enterprises are believed to be in the hands of disin- 
terested and public- spirited experts, and not in poli- 
tics. We believe that if these irrigating millions go 
into the hands of politicians the whole national irri- 
gation will go to smash. However, we shall know 
more about this measure later. 

State Horticultural Commissioner Ellwood Cooper 
does not receive much encouragement from the Mas- 
sachusetts authorities as to the acceptance of his 
proposition to eradicate the brown and gypsy moths, 
whose depredations have caused such extensive dam- 
age. Mr. Cooper offered to do this work for $25,000, 
of which the payment was to be deferred until success 
was assured. Possibly the laws would not permit 
the entry into such a contract on the part of the 



authorities aforesaid, but the proposition is intensely 
interesting and we would like to see it put on trial. 
Mr. Cooper's confidence in his ability to settle the 
question for that sum, though nearly a million in 
insecticidal plans have failed, lies in the fact that the 
brown and gypsy moths exist in various parts of 
Europe, but they have never assumed the dimensions 
of a pest upon the other side of the Atlantic. Mr. 
Cooper argues from that that there must be some 
parasite in Europe which serves to keep them in 
check, and he is confident that if this parasite is 
searched for it will be found. Its introduction into 
Massachusetts would then be a very simple matter, 
and its efficacy could hardly be doubted. Mr. Cooper 
thinks he can do this for less than $25,000 and we 
wish the Yankees would give him a chance to try. 
They can certainly lose nothing by it, and they are 
losing enough in other ways. 

The Washington crop statistics are receiving 
rather sharp blows. It is telegraphed that Mr. 
Charles Hallam Keep, Assistant Secretary of the 
Treasury and chairman of the so-called Keep Com- 
mittee on Department Methods, has submitted to 
the President the committee's report of its investiga- 
tion of the methods employed by the Bureau of Sta- 
tistics of the Department of Agriculture in estimat- 
ing crops, and especially the cotton crop. The re- 
port says that in every instance, except in the case 
of three cotton reports, in the last six years the 
Bureau of Statistics' estimates have been under- 
estimated. The underestimating has been especially 
great in the case of cereal crops and livestock. The 
conclusion of the committee is that the methods of 
the Bureau of Statistics must be greatly improved or 
the service discontinued. This is, of course, worthy 
of close attention, but is not to be hastily settled. 
Statistics should be correct, of course, but at the 
same time in the agricultural interest must be con- 
servative. That the estimates were too low, rather 
than too high, has been worth whole bunches of mil- 
lions to the farmers, and they have saved them from 
the overestimates which the trade naturally inclines 
to. Agriculturists should not forget that these esti- 
mates have erred upon the right side. 



QUERIES AND REPLIES. 



About Fertilizers. 

To the Editor: Will you please let me know if 
the fertilizer, of which I send sample, is good for hay 
and grain, also berries and truck of all kinds ? It 
is made by the company whose name I have written 
on it. They claim it contains 8% nitrogen and 10% 
phosphoric acid, which they quote me at $35 per ton 
f. o. b., city. Do you think it is as good as the truck 
and berry fertilizer made by another company ? 
Please let me know which is the better and oblige. — 
An Old Subscriber, Healdsburg. 

We cannot undertake to answer such questions. The 
State has provided for such matters by organizing 
the fertilizer control work at the Experiment Station 
at Berkeley. All interested should apply there for 
the bulletins on fertilizers, which show how the pro- 
ducts of all manufacturers stand. Because of this 
law, you can depend upon it that the goods sold by 
different parties are up to the representations, but if 
you wish to have analysis made in your own interest 
at any time, you can get it done for the price pre- 
scribed by law at the Experiment Station. When 
a dealer recommends you a fertilizer for a special pur- 
pose, he does the best he can to give you what you 
need, but the ultimate test of the matter is the one 
you make yourself. See what the plants tell you 
about it ! 

Frozen Oranges— Peach Spraying. 

To the Editor: Will leaving the orange crop on 
the trees in any way hurt the tree, or effect next 
season's crop? Also, is it a good or bad plan to 
leave the oranges on the ground, providing we cut 
them from trees? Our oranges are frost bitten and 
we do not care to pick, if it is not necessary. Kindly 
tell me the proper proportions of lime, salt and lye 
for spraying peach trees? — Grower, Lone Star. 

We do not know of any injury, except from the 
distribution of mold spores as the fruit decays. It is, 
however, better horticulture to remove the fruits 
and to plow it in. In this way it will decay without 
harm and with some advantage as a fertilizer — 
though the fertilizing value of orange fruits is not 
large. To leave the fruits molding on the ground is 



January 27, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



51 



a menace to the new crop by the spread of spores. 
If you are only growing oranges for home use you 
will find that the frozen oranges will refill with juice 
to some extent after a few months, though there is 
no commercial advantage in this, probably. The 
spray for peach trees is lime, salt and sulphur (not 
lye), and the formula was given in full in these col- 
umns on January 6. 

Sprouting Locust Seed. 

To the Editor: I want to start a small grove of 
black locust to use for fence posts in the future, as 
good post timber here is scarce. Some time ago I 
read in some paper to put the seed into a vessel and 
to pour boiling water on it for five or six mornings in 
succession, stirring it up well each time until the 
water became cool. It seems to me that pouring 
boiling water on it like that would surely kill the 
germ. — Farmer, Paso Robles. 

You need not be afraid to pour boiling water on the 
locust seed. It is not always necessary to repeat 
the operation so many times, but as the seeds of 
leguminous trees become dry they are exceedingly 
hard to start and recourse to boiling water is more 
necessary. This is also true of the seeds of the acacia 
trees, and these seeds have actually been allowed to 
boil for a little time without injury. The advice 
which you have received is not dangerous. 



Grape Grafting. 

To the Editor: I have some Rose of Peru grape 
vines that have been growing for 10 years, and have 
never done well. They ripen very late in the season, 
but the vines grow very large. I have Isabella 
grapes on the same soil and they grow nicely, and I 
thought of grafting the Isabella grape on the Rose 
of Peru. Which would be the proper way to graft, 
and at what time of the year? They are on sediment 
soil. — A Reader, Salinas. 

You are too near the coast to get summer heat for 
the Rose of Peru. You can graft in the Isabella. 
Cut off the old vine below the ground surface, split 
the stock, as in ordinary top-grafting of fruit trees, 
put in scions about eight inches long, tie around with 
a strong cord and plaster over with clay. Grafting 
wax is not necessary. The grape is usually easy to 
graft. 

Poultry Manure. 

To the Editor: Is there any special use made of 
hen manure in any way in the city that it would pay 
to barrel, ship or haul 20 miles? If not, what partic- 
ular crops is it best adapted for? — Inquirer, San 
Mateo. 

Hen manure is good for any purpose that any 
other manure is used, but it has to be used carefully, 
because it is very irregular in composition and some- 
times very concentrated. We know of some being 
sold at $6 per ton, which was worth by analysis about 
$9, but it may contain so much dirt and trash that 
one is hardly safe in buying it without analysis. The 
best thing to do with it is to use it to grow more 
feed for the poultry, and not to think of hauling it off 
the land where it is made. 



Summer Cover-Crop Proposed. 

To the Editor: I am trying to use a 'cover-crop' 
in the lemon orchard and wish to know if I can drill 
in the cow pea in spring, after turning my field peas 
under, to keep our southern sun from burning the 
humus from the soil, and dispense with early summer 
cultivation if possible. — A. R. K., San Diego county. 

You can certainly grow cow peas in your lemon 
orchard after the danger of frost is over if you have 
water enough to supply both the cow peas and the 
trees. If you are at all short of water this should 
not be undertaken because the trees will suffer. At 
the same time you must remember that cow peas do 
not enjoy dry air and that for this reason they are sel- 
dom satisfactory for summer growth on uplands, even 
where irrigation water is supplied. 

Transplanting Orange Trees. 

To the Editor: Please give me information as to 
the best time for planting orange trees. Is it prac- 
ticable to move an orange tree 10 ft. high, or would 
it pay better to plant young trees ? Also give me 
information as to moving. The information given 
me a few months ago for moving two palms 30 years 
old was very successful. I had the palms moved ac- 
cording to your instructions and both are doing well. 
What are the best varieties of grape fruit, lemons 
and oranges ? — Reader, Salinas. 

Large orange trees, even much larger than those 
you mention, can be successfully moved by taking a 
ball of dirt with the roots, practically the same way 



that you moved the palm trees some time ago. It is 
better to move them later in the season; after the 
surplus winter water has gone out of the soil and it 
becomes somewhat warm. The trees can, in fact, be 
moved at any time of the year, except when the hole 
is likely to fill up with water, because that has a 
tendency to cause the roots to rot rather than to 
grow. The best oranges are the Washington navel 
and the Valencia Late. The best lemon for the 
coast district is the Villa Franca and the grape fruit 
which is most generally successful is the Florida 
seedling. 

Peach Planting and Windbreaks. 

To the Editor: How far apart should peach 
trees be planted ? How prepare the hole in which 
they are planted ? What tree or shrub is best 
to plant for windbreak — what il mean, that will not 
absorb strength from soil, or the roots interfere with 
fruit tree roots ? Do! you think common wil- 
low injurious ? They make rapid growth and a good 
windbreak. — A Subscriber, Modesto. 

We should put peaches 24 ft. apart in valley situa- 
tions. As for windbreaks, we do not know any plant 
which makes quick, large growth and therefore 
suitable for windbreaks which will not root after 
moisture and keep all it can get. You can restrict 
the spread of the roots by irrigating close to the 
row and cultivating just as you do fruit trees. 
Windbreak trees usually have to root widely, because 
they are given neither water, cultivation nor manure 
and therefore have to range after what they need, 
and they find it, of course, just where you have put 
it for other trees. Some willows might do, if you 
like them, but you can grow better fuel by putting 
in eucalyptus, walnuts, maples or elms, etc. Many 
other trees might be named. Look about the older 
plantings in Modesto and pick out the kind of tree 
which strikes you as best. 



Stocks for the Almond. 

To the Editor: I wish to have almond trees raised 
for our own planting. The man engaged to do this 
for me insists upon planting nuts of the Muir peach 
for the future budding to almonds. Is he correct in 
insisting upon a peach root? I want to plant nuts of 
almond for the future budding; but, unfortunately, I 
saved seeds of softshell, which I now know will not do. 
Can you tell me where to get bitter almonds? Why 
cannot I plant nuts of any hard-shelled variety, say, 
Drake's or Languedoc? What is the correct name 
of the ' horse bean? ' I cannot find the same listed 
in catalogues. — Reader, Sutter county. 

The almond works well on the Muir seedling, and 
your man has probably had experience with that 
combination and therefore favors it. But the almond 
root is on the whole better for the almond and also 
for the peach and the prune when the soils are light, 
deep and well drained, for the almond starts for the 
center of the earth in great shape. Bitter almonds 
and hard-shell sweet almonds are believed to be 
stronger and more uniform in growth, more hardy 
and " nearer to Nature " than the improved varie- 
ties. We should not call either the Drake or the 
Languedoc hard shelled — they are medium shelled as 
compared with the paper-shell varieties. There are 
only a few bitter and hard-shell sweet almonds grown, 
but you can usually find such nuts by enquiring in an 
almond-growing district, or perhaps the seedsmen 
advertising in our columns can furnish them. The 
horse bean — a variety of the English or Windsor 
bean — is ricia faba. 

The Uses of Gypsum. 

To the Editor: Will you please tell me what 
effect gypsum has on land? Last year here it had a 
splendid effect on alfalfa land, but there are many 
opinions regarding it. Some tell me it will ruin or 
spoil the land so that alfalfa will not grow. Before I 
use it I would like to hear from headquarters and 
know your experience as to its after-effect on land. — 
Farmer, Stanislaus county. 

Gypsum is not a plant food. It is, however, a 
stimulant to the plant and it acts upon other mate- 
rials in the soil, making them available to the use of 
the plant. This being the case, one can not depend 
upon gypsum to restore to the soil the materials 
which. the plant removes, and the ultimate result of 
the use of gypsum is the impoverishment of the soil, 
because it continually helps the plant to take more 
out of it. This is the reason why the use of gypsum, 
or land plaster, which was very popular in some of 
the Eastern States thirty or forty years ago, is now 
practically abandoned, and, instead of using gypsum, 



fertilizers really containing the material which the 
plant requires are resorted to. While this is true, 
it may be of advantage to persons operating on rich 
soil and wishing to get large and splendid returns to 
employ gypsum to a certain extent. Gypsum also 
has a very good effect on heavy soils by making them 
more mellow and friable, and for this purpose gypsum 
is sometimes very valuable. 

WEATHER AND CROPS. 



Report of the U. S. Weather Service for Week 
Ending January 23, 1906. 

Alexander MoAdie, Forecast Official and Section Director. 



Sacramento Valley. 

Warm weather and heavy rain continued nearly all 
the week, with much cooler weather and heavy frosts at 
the close. The heavy rains caused considerable dam- 
age by tbe overflow of creeks and rivers, and there were 
some breaks in the levees, but all streams commenced 
falling Friday evening. Grain fields on low lands were 
flooded, but it is probable the damage to grain will be 
offset by the improved condition of the soil. It is re- 
ported that several hundred sheep perished in the severe 
storms in the foothill ranges, and there was much dam- 
age to railroads and bridges by high water. Farm work 
was suspended owing to the continuous rains. The soil 
is now thoroughly saturated and crop prospects are 
better than at any time during the season. The warmer 
weather caused rapid growth of grass and early grain. 
Orchards and vineyards continue in good condition. 

Coast and Bay Sections. 

Warm rains continued nearly all the week, with 
cooler weather and frosts Saturday night. In some of 
the northern districts the rains were very heavy and 
the rivers were higher than for several years, causing 
considerable damage through overflow. Sheep and 
cattle on the ranges suffered severely from the storms 
and scarcity of feed. The rainfall extended all through 
the section, and has now been sufficient to thoroughly 
saturate the soil and practically insure good crops. 
Farm work will be resumed as soon as possible. Grain 
and grass made a good start during the warm weather. 
Feed is still scarce, but a few days of warm, sunny 
weather will make new feed plentiful. 

San Joaqnln Valley. 

Cloudy weather with generous rains prevailed during 
the past week. The rains were steady and the ground 
has been thoroughly soaked. Rivers and creeks are 
running full blast and there has been some slight dam- 
age from washouts, but the rains have been of the 
greatest benefit to farmers, miners and stockmen. 
Heavy snow fell in the mountains. The ground is too 
wet at present for farm and orchard work. Grass and 
early sown grain are making good growth and a few 
warm days will make green feed plentiful. Stock are 
healthy but thin. Packing houses are busy with the 
raisin crop and large shipments are being made to East- 
ern points. Heavy shipments of potatoes continue 
from Stockton. 

Southern California. 

Warm weather continued, with light showers at the 
beginning of the week and heavy, warm rain toward 
the close. The rains caused some damage to streets, 
railroads and bridges in Los Angeles and other places, 
but there was no serious damage to crops. In the in- 
terior the soil quickly absorbed the rainfall, with very 
little run-off, and crop conditions were much improved. 
Orchards and vineyards were also greatly benefited. 
Early grain is looking very well and making good 
growth. Valleys and hills are green and pasturage is 
plentiful. Stock are in good condition. Prospects were 
never better at this date for excellent crops of all kinds. 
Orange picking and shipping are progressing. 



Eureka Summary. — Farming operations suspended. 
Grass and grain are making slow growth. Stock are in 
poor condition. Heavy rains overflowed streams and 
much bottom land was submerged, but water is rapidly 
receding-. Considerable damage was done to property. 

Los Angeles Summary. — Generous rains in all sec- 
tions thoroughly soaked the earth and the soil is in fine 
condition for cultivating. Grain and grass, which were 
at a standstill, received new life. Should warm weather 
follow, vegetation will make vigorous growth. 



Rainfall and Temperature. 



The following data for the week ending 5 A. M. Wednes- 
day, January 24, 1906, are from official sources and are 
furnished by the United States Weather Bureau for the 
Pacific Rural Press : 



CALIFORNIA 
STATIONS. 



Eureka 

Red Blufl 

Sacramento 

San Francisco. . . 

San Jose 

Fresno 

Independence.... 
San Luis Obispo 

Loi Angeles 

c an Diego 

Yuma. 



4 

: s» 

; s 

. to 



• n 



2.67 
1.82 

2 00 
1.37 

.8ft 
.82 
l.iA 

3 60 
2.18 

.72 
.02 



00) 



: W 



17 72 
10 43 
8.42 
6.87 
6.13 
3.60 
3.54 
8 36 
7.06 
5.64 
3 47 



Average Seasonal 
Rainfall to Date. . . 


Maximum Tempera- 
ture for the week. . 


23 21 


62 


14.32 


54 


10 12 


56 


11 .95 


59 




70 


4 46 


60 


2 02 


60 


10.27 


72 


7 2u 


68 


4.40 


68 


1.98 


72 



3g 



3 B 



80 
84 
43 
88 
:ti 
26 
88 
U 
44 
84 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 27, 1906. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



Quarantine Co-operation. 



By E. M. Ehrhobn, Deputy State Commissioner of Horticulture 
at the Santa Rosa Fruit Growers' Convention. 

It is estimated that California produces annually 
between fifty and sixty millions worth of fruit. If 
this is true, and I have not the slightest doubt that 
it is, then we have a most wonderful industry, one 
which makes California the fruit garden of the 
world. Many of the older members of this convention 
remember California before fruit growing became an 
industry and could fully appreciate the conditions 
which would follow should some pest or disease cause 
the destruction of the industry which has done so 
much in the upbuilding of the State. Some of our 
pioneers have assured us that they never knew what 
scale insects were in the early days and that other 
injurious pests were very rarely noticed. This is no 
doubt correct, for in those days the few home or- 
chards were small and were located miles apart. 
The early plantings were made under trying con- 
ditions and most of the early settlers brought 
seeds and plants either overland by ox- team, 
around Cape Horn by sailing vessel, or across the 
Isthmus on burros, and thence by vessel here. How 
different it is today, with our modernly equipped train 
service and rapid trans-Pacific ocean liners through 
the medium of which fruits and plants now arrive at 
their destination in a very short time. 

The injurious pests of today are natives of other 
countries and the pioneer grower little realized the 
importance of watching plants and fruits which trav- 
elers or sailors were bringing as curios or wonders of 
distant shores and upon whose foliage and bark were 
hidden the small but active foe, which now costs our 
growers many thousands of dollars to fight. 

Only since fruit growing became a profitable indus- 
try, since* our fertile valleys have been changed from 
golden grain fields to forests of luscious fruits, and 
since our Eastern neighbors became interested and 
sought our products, thus encouraging us and caus- 
ing large areas to be planted, has the pest problem 
become noticeable and threatening. 

Our struggle is reported in the reports of the State 
Horticultural Commission, and it is not necessary to 
go into detail about the destructive Icerya or the 
wonderful Vedalia; it is not necessary to review our 
first attempt at horticultural quarantine — we all 
know the good work that has been done, but we must 
do more. 

California's industry is growing and growing rap- 
idly, her population is increasing daily, new ports 
are being opened, new steamship lines established, 
and our little Quarantine Bureau, although lately 
enlarged, is unable to attend to all the ports and 
shipping points in our State. We need help, we 
must co-operate. Other countries have been watch- 
ing our industry grow, and have already copied our 
methods and are rapidly becoming our competitors. 
Our insular possessions have increased their planta- 
tions with these, have increased the pests. Trop- 
ical fruits have found a good market with us, the 
shipments are increasing every day, and as the pop- 
ulation grows the demand for tropical fruits will 
naturally increase also. 

Our Horticultural Laws. — The horticultural 
laws of the State, re-inforced by the various county 
ordinances, have been adequate up to the present 
time, but I believe some additions and several altera- 
tions are necessary and will have to be made in the 
very near future. Especially is this true of the law 
establishing county boards of horticulture and the 
uniformity of county ordinances. 

As you are well aware, the appointing power of 
County Horticultural Commissioners rests with the 
Board of Supervisors, and, upon petition of twenty- 
five or more orchardists, the Commission is usually 
established, and I may state here that some coun- 
ties have not as yet availed themselves of the advan- 
tages and protection offered a county by an active 
working Board of County Horticultural Commis- 
sioners. Although these appointments have given 
satisfaction in many counties, yet, as I have stated 
above, something more should be done; a change in 
the law to make these appointments more uniform, 
qualified and sincere should receive the attention of 
our next Legislature, and I consider it the duty of all 
those interested in fruit growing to think over this 
matter now and help formulate some definite change 
for the consideration of our law makers when they 
next meet. 

The question now before us is, what can be done 
to strengthen the work of the State and County Hor- 
ticultural Commissions? Admitting that some addi- 
tional laws should find the approval and support of 
the State Legislature, I fear that this alone will not 
suffice for ideal results, but that it will be absolutely 
necessary to bring the grower and the Commissioners 
in closer touch; in other words, they must become 
one working unit. This can and should be extended 
to a much wider field. Each County Commissioner 
should co-operate with other County Commissioners, 
and all should be in constant touch with the State 
Commissioner, who is the chief director of our horti- 
cultural quarantine work. It is manifestly time for 
decisive action on the question of co-operating on 



horticultural lines. Especially is this true of pest 
eradication, and, most important of all, the quaran- 
tining of fruits and plants from outside of our State. 

Growers' Help Needed. — Co-operation without 
principle or system is always a failure. The success 
of co-operation is measured by the spirit of the indi- 
viduals working together. Therefore organization 
under a definite system, in this instance our horticul- 
tural laws, will first be necessary, and then estab- 
lishing a thorough co-operative movement will in the 
end lead to successful work. It is an educational 
movement, and forms, so to speak, an endless chain, 
which, if thoroughly carried out, will result in unlim- 
ited power to the grower. You may ask, what can 
the grower do to bring about this movement? 

The Horticultural Commissioners have done and 
will continue to do good work if the grower will co- 
operate with them and will show these men that they 
are upheld in the performance of their duty. The 
grower should never antagonize the Board of Horti- 
cultural Commissioners, even if he be the unfortunate 
individual whose orchard has been ordered sprayed or 
fumigated, but he should lend every possible assistance 
to promote the good work. From the very begin- 
ning the grower should take interest in the selection 
of the Commissioners, for the most important step is 
the appointment of good men, and the grower should 
not be satisfied to merely put his name to a petition 
for this purpose, but he should go in person, accom- 
panied by many of his fellow workers, before the Su- 
pervisors and assist in the selection of the proper 
men. 

The Board of Supervisors realize that the fruit 
grower is a great help in the upbuilding of a county, 
and they readily concede to his demands, but not 
generally through a petition alone. In the selection 
of the personnel of the Commission, the very best 
men, not necessarily scientists, should be chosen. 
They should be honest, firm, of sober habits and suffi- 
ciently versed in the various branches of horticul- 
ture as to be able to serve the grower and the county 
in the best possible manner. After the proper ap- 
pointments have been made, the grower should not 
go home and let this important matter rest, but he 
should continue to co-operate with and aid the County 
Horticultural Commissioners in every possible way. 
The Commissioners in turn should endeavor to en- 
lighten the growers, call them together whenever 
opportunity offers itself, and place before them mat- 
ters pertaining to pests or diseases, drawing their 
attention to any new phases that may develop. 

I am sorry to say that some conscientious Commis- 
sioners have become disheartened by the uncalled- 
for rebuke of growers, who, instead of showing their 
willingness to do their duty toward a clean-up and 
thus aid the Commissioner, have sometimes filed a 
protest, created discord, and, in a few instances, 
caused the abolishment of a good commission, which 
always means a setback and a great loss to the 
county. This conduct on the part of the grower 
should be discouraged, and all misunderstandings 
should be thoroughly thrashed out, so that all joining 
in harmony may continue to upbuild the growing in- 
dustry under one law, a uniform ordinance, unity of 
action, and especially a well-organized system of in- 
pection, as this will do much to make co-operation 
possible. 

Some will say that it is of no use, that you cannot 
get the grower to co-operate, that you will never get 
him to take interest in matters which are not di- 
rectly affecting his own individual self. While this 
is true to a certain extent, we cannot afford to give 
up or despair. We cannot expect to make a great 
snowing in the beginning — Rome was not built in a 
day — but man is always ready to pattern after others, 
and as soon as a good showing is made through a 
co-operative movement, as above proposed, others 
will fall into line, and we will soon have a great army 
of workers, and before long the grower will soon be 
able to show his power and influence, which generally 
remains hidden without co-operation. 

The B'uture. — I hope the day is not far distant 
when the County Horticultural Commissioner will be 
looked upon, not as a mere inspector of bugs, but as 
the true horticultural adviser of the growers in his 
county; and, being in close touch with the State 
Commissioner's office, with which there should be the 
most sincere co operation, he should be able to pro- 
tect his county and guide his constituents in a firm, 
just and fearless manner. 

The joint action of the State Commissioner's office 
with every County Commission should place Califor- 
nia under the most perfect quarantine against for- 
eign pests, and the most sincere action of all Com- 
missioners in this regard cannot help but culminate 
in the formation of the strongest organization yet 
established for the grower. The State Commissioner 
of Horticulture always invites any authentic informa- 
tion, and is ready to listen to any recommendations, 
so that all who are interested in the preservation of 
fruit growing should encourage and uphold all efforts 
which will tend to accomplish co-operation, always 
bearing in mind that men cannot co-operate success- 
fully for any purpose if the sole bond between them is 
self-interest, and that no industry which requires the 
hearty support of its workers will ever be a complete 
success without co-operation, whether it be for the 
marketing of fruit or the protection of orchards 
against insect pests. 



HORTICULTURE. 



Pacific Coast Walnuts and Filberts. 

To the Editor: With the present, I send you by 
mail a little box of Chaberte walnut cream candy, 
and another of Aveline filbert candy — both home- 
made and with nuts, of course, raised on my own 
place — for you to sample and ascertain by yourself 
what nice dainties can be made with Pacific coast 
grown walnuts and filberts. Now you will allow me 
to add a few words of explanation. 

I presume that your readers are well aware of the 
enormous quantities of walnuts used in this country 
for the manufacturing of walnut cream candy, mostly 
all imported, shelled or unshelled; but they may not 
have a very clear idea as to what constitutes the best 
nuts for the making of such candy, so I will tell them. 
In the first place, the walnuts have to be from small 
to medium, round, if possible, the shell thin, easy to 
crack, which is done by striking it on the face with a 
hammer and not on the seam or small end, so as to 
get the meat out entire or by halves; it is better if 
the meat does not fill the shell too tightly. The 
pellicle of the meat, for obvious reasons, has to be of a 
light yellow color, surely not brown like the nuts 
grown in a too warm climate are liable to be; and 
last, to obtain a perfect candy, the meat should be 
sweet and nutty. Well, I do not know of any variety 
of walnuts filling the bill so well as the little Chaberte, 
grafted or seedling, and which, beside, is of late veg- 
etation and quite prolific. Otherwise, the Mayette, 
for instance, which is called the 'Queen of the Mar- 
ket,' because of its elegant shape, size, thinness of 
shell, beauty of the kernel, and also of late vegetation 
and quite productive, would not do so well as the 
Chaberte, as the candy would be too big, and the 
Franquette, another very fine dessert nut, still less, 
because of its very elongated shape, and so on of all 
other large-fruited varieties. Through the box of 
Chaberte cream candy I am sending you, you will be 
able to see at a glance whether I am not right with 
that proposition, and in sampling them whether it is 
not a nut of first quality. 

As to filbert candy, of which I send you a little 
box, also home-made, you will admit that if there is a 
high-grade candy, that is it, and Aveline filberts, you 
know, are high-priced nuts. The candy I send was 
made with White and Purple-leaved Avelines, the 
former with a kernel invested with a white pellicle, 
the latter with a pellicle flesh-colored, while the Red 
Aveline has it of a dark red; for that reason only did 
I use the white and purple-leaved varieties. Av- 
elines fill the shell well, so that unshelled they make 
as good a show as large nuts, then the meat is smooth 
and clean, and the flavor perfect. 

I send you also two boxes of filberts, in six varie- 
ties, to-wit: Du Chilly, Cob-nut, Barcelona, Red 
Aveline, White Aveline, Purple-leaved Aveline, and 
Emperor, just to show you what can be done in that 
line on the Pacific Coast. I had this year the great- 
est crop I ever had. It was relatively enormous. 
Finally I have found, I think, after years of expec- 
tation, that the States of Washington and Oregon 
are the best ones adapted in this country to the 
raising of filberts, and as the same States are sin- 
gularly adapted to the raising of walnuts, thanks to 
the late vegetation French kinds, like Mayette, 
Franquette, Parisienne, and the like. It will be 
news, I expect, to many of your readers to hear of 
the great Northwest having developed by degrees to 
a regular walnut-growing district. The filberts 
raised in that part of the Pacific Coast I regard as 
the equal of those I am sending you; and, as to wal- 
nuts, they compare most favorably with any samples 
sent to me from any parts of this State; and the 
walnuts grown in the Willamette valley, Oregon, 
have the advantage on the walnuts grown in south- 
ern California, in having a smooth and white shell 
without a prominent seam, while the meat is fat, the 
pellicle of a pale yellow, and the quality fine; and, 
though all those French varieties are of late vegeta- 
tion, still the nuts mature there very well. Even in 
the eastern part of Washington, where sometimes 
the thermometer in winter goes down to 20° below 
zero, are fine walnuts raised, like Franquettes, and 
the equal of any raised by me or sent to me from the 
counties of Sonoma or Tehama, for instance. At 
present walnut trees in Oregon and Washington are 
being planted by the thousand, so splendid and little 
dreamed of were the results obtained from the large 
groves planted in that part of the Pacific Coast 
many years ago. 

Filberts are also planted in both States, not by the 
thousand as walnuts, for they cannot be had in quan- 
tities but by the hundred. I have an idea that the 
country around the mighty sound in Washington is 
splendidly adapted to filbert culture. Filberts being 
solely propagated from layers, which require old and 
large roots to grow shoots to be in the fall laid in the 
ground to root, is the reason why they are so scarce; 
otherwise, seedlings will not do, and better plant no 
filberts at all than plant seedlings. 

As much as 1,000,000 lb. of shelled filberts are im- 
ported into this country from the Levant (Turkey 
and Asia Minor) for the manufacturing of filbert can- 



January 27, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



53 



dy and cake, besides 6,000,000 to 7,000,000 lb. of 
unshelled nuts, but I do not go much on shelled nuts 
of any kind, and am certain that the candy made 
with the Levant nuts would not compare with the 
home-made candy I am sending you. 

The conclusion of all this, however, is that there is 
money for us on the whole Pacific Coast in the raising 
of such nuts as walnuts, almonds and filberts. 

Nevada City, Dec. 30, 1905. Felix Gillet. 

Mr. Gillet's candy samples bear out all that he 
claims for the suitability of the varieties which he 
discusses, and the confectioner's art displayed in the 
preparation compares well with the best of the pro- 
fessionals. The specimens were as delicious as the 
account of the nuts used is interesting. — Ed. 



Strawberry Growing at Florin. 



A Florin correspondent gives the Sacramento 
Union an account of the local strawberry interest 
which will be widely acceptable to our small fruit 
growers. The cultivation of the strawberry on the 
plain lands lying southeast of Sacramento and center- 
ing at Florin has been successfully carried on for a 
number of years. Among the early settlers here 
were such men as George Rich, James Rutter and 
some others, who soon discovered the great advant- 
ages of the never-failing, underground water supply 
and its relation to the growing of small fruits. In 
place of dug wells, that require two or three men as 
many days to reach water, a well could be bored in a 
half day giving a water supply sufficient to irrigate 
an acre or more of land. The household Douglas 
pump of those days, to which was attached any kind 
of a home-made windmill, later gave way to more 
modern wind-power, to be in time supplanted by 
steam and then by the modern gasoline outfit. The 
pioneers in strawberry culture were satisfied to 
market their crops in Sacramento, and an acre of 
land was sufficient to engage the whole attention of 
the family during picking season. The Florin straw- 
berry crop of today runs into several hundred acres 
each season, is marketed by the carload, and finds its 
way into every town in northern California, Nevada, 
Utah, Montana, Oregon and Washington. 

With the advent of Japanese help in California the 
labor question, which cuts no small figure in straw- 
berry growing, was speedily solved. With the in- 
creased number of acres devoted to strawberry 
culture the daily supply could be depended upon, and 
the whole territory above mentioned was opened, 
people paying almost any price for early berries. To 
meet this demand the Japanese do not depend 
upon a hit-and-miss policy in planting. The 
rows of plants run east and west to prevent shading, 
and more readily get the early sun. The strawberry 
being a shallow rooted plant, the prevailing method 
formerly was to make shallow ditches between every 
other row, the more readily to reach and moisten the 
plant. By this method the plants were short-lived 
and the crop of short duration. The heat of mid- 
summer soon exhausted the intermittent water 
supply, plant growth was checked in the midst of 
fruiting, and what appeared to be a promising crop 
to-day was unfit for market tomorrow. In addition 
to the loss of the crop, the plant is checked in its 
growth, and sometimes dies. The acre which had 
been set with 10,000 plants had now been reduced 
one-half, and in another year became unprofitable. 
The Japanese method is a ditch almost two feet deep 
between every other row. By this means the 
moisture is conserved, the plants grow continuously, 
the first crop is succeeded by a second and a third, 
and the plants, after fruiting, continue to multiply 
until the matured strawberry patch has increased its 
plants an hundred fold and multiplied its yield corre- 
spondingly. 

The varieties of berries grown are the Jessie and 
Dollar exclusively, the former for an early crop, and 
the latter as the regular shipping berry. The culti- 
vation of the strawberry, except as to the picking, is 
not confined entirely to the Japanese, several large 
tracts annually being operated by the land owners or 
worked on shares. 



Wyoming Horticultural Laws. 



Prof. Aven Nelson, secretary of the State Board 
of Horticulture, Laramie, Wyo., has just issued a 
pamphlet giving the laws and regulations recently 
enacted by the Legislature of that State. He will 
send a copy to any of our readers who may apply. 



Man is but a microscopic being relatively to as- 
tronomical space, and he lives on a puny planet 
circling round a star of inferior rank. Does it not, 
then, seem as futile to imagine that he can discover 
the origin and tendency of the universe as to expect 
a housefly to instruct us as to the theory of the motions 
of the planets? And yet, so long as he shall last, he 
will pursue his search, and will no doubt discover 
many wonderful things which are still hidden. We 
may indeed be amazed at all that man has been able 
to find out. but the immeasurable magnitude of the 
undiscovered will throughout all time remain to hum- 
ble his pride. 



THE VINEYARD. 



Danger in Buying Abroad. 



To the Editor: Mr. Kirkman's interesting arti- 
cle on the risks of importing peach trees into Califor- 
nia, buying them from little-known agents of people 
we don't know at all across the Rockies, tempts me 
to give a few extracts from No. 527 of the Revue de 
Viticulture, published in Paris. It seems that there 
is 'graft' even in some French nurseries: 

Last year, thanks to the high price of resistant cut- 
tings, unscrupulous dealers have had a fine chance to 
cheat on cuttings. The region of Bar-sur-Seine has 
been flooded with cuttings of the worthless Clinton, sold 
under the names of 3,309, Rupestris St. George, or of 
1,202. The fraud was discovered, the news spread like a 
train of powder and the law has been set in motion. 
The cheats should be punished and a long sojourn in the 
shade of four walls given them, in which to reflect on 
the sad consequences of their crime. 

The consequences of this fraud are the gravest for the 
French vineyard industry in general and for the poorer 
vignerous in particular. These are making heavy sac- 
rifices to replant their vineyards, often spending their 
last savings to buy resistant cuttings or grafted vines. 
If they are deceived in the authenticity of the varieties 
they should employ on their soils, they will never grow 
a crop of grapes, and at the end of two or three years 
they will see their young vineyards, replanted at great 
cbst, disappear either from phylloxera or chlorosis, be- 
cause these worthless varieties that are being sold for 
good ones resist neither calcaire nor phylloxera, nor 
even, sometimes, grafting. How frequently are vigner- 
ous thus deceived and complain of the good varieties 
that they think they have planted. Here the '3,309' 
dies! Farther on the ' Rupestris St. George ' can hardly 
mount the stake. There the ' 1,202 ' yellows and fails — 
all the while the soil is such that these kinds ought to 
succeed. He pulls them up, studies the roots, finds 
suckers showing leaves — so that at 'last the fraud is 
found out. Bad stocks of no value at all have been sub- 
stituted. 

The fraud in the sale of cuttings is still continued this 
year in the making of bench grafts, where it is harder to 
discover. To illustrate, we will cite a particular incident 
in Vaucluse: They have grafted many hundred thou- 
sands stocks of Alicante Terras No. 20, which often 
gives 80% of good unions. This stock has a fleshy root, 
looking just about like that of Mourvedre x Rupestris 
1,202. 

All these grafts have been sold for grafts on 1,202. 
They can be profitably sold at 100 fr. per 1,000 when 
grafts on the real 1,202, which gives a less percentage, 
and of which the cuttings cost more, are always sold at 
160 to 180 fr. These nurseries of Terras (alias 1,202) are 
in an important nursery center, where most of the popu- 
lation live on the results of this culture and risk losing 
the profits of their labor, from the inevitable discredit 
attaching to the whole region, when the frauds become 
generally known. 

More Alarm. — In the Revue of the following Janu- 
ary there is some comforting news for Californians. 
I quote a few sentences: 

The high price of reiistant cuttings has brought back 
the practice of frauds that we once thought abandoned. 
In the southeast a scandalous and shameful trade is car- 
ried on of varieties of 'any old kind,' which are sold for 
the varieties ordered. Complete carloads of bogus cut- 
tings are being shipped. The Clinton and other worth- 
less sorts are masquerading under various names, and 
particularly as the Coudere hybrids (3,306 and 3,309, 
for example). 

The great majority of these shipments are destined 
for export to foreign countries; but this is no excuse for 
the dishonest traffic. Our nurserymen who have built up 
an important export trade abroad can only suffer dis- 
credit which the frauds referred to throw on the whole 
industry. 

If the California planter finds himself unable to pro- 
cure the varieties of grafted vines he desires from 
California nurseries, whose stock can be inspected 
and determined, he ought, in the face of the above 
information, to secure the fullest guarantees from 
the agent importing the stock. If the California 
nurseryman fools him, the courts are handy and he 
can sue him. But when vines are ordered from a 
little-known agent, who may buy from a broker in 
Paris, who may pick up the stock that can be 
bought cheapest, the chances of mistakes, frauds 
and disappointments are multiplied. It would be 
pretty hard to take a trip to France to sue the man 
who sent the stock that wasn't what you ordered. 

France is like all other countries — there are some 
reliable and honorable nurserymen there, just as 
there are in California. Importers should know be- 
yond a doubt that stock comes from the few reliable 
houses, and not trust to the vague idea that any- 
thing must be better than home goods because it 
comes from a place 7,000 miles away. 

I once wrote to the famous firm of Vilmorin of 
Paris for some grape cuttings, specifying that I 
should be informed what nursery grew them. To my 
surprise I received the answer: ''We never tell our 
customers where cuttings are grown; it is contrary 
to the rules of the firm." As I didn't want cuttings 
that came from nowhere in particular, the order was 
promptly cancelled. 

Is it any wonder that vineyardists in Mexico, who 
are planting on an immense scale after careful inves- 
tigation, have placed large orders in California for 
grafted vines, paying a. considerably higher price 
than French vines would cost them? 

Martinez, Jan. 15. Frank T. Swett. 



CEREAL CROPS. 



Cereal Improvement. 



By Geo. W. Shaw, Assistant Professor of Agricultural Technology 
University of California, at the State Farmers' Institute in 
Berkeley. 

In the strenuous endeavor to introduce into Cali- 
fornia new crops, and to hasten the time when the 
extensive system of wheat farming shall give place 
to the more intensive culture of fruits and numerous 
other crops, suited to more limited areas, the under- 
lying principles which make for profit in the culture 
of cereals have been well-nigh lost sight of, until 
neither the quality nor quantity of our wheat is what 
it might be. 

The standard of quality has not kept pace with the 
more advanced demands of the milling trade. To 
such an extent is this true that notwithstanding this 
State in 1903 produced 18,760,000 bushels and ex- 
ported 14,300,000 bushels, she was under the neces- 
sity of importing, to maintain the trade standard of 
our flour, 2,265,600 bushels of Eastern-grown wheat, 
amounting to one-seventh the entire consumption in 
this State. 

If we could stop these importations and supply the 
milling trade entirely from California-grown wheat, 
it would mean a saving to our people of over 
$1,500,000, now passing out of the State, annually. 

While wheat farming on an extensive scale is not a 
thing to be highly encouraged when the natural con- 
ditions are such as to make more intensive crops safe, 
yet it is still, and is destined to be for all time, a 
very important industry in California, and, as one of 
the important staples of a general farm, is worthy 
of not only much encouragement, but also the great- 
est aid that can be given by scientific research. Fur- 
ther, on account of climatic and other conditions, 
there will be, at least for many years to come, sec- 
tions of the State in which wheat growing will be the 
principal interest. 

The particular feature which has dominated wheat 
growing in California, and on the Pacific coast gen- 
erally, has been mass production, rather than maxi- 
mum production per unit of area or quality of the 
product. But with the inevitable deterioration of 
soil under such a system, heightened by the encroach- 
ment of other crops, and the continued open-culture 
practiced with this crop, there has been a notable 
falling off in the production in total, as well as in 
yield per acre, during recent years. 

This condition, taken together with the need of a 
large production of stronger gluten wheats to sup- 
ply the increasing needs of the millers, led the writer, 
as representative of the Experiment Station, to 
attempt to unite the several interests in the State, 
that is, the millers, shippers and growers, as well as 
such institutions as the State Board of Trade, the Mer- 
chants' Exchange and the Sacramento Valley Devel- 
opment Association, in a concerted movement toward 
cereal improvement. This having been accomplished, 
it should be said the United States Department of 
Agriculture, through its Bureau of Plant Industry, 
has been enlisted to the extent of active and sub- 
stantial participation in the proposed work. 

Work for Improvement. — Through the active co- 
operation of parties interested in the cereal indus- 
try, the station was enabled to begin work last year. 
Under private subscription it has been possible to 
thoroughly equip two cereal stations in the large 
wheat-growing sections of the State, and also a 
cereal laboratory, where milling and baking tests, as 
well as the necessary chemical work connected with 
these investigations, can be conducted. A large 
part of the equipment being already in hand, we are 
thus able to devote practically all of the appropria- 
tion of $10,000 made by the last Legislature for this 
purpose to the real work connected with these inves- 
tigations. 

Inasmuch as the work was only begun last fall, it 
is impossible at this time to present any positive 
results from field work, for, whatever might be the 
results obtained, they must needs be verified by repe- 
tition a number of times before it would be safe to 
draw conclusions. 

I propose at this time rather to give you some idea 
of how the work is being conducted, that you may 
the better understand why it is that tn'nte is an essen- 
tial factor to success in such work, and that results 
of permanent value cannot be obtained by the mere 
turning of a hand. 

In a general way, it may be said that the work 
involves determining what varieties of wheat are 
best adapted to the principal wheat sections of Cali- 
fornia, the relative merits of these varieties for flour 
and bread-making, the improvement of varieties 
through selection and plant breeding, the dissemina- 
tion of varieties that may be of greater value than 
those generally cultivated, and, finally, the solution 
of numerous cultural problems connected with the 
cereal industry. 

Two Lines op Effort. — The farmer's special inter- 
est in these investigations lies in the attempt to in- 
crease the per acre returns, while the miller is most 
vitally interested in improving the gluten quantity 



.-.4 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 27, 1906. 



TUBULAR 

CREAM SEPARATORS 



and quality. Consequently, the investi- 
gation necessarily must embrace two 
general lines of work: 

(a) The cultural. 

(b) The technical. 

Under the former head, it is in the 
attempt to obtain such generally im- 
proved conditions as to secure a larger 
per acre return that the farmer is most 
vitally interested. There are numerous 
factors which bear more or less directly 
upon this point, and which for the most 
part are still mooted questions among 
farmers. 

(to be continued.) 

THE DAIRY. 



California's Butter Product for 1905. 



The State Dairy Bureau has com- 
pleted its compilation of statistics re- 
lating to the dairy industry of Cali- 
fornia, and an interesting review has 
been prepared for publication by Mr. 
W. H. Saylor, secretary of the Bureau. 
It covers the year ending October 1, 
1905. and is full of interest, especially 
in case of the production of butter. In 
this article a remarkable advance in 
production has been made that places 
California well to the front as a dairy 
State. This production is given by 
counties in the following table: 
County. Pounds. 

Alameda 886,315 

Alpine 26,080 

Amador 36b,6ftb 

Butte 166 6S2 

Calaveras 153,241 

Colusa 234 M> 

Contra Costa 557.114 

Uel Norte 644 112 

El Dorado 251,584 

F resno . . 2 13C U4S 

Glenn . 

Humboldt ^SJ'JS 

K?n° s 1,444,218 

Lassen 8W.881 

Los Angeles l,4 &%£ 

Madera 3™ 

Marin ""'SMS 

Mariposa »J™ 

Mendocino SI'S 

Merced ''SMS! 

Modoc 

Mono "-S 

Monterey 2KK 

Napa mm 

Nevada J™'S 

Orange &fg 

Placer 

Plumas 380.941 

Riverside *J 

Sacramento "SfiSS 

San Benito iSSZ 

San Bernardino 7 ? 

San Diego »»»" 

San Joaquin '^'ot! 

San Luis Obispo ''EX'S! 

San Mateo SffSi 

Santa Barbara ZS'ZK 

Santa Clara UZm 

Santa Cruz ,? i!?> 

Shasta 

Sierra »JJg 

Siskiyou «6.6»2 

Solano J™-™ 

Sonoma J'ffiWK 

Stanislaus * , 22 , J2 

Sutter °«,6»4 

Tehama «■ « 

Trinity . «Mg 

Tulare Vw'S 

i5:«a 

^ eDtUra 1,124,907 

83,648 



Yolo 
Yuba 



Total 41,961,047 

With but few exceptions there has 
been an increased production in every 
county. In most of the so-called older 
counties in the dairy business this in- 
crease is attributable to a favorable 
season, but the most of the increase is 
attributable to establishing the dairy 
business in these counties where irriga- 
tion is making dairying possible within 
recent years. A further explanation 
of the increase is to be found in the 
fact that the Dairy Bureau is in a bet- 
ter position to secure accurate statis- 
tics than heretofore, when it had to 
depend upon reports that were volun- 
tarily mailed to it by the producers. 
Under the law that provides for the 
Bureau to send sanitary inspectors to 
producers, advantage was taken of 
their visits among these producers to 
secure a report of the amount of their 
output of dairy products, and in this 
way much of the production has been 
reported that may have been overlooked 
in former years. 

Compared with former years the 
total above is shown in the following 
table: 

1UU7 . 28,678,439 

1898 '.'.Y.'..'........ 23,691,028 

1899. ': 24,868,084 

1900 *8.783 859 

1901 29,701,202 

1902 81,52^,762 

1903 84,786,289 

1904 35,636, 9rt9 

1905::::::::::".::::::.: 41,901,047 



S£2 M £ EMM 

STONES TO 
DAIRY 

SUCCESS 



Do/far /YaA///# 



Easily C/ea/ieef 



D u r a 



^ Cow Owners 

THIS IS ADDRESSED TO YOU. 

You own cows, and care for their mirk. Why? 
To make money. If you handle the milk the old 
fashioned way, you may make some dollars. If 
you have any kind of a cream separator, you will 
make mora dollars. 

If you want to make every dollar possible from 
your cows get an Easy-Running Empire Cream 
Separator. 

Why an Empire? You want to know why, and we 
want to tell you why. Here are a few reasons: 

The Empire will skim clean. Will turn easily. 
Is simple In construction. Is easily cleaned. Will 
make the most dollars for you. 

Many separators have one or more of these quali- 
fications. The only one that has them all is the 
Emplra. 

Let us prove our statements to you. Don't take 
our word for it. Investigate thoroughly before you 
decide. The more thorough yuur investigation, the 
more completely you will prove to yourself that the 
Emplra is the cream separator you need. 

Universal papularity is a sure sign of merit. The 
sales of Empire marines have increased by leaps 
and bounds; 11)00 per cent in the past Cues years. 
That means something. It means a whole lot. With 
all this phenomenal success there is not one case 
where an Empire user has not become an enthusias- 
tic friend of the little machine. 

Write for our free booklets. Don't delay, delay 
means money lost. 

EMPIRE CREAM SEPARATOR CO., 
BLOOMFIELO, N. J.. 



THE DEERE IMPLEMENT CO., 
Agents, San Francisco, Cal. 



The increase over last year's report 
is over 17%. Among the counties that 
show a remarkable rate of gain are 
Colusa, which increased over last year 
at the rate of 28%; Fresno, 25%; 
Humboldt, 11%; Kern, 37%; Kings, 
24%; San Joaquin, 30%; San Luis 
Obispo, 25%; Sonoma, 45%; Stanis- 
laus. 22%; Sutter, 101%; Tulare, 15%; 
Yolo, 2(i%. 

The remarkable rate of gain in So- 
noma county is one of those cases 
attributable to the fact that complete 
returns were not secured from the 
nearly 400 individual large producers 
in the county. This year the figures 
reported are those given to the in- 
spectors of the Bureau or reported by 
mail. Not a pound was estimated. 
While the rate of growth in Sutter 
county has been remarkable, it should 
be explained that until during the past 
year the production has not been very 
large, so that what would be a small 
increase in the large butter-producing 
counties was sufficient to make a large 
showing in the rate of growth. 

That the reader may see more 
clearly the rapid growth of dairying 
in those districts of the State where 
irrigation is revolutionizing their agri- 
culture, the table below is presented, 
which gives the production in pounds of 
several counties during the past sea- 
son and that of just five years ago as 
reported by the State Dairy Bureau: 

County. 190(1. 1905. 

Fresno 604,861 2,166.048 

Kern 129,848 323,363 

Kings 258.750 1.444.218 

Me ced 623,608 1,786.082 

Sacramento 742.443 1,578,751 

San Joaquin 506,047 1.468.991 

Stanislaus 423.'85 2,006,171 

Yolo 533.525 1,124,907 

Total 3,822,267 11,898,511 

The remarkable growth in the butter 
output of these eight counties shows a 
gain in five years of 211%, or an aver- 
age of over 40% a year. All of these 
counties are located in the San Joaquin 
and Sacramento valleys, and their re- 
markable progress in butter output is 
the best proof of their adaptability in 
the way of profitable dairying. 

Only a few counties retrograded in 
their butter output and these are of 
little consequence in the dairy line. 
Los Angeles, which has been an im- 
portant dairy county, is the most con- 
spicuous one that went backward. The 
explanation, however, is not difficult to 
find. The population of that county 
has increased rapidly, especially in the 
cities and towns. This draws more 
than previously on the cows of the 



county for milk and cream at the ex- 
pense of butter output. In addition to 
this is the fact that numerous dairy- 
men have found it to their advantage 
to move from the high-priced lands of 
Los Angeles county to the San Joaquin 
valley, where opportunities are just as 
good on land selling at one-fifth to one- 
tenth of what land is valued at in Los 
Angeles county. It is these two fac- 
tors that have, temporarily at least, 
checked the growth of butter produc- 
tion in that county. 



Balanced Rations. 



To the Editor: I learn that in se- 
curing a balanced ration for producing 
milk a certain amount of protein is needed. 
One table that I have gives: Alfalfa hay, 
11% protein; wheat bran, 12.6% protein; 
oilmeal, 29.3% protein; cotton-seed meal. 
37.2% protein. Please inform me if this 
is substantially correct. Also what per- 
centage of protein in wheat hay and oat 
hay? 

3. What percentage cocoanut oilcake 
contains ? 

4. What amount of protein should be 
furnished daily to a milk cow weighing 
1,000 pounds? 

5. In feeding the requisite amount of 
oilmeal, cotton-seed meal or cocoanut oil- 
cake to give the requisite protein, is there 
any danger of causing scouring ? If so, 
what should be fed to correct this? , 

6. What attention, if any, should be 
paid to the carbohydrates and fats in the 
food used to secure the required pro- 
tein ?— M. D. S., Walnut Creek. 

To the Editor : Answering the 
above letter I would say that the fol- 
lowing tabulated statement answers 
the first three questions, and shows 
that the figures given by your corre- 
spondent for the different foods are 
lower than they ought to be: 





Total. 


Digesti- 
ble. 




17.6 


12.3 




14 1 


11.2 


Linseed oilcake meal 


30.7 


26 1 


Cotton seed oilcake meal 


47.3 


41 1 




20 


16 5 


Wheat hav 


5.6 


3 6 




7.6 


4.5 



Protein. 



4. The amount of digestible protein 
necessary for a milch cow weighing 
1,000 pounds is usually taken at 21 
pounds, but it would, perhaps, seem 
more in the line of progress to use the 
figures given in the Wolff-Lehmann 
standard for a cow of the above weight, 
which are as follows: 





O 


Digestible 


Z 




"< 


Nutrients. 


c 

c- 


Ration. 


Matte 


Protein . . 


O 

el 

If 


H 

ESx 
m a 


itive 




•i 


a a 

OS << 


5" 
05 

a 

r* 


Ratio. 




Lb. 


Lb. 


Lb. 


Lb. 


Lb. 


1. When giving 11 












lb. milk daily 


36 


1.6 


10 


0.3 


1:6.7 


2. When giving 16.5 












lb. milk daily. 


27.0 


2.0 


11.0 


0.4 


1:6 


3. When giving 22 












lb. milk daily. 


29.0 


2.5 


13.0 


0.5 


1:5.7 


4. When givlng27.5 












lb. milk daily. 


32.0 


3 3 


13.0 


0.8 


1:4.5 



5. No danger need be anticipated in 
a healthy animal from scouring if only 
about two pounds of linseed oilcake 
meal are fed daily. On the other hand, 
cotton-seed meal will, if fed in exces- 
sive amounts, tend to cause constipa- 
tion. Two pounds of this meal is gen- 
erally sufficient to add to the other in- 
gredients of the ration. Cocoanut oil- 
cake meal, when fresh, possesses a 
sweet flavor which is highly relished 
by the stock. It is doubtful, however, 
if more than four pounds daily per 



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head should be fed. The one objection 
to this meal is the lack of keeping 
qualities. It is likely to become rancid, 
in which condition it is not a good feed 
for milch cows. 

ti. There should be a generous sup- 
ply of carbohydrates in the ration. It 
has been the experience of those who 
have conducted experiments along this 
line that it is almost as necessary to 
ensure a proper amount of carbohy- 
drates as it is an adequate amount of 
protein. 

With reference to the fat it might be 
said that in all rations this ingredient 
is present in sufficient quantities. If 
the protein and fuel value of a ration 
are fully up to the standard, then fat 
and carbohydrates are present in the 
proper proportions. Fat and carbo- 
hydrates can replace each other in the 
ratio of 1 (fat) to 2} (carbohydrates). 

M. E. Jaffa. 

University of California, Berkeley. 

Transfers of Holstein Friesians. 



Recorded sales of registered Holstein 
Friesian cattle in California, reported 
for the Pacific Rural Press by F. L. 
Houghton, Brattleboro, Vt., secretary 
of the Holstein Friesian Association of 
America: 

BULLS. 

tierben Korndvke Sir Paul de Kol, Wis. Live 
Stock Asso. to Simon Kasthouse, Laton. 

Keto Chief, R. P. Cuerin to Chas. H. Hauscb. 
Tulare. 

Romeo De Lone, J. F. Rouch to .John E. Lewis, 
Selma. 

Sunnyside Chief, R. F. Cuerin to B. E. Lamb, 
Vlsalia 

COWS. 

Mountain View Rose, J. F. Rouch to John E. 
Lewis, Selma. 

Primrose of La Siesta, A. B. Powell to John A. 
Stewart, Colony Center. 

Sharon Buttercup, A. B. Powell to John A. Stew- 
art, Colony Center. 




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January 27, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



5- 



Agricultural Review* 



Alameda. 

No Lamb Losses. — Livermore Herald, 
Jan. 20: Reports from the lambing 
camps on the Corral Hollow and Midway 
ranges indicate that the heavy rains have 
had little effect upon the young lambs, as 
the weather has been warm. There have 
been practically no losses on this account 
and some of the owners are confident 
that it will be the best season since 1884, 
as the feed is growing well and will soon 
be strong enough to sustain the ewes 
without extra feeding. 

Butte. 

Prize Lemon. — Chico Weekly Enter- 
prise, Jan. 19: C. L. Stilson of Chico is 
in posession of a lemon which is covered 
with a very thin rind, is 14 oz. in weight 
and measures 12 in. in circumference. 
The tree upon which it was grown is on 
the Old Wendell Miller place, near 
Yankee Hill, and was brought to town by 
Joseph Miller. 

Klnes. 

Planting Eucalyptus Trees. — 
Hanford Sentinel, Jan. 18: The Experi- 
mental Forestry Co. is taking advantage 
of the season, and is planting about 
11,000 young eucalyptus trees on the 
ranch of the company southwest of Han- 
ford. Last season the company planted 
about 6,000 trees, and made a great suc- 
cess of the venture. The success came 
about from good attention paid the young 
trees that were sprouted from the seed. 
The Experimental Forestry Co. plants 
the seed of the several varieties of 
eucalypti in Hanford, and take great care 
of the plants until they grow to a height 
of from 4 to 20 in., and then they take 
the plants out to the farm and place them 
where the trees are to grow. At this 
particular time the rains have made it 
desirable for tree planting, and the young 
plants are going out to the experimental 
farm in wagon loads. The plant of last 
season, should the same percentage of 
success follow up this season, will make a 
forest of about 15,000 trees growing on 
the farm. 

Lake. 



Harvesting Olive 
town Independent, Jan. 
son, who recently came 
to harvest the olive crop on 
near Lower Lake, states that 



Crop. — Middle- 
20: D. M. Han- 
up from Vallejo 
his ranch 
the olives 



on his place are very large and firm in 
quality and that there is an abundance of 
them. 

San Joaquin. 

Milking Cows With Bulls.— 
Modesto Herald, Jan. 18: At the River- 
side ranch, near Stockton, C. D. Pierce 
two weeks ago installed a mechanical 
milker. A vacuum pump is connected 
with the pail, that acts as a receptacle for 
the milk as it comes from the cow. From 
this pail there extends rubber tubes that 
are connected with the cows' udders by 
means of rubber nipples, so flexible that 
the operation of the pump causes them 
to expand and contract in a manner that 
brings the milk freely from the cow and 
transmits it to the pail without danger of 
contamination with the bacteria or other 
elements of disease in the atmosphere. 
Unless the most rigorous conditions of 
sanitation are maintained, milking by 
hand carries with it a constant danger of 
infection of the fluid by bacteria. Even 
when the most careful order prevails at a 
dairy there is always a likelihood of bac- 
teria getting into the milk, either from 
the hands of the milker, possibly from 
the cow itself, or perhaps from a gust of 
wind or disturbances in the atmosphere. 
By the use of the new machine, however, 
it is claimed that this danger is eliminated, 
in that the milk passes directly from the 
cow into a closed can. From this can the 
milk is transferred to porcelain vats, 
thence to the separators and from them 
to cold storage. Another advantage, and 
one that appeals to all dairymen, is that 
of economy, which is accomplished in the 
new machine, for one man takes the 
place of six at a dairy. When the 
machines were installed at the Riverside 
ranch, the question of motor power was 
an important matter for consideration. 
Several of Mr. Pierce's friends suggested 
a gasoline engine and he was preparing 
to follow their advice when he suddenly 
spotted one of his prize bulls proudly 
strutting around his corral. "By Jove! 
I've got a better idea," he exclaimed. 
"What is the matter with engaging the 
services of those bulls for needed power?" 
His friends doubted the feasibility of his 
scheme, but he was more confident of its 
success, and a week later he ordered a 
treadmill, which is to serve as a means of 
motor power for his milking apparatus. 

Farmers Buying Seed. — Stockton 
Indent ndent, Jan. 20: Farmers came into 
the city yesterday from all directions to 
buy 9eed for sowing immediately. Reports 



from all sections were encouraging and 
the rain measurements showed a sufficient 
downpour to make the next crop season a 
reasonably safe one. The storm was gen- 
eral and San Joaquin county was given a 
good wetting. Farmers who had put 
their grain in early and feared their seed 
had been rotted by the long spell of cold 
and retarding weather report that they 
have not been able to find any spoiled 
seed. Many of them have been out dig- 
ging up seed the past two days to settle 
that question. From Stockton north to 
New Hope very little land has been 
plowed, but a large portion of the county 
south of Stockton has been seeded. 
Plowing will be rushed from this time on 
and farmers say they can sow throughout 
January and get good crops, but most of 
them will put in barley. 

Sonoma. 

More About Vineyards. — Ukiah 
Press, Jan. 19: J. B. Cooley, the mana- 
ger of the branch winery at Cloverdale 
for the Asti people, was in town Monday 
on a business visit. When spoken to 
about the movement on foot in this county 
to plant grapes on the hill lands, he said 
that grape crops were the best paying 
crops in the country. He also stated that 
it would pay the hop men better to plant 
vineyards on their bottom land than to 
raise hops. He said that in one instance 
in Cloverdale there was a three-acre tract 
which produced 21 tons of grapes to the 
acre. This is of course the finest land 
there is in the valley, and while there is 
not so much sugar in the grapes and they 
bring a little less than the grapes raised 
on the high land, the abundance of 
the crop repaid the difference. He said 
that while the upland, that was scarcely 
fit for anything else, would produce 
grapes, the bottom land would do pro- 
portionately better. 

Man Tossed by an Angry Bull.— 
Prt ««- Democrat, Jan. 20: To be tossed 
into space and descend on the teeth of a 
harrow is not the most pleasant of experi- 
ences, and Edward Peter, who resides on 
the Peter ranch, at the end of Sonoma 
avenue, near the pumping station, who 
figured in just such an exciting episode, 
has no desire to repeat it. The bull, a 
three-year-old Durham, suddenly became 
infuriated and charged on Mr. Peter. The 
man dodged and tried to escape. He 
stumbled, and before he knew what was 
happening the bull was mauling him. The 
next moment the animal tossed him into 
space onto the harrow. Then he was 
rescued and the bull driven off. Dr. 
Jesse attended to Mr. Peter's injuries. 

Sonoma. 

Wine Company Fined.— Santa Rosa 
Republican, Jan. 19: The French-Ameri- 
can Wine Co. was fined $250 on Wednes- 
day afternoon by Judge Albert G. Bur- 
nett, they having pleaded guilty to the 
charge against them of having polluted 
the waters of Russian river. It is alleged 
that refuse matter was permitted to run 
and be dumped into the stream, which 
was deleterious to fish and that the com- 
pany had repeatedly been warned. 

Stanislaus. 

Grapes. — Modesto Herald, Jan. 18: 
One of the most successful growers of 
Emperor table grapes for shipping is 
G. w. Wylie of Tulare county. A few 
years ago he sold his Muscat vineyard, 
near Fresno, and moved to Dinuba. He 
decided to put out mostly Emperor, a 
fine purple table grape, and some Flaming 
Tokays. He finds that the former do the 
best for that locality, but thinks that 
Tokays might be profitable in Stanislaus, 
being further north and slightly cooler. 
They are somewhat better bearers and 
sellers, but spoil more easily with rain 
and, consequently, must be packed and 
shipped earlier. Off an 18-acre patch, 
notwithstanding that it was scorched by 
some frost, both at the beginning and 
close of the season, on three-year-old 
vines the gross income >vas $9,000, or $500 
per acre. As they are a very hardy 
grape, and will stand lots of hard usage 
if it cannot be avoided, the expense of 
handling and shipping is not excessive. 
On a 12-acre piece that almost escaped 
the frost he grossed $14,000. 

Tehama. 

Stock Faring Well. — Red Bluff 
News, Jan. 19: Contrary to all expecta- 
tions, the stock of Tehama county have 
generally survived the trying weather of 
the past few weeks and the new growth 
of grass give9 the cattle and sheep a new 
of life. Reports from the ranges 
show that the Cone sheep are in splendid 
condition, considering the kind of a 
season they have had, and all other large 
flocks have withstood the unusual cold 
and drouth. The warm rain has been a 



blessing to all owners of live stock. The 
smaller holders of cattle have suffered 
the most and some cows and steers have 
been rendered so weak that they might 
be drowned in the rapidly rising creeks. 
Hopeful reports have been received from 
the Diamond Range country, although 
stockmen are not yet out of the woods. 



Tulare. 

Grapes in Alta District. — Alta 
Advocate: A large additional acreage to 
grapes will be planted in the Alta district 
this spring. This statement is made by a 
resident of that section, who claims that 
a number of tracts, both large and small, 
in the Dinuba, Sultana and Orosi country 
are now being and will be set out. The 
grapes will include many varieties, among 
them being the Mission, Muscat, Em- 
peror, Tokay, etc. The high prices ob- 
tained for table grapes during the past 
several seasons have proven an incentive 
to plant these varieties. Not only grapes, 
but many varieties of deciduous trees, will 
be set out, a large part of which will be 
peaches, including Muirs, and Phillipps 
and Orange Clings. As regards grapes, 
they do especially well, it is stated, in the 
dry bog land, some of the Armenians in 
the vicinity of Churchill having raisins in 
the sweatboxes last year before those in 
some other sections had begun to pick. 

Nob Hill Vineyard Co. — Lindsay 
Gazette, Jan. 17: McLees Brothers, A. J. 
Hutchinson and Ed. McLees have organ- 
ized the Nob Hill Vineyard Company 
with a capital stock of $10,000. The ob- 
ject of the company is to plant and grow 
Emperor grapes at Nob Hill. Sixty acres 
will be planted this spring by the com- 
pany and N. S. Marshall and Daniel 
Myers, who own land adjoining, will put g^^o 
in 15 acres, the former 10 and the latter 5. orc ] er 
Although quite a number of grapes have 
been planted here in former years, the 
new company will practically start a new 
irdustry in this section. Considerable 
acreage will be put out this spring at El 
Mirador also and as a whole the new in- 
dustry will furnish an incentive for plant- 
ings by others, which will in a very short 
time grow to such magnitude that em- 
ployment will be furnished to a greater 
number of people during a longer period 
in each year. 

Ventura. 

More Irrigation.— Oxnard Courier: 
Another irrigation company has been or- 
ganized near Ventura for the purpose of 
supplying a large tract of land with 
water. R. H. Valentine, H. S. Valentine, 
James Ward and Sylva Heiss have 
formed a company known as H. S. Valen- 
tine Co., and have sunk a large well on 
the Harry Valentine place near Montalvo 
and are now spending several thousand 
dollars on a pipe line to supply a large 
section of land in that vicinity with water 
for irrigation. They are putting in two 
large gasoline engines and pumps, and 
will cover some 250 acres of bean land and 
50 acres of walnut orchard. 

Yuba. 

Thousands of Sheep Killed in 
Storm. — Marysville dispatch to Sac- 
ramento Union, Jan 21 : Thousands of 



sheep are reported killed by the heav^ 
storm on the ranges of this county dur- 
ing the present week. Some owners lost 
one-third of their flocks. But few lambs 
lived through the storms. The loss will 
amount to many thousands. 

Tree Crashes Upon House.— Marys- 
ville Democrat, Jan. 16: A large walnut 
tree that has stood in the back yard of 
the residence of H. Cheim on D street 
was uprooted by the heavy south wind 
and crashed down upon the back roof of 
that portion of the house that is occupied 
by W. E. Langdon and family. The 
roof was wrecked, but the walls, being of 
brick, withstood the shock and prevented 
what might under other circumstances 
have been a disastrous accident. 

NEVADA. 

To Plant African Trees On 
Desert. — Reno special to Sacramento 
Bee, Jan. 21: Senator Nixon has induced 
the Agricultural Department to make ex- 
tensive experiments in Nevada with 
desert trees which grow without water. 
From a British army officer in Africa the 
Department has ordered several thousand 
seeds of the deodar tree and these will be 
planted in the Las Vegas section, where 
their growth will be carefully watched 
by the Department officials. There are 
millions of acres in Nevada where no 
vegetation except sagebrush and similar 
plant life is found, to the great -incon- 
venience of miners and stockmen, who 
often are put to enormous expense to se- 
cure timber for their uses. It is also be- 
lieved that if desert trees can be induced 
to grow that they will cause precipitation 
of moisture where there is now none. It 
is the intention of the State experiment 
stations to secure some of these seeds in 
to give them a trial in western 
Nevada. 

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PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 27, 1906. 



The Home Circle* 



Heir of the Ages. 

Little store of wealth have I, 

Nor a rood of land I own; 
Not a mansion fair and high, 

Built with towers of fretted stone; 
Stocks, nor bonds, nor title deeds, 

Flocks nor herds have I to show: 
When I ride, no Arab steeds 

Toss for me their manes of snow. 

Yet to an immense estate 

Am I heir, by grace of God — 
Richer, grander, than doth wait 

Any earthly monarch's nod. 
Heir of all the ages, I — 

Heir of all that they have wrought, 
All their store of empires high, 

All their wealth of precious thought. 

Every golden deed of theirs 

Sheds its luster on my way; 
All their labors, all their prayers, 

Sanctify this present day! 
Heir of all that they have earned 

By their passion and their tears: 
Heir of all that they have learned 

Through the weary, toiling years! 

Heir of all the faith sublime 

On whose wings they soared to heaven; 
Heir of every hope that Time 

To earth's fainting sons hath given — 
Aspirations pure and high: 

Strength to dare and to endure; 
Heir of all the ages, I — 

Lo! I am no longer poor! 

— Julia ('. /.'. Dorr. 



The Farmer's Blessings. 
• 

None can describe the sweets of country 
life 

But those blest men that do enjoy and 

taste them. 
Plain husbandmen, tho' far below our 

pitch 

Of fortune plac'd, enjoy a wealth above 
us, 

To whom the earth with true and boun- 
teous justice, 

Free from war's cares, returns an easy 
food; 

They breathe the fresh and uncorrupted 
air, 

And by clear brooks enjoy untroubled 
sleeps, 

Their state is fearless and secure, enrich 'd 
With several blessings, such as greatest 
kings 

Might in true justice envy, and themselves 
Would count too happy, if they truly 
knew them. 

—F. May. 



Work. 

Let me but do my work from day to day 
In field or forest, at the desk or loom, 
In roaring market-place or tranquil room; 
Let me but find it in my heart to say, 
When vagrant wishes beckon me astray, 
"This is my work— my blessing, not my 
doom; 

Of all who live, I am the only one by 
whom 

This work can best be done, in the right 
way." 

Then shall I see it not too great nor small 
To suit my spirit and to prove my powers; 
Then shall I cheerful greet the laboring 
hours, 

And cheerful turn, when the long shadows 
fall 

At eventide, to play and love and rest, 
Because I know for me my work is best. 

— Henry Van Dyke. 



The Most Beautiful Poem. 



Now, as the time was come for 
Prince Hemmi to think of marrying, 
counselors and courtiers besought HTm 
to choose a bride. The prince, how- 
ever, gave them no satisfaction. In- 
differently he glanced at the portraits 
of the young princesses which gold- 
trimmed ambassadors brought him. 
Blondes there were and brunettes; thin 
ones and fat, pretty ones and ugly. 
And even in the latter the painter had 
found a way to bring out some beauty, 
and had exaggerated it in order to turn 
attention from the others. For in- 
stance, from the midst of irregular 
features looked out deep eyes; in an- 
other, a too-large nose was offset by 
cherry lips. 

But Prince Hemmi preserved his 
weary attitude. He sighed, shook his 
head, and, shutting himself up in his 
apartment, took his lute and began to 



sing, leaving to his prime minister the 
care of dismissing the embassadors as 
best he could, by covering with words 
of flattery the refusal of the prince to 
fall in love. 

The whole court was filled with 
lamentation. The entire kingdom 
groaned at having so morose a prince 
for sovereign. The old King and the 
Queen-mother being dead, no one had 
the power to make the prince listen to 
words of wisdom. 

One alone could influence him. This 
was his favorite, Olle, more of a bard 
than a courtier, more of a poet than a 
statesman, who liked better to sing 
with the prince than to weary him with 
talking. 

However, as the two hundred and 
ninety-seventh ambassador took his 
leave, carrying away the two hundred 
and ninety-seventh portrait of the re- 
jected princesses, Olle roused himself. 
He laid down his lute, stopped singing 
the verse he was composing, and sat 
listening pensively to the horses of the 
escort as they hurried away at an 
angry gallop. 

"Well," said the prince, "of what 
thinkest thou?" 

Olle sighed without replying. Like 
the prince, he was but twenty, and his 
youthful face had the beauty of a girl's 
among its light blonde curls. 

Hemmi was dark, grave and pale, 
with dreamy eyes. 

"Of w,hat thinkest thou?" repeated 
the prince, impatiently. 

"I am thinking it is sad that such a 
prince as you should have taken upon 
himself the vows of chastity." 

Hemmi began to laugh. "I have 
taken no vow." Then growing sad, he 
added: "My heart is filled with love: 
only — Olle, will you understand me? — I 
do not wish to give my beautiful love to 
a doll without soul or mind." 

"For mind," said Olle, "I see no 
necessity! She whom one loves always 
has enough of that, provided she has 
the sense to let herself be loved." 

" Undeceive thyself! I want the one I 
choose to understand me and be able to 
respond to my thoughts and feeling, 
even when the days of our first passion 
are over. Olle, thinkest thou of the 
horror of passing one's life with a 
statue whom one would have to ani- 
mate oneself, and which, as soon as one 
ceased to give i* life, would fall back in- 
to its inert doll state!" 

"Tra la-la! la! la!" sang Olle, touch- 
ing the strings of his lute. 

" Thou mockest, instead of consoling 
me." 

"I do not mock. I sing, because in 
singing my most precious thoughts 
come to me — and I would find some 
way of drawing you out of your diffi- 
culty. But wait, Prince Hemmi, here 
is the plan I have been seeking." 

"Tell it quickly!" 

"Why not arrange a tourney of 
ladies for which your heart shall be the 
prize?" 

The prince shrugged his shoulders. 

"I mean," continued Olle, "a gallant 
tourney; a sort of a court of love to 
which those who wish to be queen shall 
bring poems composed by themselves. 
Poetry is never found in vulgar souls. 
One must love in order to sing." 

"Thy idea is good, but who will 
guarantee that the poems brought by 
these ambitious women were written 
by themselves?" 

"That can be easily proved. When 
the three best poems are chosen by 
you, the three authors shall be shut up 
in your palace, each in a separate 
room where no one can approach them. 
We will leave them there a whole night, 
merely taking care that they may havq 
ink, pens, parchment and a comfort- 
able supper, for the mind needs to be 
sustained by the body." 

"Olle, dost thou really think I can 
do this?" 

"Why not? Trust to me. Make 
known throughout your palace that the 
first day of the new moon you will 
receive all women who wish to try their 
luck. Only, Prince Hemmi, do not ex- 
pect all the candidates to be noble, for 
very few could combine birth, intellect 
and heart with courage enough to con- 
fess to their wish to be chosen." 

"I ask for nothing except a loving 
heart." 

"Be at peace, then," said Olle. 



And humming a virelay, he gave 
orders to announce this remarkable 
tourney, the reward of which was to be 
a throne, and, better still, much love. 
****** 

The candidates came in crowds. Not 
the daughters of great lords, for, as 
Olle had predicted, these were too 
proud to compete. In anger at not 
daring to do so, they made fun of the 
Prince. "What a fool he was, and 
how the unhappy woman he chose was 
to be pitied!" Thus wagged the kindly 
tongues against the daughters of the 
lesser nobles and the bourgeoise. 

There came also intriguing women, 
beautiful, bold creatures, who were dis- 
missed without pity as soon as one of 
the courtiers recognized them. On 
arriving, all handed to Olle, who had 
been charged to read them, their rolls 
of parchment. The manuscripts were 
thrown into a covered basket. Olle 
took them out at random and began to 
read. " What wretched verses! What 
vapid thoughts!" 

When he heard them, Hemmi began 
to regret having attempted the im- 
possible; he was sorry he had consented 
to this court of love at which no one 
seemed worthy of the offered reward. 
"Oh, such wretched verses! Such 
vapid thoughts ! " 

Three manuscripts only remained to 
be read. Olle unfolded one and began, 
whereupon the prince took courage. 
The lines burst forth in a proud song, 
the sonorous rhymes of which fell to- 
gether like tinkling cymbals. 

A murmur ran through the crowd. 
At a sign from Olle the applauded muse 
advanced. 

She was tall, lithe and straight as a 
beautiful lily. She raised her haughty 
head, and beneath the shadows of her 
black braids shone proud eyes — velvety 
eyes streaked with gold. She was 
dressed in scarlet, as if she had donned 
the royal cloak in advance. 

The prince admired her superb pres- 
ence. 

"Your poem is beautiful, madame," 
said he. "Whence came such wonder- 
ful inspirations ? " 

She smiled a haughty smile and re- 
plied, "From my wish to be queen." 

Then the prince thought, "What 
brow would better wear the diadem ? 
and the ministers whispered in low 
tones. 

"She's a queen! A true queen! 
Choose her, prince ! Choose her ! " 

But Olle had taken another poem and 
was again reading. 

This one resembled a bird-song in a 
sunbeam. 

Of her own accord, when Olle had 
finished, the happy muse advanced. 
She was fair, a smile was in her eyes 
and on her lips. She wore rose-color 
like the spring. 

"Your poem is charming," said 
Hemmi. "Be so good, madame, as to 
tell us what breath inspired you ? " 

She smiled and her smile won the 
prince. 

" I thought," said she, "of the pleas- 
ures with which my life would be filled 
if I were a princess, and I sang ! " 

" Oh, the pretty creature!" mur- 
mured Olle. " If I were king ! " 

And he hesitated to read the last 
poem, so great was his desire to see the 
poetess of the golden hair triumph. 

But the prince signed to him to con- 
tinue. 

And this time on hearing the verses 
which Olle read the heart of the prince 
was filled with a deep joy. In the lines, 
sweet, as caressing as kisses, he felt 
the throb of a soul. 

When the third muse came forward 
there rose among the crowd of courtiers 
a dull groan of anger. How did the 
woman dare to present herself there ? 

She was clad very simply in a white 
woolen robe. The bedraggled fringe 
as well as her dusty slippers showed 
that she had walked a long way like a 
beggar. But Hemmi saw only the dark 
hair, the color of ripe blackberries in 
the moonlight, lips trembling in a pale 
face, and above all, great, beseeching 
eyes in which lay one knew not what 
tender longing. 

"And you whose poem is infinitely 
sweet, tell us, madame, who inspired 
you ? " 

Calmly she raised to the prince her 
soft glance and said: 



" I dreamed of love." 

So much meaning thrilled through 
this reply that the heart of the prince 
bounded in his breast. 

He no longer saw the haughty muse 
in the red glory of her royal robes, nor 
the other smiling in her flower-hued 
gown. He saw nothing but the pale 
woman, the audacious beggar of love. 
* * * * * * 

Into the chamber to which they were 
to lead her of the proud eyes, the prime 
minister glided furtively, and in place 
of the black ink already on the desk, 
put some golden ink. 

He said to himself, in his narrow 
reasoning, that brilliant letters would 
make the words more precious, and he 
thought that the unknown woman with 
the queenly brow would be grateful to 
him and would help him in regard to his 
position with the prince. 

Olle's choice was the blonde woman 
with the luminous eyes. And in order 
that the poem she was to write might 
delight the more, he placed on the table 
colors and brushes. Thus she could 
adorn with arabesques the graceful lines 
she was about to trace. 

As for the pale woman with the be- 
seeching eyes, no one thought of her — 
no one, alas ! but the valet, whose duty 
it was to make ready the necessaries — 
ink, pens and parchment. "What!" 
said he to himself, "make a queen out 
of a beggar ! Compel me to serve her! " 

In order to insure himself against 
this the valet thought he had found a 
way — he overturned the ink. 

She would defend herself in vain the 
following day, the adventurer; every 
one would think that she had made up 
a pretext to excuse her inability to com- 
pose verses without aid. 
****** 

Before an expectant court Prince 
Hemmi himself unrolled the three parch- 
ments. The first was in ink of gold, 
admirably suited to the beauty of the 
poem. In sonorous, well-rhyming lines, 
it celebrated the glory of being king, 
the pride of being master. 

The second parchment was covered 
with flowery arabesques. But of 
verses, none. The blonde muse excused 
herself, saying, that, like certain birds, 
she was unable to sing when caged. 

Olle sighed. 

Hemmi unrolled the last manuscript. 
The letters were traced in red ink 
which in many places was partly rubbed 
off. 

****** 

The prince read, and when he had 
finished the poem: 

"Come ! Oh, come," cried he, "thou 
who k no west how to love; thou whom I 
recognized." 

She came to him slowly, and at her 
coming the courtiers stood back with 
words of terror. 

She no longer wore her faded robe, 
but a purple tunic, which made her pale 
face whiter than ever. 

"My one love!" exclaimed Hemmi. 
She smiled. 

Larger, more luminous opened her 
eyes. Suddenly she staggered. The 
prince held out his arms, she glided into 
them, still smiling her wonderful smile. 

At their feet the manuscript had 
fallen, as red as the dress she wore. 

Hemmi gave a cry of anguish. The 
purple robe clung to him, and beneath 
the torn folds a yawning wound showed 
itself. 

Then the prince knew that the woman 
had written the most beautiful poem 
with her heart's blood. — Translated 
from the French for Short Storie$. 



Tender-Hearted Bess. 



She wouldn't beat the carpets, 

She wouldn't whip the cream, 
She wouldn't pound the beefsteak — 

Too cruel it did seem. 
She wouldn't strike the matches, 

She'd give hot tea no blows; 
She made no hit at baking, 

She wouldn't wring her clothes, 
She wouldn't cut a chicken 

Or think of drowning care; 
She wouldn't mash potatoes 

Or bang her golden hair. 
She wouldn't do all these things, 

My tender-hearted Bess, 
And so she smashed all records 

At downright laziness. 

— New York Sun. 



January 27, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



57 



Things to Remember. 

An Excellent Mouth Wash. — Add 
a teaspoonful of tincture of myrrh to a 
cupful of warm water. It will harden 
the gums, sweeten the breath, and, if 
teeth have been extracted, will heal 
the mouth. 

For the Eyes.— If the eyes lack 
luster, it is an indication that you need 
anti-dyspeptic medicine. For sick head- 
aches, accompanied by dancing before 
the eyes of sparks, take a seidlitz 
powder, tying a towel over the eyes and 
remain in a darkened room. For 
tired eyes, try bathing them in hot 
water and resting them. 

The Value of Charcoal. — Char- 
coal is one of the best known purifiers 
of water, which, if allowed to percolate 
through it, will be freed of all foreign 
particles or animal organisms. For 
sweetening the breath it has no equal, 
and when used for cleansing the teeth 
it removes fungous growths that tooth 
powder fails to reach. If frequently 
applied to a burn it will relieve the 
pain. — Vick's. 

The Well Kept Hands. — A piece of 
pomice stone, to rub off ink and other 
stains, should be found on every toilet 
stand, also a lemon to rub on the nails 
and under them, to remove any stain 
or discoloration. Then wash the hands 
perfectly clean, rub with almond 
cream, in order to make plump and 
healthy looking, scrape the flesh 
back from the nails, trim properly and 
polish with a chamois polisher. This 
treatment will insure well-kept hands. 

How to Breathe. — When not talk- 
ing, the lips should be well closed and 
the breathing should be entirely 
through the nostrils. In order to 
reach all points of your physical system, 
try slow, measured, deep breathing, 
that covers the entire lung surface; 
when once you have established this 
habit of breathing, you will realize the 
benefits that occur from a healthy con- 
dition of blood, for the manner in which 
the inspired air comes in contact with 
the blood in the lungs, is of the utmost 
importance to every vital process. The 
perfection of breathing depends upon 
the purity of the air and the manner of 
inhaling it. 

The Way to Get Exercise. — Women 
cannot get the proper kind of exercise 
by performing household duties, for 
physical exercise, in order to be bene- 
ficial, should be taken with the mind at 
rest, and the woman who cannot spare 
the time from her household duties 
for systematic exercise is the one 
most in need of it. A quick, 
brisk walk of 30 minutes dura- 
tion daily, in the open air, should 
be considered absolutely necessary to 
the health of all housewives. And the 
anasmia girls should stay out of doors 
in the fresh air, as much as possible 
walk slowly and practice deep breath- 
ing; this, with the proper diet of milk 
farinaceous food, etc., will restore + he 
bloom of health to the palest com- 
plexion, which is a ;sign of anaemia 
Walking in the open air is the best ex- 
ercise woman can engage in for the de 
velopment of her physical charms. 



on the seventh day, the Sabbath. The 
eight reminds me of the eight progeni- 
tors of the world— Noah, his wife, his 
three sons and their wives; the nine of 
the nine lepers who failed to bless and 
praise Jesus for healing them. He 
healed ten, but only one thanked him. 
The ten reminds me of the ten com- 
mandments; the queen of the Virgin 
Mary, mother of Jesus, the Queen of 
Heaven, and also of the Queen of Sheba. 
The king reminds me of the wisest man 
that ever lived — King Solomon. The 
fifty-two cards in the pack remind me 
of the fifty-two weeks in the year; the 
twelve picture cards of the twelve 
months in the year. The four suits- 
hearts, diamonds, clubs and spades — 
remind me of the four seasons — spring, 
summer, autumn and winter. The thir- 
teen cards in each suit remind me of 
the thirteen weeks in each season, and 
the 365 spots on the cards of the pack 
remind me of the 365 days in the year." 

"Well," said the judge, "you have 
made a very satisfactory explanation, 
but you have omitted the knave. What 
of that? " 

"Don't you think the man who ar- 
rested me is more of a knave than I 
am?" asked the sailor, and the judge 
then discharged him. 

To Make Colors Fast. 



The Sailor's Prayerbook. 

A sailor entered a church with a pack 
of cards in his hands and spread them 
out on the seat. He was arrested and 
carried to court next morning. The 
judge asked him what he meant by 
handling cards in church. 

The sailor replied: "Your Honor, I 
was shipwrecked once and cast upon a 
desert island and the only thing I saved 
was a pack of cards. These proved to 
be my Bible, my prayerbook and my 
almanac." 

" Explain yourself," said the judge. 

The sailor then continued: " When I 
look at the ace, it reminds me of the 
Father, the one God. The two reminds 
me of the Father and Son; the three of 
the Trinity — the Father, Son and Holy 
Ghost. The four reminds me of the 
four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke 
and John; the five of the five wise vir- 
gins and the five foolish ones. The six 
reminds me that the world was made in 
six days; the seven that the Lord rested 



To preserve the colors of ginghams, 
printed lawns, etc., and before wash- 
ing almost any colored fabrics, it is 
recommended to soak them for some 
time in water to every gallon of which 
is added a spoonful of ox gall. A 
strong, clear tea of common hay will 
preserve the color of French linens. 
Vinegar in the rinsing water for pink 
and green fabrics will brighten these 
colors, and soda answers the same pur- 
pose for both purple and blue. The 
colors of the above fabrics may be pre- 
served by using a strong, milk-warm 
lather of white soap, putting the dress 
into it instead of rubbing it on the 
material, and stirring into a first 
and second tub of rinsing water a large 
tablespoonful of ox gall. To prepare 
ox gall for washing colored articles, 
empty it into a bottle, put in it a hand- 
ful of salt and keep it closely corked. 
A teacupful to five gallons of the rins- 
ing water will suffice. 

Proving One's Identity. 

Paradoxical as it may seem, says a 
writer, the most difficult thing to 
prove in court is who you are. Public 
records are of value for this purpose, 
but not conclusive, neither [are family 
records, unless they be in the hand- 
writing of a parent or relative who 
has known one from birth. One's own 
testimony is hearsay, as being outside 
of personal knowledge. Only the tes- 
timony of parents or other relatives 
who have personal knowledge of the 
fact can furnish evidence which courts 
deem conclusive. Many great estates 
have been lost to their rightful owner 
solely because of their inability to prove 
their identity. 



Dietz Lanterns 

You never heard a man who carries a 
Dietz Cold Blast Lantern complain of 
a leaking oil pot. It's solderless, it's 
tested by air pressure, leaking is an 
impossibility. Count on your fingers 
the things you think a lantern should 
be: Convenient, safe, long burning, 
never blow out, cleanly, no smoking 
or sooting, convenient locking levers — 
they are all in the Dietz. Then the 
greatest feature of all, the one every- 
body knows about and everybody 
prizes, is the 

"Clear, White Light of the 



DIETZ." 

You ought to know all about the Ian- 
tern you buy. We want you to know 
all about the Dietz Cold Blast. Our 
lantern book will explain. It's free. 
Shall we mail you a copy? 

R. E. DIETZ COMPANY, 

61 LaightSt., NEW YORK CITY. 

Established 1840. 




U. S. Government Inspected. 
For Quality, Unsurpassed. 

Western Heat Company, 

San Francisco. 




Portable Buildings 

NO. 47. STOCK SIZE— 12 ft. 9% in. by 22 ft. 1H in. 
One outside and two inside doors. Three windows. Three rooms. 
Shipping weight, 4800 pounds. 
We will be pleased to send catalogues on application. 

BURNHAM-STANDEFORD CO. 

WASHINGTON AND SECOND STREETS. - OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA. 



WANTED— 100,000 CUTTINGS 

Rupestris St. George 

In large or small lots— large enough to bench graft. 

JOHN SWETT & SON, Martinez. 



RIO VISTA HOTEL, 253 THIRD ST.. NEAR HOWARD. SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. TEL. MAIN 1261. 
200 rooms, en suite and single. Rates per day, 35c and up; week, $2 and up. Country patronage so- 
licited. Convenient, respectable, up to date. Steam heat, hot and cold water, electric lights, 
return call bells in every room. Inside and outside tire escapes. Electric elevator all night. 
Ladies' parlor. Reading room with all daily papers. Batbs free to guests. Take Howard St. car tc 
Third from ferries, or Third St. car from Townsend St. depot to house. MRS. EMMA OLAPSEN, Prop. 



r 



a FARM BARGAINS. Send for 
I.AI I F (1KN I A catalog. C.M.WoosterCo., 

vMLII 048 Market St., S. P.,Cal. 



A New Departure in 
Banking by Mail 

THE 4% COMPOUND INTER- 
EST BEARING CERTIFICATES 
OF DEPOSIT OF THE 

Market Street Bank 

demand the attention of anyone having 
large or small amounts of money upon 
which a safe and commensurate return 
is desired. 

These Certificates are issued in any 
amount from $ 1 00 upward, and bear 
^% interest, which is compounded 
every 6 months. 

For particulars, write 
The MARKET STREET Bank 
Market and 7th Sts. 
San Francisco, California 



DAKES' AG'CY, S. F., 



HEALDS 



BUSINESS COLLEGE, 
24 Post Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

The Leading Commercial School 
West of Chicago. : 

ESTABLISHED OVER 40 YEARS. 

30 Teachers; nearly 100 Typewriting Machines 
20,000 Graduates; 1000 annual enrollment; 500 aver- 
age daily attendance; 600 calls annually for gradu- 
ates of the college. All departments open the en- 
tire year. Both sexes. Individual instruction. 
Write for new Catalogue and College 
Journal— Free. 

SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL, CIVIL, MECHANICAL, 
ELECTRICAL AND MINING ENGINEERING, 
Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying. 

113 Fulton St., 1 Oik. weal of Uily Hall, San Francixco. 
Open All Year. A. VAN DEh NAILLEN, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, $25: bullion and Chlorination 
Assay, 125; Blowpipe Assay, 810. Pull course of 
Assaying, 850. Established 1804. Send for Circular. 



Land for Sale and to Rent 





J 

Glenn County, - - California. 

FOR SALE 

IN SUBDIVISION; 



This famous and well-known farm, the home of 

the late Dr. Glenn, "the wheat king," has been sur- 
veyed and subdivided. It is offered for sale in any 
sized government subdivision at Iremarkably low 
prices, and in no case, it is believed, exceeding 
what it is assessed for county and State taxation 
purposes. 

This great ranch runs up and down the west bank 
of the Sacramento river for 15 miles. It is located 
in a region that has never lacked an ample rainfall, 
and no irrigation is required. 

The river is navigable at all seasons of the year, 
and freight and trading boats make regular rips 

The closest personal inspection of the land by 
proposed purchasers is invited. Parties desiring 
to look at the land should go to Willows, Califor- 
nia, and inquire for P. O. Eibe. 

For further particulars and for maps, showing 
the subdiv'sions and prices per acre, address per 
sonally or by letter, 

F\ C. LUSK, 

Agent of N. D. Rideout, Administrator 01 the Estate 
If H. J. Glenn, at Chico. butte County, California 

rOD QAI C GOOD RANCH AT A BARGAIN. 

riln OMLQ 160 acres near Red Bluff, Cal. 
Price $2500. For further particulars address 
I. R. D. GRUbb, Real Estate, 825 Mills Building, 
San Francisco. 

ALFALFA LANDS, Orchards, Vineyards, Stock 
ranches. Agents the famous Gridley Colony. 
Fertile land. Plenty of water. Printed matter free. 
CHAS. F. O'DRIEN & CO., 30 Montgomery St , S. F. 

WE sell country lands. CHATFIELD& VINZENT, 
228 Montgomery street, San Francisco. Cal. 



ANTED — Good Ranches, burr - Paddon Co., 
Dept. J, 40 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 




w 



58 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 27, 1906. 



The Markets* 



San Francisco Produce Report. 

San Francisco, Jan. 24, mm. 
CHICAGO WHEAT FUTURES. 

Wheat futures in Chicago were as follows for the 
*eek named, price being for No. 2 Red per bushel: 
May. Julv. 

Wednesday I <«^@ 873f 854® 345£ 

Thursday 884® 87% 854® 84% 

Friday 88J4® 87% 85H® 84% 

Saturday 87*® 86% 84%@ 84« 

Monday 874® 87ft 85J,® 854 

Tuesday 87H® 86* 85%® 84% 

CHICAGO CORN FUTURES. 

Prices of futures on No. 2 corn per bushel in Chi- 
cago were as follows for the week : 

May. July. 

Wednesday 45!4@45 45%@454 

Thursday 45X@454 4r,%.mb% 

Friday 45*@454 

Saturday 45?6@45,4 45'' s @454 

Monday 45%@ 45=£@454 

Tuesday 45H@45 454@45* 

SAN FRANCISCO WHEAT FUTURES. 

The range of values In San Francisco for No. 1 
White wheat per cental was as follows: 

Dec. 1906. May, 1906. 

Wednesday t @ ,] 3834® 

Thursday 1 32?»@1 32 1 394® 1 38% 

Friday ® 1 38%fi>l 38* 

Saturday 1 32*@1 324 > S9X@I 394 

Monday — ® 1 38%@l 38% 

Tuesday 1 32><@l 32 1 384(311 38 



No rainstorm in California was ever 
more timely than that of last week. The 
entire prospects of the farming districts 
have been changed by it. The rain has 
been general throughout the entire State, 
and many think it came in the nick of 
time for the grain growers. We have 
passed through another week of dullness. 
Selling has been slow, and only a few 
sales are reported. Offerings are light 
and prices unsatisfactory to holders, who 
want more money for their wheat and 
absolutely refuse to let it go at present 
values. Shippers have more wheat pur- 
chased than they have tonnage. Tonnage 
at present is too high for an exporter to 
take up, considering the price he has paid 
for his wheat and the values of cargoes 
abroad. Pacific Coast wheat is now in 
competition with Argentine. Shippers 
abroad are more willing to transact busi- 
ness with that country, on account of 
cheaper wheat, and it is stated that the 
Argentine crop will have from 12,000,000 
to 14,000,000 quarters for export. Aus- 
tralia will also have a surplus of 4,000,000 
quarters, and this will have to find a mar- 
ket in Europe. Coast shippers are aware 
of this, and are very reluctant to purchase 
wheat at the present prices. They claim 
that with the high freight rates prevailing 
they could hardly come out even on pres- 
ent values of cargoes, and that prices 
must give way before a good demand can 
be relied upon from Europe. Stocks held 
in country warehouses and at tidewater 
points in the North are very large; in 
fact, the largest for a great many years 
past, and with the dragging market the 
outlook is that this will continue for some 
time to come. There is no call from Japan 
at present. 

California Milling 11 42 @1 47!* 

Cal. No. 1 shipping 1 40 @1 45 

Northern Club I 424<ai 433* 

Northern Bluestem 1 45 ©1 474 

Northern Red 1 35 ©1 374 

PRICES OF FUTURES. 

Wednesday, at the forenoon session of Exchange, 
May, 1906, wheat ranged from *1.37* B ®1.37. 

floor. 

On the whole, the milling situation is 
dull, and it is doubtful whether there will 
be any renewed activity for some time to 
come. From the United Kingdom there 
is no inquiry whatever, and the same can 
be said of South Africa. Central and 
South American demand is only fair. The 
heavy shipments noticed some time ago 
have fallen away, and it looks as if the 
demand from there has been satisfied. 
Millers are somewhat discouraged over 
the outlook in China, and would like to 
see tho Government at Washington take 
active hold and try to remedy the troubles 
now existing. The general opinion among 
the leading millers is that the boycott is 
more serious than is actually known. 
Some few millers at Puget Sound points 
have orders that remain to be filled for 
China, but if they desire to crowd their 
mills these could be filled this week. As 
to the demand from Japan, very few 
orders are coming to hand, as buyers 
over there will endeavor to dispose of the 
large stocks now on hand before putting 
in any fresh supplies. Stocks there are 
very large at present, owing to the heavy 
shipments from the Pacific Northwest 
during the month of December. Steam- 
ers going to Oriental ports are not taxed 
to capacity, and, if there was any demand 
for flour, space could readily bo obtained. 
At Northern points export brands are 
held steady at $3.30@3.35. 



Patents, California 

Second Patents, California. 
Straights 



@4 85 
@4 60 
@4 25 



Superflne No. 1 3 50 ©3 75 

Superfine No. 2 3 00 ©3 40 

Oregon Bakers' 3 90 ©4 25 

Washington Bakers' 4 00 ©4 40 

Eastern Patents 5 50 © 

Barley. 

Very little change has been noticed in 
the barley market, and sales are mostly of 
a scalping character. Good feed Is in 
good demand at from $1.21 to $1.23i{ per 
cental. Otherwise buyers are only mod- 
erately interested. Offerings are fair, 
but very little selling is going on. Prices 
are entirely too high for export, and the 
rains will tend to induce holders to let go 
shortly, owing to the improved prospects 
for the new crop. There is said to be 
considerable barley unsold in Oregon and 
Washington, but nevertheless some Port- 
land houses are shipping in Eastern corn 
largely for feed as a substitute for barley. 

Brewing (1 224ffll 25 

Feed, No. 1 1 21 <s*l 23* 

Ceed, fair to good l 174(8.1 X 

Che\ alter, No. 1 to choice 1 25 <g 1 30 

Chevalier, common to fair 1 20 m l 36 

December W4® 98% 

Oats. 

The market is generally firm on all va- 
rieties, though not a great deal of trad- 
ing is being done owing- to light supplies. 
Advices from the North show a strong 
market, with a good quantity of Eastern 
stock being shipped in. Cereal millers at 
Portland are offering $28 for choice No. 1 
oats, but are not finding much at that 
figure. 

White oats (1 45 ©1 65 

Black oats 1 35 ®1 70 

Red oats 1 30 r<81 60 



The corn market in San Francisco is 
very active, as there has grown up quite 
a heavy demand for corn for shipment to 
interior points, where it is being used as 
feed, owing to the high prices asked for 
barley. Large consumers of feed barley 
have been heavy buyers of corn this 
week, a single shipment of 25 cars having 
gone to one party for cattle feed. Large 
importations are being brought in from 
Kansas and Nebraska, and still larger 
quantities are on the way. This situation 
has eased the market to a certain extent, 
and prices are quotably about as here- 
tofore. Kaffir corn is now selling at $1.20. 

Large White, good to choice II 224@1 274 

Large Yellow 1 224@1 274 

Small Yellow 1 50 @1 55 

Egyptian White 1 38*©1 40 

Egyptian Brown 1 25 ©1 274 

Kaffir 1 20 © 

Rye. 

There is but little change in the rye 
market, though the situation is probably 
a trifle easier than last week. Good 
quality rye is now worth $1.45 to $1.50, 
with the bulk of the sales at the higher 
figures. 

Good to choice II 45 ®1 50 

Buckwheat. 

Buckwheat is still practically out of the 
market, as has been the case for some 
time, and prices are largely nominal. 
The last sale reported was made at $1.60. 
Nothing new is reported in regard to the 
coming crop. 

Good to choice 1 50 @1 65 

Beans. 

Lima beans have been easier, owing to 
advices of a weaker feeling in the growing 
sections south. Other varieties are re- 
ported firm, with but little business do- 
ing. It appears that shipments of Santa 
Barbara and Ventura beans East have 
been checked, and that California beans 
are now quoted lower in Chicago and New 
York than in California. So far about 
two-thirds of the crop has gone East, and 
unless California is able to absorb tho 
remainder, local prices will have to come 
down to an Eastern shipping basis. Never- 
theless, southern holders are demanding 
as high as 5c for limas, and some sales 
are claimed at $4.85 per hundred. 

Small White, good to choice 12 90 @3 10 

Large White 2 10 @2 50 

Pinks 1 75 ©2 00 

Pinks, damaged 1 00 @1 25 

Bay os, good to choice I 30 @3 60 

Red Kidneys 3 50 @3 65 

Reds 8 00 @S 10 

Llmas, good to choice 4 75 @5 00 

Black-eye Beans 4 50 @4 60 

Dried Peas. 

The market for dried peas shows little 
change. Indications continue to point to 
a firm market, with possibly higher prices 
before the new crop comes in. Neverthe- 
less some sales of California green peas 
are reported as low as $1.75. Some mar- 
rowfats have been sold at from 8 to 10c. 
per pound. 

Green Peas, California II 75 @2 35 

Niles 1 60 @1 75 

Hon. 

The hop market continues to be rather 
more favorable to sellers. Prominent 
growers are expecting a slight advance in 
prices about the middle of February. 
Dealers here are, however, slow buyers 



and decline to take any decided interest 
in hops even at present prices. The first 
contracts of the year in Oregon were 
made this week, some 20,000 bales of 1900, 
1 1*07 and 1908 hops having been contracted 
for by New York parties at 10c. In Port- 
land quotations for Oregon hops are rang- 
ing from 9J to 10c. Most growers, how- 
ever, who have hops to sell are holding 
off in the hope of an advance. Washing- 
ton hops are selling at from 10 to lie, 
with some large holders claiming that the 
statistical position of Northwestern hops 
justifies 15c. 

Medium to fair 6 ©— 

Good brewing 8 @ 84 

Prime 9 @io 

Prime to choice 10 ©11 

Wool. 

There is practically no business doing 
in the San Francisco market. Both buy- 
ers and sellers are watching developments 
in the East, where California wools are 
selling steadily, though not in large 
amount. One Boston sale, however, 
affecting 1,000 lb. of nice Northern 
wool, is reported at 30c. Some good- 
sized business in California wool is also 
understood to be pending in Boston. 
Little is doing in Oregon wools in the 
East. In general, it may be said that 
wool buying is more free than it was, 
although there is not as yet a large trade 
in progress. 

FALL. 

Humboldt and Mendocino 15 @164 

Northern, free 144@16 

Northern, defective 11 @13 

Middle County, free 10 @14 

Middle County, defective 11 @13 

San Joaquin and Southern, free 9 @12 

San Joaquin and Southern, defective 8 ®10 

SPRING. 

Oregon, valley 23 ®25 

Eastern Oregon 15 @17 

Nevada 15 ®19 

Hay and Straw. 

The past week has been an uneventful 
one with hay. Shipments show some 
little advance over last week, being 2,800 
tons, as compared with 2,550. Receipts 
are ample for all demands, excepting for 
the choicest grades of wheat and tame 
oat, which seem to become more and 
more scarce. Although present arrivals 
are all readily absorbed, any further sup- 
ply would probably lower the market. 
Plowing and seeding have been resumed 
and reports state that a large acreage of 
wheat, barley and oats will be planted. 

Wheat, choice 114 00 ® 16 00 

Wheat, other grades 8 00 @ 13 50 

Wheat and Oat 9 00 @ 12 50 

Tame Oat, fair to choice 8 00 @ 12 00 

Wild Oat 8 00 ® 9 50 

Barley 7 00 @ 9 50 

Clover 6 00 @ 900 

Alfalfa 9 00 @ 11 50 

Stock hay 7 00 ® 8 00 

Compressed 10 00 @ 13 00 

Straw, ft bale 30 ® 50 

MIllatufTs. 

The market is stronger and prices very 
firm, with light receipts. The fact that 
the majority of the mills all over the coast 
have either closed down, or are running 
light, has caused stocks to run very low. 
A good demand exists from the interior 
of the country, but the output is insuf- 
ficient to supply the wants of shippers. 
In the North a shortage of bran and 
shorts is reported. 

Alfalfa Meal, ft ton 121 00 © 22 00 

Bran, ft ton 20 50 @ 21 00 

Middlings 27 50 @ 29 00 

Shorts, Oregon 21 00 @ 22 00 

Barley, Rolled, choice 2650 @ 27 50 

Cornmeal 29 50 @ 30 50 

Cracked Corn 30 00 ® 31 00 

Oilcake Meal 39 00 § 40 00 

Cocoanut cake or meal 24 50 © 25 50 

Beeda. 

The seed situation is featureless, with 
light stocks in almost all varieties and 
with only a small amount of trading. 
There will probably be but little interest 
taken in seeds for some time to come. 
Quotations show no change. 

Alfalfa Ill 00 ©14 00 

Flax ® 

Mustard, Yellow 3 50 ® 3 75 

Mustard, Trieste 4 5(1 ® 4 75 

Per lb. 

Canary 64® 7 

Rape 24® 3 

Hemp — @ 5 

Tlmothv 54® 6 

Honey. 

California honey is still moving rather 
slowly, although the market has recov- 
ered from the reaction caused by the ar- 
rival of a lot of extracted honey from 
Hawaii. This latter has now been put on 
the markst and is regularly quoted at 2Jc. 
California honey is generally a little 
higher, although little business is being 
done, and prices are hard to fix. 

Extracted, Water White 4H@ 54 

Extracted, White 44® 5 

Extracted, Light Amber 4 ® 44 

Extracted, Amber 34® 4 

Extracted, Dark Amber 3 ® 34 

Extracted, Hawaiian 24©— 

White Comb, 1-frames 124® IS 

Amber Comb 9 $12 



The beeswax situation is in the same 
sluggish situation as heretofore. Holders, 
however, seem to have acquired a little 



more confidence, and prices are consid- 
ered about lc. higher than earlier in the 
month. 

Good to choice, light ft B> 27 @28 

Dark 25 @26 



Live Slock and Meats. 

The meat market is considered in excel- 
lent shape, with conditions generally 
favorable to sellers. Beef, lamb and mut- 
ton are especially firm, with the hog mar- 
ket also in good shape, though perhaps 
not quite so active as last week. Meat 
prices are generally expected to continue 
firm, with the possibility of a rise. 

Allowing for the shrinkage of about 50%, which 
Is exacted In buying cattle on the hoof, live cattle 
command as much or more per pound than dressed 
beef, the shrinkage exacted being the slaughterers' 
profit. 

The following quotations for beef and mutton are 
based on prices realized by slaughterers from 
wholesale dealers: 

Beef, 1st quality, dressed, net ft lb 5 ® 54 

Beef, 2nd quality 44® 5 

Beef, 3rd quality 3Vi® 4 

Mutton — ewes, 8@9c; wethers 94® 10 

Hogs, hard grain, 150 to 250 S>8 6 ca> 6' 8 

Hogs, large, hard, over 250 pounds 5%$ — 

Hogs, small, fat, under 150 lbs 6 «, > 

Veal, large, ft fl> 6 fi 74 

Veal, small, ft lb 8 (3 9 

Lamb, spring, ¥ lb 10 ©II 

Hides, Skins and Tallow. 

The hide market continues rather weak 
with very little doing. Arrivals are poor 
and each lot is now bought on its own 
merits, with little regard to quotations. 
These are nominally as heretofore, though 
none are changing hands at the top quo- 
tations except, perhaps, a few of last sum- 
mer's hides when these can be found. 

Nothing but select hides, clean and trimmed, 
will bring full figures. Culls of all kinds either 
from grubs, cuts, hair slips, side brands or mur- 
rain, are not always readily placed at the lower 
figures. 

Sound. Culls. 

Heavy Steers, over 56 lbs 13 @— 12 ®— 

Medium Steers. 48 to 56 lbs.. ..12 @— 11 @— 

Light Steers, under 48 fbs 114®— 104®— 

Heavy Cow Hides, over 50 lbs. 114©— 104©— 
Light Cow H ides, under 50 Ibs.114®— 104®— 

Stags 7 ® 8 7 @— 

Wet Salted Kip 104®— 10 @- 

Wet Salted Veal 12 @— 11 @— 

Wet Salted Calf 13 ®— 12 ®— 

Dry Hides 19 ®— 19 ®- 

Dry Kip and Veal, 11 to 16 Sbs. 16 ®17 15 ®— 

Dry Calf, under 4 lbs 20 @21 19 @— 

Pelts, long wool, ft skin 1 50® 2 00 

Pelts, medium, ft skin 90®1 ■ 

Pelts, short wool, ft skin 60® 90 

Pelts, shearling, ft skin 20® 50 

Horse Hides, salted, large prime, each.. 3 00®— 

Horse Hides, salted, medium 2 75®— 

Horse Hides, salted, small 2 25®— 

Horse Hides, dry, large 1 75®— 

Horse Hides, dry, medium 1 60®— 

Horse Hides, dry, small 1 00®— 

Tallow, good quality 4 @44 

Tallow, poorer grades »4®S* 

Bags and Bagging. 

There is absolutely no change in the 
bag market, everything continuing at 
the same high level as heretofore. There 
have been no further contracts for grain 
bags, and in fact there have been no 
transactions of movement in any line. 

Bean Bags • «4® — 

Fruit Sacks, cotton, No. 1, 8@84: No. 2. . 74@8 

Fruit Sacks, lute, as to quality 64@7* 

Grain Bags, Calcutta, 22x36, spot 74®7* 

Wool Sacks, 4-ft> 36 ■ 37 

Wool Sacks, 348) ■ 9 34 

Pool try. 

The poultry situation is still dominated 
by the Chinese New Year, and prices for 
good fat chickens and ducks have an up- 
ward tendency. The fact that receipts of 
California stock have also been light, has 
also tended to make the situation very 
firm. Dressed turkeys have a poor sale. 
Some Eastern arrivals of chickens have 
come in, but these have not been suf- 
ficient to swamp the market. 



Turkeys, choice Young, ft lb I 17 

Turkeys, live gobblers, f» lb 17 

Turkeys, live hens ft lb 18 

Hens, small, ft dozen 4 60 

Hens, large 6 00 

Roosters, old 4 50 

Roosters, young (full-grown) 7 00 

Fryers 5 50 

Broilers, large 4 50 

Broilers, small to medium 2 50 

Ducks, old, ft dozen 5 00 

Ducks, young, ft dozen 6 00 

Geese, ft pair 2 00 

Goslings, ft pair 2 00 

Pigeons, old, ft dozen I 00 

Pigeons, young 2 50 



18 
18 
19 
5 50 

7 00 

5 50 

8 00 

6 50 

5 50 
3 50 

6 00 

7 00 
2 50 
2 51) 
1 50 



Butter has gone up about lc. since last 
week, though some grades are un- 
changed. Receipts have continued rather 
light, and at present the demand and 
supply may be said to balance each other 
at ruling prices. There is some talk that 
lower prices will follow the present fair 
weather, but San Francisco holders do 
not seem to be uneasy. 

Creamery, extras, ft lb 30 $314 

Creamery, firsts 29 @294 

Creamery, seconds 24 (325 

Dairy, select 20 $26 

Dairy, Ursts 22 @25 

Dairy, seconds 20 $23 

California storage 24 (&2t 

Mixed Store 19 @20 

Cheese. 

The upward tendency noted last week 
has made itself felt, and prices have 
moved up about }c. in all California 
grades. New Eastern is selling well at 
former prices. 



January 27, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



59 



California, fancy flat, new 15 

California, good to choice 13 @H 

California, fair to good 12 @13 

California, "Young Americas" 14 315 

Eastern, new 16 @17 

Keg*. 

The egg market is making a change 
both ways; the best grades of eggs are 
getting cheaper in price and the cheapest 
grades are higher. The reason for this is 
that chickens are now beginning to lay, 
making the receipts a little heavier on fine 
ranch eggs, while the turnout of the cold 
storage eggs is smaller, storage stocks be- 
ing about gone. At the present rate the 
cold storage eggs now on hand will not 
last more than two weeks longer. 

California, select, large, white and fresh. 28 @30 

California, select, Irregular color & size. 26 @28 

California, good to choice store 26 @27 

Eastern firsts 23 (6»24 

Eastern seconds 20 <&22 

Potatoes. 

While there is practically no demand 
from the Southwest and Southern States 
for potatoes, the market is very firm on 
fancy stuff, with a little better feeling on 
the large stocks of cheap grades on hand. 
These are being reduced a little, and a 
good part of them will go into consump- 
tion before the new stock comes in. New 
potatoes are quoted at from 2\ to 3c. per 
pound. 

River Burbanks, $ cental 50 @ 75 

Salinas Burbanks 1 25 (3) 1 65 

Oregon Uurbanks 1 no © 1 30 

Tomales 90 @ 1 00 

Sweet Potatoes, fancy 1 25 @ 1 50 

Sweet Potatoes, good to choice 75 (ffi, 1 00 

Vegetables. 

The quality of the vegetables showing 
up in the market continues in general 
very poor, and, as a result, things are 
quiet. The cold storage stuff is showing 
up a little worse than usual, and is meet- 
ing with slightly lower prices. The re- 
ceipts of Oregon onions are a little 
heavier, and the market is weaker. 
Prices for the best quality have been cut 
down about five cents. Green boll pep- 
pers and cucumbers are hardly to be had 
at any price. Stocks of green peas and 
string beans are very low, with cor- 
respondingly high quotations. 

Cauliflower, f, dozen 60 (3) 75 

Beans, String, f» n> — © 17 

Cabbage, choice garden, f, 100 fbs. . . 1 00 @ 1 25 

Egg Plant, $ ft 10 @ 15 

Garlic, fi> iV 2 'm 5 

Onions, Oregon, ft ctl 1 20 (S> 1 45 

Onions, New Yellow Danvers, $ ctl. 1 25 tgt 1 50 

Onions, Australian Brown, fi ctl ... 1 25 <S> 1 50 

Peas, Green, 3 ft — © 12J-4 

Tomatoes, $ box or crate 1 50 @ 1 75 

Artichokes, $ doz 50 (3) 1 25 

Carrots, fl sack 65 (3) 75 

Hubbard Squash, ft ton — ©20 00 

Note.— Large boxes are what are known to the 
trade as " pay boxes," which have to be returned 
or paid for. They are open top, with hand holes in 
the ends, and weigh when tilled from 50@60 fbs 
gross. Small boxes are free boxes, about the same 
as the regular fruit box, weighing when full from 
20 to 30 lbs. gross, 

Fresh Frnlts. 

Business in the fresh fruit market con- 
tinues at a low ebb, even cold storage 
stocks of everything except apples and 
pears being practically cleaned up. Sales 
have not been quite so heavy as earlier 
in the month, but quotations are steady 
and unchanged, owing to. steadily dimin- 
ishing supplies. 

Apples, choice to select, ft 50-lb bx 125 (3> 175 
Apples, good to choice, ft 50-lb. box 75 @ 1 00 

Apples, common 50 @ 75 

Pears, Winter Nelis 2 25 (3) 2 76 

Dried Fruits. 

The prominent feature in dried fruits 
seems' to be the general shortage in all 
lines. The market is decidedly firm and 
quotations are being well maintained. 
Prunes are moving out well to Eastern 
points, where a good jobbing demand ex- 
ists, and where stocks are running light. 
There is a small but steady demand for 
apricots, especially in choice and extra 
choice grades, and prices are very firm. 
Evaporated apples seem to be a little 
easier. 

KVAPOKATED CK BLEACH KD 

Apples, 50-tb boxes, rings, pressed, good to 

choice 8 @ 8;4 

Apples, extra choice to fancy, 60-fb boxes. 8y,® 9y t 

Apricots, Royal, good to choice, ft B> 8 ® 8% 

Apricots, Royal, fancy 9 @ 9y, 

Pigs, 10-tb box, 1-ft cartons 55 @62y, 

Nectarines, White and Stanwick, ft lb. . . 8 ® 8% 

Nectarines, red, ft lb — (3> 8 

Peaches, unpeeled, good to choice 8'4@ 8% 

Peaches, unpeeled, fancy to extra fancy. . 9 @ 9H 

Pears, standard, ft ft — @ 8y t 

Pears, choice to fancy 10 @12 

Plums, Black, pitted 554® 6% 

Plums. Red, pitted 7 ©8 

Plums, Yellow, pitted 6 @ 8 

Prunes, Silver, good to fancy 5J£@ 8% 

Prunes, In bags, 4 sizes, —®—c; 40-508, 5M@5'/5c; 
50-60S, 4H@4%c; 60-70s, 4@4'4c; 70-80s, AH®3\c\ 
80-908, 3@3«o; 90-100s, 2&@3c ; small, 2tf@23£c. 
COMMON SUN-DRIED. 

Apples, sliced 5 @ f>% 

Apples, quartered 4^@ f>% 

Pigs, White, In bulk 2y,® 3 

Figs, Black 2%® 3 



WOOL SALE. 

The Century Mercantile Company is conducting 
regular sales at its warehouse. This interests all 
growers. Pull particulars by mail. Office, 14 
Sansome St., San Francisco. 



Raisins. 

Although the supply of raisins is com- 
paratively light and all indications point 
to a thorough cleanup, there seems to be 
little speculation indulged in at the re- 
duced prices, and the sales now being 
made ar e for legitimate business purposes. 
The Eastern trade has been carrying 
very light stocks, and considerable busi- 
ness from that quarter is being looked for 
the next two months. Already some or- 
ders have come in. 

(Fresno delivery except otherwise specified,) 

London Layers, 2-crown, 20-ft box 1 25 © 

London Layers, 3-crown, 20-ft box 1 30 iffi 

Fancy Clusters, 4-crown, 20-ft box 1 75 @ 

Dehesas, 20-ft box 2 oo m 

Imperials, 20-ft box 2 50 @ 

2- Crown Standard loose Muscatel 4M® — c 

3- Crown Standard 4\® — c 

4- Crown Standard 4%j@ — c 

Seedless Thompsons, 50-ft boxes 4y,@ — c 

Seedless Sultanas 4 ® — c 

Seedless Muscatels 3)4® — c 

Fancy. 16-oz. Seeded 6 © — c 

Choice, 16-oz. Seeded 5^@ — c 

Fancy, 12-oz. Seeded 4J£(g> — c 

Choice, 12-oz. Seeded 4?6@ — c 

Fancy Seeded, bulk 5%<a> — c 

Choice Seeded, bulk . . 5!4@ — c 

Seeded Seedl. Muscatels, 16 oz 5 (m — c 

Seeded Seedl. Muscatels, 16 oz 5 <5> — c 

Seeded Seedl. Muscatels ; 12oz i\i(3) — c 

Seeded Seedl. Muscatels, bulk \%Ca) — c 

Citrus Fruits. 

Large Navel oranges are the leading 
feature in the citrus fruit market. At- 
tractive offerings of this stock find a 
ready sale at good prices in the open mar- 
ket as well as in the auction sales. In the 
auction sale Monday four cars of assorted 
Navels were sold as follows: Fancy, $2.10 
(</}2.45; choice, $1.10(>nl.80; Standard, 75c. 
@81.40. Grape fruit is firm at former 
prices, the fancy seedless being possibly a 
little higher. Limes are practically out 
of the market. Lemons have been easier 
for common stock, though good stock is 
bringing full figures. 

Oran?es, fancy 2 00 fel3 00 

Oranges, choice 1 25 ©1 80 

Oranges, standard 1 00 iw\ 40 

Oranges, Seedlings 65 @1 10 

Lemons, California, fancy, ft box 2 00 ©2 50 

Lemons, California, gooa to choice.. 1 00 @1 25 

Lemons, California, standards 60 ® 75 

Grape Fruit, ft box, new 1 00 <ai 50 

Urape Fruit, seedless 2 75 C«)3 25 

Limes, ft box 3 00 ©4 00 

Nuts. 

Walnuts seem to be a little easier this 
week and prices may possibly come down 
a little, owing to the failure of the ex- 
pected big Eastern demand to develop. A 
little shipping of walnuts to Missouri river 
points is reported this week, but it is un- 
derstood that these went at prices some- 
what bolow ordinary quotations. Tho 
East is apparently able to supply its wants 
at better figures elsewhere. Almonds are 
in good supply and those now offering are 
of fine quality. The market for almonds 
should clean up nicely at present prices 
before the new crop comes in. The wal- 
nut situation is a little uncertain, owing 
to the fact that some lots were kept out 
of the local market in the hope of bring- 
ing better prices East. These, however, 
will probably go into consumption before 
the new crop is on the market. 

Peanuts, fair to prime W\® f> V4 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 1 soft shell -- ©13 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 2 soft shell — © 9 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 1 hard shell — ©12'^ 

Cal. Walnuts. No. 2 hard shell — @ 8H 

Almonds, TXL, ft ft liy,@12V4 

Almonds, Ne Plus Ultra, ft ft 11 ©12 

Almonds, Nonpareil, ft ft 11 ©13 

Almonds, Languedoc, ft ft 8'/i@— 

Almonds, Golden State, ft ft 8 @— 

Hard Shell, ft ft 5 ffl— 

Wine. 

It is too early to form an estimate of the 
coming wine crop, but the weather condi- 
tions thus far have been very favorable 
to the growth of the vines. California 
wine prices have advanced 2Jc. on white 
wines and there is a prospect of an imme- 
diate advance all along the line. The 
shortage in last year's crop partly ac- 
counts for the strength of the market. 
The fact that immense quantities of wine 
are tied up in the vaults of the large wine 
concerns by the law restricting the forti- 
fying of wines will cause quite a shortage 
in the available supply until relief can be 
obtained by congressional action. 



MAIL ORDER HOUSES. 



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TURKEYS 

We have been handling Turkeys in this market 
for the past thirty years, and with such a long ex- 
perience can give you the best results. Full 
weight, full prices and prompt returns is our 
motto. Write us for informa l ion. 

D. E. ALLISON & CO., Inc. 

117-119 Washington St., San Francisco. 



WHAT'S THE HATTER WITH 

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ALL THOSE POOR CROPS ARE DUE TO 

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YOUR LAND NEEDS A TONIC, and if it don't get it THERE'S TROUBLE 

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Find out what your soil lacks and then provide it. Don't be afraid to put all 
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CASH and SUCCESS. 

VY/rlte- for Particulars 

THE MOUNTAIN COPPER CO. 

604 MONTGOMERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 

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PUMPS 

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no 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 27, 1906. 



FRUIT MARKETING. 



California Fruit Exchange. 

At the annual meeting of the Califor- 
nia Fruit Exchange held in Sacramento 
recently the financial report was re- 
ceived, showing that the aggregate of 
business for 1905 was over $850,000, 
and that the dividends to the local 
associations exceeded $8,000. 

The shippers' report showed the cars 
billed from each point to have been as 
follows: 

Includ- 
ing Cars 
Sold F. O. B. 
Auc- and Re- 
F. O. B. Hons, jected. 

Newcastle 43 37 3 

Penryn 31 27 10 

Loom is 63 43 8 

Vacavtlle 24 85 4 

Antioch 31 64 5 

Fresno 25 68 6 

Lodi 15 60 2 

Natoma .. 14 12 1 

Florin 67 

Monterey 4 

Wright's 15 

Loaded with other ship- 
pers 6 

Total 246 438 39 

Total F. O. B 246 

Total auctions 438 

Melons from Exeter 16 

Total 700 

This was a gain of 129 cars over last 
.year's total of 571. 

The average gross returns from auc- 
tion markets were as follows: 

Cars. 

Chicago 140 »1,209 

New York 128 1,304 

Boston 76 1,228 

Minneapolis 14 958 

Pittsburg 13 1,203 

Montreal 10 *1,084 

St. Louis 14 1,116 

Baltimore 1 560 

St. Paul 2 1,026 

Cleveland 1 678 

Philadelphia 33 1,219 

*Duty deducted 

In the Western markets the average 
net amounts paid by buyers were as 
follows: 

Cars. 

Omaha 29 »626 

Denver IS 862 

Milwaukee 24 782 

Winnipeg 15 626 

Seattle 13 600 

Kansas City 10 746 

Portland, Or 7 594 

Sioux City 8 642 

Minneapolis 32 681 

other points SI4 600 

After the election of directors the fol- 
lowing appointments were made: Presi- 
dent and manager, A. R. Sprague; vice- 
president and field agent, G. H. Cutter; 
secretary, F. J. Fitch. 



Rust - Proof Wheat. 

Seed Wheat For Sale. 

" BOBS," a rust-proof, prolific, hardy, and very 
strong flour variety, bred by the Australian Gov- 
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name; 11.25 a Bushel f. o. b. Sydney. 

CHARLES BINIMIE, 

Box 1075 G. P. O., Sydney, Australia. 



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ROUND AND FLAT HOOPS. 

PUMPS,PIPEand FITTINGS. 

Estimates furnished on Pumping Plants and 
Water Supply Outfits. 

C T. ROSE, 
818 Bryant St. bet. 6th and 7th, San Francisco, Cal. 

NITRATE OF SODA 

AND 

THOMAS' PHOSPHATE POWDER 

For Sale toy 

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Write for Pamphlets and Prices. 

MFrtl\AJANTPn T0 LEARN BARBER TRADE. 
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Trade taught In eight weeks. Positions secured. 
Write for particulars. MOLER BAKBEK COL- 
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SHORTHAND taught by mail; demand more than 
supply. Miss M. G. Barrett, 302 Montg'y St., S.F. 



Why Are Eggs High? 

W« ull know— beoaoae hens lire not laying now. But 
why do poultry owners overlook this chunce to make 
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SECURITY POULTRY FOOD 
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Our dealer In your town will hack up this guarantee. 
Auk him. Will you pass this chance to make money 
when we take the risk? It also pute eick poultry In 
healthy condition and keeps them so. 

SECURITY STOCK FOODCO. 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 



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Write tor prices, testimonials and our NEW 
booklet on ANTHRAX and BLACKLEG. 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY, 
3MB Rlalto Bldg. San Francisco, Cal. 



Seeds, Plants, Etc 




SMITH, EMERY & CO. 
CHEMISTS. 

ANALYSIS— 
Soils, Water, Fertiliz- 
ers, Foods, Minerals, 
Natural Products, etc. 
83-88 New Montgomery St 
San Francisco 




9 CORDS IN I O HOURS 



bawr nowa 

TREES 




BY ONE HAN. II'. MSG OP TIIK WOODS. d»dpt mil 

bftekaehe. Srnd fur I'KF.E illus. caLlopi i. latest Improve* 

r- ,it* anrt testimonial", from th""«"i'N. Flr*t or, 1 »■ si"""*'" aeenrv. 

1 cilding Sawing MjJi. Co., I5SE. Harrison St. .Chicago, III. 



on household 
goods shipped 
east or west 
between 
Washington, 
Oregon, Cali- 
fornia and 
Colorado or 
along the Pacific coast. For rates write Bek ins Van 
& Storage Co., 11 Montgomery St , San Francisco. 
344 S. Broadway, Los Angeles; X9S Washington St . 
Chicago; 1016 Bdwy, Oakland. Send 2c for city maps. 




NAPA VALLEY 
NURSERY CO. 

(INCORPORATED. I 

Write for our Price List of 

Apples, Pears. 
Plums, Prunes, 
Peaches and Cherries. 



J* STOCK STRICTLY FIRST-CLASS. ^ 



NAPA, CALIFORNIA 



CITRUS SEED BED TREES. 

ORANGE, POMELO AND TRIFOLIATA. 

F. H. DISBROW NURSERIES, PASADENA, CAL. 



FOR Snow's Grafting Wax* 

IN USE ALL OVKK THE STATE! 

For sale by all the large grocers, or 

D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Ave., San Jose. Cal. 




$1000 Per Year 

In your tack yard. There's big money in Bets. 
A fascinating and profitable occupation. Write tor 
handsome catalog— and book for beginners. 

The A. I. Root Co., Medina. Ohio. 




The Yeas % 
and Nays 
of Citrus 
Culture 

are fully explained in 
our booklet on orange 
and lemon growing; it 
also has something to 
say regarding the kind 
of trees we grow, and 
the care and precau- 
tion we take to pro- 
duce a tree that will 
yield fine fruit and 
bountiful crops. Being 
the largest producers 
of citrus trees in the 
world, it stands to 
reason that we are in 
a position to offer 
superior orange and 
lemon trees, and that 
we can give you better 
service than any other 
similar establishment. 
If you will write us 
your wants, these 
facts will soon be 
demonstrated. May 
we hear from you to- 




SAN ttlMAS 

A CALIFORNIA- . A 



CITRUS T 




THE PHILIPPI NURSERIES, 

ROCKLIN, CAL. 



True to 
Name. 




It is of the utmost importance that young 
trees, shrubs and vines for planting be true to 
name. They must also be well rooted and 
properly prepared for stiipping and planting. 

We have four separate nurserits. comprising 
over eleven hundred acres, in different sections 
of the country, each having its peculiar soil 
best suited to the special requirements of dif- 
ferent trees, shrubs and vines for their perfect 
development. It is a costly method for us to 
pursue, but it enables us to grow the very best 
on the market. 

Calimyrna Figs. 

Over fourteen years of careful experimenting 
with the growth of the Smyrna tig, or llg of 
commerce, in this country were required before 
we could say 
that we had 

been entirely . , v - ^ . 

successful in 

propagating _-Wfc7 "\J* 
this valuable IN '.'I 7-j 

fig, and for the 'wsrs-^JIriJl ,i\ -** 

past live years 
we have been 
growing this tig 
in its perfec- 
tion, drying, packing and marketing it. 

There are several varieties of the Smyrna 
Bg, but with our varied experience in this line 
we feel warranted in recommending one, the 
Calimyrna, as the most profitable and best for 
all commercial purposes. We are able to sup- 
ply almost any desired quantity of these supe- 
rior trees. 

We protect the Calimyrna llg with a seal, 
which is attached to each bundle of trees. 



We have this season B superior stock of 

Peaches, Plums, 
Prunes, Pears, 
Apples, Apricots, 
Cherries, Olives, 
Nectarines, etc. 

These trees are all grown in our nursery plant 
No. 3, which has a rich river bottom soil per- 
mitting the most perfect rooting. Our 

Oranges, 
Lemons, 

F*omelos, 
Limes, 
Citron, 

and all of our citrus fruit trees are grown tn our 
nursery at Exeter, which has a deep, rich loam 
and is particularly suited to citrus trees. All 
of the standard varieties will be found In our 
stock. 

Grape Vines. 

As we are the largest growers on the coast of 
the best varieties of raisin, wine and table 
grapes, and also make a specialty of vines 
grafted on phylloxera resistant roots, we are in 
a position to till your orders most satisfactorily 

CATALOGUE FREE. 

Our catalogue, in either English or Spanish, 
is profusely illustrated and gives a good idea of 
the immensity of our stock. We mail it free to 
any address on receipt of 5c. postage. Price 
list mailed on application. 

BOOK YOUR ORDERS NOW. 

If you are contemplating doing any planting, 
it would be well for you to place your order as 
early as possible. We will book your order now 
and ship your stock when it is desired. 

Paid-Up Capital, $200,000.00. 

Fancher Creek 
Nurseries, 

INCORPORATED), 
GEO. C. R0EDING, President and Manager, 
Fresno, California. 



January 27, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



61 



Seeds, Plants, Etc* 



WALNUT TREES 

At Wholesale or Retail. From El Monte Seed, 
extra well rooted. 

CHERRIES and GENERAL NURSERY 
STOCK. 

JONATHAN APPLE for hill sections. 

RIVERSIDE NURSERY, 

HENRY SHAW. 320 River St., Santa Cruz. 



BLUE GUM, RED GUM and 

MONTEREY CYPRESS 

Transplanted In Boxes 

WRITE FOR PRICES. 

W. A. REINHOLDT, 

MAIN STREET NURSERY, PETAMJMA, CAL. 



BURBANK'S 

Crimson Winter Rhubarb 

ONE OF OUR SPECIALTIES. 

81.50 per dozen, 17.50 per 100, S50 per 1000. 

WAGNER'S NURSERY, 

Phones: Home 1291; Sunset 1297. Pasadena, Cal. 



TREES! 

80,000 APPLE TREES in 42 Varieties. 

Extra well rooted. Clean. Grafted on whole 
roots and free from all pests. Also an extra fine 
stock of Prunes, Pears, Plums and Walnuts. 

Write for price list. A. F. SCHEIDECKER, 
Prop. Pleasant View Nursery, Sebastopol, Cal. 



PECAN TREES AND NUTS. 

Gold and Silver Medals awarded our Nut and 
Tree Exhibits. St. Louis, 1904. 

High-grade budded and grafted trees of all best 
. varieties. 

770 acres in Pecans. 

Write for Catalogue " J," with which is incorpo- 
rated a valuable treatise upon Pecan Culture. 
THE G. M. BACON PECAN CO., Inc., 
DeWitt, Ga. 




NURSERIES 



GROW THE 



L I BEST TREES 

T. J. TRUE, Sebastopol, Cal. 




EES 



From carefully hand-selected seed. 
Postal gets prices. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, California. 



(ORANGE TREES 
Three and four year old 
Improved Washington Navel Trees 
for this season's planting. 
REDUCED PRICES FOR LARGE ORDERS 
ADDRESS: Manager, SPRING VALLEY RANCH 
R ocklin, Placer Co., Cal. 

PACIFIC NURSERIES, 

3041 Baker St., San Francisco, Cal. 
and Milbrae, San Mateo Co. 

1 ^""V I A Two-year-old 
f\V^O[19 field grown. 

Rhododendrons, Camellias, Azaleas, 
Daphne, and other hardy flowering 
Shrubs and Vines. 

Acacias, Pines, Cypress, and a large 
collection of Trees. 

Cypress, Blue and Red Gums, Pines 
transplanted in boxes. 



T 



he Seed We Sell 

One market -^^k 
g a rdener 
plants annually 75 
pounds of our let- 
tuce, another 500 
pounds of our beet 
and a third 100 pounds of our onion 
seed. Such men can take no chances. 
We shall be pleased to sell you any 
kind of vegetable or flower seed equally 
good, from five cents' worth upward. 
Catalogue tree. 

J. J. H. CRECORY Sl SON, 
Marblehead, Mass. 




FRUIT TREES and 
ORNAMENTAL PLANTS. 

QLj-L'l \0 Australian Rye Grass, Alfalfa, 
O Hi niJj « Vegetable and Flower. 

(Agent for the California Nursery Co ) 
THOS. MEHERIN, Seedsman and Nurseryman, 
552 Battery St. (P. O. Box 2059) San Francisco, Cal. 

Established 1884. 

MARTINEZ NURSERY. 

THOS. S. DUANE, PROP. 
A complete stock of all leading varieties of 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

ORANGES, LEMONS, GRAPE VINES, 
CAL. BLACK WALNUTS. SHADE TREES, ETC. 

Write for Prices. 



S.WJARSHALL&80N 

NURSERYMEN, 

FRESNO, CALIFORNIA. 

Address all communications to P. O. Box 161 
Large Stock of 

Grape Yines, Fruit Trees and Citrus 
and Deciduous Fruit and Orna- 
mental Stock. 

All Stock First Class. 



PLANT THE 

Lob Ingir 

SMYRNA FIG. 

This is the world-famed Fig of Commerce. 

You will save money by patronizing us. 

We are selling good stocky trees at $15.00 per 100; 
Capris at the same price. 

LET US BOOK YOUR ORDER NOW. 

MAYW00D COLONY NURSERY, 

CORNING, CAL. 

W. HERBERT SAMSON, Prop. 



C0C0ZELLE BUSH 
SQUASH. 

Matures in ten weeks. 
Continues bearing till frost. 

Yields more tons per acre than any other squash 
or pumpkin. 

Can be planted Ave feet apart each way. 

Can be planted until August 1st and mature 
crop. 

The best stock squash. 

Trial packet, 10c; 1 lb., 50c; 10 lbs., S4.00, post- 

P " PIONEER NURSERY, 

MONROVIA, CAL. 



R00TEDVINES. 

Tokay, Emperor, 
Thompson Seedless, Sultana, 
Malaga, Muscatel, Zinfandel. 

Also MUIR PEACH TREES. 



Fowler Nursery Co. 

FOWLER, CAL. 



Represent the survival of the fittest We 
have become the largest seed bouse in the 
world because our seeds are better than 
others. Do you wish to grow the most 
beautiful flowers and the finest vege- 
tables? Plant the bestseeds— Ferry's. 
1006 Seed Annual free to all 
applicants. 

O. M. PERRY Sl CO., 
Detroit, Mich. 



C. C. MORSE & CO. 




The well known SEED GROWERS, formerly 
at Santa Clara, now located at 

815-817 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



We are now prepared to sell our Seeds in 
any quantity, wholesale or retail. 

We are Headquarters for ONION Seed and 
all kinds of Vegetable Seed. 

Also SWEET PEAS and all kinds of Flower 
Seeds. 



Als0 ALFALFA and all kinds of Farm and 



Field Seeds. 

SEEDS OF THE HIGHEST QUALITY ONLY. 

WRITE FOR HANDSOME NEW ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 

APPLE — Leading Varieties. 
APRICOT— Blenheim, Hemskirk and Royal. 
ALMOND— I.X.L., Nonpariel, Drake's Seedling. 
■ PRUNE — French, Imperial, Silver and Sugar. 

WALINUT-Burbank's Soft Shell. 

GRAPE UINES Wine, Table and Raisin Varieties. 

A COMPLETE ASSORTMENT OF SMALL FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS. 
VEGETABLE, FLOWER AND FARM SEEDS. 
BURR CLOUER SEED— The Best SoiMmproving Crop. 

cor S°¥ei? nce TRUMBULL & BEEBE, 

Seedsmen and Nurserymen. 419-421 SANSOME ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 




SEED TALK. 



Complete and reliable informa- 
tion and advice on seeds, planting, 
etc., in our beautifully illustrated 
catalogue, 1906. 

Mailed Free. 

HIGHEST GRADE SEEDS ONLY. 

New and rare varieties of Flower 
and Vegetable Seeds, Fruit Trees 
^including Bartlett Fears), Orna- 
mental Plants, Roses, etc. 



COX SEED CO. 

411.413. 415 SANSOME STREET, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



DON'T MISS 




You 

can make 
your years 

success an assured certainty by sending at once 
lor a free copy of Salzer's remarkable liook of 

SEED BARGAINS 

and taking advantage of the astonishing offers 
made therein. They cover such varieties as < »;tis. 
Barley, Corn, Speltz, Clover, Timothy, Wheats; 
also Cabbage, Kadish, Beets, I'eas, Beans, Onions, 
Tomatoes, etc., all of the strongest, hardiest 
Northern Grow n, pure, pedigree block. 

5 Tons Crass Free! 

Everybody loves a rich, prodigal growth of 
grass or fodder for cattle, sheep, horse or swine! 
If you will send this notice in to us to-day, 
you will receive our Bargain Seed Book free, 
together with sufficient grass seed to grow 

6 tons of rich grass hay on your lot or farm 
tiiis summer. All free for the asking. 

Keuilt 4e and we add package of Cosmos, 
the most fashionable, serviceable, beautiful 
annual flower. 




JOHN A.SALZER SEED CO 

Lock Box 61, La Crosse, Wis 




GUM TREES 

IN VARIETY, 

including RUDIS. ROSTRATA, VIMINALIS. 

MONTEREY CYPRESS, 
MONTEREY PINES, 

All Transplant <sd In Boxes. 

Write for prices, stating quantity wanted. 
W. A. T. STRATTON PET ALUM A, CAL. 



oice 



Tulare Lake 



or 



Utah 



ALFALFA SEED. 

Do you want to buy your Seed direct 
from headquarters and save money? 

Write us for Samples and Prices either 
in car lots or less. 

KUTNER-G0LD8TEIN CO., 

HANFORD, CAL. 

Largest Dealers in Alfalfa Seed 
in the State. 



Established 1876. 





JAMES O'NEILL, Prop. 

Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Grower of Leading Varieties of 

Deciduous Fruit Trees. 

NO IRRIGATION. 

No Borers, Other Pests or Disease. 



SF , eei/*LT"v— 
Apricots, Plums and Prunes on Myrobolan Root. 



SEND YOUR LIST FOR PRICES. 



AUSTRALIAN 

RYE GRASS SEED (Perennial) 

PRICE, FIVE CENTS PER POUND. 

DISCOUNT ON LAH(!E AMOUNTS. 
Samples on request. 

VIERRA BROS.. Moss. Monterey Co., Cal. 



62 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 27, 1906. 



Patrons of Husbandry* 



Reforms in Taxation. 



We recently alluded to the declara- 
tions of Prof. C. C. Plehn of the Univer- 
sity of California, who is also the expert 
employed by the State Tax Commission. 
Prof. Plehn furnishes for publication 
an article concerning the problem that 
now confronts the law-making authori- 
ties of the State, and at the same time 
touches upon the proposed remedy. 
Prof. Plehn says: 

A thorough revision of our revenue 
laws is essential to the healthful progress 
of California. The present system is fast 
becoming unbearable, if it is not already 
so, on account of its many inequalities in 
operation and other glaring faults. 

California is no longer a sparsely popu- 
lated State devoted to mining and agri- 
culture. Manufactures are rapidly devel- 
oping and our commercial interests are 
assuming large proportions. 

The present tax system is antiquated. 
It was 200 years old when first adopted in 
this State, and has remained practically 
unchanged for the 50 years since it was 
adopted. Meanwhile the State has out- 
grown the simple conditions of economic 
life to which alone the system was adapted, 
and in capital and wealth, in industrial 
and commercial methods is now like those 
great States in the East, which have 
found it necessary to revise the tax sys- 
tem to meet the now life. The burden of 
the support of the Government falls most 
unequally upon those who should bear it. 
It falls with special severity on the hon- 
est. It is highly conducive to political 
immorality and it is a veritable school for 
perjury. It fails altogether to reach the 
new forms of property which have devel- 
oped during the past f>0 years, or to reach 
the new kinds of ability that should con- 
tribute to the public needs. Personal 
property notoriously escapes taxation 
and nearly 85% of the entire burden is 
borne by the owners of real estate. Our 
best efforts at equalization fail utterly of 
accomplishing what they were intended 
to accomplish, and that on account of dif- 
ficulties inherent in the system. 

Many other States have found them- 
selves confronted with the same difficul- 
ties under which we labor, and wo have 
the advantage of their experience and 
their experiments in overcoming them. 
The first step in the direction of improve- 
ment lies in the separation of State from 
local taxation as to sources of revenue. 
Let the State have its own income, as in- 
dependent as possible, from that which 
goes to the counties and municipalities. 
At present they are so bound up together 
that the State taxes are practically ' sur- 
taxes, ' to use the Spanish term, imposed 
upon the same sources and in the same 
manner as the local taxes. This is one of 
the principal causes of our trouble, and 
works no bettor here than it does in Span- 
ish countries. The separation of State 
from local taxation is no new experiment. 
Pennsylvania, which is regarded as the 
pioneer in this direction, has had practi- 
cal independence of this sort for half a 
century; Massachusetts and Connecticut 
have solved the problem in nearly the 
same manner and New York has for the 
past 25 years been gradually working 
in the same direction and has practically 
achieved the desired result within the 
past three years. There are many other 
States which have done the same. 

What this accomplishes is that it solves 
at once the vexed question of equaliza- 
tion. It establishes home rule in matters 
of local taxation, so that each company 
can administer its own fiscal affairs, with- 
out having to watch eternally lest it be 
compelled to pay more than its fair share 
of State taxes. It places the taxation of 
each class of interests in the hands best 
qualified to deal with it. It makes possi- 
ble the proper classification of the differ- 
ent subjects of taxation and a rational 
treatment of each. To try to tax a coiv 
and a telephone, a dozen ducks and a 
railroad, a beehive and a factory (even 
though it be a beehive of industry), a 
mortgage and a hay press, a dump cart 
and a street car, an old oaken bucket and 
a modern city water works, all on one and 
the same plan, and that by an old ' rule 
o' my thumb ' method invented for the 
taxation of aicommunity of simple farmers 
200 years before the first railroad was 
built, is only one of the absurdities of our 
present system. 

Although the last Legislature was ex- 
tremely favorable to the proposed plan of 
tax reform, it could accomplish but little 
in this direction. In its attempts to im- 
prove our tax system, the Legislature is 
shackled by the Constitution, which im- 
poses a perfectly rigid form of the general 



property tax and prohibits in express 
terms the separation of State from local 
taxation. 

To overcome this constitutional pro- 
hibition a constitutional amendment is 
needed. Such an amendment was intro- 
duced, but it failed to pass. 

Although the amendment did not come 
to a final vote and will have to go over 
to the next session, the Legislature did 
take some steps, such as the present pro- 
visions of the Constitution permit, in the 
right direction. The most important of 
these steps was the expension of the in- 
heritance tax to cover direct as well as 
collateral inheritances. This will prob- 
ably increase the revenue obtained from 
this source from approximately one-third 
of a million to a round million. One of 
the minor measures was the imposition of 
a $10 fee on all corporations for the filing 
of un annual report. This will enable us 
to ascertain the number of live corpora- 
tions in the State, and will also give us 
some information that is much needed for 
the intelligent formulation of a new 
system. 

The Legislature, also, finding that its 
time for the forming of revenue laws dur- 
ing the hurry and worry of the session 
was too restricted, created a tax commis- 
sion, composed of the Governor, two Sen- 
ators and two Assemblymen; together 
with an expert to be appointed by the 
Governor, which is to investigata and re- 
port to the next Legislature. This com- 
mission has ample powers and should be 
able to bring in a report that will bo val- 
uable and to make suggestions as to 
measures that will be practicable. 

From the temper of the people of the 
State generally, and especially in the 
agricultural regions, which are generally 
overtaxed, it is easy to see that tax re- 
form must como and come soon. It is a 
good thing: that it can be carefully con- 
sidered and plans matured during the 
next year. 



Standing Offer 

Good always, everywhere. 
$100 Reward, for any lame- 
ness, curb, splint, founder, 
distemper, etc., (where cure 
is possible) that is not cured by 

TUTTLE'S 
ELIXIR 

Greatest horse remedy in the world. Tultlc'a 
Family Elixir invaluable for human bruises, 
pains, rheumatism, etc. Send for fiee 100 pace 
book, "Veterinary Experience." 11 . 

horseman's guide. Every disease- symptom ;tnd 
its treatment. 

Tuttlc's Elixir Co.. 33 Beverly SI.. Boston, Mass. 
Slack & Co., San Francisco and T W. Braun, Lot 
Angeles, California Agents. 




Almond Trees 

We have a. full assortment of Almond 
Trees of the following sorts: 

NONPAREIL, 
I. X. L., 

NE PLUS ULTRA, 
TEXAS PROLIFIC, 

DRAKE'S SEEDLING. 

WINE GRAPES 

THOMPSON SEEDLESS, 
LENOIR (Resistant) 
RUPESTRIS ST. GEORGE (Resistant) 

Write us for prices. 

Catalogue and Price List always free. 

The Fresno 
Nursery Co., inc. 

FRESNO, CALIFORNIA 

P. O. Box 42. 




To Irrigators! 

Don't pay exorbitant prices 
to surveyors. Get a CALI- 
FORNIA LEVELING IN- 
STRUMENT for $7 and do 
your own leveling. Money 
refunded if not satisfactory. 
Send for circulars to 



B. 



A. GOODWIN, 

RIPON, CAI.. 




No Smoke House. Smoke mcnt with 
KRkUSERS' LIQUID EXTRACT OF SMOKE. 

Made from hickory wood. Givee delicioaa flavor. 

Ch'-fiper, ctpunt r than old way. Send for cir- 
cular, t. Krauspr dt Ero., .Mil i mi. Pa. 




REEN PEAS should be treated 
with a fertilizer containing a 
high percentage of Potash, in order 
to get the healthiest, fullest pods. 

"Truck Farminor" anc j --Plant Food" 
are two practical books for the farmer, 
which we mail free of any cost or ob- 
igation to those who write for them. 
They contain valuable facts about 
truck-gardening as a profitable business. 

Address, GERMAN KALI WORKS, 93 Nassau St., New York 

MEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco, Cal., are sole agents for the PaclUc Coast. 



CEMENT FENCE POSTS. 



FIRE CANNOT DESTROY THEM. 



AGE ADDS STRENGTH. 



SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE SHOWING SIMPLICITY OF WORKING THE 

"COX" CEMENT FENCE POST MACHINE. 

HERCULES HOLLOW CEMENT BUILDING BLOCKS are the best materials for Hop Drying 
Kilns, Barns, Creameries, Dairies, etc. Absolutely fire, water and damp proof. 

pabular, PACIFIC CONCRETE MACHINERY CO. 

Pacific Coast Agents, 202 California Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



GREEN BANK 

T. \A/. JrtCKSON «fc CO. 
1 23 California St., San Francisco. 



98% POWDERED CAUSTIC SODA and PURE POTASH, 

BEST OLIVE DIP AND TREE WAbH. 

Analvsis of a competitive brand labeled and sold.as 

"98% Powdered ) Sodium Hydrate 75 80% 

Caustic Soda"., j Sodium Oxid 58.59% 



California Fruits. 

NEW EDITION (3rd). LARGELY REWRITTEN. 

By PROP. E. J. WICK50N. 

CONTENTS. 



Chapter. 

I. The Climate of California and Its Local 

Modifications. 
II. Why the California Climate Specially Fa- 
vors the Growth of Fruits. 
III. The Fruit Soils of California. 
I\ . The Wild Fruits of California. 
V. California Mission Fruits. 
VI. Introduction of Improved Fruit Varieties. 
VII. Clearing Land for Fruit. 
VIII. The Nursery. 
IX. Budding and Grafting. 
X. Preparation for Planting. 
XI. Planting Trees and Vines. 
XII. Pruning Orchard Trees and Thinning Fruit. 

XIII. Cultivation. 

XIV. Fertilizers for Fruit Trees and Vines. 
XV. Irrigation of Fruit Trees and Vines 

XVI. The Apple. 
XVII. The Apricot. 
XVIII. The Cherry. 
XIX. The Peach. 
XX. The Nectarine. 



Chapter. 
XXI. The Pear. 
XXII. Plums and Prunes, 
xxni. The Quince. 
XXIV. Vine Propagating and Planting 
XXV. Pruning and Care of the Vine. 
XX VI. Grape Varieties In California. 
XXVII. The Date. 
XXVIII. The Fig. 
XXIX. The Olive. 
XXX. The Orange. 
XXXI. The Lemon, Lime, Etc. 
XXXII. The Banana, Loquat, Persimmon, Pine- 
apple, Avocado, Etc., Etc. 

XXXIII. Berries and Currants. 

XXXIV. Almond, Walnut, Chestnut, Peanut, Eto 
XXXV. Fruit Cannlcg Crystallizing and 

Drying. 
XXXVI Injurious Insects. 
XXXVII. Diseases of Trees and Vines. 
XXXVIII. Injurious Animals and Birds. 
XXXIX. Protection from Winds and Frosts. 
XL. Utilization of Fruit Wastes. 



Price $2.50, Postpaid Anywhere. 



CALIFORNIA VEGETABLES 



= IN: 



GARD EN AND FIELD. 

By PROF. E. J. WICKSON, Author of "California Fruits." 
The only book published on Vegetable Growing in California 

A MANUAL OF PRACTICE WITH AND WITHOUT IRRIGATION. THE BOOK COMPLETELY 
COVERS ITS FIELD. A FULL ILLUSTRATED CHAPTER EACH ON 



Vegetable Growing in California. 
Farmers' Gardens in California. 
California Climate as Related to 

Vegetable Growing. 
Vegetable Soils of California. 
Garden Irrigation. 
Garden Drainage in California. 
Cultivation. 
Fertilization- 
Garden Location and Arrangement. 
The Planting Season. 
Propagation. 
Asparagus 



Artichokes. 

Beans. 

Beet. 

Cabbage Family. 

Carrot, Parsnip, and Salsify. 

Celery. 

Chicory. 

Corn. 

Cucumber. 
Egg Plant. 
Lettuce. 
Melons. 
Onion Family. 
Peas. 



Peppers. 

Potatoes. 

Radishes. 

Rhubarb. 

Spinach. 

Squashes. 

Tomato. 

Turnip. 

Vegetable Sundries. 

Vegetables for Canning and Drying 

Seed Sowing In California. 

Garden Protection. 

Weeds In California. 



Price, $2.00 F»o«tf>«aId . 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publishers, 33© Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 



January 27, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



63 



How to Uet the Butter. 

A farmer owned a herd of milch cows that 
yielded him an average of 400 pounds (about 200 
quarts) of milk per day. It was average milk, 
being 4 per cent butter fat. In other words, the 
400 pounds of milk his cows gave him daily con- 
tained 16 pound-i of butter fat. This farmer had 
had his milk tested, and knew it contained that 
amount of butter fat. He churned every three 
days, and knew the cream from three days' milk 
should yield 48 pounds of unsalted butter. But It 
didn't. Instead of getting 48 pounds, he rarely 
got more than 25 or 26. " How can I get it? " the 
farmer asked. "Centrifugal force, as applied in 
the Sharpies Tubular Cream Separator," was the 
reply. 

A hardware dealer was the agent for the Shar- 
pies Tubular Cream Separator, and loaned this 
farmer a Tubular for a free trial. The farmer 
took the Tubular home, used it three days, 
churned 473£ pounds of unsalted butter from the 
cream it extracted out of three days' milk, and 
sent a check to the hardware dealer in payment 
for the machine. He had been robbing himself, 
and did not know it. He had been making six-cent 
veal out of butter fat the Tubular would have en- 
abled him to get 25 to 35 cents a pound for when he 
could have made just as good veal out of oil meal 
costing but two cents a pound. 

If you do not know of any Tubular agent near 
you, we suggest that you write to The Sharpies 
Separator Co., of West Chester, Pa. If you will 
ask for catalog No. 131, they will not only send you 
the catalog, but refer you to their nearest local 
agent, who will lend you a Tubular for free trial. 

How 81100,000 Is Being Spent in a Cam- 
paign of Enlightenment. 

The spending of $100,000 is an interesting event, 
no matter who spends it or for whxt aims. The 
Sunset Magazine, that marvelous reflex of West- 
ern life, published in San Francisco, recently con- 
tracted with N. W. Ayer & Son, the ereat adver- 
tising house, of Philadelphia, to spend $100,000 in 
telling the people of the wonders of that scenic 
country extending from Los Angeles, California, to 
Portland, Oregon. 

To convey this message in such a graphic man- 
ner that everyone everywhere would have a true 
mind-picture of the amazing things to be found in 
this land of perennial sunshine required all the 
resources even of N. W. Ayer & Son, a veritable 
army of photographers, artists and writers, work- 
ing hand in hand in prepar ing pages upon pages of 
interesting material for the great magazines and 
periodicals. When it was found that even this 
great space was too limited to tell a tithe of the 
story, a beautiful book was published for free dis- 
tribution, containing rare color prints, tine en- 
gravings and most vivid pen pictures. " The Road 
of a Thousand Wonders" is the title of this book, 
and it is indeed well worthy of the name, for on its 
pages are depicted all the veritable wonders of 
California and Oregon, and anyone may have one 
by writing to the distributor, Chas. S. Fee, Passen- 
ger Traffic Manager, Southern Pacific Company, 
431 California street, San Francisco, California 



FOR SALE. 



20,000 strong-rooted Loganberry tips, 2 cts. each 
or *I5 00 per M Cuthbert Raspberry and Lawton 
Blackberry 2 cts. each or $5.00 per M. 

L. E. BARLOW, Sevastopol, Cal. 

WANTED— Five Hundred Pullets, 

LEGHORN OR MINOKCA. 

State number offered and price. 
J B. WRANGH AM, Crocker Bldg.. San Francisco. 



PATENTS 



DEWEY, STRONG & CO. 

(ESTABLISHED i860.) 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, 
•nd WASHINGTON, D. C. 



OLDEST AND LARGEST AGENCY ON 
THE PACIFIC COAST. 



WHY TO BE PREFERRED? 



BECAUSE- 

Inventors have the opportunity to e* 
First ; plain their inventions personally ant 

directly to the men who write the speci' 
dcations and make the drawings, so that all the 
Inventor's ideas will be oorrectly conveyed, avoic! 
lng mistakes and vexatious delays. 

Inventors living at a distance from Saa 
Second : Francisco may, where they so desire, 

consult directly with our Washington 

office. 

Inventors receive the benefit of over. 
Third : thirty years' continuous, successful 
experience. 

A description of the patented inven- 
Fourth : tlon will appear in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. 

We have a complete Patent Library, Including 
official records since 1793 and full certified copies 
of all patents issued since 1872. These are foi 
free examination by any one who desires. 

We attend to all business connected with pa- 
tents, such as the preparation of Caveats, Trade- 
Marks, Design Patents, Assignments, Licenses 
and Agreements. We make examinations as to 
the patentability of inventions, searches, and glvt 
opinions as to infringements, or the scope or va- 
lidity of Patents. Our Branch Offices and arrang* 
tnents for Foreign Patents, Trade-Marks, etc., art 
very extensive and complete. Inventors' Quid* 
sent free on application. 



330 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 



AND 



918 F St., Washington, D. C. 



Patrons of Husbandry* 

The Good Work of the Grange. 



To the Editor: The following por- 
tion of the report of Worthy Past Mas- 
ter Jones of the National Grange shows 
the good work that the Grange is try- 
ing to accomplish: 

1. Free delivery of mails in the rural 
districts, and that the service be placed 
on the same permanent footing as the de- 
livery of mails in the cities and the ap- 
propriations to be commensurate with the 
demands and the benefits of tbe service. 

2. Provide for postal savings banks. 

3. Submit an amendment to the Con- 
stitution providing for the election of 
United States Senators by direct vote of 
the people. 

4. Submit an amendment to the Con- 
stitution granting the power to Congress 
to regulate and control all corporations 
and combinations, preventing monopoly 
and the use of their corporate power to 
restrain trade or arbitrarily establish 
prices. 

5. Enlarge the powers and duties of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, 
giving it authority to determine what 
changes shall be made or what practices 
are discriminative or unreasonable, and 
their findings to be immediately opera- 
tive, and so to continue until overruled by 
the courts. 

6. Regulate the use of shoddy. 

7. Enact pure food laws. 

8. Provide for the extension of the 
markets of farm products equally with 
manufactured articles. 

9. The enactment of the anti-trust law, 
clearly defining what acts on the part of 
any corporation would be detrimental to 
the public welfare. 

107 The speedy construction of a ship 
canal connecting the Mississippi river 
with the Great Lakes and the Great 
Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. 

11. Revising the fees and salaries of 
all Federal officers and placing them on a 
basis of similar service in private busi- 
ness. 

12. Provide for parcels post, telephone 
and telegraph in the mail service. 

13. Provide for National and State aid 
to improve public highways. 

I again recommend to the several State 
Granges that they continue to urge upon 
their respective State Legislatures the 
enactment of appropriate legislation on 
the following important matters: 

1. Anti-trust law and provision for 
State inspection of all corporations. 

2. Secure law on taxation that will 
compel all property to bear its just pro- 
portion of taxation. 

3. Pure food law. 

4. Provide State Railway Commission 
with full power of fixing minimum rate of 
freight and passenger service on all rail- 
ways subject to their jurisdiction. 

5. Such revision of the fees and sala- 
ries as will place them on an equitable 
basis. 

The Grange stands as a unit for the 
principles involved in the above proposed 
legislation, all of which is important and 
should be speedily enacted into the laws 
of our country. It would seem wise, how- 
ever, that the most important and great- 
est present necessity should be pressed 
with the full force and energies of our or- 
ganization. 

The Use of the Press. — The last 
meeting of the California State Grange 
approved the following: 

Resolved, By the Executive Committee 
of the California State Grange, that we 
recognize the importance and influence of 
the public press as an educator and a 
moulder of public sentiment, and there- 
fore concur with the Worthy Lecturer of 
State Grange in the recommendation 
that all Lecturers of subordinate Granges 
should join with him in utilizing this ac- 
knowledged power. 

Emily L. Burnham, 

Healdsburg. State Secretary. 

firabazon's POULTRY SUIDE FREE, 

It's a dandy. Cuts of fowls from life 
Chickens, Turkey.!, Ducks and Geese, 
70 varieties. Price of fowls and eggs. 
Send 10c to pay postage of fine guide 
of Poultry and buying fowls. Best on earth. 

J. R. Brabazon, Box 22, Glenview, Delavan, Wit. 



30 DAYS TRIAL 

Buy From Our Factory — Save One-Third. 

practical ffS^EEWa 

Itrongfr chickv 10 YEARS' GUARANTEE 
Cii. Iro. fRICllCIl IIC. CO.. U0 S. lilt It Sin Jm, U. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS. 

Established 36 Years. 
IMPORTERS AND BREEDERS OF ALL VARIETIES 
OF LAND AND WATER FOWLS. 

Stock for Sale. Dept. 31. Box 2602, San Francisco. 





BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 



GEO. C. ROEDING, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of High grade thoroughbred Holste in Bulls 
and Heifers. Thoroughbred Berkshire 
Boars and Sows. 



RIVERSIDE HERD HOLSTEIN CATTLE 

One of the largest and best in the world. Send 
for catalogue. Pierce Land & Stock Co., Stock- 
ton, Cal. 



JOHN LYNCH, breeder of registered Shorthorns; 
milk strain. High class stock. First-class dairy 
breeding Smooth cattle Best pedigree. P. O. 
Box 321, Petaluma, Cal. 



HOLSTEIN S — Winners at State Fairs of every 
bntter contest since 1885 in Calif. Stock near 
S. F. F. H. Burke, 30 Montgomery St., S. F. 



"HOWARD" SHORTHORNS— Quinto Herd, 77 
premiums California State Fairs 1902-3-4. Regis- 
tered cattle of beef and milking families for sale. 
Write us what you want. Howard Cattle Co., 
206 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE— Short Horned 
Durhams. Address E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal. 



A. J.C.C. JERSEYS. Service bulls of noted strains. 
Joseph Mailliard, San Geronimo, Marin Co., Cal. 



BULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine individuals. At prices to 
suit the times, either singly or in carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm, Danville, Cal. 



PETER 8AXE & SON, Lick House, S.F.,Cal. Im- 
porters, Breeders and Dealers for past 30 years. 
All varieties Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Hogs. High 
class breeding stock. Correspondence solicited. 



JERSEYS, HOLSTEIN S & DURHAMS. Bred 
specially for use in Dairy. Thoroughbred Hogs, 
Poultry. Wm. Nlles & Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeders and Exporters. Established 1876. 



POULTRY, 



WHITE LEGHORNS, White Minorcas— ranch 
bred and free range. Eggs only. Agent for 
the " Model " Incubator and Brooder — best 
made. A. Warren Robinson, Napa, California. 



WHITE HOLLAND TURKE1S. Eggs from 
large, vigorous birds 25c. each. Chas. F. Gould, 
Chula Vista, Cal. 



BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs— Ed. Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 



PIGEON S, Belgian Hare. Chickens, Guinea Fowls, 
Turkeys. Cottonwood Farm, Pleasant Grove.Cal 

L. W. CLARK, Petaluma, Cal. White Leghorns, 
the white kind that lay lots of large, white eggs. 



C.B.CAKRINGTON, Hay wards, Cal. White Leg- 
horns. World's Fair winners. Stock for sale. 
Eggs by sitting 100 or 1000. Send for new folder. 

SANTA TERESA POULTRY FARM, Eden 
Vale, Santa Clara Co., Cal. White and Brown 
Leghorns, White Wyandottes, Barred Plymouth 
Rocks, Black Minorcas, White Cochin Bantams. 



WM. NILES & CO., Los Angeles, Cal. Nearly all 
varieties chickens, geese, ducks, peafowl, etc. 



SWINE. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 



BERKSHIRE, POLAND-CHINA, CHESTER 
WHITE HOGS. Choice; Thoroughbreds. Wm. 
Nlles St Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Establ'd in 1876. 



BERKSHIRES— Prize Winners— bred from prize 
winners. Boars all ages. T.Waite, Perkins, Cal. 

BERKSHIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS. 

C. A. Stowe, Stockton. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 

S. H. FOUNTAIN, Dixon, Cal. Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Shropshire sheep. Both 
sexes for sale at all times. 

THOS. WAITE, Perkins, Cal., has the Gold Medal 
flock of South Down sheep. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GEO. H. CROLEY, 508 Sacramento St., San Fran- 
cisco. Manufac- ~ 
turer and Dealer 
In 

of every description. Send for'catalogue— FREE. 



iX) auo oacramento St., san fl'ran- 

Poultry Supplies 



MANHATTAN FOOD fattens stock and poultry. 
Cures all common ailments At your grocer. 



com"b ^ WHITE LEGHORNS. 

Thoroughbred Stock. Eggs for setting, $1.50 for 15, 
$2.50 for 30, $3.50 for 45, $6 per 100. 

INDIAN RUNER DUCKS. 

Eggs, $1.50 for 12, $7.50 per 100. 
Send for illustrated catalogue. 

JOHN P. BODEN, 
1338 Second St., Watsonville, Cal. 

ORPINGTONS. 

SILVER CUP for BEST DISPLAY; 10% of all rib- 
bons in class to Garden Valley Yards, at San 
Francisco show Dec. 2. Illustrated folder tells the 
rest; it's free. Eggs $3 and $5 per set. Stock for sale. 

W. SULLIVAN, Agnews, Cal. 

State V.-Pres. Nat S. C. B. O. Club. 
Member Am. Orp. Club. 



VERYTHING FOR POULTRY. 

Our Catalogue, 228 pages, (8x11) isa valuable 
guide to money-making poultry success. De« 
s ribesall needed articles. We make them, 
including the new 1906-pattern 

STANDARD CYPHERS INCUBATOR 

FSold on 90 Days Trial. Guaranteed to hatch 
More and Healthier Chicks than any other. 
Catalogue free if yon mention this paper and send addresses of 
two persons interested in Poultry. Write nearest office. 

CYPHERS INCUBATOR CO., '^^^SSr^SJ^ 




12 



.80 For 
200 Egg 
INCUBATOR 

Perfect la construction and 
nction. Hatches every fertile 
egg. Write for catalog to-day. 



GEO. H. STAHL, Qulncy 





PACIFIC COAST S GREATEST IMPORTING 
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DIFFERENT 
EUROPEAN BREEDS OF HORSES. : 

Three Importations in 1905. 

THE ONLY FIRM IN CALIFORNIA HAVING A LARGE 
SELECTION OF 

Percherons, Royal Belgians, Shires, 
Clydes, French Coach and 
German Coach, always on hand. 

HORSES WILL BE SOLD ON EASY TERMS WITH THE MOST LIBERAL GUARANTEES. 
Visitors are always welcome at our stables, and correspondence is invited. Call or address 

LANDIS BROS,, Folsom, California. 
Must Hatch Incubators and Brooders Have Stood the Test. 




Beware of others "JUST AS GOOD. 



Manufactured at Petaluma Cal., 
the chicken center of the world. 

We hatch and prepare little chicks— White Leghorns— for shipment, to all points within sixty hours 
travel from Petaluma. Now is the time to place your order. When the chicks come high, they are the 
most profitable. We also supply White Leghorn eggs for hatching. Prices for chicks and eggs on 
application. 



Write for I — V 
catalogue*—* 



MUST HATCH INCUBATOR CO., Petaluma, Cal. 



Emery's Poultry Foods arc sold by all dealers and 
commission men because they are the BEST. 



.MANUFACTURED B"V^ 



N. OHLANDT & CO., Indiana and 24th Sts., San Francisco. 



64 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



January 27, 1906. 



SUC C E S S 

MANURE SPREADER 




CUT OF SUCCESS SPREADER with left hand rear wheel removed, showing gear- 
drive for running apron. Drum is driven by a steel pinned chain on right hand 
side. These are features peculiar to the Success alone and add greatly to its long 
life and liyht draft. 



THE TIME IS NOT FAR OFF WHEN A MANURE SPREADER WILL BE A 
NECESSITY to every ranch in California. 




SEND FOR SPECIAL CATALOGUE ON FERTILIZERS. 



R&V 

GASOLENE 
GAS 

DISTILLATE 



E 



Rehabfe Motors 
^)r A //Purposes 
Where Power 
/s Required 




WE CARRY BOTH VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL TYPE 
IN STOCK in sizes from 1 to 25 horse power. Estimates 
given on complete pumping outfits. 



DEALERS WANTING A PROFITABLE AGENCY should 
look into this line. 



DEERE IMPLEMENT CO., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



DEERE IMPLEMENT CO., SAN FRANCISCO. 




WITH OR WITHOUT 

PUMPING ATTACHMENT 

Is a money saving and con- 
venient machine for a FARM, 
ORCHARD or STOCK 
RANCH. 

The outfit is strong, easy to 
operate, economical and re- 
liable. 

Pump can be disconnected 
and power used for other pur- 
poses. 

The cut shows 2* h. p. plant 
weighing S00 pounds. Speed 
320 revolutions per minute. 
Ground space 30x58 inches. 

Illustrated "Regal" Cata- 
logue with full particulars will 
be mailed free. 

AUSTIN J. RIX, 

396 Mission St.. San Francisco. 




For Fertilizer 



Send for free book and prices. 

R.A.HOLCOMBE&CO. 

Dealers, 
124 CALIFORNIA SIREET, 
SAN FRANCISCO. CALIFORNIA. 



WELL DRILLING 
MACHINERY. 

I'ortahle and drill any 
depth by steam or horse 
power 43 Different 
styled. We challenge com- 
petition. Send for Free II- 
'ust rated Catalog No. 27. 

KELLY & TANEYHILL CO . 27 Chestnut St., Waterloo, la. 

Telephone Main 199. 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne £ Dealers in Paper. 

HOB. 55-57-59-61 First St., San Francisco, Cal. 

BLAKE, MOFFITT & TOWNE Los Angeles. 

BLAKE. McFALL & CO Portland. Or. 




THIS IS \A/H/\X YOU NEED. 

SINGLE TRACE - HARNESS ATTACHMENT. 

For Vineyard, Orchard, 
Nursery and Hop Fields, 

Both Single and Double Work. 

Light. Durable, Economical. 
Satisfactory. 

Price, * 30. 

Full particulars furnished 
by the inventor and manufac- 
turer. 

GEO. V. BECKMAN, 

LODI, CAL. 

Reliable Agents Wanted. 





The Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co, 



(Patented Sept. 12, 1905.) 



CYANIDE 



100 WILLIAM STREET, NEW YORK. 
Works: PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

guaranteed 98-99% for generating 
HYDROCYANIC ACID GAS. 
The only positive eradicator of the SAN JOSE SCALE, 

RED AND BLACK SCALE and other insect pests. 

FOR SftLE 13 "V 

THE F. W. BRAUN COMPANY, 
MESSRS. HAAS, BARUCH & CO. 



Los Angeles and San Francisco. 
Los Angeles and San Francisco. 



1 his Paper not 
to be taken from 
the Library. 




v 



d CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN. 



Vol. LXXI. No. r «?" 



San Francisco, Saturday, February 3, 1906. 



THIRTY-FIFTH YEAR. 
OFFICE: 330 MARKET ST. 



Two More Steps in Canning. 



We have in earlier issues followed the 
process of canning fruit from the or- 
chard through the picking, into the 
cannery, where the earlier steps of 
cutting and otherwise preparing the 
fruit for packing in the cans, the manu- 
facture of the syrup and drawing it 
from the tank into the cans have all 
been pictured and described. The 

On this page are two views leading 
the reader two steps onward toward 
the finished product. Up to this point 
the fruit has been packed in the wide 
open can — the opening nearly the full 
size of the cylinder so that large fruit 
can be placed therein. When the fruit 
is in place and the syrup run in to fill 
all the interstices, the cover or cap is 
put in place and soldered tight all 
around, except a tiny puncture in the 
cover, which allows the air to escape 
as it expands by the heat, which is 
subsequently applied in processing. 
The man in the center of the picture is 
soldering down the covers with a 
specially contrived soldering iron, 
which quickly runs around. the edge of 
the circular cap, spreading the solder 
uniformly and economically. 

The second picture shows the cans 
assembled in a frame for the cooking 
or the 'processing' as it is usually 
called. This is the application of heat 
of sufficient degree and duration to kill 
ail the germs of fermentation or to 
'sterilize' the contents of the can as 
the modern term is. To use this heat 
to accomplish this end and no farther 




Covering or Capping the Cans at the Flickinger Cannery at San Jose. 



is not only the secret of success in the 
keeping of the product, but is also the 
secret of turning out fruit which shall 
be as near to fresh fruit as possible. 



Processing is a better term than cook- 
ing, because it indicates a more exact 
operation. Cooking fruit results in 
stewed fruit if done to excess, which is 




The Cannery Processer and HisJOutfit for Sterilizing the Can Contents. 



very different from processed fruit. 
This processing is, perhaps, the most 
exacting operation of the cannery, 
because it must always be done with 
judgment and not by prescription or 
recipe. 

Not only do different fruits require 
different degrees of heat to reach the 
desired condition in the can, but dif- 
ferent varieties of the same fruit and 
different degrees of ripeness of the 
same variety call for intelligent adjust- 
ment of the processing. An experi- 
enced and successful processer is, 
therefore, at the foundation of good 
canning, and judgment, resulting from 
both theoretical understanding of the 
work and experience in it, has always 
to be exercised. In the picture the 
frame is about to be lowered into the 
bath where the water is heated by 
steam and the processing accomplished. 
After this is done the cans are raised 
from the bath and while still hot the 
vent holes are filled with a drop of 
solder and the contents are thus ner- 
metically sealed. As the contents cool, 
the cover sinks a little by pressure of 
the outside air and if it remains thus 
after sufficient time has elapsed, it is 
evident that the processing is success- 
ful, for no germs have remained in the 
can to start fermentation. If after a 
time the top rises, it is evident that 
germs have escaped and have started 
fermentation, the gas generated lifting 
the cover of the can into the hateful 
object known as a 'swell-head,' and 
then something eels has to be done. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 3, 1906. 



Pacific Rural Press. 

Published Every Saturday at 330 Market Street, 
San i rain i Cal. 

TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE. 

Advertising rates made known on application. 

Entered at S. F. Postofllce as second-class mail matter. 



DEWEY PUBLISHING CO Publi»h»rs 

E. J. WICKSON Horticultural Editor 



SAN FRANCISCO, FEBRUARY 3, 1906. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ILLUSTRATIONS.— Covering or Capping the Cans at the Flick- 
inger Cannery at San Jose; The Cannery Processerand His Outfit 
for Sterilizing the Can Contents, 65. Method of Constructing a 
Concrete Water Trough, 68. 

EDITORIAL — Two More Steps in Canning. 65. The Week. 66. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.— Walnut Growing; Tomato Blight: 
Alfalfa Without Irrigation; No Apricots on Almonds, 66. Stocks 
for the Cherry; Legumes for Manure: Canning Seeded Raisins; 
Moving Old Cherry Trees; The California Mole-Cricket; Gum 
Trees Wanted: Carrots and Other Stock Feeds: Sorghum and 
Birds: Will the Sugar Prune Take the Apricot '; 67. 

WEATHER AND CROPS. — Report of the U. S. Weather Service 
for Week Ending January 30, 1906; Rainfall and Temperature, 66. 

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER.— Building a Concrete Watering 
Trough, 68. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. — The Preparation of Emulsions of Crude Pe- 
troleum, 68. 
CEREAL CROPS.— Cereal Improvement, 69. 

THE DAIRY.— Cheesemaking in California, 70. Almond Hulls for 
Cows, 71. 

AGRICULTURAL REVIEW.— 71. 

THE HOME CIRCLE. -Mother; Violets: Without the Green: Hints 
to Housekeepers, 72. Domestic Hints; Hero Worship and Maps, 73. 

THE MARKETS. — Produce Market; Fruit Markets, 74-75. 

THE VETERINARIAN.— Lump Jaw and Its Treatment, 76. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY— Officers of the California State 
Grange; Tulare Grange Meeting; Napa Grange, 78. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— The 1905 Vintage of France; The Texas End 
of It, 79. 



The Week. 

The year turns into February with plenty of snow 
on the mountains, plenty of water in the soils of the 
valleys and plenty of sunshine over all. Increasing 
heat is bringing a quick growth of feed and a delight- 
ful verdure is covering the land. Farmers and 
planters of all kinds of fruits are too busy to chat 
over the fence or, in fact, to do anything but get 
things into the ground. A wonderful amount of work 
is being pushed through, and a fair distribution of 
water for the next few weeks will ensure a maximum 
of produce. Early blossoms are appearing here and 
there, but most trees are fortunately waiting for a 
later start, which is desirable. 

Fruit shipping affairs seem to be moving somewhat 
and all in the trade manifest a degree of satisfaction 
over the announcement that reduction in the rates 
on deciduous fruits from California points to the 
Eastern markets has been agreed upon. The reduc- 
tion will take effect at the beginning of the coming 
season of the deciduous fruit shipping. 

From Sacramento and Antioch to Chicago a reduc- 
tion of $10 per car is made, and from the same Cali- 
fornia points to New York a cut of $17.50 is made. 
From San Joaquin valley points, such as Stockton, 
Fresno, Hanford and Bakersfield, the rate to Chi- 
cago is reduced to $70 and to New York from the 
same points to $82.50, thus practically effecting an 
equalization of rates from points in the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin valleys to Eastern points. The most 
important feature of this new compact is a clause 
providing that no rebates or other special conces- 
sions shall be granted to any fruit shipper in Califor- 
nia, and that the reduced rates shall be strictly 
maintained. 

Such is the official announcement on the part of the 
Santa Fe Railway, and we presume it will be met by 
all lines. The reduced rate will be easy to see, but 
the other declaration, that there shall be no rebates, 
will be less evident. All shippers should be treated 
alike, and all fresh fruit should go on definite, fast 
schedule. Less freight cost is good, but the other 
things are not less so. Still, the optimist finds 
plenty of hope in the fact that things are so much 
better than they were when the pioneers worked so 
hard and lost so much money. 

Readers should not overlook the very interesting 
statements of the two leading items of dairy produc- 
tion in California which appeared in the last and in 
the present issue. These statements are forecasts 
of the statistical gatherings of the State Dairy 
Bureau as conducted by Mr. Saylor, the active sec- 
retary of the Bureau. Next week we shall have the 



conclusion of the matter, and it will then appear 
how great is the total dairy product of the State, 
and how important it is in the line of State develop- 
ment. Dairy progress is one of the most interesting 
features of our recent growth, and its constant 
return of ready money is relieving temporary strin- 
gency which has always prevailed when the produc- 
tion of crops which yielded only annual cash has been 
the main reliance. The cow and the hen are great 
rural comforters, although they do make unending 
requirement of hard work and constant skill and 
watchfulness. The cow and the heD are teaching 
Californians how to be always busy and are paying 
people for learning. 

It seems possible that after all the natural way of 
taking nitrogen from the air for fertilizing purposes 
by the growth of leguminous plants, with nitrogen- 
gathering bacteria upon their roots, may be in fact 
superseded by the seizing of the nitrogen by electro- 
chemical process. The Berlin correspondent of the 
New York Evening Pott has an account of it of which 
this extract may serve our present purpose: 

In Norway, according to a writer in the Cologne 
Gazette, plans are on foot to utilize vast water-power 
in producing nitrogen. One establishment of 1,000 
h.p. near Christiania has already been in operation 
for some time, and Norwegian farmers have begun 
to fertilize their fields with the nitrates there pro- 
duced. Still nearer to that city a much larger con- 
cern is building. It will begin with 10,000 h.p., 
but will later be increased to double that amount. 
Nearly 100 miles west of Christiania, on the Manely, 
it drops 800 ft. perpendicularly into a chasm. It is 
proposed here to develop 220,000 h.p. The method 
for separating nitrogen from the atmosphere, used 
in Norway, is that of Prof. Birkeland, a chemist of 
Christiania. He uses electricity, but only indirectly, 
for creating the intensely high temperatures needed 
to force the atmosphere to give up its nitrogen. 
Through Prof. Birkeland's method, a ton of nitrate 
of lime can be made yearly with 1 h.p. The estab- 
lishment at the Rjukanfos will therefore be able to 
make 220,000 tons annually. Power will be created 
at very low cost — not more than $6 to $7.50 per 
horse-power yearly — cheapness of power being neces- 
sary to the success of Birkeland's method. 

If this succeeds, it will displace the costly nitrate 
of soda as produced in nature; but there is, of course, 
a gain by the leguminous-plant route in the produc- 
tion of humus, which cannot be had from the chemico- 
electrical product. 

The pear blight effort is now being pushed in the 
Sacramento valley with double energy, as the end of 
the season is near. To put out of sight every mani- 
festation of the disease before the bees wake up and 
visit the new blossoms is the point striven for. The 
bees must go to the blossoms for pollination, but that 
they shall go with clean feet and tongues because there 
is no old blighted twigs and limbs from which they can 
take pollination is the philosophy of the business. The 
University of California with the appropriation by 
the last Legislature has six or eight men in the 
orchards constantly cutting out blight and showing 
others how to do it, and the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has four or five more at the 
same work. Professor Smith, of the University, is 
at the work most of the time and Professor Waite 
will be here again from Washington in a few days. 
There is thus being waged in California the greatest 
contest ever made against the pear blight and 
we shall have an idea next summer how much 
can actually be done on a large scale with the extir- 
pation method which is the only one known to the 
experts at the present time. Some individuals are, 
of course, working most zealously and systematically 
in their own behalf like Mr. Brinck of Winters, who 
is perhaps doing the most thorough work in the 
State above ground and below. We heard the 
other day while passing through Winters that 
Mr. Brinck has such confidence in his work that 
he has refused $500 per acre for his pear orchard, 
blight and all. That is the way to meet a difficulty 
— fight hard and, if need be, die fighting. We have 
all honor for fruit growers who act in that way, and 
the best of it is that they are the ones who do not 
have to die horticulturally. 

We note mention of a new introduction of the Cha- 
yota in the Sacramento valley. It is well to try it 
and it may catch on to local popularity somewhere, 
perhaps, but the fact that it has been in southern 
California for the last fifteen years without making 
much impression is a little against its chances. 



QUERIES AND REPLIES. 



Walnut Growing. 

To the Editor: Wishing to plant an English wal- 
nut orchard, I write to you for information, as I wish 
to start right and make no mistakes. The land is on 
the Sacramento river and is good fruit land. Is it 
best to plant the native black walnut and graft, or to 
set the English walnut seedling? I have a few trees 
grafted on the black walnut and they are doing 
finely. Does the black walnut root influence the 
flavor or shell of the nut in any way? I wish to learn 
the names of the best varieties to use, both in pro- 
ductiveness and commercial value. I will send a few 
nuts for you to name. They are on black walnut 
root. What variety of apples are the best adapted 
to the Sacramento river? — Planter, Colusa county. 

There seems to be no doubt whatever but that the 
California black walnut seedling is the best stock for 
the English walnut, at least in the northern and cen- 
tral parts of the State. It apparently does not in- 
fluence the character of the fruit borne upon the 
English walnut scion which is grafted upon it. We 
are not able to name the nut which you sent, but it 
seems to be a very desirable variety, full meated, 
light-colored skin, etc. The size is, however, rather 
small, although some specimens are very good. But 
some specimens have dark skin upon the kernel, 
which is undesirable, and the two halves of the shell 
part almost too readily, which would result in a good 
many broken nuts after shipment. The Franquette, 
a French variety, seems to be on the whole the most 
satisfactory of the French varieties in most situa- 
tions. The best sources of information on walnut 
growing are the essays by growers which the Pacific 
Rural Press is continually publishing. 

The apples which are most profitable on the Sac- 
ramento river are the early varieties, like the White 
and Red Astrachan and some others. Winter apples 
usually ripen too soon and do not have good keeping 
qualities. 

Tomato Blight. 

To the Editor: Is there anything that will pre- 
vent blight in tomatoes ? • It is getting so it is well 
nigh useless to plant tomatoes in this vicinity. I try 
to raise about two acres every year, and the past 
two years we have lost most of our vines. The early 
planting seems to suffer the most. — Grower, River- 
side. 

It is not possible yet to give perfectly satisfactory 
information concerning the prevention of the tomato 
blight. The best we can do at the moment is to sug- 
gest that you make your plantation this year upon 
land which has not been used for tomatoes before. 
In this way it is sometimes possible to escape from 
the blight germs, which are believed to accumulate 
in soil continuously used for tomatoes. There are 
some blights of the tomato which are controlled by 
the early use of the Bordeaux mixture, but the bac- 
terial blight which manifests itself by swift collapse 
of the plant is not reached by exterior applications. 
Tomato blights are now being studied by our plant 
disease experts. 

Alfalfa Without Irrigation. 

To the Editor: I desire to try raising alfalfa on 
ground I can't irrigate at present time but I think 
suitable for the crop, and desire a little information, 
if at your hands. Would you recommend common 
alfalfa, or "Turkestan," or "South of Russia"? 
How much seed per acre ? When to sow; sow by 
itself or not. Where can I procure good seed ? — 
Farmer, San Luis Obispo county. 

There are many places where you can grow alfalfa 
without irrigation, but it is not usually long lived, 
both on account of the gophers and because of irreg- 
ularity in the moisture supply. Whether Turkestan 
alfalfa is better than the common is not fully deter- 
mined and further experience is necessary to settle 
that point. If you can get the seed^ it would be well 
to try a little of the Turkestan while making your 
chief planting of the common variety. Twenty-five 
pounds to the acre sown by itself and not with a 
grain crop is the best practice, and February is a 
good month for sowing, if you are not in a frosty 
place. The seed can be obtained from any dealer in 
seeds, as it is one of the most widely distributed and 
easily purchased of our foreign seeds. 

No Apricots on Almonds. 

To the Editor: I have some Moorrpark apricots, 
which bear so poorly that they are unprofitable. 



February 3, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



67 



Would it be all right to bud them to almonds? If you 
do not think almonds would do well on the apricots, 
will you kindly suggest a fruit that you think would 
do well on the apricots. — Enquirer, Sacramento 
county. 

The almond and apricot will not unite satisfac- 
torily; although there may be growth for a season, 
they will part company even after considerable 
growth has been attained. The peach will do fairly 
well upon the apricot, but it is quite apt to over- 
grow; still it may be satisfactory for a time. The 
best use for unprofitable apricot trees is to graft 
them over to some other variety of apricot, which is 
a good bearer in the locality. 



Stocks for the Cherry. 

To the Editor: I am ready to put out 100 or 
more cherry trees. I hear some objection to black 
Mazzard root, because trees on that root die back, 
while it is claimed that on Mahaleb that is not the 
case. But has Mahaleb no offsetting disadvantage? 
You are, doubtless, acquainted with the general 
nature of this soil. My ranch is well drained and soil 
two to three feet deep where cherries grow. Which 
root would you advise and why? — Reader, Penryn. 

The Mahaleb root is hardier than the Mazzard. It 
will endure both extremes of drying out and satura- 
tion of the soil. It is possible that on that root the 
trees will be troubled less with die-back than upon 
the Mazzard. The disadvantage of the Mahaleb is 
that it is not so free a grower as the Mazzard and is, 
therefore, less likely to give a large, productive tree. 
Wherever you have deep soils, drained, and yet 
retentive enough to hold the leaves late in the sum- 
mer, the cherry tree on the Mazzard is a proved 
success. With soil two to three feet deep, well 
drained, the Mazzard root will succeed well, provid- 
ing there is irrigation enough given to keep the tree 
active during the latter part of the summer and not 
enough to injure the roots. One of the nicest points 
in cherry growing is to adjust the moisture condition 
of the soil at just the right point between the 
extremes of drouth and saturation. If you think you 
can do this successfully the Mazzard is the superior 
root. 



Legumes for Manure. 

To the Editor: Would sand vetch or field peas, 
if sowed within the next 30 days, make sufficient 
growth by the first of May to be of value to the soil, 
if plowed under about that date? The locality I have 
in mind is quite frosty, and the soil quite sandy, but 
there would be no lack of moisture. Would the vetch 
or the peas be the more valuable as green manure, 
and how much of the seed of either would be required 
per acre? — Rancher, Santa Cruz. 

The better of the legumes would be the one which 
makes the most growth during the period you men- 
tion. We cannot tell which this one will be under 
your local conditions, but we are inclined to believe 
that burr clover will be better than either, because 
it has appeared to us to grow better during frost. 
Whether you can get enough green stuff to pay be- 
fore May 1 by sowing as late as this is another thing 
you must determine for yourself. It is also a ques- 
tion whether you can afford to wait as late as May 1, 
unless the land is to be summer-fallowed. The cor- 
rect way is to start your legume in the fall and plow 
in in March, giving a light disking to get in a crop 
which has to be planted after May 1. But here, 
again, the local question enters. Perhaps your land 
washes badly with March plowing. You must watch 
and think for yourself and pray a little, perhaps, and 
not expect to farm by any rule in California. 



Canning Seeded Raisins. 

To the Editor: In a late edition of your paper, 
January 13, I read an article by Mr. Bowers in re- 
gard to canning dried prunes. I was very much im- 
pressed with the idea and will ask if it would not be 
practicable to can seeded raisins ? I am a raisin 
grower, and one of the greatest things we have to 
contend with is the poor keeping qualities of the 
seeded raisin. I believe if raisins could be canned as 
Mr. Bowers cans his prunes, that they could be made 
a staple food that would be consumed all the year, 
and would greatly help the sale, as the crop then 
need not all be put on the market in the short space 
of a few weeks or months. — Grower, Selma. 

Probably they can be canned as easily as prunes or 
other dried fruit. To demonstrate it, however, you 
must try it, just as Mr. Bowers did with the prunes. 
His essay gives information enough to begin with in 
experimenting. 



Moving Old Cherry Trees. 

To the Editor: Have two 15-year-old Royal Ann 
cherry trees that I wish to remove. They are in the 
wrong place. Can it be done without injuring them 
very much ? If so, at what time of the year should 
they be transplanted and how should it be done ? 
Several years ago they were badly scorched by fire, 
yet they live, thrive and bear fruit, although the 
bark and some of the limbs on the side next the fire 
were burned almost off, which makes them bad look- 
ers. — Reader, Santa Cruz. 

We would move them to the woodpile and not 
farther. We will not say that they cannot be suc- 
cessfully transplanted, for possibly they might be, 
but it is harder to succeed with the work here than 
it is at the East, where a big tree can be taken up in 
a block of frozen ground and put in a new place with 
good chance of success. If you wish to try, do it 
right away, and cut away at least half of the top. 
We would, however, much prefer to plant young 
trees in the new place. 

The California Mole-Cricket. 

To the Editor: I send you a huge wingless insect 
with formidable jaws and large abdomen with stripes 
crosswise of dark and light brown, which I find in 
the ground. What is it and is it dangerous ? — 
T. O. H., Redwood City. 

It is the California mole-cricket (stenopalmata 
talpa), sometimes called the California potato bug, 
from its practice of boring tunnels straight through 
the tubers if he so desires. It is one of our largest 
insects and perhaps the fiercest of all in appear- 
ance, but it is not dangerous, though he might give 
you a good bite if you teased him. These crickets 
are so conspicuous that they never become very 
abundant, for many things like to eat them. If you 
want some fun give one to an old hen with a brood of 
chickens and listen to her as she warns the chicks to 
keep back until she has killed the monster. When 
this is done all can turn in and get what they can. 



Gum Trees Wanted. 

To the Editor: I wish several thousand blue or 
red-gums to plant, but I cannot afford to plant if I 
cannot get them cheap. Cannot you refer me to 
some one who could furnish me some few thousand on 
reasonable terms? I would rather have trees grown 
in the open than in boxes, if I know which is best. — 
Reader, San Joaquin Valley. 

The way to ascertain where you can buy to the 
best advantage is to write to tree growers adver- 
tising in our columns and get prices on such a lot as 
you wish. Gum trees do best when transplanted 
from boxes. You cannot handle them as you may 
deciduous trees. Use small trees and protect them. 
Small trees are cheap — usually cheaper than you can 
grow them for yourself, unless you have had some 
successful experience in doing it. 



Carrots and Other Stock Feeds. 

To the Editor: I wish to enquire how much car- 
rot seed should be sown per acre; also, which is best 
for stock feed, the white or yellow variety? How 
does Australian rye grass compare with alfalfa as a 
stock food? Will it stand cold weather better than 
alfalfa? I can irrigate until July, then the water 
dries up. — Reader, Monterey county. 

About three pounds of seed to the acre. The 
large white carrots are superseding the yellow for 
stock feeding, as the best of them are heavier pro- 
ducers and their habit of growth makes harvesting 
and handling easier. Rye grass is less nutritious 
than alfalfa. Its chief value lies in winter growth, 
when alfalfa is dormant, and in its success upon both 
dry and wet land, where alfalfa does not do well. It 
will grow at lower temperature than alfalfa, and it 
makes very large growth with irrigation. If irri- 
gated until July it will come very near to being ever- 
green. 

Sorghum and Birds. 

To the Editor: I am told by a party that the 
white Egyptian corn cannot be raised in this part of 
the country, owing to large numbers of sparrows 
that take the crop before harvest time. Do you 
know this to be a fact? Is there any other similar 
corn that can be grown without irrigation that would 
be good feed to fatten turkeys? — A Subscriber, 
Oakdale. 

Birds do like white Egyptian or Kaffir corn better 
than red, but it is rather overdoing it to say that 
the birds will take it all. In places where large 
acreages are grown the amount the birds take is not 



large enough to prevent growing it, for the product 
is very large. If you only have a small patch and 
many birds, of course they will take it. Plant more 
corn, or, if that is not feasible, get some seed of the 
red kind, which is just as good for turkeys. We 
know of no other grain which will do so well under 
hot, dry conditions as these sorghums. 



Will the Sugar Prune Take the Apricot? 

To the Editor: Can I bud over Sugar prunes into 
apricot successfully? — Subscriber, San Jose. 
Who has sufficient experience to answer ? 



WEATHER AND CROPS. 



Report of the U. S. Weather Service for Week 
Ending January 30, 1906. 

Alexandeb McAdik, Forecast Official and Section Director. 
Sacramento Valley. 

The weather was warm and favorable for growing 
crops and all farming operations. Light rains fell early 
in the week. Plowing and seeding have been resumed 
except in a few places, where the soil is too wet. Early 
grain is in good condition and makiog fair growth. 
The grain acreage will probably be about average and 
prospects are good for excellent crops. Green feed is 
still scarce and making rather slow growth, owing to 
the long period of cold weather, but warm weather dur- 
ing the last few days has given it a good start. Stock 
are in fair condition and improving. Orchards and 
vineyards are looking well and pruning is in progress. 
Early strawberries will probably be scarce owing to the 
light fall rains. 

Coast and Bay Sections. 

Warm and generally fair weather prevailed during 
the week, with heavy fogs at the close. Light showers 
occurred in some sections. Conditions were favorable 
for growing crops and farm work. Grass and early 
grain are making excellent growth. The acreage in 
grain will be greater than last season's in some sections 
and prospects are good for large crops. Plowing and 
seeding have been resumed. The heavy rains and high 
water durin? the preceding week caused some damage 
to grain fields in Humboldt county. Green feed has 
made a good start and is becoming quite plentiful in 
many places. Stock are rapidly improving. Orchards 
and vineyards are in good condition, and cultivation and 
pruning are progressing. Oranges are ripening in the 
Santa Clara valley. Frosts have caused very little dam- 
age to orchards. 

San Joaqnln Valley. 

Partly cloudy and seasonable weather prevailed during 
the past week, with dense fog on several mornings. The 
ground is in excellent condition for farm work and plow- 
ing and seeding are progressing rapidly. Early sown 
grain is coming up and shows a good stand. Planting 
sugar beets has commenced. Work in orchards and 
vineyards is progressing and in some localities is well ad- 
vanced. A large acreage of new vines is being planted. 
Almond buds have commenced to swell and willow and 
elderberry leaves are coming out in some sections. 
Packing houses are running to their full capacity with 
the raisin crop. Pasturage is much improved and grass 
is making rapid growth. Stock are healthy, but thin. 

Southern California. 

Clear and warm weather prevailed during the week, 
with abnormally high temperature toward the close. 
Conditions were very favorable for all crops and farm 
work. Early grain is making rapid growth and gives 
promise of an excellent crop. Plowing aDd seeding are 
still in progress, but nearly completed in some sections. 
The grain acreage will be larger than usual. Grass 
m3de rapid growth during the week and green feed is 
plentiful. Stock are doing well. Citrus fruits are in 
excellent condition and all orchards and vineyards are 
looking well. Orange shipments continue. 

Eureka Summary.— Weather conditions have been 
very severe on cattle and many have died from lack of 
feed, but the past week was more favorable. Grass and 
grain aro making slow growth and stock are improving. 

Los Angeles Summary. — Warm, growing weather 
following the rain materially improved crops and vege- 
tation of all descriptions. Grain and grass are doing 
well, with indications of a prosperous season. Almonds 
are blooming. Oranges are moving freely in some sec- 
tions and shipments have just been resumed in others. 



Rainfall and Temperature. 



The following data for the week ending 5 a. M. Wednes- 
day, January 31, 1906, are from official sources and are 
furnished by the United States Weather Bureau for the 
Pacific Rural Press : 



CALIFORNIA 
STATIONS. 



Eureka 

Red Uluff 

Sacramento 

San Francisco. . . 

San Jose 

Fresno 

Independence 

San Luis Obispo 

Los Angeles 

San Diego 

Yuma. . . ..... 



Total Rainfall for the 
Week 


Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall to Date 


Total Seasonal Rain- 
fall Last Year to 
Same Date 


Average Seasonal 
Rainfall to Date. . . 


Maximum Tempera- 
ture for the week. . 


Minimum Tempera- 
ture for the week. . 


T 


17 72 


22 18 


24.90 


64 


42 


.00 


111 43 


22.07 


15.27 


72 


42 


T 


8.42 


12 13 


10.85 


64 


42 


T 


6.87 


14.28 


13.04 


66 


40 


.00 


6 13 


9.80 




70 


36 


.00 


3.60 


7.12 


4 76 


68 


40 


.00 


3.M 


.99 


2 23 


60 


30 


1)0 


8 36 


8 80 


11.37 


78 


42 


.00 


7.06 


6.16 


7 91 


78 


40 


.00 


5.64 


4.79 


4 86 


72 


42 


.00 


3 47 


1.87 


2 07 


78 


W 



68 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 3, 1906. 



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER. 



Building a Concrete Watering Trough. 

To the Editor: The papers you have published in 
the Pacific Rural Press on concrete troughs are 
first rate for the man who 'knows how,' but might not 
perhaps be quite clear to an amateur. T would like to 
impress your readers that there is absolutely no diffi- 
culty in building' a drinking trough of concrete that 
shall be everlasting, and cost very little more than a 
trough of lumber that is soon a leaky nuisance. A 
handy farm laborer builds mine, and needed no more in- 
struction than is contained in the enclosed paper. — 
John W. Ferris, San Francisco. 

MR. FERRIS' INSTRUCTIONS. 

Level down the ground where the trough is to 
stand, and if it is not firm ram it thoroughly. Drive 
a short stake as a center stake. Take a piece of 
batten 6 ft. 6 in. long, and 3 in. from each end enter 



one of the pieces of 2 by 4 opposite each 2 by 4 stake, 
and nail the batten across at top to hold the 2 by 4's 
10 in. apart; tbe segments serve to hold the upright 
at the bottom. 

Take half-inch boards and tack to the 2 by 4's to 
form the forms for the wall of the trough. A. much 
better looking job can be made by using sheet-iron 
instead of the boards one length, 2 ft. wide and 36 ft. 
long for the inside and 2 ft. wide and 3tf ft. long for 
the outside. 

Nail some boards together to make a box without 
any bottom, measuring, inside, 3 ft. square and 18 in. 
deep; this will hold half a cubic yard. Fill this with 
gravel; lift off the box and spread the gravel out in 
a layer 6 in. thick; over it spread three-quarters of 
a barrel or three sacks of portland cement. Turn 
this not less than twice before adding any water. 
Sprinkle over it 15 gal. of water and turn twice 
more. Then between the sheet-irons fill in the con- 
crete in 6-in. layers, tamping each layer thoroughly, 
till water shows on top of the concrete. 





Pi 

i III 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



Method of Constructing a Concrete Water Trough. 



a spike; drive one of these into the stake that was 
driven into the ground and let the other project an 
inch or so; then, with the spike that is driven into 
the stake as a center, mark out a circle which will 
be 12 ft. in diameter. Take 18 stakes of 2 by 4-in. 
pine, 4 ft. long, pointed at one end; drive these about 
2 ft. apart with one of their 2-in. faces to the circle 
marked on the ground, taking care to have them all 
plumb. Round the bottom and outside of this circle 
of stakes nail a strip of board \ in. by 6 in; this cir- 
cular enclosure, 12 ft. 8 in. in diameter, is to be 
filled with concrete thoroughly tamped, for the bot- 
tom of the trough. 

Take eight lengths of 1 by 6-in. fence board, 4 ft. 
6 in. long, and the batten that was used to strike the 
12 ft. circle, set the spikes 4 ft. 10 in. apart, and 
mark off the lengths of fence board into segments of 
circles. 

Lay these segments down in a circle 14 in. inside 
the inner edge of the stakes that were set in the 
ground; let the segments overlay their ends 6 or 8 
in. and nail them together, then take lengths of 
fence board and set across the circle, nailing their 
ends at the middle of the segments, to hold them 
securely in place. 

Take 18 pieces of 2 by 4-in. pine, 2 ft. 6 in. long, 
and 18 pieces of 1 by 3-in. batten, 18 in. long; set up 



There will be needed altogether 5 cu. yd. of con 
crete; for this any clean creek gravel will serve, at 
the rate of 1 cu. yd. of gravel to each barrel and a 
half of cement, or if the cement is in sacks 1 cu. yd. 
of gravel to six sacks of cement. 

The trough will hold level full a liberal 1,200 gal. I 
have troughs made this way that are five or six years 
old and have never leaked. The round trough is bet 
ter looking than a square trough, and is not so likely 
to be broken by the end of the wagon tongue when a 
team is to be driven up to be watered. The cost of 
the material will be: 

For hauling gravel, say % 5 00 

For 7K barrels cement U 00 

For lumber for forms 5 00 

Total *25 00 

Or if the sheet-iron lining for forms be used add 
$20 extra. 

Nature selection may seem, at first sight, as remote 
as the poles asunder from the ideas of the alchemist, 
yet dissociation and transmutation depend on the in- 
stability and regained stability of the atom, and the 
survival of the stable atom depends on the principle 
of natural selection. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



The Preparation of Emulsions of Crude 
Petroleum. 



By T. M. PRICE, Ph. D, Hureauof Animal Industry of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. 

Kerosene has long been recognized as a most effi- 
cient insecticide, but its irritating action, as well as 
the very considerable cost involved, has prevented 
the use of the pure oil as a local application in the 
various parasitic skin diseases of animals. 

In order to overcome these objections various 
expedients have been resorted to, all of which had 
for their object the dilution or emulsification of the 
kerosene. Probably the best known and most gen- 
erally employed method for accomplishing that result 
is that which is based upon the use of soap as an 
emulsifying agent. The formula which is used almost 
universally for making the kerosene soap emulsion is 
as follows: 

Kerosene, gal 2.0 

Water, gal 1.0 

Hard soap, lb 0.5 

The soap is dissolved in the water with the aid of 
heat, and while this solution is still hot the kerosene 
is added and the whole agitated vigorously. The 
smooth white mixture which is obtained in this way 
is diluted, before use, with sufficient water to make a 
total volume of 20 gal., and is usually applied to the 
skin of animals or to trees or other plants by means 
of a spray pump. The method of application is used 
because the diluted emulsion separates quite rapidly, 
and some mechanical device, such as a self-mixing 
spray pump, is required to keep the oil in suspension. 

It will be readily understood that the emulsion 
would not be well adapted either for use as a dip or 
for application by hand, for in the one case the oil, 
which rapidly rises to the surface, would adhere to 
the animals when they emerged from the dipping 
tank and the irritating effect would be scarcely less 
than that produced by the plain oil, and in the second 
case the same separation of the kerosene would take 
place and necessarily result in an uneven distribution 
of the oil on the bodies of the animals which were 
being treated. 

Crude Beaumont Oil and Its Emulsion.— Within 
recent years it has been found by the Bureau of Ani- 
mal Industry that a certain crude petroleum from 
the Beaumont (Texas) oil fields is quite effective for 
destroying the Texas fever cattle ticks. This crude 
petroleum contains from 40 to 50% of oils boiling 
below 300° C. and from 1 to 1.5% of sulphur. Now, 
while this crude oil is an effective dip when properly 
applied, there are certain objections to its use — the 
cost of the oil when it is necessary to ship long dis- 
tances, and the occasional injury to cattle which 
follows its use. 

In order to overcome these objections and thereby 
permit the uses of oil in case of cattle mange and 
sheep scab, as well as for destroying the Texas fever 
cattle ticks, experiments were undertaken looking to 
the preparation of an emulsion of the Beaumont 
crude oil for the uses just indicated. 

As will be inferred, the reason for preparing an 
emulsion of Beaumont crude oil was to enable the 
Bureau to determine whether or not the diluted oil 
would prove to be as efficacious as the pure oil, for, 
if an emulsion was found to be satisfactory, the injur- 
ious effects which occasionally follow the use of the 
pure oil could probably be done away with, and, in 
addition, the cost attending the use of Beaumont oil 
would be greatly reduced. 

There were two properties which seemed to be 
essential for any emulsion which was to be used as a 
dip, or which was to be applied by hand. First, the 
concentrated form of the emulsion should remain uni- 
form indefinitely, this being necessary because the 
emulsion probably could not always be used immedi- 
ately after its preparation, and under such circum- 
stances, if the oil and water should separate upon 
standing, different portions removed from the stock 
emulsion would vary in composition; second, the oil 
should not separate rapidly from the water after 
dilution of the concentrated emulsion, as is the case 
with the ordinary kerosene emulsion. Without this 
property the diluted emulsion would possess no 
advantage over a layer of oil on water, for the ani- 
mals would take out each time practically the same 
quantity of oil, the irritating effects would be prac- 
tically the same, and in addition it is doubtful whether 
the oil would be evenly distributed over the body of 
the animal. 

A Satisfactory Emulsion of Beaumont Oil. — 
The first trials with kerosene emulsion formula given 
above showed that, although the Beaumont oil could 
be readily emulsified, the oil and water in the con- 
centrated emulsion always separated upon standing. 
When this concentrated emulsion was diluted, the oil 
separated less rapidly than kerosene from a similarly 
prepared emulsion, but yet more rapidly than seemed 
desirable for a dip. With the object of eliminating 
these objectionable features, if possible, a number of 
modifications of the kerosene emulsion formula were 
tried by varying the proportion of first one ingredi- 
ent and then another. After a number of trials of 



February 3, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



69 



different combinations of crude oil, soap and water 
the following formula was decided upon as the one 
best suited to the uses we had in view: 

Crude petroleum, gal 2.0 

Water, gal 0.5 

Hard soap, lb 0.5 

Dissolve the soap in the water with the aid of heat; 
to this solution add the crude petroleum, mix with a 
spray pump or shake vigorously, and dilute with the 
desired amount of water. Soft water should, of 
course, be used. Various forms of hard and soft 
soaps were tried, but soap with an amount of free 
alkali, equivalent to 0.9% of sodium hydroxide, gave 
the best emulsion. All of the ordinary laundry soaps 
that were examined were quite satisfactory, but 
toilet soaps in the main are not suitable. 

An emulsion of crude petroleum made according to 
this modified formula remains fluid and can be easily 
poured; it will stand indefinitely without any ten- 
dency toward a separation of the oil and water and 
can be diluted in any proportion with cold soft water. 
After sufficient dilution to produce a 10% emulsion, 
a number of hours are required for all of the oil to 
rise to the surface, but if the mixture is agitated 
occasionally no separation takes place. After long 
standing the oil separates in the form of a cream-like 
layer which is easily mixed with the water again by 
stirring. It is therefore evident that for producing 
an emulsion which will hold the oil in suspension after 
dilution the modified formula meets the desired 
requirements. 

In preparing this emulsion for use in the field, a 
large spray pump, capable of mixing 25 gal., has 
been used with perfect success. 

In using the formula herewith given it should be 
borne in mind that it is recommended especially for 
the crude petroleum obtained from the Beaumont 
oilfields, the composition of which has already been 
given. As crude petroleums from different sources 
vary greatly in their composition, it is impracticable 
to give a formula that can be used with all crude 
oils. Nevertheless, crude petroleum from other 
sources than the Beaumont oil wells may be emulsi- 
fied by modifying the formula given above. In order 
to determine what modification of this formula is 
necessary for the emulsification of a given oil, the 
following method may be used: 

Dissolve one-half pound of soap in one-half gallon of 
hot water; to one measure of this soap solution add four 
measures of the crude petroleum that is to be tested and 
shake well in a stoppered bottle or fiask for several 
minutes. If the proper proportions of oil, soap, and 
water have been used, a perfectly uniform mixture 
should result when one part of this emulsion is shaken 
with seven parts of^water. If, however, after this dilu- 
tion there is a separation of a layer of pure oil within 
half an hour, the emulsion is imperfect, and a modifica- 
tion of the formula will be required. To accomplish this 
the proportion of oil should be varied until a good result 
is obtained. 

The object of this paper is to indicate the ease 
with which crude oil may be diluted by a process of 
emqlsification, and also to show that the use of such 
emulsions for dipping or for hand application is 
entirely feasible. Their value as insecticides can 
only be determined by means of practical tests. 
Experiments are already under way with various 
parasitic skin diseases of animals, and it is hoped 
that the use of this emulsion may not only lessen the 
cost of applying the oil, but that the dilution with 
water and the presence of the soap in the mixture 
may remove all danger of irritation, which, as has 
been noted, sometimes follows the use of the pure 
crude petroleum. 



CEREAL CROPS. 

Cereal Improvement. — II. 



By Geo. W. Shaw, Assistant Professor of Agricultural Technology, 
University of California, at the State Farmers' Institute In 
Berkeley. 

Cultural Problems. — With wheat, as with most 
other crops, the proper treatment of the soil may be 
considered as half the battle. It goes without saying 
that local conditions of soil and climate have much to 
do with this factor, and from the nature of the case, 
must vary within certain limits each season, yet 
there are certain well-defined principles which it may 
seem proper to discuss. It is pretty generally 
agreed that the practice of bare summer fallow is the 
thing in California wheat sections, but it is painfully 
evident that the real reason for such a practice, viz., 
the accumulation of two seasons' moisture, is not ap- 
preciated by any large majority of wheat growers, or 
if appreciated, the means of accomplishing the ends 
are often very poorly applied. Side by side, on the 
same character of soil, under the same climatic con- 
ditions, we not infrequently find one plowing shallow 
and his neighbor plowing deep for the avowed pur- 
pose of accomplishing the same result; and in not- 
able cases these methods have been followed by the 
same parties with but little difference in yield during 
seasons of favorable moisture conditions, but extreme 
difference in years of drought. While the writer 
does not propose to discuss the wisdom of the bare 
fallow system as such, nor to any extent at this time, 
the methods of conservation of moisture, he does de- 
sire to maintain that it is not at all probable that such 
an evidently wasteful system is demanded in every 



portion of the State, and that the necessity of such a 
universal practice even in regions of usually reason- 
able rainfall is not at all apparent, either in the light 
of sound agricultural reasons or of changed practice. 
Certain it is that no extensive, carefully conducted 
experiments are recorded bearing upon this point 
with reference to the different sections of the State. 
Further, the tendency of certain observant farmers 
in those portions of the State where moisture condi- 
tions are the more certain, to break away from this 
time-honored system to a greater or less extent, is 
manifest evidence of a lack of permanent unanimous 
opinion among the growers themselves. 

The Humus Factor. — There is a definite need of 
systematically conducted experiments to demonstrate 
positively the wisdom of this practice. To continue 
it in regions where it is not absolutely essential for 
the accumulation of moisture is certainly a suicidal 
policy, and one which is losing vast sums to the State 
in wasted opportunity. Especially is this true since 
it has been almost conclusively shown in the Middle 
West that the practice of such bare fallow leads to the 
oxidation of organic matter to such an extent that 
sufficient nitrates are developed to supply four or 
five crops of wheat, and these nitrates are practi- 
cally all lost in the drainage water in the following 
winter. The first drainage water from a well 
fallowed field is always heavily charged with nitrates. 
This actual burning up of the humus of the soil, 
especially in semi-arid regions, is one of the most 
woeful wastes of California agricultural practice. 
This is the more true since in the semi-arid regions 
moisture is flu 1 ull-imjinrtiuit factor in crop proi) action , 

and the bare fallow system steadily and surely re- 
duces the amount of organic matter in the soil and 
thus their moisture-holding power. Soils which are 
rich in humus can produce crops with very much 
less precipitation than those which are deficient. 
Thus any system of farming in dry sections which 
tends to lower the percentage of organic matter in- 
evitably courts disaster. 

Already the wheat soils of the San Joaquin valley 
have had their humus content so seriously impaired 
as to render it extremely doubtful if it is at all possible 
to produce two good successive crops of wheat upon 
the same land, largely on account of their lack 
of moisture-holding power, so that it reduces to find- 
ing a remedy for a condition already induced by con- 
tinued bad practice. This is one of the problems 
being considered in the cereal investigations. Some 
crop must be found to grow in alternation with wheat 
and other cereals to rejuvenate the humus, and thus 
not only enable us to produce a wheat crop with less 
precipitation than at present, but also enable us to 
replenish the depleted nitrogen. Some leguminous 
crop must be found to grow in rotation with wheat. 
To this end a portion of each of our 20-acre wheat 
tracts are devoted to these trials. It should 
also be said that in addition to the plants being 
handled upon these tenth-acre plats, numerous others 
are also being tried out to ascertain their adapta- 
bility to the sections. Through the ability of these 
plants to appropriate and utilize atmospheric nitro- 
gen, we hope to add to, rather than diminish, the 
nitrogen of the soil in the wheat-growing sections by 
turning under the crop thus produced, the import- 
ance of which may be better realized when it is stated 
that it has been shown that one such crop turned 
under adds to the soil nitrogen equivalent to the ap- 
plication of 200 lb. nitrate of soda, the most concen- 
trated nitrogenous fertilizer known. 

Secondly, the turning under of these crops will in- 
crease the organic matter in the soil and thus 
improve its physical condition both for tillage and the 
conservation of moisture. 

I regard this line of work as one of the most prom- 
ising for the permanent welfare of the cereal in- 
dustry. 

Fertilizing. — Another line of experiments very 
closely allied to that just indicated deals with the use 
of the several elements of plant food in such combina- 
tions as to give data upon the probable needs of our 
wheat soils for increasing their yield, and the influ- 
ence of these materials upon the composition of the 
product. To this experiment are devoted 12 plats, 
each separated from the other by an intervening 
plat which is not to be considered as included in the 
experiment, but which will be used for row plantings 
of miscellaneous varieties. The wheat grown on each 
of these fertilizer plats will be of the same variety, 
and each plat will be subjected to exactly the same 
cultural treatment, except only in the matter of the 
kind of plant food added. These plats are expected 
to answer not only the question as to whether there 
will be an absolute increase in yield, but whether this 
increase can be obtained at a profit with the ordinary 
fertilizer materials in the market. Taken in connec- 
tion with the previously described experiment in 
rotation, we hope to secure highly interesting 
results. 

Conserving Moisture. — Further, the methods of 
preparation of the land for the best conservation of 
moisture, which in certain regions, especially those 
in which the bare fallow system has at present its 
only reason for existence, is a fruitful field for dem- 
onstration, in order that the truth may be widely 
disseminated by evidence so strong as to admit of no 
difference of opinion. 

Experiments to settle these important points 



under California conditions are under way in the San 
Joaquin valley where 11 large sized plats are under 
treatment, each being subjected to different methods 
of preparation and subsequent treatment, for the 
specific object of ascertaining which is the most con- 
ducive to moisture retention as measured by the per- 
centage of moisture actually held in the soil and by 
the grain crops produced. 

Good and Bad Seed.— There would seem to be 
little necessity of discussing the importance of good 
seed. Many of the conditions on which success in 
wheat growing depends are beyond the control of 
the farmer, but others, especially the variety, purity 
and quality of the seed sown, are so entirely within 
his control that he alone must be responsible for the 
results dependent upon these factors. Manifestly 
one of the main points in the production of a strong 
seedling is a strong-sown seed. With cereal crops 
this is an ever-recurring question and unfortunately 
is one frequently neglected by the parties most 
interested. That comparatively little attention is 
given in this matter of seed selection is certainly 
indicated by the samples of seed wheat which have 
been collected by the University. There is little 
doubt that much of the present condition of low yield 
is due to the lack of attention to rational selection of 
first-class seed — the best of seed is always the cheap- 
est. If we are to grade up our wheat we must fol- 
low the same practice in cereal culture as is followed 
by the stock breeder in breeding up his stock, using 
only the best types for purposes of reproduction. 

It is certain that one of the greatest factors which has 
tended to reduce the yield of wheat in California is the 
egregious blunder of constantly selecting the smallest 
and shrunken grains for seed. If there is one thing 
which has been conclusively demonstrated by the 
most carefully conducted experiments, it has been 
the superiority of product, both in quantity and qual- 
ity, obtained from the selection of large and vigorous 
grains for seed. Numerous experiments, conducted 
both in this country and in Australia — -not only with 
wheat but also with corn and other grains — have so 
conclusively demonstrated this point as to render it 
beyond question. 

No well-informed breeder today would deliberately 
follow this practice of selecting as his parent stock 
the poorest animals to be found. The merest tyro 
knows something of the value of quality in both dam 
and sire in the production of racing stock. Yet, 
notwithstanding our plants are subject to essentially 
the same laws of reproduction and development, we 
find growers continually selecting the poorest of 
parental seed, thus gaining a constantly degenerat- 
ing product both as to quantity and quality. The 
sole idea seems to be to get the largest possible 
number of plants upon an acre of ground, irrespec- 
tive of the fact that quality of grain as well as quan- 
tity makes for profit. 

This matter of the selection of high quality of seed 
is so important that I am constrained to believe it 
has had more than any other one thing to do with 
the decreasing wheat production, excepting only the 
encroachment of other crops. The wonderful in- 
crease in the yields of corn in Illinois and Iowa has 
been largely due to the campaign on the part of the 
station with reference to the selection of high-grade 
seed, and I am inclined to believe that a similar 
campaign with reference to the selection of seed 
wheat in California would yield similar results with 
reference to this crop, and would do more than any 
other one thing toward improving the yield per 
annum. 

To demonstrate the importance of good seed, a 
line of experiments is being conducted with the large, 
medium and small size grains of the common kinds of 
wheat and also with pinched seed as compared with 
plump. In these experiments different plats of 
known size are seeded with the several sizes of seed 
indicated, but otherwise all the conditions of the ex- 
periment are made the same. Accurate records of 
these, as well as of all other lines of work, are being 
kept by field men constantly on the plats, and all the 
important facts connected with the work, in order 
that the results may be properly set forth in a de- 
tailed report. 

The advantages of seed selection from the field are 
also receiving attention at these stations, not only 
for the purpose of improving the yield of grain, but 
also for improving its quality. 

Best Wheats for California. — The question is 
often asked, what is the best wheat for California, 
but of this it must be said that there is no such 
thing as a best wheat for California, and never can 
be, on account of the vast difference of conditions 
which obtain in the various sections in thewh;at 
growing area. It is for the purpose of attempting 
to find, or develop, wheats adapted to the several 
sections of the State that the University of Cali- 
fornia is conducting investigations at several points 
and toward which several private individuals are also 
bending their energies. 

In general, it may be said that there is a special 
need in California for a type of wheat adapted to our 
soils and climate which carries a much higher gluten 
content than any now produced, in order that we 
may supply from our home product all the demand 
for milling wheat, and thus not be under the stress 
of importing large quantities for blending purposes. 

There are but three possible methods by which we. 



70 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 3, 1906. 




Anybody Can Make Claims— but YOU Want 
the Cream Separator That "Makes Good." 



That may be a little "slangy," 
but you know what I moan — you want 
the separator that will do what its 
manufacturers jjromise it will do, and what you expect 
it to do. 

How are you going to decide which separator it is 
that will "make good" for you? 

Big talk and big claims are made for all of them. 
You have to decide the question for yourself and your 
milk-profits depend upon your decision. 

Therefore, I say don't take anybody's claim until 
he proves it. He may be a little over-enthusiastic in 
his praise of his own machine. 

But, look here! Here's something worth thinking 
about : 

Since the first cream separator was invented no 
separator has ever made such rapid strides in sales and 
in popularity as lias the Empire. In five years its 
annual sales have increased 1,600 per cent. 

What do you suppose is the explanation of that? 
Why do so many people buy the Empire? There can 
be only one reason; The Empire gives better satisfac- 
tion in the hands of its users than any other separator 
ever made. 

There's no doubt about it. 

And this is how and why it does it: 




bowl witli a few light cones inside it 



It is Simpler in Construction. 

All unnecessary parts are eliminated. It simply has a 
and the simplest gearing necessary for driving it. 

It Turns More Easily. 

The bowl being smaller and lighter, as a matter of course, it does not take so much 
"elbow-grease" to turn it. Besides, the bowl runs practically without friction, because 
of its patented bearings. 

It is More Easily Washed. 

The bowl containing only a few light cones — being entirely free from discs and other com- 
plicated parts — it is as easily washed as ordinary dinner plates. 

It Requires Fewer Repairs. 

Having no complicated parts it simply can't get out of order, unless it is greatly abused. 

It skims perfectly. 

All milk in it is given five distinct separations. It is impossible for more than a trace of 
butter fat to escape. 

But goodness me! It would take the whole paper to tell you all the points wherein the Empire 
excels. I can't do it here, but if you'll send your name the Company will be glad to send you their 
separator books, full of dairy facts you ought to know. Just send a postal card telling how many cows 
you keep and what you do with the milk. Address 

EMPIRE CREAM SEPARATOR CO., 

BLOOMFIELD, NEW JERSEY 

PACIFIC COAST OFFICE, PORTLAND, OREGON. 



A Dollar Game Free 

For postage. Send eight two-cent stamps and tell 
how many cows you keep and what you do with your 
milk and we will send you the "Game of EMPIRE Suc- 
cess" — the most amusing, attractive and fascinating 
game ever invented. Old and young can play. Bushels 
of fun for all the family. Handsomely lithographed 
in colors; mounted on heavy binders' hoard 12x16 
inches. 



Get the Empire Books. 

Ask tor the one you want — 

1. Full catalog and price list. 

2. "The EMPIRE Dairy Maid." 

3. The Switching of Hiram, (story.) 

4. ' Figger it out for Yourself." 

5. A Gold Mine for Butter Makers, 
•i. Dairy Results — Dollars. 

7. Money and the Way to Make It 



THE DEERE IMPLEMENT CO., Agents, San Francisco, Cal. 



may secure this: (a) The importation 
of a type of wheat now grown elsewhere 
which will maintain its desirable char- 
acteristics under California conditions; 
(b) the breeding by selection of a special 
type under our own conditions; (c) the 
breeding of a desirable type by crossing 
of varieties now growing here or else- 
where; all of which lines of investiga- 
tion are included in the scheme of work 
adopted. 

(to be continued.) 



Hen Lays Two Eggs on Same Day. 
-San Bernardino Sun, Jan. 26: San Ber- 
nardino has a hen that lays two eggs a 
day, at least that was the hen's record 
yesterday, and its owner, Horticultural 
Commissioner S. A. Pease, of Base Line, 
believes that she is capable of repeating- 
the feat. This hen is a white Plymouth 
Rock. Mr. Peaso has his hennery fitted 
out with ' trap nests.' These are nests 
which close when occupied, and the nest- 
ing hen is kept enclosed until liberated by 
human agency. Besides having 1 trap 



DAIRY AND CREAMERY SUPPLIES 



AND 

WITH 

THE 



DE LAVAL SEPARATORS 



we are placeo in an advanced position to furnish the latest and best goods for 
every branch of the Dairy and Creamery business. The newest, the latest and 
the best always in stock. Our complete Catalogue mailed free. 

DE LAVAL DAIRY SUPPLY CO. 

9 and II Drumm St., San Francisco 107 First St., Portland 112 2nd Ave. South, Seattie 



nests,' Mr. J Pease has each of his hens 
numbered, and with the numbers and the 
'trap nests' he finds it an easy matter to 
keep an accurate record of each of his 
feathered charges. Yesterday morning 
this particular hen took to a nest, 
and when liberated had an egg 
of a verage weight and shape to 
to her credit. Mrs. Pease jotted down 



the fact, and later in the day was aston- 
ished to liberate the same hen from the 
same nest, and lo, a second egg, every 
whit as fine as the first, graced the inclos- 
ure. The system of 'trap nests' and a 
metal tag number on the leg of the hen is 
usual in all scientifically managed hen- 
neries, it being the custom to keep accu- 
rate account of the eggs laid by each hen. 



THE DAIRY. 



Cheesemaking in California. 

We recently gave a review of butter- 
making in California prepared by Mr. 
W. H. Saylor, Secretary of the Califor- 
nia Dairy Bureau, and we have below a 
review of the State cheese industry 
from the same authority: 

The butter output of California for 
the year ending on the 30th of last Sep- 
tember was nearly 42,000,000 lb. This 
week we are able to present figures 
from the Bureau showing the produc- 
tion of cheese for the same period: 

Pounds. 

Culaveras 4,800 

Contra Costa 15,450 

Fresno 58.154 

Kern 7,270 

Kings 24,800 

Lake 57,681 

Los Angeles 730,000 

Marin 329.6111 

Mendocino 36,484 

Modoc 6,600 

Monterey 1,131,641 

Napa 38,404 

I'lumas 9,780 

Riverside 22,500 

Sacramento 549,219 

San Benito 404,494 

San .loaquin 72,677 

San LniB Obispo 61,569 

San Mateo 744,486 

Santa Clara 657.504 

Santa Cruz 350,825 

Sonoma 116,284 

Stanislaus 182,562 

Sutter 229,975 

Tehama 83 182 

Tulare 54.750 

Yuba 45,683 

Total 6,020,672 

These figures show that there has 
been a decrease in the production of 
cheese, and, compared with the output 
of cheese in former years as reported by 
the Dairy Bureau, the total above shows 
as follows: 

Year. Pounds. 
1897 6,399,625 

1898 5,148.372 

1899 5.2P4.938 

1900 4,989,960 

1901 5,68'1366 

1902 6,503,441 

1903 7,218,639 

1904 6,133,898 

1905 6,020,672 

It is plain that the tendency in Cali- 
fornia dairying is the production of 
butter, for while it is growing at the 
average rate of about 10% a year, the 
cheese output is less than it was 10 
years ago. In other words, 10 years 
ago the amount of cheese produced was 
about one-third that of butter. At the 
present time it is only one-seventh as 
much. * 

It is somewhat difficult to find an ex- 
planation for this lack of development 
in cheese production. It is certainly 
not due to prices that have been re- 
alized by our cheesemakers during the 
past few years, which averaged far 
better returns on milk than in case of 
butter. During the year 1905 cheese 
producers, who make an average qual- 
ity of cheese, have realized prices rang- 
ing from 10c. to 14Jc, equivalent to 
25(S30c. per lb. of butter, calculated on 
the greater yield of cheese that can be 
made from milk than in case of butter. 

The best explanation for this state of 
affairs with regard to cheese produc- 
tion lies in the fact that the increase in 
butter production has been confined al- 
most altogether to districts where 
alfalfa is the sole reliance in the way of 
feed. Experience seems to prove that 
a fine quality of cheese cannot be, or, at 
least, seldom has been, made from milk 
from alfalfa-fed cows. Numerous in- 
stances could be mentioned where 
cheesemaking has been started in the 
San Joaquin valley; but today the same 
milk is going jnto butter, the price re- 
ceived for the cheese not being suf- 
ficient above that of butter to make its 
production attractive. The skim milk 
that the dairyman secures from but- 
termaking, which he can use profitably 
for feeding calves and pigs, is another 
factor that works against cheese pro- 
duction. 

That the objection to alfalfa cheese, 
however, does not fully explain a 
growth of cheese production corre- 
sponding with that of butter is shown 
by the fact that in some sections the 
cheese business has been well estab- 
lished where alfalfa is grown exclu- 
sively. One of the big cheese-produc- 
ing counties is Los Angeles, where 
alfalfa-fed cows produce all the milk. 
All of the cheese reported in the table 



February 3, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS 



r 



for that county is made in one factory, 
and its product is the exclusive standard 
in the way of cheese on the Los Angeles 
market, where it outsells the best New 
York cheddar. Sacramento and Sut- 
ter counties are examples that show 
that cheese production can be made 
successful on alfalfa feeding, as both 
of these counties have been producing 
cheese for many years. 

Whatever the cause for the lack of 
interest in cheese production in Cali- 
fornia may be, there has been no devel- 
opment in recent years. The counties 
and districts that are producing cheese 
today produced just about the same 
amount or a little more ten years ago. 



Almond Hulls for Cows. 



To the Editor: Please tell the value 
(if any) of almond hulls for feed. Are 
they better dry or damp for milk cows? 
My cows are very fond of them, and as 
long as the cows have plenty of green, 
washy feed to run to the hulls seem to be 
a benefit. Is there any danger of feeding 
too many of them to any kind of stock? 
How will the hulls affect stock fed with 
dry feed, such as grain hay or alfalfa hay? 
—Almond Grower, Sutter county, Cal. 

To the Editor: In answer to Al- 
mond Grower's questions, I may say 
that we have lately examined a sample 
of almond hull meal, with the following 
results: 

Per Cent. 

Water •. 10.55 

Protein 7.46 

Pat : 0.79 

Starch, sugar, etc 60.94 

Crude liber 14.18 

Ash 6.08 

Total : 100.00 

It thus appears, from these figures, 
that the protein content of this meal is 
greater than that of wheat hay, about 
equal to that found in first quality of 
oat hay, but less than one-half that 
reported for alfalfa hay, bran or mid- 
dlings, etc. The percentage of starch, 
etc., approaches very closely that of 
the cereals and other mill products. 
The amount of fiber, however, is much 
larger than that recorded for the feeds 
just mentioned. Practical experience 
has demonstrated the value of almond 
meal as a food for stock, and chemical 
analysis shows why this should be so. 
The best results, however, will be ob- 
tained, <?nd no trouble need be antici- 
pated, when this material is cautiously 
fed as a substitute for part of the grain 
or mill by-products in the ration, with 
hay and oilcake meal. 

M. E. Jaffa. 
University of California, Berkeley. 



Agricultural Review* 



Kings. 

Sugar Beets. — Hanford Sentinel, Jan. 
25: L. S. Chittenden & Co. informs us 
that arrangements have been made to 
plant 300 acres of sugar beets this season 
at Corcoran. It is probable that even a 



Warranted 

to give satisfaction 




GOMBAULT'S 

CAUSTIC BALSAM 

A safe, speedy and 
positive cure for 

Curb, Splint, Sweeny, Capped Hock, 
Strained Tendons, Founder, Wind Puffs, 
and all lameness from Spavin, Ringbone 
and other bony tumors. Cures all skin 
diseases or Parasites, Thrush, Diphtheria. 
Removes all Bunches from Horses or 
Cattle. 

As a HITMAN KEHKDT for Rhea- 
mntlim, Sprulus, Sore Throat, eta., it 
Is Invaluable. 

Every bottle of Canatlc Baliam sold in 
Warranted to (?ive satisfaction . Price SI .AO 
oer bottle. 8old by druggists, or sent by ex- 
press, charges paid, with full directions for Its 
use. Send for descriptive circulars, testimo- 
nials, etc. Address 

THE UWRENCB-WILlUVSCOliPlltT, Cloveland, Ohio. 



tJ TUBU 

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We want you to know Tubular 
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the work— greatly increase the amount and quality of butter— are wholly unlike all 
other separators. Write for catalog R-131 

THE SHARPL.ES SEPARATOR CO., 
Toronto, Can. West Chester, Pa. Chicago, 111. 




These two tubs of 
butter were made from 
the same quantity of milk 
„ from the same cows 



HlVW urac if HnnP? Here's the story in the words of a plain' 

wWaallUUIW* honest, hard-working farmer and his wife- 

Raymond, Nebr., June 6, 1905. 
We had a water separator, and from twelve cows we made 36 lbs. of butter. The next 
week we used a No. 6 U. S. Separator and made 74 lbs. from the same cows in the same 
pasture without any extra feed. We made $10.45 the first week after using the machine. 
We are very much pleased with it, and could not do without it now. 

John Nbylon, 

Mrs. Neylon. 

Are you using any gravity method to skim your milk ? If you are, a 





U. S. Cream Separator 

will do for you what it did for the Neylons. Think what that 
means — a considerable daily saving in the time and work of 
handling your milk — from y 3 to more butter than you 
are now getting, and better butter, too, that brings a 
higher price. You can't afford to put off looking into 
this matter another day — write us now for a free 
catalogue, which explains just what you want to 
know. 

VERMONT FARM MACHINE CO. 

Bellows Falls. Vt. 

Eighteen Centrally Located Distributing Warehouses 
throughout the United States and Canada 



Prompt Delivery Assured 



to California customers from San Francisco warehouse. 
No delays. Address all letters to Bellows Palls, Vt. 



greater acreage will be put in as the sea- 
son advances. 

Hi verslde. 

Poultry Raising Profitable. — 
Perris Progress, Jan. 25: Mrs. E. E. Wat- 
ers of Ethanac is one of the most successful 
chicken raisers in the country, not only 
because she takes a pleasure and interest 
in the work, studying the business and 
watching all the details, but keeping an 
accurate account of eggs, receipts and 
expenses, each day and month of the 
year, so that at the end of the year she 
knows absolutely what has been done. 
There is no guess work about it with 
her — she knows that it pays and pays 
well, as a careful reading of her book ac- 
counts will show. A net profit of $218.27 
in 12 months from 191 hens, and a limited 
expenditure of time and money is an in- 
come that many another woman might 
envy for spending money, while if poul- 
try raising were followed as a business on 
a large scale a handsome income might 
be made from a very few acres of land. 
The following figures taken from Mrs. 
Waters' books prove the story: 
Number 

of Eggs. Receipts. 

January 910 t 20 26 

February 1,814 33 39 

March 2,927 38 48 

April 2,939 41 92 

May 2,752 43 25 

June 1,995 31 25 

July 1,474 26 06 

August 945 18 69 

September 548 12 05 

October 333 8 80 

November 155 4 10 

December 221 5 63 



Total 17,043 

Total doz 1,420 

Hens on hand Jan. 1, 1905 



»284 07 
191 



From sale of eggs *284 07 

From sale of turkeys 18 10 

From sale of chickens 37 55 

Value of fowls used at home 13 50 

Increase in stock 8 95 

98 doz. eggs used at average price of 21 Y,c. 21 07 

Cost of feed 8164 97 

To balance 218 27 



S383 24 



S383 -a 



liy balance. 



$218 27 

This record is not as good as Mrs. 
Waters has had for several years past, 
owing principally to the high price of 
feed. Last year the profit per hen was, 
in round figures, about $1.50, while this 
year the average is $1.14 per hen. Out of 
the 17,043 eggs produced, more than 
13,000 were produced in the first six 
months, when the hens seemed to have 
then gone on a strike. This caused a 
falling off in the number of eggs, which 
brought the average per hen below what 
is usually considered a fair average, but, 
nevertheless, a good profit was made, and 
the possibilities of the business are shown. 



Sacramento. 

Extermination of Pear Blight.— 
Sacramento Union, Jan. 28: The ex- 
termination of pear blight in the orchards 
of California has commenced, with Sacra- 
mento as the center of operations. Co- 
operating with county horticultural com- 
missioners, with the State authorities and 
with officials and workers from the Uni- 
versity Experiment Station, a corps of 
experts from the Department of Agricul- 
ture at Washington will go from one 
locality to another, stamping out the pest 
that has wrought immense damage to 
fruit crops during the past few seasons. 
Prof. W. M. Scott, who arrived from 
Washington several weeks ago, is making 
his headquarters in Sacramento. He is 
assisted by C. L. Shear, W. W. Gilbert, 
Dean Swingle and Pearley Spaulding, who 
arrived on Friday, and by George Cutter, 
Sacramento County Horticultural Com- 
missioner. Some miles south of Sacra- 
mento seven workers from the experi- 
mental station are working in an orchard 
and smaller forces are working in other 
parts of the State. Prof. W. B. Waite 
and an assistant from Washington are 
expected to return in a few days and re- 
sume operations. Prof. Scott and his 
four assistants visited the Menke orchard, 
five miles east of Sacramento. While the 
preliminary campaign is one of education, 
Prof. Scott and his co-workers are liberal 
in their use of the pruning-knife and 
hatchet when illustrating the manner of 
treatment. Where orchards are visited, 
the owner, the superintendent, the farm 
hands and everyone else who has to do 
with the care and cultivation of the trees 
are shown the process and are instructed 
to practice the curative methods until 
proficient. If necessary, a second visit is 
made for purposes of illustration. As ex- 
plained by Prof. Scott, the pear blight is 
eradicated in each tree by lopping off and 
cutting away the affected or diseased 
twigs, limbs and branches. The operator 
must use the same care that is exercised 
by a surgeon in performing an operation. 
The instruments are cleaned and disin- 
fected in an antiseptic solution after being 
used, in order that the bacteria may not 
be communicated to a healthy tree by 
contact. Visible signs of the disease are 
often hard to discern, and it requires an 
expert eye to detect the first faint symp- 
toms. It is in this connection, and in the 
care to guard against contagion, that tho 
orchardists themselves are most carefully 
instructed. Although the blight is one 
of the lowest forms of plant bacteria, 
being closely related to a fungus, it is 
nevertheless most rapid in attack and 
spread and most tenacious in its hold. 
"It should be understood," says Prof. 
Scott, " that this matter has passed tho 



experimental stage and that the force 
now in the field is applying an established 
remedy for the disease. The pear blight 
is being actually cleared away as we pro- 
ceed. The experiments have been made 
during the past 10 years by Prof. Waite, 
whose methods have been successfully ap- 
plied in Maryland, Georgia, Texas and 
Colorado before being brought to Califor- 
nia. The conditions existent here will be 
exhibited to the experts who arrived from 
Washington, and they will scatter to the 
different localities where pears are grown, 
there to take up the work of instruction 
among the orchardists." Attention will 
first be given to the pear-growing districts 
of Shasta, Tehama, Butte, Yuba, Sutter, 
Sacramento, Yolo, Solano and Placer 
counties. Prof. Scott and Commissioner 
Cutter will remain in this county. The 
work will be prosecuted vigorously until 
the pear trees begin to blossom, when it 
will be interrupted for the season. Prof. 
Scott says that there is now pending in 
Congress an emergency bill appropriating 
$10,000 for the present investigation and 
work by the Federal Government. 

Santa Barbara. 

Beets Looking Well.— Santa Bar- 
bara Press, Jan. 25: The beet fields of the 
Guadalupe and Betteravia country are 
looking fine since the recent rains, accord- 
ing to reports brought down by residents 
of that district. The first beets were 
planted early in November, and they 
made very slow growth during the unusu- 
ally cold weather of December. They 
were standing from half an inch to an 
inch high when the rain started, and 
before the storm was over they had 
grown fully an inch. Of a total acreage 
of between 8,000 and 10,000 acres, the 
Union Sugar Co. already has something 
over 2,000 acres planted. 

Sonoma. 

Coyotes Rob Hen Roosts.— Press- 
Democrat: Coyotes are more numerous 
in the Stony Point section than they ever 
were, and the animals have changed their 
diet also. For a number of years they have 
had a fancy for lamb. This season their 
appetite for chickens has sway. Harri- 
son Mecham says coyote hunters with 
hounds will be allowed all the hunting 
they desire, and would undoubtedly have 
a successful hunt down his way. Mr. 
Mecham says that the coyotes seem to bo 
in the section in greater numbers than he 
has ever known them, and that their 
principal onslaughts are on the chicken 
roosts. The coyotes have a peculiar lik- 
ing for the heads of their victims.' It is 
said that they will sit and wait for the 
chickens to spring down from their 
roosts, if they cannot reach them other- 
wise, and will then bite their heads off, 
leaving the rest on the ground. This 
largely depends, however, on the hunger 
of the marauders. It is stated that on 
a former occasion when the appetites of 
coyotes were turned towards poultry that 
an autopsy was held on a coyote killed in 
the neighborhood and in its stomach was 
found the heads of forty-two chickens. 

Hens in Sonoma County. — Santa 
Rosa dispatch to Call, Jan. 28: The 
growing importance of this section as an 
egg-producing center is shown by the 
fact that Walter Butler, who resides near 
Santa Rosa, is hatching 40,000 chicks 
this season. He is running a dozen incu- 
bators of 600 capacity each, and will have 
the largest private yard in this part of 
the county. The reports of the Santa 
Rosa Poultry Association and the So- 
noma County Poultry Association, both 
organizations of this city, show that dur- 
ing the last year they each handled no 
less than $35,000 worth of eggs. The 
local merchants handled large amounts 
also, and it is no boast to say that last 
year there was produced for the market 
fully $100,000 worth of eggs from the 
country centering in this city. 

NEVADA. 

Escaping Gas Killed Trees.— Reno 
special to Sacramento Bee, Jan. 25: P. 
Beveridge Kennedy, Professor of Bot- 
any in the Nevada State University, says 
that escaping artificial gas is killing hun- 
dreds of valuable shade trees throughout 
Reno. For several months, he says, he 
has been investigating the death of ap- 
parently healthy trees, and his conclu- 
sion is that the gas leaking from the 
mains has been taken up by the tree 
through the roots and foliage, causing 
death. Recently a number of valuable 
trees in front of the Nevada hotel died 
suddenly. Professor Kennedy heard of 
the incident and upon making an in- 
vestigation found no insects present that 
would produce death. He did, however, 
find a strong leak in tho gas main and in- 
vestigation showed that the trees had 
been asphyxiated. The lotus, Lombardy 
poplar, Carolina poplar and cork elm 
trees have suffered most from this un- 
usual cause. Hundreds of them have 
withered away. 



72 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 3, 1906. 




U. S. Government Inspected. 
For Quality, Unsurpassed. 

Western Heat Company, 

San Francisco. 



The Home Circle* 



Mother. 



My mother, Heaven bless her 

As she has blessed me. 
May she yet through long years 

My comforter be! 
In fame or obscurity, 

Gladness or woe, 
No friend can be dearer 

Than mother, I know! 

She weeps for my losses, 

She laughs for my gain; 
Her hands take the sharpness 

From all earthly pain. 
When clouds turn the sunlight 

To shadows of gray, 
Her brown eyes are lovelights 

To brighten the way. 

And when in the twilight 

With tender good-night, 
She goes down the valley 

In garments of white, — 
The fairest bright angels 

In Heaven, I know, 
Will crown her who used to 

Be 1 mother ' below. 



Violets. 



Spring's tiny heralds, shy and sweet, 

With half-shut eyes of dusky blue, 
I. loitering here with idle feet, 

Must needs stoop low and gather you; 
For where wet mosses cling and creep, 

And sunbeams never come to stay, 
Awaking from a winter's sleep, 

You give your perfume to the day. 

Rough winds, that fret the silver rills, 

Caress you gently as they pass 
To shake the nodding daffodils 

And laugh amid the growing grass. 
They find the daisy on the lea, 

The primrose in the sunny glade; 
You only grow where few can see 

Your grace and beauty — in the shade. 

And while my heart your fragrance 
hives — 

Such subtle essence, rich and rare— 
I can but learn that lowly lives 

May sometimes be supremely fair. 
Spring's liny heralds, shy and sweet, 

With half-shut eyes of "dusky blue, 
I, loitering here with idle feet, 

Am glad to stoop and gather you. 
— /•' Matkaott, in Chamber's Journal. 

Without the Green. 

Yes, that was the time. I was six- 
teen years old and Reginald twenty- 
three. Until that time . I had been in 
Reginald's opinion only an awkward, 
timid, boarding-schoolgirl; even a little 
simpleton, as he had told one of his 
friends without suspecting that my 
sharp ears would hear that qualification. 

But after the Saint-Cyrien ball where 
my little figure in a cloud of rose-colored 
tulle had a very decided success, I be- 
came without any transition the pearl 
of cousins, and Reginald was very proud 
when I deigned to accept his arm the 
days I went for a promenade or a walk 
to town. 

One afternoon as I was picking a 
bouquet of flowers for a jardiniere in 
the salon he said suddenly, after a long 
silence: 

"Mireille, will you accept a 'discretion' 
with me ? " 

I looked at him in surprise. 
" A discretion ? " 

"Yes. Don't you understand? It 
is charming, I assure you." 

"And you, who do not like trite ex- 
pressions ! " 

He interrupted his compliment at my 
mocking air and replied: 

"It is an old custom, or a game, if 
you prefer, of Italian origin. A gentle- 
man and a lady — " 

"We are not 'a gentleman and a 
lady.' " 

"A man and a woman, then," he cor- 
rected, impatiently. "They divide a 
little branch of box or some other bush 
that retains its green color through time 
and space. That little twig must 
always be carried with them. And each 
one hunts morning, evening, day and 
night — " 

-Oh! All night?" 

"That's a mere form of speech," he 
said, still more impatiently. "To con- 
tinue: Each one hunts his partner, 
trying to catch him without his little 



branch, 'without the green,' as they 

say." 

"And what if one finds the other 
without the green ? " I asked, really 
interested now. 

" If he is found without the green the 
loser must give, you understand, 
Mireille, whatever the winner asks." 

"B-r-r !" 

Without noticing my interruption, 
Reginald continued: 

" I have seen players make incredible 
efforts to surprise their partners with- 
out the green — any trick at all is per- 
missible. You can fall like a bomb on 
the other person a hundred miles from 
the place where the challenge was ac- 
cepted, for these compacts do not rec- 
ognize unity of time nor unity of place. 
There have been some that lasted years, 
and were hunted to the four corners of 
the globe." 

"My dear Reginald, I must confess 
that to grant whatever might be de- 
manded seems to me too great a mys- 
tery to be acceptable." 

"Among people who do not know 
each other, perhaps, but surely not be- 
tween us ! Mireille, please do me the 
honor to know that I will be very dis- 
creet, and will only ask you to give me 
what will cause you no trouble at all. 
It is a simple game. And I hope you 
will not be like a woman who, having 
won her 'discretion,' asked a gentleman 
— guess." 

" A mustache ? " 

"Alas, no; for he could easily have 
found a false one. An elephant! What 
do you think of that ? " 

"Gracious! Did the gentleman give 
her a box on the ear ? " 

"No, for you see I told you one must 
give whatever he is asked. The gentle- 
man left for India." 

"Ah! And brought back the ele- 
phant ? " 

"I think so, though I cannot swear 
to it. The magazine where I read that 
was torn just at the place where the 
man was stepping onto the packet boat. 
Think it over and tell me if you will do 
it. I spoke to your mother first about 
it and she said: 'If Mireille wants to 
do it I see nothing wrong about it. You 
will not ask anything unreasonable ? " 

I hesitated a moment longer while he 
watched me anxiously, then I said reso- 
lutely: 

"Very well, I accept it. It will be 
very amusing. See, here is a little 
piece of box; let us divide this branch. 
Sir, hostilities are now begun 1" 

Reginald raised his hand to his fore- 
head with a salute that the general 
would have admired, and said: 

"At your orders, mademoiselle!" 

For four years we pursued each other 
tirelessly without either of us being 
successful in finding the other without 
the green. How many charming things 
I thought of meanwhile to ask my 
cousin ! The first year it was Madam 
Craven's books, which were forbidden 
fruit, that haunted my brain inces- 
santly. The second year it was a tennis 
set. The third year I dreamed of a 
little white, curly dog which I named 
' Flia ' in advance. The fourth year 
my ambition grew, and I decided on a 
gold brooch with pearl pendants. 

But still nothing at all happened. 
Whenever I met Reginald he always 
pulled out of his pocket — the one near- 
est his heart — the slightly yellowed 
branch exchanged in the garden one 
beautiful September evening. 

About a month ago mother said to me 
after a long preamble: 

"I have a serious matter to talk over 
with you, Mireille. Mr. Laurie has 
asked for your hand in marriage." 

Mr. Laurie is one of Reginald's com- 
rades, in the same regiment, the same 
excellent accounts, the same position of 
fortune and the same highly-respected 
families. The only thing that restrained 
me was that I was indifferent, very 
indifferent; so much so that mother 
noticed it. 

" He does not seem to please you. 
However—" 

" No, no, he does not please me ! " 

" I myself would prefer Reginald, I 
confess, my dear." 

"Oh, Reginald loves me simply as a 
cousin," I interrupted quickly, with a 
hot blush. "I am a pastime for him; 
his smiles and attentions are all for 
Colonel Helos' daughter." 



"I should almost think you were 
jealous." 

"I! Understand, mother, it is no 
question of Reginald, but I don't even 
want to hear Mr. Laurie spoken of." 

" All right," said my mother; "now 
we will change the subject. I have just 
received a letter from De Vire inviting 
us to spend a week at the Rookery. 
Get ready and we will leave tomorrow." 

I am very fond of Mrs. de Vire and 
her two adorable daughters, so I was 
delighted to go with my mother to the 
Rookery, where there were already 
numerous other guests. For two days 
there were excursions of all kinds — 
horseback and donkey riding, boating, 
walking, etc. The third day I was in 
my room writing to my friend Germanie 
when Elsie and Girbe came in with a 
very mysterious air. 

"My dear Mireille, an uncle of little 
father, a great collector of antiquities, 
is coming to the house tomorrow. Our 
little father thinks he will make him a 
present of the sedan chair that belonged 
to our great-great-grandfather. This 
morning Jerome brought the old ma- 
chine from its corner to clean it. As 
everyone has gone to the ruins of Grand- 
ral, this is the time to see and amuse 
ourselves." 

A sedan chair ! I leaped up, as much 
a child as Elsie and Girbe, without 
doubt; and when I came to the big trees 
under which the servant had placed it 
aftet a first summary cleaning, I 
uttered a cry of admiration. There 
were exquisite paintings on the panels; 
chubby little cupids with laughing faces 
throwing roses at each other; a shep- 
herdess in a white dress standing with 
assumed dignity among beribboned 
lambs; a shepherd holding in his hands 
a wonderful violin, and I do not know 
what else. It was padded on the inside 
with blue silk, with lively little bouquets, 
and had pockets here and there, doubt- 
less for fans, handkerchiefs, lorgnettes, 
etc. A gentle odor of amber and 
patchouli emanated from it, a sweet 
odor of a long-past time. 

"Oh, if you only would, Mireille, if you 
only would ! " Elsie begged. "Up in 
the armory there are some old dresses 
and old lace. Mireille, would you do 
it?" 

Would I do it ! A quarter of an hour 
later I was back again, and in such a 
beautiful costume. A dress with pan- 
niers, pointed corsage trimmed with 
Mechlin lace, silk mitts covering my 
bare arms, velvet about my neck, 
powdered hair crowned with a rose- 
colored plume dancing on the breeze. 

"Mireille, you are lovely I" exclaimed 
Elsie and Girbe, who were surely at 
that time little cousins of the devil him- 
self. 

Thus adorned I climbed up into the 
sedan chair, putting on great airs. 
While Elsie was putting her camera in 
position, suddenly through the portiere 
at the right a voice said gayly: 

"Good day, marquise ! " 

It was — it was Reginald ! Reginald, 
whom I thought two hundred miles 
away ! Reginald in kingly blue robes, 
lace jabot, powdered wig — Reginald, 
bowing low before me, holding in one 
hand a three-cornered hat with a wav- 



ing white plume; in the other (oh, de- 
spair !) the little branch of box ! 

And mine was away upstairs in my 
room, left there when I changed my 
costume. 

I hid my distressed face in my hands. 

"Reginald," I stammered, "be con- 
siderate ! I have scarcely anything in 
my purse ! " 

He smiled. Heavens, what a smile ! 

"I will be very considerate, and will 
not touch your purse. Marquise, I ask 
your hand." 

My hand ! 

I began to weep uncontrollably. Is 
it not strange that happiness and grief 
both manifest themselves by tears ? 

Reginald himself, much saddened now, 
murmured: 

"I did not believe, Mireille, that you 
would receive my request that way. I 
had been hoping — " 

Then I looked at him with tears in my 
eyes and a smile on my lips. 

"Ascend, marquis ! " 

And as my mother appeared at the 
opening of the path I cried gayly to her: 

" Mother, the Marquis and the Mar- 
quise Reginald are beginning their 
wedding visits ! " — From tin Fma-h. 



Hints to Housekeepers. 



An easy way to keep the silver bright 
is to immerse in sour milk for a time. 
Wash and polish. 

There is nothing more soothing in a 
case of nervous restlessness than a hot 
salt bath just before retiring. 

A dish cloth and mop may be kept 
sweet by washing them in soap suds 
and rinsing thoroughly in cold water. 

To make clothes wash easy, mix one 
tablespoonful of paraffin oil with one 
pint of soft soap, and soap all the white 
clothes; put them to soak over night, 
and you will have very little rubbing to 
do. 

After ironing linen place it near the 
fire or in the sun until perfectly dry, as 
the garments will be much stiffer than 
if left to dry slowly. This hint is 
especially useful with collars, cuffs and 
petticoats. 

Badly tarnished brass may be cleaned 
with ease if it is first rubbed with salt 
and vinegar or oxalic acid. Follow with 
a good washing of soap and water, then 
polish with any good cleaning prepara- 
tion. 

Milk restores the taste which has be- 
come vitiated by constant tasting of 
different foods. After much tasting the 
cook would do well to take a drink of 
milk, and thus restore the accuracy of 
her palate. 

Before sending a foulard or light silk- 
gown to be dry cleaned, it is a good 
plan to let out the hems. Silk is not 
supposed to shrink, but the fact is that 
it sometimes does shrink in a remark- 
able manner. A blue and white foulard 
came home from the cleaner's a good 
two inches shorter than when it went. 
The hem was let down, but the result 
was not as satisfactory as it would have 
been if the precaution had been taken 
beforehand. 



February 3, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



7?, 



Domestic Hints. 



Salmon Scramble. — Melt one-half 
cupful of butter and add to it two- 
thirds of a cup of chipped smoked sal- 
mon; cook for six minutes. Beat five 
eggs into one- third of a cupful of thick 
cream and add to it; then serve on a 
triangular piece of toast, garnished 
with sprigs of parsley. 

Tomato Nut Sauce. — Cook one small 
chopped or ground onion in two table- 
spoonfuls of butter or olive oil, add one 
tablespoonful flour, and stir until 
brown. Stir in gradually one cupful 
water and one-half cupful tomato juice. 
Cook until it thickens, then flavor with 
two teaspoonfuls peanut butter — or 
other nut butter— creamed with water. 

Scalloped Cauliflower. — Select a 
good, fresh cauliflower and remove any 
wilted leaves; soak for a couple of 
hours in salted water; then cook in 
boiling water until it is quite tender, 
but not until it falls apart. In the 
meantime have prepared a rich, white 
sauce, by stirring together a teaspoon- 
ful each of butter and flour in a sauce- 
pan, mix smooth with a little warm 
milk, add pepper, salt and a half cup- 
ful of cream. When the cauliflower is 
done stand it in a scallop dish, cover 
with sauce, and over that sprinkle a 
cupful each of grated cheese and bread- 
crumbs. Bake a rich brown and serve 
very hot. 

Hero Worship and Maps. 



Hero-worship, too, has had a hand in 
the making of maps. We have postof- 
fices bearing the names of every Presi- 
dent down to and including Mr. Roose- 
velt. Only two of his predecessors are 
lacking in the list of counties. Natur- 
ally, the favorite in the naming of towns 
and counties is Washington, and he is 
the only President for whom a State has 
been named. But others than Presi- 
dents enjoy these honors. Successful 
soldiers, sailors, statesmen, editors, 
authors, inventors, the heroes of ancient 
history and mythology, and even popular 
actors and athletes, share a like dis- 
tinction. Our list of postoffices is a 
long one, and contains names from 
almost every language, living and dead, 
and chosen on almost every conceivable 
principle or impulse. Two counties in 
Kansas present a curious association of 
ideas: Greeley county has for its capital 
a town called Tribune, and Ulysses is 
the county seat of Grant. New stations 
were to be named along a Western rail- 
way some years ago, and they were 
named after the members of a profes- 
sional baseball team that happened just 
then to win the championship. — St. 
.\ icholas. 



Dietz Lanterns 

Of course when you buy a lantern you want 
to get the best one possible. Do you know 
that no other lantern in the world gives 
anything like the 

"Clear, White Light of the 

DIETZ?" 

That's the greatest reason, but not the only 
reason why people who know all about lan- 
terns always call for the Dietz. A Dietz 
Cold Blast lantern means asolderless, non- 
leaking oil pot, means the best quality of 
tin, glass and wire, convenient side lever, 
convenience in lighting, extinguishing and 
filling, long burning and absolute safety. 
If you remember these things, you'll never 
let a dealer sell you some ordinary lantern 
he may have cm his shelves, no matter how 
hard he may try. If he won't get you a 
Dietz. write to us. Our little free book 
gives lantern pointers— good thing to read 
before buying. Write for it. 

R. E. DIETZ COMPANY. 

61 LaightSt., NEW YORK CITY. 

Established 1840. 



Redwood and Pine Tanks. 

ROUND AND FLAT HOOPS. 

PUMPS, PIPE and FITTINGS. 

Estimates furnished on Pumping Plants and 
Water Supply Outfits. 

C T. ROSE, 
818 Bryant St. bet. 6th and 7th, San Francisco, Cal. 

Telephone Main 199. 

Blake, Moffltt & Towne $ Dealers in Paper. 

Nos. 55-57-59-61 First St., San Francisco, Cal. 

BLAKE, MOFFITT & TOWNE Los Angeles. 

BLAKE, MoFALL & CO Portland, Or. 



Land for Sale and to Rent 





J 

Glenn County, - - California. 

FOR SALE 

IN SUBDIVISIONS. 



This famous and well-known farm, the home of 
the late Dr. Glenn, "the wheat king," has been sur- 
veyed and subdivided. It is offered for sale in any 
sized government subdivision at Iremarkably low 
prices, and in no case, it is believed, exceeding 
what it is assessed for county and State taxation 
purposes. 

This great ranch runs up and down the west bank 
of the Sacramento river for 15 miles. It is located 
in a region that has never lacked an ample rainfall, 
and no irrigation is required. 

The river is navigable at all seasons of the year, 
and freight and trading boats make regular rip9 

The closest personal inspection of the land by 
proposed purchasers is invited. Parties desiring 
to look at the land should go to Willows, Califor- 
nia, and inquire for P. O. Elbe. 

For further particulars and for maps, showing 
the subdiv'sions and prices per acre, address per 
sonally or by letter, 

F\ C LUSK, 

Agent of N. D. Rideout, Administrator 01 the Estate 
91 H. J. Glenn, at Chico. Butte County, California 



BARGAINS IN LAND. 

Do you want to buy or sell a dairy, poultry, stock, 
grain, or fruit ranch? We can sell you the best 
California offers. We have chicken ranches in the 
vicinity of Petaluma, the center of the poultry in- 
dustry on the Pacific coast; farms of ten acres and 
upwards in the fertile valley of Sonoma, where 
there is always abundant rainfall, good schools, 
free rural delivery. We can sell you land at its 
agricultural value in the beautiful valley of San 
Ramon, Contra Costa county, where electric car 
lines, certain to be built in a short time, will send 
prices soaring upwards. Only 20 miles from San 
Francisco, it will soon become one of her most at- 
tractive suburbs. The climate is unsurpassed. 
We can sell you, or exchange for, fruit or alfalfa 
ranches in central or southern California. We are 
in communication with hundreds of people in the 
East who are planning to come to California to 
live and invest. List your property with us and 
we will do our best to sell it for you. Write -s for 
descriptions and prices. 

LYONS & JOHNSTON, 

REAL ESTATE, 
2169 Shattuck Avenue, Berkeley, California. 



SINALOA LANDS FOR ALMOST 
NOTHING. 

Why pay excessive prices for California 
lands when fertile Sinaloa (Mexico) acres 
are purchasable from $2 to 820 an acre ? 
Everything grows; profitable markets; six 
railroads building; marine activity; ten 
deep rivers. Greatest opportunities for 
small capital since early California days. 
Call or write for information. 

SINALOA LAND CO.. Los Angeles. Cal. 
217-219 Conservative Ins Bldg. 



rnp Oil C GOOD RANCH AT A BARGAIN, 
run OHLt acr e s near Red Bluff, Cal. 
Price $2500. For further particulars address 
I. R. D. GRUBB, Real Estate, 825 Mills Building, 
San Francisco. 



ALFALFA LANDS, Orchards, Vineyards, Stock 
ranches. Agents the famous Gridley Colony. 
Fertile land. Plenty of water. Printed matter free. 
CHAS. F. O'BRIEN & CO. ,30 Montgomery St., S. F. 



n a I I rnnil ■ A FARM BARGAINS. Send for 
I.AI I r I IKIM IA catalog. C. M.WoosterCo., 
Vf-IUM VMMl in 648 Market St., S. F.,Cal. 



WE sell country lands. CHATFIELD& VINZENT, 
228 Montgomery street, San Francisco, Cal. 



w 



ANTED — Good Ranches. Burr - Paddon Co., 
Dept. J, 40 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



on household 
goods shipped 
east or west 
between 
W ashington, 
Oregon, Cali- 
fornia and 
Colorado or 
along the Pacific coast. For rates write Bekins Van 
& Storage Co., 11 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 
244 S. Broadway, Los Angeles; X95 Washington St.. 
Chicago; 1016 Bdwy, Oakland. Send 2c for city maps. 





A Hive of Bees 

starts you in a fascinating and money 
making business. If you want to know 
how to Bet started right—write for our 
book for beginners— and big hand- 
some free catalogue of bee supplies. 
THE A. I. ROOT CO.. MEDINA. OHIO. 



Tools for 
The Farm 

Keen Kutter quality tells in the actual use of the tool. 
Keen Kutter Tools are not retired by an occasional snag 
or " tough proposition." They are made to stand hard 
work and lots of it. They hold their edges, do not 
break easily, and last long after poor tools have gone 
to the scrap heap. The 

mn mm 

brand covers a complete line of tools. In buying any kind of 
tool just see that the name Keen Kutter is on it and you have 
assurance of full satisfaction. Keen Kutter Tools have been 
Standard of America for 36 years, were awarded the Grand 
Prize at the St. Louis Fair, and are the best that brains, 
money, and skill can produce. 

Some of the kinds of Keen Kutter Tools are : Axes, Adzes 1 , 
Hammers, Hatchets, Chisels, Screw Drivers, Auger Bits, Files, 
Planes, Draw Knives, Saws, Tool Cabinets, Scythes, Hay 
Knives, Grass Hooks, Brush Hooks, Corn Knives, Eye Hoes, 
Trowels, Pruning Shears, Tinners' Snips, Scissors, Shears, 
Hair Clippers, Horse Shears, Razors, 
etc., and Knives of all kinds. 

Every Keen Kutter Tool is sold under this 
Mark and Motto: 

" The 'Recollection of Quality Remains 
Long After the Price is Forgotten." 

Trade Mark Registered. 

SIMMONS HARDWARE COMPANY, 
8t. Loots, and New York. 




SEND FOR TOOL BOOKLET. 




POLYTECHNIC BUSINESS COLLEGE 

and SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, 

OAKLAND, CAL. 

The Business University of the West. Finest Building in the West. 

Annual Enrollment 1000 — 30 Teachers. 100 Typing Machines. 
Individual Instruction. Most Modern and Complete Banking Offices 

in U. S. College Auditorium Seating 1000 Students. 
Civil, Electrical, Mining and all Engineering Branches. School Open 
the Year Round, Day and Night. Secures Positions for Graduates. 



PORTABLE BUILDINGS. 

NO. 23. STOCK SIZE-6 ft. i% in. by 9 ft. 4% in. 
One Door. One Window. One Room. 
Folding spring bunks and drop table. Comfortable quarters for two men. 
We will be pleased to send catalogues on application. 

BURNHAM-STANDEFORD CO. 

WASHINGTON AND SECOND STREETS. - OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA. 



RIO VISTA HOTEL, 253 THIRD ST., NEAR HOWARD, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. TEL. MAIN 1261. 
200 rooms, en suite and single. Rates per day, 35c and up; week, $2 and up. Country patronage so- 
licited. Convenient, respectable, up to date. Steam heat, hot and cold water, electric lights, 
return call bells in every room. Inside and outside fire escapes. Electric elevator all night. 
Ladies' parlor. Reading room with all daily papers. Baths free to guests. Take Howard St. car tc 
Third from ferries, or Third St. car from Townsend St. depot to house. MRS. EMMA OLAFSEN, Prop. 




r 



Compound Interest 
has made more 
Fortunes than 
Speculation . . . 

• 

WE PAY 4% PER ANNUM 
COMPOUNDED EVERY SIX 
MONTHS.ON TERM DEPOSIT 



WHY DON'T YOU OPEN AN 
ACCOUNT WITH US? YOU 
CAN DO IT BY U. S. MAIL. 



Our large Assets and Resources are 
Ample Protection for our Depositors. 



For particulars, write 
The MARKET STREET Bank 
Market and 7th Sts. 
San Francisco, California 



DAKC5' AC'CY, S. F.a 



SHORTHAND taught by mail; demand more than 
supply. Miss M. G. Barrett, 302 Montg'y St., S.F. 



Do You Want a Position? 

We place several hundred graduates in good 
positions every year. They get good pay. Pre- 
pare for it by taking a course, and you can get 
one. 

San Francisco Business College, 

738 MISSION ST.. SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. 



ALL ABOUT 



The ■ 
Bee- ^UL 



(ruiue to success. The Weekly 

AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL 

ti'U* how to mako tho most money with lie 
Contributors are practical honey-produci 
who know how. Interesting — instructive. %\ 
per year;3mos. ( 13 copies), 20c. Sample fre 
k American Bee Journal. 3.14 Dearborn St.. Chicago I 



SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL, CIVIL, MECHANICAL, 
ELECTRICAL AND MINING ENGINEERING, 
Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying. 

11:1 Fulton St., 1 blk. went of City flail, San Francisco. 
Open All Year. A. VAN DER NAILLEN. Pres't. 
Assaying of Ores, 825: Bullion and Chlorination 
Assay, 825; Blowpipe Assay, 810. Full course of 
Assaying, 850. Established 1864. Send for Circular. 



FOR Snow's Grafting Wax* 

IN USE ALL OVER THE STATE! 

For sale by all the large grocers, or 

D. A. SNOW, Lincoln Ave., San Jose. Cal. 



74 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 3, 1906. 



The Markets* 



San Francisco Produce Report. 

San Francisco, Jan. 31, 1006 
CHICAGO WHEAT FUTURES. 

Wheat futures In Chicago were as follows for the 
week named, price being for No. 2 Red per bushel: 
May. Julv. 

Wednesday I 8654® 85^ 84%® 83% 

Thursday 85* @ 84',' 84 54® 83 H 

Friday 8b%® 85 845*® 83% 

Saturday 8554® 8454 83%® 8354 

Monday 84%® 84H 83%® 82% 

Tuesday 85*@ 85 84 ® 8354 

CHICAGO CORN FUTURES. 
Prices of futures on No. 2 corn per bushel in Chi- 
cago were as follows for the week: 

May. July. 

Wednesday 45 1 6 ®44 , 8 45>4@455j 

Thursday 45 ®4454 45!„®44* 

Friday 44%@44^ 4*%i&44% 

Saturday 44?6®43 4 4 54(0)44',, 

Monday 445b@4S54 44*®44 

Tuesday 44*®4456 44*@44* 

SAN FRANCISCO WHEAT FUTURES. 

The range of values in San Francisco for No. 1 
White wheat per cental was as follows: 

Dec. 1906. May, 1B06. 

Wednesday II 31 @ II 37?b®1 37 

Thursday 1 WMi W% l 30' 8 

Friday 1 29*@1 2»*i 1 3fi ®1 34* 

Saturday 1 28*<§)J 28 1 345<<ffil 33* 

Monday 1 28*ffll 28> 8 1 34 @ 

Tuesday 1 30 ®1 29* 1 35%® 

Wheat. 

The spot market is dull and prices have 
sagged considerably during the week, al- 
though they have firmed up a little 
during the last day or two. Prices aro, 
however, still far above an export basis. 
Heavy arrivals of Oregon wheat have 
supplied the local demand and still 
further supplies from the North would 
cause a further decline. So far as known, 
however, no other large shipments of 
wheat from that section of California are 
contemplated for the immediate future. 
The market there is a little stronger, arid 
(juotations are up a few cents. The 
majority of traders on the coast do not 
know what to think of the European 
market, and are waiting news from buy- 
ers in England, as to whether they want 
wheat or not. Chartering for Europe 
continues of a dragging character and 
shippers claim to have too much wheat. 
Holders are very firm in their ideas as to 
values. Millers' demands are small, owing 
to the closing down of nearly all of the 
large mills, and the majority have plenty 
of wheat on hand when thoy resume 
work. Crop prospects are very flatter- 
ing. It is early, of course, to predict any- 
thing about the crop for this year, but 
farmers seem to be jubilant. Throughout 
California, Oregon and Washington re- 
ports are that the prospects were seldom 
brighter for the time of year. Prac- 
tically no California wheat is now appear- 
ing here, though one lot from Paso 
Robles was offered at $1.42i. 

California Milling 11 3754@1 42% 

Cal. No. 1 shipping 1 35 ®1 37* 

Northern Club 1 35 «ftl 3754 

Northern Bluestem 1 3754©1 4254 

Northern Red 1 3254©! 35 

PRICES Or FUTURES. 

Wednesday, at the forenoon session of Exchange 
May, 1906, wheat ranged from *1.3I 7 ,©1.3454. 

Floor. 

There is no change to note in the mar- 
ket. Millers are enjoying a holiday that 
they do not relish at this time of the year, 
and are daily awaiting developments. A 
few offers have come to hand during the 
week, but the profits on these were 
deemed too small. The large stocks held 
in Japan aro not being reduced as rapidly 
as the trade would like to see, and so long 
as these stocks are visible no one can 
anticipate a revival of orders from that 
country. Some few orders are going to 
China, but not in any large lots. The 
demand for flour from other sources 
where millers receive orders shows but 
little change so far this season. From 
European points and Africa no orders or 
offers have been received; Central and 
South American ports are not ordering 
freely, and only buy when supplies are 
running low. California importations 
from the North are limited, and only 
Northern mills with an established trade 
are shipping flour to San Francisco and 
northern California points. On the whole 
the market is very dull. Quotations re- 
main without change. 

Patents, California $ @4 85 

Second Patents, California @4 60 

Straights 04 25 

Superfine No. 1 3 50 ©3 75 

Supertine No. 2 3 00 (5)3 40 

Oregon Bakers' 3 90 ©4 25 

Washington Bakers' 4 00 ©4 40 

Eastern Patents 5 50 

Barley 

Notwithstanding the heavy rains and 
the importations of feed corn, the barley 
market is very firm. It weakened a little 
during the rains, but it now shows groat 
strength and a good tendency to hold its 
values for spot and a big, strong tendency 
to rise in May options. This May option 
seems to be concentrated and held in a 



fow hands. It has been steadily bought, 
and continues to be bought even at ad- 
vanced prices, until it looks as though 
the short sellers will be forced into camp 
at very much higher prices. Spot barley 
is in good demand and runs along very 
steadily: good, nice feed brings $1.23:; 
here. 

Hrewing tl 25 ©1 30 

Feed, No. 1 1 22 ®1 2254 

Feed, fair to good 1 1754@l 20 

Chevalier, No. 1 to choice 1 25 ®1 3U 

Chevalier, common to fair 1 20 <S1 25 

December 94*® 

Oats. 

The market is without change, very 
little oats being offered by interior hold- 
ers, who prefer to wait until spring, antici- 
pating higher prices. In the meanwhile, 
oats are coming from the Middle West at 
lower prices, and these command ready 
sale. Cereal millers are in the market 
for No. 1 whites, and are willing to pay 
prices asked if the quality is up to their 
ideas. 

White oats 8150 ©165 

Black oats 1 35 ®1 70 

Red oats 1 45 ®1 60 

Corn 

Corn is steadily coming in from the 
East, receipts having averaged in the 
neighborhood of four or five cars a day. 
This is being shipped to the interior to 
take the place of feed barley. The East- 
ern market is weaker and conditions here 
have followed. The demand for corn for 
feed is expected to diminish from now on, 
owing to the growth of grass since the 
rains. 

Large White, good tocholce 81 1754®! 22* 

Large Yellow I 1754® 1 22* 

Small Yellow 1 50 ®1 55 

Egyptian White 1 88*® I 40 

Egyptian Brown 1 2254ffll 25 

Kaffir 1 20 © 

Kye. 

The rye market is firmer this yoar, and 
prices are slightly higher. All the cheap 
rye in the market has been closed out and 
even at present prices no great supplies 
are to be had. 

Good to choice 11 50 ® 

Buckwheat. 

There has been no change in buck- 
wheat, owing to the fact that the supply 
is practically exhausted. No interest is 
expected to develop before the new crop 
comes in. 

Good to choice 1 50 @1 65 

Beans. 

It is now a question whether or not 
there are sufficient stocks of lima beans in 
the East to supply the trade there. If 
the East is obliged to draw on California 
for further stocks before the new crop 
comes in, a scarcity in this market will 
result. Locally, trade is quiet with the 
stocks on hand very firmly held. The 
impression seems to prevail that prices 
will be higher for limas later on. Otner 
beans are in light supply with everything 
in favor of the sellers. Small whites 
have advanced slightly on the better 
grades and large whites are up from 10c. 
to 15c. on all grades. Red kidneys are 
also a little higher. Blackeyes, on the 
other hand, are a little weaker. 

Small White, good to choice 82 90 @3 25 

Large White 2 25 ®2 60 

Picks 1 75 ©2 00 

Pinks, damaged 1 00 ®1 25 

Bavos, good to choice I 30 @3 60 

Red Kidneys 3 05 @3 M 

Reds 3 00 @3 10 

Limas, good tocholce 4 75 @5 00 

Black-eye Beans 4 40 ®4 50 

Dried Peas. 

The demand for dried peas has been a 
little better this week and prices have 
stiffened to a certain extent. California 
green peas aro held considerably higher, 
and the indications are that the market 
will continue to favor sellers until the new 
crop camos in. Stocks are very light. 

Green Peas, California 82 15 @2 50 

Niles 1 75 ®2 00 

Hops. 

Hop dealers here report a very quiet 
market, there having been some reaction 
in the feeling since last week. Dealers 
claim that brewers are in heavy stock and 
selling is very limited. Considerable 
amounts are known to be still in the 
hands of growers, and the only question 
seems to be as to whether or not this 
carryover is sufficient to pull down the 
market. Inquiry here fails to reveal any 
transactions this week running over 10c, 
though probably some extra quality 
could bring that figure, the price gener- 
ally talked by buyers from <i to 10c. 

Medium to fair 6 ©— 

Good brewing 8 ® 8% 

Prime 9 ®— 

Prime to choice 10 © — 

Wool. 

The wool market continues dull, as is to 
be expected at this season of the year. 
Practically no transactions have occurred 
locally during the week. Receipts are 
nominal and the only interest now mani- 



fested attaches to the East, where the 
volume of business in California wools has 
not been heavy. Late reports from Bos- 
ton state that the chief transactions are 
in worsted goods and that California 
wools are neglected. Prices, however, re- 
main stationary and holders are inclined 
to be lirm in their Ideas. 



Humboldt and Mendocino 15 ®1654 

Northern, free 1454@I6 

Northern, defective 11 ®13 

Middle County, free 10 ®14 

Middle County, defective 11 ®13 

San Joaquin and Southern, free 9 @12 

San Joaquin and Southern, defective 8 @10 

SPH1M.. 

Oregon, valley 23 (8 2i 

Eastern Oregon 15 @I7 

Nevada 15 ia.iv 

Hay and Straw. 

Cars are becoming more plentiful and 
this has helped increase arrivals during 
the past week. The total arrivals show 
3,250 tons, as compared with 2,800 tons for 
the week preceding. The large hay cen- 
ters are unloading their stocks at many 
points throughout the country, and from 
all indications, in spite of the fact that 
stocks in the country the first of last 
November wore much heavier than for 
the year preceding, there will probably 
be but little hay carried over. The mar- 
ket still shows a scarcity of choice hay, 
both for wheat and tame oat. Stock hay 
is scarce and slightly higher, the bulk of 
arrivals being the medium grades of 
wheat, wheat and oat and tame oat. Al- 
falfa is a trifle weaker, owing to heavy 
shipments. 

Wheat, choice 811 00 ® 16 CO 

Wheat, other grades 8 00 ® 13 50 

Wheat and Oat 9 00 ® 12 50 

Tame Oat, fair to choice 8 00 @ 12 00 

Wild Oat 8 00 ® 9 50 

Barley 7 00 ® 9 50 

Clover .' 6 00 @ 900 

Alfalfa 9 00 @ II 50 

Stock hay 7 50 @ 8 50 

Compressed 10 00 @ 13 00 

Straw, ft bale 30 ® 50 

HIllBtufTs. 

The rains have had their natural effect 
on millstuffs and the general situation Is 
easier. At present receipts are fully equal 
to the demand, and the latter is expected 
to decrease as green feed increases. Owing 
to the heavy receipts of Eastern corn, 
rolled barley and cornmeal as well as 
cracked corn have gone down about $1 
per ton. 

Alfalfa Meal, fj ton »21 00 © 22 00 

Bran, V ton 20 50 @ 21 00 

Middlings 27 50 @ 29 00 

Shorts, Oregon 21 00 ® 22 00 

Barley, Rolled, choice 26 00 @ 26 50 

Cornmeal 28 50 @ 29 50 

Cracked Corn 29 00 ® 30 00 

Oilcake Meal 39 00 <a 40 00 

Cocoanut cake or meal 24 50 © 25 50 

Seeds. 

Trading has picked up slightly in seeds 
this week, with the result that prices 
have gone up to a certain extent. No 
alfalfa seed is now to be had less than 
$12.50. Yellow mustard seed has gone up 
sharply, some having been sold as high as 
$4.25. Flaxseed is again quoted at $3.25 
fa 3.50. 

Alfalfa 812 50 ©14 00 

Flax 3 25 ® 3 50 

Mustard, Yellow 3 75 @ 4 25 

Mustard. Trieste 4 50 ® 4 75 

Per lb. 

Canary 654® 7 

Rape 254® 3 

Hemp — @ 5 

Timothy 554® 6 

Honey. 

The honey market is weaker this week, 
owing probably to additional arrivals of 
Hawaii. Quite heavy stocks of comb 
honey are now on hand here and these 
are being swelled daily by arrivals. 
Prices are down about one-half cent 
on extracted honey, and from 1 to 2 cents 
on comb. 

Extracted, Water White 454® 5 

Extracted, White 4 ® 4% 

Extracted, Light Amber : 35<® 4 

Extracted, Amber 3 ® 3% 

Extracted, Dark Amber 254® 3 

Extracted, Hawaiian 254©— 

White Comb, 1-frames 10 @1254 

Amber Comb 9 @10 

Beeswax 

Beeswax continues about as last week, 
though very little business has been 
done. Local buyers have little interest 
in the market, though they admit that 
the situation is firmer than it was a week 
or two ago. 

Good to choice, light ft lb 27 @28 

Dark 25 @28 

Live Stock and Meats. 

The meat market continues very firm, 
with indications pointing to higher 
prices. Hogs have advanced still further, 
with few to be had even at the advanced 
prices. Still higher prices are looked for. 
No hogs are being packed at present, 
owing to the scarcity and high prices. 
First and second quality beef shows an 
advance of one-half cent, with third 
quality at the old price. Spring lamb is 
in demand and has been marked up one 
cent. 

Allowing for the shrinkage of about 5»i%, which 
Is exacted in buying cattle on the hoof, live cattle 



command as muoh or more per pound than dressed 
beef, the shrinkage exacted being the slaughterers' 
profit. 

The following quotations for beef and mutton are 
based on prices realized by slaughterers from 
wholesale dealers: 

Beef, 1st quality, dressed, net V it. 554® 6 

Beef, 2nd quality 5 ® 554 

Beef, 8rd quality 4 ®— 

Mutton— ewes, 8@9c; wethers 954®10 

Hogs, hard grain, 150 to 250 lbs 6 ® 6>i 

Hogs, large, hard, over 250 pounds 5*® 6 

Hogs, small, fat, under 150 lbs ® 6'» 

Veal, large, ft lb 6 ® 1% 

Veal, small, ft lb 8 ®9 

Lamb, spring, ft lb 11 ©12 

Hides, Skins and Tallow. 

The hide market is still in a waiting 
position and no great activity is expected 
for several weeks to come. Prices seem a 
little uncertain and San Francisco dealers 
are not anxious to buy at present quota- 
tions. Tanners are not in the market for 
hides to any great extent. 

Nothing but select hides, clean and trimmed, 
will bring full figures. Culls of all kinds either 
from grubs, cuts, hair slips side brands or mur- 
rain, are not always readily placed at the lower 
figures. 

Sound. Culls. 

Heavy Steers, over 56 lbs 13 ®— 12 @— 

Medium Steers. 48 to 56 lbs 12 @— 11 @— 

Light Steers, under 48 tbs 1154®— 1054®— 

Beavy Cow Hides, over 50 lbs. 1 154©— 1054©— 
Light Cow Hides, under 50 lbs. 1 1 54® - 1054®— 

Stags 7 ® 8 7 @— 

Wet Salted Kip 10540— 10 @— 

Wet Salted Veal 12 @— 11 ®— 

Wet Salted Calf 13 @— 12 @— 

Dry Hides 19 @— 19 @— 

Dry Kip and Veal, 11 to 16 lbs. 16 ®17 15 @— 

Dry Calf, under 4 6>8 20 @21 19 @— 

Pelts, long wool, ft skin 1 50@2 00 

Pelts, medium, ft skin 90®l 25 

Pelts, short wool, ft skin 60® 90 

Pelts, shearling, » skin 20® 50 

Horse Hides, salted, large prime, each. .3 00®— 

Horse Hides, salted, medium 2 75@— 

Horse Hides, salted, small 2 25®— 

Horse Hides, dry, large 1 75® — 

Horse Hides, dry, medium 1 50®— 

Horse Hides, dry, small 1 00@— 

Tallow, good quality 4 ®454 

Tallow, poorer grades 254«>-3* 

Bags and Bagging. 

The spot market is now barren and 
interest centers wholly in futures. Some 
business is being done in Calcutta grain 
bags for June and July delivery, on a G;c. 
basis. Calcutta spot bags are still quoted 
as heretofore, with no transactions re- 
ported. No new grain bags will reach 
this market until some time in May. 
Taking the bag situation as a whole, 
there seems to be' a tendency to push 
prices up. Advices from Calcutta state 
that the market there continues to show 
an increase in firmness. 

Bean Bags I 7 ®— 

Fruit Sacks, cotton. No. I, 8®85l: No. 2. 7S@8 

Fruit Sacks, jute, as to quality 654®'-* 

Grain Bags, Calcutta, 22x36, spot 7y4®7* 

Woolsacks, 4- lb 36 @ 37 

Woolsacks, 3541b 32 ® 34 

Poultry. 

Four cars of live Eastern chickens 
arrived this week, but the market contin- 
ues fairly steady. In some cases prices 
are off slightly from last week, owing to 
the fact that Chinese New Year is over, 
but at the new quotations the market is 
holding firm. Some coops of large fancy 
fat hens have brought as high as $9, but 
this was exceptional. Turkeys are prac- 
tically out of the market, and quotations 
for these are largely nominal. The out- 
look for the coming week is considered 
good from the sellers' point of view. 

Turkeys, choice Young, ft lb 8 — ® — 

Turkeys, live gobblers, ft lb '6 @ 18 

Turkeys, live hens V B) 17 ® 19 

Hens, small, ft dozen 4 20 @ 5 20 

Hens, large 6 00 ® 7 00 

Roosters, Old 4 20 ® 5 20 

Roosters, young (full-grown) 6 00 @ 7 00 

Fryers 5 00 @ 6 00 

Broilers, large 4 00 ® 5 00 

Broilers, small to medium 2 20 ® 3 20 

Ducks, old, ft dozen 5 00 @ 6 00 

Ducks, young, ft dozen 6 00 ®7 00 

Geese, ft pair 2 00 ® 2 20 

Goslings, ft pair 2 00 @ 2 20 

Pigeons, old, ft dozen I 00 ® 1 10 

Pigeons, young 2 00 ® 2 20 

Hotter. 

The abnormal situation in the butter 
market is now passing away, under the 
influence of warmer weather. Owing lo 
the prolonged dry weather, cold storage 
stocks were drawn on largely during the 
closing weeks of 1905, but this state of 
affairs has changed, and very little cold 
storage stock is now being drawn out. 
With the continuation of warm weather 
the market is expected to weaken, though 
at present the prices of last week are 
being maintained with a fair degree of 
firmness. 

Creamery, extras, ft lb 30 (o3154 

Creamery, firsts 28 ®29',4 

Creamery, seconds 24 <S25 

Dairy, select 20 625 

Dairy, firsts 22 ®25 

Dairy, seconds 20 622 

California storage 24 (326 

Mixed Store 19 ®20 

Cheese. 

The cheese market has weakened this 
week, although prices have not dropped 
materially. A good deal of Oregon and 
Nevada cheese is now coming in, and all 
of the California creameries are increasing 
their output. Eastern cheese is not being 
drawn to the same extent as heretofore, 
and cold storage stocks have not been 
drawn on this week. 

California, fancy Oat, new I454®15 



Feb&uary 3, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



76 



California, good to choice 13 @14 

California, fair to good 12 @13 

California, "Young Americas" 14 315 

Eastern, new 16 @17 

EKE*. 

The egg market has been active but 
uncertain this week, prices going up 
stiffly, and then coming down again. At 
the present time, the tendency is down- 
ward, although the level of prices is 
higher than it was a week ago. The 
warmer weather, if it continues, will 
bring in large supplies and a substantial 
drop from present prices may be expected 
next week. For this reason stocks are 
being cleaned up quickly. 

California, select, large, white and fresh. 32>4@33 
California, select, irregular color & size. 31 $32 

California, good to choice store 27 (§.28 

Eastern firsts 21 @22K 

Eastern seconds 17541J19 

Potatoes. 

The potato market is in better shape 
this week, with stocks of even the poorer 
grades being somewhat reduced. A ship- 
ment of 1,000 crates was made to Manila 
this week and in general the demand 
shows a distinctive improvement. Hold- 
ers are firm in their ideas as to prices, 
although considerable quantities of cheap 
potatoes are selling at very low figures. 

River Burbanks, cental 50 @ 75 

Salinas Burbanks 1 25 (S> 1 65 

Oregon Burbanks 1 00 (S) 1 30 

Tomales 90 @ 1 00 

Sweet Potatoes, fancy 1 25 @ 1 50 

Sweet Potatoes, good to choice 75 @ 1 00 

Vegetables. 

The vegetable market is very dull and 
uninteresting with practically nothing in 
the market, except supplies coming from 
cold storage. Green peas have been 
marked down owing to an increase in the 
supply. A little new crop rhubarb came 
in early in the week, and was readily dis- 
posed of at 8 and 10c. There are now 
good supplies of onions coming in and 
some little trading has been done in these 
at appearing quotations. 

Cauliflower, dozen 60 (3) 75 

Beans, String, lb — @ 17 

Cabbage, choice garden, $ 100 B>s. . . 1 00 @ 1 25 

Egg Plant, » lb 10 @ 15 

Garlic, * fb 5 

Onions, Oregon, $ ctl 1 20 © 1 45 

Onions, New Yellow Danvers, $ ctl. 1 25 @ 1 50 

Onions, Australian Brown, ^ ctl... 1 25 © 1 50 

Peas, Green, * B> 10 @ — 

Tomatoes, f> box or crate 1 50 & 1 75 

Artichokes, doz 50 © 1 25 

Carrots, $ sack 65 ® 76 

Hubbard Squash, $ ton — ©20 00 

Note.— Large boxes are what are known to the 
trade as "pay boxes," which have to be returned 
or paid for. They are open top, with hand holes in 
the ends, and weigh when filled from 50@60 lbs 
gross. Small boxes are free boxes, about the same 
as the regular fruit box, weighing when full from 
SO to 30 tt>s. gross. 

Fresh Fruits. 

Transactions in fresh fruits have been 
very light and the market is generally 
featureless. Quotations on apples and 
pears are unchanged. About the only 
thing of note in the situation was the ar- 
rival of a car of Ben Davis apples from 
the Hood river section of Oregon. These 
sold readily, the fanciest going at $2.25. 
A shipment of 5,000 bunches of bananas 
also came in Tuesday. 

Apples, choice to select, W 50-lb bx 1 50 © 2 25 
Apples, good to choice, V 50-lb. box 75 @ 1 00 

Apples, common 50 @ 75 

Pears, Winter Nelis 2 25 © 2 75 

Dried Fruits. 

Dried fruits are very firm, and the 
clean-up anticipated some time ago seems 
in a fair way to be realized. Nearly all 
varieties are getting scarce, and slight 
advances may be expected shortly. Ap- 
ples have already advanced in good to 
choice grades. Not much interest is be- 
ing taken in dried fruits, owing to light 
stocks on hand. The interest in prunes 
has eased off, although the general idea 
is that the present supply will readily 
pass into consumption at about present 
quotations before the new stock comes in. 

EVAPORATED OR BLEACHED. 

Apples, 50- fb boxes, rings, pressed, good to 

choice 8tf 

Apples, extra choice to fancy, 50-lb boxes. 83£@ 9 

Apricots, Royal, good to choice, H lb 8 @ 8X 

Apricots, Royal, fancy 9 @ 9% 

Pigs, 10-fb box, 1-Ib cartons 65 @62K 

Nectarines, White and Stanwick, 9 lb... 8 @ 8tf 

Nectarines, red, ^ lb — © 8 

Peaches, unpeeled, good to choice 8^@ 8£ 

Peaches, unpeeled, fancy to extra fancy. . 9 @ 9H 

Pears, standard, %t ft> — @ s% 

Pears, choice to fancy 10 @12 

Plums, Black, pitted 5H@ 6% 

Plums. Red, pitted 7 © 8 

Plums, Yellow, pitted 6 @ 8 

Prunes, Silver, good to fanoy 6%@ 8fc 

Prunes, in bags, 4 sizes, — @— c; 40-50s, bii@by,c\ 
50-608, 4K@4?ic; 60-70S, 4@4Hc; 70-808, 3H@3Xo; 
80-908, 3@3«c; 90-100s, 2X@3o; small, 2ft@2Xc. 

COMMON SDN-DRIED. 

Apples, sliced 5 @ 6% 

Apples, quartered 4\® 5V4 

Figs, White, In bulk 2K@ 3 

Pigs, Black 2}4@ 3 

Raisins. 

The Mercantile Company, which con- 
trols the bulk of the raisin supply, has 



WOOL SALE. 

The Century Mercantile Company Is conducting 
regular sales at its warehouse. This interests all 
growers. Full particulars by mail. Office, 14 
Sansome St., San Francisco. 



now secured several other considerable 
stocks, heretofore held by outside parties. 
As a result of a better control of the 
situation, prices have been advanced. 
New prices were made early in the week, 
showing an advance of about one-half 
cent on all grades. The insiders claim 
that there are not over 50 cars of outside 
raisins now in first hands in California. 
Some outsiders, however, claim that 
there are in the neighborhood of 250 cars 
of raisins still held by outsiders, and that 
the Mercantile Company may find diffi- 
culty in selling its goods at the new 
prices. 

(Fresno delivery except otherwise specified,) 

London Layers, 2-crown, 20-tb box 1 50 @ 

London Layers, 3-crown, 20- ft box 1 60 @ 

Fancy Clusters, 4-crown, 20-ft box 1 75 @ 

Dehesas, 20-ft box 2 00 ® 

Imperials, 20-ft box 2 50 @ 

2- Crown Standard loose Muscatel 5 <a> — c 

3- Crown Standard 5y@ — c 

4- Crown Standard f>H@ — c 

Seedless Thompsons, 50-lb boxes 4y,@ — c 

Seedless Sultanas 4 <S> — c 

Seedless Muscatels 3^@ — c 

Fancy. 16-oz. Seeded 614® — c 

Choice, 16-oz. Seeded $H@ — c 

Fancy, 12-oz. Seeded 5)4® — c 

Choice, 12-oz. Seeded 5 @ — c 

Fancy Seeded, bulk 6%@ — c 

Choice Seeded, bulk 6 (& — c 

Citrus Fruits. 

The local market continues firm for 
fancy, large-sized navel oranges. Stand- 
ard oranges have been selling lower in 
some cases, and a price of 65c. has been 
reported for some poor grades. Lemons, 
in the good to choice varieties, are re- 
ported a little stronger. During the 
greater part of the week the market has 
been bare of limes, though a shipment of 
Mexicans arrived on Jan. 31st. These 
are being held at previous prices. Grape 
fruit is in better supply, and prices are 
lower. 

Oranges, fancy 2 00 g>3 00 

Oranges, choice 1 25 ©1 80 

Oranges, standard 65 fail 00 

Oranges, Seedlings 65 @1 10 

Lemons, California, fancy. $ box ... 2 00 @2 25 
Lemons, California, good to choice.. 1 00 @1 50 

Lemons, California, standards 60 @ 75 

Grape Fruit, V box. new 1 00 (SI 50 

Grape Fruit, seedless 2 50 @3 00 

Limes, <H box 3 00 @4 00 

Nate. 

Supplies of almonds are getting lower 
and at present only odds and ends are 
available. These are firmly held at the 
present quotations, with the possibility of 
a sharp rise before long. The walnut 
market continues a little easy, though 
dealers notice that the severe shading of 
quotations, which occurred some time 
ago, is now a thing of the past. The sup- 
plies are diminishing and it is believed 
that the market will firm up again very 
shortly. The shipment of walnuts East 
continues very light, and it now looks as 
though the East may be eliminated from 
calculations as far as the present crop is 
concerned. Peanuts remain as heretofore, 
with little prospect of any chaDge. 

Peanuts, fair to prime \y t (3> h<A 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 1 soft shell — @13 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 2 soft shell — @ 9 

Cal. Walnuts, No. 1 hard shell — ®\2% 

Cal. Walnuts. No. 2 hard shell — ® Sy t 

Almonds, TXL, $ ft Hy4@l2K 

Almonds, Ne Plus Ultra, $ ft 11 @12 

Almonds, Nonpareil, $ ft 11 ©13 

Almonds, Languedoc, ft S'A@— 

Almonds, Golden State, %*ft 8 fa- 
Hard Shell, $ft 5 ©— 



1 The Menace of Privilege.' 

This is the title of Henry George 
Jr.'s book on the dangers to the republic 
from the existence of a favored class 
just published by McMillan Company 
of New York. Mr. George strives to 
show briefly ' how privileges granted or 
sanctioned by government underlie the 
social and political, mental and moral 
manifestations that appear so ominous 
in the republic. The monopoly of 
natural opportunities, heavy taxes upon 
production, private ownership of public 
highways, and other lesser privileges 
cause the great inequalities in the dis- 
tribution of wealth which are evident 
all about. For these are not powers to 
produce wealth, but powers to appro- 
priate it.' 



MAIL ORDER HOUSES. 



Do you get the price list of the IMPERIAL CASH 
STORE? If not, Better send for it to-day. The 
best, cheapest and most reliable Mail Order House 
on the Pacific Coast. 531 Washington Street, San 
Francisco, California. 



TURKEYS 

We have been handling Turkeys in this market 
for the past thirty years, and with such a long ex- 
perience can give you the best results. Full 
weight, full prices and prompt returns is our 
motto. Write us for information. 

D. E. ALLISON & CO., Inc. 

117-119 Wishinoton St.. San Francisco. 



7e£efiAme4 



How they Help 
the Farmer 



If the telephone really helps the farmer he 
is the man who ought to know the "how" 
and "why." We have recently published ? 
book full of telephone facts for farmers, 
which every farmer in the country ought to 
read, whether he intends to buy a telephone 
or not. It will be sent FREE to all those 
interested who will take the trouble to 
write for it. This book tells how and why 
the telephone helps the farmer and his fam- 
ily, and why the modern farm equipment 
is not complete without a telephone. The 
telephone is a time-saver — consequently a 
profit-maker. Simply reading this book. 
"How the Telephone Helps the Farmer," 
will certainly convince any farmer that he 
is missing much he ought to enjov if he is 
trying to do without a 
telephone in his home. 
It describes very inter- 
estingly the best tele- 
phone for the country 
home— 

Sirontberg- 
Carlson 
Telephones 

Tells just how each 
part from the case to. 
the mostimportantpart 
is made: illustrates the 
various parts and shows, 
by a very practical and complete descrip- 
tion and explanation the duty and 
requirements of each; tells why we make 
them with such care, and exposes the se- 
crets of the construction of cheap tele- 
phones; shows why they can be sold cheap, 
and why they should never be used on farm 
lines. It shows why Stromberg-Carlson 
telephones will outwear any other farm tele- 
phone made and how we produce an instru- 
ment that practically will never get out cc 
order. Cheap telephones are invariably out 
of service just when you want them most; 
they quickly lose their talking qualities and 
are a constant source of annoyance and ex- 
pense, simply because they are not made 
right. The principle of operation is just the 
same in a cheap telephone as in a good one 
—the difference all lies in the construction, 
the better materials used, and the greater 
care and skill employed in the making. We 
would like to have you read this book. 
Simply drop us a postal card asking for 
72-G, "How the Telephone Helps the Farm- 
er," and we will send it to you by return 
mail. Do it today before it slips your mind. 

STROMBERG-CARLSON TEL. MFC. CO. 
Rochester, M. Y. Chicago, III. 




Cocoanut Oil Cake. 

THE BEST FEED FOR STOCK, 
CHICKENS AND PIQS. 

For sale in lots to suit by 

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S08 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 



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men vvhii i tu first-class profession. 

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Write for particulars. MOLER BARBER COL- 
LEGE. 642 Clay St., San Francisco. 



CUTTER'S 

ANTHRAX and 

BLACKLEG 
VACCINES 

are given the preference by 80% 
of California stockmen because 
they give better results than 
others do. 

Write tor prices, testimonials and our NEW 
booklet on ANTHRAX and BLACKLEG. 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY, 
vm Rialto Bldg. San Francisco, Cal. 



PATENTS 



DEWEY, STRONG & CO. 

(ESTABLISHED 1860.) 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, 
and WASHINGTON, D. C. 



OLDEST AND LARdBST AGENCY ON 
THE PACIFIC COAST. 



WHY TO BE PREFERRED? 



Inventors have the opportunity to ex 
First : plain their inventions personally ant 

directly to the men who write the speci- 
fications and make the drawings, so that all the 
Inventor's ideas will be correctly conveyed, avoid 
ing mistakes and vexatious delays. 

Inventors living at a distance from San 
Second : Francisco may, where they so desire, 

consult directly with our Washington 

office. 

Inventors receive the benefit of ovet 
Third: thirty years' continuous, successful 
experience. 

A description of the patented inven- 
Fourth: tion will appear in the Mining and Scien- 
tific Press. 

We have a complete Patent Library, including 
official records since 1793 and full certified copies 
of all patents issued since 1872. These are for 
free examination by any one who desires. 

We attend to all business connected with pa- 
tents, such as the preparation of Caveats, Trade- 
Marks, Design Patents, Assignments, Licenses 
and Agreements. We make examinations as to 
the patentability of inventions, searches, and glv« 
opinions as to infringements, ( r the scope or va- 
lidity of Patents. Our Branch Offices and arrange 
ments for Foreign Patents, Trade-Marks, etc., art 
very extensive and complete. Inventors' Guid« 
sent free on application. 



330 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 



AND 



918 F St., Washington, D. C. 




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Kit A N K K. WKSTON, M. U., Dept. A, 8 Taylor St., San Francisco, Cal. 




76 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 3, 1906. 



THE VETERINARIAN. 



Lump Jaw and Its Treatment. 

To the Editor: I am troubled this 
year more than ever before with lump 
jaw among my cattle and so are my 
neighbors. I have tried several rem- 
edies and experiments, such as lancing it 
and putting on turpentine. Then I tried 
bluestone. Then I tried cutting it clear 
out, which proved generally to bo fatal. 
Last I have tried searing with a hot iron. 
I don't know the result of that yet. Will 
you give information on the subjects 
Also, I have had quite a number of cattle 
lie down and die for no cause that I could 
see or explain, without it was want of 
vaccination. Can you tell me how vac- 
cinating is done or is it safe for a novice 
to finger with ? Can you also name some 
good up-to-date book on cattle, their 
diseases, kinds, colors, etc.? — An Old 
Subscriber. Simmler, San Luis Obispo 
county, Cal. 

None of the remedies or treatments you 
tried had any chance of reaching the 
disease and they are therefore not only 
useless but exceedingly cruel. We shall 
give below an account of the disease and 
its treatment. Concerning the mysteri- 
ous disease you have noticed, you ought 
to consult a skilled veterinarian who 
would tell you the nature of it after suit- 
able examination. As for vaccination, 
write to the parties advertising vaccines 
in our columns and they will tell you 
what it is for and how to do it. For a 
work on diseases of cattle, write to your 
Congressman and ask him to send you a 
Government publication entitled, 'Dis- 
eases of Cattle and Cattle Feeding.' 

Lumpy Jaw. — The Oklahoma experi- 
ment station had some experience with 
lumpy jaw, as some of the cattle pur- 
chased for experimental feeding showed 
well-marked cases of the disease some 
time after they were purchased. The 
disease is easily recognized and most 
stockmen are thoroughly familiar with it. 
Since the disease has the common name 
of lumpy jaw, from the fact that it most 
frequently attacks the bones of the head 
and especially the jaw, many think it 
does not attack any other portion of the 
body; but tumors are frequently found in 
the tongue, in the tissues under the skin 
and in the internal organs. 

By opening tumors that appear in the 
region of the head and neck, one can be 
reasonably sure whether this disease is 
lumpy jaw or not by the character of the 
pus. In an ordinary abscess or boil the 
pus is generally thin and watery, while 
that from the lumpy jaw is thick, yellow- 
ish and ropy, and, if the bone is diseased, 
there will be small, hard particles of bone 
mixed with the pus. 

The cause of the disease is a vegetable 
parasite or fungus, which is generally 
supposed to be taken into the body with 
the food, and in those cases where the 
bones of the jaw are diseased the fungus 
probably enters the tissues through some 
small wound in the mouth, such chances 
for infection being especially abundant 
during the period when cattle are shed- 
ding or cutting their teeth. 

In some cases the tumor may be dis- 
sected out wher t is located in the 
muscles or loose, 'ssues under the skin. 
The treatment employed by the station 
was the use of potassium iodide. Two 
things were learned in connection with 
the treatment, one being that the drug 
may be given with safety in larger doses 
than are usually prescribed, and the 
other that in many cases where the dis- 
ease is not cured the trouble is that the 
treatment has not been continued long 
enough. This is especially true in severe 
cases where the disease is of long stand- 
ing. From the experience gained in 
treating the few cases referred to above 
the following is advised: Where the an- 
imals weigh over 700 lb., give the potas- 
sium iodide in doses of two drachms each 
twice daily until the dandruff shows 
abundantly in the hair and the eyes be- 
come watery. This will usually take 
from five to seven days. After this con- 
dition, which is called iodism, is estab- 
lished, the treatment must be stopped 
for from five to seven days and then re- 
peated as before with the interval of rest 
until the drug has been given for five 
periods in the severe cases and four 
periods in the milder ones. During the 
last two periods the amount of potassium 
iodide may be reduced to two drachms 
daily. In one case treated the animal 
appeared entirely well at the end of the 
third period when the treatment was 
stopped; but the disease reappeared after 
an interval of a few weeks and the entire 
treatment had to be repeated, when it 
was continued for five periods. The 
ulcers and the tumors will begin to dry 
up and the discharge grows less as the 
treatment progresses, and by the end of 
the third or fourth treatment it has 



usually stopped; but the drug should be 
given for at least another period. When 
the above treatment is fully carried out, 
there will be a very small per cent of the 
cases that are not completely cured. 



SECURITY 

Stock Food 

is sold on the honest plan of satisfaction 
or no cost. This is a straightforward plain 
talk and means just what it says. 

Use Security Stock Food (glutenized) 
for growing animals; for fattening animals; 
for work horses; for milch cows. The 
Food won't cost you a cent if you can't see 
that Security Stock Food has saved feed, 
made quicker growth ; kept your animals in 
better condition, given more milk, and made 
you more money. Write us if not satis- 
fied and we will refund price in full. You 
sre the sole judge. No questions asked. 

Forfive years thisguaranteehasbeen on every 
package sold. It also covers Security Poultry 
Food, Lice Killer, Gall Cure, Colic Cure, Worm 
Powder, Calf Food, Heave Remedy, Healer and 
Rheumatic Liniment. Security preparations are 
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United States, who will recommend them highly 
and "backup" our guarantee. 

SECURITY IS THE ONLY GLITEMZED STOCS FOOD, 

SECURITY STOCK FOOD CO. 

.MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 



Seeds, Plants, Etc. 



Almond Trees 

We have a full assortment of Almond 
Trees of the following sorts: 

NONPAREIL, 
I. X. L., 

NE PLUS ULTRA, 
TEXAS PROLIFIC, 

DRAKE'S SEEDLING. 

WINE GRAPES 

THOMPSON SEEDLESS, 
LENOIR (Resistant) 
RUPESTRIS ST. GEORGE (Re$i>tant) 

Write us for prices. 

Catalogue and Price List always free. 

The Fresno 
Nursery Co., inc. 

FRESNO, CALIFORNIA 

P. O. Box 42. 



On their own roots. 



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6 Carnations, the "Divine 
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8 Prize-Winning Chrys- 
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8 Beautiful Coleus, . . 

4 Grand Orchid Cannas. 

8 Sweet-Scented Tuberusos, 

6 Fuchsias, all different, 
10 Lovely Gladiolus, . . . 
10 Superb Pansy Plants, . 
15 Pkts. FlowerSeeds, all different.25c. 

Any Five Collections for One Dollar, Post-Paid 

Guarantee satisfaction. Once a customer, always une. Catalog Free. 
MISS ELLA V. BAINES, Box 141 Sprlnjtfleld, Ohio 



CITRUS TREES. 

THE PHILIPPI NURSERIES, 

ROCKLIN, CAL. 




FOW SrtLE. 



Mazzard Cherry Seedlings. 

H. EKEEBOKOT. GH, Sunrise Nursery. 
Montavilla, Or. 

CITRUS SEED BED TREES. 

ORANGE, POMELO AND TRIF0LIATA. 
F. H. DISBROW NURSERIES, PASADENA. CAL. 




CALIMYRNA FIG. 

There are a great many sorts of Smyrna Figs. 
We catalogue six kinds, but these do not com- 
prise our entire collection. There Is only one 
variety, however, which Ave years' successful 
production on a commercial scale warrants us 
In recommending it for drying purposes, and 
this particular variety we have designated as 
above, to give It the distinction It deserves. 
When you buy your trees from us, you know 
you are purchasing stock originating from 
pedigreed trees, which have been producing 
the highest grade of fruit for a period of years. 
When you purchase a thousand peach trees, 
you usually designate what you want. You 
certainly would not permit your nurseryman 
to send you a lot of varieties, without labeling 
them, if you could help it. Well, It is the same 
with the Smyrna tig; some are early, others 
late; some are purple, others green. Can you 
afford, for the sake of saving a few cents, to 
take chances on buying trees which carnot be 
relied on? We were the first ones to demon- 
strate the value of this tig. and with our seal 
we guarantee the genuineness of our trees. 
Prices lower than ever before. 



FRUIT TREES. 

Are grown on a deep, alluvial river bottom, 
virgin soil, consequently the root system is as 
perfect as good soil can make them. Our as- 
sortment of apples, pears, peaches, prunes, 
apricots, is more complete than ever. 



ORANGES and LEMONS. 

Our stock is grown in Exeter, the famous 
thermal belt of Tulare county. The soil is a 
rich, deep, black loam, just the kind which de- 
velops the highest grade of fruit, as well as the 
most perfect type of tree. Our assortment con- 
sists of all standard varieties of Oranges, 
Lemons, Pomelos, Citrons, Limes, etc. Carry- 
ing out the lines already established in the 
other branches, we do not confine ourselves to 
one or two standards and no more, for although 
it costs money to keep up a stock of many vari- 
eties, we want to be on top in this as well as in 
everything we specialize in the nursery busi- 
ness. 

GRAPE VINES. 

If you do not know it, you ought to know that 
we are the largest growers of vines on the 
Pacific coast. We are not only growers of 
raisin, wine and table grapes, but we are also 
making a specialty of vines grafted on phyl- 
loxera resistant roots. Our great and enter- 
prising neighbor, Mexico, is having its vine- 
yards devastated by this pest, and we have al- 
ready sold two orders to prominent vlneyard- 
Ists there, who know what our stock is, consist- 
ing of eighty thousand grafted vines. How 
did we get such orders? Because we had 
pleased our customers before, so they had no 
hesitation in patronizing us again. 

ORNAMENTAL STOCK. 

Our stock of Texas Umbrella trees branched 
in all sizes, guaranteed absolutely true to 
name, is better than ever. We are extensive 
growers of Poplars, Mulberries, Maples, and 
ail deciduous ornamental trees suited to our 
conditions. 

In evergreens, we have Acacias, Eucalyptus. 
Palms, Roses, Greenhouse Plants — in fact 
everything you want for your garden. 



OUR NURSERIES. 

Eleven hundred acres in four distinct places. 
Expensive to run a business so widely dis- 
tributed. We know it. Why do we not con- 
centrate all in one place? Because we want to 
be in a position to grow the best of everything, 
and, to do this, must select the soil to suit the 
tree, shrub or vine. No use to grow a tree 
where you know beforehand the conditions are 
not favorable for its perfect development. 
That Is what twenty-one years of experience 
does. It places us In the position to grow the 
very best stock. In making a plea for your 
trade, we do so, not because we have the 
cheapest stock, but on the ground that when 
you favor us with your business, you will get 
the best which money, brains and experience 
combined can grow. 



CATALOGUE. 

We will mail our large, profusely illustrated 
catalogue, English or Spanish, to any address 
on receipt of 5c postage. Price list mailed on 
application. 

PAID UP CAPITAL, $200,000.00. 

Fancher Creek Nurseries 

(Incorporated) 
GEO. C. ROEDING, Preiident and Manager, 

FRESNO, CALIFORNIA. 

Box 18. 



G&0 

Sr0 



*** OUR 
GROWING 
BUSINESS 

Has been in the pro- 
duction of superior or- 
ange and lemon trees 
on a large scale — in- 
deed, we have become 
considered as the larg- 
est growers of citrus 
nursery stock in the 
world. There are or- 
chards planted to our 
trees in Africa, Austra- 
lia, Italy, Spain and Old 
Mexico. Does this not 
imply that they are the 
best ? 

YOUR 

GROWING 

BUSINESS 

If contemplating the 
planting of an orange 
or lemon grove, or the 
replacing of poor and 
unprofitable trees or 
varieties, your busi- 
ness will certainly be a 
growing one if you will 
only plant our trees. 
Our monograph on 
Citrus Culture will, we 
believe, con- 
vince you of 
this fact. May 
we send you a 
copy? 



RMTE/KltE 

PROPRIETOR 

S/tN DIM/IS 

GALI FO RN //t 



Rust - Proof Wheat. 

Seed Wheat For Sale. 

" BOBS," a rust proof, prolific, hardy, and very 
strong flour variety, bred by the Australian Gov- 
ernment Expert; guaranteed pure and true to 
name; 11.26 a Bushel f. o. b. Sydney. 

CHARLES BINNIE, 

Box 1075 O. P. O., Sydney, Australia. 



February 3, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



77 



Seeds, Plants, Etc, 



WALNUT TREES 

At Wholesale or Retail. From El Monte Seed, 
extra well rooted. 

CHERRIES and GENERAL NURSERY 
STOCK. 

JONATHAN APPLE for hill sections. 

RIVERSIDE NURSERY, 

HENRY SHAW. 320 River St., Santa Cruz. 

BLUE GUM, RED GUM and 

MONTEREY CYPRESS 

Transplanted In Boxes 

WRITE FOR PRICES. 

W. A. REINHOLDT, 

MAIN STREET NURSERY, PET ALUM A, CAL- 

BURBANK'S 

Crimson Winter Rhubarb 

ONE OF OUR SPECIALTIES. 

$1.50 per dozen, $7.50 per 100, $50 per 1000. 

WAGNER'S NURSERY, 

Phones: Home 1291; Sunset 1297. Pasadena, Cal. 



80,000 APPLE TREES in 42 Varieties. 

Extra well rooted. Clean. Grafted on whole 
roots and free from all pests. Also an extra fine 
stock of Prunes, Pears, Plums and Walnuts. 

Write for price list. A. F. SCHEIDECKER, 
Prop. Pleasant View Nursery, Sebastopol, Cal. 



PECAN TREES AND NUTS. 

Gold and Silver Medals awarded our Nut and 
Tree Exhibits, St. Louis, 1904. 

High-grade budded and grafted trees of all best 
varieties. 

770 acres in Pecans. 

Write for Catalogue "J," with which is incorpo- 
rated a valuable treatise upon Pecan Culture. 
THE G. M. BACON PECAN CO., Inc., 
DeWitt, Ga. 




y 



T. J. TRUE, 



NURSERIES 

GROW THE 

BEST TREES 

Sebastopol, Cal. 




EES 



From carefully hand-selected seed. 
Postal gets prices. 

A. A. MILLS, Anaheim, California. 



PLANT THE 

Lob Ingir 

SMYRNA FIG. 

This is the world-famed Fig of Commerce. 

You will save money by patronizing us. 

We are selling good stocky trees at $15 00 per 100; 
Capris at the same price. 

: LET US BOOK YOUR ORDER NOW. 

MAYW00D COLONY NURSERY, 

CORNING, CAL. 

W. HERBERT SAMSON, Prop. 

NAPA VALLEY 
NURSERY CO. 

(INCORPORATED. ) 



Write for our Price List of 

Apples, Pears, 
Plums, Prunes, 
Peaches and Cherries* 



J» STOCK STRICTLY FIRST-CLASS. ^* 



NAPA, CALIFORNIA. 



FRUIT TREES and 
ORNAMENTAL PLANTS. 



SEEDS: 



Australian Rye Grass, Alfalfa, 
Vegetable and Flower. 
(Agent for the California Nursery Co ) 
THOS. MEHERIN, Seedsman and Nurseryman, 
552 Battery St. (P. O. Box 2059) San Francisco. Cal. 



Established 1884. 

MARTINEZ NURSERY. 

THOS. S. DUANE, PKOP. 
A complete stock of all leading varieties of 

FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

ORANGES, LEMONS, GRAPEVINES. 
CAL. BLACK WALNUTS. SHADE TREES, ETC. 

Write for Prices. 



S.W. MARSHALL & SON 

NURSERYMEN, 

FRESNO, - CALIFORNIA. 

Address all communications to P. O. Box 161 



DAHLIA BULBS. 

50 General Custer 
50 Denver 
50 Pioneer 
50 Eugene Teele 
50 Henry Patrick 
50 Earl of Radnor 
50 King of Cactus 
50 Gloire de Lyon 
50 Lucile 
50 Miss Dodd 
50 Snow 
50 Red Bird 
50 Orine Emmerson 
60 Little Rex 
60 Grand Duke Alex 
60 Red Dahlia 
Wo have this stock now on hand and can 
011 orders promptly and in good shape. We 
do not expect them to last long, so please 
order early and get the pick of the lot. 



CANNA BULBS. 

200 Marshall 
400 Alsace 
300 Chas. Henderson 
1 00 Buttercups 
300 Brandywine 
300 Vaughn 
300 David Harum 
200 Duke of Marl- 
borough 
100 President Myers 
100 Flamingo 



COCOZELLE BUSH 
SQUASH. 

Matures in ten weeks. 
Continues bearing till frost. 

Yields more tons per acre than any other squash 
or pumpkin. 

Can be planted five feet apart each way. 

Can be planted until August 1st and mature 
crop. 

The best stock squash. 

Trial packet, 10c; 1 lb., 50c; 10 lbs., 14.00, post- 
paid. 

PIONEER NURSERY, 

MONROVIA, CAL. 




For years we have sold the purest grass 
and clover seed to be found in this 
country. Our free catalogue contains 
a choice collection of vegetables and 
flower seed, with clear directions for 
cultivating each variety. 

J. J. H. GREGORY & SON, 
Marblehead, Mass. 



:SEE& 



PACIFIC NURSERIES, 

3041 Baker St., San Francisco, Cal. 
and Milbrae, San Mateo Co. 

I % { \ ■ A Two-year-old 
r\Vy3cL3 field grown. 

Rhododendrons, Camellias, Azaleas, 
Daphne, and other hardy flowering 
Shrubs and Vines. 

Acacias, Pines, Cypress, and a large 
collection of Trees. 

Cypress, Blue and Red Gums, Pines 
transplanted in boxes. 




C. C. MORSE & CO. 

The well known SEED GROWERS, formerly 
at Santa Clara, now located at 

815-817 Sansome St., San Francisco. 

We are now prepared to sell our Seeds in 
. any quantity, wholesale or retail. 

We are Headquarters for ONION Seed and 
all kinds of Vegetable Seed. 

Also SWEET PEAS. and all kinds of Flower 
Seeds. 

Also ALFALFA and all kinds of Farm and 
Field Seeds. 

SEEDS OF THE HIGHEST QUALITY ONLY. 

WRITE FOR HANDSOME NEW ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 

I APPLE — Leading Varieties. 
APRICOT— Blenheim, Hemskirk and Royal. 
ALMOND— I.X.L., Nonpariel, Drake's Seedling. 
■ PRUNE — French, Imperial, Silver and Sugar. 

Burbank's Soft Shell. 

GR/\F»E VINES Wine, Table and Raisin Varieties. 

A COMPLETE ASSORTMENT OF SMALL FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS. 
VEGETABLE, FLOWER AND FARM SEEDS. 
BURR CLOV/ER SEED— The Best Soil-Improving Crop. 

COR foLi p c™ NCE TRUMBULL & BEEBE, 

Seedsmen and Nurserymen. 419-421 SANSOME ST., SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 




WALNUT 



SEED TALK. 



Complete and reliable informa- 
tion and advice on seeds, planting, 
etc., in our beautifully illustrated 
catalogue, 1906. 

Mailed Free. 

HIGHEST GRADE SEEDS ONLY. 

New and rare varieties of Flower 
and Vegetable Seeds, Fruit Trees 
^including Bartlett Fears), Orna- 
mental Plants, Roses, etc. 



COX SEED CO. 

411.413.415 SANSOME STREET, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



SEED PRICES 
<j-VTIN TWO 



That's just what Salzer is doing— <ii 
tributing among planters everywhere' 
countless bushels of hits hardy, North- 
ern Grown Pedigree Seeds at one-half 
their real value. Take advantage of 
this unusual offer by sending t '->i<<u 
for a free copy of the Book of 

Salzer's Bargains 

and getting yonr year's seeds before the sup- 
ply is exhausted, c abbage, Beets, liadiBu, 
Onions, Corn, Beans, TomatoeB, also Salzer's 
famous farm seeds, such as Uats, Speltz, 
Barley, Potatoes, Timothy, Clover, \\ heat, 
etc.,— all of them the cream of last season's 
wonderful growth on our seed farms. 

LUSCIOUS RADISHES 

Everybody loves a tender, juiey radish 1 
And we want every body Co have them I 
Send this notice to-day and receive fr<-e 
Bargain Seed Book and BUfflCienl KaUiSh seed to 
keep you in luscious radishes all summer long ! 

Remit 4c and we add package nf < 'oni tins, the most 
fashionable, serviceable, beautiful annual flower. 
JOHN A. SALZER SEED CO., 
Lock Box 51. La Crosse. W 



Tulare Lake 
or Utah 

ALFALFA SEED. 

Do you want to buy your Seed direct 
from headquarters and save money? 

Write us for Samples and Prices either 
in car lots or less. 

KUTNER-GOLDSTEIN CO., 

HANFORD, CAL. 

Largest Dealers in Alfalfa Seed 
in the State. 



Established 1876. 




GUM TREES 

I IN VARIETY, 

including RUDIS. ROSTRATA. VIMINAUS. 

MONTEREY CYPRESS, 
MONTEREY PINES, 

Transplanted In Boxes. 

Write for prices, stating quantity wanted. 
W. A. T. STRATTON, PET ALUM A, CAL. 



JAMES O'NEILL, Prop. 

Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Grower of Leading Varieties of 

Deciduous Fruit Trees. 

NO IRRIGATION. 

No Borers, Other Pests or Disease. 



SPECIALTY — 

Apricots, Plums and Prunes on Myrobolan Root. 



SEND YOUR LIST FOR PRICES. 



ORANGE TREES 

Three and four year old 

Improved Washington Navel Trees 

for this season's planting. 
REDUCED PRICES FOR LARGE ORDERS 
ADDRISS: Manager, SPRING VALLEY RANCH 
Rocklin, Placer Co., Cal. 



78 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 3, 1906. 



Patrons of Husbandry* 



Officers of California State Grange. 

Master W. V. Griffith, Geyserville 

Overseer S. W. Pilcher, Folsom 

Lecturer J. W. Webb, Modesto 

Steward E. C. Shoemaker, Visalia 

Assistant Steward N. H. Hoot, Stockton 

Chaplain Mrs. C. F. Emery, Oakland 

Treasurer Daniel Flint, Sacramento 

Secretary Miss Emily It. Burnham, Healdsburg 

Gate Keeper S. S. Gladney, Roscville 

Pomona Mrs. Lottie V. Mitchell, Campbell 

Flora Miss Laura S. Hoot, Stockton 

Ceres Mrs. Eliza J. Farrell, Mountain View 

Ladv Assistant Steward 

Miss Carrie D. Hansen, Mills Station 

Organist Mrs. Bessie McKnight, Napa 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Thos. Jacob Visalia 

G. N. Whitaker Santa Iiosa 

Michael Farrell Mountain View 

List of Granges and Officers. 

ALHAMBKA, 230. — M., H. C. Kaap; L., James 
Kelly; Sec., Mrs. L. T. Raap. 1st & 3d Sat. 2 p. m . 
I. O. O. F. Hall, Martinez. 

AMERICAN RIVER, 172.— M.. A. D. McDonell; 
L., Mrs. Laura Hansen; Sec, Miss Carrie Hansen. 
2d & 4th Sat. from Nov. 1 to June 1, 7 p. M , June 1 
to Nov. 1, 2 P. M. 

ANTELOPE, 100.— M., R. A. Pryor; L., Mrs. 
W. A. Malloway; Sec, Miss Sadye Peterson. 2d & 
4th Sat. 11 A. M., school house, Sites. 

BENNETT VALLEY, IB.— M., J. M. Talbot; 
L., P. Hanson; Sec, John Keppel. 1st & 3d Sat. 
2 p. m., Bennett Valley Grange Hall, near Santa 
Rosa. 

BOWMAN, 327.— M.. W. H. Curtis; L., Mrs. Jen- 
nie Burtscher; Sec, Mrs. C. T. Musso; 2d & 4th 
Sat. 8 P. M.. Bowman. 

CAPITAL, 305.— M., W. W. Greer; L., Miss Jessie 
Shaw. Sec, Miss Nellie Burnside. 1st & 3d Frl. 
eve. 8 p. M., Daly's Hall, Oak Park. 

CASTOKIA. 322. — M.. W. B. Mathews; L., Seth 
W. Morrill; Sec, Mrs. Julia Mathews. 2d & 4th 
Sat. eve., French Camp. 

DANVILLE, 85.— M„ W.Stewart; E. L., C. E" 
Howard; Sec, Miss S.lst E. Wood. & 3d Sat. 
2 p. M., Danville. 

EDEN, 106.— M., H. V. Monsen; L.. Mrs. A. H. 
Christensen; Sec, Miss Olga H. Christcnsen. 2d & 
4th Sat. at different homes. 

ELK GROVE, 86.— M., Fred Sehlmeyer; L.. Geo. 
Sehlmeyer; Sec, Miss Florence E. LiembacK. 1st 
& 3d Sat. 2 P. M., I. O. O. F. Hall, Elk Grove. 

EL VERANO, 315.— M . J. F Tate: Sec, Mrs. J. 
D. Magnon. 

ENTERPRISE. 129.— M., George Jones; L., John 
Plummer; Sec, Edna Jones. 1st & : J d Sat. eve, 
Enterprise Orange Hall, Walsh's Station. 

FLORIN, 13(1. -M., L< C Stewart; L., Melvina 
McFie; Sec, Miss Susie Cox. 2d & 1th Sat. 2 P. M., 
L O. O. F. Hall, Florin. 

GEYSERVILLE. 312.— M., Joseph E. Metzgar; 
L., Daniel W. Sylvester; Sec, Miss Edna Metzgar 
2d & 4th Sat., Woodmen's Hall, Geyserville. 

GLEN ELLEN, 2H9.— M., Robt. P. Hill; L., Chas. 
A Kennedy; Sec, Thos. Johnson. 1st & 3d Sat. 2 P. 
M., N. S. G. W. Hall, Glen Ellen. 

GOLD HILL, 326.— M.. R. A. Lafayette; L., L. C. 
Gage- Sec, Chas. L. Miller. 1st & 3d Sat. eve. 8 P. 
M„ Grange Hall, Gold Hill. 

GRASS VALLEY. 256.-M., O. L. Twitchell; L., 
W. H. Bryan; Sec, Mrs. R. S. Twitchell. 1st & 
3d Sat. 7:30 P. M., Fraternal Hall, Grass Valley. 

LINCOLN, 218.— M., Geo. E. Hyde; L., Miss A. 
Corpstien; Sec. Mrs. R. L. Stevens. 2d & 4th Fri. 
8 P. M-, Grange Hall, Cupertino. 

MAGNOLIA, 261. — M., Mrs. Wm. Gautier; L , 
Wm. Higgins; Sec, Miss Gertrude Higgins. 2d 
Sat., 1 P. M., Grange Hall, Magnolia. 

MOUNTAIN VIEW, 332.— M., M. Farrell; L.. 
Mrs. E. J. Farrell; Sec, C. P. Berry. 1st & 3d 
Sat. eve., Forester's Hall, Mountain View. 

NAPA, 307.— M., Mrs. O. E. Borrette; L.. D. J. 
Brown; Sec, Miss Nellie A. Borrette. 1st & 3d 
Sat. 1:30 P. M., Masonic Temple, Napa. 

OAKLAND, 35.— M., D. W. Gilbert; L.. Mrs. C. 
F. Emery; Sec. Mrs. N. G. Babcock. 1st Sat 7:30 
p M., 3d Sat. 2 P. M., I. O. O. F. Hall, Oakland. 

ORCHARD CITY, 333.— M., Dr. E. C. Abbott; I.., 
Mrs. E. W. Walte; Sec, Mrs. O. A. Putnam. 2d & 
4th Tues. eve., Campbell. 

PKNNGROVE, 337,-i^., C. E. Parkinson; Sec, 
F. S. Farquas. 

PETALUMA, 23.— M., A. S. Hall: L. Margaret 
A. Ellis; Sec. Mrs. Ella McPhail. 2d & 4th Sat. 
1-30 p. M . K. of P. Hall, Petaluma. 

POTTER VALLEY, 115. — M. William Eddie; 
L., Miss Rose Sides; Sec, W. V. Kilborune. 1st & 
3d Sat. 2 P. M., Potter Valley. 

PROGRESSIVE 308 M .1. I». Silvia: Sec. 
Emma Brigham. 1st & 3d Sat. 2 P. M-, Redmcn's 
Hall, Healdsburg. 

ROSEVILLE, 161.— M., E. A. Junior; L., S. S. 
Gladney; Sec, Mrs. Jennie Gould. 1st & 3d Sat. 2 
p. m . Roseville. 

ROWENA. 330.— M., Robt. E. Phelps; L , W. C. 
Newton; Sec, Mrs. Susie A. Stiles. Every other 
Sat. eve. 7 P. M., Mt. Hope school house, Zachary . 

SACRAMENTO, 12.— M., C. E. Reese; L., Mrs. L. 
Dudley; Sec, Mrs. Silas Orr. 2U & 4th Sat 1:30 p. 
M.. Forester's Hall, Sacramento. 

SAN JOSE. 10.— M., C. R. Williams; L., Mrs K. 
Marcen; Sec, Mrs. Ella I. Saunders. Every Sat. 
10:30 A. M., I. O. O. F. Hall, San Jose. 

SANTA ROSA, 17.— M., T. J. Pllkington; L.. Mrs. 
M. M. Gregory; Sec. Miss F. L. Gamble. 2d & 4th 
Sat. 1:30 p. u. from Oct. 1 to April 1, 2 p. M. from 
April 1 to Oct. 1. Fraternity Hall. Santa Rosa. 

SEBASTOPOL. 306.— M., Horace Weeks; L., Mrs. 
Bonham; Sec, J. McKenzie. 1st & 3d Sat. 2 p. M., 
.lanson's Hall, Sebastopol. 

SELMA, 291— M., Donald Patton; L.. Mrs. F. M. 
Rhodes; Sec, Mrs. O L. Abbott; 2d & 4th Sat. 2 p. 
m., Vincent Hall, Selma. 

STOCKTON, 70.— M., Wm. L. Overhiscr; L.,Mrs. 
J. E. Leadbetter; Sec, N. H. Root. Every Sat. 
1-30 p. M.. Fraternal Hall, Stockton. 

SUNNYVALE, 331.— M., J. F. Spaulding; L., 
Nettie M. Fuller; Sec, W. C. Beach. 2d& 4th Tues. 
eve., Sunnyvale. „ _ _ , 

TULARE, 198.-M., E. Barber: L., J. Tuohy; 
Sec, Mrs. B. I. Morris. 1st & 3d Sat. 11 a.m., 
Goldman's Hall, Tulare. 

TWO ROCK, 152.— M., G. W. Gaston; L., J. L. 
Schwobeda; Sec, Mrs. T. G. King. 1st & 3d Thurs. 2 
p. M..Two Rock Grange Hall. 

WEST PARK, 335.— M., Rev. J. W. Webb; L., 
Mrs. Minnie E. Sherman; Sec, John S. Dore. 

SACRAMENTO COUNTY POMONA, 2.-M., H. 
C. Muddux; L., J. Holmes; Sec, Mrs. Jennie Still- 
son. 5th Sat. of months having same, Forester's 
Hall, Sacramento. . . , 

SANTA CLARA COUNTY POMONA, 4.-M., 
F. H. Babb; L., Mrs. H. F. Tuck; Sec, Mrs. M. J. 
Worthen. 

SONOMA COUNTY POMONA, l.-M., P. Hansen: 
L., G. N. Sanborn; Sec ; Mrs. A. E. Johnson. 3d 
Wed. in January, April, July and October. 



Tulare Grange Meeting. 



To the Editor: Tulare Grange held 
its regular meeting on Saturday, the 
20th. After the reading and approval 
of the minutes, a communication was 
read from the Worthy Master of the 
State Grange. The Worthy Master 
has lately returned from attending the 
National Grange in New Jersey and 
the State Grange of Illinois. His re- 
port of the condition of our Order in 
those States is very encouraging, as is 
his recommendation to the members of 
the Order in California to make further 
effort to promote membership and sub- 
ordinate Granges. The Grange needs 
every farmer in the State and every 
farmer needs the Grange. No more 
patriotic, beneficent and unselfish order 
exists than is the Order of Pa- 
trons of Husbandry. Its aim, be- 
sides the moral aims of every other 
good order in the land, is to promote 
the education and prosperity of the 
farming classes, and in this way pro- 
mote the State's prosperity. This 
surely is patriotic, and for pure, disin- 
terested patriotism the farming classes 
have no superior. 

The subject of the day was taken up 
— ' What are the advantages of an 
agricultural education to the young 
man who follows farming? ' The subject 
was very generally discussed, from the 
Worthy Master, Sister Swanson, to the 
Gate Keeper. All declared that a 
scientific educational preparation in 
agriculture would have been a great 
advantage to them in the pursuit of 
their business, and that, although the 
continued practice and study, in a prac- 
tical way, of their life work has brought 
to them a skill that scientific education 
might fail to give, the lack of the edu- 
cation has always been and is now a 
great want. It was argued this edu- 
cation should begin in the primary 
school and be continued through every 
department of our public schools. It 
was argued that there is no profession 
in life but requires an educational 
preparation, and the profession of 
farmer is no exception ; that the best 
results in reformatory institutions are 
obtained by inculcating industry and 
education, and it should be the study 
and aim of our teachers and State and 
county officers to promote those indus- 
trial habits before reformation was 
called for and not afterward. 

A resolution was introduced and 
passed asking the State Horticultural 
Commissioner to have a State ordinance 
passed prohibiting the introduction of 
grapevines or cuttings into Tulare 
county. Bro. P. D. Fowler, Horticul- 
tural Commissioner for this part of 
Tulare county, spoke on this subject. 
Tulare county is now free from phyl- 
loxera or Anaheim disease. In many 
counties of the State one or both dis- 
eases are known to exist. State and 
county commissioners hold office to 
suppress or prevent the spread of all 
such diseases and prevention, where it 
can be enforced, is the proper action 
to take. For anyone in any measure 
to spread such diseases, or for any 
county to neglect to prevent or sup- 
press such evils, would be a crime. It 
is hoped the ordinance will be passed. 
Further action was referred to a com 
mittee of three. The Worthy Master 
appointed Bros. Fowler, Tuohy and 
Thos. Jacob the committee. 

The following question was drawn 
from thequestion-box: 'How can Tulare 
Grange assist in the formation of a 
local farmers' fire insurance company?' 
On motion the Worthy Master ap- 
pointed a committee of three to arrange 
for such a company. It was argued 
that every person having property 
which fire can destroy should insure 
against it, so that such a calamity will 
be borne by the community, who will 
not feel it, and the whole loss will not 
fall on one sufferer whom it will too 
often impoverish — but, on the other 
hand, in the absence of a mutual fire 
insurance company, or, better still, a 
State fire insurance, the charges of the 
incorporated insurance companies, who 
have organized themselves into a 
species of trust association, have put 



KENDALLS 5PAVIN CURE 



WORTH 
$900.00 TO THIS MAN 

Newark, N J., ve» 8th St. June 21, 190&7 

DR. B. J KENDALL CO., 
Dear Sire:— Please nend me your hone book. I used your Kendall's Spavin 
on a running colt with tfreat success. He had a very small jack spavin coming on 
but the party I bought him of could not see It. 1 knew this waa a good colt, also If 1 
got him that 1 could keep him on his pi us by using Kendall's Spa Wn Cure. I bought bin, 
from that party lor $100.00 He used to be a trifle dickey on that one leg but Just as soon as 
I began to apply the Spavin Cure he started to go sound forme I started him in a maid* n race , 
three weeks at ter and he just walked home with the puree. 1 started him Are times after that 
and he won ai I rive races easy. I knew well what was keeping the colt going sound butl never 
told anyone until I sold him. I sold him hack to the same Varty again for one thousand dollars 
In a short while after as he kept trying to get him back. 1 then told blm just what he must use 
on the colt if he wanted to win races with him. This party could hardly believe me, but he now 
knows the difference and thinks the world of your Spavin Cure. THOMAS A, CASTLES. 
Owner and trainer of thorougbhred race horses. 



I I 



Cores Curb, Spavin, Ringbone, Splint, 
And All Lameness. 
Priea Si; for 98. Greatest known liniment for 
family use. All druggists sell it. Accept no sub- 
stitute. Our great book. "A Trsallsa on ttw 
Horso," free from druggists or 

Dr. B. J. Kendall Co., 

Enosburg FaUs, Vermont. 



'KENDALL'S 
iPAVIN CURE 



California^Fruits 

NEW EDITION (3rd). LARGELY REWRITTEN. 



By PROP. E. J. WICKSON. 



PHce $2.50, Postpaid Anywhere. 



CALIFORNIA VEGETABLES 

GARD EN AND FIELD. 

By PROF. E. J. WICKSON, Author of ''California Fruits." 



Price, $2.00 Postpaid 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, Publishers. 330 Market St.. San Francisco. Cal. 



up the rates of insurance so exorbi- 
tantly and put in their policies of in- 
surance so many unjust, one-sided 
conditions, the average farmer cannot 
afford to insure with them. There are 
now in California some 10 or 12 farmers' 
mutual fire associations. The rate of 
insurance in those companies is not one- 
third of the charge of the State Insur- 
ance Association, and yet every loss is 
promptly paid. In other States, where 
the risk of loss is greater than it is in 
this State, the loss to farmers' mutual 
(ire insurance associations is much less 
than it is in California. It was agreed 
by all present that insurance against 
loss by hre is a proper business precau- 
tion, and that when a mutual fire in- 
surance association is started they will 
be members of it. The benefit of the 
present mutual fire insurance com- 
panies cannot be gainsaid. Every one 
of them in the State is a proof of suc- 
cess in mutual fire insurance. 

The question to be considered at next 
meeting, February 3, will be the 
National Grange subject for February, 
with an essay by Bro. P. H. Styles— 
'If all farmers were Grangers, what 
would be the result?' Also such ques- 
tions as may be found in the question- 
box. 

More interest is now being taken in 
Grange work and as a result Grange 
membership is increasing. J. T. 



Napa Grange. 



To the Editor: Napa Grange, P. 
of H., was highly honored at the first 
meeting of the year to have the cov- 
eted presence of the Worthy Master of 
the State Grange as installing officer. 
The interesting ceremony was per- 
formed in an exceptionably pleasant 
manner and the entire proceedings 
were declared by all members present 
to be exceedingly noteworthy. 

Napa Grange is in a very flourishing 



( Continued mt next pttgeJ) 




Send for free book and prices. 

R.A. H0LC0MBE&0). 

Dealers, 
124 CALIFORNIA STREET. 
SAN FRANCISCO. CALIFORNIA. 




To Irrigators! 

Don't pay exorbitant prices 
to surveyors. Get a CALI- 
FORNIA LEVELING IN- 
STRUMENT for $7 and do 
your own leveling. Money 
refunded if not satisfactory. 
Send for circulars to 

B. A. GOODWIN, 

RIPON. CAL. 



SMITH, EMERY & CO 
CHEMISTS. 

ANALYSIS— 
Soils, Water, Fertiliz- 
ers, Foods. Minerals, 
Natural Products, etc. 
83-85 New Montgomery St. 
San Francisco 





FOR SALE. 



20,000 strong-rooted Loganberry tips, 2 cts. each 
or 115 00 per M Cuthbert Raspberry and Lawton 
Blackberry 2 cts. each or *5. 00 per M. 

L. E. BARLOW, Sebastorol, Cal. 



February 3, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



79 



Napa Grange. 

(Qontvnued from preceding page.) 

condition, new members adding their 
names to the rapidly growing roster at 
almost every meeting. In the forenoon 
session, on the date above mentioned, 
candidates were initiated and, at the 
noon hour, a very bountiful harvest 
feast was partaken of by a large num- 
ber of the members and invited guests. 

Then, in the main Grange hall, was 
presented a carefully prepared pro- 
gramme, very entertaining, partici- 
pated in by members and others. The 
State Worthy Master's remarks at 
this time were greatly enjoyed. There 
followed a very interesting discussion 
on creameries. There is an open field 
and golden opportunity in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of Napa for the establish- 
ment of an industry of this nature. In 
fact, the dairying business of Napa 
county can be vastly improved upon 
and Napa Grange will lend its earnest 
endeavor to develop the worthy in- 
dustry. 

Much to the surprise of the retiring 
Worthy Master— Sister O. E. Bor- 
rette — the members, striving in some 
suitable manner to show their appre- 
ciation of her long-continued, unselfish 
efforts to further the interests of the 
Grange, presented her, with appro- 
priate remarks, a beautiful rocking 
chair. It was a timely recognition of 
the loyalty to the Grange work — local 
and in the broader field — of the worthy 
retiring officer. 

Since its organization several years 
ago, Napa Grange from small begin- 
nings has steadily grown to a substan- 
tial and influential body which is mak- 
ing its impress for good upon the 
community. The benefit Granges of 
our State confer upon the several local- 
ities in which they are located is inesti- 
mable and a flourishing organization of 
this kind should be found in every farm- 
ing community within our borders. 

Granger. 

Napa, January 25, 1906. 

The 1905 Vintage of France. 

The production of wine in France in 
1905, as recently estimated by the 
French Ministry of Agriculture, 
amounted to the enormous quantity of, 
roundly, 1,500,000,000 gal., and showed 
a decrease from the yield of the 
previous year of over 300,000,000 gal. 
The original estimate in hectoliters 
has been reduced to gallons, and is 
given by regions below, in comparison 
with the corresponding data for 1904: 

THE WINK PRODUCTION OF FRANCE. 



Regions. 


, 1905. 


1904. 




Gallons. 


Gallons. 




5,018,975 


10,140,607 


North 


6 448,508 


10,438,248 




26,905,960 


81,194,467 


West 


181,622,423 


240,215,553 




110,887,126 


130,886,022 




199,491.682 


171,997,027 




235,739,044 


259,869,514 


South 


548,447,99) 


688,711,355 


Southeast 


178,409 528 


219,908,495 




2,594,154 


6,336,262 


Total 


1,495,565,384 


1,819,697,569 



The Texas End of It. 



Recently we noted the achievements 
of agricultural college students at the 
International Livestock Exposition 
held in Chicago, December 16 to 23, 1905, 
where unusual interest was centered in 
competition for the trophies awarded 
to the agricultural college whose stu- 
dents proved themselves to be the best 
judges of stock. We had previously 
the Ohio view of the results. This is 
the Texas version: 

To the Editor: Thirty-five individ- 
uals took part in the contest, five each 
from the States of Iowa, Ohio, Michigan, 
Kansas, Missouri, Texas, and five from 
Ontario, Canada. 

When the results were published it was 
found that the students from Texas had 
drawn first honors in swine judging, out 
of 1,500 points obtaining a score of 1,229, 
while the Canadians were in second place 
with 12 points less. Ontario was first in 
sheep judging, Ohio in cattle and also in 
horses, with Ontario second and Texas 
third. 

The highest total score by any one indi- 
vidual from the seven colleges repre- 



sented was made by Mr. John Ashton, of 
Texas, who obtained 881 out of a possible 
1,100 points, Bracken, an Ontario student, 
being second, with 12 points less than 
Ashton. Two of the 1904 stock judging 
teams are now in lucrative positions. Of 
the 1905 team three members, who will 
graduate in June, will be in demand by 
somiof the other Southern colleges which 
are giving particular attention to live- 
stock matters. F. R. Marshall. 
College Station, Texas. 

DO NOT PLANT WEED SEEDS! 

Now is the time to have seeds tested for 
impurities. 
ALICE t=. CRANE, 

TESTER AND EXAMINER OF SEEDS, 
314 Cherry St., San Francisco, Cal. 

References: Prof. E. W. Hilgard, Prof. E. J. 
Wickson, University of California. 

Send for Circular and Price List. 



BREEDERS' DIRECTORY 



HORSES AND CATTLE. 

GEO. C. ROKDING, Fresno, California. Breeder 
of High grade thoroughbred Holstein Bulls 
and Heiferg. Thoroughbred Berkshire 
Boars and Sows. 



RIVERSIDE HERD HOLSTEIN CATTLE 

One of the largest and best in the world. Send 
for catalogue. Pierce Land & Stock Co., Stock- 
ton, Cal. 

JOHN LYNCH, breeder of registered Shorthorns; 
milk strain. High class stock. First-class dairy 
breeding Smooth cattle Best pedigree. P. O. 
Box 321, Petaluma, Cal. 

HOLSTEIN 8 — Winners at State Fairs of every 
butter contest since 1885 in Calif. Stock near 
S. F. F. H. Burke, 30 Montgomery St., S. F. 

"HOWARD" SHORTHORNS— Quinto Herd, 77 
premiums California State Fairs 1902-3-4. Regis- 
tered cattle of beef and milking families for sale. 
Write us what you want. Howard Cattle Co., 
206 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



BULLS AND COWS FOR SALE — Short Horned 
Durhams. Address E. S. Driver, Antelope, Cal 

A.J.C.C. JERSEYS. Service bulls of noted strains. 
Joseph Mailliard, San Geronimo, Marin Co., Cal. 

BULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine individuals. At prices to 
suit the times, either singly or in carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm, Danville, Cal. 



PETER 8AXE & SON, Lick House, S.F.,Cal. Im- 
porters, Breeders and Dealers for past 30 years. 
All varieties Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Hogs. High 
class breeding stock. Correspondence solicited. 

JERSEYS, HOLSTEIN S & DURHAMS. Bred 
specially for use in Dairy. Thoroughbred Hogs, 
Poultry. Wm. Nlles & Co., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Breeders and Exporters. Established 1876. 



POULTRY, 



WHITE HOLLAND TURKEf S. Eggs from 
large, vigorous birds 25c. each. Cnas. F. Gould, 
Chula Vista, Cal. 

BRONZE Turkeys and Eggs— Ed. Hart, Clements, 
Cal. Large size, good plumage, early maturity. 

PIGEONS, Belgian Hare, Chickens, Guinea Fowls, 
Turkeys. Cottonwood Farm, Pleasant Grove.Cal 

L. W. CLARK, Petaluma, Cal. White Leghorns, 
the white kind that lay lots of large, white eggs. 

C.B.CARRINGTON, Hay wards, Cal. White Leg- 
horns. World's Fair winners. Stock for sale. 
Eggs by sitting 100 or 1000. Send for new folder. 

WM. NILES & CO., Los Angeles, Cal. Nearly all 
varieties chickens, geese, ducks, peafowl, etc. 



SWINE. 



GEO. V. BECKMAN, Lodi, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Registered Poland-China Hogs, both sexes. 

BERKSHIRE, POLAND-CHINA, CHESTER 
WHITE HOGS. Choice; Thoroughbreds. Wm. 
Niles & Co., Los Angeles, Cal. Establ'd in 1876. 

BERKSHIRE8— Prize Winners— bred from prize 
winners. Boars all ages. T.Waite, Perkins, Cal. 

BERKSHIRE AND POLAND-CHINA HOGS. 

C. A. Stowe, Stockton. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



S H. FOUNTAIN, Dixon, Cal. Importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Shropshire sheep. Both 
sexes for sale at all times. 

THOS. WAITE, Perkins, Cal., has the Gold Medal 
tlock of South Down sheep. 



BREEDERS' SUPPLIES. 



GEO. H. CROLEY^SOS SacramentoSt., San Fran- 
cisco. Manufac- 
turer and Dealer 
In 

of every description. Send for catalogue— FREE. 



x , duo aacrameutu ol., ouu ftuu- 

Poultry Supplies 



MANHATTAN FOOD fattens stock and poultry. 
Cures all common ailments .\t your grocer. 







PACIFIC COAST'S GREATEST IMPORTING 
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DIFFERENT 
EUROPEAN BREEDS OF HORSES. : 

Three Importations in 1905. 

THE ONLY FIRM IN CALIFORNIA HAVING A LARGE 
SELECTION OF 

Percherons, Royal Belgians, Shires, 
Clydes, French Coach and 
German Coach, always on hand. 

HORSES WILL BE SOLD ON EASY TERMS WITH THE MOST LIBERAL GUARANTEES. 

Visitors are always welcome at our stables, and correspondence is invited. Call or address 

LANDIS BROS,, Folsom, California. 
Must Hatch Incubators and Brooders Have Stood the Test. 

^SSSeW 1 ' 1 Beware of others "JUST AS GOOD." 

We hatch and prepare little chicks— White Leghorns— for shipment, to all points within sixty hours 
travel from Petaluma. Now is the time to place your order. When the chicks come high, they are the 
most profitable. We also supply White Leghorn eggs for hatching. Prices for chicks and eggs on 
application. 



Write for I — x 
catalogue'—' 



MUST HATCH INCUBATOR CO., Petaluma, Cal. 



Emery's Poultry Foods arc sold by all dealers and 
commission men because they are the BEST. 

■ ■■rfMirift nnrinrirTunrri i > v Hrn i 

N. OHLANDT & CO., Indiana and 24th Sts., San Francisco 



SINGLE 
COMB 



WHITE LEGHORNS. 

Thoroughbred Stock. Eggs for setting, $1.50 for 15, 
$2.50 for 30, $3.50 for 45, $6 per 100. 

INDIAN RUNER DUCKS. 

Eggs, $1.50 for 12, $7.50 per 100. 
Send for illustrated catalogue. 

JOHN P. BODEN, 
1338 Second St., Watsonville, Cal. 

BUFF ORPINGTONS. 

Lay like Leghorns. Larger than Plymouth Rocks. 

World's Fair winners, and grandest show record 
on the coast— write for it. Eggs $3 and $5 per set. 

W. SULLIVAN, Agnews, Cal. 

State V.-Pres Nat S C. B. O Club. 
Member Am. Orp. Club. 

IG Profits in Poultry 

if you raise it ripht. Let us help you "get 
right" with a new 1906-pattern 

Standard Cyphers Incubator 

( Guaranteed to hatch more and larger chicks 
than any other. Easy to. operate. Complete Cat- 
alog and Poultry Guide, 228 pages <»*xll) iree 
if yuu mention this paper and send names of - 
neighbors who keep poultry. Write nearest office. 

CYPHERS INCUBATOR CO., Buffalo, Boston, Chicago* 
New York, Kansas City or San Francisco. 




§2 



80 For 
200 Egg 
INCUBATOR 



Perfect in con struct iui 
RCtfun. Hatches every fertile 
egg. Write fur catalog to-day. 

GEO. H. STAHL, OiHncy, !!! 





Brabason's POULTRY GUIDE FUSE. 

ilt's a dandy. Cuts of fowls from life 
Chickens, Turkey i. Ducks and Geese, 
TO varieties. Price of fowls and eggs. 
Send 10c to pay postage of fine guide 
of Poultry and buying fowls. Best on earth. 

J. R Brabazon, Box 22. Glenview, Delavan, Wis. 



30 DAYS TRIAL 

Buy From Our Factory— Savr Ont-Third 

PRACTICAL JN^BATORs^ivdj 

slronfjcr chicks IP YEARS' GUARANTEE 
Cal. hit. PRACTICAL INC. CO., 120 S. lilt St. San Jiaa. Cal. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS. 

Established 36 Years. 
IMPORTERS AND BREEDERS OF ALL VARIETIES 
OF LAND AND WATER FOWLS. 

Stock for Sale. Dept. 31. Box 2602, San Francisco. 





WELL DRILLING 
MACHINERY. 



Portable and drill any 
depth by steam or horse 
power. 42 Different 
Styles. We challenge com- 
petition. Send for Free Il- 
lustrated Catalog No. 27. 

KELLY & TANEYHILL CO., 27 Chestnut St., Waterloo, la. 

HENRY B. LISTERi 

ATTORNEY AT UW, 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds for 
New York. Room 14, fourth floor, Mills Building, 
San Franotsco. Telephone Bush 848. 



LIVE OAK STOCK FARM, 

Six Miles t». W. from PETALUMA, on the 
Petaluma and Sebastopol Road. 

FRANK A. MECHAM, Prop. 

Importer and Breeder of 

Red Polled Cattle. 

Color Deep Red. Both Sexes for Sale. 

Address all communications PETALUMA, SO- 
NOMA CO., CAL. 




PRANK /*. fflECHAM, 

Importer and Breeder of Shropshire Sheep. 

They were all imported from England, or bred 
direct from Imported stock. 




We have also bred American Merinos— Hornless 
Sheep — for 30 years. They are a large sheep, with- 
out wrinkles. Rams will produce 20 to 25 pounds 
of long, white wool yearly. Sheep of both sexes 
for sale. 




FRANK A. MECHAM, Importer and Breeder, 

Shipping Points: PETALUMA AND SANTA 
KOSA, SONOMA CO., CAL. 



SO 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 3, 1906. 



Send To day 




If you believe in quality— if you want the biggest value 
for your money— if you want durability and complete 
roofing satisfaction, you will insist upon having 



"Pioneer" Rubber 
Sanded Roofing 



It is proof against everything that an ideal roofing should |i>« 
proof against. It contains all the good qualities of the b^st 
standard rubber roofings, and, in addition, has a hard, weir- 
proof surface of clean Hint sand, which adds years of wear t • you ■ 
roof and eliminates all the expense of paint and patent 
coating. If you want the best roofing protection for 
the least money, you should get acquainted with 
"PIONEER" RUBBER SANDED ROOFING to-day. 
and the best way to get acquainted is to send for sam 
pies and complete information at once. 

"PIONEER" RUBBER SANDED ROOFING is 
good on any roof, under every condition, in any climate. 

Our booklet, "B,"is invaluable to builders and 
property owners. It tells you the best and cheapest 
roofings and building papers to use on any kind of a 
job. Send for it to-day. 





Pioneer Roll Paper Co. 
Los Angeles, California 



CEMENT FENCE POSTS. 



FIRE CANNOT DESTROY THEM. 



AGE ADDS STRENGTH. 



SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE SHOWING SIMPLICITY OF WORKING THE 

"COX" CEMENT FENCE POST MACHINE. 

HERCULES HOLLOW CEMENT BUILDING BLOCKS are the best materials for Hop Drying 
Kilns, Barns, Creameries, Dairies, etc. Absolutely fire, water and damp proof. 

pJSU PACIFIC CONCRETE MACHINERY CO. 

Pacific Coast Agents, 202 California Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



The Roessler & Hassfacher Chemical Co. 




Works: 



100 WILLIAM STREET, NEW YORK. 
PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 



C\f A MI PIP guaranteed 98-99% for generating 
I /\iy 1 U C HYDROCYANIC ACID GAS. 

The only positive eradicator of the SAN JOSE SCALE, 

RED AND BLACK SCALE and other insect pests. 

POR SALti BY 

THE F. W. BRAUN COMPANY, - Los Angeles and San Francisco. 
MESSRS. HAAS, BARUCH & CO. - Los Angeles and San Francisco. 

THIS IS \A/H/\T YOU NEED. 



SINGLE TRACE HARNESS ATTACHMENT. 

For Vineyard, Orchard, 
Nursery and Hop Fields, 

Both Single and Double Work. 
Light. Durable, Economical. 
Satisfactory. 

PRICE. $25. 

Full particulars furnished 
by the Inventor and manufac- 




I Patented Sept IS iho.\ 



GEO. V. BECKMAN. 

LODI. CAL. 

Reliable Agents Wanted 



NATIONAL WOOD F»IF»E CO. 

^ # Woodward Patent Machine Banded 

\ H / ^-^.^-vyl J « /^v Wheeler Patent Continuous Stave 

yy t)UU ll LjC Bored Wood Water Pipe. 

M. MADE FROM CALIFORNIA REDWOOD OR 

SELECTED PDGET SOUND YELLOW FIR. 

LOS ANGELES OFFICE: 6TH A MATEO 8TS. SAN FRANCISCO OFFICE: 301 MARKET 8T. 

PUGET SOUND OFFICE: OLVMPIA, WASH. 
A BOOKLET, "THE WHOLE STORY ABOUT WOOD PIPE," MAILED FREE UPON REQUEST. 



THE WESTERN GAS ENGINE 

" From Factory Direct to User." 

Designed and built by Western experts, for West- 
ern use with Western fuel. In construction the 
Western embodies many original, yet practical 
Ideas, which place It in advance of any other 
make on the market today. The simplest, 
strongest and best engine for 

IRRIGATION, POWER AND ELECTRIC PLANTS, 
ANY SIZE FROM 5 TO 500 H. P. 

Burns cheapest fuel— gasoline, distillate or crude 
oil — and with a saving of 20 to 40 per cent 
over any other style. 

SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE 
THE WESTERN ENGINE. 
MAXIMUM POWFR AT MTNTMTTM rnsT !• ully describing every detail of construction; tells 
rajuumum rUWhK AT MINIMUM COfaT. hQW and why the Western e3CC p ls a)1 others: It 

gives the facts-the proof. I.earn what Western engines are doing for others. Send your name 
today— ask for latest issue, A7. 

Western Gas Engine Company, 

908-932 N. MAIN ST , LOS ANGELES CALIFORNIA. 




WHAT'S THE HATTER WITH 

MOCOCO" FERTILIZERS? 



NOTHING ! 

ALL THOSE POOR CROPS ARE DUE TO 

SOIL EXHAUSTION. 

YOUR LAND NEEDS A TONIC, and if it don't got it THERE'S TROUBLE 

AHEAD. 

Find out what your soil lacks and then provide it. Don't bo afraid to put all 
your spare cash into fertilizers. They pay 100°^. It's not necessary to take our 
word, experiment for yourself, it can't cost much, and we tell you it spoils— CROPS, 
CASH and SUCCESS. 

Write for Particulars 

THE /VYOUINT/\IIN COPPER CO. 

604 MONTGOMERY STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



• 

NITRATE OR SODA supplying NITROGEN or AMMONIA. 
THOHAS' PHOSPHATE POWDER supplying PHOSPHORIC ACID. 
HURIATE and SULPHATE OF POTASH supplying POTASH. 

THE THREE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF PLANT FOOD. 

Can tie supplied alone or mixed in any proportion to supply whatever deficiency may exist In the soil, 
thus paving only for what Is lacking and necessary to replace. 

BALFOUR, GUTHRIE & CO., ^^^^t^r- 

WRITE TO THEM TOR PAMPHLETS. 

Fertilizers and Fertilizing for Profit. 

CALIFORNIA FERTILIZER WORKS, Inc. 

534 CI.AY 8TREET, SAN FRANCISCO. CAL,. 

Manufacturers of PURE BONE MEAL and COMPLETE FERTILIZERS. 

PRODUCERS, IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN FERTILIZING MATERIALS OF ALL KINDS. 
BEST THOMAS' PHOSPH«TE POWDER 19%, $'4 PF R TON 




PUMPS! 



CENTRIFUGAL. 

JACKSON S LATE8T IMPROVED 
CF.NTRIFUGAL PUMPS BEAT THE 
WORLD FOR EFFICIENCY AND 

DURABILITY. 



Jackson Patent Horizontal Centrifugal Pump Direct Connected 
to Electric Motor 



Guaranteed to take less power to 
operate than any other centrifugal 
pump. Highest efficiency and econ- 
omy guaranteed. 

BYRON JACKSON MACHINE WORKS, 

41 1 Market St.. San Francisco 



F~*L4 m OS Power, Rotary and 

Centrifugal. 



DEEP WELL, OIL AND WINDMILL 
PUMPING MACHINERY. 



J. C. HOWLETT MACHINE WORKS, Inc. 

256 FREMONT STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



GREEN BANK 

T. \AJ. JACKSON <fc CO. 
1 23 Calllornla St., San Francisco. 



98% POWDERED CAUSTIC SODA and PURE POTASH. 

BEST OLIVE DIP AND TREE WAfcH. 

Analysis of a competitive brand labeled and sold as 

■•W% Powdered I Sodium Hydrate 75 60% 

Caustic Soda".. / Sodium Oxld 58.58% 




and CALIFORNIA FRUIT BULLETIN 



Vol. LXXI. No. 6. 



San Francisco, Saturday, February 10, 1906. 



THIRTY-FIFTH YEAR. 
OFFICE: 330 MARKET ST. 



Our Fruit Industries as Employers. 



Four weeks ago we used interior views in a Cali- 
fornia fruit cannery to illustrate the fact that fruit- 
preserving processes had created a great demand 
for skilled labor, and that the supply was coming 
largely from the women and older children of the 
towns, who found the work very pleasant and profit- 
able. No doubt many women are better clad and 
many children have much more to make their young 
lives delightful because our fruit industries are devel- 



freezing temperatures to the fruit. The very facts 
that the lemon is largely a winter-maturing fruit, 
and that great activity prevails in lemon handling 
during months when zero temperatures are likely to 
be encountered at the East, should teach that such 
an open warehouse to give shade and protection from 
rains would be all that California requires. There 
is, however, something more tangible than such an 
inference in the sight of the building itself, which is 
practically free from side walls and, therefore, open 
to all outdoor influences. The sight of the men in 



delightful labor in the open air has strengthened 
and prolonged and in the joy which has entered so 
many homes — the joy of prosperity and of health and 
the banishment of shadows by this concrete form of 
California sunshine. Look upon the throng of men 
which this one lemon enterprise of 304 acres keeps 
busy and prosperous and able to provide for the 
wants of those dependent upon them. Although this 
is, of course, rather a large establishment for a 
single lemon enterprise, because it is itself a large 
one, the capacity of the packing house and the num- 




A Suggestion of the Opportunities for Skilled Labor Which Our Fruit Industries Afford. 



oped to their present estate. It occurred to us at 
the time that we were telling but half the story, and 
we now find opportunity to emphasize the service 
which the fruit industry is rendering the development 
of the State by providing opportunities for skilled 
labor by men in connection with the heavier work of 
fruit growing and marketing. The large lemon-pack- 
ing house in the picture is the one of which we have 
already given a number of interior views, that of the 
Limoneira Company at Santa Paula, Ventura county. 
The building is 300x100 feet. Some of the lemon cur- 
ing tents which we have previously described are to 
be seen toward the back of the building on the left, 
and the picture generally gives a good idea of safe 
and economical construction in a country where no 
snow falls to crush roofs and no cold blasts bring 



light clothing and furnished in part with their pick- 
ing sacks is, perhaps, more convincing even than the 
sight of the building that lemon growing is an affair 
of warm winter labor, and the amount of such labor 
which is required is large. 

This last is in fact the point which we would take 
particular note of at this time. The service which 
our winter-ripening fruits render the advancement of 
the State is the complement of the summer service 
of the deciduous fruits. It would not be difficult to 
calculate the great number of days' labor which the 
picking and packing of 30.000 carloads of oranges 
and lemons afford. It would go far into the hun- 
dreds of thousands, but, after we had it, it would be 
only a partial value of the service. The ultimate 
estimate of value would be found in the lives which 



ber of employes it either directly or indirectly 
provides for is but an index of what can be seen 
all through our great citrus-fruit regions during the 
winter months. Really a very respectable fraction of 
our town populations in the citrus regions are 
directly supported by the chance to labor, which the 
citrus grower provides by his output. And not only 
this direct support is to be considered, but the 
indirect support of merchants, mechanics, transpor- 
tation employes, the upbuilding of trade, the stimula- 
tion of building, the organization of banks, the sup- 
port of all professions, must be included in the esti- 
mate of the value of the fruit growers to the State. 
This is a matter which is not thought about as often 
as it should be, and this is our reason for suggesting 
it at this time. 



82 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 10, 1906. 



Pacific Rural Press. 

Published Every Saturday at 330 Market Street, 
Sau Francisco, I'al. 

TWO DOLLARS PER YEAR IN ADVANCE. 

Advertising rates made known on application. 



Entered at S. P. Postofflce as second-class mail matter. 



DEWEY PUBLISHING CO Publishers 



E. J. WICKSON Horticultural Editor 



SAN FRANCISCO, FEBRUARY 10, 1906. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



ILLUSTRATION.— A Suggestion of the Opportunities for Skilled 

Labor Which Our Fruit Industries Afford, 81. 
EDITORIAL.— Our Fruit Industries as Employers, 81. The Week, 82. 
(QUERIES AND REPLIES.— For Preservation of Oaks; Cemetery 

Plants: Fruits on Sha low Soil; Tree Tonic for Specific Purpose, 82. 

Almond on Prune; Policy With Peaches; Eucalyptus in Humboldt 

County; When to Spray for the Peach Worm; Ornamental Trees 

and Alkali; Peaches and Figs, 83. 
WEATHER AND CROPS. — Report of the U. S. Weather Service 

for Week Ending February 6, 1906; Rainfall and Temperature, 83. 
CEREAL CROPS.— Cereal Improvement, 84. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL. — New Entomological Laboratory of the State 
University, 84. 

SHEEP AND WOOL. - The Merino Sheep; Sales of California An- 
goras, 85. 

HORTICULTURE.— Frost Effects and Prevention, 85. Mr. Bur- 

bank"s Plan of Growing English Walnuts, 86. 
AGRICULTURAL REVIEW. -87. 

THE HOME CIRCLE. -Morning on the Farm; A Psalm of Farm 
Life; The Old Garden; Story of War and a Debt Repaid: Hints to 
Housekeepers: Cure for Slight Burns; Domestic Hint*, 88. 

THE BOTANIST.— Roots, Their Functions and Importance to the 
Plant, 89. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. — Tulare Grange Meeting, 94. 
THE DAIRY. — California's Dairy Output, 95. 



The Week. 



Balmy weather has continued and blossoms are 
advancing, while verdure now covers the valleys and 
foothills. The season is so far along that only the 
danger of occasional local frosts is to be apprehended. 
The growing time has evidently come to stay for 
months to come. We recently indulged in the regu- 
lar California gratulation over the proper expecta- 
tion of such a course of affairs in contrast with the 
disaster which had to be feared as a sequence of 
midwinter mildness at the East, and the disaster 
came almost before the fear could be expressed. 
Since then the Eastern winter has continued, with a 
fearful February, as the following Washington 
records show: 

The cold wave from the extreme Northwest moved 
over the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, the lake region 
and over the Atlantic States generally. The mercury 
has fallen considerably as far south as Savannah. In 
northern New York reports show as low as 20° below 
zero at various points — 30° below at Rockliff, Ont. ; 
30° below at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.; 10° below at 
Duluth, Des Moines and Keokuk, and 16° below at 
Moorhead, Minnesota. 

The effect of this upon plants partially awakened 
to activity needs no description. The effect upon 
people is, perhaps, even more clear. Our advices 
from all parts of the State are of inquiry for lands in 
considerable tracts. It is reported that at least 
75,000 people who came to California last year stayed 
here, and it is believed that a great many more 
people will come during the present year to make 
their homes in the State. One expert in transporta- 
tion estimates that at least 50,000 people will come 
in the early spring and at least 100,000 people will 
come to settle during the present year. 



The Sacramento Valley is apparently to share 
largely in this accession of population, although one 
cannot go far into the San Joaquin without seeing 
the activity of new-comers there. In fact, the peo- 
ple are spreading everywhere throughout the State. 
One bunch of people a thousand strong from Iowa 
and Nebraska is negotiating for landsj in the Sacra- 
mento Valley, and the start is expected to be made 
when the colonist rate is put into effect. The peo- 
ple who are coming are farmers who have accumu- 
lated something and are able to sell out to advan- 
tage. They know their business, and they will prove 
valuable to California because they are an indepen- 
dent and masterful class. 



This is only one of the indications of new life for the 



Sacramento valley. It is to be regretted that it did 
not begin twenty years ago, but something was evi- 
dently needed to get the country ready for it. The new 
develorment movements are not only attracting peo- 
ple from abroad, but are preparing the large land 
owners to welcome them. And this should go far- 
ther. There have been several very significant 
meetings in the valley during the last few weeks, and 
there is arising a great pressure toward subdivision 
and settlement, so that there is no danger but that 
good land will be available for all who want it. The 
old attitude of the valley is disappearing. In an 
irrigation meeting in Sacramento last week, in which 
the State officials and the experts of the National 
Government participated, the following facts were 
set forth: 

The National Reclamation Service has acquired a 
vast fund of knowledge regarding the Sacramento 
valley and watershed and is steadily acquiring more 
data. Engineers of the service are making plans for 
irrigation works, including storage dams, diverting 
dams and laterals. The commencement of construc- 
tion on this great system or some portion of it must 
await the initiative of Sacramento valley people and, 
of course, must depend upon the funds available for 
work in addition to that already undertaken. 

The fund of the reclamation service is steadily 
growing, and the land owners of the Sacramento 
valley are awakening to the advantages to them of 
having the Government spend its money to put the 
water on their land. These two conditions indicate 
that some day irrigation construction by the United 
States Reclamation Service will begin in the Sacra- 
mento valley. When this time will be depends, per- 
haps, more upon the people of the valley than any 
other factor in the case. 

These statements are not new; they have appeared 
before in these columns and elsewhere, but to attract 
attention a certain amount of reiteration is essential 
and we propose to do our share of it, for the popula- 
tion of the valley and the extension of the joys of 
California rural life to hundreds of thousands, is a 
consummation to be desired. 



Everyone will read, of course, the article upon 
another page, which Mr. Luther Burbank prepared 
for the recent fruit growers convention at Santa 
Rosa. He gives very frankly and clearly his idea of 
the best way to secure a walnut orchard and natur- 
ally much attention will be paid to his suggestions. 
It may, of course, ultimately appear that his way 
is the right way, but we cannot refrain from 
the statement that a very insignificant fraction 
of the immense acreage of California walnut 
trees has been grown that way. Our com- 
mercial product is almost entirely made upon 
trees grown in the nursery and transplanted to their 
permanent places. We believe that is a good way 
and that the gain in time and in uniform develop- 
ment of the trees is sufficient to warrant a continu- 
ance of the method. Those who enter upon sprout- 
ing nuts in place and subsequently grafting are apt 
to overlook the difficulties of carrying such 
trees amid other crops or the cost of giv- 
ing them the ground and maintaining culti- 
vation for their benefit alone. What a skillful 
grower might undertake with such area as he could 
personally handle during the growing and grafting 
period is no criterion of the results which will follow 
such an undertaking when the personal element is 
taken away. We believe the nursery is the place to 
grow and to graft all kinds of trees which are to be 
planted on a large scale. We do not say that Mr. 
Burbank's way is not a good way. It is good if the 
work is done as he would do it, but we do not think it 
is the best way for the general planter. 



The Yuba City ladies dance for some purpose, and 
as we fully believe in dancing as a social pastime we 
do not look upon the proceeds as tainted, but would 
welcome them for the promotion of other praise- 
worthy ends. At a recent meeting of the Woman's 
Improvement Club of Yuba City there was read the 
report of the committee which was in charge of the 
big dance recently given, which showed that over 
$60 had been cleared. The president appointed a 
committee to arrange for the planting of some white 
elm trees in front of the court house, and the ladies 
decided to give another grand ball in the interest of 
tree planting. It is a good enterprise. Proceed 
with it, ladies; the trees will grow while you are 
dancing! 



QUERIES AND REPLIES. 

For Preservation of Oaks. 

To the Editor: About a year ago you published a 
very interesting account by Prof. Jepson of work 
done on the Berkeley oaks. I remember that it ad- 
vised the use of coal tar for covering wounds caused 
by amputation. I have been told that a better appli- 
cation is made of one- third linseed oil, one-third bees- 
wax and one-third resin, melted together and put on 
warm. Is this as good or better than coal tar ? — 
Suburban, Oakland. 

The compound which you describe is one of the com- 
mon grafting waxes and is thoroughly satisfactory 
for that work where the protection is required but a 
limited time. These waxes, however, will scale off in 
a few months and are, therefore, unsuited for use on 
oak trees. The preparation is, also, exceedingly 
expensive as compared with the coal tar applicatiou 
and its cost would preclude the use of it on a large 
scale. The coal tar is to be preferred, both on 
account of its cheapness and availability, but also 
because it has a certain penetrative power, which 
the grafting wax has not, and will exert its influence 
upon the exposed surface for many years. We have 
on the University grounds some applications of it 
nearly ten years old which are still effective in pre- 
venting the checking and decay of the exposed sur- 
face. 

Cemetery Plants. 

To the Editor : Please inform me if the ' Lippia,' 
which you spoke of a few weeks ago as growing 
freely in hot, dry places, would be suitable for plant- 
ing in a cemetery lot where it is very hot in the sum- 
mer and could only be watered once or twice in a 
week ? Can you suggest flowering or ornamental 
shrubs suitable for the same location ? — F. C. S., 
Yuba county. 

Lippia would be good, but it is not as handsome as 
grass. If you can water well once a week you ought 
to be able to make a good lawn if you are willing to 
do the mowing also. Lippia will make a fair green 
with much less trouble. Your nurseryman can ad- 
vise you about shrubs, etc. The list is too long for 
us to supply. 

Fruits on Shallow Soil. 

To the Editor: I have a piece of land gradually 
sloping south which has rich red soil from 18 in. to 
3 ft. deep, beneath which is a very sticky clay (when 
wet), under which is hardpan or bedrock. What I 
want to know: is it possible to raise grapes on a 
small scale by irrigating from wells on such land? 
My intention is to plant olives 35 ft. apart and grapes 
between, 7 ft. apart, and after bearing, if necessary, 
remove the one that does not give satisfaction. Also, 
what kind of grape do you think would do the best — 
would like a variety? Also, what kind of olive would 
you recommend on this land, the best kind for 
pickling and best kind for oil? — Beginner, Wheat- 
land. 

We would not select just such land as you describe 
for fruit growing, but you can grow what you want for 
your own use quite satisfactorily if you irrigate just 
right and do not either drown your plants or allow 
them to perish from drying out of the shal- 
low soil late in the summer. Well water is 
all right. Grapes will probably do better than 
tree fruits, though you can do something with 
nearly all fruits if you give just what water they 
need — frequently, in small amounts, so as not to 
swamp the soil. Grow whatever kinds of grapes you 
like best. Probably the best oli% r e for you is the old 
Mission variety. 

Tree Tonic for Specific Purpose. 

To the Editor: My Valencia trees — due* to scant 
rainfall to produce a bloom, I think — bore a very 
light crop last season. This year they are carrying an 
overabundant load. I am exceedingly anxious to 
produce a reasonable crop next year and have been 
debating the advisability of trying the frequent appli- 
cation of small doses of nitrate of soda, thinking I 
might thereby stimulate them into setting a crop 
this spring and keeping them from overbearing the 
following year. They have been reasonably well fer- 
tilized with barnyard manure. — Grower, Los Angeles 
county. 

We regret to say that we cannot give you any sug- 
gestion that is of any value concerning the particular 
problem which you desire to solve. Small doses of 
nitrate of soda, providing moisture enough is present, 
certainly will have a stimulating effect and possibly 
produce just the particular kind of vigor which 
you desire. One would think that well-fertilized 
trees, especially where barnyard manure is used, 
would have nitrogen enough for their growth pro- 



February 10, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



83 



viding there was surely enough water. You do not 
speak of irrigation, but of rainfall. Is it possible 
you are endeavoring to grow orange trees without 
irrigation? That experiment was carefully tried 25 
years ago at Pasadena and elsewhere, and the con 
elusion was that, although a young orange tree 
might be brought up to bearing age by good cultiva 
tion to conserve rainfall, no satisfactory fruiting 
could be gained upon bearing trees, unless the rain- 
fall was supplemented by adequate irrigation. Pos- 
sibly you know of this already. We only allude to it 
because we cannot see any other reason why your 
trees, well cultivated and well fertilized, should not 
bear well on good soil unless there was a shortage of 
moisture. 

Almond on Prune. 

To the Editor: Please give me information how 
and when to bud or graft over prune to almond trees, 
and, when so changed, do they make desirable and 
profitable almond trees?— Grower, Lower Lake. 

You can graft the almond upon the prune by the 
ordinary method of top grafting, but there will be 
quite a question as to whether the combination will 
be ultimately profitable. You should be sure that 
the almond is worth growing in your locality, which 
would not be true for Lake county generally, as the 
occurrence of spring frosts with such an early bloomer 
as the almond would destroy the crop. The almond 
on the prune would also make less growth than it 
would upon its own seedling stock. Of course it 
would be interesting to graft a few trees to see if you 
could get a home supply of almonds, but for commer- 
cial production in your district the chances are 
decidedly against almonds, as stated. 



Policy With Peaches. 

To the Editor: I have an opportunity of getting 
several thousand 2-year-old seedling Muirs, and am 
very anxious to get them planted this year. I wish 
you would suggest some way in regard to grafting 
or budding them, and at the same time get them set 
out this year. Do you consider it safe to set and 
graft them this season ? These are about all I can 
get, as it is almost impossible to get good Muirs. — 
Fruit Grower, Stanislaus county. 

Peach grafting is very difficult and uncertain of 
results and disappointing as a rule. For this reason 
very little of it is done and the propagation of the 
peach is wholly by budding. You could plant out 
two-year-old seedling Muirs and cut them back 
well, so as to force plenty of new growth, 
put in buds next July or August in those shoots 
which seem to be best calculated to make 
a good form of tree, and then by careful 
training produce quite uniform and satisfactory 
growth. But, on the whole, two-year-old peach seed- 
lings, unless they were re-set in the nursery at the 
end of the first year, are not very good to trans- 
plant and usually better results could be attained by 
getting some one to grow you a fine lot of June buds 
this year and plant out next winter in orchard. We 
believe that, as a rule, these young trees will give 
more satisfaction and cost a great deal less and at 
the same time be better at three or four years old, 
than anything that you can do with two-year-old 
seedlings transplanted now. 



Eucalyptus in Humboldt County. 

To the Editor: Can you tell me the variety of 
eucalyptus trees that is best to plant for a small for- 
est, those that are quick growing and suitable for 
firewood, posts, etc.? What other tree or trees are 
good to plant with it for the same purpose? Can 
you tell me the best place to get seed? — Reader, 
Ferndale. 

Have you seen eucalyptus trees growing in your 
vicinity, so that you know that they are hardy enough 
to stand the low temperatures which you may some- 
times have? If not, it would not be wise to plant 
eucalyptus except on a small scale for trial; but if, 
however, the eucalyptus are known to do well, the 
varieties which are best to plant for forest purposes 
are Eucalyptus viminalis and Eucalyptus rostrata. They 
are among the most hardy of their kind. They make 
good fuel, but no eucalyptus tree makes a good 
post, because, unless successfully treated with some 
preservative, it will not endure long in the ground. 
In planting out forests, you ought to place the young 
trees near together, say eight feet each way, and 
then cut out part of the trees, as they get large, and 
it is not a good idea to plant any other trees with the 



eucalyptus for such purposes. You can get seed 
from any seedsman with whom you may deal, but it 
is usually better to buy small trees, unless you have 
had experience in growing trees from seed; or buy 
some trees for quick results and plant some seed for 
experience. 

When to Spray for the Peach Worm. 

To the Editor: My peach orchard is affected by 
the peach worm. A bulletin from the State Univer- 
sity says spray as near March 2nd as possible. The 
investigations upon which it is based were conducted 
in Placer county. Would the same time be right for 
the foothills of Tulare county? Is there anything 
later on the subject than the bulletin referred to 
(No. 144)? Any further information would be appre- 
ciated.— E. B. H., Visalia. 

We cannot find such an exhortation as to date as 
you mention. A specific date would not do for differ- 
ent years in the same localities, nor for different 
varieties in the same locality, and certainly it would 
only be by chance that it would do for any other 
locality. The bulletin states the way to get at it 
everywhere as follows: "The time to make the 
application varies with the variety. It should be 
done when the buds have begun to swell perceptibly, 
and it may be delayed, without serious injury to the 
tree, until after the blossoms have begun to appear." 
There may be some blossoms killed, but the tree can 
usually spare a good many; but, of course, the spray 
should not be delayed until too many are showing 
color, and certainly not after opening. You must 
watch the trees, not the calendar. 



Ornamental Trees and Alkali. 

To the Editor: We are planning to set out a 
number of shade trees in Oxnard this spring, and 
would be pleased to have you advise as to whether 
or not the Cork Bark elm will make satisfactory 
growth in land that is slightly alkali. Would also be 
pleased to have your recommendation in regard to 
other varieties which will make successful growth in 
land of the nature referred to. — Planter, San Fran- 
cisco. 



We have no record 
Bark elm for alkali, 
quite resistant. It is 
all sort of difficulties. 



of the tolerance of the Cork 
Our impression is that it is 
a pretty tough tree against 
The trees which in the Uni- 
versity experiments have resisted most alkali are 
the California fan palm, the date palm, the Oriental 
sycamore or Plane tree, and the Eucalyptus amyg- 
dalina. The tree which seems to endure more alkali 
than any other is the Koolreuteria or Chinese Var- 
nish tree. It is, however, rather a small tree and 
may not serve the purpose you have in mind. The 
Oriental sycamore, or Plane tree, is splendid for 
shade or ornamental planting and should be much 
more widely known in California. There are prob- 
ably many other trees which readers can commend 
for alkali resistance. We shall be glad to hear of 
them. 

Peaches and Figs. 

To the Editor: We are intending to plant 20 
acres of figs and peaches. Have been thinking of 
planting the peaches alternately with the figs, put- 
ting the figs 50 ft. apart and the peaches between, 
cutting out the peaches when the figs need the room. 
What do you think of the plan? We know practi- 
cally nothing about fruit raising from experience. 
Our soil is some sandy, though it is called first-class. 
It is in the Salida district, northwest of Modesto, 
on the Salida road. Can you tell us where the Cali- 
myrna fig tree can be bought most reasonably? — 
Beginner, Modesto. 

Your plan of interplanting figs and peaches is a 
good one, as your soil and climate suit both. Both 
fruits are now quite profitable in your district, and 
as the fig will undoubtedly prove the longer lived you 
can remove the peaches after a few years, beariDg, 
if you find the behavior of the figs to warrant it. 
As for the fig trees you will have to correspond with 
the nurserymen on that subject. 



A Rainstorm of Restricted Area. 



To the Editor: On Sunday p. m., a Lower Cali- 
fornia or Sonora rain passed over Yuma into the val- 
ley of the Colorado and traveled northwestward. Yes- 
terday noon (Monday) it was noticed by dark clouds 
over our easterly Coast mountain range; at 3 i>. M. it 
struck the town, with some thunder, giving a full 
in. rain; at night another installment followed, with 
little over a '-in. rain. At Santa Barbara and San 
Luis Obispo the storm had tapered off very much. 
This is the third winter in succession that these 



southerly storms are moving so far northward- 
something unusual in persistency. Whenever this 
condition prevails, later storms from the northwest 
will prevail that will readily trend down the coast, 
because a low barometer hangs over the lower coast 
—a necessary condition for these storms— but which 
otherwise will attract northerly storms also whenever 
they prevail. L. E. Blochman. 

Santa Maria. 



WEATHER AND CROPS. 



Report of the U. S. Weather Service for Week 
Ending February 6, 1906. 

Alexander McAdie, Forecast Official and Section Director. 



Sacramento Valley. 

Warm and clear weather continued during the week, 
and conditions were favorable for farm work and crops. 
Wheat and oats made rapid growth and are looking 
well. It is reported that early sown grain was not ma- 
terially injured by the drought, but the grain acreage in 
some places will be less than last season's, owing to late- 
ness of heavy rains. Some of the low lands are still too 
wet for cultivation, but in other plases plowing and seed- 
ing are progressing rapidly. Green feed is making an 
excellent growth and becoming quite plentiful in some 
sections. Stock are in better condition and steadily im- 
proving. Deciduous fruit buds are advancing rapidly 
and orchards and vineyards are in first-class condition. 
Pruning is completed in some sections. Strawberries 
are not very promising except in places where liberally 
irrigated. 

Coast and Bay Sections. 

The weather continued warm and clear most of the 
week, with considerable cloudiness at the close and light 
rain in some of the southern districts. Early grain is 
looking well and making excellent growth, with pros- 
pects for a good crop. Plowing and seeding are com- 
pleted in some sections and progressing rapidly in 
others. In many places grain acreage will be larger than 
last season's. Green feed is plentiful and of good qual- 
ity in nearly all sections, and stock are doing well. 
Work is progressing in orchards and vineyards. Or- 
anges are maturing rapidly in the Santa Clara and 
Sonoma valleys; at Cloverdale the crop is lighter than 
last season's, but the fruit is of excellent quality. Peach, 
almond and loquat trees are in blossom in the vicinity of 
San Luis Obispo. 

San Joaqnln Valley. 

The weather was warm and favorable for the growth 
of all vegetation during the past week. Grain and 
grass have made rapid growth and are in excellent con- 
dition. Plowing and seeding have progressed rapidly 
and are now drawing to a close. Almond trees are blos- 
soming in some localities. Pruning and cleaning up or- 
chards and vineyards are well advanced, and a large 
acreage is being prepared for planting new vines. Green 
feed has become plentiful and stock are in fair condition 
and healthy. Sugar beet planting is progressing. Pack- 
ing houses continue busy with the raisin crop, but not 
so active as last week. 

Southern California. 

Warm and clear weather prevailed most of tho week, 
with cloudiness and light rain in some sections at the 
close. Dry easterly winds in some portions of Orange 
and San Bernardino counties were slightly injurious to 
grain and grass, but in other respects conditions were 
very favorable for all growing crops. Early grain is 
making rapid growth and looks strong and thrifty. 
With normal rainfall and favorable weather through 
the season, the grain crop will be larger than last sea- 
son's. Plowing and seeding are still in progress in some 
sections. Potato planting has commenced. Green feed 
is plentiful and stock is in good condition. Oranges in 
most sections were not seriously injured by recent frosts. 
Deciduous and citrus fruit orchards are in excellent con- 
dition. Peach trees are in bloom. 



Eureka Summary.— Conditions were favorable for 
crops. Farmers are busy plowing and sowing oats. 
Grain is healthy and making rapid growth. Grass is 
doing well and pasturage is much improved. 

Los Angeles Summary.— Warm weather caused 
crops to grow very well, but rain would be beneficial, as 
there is considerable complaint of drying winds robbing 
the soil of moisture, though plowing and seeding con- 
tinue, in hopeof a prosperous season. Some peach trees 
are blooming. 

Rainfall and Temperature. 



The following data for the week ending 5 A. m. Wednes- 
day, February 7, 1906, are from official sources and are 
furnished by the United States Weather Bureau for the 
Pacific Rural Press: 



CALIFORNIA 
STATIONS. 



Eureka 

Red Bluff 

Sacramento 

San Francisco. . . 

San Jose 

Fresno 

Independence.. . . 
San Luis Obispo 

Los Angeles 

San Diego 

Yuma 



00 
.00 
.00 
T 
.01 
.00 
.02 

3S 
.39 
.29 
.37 



Op 

Co Vt 
c* O 

a a 



17 72 
10 43 
8.42 
6.87 
6.14 
3.60 
8.68 
8.74 
7.45 
6 93 
3 84 



CO ^tfl 

UP D3 
P tfi B 
c* c* O 

a a 
: ►<» 
• cd ~ 
: s W 



22.64 
24.24 

13 73 
16.02 
11 57 

7.91 
1.65 

14 27 
10.89 

8.01 
2.33 



to CD 
£.00 



°0> 



26 71 
16.17 
10 61 
13.89 



5.00 

a 39 

12.29 
8 59 
5 39 
2 19 



2h 



SB 



61 
76 
68 
71 
74 
70 
66 
82 
82 
76 
78 



s 



2. CO 



I I 
M 
88 
40 
86 
44 
60 
62 
62 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



February 10, 190(1. 



CEREAL CROPS. 

Cereal Improvement. — III. 



By Geo. W. Shaw, Assistant Professor of Agricultural Technology, 
University of California, at the State Farmers' Institute in 

Berkeley. 

For several years past the experiment station has 
been testing, in a limited way, introduced varieties of 
wheat and other grains, with the especial object of 
finding a wheat which would maintain its desirable 
milling qualities and at the same time possess the 
other factors desirable from the standpoint of the 
grower. The trials have been such as to show that 
the task is not an easy one. The new plan will enable 
a much wider and more extensive trial of varieties, 
and in a manner in which much more accurate and 
practical tests can be given. 

On the several trial stations a very large number 
of varieties are being thoroughly tried out, not only 
as to their ability to maintain their gluten content, 
but also careful record is being made as to their yield 
per acre, straw characteristics, resistance to shat- 
tering, rust and drought, and their adaptation to 
soils; for each of these is a factor which must be con- 
sidered, and some of which are even more important 
to the grower than the matter of gluten. Suffice it 
to say that it is not proposed to omit any of the 
points deemed important in the commercial produc- 
tion of wheat either from the milling or shipping 
standpoints. 

The judicious selection and introduction of new 
varieties is a matter of much importance, but it is of 
such a nature that the farmer alone cannot and will 
not extensively conduct experiments to try out any 
large number of varieties to ascertain those which 
have desirable qualities. This can only be done 
through the agency of the experiment station. Last 
year on the Yuba City station 275 standard varieties 
of winter wheat were grown, 65 varieties of durum 
or macaroni wheat, 66 hybrids, besides 65 standard 
varieties of barley, 12 standard varieties of oats, 
nearly all of which were also duplicated at the 
Modesto station. 

For the coming season nearly all of these varieties 
will be again tried, after which the large part will be 
discarded, only the more promising being used for 
further experiment on a larger scale. 

Promising Varieties.— Of the grain grown last 
season some are of exceedingly good promise. Prom- 
inent among them may be named the bread wheats — 
Chul No. 2227 Fretes No. 1596, Allora No. 1698, 
Japanese 3 No. 1181, and also several varieties from 
India and Arabia — all of which withstood the ex- 
treme rust conditions of the season much better than 
the more common sorts. Mention should also be 
made of the well-known Kansas Turkey wheat, which 
gave valuable indications in this State last season, as 
did also Kharkoff winter wheat, which is closely allied 
to the former, both of these wheats being hardy, 
withstanding drought very well. They require, 
however, rather early planting to give the best 
results. In addition to these there were varieties of 
durum and macaroni wheats which gave exceedingly 
valuable indications, prominent among which may be 
named Arnautka and Kubanka. Of the other cereals 
special mention should be made of the 60-day oat, 
which is much earlier than the ordinary oats, and 
thus is enabled to largely escape rust and other 
fungous troib'es when other varieties are badly 
affected, and the same may be also said of the Bel- 
gian winter oat. 

Two Algerian barleys also gave great promise, 
especialy for desert conditions. They are also 
reputed to be more tolerant of alkali than other 
sorts. Of this latter matter, however, we have no 
direct knowledge. 

While the general method for the trying out of in- 
troduced varieties is sufficiently self-evident, that for 
the development by selection is neither so apparent 
nor well understood by the public. Still it involves 
the application of principles long since recognized in 
the breeding of animals. 

By Selection. — The basis of breeding by selection 
is the variability of individual plants. There are 
occasional plants of wheat, which, upon being multi- 
plied into varieties, yield larger crops than the 
parent kind. Where variation occurs improvement 
may be effected, and a comprehensive systematic 
plan carried out for a series of years is well-nigh 
certain to materially increase the productiveness 
and quality of wheat, or any other crop. 

As soon as preliminary trial has shown a variety 
to possess desirable characteristics a special plant- 
ing is made, and by some suitable method the 
choicest plants which are the most suitable for 
mother plants selected. From these selected plants 
a hundred or more selected seeds are planted, from 
which will be selected the strongest and choicest to 
serve as mothers to continue the breeding. The 
seed from these selected plants is now used in bulk 
to seed a small plat. From this seeding there will 
generally be obtained a sufficient quantity of seed for 
a twentieth of an acre plat, from which on the suc- 
ceeding year, if the variety proves promising, there 
will be sufficient seed to supply other stations. By 
testing the variety several times the real character- 
istics of the plant, as to average yield, etc., can be 
determined. At this stage at least a portion of the 



varieties can be discarded, and only the more prom- 
ising ones retained. The field tests are continued 
for a few years, and a new wheat disseminated when 
it has been fully demonstrated that it is of special 
value for any particular locality. 

Thus it can be seen that work of this character 
cannot be expected to yield immediate returns. 
Permanent improvement can come only through the 
most careful and systematic work conducted 
through a series of years. 

This is, in general outline, the plan to be followed 
in trying out and selecting new varieties for the im- 
provement of wheat in California. 

By Crossing. — The development of new varieties 
by crossing followed by selection has some features 
not included in the above outline, where selection 
alone is depended upon. In the latter method stocks 
for crossing varieties are first secured and introduced 
into the wheat nursery from bulk seed, and sub- 
jected to rigid selection for a short period, so as to 
secure from these the very best individual plants for 
parents of the crosses, so that time may not be lost 
upon weak varieties, nor on weak individuals of good 
varieties. 

The stocks to be used for breeding purposes are 
now grown in the nursery, and when approaching 
the flowering period the superior plants are selected 
and marked. From some of the largest spikelets all 
the florets are removed except a few of the strong- 
est ones. This work has to be done very carefully 
just before the florets are ready to bloom in order to 
prevent self-fertilization. When all the spikelets ex- 
cept a few in the center of the spike are removed 
the small florets in the center of these are also 
clipped off by means of dissecting scissors, leaving 
only a dozen or so of the stronger florets of the sev- 
eral spikelets. From every one of these flowers all 
the anthers are removed very carefully by means of 
tweezers, so that no pollen may be left within the 
floral envelope. The anthers having been removed 
the spike is now covered with tissue paper, tied 
loosely above and below, to prevent the entrance of 
foreign pollen. Pollen from the plant selected for 
the male parent is secured by selecting anthers 
which are ripe, as shown by their yellow color, and 
by the ease with which the pollen separates itself 
when the sacks are broken. It is evident that ex- 
treme care must be taken to prevent the least injury 
to the organs of the plant by any undue rough usage. 
Great care is of course taken to protect these 
crossed plants from any injury from this time on 
lest all time be lost. 

Each kernel of wheat in the manipulated spike 
now becomes a mother plant, and is used in the fol- 
lowing year in the nursery under an individual num- 
ber. Thus the new variety is started with but a sin- 
gle grain of wheat. The second year a hundred, 
more or less, of the seeds of the individual plants of 
the first generation are planted, and any stocks 
which do not appear reasonably strong are dis- 
carded. After selecting the very best of the type 
now stavted the course takes the same direction as 
first outlined for improvement by selection alone. 

Achievement. — As to the time required for devel- 
opment, it may be shown from the results obtained in 
the development of a special type of wheat which has 
added much to the value of the wheat industry of 
Minnesota. The type known as Minnesota No. 163 
was originated under this system of rigid selection in 
1889. During the first two years only one seed was 
planted in a hill, that the best plants might be 
selected. For the next two years it was planted in 
the nursery, to secure seed for making plat test, and 
then followed six years in which it was planted in 
competition with Bluestem and Fife, commonly grown 
varieties in that region, and the average for that 
period for the new variety was 29.2 bu. per acre, 
against 25.2 bu. for Fife and 24 4 bu. for Bluestem — 
all being grown under the same conditions of soil and 
cultivation. 

There is no difficulty for us to grow a starchy 
wheat in California, and with the proper attention 
paid to seed selection, using large, plump and clean 
seed, and careful attention to the rational handling 
of the land, we may reasonably expect larger returns 
from wheat growing. The most serious trouble is in 
securing a satisfactory gluten wheat for milling pur- 
poses — one which under California conditions will 
maintain its quantity and quality of gluten. 

It may be said that no high gluten wheat has yet 
been found which persistently maintains its character 
under our conditions, although some of those named 
above offer encouragement. 

There has been much discussion as to the real cause 
of this rapid change from a glutinous to a starchy 
type of wheat and many conflicting statements made. 
The real facts, however, have yet to be found. Many 
have claimed that our method of harvesting the grain 
had much to do with the matter, but the real truth 
is that there is no real evidence that this is the case. 
That this change does take place, however, and in 
many cases rapidly, there is no question. Attention 
is being particularly concentrated on the effect of 
time of cutting for the coming crop. 

Numerous varieties of wheat of both the bread and 
durum types grown in California in 1905 have been 
separated into glutinous and starchy kernels and 
these have been planted separately. At the end of 
the season a portion of the crop will be cut in the 



hard-dough stage and at intervals thereafter to de- 
termine any progressive change thatmav take place. 
The percentage of starchy grain in still other sam- 
ples have been determined and will be determined 
again at the hard dough stage and finally after 
standing in the field, as does other California grain. 
From the multiplied and carefully observed data thus 
obtained, we hope to be able to settle this point con- 
clusively. 

It may be said there seems to be a great difference 
in varieties of wheat as to rapidity of change in the 
direction and also among different" heads on the same 
plant. 

The contract seems to be great between, for 
instance, the durum (Arnautka and Kubanka) grown 
under the same condition. The former retained its 
character almost perfectly, while the latter under- 
went great change, although the latter has some 
other exceedingly desirable characteristics for many 
sections of the State— especially the fact that it is 
highly non-shattering, which, taken together with its 
marked rusWesistant qualities, probably due to its 
early maturing, render it of special interest— which 
is also true of many of the durum or macaroni 
wheats. 

The fact remains, however, that our millers are 
not generally equipped for conveniently handling so 
hard wheats. Yet the type is one in which lies our 
greatest hope of salvation, and one which we must 
grow and will grow in increasing amounts. About 
4 ; 00(),000 bushels of this variety were sown in western 
Kansas in 1903 with most excellent results, and it is 
reported that the acreage is rapidly increasing. The 
millers are preparing to handle 'the wheat, and it is 
only a question of time when this type of wheat will 
be one of the staples of the market. 

In this industry, as in many others in California, 
immense financial considerations are at stake, 
warranting some expense and effort, and the 
writer doubts whether any other single line of in- 
vestigation in the agricultural field promises wider 
usefulness than that here described. Dairying and 
general farming should and will make inroads upon 
wheat raising as a single farm crop, yet the wheat 
crop will always be an important factor in agricul- 
tural operations. The present average yield is too 
low, and the enterprising grower wants more. Bet- 
ter seed and better preparation for the crop will 
produce the desired result — at least, will much im- 
prove the present conditions. The miller wants 
wheat of higher gluten content. The selection of the 
right kind of seed and the planting of it in the right 
localities will much improve the industry in this 
direction. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL. 



New Entomological Laboratory of the State 
University. 

By Mh. S. E. Watson in the I'ro<lua Wtrkhj. 

Prof. C. W. Woodworth, associate professor of 
entomology, and W. T. Clarke, assistant superintend- 
ent of Farmers' Institutes, entertained the visitors 
to the new laboratory during the recent State Farm- 
ers' Institute in Berkeley, and explained the devel- 
opment of this department to its present importance. 
Prof. Woodworth, in an informal address, said that 
the new entomology is strictly an American subject, 
and here it has become primarily an economic sci- 
ence in its application to agriculture. A number of 
years ago the first course in economic entomology 
was given at Harvard, before there was much to 
include in the way of instruction. It has grown from 
that beginning until most of the larger universities 
give such a course. In a recent visit to the large 
universities of Europe he had found but one that 
included the subject in its curriculum. 

In California, Prof. C. H. Dwindle was the first 
instructor, and he was succeeded by Prof. E. J. 
Wickson, when an hour a week was given to instruc- 
tion. Prof. Woodworth, fifteen j'ears ago, took up 
work and his time is now entirely given to instruc- 
tion at the College of Agriculture. During the past 
year the number of students enrolled has been from 
200 to 250 in each of the two terms. 

The construction of a special building at the State 
University is an evidence of the importance of eco- 
nomic entomology in California. It is the first build- 
ing anywhere to be devoted to the teaching of ento- 
mology, though half the States have insectories at 
their colleges. This building and equipment is not 
fully completed. Its basement will contain a spray- 
ing laboratory and in the attic an apiary for the 
instruction in bee keeping will be installed. The first . 
floor contains the lecture room and general labor- 
atory, where about eighteen students can be accom- 
modated, facing the windows. 

The second floor has a hallway, with five special 
research laboratories on the north, for advanced stu- 
dents, who must show decided ability to secure the 
privileges. Each of these will have exclusive use of 
the small rooms and be able to carry on work with- 
out interruption. On the south side is the office, 
library and seminary room, adjoining which is the 
private office of Prof. Woodworth, with his special 



February 10, 1906. 



PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. 



85 



research laboratory and stenographer's room. A 
taxonomical laboratory, where insect collections are 
kept, occupies the remainder of this floor. 

The north side of the third floor contains a large 
room, which will be used as an art room for the prep- 
aration of drawings, exhibit of plates, with tables for 
lecture purposes. The anatomical, photomicrograph- 
ical and physiological laboratories occupy the south 
side. Connected with the latter, on the west, is an 
insectory, with hot, medium and cold rooms. A fea- 
ture of the anatomical room is the paraffine bath and 
microtomes, capable of slicing specimens of insect 
tissue for the microscope. These microtomes are 
delicate enough to cut 25,000 slices to the inch, 
though 5,000 is the ordinary thickness. 

None of these rooms are yet fully equipped. The 
hot room of the insectory will be kept at a tropical 
temperature, and in this and the cold room, at nor- 
mal temperature, the study effect of temperature on 
development experiments will be made. In the phys- 
iological laboratory the effect of poisons, sprays and 
fumigation may prove to be among the most useful 
lines done by the department. 

Mr. W. T. Clarke, whose work has been mostly at 
the Institutes until the present school year, spoke 
upon his conceptions of the entomologist's work, par- 
ticularly in the field. First, there should be appre- 
ciation of and enthusiasm for his work; second, train- 
ing and knowledge of the subject; third, natural abil- 
ity and adaptability; fourth, patient enthusiasm that 
will enable him to meet the outside man on his own 
ground and give consideration to his point of view. 
Mr. Clarke elaborated on these topics and impressed 
the visitors with his practical ability and earnestness. 

Prof. Woodworth called on Prof. J. M. Aldrich, of 
the Idaho University, who said that he believed that 
the establishment of this laboratory, the result of 
Prof. Woodworth's efforts, would give dignity to the 
science of entomology, which had heretofore been 
regarded as bugology only. This is the most import- 
ant advance that has taken place in this branch of 
instruction in the entire country. 

Prof. A. C. True, director of the office of experi- 
ment stations, concurred in this view, and congratu- 
lated Prof. Woodworth. While this is obviously the 
largest laboratory of its kind, he was specially 
pleased with its complete arrangement for study 
and work. 

Mr. H. P. Stabler, of Yuba City, said that he con- 
gratulated himself as a fruit grower on the achieve- 
ment of Prof. Woodworth. The fruit growers of the 
State are the ones to be benefited by the establish- 
ment of this fine building, and they should be congrat- 
ulated, rather than the professor. He said that, 
representing one of the thirty-five counties having 
horticultural commissioners, he appreciated the value 
of such an institution, where their needs could be 
attended to and their work directed. 

Prof. Woodworth then explained what had been 
done by his department in mosquito investigation, 
upon which an interesting bulletin is in preparation. 

After the remarks the visitors were shown the 
different rooms and present equipment. 



SHEEP AND WOOL. 



The Merino Sheep. 



By Mr. Roscok Wood, in 'Die American Slice)) Breeder. 

The oldest and bluest-blooded race of domestic ani- 
mals in this country, the Merino sheep, has already 
inscribed on history's pages a story covering more 
than a century and replete with interest for every 
sheepman. Where in all the agricultural history in 
this country is there any breed that can compare 
with them ? Ever fostered by men of royal blood, 
introduced to America by leading statesmen of the 
time, the Merino has ever been subject to the caprice 
of fickle Fashion, now riding the crest of the wave of 
popularity and now buried beneath its entire treach- 
erous power. And through it all, progress, im- 
provement, was continuous, varying in celerity and 
amount according to the power of popular demand 
and profit. 

Wool $ti per lb., $3 per lb., $1 per lb., 50c. per lb. 
Merino breeders took a sheep that sheared 9 lb. and 
they developed a sheep that sheared 44 lb. They 
took a carcass that weighed 100 lb., and they made 
one that weighed 800 lb. They sold rams for $3 per 
head, aud they sold rams for $3,000 per head. They 
sent Merinos to every part of the world where bet- 
ter sheep were wanted. 

And some breeder wanted all wool, and he bred 
wrinkles and grease, and his dream of becoming a 
famous breeder, and his ideal of this being the sheep, 
was quickly dispelled when his product was proven 
to be only a hothouse plant which no one could use. 
Or perchance, another breeder conceived the idea 
that fine staple and a long staple were the only 
requisites for producing the sheep that was all 
profitable, and his labors were like unto the first. 
And yet another saw size, and in its pursuit forgot 
all else, and another was added to those who failed 
to realize the proper proportions required in produc- 
ing a practical Merino sheep. 

Ana yet, with all the improvements of fleece and 



form and size that have been produced in a compara- 
tively short space of time, considering the amount 
accomplished, the breeders of Merino sheep in the 
United States have made greater progress, and 
through these rapid and valuable changes, made a 
greater and more lasting impression upon the indus- 
try with which they were concerned than have any 
other set of men or breed of animals known to Amer- 
ican husbandry. 

And that they made these results far reaching and 
of vast import was due not only to the intrinsic value 
of the sheep themselves, but also to the push and 
energy of their breeders, and the adoption of the 
then known means of bringing them before the pub- 
lic. For who is there that does not recall those 
good old-fashioned sheep shearings, when pounds 
were what counted, unless it might have been length 
of time required to shear some famous ram ? How 
short a time is it since Merino sheep drew as much 
attention at every fair, large or small, as did the 
horse race ! How recently it seems and still how 
long ago (or is it the other way around) that some 
enterprising sheepman sought fame in a day by pay- 
ing what now seems an exorbitant price for a 
famous stock ram ! And now how far the pendu'um 
of price and interest seems to have swung the other 
way. Perhaps it has reached the farthest point and 
is started on its backward path. Who knows? 
They say history repeats itself. 

Hut during all the varying fortunes of the Merino 
sheep in America, the fundamental characteristics 
that have maintained him in his leading position in 
the sheep industry have been his natural adapta- 
bility to inherent conditions of soil and climate, and 
his superior ability to meet and adapt himself to the 
whimsical demands of fashion and the rapidly chang- 
ing conditions of the industry in its entirety. For 
while there have been abuses and extremes in the 
ideal types of some of his breeders, and some of his 
partisans, becoming imbued with some particular 
idea of fleece or form or covering, have wandered 
from the one great flock of Merino sheep, yet the 
general direction of all Merinos has been toward a 
greater and better use for man, and greater profit 
for his shepherds. 

And when we say Merino sheep, we do not confine 
ourselves to some particular family or strain of 
Merinos, but we include all sheep of pure Merino 
blood, whether they be called Spanish, American, or 
Vermont Merino; whether Black Top, Dickinson or 
Delaines; whether Rambouillet, or French Merino, 
or Franco-American Merino, wherever they have 
been bred in these vast United States. For while 
they are designated as distinct breeds, they are 
really only families of the one great breed, and there 
is no sharp dividing line between them. For we 
have seen many animals that no breeder, however 
expert, could declare tvith certainty were American, 
Delaine, Franco or Rambouiliet, judging by the 
me